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Dynamics of Concomitant Populations of Hoplolaimus columbus, Scutellonema brachyurum, and Meloidogyne incognita on Cotton.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cotton seedlings grown in a greenhouse and a growth chamber were inoculated with Scutellonema brachyurum, Hoplolaimus columbus, and Meloidogyne incognita, singly and in all possible combinations, at two initial population (Pi) levels (100 and 300/100 cm(3)). S. brachyurum alone was not pathogenic to cotton at these population levels. It fed primarily as an ectoparasite but matured and reproduced within the root when it penetrated. Populations of S. brachyurum increased in the presence of H. columbus but were suppressed by M. incognita. H. columbus suppressed dry shoot weights of cotton (P = 0.05) at a Pi of 300/100 cm(3) soil. Simultaneous inoculation of H. columbus with either M. incognita or S. brachyurum increased H. columbus populations over treatments with H. columbus alone, both at 60 and 90 d after inoculation. M. incognita suppressed cotton shoot weights significantly (P = 0.05) at both Pi levels. Inoculation with S. brachyurum increased M. incognita populations 60 d after inoculation, while H. columbus suppressed populations of M. incognita. Most larvae of M. incognita did not develop to maturity in the presence of H. columbus. Giant cells aborted and were necrotic 20-25 d after inoculation. Since M. incognita and H. columbus feed on different tissues, the inhibition of M. incognita may have resulted from a physiological effect of H. columbus on the host. PMID:19300720

Kraus-Schmidt, H; Lewis, S A

1981-01-01

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Dynamics of Concomitant Populations of Hoplolaimus columbus, Scutellonema brachyurum, and Meloidogyne incognita on Cotton  

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Cotton seedlings grown in a greenhouse and a growth chamber were inoculated with Scutellonema brachyurum, Hoplolaimus columbus, and Meloidogyne incognita, singly and in all possible combinations, at two initial population (Pi) levels (100 and 300/100 cm³). S. brachyurum alone was not pathogenic to cotton at these population levels. It fed primarily as an ectoparasite but matured and reproduced within the root when it penetrated. Populations of S. brachyurum increased in the presence of H. co...

Kraus-schmidt, Helmuth; Lewis, Stephen A.

1981-01-01

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Predicting Damage of Meloidogyne incognita on Watermelon  

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Quantitative growth response of watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) sensitive to Meloidogyne incognita is poorly understood. Determination of soil population densities of second-stage juveniles (J2) of M. incognita with Baermann funnel extraction often is inaccurate at low soil temperatures. In greenhouse experiments, three sandy soils were inoculated with dilution series of population densities of eggs or J2 of M. incognita and planted in small containers to watermelon ‘Royal Sweet’ or subjec...

Xing, Lijuan; Westphal, Andreas

2012-01-01

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Characterization of Meloidogyne incognita populations from São Paulo and Minas Gerais state and their pathogenicity on coffee plants Caracterização de populações de Meloidogyne incognita de São Paulo e Minas Gerais e sua patogenicidade em cafeeiro  

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Meloidogyne incognita is one of the most aggressive and harmful plant-parasitic nematodes attacking coffee plantations in Brazil. However, populations from Minas Gerais state (MG) do not incite disease on coffee plants as strongly as populations from São Paulo state (SP). This study aimed to compare the capacity to incite disease on coffee plants from SP and MG-populations based on penetration and post-infective development of second-stage juveniles (J2) stage. Both populations were confirme...

Oliveira, Dagoberto S.; Arc Lima Oliveira, Rosa?ngela D.; Silva, De?bora G.; Silva, Rodrigo V.

2011-01-01

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INTERACCIÓN ENTRE EL ECOMIC® Y UNA POBLACIÓN CUBANA DE Meloidogyne incognita EN TOMATE / INTERACTION BETWEEN ECOMIC® AND A CUBAN POPULATION OF Meloidogyne incognita IN TOMATO  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El estudio de tácticas para el manejo de los nematodos agalleros en la producción protegida de hortalizas en Cuba, se ha incrementado en los últimos años. El objetivo del trabajo fue determinar la interacción entre el ECOMICâ, producto a base de hongos formadores de micorrizas arbusculares, y una po [...] blación cubana de Meloidogyne incognita en el tomate (Lycopersicon esculentum. Mill var. Vyta). El experimento se desarrolló en los aisladores biológicos del CENSA empleando un diseño completamente aleatorio. Se emplearon dos formas de inoculación del ECOMICâ: peletización de la semilla e incorporación al sustrato para semilleros (1.5 g del producto/alveolo de cepellón). La dosis de nematodos fue de 1.5 huevos-J2. g suelo-1. Se evaluó el índice de agallamiento (IA), el número de juveniles infectivos (J2) en suelo y peso del sistema radical. La evaluación de la simbiosis micorrícica comprendió el porcentaje de colonización, densidad visual y peso del endófito. Se demostró que la aplicación de ECOMICâen la rizosfera del tomate favoreció el desarrollo de la raíz aparejado con un alto número de agallas (IA=4). En el control el desarrollo de la raíz fue menor con un IA=5. Se observó una disminución de los J2 en el suelo de las plantas micorrizadas. El establecimiento de la simbiosis micorrícica no se afectó por el desarrollo del nematodo. Abstract in english The study of tactics for the root-knot nematode management in vegetable production under crop protected systems has been increased in Cuba in the last decade. The main goal of this work was to assess the relationship of ECOMIC®, a commercial product containing several mycorrhizal fungi, and a Cuban [...] population of Meloidogyne incognita in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill var. Vyta). The experiment was carried out in a green house at CENSA using a completely randomized design. ECOMICâ was inoculated by seed pelleting or mixed with the seedbed substrate. The nematode dose used was 1.5 egg-J2. g soil-1. Gall index, infective juveniles in soil and root weight were evaluated. The percentage of colonization, the visual density and the mycellial weight were also estimated. ECOMICâ was shown to benefit root development despite the high value of the gall index (GI=4) in the inoculated plants. Root development was lower in the untreated plants with a GI=5. A decreased number of infective juveniles was observed in the soil with mycorrhized plants. The micorrhizal colonization was not affected by nematode establishment.

Lucila, Gómez; MayraG, Rodríguez; Blanca, de la Noval; Miranda, Ileana; M.A, Hernández.

2008-08-01

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Characterization of Meloidogyne incognita populations from São Paulo and Minas Gerais state and their pathogenicity on coffee plants Caracterização de populações de Meloidogyne incognita de São Paulo e Minas Gerais e sua patogenicidade em cafeeiro  

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Full Text Available Meloidogyne incognita is one of the most aggressive and harmful plant-parasitic nematodes attacking coffee plantations in Brazil. However, populations from Minas Gerais state (MG do not incite disease on coffee plants as strongly as populations from São Paulo state (SP. This study aimed to compare the capacity to incite disease on coffee plants from SP and MG-populations based on penetration and post-infective development of second-stage juveniles (J2 stage. Both populations were confirmed as M. incognita by using esterase phenotype I1 and species-specific PCR. Physiologically they were classified as race 2 by differential host test. Susceptible (C. arabica 'Catuaí Vermelho IAC 44' and resistant coffee seedlings (C. canephora 'Apoatã IAC 2258' were inoculated with J2 and assessed for penetration and development from 2nd to 40th day after inoculation. Although the penetration rate of the J2 from both populations was higher in susceptible than in resistant seedlings, the SP-population showed a higher penetration than the MG-population for both variables. Post-infective development proceeded only in individuals of the SP-population in susceptible seedlings. The incompatibility between the MG-population and coffee seedlings was evident at the penetration phase, which was also followed by post-penetration resistance factors leading to significant J2 emigration, impeding nematode establishment.No Brasil, Meloidogyne incognita é considerado um dos fitonematóides mais agressivos e prejudiciais ao cafeeiro. Entretanto, populações desse nematóide, presentes em Minas Gerais, são incapazes de infectar esse hospedeiro. O objetivo deste trabalho foi caracterizar e avaliar a penetração e o desenvolvimento pós-infectivo de populações de M. incognita que diferem quanto à capacidade de infectar o cafeeiro. As duas populações foram confirmadas como M. incognita pelo fenótipo isoenzimático de esterase, I1, e PCR específico. Foram classificadas como raça 2 pela reação dos hospedeiros diferenciadores. Mudas de cafeeiro suscetível e resistente foram inoculadas com juvenis de segundo estádio (J2 de cada população e avaliadas quanto à penetração e desenvolvimento do nematóide a partir do segundo até o quadragésimo dia após a inoculação. A penetração de J2 da população de M. incognita de São Paulo foi maior do que a da população de Minas Gerais, tanto em cafeeiro suscetível (C. arabica 'Catuaí Vermelho IAC 44' quanto resistente (C. canephora 'Apoatã IAC 2258'. Como esperado, ocorreu maior penetração de J2 das duas populações de M. incognita no cafeeiro suscetível. Nas avaliações posteriores, somente foi observado desenvolvimento pós-infectivo nos indivíduos pertencentes à população de M. incognita de São Paulo em cafeeiro suscetível. Os mecanismos que conferiram incompatibilidade entre as populações de M. incognita de Minas Gerais e o cafeeiro atuaram principalmente na fase de penetração, mas também foi acompanhada pela ação de fatores de resistência pós-penetração que ocasionaram uma significativa emigração de J2 e impediram o estabelecimento do nematóide.

Dagoberto S. Oliveira

2011-06-01

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Characterization of Meloidogyne incognita populations from São Paulo and Minas Gerais state and their pathogenicity on coffee plants / Caracterização de populações de Meloidogyne incognita de São Paulo e Minas Gerais e sua patogenicidade em cafeeiro  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese No Brasil, Meloidogyne incognita é considerado um dos fitonematóides mais agressivos e prejudiciais ao cafeeiro. Entretanto, populações desse nematóide, presentes em Minas Gerais, são incapazes de infectar esse hospedeiro. O objetivo deste trabalho foi caracterizar e avaliar a penetração e o desenvo [...] lvimento pós-infectivo de populações de M. incognita que diferem quanto à capacidade de infectar o cafeeiro. As duas populações foram confirmadas como M. incognita pelo fenótipo isoenzimático de esterase, I1, e PCR específico. Foram classificadas como raça 2 pela reação dos hospedeiros diferenciadores. Mudas de cafeeiro suscetível e resistente foram inoculadas com juvenis de segundo estádio (J2) de cada população e avaliadas quanto à penetração e desenvolvimento do nematóide a partir do segundo até o quadragésimo dia após a inoculação. A penetração de J2 da população de M. incognita de São Paulo foi maior do que a da população de Minas Gerais, tanto em cafeeiro suscetível (C. arabica 'Catuaí Vermelho IAC 44') quanto resistente (C. canephora 'Apoatã IAC 2258'). Como esperado, ocorreu maior penetração de J2 das duas populações de M. incognita no cafeeiro suscetível. Nas avaliações posteriores, somente foi observado desenvolvimento pós-infectivo nos indivíduos pertencentes à população de M. incognita de São Paulo em cafeeiro suscetível. Os mecanismos que conferiram incompatibilidade entre as populações de M. incognita de Minas Gerais e o cafeeiro atuaram principalmente na fase de penetração, mas também foi acompanhada pela ação de fatores de resistência pós-penetração que ocasionaram uma significativa emigração de J2 e impediram o estabelecimento do nematóide. Abstract in english Meloidogyne incognita is one of the most aggressive and harmful plant-parasitic nematodes attacking coffee plantations in Brazil. However, populations from Minas Gerais state (MG) do not incite disease on coffee plants as strongly as populations from São Paulo state (SP). This study aimed to compare [...] the capacity to incite disease on coffee plants from SP and MG-populations based on penetration and post-infective development of second-stage juveniles (J2) stage. Both populations were confirmed as M. incognita by using esterase phenotype I1 and species-specific PCR. Physiologically they were classified as race 2 by differential host test. Susceptible (C. arabica 'Catuaí Vermelho IAC 44') and resistant coffee seedlings (C. canephora 'Apoatã IAC 2258') were inoculated with J2 and assessed for penetration and development from 2nd to 40th day after inoculation. Although the penetration rate of the J2 from both populations was higher in susceptible than in resistant seedlings, the SP-population showed a higher penetration than the MG-population for both variables. Post-infective development proceeded only in individuals of the SP-population in susceptible seedlings. The incompatibility between the MG-population and coffee seedlings was evident at the penetration phase, which was also followed by post-penetration resistance factors leading to significant J2 emigration, impeding nematode establishment.

Dagoberto S., Oliveira; Rosângela D' Arc Lima, Oliveira; Débora G., Silva; Rodrigo V., Silva.

2011-06-01

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Meloidogyne incognita Resistance Characteristics in Tomato Genotypes Developed for Processing  

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Nine resistant processing tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) cultivars and advanced lines were compared with four susceptible cultivars in 1,3-dichloropropene-fumigated and nontreated plots on Meloidogyne incognita-infested sites over 3 years. Yield of all resistant genotypes grown in nontreated and nematicide-treated plots did not differ and was greater than yield of susceptible genotypes. M. incognita initial soil population densities caused 39.3-56.5% significant (P = 0.05) yield suppression...

Roberts, P. A.; May, D.

1986-01-01

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Responses of Cotton Yield and Meloidogyne incognita Soil Populations to Soil Applications of Aldicarb and 1,3-D in Florida  

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In four tests conducted in loamy-sand soils in northern Florida, cotton lint yield increased and post-harvest soil populations of Meloidogyne incognita were more effectively suppressed by 1,3-dichloropropene (1,3-D) than aldicarb when both nematicides were evaluated over a range of recommended rates. Significant positive relationships existed between lint yield and rates of 1,3-D in three tests, whereas only one significant positive relationship occurred between lint yield and aldicarb rates....

Kinloch, R. A.; Rich, J. R.

1998-01-01

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Influence of 1,3-Dichloropropene, Fenamiphos, and Carbofuran on Meloidogyne incognita Populations and Yield of Chile Peppers  

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Field trials were conducted during 1986, 1988, 1989, and 1991 to compare the effects of 1,3-dichloropropene, fenamiphos, and carbofuran on yield and quality of chile peppers (Capsicum annuum) in soil infested with Meloidogyne incognita. When compared with untreated plots, numbers of M. incognita juveniles recovered from soil 60 and(or) 90 days after chile pepper emergence were reduced (P = 0.05) following 1,3-D treatment every year except 1986. Nematode numbers were also reduced (P = 0.05) by...

Thomas, S. H.

1994-01-01

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First report of Meloidogyne incognita infecting spinach in southern Spain  

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Severe plant yellowing and decline were recently observed in two commercial fields of spinach (Spinacia oleracea cv. Polka) in Encinarejo (Córdoba), southern Spain. Disease surveys revealed severe infections of main and feeder roots and a large soil population of the southern root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita. The nematode population was extracted and quantified from soil and root samples according to Barker (1) and identified by female perineal pattern, phenotype esterases, and host-...

Castillo, Pablo; Jime?nez-di?az, Rafael M.

2003-01-01

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Reproduction of Meloidogyne incognita on Winter Cover Crops Used in Cotton Production  

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Substantial reproduction of Meloidogyne incognita on winter cover crops may lead to damaging populations in a subsequent cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) crop. The amount of population increase during the winter depends on soil temperature and the host status of the cover crop. Our objectives were to quantify M. incognita race 3 reproduction on rye (Secale cereale) and several leguminous cover crops and to determine if these cover crops increase population densities of M. incognita and subsequent ...

Timper, Patricia; Davis, Richard F.; Tillman, P. Glynn

2006-01-01

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Development of Meloidogyne incognita Inhibited by Digtaria decumbens cv. Pangola  

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Population densities of the root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita, were lower after 90 days in soil planted to digitgrass (Digitaria decumbens cv. Pangola) than in soil left fallow or planted to tomato. Roots of tomato seedlings interplanted with Pangola digitgrass were less galled than were roots of tomato seedlings planted alone. Fewer second stage larvae invaded roots of Pangola digitgrass than tomato and those that entered the grass roots failed to develop beyond the late second stage.

Haroon, Sanaa; Smart, Grover C.

1983-01-01

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Reação de crisântemos a Meloidogyne incognita, Meloidogyne javanica e Meloidogyne enterolobii / Chrysanthemum reaction to Meloidogyne incognita, Meloidogyne javanica and Meloidogyne enterolobii  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a resistência de 14 variedades de crisântemos aos nematoides Meloidogyne incognita, M. javanica e M. enterolobii. O experimento foi conduzido em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, constando de 15 tratamentos e 4 repetições, por espécie de nematoide. Cada [...] parcela foi constituída por uma planta por vaso, mantidas em casa de vegetação e inoculadas com 5.000 ovos e eventuais juvenis de M. incognita, M. javanica e M. enterolobii. Após 60 dias, os índices de massas de ovos, número de nematoides por grama de raiz e o fator de reprodução foram avaliados. As variedades apresentaram imunidade a M. incognita, M. javanica e M. enterolobii, exceto 'Capello Vermelho' e 'White Reagon', que foram respectivamente suscetível e resistente a M. incognita. Abstract in english This study aimed to evaluate the resistance of 14 chrysanthemum varieties to the nematodes Meloidogyne incognita, M. javanica and M. enterolobii. The experiment was conducted in a completely randomized design, consisting of 15 treatments and 4 replicates per nematode species. Each plot was constitut [...] ed of one plant per pot; plants were kept in a greenhouse and inoculated with 5,000 eggs and possible juveniles of M. incognita, M. javanica and M. enterolobii. After 60 days, the rates of egg masses, the number of nematodes per gram of root and the reproduction factor were evaluated. The varieties showed immunity to M. incognita, M. javanica and M. enterolobii, except 'Capello Vermelho' and 'White Reagon', which were susceptible and resistant, respectively, to M. incognita.

Lucivane Aparecida, Gonçalves; Andressa Lima de, Brida; Maria de Fátima Almeida, Silva; Cezar, Bueno Junior; Silvia Renata Siciliano, Wilcken.

2014-03-01

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Impact of Soil Texture on the Reproductive and Damage Potentials of Rotylenchulus reniformis and Meloidogyne incognita on Cotton  

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The effects of soil type and initial inoculum density (Pi) on the reproductive and damage potentials of Meloidogyne incognita and Rotylenchulus reniformis on cotton were evaluated in microplot experiments from 1991 to 1993. The equilibrium nematode population density for R. reniformis on cotton was much greater than that of M. incognita, indicating that cotton is a better host for R. reniformis than M. incognita. Reproduction of M. incognita was greater in coarse-textured soils than in fine-t...

Koenning, S. R.; Walters, S. A.; Barker, K. R.

1996-01-01

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Reproduction of Four Races of Meloidogyne incognita on Hibiscus cannabinus  

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The feasibility of cultivation of kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus) in the United States is receiving a multifaceted evaluation. Among the factors being evaluated is kenafs susceptibility to nematodes. In this investigation, four races of Meloidogyne incognita reproduced extensively on each of the several kenaf genotypes examined in greenhouse tests. Some genotypes of kenaf, however, demonstrated limited resistance to certain races of M. incognita.

Veech, Joseph A.

1992-01-01

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Elementos del ciclo de vida de población cubana de Meloidogyne incognita (Kofoid y White) Chitwood en Solanum lycopersicum L. / Life cycle elements of a Cuban population Meloidogyne incognita (Kofoid and White) in Solanum lycopersicum L.  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El experimento se desarrolló en condiciones semicontroladas, en aisladores biológicos (18-21ºC), con el objetivo de determinar la duración del ciclo de vida de Meloidogyne incognita (Kofoid y White) Chitwood y la producción de huevos por hembras adultas en las primeras 96h en tomate (Solanum lycoper [...] sicum L.). Plantas de unos 15cm de altura se trasplantaron a macetas y una semana después se inocularon 2500±5 J2 de M. incognita raza 2. A las 72 horas se retiraron y plantaron en macetas con suelo estéril. El sistema radical fue extraído seis días post-inoculación para observar los diferentes estadios. La temperatura media en el período del estudio fue de 18-21ºC. Tres plantas fueron extraídas diariamente y se detuvo la extracción 96h después de haberse observado las primeras hembras adultas con huevos en la matriz gelatinosa. Entre 7 y 10 días posteriores a la inoculación, las raíces del tomate mostraron zonas hinchadas, indicativo de la entrada de los juveniles y de su alimentación. El ciclo de vida, desde J2 a hembra con matriz gelatinosa y huevos fue de 24 días. Las hembras en las primeras 24 horas depositaron más de 50 huevos en las matrices y a las 96h, tenían como promedio más de 100 huevos cada una. Abstract in english The experiment was carried out under semi controlled conditions in biological insulators (18-21ºC), with the objective of determining the duration of the life cycle of Meloidogyne incognita (Kofoid & White) Chitwood and the egg production of the adult females on tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) in t [...] he first 96h. Plants with about 15cm of height were transplanted to pots and, a week later, inoculated with 2500 ±5 J2 of M. incognita race 2. At 72 hours, they were removed and planted in pots with sterile soil. The root system was drawn out six days after inoculation to observe the different stages. The average temperature during the study was 18 to 21ºC. Three plants were removed and the daily extraction was stopped 96 h after the first adult females with eggs in the gelatinous matrix were observed. Between 7 and 10 days after inoculation, the roots of tomato showed swollen areas, indicative of the entrance of the juveniles and their feeding. The life cycle from J2 to female eggs with gelatinous matrix was 24 days. In the first 24 hours, the females deposited over 50 eggs in the wombs, and at 96h, each of them had an average of eggs higher than 100.

Dainé, Hernández-Ochandía; Yailén, Arias; Lucila, Gómez; Belkis, Peteira; Ileana, Miranda; Mayra G, Rodríguez.

2012-12-01

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Comparison of Reproduction by Meloidogyne graminicola and M. incognita on Trifolium Species  

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The reproductive potential of Meloidogyne graminicola was compared with that of M. incognita on Trifolium species in greenhouse studies. Twenty-five Trifolium plant introductions, cultivars, or populations representing 23 species were evaluated for nematode reproduction and root galling 45 days after inoculation with 3,000 eggs of M. graminicola or M. incognita. Root galling and egg production by the two root-knot nematode species was similar on most of the Trifolium species. In a separate st...

Windham, G. L.; Pederson, G. A.

1992-01-01

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Response of Resistant and Susceptible Bell Pepper (Capsicum annuum) to a Southern California Meloidogyne incognita Population from a Commercial Bell Pepper Field.  

Science.gov (United States)

To determine the presence and level of root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne spp.) infestation in Southern California bell pepper (Capsicum annuum) fields, soil and root samples were collected in April and May 2012 and analyzed for the presence of root-knot nematodes. The earlier samples were virtually free of root-knot nematodes, but the later samples all contained, sometimes very high numbers, of root-knot nematodes. Nematodes were all identified as M. incognita. A nematode population from one of these fields was multiplied in a greenhouse and used as inoculum for two repeated pot experiments with three susceptible and two resistant bell pepper varieties. Fruit yields of the resistant peppers were not affected by the nematodes, whereas yields of two of the three susceptible pepper cultivars decreased as a result of nematode inoculation. Nematode-induced root galling and nematode multiplication was low but different between the two resistant cultivars. Root galling and nematode reproduction was much higher on the three susceptible cultivars. One of these susceptible cultivars exhibited tolerance, as yields were not affected by the nematodes, but nematode multiplication was high. It is concluded that M. incognita is common in Southern California bell pepper production, and that resistant cultivars may provide a useful tool in a nonchemical management strategy. PMID:25580027

Aguiar, Jose Luis; Bachie, Oli; Ploeg, Antoon

2014-12-01

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Interaction between Meloidogyne incognita and Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. phaseoli on Selected Bean Genotypes.  

Science.gov (United States)

Four bean genotypes (IPA-1, A-107, A-211, and Calima), representing all possible combinations of resistance and susceptibility to Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. phaseoli (Fop) and Meloidogyne incognita, were each inoculated with three population densities of these pathogens. Calima and A-107 were resistant to Fop; A-107 and A-211 were resistant to M. incognita; and IPA-1 was susceptible to both pathogens. In Fop-susceptible lines (IPA-1 and A-211), the presence of M. incognita contributed to an earlier onset and increased severity of Fusarium wilt symptoms and plant stunting. However, the Fop-resistant Calima developed symptoms of Fusarium wilt only in the presence of M. incognita. Genotype A-107 (resistant to both M. incognita and Fop) exhibited Fusarium wilt symptoms and a moderately susceptible reaction to Fop only after the breakdown of its M. incognita resistance by elevated incubation temperatures (27 C). Root galling and reproduction of M. incognita was generally increased as inoculum density of M. incognita was increased on the M. incognita susceptible cultivars. However, these factors were decreased as the inoculum density of Fop was increased. It was concluded that severe infections of bean roots by M. incognita increase the severity of Fusarium wilt on Fop-susceptible genotypes and may modify the resistant reaction to Fop. PMID:19279917

France, R A; S Abawi, G

1994-12-01

 
 
 
 
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Interaction between Meloidogyne incognita and Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. phaseoli on Selected Bean Genotypes  

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Four bean genotypes (IPA-1, A-107, A-211, and Calima), representing all possible combinations of resistance and susceptibility to Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. phaseoli (Fop) and Meloidogyne incognita, were each inoculated with three population densities of these pathogens. Calima and A-107 were resistant to Fop; A-107 and A-211 were resistant to M. incognita; and IPA-1 was susceptible to both pathogens. In Fop-susceptible lines (IPA-1 and A-211), the presence of M. incognita contributed to an ea...

France, R. A.; S Abawi, G.

1994-01-01

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Toxicidade de filtrados fúngicos a meloidogyne incognita / Fungus filtrates toxicity to Meloidogyne incognita  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Visando à obtenção de novas moléculas nematicidas, 18 filtrados de espécies fúngicas e extratos de sete micélios fúngicos foram estudados in vitro quanto aos efeitos sobre a eclosão, motilidade e mortalidade de juvenis do segundo estádio (J2) de Meloidogyne incognita. Filtrados fúngicos foram obtido [...] s de culturas em meio Czapek. Metanol foi usado como solvente para obter extratos dos micélios fúngicos. Filtrados de Paecilomyces lilacinus, Fusarium moniliforme e Fusarium oxysporum reduziram a motilidade e eclosão, e aumentaram a mortalidade (P Abstract in english In the search for new nematicidal molecules, 18 fungal species filtrates and seven fungus mycelium extracts were studied in vitro to see their influence on hatching, mobility and mortality of second stage juveniles (J2) of Meloidogyne incognita. Fungal filtrates were obtained from fifteen day Czapek [...] cultures. Methanol was used as solvent to obtain fungus mycelium extracts. Paecilomyces lilacinus, Fusarium moniliforme and Fusarium oxysporum filtrates reduced J2 motility and hatching, and increased J2 mortality (P

MAURO J.N., COSTA; VICENTE P., CAMPOS; LUDWIG H., PFENNING; DENILSON F., OLIVEIRA.

2001-12-01

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Toxicidade de filtrados fúngicos a meloidogyne incognita Fungus filtrates toxicity to Meloidogyne incognita  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Visando à obtenção de novas moléculas nematicidas, 18 filtrados de espécies fúngicas e extratos de sete micélios fúngicos foram estudados in vitro quanto aos efeitos sobre a eclosão, motilidade e mortalidade de juvenis do segundo estádio (J2 de Meloidogyne incognita. Filtrados fúngicos foram obtidos de culturas em meio Czapek. Metanol foi usado como solvente para obter extratos dos micélios fúngicos. Filtrados de Paecilomyces lilacinus, Fusarium moniliforme e Fusarium oxysporum reduziram a motilidade e eclosão, e aumentaram a mortalidade (P In the search for new nematicidal molecules, 18 fungal species filtrates and seven fungus mycelium extracts were studied in vitro to see their influence on hatching, mobility and mortality of second stage juveniles (J2 of Meloidogyne incognita. Fungal filtrates were obtained from fifteen day Czapek cultures. Methanol was used as solvent to obtain fungus mycelium extracts. Paecilomyces lilacinus, Fusarium moniliforme and Fusarium oxysporum filtrates reduced J2 motility and hatching, and increased J2 mortality (P < 0,05 similarly to Aldicarb. Some fungus filtrates reduced J2 mobility without leading to death. Aspergillus flavus, Cylindrocarpon magnusianum, Fusarium solani and Mortierella sp. filtrates reduced (P < 0,05 only J2 hatching. Production of toxic fungus metabolites was not dependent on the amount of mycelium produced. P. lilacinus produced toxic filtrates after one day culturing. Since then, toxicity increased steadily, reaching 100% J2 mortality on the thirteenth day.

MAURO J.N. COSTA

2001-12-01

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Cyperus Tubers Protect Meloidogyne incognita from 1,3-Dichloropropene  

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Meloidogyne incognita-infected and noninfected tubers of yellow nutsedge (Cyperus esculentus) and purple nutsedge (Cyperus rotundus) were treated with 56 L/ha 1,3-dichloropropene (1,3-D) in microplots and subsequently examined for tuber and nematode viability in the greenhouse using a chile pepper (Capsicum annuum) bioassay system. The study was conducted three times. Nutsedge tuber viability and M. incognita harbored in both yellow and purple nutsedge tubers were unaffected by 1,3-D treatmen...

Thomas, S. H.; Schroeder, J.; Murray, L. W.

2004-01-01

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Development of virulence to Meloidogyne incognita on resistant pepper rootstocks  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The root-knot nematode (RKN) Meloidogyne incognita is a major soil parasite of pepper crops in greenhouses in Southeast Spain. Due to the limitations of the use of soil fumigants, grafting plants on resistant rootstocks (R-rootstocks) has become an important alternative to chemical nematicides. The repeated use of R-rootstocks can bring about the selection of virulent populations capable of overcoming resistance. We carried out a six-year investigation on resistant rootstocks in a naturally M. incognita infested greenhouse, and found that two successive years of growing plants grafted on R-rootstocks Atlante (ATL) were sufficient to overcome resistance (galling index 1.5 and 5.6 in the first and second years respectively). A large variability was observed between several R-rootstocks. Two R-rootstocks (C19 and Snooker) behaved like ATL while two others (Terrano and DRO 8801) were not infected by RKN. Laboratory studies with the same R-rootstocks, inoculated with two nematode isolates (avirulent and virulent against ATL) confirmed the greenhouse results, indicating that some rootstocks may be infested by virulent populations and others may not. It suggests that different R-genes, which are differentially overcome by RKN, have been introgressed into the rootstocks. This may have consequences for the management of resistant rootstocks in the field. (Author)

Ros-Ibanez, C.; Robertson, L.; Martinez-Lluch, M. C.; Cano-Garcia, A.; Lacasa-Plasencia, A.

2014-06-01

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Reação de genótipos de maracujazeiro a Meloidogyne incognita raça 3 e Meloidogyne javanica / Reaction of passion fruit genotypes to Meloidogyne incognita race 3 and Meloidogyne javanica  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar a reação de genótipos de maracujazeiro a Meloidogyne spp.. O experimento foi conduzido em casa de vegetação em DBC, com seis repetições, em esquema fatorial 9x2 (Passiflora giberti, P. nitida, P. setacea, P. mucronata, P. cincinnata, P. ligularis, P.alata, híbrido [...] BRS Sol do Cerrado e seleção M19-UFV x Meloidogyne javanica e M. incognita raça 3). Segundo os critérios de Oostenbrink, e Moura e Régis, o BRS Sol do Cerrado, a seleção M-19-UFV e P. alata comportaram-se como imunes a M. incognita. Além destes, P. cincinnata e P. setacea foram imunes a M. javanica. Passiflora cincinnata e P.giberti comportaram-se como resistentes a M. incognita e M. javanica, respectivamente. Segundo Taylor e Sasser, os genótipos classificados como imunes pelos outros critérios foram classificados como resistentes aos nematoides. Todas as variáveis nematológicas avaliadas em P. giberti, P. ligularis, P. mucronata e P. nitida foram superiores em plantas infectadas por M. incognita. Independentemente do nematoide, P. mucronata apresentou maior número de galhas, massas de ovos, ovos, J2 e FR, em relação aos outros genótipos. O peso de matéria fresca de raiz de P. ligularis e P. mucronata foi menor na presença de M. incognita em relação a M. javanica. Abstract in english The aim of this study was to evaluate the reaction of genotypes of passion fruit to Meloidogyne spp.. The experiment was carried out in a greenhouse in RBD with six replications in 9 x 2 factorial designs (Passiflora giberti, P. nitida, P. setacea, P. mucronata, P. cincinnata, P. ligularis, P. alata [...] , BRS Sol do Cerrado cultivar and selection M19-UFV x Meloidogyne javanica and M. incognita race 3). According to Oostenbrink criteria, and Moura and Régis, the BRS Sol do Cerrado, and selection M-19-UFV and P. alata behaved as immune to M. incognita. In addition to these, P. cincinnata and P. setacea were immune to M. javanica. Passiflora cincinnata and P.giberti behaved as resistant to M. incognita and M. javanica, respectively. According to Taylor and Sasser, the genotypes classified as immune by the other criteria were classified as resistant to nematodes. All the nematological variables evaluated in P. giberti, P. ligularis, P. mucronata and P. nitida were superior in plants infected by M. incognita. Regardless of the nematode, P mucronata presented larger number of root galls, egg masses, eggs, J2 and RF, as compared to the other genotypes. The root fresh matter weight of P. ligularis and P. mucronata was smaller in the presence of M. incognita as compared to M. javanica.

Leandro Souza, Rocha; Regina Cássia Ferreira, Ribeiro; Adelica Aparecida, Xavier; Fabíola de Jesus, Silva; Claudio Horst, Bruckner.

1017-10-01

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Reação de genótipos de Avena spp. a Meloidogyne incognita raça 4 Host suitability of Avena spp. genotypes to Meloidogyne incognita race 4  

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Full Text Available As aveias preta (Avena strigosa, branca (A. sativa e amarela (A. byzantina são muito utilizadas como culturas de cobertura, em sucessão a soja, algodão, feijão, batata e cenoura, que são culturas que sofrem elevadas perdas provocadas por Meloidogyne incognita. O manejo de M. incognita pode ter como um dos componentes o uso de genótipos de aveia que reduzam a densidade populacional do nematóide. Foram conduzidos três experimentos em casa de vegetação com o objetivo de avaliar cinco genótipos de aveia preta ('CPAO 0010', 'Comum', 'Embrapa 29', 'Embrapa 140' e 'IPFA 99006', um de aveia branca ('UFRGS 17' e um de aveia amarela ('São Carlos', em relação a sua resposta a três isolados da raça 4 de M. incognita (BA, SP e MT. As aveias pretas aumentaram a densidade populacional do nematóide. As aveias branca e amarela reduziram ou causaram pequeno aumento da densidade populacional de M. incognita, não se diferenciando de Crotalaria spectabilis. Portanto, a aveia branca 'UFRGS 17' e a amarela 'São Carlos' devem ser preferidas em relação às aveias pretas como culturas de cobertura, em áreas infestadas com M. incognita raça 4.The black oat (Avena strigosa, the white oat (A. sativa and the Algerian oat (A. byzantina have been widely used as cover crops under succession with soybean, cotton, bean, potato and carrot, which are crops highly damaged by Meloidogyne incognita. The management of M. incognita may have as a component the use of oat genotypes that reduce the nematode population density. Three greenhouse experiments were carried out in order to evaluate the host suitability of five genotypes of black oat ('CPAO 0010', 'Common', 'Embrapa 29', 'Embrapa 140' and 'IPFA 99006', one of white oat ('UFRGS 17' and one of Algerian oat ('São Carlos' to three isolates of M. incognita race 4 (BA, SP and MT. The black oats increased the population density of the nematode. The oats 'UFRGS 17' and 'São Carlos' reduced or caused a small increase in the population of M. incognita race 4, and neither differentiated from Crotalaria spectabilis. Therefore, the white oat 'UFRGS 17' and the Algerian oat 'São Carlos' should be used in preference to black oats as cover crops in areas infested with M. incognita race 4.

Dárcio C. Borges

2009-02-01

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Reação de genótipos de Avena spp. a Meloidogyne incognita raça 4 / Host suitability of Avena spp. genotypes to Meloidogyne incognita race 4  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese As aveias preta (Avena strigosa), branca (A. sativa) e amarela (A. byzantina) são muito utilizadas como culturas de cobertura, em sucessão a soja, algodão, feijão, batata e cenoura, que são culturas que sofrem elevadas perdas provocadas por Meloidogyne incognita. O manejo de M. incognita pode ter co [...] mo um dos componentes o uso de genótipos de aveia que reduzam a densidade populacional do nematóide. Foram conduzidos três experimentos em casa de vegetação com o objetivo de avaliar cinco genótipos de aveia preta ('CPAO 0010', 'Comum', 'Embrapa 29', 'Embrapa 140' e 'IPFA 99006'), um de aveia branca ('UFRGS 17') e um de aveia amarela ('São Carlos'), em relação a sua resposta a três isolados da raça 4 de M. incognita (BA, SP e MT). As aveias pretas aumentaram a densidade populacional do nematóide. As aveias branca e amarela reduziram ou causaram pequeno aumento da densidade populacional de M. incognita, não se diferenciando de Crotalaria spectabilis. Portanto, a aveia branca 'UFRGS 17' e a amarela 'São Carlos' devem ser preferidas em relação às aveias pretas como culturas de cobertura, em áreas infestadas com M. incognita raça 4. Abstract in english The black oat (Avena strigosa), the white oat (A. sativa) and the Algerian oat (A. byzantina) have been widely used as cover crops under succession with soybean, cotton, bean, potato and carrot, which are crops highly damaged by Meloidogyne incognita. The management of M. incognita may have as a com [...] ponent the use of oat genotypes that reduce the nematode population density. Three greenhouse experiments were carried out in order to evaluate the host suitability of five genotypes of black oat ('CPAO 0010', 'Common', 'Embrapa 29', 'Embrapa 140' and 'IPFA 99006'), one of white oat ('UFRGS 17') and one of Algerian oat ('São Carlos') to three isolates of M. incognita race 4 (BA, SP and MT). The black oats increased the population density of the nematode. The oats 'UFRGS 17' and 'São Carlos' reduced or caused a small increase in the population of M. incognita race 4, and neither differentiated from Crotalaria spectabilis. Therefore, the white oat 'UFRGS 17' and the Algerian oat 'São Carlos' should be used in preference to black oats as cover crops in areas infested with M. incognita race 4.

Dárcio C., Borges; Sonia R., Antedomênico; Viviane P., Santos; Mário M., Inomoto.

2009-02-01

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Crop Rotation and Nematicides for Management of Mixed Populations of Meloidogyne spp. on Tobacco  

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The effects of crop rotation and the nematicides 1,3-dichloropropene (1,3-D), ethoprop, and fenamiphos on the relative frequency of Meloidogyne incognita race 3, M. arenaria race 2, and M. javanica and tobacco yields on a sandy loam soil were determined. Cropping sequences altered the species composition and population densities of Meloidogyne spp. Meloidogyne arenaria and M. incognita predominated when cotton, corn, sorghum, or rye-fallow preceded tobacco. Meloidogyne javanica and M. arenari...

Fortnum, B. A.; Lewis, S. A.; Johnson, A. W.

2001-01-01

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Reproduction of Meloidogyne incognita on Winter Cover Crops Used in Cotton Production.  

Science.gov (United States)

Substantial reproduction of Meloidogyne incognita on winter cover crops may lead to damaging populations in a subsequent cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) crop. The amount of population increase during the winter depends on soil temperature and the host status of the cover crop. Our objectives were to quantify M. incognita race 3 reproduction on rye (Secale cereale) and several leguminous cover crops and to determine if these cover crops increase population densities of M. incognita and subsequent damage to cotton. The cover crops tested were 'Bigbee' berseem clover (Trifolium alexandrinum), 'Paradana' balansa clover (T. balansae), 'AU Sunrise' and 'Dixie' crimson clover (T. incarnatum), 'Cherokee' red clover (T. pratense), common and 'AU Early Cover' hairy vetch (Vicia villosa), 'Cahaba White' vetch (V. sativa), and 'Wrens Abruzzi' rye. In the greenhouse tests, egg production was greatest on berseem clover, Dixie crimson clover, AU Early Cover hairy vetch, and common hairy vetch; intermediate on Balansa clover and AU Sunrise crimson clover; and least on rye, Cahaba White vetch, and Cherokee red clover. In both 2002 and 2003 field tests, enough heat units were accumulated between 1 January and 20 May for the nematode to complete two generations. Both AU Early Cover and common hairy vetch led to greater root galling than fallow in the subsequent cotton crop; they also supported high reproduction of M. incognita in the greenhouse. Rye and Cahaba White vetch did not increase root galling on cotton and were relatively poor hosts for M. incognita. Only those legumes that increased populations of M. incognita reduced cotton yield. In the southern US, M. incognita can complete one to two generations on a susceptible winter cover crop, so cover crops that support high nematode reproduction may lead to damage and yield losses in the following cotton crop. Planting rye or Meloidogyne-resistant legumes as winter cover crops will lower the risk of increased nematode populations compared to most vetches and clovers. PMID:19259434

Timper, Patricia; Davis, Richard F; Tillman, P Glynn

2006-03-01

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Effect of Tropical Rotation Crops on Meloidogyne incognita and Other Plant-Parasitic Nematodes  

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In a field experiment conducted on sandy soil in Florida during the 1993 season, rotation crops of castor (Ricinus communis), velvetbean (Mucuna deeringina), 'Mississippi Silver' cowpea (Vigna unguiculata), American jointvetch (Aeschynomene americana), 'Dehapine 51' cotton (Gossypium hirsutum), and 'SX-17' sorghum-sudangrass (Sorghum bicolor × S. sudanense) were effective in maintaining low population densities (<12/100 cm³ soil) of Meloidogyne incognita race 1, whereas high population dens...

Mcsorley, R.; Dickson, D. W.

1995-01-01

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Winter Survival of Meloidogyne incognita in Six Soil Types  

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Winter survival of Meloidogyne incognita in six soil types (Fuquay sand, Norfolk loamy sand, Portsmouth loamy sand, muck, Cecil sandy clay loam, and Cecil sandy clay) was determined in microplots at one location from November 1981 to May 1982 and from November 1982 to March 1983. Survival, based on second-stage juveniles (J2) of M. incognita, from November 1981 until May 1982 ranged from 1% in the muck soil to 6% in a Cecil sandy clay loam, but survival rates were much higher the next year fo...

Windham, G. L.; Barker, K. R.

1988-01-01

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REPRODUÇÃO DE Meloidogyne incognita RAÇA 2 E DE Meloidogyne javanica EM OITO ESPÉCIES DE PLANTAS MEDICINAIS  

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Avaliaram-se as taxas reprodutivas de Meloidogyne incognita raça 2 e de Meloidogyne javanica em oito espécies de plantas consideradas medicinais, em vasos com 500 ml de solo, sob condição de casa de vegetação. Cada planta foi inoculada com 5000 ovos, em média, estabelecendo-se cinco repetições. Realizaram-se as avaliações após 45 a 55 dias das inoculações, com base nos índices de massas de ovos e nos fatores de reprodução dos nematóides. Achillea millefolium (mil-folhas), Ar...

Maciel, S. L.; Ferraz, L. C. C. B.

1996-01-01

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Potential for Site-specific Management of Meloidogyne incognita in Cotton Using Soil Textural Zones  

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The effect of various edaphic factors on Meloidogyne incognita population densities and cotton yield were evaluated from 2001 to 2003 in a commercial cotton field in southeastern Arkansas. The 6.07-ha field was subdivided into 512 plots (30.5 m × 3.9 m), and each plot was sampled for M. incognita prior to fumigation (Ppre), at planting (Pi), at peak bloom (Pm) and at harvest (Pf) each year. Soil texture (percent sand fraction) and the pre-plant soil fertility levels each year were determined...

Monfort, W. S.; Kirkpatrick, T. L.; Rothrock, C. S.; Mauromoustakos, A.

2007-01-01

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Pathogenicity of Pratylenchus coffeae, Scutellonema bradys, Meloidogyne incognita, and Rotylenchus reniformis on Dioscorea rotundata.  

Science.gov (United States)

Low populations (200 specimens per plant) of Pratylenchus cofl'eae, Scutellonema bradys, Meloidogyne incognita, and Rotylenchulus reniformis stimulated the development of tops, roots, and tubers of Dioscorea rotundata "Guinea" yam. We demonstrated experimentally that P. coffeae was responsible for the deterioration in quality of the yam tuber in Puerto Rico, a condition known as a dry rot of yam. Initial populations of 600 P. coffeae, S. bradys, or M. incognita, and populations of 1,000 P. coffeae or S. bradys per plant were high enough to induce dry rot of the yam tubers. P. coffeae and S. bradys were pathogenic to yam cultivar Guinea, but M. incognita and R. reniformis did not cause necrosis or cracking of the tuber cortex in our experiments. PMID:19308127

Acosta, N; Ayala, A

1975-01-01

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Host–parasite relationships of Meloidogyne incognita on spinach  

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Host–parasite relationships in root-knot disease of spinach caused by Meloidogyne incognita race 1 were studied under glasshouse conditions. Nematode-induced mature galls were large and usually contained one or more females and egg masses with eggs. Feeding sites were characterized by the development of giant cells containing granular cytoplasm and many hypertrophied nuclei. The cytoplasm in these giant cells was aggregated alongside the thickened cell walls. Stelar tissues within galls ...

Di Vito, Mauro; Vovlas, Nicola; Castillo, Pablo

2004-01-01

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Effects of 1,3-Dicliloropropene for Meloidogyne incognita Management on Cotton Produced under Furrow Irrigation  

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Field trials were conducted during 1990 to evaluate the effects of preplant soil fumigation with 1,3-dichloropropene (1,3-D) on yield and fiber quality of furrow-irrigated cotton cultivars subjected to high population densities of Meloidogyne incognita. We measured the responses of eight upland cotton cultivars with different levels of root-knot nematode resistance and compared the responses of upland and Pima cottons. Reductions in lint weight ranged from 10 to 52% among cultivars grown in s...

Thomas, S. H.; Smith, D. W.

1993-01-01

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Comparison of Reproduction by Meloidogyne graminicola and M. incognita on Trifolium Species.  

Science.gov (United States)

The reproductive potential of Meloidogyne graminicola was compared with that of M. incognita on Trifolium species in greenhouse studies. Twenty-five Trifolium plant introductions, cultivars, or populations representing 23 species were evaluated for nematode reproduction and root galling 45 days after inoculation with 3,000 eggs of M. graminicola or M. incognita. Root galling and egg production by the two root-knot nematode species was similar on most of the Trifolium species. In a separate study, the effect of initial population densities (Pi) of M. graminicola and M. incognita on the growth of white clover (T. repens) was determined. Reproductive and pathogenic capabilities of M. graminicola and M. incognita on Trifolium spp. were similar. Pi levels of both root-knot nematode species as low as 125 eggs per 10-cm-d pots severely galled white clover plants after 90 days. Meloidogyne graminicola has the potential to be a major pest of Trifolium species in the southeastern United States. PMID:19282992

Windham, G L; Pederson, G A

1992-06-01

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Control of Meloidogyne incognita Using Mixtures of Organic Acids  

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This study sought to control the root-knot nematode (RKN) Meloidogyne incognita using benign organo-chemicals. Second-stage juveniles (J2) of RKN were exposed to dilutions (1.0%, 0.5%, 0.2%, and 0.1%) of acetic acid (AA), lactic acid (LA), and their mixtures (MX). The nematode bodies were disrupted severely and moderately by vacuolations in 0.5% of MX and single organic acids, respectively, suggesting toxicity of MX may be higher than AA and LA. The mortality of J2 was 100% at all concentrati...

Seo, Yunhee; Kim, Young Ho

2014-01-01

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REPRODUÇÃO DE Meloidogyne incognita RAÇA 2 E DE Meloidogyne javanica EM OITO ESPÉCIES DE PLANTAS MEDICINAIS  

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Full Text Available Avaliaram-se as taxas reprodutivas de Meloidogyne incognita raça 2 e de Meloidogyne javanica em oito espécies de plantas consideradas medicinais, em vasos com 500 ml de solo, sob condição de casa de vegetação. Cada planta foi inoculada com 5000 ovos, em média, estabelecendo-se cinco repetições. Realizaram-se as avaliações após 45 a 55 dias das inoculações, com base nos índices de massas de ovos e nos fatores de reprodução dos nematóides. Achillea millefolium (mil-folhas, Arctium lappa (bardana, Bryophyllum calycinum (folha-da-fortuna e Crassula portulacea (bálsamo foram hospedeiras não eficientes ou desfavoráveis a ambas as espécies. Plectranthus barbatus (boldo e Polygonum hidropiperoides (polígono foram eficientes à reprodução das duas espécies. Achyrocline satureoides (macela e Tropaeolum majus (chagas foram eficientes para M. javanica e não para M. incognita.

MACIEL S.L.

1996-01-01

 
 
 
 
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Identificación morfológica, morfométrica y molecular de meloidogyne incognita en higuera (ficus carica l.) en Costa Rica  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Costa Rica | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Identificación morfológica, morfométrica y molecular de Meloidogyne incognita en higuera (Ficus carica L.) en Costa Rica. El objetivo de este estudio fue identificar la especie de Meloidogyne asociada a dos plantaciones de higuera en Costa Rica. En marzo de 2012, en el distrito de Pacayas, provincia [...] de Cartago, se detectaron agallas en los sistemas radicales de plantas de higuera (Ficus carica L.) de dos fincas. De las raíces agalladas se extrajeron hembras, masas de huevos y juveniles (J2) de Meloidogyne sp. Se examinaron los patrones perineales de las hembras y los segundos estadios infectivos se analizaron morfológica y molecularmente mediante PCR-RFLP. Se amplificó la región intergénica (IGS) del genoma mitocondrial, delimitada por el gen de la subunidad II de la citocromo oxidasa (COII) y el gen ribosomal 16S. La población de nematodos se identificó como M. incognita. El tamaño de los productos de PCR generados con los imprimadores C2F3 y 1108 fue de 1,7 kb. Al tratar los productos de PCR con enzimas de restricción, se generaron cuatro fragmentos de 850, 450, 250 y 150 pb con la enzima AluI y dos fragmentos de 1300 y 400 pb con la enzima HinfI. Abstract in english Morphological, morphometrical and molecular identification of Meloidogyne incognita in fig (Ficus carica L.) in Costa Rica. The objective of this study was to identify species of Meloidogyne associated with two fig plantations in Costa Rica. On March 2012 in Pacayas, Cartago province, root-galls wer [...] e found in two fig plantations of Ficus carica L. Females, egg-masses and juveniles (J2) of Meloidogyne sp. were extracted from the galled roots. Female perineal patterns were examined and second infective stages were analyzed morphometrically and molecularly by PCR-RFLP. The mitochondrial intergenic region (IGS) flanked by the cytochrome oxidase subunit II gene (COII) and the 16S ribosomal gene was amplified. The population was identified morphologically, morphometrically and molecularly as M. incognita. The PCR product obtained with primers C2F3 and 1108 were 1.7 kb in size. When PCR products were treated with restriction enzymes they generated four fragments of 850, 450, 250 and 150 bp with AluI and two fragments of 1300 and 400 bp with HinfI.

Walter, Peraza-Padilla; Johaner, Rosales-Flores; Alejandro, Esquivel-Hernández; Irena, Hilje-Rodríguez; Ramón, Molina-Bravo; Pablo, Castillo-Castillo.

2013-12-01

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Purificação de metabólitos fúngicos com efeitos tóxicos sobre Meloidogyne incognita Purification of fungal metabolites with toxic effects on Meloidogyne incognita  

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Full Text Available Objetivando o desenvolvimento de novas metodologias de controle de fitonematóides, este trabalho buscou purificar as substâncias nematicidas produzidas por Cunninghamella elegans, Fusarium sp., Paecilomyces lilacinus eP. variotii. Esses fungos foram cultivados em meio líquido Czapek-Dox durante 15 dias, a 25 ºC, em agitador orbital. Em seguida, filtraram-se as misturas, o que permitiu a obtenção de soluções que foram concentradas sob vácuo e submetidas à purificação direcionada por testes in vitro com Meloidogyne incognita. Observou-se que os filtrados de P. lilacinus e P. variotii perdiam suas atividades nematicidas após a concentração sob vácuo, sugerindo que as substâncias ativas produzidas por esses fungos são consideravelmente voláteis. Para o filtrado de Fusarium sp., observou-se perda total da atividade contra M. incognita após fracionamento em coluna de sílica gel, indicando instabilidade da substância nematicida frente às condições empregadas.Do filtrado de C. elegans isolou-se uma substância que, em solução aquosa na concentração de 250 ppm, imobilizou 94% dos juvenis do segundo estádio de M. incognita expostos a tal solução durante 48 h.In a search for new molecules toxic to plant parasitic nematodes, procedures were set up to purify nematode toxic molecules produced by Cunninghamella elegans, Fusarium sp., Paecilomyces lilacinus and P. variotii. Those fungi were grown in Czapek-Dox liquid medium during 15 days, at 25 ºC, in an orbital shaker. After fungus mycelium removal by filtration, the solutions were concentrated under vacuum and submitted to purification, guided by in vitro assays with Meloidogyne incognita juveniles. As a result, it was observed that P. lilacinus and P.variotii filtrates lost their activity after vacuum concentration, which suggests that the nematocides produced by those fungi are considerably volatile. In the case of Fusarium sp. filtrate, the active substance seems to be unstable, as the activity against M. incognita juveniles completely disappeared after chromatography in a silica gel column. The C. elegans filtrate rendered one isolated substance that immobilized 94% of the M. incognita juveniles exposed during 48 h to an aqueous solution of the substance at 250 ppm.

GERALDO H. SILVA

2002-11-01

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Purificação de metabólitos fúngicos com efeitos tóxicos sobre Meloidogyne incognita / Purification of fungal metabolites with toxic effects on Meloidogyne incognita  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Objetivando o desenvolvimento de novas metodologias de controle de fitonematóides, este trabalho buscou purificar as substâncias nematicidas produzidas por Cunninghamella elegans, Fusarium sp., Paecilomyces lilacinus eP. variotii. Esses fungos foram cultivados em meio líquido Czapek-Dox durante 15 d [...] ias, a 25 ºC, em agitador orbital. Em seguida, filtraram-se as misturas, o que permitiu a obtenção de soluções que foram concentradas sob vácuo e submetidas à purificação direcionada por testes in vitro com Meloidogyne incognita. Observou-se que os filtrados de P. lilacinus e P. variotii perdiam suas atividades nematicidas após a concentração sob vácuo, sugerindo que as substâncias ativas produzidas por esses fungos são consideravelmente voláteis. Para o filtrado de Fusarium sp., observou-se perda total da atividade contra M. incognita após fracionamento em coluna de sílica gel, indicando instabilidade da substância nematicida frente às condições empregadas.Do filtrado de C. elegans isolou-se uma substância que, em solução aquosa na concentração de 250 ppm, imobilizou 94% dos juvenis do segundo estádio de M. incognita expostos a tal solução durante 48 h. Abstract in english In a search for new molecules toxic to plant parasitic nematodes, procedures were set up to purify nematode toxic molecules produced by Cunninghamella elegans, Fusarium sp., Paecilomyces lilacinus and P. variotii. Those fungi were grown in Czapek-Dox liquid medium during 15 days, at 25 ºC, in an orb [...] ital shaker. After fungus mycelium removal by filtration, the solutions were concentrated under vacuum and submitted to purification, guided by in vitro assays with Meloidogyne incognita juveniles. As a result, it was observed that P. lilacinus and P.variotii filtrates lost their activity after vacuum concentration, which suggests that the nematocides produced by those fungi are considerably volatile. In the case of Fusarium sp. filtrate, the active substance seems to be unstable, as the activity against M. incognita juveniles completely disappeared after chromatography in a silica gel column. The C. elegans filtrate rendered one isolated substance that immobilized 94% of the M. incognita juveniles exposed during 48 h to an aqueous solution of the substance at 250 ppm.

GERALDO H., SILVA; DENILSON F., OLIVEIRA; VICENTE P., CAMPOS.

2002-11-01

44

Alternate row placement is ineffective for cultural control of Meloidogyne incognita in cotton  

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The objective of this study was to determine if planting cotton into the space between the previous year's rows reduces crop loss due to Meloidogyne incognita compared to planting in the same row every year. Row placement had a significant (P ? 0.05) effect on nematode population levels only on 8 July 2005. Plots receiving 1,3-dichloropropene plus aldicarb had lower nematode population levels than non-fumigated plots on 24 May and 8 July in 2005, but not in 2004. The effect of nematicide tr...

Davis, Richard F.

2008-01-01

45

REPRODUÇÃO DE Meloidogyne incognita RAÇA 2 E DE Meloidogyne javanica EM OITO ESPÉCIES DE PLANTAS MEDICINAIS  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Avaliaram-se as taxas reprodutivas de Meloidogyne incognita raça 2 e de Meloidogyne javanica em oito espécies de plantas consideradas medicinais, em vasos com 500 ml de solo, sob condição de casa de vegetação. Cada planta foi inoculada com 5000 ovos, em média, estabelecendo-se cinco repetições. Real [...] izaram-se as avaliações após 45 a 55 dias das inoculações, com base nos índices de massas de ovos e nos fatores de reprodução dos nematóides. Achillea millefolium (mil-folhas), Arctium lappa (bardana), Bryophyllum calycinum (folha-da-fortuna) e Crassula portulacea (bálsamo) foram hospedeiras não eficientes ou desfavoráveis a ambas as espécies. Plectranthus barbatus (boldo) e Polygonum hidropiperoides (polígono) foram eficientes à reprodução das duas espécies. Achyrocline satureoides (macela) e Tropaeolum majus (chagas) foram eficientes para M. javanica e não para M. incognita. Abstract in english The reproductive rates of the root-knot nematodes Meloidogyne incognita race 2 and M. javanica in the roots of eight medicinal plant species were assessed under greenhouse condition. Each plant, growing in a pot containing 500 ml of sterilized soil, was inoculated with an average number of 5,000 egg [...] s, with five repetitions. Egg mass index and reproduction factor data were used for the evaluation, 45-55 days after plant inoculation. Achillea millefolium, Arctium lappa, Bryophyllum calycinum, and Crassula portulacea were rated as poor or nonefficient hosts, while Plectranthus barbatus and Polygonum hidropiperoides were efficient for both nematode species. Achyrocline satureoides and Tropaeolum majus were efficient for M. javanica, but nonefficient for M. incognita.

S.L., MACIEL; L.C.C.B., FERRAZ.

1996-05-01

46

Population Dynamics of Meloidogyne incognita, M. arenaria,and Other Nematodes and Crop Yields in Rotations of Cotton, Peanut, and Wheat Under Minimum Tillage  

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Wheat, cotton, and peanut were arranged in three cropping sequences to determine the effects of fenamiphos (6.7 kg a.i./ha) and cropping sequence on nematode population densities and crop yields under conservation tillage and irrigation for 6 years. The cropping sequences included a wheat winter cover crop each year and summer crops of cotton every year, peanut every year, or cotton rotated every other year with peanut. The population densities of Meloidogyne spp. and Helicotylenchus dihyster...

Johnson, A. W.; Dowler, C. C.; Handoo, Z. A.

2000-01-01

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Damage Potential and Reproduction of Meloidogyne incognita Race 3 and M. arenaria Race 1 on Kenaf  

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The effects of Meloidogyne incognita race 3 and M. arenaria race 1 on growth of kenaf cv. Everglades 41 was determined under greenhouse conditions. Seedlings of kenaf were inoculated with initial population densities (Pi) of 0, 625, 1,250, 2,500, 5,000, and 10,000 eggs/plant and placed on greenhouse benches in a randomized complete block design. Plant growth and nematode reproduction were assessed 6 and 12 weeks after inoculation. Growth suppression of kenaf in response to increasing Pi was o...

Zhang, F.; Noe, J. P.

1996-01-01

48

Reducing Meloidogyne incognita Injury to Cucumber in a Tomato-Cucumber Double-Cropping System  

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The effects of a root-knot nematode-resistant tomato cultivar and application of the nematicide ethoprop on root-knot nematode injury to cucumber were compared in a tomato-cucumber double-cropping system. A root-knot nematode-resistant tomato cultivar, Celebrity, and a susceptible cultivar, Heatwave, were grown in rotation with cucumber in 1995 and 1996. Celebrity suppressed populations of Meloidogyne incognita in the soil and resulted in a low root-gall rating on the subsequent cucumber crop...

Colyer, P. D.; Kirkpatrick, T. L.; Vernon, P. R.; Barham, J. D.; Bateman, R. J.

1998-01-01

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Heat Stability of Resistance to Meloidogyne incognita in Scotch Bonnet Peppers ( Capsicum chinense Jacq.)  

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Stability of resistance to Meloidogyne incognita (Kofoid &White) Chitwood was determined in pepper (Capsicum chinense Jacq. and C. annuum L.) at 24, 28, and 32 °C. Reactions of the C. annuum cultivars Charleston Belle and Keystone Resistant Giant and the C. chinense cultigens PA-426 and PA-350 to M. incognita were compared. Charleston Belle is homozygous for the N gene that confers resistance to M. incognita in C. annuum, and Keystone Resistant Giant is the susceptible recurrent parent of Ch...

Thies, Judy A.; Fery, Richard L.

2000-01-01

50

Screening of pepper Cuarentino (Capsicum annuum L.) for resistance to Meloidogyne incognita  

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Se estudió la respuesta del pimiento Cuarentino ( Capsicum annuum ) frente a 66 aislamientos de Meloidogyne incognita , 52 de España y 14 de Uruguay, con el objetivo de evaluar su potencial para ser incluido en programas de mejoramiento genético como fuente de genes de resistencia a M. incognita . Se aplicó un bioensayo para determinar las razas y biotipos de M. incognita , así como para caracterizar la resistencia del pimiento Cuarentino. El pimiento Cua...

Piedra Buena, A.; Lo?pez-pe?rez, J. A.; Bello, A.; Di?ez-rojo, M. A.; Robertson, L.; Escuer, M.; Leo?n, L.

2006-01-01

51

Reação de genótipos de Avena spp. a Meloidogyne incognita raça 4 Host suitability of Avena spp. genotypes to Meloidogyne incognita race 4  

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As aveias preta (Avena strigosa), branca (A. sativa) e amarela (A. byzantina) são muito utilizadas como culturas de cobertura, em sucessão a soja, algodão, feijão, batata e cenoura, que são culturas que sofrem elevadas perdas provocadas por Meloidogyne incognita. O manejo de M. incognita pode ter como um dos componentes o uso de genótipos de aveia que reduzam a densidade populacional do nematóide. Foram conduzidos três experimentos em casa de vegetação com o objetivo de avaliar cinc...

Borges, Da?rcio C.; Antedome?nico, Sonia R.; Santos, Viviane P.; Inomoto, Ma?rio M.

2009-01-01

52

Nematotoxic phenolic compounds from Melia azedarach against Meloidogyne incognita.  

Science.gov (United States)

In the present study, evaluated was the paralysis activity of whole Italian and Algerian Melia azedarach, commonly known as chinaberry, fruits and parts (seeds, wood, and kernels) against Meloidogyne incognita second stage juveniles (J(2)). The paralysis activity was evaluated in vitro after 1 h and 1 day immersion periods of nematodes in test solutions. Phenolic constituent components of the extracts were identified and quantified by high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, while confirmation was performed by high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array. The water extract of the Italian M. azedarach fruit pulp (IPWE) showed significant nematicidal activity (EC(50/48h) = 955 ?g/mL) and among its active ingredient components were p-coumaric acid and p-hydroxybenzoic acid (EC(50/48h) = 840 and 871 ?g/mL, respectively). This is the first report of the nematicidal activity of M. azedarach pulp water extract and phenolic acids against the root knot nematode M. incognita. PMID:23136941

Aoudia, Hassiba; Ntalli, Nikoletta; Aissani, Nadhem; Yahiaoui-Zaidi, R; Caboni, Pierluigi

2012-11-28

53

Effect of Broccoli (Brassica oleracea) Tissue, Incorporated at Different Depths in a Soil Column, on Meloidogyne incognita  

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Brassicas have been used frequently for biofumigation, a pest-management strategy based on the release of biocidal volatiles during decomposition of soil-incorporated tissue. However, the role of such volatiles in control of plant-parasitic nematodes is unclear. The goal of this study was to determine the direct localized and indirect volatile effects of amending soil with broccoli tissue on root-knot nematode populations. Meloidogyne incognita-infested soil in 50-cm-long tubes was amended wi...

Roubtsova, Tatiana; Lo?pez-pe?r?ez, Jose-antonio; Edwards, Scott; Ploeg, Antoon

2007-01-01

54

Impact of Meloidogyne incognita on the Incidence of Peach Tree Short Life in the Presence of Criconemella xenoplax  

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The relationship between Cricenemella xenoplax alone and in combination with Meloidogyne incognitaon the incidence of peach tree short life disease was studied in field microplots during 1989-96. The presence of M. incognita suppressed the population density of C. xenoplax on Lovell peach. Tree trunk diameter was significantly reduced in the presence of both nematode species prior to 1993. Soil pH was lowest in the co-infection treatment as compared with the uninoculated control on three of t...

Nyczepir, A. P.; Wood, B. W.; Reighard, G. L.

1997-01-01

55

Effect of cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus on penetration and reproduction of meloidogyne incognita in cowpea  

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greenhouse studies were conducted to investigate the effects of cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus on penetration and reproduction of Meloidogyne incognita in cowpea and the influence of these pathogens on the yield of cowpea. The interaction of both pathogens resulted in higher population density of the nematode at harvest and correspondingly reduced grain yield in comparison to inoculation of either pathogen alone or un-inoculated control. An almost equal number of nematode juveniles penetrate...

Adekunle O.K.; Owa T.E.

2008-01-01

56

Raphanus sativus, Sinapis alba, and Fagopyrum esculentum as Hosts to Meloidogyne incognita, Meloidogyne javanica, and Plasmodiophora brassicae  

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Cultivars of oilseed radish (Raphanus sativus var. oleifera cv. Adagio, Nemex, Pegletta, Renova, Siletina, Siletta Nova, and Ultimo), white mustard (Sinapis alba cv. Albatross, Emergo, Maxi, Martigena, Metex, and Serval), buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum cv. Prego, Tardo), and phacelia (Phacelia tanacetifolia cv. Angelia) were tested for susceptibility to Meloidogyne incognita race 3 and Meloidogyne javanica. Experiments were conducted in growth chambers at 25 C and 16 hours light for 42 days ...

Gardner, J.; Caswell-chen, E. P.

1994-01-01

57

Use of crop residues for the control of Meloidogyne incognita under laboratory conditions.  

Science.gov (United States)

This laboratory study evaluates the biofumigant effect of different organic materials with the aim of developing non-chemical alternatives for the management of Meloidogyne incognita (Kofoid & White) Chitwood populations. Sources of organic material from the production system were selected with the aim of reducing agricultural residue accumulation problems as well as decreasing the costs due to the use of chemical fertilizers and pesticides. The selected materials were residues from pepper, strawberry, tomato and cucumber crops, orange juice industry residues, commercial manure and sheep manure, applied at different dosages. Two biofumigation assays were performed under laboratory conditions, using alkaline soils from the Torreblanca area (Murcia, Spain) and acidic soils from the Villa del Prado area (Madrid, Spain). The assays evaluated the effect of the treatments on M. incognita juveniles and other soil organisms, the nematode galling index on tomato roots (susceptible cv. Marmande) grown in the biofumigated soil and soil fertility parameters. The results showed that all biofumigant materials significantly decreased M. incognita populations and galling indices in tomato cv. Marmande. A greater effect was observed on galling indices when applying crop residues together with manure than with the residues alone. Biofumigation had a general beneficial effect on soil fertility, generally increasing nitrogen, organic carbon, pH and potassium levels, and also calcium levels when crop residues of pepper and strawberry were applied. There were no important variations in the number of saprophagous nematodes, dorylaimids and enchytraeids. PMID:16927410

Piedrabuena, Ana; García-Alvarez, Avelino; Díez-Rojo, Miguel A; Bello, Antonio

2006-10-01

58

Avaliação da resistência dê cafeeiros às raças dê Meloidogyne incognita Evaluation of coffea resistance to Meloidogyne incognita races  

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Full Text Available No Centro Experimental de Campinas do Instituto Agronômico, de abril de 1984 a agosto de 1985, realizaram-se dois experimentos, em vasos, para avaliar a resistência de mudas de sete linhagens de Coffea arabica ('Mundo Novo': CP388-17, CP379-19, CP501 e MP376-4; 'Catuaí Amarelo' H2077-2-5-62 e 'Catuaí Vermelho' H2077-2-5-81, e 'Caturra Amarelo' e dois de C. canephora (Robusta: 'Guarini' col. 10 e 'Kouillon' col. 67-14 às quatro raças de Meloidogyne incognita. No primeiro experimento, cada muda foi infestada com 8.000 ovos, passados cinco meses do transplante, e a avaliação, efetuada seis meses depois. No segundo experimento, as mudas foram infestadas cerca de um ano do transplante com 7.000 ovos cada uma e a avaliação realizada decorridos dez meses. Todas as plantas foram infestadas pelas raças 1 e 2; entretanto, a reprodução do nematóide foi menor nas plantas mais velhas. As raças 3 e 4 apresentaram baixas infestações e algumas reações de imunidade, principalmente a 4, que tem pouca importância prática pela sua pequena ocorrência. Os cultivares de Catuaí revelaram médias de notas de ootecas menores que as das linhagens de 'Mundo Novo', indicando menor suscetibilidade. Contudo, é importante ressaltar que a menor infestação não significa que as raças 3 e 4 sejam menos danosas ao cafeeiro quando o parasitam em campo.Two experiments were carried out in Campinas, State of São Paulo, Brazil, to evaluate the resistance of young trees of seven lines of Coffea arabica ('Mundo Novo': CP388-17, CP379-19, CP501 and MP376-4; 'Catuaí Yellow' H2077-2-5-62 and 'Catuaí Red' H2077-2-5-81; and 'Caturra Yellow' and two of C. canephora (Robusta: 'Guarini' col, 10 and 'Kouillon' col. 67-14 to the four races of Meloidogyne incognita in pots. In the first experiment, each plant was infested five months after transplanting with 8000 eggs, and evaluated six months later. In the second experiment, the plants were infested near one year after transplanting with 7000 eggs each one, and evaluated ten months later. Races 1 and 2 infested all cultivars, however, nematode reproduction was lower in the older plants. Races 3 and 4 presented low infestation and some imunity reactions (race 4, mainly what does not have any practical importance since they have a low frequence of occurrence. Catuaí cultivars presented lower egg-mass notes than Mundo Novo cultivars indicating some degree of resistance. However, the low levels of infestation observed do not necessarily indicate that these races will not damage coffee plants under field conditions.

Rubens Rodolfo Albuquerque Lordello

1987-01-01

59

Resistance induction for Meloidogyne incognita in sugarcane through mineral organic fertilizers  

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The effects of Coda Radimax (CR), Coda Humus-PK (CH) and Coda Vit (CV) on the induction of resistance for Meloidogyne incognita in sugarcane (Saccharum sp.) varieties (RB92579, RB863129, RB867515) through nematode reproduction, plant development and root anatomy analysis, emphasizing the differences of the lignin deposition, and cortex-vascular cylinder proportions were investigated. In 90 days after inoculation with eggs of M. incognita, CR reduced the number of eggs per root system in all t...

Andréa Chaves; Elvira Maria Régis Pedrosa; Rejane Magalhães de Mendonça Pimentel; Rildo Sartori Barbosa Coelho; Lílian Margarete Paes Guimarães; Sandra Roberta Vaz Lira Maranhão

2009-01-01

60

Analysis and functional classification of transcripts from the nematode Meloidogyne incognita  

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As an entrée to characterizing plant parasitic nematode genomes, 5,700 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) from the infective second-stage larvae (L2) of the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita have been analyzed. In addition to identifying putative nematode-specific and Tylenchida-specific genes, sequencing revealed previously uncharacterized horizontal gene transfer candidates in Meloidogyne with high identity to rhizobacterial genes.

Mccarter, James P.; Dautova Mitreva, Makedonka; Martin, John; Dante, Mike; Wylie, Todd; Rao, Uma; Pape, Deana; Bowers, Yvette; Theising, Brenda; Murphy, Claire V.; Kloek, Andrew P.; Chiapelli, Brandi J.; Clifton, Sandra W.; Bird, David Mck; Waterston, Robert H.

2003-01-01

 
 
 
 
61

Alternate row placement is ineffective for cultural control of Meloidogyne incognita in cotton.  

Science.gov (United States)

The objective of this study was to determine if planting cotton into the space between the previous year's rows reduces crop loss due to Meloidogyne incognita compared to planting in the same row every year. Row placement had a significant (P 1,3-dichloropropene plus aldicarb had lower nematode population levels than non-fumigated plots on 24 May and 8 July in 2005, but not in 2004. The effect of nematicide treatment on nematode populations was not affected by row placement. Row placement did not have a significant effect on root galling or yield in 2004 or 2005. Nematicide treatment decreased root galling in all years, and the decrease was not influenced by row placement. Yield was increased by nematicide application in 2004 and 2005, and the increase was not affected by row placement. Percentage yield loss was not affected by row placement. Changing the placement of rows reduced nematode population levels only on one sampling date in one year, but end-of-season root galling and lint yield were not affected by changing the placement of rows, nor was the effect of fumigation on yield influenced by row placement. Therefore, row placement is unlikely to contribute to M. incognita management in cotton. PMID:19440259

Davis, Richard F

2008-09-01

62

Sensitivity of Bedding Plants to Southern Root-knot Nematode, Meloidogyne incognita Race 3.  

Science.gov (United States)

Thirty-two cultivars of 10 commonly-grown bedding plants, representing eight families, were evaluated for their response to infection by the root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita race 3, under greenhouse conditions. Four ageratum cultivars, two marigold, and two salvia cultivars were rated resistant after exposure for 8 weeks. Four begonia, four celosia, one dianthus, one verbena, one vinca, and three pansy cultivars were susceptible. Three salvia, one begonia, one gerber, one verbena, and three vinca cultivars were slightly susceptible with an average of plant. Nematodes, at two initial population densities, affected the dry weights of only a few cultivars. The diversity of annual bedding plant germplasm available may provide adequate sources of resistance to this race of root-knot nematode. PMID:19279964

Walker, J T; Melin, J B; Davis, J

1994-12-01

63

Impact of Meloidogyne incognita on the Incidence of Peach Tree Short Life in the Presence of Criconemella xenoplax.  

Science.gov (United States)

The relationship between Cricenemella xenoplax alone and in combination with Meloidogyne incognitaon the incidence of peach tree short life disease was studied in field microplots during 1989-96. The presence of M. incognita suppressed the population density of C. xenoplax on Lovell peach. Tree trunk diameter was significantly reduced in the presence of both nematode species prior to 1993. Soil pH was lowest in the co-infection treatment as compared with the uninoculated control on three of the four sampling dates. In 1994, 80% of the trees growing in soil infested with C. xenoplax alone developed typical disease symptoms and died. The remaining tree died in 1995. No trees died in the M. incognita alone, C. xenoplax + M. incognita, or uninoculated control treatments. Parasitism by C. xenoplax, but not by M. incognita, made Lovell peach trees more susceptible to the disease. These findings were confirmed in an orchard site naturally infested with both C. xenoplax and M. incognita where Redhaven trees budded to Lovell rootstock exhibited a reduction of 1.6 years in average tree life for every centimeter increase in trunk diameter. PMID:19274276

Nyczepir, A P; Wood, B W; Reighard, G L

1997-12-01

64

Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. phaseoli and Meloidogyne incognita interaction in common bean / Interação entre Fusarium oxysporium f. sp. e Meloidogyne incognita em feijoeiro-comum  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Com objetivo de verificar se há associação entre a resistência ao nematóide e ao Fusarium oxysporum (Fop), dezoito linhagens de feijão, sendo oito resistentes e oito suscetíveis ao Fop mais duas testemunhas foram avaliadas com relação à reação ao nematóide Meloidogyne incognita. Essa avaliação foi r [...] ealizada em casa de vegetação no delineamento de blocos casualizados com cinco repetições. A parcela foi constituída por um vaso com duas plantas de feijão, e uma de tomate suscetível ao nematóide. Aos 15 dias após a semeadura, foi realizada a infestação, na região da rizosfera, com 5000 ovos de Meloidogyne incognita, raça 3. Foi avaliado o número de massas de ovos, aproximadamente 45 dias após a inoculação. Somente as linhagens ESAL 522, ESAL 519 e 'Aporé' foram resistentes ao nematóide. Apenas a 'Aporé' foi resistente aos dois patógenos. A correlação entre as notas de severidade do Fop e o número médio de massa de ovos obtida foi praticamente nula (r = 0,0252; Abstract in english To verify a possible relationship between resistance to nematodes and to Fusarium oxysporum (Fop) in common bean, 18 lines (eight resistant and eight susceptible to Fop plus two controls) were evaluated for resistance to the nematode Meloidogyne incognita. This evaluation was conducted in a greenhou [...] se in a randomized block design with five replications. The plot consisted of one pot with two bean plants and a nematode-susceptible tomato plant. Two weeks after sowing, plants were infested in the rhizosphere with 5000 eggs of Meloidogyne incognita, race 3. The number of egg masses was assessed, about 45 days after inoculation. Only lines ESAL 522, ESAL 519 and 'Aporé' were resistant to the nematode. Only 'Aporé' was resistant to both pathogens. The correlation between grades of Fop severity and mean egg mass was practically zero (r = 0.0252, P

Flávia Fernandes, Carneiro; Magno Antonio Patto, Ramalho; Mônica Juliani Zavaglia, Pereira.

2010-09-01

65

Efeito de extratos aquosos de espécies de Asteraceae sobre Meloidogyne incognita Effect of aqueous extracts of Asteraceae species on Meloidogyne incognita  

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Estudou-se, in vitro e in vivo a atividade nematicida dos extratos aquosos de vedélia (Sphagneticola trilobata), erva-de-touro (Tridax procumbens), cravo-de-defunto (Tagetes patula), girassol mexicano (Tithonia diversifolia), botão de ouro (Unxia suffruticosa) e zínia (Zinnia peruviana), sobre Meloidogyne incognita. Os extratos foram preparados na proporção de 1,0g do material seco e triturado para 10mL de água destilada e armazenados por 24h, sendo seguidamente utilizados nos experimen...

Isabel Cristina Madeira Ferreira; Gilson Soares da Silva; Fagner Sousa Nascimento

2013-01-01

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Control of Meloidogyne incognita Using Mixtures of Organic Acids.  

Science.gov (United States)

This study sought to control the root-knot nematode (RKN) Meloidogyne incognita using benign organo-chemicals. Second-stage juveniles (J2) of RKN were exposed to dilutions (1.0%, 0.5%, 0.2%, and 0.1%) of acetic acid (AA), lactic acid (LA), and their mixtures (MX). The nematode bodies were disrupted severely and moderately by vacuolations in 0.5% of MX and single organic acids, respectively, suggesting toxicity of MX may be higher than AA and LA. The mortality of J2 was 100% at all concentrations of AA and MX and only at 1.0% and 0.5% of LA, which lowered slightly at 0.2% and greatly at 0.1% of LA. This suggests the nematicidal activity of MX may be mostly derived from AA together with supplementary LA toxicity. MX was applied to chili pepper plants inoculated with about 1,000 J2, for which root-knot gall formations and plant growths were examined 4 weeks after inoculation. The root gall formation was completely inhibited by 0.5% MX and standard and double concentrations of fosthiazate; and inhibited 92.9% and 57.1% by 0.2% and 0.1% MX, respectively. Shoot height, shoot weight, and root weight were not significantly (P ? 0.05) different among all treatments and the untreated and non-inoculated controls. All of these results suggest that the mixture of the organic acids may have a potential to be developed as an eco-friendly nematode control agent that needs to be supported by the more nematode control experiments in fields. PMID:25506312

Seo, Yunhee; Kim, Young Ho

2014-12-01

67

Enzyme phenotypes of Brazilian populations of Meloidogyne spp.  

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Des phénotypes enzymatiques (estérases et malate déshydrogénases) ont été utilisés pour la caractérisation de 90 populations de #Meloidogyne$ originaires de différentes régions du Brésil. Nous avons employé une technique simplifiée pour les analyses de routine. Les protéines solubles sont séparées à partir d'une seule femelle par électrophorèse horizontale, en gel de 1 mm d'épaisseur à 7% de polyacrylamide. Les populations se répartissent comme suit : 24 #M. incognita$, ...

Carneiro, R. M. D. G.; Almeida, M. R. A.; Carneiro, R. G.

1996-01-01

68

Evaluation of repeated bio disinfestation using Brassica carinata pellets to control Meloidogyne incognita in protected pepper crops  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The nematode Meloidogyne incognita is responsible for substantial losses in greenhouse-grown peppers in southeastern Spain. This study evaluates the use of biodisinfestation (BS) (organic amendment + solarisation) as an alternative to using methyl bromide (MB) over three consecutive years to control the nematode in greenhouse conditions. Brassica carinata (BP) pellets or B. carinata (BP) + fresh sheep manure (M) were evaluated in treatments which began on two different dates (August and October) and the results were compared with MB-disinfested and untreated controls. During the third year, the gall index for BP was lower than that obtained for BP +M and in the August treatment than in the October treatment. The commercial crop of pepper fruit obtained with the biodisinfestation treatments begun in August was similar to or higher than that obtained with MB, and higher than that obtained with both October biodisinfestation treatments. The yield of the October biodisinfestation treatments was higher than that of the untreated one. In August of all the years studied, the accumulated exposure times were greater than the thresholds required to kill M. incognita populations at 15 cm depth. The incidence of the nematode did not correspond to the reduction achieved during solarisation, and seemed to increase during the crop cycle. Further studies should look at why high temperatures do not produce a sustained reduction in the populations of Meloidogyne incognita. (Author) 56 refs.

Guerrero-Diaz, M. M.; Lacasa-Martinez, C. M.; Hernandez-Pinera, A.; Martinez-Alarcon, V.; Lacasa Plasencia, A.

2013-06-01

69

Glucosinolate content and nematicidal activity of Brazilian wild mustard tissues against Meloidogyne incognita in tomato  

Science.gov (United States)

The wild mustard (Brassica juncea L.), an invasive weed of winter crops in Brazil, was evaluated for glucosinolate content of its plant tissues and nematicidal activity of its dry leaf meal (LM), whole seed meal (WSM) and hexane defatted seed meal (DSM) against Meloidogyne incognita on tomato plants...

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Strong repellency of the root knot nematode,Meloidogyne incognita by specific inorganic ions.  

Science.gov (United States)

Simple inorganic salts of the ions K(+), NH 4 (+) , Cs(+), NO 3 (-) , and Cl(-) are strongly repellent to infective second-stage larvae of the root knot nematode,Meloidogyne incognita. Some of these salts are known to be beneficial to plant growth. The results suggest a new means of plant protection. PMID:24263720

Castro, C E; Belser, N O; McKinney, H E; Thomason, I J

1990-04-01

71

A susceptible weed host can compromise suppression of Meloidogyne incognita by resistant cotton  

Science.gov (United States)

Weeds can support nematode reproduction when a non-host or resistant host crop is grown. Meloidogyne incognita, the dominant nematode pathogen of cotton in many areas in the US, reproduces well on prickly sida (Sida spinosa), which is a significant weed in some cotton-producing areas. The developm...

72

Produtos naturais aplicados para manejo de Meloidogyne incognita em tomateiros Natural products applied to the management of Meloidogyne incognita in tomato plants  

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Full Text Available Este trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar o efeito de produtos naturais na expressão da resistência a Meloidogyne incognita em plantas de tomate produzidos organicamente. Os indutores Rocksil, Quitosana, Neemseto e Biopirol foram aplicados 5, 10 e 15 dias, em tratamentos independentes, antes da inoculação do patógeno através da pulverização foliar, utilizando-se duas dosagens para cada indutor. A inoculação do nematoide foi realizada 30 dias após o plantio, usando-se 5000 ovos/ planta. Avaliando-se o número de ovos e o fator de reprodução, 30 dias após a inoculação, observou-se que todos os tratamentos diferiram estatisticamente da testemunha, impedindo o aumento da população inicial do patógeno. Dentre os indutores, o indutor silicatado Rocksil foi o que apresentou os melhores resultados para o controle da meloidoginose em todas as épocas de aplicação e em todas as dosagens. Contudo, plantas tratadas com o produto apresentaram baixos pesos de parte aérea sugerindo que houve um custo adaptativo de resistência. Considerando-se o fator de reprodução não foram observadas diferenças estatísticas quando comparadas a dosagem e época de aplicação entre os indutores, com exceção da Quitosana aplicada aos 5 dias antes da inoculação e do Neemseto aplicado aos 15 dias antes da inoculação do nematóide.This study aimed to evaluate the effect of natural products on the expression of resistance to Meloidogyne incognita in organically produced tomato plants. The inducers Rocksil, Chitosan, Neemseto and Biopirol were applied at 5, 10 and 15 days as independent treatments before the pathogen inoculation by means of leaf spraying, using two levels for each inducer. The nematode inoculation was performed at 30 days after planting, using 5000 eggs/plant. Evaluating the number of eggs and the reproduction factor, at 30 days after inoculation, all treatments statistically differed from the control, preventing an increase in the initial population of the pathogen. Of the natural inducers, Rocksil showed the best results for controlling the root-knot nematode in all application times and at all levels. However, plants treated with the product had low shoot weights, suggesting that there was a fitness cost of resistance. Considering the reproduction factor, there were not statistical differences when the level and the application time were compared among natural inducers, except for Chitosan applied at 5 days before the nematode inoculation and Neemseto applied at 15 days before the nematode inoculation.

Thiago Anchieta de Melo

2012-09-01

73

Nematicidal effects of Leucaena leucocephala and Gliricidia sepium extracts on Meloidogyne incognita infecting okra  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Two separate but identical greenhouse trials were conducted to investigate the effects of extracts of leaves and roots of Leucaena leucocephala and Gliricidia sepium each at 80,000 mg / kg and 40,000 mg / kg on Meloidogyne incognita on okra. Each potted nine-day old okra seedling was inoculated with 3,000 fresh eggs of M. incognita and 5ml of each of the extracts was added simultaneously around the roots of the seedling. Treatment of okra plant with L. leucocephala and G. sepium extracts resulted in reduced nematode population, reduced galling, reduced nematode reproduction rate and enhanced fruit weight. Chemical analysis revealed that G. sepium leaves contained phenolic compound and carboxylic acid, while the roots showed the presence of aromatic amide, phenolic compound and carboxylic acid. L. leucocephala leaves showed the presence of phenolic compound, aromatic amide and carboxylic acid, while the roots showed the presence of phenolic compound and carboxylic acid. The results of this study suggest that leaf and root extracts of L. leucocephala and G. sepium at the rate of 40,000 mg / kg could be useful in root knot nematode management in vegetable beds.

Adekunle O.K.

2007-01-01

74

Colored Mulches Affect Yield of Fresh-market Tomato Infected with Meloidogyne incognita.  

Science.gov (United States)

The effects of different-colored polyethylene mulches on the quantity and spectra of reflected light, earliness of fruit set, fruit yield and quality, and root-knot disease were studied in field-grown, staked tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum). White mulch reflected more photosynthetic light and a lower far-red-to-red ratio than red mulch, whereas black mulch reflected less than 5 percent of any color. Soil temperatures and fruit yields were recorded for tomato plants inoculated with Meloidogyne incognita race 3 at initial populations of 0, 1,000, 10,000, 50,000, or 100,000 eggs/plant and grown over black, white, or red plastic mulch in both spring and fall. Soil temperatures were lower under white mulch than under red or black mulch. Tomato yields declined as inoculum level increased. Plants grown over red mulch in the spring and inoculated with 50,000 eggs of M. incognita had greater early marketable yields than similarly inoculated plants grown over black or white mulch. Tomato plants inoculated with 100,000 eggs and grown over white mulch or red mulch in the spring had greater total yields per plot than similar plants grown over black mulch (7.39 kg and 7.71 kg vs. 3.65 kg, respectively). PMID:19274191

Fortnum, B A; Decoteau, D R; Kasperbauer, M J

1997-12-01

75

Production of auxin and related compounds by the plant parasitic nematodes Heterodera schachtii and Meloidogyne incognita.  

Science.gov (United States)

Mass spectrometric analysis revealed the presence of auxin, mainly in conjugated form, in secretions of Heterodera schachtii and Meloidogyne incognita, with or without treatment with DMT or resorcinol. M. incognita showed the highest production rates, though treatment of M. incognita with resorcinol had a negative effect on auxin production. Analysis of auxin precursor molecules in lysates of H. schachtii, M. incognita and Caenorhabditis elegans suggested that auxin is most probably a degradation product of tryptophan and that auxin may be synthesized via several intermediates, including indole-3-acetamide which is an intermediate of a pathway so far only characterized in bacteria. Furthermore, high levels of anthranilate, a degradation product of tryptophan in animals, but possibly also a precursor for auxin were detected. PMID:16363359

De Meutter, J; Tytgat, T; Prinsen, E; Gheysen, G; Van Onckelen, H; Gheysen, G

2005-01-01

76

HISTOPATHOLOGICAL CHANGES AND ENZYMATIC ACTIVITIES INDUCED BY MELOIDOGYNE INCOGNITA ON RESISTANT AND SUSCEPTIBLE POTATO  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available All potato cultivars are susceptible to root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp. which infest the roots and induce galls on the surface and necrotic spots in the flesh tuber of potato, Solanum tuberosum. Infested tubers are unacceptable for processing and fresh market. Tubers are also putative source of dissemination of the nematode. A French nematode- resistant tetraploid potato genotype gained from ex-S. sparsipilum material hybridized with S. tuberosum in F1 and in their back cross progenies and designated as 02T.155.6 was tested and compared in the present study in Egypt as a suitable different environment. Histopathological changes and chitinase activity induced by M. incognita population, of common occurrence in Egypt, in four French tetraploid materials and two common cultivars known as nematode- resistant and susceptible potato genotypes were investigated. Hypertrophied cells were initiated in both cortical and steler regions of the roots which were then developed to abnormal xylem elements expanding into the cortex in French susceptible genotypes designated as 02T.149.6, 02T.150.54, and 02T.157.16. Nematode within the vascular tissue (stele could induce giant cell development close to nematode heads. The largest number of such induced cells was shown by the cultivars Spunta and Diamant. The clone 02T.155.6 with putative nematode resistance demonstrated none or very little nematode development. Recently dead second stage juveniles could also indicate incompatible plant reaction to the invading nematodes in 02T.155.6. M. incognita, Giza population, resistance was generally more coherent to 02T.155.6 as demonstrated by our histological investigations but less coherent as shown by another Egyptian M. incognita population. Chitinase activity was enhanced in M. incognita (Giza-inoculated with respect to uninoculated roots in all plants. After inoculation, such an activity generally increased more in roots of a potato genotype previously known to have resistance or relatively low numbers of both nematode galls and eggmasses than in the other tested cultivars. Peroxidase and catalase activities of nematode- inoculated with respect to uninoculated potato roots were presented and discussed.

Moawad M. Mohamad

2012-12-01

77

Seed treatment affects Meloidogyne incognita penetration, colonization and reproduction on cotton / Tratamento de sementes afeta a penetração, colonização e reprodução de Meloidogyne incognita em algodão  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese O efeito de abamectina em tratamento de sementes na penetração, colonização e reprodução de Meloidogyne incognita, em algodão, foi avaliado em dois experimentos de casa de vegetação. A penetração de juvenis de segundo estádio (J2) foi avaliada aos três, nove e 15 dias após a germinação (dag), enquan [...] to que a colonização 27dag foi avaliada por meio da contagem do número total de galhas e massas de ovos por sistema radicular. Ovos e J2 de M. incognita foram extraídos das raízes para determinar a reprodução do nematoide aos 50 e 100dag. O tratamento de sementes diminuiu a penetração dos J2 nas raízes, resultando em menor colonização e reprodução de M. incognita. Os resultados obtidos são discutidos tendo em vista os aspectos ambientais da presença de abamectina no solo e as práticas agrícolas em uso. Abstract in english The effect of abamectin, applied as seed treatment, on Meloidogyne incognita penetration, colonization, and reproduction on cotton was evaluated in two greenhouse experiments. Second stage juveniles (J2) penetration was evaluated 3, 9 and 15 days after germination (dag), whereas the nematode coloniz [...] ation was evaluated 27dag, by counting the total number of galls and egg masses per root system. Eggs and J2 were extracted from the roots to assess the nematode reproduction at 50 and 100dag. The seed treatment caused a decrease in J2 penetration in the roots, resulting in lower colonization and reproduction of M. incognita. These findings are discussed considering the environmental aspects of abamectin in the soil and the current practices for the crop management.

Rosana, Bessi; Fernando Ribeiro, Sujimoto; Mário Massayuki, Inomoto.

1428-14-01

78

Synergistic activity between Bacillus thuringiensis Cry6Aa and Cry55Aa toxins against Meloidogyne incognita  

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Plant?parasitic nematodes are the most destructive group of plant pathogens worldwide and are extremely challenging to control. Some Bacillus thuringiensis crystal proteins are highly toxic to the plant?parasitic nematode Meloidogyne incognita. In this study, the nematicidal crystal proteins Cry6Aa, Cry5Ba and Cry55Aa were tested against M.?incognita to select the best toxin combination for its management. The results showed that a combination of Cry6Aa and Cry55Aa showed significant sy...

Peng, Donghai; Chai, Lujun; Wang, Fenshan; Zhang, Fengjuan; Ruan, Lifang; Sun, Ming

2011-01-01

79

Comparative Resistance of Selected Acala 1517 Cotton Cultivars to Meloidogyne incognita Race 3  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Little information is available regarding the levels of Meloidogyne incognita race 3 resistance in Acala 1517 cotton cultivars compared with cultivars grown outside the southwestern United States. Levels of M. incognita egg production were compared among commercial Acala cultivars 1517-E2, 1517-SR1, 1517-75, 1517-77BR, and SJ-5, resistant and susceptible standards Auburn 634 and M-8 and breeding lines Acala 5701-W and N6072 grown for 45 days in the greenhouse. The Acala 1517 cultivars all per...

Klump, R. S.; Thomas, S. H.

1987-01-01

80

Nematicidal effects of Leucaena leucocephala and Gliricidia sepium extracts on Meloidogyne incognita infecting okra  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Two separate but identical greenhouse trials were conducted to investigate the effects of extracts of leaves and roots of Leucaena leucocephala and Gliricidia sepium each at 80,000 mg / kg and 40,000 mg / kg on Meloidogyne incognita on okra. Each potted nine-day old okra seedling was inoculated with 3,000 fresh eggs of M. incognita and 5ml of each of the extracts was added simultaneously around the roots of the seedling. Treatment of okra plant with L. leucocephala and G. sepium extracts resu...

Adekunle O.K.; Akinlua A.

2007-01-01

 
 
 
 
81

Growth and Energy Demand of Meloidogyne incognita on Susceptible and Resistant Vitis vinifera Cultivars  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Food (energy) consumption rates ofMeloidogyne incognita were calculated on Vitis vinifera cv. French Colombard (highly susceptible) and cv. Thompson Seedless (moderately resistant). One-month-old grape seedlings in styrofoam cups were inoculated with 2,000 or 8,000 M. incognita second-stage juveniles (J2) and maintained at 17.5 degree days (DD - base 10 C)/day until maximum adult female growth and (or) the end of oviposition. At 70 DD intervals, nematode fresh biomass was calculated on the ba...

Melakeberhan, H.; Ferris, H.

1988-01-01

82

Penetration and Development of Meloidogyne incognita in Roots of Resistant and Susceptible Corn Genotypes  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Rates of penetration and development ofMeloidogyne incognita race 4 in roots of resistant (inbred Mp307, and S4 lines derived from the open-pollinated varieties Tebeau and Old Raccoon) and susceptible (Pioneer 3110) corn genotypes were determined. Seedlings grown in styrofoam containers were inoculated with 5,000 eggs of M. incognita. Roots were harvested at 3-day intervals starting at 3 days after inoculation (DAI) to 27 DAI and stained with acid fuchsin. Penetration of roots by second-stage...

Windham, G. L.; Williams, W. P.

1994-01-01

83

Effects of Management Practices on Meloidogyne incognita and Snap Bean Yield  

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Phenamiphos applied at 6.7 kg ai/ha through a solid set or a center pivot irrigation system with 28 mm of water effectively controlled root-knot nematodes, Meloidogyne incognita, and resulted in greater snap bean growth and yields irrespective of growing season, tillage method, or cover crop system. The percentage yield increases attributed to this method of M. incognita control over nontreated controls were 45% in the spring crop, and 90% and 409% in the fall crops following winter rye and f...

Smittle, D. A.; Johnson, A. W.

1982-01-01

84

Mustard seed meal mixtures: management of Meloidogyne incognita on pepper and potential phytotoxicity.  

Science.gov (United States)

Meals produced when oil is extracted from seeds in the Brassicaceae have been shown to suppress weeds and soilborne pathogens. These seed meals are commonly used individually as soil amendments; the goal of this research was to evaluate seed meal mixes of Brassica juncea (Bj) and Sinapis alba (Sa) against Meloidogyne incognita. Seed meals from Bj 'Pacific Gold' and Sa 'IdaGold' were tested alone and in combinations to determine rates and application times that would suppress M. incognita on pepper (Capsicum annuum) without phytotoxicity. Rates of soil application (% w/w) for the phytotoxicity study were: 0.5 Sa, 0.2 Bj, 0.25 Sa + 0.25 Bj, 0.375 Sa + 0.125 Bj, 0.125 Sa + 0.375 Bj, and 0, applied 0 - 5 weeks before transplant. Overall, 0.2% Bj was the least toxic meal to pepper seedlings. By comparison, 0.5% S. alba seed meal did not reduce lettuce (Lactuca sativa) seed germination at week 0, but all seed meal treatments containing B. juncea prevented or significantly reduced germination at week 0. The seed meals did not affect lettuce seed germination at weeks 1-5, but hypocotyl growth was reduced by all except 0.2% Bj at weeks 1, 4 and 5. Brassica juncea and Sa meals were tested for M. incognita suppression at 0.2, 0.15, 0.1 and 0.05%; mixtures were 0.1% Sa + 0.1% Bj, 0.15% Sa + 0.05% Bj, and 0.05% Sa + 0.15% Bj. All treatments were applied 2 weeks before transplant. The 0.2% Bj and 0.05% Sa + 0.15% Bj treatments overall had the longest shoots and highest fresh weights. Eggs per g root were lowest with 0.1 - 0.2% Bj amendments and the seed meal mixtures. The results indicate that Bj and some Bj + Sa mixtures can be applied close to transplant to suppress M. incognita populations on pepper; consequently, a seed meal mixture could be selected to provide activity against more than one pest or pathogen. For pepper, care should be taken in formulating mixtures so that Sa rates are low compared to Bj. PMID:22791910

Meyer, Susan L F; Zasada, Inga A; Orisajo, Samuel B; Morra, Matthew J

2011-03-01

85

Studies on the interactive effect of Meloidogyne incognita and Fusarium solani on Lycopersicon esculentum, Mill  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A disease complex involving Meloidogyne incognita and Fusarium solani was studied on tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum, Mill. under glasshouse conditions. Pot experiments were conducted to determine the pathogenesis of both the pathogens individually, simultaneously and sequentially. Isolates of M. incognita and F. solani singly caused a significant reduction in plant height, fresh weight, dry weight, number of fruits and fruit weight over the un-inoculated one but the reduction was more by M. incognita as compared to F. solani. A significant reduction in different plant growth parameters was observed on simultaneous and sequential inoculation of M. incognita and F. solani. However, the reduction was more prominent on simultaneous inoculation of both the pathogens. Among the sequential inoculations more damages were assessed during inoculation of M. incognita followed by F. solani (N+f10. Nematode multiplication, number of galls and number of females were adversely affected on simultaneous and sequential inoculation of both the pathogens in all the treatments. In the present study it was concluded that both the pathogens viz M. incognita and F. solani are virulent against the tomato c.v pusa ruby and therefore measures to prevent the spread of disease become important.

T.A. Khan

2011-01-01

86

Nematicidal activity of plant extracts against the root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita  

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Nematicidal activity of extracts from plants was assayed against Meloidogyne incognita. In laboratory assays extracts from tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L), clove (Syzygium aromaticum L), betelvine (Piper betle L), and sweet flag (Acorus calamus L) were most effective in killing the nematode, with an EC50 that was 5-10 times lower than the EC50 of the synthetic pesticides chlorpyrifos, carbosulfan and deltamethrin. The shapes of the dead nematodes differed in a characteristic way, and groups of ...

Wiratno; Taniwiryono, D.; Berg, J. H. J.; Riksen, J. A. G.; Rietjens, I.; Djiwanti, S. R.; Kammenga, J. E.; Murk, A. J.

2009-01-01

87

EFFECT OF ROOT EXUDATES OF TAGETES SP. ON EGG HATCHING BEHAVIOR OF MELOIDOGYNE INCOGNITA  

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The effect root exudates of pre-planted marigold intercropped with tomato in regulating the hatching behavior of root-knot nematode - Meloidogyne incognita eggs were investigated. Marigold cultivars Tagetes patula, T. minuta, T. erecta, T. erecta (var. Orange), T. erecta (var. Yellow) significantly reduced the numbers of second-stage juveniles (J2s) in subsequent tomato compared to the tomato-tomato control. Four different concentrations (25, 50, 75 and 100 %) of water soluble extract from th...

Iruthaya Kalaiselvam; Aruna Devaraj

2011-01-01

88

Chemical Composition and Nematicidal Activity of Essential Oil of Agastache rugosa against Meloidogyne incognita  

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The aim of this research was to determine the chemical composition and nematicidal activity of essential oil of Agastache rugosa flowering aerial parts against the root knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita, and to isolate and identify any nematicidal constituents from the essential oil. The essential oil of A. rugosa aerial parts was obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by GC-FID and GC-MS. A total of 37 components of the essential oil were identified, with the principal compounds being...

Zhi Wei Deng; Shu Shan Du; Zhi Long Liu; Qi Zhi Liu; He Qin Li

2013-01-01

89

Stage-specific Differences in Lectin Binding to the Surface of Anguina tritici and Meloidogyne incognita  

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The occurrence and distribution of several lectin binding sites on the outer surfaces of eggs, preparasitic second-stage juveniles (J2), parasitic second-stage juveniles (PJ2), females, and males of two tylenchid nematodes, Anguina tritici and Meloidogyne incognita race 3, were compared. In both species, a greater variety of lectins bound to the eggs than to other life stages; lectin binding to eggs was also more intense than it was to other life stages. Species-specific differences also occu...

Spiegel, Yitzhak; Mcclure, Michael A.

1991-01-01

90

Plantago lanceolata and Plantago rugelii Extracts are Toxic to Meloidogyne incognita but not to Certain Microbes  

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Extracts from the plants Plantago lanceolata and P. rugelii were evaluated for toxicity to the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita, the beneficial microbes Enterobacter cloacae, Pseudomonas fluorescens and Trichoderma virens, and the plant-pathogenic fungi Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. gladioli, Phytophthora capsici, Pythium ultimum, and Rhizoctonia solani. Wild plants were collected, roots were excised from shoots, and the plant parts were dried and ground to a powder. One set of extracts (...

Meyer, Susan L. F.; Zasada, Inga A.; Roberts, Daniel P.; Vinyard, Bryan T.; Lakshman, Dilip K.; Lee, Jae-kook; Chitwood, David J.; Carta, Lynn K.

2006-01-01

91

Interaction between Meloidogyne incognita and Agrobacterium tumefaciens or Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici on Tomato  

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Agrobacterium tumefaciens stimulated and Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici inhibited development and reproduction of Meloidogyne incognita when applied to the opposite split root of tomato, Lycopersicon esculentum cv. Tropic, plants. The lowest rate of nematode reproduction occurred after 2,000 juveniles were applied and the fungus was present in the opposite split root. The effects of all three pathogens alone on the growth of roots and shoots of tomato plants were evident, but M. incogn...

El-sherif, Ahmed G.; Elwakil, M. A.

1991-01-01

92

Mustard seed meal mixtures: management of Meloidogyne incognita on pepper and potential phytotoxicity  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Meals produced when oil is extracted from seeds in the Brassicaceae have been shown to suppress weeds and soilborne pathogens. These seed meals are commonly used individually as soil amendments; the goal of this research was to evaluate seed meal mixes of Brassica juncea (Bj) and Sinapis alba (Sa) against Meloidogyne incognita. Seed meals from Bj ‘Pacific Gold’ and Sa ‘IdaGold’ were tested alone and in combinations to determine rates and application times that would suppress M. incogn...

Meyer, Susan L. F.; Zasada, Inga A.; Orisajo, Samuel B.; Morra, Matthew J.

2011-01-01

93

Phosphonate fertilizers suppressed root knot nematodes Meloidogyne javanica and M. incognita  

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The efficacy of the phosphonate fertilizers, Calphos® (a.i. calcium phosphonate), Magphos® (a.i. magnesium phosphonate and potassium phosphonate) and Phosphoros® (a.i. potassium phosphonate) against two species of root knot nematodes (RKN), Meloidogyne javanica and M. incognita is evaluated. Laboratory experiments showed that Calphos®, Magphos® and their main components inhibited egg hatching and caused 100% mortality of the second stage juveniles (J2s) of the two RKN species; the hatchi...

Habash, Samer; Al-banna, Luma

2011-01-01

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Overestimation of Yield Loss of Tobacco Caused by the Aggregated Spatial Pattern of Meloidogyne incognita  

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Overestimation of yield loss caused by Meloidogyne incognita on tobacco was calculated as a function of the statistical frequency distribution of sample counts. Sampling frequency distributions were described by a negative binomial model, with parameter k, and the resulting probability generating function was used to calculate discrete damage probabilities. Negative binomial damage predictions were compared to mean-density estimates of damage. Predictions based on mean density alone overestim...

Noe, J. P.; Barker, K. R.

1985-01-01

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EFFECT OF ROOT EXUDATES OF TAGETES SP. ON EGG HATCHING BEHAVIOR OF MELOIDOGYNE INCOGNITA  

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Full Text Available The effect root exudates of pre-planted marigold intercropped with tomato in regulating the hatching behavior of root-knot nematode - Meloidogyne incognita eggs were investigated. Marigold cultivars Tagetes patula, T. minuta, T. erecta, T. erecta (var. Orange, T. erecta (var. Yellow significantly reduced the numbers of second-stage juveniles (J2s in subsequent tomato compared to the tomato-tomato control. Four different concentrations (25, 50, 75 and 100 % of water soluble extract from the selected varieties of Marigold cultivars were filtered and added to the petri dish and infested with the eggs of M. incognita. Data indicate that egg hatching was significantly affected by root exudates of Tagetes sp. however, nematicidal activity was species dependent. Root exudates of T. erecta were lethal to J2 of M. incognita and were inhibitory to the hatch of eggs at the concentration of 75 % or higher.

Iruthaya Kalaiselvam

2011-10-01

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Interaction between Meloidogyne incognita and Agrobacterium tumefaciens or Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici on Tomato.  

Science.gov (United States)

Agrobacterium tumefaciens stimulated and Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici inhibited development and reproduction of Meloidogyne incognita when applied to the opposite split root of tomato, Lycopersicon esculentum cv. Tropic, plants. The lowest rate of nematode reproduction occurred after 2,000 juveniles were applied and the fungus was present in the opposite split root. The effects of all three pathogens alone on the growth of roots and shoots of tomato plants were evident, but M. incognita had a greater effect alone than did either of the other pathogens. The length of split roots was reduced by the infection of M. incognita and A. tumefaciens or F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici. The number of galls induced by nematodes on roots was higher where the bacterium was applied and lower where the fungus was applied to the opposite split root. PMID:19283119

El-Sherif, A G; Elwakil, M A

1991-04-01

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The nematicidal effect of some bacterial biofertilizers on Meloidogyne incognita in sandy soil  

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Full Text Available In a greenhouse experiment, the nematicidal effect of some bacterial biofertilizers including the nitrogen fixing bacteria (NFB Paenibacillus polymyxa (four strains, the phosphate solubilizing bacteria (PSB Bacillus megaterium (three strains and the potassium solubilizing bacteria (KSB B. circulans (three strains were evaluated individually on tomato plants infested with the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita in potted sandy soil. Comparing with the uninoculated nematode-infested control, the inoculation with P. polymyxa NFB7, B. megaterium PSB2 and B. circulans KSB2, increased the counts of total bacteria and total bacterial spores in plants potted soil from 1.2 to 2.6 folds estimated 60 days post-inoculation. Consequently, the inoculation with P. polymyxa NFB7 increased significantly the shoot length (cm, number of leaves / plant, shoot dry weight (g / plant and root dry weight (g / plant by 32.6 %, 30.8 %, 70.3 % and 14.2 %, respectively. Generally, the majority treatments significantly reduced the nematode multiplication which was more obvious after 60 days of inoculation. Among the applied strains, P. polymyxa NFB7, B. megaterium PSB2 and B. circulans KSB2 inoculations resulted in the highest reduction in nematode population comparing with the uninoculated nematode-infested control. They recorded the highest reduction in numbers of hatched juveniles/root by 95.8 %, females/root by 63.75 % and juveniles/1kg soil by 57.8 %. These results indicated that these bacterial biofertilizers are promising double purpose microorganisms for mobilizing of soil nutrients (nitrogen, phosphate and potassium and for the biological control of M. incognita.

M.E El-Hadad

2011-03-01

98

The nematicidal effect of some bacterial biofertilizers on Meloidogyne incognita in sandy soil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english In a greenhouse experiment, the nematicidal effect of some bacterial biofertilizers including the nitrogen fixing bacteria (NFB) Paenibacillus polymyxa (four strains), the phosphate solubilizing bacteria (PSB) Bacillus megaterium (three strains) and the potassium solubilizing bacteria (KSB) B. circu [...] lans (three strains) were evaluated individually on tomato plants infested with the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita in potted sandy soil. Comparing with the uninoculated nematode-infested control, the inoculation with P. polymyxa NFB7, B. megaterium PSB2 and B. circulans KSB2, increased the counts of total bacteria and total bacterial spores in plants potted soil from 1.2 to 2.6 folds estimated 60 days post-inoculation. Consequently, the inoculation with P. polymyxa NFB7 increased significantly the shoot length (cm), number of leaves / plant, shoot dry weight (g) / plant and root dry weight (g) / plant by 32.6 %, 30.8 %, 70.3 % and 14.2 %, respectively. Generally, the majority treatments significantly reduced the nematode multiplication which was more obvious after 60 days of inoculation. Among the applied strains, P. polymyxa NFB7, B. megaterium PSB2 and B. circulans KSB2 inoculations resulted in the highest reduction in nematode population comparing with the uninoculated nematode-infested control. They recorded the highest reduction in numbers of hatched juveniles/root by 95.8 %, females/root by 63.75 % and juveniles/1kg soil by 57.8 %. These results indicated that these bacterial biofertilizers are promising double purpose microorganisms for mobilizing of soil nutrients (nitrogen, phosphate and potassium) and for the biological control of M. incognita.

M.E, El-Hadad; M.I, Mustafa; Sh.M, Selim; T.S, El-Tayeb; A.E.A, Mahgoob; Norhan H. Abdel, Aziz.

2011-03-01

99

Response of five lettuce cultivars to root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita.  

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The root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognito (Kofoid et White) Chitwood is an important pathogen of vegetables. Five commercial cultivars of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) were evaluated under greenhouse conditions for resistance to Meloidogyne incognita, Benguet population. Plants were inoculated with 1000 eggs collected from 'Apollo' tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) roots. The degree of galling and number of egg masses were assessed 4 and 8 weeks after inoculation. Host plant response was classified as immune, highly resistant, resistant, moderately resistant, intermediate, moderately susceptible, and highly susceptible based on the resistance index of Kouamè et at., 1998 [RI = (gall2 + egg2)]. Inoculation of 1000 eggs/plant significantly affected the growth and yield of the five lettuce cultivars 4 and 8 weeks after inoculation. A significant interaction was observed between treatment and cultivar during the two evaluation periods in terms of marketable and non-marketable yield, plant height, root weight, number of galls and number of egg masses. A reduction in growth and yield was observed in the cultivars Ballon, Lollo Rosa and Red Wave. Significant differences were noted in the number of galls and egg masses among the different cultivars tested. The highest average number of galls was obtained from the cultivars Red Wave, Ballon and Lollo Rosa. Cultivar Ballon had the highest average number of recovered nematode while Gilaben had the lowest with 15 and 4 per roots, respectively after 4 weeks inoculation. After 8 weeks, nematode was highest in cultivar Red Wave (615) and lowest in Great Lakes (70). Based on the host response, cultivars Great Lakes and Gilaben were rated highly resistant and resistant, respectively, while Red Wave, Ballon and Lollo Rosa were rated intermediate. PMID:18399501

Pedroche, Nordalyn B; Villanueva, Luciana M; De Dirk, Waele

2007-01-01

100

Rootstocks resistant to Meloidogyne incognita and compatibility of grafting in net melon / Porta-enxertos resistentes a Meloidogyne incognita e compatibilidade de enxertia de melão rendilhado  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Devido aos poucos estudos realizados com enxertias em melão rendilhado, visando um maior controle de patógenos do solo, este trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar 16 genótipos de cucurbitáceas quanto à resistência a Meloidogyne incognita e a compatibilidade da enxertia do melão rendilhado. Foram avalia [...] dos 16 acessos de cucurbitáceas: Benincasa hispida, Bucha, Abóbora 'Jacarezinho', Abóbora 'Menina Brasileira', Moranga 'Exposição', Moranga 'Coroa', Abóbora 'Canhão Seca', Abóbora 'Squash', Mogango 'Enrrugado Verde', Abóbora 'Mini Paulista', Abóbora 'Goianinha', Melancia 'Charleston Gray', Melão 'Rendondo Gaúcho', Melão 'Redondo Amarelo', Pepino 'Caipira HS' e Pepino 'Caipira Rubi', quanto à resistência ao nematóide M. incognita, com base no fator de reprodução (FR), segundo Oostenbrink (1966). Para avaliação da resistência, as mudas foram transplantadas para vasos de cerâmica e foram aplicados 300 ovos ou juvenis de segundo estádio/mL de M. incognita, num total de 10 mL por vaso. Aos 50 dias após o transplantio, as plantas foram removidas dos vasos e realizou-se a avaliação da resistência. Para a compatibilidade entre os porta-enxertos resistentes e enxerto de melão rendilhado, foram realizadas enxertias do tipo garfagem fenda simples, em híbrido comercial de melão rendilhado de grande aceitação comercial e suscetíveil a M. incognita (Bônus N° 2). Os genótipos Bucha, Abóbora 'Goianinha', Abóbora 'Mini-Paulista', Melão 'Redondo Amarelo', Melancia 'Charleston Gray', foram resistentes ao nematóide M. incognita. As melhores compatibilidades ocorreram com os porta-enxertos Melão 'Amarelo', o qual teve 100% de pegamento, seguido da Abóbora 'Mini-Paulista' com 94%. Já Bucha, Melancia 'Charleston Gray' e Abóbora 'Goianinha', tiveram baixas porcentagens de pegamento: 66%, 62% e 50% respectivamente. Abstract in english Due to the few studies about grafting in net melon, in order to obtain better control of soil pathogens, the aim of the present study was to evaluate 16 genotypes of Cucurbitaceae: Benincasa hispida, Luffa cylindrica, pumpkin 'Jacarezinho', pumpkin 'Menina Brasileira', squash 'Exposição', squash 'Co [...] roa', pumpkin 'Canhão Seca', pumpkin 'Squash', pumpkin 'Enrrugado Verde', pumpkin 'Mini Paulista', pumpkin 'Goianinha', watermelon 'Charleston Gray', melon 'Rendondo Gaucho', melon 'Redondo Amarelo', cucumber 'Caipira HS' and cucumber 'Caipira Rubi', regarding to compatibility of grafting in net melon and resistance to Meloidogyne incognita, based on the reproduction factor (RF), according to Oostenbrink (1966). To assess resistance, the seedlings were transplanted to ceramic pots and inoculated with 300/mL eggs and/or second stage juveniles of M. incognita. At 50 days after transplanting, the plants were removed from the pots and the resistance was evaluated. The compatibility between resistant rootstock and grafts of net melon was determined by performing simple cleft grafting, in a commercial net melon hybrid of great market acceptance and susceptible to M. incognita (Bonus no. 2). The genotypes Luffa cylindrica, pumpkin 'Goianinha', pumpkin 'Mini-Paulista', melon 'Redondo Amarelo', watermelon 'Charleston Gray' are resistant to the nematode M. incognita. The better compatibilities occurred with the rootstocks melon 'Amarelo', which presented 100% of success, followed by pumpkin 'Mini-Paulista' with 94%. On the other hand, Sponge gourd, watermelon 'Charleston Gray' and pumpkin 'Goianinha' showed low graft take percentages of 66%, 62% and 50%, respectively.

Francine de Souza, Galatti; Alexandre Junqueira, Franco; Letícia Akemi, Ito; Hamilton de Oliveira, Charlo; Lucas Aparecido, Gaion; Leila Trevisan, Braz.

2013-06-01

 
 
 
 
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Synergistic activity between Bacillus thuringiensis Cry6Aa and Cry55Aa toxins against Meloidogyne incognita.  

Science.gov (United States)

Plant-parasitic nematodes are the most destructive group of plant pathogens worldwide and are extremely challenging to control. Some Bacillus thuringiensis crystal proteins are highly toxic to the plant-parasitic nematode Meloidogyne incognita. In this study, the nematicidal crystal proteins Cry6Aa, Cry5Ba and Cry55Aa were tested against M. incognita to select the best toxin combination for its management. The results showed that a combination of Cry6Aa and Cry55Aa showed significant synergistic toxicity against M. incognita, and the highest synergistic effect (five times the expected toxicity of the two toxins calculated from their separate toxicities) was observed when they were combined in a 1:1 ratio. Furthermore, ligand blot analyses of the interaction between total proteins of M. incognita and the three toxins showed many different signal bands, indicating that there is a range of host proteins with which the toxins can interact. One explanation of the observed synergism is that the toxins damage the host in diverse ways, and they may thus act cooperatively and thereby show greater toxicity in combination. Our discovery provides an effective strategy for controlling M. incognita by using a combination of Cry6Aa and Cry55Aa. PMID:21923640

Peng, Donghai; Chai, Lujun; Wang, Fenshan; Zhang, Fengjuan; Ruan, Lifang; Sun, Ming

2011-11-01

102

Interactions between arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and Meloidogyne incognita in the ornamental plant Impatiens balsamina  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in english Biocontrol traits of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF), in terms of single and mixed species inoculum, against the root knot nematode Meloidogyne incongita in Impatiens balsamina L., were examined with and without mineral fertilization in a greenhouse pot experiment. At harvest, 60 days after sowin [...] g, general plant growth parameters and plant defense response in terms of antioxidant activity and content of phenolic compounds in roots and leaves were measured. Also AMF root colonization and abundance ofnematode root-knots were determined. Mineral fertilization increased all plant growth parameters measured, which coincided with an increased disease development caused by M. incognita. Inoculation with AMF mitigated the observed plant growth reduction caused by M.incognita, though, higher abundance of M. incognita root knots was found in mycorrhizal plants. Plant defense responses in terms of antioxidant activity and content of phenolic compounds did not seem to be linked to the observed biocontrol traits of AMF against M. incognita. However, roots inoculated with a consortium of AMF, which presented less nematode root knots than roots with the single species inoculum, had the highest level of phenolic compounds. The results from the present study suggest that AMF induce tolerance in I. balsamina against the root knot nematode M. incognita.

J, Banuelos; A, Alarcón; J, Larsen; S, Cruz-Sánchez; D, Trejo.

2014-03-01

103

Potential antagonistic effects of nine natural fatty acids against Meloidogyne incognita.  

Science.gov (United States)

Fatty acids, the essential components of life, were widely present in various seed cakes, gutter oil, and other resources. The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential antagonistic effects of nine fatty acids (FAs) against Meloidogyne incognita (root-knot nematodes). The results showed that butyric, caprylic, capric, lauric, myristic, palmitic, and oleic acids significantly reduced M. incognita reproduction, whereas cucumber (Cucumus sativus) biomass was not adversely affected by the tested FAs and was even significantly increased in several fatty acids treatments. All nine tested fatty acids showed apparent inhibitory effects on egg hatching on day 21, especially capric acid with which the hatching rate was reduced to 15.8% as compared to that using sterile distilled water. Caproic, caprylic, capric, lauric, myristic, and palmitic acids caused significantly higher mortality of the second-stage juvenile of M. incognita than the other three FAs, and both caprylic and capric acids resulted in approximately 50% mortality (2000 ?mol/L) after a 24 h exposure. In conclusion, fatty acids showed the nematicidal effect differently, among which capric acid showed a strong nematicidal effect and might be a powerful active substance for integrated M. incognita management. Given the general nematicidal properties of FAs, farmers might utilize waste resources, such as oil seed cake, gutter oil, etc., containing various FAs or use pure FAs for effective M. incognita management. PMID:23121218

Zhang, Wei-pu; Ruan, Wei-bin; Deng, Yun-ying; Gao, Yu-bao

2012-11-21

104

Seleção de clones de batata-doce resistentes a Meloidogyne incognita raça 1 Selection of sweetpotato clones resistant to Meloidogyne incognita race 1  

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Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi selecionar clones de batata-doce (Ipomoea batatas resistentes à raça 1 de Meloidogyne incognita e avaliar a eficiência do método de seleção empregado, pela estimação dos coeficientes de variação genética e ambiental e das herdabilidades no sentido amplo. Foram utilizados 123 genótipos de batata-doce, entre os quais quatro cultivares comerciais - Brazlândia Rosada, Brazlândia Roxa, Brazlândia Branca e Palmas -, e 119 acessos previamente selecionados no programa de melhoramento vegetal da Universidade Federal de Lavras. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o de blocos aumentados, com três tratamentos comuns: as cultivares de batata-doce Brazlândia Branca e Palmas, e a cultivar de tomate Santa Clara, suscetível ao nematoide. A classificação dos níveis de resistência foi realizada de acordo com o fator de reprodução do nematoide e o índice de reprodução relativo à cultivar Santa Clara, de tomateiro. A relação entre os coeficientes de variação genética e ambiental e as herdabilidades no sentido amplo foram altas, tanto para o fator de reprodução quanto para o índice de reprodução dos nematoides, o que demonstra a eficiência do método empregado para a seleção de genótipos resistentes. Foram identificados 57 genótipos promissores de batata-doce, resistentes à raça 1 de M. incognita, e selecionados para continuar no programa de melhoramento.The objective of this work was to select sweetpotato (Ipomoea batatas resistant clones to Meloidogyne incognita race 1, and to assess the efficiency of the selection method deployed, through the estimation of genetic and environmental coefficients of variation, and broad-sense heritabilities. Genotypes assessed comprised 123 sweetpotato entries altogether, including four commercial cultivars - Brazlândia Rosada, Brazlândia Roxa, Brazlândia Branca, Palmas - and 119 clones previously selected by the Universidade Federal de Lavras sweetpotato breeding program. The experimental setup was a an augmented block design, using three common treatments: the sweetpotato cultivars Brazlândia branca and Palmas, and the nematode-susceptible tomato cultivar Santa Clara. Nematode resistance levels were defined both by the nematode reproduction factor and by the nematode reproduction index relative to tomato cv. Santa Clara. The ratio between genetic and environmental coefficients of variation and the broad-sense heritability estimates were high, for both nematodes reproduction factor and reproduction index, indicating that the selection method deployed was efficient for the selection of resistant genotypes. Fifty-seven sweetpotato clones were identified as resistant to M. incognita race 1, and selected to continue in the sweetpotato breeding program.

Aline Marchese

2010-09-01

105

Uso de agentes microbianos e químico para o controle de Meloidogyne incognita em soja / Use of microbial and chemical agents to control Meloidogyne incognita in soybean  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Nematoides de galhas constituem importante grupo de patógenos da cultura da soja e o manejo integrado é uma das principais medidas de controle que visam à redução de perdas econômicas. Neste trabalho foi avaliada a eficácia dos fungos Paecilomyces lilacinus (Thom.) Samsom e Pochonia chlamydosporia ( [...] Goddard) Zare & Gams (sinonímia Verticillium chlamydosporium), de um produto comercial à base de Bacillus sp. (Nemix) e do nematicida químico Aldicarb no controle de Meloidogyne incognita em soja, variedade M-SOY 6101. O experimento foi realizado em casa-de-vegetação no delineamento experimental de blocos casualizados com nove tratamentos (três produtos biológicos usados no tratamento de sementes com ou sem a aplicação em pós-emergência, Aldicarb aplicado apenas em pós-emergência e duas testemunhas) e quatro repetições. Aldicarb reduziu o número de ovos e de juvenis do nematoide. P. lilacinus foi o mais atuante dos agentes biológicos, favorecendo a manutenção da quantidade de matéria seca da raiz de soja e reduzindo o número de ovos. O produto Nemix e P. chlamydosporia somente tiveram ação efetiva na redução do número de ovos do nematoide. Com base nos resultados, foi possível concluir que o agente químico e os agentes biológicos avaliados neste trabalho tiveram moderada atividade no controle de M. incognita em soja. Abstract in english Root-knot nematodes are considered significant pathogens of soybean crops. The objective of this work was to evaluate the efficacy of two fungi (Paecilomyces lilacinus (Thom.) Samsom and Pochonia chlamydosporia (Goddard) Zare & Gams (syn. Verticillium chlamydosporium), a commercial product based on [...] Bacillus sp. and Aldicarb on the control of Meloidogyne incognita on soybean, cultivar M-SOY 6101. The experimental design was set as randomized blocks with four replications. Nine treatments were evaluated: three biological agents used for seed treatment with and without post-emergence application, Aldicarb on post-emergence only, and two controls. All treatments were inoculated with the nematode, except for a blank control where only water was applied. One control-only treated with the nematode was also included. Aldicarb could reduce the number of eggs and juveniles in the roots. P. lilacinus showed the best performance among the biological control agents, reducing the number of eggs and increasing dry root weight. Nemix, a Bacillus sp. based commercial product and P. chlamydosporia could only reduce significantly the number of eggs of the nematode. In this work, it was possible to conclude that the chemical and biological agents showed a moderate activity in the control of M. incognita in soybean.

Henrique Teixeira, Nunes; Antonio Carlos, Monteiro; Alan William Vilela, Pomela.

2010-09-01

106

Uso de agentes microbianos e químico para o controle de Meloidogyne incognita em soja = Use of microbial and chemical agents to control Meloidogyne incognita in soybean  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Nematoides de galhas constituem importante grupo de patógenos da cultura da soja e o manejo integrado é uma das principais medidas de controle que visam à redução de perdas econômicas. Neste trabalho foi avaliada a eficácia dos fungos Paecilomyces lilacinus (Thom. Samsom e Pochonia chlamydosporia (Goddard Zare & Gams (sinonímia Verticillium chlamydosporium, de um produto comercial à base de Bacillus sp. (Nemix e do nematicida químico Aldicarb no controle de Meloidogyne incognita em soja, variedade M-SOY 6101. O experimento foi realizado em casa-de-vegetação no delineamento experimental de blocos casualizados com nove tratamentos (três produtos biológicos usados no tratamento de sementes com ou sem a aplicação em pós-emergência, Aldicarb aplicado apenas em pós-emergência e duastestemunhas e quatro repetições. Aldicarb reduziu o número de ovos e de juvenis do nematoide. P. lilacinus foi o mais atuante dos agentes biológicos, favorecendo a manutenção da quantidade de matéria seca da raiz de soja e reduzindo o número de ovos. O produto Nemix e P. chlamydosporia somente tiveram ação efetiva na redução do número de ovos do nematoide. Com base nos resultados, foi possível concluir que o agente químico e os agentes biológicos avaliados neste trabalho tiveram moderada atividade no controle de M. incognita em soja.Root-knot nematodes are considered significant pathogens of soybean crops. The objective of this work was to evaluate the efficacy of two fungi (Paecilomyces lilacinus (Thom. Samsom and Pochonia chlamydosporia (Goddard Zare & Gams (syn. Verticillium chlamydosporium, a commercial product based on Bacillus sp. and Aldicarb on the control of Meloidogyne incognita on soybean, cultivar M-SOY 6101. The experimental design was set as randomized blocks with four replications. Nine treatments were evaluated: three biological agents used for seed treatment with and without post-emergence application, Aldicarb on post-emergence only, and two controls. All treatments were inoculated with the nematode, except for a blank control where only water was applied. One control-only treated with the nematode was also included. Aldicarb could reduce the number of eggs and juveniles in the roots. P. lilacinus showed the bestperformance among the biological control agents, reducing the number of eggs and increasing dry root weight. Nemix, a Bacillus sp. based commercial product and P. chlamydosporia could only reduce significantly the number of eggs of the nematode. In this work, it was possible to conclude that the chemical and biological agents showed a moderate activity in the control of M. incognita in soybean.

Henrique Teixeira Nunes

2010-07-01

107

Nematicidal activity of fervenulin isolated from a nematicidal actinomycete, Streptomyces sp. CMU-MH021, on Meloidogyne incognita  

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An isolate of the actinomycete, Streptomyces sp. CMU-MH021 produced secondary metabolites that inhibited egg hatch and increased juvenile mortality of the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita in vitro. 16S rDNA gene sequencing showed that the isolate sequence was 99% identical to Streptomyces roseoverticillatus. The culture filtrates form different culture media were tested for nematocidal activity. The maximal activity against M. incognita was obtained by using modified basal (MB) medium...

Ruanpanun, Pornthip; Laatsch, Hartmut; Tangchitsomkid, Nuchanart; Lumyong, Saisamorn

2010-01-01

108

Potential use of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) endophytic fungi as seed treatment agents against root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita *  

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Seed treatment with endophytic fungi has been regarded as an effective method for plant parasitic nematode control. Endophytic fungi from cucumber seedlings were isolated and screened for their potential to be used as seed treatment agents against Meloidogyne incognita. Among the 294 isolates screened, 23 significantly reduced galls formed by M. incognita in greenhouse test. The 10 most effective isolates were Fusarium (5), Trichoderma (1), Chaetomium (1), Acremonium (1), Paecilomyces (1), an...

Yan, Xiao-ning; Sikora, Richard A.; Zheng, Jing-wu

2011-01-01

109

COMPORTAMIENTO DE GENOTIPOS DE LA FAMILIA SOLANACEAE FRENTE A Meloidogyne incognita (KOFOID Y WHITE) CHITWOOD1 / BEHAVIOUR OF GENOTYPES FROM SOLANACEA FAMILY IN FRONT TO Meloidogyne incognita (KOFOID Y WHITE) CHITWOOD1  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Los nematodos formadores de agallas (Meloidogyne spp.) constituyen factores limitantes de los rendimientos en la producción de hortalizas en campo abierto y casas de cultivo, donde el tomate (Solanum lycopersicum L. (ex Lycopersicon esculentum Mill)) representa un buen hospedante de estos nematodos. [...] Para manejar las poblaciones de estos organismos, entre otras tácticas se hace uso de genotipos resistentes o se acude al injerto herbáceo para obtener resultados productivos favorables, resultando necesaria la evaluación de los genotipos a emplear frente a poblaciones nativas, pues se sabe que la resistencia puede ser quebrada por factores tales como la virulencia de la población de Meloidogyne. El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar el comportamiento de líneas, híbridos y variedades de tomate ante una población nativa de M. incognita raza 2, como elemento básico del programa de injerto herbáceo que se desarrolla en Cuba para contar con alternativas al bromuro de metilo. Se inocularon 10 plantas por genotipo, con 1,5 huevos/juveniles.g de suelo-1 y se evaluaron a los 60 días, determinándose el Índice de Agallamiento (IA), Factor de Reproducción (FR) e índice de reproducción (IR). Los cultivares evaluados fueron Lycopersicon peruvianum acc. B6-140; Physalis ixocarpa acc. B6236; Lycopersicon pimpinelifolium acc. Mex 121-A; las variedades/híbridos de S. lycopersicum var. cerasiforme, Vyta, Mariela, Amalia, HC 3880 y HA 3019; el híbrido inter-específico Lycopersicon hirsutum x L. esculentum, Solanum torvum y los híbridos de tomate T-1x14, T-1x15, T-2x16 y LTM. Resultó inmune L. hirsutum x L. esculentum y muy resistentes S. torvum y L. peruvianum. Por su parte, P. ixocarpa se comportó como moderadamente resistente y el resto de los materiales evaluados fueron susceptibles a la población cubana de M. incognita raza 2. Abstract in english The root knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp.) are limiting factors for yields of vegetables in open areas and crops under shelter conditions, where tomato Solanum lycopersicon L. (ex Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) represents a very good host for these nematodes. For population management of this pest, [...] resistance and graffing are used, among other tactics, to obtain good productive results, but it is necessary to evaluated the resistance of genotypes to native populations, since as it is know resistancemay be broken by factors like virulence of Meloidogyne population. The objective of this study was to determine the behaviour of tomato lines hybrids and varieties to native population of M. incognita race 2, as a basic element for the graffting program being develop in Cuba as an alternative to methyl bromide. Ten plants per genotype were inoculated with 1,5 eggs/juvenils.g of soil-1 and evaluated after 60 days to determined the Root Galling Index (IA), the Reproduction Factor (FR) and the Reproduction Index (IR). The cultivars evaluated were Lycopersicon peruvianum acc. B6-140; Physalis ixocarpa acc. B6236; Lycopersicon pimpinellifolium acc. Mex 121-A; the following varieties/hybrids of Solanum lycopersicum var. ceraciforme, Vyta, Mariela, Amalia, HC 3880 and HA 3019; the interespecific hybrid Lycopersicon hirsutum x L. esculentum, Solanum torvum and the tomato hybrids T-1x14, T-1x15, T-2x16 and LTM. The interespecific hybrid L. hirsutum x L. esculentum was immune, whereas S. torvum and L. peruvianum were very resistant. In other hand, P. ixocarpa behaved as moderately resistant and the rest of genotypes were susceptibles to the Cuban population of M. incognita race 2.

Mayra G, Rodríguez; Lucila, Gómez; Farah M, González; Yudines, Carrillo; Maite, Piñón; Olimpia, Gómez; A.S, Casanova; Martha, Álvarez; Belkis, Peteira.

2009-12-01

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Response of Sesamum indicum and S. radiatum Accessions to Root-knot Nematode, Meloidogyne incognita.  

Science.gov (United States)

Twenty Sesame indicum and four S. radiatum accessions in the USDA Plant Introduction collection were evaluated for reaction to the root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita race 3, at two initial egg densities under greenhouse conditions. All sesame accessions produced considerably fewer root galls than the tomato cultivar Rutgers. Gall numbers varied slightly among accessions at the higher infestation density with even less variation at the lower density. Egg mass indices indicated little reproduction. Seventy percent of the accessions weighed less at the higher egg density than at the lower egg density. All the sesame accessions tested are resistant to M. incognita and have the potential for use as rotational crops for suppressing this nematode. PMID:19274255

Walker, J T; Melin, J B; Davis, J

1998-12-01

111

Relationship of Aerial Broad Band Reflectance to Meloidogyne incognita Density in Cotton  

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Aerial images were obtained on 22 July 1999 and 4 August 2000 from five cotton sites infested with Meloidogyne incognita. Images contained three broad bands representing the green (500-600 nm), red (600-700 nm), and near-infrared (700-900 nm) spectrum. Soil samples were collected and assayed for nematodes in the fall at these sites. Sampling locations were identified from images, by locating the coordinates of a wide range of light intensity (measured as a digital number) for each single band...

Wheeler, T. A.; Kaufman, H. W.

2003-01-01

112

Effect of cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus on penetration and reproduction of meloidogyne incognita in cowpea  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available greenhouse studies were conducted to investigate the effects of cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus on penetration and reproduction of Meloidogyne incognita in cowpea and the influence of these pathogens on the yield of cowpea. The interaction of both pathogens resulted in higher population density of the nematode at harvest and correspondingly reduced grain yield in comparison to inoculation of either pathogen alone or un-inoculated control. An almost equal number of nematode juveniles penetrated roots of seedlings of nematode - susceptible Ife Brown and TVU 2657 and nematode - resistant IT81D - 975 cultivars of cowpea, but the nematode did not develop beyond second stage juvenile in the resistant cultivar. Concomitant inoculation of the nematode and the virus resulted in a shortened life cycle of the nematode in comparison to nematode alone inoculation. Interaction of both the nematode and the virus had a limited effect on the nematode resistant cultivar of cowpea.

Adekunle O.K.

2008-01-01

113

Resistance induction for Meloidogyne incognita in sugarcane through mineral organic fertilizers  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Este estudo investigou, em condições de casa de vegetação, os efeitos de três complexos organo-minerais (Coda Radimax, Coda Humus-PK e Coda Vit) na indução de resistência a Meloidogyne incognita em três variedades: RB92579, RB863129, RB867515 de cana-de-açúcar (Saccharum sp.), considerando-se a repr [...] odução do nematóide, desenvolvimento das plantas e anatomia das raízes, com ênfase a diferenças na deposição de lignina e proporções do córtex e cilindro vascular. As avaliações foram efetuadas 90 dias após a inoculação com 5000 ovos de M. incognita por planta. Em relação à testemunha, Coda Radimax reduziu significativamente o número final de ovos por sistema radicular em todas as variedades. Coda Humus-PK e Coda Vit se mostraram eficientes em diminuir a densidade de ovos em RB867515, mas não em RB863129. Todos os compostos testados não afetaram o diâmetro do colmo, peso da biomassa seca da parte aérea e número de perfilho. Coda Radimax aumentou significativamente o número de colmos em RB92579 e a biomassa fresca da parte aérea em RB863129 e RB92579. Coda Humus-PK aumentou significativamente a altura da planta em RB92579 e a biomassa fresca da parte aérea em RB92579 e RB867515, enquanto Coda Vit afetou, significativamente, a biomassa fresca da parte aérea e raízes de RB863129. Fundamentando-se nas sessões transversais obtidas das raízes de cada variedade de cana observada sob microscópio ótico, não ocorreram modificações anatômicas significativas nos tecidos inoculados com M. incognita em relação aos tecidos sadios. Abstract in english The effects of Coda Radimax (CR), Coda Humus-PK (CH) and Coda Vit (CV) on the induction of resistance for Meloidogyne incognita in sugarcane (Saccharum sp.) varieties (RB92579, RB863129, RB867515) through nematode reproduction, plant development and root anatomy analysis, emphasizing the differences [...] of the lignin deposition, and cortex-vascular cylinder proportions were investigated. In 90 days after inoculation with eggs of M. incognita, CR reduced the number of eggs per root system in all the sugarcane varieties; CH and CV reduced eggs density in RB867515; CR increased stalk number in RB92579 and fresh weight of shoots in RB863129 and RB92579; CH increased plant height in RB92579 and fresh weight of shoots in RB92579 and RB867515, CV affected fresh weigh of shoots and roots of RB863129. All the tested compounds did not affect stalk diameter, number and dry weight of shoots. Cross-sections of roots showed no anatomical changes in the M. incognita inoculated tissues.

Andréa, Chaves; Elvira Maria Régis, Pedrosa; Rejane Magalhães de Mendonça, Pimentel; Rildo Sartori Barbosa, Coelho; Lílian Margarete Paes, Guimarães; Sandra Roberta Vaz Lira, Maranhão.

1393-14-01

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Resistance induction for Meloidogyne incognita in sugarcane through mineral organic fertilizers  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The effects of Coda Radimax (CR, Coda Humus-PK (CH and Coda Vit (CV on the induction of resistance for Meloidogyne incognita in sugarcane (Saccharum sp. varieties (RB92579, RB863129, RB867515 through nematode reproduction, plant development and root anatomy analysis, emphasizing the differences of the lignin deposition, and cortex-vascular cylinder proportions were investigated. In 90 days after inoculation with eggs of M. incognita, CR reduced the number of eggs per root system in all the sugarcane varieties; CH and CV reduced eggs density in RB867515; CR increased stalk number in RB92579 and fresh weight of shoots in RB863129 and RB92579; CH increased plant height in RB92579 and fresh weight of shoots in RB92579 and RB867515, CV affected fresh weigh of shoots and roots of RB863129. All the tested compounds did not affect stalk diameter, number and dry weight of shoots. Cross-sections of roots showed no anatomical changes in the M. incognita inoculated tissues.Este estudo investigou, em condições de casa de vegetação, os efeitos de três complexos organo-minerais (Coda Radimax, Coda Humus-PK e Coda Vit na indução de resistência a Meloidogyne incognita em três variedades: RB92579, RB863129, RB867515 de cana-de-açúcar (Saccharum sp., considerando-se a reprodução do nematóide, desenvolvimento das plantas e anatomia das raízes, com ênfase a diferenças na deposição de lignina e proporções do córtex e cilindro vascular. As avaliações foram efetuadas 90 dias após a inoculação com 5000 ovos de M. incognita por planta. Em relação à testemunha, Coda Radimax reduziu significativamente o número final de ovos por sistema radicular em todas as variedades. Coda Humus-PK e Coda Vit se mostraram eficientes em diminuir a densidade de ovos em RB867515, mas não em RB863129. Todos os compostos testados não afetaram o diâmetro do colmo, peso da biomassa seca da parte aérea e número de perfilho. Coda Radimax aumentou significativamente o número de colmos em RB92579 e a biomassa fresca da parte aérea em RB863129 e RB92579. Coda Humus-PK aumentou significativamente a altura da planta em RB92579 e a biomassa fresca da parte aérea em RB92579 e RB867515, enquanto Coda Vit afetou, significativamente, a biomassa fresca da parte aérea e raízes de RB863129. Fundamentando-se nas sessões transversais obtidas das raízes de cada variedade de cana observada sob microscópio ótico, não ocorreram modificações anatômicas significativas nos tecidos inoculados com M. incognita em relação aos tecidos sadios.

Andréa Chaves

2009-12-01

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Efecto del Vermicompost y Quitina sobre el control de meloidogyne incognita en tomate a nivel de invernadero / Effect of vermicompost and chitin on the control of Meloidogyne incognita in greenhouse tomato  

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Full Text Available SciELO Costa Rica | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Meloidogyne incognita es un nematodo endoparásito sedentario, de penetración total y formador de nódulos radicales; tiene una amplia distribución geográfica y causa pérdidas agrícolas importantes. Recientemente se han utilizado abonos orgánicos y compuestos como la quitina en la supresión de plagas [...] y enfermedades de plantas. El objetivo de esta investigación fue evaluar el efecto de la aplicación de vermicompost de estiércol bovino y su enriquecimiento con quitina, sobre la infección de M. incognita en plantas de tomate var. Hayslip bajo condiciones de invernadero. Para esto se inocularon las plantas con 5000 unidades de inóculo (huevos+juveniles en segundo estado) por maceta y se compararon con controles que fueron sembrados en suelo sin enmienda orgánica o quitina. La evaluación se llevó a cabo 60 días después y se midió el peso fresco aéreo y radical, peso seco aéreo, población total de nematodos en raíz y suelo, índice de nódulos radicales (INR), índice de masas de huevos (IMH), el factor de reproducción del nematodo (FR) y recuento de grupos funcionales (hongos, bacterias y actinomicetes). La adición al suelo de vermicompost provocó un incremento en las variables peso fresco y seco foliar y peso fresco radical: a mayor porcentaje de vermicompost, mayor incremento; así mismo, la aplicación del vermicompost redujo la cantidad del nematodo en raíz y en suelo. La aplicación de quitina acentuó estos resultados, obteniéndose el menor factor de reproducción de M. Incognita, con un valor de 3,76 para la dosis de 50% vermicompost+quitina, mientras que en el testigo este factor fue de 93,20. La aplicación de quitina como enmienda única solo afectó la población de hongos en el suelo, mientras que la de actinomicetes aumentó en los tratamientos enmendados Abstract in english Meloidogyne incognita is a sedentary endoparasitic nematode, with total penetration and gall-forming; it has a wide geographical distribution and causes significant agricultural losses. Recently, organic fertilizers and compounds such as chitin have been used in the suppression of plant pests and di [...] seases. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of applying cattle manure vermicompost, and its enrichment with chitin, on the infection of M. incognita in tomato plants var. Hayslip under greenhouse conditions. For this purpose, plants were inoculated with 5000 units of eggs+second stage juveniles per pot and were compared with controls grown in soil without organic amendment or chitin. The evaluation was carried out 60 days afterwards: the shoot and root fresh weight, shoot dry weight, total population in root and soil nematodes, root knot index (INR), rate of egg masses (IMH), the nematode reproduction factor (FR) and functional-groups numbers (fungi, bacteria and actinomycetes) were measured. The addition of vermicompost to soil caused an increase in the variables of shoot fresh and dry weight and fresh root weight: the higher the percentage of vermicompost, the higher the increase; likewise, the application of vermicompost reduced the number of nematodes both in root and soil. The application of chitin accentuated these results by bringing about the lowest reproduction factor of M. incognita, with a value of 3.76 for the dose of vermicompost+50% chitin, whereas in the control this factor had a value of 93.20. The application of chitin as sole amendment affected only the soil fungi population, while the actinomycetes population nincreased in the amended treatments

Leida, Castro; Lorena, Flores; Lidieth, Uribe.

2011-12-01

116

Efectividad de hongos nematófagos sobre Meloidogyne incognita (Kofoid y White) Chitwood en tomate en condiciones de campo, Loja, Ecuador / Effectiveness of nematophagous fungi on Meloidogyne incognita (Kofoid and White) Chitwood on tomato in field conditions in Loja, Ecuador  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El objetivo del presente trabajo fue determinar el efecto de varios aislamientos autóctonos de los hongos Pochonia chlamydosporia (Goddard) Zare y Gams (Hypocreales: Clavicipitaceae) y Purpureocillium lilacinum Luansa-ard et al. (Hypocreales: Ophiocordycipitaceae) en el control de Meloidogyne incogn [...] ita (Kofoid y White) Chitwood, en tomate, en condiciones de campo. Se utilizaron seis aislamientos fúngicos y un control sin aplicación, distribuidos según un diseño de bloques al azar con cuatro réplicas. Las aplicaciones de los hongos lograron reducir el índice de agallamiento por M. incognita, así como las poblaciones de juveniles infestivos (J2) en el suelo y en las raíces del cultivo, a la vez que se observó un estímulo en las variables agronómicas número de frutos, masa de los frutos y rendimiento agrícola. Estos resultados constituyen una contribución a la solución del problema de los nematodos formadores de agalla, en el cultivo del tomate en las condiciones de Loja, Ecuador, con recursos locales, no agresivos al medio ambiente. Abstract in english This work was aimed to evaluate the effect of isolates of the fungi Pochonia chlamydosporia (Goddard) Zare and Gams (Hypocreales: Clavicipitaceae) and Purpureocillium lilacinum Luansa-ard et al. (Hypocreales: Ophiocordycipitaceae) in the Meloidogyne incognita (Kofoid and White) Chitwood control in t [...] omato in field conditions. The assay comprised six fungic isolates and a control without fungi, in a ramdomized block design. In treated plants the gall index and the nematode population in roots and in the soil were reduced in comparison with the untreated plots. The number of fruits, the weight of fruits and yields were enhanced in the plots treated with the fungi. These results are a contribution to the solution of the root-knot nematode problem in the conditions of Loja, Ecuador, with local resources and no harmful to the environment.

Tulio F., Solano Castillo; Marcia L., Castillo Ávila; José V., Medina Medina; Elio M., del Pozo Núñez.

2014-12-01

117

Dose-response effects of clove oil from Syzygium aromaticum on the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita  

Science.gov (United States)

BACKGROUND: Clove oil, derived from the plant Syzygium aromaticum (L.) Merr. & Perry, is active against various organisms, and was prepared in a soy lecithin/detergent formulation to determine concentrations active against the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita (Kofoid and White) Chitwood. RE...

118

Efecto de extractos acuosos de dos meliaceas sobre Meloidogyne incognita (Nematoda, meloidogynidae)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Se evaluó la bioactividad de seis extractos acuosos al 10% y 30% (P/V), conteniendo terpenoides de Melia azedarach y Trichilia glauca (Meliaceae) en su constitución química, sobre la plaga Meloidogyne incognita (Nematoda, Meloidogynidae). Los resultados muestran que los productos naturales ensayados [...] poseen una buena actividad nematicida, ya que ejercieron efectos letales moderados (mortalidad: 23-46.2%, dependiendo del tratamiento). Estos datos indican que las interesantes propiedades de ambas Meliaceae podrían utilizarse en el manejo de este nematode en huertas, en reemplazo de los nematicidas sintéticos. Abstract in english The bioactivity of six aqueous extracts 10% and 30% (P/V), containing terpenoids from Melia azedarachand Trichilia glauca (Meliaceae) in their chemical constitution, was evaluated against the pest Meloidogyne incognita (Nematoda, Meloidogynidae). Results show that the natural products assayed had a [...] good nematicidal activity, because they had moderate lethal effects (mortality: 23-46.2%, depending upon treatment). These data show that the interesting properties of both Meliaceae could be used in orchard nematode management, in replacement of synthetic nematicides.

Graciela, Mareggiani; Norma, Zamuner; Gisella, Angarola.

2010-04-01

119

Microorganismos Benéficos Asociados a Meloidogyne incognita (Kofoid y White) Chitwood en Guayabo (Psidium guajava L.) de Calvillo, Aguascalientes, México / Beneficent Microorganisms Associated to Meloidogyne incognita (Kofoid & White) Chitwood in Guava (Psidium guajava L.) of Calvillo, Aguascalientes, México  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Se identificó a Meloidogyne incognita como la especie del nematodo agallador que parásita al cultivo del guayabo, en la región de Calvillo (Aguascalientes, México). También se aisló hongos y bacterias benéficos asociados a suelo y raíces colectadas en las localidades de Cerro Blanco, Mesa Grande, La [...] Labor y Malpaso. Veinte muestras distintas de Meloidogyne sp., fueron identificadas tomando en cuenta las características de patrones perineales de las hembras adultas así como por la observación de la región anterior de los machos. La especie Meloidogyne incognita fue identificada en todas las muestras. Los microorganismos benéficos aislados y asociados a la rizósfera del guayabo con uso potencial en control biológico, pertenecen a las especies de Bacillus cereus, B. subtilis B. megaterium y Paecilomyces farinosus. Además los nematodos edáficos Rhabditis y Mononchus fueron identificados en las muestras. Abstract in english The root-knot nematode species Meloidogyne incognita was identified as the one species that parasites guava orchards in the Calvillo region (Aguascalientes, Mexico). Beneficent fungi and bacteria were isolated as well, associated to soil and roots collected from the Cerro Blanco, Mesa Grande, La Lab [...] or and Malpaso locations. Twenty different Meloidogyne sp., samples were identified taking adult female perinea pattern characteristics into account, as well as the male anterior region observation. The Meloidogyne incognita species was identified in all the samples. The isolated beneficent microorganisms and associated to guava rhizosphere with a potential use in biological control, belong to the Bacillus cereus, B. subtilis B. megaterium and Paecilomyces farinosus species. Furthermore, the Rhabditis and Mononchus soil nematodes were identified in the samples.

Gabriel, Gallegos-Morales; Melchor, Cepeda-Siller; Francisco Daniel, Hernández-Castillo; Ana María, Acosta-Zamarripa; Rodolfo, Velásquez-Valle; Ernesto, González-Gaona; Juan Manuel, Sánchez-Yánez.

120

Chemical composition and nematicidal activity of essential oil of Agastache rugosa against Meloidogyne incognita.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this research was to determine the chemical composition and nematicidal activity of essential oil of Agastache rugosa flowering aerial parts against the root knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita, and to isolate and identify any nematicidal constituents from the essential oil. The essential oil of A. rugosa aerial parts was obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by GC-FID and GC-MS. A total of 37 components of the essential oil were identified, with the principal compounds being methyleugenol (50.51%), estragole (8.55%), and eugenol (7.54%), followed by thymol (3.62%), pulegone (2.56%), limonene (2.49%) and caryophyllene (2.38%). Based on bioactivity-guided fractionation, the three active constituents were isolated from the essential oil and identified as methyleugenol, estragole and eugenol. The essential oil of A. rugosa exhibited strong nematicidal activity against M. incognita, with a LC50 value of 47.3 ?g/mL. The components eugenol (LC50 = 66.6 ?g/mL) and methyleugenol (LC50 = 89.4 ?g/mL) exhibited stronger nematicidal activity against M. incognita (LC50 = 185.9 ?g/mL). The results indicate that the essential oil of A. rugosa aerial parts and its constituent compounds have potential for development into natural nematicides for control of the root knot nematode. PMID:23571530

Li, He Qin; Liu, Qi Zhi; Liu, Zhi Long; Du, Shu Shan; Deng, Zhi Wei

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
121

Nematicidal activity of 2-thiophenecarboxaldehyde and methylisothiocyanate from caper (Capparis spinosa) against Meloidogyne incognita.  

Science.gov (United States)

New pesticides based on plant extracts have recently gained interest in the development of nontoxic crop protection chemicals. Numerous research studies are focused on the isolation and identification of new active compounds derived from plants. In this manuscript we report about the use of the Mediterranean species Capparis spinosa as a potent natural nematicidal agent against the root knot nematodes Meloidogyne incognita. Leaves, stems, and caper buds of Capparis spinosa were used to obtain their methanol extracts (LME, SME, BME) that were successively in vitro tested against second stage nematode juveniles (J2). In terms of paralysis induction, the methanol extract of the stem part (SME) was found more effective against M. incognita and then the caper methanol buds and leaves extracts. The chemical composition analysis of the extracts carried out by GC/MS and LC/MS techniques showed that methylisothiocyanate was the main compound of SME. The EC50 for SME after 3 days of immersion was 215 ± 36 mg/L. The constituent components of SME such as 2-thiophenecarboxaldehyde and methylisothiocyanate were successively in vitro tested for their nematicidal activity against J2. Both compounds induced paralysis on root knot nematodes ranking first (EC50 = 7.9 ± 1.6, and 14.1 ± 1.9 mg/L respectively) for M. incognita. Moreover, 2-thiophenecarboxaldehyde showed a strong fumigant activity. PMID:22769561

Caboni, Pierluigi; Sarais, Giorgia; Aissani, Nadhem; Tocco, Graziella; Sasanelli, Nicola; Liori, Barbara; Carta, Annarosa; Angioni, Alberto

2012-08-01

122

Chemical Composition and Nematicidal Activity of Essential Oil of Agastache rugosa against Meloidogyne incognita  

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Full Text Available The aim of this research was to determine the chemical composition and nematicidal activity of essential oil of Agastache rugosa flowering aerial parts against the root knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita, and to isolate and identify any nematicidal constituents from the essential oil. The essential oil of A. rugosa aerial parts was obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by GC-FID and GC-MS. A total of 37 components of the essential oil were identified, with the principal compounds being methyleugenol (50.51%, estragole (8.55%, and eugenol (7.54%, followed by thymol (3.62%, pulegone (2.56%, limonene (2.49% and caryophyllene (2.38%. Based on bioactivity-guided fractionation, the three active constituents were isolated from the essential oil and identified as methyleugenol, estragole and eugenol. The essential oil of A. rugosa exhibited strong nematicidal activity against M. incognita, with a LC50 value of 47.3 ?g/mL. The components eugenol (LC50 = 66.6 ?g/mL and methyleugenol (LC50 = 89.4 ?g/mL exhibited stronger nematicidal activity against M. incognita (LC50 = 185.9 ?g/mL. The results indicate that the essential oil of A. rugosa aerial parts and its constituent compounds have potential for development into natural nematicides for control of the root knot nematode.

Zhi Wei Deng

2013-04-01

123

Nematicidal activity of chaetoglobosin A poduced by Chaetomium globosum NK102 against Meloidogyne incognita.  

Science.gov (United States)

The nematicidal activity of Chaetomium globosum NK102, culture filtrates, and chaetoglobosin A (ChA) purified by HPLC was evaluated on Meloidogyne incognita . The results showed that C. globosum NK102 significantly repelled second-stage juveniles (J2s). Both filtrates and ChA demonstrated strong adverse effects on J2 mortality with 99.8% at 300 ?g ChA/mL (LC(50) = 77.0 ?g/mL) at 72 h. ChA and filtrates did not affect egg hatch until 72 h of exposure. All filtrate treatments inhibited the J2 penetration even in 12.5% dilution treatment. Similarly, ChA (300 and 30 ?g/mL) showed a significant inhibitory effect on J2 penetration. The number of eggs per plant was significantly reduced in the treatment of 30 mg ChA/kg soil by 63% relative to control plants, indicating the apparent negative effect on reproduction of M. incognita. The study demonstrated the nematicidal activity of ChA and suggested that it could be a potential biocontrol agent for integrated management of M. incognita. PMID:23214998

Hu, Yang; Zhang, Weipu; Zhang, Ping; Ruan, Weibin; Zhu, Xudong

2013-01-01

124

Plantago lanceolata and Plantago rugelii Extracts are Toxic to Meloidogyne incognita but not to Certain Microbes.  

Science.gov (United States)

Extracts from the plants Plantago lanceolata and P. rugelii were evaluated for toxicity to the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita, the beneficial microbes Enterobacter cloacae, Pseudomonas fluorescens and Trichoderma virens, and the plant-pathogenic fungi Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. gladioli, Phytophthora capsici, Pythium ultimum, and Rhizoctonia solani. Wild plants were collected, roots were excised from shoots, and the plant parts were dried and ground to a powder. One set of extracts (10% w/v) was prepared in water and another in methanol. Treatments included extract concentrations of 25%, 50%, 75% and 100%, and water controls. Meloidogyne incognita egg hatch was recorded after 7-day exposure to the treatments, and second-stage juvenile (J2) activity after 48 hours. All extracts were toxic to eggs and J2, with P. lanceolata shoot extract tending to have the most activity against M. incognita. Numbers of active J2 remained the same or decreased in a 24-hour water rinse following the 48-hour extract treatment, indicating that the extracts were lethal. When data from water- and methanol-extracted roots and shoots of both plant species were combined for analysis, J2 tended to be more sensitive than eggs to the toxic compounds at lower concentrations, while the higher concentrations (75% and 100%) were equally toxic to both life stages. The effective concentrations causing 50% reduction (EC(50)) in egg hatch and in J2 viability were 44.4% and 43.7%, respectively. No extract was toxic to any of the bacteria or fungi in our assays. PMID:19259537

Meyer, Susan L F; Zasada, Inga A; Roberts, Daniel P; Vinyard, Bryan T; Lakshman, Dilip K; Lee, Jae-Kook; Chitwood, David J; Carta, Lynn K

2006-09-01

125

BEHAVIOR OF GUAVA MATERIALS (Psidiumguajava LINNEO) ON THE THE ROOT KNOT NEMATODE [Meloidogyne incognita (KOFOID & WHITE) CHITWOOD AND Meloidogyne javanica (TREUB) CHITWOOD] PARASITISM / COMPORTAMIENTO DE MATERIALES DE GUAYABO (Psidium guajava LINNEO) AL PARASITISMO DEL NEMATODO FORMADOR DE AGALLAS [Meloidogyne incognita (KOFOID & WHITE) CHITWOOD Y Meloidogyne javanica (TREUB) CHITWOOD  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Guava roots are parasitized by the root knot nematode (Meloidogyne spp.), which causes production losses between 30 and 60%. Due to this, the main goal of this research was to evaluate the reaction of four varieties of guava under nursery conditions to the attack of Meloidogyne incognita and M javanica complex. In the Jaibaná Frutales nursery, in the municipality of Pereira (Risaralda), seedlings of four varieties of guava: Guava pear and Common guava (Psidiumguajava), Ca...

ALEJANDRA DUQUE ARISTIZÁBAL; ÓSCAR ADRIÁN GUZMÁN PIEDRAHÍTA

2013-01-01

126

Host suitability of Ixora spp. for the Root-knot Nematodes Meloidogyne incognita Race 1 and M. javanica.  

Science.gov (United States)

Eight commonly cultivated Ixora species or cultivars were tested for their suitability as hosts and their level of tolerance to Meloidogyne incognita race 1 and M. javanica in a greenhouse study. Twenty weeks postinoculation with 5,000 eggs per pot, M. incognita race 1 and M. javanica produced galls and formed egg masses on roots of all eight Ixora species or cultivars tested. However, only M. javanica-infected 'Petite Yellow' and 'Maui' had decreases (P root wet weights, suggesting that the other cultivars were more tolerant to these root-knot nematode species. Differential host suitability to each Meloidogyne species was based on the relative number of galls, galls per gram root weight, egg masses, and second-stage juveniles produced per plant. 'Bonnie Lynn,' 'Maui,' and 'Petite Red' were good to excellent hosts for both Meloidogyne spp. Ixora coccinea was a good host for M. incognita race 1 but less suitable for M. javanica. 'Singapore' and 'Petite Yellow' were poor hosts for M. incognita race 1 but excellent hosts for M. javanica. 'Nora Grant' and I. casei 'Super King' were poor hosts for both species of root-knot nematodes. PMID:19283052

Giblin-Davis, R M; Meerow, A W; Bilz, F G

1992-12-01

127

RNAi of MiASB caused high mortality of Meloidogyne incognita juveniles and inhibited the nematode disease  

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The southern root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita, is one of the most prevalent and damaging plant-parasitic nematodes in the world and causes serious damages to agricultural production. We cloned a mitochondrial ATP synthase b subunit gene fragment of M. incognita

Yonghong Huang; Mei Mei; Baoming Shen; Zhenchuan Mao; Bingyan Xie

2013-01-01

128

Geographical Distributions of Rotylenchulus reniformis, Meloidogyne incognita, and Tylenchulus semipenetrans in the Lower Rio Grande Valley as Related to Soil Texture and Land Use  

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A survey was conducted over a 22-year period to evaluate the influence of soil texture and land use on the geographical distributions of Rotylenchulus reniformis, Meloidogyne incognita, and Tylenchulus semipenetrans in the lower Rio Grande valley. The distributions of R. reniformis and M. incognita were related to soil texture, whereas T. semipenetrans occurred wherever host plants were present regardless of soil texture. The incidence of M. incognita was greatest in elevated sandy loams and ...

Robinson, A. F.; Heald, C. M.; Flanagan, S. L.; Thames, W. H.; Amador, J.

1987-01-01

129

Effects of insect cadavers infected by Heterorhabditis bacteriophora and Steinernema diaprepesi on Meloidogyne incognita parasitism in pepper and summer squash plants / Efecto de insectos cadáveres infectados por Heterorhabditis bacteriophora y Steinernema diaprepesi sobre el parasitismo de Meloidogyne incognita en plantas de pimiento y zapallito redondo de tronco  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in spanish E.E. Del Valle, P. Lax, J. Rondán Dueñas y M.E. Doucet. 2013. Efecto de insectos cadáveres infectados por Heterorhabditis bacteriophora y Steinernema diaprepesi sobre el parasitismo de Meloidogyne incognita en plantas de pimiento y zapallito redondo de tronco. Cien. Inv. Agr. 40(1):109-118. El efect [...] o de cadáveres de insectos infectados con tres aislados de Heterorhabditis bacteriophora y un aislado de Steinernema diaprepesi sobre una población de Meloidogyne incognita en plantas de pimiento (Capsicum annuum) y zapallito redondo de tronco (Cucurbita maxima) fue evaluado en experiencias de invernadero conducidas en Santa Fe (Argentina). Los cadáveres de insectos necesarios para la experiencia se obtuvieron infectando larvas de último estadio de Galleria mellonella y Tenebrio monitor con nematodos entomopatógenos. Dos cadáveres de seis días de infección se colocaron debajo de la superficie del suelo de macetas que fueron inoculadas con 100 juveniles de segundo estadio de M. incognita. A los sesenta días se registraron los siguientes parámetros en cada planta: número de hojas, peso seco de la parte aérea, número de agallas, masas de huevos y huevos, y número de agallas, masas de huevos y huevos g-1 de materia fresca radical. En pimiento, la única variable afectada por los cadáveres en relación al testigo fue el número de huevos de M. incognita en el tratamiento de cadáveres de T. molitor infectados con H. bacteriophora aislado Rama Caída. En zapallito redondo de tronco, varios tratamientos provocaron una disminución en el número de agallas y masas de huevos. Sólo la aplicación de cadáveres de G. mellonella infectados con H. bacteriophora aislado Rama Caída demostró ser eficiente en reducir el número de huevos de M. incognita. Nuestros resultados indicaron que la aplicación de cadáveres de insectos infectados con los nematodos entomopatógenos estudiados podría reducir los daños causados por M. incognita en plantas de pimiento y zapallito redondo de tronco. Abstract in english E. E. Del Valle, P. Lax, J. Rondán Dueñas, and M. E. Doucet. 2013. Effects of insect cadavers infected by Heterorhabditis bacteriophora and Steinernema diaprepesi on Meloidogyne incognita parasitism in pepper and summer squash plants. Cien. Inv. Agr. 40(1):109-118. The effects of insect cadavers inf [...] ected with three isolates of Heterorhabditis bacteriophora and one isolate of Steinernema diaprepesi on a population of Meloidogyne incognita in pepper (Capsicum annuum) and summer squash (Cucurbita maxima) were evaluated in greenhouse experiments carried out in Santa Fe (Argentina). Insect cadavers were obtained for the experiments from last instar larvae of Galleria mellonella and Tenebrio molitor that had been infected with entomopathogenic nematodes. Two six-day-old insect cadavers per pot were placed below the soil surface, and the soil was inoculated with 100 second-stage juveniles ofM incognita. Sixty days after inoculation, the following parameters were recorded for each plant: number of leaves; dry weight of aerial parts; numbers of galls, egg masses and eggs; and numbers of galls, egg masses and eggs g-1 of root fresh matter. In pepper, the only variable affected by the infected cadavers with respect to control was the number of eggs in the treatment involving T. molitor cadavers infected with the H. bacteriophora isolate Rama Caída. In summer squash, several treatments using infected cadavers resulted in a decrease in the numbers of galls and egg masses. Only the treatment involving G. mellonella cadavers infected with the H. bacteriophora isolate Rama Caída proved to be efficient in reducing the number of M. incognita eggs. Our results indicated that the application of insect cadavers infected with the entomopathogenic nematodes studied might reduce M. incognita damage in pepper and summer squash plants.

Eleodoro E, Del Valle; Paola, Lax; Juan, Rondán Dueñas; Marcelo E, Doucet.

2013-04-01

130

Registro da ocorrência de Meloidogyne incognita no porta-enxerto 'IAC 766-Campinas' no estado de Pernambuco e reação de porta-enxertos e de cultivares copa de videira a Meloidogyne spp. / Meloidogyne incognita report on 'IAC 766-Campinas' rootstock in the state of Pernambuco and reaction of grape rootstocks and cultivars to Meloidogyne spp.  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Relata-se a ocorrência de Meloidogyne incognita (Est. I2) em pomar de videira na cidade de Petrolina, Pernambuco. Plantas da cultivar Festival enxertadas sobre 'IAC 766-Campinas', atacadas por Meloidogyne incognita, apresentavam sintomas de menor vigor, folhas amarelecidas e folhagem mais esparsa, e [...] raízes com numerosas galhas em meio ao cultivo de feijão-de-porco (Canavalia ensiformis), também atacado pelo nematoide. Com o objetivo de avaliar a resistência de quatro porta-enxertos tropicais, oito de clima temperado, e as cultivares Niágara Rosada e Chardonnay quanto à reação a M. incognita e M. arenaria, em casa de vegetação, realizou-se este trabalho. Mudas das videiras, mantidas em vaso com solo esterilizado, foram inoculadas com 10.000 ovos + J2 de M. incognita ou M. arenaria por planta. Decorridos oito meses da inoculação, cada planta foi avaliada quanto ao número de galhas e número de ovos por planta, determinando-se, a seguir, o fator de reprodução de cada espécie do nematoide (FR=população inicial/população final) nos diferentes materiais testados. Entre os porta-enxertos avaliados, 'Harmony', 'Salt Creek', '1103 Paulsen', 'IAC 572-Jales', 'IAC 313-Tropical', 'K5BB Kober' e 'SO4', foram resistentes (FR1,00) ao nematoide. No entanto, ambas as cultivares copa foram suscetíveis às duas espécies de Meloidogyne testadas. Abstract in english The occurrence of root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita (Est. I2) is reported in grapevine in Petrolina municipality, State of Pernambuco. Grape plants of Festival cultivar grafted on the 'IAC 766 - Campinas' rootstock attacked by M. incognita exhibited symptoms of less vigorous growth, yellowing [...] and sparse leaves and multiple galls in the root system in an area cultivated with jack-bean (Canavalia ensiformis) also infected by the same nematode. In order to evaluate resistance of four tropical rootstocks, eight temperate and two cultivars Chardonnay and Niagara Rosada in reaction to M. incognita and M. arenaria, this study was carried out. Seedlings of the investigated grapevine genotypes were maintained in pots with sterilized soil and subsequently inoculated with 10,000 eggs + J2 of M. incognita or M. arenaria per plant in a six replicate design. Eight months after nematode inoculation, each plant was evaluated by counting gall and eggs. The final number of eggs (FP) of each Meloidogyne specie was calculated and the reproductive factor (RF = FP/IP), determined. Among the tested rootstocks, 'Harmony', 'Salt Creek', '1103 Paulsen', 'IAC 572-Jales', 'IAC 313-Tropical', 'K5BB Kober', 'SO4' , were resistant (RF1.00) to M. arenaria. In contrast, both tested grapevine scion cultivars were susceptible to the investigated Meloidogyne species.

Lúcia, Somavilla; Cesar Bauer, Gomes; Vera Maria, Quecini.

2012-09-01

131

Host suitability of Ixora spp. for the Root-knot Nematodes Meloidogyne incognita Race 1 and M. javanica  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Eight commonly cultivated Ixora species or cultivars were tested for their suitability as hosts and their level of tolerance to Meloidogyne incognita race 1 and M. javanica in a greenhouse study. Twenty weeks postinoculation with 5,000 eggs per pot, M. incognita race 1 and M. javanica produced galls and formed egg masses on roots of all eight Ixora species or cultivars tested. However, only M. javanica-infected 'Petite Yellow' and 'Maui' had decreases (P ? 0.05) in root wet weights, suggest...

Giblin-davis, Robin M.; Meerow, Alan W.; Bilz, Frank G.

1992-01-01

132

Isolation of nematicidal triterpenoid saponins from Pulsatilla koreana root and their activities against Meloidogyne incognita.  

Science.gov (United States)

Pulsatilla koreana, a species endemic to Korea, is an important herb used in traditional medicine to treat amoebic dysentery and malaria. In the present study, 23 oleanane-type triterpenoid saponins 1-23 and eight lupane-type triterpenoid saponins 24-31 were isolated from the roots of P. koreana. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic data. The methanol extract and isolated compounds were next assessed for nematicidal activity against the root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne incognita). The methanol extract showed strong nematicidal activity after 48 h, with a LC?? value of 92.8 ?g/mL. Compounds 2, 5, 9, 20, and 21 showed significant effects, with LC?? values ranging from 70.1 to 94.7 ?g/mL after 48 h. These results suggest that triterpenoid saponins from P. koreana should be explored as potential natural nematicides for developing new agents to control root-knot nematode disease. PMID:23698044

Li, Wei; Sun, Ya Nan; Yan, Xi Tao; Yang, Seo Young; Lee, Suk Jun; Byun, Hyo Jeung; Moon, Chang Sup; Han, Byung Soo; Kim, Young Ho

2013-01-01

133

Biocontrol of Meloidogyne incognita in Lycopersicon esculentum with AM Fungi and Oil Cakes  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Currently chemical pesticides are the major means to control nematode-induced diseases but they are neither economical nor ecofriendly. Alternative methods are being sought to reduce the amount of chemical pesticides required. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi have been reported to reduce the infestation of root-knot nematodes on vegetable crops. Amendment of soil with some oil cakes has been found effective. A study was conducted on exploitation of the combined effect of AM with three different oil cakes Azadirachta indica, Brassica campestris and Ricinus communis oil cakes in controlling the root knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita. Combined use of AMF and cakes resulted in reducing the galling and nematode multiplication thus improving the plant growth and yield. The best results pertaining to AM root infection, nematode reproduction and plant growth and yield were obtained with the combination of AMF and R. communis oil cake.

Anuja Bharadwaj

2006-01-01

134

Management of Meloidogyne incognita with Chemicals and Cultivars in Cotton in a Semi-Arid Environment.  

Science.gov (United States)

Management of Meloidogyne incognita (root-knot nematode) in cotton in the United States was substantially affected by the decision to stop production of aldicarb by its principle manufacturer in 2011. The remaining commercially available tools to manage M. incognita included soil fumigation, nematicide seed treatments, postemergence nematicide application, and cultivars partially resistant to M. incognita. Small plot field studies were conducted on a total of nine sites from 2011-2013 to examine the effects of each of these tools alone or in combinations, on early season galling, late-season nematode density in soil, yield, and value ($/ha = lint value minus chemical costs/ha). The use of a partially resistant cultivar resulted in fewer galls/root system at 35 d after planting in eight of nine tests, lower root-knot nematode density late in the growing season for all test sites, higher lint yield in eight of nine sites, and higher value/ha in six of nine sites. Galls per root were reduced by aldicarb in three of nine sites and by 1,3-dichloropropene (1,3-D) in two of eight sites, relative to the nontreated control (no insecticide or nematicide treatment). Soil fumigation reduced M. incognita density late in the season in three of nine sites. Value/ha was not affected by chemical treatment in four of nine sites, but there was a cultivar × chemical interaction in four of nine sites. When value/ha was affected by chemical treatment, the nontreated control had a similar value to the treatment with the highest value/ha in seven of eight cultivar-site combinations. The next "best" value/ha were associated with seed treatment insecticide (STI) + oxamyl and aldicarb (similar value to the highest value/ha in six of eight cultivar-site combinations). The lowest valued treatment was STI + 1,3-D. In a semi-arid region, where rainfall was low during the spring for all three years, cultivars with partial resistance to M. incognita was the most profitable method of managing root-knot nematode in cotton. PMID:24987161

Wheeler, T A; Siders, K T; Anderson, M G; Russell, S A; Woodward, J E; Mullinix, B G

2014-06-01

135

Phosphonate fertilizers suppressed root knot nematodes Meloidogyne javanica and M. incognita.  

Science.gov (United States)

The efficacy of the phosphonate fertilizers, Calphos(®) (a.i. calcium phosphonate), Magphos(®) (a.i. magnesium phosphonate and potassium phosphonate) and Phosphoros(®) (a.i. potassium phosphonate) against two species of root knot nematodes (RKN), Meloidogyne javanica and M. incognita is evaluated. Laboratory experiments showed that Calphos(®), Magphos(®) and their main components inhibited egg hatching and caused 100% mortality of the second stage juveniles (J2s) of the two RKN species; the hatching inhibition effects persisted after transferring the egg masses of both species to water. However, Phosphoros(®) (0.5%) did not suppress egg hatching or the survival of J2s of both RKN species. No hatching occurred when egg masses were treated for one week with the nematicide Vydate L(®) (2 ml/l), however, J2s hatched when the Vydate L(®) treated egg masses were moved to water. The glasshouse study indicated that Magphos(®), Calphos(®) and Phosphoros(®) reduced root galling caused by M. javanica by 98, 66 and 47%, respectively, in comparison to the untreated controls. Magphos(®) resulted in the lowest number of root galls formed by M. incognita, the reduction was 84%. In contrast, Calphos(®) and Phosphoros(®) reduced galling by 47 and 39%, respectively. The Magphos(®) treatment resulted in the lowest numbers of egg masses and the lowest reproductive factor (RF) of both nematode species. However, plants treated with Phosphoros(®) resulted in higher foliage weights compared with the application of the other two fertilizers and the untreated plants. PMID:22791918

Habash, Samer; Al-Banna, Luma

2011-06-01

136

Preliminary evaluation of meloidogyne incognita race 3 reproduction on garden pea cultivars in Brazil/
Avaliação preliminar da reprodução de Meloidogyne incognita raça 3 em cultivares de ervilha no Brasil
 

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Thirteen garden pea cultivars, were assessed for the reproductive rate of the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita race 3 under greenhouse conditions. Two-week old plants growing were inoculated with 5.000 eggs. The nematode reproduction data was determined 55 days later according to the three adopted evaluation criteria (root-gall and egg-mass indexes, reproduction factor, percentage of reduction of the reproduction factor in relation to the susceptible standard cultivar). The tested cul...

Luiz Carlos Camargo Barbosa Ferraz; Ana Cristina Magalhães Araújo; Carlos Eduardo Rossi

2000-01-01

137

Enxertia e sua influencia na produção de pepino e reprodução de Meloidogyne javanica e M. incognita Effect of grafting on cucumber production and reproduction of Meloidogyne javanica and M. incognita  

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A enxertia em porta-enxertos resistentes é uma técnica frequentemente recomendada para a cultura do pepino em áreas infestadas com nematoides-das-galhas. O presente trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a produção de pepino enxertado em dois porta-enxertos comparado com pé-franco em solo infestado com Meloidogyne incognita raça 2 ou com M. javanica. Foram avaliados nove tratamentos (fatorial 3x3: pepino híbrido Tsuyataro pé-franco, enxertado na abóbora híbrida 'Shelper' e enxertado n...

Salata, Ariane C.; Erick Vinicius Bertolini; Magro, Felipe O.; Ii, Antonio Cardoso; Wilcken, Silvia Renata S.

2012-01-01

138

Avaliação da resistência de genótipos de quiabeiro à infestação por Meloidogyne incognita raça 2 e M. javanica Resistance of okra genotypes to Meloidogyne incognita race 2 and M. javanica  

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Vinte e dois genótipos de quiabeiro (Abelmoschus spp.) foram avaliados para resistência à Meloidogyne incognita raça 2 e M. javanica. Estes materiais, mantidos no Banco de Germoplasma da Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense, constam de quatro espécies selvagens Abelmoschus manihot (CGO 8655), A. caillei (CGO 8656), A. tetraphyllus (CGO 8657) e A. ficulneus (CGO 8658); 16 linhas de A. esculentus na sétima geração de autofecundação, resultantes de inter-cruzamentos do genótipo P...

Gilmar Efrem Martinello; Leal, Nilton R.; João Carlos Pimentel

2001-01-01

139

Eficiência e atividade enzimática elicitada por metil jasmonato e silicato de potássio em cana-de-açúcar parasitada por Meloidogyne incognita Efficiency and enzymatic activity elicited by methyl jasmonate and potassium silicate on sugarcane under Meloidogyne incognita parasitism  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

O presente estudo teve como objetivo avaliar o efeito de metil jasmonato e silicato de potássio sobre o parasitismo de Meloidogyne incognita na variedade RB863129 de cana-de-açúcar (Saccharum sp.) e a atividade enzimática da peroxidase e ?-1,3-glucanase elicitada, em condições de casa de vegetação. Metil jasmonato diminuiu significativamente o número de ovos por grama de raiz, mas não afetou à biomassa da parte aérea da planta. Sete dias após a aplicação, os dois indutores...

Lílian Margarete Paes Guimarães; Elvira Maria Régis Pedrosa; Rildo Sartori Barbosa Coelho; Erick Farias Couto; Sandra Roberta Vaz Lira Maranhão; Andréa Chaves

2010-01-01

140

Potent nematicidal activity of phthalaldehyde, salicylaldehyde, and cinnamic aldehyde against Meloidogyne incognita.  

Science.gov (United States)

The nematicidal activity of selected aromatic aldehydes was tested against the root knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita. The most active aldehyde was phthalaldehyde (1) with an EC(50) value of 11 ± 6 mg/L followed by salicylaldehyde (2) and cinnamic aldehyde (3) with EC(50) values of 11 ± 1 and 12 ± 5 mg/L, respectively. On the other hand, structurally related aldehydes such as 2-methoxybenzaldehyde (21), 3,4-dimethoxybenzaldehyde, and vanillin (23) were not active at the concentration of 1000 mg/L. By liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry the reactivity of tested aldehydes against a synthetic peptide resembling the nematode cuticle was characterized. At the test concentration of 1 mM, the main adduct formation was observed for 3,4-dihydroxybenzaldehyde (22), 2-methoxybenzaldehyde (21), and 3,4-dimethoxybenzaldehyde. Considering that 2-methoxybenzaldehyde (21) and 3,4-dimethoxybenzaldehyde were not active against M. incognita in in vitro experiments led us to hypothesize a different mechanism of action rather than an effect on the external cuticle modification of nematodes. When the toxicity of the V-ATPase inhibitor pyocyanin (10) was tested against M. incognita J2 nematodes, an EC(50) at 24 h of 72 ± 25 mg/L was found. The redox-active compounds such as phthalaldehyde (1) and salicylaldehyde (2) may share a common mode of action inhibiting nematode V-ATPase enzyme. The results of this investigation reveal that aromatic redox-active aldehydes can be considered as potent nematicides, and further investigation is needed to completely clarify their mode of action. PMID:23379671

Caboni, Pierluigi; Aissani, Nadhem; Cabras, Tiziana; Falqui, Andrea; Marotta, Roberto; Liori, Barbara; Ntalli, Nikoletta; Sarais, Giorgia; Sasanelli, Nicola; Tocco, Graziella

2013-02-27

 
 
 
 
141

Expression of Resistance to Meloidogyne incognita in Kenaf Cultivars (Hibiscus cannibinus under Field Conditions  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Field studies were conducted in 2003 and 2004 to investigate the reaction of 10 varieties of kenaf to natural infestation of Meloidogyne incognita. Ten weeks after planting, ten randomly selected plants per variety were assessed for root galling. Plants were carefully uprooted soil adhering to roots was washed off under a gentle stream of tap water and roots then were observed using a stereo microscope. Eggs were extracted from the roots with sodium hypochlorite. The reproduction factor (Pf / Pi was calculated. Data were collected on plant height, stem girth, days to maturity, number of seeds and seed yield and the final figures of these parameters were analyzed by of variance and mean separation by Duncan's Multiple Range Test. Gall index and nematode reproduction factor varied significantly among the kenaf varieties. AU 64 recorded the tallest height of 2.2 m followed by Ex-Funtua, Ifeken 100 and G 45 whereas the lowest height was recorded for Ifeken 400 and Cuba 108. Days to maturity ranged from 120 to 135 days. Based on gall index ratings, AU64, Ex-Shika, Ex-Giwa, G 45 and the local variety were susceptible to M. incognita. Tianung 1 and Cuba 108 were very susceptible, whereas Ifeken 100 and 400 were resistant. Based on reproduction factor, AU 64, Ex-Shika, Ex-Giwa, G 45, Ex-Funtua and the local variety supported greater nematode reproduction, were good host to root-knot nematode, Tianung 1 and Cuba 108 were very susceptible while Ifeken 100 and Ifeken 400 were poor host to M. incognita.

A.A. Adegbite

2005-11-01

142

IDENTIFICACIÓN MORFOLÓGICA, MORFOMÉTRICA Y MOLECULAR DE Meloidogyne incognita EN HIGUERA (Ficus carica L. EN COSTA RICA  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available El objetivo de este estudio fue identificar la especie de Meloidogyne asociada a dos plantaciones de higuera en Costa Rica. En marzo de 2012, en el distrito de Pacayas, provincia de Cartago, se detectaron agallas en los sistemas radicales de plantas de higuera (Ficus carica L. de dos fincas. De las raíces agalladas se extrajeron hembras, masas de huevos y juveniles (J2 de Meloidogyne sp. Se examinaron los patrones perineales de las hembras y los segundos estadios infectivos se analizaron morfológica y molecularmente mediante PCR-RFLP. Se amplificó la región intergénica (IGS del genoma mitocondrial, delimitada por el gen de la subunidad II de la citocromo oxidasa (COII y el gen ribosomal 16S. La población de nematodos se identificó como M. incognita. El tamaño de los productos de PCR generados con los imprimadores C2F3 y 1108 fue de 1,7 kb. Al tratar los productos de PCR con enzimas de restricción, se generaron cuatro fragmentos de 850, 450, 250 y 150 pb con la enzima AluI y dos fragmentos de 1300 y 400 pb con la enzima HinfI.

Walter Peraza-Padilla

2013-01-01

143

Progênies de Coffea arabica cv. IPR 100 com resistência ao nematóide Meloidogyne incognita raça 1 Progenies of Coffea arabica cv. IPR 100 with resistance to nematode Meloidogyne incognita race 1  

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Full Text Available Objetivou-se, neste trabalho, identificar progênies de Coffea arabica cv. IPR 100 com resistência ao nematóide Meloidogyne incognita raça 1. O experimento foi conduzido em casa de vegetação (Londrina, PR, Brasil no delineamento em blocos ao acaso com 3 repetições e parcelas com 15 plantas. Foram avaliadas seis progênies da cultivar IPR 100 e a cultivar Mundo Novo IAC 376-4 foi utilizada como padrão suscetível. Foram inoculados 500 ovos por planta, totalizando 7500 ovos por parcela de 150 cm². Foi avaliado o número de galhas e massas de ovos presentes nas raízes. As seis progênies da cultivar IPR 100 foram mais resistentes ao M.incognita raça 1 do que o padrão suscetível.The objective of this study was to identify progenies of Coffea arabica cv. IPR 100 with resistance to nematode Meloidogyne incognita race 1. The experiment was performed in greenhouse (Londrina, PR, Brazil with an experimental design of randomized blocks with 3 replications and 15 plants per plot. Six progenies of cultivar IPR 100 were evaluated, and Mundo Novo IAC 376-4 cultivar was used as susceptible control. Five hundred eggs per plant were inoculated, totalizing 7500 eggs per plot of 150 cm². The number of galls and egg masses in the roots were evaluated. All progenies of cultivar IPR 100 presented more resistance to M.incognita race 1 than the susceptible control.

Fabio Seidi Kanayama

2009-10-01

144

Nematicidal activity of fervenulin isolated from a nematicidal actinomycete, Streptomyces sp. CMU-MH021, on Meloidogyne incognita.  

Science.gov (United States)

An isolate of the actinomycete, Streptomyces sp. CMU-MH021 produced secondary metabolites that inhibited egg hatch and increased juvenile mortality of the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita in vitro. 16S rDNA gene sequencing showed that the isolate sequence was 99% identical to Streptomyces roseoverticillatus. The culture filtrates form different culture media were tested for nematocidal activity. The maximal activity against M. incognita was obtained by using modified basal (MB) medium. The nematicidal assay-directed fractionation of the culture broth delivered fervenulin (1) and isocoumarin (2). Fervenulin, a low molecular weight compound, shows a broad range of biological activities. However, nematicidal activity of fervenulin was not previously reported. The nematicidal activity of fervenulin (1) was assessed using the broth microdilution technique. The lowest minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of the compound against egg hatch of M. incognita was 30 ?g/ml and juvenile mortality of M. incognita increasing was observed at 120 ?g/ml. Moreover, at the concentration of 250 ?g/ml fervenulin (1) showed killing effect on second-stage nematode juveniles of M. incognita up to 100% after incubation for 96 h. Isocoumarin (2), another bioactive compound produced by Streptomyces sp. CMU-MH021, showed weak nematicidal activity with M. incognita. PMID:21841897

Ruanpanun, Pornthip; Laatsch, Hartmut; Tangchitsomkid, Nuchanart; Lumyong, Saisamorn

2011-06-01

145

Effects of Peanut-Tobacco Rotations on Population Dynamics of Meloidogyne arenaria in Mixed Race Populations  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A 3-year microplot study was initiated to characterize the population dynamics, reproduction potential, and survivorship of single or mixed populations of Meloidogyne arenaria race 1 (Ma1) and race 2 (Ma2), as affected by crop rotations of peanut 'Florigiant' and M. incognita races 1 and 3-resistant 'McNair 373' and susceptible 'Coker 371-Gold' tobacco. Infection, reproduction, and root damage by Ma2 on peanut and by Ma1 on resistant tobacco were limited in the first year. Infection, reproduc...

Hirunsalee, Anan; Barker, K. R.; Beute, M. K.

1995-01-01

146

Nematocidal Flavone-C-Glycosides against the Root-Knot Nematode (Meloidogyne incognita) from Arisaema erubescens Tubers  

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A screening of several Chinese medicinal herbs for nematicidal properties showed that Arisaema erubescens (Wall.) Schott tubers possessed significant nematicidal activity against the root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne incognita). From the ethanol extract, two nematicidal flavone-C-glycosides were isolated by bioassay-guided fractionation. The compounds were identified as schaftoside and isoschaftoside on the basis of their phytochemical and spectral data. Schaftoside and isoschaftoside possessed...

Zhi Long Liu; Yong Yan Wang; Zhi Wei Deng; Qi Zhi Liu; Cheng Fang Wang; Chun Qi Bai; Hai Ming Zhang; Shu Shan Du

2011-01-01

147

Brassicaceous Seed Meals as Soil Amendments to Suppress the Plant-parasitic Nematodes Pratylenchus penetrans and Meloidogyne incognita1  

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Brassicaceous seed meals are the residual materials remaining after the extraction of oil from seeds; these seed meals contain glucosinolates that potentially degrade to nematotoxic compounds upon incorporation into soil. This study compared the nematode-suppressive ability of four seed meals obtained from Brassica juncea ‘Pacific Gold’, B. napus ‘Dwarf Essex’ and ‘Sunrise’, and Sinapis alba ‘IdaGold’, against mixed stages of Pratylenchus penetrans and Meloidogyne incognita se...

Zasada, I. A.; Meyer, S. L. F.; Morra, M. J.

2009-01-01

148

EFECTO DEL VERMICOMPOST Y QUITINA SOBRE EL CONTROL DE Meloidogyne incognita EN TOMATE A NIVEL DE INVERNADERO  

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Meloidogyne incognita es un nematodo endoparásito sedentario, de penetración total y formador de nódulos radicales; tiene una amplia distribución geográfica y causa pérdidas agrícolas importantes. Recientemente se han utilizado abonos orgánicos y compuestos como la quitina en la supresión de plagas y enfermedades de plantas. El objetivo de esta investigación fue evaluar el efecto de la aplicación de vermicompost de estiércol bovino y su enriquecimiento con quitina, sobre la infecc...

Leida Castro; Lorena Flores; Lidieth Uribe

2011-01-01

149

In-vitro Assays of Meloidogyne incognita and Heterodera glycines for Detection of Nematode-antagonistic Fungal Compounds  

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In-vitro methods were developed to test fungi for production of metabolites affecting nematode egg hatch and mobility of second-stage juveniles. Separate assays were developed for two nematodes: root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne incognita) and soybean cyst nematode (Heterodera glycines). For egg hatch to be successfully assayed, eggs must first be surface-disinfested to avoid the confounding effects of incidental microbial growth facilitated by the fungal culture medium. Sodium hypochlorite was...

Nitao, James K.; Meyer, Susan L. F.; Chitwood, David J.

1999-01-01

150

Screenhouse Assessment of Reaction of Fluted Pumpkin, Telfairia Occidentalis Hook F. to Root-Knot Nematode Meloidogyne Incognita  

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Screenhouse studies were carried out between April – June and July – September, 2004 at the vegetable researchunit of National HorticulturalResearch Institute (NIHORT), Ibadan,Nigeria to investigate the reaction of five linesof Telfairia occidentalis (EN2000-4, EN2000-6, EN2000-10, EN2000-11, EN2000-13) to different populationlevels (0, 5000 and 10 000 eggs) of Meloidogyne incognita race 2. Seeds from five different matured pods ofTelfairia lines were planted on mo...

Izuogu, N. B.; Oyedunmade, E. E. A.; Babatola, J. O.

2010-01-01

151

Studies on the interactions of Meloidogyne incognita, Radopholus similis and Fusarium solani on black pepper (Piper nigrum L.).  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

This study on the interactions between various cultivars of the black pepper plant (Piper nigrum L. ) and three of its pathogens, Meloidogyne Incognita (Kofoid & White) , Radopholus similis (Cobb) , Thorne and Fusarium solani f. sp. piperi Albuquerque was initiated to search for a biological cause of "yellow disease" of black pepper.This disease was described already in 1932 by Van der Vecht as "geelziektel" and its symptoms on the aerial parts of the pepper plants were yellowing of the leave...

Mustika, I.

1990-01-01

152

Low-Temperature Scanning Electron Microscope Observations of the Meloidogyne incognita Egg Mass: The Gelatinous Matrix and Embryo Development  

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The root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita was cultured monoxenically on excised tomato roots. Galls and egg masses were observed daily using a light microscope. Two phases were distinguished in the gelatinous matrix of the egg mass: a translucent, amorphous material on the surface of the egg mass and a denser, layered phase in which nematode eggs were deposited. Egg masses were also cryofixed, fractured, and observed as frozen, hydrated specimens on a cold stage in a scanning electron micr...

Orion, D.; Wergin, W. P.; Chitwood, D. J.; Erbe, E. F.

1994-01-01

153

Transgenic tobacco plants constitutively expressing Arabidopsis NPR1 show enhanced resistance to root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita  

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Full Text Available Abstract In Arabidopsis, non-expressor of pathogenesis related genes-1, NPR1 has been shown to be a positive regulator of the salicylic acid controlled systemic acquired resistance pathway and modulates the cross talk between SA and JA signaling. Transgenic plants expressing AtNPR1 constitutively exhibited resistance against pathogens as well as herbivory. In the present study, tobacco transgenic plants expressing AtNPR1 were studied further for their response to infection by the sedentary endoparasitic root knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita. Transgenic plants showed enhanced resistance against the root-knot nematode infection. Prominent differences in the shoot and root weights of wild type and transgenic plants were observed post-inoculation with M. incognita. This was associated with a decrease in the number of root galls and egg masses in transgenic plants compared to WT. The transgenic plants also showed constitutive and induced expression of some PR protein genes, when challenged with M. incognita.

Prasad JS

2011-07-01

154

INFLUENCIA DE LA PLANTA HOSPEDANTE Y SU INTERACCIÓN CON Meloidogyne incognita SOBRE LA EFECTIVIDAD DE Pochonia chlamydosporia var. catenulata / INFLUENCE OF THE HOST PLANT AND ITS INTERACTION WITH Meloidogyne incognita ON THE EFFECTIVENESS OF Pochonia chlamydosporia var. catenulata  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El efecto de las plantas hospedantes y su interacción con Meloidogyne incognita (Kofoid y White) Chitwood sobre la efectividad de Pochonia chlamydosporia var. catenulata (Kamyscho ex Barron y Onions) Zare y Gams como agente de control biológico de nematodos formadores de agallas se estudió en condic [...] iones de aisladores biológicos. Para el desarrollo de la experiencia se utilizaron diferentes especies de plantas que se cultivan en los sistemas intensivos de producción de hortalizas en Cuba y se evaluó la colonización de la rizosfera, a partir del conteo de UFC del hongo, en plantas sanas e infestadas por M. incognita. Los resultados demostraron que el crecimiento del hongo en la rizosfera varió en dependencia de la especie de planta. Entre los mejores hospedantes de P. chlamydosporia var. catenulata estuvieron la col, coliflor y acelga china, cultivos resistentes a M. incognita. Las plantas infestadas por M. incognita mostraron mayores niveles de colonización del hongo que las plantas sanas y el cultivo de la habichuela resultó ser un buen hospedante, en presencia del nematodo. Se recomienda la utilización de estos cultivos dentro de esquemas de rotación que incluyan la aplicación de P. chlamydosporia var. catenulata como agente de control biológico para el manejo de M. incognita en sistemas intensivos de producción de hortalizas. Abstract in english The effect of the host plants and their interaction with Meloidogyne incognita (Kofoid and White) Chitwood on the effectiveness of Pochonia chlamydosporia var. catenulata (Kamyscho ex Barron and Onions) Zare and Gams as a biological control agent of root-knot nematodes was studied in glasshouse cond [...] itions. Different plant species from the Cuban Intensive Vegetable Production Systems were used to perform the experience. The growth of the fungus in the rhizosphere differed with the host plant. Among the best host plants of P. chlamydosporia var. catenulata were cabbage, salt-wort and cauliflower, resistant crops to M. incognita. The plants infested by M. incognita showed higher levels of fungus colonization than those healthy, and the kidney bean crop was a good host in the presence of the nematode. The use of these crops into rotation systems, with the application of Pochonia chlamydosporia var. catenulata as biological control agent for the management of M. incognita on Intensive Vegetable Production Systems, was recommended.

Ana, Puertas; L, Hidalgo-Díaz.

2007-08-01

155

Inoculum Densities of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum and Meloidogyne incognita in Relation to the Development of Fusarium Wilt and the Phenology of Cotton Plants (Gossypium hirsutum).  

Science.gov (United States)

ABSTRACT Development of Fusarium wilt in upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) usually requires infections of plants by both Meloidogyne incognita and Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum. In this study, the soil densities of M. incognita and F. oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum and the incidence of Fusarium wilt in three field sites were determined in 1982-1984. Multiple regression analysis of percent incidence of Fusarium wilt symptoms on population densities of M. incognita and F. oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum yielded a significant fit (R (2) = 0.64) only on F. oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum. Significant t-values for slope were also obtained for the interaction of M. incognita and F. oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum, but densities of M. incognita and F. oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum were also related on a log(10) scale. The physiological time of appearance of first foliar symptoms of Fusarium wilt, based on a degree-days threshold of 11.9 degrees C (53.5 degrees F), was used as a basis for determining disease progress curves and the phenology of cotton plant growth and development. Effects of Fusarium wilt on plant height and boll set were determined in three successive years. Increases in both of these plant characteristics decreased or stopped before foliar symptoms were apparent. Seed cotton yields of plant cohorts that developed foliar wilt symptoms early in the season (before 2,000 F degree-days) were variable but not much different in these years. This contrasted with cohorts of plants that first showed foliar symptoms late in the season (after 2,400 F degree-days) and cohorts of plants that showed no foliar symptoms of wilt. Regression analyses for 1982-1984 indicated moderate to weak correlations (r = 0.16-0.74) of the time of appearance of the first foliar symptoms and seed cotton yields. PMID:18945178

Devay, J E; Gutierrez, A P; Pullman, G S; Wakeman, R J; Garber, R H; Jeffers, D P; Smith, S N; Goodell, P B; Roberts, P A

1997-03-01

156

Efeito de extratos aquosos de espécies de Asteraceae sobre Meloidogyne incognita Effect of aqueous extracts of Asteraceae species on Meloidogyne incognita  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Estudou-se, in vitro e in vivo a atividade nematicida dos extratos aquosos de vedélia (Sphagneticola trilobata, erva-de-touro (Tridax procumbens, cravo-de-defunto (Tagetes patula, girassol mexicano (Tithonia diversifolia, botão de ouro (Unxia suffruticosa e zínia (Zinnia peruviana, sobre Meloidogyne incognita. Os extratos foram preparados na proporção de 1,0g do material seco e triturado para 10mL de água destilada e armazenados por 24h, sendo seguidamente utilizados nos experimentos. Nos testes in vitro, foram depositados 4,0mL do extrato bruto e 2,0mL de uma suspensão aquosa contendo 200 ovos do nematóide em placas de Petri de 5cm de diâmetro e, quinze dias após, procedeu-se a contagem do número de juvenis eclodidos e dos ovos remanescentes para o cálculo das porcentagens de eclosão. Nos testes in vivo, os extratos foram aplicados, separadamente, via pulverização foliar, tratamento de raiz e vertido no solo, semanalmente durante 60 dias. Como testemunha utilizou-se apenas água nos dois experimentos. No ensaio in vitro observou-se que todos os extratos foram eficientes na redução da eclosão de juvenis de M. incognita quando comparados à testemunha, as porcentagens de redução foram 89,96%, 91,13%, 92,48%, 92,72%, 93,2% e 97,48% para erva-de-touro, cravo-de-defunto, girassol mexicano, vedélia, botão de ouro e zínia, respectivamente, e no ensaio in vivo, que os tratamentos não exerceram nenhum efeito sobre o peso do sistema radicular dos tomateiros, no entanto, observou-se que os resultados diferiram entre as espécies utilizadas e a forma de aplicação do extrato na avaliação do peso fresco da parte aérea das plantas. Quanto ao fator de reprodução, observou-se que nenhum dos extratos apresentou diferença estatística em relação à testemunha, no entanto, quando se compara as diferentes formas de aplicação dos mesmos, observa-se que houve diferença estatística quando os extratos de erva de touro e girassol mexicano foram aplicados via pulverização foliar e no tratamento de raiz, contudo, não houve diferença quando estes extratos foram aplicados em forma de rega no solo.The nematicide activity of aqueous extracts of Wedelia (Sphagneticola trilobata, tridax daisy (Tridax procumbens, marigold (Tagetes patula, Mexican sunflower (Tithonia diversifolia, "botão de ouro" (Unxia suffruticosa and Peruvian zinnia (Zinnia peruviana was studied in vitro and in vivo on Meloidogyne incognita. The extracts were prepared at a ratio of 1.0 g of dry and crushed material to 10 ml of distilled water, stored for 24 hours, and then used in the experiments. In in vitro tests, 4.0 mL of crude extract and 2.0 ml of an aqueous suspension containing 200 nematode eggs were deposited on Petri plates of 5cm diameter and, fifteen days later, the number of hatched juveniles and the remaining eggs were counted to calculate the percentages of hatching. In in vivo tests, the extracts were separately applied by leaf spraying, root treatment and pouring onto the soil, weekly for 60 days. As control, only water was used in both experiments. The in vitro test showed that all extracts were effective in reducing the hatching of juveniles of M. incognita when compared to the control; the reduction percentages were 89.96%, 91.13%, 92.48%, 92.72%, 93.2% and 97.48% for tridax daisy, marigold, Mexican sunflower, Wedelia, "botão de ouro" and Peruvian zinnia, respectively, while in the in vivo assay, treatments did not have any effect on the root system weight of tomato plants; however, results differed between the used species and the way of application of the extract in the evaluation of the fresh weight of shoots. As to the reproduction rate, none of the extracts showed a statistical difference, compared to control; however, comparing the different ways of application, there was statistical difference when the extracts of tridax daisy and Mexican sunflower were applied through leaf spraying and root treatment, but there was no difference when these extracts were applied as irrigation on the soil.

Isabel Cristina Madeira Ferreira

2013-03-01

157

Effects of Temperature, Plant Age, Soil Texture, and Meloidogyne incognita on Early Growth of Soybean  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A digitizer-microcomputer combination was utilized to determine soybean seedling response to population densities of M. incognita (Mi) under varied environmental conditions. Plant age, temperature, soil texture, and initial Mi inoculum (Pi) influenced the pattern of shoot and root growth. Effects of Mi on plant top growth were evident on plants inoculated 2 days after seeding, but generally were not noticeable on those receiving Mi after 4, 6, or 8 days (observations limited to 6 days after i...

Shane, W. W.; Barker, K. R.

1986-01-01

158

Manejo do solo e da irrigação no controle de Meloidogyne incognita em cultivo protegido Soil and water management in the control of Meloidogyne incognita in greenhouse  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A flutuação populacional de juvenis do segundo estádio (J2 de M. incognita e sua infectividade foram estudadas por meio de bioteste em solo revolvido com ou sem irrigação, comparadas a condições de solo não revolvido nem irrigado, considerado testemunha, e com apenas irrigado, em casa-de-vegetação por 14 dias. Aos sete dias, a população de J2 no solo foi significativamente reduzida apenas nas parcelas revolvidas. Entretanto, a infectividade do inóculo no solo nesse período, avaliada em bioteste, foi reduzida apenas nas parcelas revolvidas e irrigadas. Aos 14 dias, a população de J2 no solo foi menor nas parcelas revolvidas com ou sem irrigação, porém continuou sendo a mais baixa nas parcelas apenas revolvidas. Contudo, a infectividade do inóculo no solo neste período foi mais baixa nas parcelas revolvidas e irrigadas e mais elevada na testemunha.The population fluctuation of second-stage juveniles (J2 of M. incognita and their infectivity assessed by biotest were studied in the greenhouse, using plowed soil, irrigated or not, compared to control (unplowed and unirrigated and to plots irrigated only, for 14 days. At seven days, the J2 population in the soil was significantly reduced only in plowed plots. However, the soil inoculum infectivity, in this period, was reduced only in plowed and irrigated plots. At 14 days, the J2 population in the soil was lower in plowed plots with or without irrigation, but lowest in plots only plowed.The infectivity of soil inoculum, in this period, was lowest in plowed and irrigated soil and highest in the control.

Marcos R. Dutra

2006-08-01

159

Effect of Simultaneous Water Deficit Stress and Meloidogyne incognita Infection on Cotton Yield and Fiber Quality.  

Science.gov (United States)

Both water deficit stress and Meloidogyne incognita infection can reduce cotton growth and yield, and drought can affect fiber quality, but the effect of nematodes on fiber quality is not well documented. To determine whether nematode parasitism affects fiber quality and whether the combined effects of nematode and drought stress on yield and quality are additive (independent effects), synergistic, or antagonistic, we conducted a study for 7 yr in a field infested with M. incognita. A split-plot design was used with the main plot factor as one of three irrigation treatments (low [nonirrigated], moderate irrigation, and high irrigation [water-replete]) and the subplot factor as 0 or 56 l/ha 1,3-dichloropropene. We prevented water deficit stress in plots designated as water-replete by supplementing rainfall with irrigation. Plots receiving moderate irrigation received half the water applied to the water-replete treatment. The severity of root galling was greater in nonfumigated plots and in plots receiving the least irrigation, but the amount of irrigation did not influence the effect of fumigation on root galling (no irrigation × fumigation interaction). The weights of lint and seed harvested were reduced in nonfumigated plots and also decreased as the level of irrigation decreased, but fumigation did not influence the effect of irrigation. Nematodes affected fiber quality by increasing micronaire readings but typically had little or no effect on percent lint, fiber length (measured by HVI), uniformity, strength, elongation, length (based on weight or number measured by AFIS), upper quartile length, or short fiber content (based on weight or number). Micronaire also was increased by water deficit stress, but the effects from nematodes and water stress were independent. We conclude that the detrimental effects caused to cotton yield and quality by nematode parasitism and water deficit stress are independent and therefore additive. PMID:24987162

Davis, R F; Earl, H J; Timper, P

2014-06-01

160

GAMMA IRRADIATION OF SUGAR BEET SEEDS INDUCED PLANT RESISTANCE TO ROOT-KNOT NEMATODE MELOIDOGYNE INCOGNITA  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The main objective of this study was to investigate the effect of irradiation of sugar beet seeds on the plant resistance to root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita infection in addition to some morphological parameters, biochemical components and root technological characters. Relative to control (non-irradiated seeds), the obtained data showed that, all doses except 10 Gy significantly increased root length of un inoculated plants and the most effective dose was 200 Gy. All doses significantly decreased root diameter except 50 and 100 Gy. The 10 and 400 Gy significantly reduced root fresh weight while 50, 100 and 200 Gy caused non-significant increase. All doses significantly increased root fresh weight/dry weight than control. There was non-significant effect on the morphological parameters of the plants germinated from gamma irradiated seeds and inoculated with Meloidogyne incognita. Total chlorophyll of seed irradiated and un inoculated plants were significantly reduced by all doses except 200 Gy. All doses of gamma radiation caused non-significant decrease in the total chlorophyll of the infected plants. In un inoculated plants, a significant reduction in the total phenol was occurred due to all doses of gamma radiation. In contrast, in inoculated plants, 10 and 25 Gy caused significant reduction in the total phenol while 50 and 400 Gy caused significant increase in the total phenol.Significant increase in sucrose % was observed due to 10 Gy in the un inoculate observed due to 10 Gy in the un inoculated plants. The 400 Gy caused significant decrease while other doses caused non-significant decrease in the sucrose %. In the inoculated plants, 50, 100 and 400 Gy caused significant increase in sucrose %. All doses significantly increased total soluble salts percent (TSS %) of either inoculated or un inoculated plants. Purity % was increased by all doses in the inoculated plants.The number of galls and egg masses were reduced gradually by increasing gamma doses and 100 Gy caused the highest reduction 89.5 % and 94.7 % for galls and egg masses, respectively

 
 
 
 
161

Physiological Effects of Meloidogyne incognita Infection on Cotton Genotypes with Differing Levels of Resistance in the Greenhouse.  

Science.gov (United States)

Greenhouse tests were conducted to evaluate (i) the effect of Meloidogyne incognita infection in cotton on plant growth and physiology including the height-to-node ratio, chlorophyll content, dark-adapted quantum yield of photosystem II, and leaf area; and (ii) the extent to which moderate or high levels of resistance to M. incognita influenced these effects. Cultivars FiberMax 960 BR (susceptible to M. incognita) and Stoneville 5599 BR (moderately resistant) were tested together in three trials, and PD94042 (germplasm, susceptible) and 120R1B1 (breeding line genetically similar to PD94042, but highly resistant) were paired in two additional trials. Inoculation with M. incognita generally resulted in increases in root gall ratings and egg counts per gram of root compared with the noninoculated control, as well as reductions in plant dry weight, root weight, leaf area, boll number, and boll dry weight, thereby confirming that growth of our greenhouse-grown plants was reduced in the same ways that would be expected in field-grown plants. In all trials, M. incognita caused reductions in height-to-node ratios. Nematode infection consistently reduced the area under the height-to-node ratio curves for all genotypes, and these reductions were similar for resistant and susceptible genotypes (no significant genotype × inoculation interaction). Our study is the first to show that infection by M. incognita is associated with reduced chlorophyll content in cotton leaves, and the reduction in the resistant genotypes was similar to that in the susceptible genotypes (no interaction). The susceptible PD94042 tended to have increased leaf temperature compared with the genetically similar but highly resistant 120R1B1 (P < 0.08), likely attributable to increased water stress associated with M. incognita infection. PMID:25580028

Lu, Ping; Davis, Richard F; Kemerait, Robert C; van Iersel, Marc W; Scherm, Harald

2014-12-01

162

Manejo do solo e da irrigação no controle de Meloidogyne incognita em cultivo protegido / Soil and water management in the control of Meloidogyne incognita in greenhouse  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A flutuação populacional de juvenis do segundo estádio (J2) de M. incognita e sua infectividade foram estudadas por meio de bioteste em solo revolvido com ou sem irrigação, comparadas a condições de solo não revolvido nem irrigado, considerado testemunha, e com apenas irrigado, em casa-de-vegetação [...] por 14 dias. Aos sete dias, a população de J2 no solo foi significativamente reduzida apenas nas parcelas revolvidas. Entretanto, a infectividade do inóculo no solo nesse período, avaliada em bioteste, foi reduzida apenas nas parcelas revolvidas e irrigadas. Aos 14 dias, a população de J2 no solo foi menor nas parcelas revolvidas com ou sem irrigação, porém continuou sendo a mais baixa nas parcelas apenas revolvidas. Contudo, a infectividade do inóculo no solo neste período foi mais baixa nas parcelas revolvidas e irrigadas e mais elevada na testemunha. Abstract in english The population fluctuation of second-stage juveniles (J2) of M. incognita and their infectivity assessed by biotest were studied in the greenhouse, using plowed soil, irrigated or not, compared to control (unplowed and unirrigated) and to plots irrigated only, for 14 days. At seven days, the J2 popu [...] lation in the soil was significantly reduced only in plowed plots. However, the soil inoculum infectivity, in this period, was reduced only in plowed and irrigated plots. At 14 days, the J2 population in the soil was lower in plowed plots with or without irrigation, but lowest in plots only plowed.The infectivity of soil inoculum, in this period, was lowest in plowed and irrigated soil and highest in the control.

Marcos R., Dutra; Vicente P., Campos; Fernando S., Rocha; Juliana R. C., Silva; Edson A., Pozza.

2006-08-01

163

Inconsistency of the biological control of Meloidogyne incognita race 2 in melon by endophytic bacteria Inconsistência do controle biológico de Meloidogyne incognita raça 2 em meloeiro por bactérias endofíticas  

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Full Text Available We obtained 61 rhizobacterium isolates from rhizosphere soil samples collected in melon commercial fields located in Mossoró, Rio Grande do Norte State, Brazil. These isolates, along with 56 endophytic bacteria from the Collection of Cultures of the Plant Bacteriology Laboratory of the Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco, were tested for controlling Meloidogyne incognita race 2 in melon. To infest the soil with nematodes, 1000 eggs of Meloidogyne incognita race 2 per plant were placed in pots where seedlings of the yellow-type melon, cultivar AF 682, were growing for 10 days. Two days before, 20 mL of bacterial suspension (0.7 OD570nm were poured into each pot. After 60 days, fresh root biomass, gall index, egg mass, and the nematode reproduction factor were assessed. Among the 117 isolates screened, the endophytic Bacillus ENM7, ENM10, and ENM51 were selected because they significantly reduced egg mass and/or gall index. However, when tested again, separately and in mixtures, these isolates nor confirmed their efficiency in vivo, neither affected juvenile emergence in vitro. These results give evidence on the inconsistency of using endophytic-bacteria in the control of M. incognita race 2 in melon.A partir de amostras de solo coletadas em plantios comerciais de meloeiro, situados em Mossoró-RN, foram obtidos 61 isolados de rizobactérias que, juntamente com outros 56 isolados endofíticos pertencentes à Coleção de Culturas do Laboratório de Fitobacteriologia da Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco, foram avaliados para o controle de Meloidogyne incognita raça 2 em melão. Plantas de meloeiro Amarelo, cultivar AF 682, com dez dias de idade tiveram o solo infestado com 1000 ovos de M. incognita raça 2 por planta. Dois dias antes, foram depositados em cada vaso 20 mL da suspensão bacteriana (DO570nm = 0,7. Decorridos 60 dias, foram determinados a biomassa fresca das raízes, os índices de galhas e de massa de ovos e o fator de reprodução do nematóide. Dos 117 isolados avaliados, foram selecionados inicialmente os isolados endofíticos ENM7, ENM10 e ENM51, todos pertencentes ao gênero Bacillus, que reduziram significativamente a massa de ovos e/ou o índice de galhas. Contudo, quando testados novamente, separadamente ou em misturas, esses isolados não mantiveram a eficiência na redução dessas variáveis e, in vitro, não afetaram a eclosão dos juvenis. Os resultados obtidos evidenciam a inconstância da ação das bactérias endofíticas no controle de M. incognita raça 2 em meloeiro.

Jeane E de Medeiros

2009-09-01

164

Tolerancia de 26 colectas de tomates nativos de México al nematodo Meloidogyne incognita (Kofoid y White) Chitwood / Tolerance of 26 native tomato collections from Mexico to nematode Meloidogyne incognita (Kofoid and White) Chitwood  

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Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Se determinó la tolerancia de 26 colectas de tomates nativos de México a Meloidogyne incongnita (Kofoid y White) Chitwood, con el fin de identificar aquellas con potencial para su empleo en el mejoramiento genético o como portainjertos. Para ello, plantas de 30 días de edad fueron establecidas en hi [...] droponia bajo invernadero. Diez días después del trasplante (ddt) fue aplicada al sustrato una solución con 100,000 huevecillos-larva por planta. Se registraron caracteres de la parte aérea de plantas y a los 210 ddt se cuantificó el desarrollo de poblaciones de nematodos en raíces. M. incognita disminuyó el diámetro de frutos y el porte de planta (altura al primer racimo, peso seco de tallo y número de nudos), e incrementó el número de frutos y flores. Además, redujo la longitud de raíces y aumentó el volumen de éstas por la formación de nódulos. Mediante análisis multivariados (agrupamiento y discriminante) se definieron cinco grupos de colectas en función de la cantidad de agallas pequeñas y grandes, así como el total de éstas (82% de variación) y por la cantidad de larvas en raíz y huevecillos en sustrato (13% de variación). Se identificaron tres colectas tolerantes con bajos índices de agallas y menor presencia de huevecillos-larva en raíz y en sustrato. Ocho colectas fueron moderadamente tolerantes; nueve, moderadamente susceptibles, y seis, susceptibles. No se detectaron asociaciones entre orígenes de colectas o forma de fruto con respecto a la tolerancia al nematodo. Abstract in english The tolerance of 26 native tomato collections from Mexico to Meloidogyne incongnita (Kofoid and White) Chitwood was studied to identify those with potential for use in breeding or as rootstock. To do this, 30-day-old plants were established in a hydroponic system under greenhouse conditions. A solut [...] ion with 100,000 eggs-larvae per plant was applied to the substrate 10 days after transplantation (dat). Characters of the above-ground part of the plants were recorded and at 210 dat the development of nematode populations in roots was quantified. Meloidogyne incognita reduced fruit diameter and plant size (first truss height, stem dry weight, and node number), and increased the number of fruits and flowers. Additionally, it reduced root length and increased root volume due to nodule formation. By means of multivariate analysis (cluster and discriminant), five collection groups were defined based on the number of small and large galls, as well as total galls (82 % variation), and by the number of larvae in roots and eggs in the substrate (13 % variation). Three tolerant collections with low gall indices and a lower number of eggs-larvae in the roots and substrate were identified. Eight collections were moderately tolerant, nine moderately susceptible and six susceptible. No associations were detected between collection origins or fruit shape and tolerance to nematode.

Raquel, Cervantes-Moreno; Juan Enrique, Rodríguez-Pérez; Calixto, Carrillo Fonseca; Jaime, Sahagún-Castellanos; Eduardo, Rodríguez-Guzmán.

2014-04-01

165

Isolation of Nematicidal Triterpenoid Saponins from Pulsatilla koreana Root and Their Activities against Meloidogyne incognita  

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Full Text Available Pulsatilla koreana, a species endemic to Korea, is an important herb used in traditional medicine to treat amoebic dysentery and malaria. In the present study, 23 oleanane-type triterpenoid saponins 1–23 and eight lupane-type triterpenoid saponins 24–31 were isolated from the roots of P. koreana. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic data. The methanol extract and isolated compounds were next assessed for nematicidal activity against the root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne incognita. The methanol extract showed strong nematicidal activity after 48 h, with a LC50 value of 92.8 ?g/mL. Compounds 2, 5, 9, 20, and 21 showed significant effects, with LC50 values ranging from 70.1 to 94.7 ?g/mL after 48 h. These results suggest that triterpenoid saponins from P. koreana should be explored as potential natural nematicides for developing new agents to control root-knot nematode disease

Byung Soo Han

2013-05-01

166

Nematicidal activity of mint aqueous extracts against the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita.  

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The nematicidal activity and chemical characterization of aqueous extracts and essential oils of three mint species, namely, Mentha × piperita , Mentha spicata , and Mentha pulegium , were investigated. The phytochemical analysis of the essential oils was performed by means of GC-MS, whereas the aqueous extracts were analyzed by LC-MS. The most abundant terpenes were isomenthone, menthone, menthol, pulegone, and carvone, and the water extracts yielded mainly chlorogenic acid, salvianolic acid B, luteolin-7-O-rutinoside, and rosmarinic acid. The water extracts exhibited significant nematicidal activity against Meloidogyne incognita , and the EC50/72h values were calculated at 1005, 745, and 300 mg/L for M. × piperita, M. pulegium, and M. spicata, respectively. Only the essential oil from M. spicata showed a nematicidal activity with an EC50/72h of 358 mg/L. Interestingly, menthofuran and carvone showed EC50/48h values of 127 and 730 mg/L, respectively. On the other hand, salicylic acid, isolated in the aqueous extracts, exhibited EC50 values at 24 and 48 h of 298 ± 92 and 288 ± 79 mg/L, respectively. PMID:24050256

Caboni, Pierluigi; Saba, Marco; Tocco, Graziella; Casu, Laura; Murgia, Antonio; Maxia, Andrea; Menkissoglu-Spiroudi, Urania; Ntalli, Nikoletta

2013-10-16

167

Nematicidal activity of allylisothiocyanate from horseradish (Armoracia rusticana) roots against Meloidogyne incognita.  

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In recent years, there has been a great development in the search for new natural pesticides for crop protection aiming a partial or total replacement of currently used chemical nematicides. Glucosinolate breakdown products are volatile and are therefore good candidates for nematodes fumigants. In this article, the methanol-aqueous extract (1:1, w/v) of horseradish (Armoracia rusticana) fresh roots (MAH) was in vitro tested for nematicidal activity against second stage (J2) Meloidogyne incognita. The EC50 of MAH after 3 days of J2 immersion in test solutions was 251 ± 46 mg/L. The chemical composition analysis of the extract carried out by the GC-MS technique showed that allylisothicyanate was the most abundant compound. This pure compound induced J2 paralysis with an EC50 of 52.6 ± 45.6 and 6.6 ± 3.4 mg/L after 1 h and 3 days of incubation. The use of LC-MS/MS showed for the first time that horseradish root is rich in polyphenols. The study of isothiocyanate degradation in soil showed that allylisothiocyanate was the most quickly degradable compound (half-life <10 min), whereas no significant differences in half-life time were noted between degradation in regular and autoclaved soil. PMID:23627288

Aissani, Nadhem; Tedeschi, Paola; Maietti, Annalisa; Brandolini, Vincenzo; Garau, Vincenzo Luigi; Caboni, Pierluigi

2013-05-22

168

Histopathological Studies of Eggplant Roots as Affected by IAA, Agrobacterium tumefaciens and Meloidogyne incognita Alone and in Combinations  

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The anatomy of eggplant roots as affected by the application of IAA, Agrobacterium tumefaciens and Meloidogyne incognita alone and in combination was studied. IAA and A. tumefaciens, alone and in combination increased the root diameter, cortex thickness, number of cortex layers, stele diameter, number of xylem vessels but decreased the vessel diameter. Inoculation with M. incognita led to the formation of multinucleated giant cells surrounded by deformed xylem elem...

Elwakil, Mohamed A.; Mohamed, Z. A.; El-sherif, A. G.

2003-01-01

169

Nematocidal Flavone-C-Glycosides against the Root-Knot Nematode (Meloidogyne incognita from Arisaema erubescens Tubers  

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Full Text Available A screening of several Chinese medicinal herbs for nematicidal properties showed that Arisaema erubescens (Wall. Schott tubers possessed significant nematicidal activity against the root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne incognita. From the ethanol extract, two nematicidal flavone-C-glycosides were isolated by bioassay-guided fractionation. The compounds were identified as schaftoside and isoschaftoside on the basis of their phytochemical and spectral data. Schaftoside and isoschaftoside possessed strong nematicidal activity against M. incognita (LC50 = 114.66 ?g/mL and 323.09 ?g/mL, respectively while the crude extract of A. erubescens exhibited nematicidal activity against the root-knot nematode with a LC50 value of 258.11 ?g/mL.

Zhi Long Liu

2011-06-01

170

Nematocidal flavone-C-glycosides against the root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne incognita) from Arisaema erubescens tubers.  

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A screening of several Chinese medicinal herbs for nematicidal properties showed that Arisaema erubescens (Wall.) Schott tubers possessed significant nematicidal activity against the root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne incognita). From the ethanol extract, two nematicidal flavone-C-glycosides were isolated by bioassay-guided fractionation. The compounds were identified as schaftoside and isoschaftoside on the basis of their phytochemical and spectral data. Schaftoside and isoschaftoside possessed strong nematicidal activity against M. incognita (LC(50) = 114.66 ?g/mL and 323.09 ?g/mL, respectively) while the crude extract of A. erubescens exhibited nematicidal activity against the root-knot nematode with a LC(50) value of 258.11 ?g/mL. PMID:21694672

Du, Shu Shan; Zhang, Hai Ming; Bai, Chun Qi; Wang, Cheng Fang; Liu, Qi Zhi; Liu, Zhi Long; Wang, Yong Yan; Deng, Zhi Wei

2011-01-01

171

EVALUATION OF MAIZE, SORGHUM AND MILLET GENOTYPES FOR RESISTANCE AGAINST Meloidogyne javanica AND M. incognita RACE 3  

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Full Text Available The use of nematode resistant crops in rotations prevents losses in susceptiblecrops. The reproduction of Meloidogyne javanica and M. incognita race 3 in maize, sorghumand millet genotypes in greenhouse conditions where evaluated. The plants were grown ingreenhouse conditions, inoculated with 5.000 nematode eggs and evaluated after 60 days.Tomato plants were used as inoculum’s efficiency check. The egg production of M. incognitawas higher than M. javanica in all maize genotypes. M. javanica presented low reproduction(FR<1 in all genotypes. The maize genotypes CMS 100 02 2, HS 723x724, 97 HT 14 A,BRS 3123, BRS 2114, CMS 14 B, CMS 2000 17 A, CMS 99 14 C, 52 HT03-QPM, HS111764040, and all sorghum and millet genotypes were resistant to M. incognita, resulting in low egg production. The commercial resistant genotypes of corn were indicated to nematodeinfested areas.

FREDOLINO GIACOMINI DOS SANTOS

2002-12-01

172

Genome-wide survey and analysis of microsatellites in nematodes, with a focus on the plant-parasitic species Meloidogyne incognita  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Microsatellites are the most popular source of molecular markers for studying population genetic variation in eukaryotes. However, few data are currently available about their genomic distribution and abundance across the phylum Nematoda. The recent completion of the genomes of several nematode species, including Meloidogyne incognita, a major agricultural pest worldwide, now opens the way for a comparative survey and analysis of microsatellites in these organisms. Results Using MsatFinder, the total numbers of 1-6 bp perfect microsatellites detected in the complete genomes of five nematode species (Brugia malayi, Caenorhabditis elegans, M. hapla, M. incognita, Pristionchus pacificus ranged from 2,842 to 61,547, and covered from 0.09 to 1.20% of the nematode genomes. Under our search criteria, the most common repeat motifs for each length class varied according to the different nematode species considered, with no obvious relation to the AT-richness of their genomes. Overall, (ATn, (AGn and (CTn were the three most frequent dinucleotide microsatellite motifs found in the five genomes considered. Except for two motifs in P. pacificus, all the most frequent trinucleotide motifs were AT-rich, with (AATn and (ATTn being the only common to the five nematode species. A particular attention was paid to the microsatellite content of the plant-parasitic species M. incognita. In this species, a repertoire of 4,880 microsatellite loci was identified, from which 2,183 appeared suitable to design markers for population genetic studies. Interestingly, 1,094 microsatellites were identified in 801 predicted protein-coding regions, 99% of them being trinucleotides. When compared against the InterPro domain database, 497 of these CDS were successfully annotated, and further assigned to Gene Ontology terms. Conclusions Contrasted patterns of microsatellite abundance and diversity were characterized in five nematode genomes, even in the case of two closely related Meloidogyne species. 2,245 di- to hexanucleotide loci were identified in the genome of M. incognita, providing adequate material for the future development of a wide range of microsatellite markers in this major plant parasite.

Guillemaud Thomas

2010-10-01

173

Meloidogyne virulence locus molecular marker for characterization of selected mi-virulent populations of Meloidogyne spp. is correlated with several genera of betaproteobacteria.  

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Resistance to root-knot nematodes in tomato is conferred by the Mi resistance gene to the three most important species of Meloidogyne: M. arenaria, M. incognita, and M. javanica. Nevertheless, the Mi gene is unable to inhibit the reproduction of selected and naturally Mi-virulent populations of root-knot nematodes. As pathogenicity assays are time consuming, molecular markers were developed for the easy identification of Mi-virulent populations of Meloidogyne. The sequence characterized amplified region-Meloidogyne virulence locus (MVC) molecular marker is reported to differentiate Mi-avirulent and naturally Mi-virulent from selected Mi-virulent populations. This marker was used to compare acquired virulence in populations of M. javanica from Spain. The original populations used to develop the MVC marker were included as control for reference. Results showed that this marker did not amplify genomic DNA extracted from single juveniles or females of any of the populations tested either from Spain or Japan. In silico analyses performed with the recently published complete genome of M. incognita, indicated that the MVC marker is not correlated to a MVC or to any eukaryotic organism but to several betaproteobacteria genus from the family Comamonadaceae. PMID:20955082

Cortada, Laura; Sakai, Hiromichi; Verdejo-Lucas, Soledad; Mizukubo, Takayuki

2011-04-01

174

Host Suitability and Response of Asparagus Cultivars to Meloidogyne Species and Races  

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The host-parasite relationships of asparagus and Meloidogyne spp. were examined under greenhouse and microplot conditions. Meloidogyne species and races differed greatly in their ability to reproduce on asparagus seedlings. Meloidogyne hapla generally failed to reproduce, and M. javanica, M. arenaria race 1, and M. incognita race 3 reproduced poorly, with a reproduction factor (Rf = final population/initial population) usually < 1.0. Only M. arenaria race 2 and M. incognita races 1 and 4 repr...

Dudash, P. J.; Barker, K. R.

1992-01-01

175

Efecto del follaje de Tagetes minuta sobre la nodulación radicular de Meloidogyne incognita en Capsicum annuum, en invernadero / Effect of the foliage of Tagetes minuta on Meloidogyne incognita root-galling on Capsicum annuum in a greenhouse  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Peru | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Se investigó el efecto del follaje del "huacatay" Tagetes minuta sobre la nodulación radicular producida por el nematodo Meloidogyne incognita que parasita el "pimiento páprika" Capsicum annuum cultivado en invernadero, con la finalidad de obtener una alternativa de control de este nematodo. Se util [...] izaron tres grupos experimentales y un testigo, con 12 macetas cada uno, las cuales contenían suelo y arena estériles (1:1). A este substrato se adicionó el follaje de T. minuta al 20, 35 y 50% (v/v) según grupo experimental, y el testigo no recibió esta enmienda. En cada maceta se sembró una plántula de C. annuum, y a la semana postsiembra se inoculó 5000 huevos de M. incognita. A las ocho semanas, se evaluaron los nódulos en sus raíces. Todas las plantas presentaron nódulos; aunque, en aquellas de los grupos experimentales el número de éstos fue menor que en las plantas testigo, con diferencia estadística significativa (p 0,05). Se concluye que el follaje de T. minuta adicionado como enmienda orgánica al 20, 35 y 50% al suelo de cultivo de plantas de C. annuum limita la nodulación radicular ocasionada por M. incognita. Lo cual sugiere su uso potencial en el control de este nematodo Abstract in english The effect of the foliage of Tagetes minuta "huacatay" on Meloidogyne incognita root-galling on Capsicum annuum "paprika pepper" cultured in a greenhouse was researched, to obtain a control strategy for this nematode. Three experimental groups and one control with 12 pots each were used, which conta [...] ined sterilized soil and sand (1:1). To this substrate was added cut foliage of T. minuta at 20, 35 and 50% (v/v) according to the experimental group, and the control group remained without this amendment. In each pot a seedling of C. annuum was sown, and one week post-seeding was inoculated with 5000 eggs of M. incognita. Eight weeks later the root galling was evaluated. All the plants had root galling; although the number of galls in plants of the experimental groups was less than those in the control group with statistical significant difference (p 0.05). It is concluded that the foliage of T. minuta added as organic amendment at 20, 35 and 50% to the culture soil for C. annuum plants limits the M. incognita root galling. That suggests its potential use in the control of this nematode

Santos Nélida, Murga-Gutiérrez; Juan Carlos, Alvarado-Ibáñez; Nora Yessenia, Vera-Obando.

2012-12-01

176

COMPORTAMIENTO DE GENOTIPOS DE TOMATE (Solanum lycopersicum L.) FRENTE A Meloidogyne incognita (Kofoid y White) CHITWOOD¹ / RESPONCE OF TOMATO GENOTYPES (Solanum lycopersicum L.) TO THE PARASITISM OF of Meloidogyne incognita (Kofoid y White) CHITWOOD¹  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Los nematodos del género Meloidogyne Göldi representan un factor limitante en la producción protegida de hortalizas en Cuba. Los híbridos y variedades de tomate empleados en esta tecnología provienen de firmas extranjeras, cuyo comportamiento ante Meloidogyne incognita (Kofoid y White) Chitwood se d [...] esconoce. El objetivo de este trabajo es evaluar la resistencia/susceptibilidad de los híbridos de tomate FA 572- Katherine y LT-M12 frente a M. incognita. El experimento se estableció en condiciones semi-controladas en macetas con plantas de cada genotipo inoculadas con 1,5 J2 de M. incognita por gramo de suelo. El cultivo susceptible Cucurbita sp. var. RG5 fue utilizado como control de la población de nematodos. Se establecieron diez repeticiones para cada tratamiento. A los 60 días después de la inoculación se determinó el Índice de Agallamiento (IA), el factor de reproducción (FR) y el índice de reproducción(IR) para la categorización de los genotipos en resistentes/susceptibles. Se evidenció que los IA para los dos genotipos fueron bajos (IA= 2 - 3) con respecto al control (IA= 5). Sin embargo, permitieron la reproducción del nematodo y que estos aumentaran su población nueve veces más que la inoculada inicialmente. El índice de reproducción obtenido los sitúa dentro de la categoría de muy susceptibles (MS), ya que la reproducción tuvo un incremento de más del 50 % con respecto al cultivo susceptible utilizado como control. Este trabajo ratifica que el IA no debe ser utilizado como único elemento para determinar la resistencia/susceptibilidad de los genotipos. Abstract in english Root-knot nematodes Meloidogyne spp., represent one of the factors that limit vegetable production under sheltered conditions. The hybrids and varieties of tomato produced under this technology are imported and their responses to Meloidogyne incognita Kofoi y White (Chitwood) under these conditions [...] are unknown. The main objective of this work was to evaluate the resistant/susceptibility of tomato hybrids FA 572- Katherine and LT-M12 to M. incognita. The experiment was set up under semi-controlled conditions using potted plants of each genotype and the susceptible crop Cucurbita sp. var. RG5, used as a control of the experiment. The plants were inoculated with 1,5 egg-juveniles per gram of soil with 10 replications per treatment. At sixty days after nematode inoculation, the gall index (GI), the reproduction factor and the reproduction index were determined to categorize the genotypes as resistant/susceptible. Both genotypes showed a low root gall index (GI=2-3) in comparison with the control (GI=5) although they responded very susceptible to M. incognita as they allowed higher reproduction of the nematode in a 50% than the control. The results of this work confirmed that the gall index can not be used as a unique criterion to determine genotype resistance to M. incognita.

L, Navarro-Barthelemy; Lucila, Gómez; R, Enrique; Farah M, González; Mayra G, Rodríguez.

2009-04-01

177

Greenhouse Evaluation of Selected Soybean Germplasm for Resistance to North Carolina Populations of Heterodera glycines, Rotylenchulus reniformis, and Meloidogyne Species  

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Selected soybean genotypes were evaluated for resistance to North Carolina populations of the soybean cyst nematode Heterodera glycines, the root-knot nematodes Meloidogyne incognita races 3 and 4, M. arenaria races 1 and 2, M. javanica, and the reniform nematode Rotylenchulus reniformis in two greenhouse tests. Populations of cyst nematode used in the first test were cultures from field samples originally classified as races 1-5, and those used in the second test included inbred cyst lines t...

Davis, E. L.; Koenning, S. R.; Burton, J. W.; Barker, K. R.

1996-01-01

178

Eclosão de Meloidogyne incognita, M. javanica e M. mayaguensis em lixiviados de caupi associado a Glomus etunicatum e Bradyrhizobium sp  

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O objetivo do presente estudo foi avaliar a influência de lixiviados de caupi (Vigna unguiculata) cultivar Epace 10 inoculada com Glomus etunicatum e/ou Bradyrhizobium sp. sobre eclosão de Meloidogyne incognita, M. javanica e M. mayaguensis. O solo foi infestado com 200 esporos do fungo micorrízico e/ou 1 ml de suspensão contendo 10(8) UFC/ml das estirpes de Bradyrhizobium NFB 700 e NFB 652, e semeados com caupi, deixando-se plantas não inoculadas como testemunha. As plantas foram mantid...

Siqueira Kércya M. S.; Torres Gustavo R. C.; Pedrosa Elvira M. R.; Moura Romero M.

2004-01-01

179

Meloidogyne incognita and Tomato Response to Thiamine, Ascorbic Acid, L-arginine, and L-glutamic Acid  

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The influence of solutions of ascorbic acid, thiamine, L-arginine, and L-gtutamic acid on egg hatch, juvenile survival, and development and reproduction of Meloidogyne incognita in susceptible and resistant tomatoes was studied. Maximum inhibition of egg hatch occurred at 2,000, 4,000, and 2,000 ppm for ascorbic acid, L-arginine, and L-glutamic acid, respectively. Larval survival was significantly reduced by concentrations of 2,000 ppm ascorbic acid and 1,000 ppm of L-arginine. Maximum inhibi...

Al-sayed, A. A.; Thomason, I. J.

1988-01-01

180

Avaliação da resistência de genótipos de quiabeiro à infestação por Meloidogyne incognita raça 2 e M. javanica Resistance of okra genotypes to Meloidogyne incognita race 2 and M. javanica  

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Full Text Available Vinte e dois genótipos de quiabeiro (Abelmoschus spp. foram avaliados para resistência à Meloidogyne incognita raça 2 e M. javanica. Estes materiais, mantidos no Banco de Germoplasma da Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense, constam de quatro espécies selvagens Abelmoschus manihot (CGO 8655, A. caillei (CGO 8656, A. tetraphyllus (CGO 8657 e A. ficulneus (CGO 8658; 16 linhas de A. esculentus na sétima geração de autofecundação, resultantes de inter-cruzamentos do genótipo PI-357991 (supostamente resistentes a nematóides com as cultivares Piranema e Santa Cruz 47. Essas cultivares serviram como padrão de suscetibilidade. As plantas foram inoculadas separadamente com 5.000 ovos/segundo estádio juvenil (J2 de M. incognita raça 2 e M. javanica. Não houve diferença significativa com relação à resistência dos materiais a M. javanica. Os genótipos descendentes de 'PI-357991' mostraram-se segregantes para a reação de resistência, sendo que entre estes 'CGO 8180A7' apresentou o maior nível de tolerância à raça 2 de M. incognita. As espécies silvestres também não mostraram alguma fonte de resistência. As altas temperaturas ocorridas no período do experimento, podem ter aumentado a suscetibilidade dos genótipos aos dois patógenos.Twenty two okra genotypes were evaluated for resistance to M. incognita race 2 and M. javanica. The Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense (Brazil maintains okra genotypes in the germplasm collection, consisting of four wild Abelmoschus species and 16 F7 lines obtained from crosses between PI-357991 (considered resistant to root-knot nematodes and the local cvs, Piranema and Santa Cruz 47 (both susceptible to nematodes. No resistance was observed among okra genotypes to infection by M. javanica. The 16 F7 lines segregated for pathogenic reaction, and the CGO 8180A7 presented the highest resistance level to M. incognita race 2. The wild species did not show genetic resistance to both pathogens. High temperature occurring during experimental period could have increased the genotype susceptibility to the pathogens.

Gilmar Efrem Martinello

2001-07-01

 
 
 
 
181

Preliminary evaluation of meloidogyne incognita race 3 reproduction on garden pea cultivars in Brazil/ Avaliação preliminar da reprodução de Meloidogyne incognita raça 3 em cultivares de ervilha no Brasil  

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Full Text Available Thirteen garden pea cultivars, were assessed for the reproductive rate of the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita race 3 under greenhouse conditions. Two-week old plants growing were inoculated with 5.000 eggs. The nematode reproduction data was determined 55 days later according to the three adopted evaluation criteria (root-gall and egg-mass indexes, reproduction factor, percentage of reduction of the reproduction factor in relation to the susceptible standard cultivar. The tested cultivars were rated as highly susceptible ('Trolly'. 'Jurema', susceptible ('Luiza'. 'Mini'. 'Asterix', 'Verde Temprana' or moderately susceptible ('Marina', 'Telephone'., 'Dileta'. 'Bolero', 'Flávia'. 'Viçosa', and 'Maria' hosts for the nematode.Avaliaram-se as taxas reprodutivas e caracterizaram-se as reações de 13 cut tiveres de ervilha em relação ao nematóide de galhas Meloidogyne incognita raça 3, em casa-de-vegetação. Plantas com duas semanas de idade, foram inoculadas com 5000 ovos do nematóide. As avaliações foram realizadas após 55 dias com base nos critérios - índices de galhas/índices de massas de ovos, fator de reprodução e porcentagem de redução do fator de reprodução. Duas cultivares foram consideradas hospedeiras altamente suscetíveis (‘Trolly’, ‘Jurema’, cinco suscetíveis ('Luíza', 'Mini', 'Asterix', 'Verde Temprana', 'Telefone' e seis moderadamente suscetíveis ('Marina'. 'Dileta', 'Boiero'. 'Flávia'. 'Viçosa', 'Maria'.

Luiz Carlos Camargo Barbosa Ferraz

2000-01-01

182

Eficiência e atividade enzimática elicitada por metil jasmonato e silicato de potássio em cana-de-açúcar parasitada por Meloidogyne incognita Efficiency and enzymatic activity elicited by methyl jasmonate and potassium silicate on sugarcane under Meloidogyne incognita parasitism  

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Full Text Available O presente estudo teve como objetivo avaliar o efeito de metil jasmonato e silicato de potássio sobre o parasitismo de Meloidogyne incognita na variedade RB863129 de cana-de-açúcar (Saccharum sp. e a atividade enzimática da peroxidase e ?-1,3-glucanase elicitada, em condições de casa de vegetação. Metil jasmonato diminuiu significativamente o número de ovos por grama de raiz, mas não afetou à biomassa da parte aérea da planta. Sete dias após a aplicação, os dois indutores afetaram a atividade de ?-glucanase na plantas parasitadas e, aos 14 e 21 dias, promoveram variações significativas nos níveis de peroxidase e ?-1,3-glucanase, muito embora, ao contrário da peroxidase, a atividade ?-1,3-glucanase não diferiu entre plantas inoculadas e não inoculadas.The present study had as objective to evaluate methyl jasmonate and potassium silicate effect on Meloidogyne incognita parasitism in sugarcane (Saccharum sp. variety RB863129 and peroxidase and ?-1,3-glucanase activity elicited, under greenhouse. The effect of Methyl jasmonate and potassium silicate did not affect shoot biomass. Methyl jasmonate and potassium silicate significantly decreased eggs number per gram of roots. Seven days after application, both inducers affected b-glucanase activity in parasited plants and at 14 and 21 days, inducers promoted significant variations in peroxidase e -1,3-glucanase levels in plants under parasitism, although, inversely to peroxidase, ?-1,3-glucanase activity did not differ between inoculated and non inoculated plants.

Lílian Margarete Paes Guimarães

2010-03-01

183

Nematicidal activity of 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid purified from Terminalia nigrovenulosa bark against Meloidogyne incognita.  

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In this study, the 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid (3,4-DHBA) from Terminalia nigrovenulosa bark (TNB) was purified and its in vitro nematicidal activity was investigated against Meloidogyne incognita. The purification of 3,4-DHBA used a silica gel column and Sephadex LH-20 chromatography combined with thin-layer chromatography and high performance liquid chromatography. Structural identification of the 3,4-DHBA was conducted using (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), (13)C NMR, and liquid chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Nematicidal activity bioassays revealed that 3,4-DHBA treatment resulted in 33.3, 47.5, 72.5 and 94.2% J2 mortality at 0.125, 0.25, 0.5 and 1.0 mg/ml, respectively after 12 h incubation. J2 mortality was increased significantly (P < 0.0001) with increasing incubation time in the range of 54.2-94.2% from 3 to 9 h after incubation with 3,4-DHBA (1.0 mg/ml), but with no significant difference observed where the incubation time was increased from 9 to 12 h. The 3,4-DHBA treatment resulted in 33.3, 65.0, 76.7 and 85.0% hatch inhibition at 0.125, 0.25, 0.5 and 1.0 mg/ml, respectively, 3 days after incubation. Changes in the shape of the eggs were determined after incubation for 1 day with a 3,4-DHBA concentration of 1.0 mg/ml. PMID:23603737

Nguyen, Dang-Minh-Chanh; Seo, Dong-Jun; Kim, Kil-Yong; Park, Ro-Dong; Kim, Dong-Hyun; Han, Yeon-Soo; Kim, Tae-Hwan; Jung, Woo-Jin

2013-01-01

184

The Feeding Behavior of Adult Root-knot Nematodes (Meloidogyne incognita) in Rose Balsam and Tomato.  

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Meloidogyne incognita is a parasitic root-knot nematode that causes considerable yield loss in a wide range of plants. In this study we documented the movement of adult female nematodes for more than 2 hr in micro-slices of infected tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) and rose balsam (Impatiens balsamina) plants using light and video microscopy. Stylet thrusting was followed by short pumping actions of the esophagus, dorsal esophageal gland ampulla, and metacorpal bulb. Regular thrusting was normally accompanied by head turning and always preceded continuous stylet thrusting aimed at a single point (for 20 to 90 sec). Females often held the stylet in a protruded position, while pulsating the metacorpus bulb, for about 30 sec. Subsequently, the stylet was paused in a retracted position for 5 to 40 sec. This sequence of behavior took 290 to 380 sec to complete. The procedure developed in this study provides a useful cytological technique to investigate the interaction between root-knot nematodes and the giant cells formed by infected plants. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that the head of the adult nematode was located in the narrow intercellular spaces among several giant cells. The anterior part of the head of the adult was folded like a concertina, whereas that of the second-stage juvenile was not. The labial disc and medial lips of second-stage juveniles seemed expanded and sturdy, whereas those of the adult were star-shaped, appeared to be contracted, and softer. These morphological differences in the heads of adult and second-stage juveniles are discussed with respect to their movement. PMID:25276004

Miyashita, Nao; Yabu, Tetsuo; Kurihara, Takayuki; Koga, Hironori

2014-09-01

185

Screenhouse Assessment of Reaction of Fluted Pumpkin, Telfairia Occidentalis Hook F. to Root-Knot Nematode Meloidogyne Incognita  

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Full Text Available Screenhouse studies were carried out between April – June and July – September, 2004 at the vegetable researchunit of National HorticulturalResearch Institute (NIHORT, Ibadan,Nigeria to investigate the reaction of five linesof Telfairia occidentalis (EN2000-4, EN2000-6, EN2000-10, EN2000-11, EN2000-13 to different populationlevels (0, 5000 and 10 000 eggs of Meloidogyne incognita race 2. Seeds from five different matured pods ofTelfairia lines were planted on moist sawdust medium. They were watered every two days until germination andtransplanting. Experimental layout was a completely randomized design and each treatment was replicated fivetimes. Nematode inoculation was done at one week after transplanting. The plants were watered every two daysand observation of vine length, vine girth and number of leaves commenced two weeks after transplanting (WATon bi weekly basis and lasted till the 10th week. From the 4th WAT, roots were assessed for the presence of eggsevery five days in view of determining the generation time in the various lines. Soil nematode population and rootgall indices were determined at the end of the trial.Results showed that there were significant differences between the Telfairia lines in the measured parametersirrespective of the inoculum levels. EN2000-4 performed significantly better than the other lines. EN2000-13which closely followed EN2000-4 with respect to vegetative growth, recorded significantly higher galling indexthan all the other lines. There were significant differences between the inoculum levels. Inoculum levels wereinversely proportional to growth parameters and directly proportional to gall indices in all the lines. Chloroticpatches were also observed on the leaves of plants inoculated with 10 000 eggs. The uninoculated (control plantsgave significantly better vegetative growth than their inoculated counterparts. The disparities in growth and yieldresponses indicate that there is genetic variability among the lines.

N. B. IZUOGU

2010-08-01

186

In vitro proteolysis of nematode FLPs by preparations from the free-living nematode Panagrellus redivivus and two plant-parasitic nematodes (Heterodera glycines and Meloidogyne incognita)  

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Proteolytic activities in extracts from three nematodes, the plant parasites Heterodera glycines and Meloidogyne incognita, and the free-living Panagrellus redivivus, were surveyed for substrate preferences using a battery of seven FRET-modified peptide substrates, all derived from members of the la...

187

Eclosão de Meloidogyne incognita, M. javanica e M. mayaguensis em lixiviados de caupi associado a Glomus etunicatum e Bradyrhizobium sp  

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Full Text Available O objetivo do presente estudo foi avaliar a influência de lixiviados de caupi (Vigna unguiculata cultivar Epace 10 inoculada com Glomus etunicatum e/ou Bradyrhizobium sp. sobre eclosão de Meloidogyne incognita, M. javanica e M. mayaguensis. O solo foi infestado com 200 esporos do fungo micorrízico e/ou 1 ml de suspensão contendo 10(8 UFC/ml das estirpes de Bradyrhizobium NFB 700 e NFB 652, e semeados com caupi, deixando-se plantas não inoculadas como testemunha. As plantas foram mantidas em condições de casa de vegetação, durante 57 dias após infestação, para coleta dos lixiviados. Procederam-se avaliações após 0, 24, 48 e 144 h de imersão de ovos dos nematóides em água ou lixiviados de plantas não inoculadas e inoculadas com fungo e bactéria em conjunto ou isoladamente. O delineamento adotado foi do tipo inteiramente casualizado em arranjo fatorial 3'5'4 (nematóide ' lixiviado ' período de exposição, com quatro repetições. Meloidogyne javanica apresentou maior (P< 0,01 percentual de juvenis eclodidos quando em lixiviados de plantas inoculadas simultaneamente com o fungo e a bactéria. Considerando o tempo de exposição aos lixiviados, M. javanica e M. mayaguensis apresentaram comportamento semelhante, em relação ao percentual de juvenis eclodidos, diferindo ambas de M. incognita, após 144 h. A eclosão de juvenis em função do tempo, em resposta a cada lixiviado, ajustou-se (P< 0,01 ao modelo quadrático.

Siqueira Kércya M. S.

2004-01-01

188

Activity of Hydroxamic Acids from Secale cereale Against the Plant-Parasitic Nematodes Meloidogyne incognita and Xiphinema americanum.  

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ABSTRACT Cyclic hydroxamic acids are secondary metabolites found in the family Poaceae and have been implicated in the allelopathy of rye (Secale cereale). The toxicity of these compounds against plant-parasitic nematodes is unknown. DIBOA (2,4-dihydroxy-(2H)-1,4-benzoxazin-3(4H)-one), DIMBOA (2,4-hydroxy-7-methoxy-(2H)-1,4-benzoxazin-3(4H)-one), and their degradation products BOA (benzoxazolin-2(3H)-one) and MBOA (6-methoxy-benzoxazolin-2(3H)-one) were screened in vitro against Meloidogyne incognita second-stage juveniles (J2) and eggs and mixed-stages of Xiphinema americanum. Xiphinema americanum was more sensitive to DIBOA and DIMBOA than M. incognita J2, with a maximum apparent mortality of 96 and 92% compared to 73 and 72% at 90 mug/ml. Eggs of M. incognita were less sensitive to the hydroxamic acids than J2; only DIBOA resulted in a 50% reduction in egg hatch, with a lethal concentration (LC(50)) of 74 mug/ml compared to 21 mug/ml for J2. When M. incognita J2 were exposed to DIBOA for 48 h and the compound was removed and replaced with water, the LC(50) value increased from 21.0 to 40.7 mug/ml. MBOA was not toxic to X. americanum or M. incognita eggs, but was toxic to M. incognita J2, with LC(50) values of 44 and 20 mug/ml before and after the compound was removed and replaced with water. BOA was the least toxic hydroxamic acid tested; it did not reduce M. incognita egg hatch after 1 week of exposure or increase X. americanum mortality after 24 h of exposure. While in vitro studies provide a valuable starting point in determining the toxicity of the chemical component of rye, the relevance of the data to soil remains to be determined. PMID:18943462

Zasada, I A; Meyer, S L F; Halbrendt, J M; Rice, C

2005-10-01

189

Mean Dosage Stimulation Range of Allelochemicals from Crude Extracts of Cucumis africanus Fruit for Improving Growth of Tomato Plant and Suppressing Meloidogyne incognita Numbers  

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Full Text Available Successful utilisation of allelochemicals in management of plant-parasitic nematodes depends on their degree of phytotoxicity. Conventional methods of determining phytotoxicity are tedious, with inconsistent results. Plants respond to increased dosages of allelochemicals in a density-dependent growth pattern, which allows the use of the Curve-fitting Allelochemical Response Data computer-based model to determine the mean dosage stimulation range of used allelochemicals. The CARD modelling was used to determine the stimulation range of fermented dried crude extracts of wild cucumber (Cucumis africanus fruit for improving growth of tomato (Solanum lycopersicon plants, each infested with 1500 eggs and juveniles of the southern root-knot (Meloidogyne incognita nematode. Dilutions at 0, 2, 4, 8, 16, 32 and 64% were applied weekly through irrigation system. At 56 days after treatment, CARD demonstrated density-dependent growth patterns as dosages increased. The mean dosage stimulation range of diluted fermented crude extracts, computed from CARD biological indices, was 2.64% dilution for tomato plant. Since at 2% dilution, the material reduced final nematode population density of M. incognita by 90%. The 2.64% was suitable for stimulation of tomato plant and suppression of nematode numbers.

Osvaldo Pelinganga

2012-11-01

190

Molecular cloning of a cDNA encoding an amphid-secreted putative avirulence protein from the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita.  

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Amplified fragment length polymorphism fingerprinting of three pairs of Meloidogyne incognita near-isogenic lines (NILs) was used to identify markers differential between nematode genotypes avirulent or virulent against the tomato Mi resistance gene. One of these sequences, present only in the avirulent lines, was used as a probe to screen a cDNA library from second-stage juveniles (J2s) and allowed cloning of a cDNA encoding a secretory protein. The putative full-length cDNA, named map-1, encoded a 458 amino acid (aa) protein containing a predictive N-terminal secretion signal peptide. The MAP-1 sequence did not show any significant similarity to proteins deposited in databases. The internal part of the protein, however, was characterized by highly conserved repetitive motives of 58 or 13 aa. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) experiments confirmed that map-1 expression was different between avirulent and virulent NILs. In PCR reactions, map-1-related sequences were amplified only in nematode populations belonging to the three species against which the Mi gene confers resistance: M. arenaria, M. incognita, and M. javanica. Polyclonal antibodies raised against a synthetic peptide deduced from the MAP-1 sequence strongly labeled J2 amphidial secretions in immunofluorescence microscopy assays, suggesting that MAP-1 may be involved in the early steps of recognition between (resistant) plants and (avirulent) nematodes. PMID:11194874

Semblat, J P; Rosso, M N; Hussey, R S; Abad, P; Castagnone-Sereno, P

2001-01-01

191

Interactions between an arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus (Scutellospora heterogama) and the root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne incognita) on sweet passion fruit (Passiflora alata)  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese O efeito da inoculação com Scutellospora heterogama (200 esporos/planta) em relação aos sintomas e reprodução de Meloidogyne incognita raça 1 (5000 ovos/planta) foi avaliado em plantas de maracujazeiro doce em dois experimentos em casa de vegetação. No primeiro experimento, inoculações com nematóide [...] e FMA foram simultâneas; no segundo, nematóides foram inoculados 120 dias após o estabelecimento da simbiose micorrízica. Após o 220º dia da inoculação do FMA o fungo estimulou o crescimento da planta nos dois experimentos. No solo desinfestado as mudas não inoculadas com S. heterogama mostraram intolerância ao parasitismo de M. incognita. A esporulação de S. heterogama foi negativamente afetada pela presença do nematóide. M. incognita não afetou o crescimento das mudas micorrizadas ou o desenvolvimento do FMA. O estabelecimento da micorriza antes do nematóide contribui para a redução da severidade dos sintomas e reprodução de M. incognita em solo desinfestado. Abstract in english The effects of inoculation of sweet passion fruit plants with the arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungus Scutellospora heterogama on the symptoms produced by Meloidogyne incognita race 1 and its reproduction were evaluated in two greenhouse experiments. In the 1st, the M. incognita (5000 eggs/plant) and [...] S. heterogama (200 spores/plant) inoculations were simultaneous; in the 2nd, the nematodes were inoculated 120 days after the fungal inoculation. In both the experiments, 220 days after AM fungal inoculation, plant growth was stimulated by the fungus. In disinfested soil, control seedlings (without S. heterogama) were intolerant to parasitism of M. incognita, while the growth of mycorrhized seedlings was not affected. Sporulation of S. heterogama was negatively affected by the nematodes that did not impair the colonization. M. incognita did not affect mycorrhizal seedling growth. The establishment of mycorrhiza prior to the nematode infection contributed for the reduction of symptoms severity and reproduction of M. incognita in disinfested soil.

Érika Cristina Teixeira dos, Anjos; Uided Maaze Tiburcio, Cavalcante; Danielle Maria Correia, Gonçalves; Elvira Maria Regis, Pedrosa; Venézio Felipe dos, Santos; Leonor Costa, Maia.

2010-08-01

192

Preferential expression of a plant cystatin at nematode feeding sites confers resistance to Meloidogyne incognita and Globodera pallida.  

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The expression patterns of three promoters preferentially active in the roots of Arabidopsis thaliana have been investigated in transgenic potato plants in response to plant parasitic nematode infection. Promoter regions from the three genes, TUB-1, ARSK1 and RPL16A were linked to the GUS reporter gene and histochemical staining was used to localize expression in potato roots in response to infection with both the potato cyst nematode, Globodera pallida and the root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita. All three promoters directed GUS expression chiefly in root tissue and were strongly up-regulated in the galls induced by feeding M. incognita. Less activity was associated with the syncytial feeding cells of the cyst nematode, although the ARSK1 promoter was highly active in the syncytia of G. pallida infecting soil grown plants. Transgenic potato lines that expressed the cystatin OcIDeltaD86 under the control of the three promoters were evaluated for resistance against Globodera sp. in a field trial and against M. incognita in containment. Resistance to Globodera of 70 +/- 4% was achieved with the best line using the ARSK1 promoter with no associated yield penalty. The highest level of partial resistance achieved against M. incognita was 67 +/- 9% using the TUB-1 promoter. In both cases this was comparable to the level of resistance achieved using the constitutive cauliflower mosaic virus 35S (CaMV35S) promoter. The results establish the potential for limiting transgene expression in crop plants whilst maintaining efficacy of the nematode defence. PMID:17166138

Lilley, Catherine J; Urwin, Peter E; Johnston, Katherine A; Atkinson, Howard J

2004-01-01

193

Geographical Distributions of Rotylenchulus reniformis, Meloidogyne incognita, and Tylenchulus semipenetrans in the Lower Rio Grande Valley as Related to Soil Texture and Land Use.  

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A survey was conducted over a 22-year period to evaluate the influence of soil texture and land use on the geographical distributions of Rotylenchulus reniformis, Meloidogyne incognita, and Tylenchulus semipenetrans in the lower Rio Grande valley. The distributions of R. reniformis and M. incognita were related to soil texture, whereas T. semipenetrans occurred wherever host plants were present regardless of soil texture. The incidence of M. incognita was greatest in elevated sandy loams and moderately well-drained silts of modern flood terraces of the Rio Grande river. Rotylenchulus reniformis occurred predominantly in clay silts and clays of ancient flood terraces. Clay loams and sandy clay loams of the central, irrigated portion of the lower Rio Grande valley appeared favorable for M. incognita and R. reniformis. Differences between the geographical distributions of these two species could not be attributed to host crops. PMID:19290268

Robinson, A F; Heald, C M; Flanagan, S L; Thames, W H; Amador, J

1987-10-01

194

Utility of host delivered RNAi of two FMRF amide like peptides, flp-14 and flp-18, for the management of root knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita.  

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Root knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita, is an obligate sedentary endoparasite that infects a large number of crop species and causes substantial yield losses. Non-chemical based control strategies for these nematodes are gaining importance. In the present study, we have demonstrated the significance of two FMRFamide like peptide genes (flp-14 and flp-18) for infection and development of resistance to M. incognita through host-derived RNAi. The study demonstrated both in vitro and in planta validation of RNAi-induced silencing of the two genes cloned from J2 stage of M. incognita. In vitro silencing of both the genes interfered with nematode migration towards the host roots and subsequent invasion into the roots. Transgenic tobacco lines were developed with RNAi constructs of flp-14 and flp-18 and evaluated against M. incognita. The transformed plants did not show any visible phenotypic variations suggesting the absence of any off-target effects. Bioefficacy studies with deliberate challenging of M. incognita resulted in 50-80% reduction in infection and multiplication confirming the silencing effect. We have provided evidence for in vitro and in planta silencing of the genes by expression analysis using qRT-PCR. Thus the identified genes and the strategy can be used as a potential tool for the control of M. incognita. This is the first ever report that has revealed the utility of host delivered RNAi of flps to control M. incognita. The strategy can also be extended to other crops and nematodes. PMID:24223228

Papolu, Pradeep Kumar; Gantasala, Nagavara Prasad; Kamaraju, Divya; Banakar, Prakash; Sreevathsa, Rohini; Rao, Uma

2013-01-01

195

Avaliação da resistência de genótipos de quiabeiro à infestação por Meloidogyne incognita raça 2 e M. javanica / Resistance of okra genotypes to Meloidogyne incognita race 2 and M. javanica  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Vinte e dois genótipos de quiabeiro (Abelmoschus spp.) foram avaliados para resistência à Meloidogyne incognita raça 2 e M. javanica. Estes materiais, mantidos no Banco de Germoplasma da Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense, constam de quatro espécies selvagens Abelmoschus manihot (CGO 8655), A [...] . caillei (CGO 8656), A. tetraphyllus (CGO 8657) e A. ficulneus (CGO 8658); 16 linhas de A. esculentus na sétima geração de autofecundação, resultantes de inter-cruzamentos do genótipo PI-357991 (supostamente resistentes a nematóides) com as cultivares Piranema e Santa Cruz 47. Essas cultivares serviram como padrão de suscetibilidade. As plantas foram inoculadas separadamente com 5.000 ovos/segundo estádio juvenil (J2) de M. incognita raça 2 e M. javanica. Não houve diferença significativa com relação à resistência dos materiais a M. javanica. Os genótipos descendentes de 'PI-357991' mostraram-se segregantes para a reação de resistência, sendo que entre estes 'CGO 8180A7' apresentou o maior nível de tolerância à raça 2 de M. incognita. As espécies silvestres também não mostraram alguma fonte de resistência. As altas temperaturas ocorridas no período do experimento, podem ter aumentado a suscetibilidade dos genótipos aos dois patógenos. Abstract in english Twenty two okra genotypes were evaluated for resistance to M. incognita race 2 and M. javanica. The Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense (Brazil) maintains okra genotypes in the germplasm collection, consisting of four wild Abelmoschus species and 16 F7 lines obtained from crosses between PI-35 [...] 7991 (considered resistant to root-knot nematodes) and the local cvs, Piranema and Santa Cruz 47 (both susceptible to nematodes). No resistance was observed among okra genotypes to infection by M. javanica. The 16 F7 lines segregated for pathogenic reaction, and the CGO 8180A7 presented the highest resistance level to M. incognita race 2. The wild species did not show genetic resistance to both pathogens. High temperature occurring during experimental period could have increased the genotype susceptibility to the pathogens.

Gilmar Efrem, Martinello; Nilton R., Leal; João Carlos, Pimentel.

2001-07-01

196

Eficiência e atividade enzimática elicitada por metil jasmonato e silicato de potássio em cana-de-açúcar parasitada por Meloidogyne incognita / Efficiency and enzymatic activity elicited by methyl jasmonate and potassium silicate on sugarcane under Meloidogyne incognita parasitism  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O presente estudo teve como objetivo avaliar o efeito de metil jasmonato e silicato de potássio sobre o parasitismo de Meloidogyne incognita na variedade RB863129 de cana-de-açúcar (Saccharum sp.) e a atividade enzimática da peroxidase e ?-1,3-glucanase elicitada, em condições de casa de vegetação. [...] Metil jasmonato diminuiu significativamente o número de ovos por grama de raiz, mas não afetou à biomassa da parte aérea da planta. Sete dias após a aplicação, os dois indutores afetaram a atividade de ?-glucanase na plantas parasitadas e, aos 14 e 21 dias, promoveram variações significativas nos níveis de peroxidase e ?-1,3-glucanase, muito embora, ao contrário da peroxidase, a atividade ?-1,3-glucanase não diferiu entre plantas inoculadas e não inoculadas. Abstract in english The present study had as objective to evaluate methyl jasmonate and potassium silicate effect on Meloidogyne incognita parasitism in sugarcane (Saccharum sp.) variety RB863129 and peroxidase and ?-1,3-glucanase activity elicited, under greenhouse. The effect of Methyl jasmonate and potassium silicat [...] e did not affect shoot biomass. Methyl jasmonate and potassium silicate significantly decreased eggs number per gram of roots. Seven days after application, both inducers affected b-glucanase activity in parasited plants and at 14 and 21 days, inducers promoted significant variations in peroxidase e -1,3-glucanase levels in plants under parasitism, although, inversely to peroxidase, ?-1,3-glucanase activity did not differ between inoculated and non inoculated plants.

Lílian Margarete Paes, Guimarães; Elvira Maria Régis, Pedrosa; Rildo Sartori Barbosa, Coelho; Erick Farias, Couto; Sandra Roberta Vaz Lira, Maranhão; Andréa, Chaves.

2010-03-01

197

Infectividade de juvenis do segundo estádio de Meloidogyne incognita em tomateiro após privação alimentar em solo e água em diferentes condições Infectivity of second stage juveniles of Meloidogyne incognita in tomato after starvation in soil and water at different conditions  

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Full Text Available O juvenil do segundo estádio (J2 de Meloidogyne spp. gasta sua reserva energética corporal de formas diferentes sob condições variadas de temperatura e umidade do solo, chegando à incapacidade de parasitismo vegetal. Desta forma, objetivou-se neste trabalho estudar o efeito da incubação de J2 de M. incognita em solo com níveis de umidade e temperaturas diferentes, além do borbulhamento da suspensão do inóculo na infectividade desses J2 em tomateiro. A infectividade dos J2 armazenados no solo em tomateiros decresceu significativamente entre as temperaturas estudadas durante o período de seis dias. Maior (PThe second stage juvenile (J2 of Meloidogyne spp. spend the storaged energy of the body, differently, when living in variable conditions of soil temperatures and humidities approaching to the incapability of plant parasitism. Therefore, the aim of this work was to study the storage of J2 of M. incognita in soil at different levels of humidity and temperature, besides water bubbling of inoculum suspension on the infectivity of starved J2 in tomato. The infectivity of J2 in tomato decreased significantly among storaged temperatures during the period of six days in soil. Greatest (P<0,01 infectivity occurred when J2 was storaged at 8 ºC and least at 28 ºC. When soil humidity decreased from 30% to 5% the J2 infectivity was significantly reduced. Among all storaged temperatures tested, only at 28 ºC occurred reduction of J2 infectivity in dry soil (5% compared to humid (30%, approaching to 98% reduction from 4 days storage of J2. When J2 was storaged in water, its mobility decreased along the storage period, following the same trend with the temperature and water bubbling increased. The infectivity of J2 storaged in water decreased as the temperature and the water bubbling increased. However at 8 ºC the water bubbling did not affect the J2 mobility.

Eduardo Souza Freire

2007-09-01

198

Efeito da incorporação de sementes trituradas defeijão de porco ao solo sobre o parasitismo de Meloidogyne incognita em tomateiro Effect of soil amendment with powdered seeds of pig bean on Meloidogyne incognita in tomato  

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Full Text Available Avaliou-se, em condições de casa de vegetação, o efeito da suplementação do solo com sementes trituradas de feijão de porco (Canavalia ensiformis sobre os índices de galhas e de massas de ovos de Meloidogyne incognita raça 1 em tomateiro (Lycopersicon esculentum. O substrato utilizado foi solo autoclavado suplementado com 2,5; 5,0; 7,5 e 10,0 g de sementes trituradas/kg de solo. Solo sem a suplementação serviu como testemunha. Para efeito de comparação, o nematicida Carbofuran foi incluído como tratamento adicional. Controle do nematóide foi obtido a partir da incorporação de 5,0 g de sementes trituradas/kg de solo, sendo o efeito proporcional à dosagem. Os índices de galhas e massas de ovos foram reduzidos em 48% e 64%, respectivamente, com a aplicação de 10 g de sementes trituradas/kg de solo.A greenhouse experiment was carried out to study the effect of powdered seeds of pig bean (Canavalia ensiformis incorporated into the soil, for the control of Meloidogyne incognita race 1 in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum plants. Autoclaved soil was amended with 2.5, 5.0, 7.5 and 10.0 g of powdered seeds/kg of soil. Soil without amendment served as control. For comparison, the nematicide Carbofuran was included as an additional treatment. Nematode was controlled at rates above 5.0 g. Gall and egg mass indexes were reduced by 48% and 64%, respectively, with the application of 10 g of powdered seeds/kg of soil.

GILSON S. SILVA

2002-07-01

199

Elucidating the molecular bases of epigenetic inheritance in non-model invertebrates: the case of the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita  

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Root-knot nematodes of the genus Meloidogyne are biotrophic plant parasites that exhibit different life cycles and reproduction modes, ranging from classical amphimixis to obligatory mitotic parthenogenesis (apomixis), depending on the species. Meloidogyne incognita, an apomictic species, exhibits a worldwide distribution and a wide host range affecting more than 3000 plant species. Furthermore, evidences suggest that apomixis does not prevent M. incognita from adapting to its environment in contrast to what is expected from mitotic parthenogenesis that should theoretically produce clonal progenies. This raises questions about mechanisms of genome plasticity leading to genetic variation and adaptive evolution in apomictic animals. We reasoned that epigenetic mechanisms might in part be responsible for the generation of phenotypic variants that provide potential for rapid adaptation. We established therefore a pipeline to investigate the principal carriers of epigenetic information, DNA methylation and post-translational histone modifications. Even if M. incognita possesses the epigenetic machinery i.e., chromatin modifying enzymes, 5-methyl-cytosine and 5-hydroxy-methyl-cytosine content is absent or very weak. In contrast, we demonstrated that the canonical histone modifications are present and chromatin shows typical nucleosome structure. This work is the first characterization of carriers of epigenetic information in M. incognita and constitutes a preamble to further investigate if M. incognita development and its adaptation to plant hosts are under epigenetic control. Our pipeline should allow performing similar types of studies in any non-model organism. PMID:24936189

Perfus-Barbeoch, Laetitia; Castagnone-Sereno, Philippe; Reichelt, Michael; Fneich, Sara; Roquis, David; Pratx, Loris; Cosseau, Céline; Grunau, Christoph; Abad, Pierre

2014-01-01

200

Reação de clones de bananeira(Musa spp.) ao nematóide Meloidogyne incognita (Kofoid & White, 1919) Chitwood, 1949, Raça 2 / Reaction of banana clones (Musa spp.) to nematode Meloidogyne incognita (kofoid & White, 1919) chitwood, 1949, race 2  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O trabalho teve por objetivo estudar em condições de casa de vegetação a reação de clones de bananeira, em relação a Meloidogyne incognita raça 2. Mudas micropropagadas foram inoculadas, utilizando-se da suspensão de M. incognita, formada de ovos e de juvenis do segundo estádio, totalizando 20.000 / [...] muda. A inoculação foi feita após cinco dias do transplante das mudas para sacos de plástico preto de cinco litros de capacidade, contendo solo, areia e esterco, na proporção 3:1:1, esterilizado em caldeira a 100ºC, por duas horas. O delineamento experimental foi o inteiramente casualizado, com quatro repetições. Após 120 dias, os clones foram avaliados. Determinou-se o número de ovos e juvenis contido no sistema radicular, sendo utilizado o clone CPA-34, a cultivar Grande Naine, como padrão de suscetibilidade. Amostras de 200 cm³ de solo foram coletadas para a determinação do número de nematóides no solo. De acordo com os fatores de reprodução (Pf/Pi), verificou-se que o clone CPA-34 apresentou-se suscetível ao nematóide, como era esperado, com o maior fator de reprodução, seguido do clone CPA-49, da cultivar Maçã, com índice superior a um. Os demais clones testados apresentaram fator de reprodução menor que um, indicando certa resistência ao nematóide M. incognita raça 2. Entretanto, nas análises estatísticas, foram verificadas diferenças significativas entre o clone-padrão CPA-34, quando comparado com os clones CPA-58 e CPA-54. Para os resultados de peso de raízes e peso da parte aérea, a diferença foi significativa (1%) para todos os clones testados, apresentando os maiores valores para os clones não inoculados. Abstract in english The aim of this work was to study banana clones reaction in relation to Meloidogyne incognita race 2, under greenhouse conditions. The plants were inoculated with a suspension of 20,000 M. incognita which includes the presence of eggs and second stage juveniles. The inoculation occurred five days af [...] ter the seedlings were transplanted to a plastic bag (5L) which contains soil, sand and manure, with 3:1:1 rate, and this was sterilized at 100ºC during two hours. The experimental outline was at random with four replications. The clones were evaluated after 120 days inoculation. The number of eggs and juveniles in the root system were determined. The clone CPA-34 from Grande Naine variety was used as susceptibility standard. Soil samples of 200cm³ were collected to determine the number of nematodes present in the soil. According to reproduction factors (FP/IP), as it was expected, it was shown that the clone CPA-34 is susceptible to the nematode, with the highest reproduction rate followed by the clone CPA-49 from Maçã variety, with FP/IP above one. The other tested clones showed reproduction rate below one, which indicates a certain resistance to M. incognita race 2. However, statistical analysis demonstrate significant differences between the standard clone CPA-34 compared to clones CPA-58 and CPA-54. The results of root weight and aerial part weight, showed a significant difference (1%) for all tested clones, with higher rates for the non-inoculated clones.

Lenisa Cezar, Vilas Boas; Renata Cesar Vilardi, Tenente; Vilmar, Gonzaga; Sebastião Pedro da, Silva Neto; Herminio Souza, Rocha.

2002-12-01

 
 
 
 
201

Reação de clones de bananeira(Musa spp. ao nematóide Meloidogyne incognita (Kofoid & White, 1919 Chitwood, 1949, Raça 2 Reaction of banana clones (Musa spp. to nematode Meloidogyne incognita (kofoid & White, 1919 chitwood, 1949, race 2  

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Full Text Available O trabalho teve por objetivo estudar em condições de casa de vegetação a reação de clones de bananeira, em relação a Meloidogyne incognita raça 2. Mudas micropropagadas foram inoculadas, utilizando-se da suspensão de M. incognita, formada de ovos e de juvenis do segundo estádio, totalizando 20.000 / muda. A inoculação foi feita após cinco dias do transplante das mudas para sacos de plástico preto de cinco litros de capacidade, contendo solo, areia e esterco, na proporção 3:1:1, esterilizado em caldeira a 100ºC, por duas horas. O delineamento experimental foi o inteiramente casualizado, com quatro repetições. Após 120 dias, os clones foram avaliados. Determinou-se o número de ovos e juvenis contido no sistema radicular, sendo utilizado o clone CPA-34, a cultivar Grande Naine, como padrão de suscetibilidade. Amostras de 200 cm³ de solo foram coletadas para a determinação do número de nematóides no solo. De acordo com os fatores de reprodução (Pf/Pi, verificou-se que o clone CPA-34 apresentou-se suscetível ao nematóide, como era esperado, com o maior fator de reprodução, seguido do clone CPA-49, da cultivar Maçã, com índice superior a um. Os demais clones testados apresentaram fator de reprodução menor que um, indicando certa resistência ao nematóide M. incognita raça 2. Entretanto, nas análises estatísticas, foram verificadas diferenças significativas entre o clone-padrão CPA-34, quando comparado com os clones CPA-58 e CPA-54. Para os resultados de peso de raízes e peso da parte aérea, a diferença foi significativa (1% para todos os clones testados, apresentando os maiores valores para os clones não inoculados.The aim of this work was to study banana clones reaction in relation to Meloidogyne incognita race 2, under greenhouse conditions. The plants were inoculated with a suspension of 20,000 M. incognita which includes the presence of eggs and second stage juveniles. The inoculation occurred five days after the seedlings were transplanted to a plastic bag (5L which contains soil, sand and manure, with 3:1:1 rate, and this was sterilized at 100ºC during two hours. The experimental outline was at random with four replications. The clones were evaluated after 120 days inoculation. The number of eggs and juveniles in the root system were determined. The clone CPA-34 from Grande Naine variety was used as susceptibility standard. Soil samples of 200cm³ were collected to determine the number of nematodes present in the soil. According to reproduction factors (FP/IP, as it was expected, it was shown that the clone CPA-34 is susceptible to the nematode, with the highest reproduction rate followed by the clone CPA-49 from Maçã variety, with FP/IP above one. The other tested clones showed reproduction rate below one, which indicates a certain resistance to M. incognita race 2. However, statistical analysis demonstrate significant differences between the standard clone CPA-34 compared to clones CPA-58 and CPA-54. The results of root weight and aerial part weight, showed a significant difference (1% for all tested clones, with higher rates for the non-inoculated clones.

Lenisa Cezar Vilas Boas

2002-12-01

202

Biochemical characterization of MI-ENG1, a family 5 endoglucanase secreted by the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita.  

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A beta-1,4-endoglucanase named MI-ENG1, homologous to the family 5 glycoside hydrolases, was previously isolated from the plant parasitic root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita. We describe here the detection of the enzyme in the nematode homogenate and secretion and its complete biochemical characterization. This study is the first comparison of the enzymatic properties of an animal glycoside hydrolase with plant and microbial enzymes. MI-ENG1 shares many enzymatic properties with known endoglucanases from plants, free-living or rumen-associated microorganisms and phytopathogens. In spite of the presence of a cellulose-binding domain at the C-terminus, the ability of MI-ENG1 to bind cellulose could not be demonstrated, whatever the experimental conditions used. The biochemical characterization of the enzyme is a first step towards the understanding of the molecular events taking place during the plant-nematode interaction. PMID:10824111

Béra-Maillet, C; Arthaud, L; Abad, P; Rosso, M N

2000-06-01

203

Reaction of vegetables and aromatic plants to Meloidogyne javanica and M. incognita Reação de hortaliças e plantas aromáticas aos nematoides Meloidogyne javanica e M. incognita  

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Full Text Available For this research we used 15 day-old seedlings which were transplanted to 2 L pots and inoculated with 4,000 nematode eggs plus juveniles (J2. After 60 days, the root systems were removed and the number of galls and eggs evaluated and used to calculate the nematode reproduction factor (RF. The tomato cv. Santa Cruz was used as a susceptible control. The experimental design was completely randomized, with six replications. Averages were compared using the Tukey or Scott-Knott test at 5%. For lettuce, Salad Bowl (Mimosa type, Elizabeth and Elisa (Lisa and Vera cultivars (crisphead, the number of galls and the RF for M. javanica were statistically higher than for the control, whereas, for the other vegetable crops, the highest number of galls and eggs were found in chicory and basil. The highest susceptibility to M. incognita was observed in Mimosa lettuce cv. Salad Bowl, chicory cultivars, parsley cv. Graúda Portuguesa and basil. Marjoram exhibited no M. incognita galls.Para avaliar a reação, mudas com 15 dias de idade foram transplantadas para vasos de 2 L de capacidade e inoculadas com 4.000 ovos e eventuais juvenis (J2 dos nematoides. Decorridos 60 dias, os sistemas radiculares foram retirados e avaliados quanto ao número de galhas e ovos, determinando-se o fator de reprodução (FR dos nematoides nas respectivas plantas. Tomateiro cv. Santa Cruz foi utilizado como testemunha. O experimento foi conduzido em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com seis repetições, e as médias foram comparadas pelo teste Tukey ou Scott-Knott a 5% de probabilidade. Nas alfaces tipo Mimosa cv. Salad Bowl; nas cultivares do tipo Lisa, Elizabeth e Elisa; e na cultivar Vera (tipo crespa, o número de galhas e o FR de M. javanica foi superior ao observado para a testemunha; enquanto para as demais oleráceas, os maiores números de galhas e ovos foram para as cultivares de chicória e para o manjericão. Maior suscetibilidade a M. incognita foi observada para a alface tipo Mimosa cv. Salad Bowl, para as cultivares de chicória, salsa cv. Graúda Portuguesa e manjericão. Apenas manjerona apresentou número de galhas de M. incognita igual a zero.

Cláudia Regina Dias-Arieira

2012-06-01

204

Reaction of vegetables and aromatic plants to Meloidogyne javanica and M. incognita / Reação de hortaliças e plantas aromáticas aos nematoides Meloidogyne javanica e M. incognita  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Para avaliar a reação, mudas com 15 dias de idade foram transplantadas para vasos de 2 L de capacidade e inoculadas com 4.000 ovos e eventuais juvenis (J2) dos nematoides. Decorridos 60 dias, os sistemas radiculares foram retirados e avaliados quanto ao número de galhas e ovos, determinando-se o fat [...] or de reprodução (FR) dos nematoides nas respectivas plantas. Tomateiro cv. Santa Cruz foi utilizado como testemunha. O experimento foi conduzido em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com seis repetições, e as médias foram comparadas pelo teste Tukey ou Scott-Knott a 5% de probabilidade. Nas alfaces tipo Mimosa cv. Salad Bowl; nas cultivares do tipo Lisa, Elizabeth e Elisa; e na cultivar Vera (tipo crespa), o número de galhas e o FR de M. javanica foi superior ao observado para a testemunha; enquanto para as demais oleráceas, os maiores números de galhas e ovos foram para as cultivares de chicória e para o manjericão. Maior suscetibilidade a M. incognita foi observada para a alface tipo Mimosa cv. Salad Bowl, para as cultivares de chicória, salsa cv. Graúda Portuguesa e manjericão. Apenas manjerona apresentou número de galhas de M. incognita igual a zero. Abstract in english For this research we used 15 day-old seedlings which were transplanted to 2 L pots and inoculated with 4,000 nematode eggs plus juveniles (J2). After 60 days, the root systems were removed and the number of galls and eggs evaluated and used to calculate the nematode reproduction factor (RF). The tom [...] ato cv. Santa Cruz was used as a susceptible control. The experimental design was completely randomized, with six replications. Averages were compared using the Tukey or Scott-Knott test at 5%. For lettuce, Salad Bowl (Mimosa type), Elizabeth and Elisa (Lisa) and Vera cultivars (crisphead), the number of galls and the RF for M. javanica were statistically higher than for the control, whereas, for the other vegetable crops, the highest number of galls and eggs were found in chicory and basil. The highest susceptibility to M. incognita was observed in Mimosa lettuce cv. Salad Bowl, chicory cultivars, parsley cv. Graúda Portuguesa and basil. Marjoram exhibited no M. incognita galls.

Cláudia Regina, Dias-Arieira; Tatiana PL da, Cunha; Fernando Marcelo, Chiamolera; Heriksen H, Puerari; Fabio, Biela; Simone de M, Santana.

2012-06-01

205

Volatile Substances Produced by Fusarium oxysporum from Coffee Rhizosphere and Other Microbes affect Meloidogyne incognita and Arthrobotrys conoides  

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Microorganisms produce volatile organic compounds (VOCs) which mediate interactions with other organisms and may be the basis for the development of new methods to control plant-parasitic nematodes that damage coffee plants. In the present work, 35 fungal isolates were isolated from coffee plant rhizosphere, Meloidogyne exigua eggs and egg masses. Most of the fungal isolates belonged to the genus Fusarium and presented in vitro antagonism classified as mutual exclusion and parasitism against the nematode-predator fungus Arthrobotrys conoides (isolated from coffee roots). These results and the stronger activity of VOCs against this fungus by 12 endophytic bacteria may account for the failure of A. conoides to reduce plant-parasitic nematodes in coffee fields. VOCs from 13 fungal isolates caused more than 40% immobility to Meloidogyne incognita second stage juveniles (J2), and those of three isolates (two Fusarium oxysporum isolates and an F. solani isolate) also led to 88-96% J2 mortality. M. incognita J2 infectivity decreased as a function of increased exposure time to F. oxysporum isolate 21 VOCs. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis lead to the detection of 38 VOCs produced by F. oxysporum is. 21 culture. Only five were present in amounts above 1% of the total: dioctyl disulfide (it may also be 2-propyldecan-1-ol or 1-(2-hydroxyethoxy) tridecane); caryophyllene; 4-methyl-2,6-di-tert-butylphenol; and acoradiene. One of them was not identified. Volatiles toxic to nematodes make a difference among interacting microorganisms in coffee rhizosphere defining an additional attribute of a biocontrol agent against plant-parasitic nematodes. PMID:23482720

Freire, E. S.; Campos, V. P.; Pinho, R. S. C.; Oliveira, D. F.; Faria, M. R.; Pohlit, A. M.; Noberto, N. P.; Rezende, E. L.; Pfenning, L. H.; Silva, J. R. C.

2012-01-01

206

Infectividade de juvenis do segundo estádio de Meloidogyne incognita em tomateiro após privação alimentar em solo e água em diferentes condições / Infectivity of second stage juveniles of Meloidogyne incognita in tomato after starvation in soil and water at different conditions  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O juvenil do segundo estádio (J2) de Meloidogyne spp. gasta sua reserva energética corporal de formas diferentes sob condições variadas de temperatura e umidade do solo, chegando à incapacidade de parasitismo vegetal. Desta forma, objetivou-se neste trabalho estudar o efeito da incubação de J2 de M. [...] incognita em solo com níveis de umidade e temperaturas diferentes, além do borbulhamento da suspensão do inóculo na infectividade desses J2 em tomateiro. A infectividade dos J2 armazenados no solo em tomateiros decresceu significativamente entre as temperaturas estudadas durante o período de seis dias. Maior (P Abstract in english The second stage juvenile (J2) of Meloidogyne spp. spend the storaged energy of the body, differently, when living in variable conditions of soil temperatures and humidities approaching to the incapability of plant parasitism. Therefore, the aim of this work was to study the storage of J2 of M. inco [...] gnita in soil at different levels of humidity and temperature, besides water bubbling of inoculum suspension on the infectivity of starved J2 in tomato. The infectivity of J2 in tomato decreased significantly among storaged temperatures during the period of six days in soil. Greatest (P

Eduardo Souza, Freire; Vicente Paulo, Campos; Marcos Roberto, Dutra; Fernando da Silva, Rocha; Juliana Resende Campos da, Silva; Edson Ampélio, Pozza.

2007-09-01

207

Efeito de exsudatos de cultura de células de plantas em juvenis de segundo estádio de Meloidogyne incognita / Effect of exudates of plant cell culture on second-stage juveniles of Meloidogyne incognita  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Calus foram obtidos de tomateiro (Lycopersicon esculentum), cafeeiro (Coffea arabica), alfafa (Medicago sativa), orquídea (Dendrobium nobile), mostarda (Brassica rapa), batata doce (Ipomoea batatas), fumo (Nicotiana tabacum), cenoura (Daucus carota) e Crotalaria juncea em meio sólido de Murashige & [...] Skoog (MS) seguido do cultivo em meio líquido MS em temperatura de 25-28 ºC. Após um mês, a suspensão foi passada em membrana Millipore 0,22 µm, obtendo-se, assim, o exsudato da cultura de células de cada planta testada. Ovos ou juvenis de segundo estádio (J2) de Meloidogyne incognita foram incubados nesses exsudatos e avaliadas as percentagens de eclosão, mobilidade e mortalidade dos J2. Com exceção dos ovos incubados em exsudato de orquídea, todos os demais inibiram a eclosão quando comparados com a incubação em água (testemunha). Entretanto, nos exsudatos de L. esculentum, cafeeiro e C. juncea a inibição foi mais drástica, semelhante ao aldicarb, mas significativamente diferente e menor do que em soluções contendo ingredientes do meio MS (1-5). Todos os exsudatos reduziram a mobilidade e aumentaram a mortalidade, com maior intensidade em 24 h de exposição. Porém, maior redução na mobilidade ocorreu nos exsudatos de tomateiro e alfafa, enquanto maior mortalidade no exsudato de tomateiro, seguido pelo de mostarda. Abstract in english Callus of Lycopersicon esculentum, Coffea arabica, Medicago sativa, Dendrobium nobile, Brassica rapa, Ipomoea batatas, Nicotiana tabacum, Daucus carota and Crotalaria juncea were obtained in Murashige & Skoog (MS) solid medium followed by cell cultivation in MS liquid medium at temperature varying f [...] rom 25-28 ºC. After one month, the cell suspension was passed through a 0,22 µm Millipore membrane, and the resulting liquid was the cell exudate from each of the tested plants. Eggs or second-stage juveniles (J2) of Meloidogyne incognita were then incubated in these exudates and hatching, mobility and mortality percentages of the J2 were evaluated. Except for the eggs incubated in the exudate of orchid, all the exudates inhibited J2 hatching when compared with incubation in water (control). However, in L. esculentum, C. arabica and C. juncea exudates the inhibition was greatest, similar to aldicar, but significantly less and different than that found in solution of culture medium ingredients MS (1-5). All exudates reduced mobility and increased mortality of M. incognita J2, although theses were enhanced when exposed for 24 h. The greatest reduction of mobility occurred with the exudates of tomato and M. sativa, while greatest mortality occurred with the exudate of L. esculentum, followed by B. rapa.

Fernando S., Rocha; Vicente P., Campos.

2004-06-01

208

Nematicidal activity of the essential oil of Rhododendron anthopogonoides aerial parts and its constituent compounds against Meloidogyne incognita.  

Science.gov (United States)

Hydrodistilled essential oil from Rhododendron anthopogonoides Maxim. (Ericaceae) aerial parts was analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). A total of 42 compounds, accounting for 95.48% of the total oil, were identified. The main constituents of the essential oil were benzyl acetone (34.41%), nerolidol (10.19%), 1,4-cineole (8.41%), beta-caryophyllene (5.63%), gamma-elemene (5.10%), and spathulenol (3.06%). Four constituents were isolated from the essential oil based on fractionation. The essential oil of R. anthopogonoides possessed nematicidal activity against the root knot nematode (Meloidogyne incognita) with an LC50 value of 130.11 microg/ml. The main compound of the essential oil, benzyl acetone, exhibited nematicidal activity against M. incognita with an LC50 value of 74.17 microg/ml while 1,4-cineole, nerolidol, and beta-caryophyllene were not nematicidal at a concentration of 5 mg/ml. The essential oil of R. anthopogonoides and benzyl acetone show potential for their development as possible natural nematicides for the control of the root knot nematode. PMID:24066516

Bai, Peng Hua; Bai, Chun Qi; Liu, Qi Zhi; Du, Shu Shan; Liu, Zhi Long

2013-01-01

209

A secretory cellulose-binding protein cDNA cloned from the root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne incognita).  

Science.gov (United States)

A cDNA encoding a secretory cellulose-binding protein was cloned from the root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne incognita) with RNA fingerprinting. The putative full-length cDNA, named Mi-cpb-1, encoded a 203 amino acid protein containing an N-terminal secretion signal peptide. The C-terminal sequence of the putative MI-CBP-1 was similar to a bacterial-type cellulose-binding domain, whereas the N-terminal sequence did not show significant similarity to any proteins in data bases. Recombinant MI-CBP-1 lacked cellulase activity, but bound to cellulose and plant cell walls. In Southern blot hybridization, Mi-cbp-1 hybridized with genomic DNA from M. incognita, M. arenaria, and M. javanica, but not M. hapla, Heterodera glycines, or Caenorhabditis elegans. Polyclonal antibodies raised against recombinant MI-CBP-1 strongly labeled secretory granules in subventral gland cells of second-stage juveniles in indirect immunofluorescence microscopy. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay detection of MI-CBP-1 in stylet secretions of second-stage juveniles with the polyclonal antibodies indicated MI-CBP-1 could be secreted through the nematodes' stylet, suggesting that the cellulose-binding protein may have a role in pathogenesis. PMID:9768512

Ding, X; Shields, J; Allen, R; Hussey, R S

1998-10-01

210

RNAi of MiASB caused high mortality of Meloidogyne incognita juveniles and inhibited the nematode disease  

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Full Text Available The southern root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita, is one of the most prevalent and damaging plant-parasitic nematodes in the world and causes serious damages to agricultural production. We cloned a mitochondrial ATP synthase b subunit gene fragment of M. incognita (MiASB based on the nematode genomics prediction. By soaking in the MiASB dsRNA solution, the hatching of RNAi treated eggs was reduced by 60% compared to negative control and by 64% compared to untreated control. Mortality of RNAi treated second stage juvenile (J2 was 8.6 times higher than that of negative control and 26 times higher than the untreated control. Inoculating the RNAi treated egg masses and J2 to tomato seedlings showed the pathogencity was significantly reduced. For the RNAi treated egg masses, the amount of root galls on silence treated seedlings was reduced by 92% compared to that on the negative control seedlings, and reduced by 93% compared to that on untreated control seedlings. For the treated J2, the amount of root galls on silence treated seedlings was reduced by 83% and 86% compared to negative and untreated control seedlings, respectively. The study revealed the MiASB silence had a positive effect on prevention and control of root-knot nematode disease, and also showed that the MiASB may be involved in the pathogenesis of nematode, which provided new ideas and ways to the research of nematode pathology and nematode disease control.

Yonghong Huang

2013-08-01

211

EFECTO DEL VERMICOMPOST Y QUITINA SOBRE EL CONTROL DE Meloidogyne incognita EN TOMATE A NIVEL DE INVERNADERO  

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Full Text Available Meloidogyne incognita es un nematodo endoparásito sedentario, de penetración total y formador de nódulos radicales; tiene una amplia distribución geográfica y causa pérdidas agrícolas importantes. Recientemente se han utilizado abonos orgánicos y compuestos como la quitina en la supresión de plagas y enfermedades de plantas. El objetivo de esta investigación fue evaluar el efecto de la aplicación de vermicompost de estiércol bovino y su enriquecimiento con quitina, sobre la infección de M. incognita en plantas de tomate var. Hayslip bajo condiciones de invernadero. Para esto se inocularon las plantas con 5000 unidades de inóculo (huevos+juveniles en segundo estado por maceta y se compararon con controles que fueron sembrados en suelo sin enmienda orgánica o quitina. La evaluación se llevó a cabo 60 días después y se midió el peso fresco aéreo y radical, peso seco aéreo, población total de nematodos en raíz y suelo, índice de nódulos radicales (INR, índice de masas de huevos (IMH, el factor de reproducción del nematodo (FR y recuento de grupos funcionales (hongos, bacterias y actinomicetes. La adición al suelo de vermicompost provocó un incremento en las variables peso fresco y seco foliar y peso fresco radical: a mayor porcentaje de vermicompost, mayor incremento; así mismo, la aplicación del vermicompost redujo la cantidad del nematodo en raíz y en suelo. La aplicación de quitina acentuó estos resultados, obteniéndose el menor factor de reproducción de M. Incognita, con un valor de 3,76 para la dosis de 50% vermicompost+quitina, mientras que en el testigo este factor fue de 93,20. La aplicación de quitina como enmienda única solo afectó la población de hongos en el suelo, mientras que la de actinomicetes aumentó en los tratamientos enmendados.

Leida Castro

2011-01-01

212

Effects of a Resistant Corn Hybrid and Fenamiphos on Meloidogyne incognita in a Corn-Squash Rotation  

Science.gov (United States)

The efficacy of a double-cross corn (Zea mays) hybrid (Old Raccoon selection X T216) X (Tebeau selection X Mp 307) resistant to Meloidogyne incognita as a rotational crop, and fenamiphos treatment for management of root-knot nematode (M. incognita race 1) in squash (Cucurbita pepo var. melopepo) was evaluated in field tests during 1996 and 1997. Numbers of M. incognita in the soil and root-gall indices were lower on the resistant hybrid than on a commercial cultivar DeKalb DK-683. Treatment means across both corn entries had lower root-gall indices following fenamiphos treatment. In soil collected 2 September 1997, there were more colony-forming units (cfu) per gram of oven-dried soil of Pythium spp. from plots planted to DK-683 treated with fenamiphos than in untreated plots (88 vs. 59 cfu). Some corn plots had individual plants with 10% to 15% of the crown and brace roots decayed, but no differences due to fenamiphos treatment. Lodging of stalks was 40% to 50% more in the double-cross hybrid than in DK-683. Yield was greater from DK-683 than the double-cross hybrid. Based on cultivar means across fenamiphos treatments and fenamiphos treatment means across cultivars, root-gall indices and yield of squash were significantly lower following the double cross hybrid than DK-683 and in fenamiphos-treated plots than in untreated plots of squash. Yield of squash was not affected by at-planting treatment with fenamiphos on the preceding crops of corn. Nematode resistance must be transferred into the elite materials of commercial seed companies to reach its full potential as a nematode management strategy. PMID:19270888

Johnson, A. W.; Sumner, D. R.; Windham, G. L.; Williams, W. P.

1999-01-01

213

Ectopic expression of a Meloidogyne incognita dorsal gland protein in tobacco accelerates the formation of the nematode feeding site.  

Science.gov (United States)

Meloidogyne spp., plant-parasitic nematodes present worldwide, are intensively studied because of the damage caused to a large variety of agronomically important crops. Several reports indicate that proteins from the Meloidogyne spp. dorsal gland might play an important role to allow proper establishment of a functional nematode feeding site. The precise role of these proteins in the process of feeding cell development is unknown. To gain insights into the function of these secreted M. incognita proteins, we constitutively (ectopically) expressed the nematodes dorsal gland protein 7E12 in tobacco plants. It was found that the number of galls at 8 and 16 days after nematode infection was significantly higher in transgenic plants compared to control plants. Eggs from nematodes in transgenic plants hatched faster than those in control plants. Histological analysis of nematode induced galls in transgenic plants clearly shows a different morphology. Giant feeding cells harbor more vacuoles and an increased amount of cell wall invaginations, while neighboring cells surrounding feeding cells are more numerous. These results suggest that the presence of the 7E12 protein in tobacco accelerates gall formation. This assumption is supported by our data illustrating faster gall formation and egg eclosion in transgenic plants. PMID:21421371

Souza, Djair Dos Santos de Lima e; de Souza, José Dijair Antonino; Grossi-de-Sá, Maíra; Rocha, Thales Lima; Fragoso, Rodrigo da Rocha; Barbosa, Aulus Estevão Anjos de Deus; de Oliveira, Gustavo Ramos; Nakasu, Erich Yukio Tempel; de Sousa, Bruna Araújo; Pires, Natália Faustino; Dusi, Diva Maria de Alencar; Carneiro, Regina Maria Dechechi Gomes; Romano, Eduardo; de Almeida-Engler, Janice; Engler, Gilbert; Martins-de-Sá, Cezar; Grossi-de-Sá, Maria Fátima

2011-02-01

214

Virtual screening and in vitro assay of potential drug like inhibitors from spices against Glutathione-S-Transferase of Meloidogyne incognita  

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Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) enzymes are critical antioxidant and detoxification system responsible for long-term existence of nematodes in host species. Hence, 16 phytochemicals predicted and reported to have potential nematicidal activity have been docked to GST enzyme of Meloidogyne incognita to assess their binding affinity and inhibitory activity. In vitro effects of these phytochemicals from in silico results have been done for validation of docking studies and efficacy in...

Babu, Rosana O.; Moorkoth, Dinsha; Azeez, Shamina; Eapen, Santhosh J.

2012-01-01

215

Nematicidal activity of leaf extracts from Lantana camara L. against Meloidogyne incognita (kofoid and white) chitwood and its use to manage roots infection of Solanum melongena L.  

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Various concentrations of aqueous leaf extract of Lantana camara were assessed in vitro conditions against second stage juveniles (J2) of Meloidogyne incognita. The standard concentration 'S' of leaf extract was found to be highly nematostatic, where nematodes were completely paralyzed after 12 h and after 48 h of exposure, 96% of juveniles were killed at same concentration. However, the mortality of juveniles was 75% in S/2 dilution at 48 h. The degree of effectiveness and dilutions of extra...

Faheem Ahmad; Mohmad Azhar Rather; Mansoor Ahmad Siddiqui

2010-01-01

216

Immunocytochemical studies on the occurence of gamma-aminobutyric acid in the nervous system of the nematodes Panagrellus redivivus, Meloidogyne incognita and Globodera rostochiensis  

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Un antisérum polyclonal a été utilisé en immunofluorescence indirecte pour démontrer la présence d'acide gamma-aminobutyrique - un inhibiteur possible de la transmission de l'influx nerveux aux muscles - chez #Panagrellus redevivus$ et chez les juvéniles de deuxième stade (J2) de #Meloidogyne incognita$. Chez #P. redivivus$, il a été observé une immunoréactivité, présumée GABA, dans la corde nerveuse dorsale, dans la corde ventrale ainsi que dans certaines cellules nerveuses et...

Stewart, G. R.; Perry, R. N.; Wright, D. J.

1994-01-01

217

IDENTIFICACIÓN MORFOLÓGICA, MORFOMÉTRICA Y MOLECULAR DE Meloidogyne incognita EN HIGUERA (Ficus carica L.) EN COSTA RICA  

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El objetivo de este estudio fue identificar la especie de Meloidogyne asociada a dos plantaciones de higuera en Costa Rica. En marzo de 2012, en el distrito de Pacayas, provincia de Cartago, se detectaron agallas en los sistemas radicales de plantas de higuera (Ficus carica L.) de dos fincas. De las raíces agalladas se extrajeron hembras, masas de huevos y juveniles (J2) de Meloidogyne sp. Se examinaron los patrones perineales de las hembras y los segundos estadios infectivos se an...

Walter Peraza-Padilla; Johaner Rosales-Flores; Ndez, Alejandro Esquivel-hern U. E.; Edguez, Irena Hilje-rodr U.; Molina-bravo, Ram U. F. N.; Pablo Castillo-Castillo

2013-01-01

218

Potato-associated bacteria and their antagonistic potential towards plant-pathogenic fungi and the plant-parasitic nematode Meloidogyne incognita (Kofoid & White) Chitwood.  

Science.gov (United States)

To study the effect of microenvironments on potato-associated bacteria, the abundance and diversity of bacteria isolated from the rhizosphere, phyllosphere, endorhiza, and endosphere of field grown potato was analyzed. Culturable bacteria were obtained after plating on R2A medium. The endophytic populations averaged 10(3) and 10(5) CFU/g (fresh wt.) for the endosphere and endorhiza. respectively, which were lower than those for the ectophytic microenvironments, with 10(5) and 10(7) CFU/g (fresh wt.) for the phyllosphere and rhizosphere, respectively. The composition and richness of bacterial species was microenvironment-dependent. The occurrence and diversity of potato-associated bacteria was additionally monitored by a cultivation-independent approach using terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of 16S rDNA. The patterns obtained revealed a high heterogeneity of community composition and suggested the existence of microenvironment-specific communities. In an approach to measure the antagonistic potential of potato-associated bacteria, a total of 440 bacteria was screened by dual testing for in vitro antagonism towards the soilborne pathogens Verticillium dahliae and Rhizoctonia solani. The proportion of isolates with antagonistic activity was highest for the rhizosphere (10%), followed by the endorhiza (9%), phyllosphere (6%), and endosphere (5%). All 33 fungal antagonists were characterized by testing their in vitro antagonistic mechanisms, including their glucanolytic, chitinolytic, pectinolytic, cellulolytic, and proteolytic activity, and by their BOX-PCR fingerprints. In addition, they were screened for their biocontrol activity against Meloidogyne incognita. Overall, nine isolates belonging to Pseudomonas and Streptomyces species were found to control both fungal pathogens and M. incognita and were therefore considered as promising biological control agents. PMID:12455609

Krechel, Annette; Faupel, Annekathrin; Hallmann, Johannes; Ulrich, Andreas; Berg, Gabriele

2002-09-01

219

COMPORTAMIENTO DE MATERIALES DE GUAYABO (Psidium guajava LINNEO) AL PARASITISMO DEL NEMATODO FORMADOR DE AGALLAS [Meloidogyne incognita (KOFOID & WHITE) CHITWOOD Y Meloidogyne javanica (TREUB) CHITWOOD] / BEHAVIOR OF GUAVA MATERIALS (Psidiumguajava LINNEO) ON THE ROOT KNOT NEMATODE [Meloidogyne incognita (KOFOID & WHITE) CHITWOOD AND Meloidogyne javanica (TREUB) CHITWOOD] PARASITISM  

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Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Las raíces del guayabo son parasitadas por el nematodo del nudo radical (Meloidogyne spp.), ocasionando pérdidas de la producción entre 30 y 60%. Debido a esto, el principal objetivo de esta investigación fue evaluar en condiciones de almácigo la reacción de cuatro variedades de guayabo al ataque de [...] l complejo Meloidogyne incognita y M. javanica. En el vivero Jaibaná Frutales, del municipio de Pereira (Risaralda), plántulas de cuatro variedades: Pera y Común (Psidium guajava), Agrio (Psidium friedrichsthalianum) y Peruano (Psidium cattleianum), fueron sembradas en bolsas de plástico que contenían suelo y cascarilla de arroz en proporción 3:1. Veinte días después de sembradas, a 15 plántulas de cada una de las variedades le fueron inoculadas una mezcla de 1.000, 5.000 y 10.000 huevos y juveniles de Meloidogyne, y los respectivos testigos sin inocular. Las plántulas fueron asignadas bajo un diseño experimental completamente aleatorio. Las variedades Peruano con 5,75g y 8,03g de peso seco de raíces y parte aérea, respectivamente, y Agrio con 10,27g y 9,23g de peso seco de raíces y parte aérea, respectivamente, presentaron el menor índice de nudosidad con 0,1 y 1,1, y reproducción de Meloidogyne spp. con valores entre 75 y 4.575 huevos y juveniles/100g de raíces. Estas variedades fueron estadísticamente diferentes a la variedad Pera con 13,96g y 11,33g de peso seco de raíces y parte aérea, respectivamente, y Común con 11,35g y 13,9g de peso seco de raíces y parte aérea, respectivamente, quienes presentaron mayor índice de nudosidad con 5 y reproducción con 149.775 huevos y 72.950 juveniles/100g de raíces. Las variedades Agrio y Peruano fueron resistentes e inmunes, respectivamente, al ataque de Meloidogyne incognita y M. javanica, permitiendo ser utilizadas como portainjertos o patrones; mientras que las variedades Pera y Común fueron altamente susceptibles. Abstract in english Guava roots are parasitized by the root knot nematode (Meloidogyne spp.), which causes production losses between 30 and 60%. Due to this, the main goal of this research was to evaluate the reaction of four varieties of guava under nursery conditions to the attack of Meloidogyne incognita and M. java [...] nica complex. In the Jaibaná Frutales nursery, in the municipality of Pereira (Risaralda), seedlings of four varieties of guava: Guava pear and Common guava (Psidiumguajava), Cas guava (Psidiumfriedrichsthalianum), and Peruvian guava (Psidiumcattleianum), were planted in plastic bags containing soil and rice hull in a 3:1 proportion. Twenty days after planted, 15 seedlings of each variety were inoculated with a mixture of 1,000, 5,000 and 10,000 eggs and Meloidogyne spp juveniles, and their respective controls without inoculation. Seedlings were assigned under a completely randomized design. The Peruvian guava variety with 5.75g and 8.03g roots and aerial parts dry weight respectively, and Cas guava variety with 10.27g and 9.23g roots and aerial parts dry weight, respectively, had the lowest root gall index with 0.1 and 1.1, and Meloidogyne spp. reproduction with values between 75 and 4.575 eggs and juveniles/100g of roots. These varieties were statistically different from the guava Pear variety with 13,96g y 11,33g roots and aerial parts dry weight respectively, and Common guava with 11,35g y 13,9g roots and aerial parts dry weight respectively, which had the highest root gall index with 5 and reproduction with 149.775 eggs and 72.950 juveniles/100g of roots. In conclusion, the Cas and Peruvian varieties were resistant and immune respectively, to Meloidogyne incognita and M. javanica, allowing them to be used as rootstocks or patronages, while guava Pear and Common guava were highly susceptible to both species.

ALEJANDRA, DUQUE ARISTIZÁBAL; ÓSCAR ADRIÁN, GUZMÁN PIEDRAHÍTA.

2013-12-01

220

Enxertia e sua influencia na produção de pepino e reprodução de Meloidogyne javanica e M. incognita Effect of grafting on cucumber production and reproduction of Meloidogyne javanica and M. incognita  

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Full Text Available A enxertia em porta-enxertos resistentes é uma técnica frequentemente recomendada para a cultura do pepino em áreas infestadas com nematoides-das-galhas. O presente trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a produção de pepino enxertado em dois porta-enxertos comparado com pé-franco em solo infestado com Meloidogyne incognita raça 2 ou com M. javanica. Foram avaliados nove tratamentos (fatorial 3x3: pepino híbrido Tsuyataro pé-franco, enxertado na abóbora híbrida 'Shelper' e enxertado na abóbora híbrida 'Excitte Ikki' x sem inoculação, inoculação com M. incognita e inoculação com M. javanica, no delineamento em blocos ao acaso, com quatro repetições e seis plantas por parcela. Para as características de produção de frutos (número de frutos totais e comerciais por planta, massa de frutos totais e comerciais por planta não foi obtida interação entre os fatores. Obteve-se maior produção de frutos em plantas enxertadas sobre a abóbora 'Shelper', independente da espécie de nematoide, enquanto que a enxertia sobre 'Excitte Ikki' não diferiu do pé-franco para produção total. Ambas as espécies de nematoide reduziram a produção de frutos, porém este efeito foi mais pronunciado com M. javanica. Tanto o pepino pé-franco como as plantas enxertadas foram suscetíveis, pois permitiram a multiplicação dos nematoides, com fator de reprodução, em avaliação realizada aos 72 dias após a inoculação, variando de 3,57 a 15,04, sendo que para M. javanica este valor foi maior no pepino pé-franco.Grafting on resistant rootstock is a technique often recommended for cucumber crop in root-knot nematodes infested areas. We studied the yield of grafted cucumber on two rootstocks compared with non grafted in soil infested with Meloidogyne javanica or with M. incognita race 2. Nine treatments (factorial 3x3: Japanese cucumber hybrid Tsuyataro without grafting, grafted on squash hybrid Shelper and grafted on squash hybrid Excitte Ikki x without nematode inoculation, inoculated with M. incognita and inoculated with M. javanica were evaluated in a randomized block design, with four replications and six plants per plot. There was no interaction between factors for yield evaluated characteristics (total and marketable fruit number per plant, total and marketable fruit weight per plant. Higher fruit yield was obtained in cucumber grafted on 'Shelper', for both nematode species, while cucumber grafted on 'Excitte Ikki' did not differ from non grafted plants for total fruit weight. Both nematode species reduced fruit yield, which was more evident when M. javanica was inoculated. Grafted and non grafted plants were susceptible, because they enabled the multiplication of nematodes, with a reproduction factor, at 72 days after inoculation, ranging from 3.57 to 15.04, with the highest value in cucumber non grafted inoculated with M. javanica.

Ariane C Salata

2012-12-01

 
 
 
 
221

Efeito de exsudatos radiculares em endósporos de Pasteuria penetrans e em juvenis do segundo estádio de Meloidogyne incognita Effect of root exudates on endospores of Pasteuria penetrans and on second-stage juvenile of Meloidogyne incognita  

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Full Text Available Juvenis do segundo estádio (J2 de Meloidogyne incognita foram incubados nos exsudatos radiculares de soja (Glycine max, tomateiro (Lycopersicon esculentum, cafeeiro (Coffea arabica, feijoeiro (Phaseolus vulgaris, mostarda (Brassica rapa, Crotalaria juncea e C. spectabilis e em água por 12 h. Em seguida, realizou-se o teste de adesão por centrifugação ou por borbulhamento. Em outro ensaio, endósporos de Pasteuria penetrans foram incubados por quatro dias a 26 ºC nos exsudatos e submetidos à adesão em J2 de M. incognita, sob borbulhamento constante por 24 h em tubos contendo água. Os J2 com endósporos aderidos pelo teste de borbulhamento foram inoculados em mudas de tomateiro. Verificou-se que a incubação dos J2 por 12 h nos exsudatos radiculares testados reduziu o número de endósporos de P. penetrans por J2 independentemente do método de adesão empregado. Os J2 incubados nos exsudatos radiculares testados proporcionaram menor número de fêmeas parasitadas em tomateiro em relação à testemunha (água, bem como menor número de galhas com exceção dos J2 incubados em exsudato do próprio tomateiro. A reprodução dos J2 incubados nos exsudatos radiculares não foi afetada quando comparada à testemunha. A incubação dos endósporos nos exsudatos das plantas testadas reduziu a adesão e a infetividade em J2, em relação à testemunha. Após 28 dias da inoculação, observou-se redução no número de fêmeas parasitadas resultantes da infecção desses J2 com endósporos incubados em exsudatos radiculares comparada com aqueles incubados em água. O parasitismo do J2 com endósporos tratados com exsudatos radiculares e a reprodutividade de fêmeas oriundas da infetividade desses J2 foram semelhantes aos incubados em água.In one assay, second stage juveniles (J2 of Meloidogyne incognita were incubated in root exudates of soybean (Glycine max, tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum, coffee (Coffea arabica, bean (Phaseolus vulgaris, mustard (Brassica rapa, Crotalaria juncea and C. spectabilis and in water for 12 h, followed by endospores adhesion by centrifugation or by air bubbling. In another assay, endospores of Pasterius penetrans were incubated for four days at 26 ºC in the exudates and submitted to adhesion on J2 of M. incognita by constant air bubbling for 24 h in tubes containing water. The J2 with endospore adhesion by air bubbling were inoculated in tomato seedlings. The incubation of J2 for 12 h in the root exudates reduced the number of P. penetrans endospore per J2, regardless of the adhesion test used, and resulted in fewer parasitized females when compared with the control, as well as a lower number of galls, except in the J2 incubated in exudate of tomato. The reproduction of incubated J2 in the root exudates was not affected when compared to the control. The endospore incubation in the exudates of the tested plants reduced the adhesion and the infectivity of these endospores to J2 in relation to the control. After 28 days from inoculation, reduction was observed in the number of parasitized females resulting from infection of those J2 with endospore incubated in exudates when compared with those incubated in water. The parasitism of J2 with endospore treated with exudates and the reproduction of infected J2 females were similar to those incubated in water.

Fernando da Silva Rocha

2004-12-01

222

Efeito de exsudatos radiculares em endósporos de Pasteuria penetrans e em juvenis do segundo estádio de Meloidogyne incognita / Effect of root exudates on endospores of Pasteuria penetrans and on second-stage juvenile of Meloidogyne incognita  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Juvenis do segundo estádio (J2) de Meloidogyne incognita foram incubados nos exsudatos radiculares de soja (Glycine max), tomateiro (Lycopersicon esculentum), cafeeiro (Coffea arabica), feijoeiro (Phaseolus vulgaris), mostarda (Brassica rapa), Crotalaria juncea e C. spectabilis e em água por 12 h. E [...] m seguida, realizou-se o teste de adesão por centrifugação ou por borbulhamento. Em outro ensaio, endósporos de Pasteuria penetrans foram incubados por quatro dias a 26 ºC nos exsudatos e submetidos à adesão em J2 de M. incognita, sob borbulhamento constante por 24 h em tubos contendo água. Os J2 com endósporos aderidos pelo teste de borbulhamento foram inoculados em mudas de tomateiro. Verificou-se que a incubação dos J2 por 12 h nos exsudatos radiculares testados reduziu o número de endósporos de P. penetrans por J2 independentemente do método de adesão empregado. Os J2 incubados nos exsudatos radiculares testados proporcionaram menor número de fêmeas parasitadas em tomateiro em relação à testemunha (água), bem como menor número de galhas com exceção dos J2 incubados em exsudato do próprio tomateiro. A reprodução dos J2 incubados nos exsudatos radiculares não foi afetada quando comparada à testemunha. A incubação dos endósporos nos exsudatos das plantas testadas reduziu a adesão e a infetividade em J2, em relação à testemunha. Após 28 dias da inoculação, observou-se redução no número de fêmeas parasitadas resultantes da infecção desses J2 com endósporos incubados em exsudatos radiculares comparada com aqueles incubados em água. O parasitismo do J2 com endósporos tratados com exsudatos radiculares e a reprodutividade de fêmeas oriundas da infetividade desses J2 foram semelhantes aos incubados em água. Abstract in english In one assay, second stage juveniles (J2) of Meloidogyne incognita were incubated in root exudates of soybean (Glycine max), tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum), coffee (Coffea arabica), bean (Phaseolus vulgaris), mustard (Brassica rapa), Crotalaria juncea and C. spectabilis and in water for 12 h, foll [...] owed by endospores adhesion by centrifugation or by air bubbling. In another assay, endospores of Pasterius penetrans were incubated for four days at 26 ºC in the exudates and submitted to adhesion on J2 of M. incognita by constant air bubbling for 24 h in tubes containing water. The J2 with endospore adhesion by air bubbling were inoculated in tomato seedlings. The incubation of J2 for 12 h in the root exudates reduced the number of P. penetrans endospore per J2, regardless of the adhesion test used, and resulted in fewer parasitized females when compared with the control, as well as a lower number of galls, except in the J2 incubated in exudate of tomato. The reproduction of incubated J2 in the root exudates was not affected when compared to the control. The endospore incubation in the exudates of the tested plants reduced the adhesion and the infectivity of these endospores to J2 in relation to the control. After 28 days from inoculation, reduction was observed in the number of parasitized females resulting from infection of those J2 with endospore incubated in exudates when compared with those incubated in water. The parasitism of J2 with endospore treated with exudates and the reproduction of infected J2 females were similar to those incubated in water.

Fernando da Silva, Rocha; Vicente P., Campos; Ricardo Magela de, Souza.

2004-12-01

223

Seleção de genótipos de aceroleira assistida por marcadores isoenzimáticos visando à resistência a Meloidogyne incognita raça 2 / Genotype selection of Barbados cherry using iso-enzymatic markers for resistance to Meloidogyne incognita race 2  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A cultura da aceroleira despertou um grande interesse do mercado consumidor, tendo em vista o alto teor de vitamina C (ácido ascórbico), que varia entre 1.325 a 2.250 mg por 100 mL de suco. Com a expansão da cultura, surgiram problemas fitossanitários, entre os quais a infecção das raízes da acerole [...] ira por nematóides. Os produtos químicos utilizados no controle dos nematóides são agressivos ao meio ambiente, e a seleção de genótipos resistentes e tolerantes constitui-se na melhor alternativa para a solução do problema. O trabalho foi desenvolvido em casa de vegetação com 18 genótipos de aceroleira, com o objetivo de encontrar genótipos resistentes e tolerantes a Meloidogyne incognita raça 2 assistida por marcadores isoenzimáticos, para indicar plantas destinadas a porta-enxerto. A avaliação foi realizada 60 dias após a inoculação mediante análise das variáveis: número de ovos por planta e por grama de raiz, índice de galhas e massa de ovos, biomassa fresca relativa do sistema radicular e biomassa fresca relativa da parte aérea. Os resultados permitiram identificar o genótipo 023-CMF como menos suscetível, e os genótipos 027-CMF e 035-CMF, como mais suscetíveis. Estudos realizados através da eletroforese isoenzimática com os sistemas ? esterase, fosfatase ácida e peroxidase, 20; 40 e 60 dias após a inoculação com ovos de M. incognita raça 2, possibilitaram relacionar a expressão de proteínas com a suscetibilidade. Os genótipos mais próximos geneticamente, com índice de similaridade 0,941, foram 027-CMF e 026-CMF, 046-CMF e 026-CMF, e 041-CMF e 026-CMF. O menor índice de similaridade genética (0,115) foi observado entre os genótipos 002-SPE e 036-CMF. Abstract in english The culture of the Barbados cherry has increased great interest in the consuming market, in view of high levels of vitamin C, each 100ml of juice has contents of 1,325mg / 2,250mg of vitamin C (Ascorbic acid).With the increase of the plantations phytosanitary problems appeared, such as infection of [...] the roots for nematodes. The utilisation of chemical products for controlling nematodes is unsafe for the environment, therefore the election of resistant and tolerant genotypes is the best solution for this problem. The work was developed in greenhouse, with eighteen genotypes of Barbados cherry aiming to find resistant genotypes to Meloidogyne incognita race 2, marked with iso-enzymatic markers, indicating plants destined for rootstock. Sixty days after the inoculation, the evaluation of the variables began: amount of eggs per plant and weight of root, index of galls and eggs mass, fresh biomass relative to the root systems, fresh biomass relative to the aerial part. The results permitted to identify the genotype 023-CMF as the less susceptible and the genotypes 027-CMF and 035-CMF as the most susceptible. Studies carried out through iso-enzymatic electrophoresis with the systems ? -esterase, acid phosphatase and peroxidase. Twenty, forty and sixty days after the inoculation with eggs of M. incognita race2, made it possible to relate the expression of proteins with the susceptibility. The genotypes genetically closer, with index of similarity 0.941 are: 027-CMF and 026-CMF, 046-CMF and 026-CMF and 041-CMF and 026-CMF. The lesser indices of genetic similarity 0.115 are: genotypes 002-SPE and 036-CMF.

Jackeline Gadé de Araujo, Rossiter; Rosimar dos Santos, Musser; Luiza Suely Semen, Martins; Elvira Maria Regis, Pedrosa; Jeane Emilli de, Medeiros.

1057-10-01

224

Efeito de extratos aquosos de espécies de Asteraceae sobre Meloidogyne incognita / Effect of aqueous extracts of Asteraceae species on Meloidogyne incognita  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Estudou-se, in vitro e in vivo a atividade nematicida dos extratos aquosos de vedélia (Sphagneticola trilobata), erva-de-touro (Tridax procumbens), cravo-de-defunto (Tagetes patula), girassol mexicano (Tithonia diversifolia), botão de ouro (Unxia suffruticosa) e zínia (Zinnia peruviana), sobre Meloi [...] dogyne incognita. Os extratos foram preparados na proporção de 1,0g do material seco e triturado para 10mL de água destilada e armazenados por 24h, sendo seguidamente utilizados nos experimentos. Nos testes in vitro, foram depositados 4,0mL do extrato bruto e 2,0mL de uma suspensão aquosa contendo 200 ovos do nematóide em placas de Petri de 5cm de diâmetro e, quinze dias após, procedeu-se a contagem do número de juvenis eclodidos e dos ovos remanescentes para o cálculo das porcentagens de eclosão. Nos testes in vivo, os extratos foram aplicados, separadamente, via pulverização foliar, tratamento de raiz e vertido no solo, semanalmente durante 60 dias. Como testemunha utilizou-se apenas água nos dois experimentos. No ensaio in vitro observou-se que todos os extratos foram eficientes na redução da eclosão de juvenis de M. incognita quando comparados à testemunha, as porcentagens de redução foram 89,96%, 91,13%, 92,48%, 92,72%, 93,2% e 97,48% para erva-de-touro, cravo-de-defunto, girassol mexicano, vedélia, botão de ouro e zínia, respectivamente, e no ensaio in vivo, que os tratamentos não exerceram nenhum efeito sobre o peso do sistema radicular dos tomateiros, no entanto, observou-se que os resultados diferiram entre as espécies utilizadas e a forma de aplicação do extrato na avaliação do peso fresco da parte aérea das plantas. Quanto ao fator de reprodução, observou-se que nenhum dos extratos apresentou diferença estatística em relação à testemunha, no entanto, quando se compara as diferentes formas de aplicação dos mesmos, observa-se que houve diferença estatística quando os extratos de erva de touro e girassol mexicano foram aplicados via pulverização foliar e no tratamento de raiz, contudo, não houve diferença quando estes extratos foram aplicados em forma de rega no solo. Abstract in english The nematicide activity of aqueous extracts of Wedelia (Sphagneticola trilobata), tridax daisy (Tridax procumbens), marigold (Tagetes patula), Mexican sunflower (Tithonia diversifolia), "botão de ouro" (Unxia suffruticosa) and Peruvian zinnia (Zinnia peruviana) was studied in vitro and in vivo on Me [...] loidogyne incognita. The extracts were prepared at a ratio of 1.0 g of dry and crushed material to 10 ml of distilled water, stored for 24 hours, and then used in the experiments. In in vitro tests, 4.0 mL of crude extract and 2.0 ml of an aqueous suspension containing 200 nematode eggs were deposited on Petri plates of 5cm diameter and, fifteen days later, the number of hatched juveniles and the remaining eggs were counted to calculate the percentages of hatching. In in vivo tests, the extracts were separately applied by leaf spraying, root treatment and pouring onto the soil, weekly for 60 days. As control, only water was used in both experiments. The in vitro test showed that all extracts were effective in reducing the hatching of juveniles of M. incognita when compared to the control; the reduction percentages were 89.96%, 91.13%, 92.48%, 92.72%, 93.2% and 97.48% for tridax daisy, marigold, Mexican sunflower, Wedelia, "botão de ouro" and Peruvian zinnia, respectively, while in the in vivo assay, treatments did not have any effect on the root system weight of tomato plants; however, results differed between the used species and the way of application of the extract in the evaluation of the fresh weight of shoots. As to the reproduction rate, none of the extracts showed a statistical difference, compared to control; however, comparing the different ways of application, there was statistical difference when the extracts of tridax daisy and Mexican sunflower were applied through leaf spraying and root

Isabel Cristina Madeira, Ferreira; Gilson Soares da, Silva; Fagner Sousa, Nascimento.

2013-03-01

225

Grafted eggplant yield, quality and growth in infested soil with Verticillium dahliae and Meloidogyne incognita / Produção, qualidade e crescimento de beringela enxertada, em solo infestado com Verticillium dahliae e Meloidogyne incognita  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito sobre a altura de planta, a produção e a qualidade de frutos do enxerto das cultivares de beringela (Solanum melongena L.) Pala e Faselis em Solanum torvum Sw., quando cultivadas em solo infestado com Verticillium dahliae e Meloidogyne incognita ou em s [...] olo não infestado. A infestação do solo reduziu a produção, altura da planta, biomassa da parte aérea, massa média dos frutos, massa de matéria seca da parte aérea, conforme a cultivar utilizada e a enxertia. A enxertia reduziu os conteúdos de ácido oxálico e de sólidos solúveis e aumentou a massa média de frutos, conforme a cultivar ou a presença do patógeno no solo. A enxertia também reduziu o efeito negativo dos patógenos sobre o índice de doença, a altura de planta e a massa de matéria seca da parte aérea. A cultivar Pala foi mais vigorosa que a Faselis, e S. torvum foi um porta-enxerto vigoroso. A combinação de porta-enxerto vigoroso com a cultivar fraca (Faselis) foi mais adequada que a de porta-enxerto vigoroso e a cultivar vigorosa (Pala). Ouso de S. torvum como porta-enxerto para a cultivar Faselis, em solo infestado, é provavelmente promissora na horticultura convencional e na horticultura sustentável de baixos insumos, pois a enxertia aumenta a proteção contra os patógenos, e reduz a perda de qualidade dos frutos e da produção. Abstract in english The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of grafting (onto Solanum torvum Sw.) on plant growth, yield and fruit quality of the Pala and Faselis eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) cultivars, grown in a soil infested with Verticillium dahliae Kleb. and Meloidogyne incognita, or in noninfeste [...] d soil. Soil infestation decreased yield, plant height, final above-ground biomass, and also reduced fruit mean weight and shoot dry weight depending on cultivar or grafting. Grafting decreased fruit oxalic acid and the soluble solid contents, and increased mean fruit weight, depending on cultivar and soil infestation. Grafting also reduced the negative effects of the pathogens on disease index, plant height and shoot dry weight. Cultivar Pala was more vigorous than Faselis, and S. torvum was a vigorous rootstock. The combination of a vigorous rootstock with a weak cultivar (Faselis) is more profitable than that of a vigorous rootstock and a vigorous cultivar (Pala). Using S. torvum as a rootstock for cultivar Faselis, grown in soil infested with the pathogens, is most likely to be useful in conventional and low-input sustainable horticulture, since grafting increases protection against the pathogens, and reduces the losses in quality and yield.

Sebahattin, Çürük; H. Y& #305; ld& #305; z, Dasgan; Sedat, Mansuro& #287; lu; & #350; ener, Kurt; Meltem, Mazmano& #287; lu; Özgür, Antakl& #305; ; Gülcan, Tarla.

1673-16-01

226

Reação de cultivares de algodoeiro a Meloidogyne incognita em condições de campo e casa de vegetação no estado de Mato Grosso Reaction of cotton genotypes to Meloidogyne incognita in field and greenhouse trials in Mato Grosso state, Brazil  

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Full Text Available Genótipos de algodoeiro, compreendendo cultivares e linhagens avançadas, foram avaliados no Estado de Mato Grosso quanto à reação a Meloidogyne incognita. Em dois experimentos de campo, foi avaliada a tolerância a esse nematóide mediante atribuição de notas, de acordo com sintomas externos exibidos pelas plantas. Um ensaio avaliou também a resistência ao parasita, mediante determinação do número de espécimes nas raízes de plantas amostradas nas parcelas. A resistência foi avaliada também em casa de vegetação, por meio da determinação do número de massas de ovos nas raízes e do fator de reprodução. Foram constatadas diferenças notáveis na reação dos 22 genótipos estudados, verificando-se a formação de grupos graduais de desempenho, tanto com respeito à resistência quanto à tolerância. Nas duas características, destacaram-se positivamente as cultivares IAC 25 RMD, IPR 140 e IPR JATAÍ, e negativamente, dentre outras, FIBERMAX 966, LDCV FREGO e FMT 703. A produção de algodão em caroço variou de 482 a 3087 g/parcela no experimento de Campo Verde, e de 1153 a 3151 g/parcela no de Primavera do Leste. As perdas na produção, nos genótipos mais afetados, foram de até 65% no primeiro experimento e de até 40% no segundo. Os dados de avaliação da resistência e da tolerância mostraram-se correlacionados, porém, os da tolerância, a julgar pelos coeficientes de variação e de correlação intra-classe, na análise da variância, mostraram-se mais precisos e de maior repetibilidade.Cotton genotypes, comprising cultivars and advanced lineages, were evaluated for tolerance and resistance to Meloidogyne incognita in Mato Grosso state, Brazil. Tolerance was evaluated in two field experiments, attributing scores according to external symptoms exhibited by plants, while resistance was studied in greenhouse and in one field trial, counting the number of egg masses or specimens on the roots, and the reproduction factor. Significant differences were observed among the 22 studied genotypes, concerning both resistance and tolerance, and graduated performance groups were established. The cultivars IAC 25 RMD, IPR 140 and IPR JATAI formed the most resistant/tolerant group, while FIBERMAX 966, LDCV FREGO, and FMT 703, among others, were situated in the most susceptible/intolerant ones. Cotton seed yield ranged from 482 to 3087 g/plot at Campo Verde and from 1153 to 3151 g/plot at Primavera do Leste. Yield losses, attributable to incidence of this nematode, were estimated at 65% and 40%, respectively, in these trials. Data related to resistance and to tolerance were correlated, however, and by taking into account coefficient of variation and intra-class correlation, from the analysis of variance, it could be seen that data relating to tolerance presented greater precision and repeatability.

Rafael Galbieri

2009-02-01

227

Pyramiding taro cystatin and fungal chitinase genes driven by a synthetic promoter enhances resistance in tomato to root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita.  

Science.gov (United States)

Meloidogyne incognita, one of the major root-knot nematode (RKN) species in agriculture, attacks many plant species, causing severe economic losses. Genetic engineering of plants with defense-responsive genes has been demonstrated to control RKN. These studies, however, focused on controlling RKN at certain growth stages. In the present study, a dual gene overexpression system, utilizing a plant cysteine proteinase inhibitor (CeCPI) and a fungal chitinase (PjCHI-1), was used to transform tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) in order to provide protection from all growth stages of RKN. A synthetic promoter, pMSPOA, containing NOS-like and SP8a elements, was employed to drive the expression of introduced genes. Gall formation and the proportion of female nematodes in the population, as well as effects on the reproduction of RKN, were monitored in both transgenic and control plants. RKN eggs collected from transgenic plants displayed reduced chitin content and retardation in embryogenesis. The results demonstrated that transgenic plants had inhibitory effects on RKN that were superior to plants transformed with a single gene. The pyramiding expression system produced synergistic effects by the two defense-responsive genes, leading to a detrimental effect on all growth stages of RKN. PMID:25575993

Chan, Yuan-Li; He, Yong; Hsiao, Tsen-Tsz; Wang, Chii-Jeng; Tian, Zhihong; Yeh, Kai-Wun

2015-02-01

228

A comparison of the FMRFamide-like peptide proteolytic activities of preparations from two plant-parasitic nematodes (Heterodera glycines and Meloidogyne incognita): possible targets for novel control.  

Science.gov (United States)

Proteolytic activities in extracts from the plant-parasitic nematodes Heterodera glycines and Meloidogyne incognita were examined for their abilities to digest three FRET-modified peptide substrates representing members of the large FMRFamide-like peptide (FLP) family in nematodes. Included were sequences distributed across all nematode species (KSAYMRFa and KHEYLRFa) and a sequence confined to a narrow range of plant-parasitic nematodes (KHEFVRFa). Species variations were observed among substrate affinities, reaction rates and effect of protease inhibitors. K m values for KHEYLRFa (1.48 ± 0.34 ?m) and KSAYMRFa (2.13 ± 0.24 ?m) in H. glycines were each lower (P< 0.05) than those for the same substrates in M. incognita (5.26 ± 1.30 ?m and 3.90 ± 0.61 ?m, respectively). The K m of KHEFVRFa was lower (P< 0.05) in M. incognita (5.83 ± 0.36 ?m) than in H. glycines (11.01 ± 1.26 ?m). Reaction rates (V max/min/?g) for KHEYLRFa were the same for both species, but KSAYMRFa and KHEFVRFa digestion rates were each nearly twofold higher (P< 0.05) in M. incognita than in H. glycines. Digestion of KSAYMRFa was strongly inhibited in both species by 4-(2-aminoethyl)-benzenesulfonyl-fluoride-HCl (AEBSF) and EDTA, but M. incognita was more sensitive (P< 0.05) to inhibition. AEBSF and EDTA (both at 1 mm) inhibited M. incognita activity 62.3% and 36.6% more, respectively, than H. glycines activity. Serine protease inhibition differed significantly (P< 0.05) between the two species. Maximum inhibition of M. incognita (76%) occurred at 1.85 mm AEBSF while maximum inhibition of H. glycines was 40% at 1.19 mm AEBSF. PMID:22310027

Masler, E P

2013-03-01

229

Evaluation of Verticilum Chlamydosporium and Arrthrobotrys for Biological Control of Meloidogyne Incognita in Celery and Tomato  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The ability of nematode trapping fungi and egg-parasitic fungi to colonize and persist in the rhizosphere of crop plants is thought to be an important factor influencing the success of bi logical control of root infecting nematodes. In this study, two strains of an egg parasite fungus Verticillium chlamydosporium (Vc-10 and Vc-2M) and an isolate of the nematode-trapping fungus Arthrobotrys oligospora and persistence in the rhizosphere and tomato plants in a green house pot experiment. The isolates tested differed in their pathogenicity to M. incognita and survival in the rhizosphere. An isolate of Verticillum chlamydosporium (Vc-10) was the most virulent pathogen of the nematode. Root galling was slowest in tomato plants treated with V-10 (2.2); pots treated with this isolate had the lowest final soil population of infective juveniles; there was a 62.2% and 98.5% infections of eggs and egg masses respectively by Vc-10 on tomato plants. The two isolates of Verticillium chlamydosporium (Vc-10 and Vc2M) persisted in the soil and could be re-isolated from the rhizosphere and roots of tomato plants at least 16 weeks after soil application. The final inoculum density was, however higher for Vc-10 (1.35x105 cfu/g soil) than Vc-2M (9.25x104 cfu/g soil). Arthrobotrys oligospora on the other hand did not give any significant control of the nematode on both crops, there was severe galling on the roots of plants treated with this agent. It could not be re-isted with this agent. It could not be re-isolated from the plant rhizosphere sixteen weeks after soil infestation. Lack of nematode control on both crops by A.oligo spora was attributed to it's poor on establishment in the plant rhizosphere; low density and roots penetration by infective juveniles before they were ensnared in the trapping devices of this fungal biocontrol agent. The fact that it could not be re-isolated from the rhizosphere may imply that the fungus did not survive in the rhizosphere in quantities enough to enhance nematode control

230

Effects of Chloroform Extract of Dryopteris crassirhizoma on the Ultramicroscopic Structures of Meloidogyne incognita  

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In our early experiments, the chloroform extract of D. crassirhizoma was demonstrated to contain the highest concentrations of total phloroglucinols among several extract fractions and possessed the most effective nematicidal activity. This study aimed to ascertain the ultrastructural changes in M. incognita after treatment with a D. crassirhizoma chloroform extract at 1?mg·mL?1 for 24?h. It was found that the extract exhibited significant destructive effects on the worm's ultrastructu...

Ji-quan Liu; Shu-lian Xie; Jia Feng; Jin Cai

2013-01-01

231

Soil amendment with dried weed leaves as non-chemical approach for the management of Meloidogyne incognita infecting tomato.  

Science.gov (United States)

In pot trial, dried ground weed leaves of Cynodon dactylon, Datura stramonium, Eichhomia crassipes, Emex spinosus, Ricinus communis and Sisymbrium irio were mixed with soil at the rate of 1, 3, 5 and 10 g/kg soil and compared their nematicidal potential with carbofuran as a standard against the root-knot nematode, M. incognita infecting tomato. In addition, their effects on growth rate of tomato plants were also investigated. The results showed that M. incognita populations in the soil and root galling were significantly suppressed when the dried leaves of the tested weeds at all rates were allowed to decompose in the soil. All amendments exhibited varying degree of reduction compared to control. The highest reduction was noticeable with the plants grown in Sisymbrium irio amended soil followed by Datura stramonium and Emex spinosus. In addition, employing high rate of the tested weeds gave higher activity in suppressing the nematode both in the soil and in tomato roots than using low rate. The data also indicated that all amendments at low rates significantly increased growth indices of tomato over control treatment, except Cynodon dactylon and Emex spinosus which decreased it, particularly in the shoot system. On the other hand, their high rates showed phytotoxic effects. These weed species may offer considerable promise as soil amendments for control of root-knot nematode, M. incognita. PMID:17612348

Radwan, M A; Abu-Elamayem, M M; Kassem, S M; El-Maadawy, E K

2006-01-01

232

Exploitation of microbes for enhancing bacoside content and reduction of Meloidogyne incognita infestation in Bacopa monnieri L.  

Science.gov (United States)

Despite the vast exploration of rhizospheric microbial wealth for crop yield enhancement, knowledge about the efficacy of microbial agents as biocontrol weapons against root-knot disease is scarce, especially in medicinal plants, viz., Bacopa monnieri. In the present investigation, rhizospheric microbes, viz., Bacillus megaterium, Glomus intraradices, Trichoderma harzianum ThU, and their combinations were evaluated for the management of Meloidogyne incognita (Kofoid and White) Chitwood and bacoside content enhancement in B. monnieri var CIM-Jagriti. A novel validated method Fourier transform near infrared was used for rapid estimation of total bacoside content. A significant reduction (2.75-fold) in root-knot indices was observed in the combined treatment of B. megaterium and T. harzianum ThU in comparison to untreated control plants. The same treatment also showed significant enhancement (1.40-fold) in total bacoside contents (plant active molecule) content using Fourier transform near-infrared (FT-NIR) method that analyses samples rapidly in an hour without solvent usage and provides ample scope for natural product studies. PMID:24841892

Gupta, Rupali; Tiwari, Sudeep; Saikia, Shilpi K; Shukla, Virendra; Singh, Rashmi; Singh, S P; Kumar, P V Ajay; Pandey, Rakesh

2015-01-01

233

Efeito de exsudatos de cultura de células de plantas em juvenis de segundo estádio de Meloidogyne incognita  

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Full Text Available Calus foram obtidos de tomateiro (Lycopersicon esculentum, cafeeiro (Coffea arabica, alfafa (Medicago sativa, orquídea (Dendrobium nobile, mostarda (Brassica rapa, batata doce (Ipomoea batatas, fumo (Nicotiana tabacum, cenoura (Daucus carota e Crotalaria juncea em meio sólido de Murashige & Skoog (MS seguido do cultivo em meio líquido MS em temperatura de 25-28 ºC. Após um mês, a suspensão foi passada em membrana Millipore 0,22 µm, obtendo-se, assim, o exsudato da cultura de células de cada planta testada. Ovos ou juvenis de segundo estádio (J2 de Meloidogyne incognita foram incubados nesses exsudatos e avaliadas as percentagens de eclosão, mobilidade e mortalidade dos J2. Com exceção dos ovos incubados em exsudato de orquídea, todos os demais inibiram a eclosão quando comparados com a incubação em água (testemunha. Entretanto, nos exsudatos de L. esculentum, cafeeiro e C. juncea a inibição foi mais drástica, semelhante ao aldicarb, mas significativamente diferente e menor do que em soluções contendo ingredientes do meio MS (1-5. Todos os exsudatos reduziram a mobilidade e aumentaram a mortalidade, com maior intensidade em 24 h de exposição. Porém, maior redução na mobilidade ocorreu nos exsudatos de tomateiro e alfafa, enquanto maior mortalidade no exsudato de tomateiro, seguido pelo de mostarda.

Rocha Fernando S.

2004-01-01

234

A Meloidogyne incognita effector is imported into the nucleus and exhibits transcriptional activation activity in?planta.  

Science.gov (United States)

Root-knot nematodes are sedentary biotrophic endoparasites that maintain a complex interaction with their host plants. Nematode effector proteins are synthesized in the oesophageal glands of nematodes and secreted into plant tissue through a needle-like stylet. Effectors characterized to date have been shown to mediate processes essential for nematode pathogenesis. To gain an insight into their site of action and putative function, the subcellular localization of 13 previously isolated Meloidogyne incognita effectors was determined. Translational fusions were created between effectors and EGFP-GUS (enhanced green fluorescent protein-?-glucuronidase) reporter genes, which were transiently expressed in tobacco leaf cells. The majority of effectors localized to the cytoplasm, with one effector, 7H08, imported into the nuclei of plant cells. Deletion analysis revealed that the nuclear localization of 7H08 was mediated by two novel independent nuclear localization domains. As a result of the nuclear localization of the effector, 7H08 was tested for the ability to activate gene transcription. 7H08 was found to activate the expression of reporter genes in both yeast and plant systems. This is the first report of a plant-parasitic nematode effector with transcriptional activation activity. PMID:24863562

Zhang, Lei; Davies, Laura J; Elling, Axel A

2015-01-01

235

Colored Mulches Affect Yield of Fresh-market Tomato Infected with Meloidogyne incognita  

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The effects of different-colored polyethylene mulches on the quantity and spectra of reflected light, earliness of fruit set, fruit yield and quality, and root-knot disease were studied in field-grown, staked tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum). White mulch reflected more photosynthetic light and a lower far-red-to-red ratio than red mulch, whereas black mulch reflected less than 5 percent of any color. Soil temperatures and fruit yields were recorded for tomato plants inoculated with Meloidogyn...

Fortnum, B. A.; Decoteau, D. R.; Kasperbauer, M. J.

1997-01-01

236

Descripción morfológica de selecciones de Psidium guajava L. tolerantes y Psidium friedrichsthalianum (Berg.) Nied resistente a Meloidogyne incognita en el estado Zulia, Venezuela Morphological description of selections of Psidium guajava L. tolerants and Psidium friedrichsthalianum (Berg.) Nied resistant to Meloidogyne incognita in Zulia state, Venezuela  

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Con el objetivo de realizar una descripción morfológica se escogieron siete selecciones de P. guajava tolerantes, una susceptible y una de P. friedrichsthalianum "Cas" resistente al nematodo Meloidogyne incognita, ubicadas en el Centro Frutícola del Zulia-CORPOZULIA, municipio Mara, estado Zulia, Venezuela. Se recolectaron hojas, flores y frutos y se evaluó forma, margen, color, longitud del pecíolo, ancho y longitud de las hojas, relación ancho por longitud, número de nervaduras, tama...

Molero, T.; Molina, J.; Casassa-padro?n, A.

2003-01-01

237

Effects of chloroform extract of Dryopteris crassirhizoma on the ultramicroscopic structures of Meloidogyne incognita.  

Science.gov (United States)

In our early experiments, the chloroform extract of D. crassirhizoma was demonstrated to contain the highest concentrations of total phloroglucinols among several extract fractions and possessed the most effective nematicidal activity. This study aimed to ascertain the ultrastructural changes in M. incognita after treatment with a D. crassirhizoma chloroform extract at 1?mg·mL?¹ for 24?h. It was found that the extract exhibited significant destructive effects on the worm's ultrastructure and caused distinctive damage to body surfaces and internal structures. These results will contribute to a deeper understanding of the nematicidal mechanism of D. crassirhizoma, as well as in the design of efficient bionematicides. PMID:24282379

Liu, Ji-quan; Xie, Shu-lian; Feng, Jia; Cai, Jin

2013-01-01

238

Virtual screening and in vitro assay of potential drug like inhibitors from spices against Glutathione-S-Transferase of Meloidogyne incognita.  

Science.gov (United States)

Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) enzymes are critical antioxidant and detoxification system responsible for long-term existence of nematodes in host species. Hence, 16 phytochemicals predicted and reported to have potential nematicidal activity have been docked to GST enzyme of Meloidogyne incognita to assess their binding affinity and inhibitory activity. In vitro effects of these phytochemicals from in silico results have been done for validation of docking studies and efficacy in GST inhibition of following compounds such as alpha- pinene, alpha- terpineol, beta- caryophyllene, capsaicin, cinnamic acid, citronellol, curcumin, eugenol, geraniol, isoeugenol, linalool, myristicin, neral, NVA (N-vanillylnonanamide), piperine, vanillin have been revealed. Nematode inhibition in vitro bioassay for selected compounds could conclude that maximum mortality was observed with highest concentrations of beta- caryophyllene (78%) followed by eugenol (61.6%), cinnamic acid (55%) and N-vanillylnonanamide (49%). These findings thus suggest that the above phytochemicals could be potentially developed as nematicidal molecules against M. incognita infections. PMID:22553389

Babu, Rosana O; Moorkoth, Dinsha; Azeez, Shamina; Eapen, Santhosh J

2012-01-01

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Mi-1-Mediated Resistance to Meloidogyne incognita in Tomato May Not Rely on Ethylene but Hormone Perception through ETR3 Participates in Limiting Nematode Infection in a Susceptible Host  

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Root-knot nematodes, Meloidogyne spp., are important pests of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) and resistance to the three most prevalent species of this genus, including Meloidogyne incognita, is mediated by the Mi-1 gene. Mi-1 encodes a nucleotide binding (NB) leucine-rich repeat (LRR) resistance (R) protein. Ethylene (ET) is required for the resistance mediated by a subset of NB-LRR proteins and its role in Mi-1-mediated nematode resistance has not been characterized. Infection of tomato root...

Mantelin, Sophie; Bhattarai, Kishor K.; Jhaveri, Teraneh Z.; Kaloshian, Isgouhi

2013-01-01

240

Reação de cultivares de algodoeiro a Meloidogyne incognita em condições de campo e casa de vegetação no estado de Mato Grosso / Reaction of cotton genotypes to Meloidogyne incognita in field and greenhouse trials in Mato Grosso state, Brazil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Genótipos de algodoeiro, compreendendo cultivares e linhagens avançadas, foram avaliados no Estado de Mato Grosso quanto à reação a Meloidogyne incognita. Em dois experimentos de campo, foi avaliada a tolerância a esse nematóide mediante atribuição de notas, de acordo com sintomas externos exibidos [...] pelas plantas. Um ensaio avaliou também a resistência ao parasita, mediante determinação do número de espécimes nas raízes de plantas amostradas nas parcelas. A resistência foi avaliada também em casa de vegetação, por meio da determinação do número de massas de ovos nas raízes e do fator de reprodução. Foram constatadas diferenças notáveis na reação dos 22 genótipos estudados, verificando-se a formação de grupos graduais de desempenho, tanto com respeito à resistência quanto à tolerância. Nas duas características, destacaram-se positivamente as cultivares IAC 25 RMD, IPR 140 e IPR JATAÍ, e negativamente, dentre outras, FIBERMAX 966, LDCV FREGO e FMT 703. A produção de algodão em caroço variou de 482 a 3087 g/parcela no experimento de Campo Verde, e de 1153 a 3151 g/parcela no de Primavera do Leste. As perdas na produção, nos genótipos mais afetados, foram de até 65% no primeiro experimento e de até 40% no segundo. Os dados de avaliação da resistência e da tolerância mostraram-se correlacionados, porém, os da tolerância, a julgar pelos coeficientes de variação e de correlação intra-classe, na análise da variância, mostraram-se mais precisos e de maior repetibilidade. Abstract in english Cotton genotypes, comprising cultivars and advanced lineages, were evaluated for tolerance and resistance to Meloidogyne incognita in Mato Grosso state, Brazil. Tolerance was evaluated in two field experiments, attributing scores according to external symptoms exhibited by plants, while resistance w [...] as studied in greenhouse and in one field trial, counting the number of egg masses or specimens on the roots, and the reproduction factor. Significant differences were observed among the 22 studied genotypes, concerning both resistance and tolerance, and graduated performance groups were established. The cultivars IAC 25 RMD, IPR 140 and IPR JATAI formed the most resistant/tolerant group, while FIBERMAX 966, LDCV FREGO, and FMT 703, among others, were situated in the most susceptible/intolerant ones. Cotton seed yield ranged from 482 to 3087 g/plot at Campo Verde and from 1153 to 3151 g/plot at Primavera do Leste. Yield losses, attributable to incidence of this nematode, were estimated at 65% and 40%, respectively, in these trials. Data related to resistance and to tolerance were correlated, however, and by taking into account coefficient of variation and intra-class correlation, from the analysis of variance, it could be seen that data relating to tolerance presented greater precision and repeatability.

Rafael, Galbieri; Milton G., Fuzatto; Edivaldo, Cia; Reginaldo R., Lüders; Andressa C.Z., Machado; Alberto F., Boldt.

2009-02-01

 
 
 
 
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Efecto in vitro de concentraciones del NEMACID® sobre huevos y juveniles de Meloidogyne incognita (Kofoid y White) Chitwood / In vitro effect of different concentrations of NEMACID® on eggs and juveniles of Meloidogyne incognita (Kofoid and White) Chitwood  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Para el manejo de nematodos, se desarrolló en Cuba el producto NEMACID®, que posee como ingrediente activo metabolitos obtenidos a partir de los efluentes de la fermentación líquida de Lecanicillium lecanii (Zare & Gams) formulado con sulfato de amonio. El objetivo de este ensayo fue determinar el e [...] fecto del NEMACID® sobre los huevos y juveniles (J2) de Meloidogyne incognita (Kofoid y White) Chitwood. En el ensayo se utilizaron como controles agua destilada, sulfato de amonio ((NH4)2SO4; 1,69 mg.ml-1) y Dazomet (1g.1000ml-1); y se evaluaron cinco concentraciones de NEMACID® (18,75; 3,75; 1,875; 0, 1875 y 0,01875mg.ml-1). Los valores de LC50 y LC90, se calcularon usando el método Probit. Las evaluaciones se llevaron a cabo a las 24 horas, contabilizándose el número de J2 inmóviles y huevos no eclosionados del total. Los resultados corroboraron la acción nematicida del producto que provocó el colapso del contenido interno de los juveniles y resultó imposible su recuperación posterior. El NEMACID® a la concentración de 18,75 mg.ml-1 produjo mayor efectividad sobre la eclosión de los huevos y mortalidad de los juveniles que el Dazomet (control). El sulfato de amonio, producto que acompaña al hongo en el proceso de fermentación y forma parte de la formulación final del NEMACID®, no produjo afectación a huevos y juveniles. Las concentraciones de NEMACID® de 3,75 mg.ml-1 e inferiores no resultaron satisfactorias en el tratamiento de los huevos, donde el porcentaje de inhibición de la eclosión de los mismos estuvo por debajo del 50. Mientras que en juveniles, la concentración de 3,75 mg.ml-1 del producto ocasionó mortalidad por encima del 70%, sin diferencia significativa con el producto Dazomet. Abstract in english NEMACID® was developed in Cuba for root knot nematode management. This product contains the effluents from liquid fermentation of Lecanicillium lecani (Zare and Gams) as active ingredient, and is formulated with ammonium sulfate. The objective of this test was to determine the effect of NEMACID® on [...] eggs and juveniles (J2) of Meloidogyne incognita (Kofoid and White) Chitwood. In the test, five concentrations of NEMACID® (18,75; 3,75; 1,875; 0,1875 y 0,01875mg.ml-1) were evaluated using distilled water, ammonium sulfate ((NH4)2SO4; 1,69mg.ml-1) and Dazomet (1g.1000ml-1) as controls. The CL50 and CL90 were calculated using Probit analysis. The evaluations were done at 24h, when the total number of non mobile juveniles and non hatched eggs from the total were counted. The result corroborated the nematicide action of the product by producing the collapse of the internal content in juveniles with an impossible recovery. NEMACID® at a concentration of 18,75 mg. ml-1 showed a higher effect on egg hatching and juvenile mortality than Dazomet (control). The ammonium sulfate, a product accompanying the fungus in the fermentation process as part of the final formulation of NEMACID®, did not affect eggs or juveniles. Concentrations of NEMACID® equal to 3,75mg.ml-1 or lower did not affect the eggs, with a percentage of hatching inhibition below 50%. Meanwhile, in juveniles, the concentration of 3.75mg.ml-1 caused a mortality over 70%, without significant differences with Dazomet.

Yusmila, Guevara; Eulalia, Gómez; Oriela, Pino; Y, Rodríguez; Ileana, Miranda; R, Enrique; Mayra G, Rodríguez.

2013-04-01

242

Damage quantification and reaction of bean genotypes (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) to Meloidogyne incognita race 3 and M. javanica / Quantificação de danos e reção de genótipos de feijoeiro (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) à Meloidogyne incognita raça 3 e M. javanica  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Avaliaram-se danos e os níveis de resistência de cultivares e acessos de feijoeiro-comum resgatados nas regiões Sul e Serrana do Estado do Espírito Santo ao parasitismo de M. incognita raça 3 e M. javanica em casa de vegetação. Foram testados quatro genótipos resgatados de feijoeiro ("FORT-10", "FOR [...] T-13", "FORT-16" e "FORT-19"), e mais 2 cultivares comerciais: "Pérola"; e "Aporé". O cultivar "Rico-23" foi incluído como padrão de suscetibilidade aos nematóides e plantas não inoculadas constituíram a testemunha. Desta forma, o experimento foi conduzido em delineamento inteiramente casualizado em esquema fatorial 3 (tratamentos considerando nematóides) x 7 (genótipos e cultivares de feijoeiros), com 7 repetições. Os dados foram mensurados aos 50 dias após a inoculação das plantas. Para a quantificação de danos foram avaliadas: altura das plantas (ALT), número de nós (NOS), número de folhas trifolioladas (NFT), peso da matéria fresca (PMF) e da matéria seca (PMS) da parte aérea, peso de raiz (PR), número de nódulos radiculares (NOD) e população final (PF) de nematóides por sistema radicular. Não foram observadas diferenças significativas entre os efeitos causados por M. incognita e M. javanica, porém ambas as espécies apresentaram valores inferiores quanto à ALT, NOS, NFT, PR, PMF e PMS em relação às testemunhas. Em relação aos níveis de resistência dos feijoeiros a M. incognita os feijoeiros "FORT-10", "FORT-13", "Aporé" e "FORT-16" comportaram-se como moderadamente resistente, as cultivares "Rico 23" e "Pérola" como pouco resistente e o genótipo "FORT-19" como altamente suscetível. Quando parasitados por M. javanica, os feijoeiros "FORT-19", "Rico 23", "FORT-16" e "FORT-13" foram pouco resistentes, "Pérola" e "Aporé" suscetíveis e "FORT-10" altamente suscetíveis. Abstract in english The damage and the resistance levels of cultivars and accessions of common beans rescued in the South and mountain regions of Espírito Santo State, Brazil, to M. incognita race 3 and M. javanica parasitism were evaluated under a greenhouse. Four rescued bean genotypes ("FORT-10", "FORT-13", "FORT-16 [...] " and "FORT-19") and 2 commercial cultivars: "Pérola", and "Aporé", were tested. The cultivar "Rico-23" was included as standard of susceptibility to nematodes and non-inoculated plants constituted the control. Thus, the experiment was carried out in a completely randomized design in 3 (treatments considering nematodes) x 7 (genotypes and bean cultivars) factorial arrangement, with 7 replicates. Data were measured at 50 days after plant inoculation. For damage quantification, the following variables were evaluated: plant height (PHE), number of nodes (NNO), number of trifoliate leaves (NRT), fresh matter weight (FWE) and dry matter weight (DWE) of shoots, root weight (RWE), number of root nodules (NRO) and final population (FPO) of nematodes per root system. There were no significant differences between the effects caused by M. incognita and M. javanica, but both species showed inferior values of PHE, NNO, NRT, RWE, FWE and DWE compared to controls. Concerning the levels of resistance of bean plants to M. incognita, the genotypes "FORT-10", "FORT-13", "Aporé" and "FORT-16" behaved as moderately resistant, the cultivars "Rico 23" and "Pérola" low resistant, and the genotype "FORT-19" as highly susceptible. When parasitized by M. javanica, the beans "FORT-19", "Rico-23", "FORT-16" and "FORT-13" were low resistant, "Pérola" and "Aporé" susceptible and "FORT-10" highly susceptible.

Leonardo Nazário Silva dos, Santos; Fábio Ramos, Alves; Leônidas Leoni, Belan; Pablo Diego Silva, Cabral; Frederico de Pina, Matta; Waldir Cintra de, Jesus Junior; Willian Bucker de, Moraes.

2012-03-01

243

Damage quantification and reaction of bean genotypes (Phaseolus vulgaris L. to Meloidogyne incognita race 3 and M. javanica Quantificação de danos e reção de genótipos de feijoeiro (Phaseolus vulgaris L. à Meloidogyne incognita raça 3 e M. javanica  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The damage and the resistance levels of cultivars and accessions of common beans rescued in the South and mountain regions of Espírito Santo State, Brazil, to M. incognita race 3 and M. javanica parasitism were evaluated under a greenhouse. Four rescued bean genotypes ("FORT-10", "FORT-13", "FORT-16" and "FORT-19" and 2 commercial cultivars: "Pérola", and "Aporé", were tested. The cultivar "Rico-23" was included as standard of susceptibility to nematodes and non-inoculated plants constituted the control. Thus, the experiment was carried out in a completely randomized design in 3 (treatments considering nematodes x 7 (genotypes and bean cultivars factorial arrangement, with 7 replicates. Data were measured at 50 days after plant inoculation. For damage quantification, the following variables were evaluated: plant height (PHE, number of nodes (NNO, number of trifoliate leaves (NRT, fresh matter weight (FWE and dry matter weight (DWE of shoots, root weight (RWE, number of root nodules (NRO and final population (FPO of nematodes per root system. There were no significant differences between the effects caused by M. incognita and M. javanica, but both species showed inferior values of PHE, NNO, NRT, RWE, FWE and DWE compared to controls. Concerning the levels of resistance of bean plants to M. incognita, the genotypes "FORT-10", "FORT-13", "Aporé" and "FORT-16" behaved as moderately resistant, the cultivars "Rico 23" and "Pérola" low resistant, and the genotype "FORT-19" as highly susceptible. When parasitized by M. javanica, the beans "FORT-19", "Rico-23", "FORT-16" and "FORT-13" were low resistant, "Pérola" and "Aporé" susceptible and "FORT-10" highly susceptible.Avaliaram-se danos e os níveis de resistência de cultivares e acessos de feijoeiro-comum resgatados nas regiões Sul e Serrana do Estado do Espírito Santo ao parasitismo de M. incognita raça 3 e M. javanica em casa de vegetação. Foram testados quatro genótipos resgatados de feijoeiro ("FORT-10", "FORT-13", "FORT-16" e "FORT-19", e mais 2 cultivares comerciais: "Pérola"; e "Aporé". O cultivar "Rico-23" foi incluído como padrão de suscetibilidade aos nematóides e plantas não inoculadas constituíram a testemunha. Desta forma, o experimento foi conduzido em delineamento inteiramente casualizado em esquema fatorial 3 (tratamentos considerando nematóides x 7 (genótipos e cultivares de feijoeiros, com 7 repetições. Os dados foram mensurados aos 50 dias após a inoculação das plantas. Para a quantificação de danos foram avaliadas: altura das plantas (ALT, número de nós (NOS, número de folhas trifolioladas (NFT, peso da matéria fresca (PMF e da matéria seca (PMS da parte aérea, peso de raiz (PR, número de nódulos radiculares (NOD e população final (PF de nematóides por sistema radicular. Não foram observadas diferenças significativas entre os efeitos causados por M. incognita e M. javanica, porém ambas as espécies apresentaram valores inferiores quanto à ALT, NOS, NFT, PR, PMF e PMS em relação às testemunhas. Em relação aos níveis de resistência dos feijoeiros a M. incognita os feijoeiros "FORT-10", "FORT-13", "Aporé" e "FORT-16" comportaram-se como moderadamente resistente, as cultivares "Rico 23" e "Pérola" como pouco resistente e o genótipo "FORT-19" como altamente suscetível. Quando parasitados por M. javanica, os feijoeiros "FORT-19", "Rico 23", "FORT-16" e "FORT-13" foram pouco resistentes, "Pérola" e "Aporé" suscetíveis e "FORT-10" altamente suscetíveis.

Leonardo Nazário Silva dos Santos

2012-03-01

244

Pathogenicity of Meloidogyne incognita Race 1 on Turmeric (Curcuma longa L. as Influenced by Inoculum Density and Poultry Manure Amendment  

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Full Text Available A glasshouse experiment was conducted to assess the pathogenicity of Meloidogyne incognita race 1 on turmeric (Curcuma longa L. at three inoculum densities (0, 2500, 5000 eggs plant-1 and soil amendment with different levels of Poultry Manure (PM (0, 10, 20, 30 and 40 t ha-1. The results obtained showed that root-galling and egg production decreased in a linear response to increasing PM level at both low and high inoculum densities (r = -0.88 and r = -0.85, respectively; p=0.01. The lowest gall index and egg mass index of 2.0 were recorded in plants amended with 40 and 30 t ha-1 PM, respectively. The high nematode density was more pathogenic (p=0.05 than the low density. Shoot length, fresh shoot and root weights responded in a curvilinear pattern with increasing levels of PM. In general, these growth variables increased with increase in PM level up to 20 t ha-1 and then declined with further increase. At high inoculum density, shoot growth was enhanced by 242 and 58% with 20 and 40 t ha-1 PM relative to unamended soil, respectively. Conversely, fresh root weight was increased by 120% and reduced by 12.8% with 20 and 40 t ha-1 PM, respectively. From this study, it could be inferred that higher levels of PM were highly nematicidal but phytotoxic to turmeric plants; the optimal rate of PM amendment is predicted to be 18-22 t ha-1. However, for this method to be incorporated into Integrated Nematode Management Programme of turmeric, field trials are needed for the optimization of the quantity, time and method of application.

Kevin I. Ugwuoke

2010-01-01

245

Analysis of Gene expression in soybean (Glycine max roots in response to the root knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita using microarrays and KEGG pathways  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Root-knot nematodes are sedentary endoparasites that can infect more than 3000 plant species. Root-knot nematodes cause an estimated $100 billion annual loss worldwide. For successful establishment of the root-knot nematode in its host plant, it causes dramatic morphological and physiological changes in plant cells. The expression of some plant genes is altered by the nematode as it establishes its feeding site. Results We examined the expression of soybean (Glycine max genes in galls formed in roots by the root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita, 12 days and 10 weeks after infection to understand the effects of infection of roots by M. incognita. Gene expression was monitored using the Affymetrix Soybean GeneChip containing 37,500 G. max probe sets. Gene expression patterns were integrated with biochemical pathways from the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes using PAICE software. Genes encoding enzymes involved in carbohydrate and cell wall metabolism, cell cycle control and plant defense were altered. Conclusions A number of different soybean genes were identified that were differentially expressed which provided insights into the interaction between M. incognita and soybean and into the formation and maintenance of giant cells. Some of these genes may be candidates for broadening plants resistance to root-knot nematode through over-expression or silencing and require further examination.

Gamal El-Din Abd El Kader Y

2011-05-01

246

Suppression of the root-knot nematode [Meloidogyne incognita (Kofoid & White) Chitwood] on tomato by dual inoculation with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria.  

Science.gov (United States)

Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi and plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) have potential for the biocontrol of soil-borne diseases. The objectives of this study were to quantify the interactions between AM fungi [Glomus versiforme (Karsten) Berch and Glomus mosseae (Nicol. & Gerd.) Gerdemann & Trappe] and PGPR [Bacillus polymyxa (Prazmowski) Mace and Bacillus sp.] during colonization of roots and rhizosphere of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill) plants (cultivar Jinguan), and to determine their combined effects on the root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita, and on tomato growth. Three greenhouse experiments were conducted. PGPR increased colonization of roots by AM fungi, and AM fungi increased numbers of PGPR in the rhizosphere. Dual inoculations of AM fungi plus PGPR provided greater control of M. incognita and greater promotion of plant growth than single inoculations, and the best combination was G. mosseae plus Bacillus sp. The results indicate that specific AM fungi and PGPR can stimulate each other and that specific combinations of AM fungi and PGPR can interact to suppress M. incognita and disease development. PMID:21755407

Liu, Runjin; Dai, Mei; Wu, Xia; Li, Min; Liu, Xingzhong

2012-05-01

247

Isolation of a cDNA encoding a beta-1,4-endoglucanase in the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita and expression analysis during plant parasitism.  

Science.gov (United States)

A beta-1,4-endoglucanase encoding cDNA (EGases, E.C. 3.2.1.4), named Mi-eng-1, was cloned from Meloidogyne incognita second-stage juveniles (J2). The deduced amino acid sequence contains a catalytic domain and a cellulose-binding domain separated by a linker. In M. incognita, the gene is transcribed in the migratory J2, in males, and in the sedentary adult females. In pre-parasitic J2, endoglucanase transcripts are located in the cytoplasm of the subventral esophageal glands. The presence of beta-1,4-endoglucanase transcripts in adult females could be related to the expression of the gene in esophageal glands at this stage. However, cellulase activity within the egg matrix of adult females suggests that the endoglucanase may also be synthesized in the rectal glands and involved in the extrusion of the eggs onto the root surface. The maximum identity of the predicted MI-ENG-1 catalytic domain with the recently cloned cyst nematode beta-1,4-endoglucanases is 52.5%. In contrast to cyst nematodes, M. incognita pre-parasitic J2 were not found to express a beta-1,4-endoglucanase devoid of a cellulose-binding domain. PMID:10478479

Rosso, M N; Favery, B; Piotte, C; Arthaud, L; De Boer, J M; Hussey, R S; Bakker, J; Baum, T J; Abad, P

1999-07-01

248

Morphological and Morphometrical Characterization of Meloidogyne incognita from Different Host Plants in Four Districts of Punjab, India  

Science.gov (United States)

The population of M. incognita, the root knot nematode (RKN) was found infesting five different host plants (okra, banana, sunflower, bottle gourd, and brinjal) out of 24 examined from four districts of Punjab, India (Gurdaspur, Ludhiana, Patiala, and Hoshiarpur). Morphological and morphometrical characterization indicated that in the case of mature female, the characters of body length and width, neck length, ratio ‘a’, anus to tail terminus (ATT), interphasmid distance (IPD), and perineal pattern were recorded as stable characters. These taxonomic characters can be reliable for identification. All characters of second-stage juvenile (J2) such as body length, stylet length, head to median bulb length (H-MB), distance from median bulb to excretory pore (MB-EP), tail length, anal body width (ABW), and ratios C and C’ were highly variable. Analysis of interpopulation morphometric characters of mature female of M. incognita, namely, body length, width, and ratio ‘a’ were moderately variable characters (CV 0.26% to 20%) and stylet length, neck length, length of median bulb (LMB), and width of median bulb (WMB) were highly variable (CV 1.0% to 36.1%). In the perineal pattern, the two characters ATT and IPD were moderately variable (CV 8.8% to 17.6%) and two characters, anus to vulval slit (AVS) and length of vulval slit (LVS), were highly variable (CV 2.1% to 40.5%). In J2, body length, stylet length, H-MB, MB-EP, ABW, tail length, ratios C, and C’ were highly variable characters (CV > 12%). PMID:23833327

Kaur, Harpreet; Attri, Rajni

2013-01-01

249

Eclosão de Meloidogyne incognita, M. javanica e M. mayaguensis em lixiviados de caupi associado a Glomus etunicatum e Bradyrhizobium sp Hatch of Meloidogyne incognita, M. javanica and M. mayaguensis in root leachates from cowpea associated with Glomus etunicatum and Bradyrhizobium sp  

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O objetivo do presente estudo foi avaliar a influência de lixiviados de caupi (Vigna unguiculata) cultivar Epace 10 inoculada com Glomus etunicatum e/ou Bradyrhizobium sp. sobre eclosão de Meloidogyne incognita, M. javanica e M. mayaguensis. O solo foi infestado com 200 esporos do fungo micorrízico e/ou 1 ml de suspensão contendo 10(8) UFC/ml das estirpes de Bradyrhizobium NFB 700 e NFB 652, e semeados com caupi, deixando-se plantas não inoculadas como testemunha. As plantas foram mantid...

Siqueira, Ke?rcya M. S.; Torres, Gustavo R. C.; Pedrosa, Elvira M. R.; Moura, Romero M.

2004-01-01

250

Morphometric Evaluation of Hypotriploid and Triploid Populations of Meloidogyne arenaria  

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A morphometric comparison of seven hypotriploid populations with five pooled triploid populations of Meloidogyne arenaria was made using standard descriptive statistics, stepwise discriminant analysis (SDA), and cluster analysis. Six morphometric characters of females, 14 of second-stage juveniles (J2), and 18 of males were measured for each population. Useful differentiating characters included: body length in J2; stylet length in females and J2; stylet-knob dimensions in females and males; ...

Hirschmann, Hedwig; Rammah, Abdallah

1993-01-01

251

Nematicidal activity of leaf extracts from Lantana camara L. against Meloidogyne incognita (kofoid and white chitwood and its use to manage roots infection of Solanum melongena L.  

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Full Text Available Various concentrations of aqueous leaf extract of Lantana camara were assessed in vitro conditions against second stage juveniles (J2 of Meloidogyne incognita. The standard concentration 'S' of leaf extract was found to be highly nematostatic, where nematodes were completely paralyzed after 12 h and after 48 h of exposure, 96% of juveniles were killed at same concentration. However, the mortality of juveniles was 75% in S/2 dilution at 48 h. The degree of effectiveness and dilutions of extract were directly proportional. The percentage of paralyzed juveniles was decreased, when J2 transferred in distilled water after 48 h incubation in standard aqueous leaf extract. Addition of freeze-dried aqueous extract to sterile sandy substrate at S/2 dilution significantly decreased the root-knot infection to susceptible eggplants whereas second stage juveniles (J2 that penetrated roots of eggplant were able to complete development in sterile sandy substrate without treatment of freeze-dried aqueous extract.

Faheem Ahmad

2010-06-01

252

Separate and Combined Effects of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. tracheiphilum and Meloidogyne incognita on Growth and Yield of Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp Var. Moussa-Local  

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Full Text Available A study was undertaken to determine the separate and combined affects of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. tracheiphilum and Meloidogyne incognita on growth and yield of cowpea variety Moussa-local. It was observed that growth and yield components of the cowpea were generally reduced in all treatments as compared to that of control. Single infection with only nematode caused more growth and yield reductions than infection with only fungus. Reduction in the growth and yield components were generally higher in simultaneous infection than infection with either of the pathogens. Growth and yield reduction in combined infection did not vary significantly from those caused by successive infection where either of the pathogens was made to precede the other. Infection with both pathogens caused significant increases in the root galls, number of eggs and juveniles when compared with infection with nematode only.

A.O. Ogaraku

2008-01-01

253

Potentiality of different isolates of wilt fungus Fusarium oxysporum collected from rhizosphere of tomato against root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita.  

Science.gov (United States)

This investigation was undertaken to determine the effect of culture filtrates of different isolates of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici on mortality of Meloidogyne incognita juveniles and egg hatching. It was observed that different concentrations including standard extract (S.E), 1:10 and 1:100 dilutions of all fungal filtrates inhibited egg hatch when compared with control. Minimum mortality and maximum hatching was observed in BRT (showing least mortality) isolate of F. oxysporum, while maximum mortality and minimum egg hatching was recorded in BGT (showing maximum mortality) isolate. Larval mortality was decreased with a decrease in concentration and the least mortality was observed in 1:100 when compared with SE and 1:10. The potentiality of both the isolates (BRT and BGT) against root-knot nematode M. incognita was confirmed by the pathogenicity test on tomato. These observations confirmed that F. oxysporumisolates possesses variability in pathogenicity ranging from pathogenic to bio-control agent. The plants inoculated with BRT isolate failed to show wilt symptoms while plants inoculated with BGT isolate showed wilt indices. PMID:18941992

Jain, Anju; Mohan, Jitendra; Singh, Mahendra; Goswami, B K

2008-11-01

254

Knocking-Down Meloidogyne incognita Proteases by Plant-Delivered dsRNA Has Negative Pleiotropic Effect on Nematode Vigor  

Science.gov (United States)

The root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita causes serious damage and yield losses in numerous important crops worldwide. Analysis of the M. incognita genome revealed a vast number of proteases belonging to five different catalytic classes. Several reports indicate that M. incognita proteases could play important roles in nematode parasitism, besides their function in ordinary digestion of giant cell contents for feeding. The precise roles of these proteins during parasitism however are still unknown, making them interesting targets for gene silencing to address protein function. In this study we have knocked-down an aspartic (Mi-asp-1), a serine (Mi-ser-1) and a cysteine protease (Mi-cpl-1) by RNAi interference to get an insight into the function of these enzymes during a host/nematode interaction. Tobacco lines expressing dsRNA for Mi-ser-1 (dsSER), Mi-cpl-1 (dsCPL) and for the three genes together (dsFusion) were generated. Histological analysis of galls did not show clear differences in giant cell morphology. Interestingly, nematodes that infected plants expressing dsRNA for proteases produced a reduced number of eggs. In addition, nematode progeny matured in dsSER plants had reduced success in egg hatching, while progeny resulting from dsCPL and dsFusion plants were less successful to infect wild-type host plants. Quantitative PCR analysis confirmed a reduction in transcripts for Mi-cpl-1 and Mi-ser-1 proteases. Our results indicate that these proteases are possibly involved in different processes throughout nematode development, like nutrition, reproduction and embryogenesis. A better understanding of nematode proteases and their possible role during a plant-nematode interaction might help to develop new tools for phytonematode control. PMID:24392004

Antonino de Souza Júnior, José Dijair; Ramos Coelho, Roberta; Tristan Lourenço, Isabela; da Rocha Fragoso, Rodrigo; Barbosa Viana, Antonio Américo; Lima Pepino de Macedo, Leonardo; Mattar da Silva, Maria Cristina; Gomes Carneiro, Regina Maria; Engler, Gilbert; de Almeida-Engler, Janice; Grossi-de-Sa, Maria Fatima

2013-01-01

255

Influence of plant species on the biological control activity of the antagonistic rhizobacterium Rhizobium etli strain G12 toward the root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita.  

Science.gov (United States)

The influence of plant species on the antagonistic activity of the rhizosphere bacterium Rhizobium etli G12 towards the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita was studied. The crops tested were tomato, cucumber, cotton, soybean and pepper. The plants were evaluated for the following parameters: root gall-index, total number of galls and egg masses of M. incognita, as well as shoot and root fresh weight and root length. Results indicated a clear influence of plant species on the ability of R. etli G12 to reduce nematode infection. Based on the root gall index, nematode control by R. etli G12 was higher on vegetables (tomato, cucumber, pepper) than on field crops (soybean, cotton). Reduction in galling ranged from 17% for cotton to 50% for tomato. R. etli G12 also reduced the actual number of galls produced. The reduction in the number of galls produced between crops was not affected significantly as was seen when a galling index was used to measure activity. The reduction in the number of galls was similar in level for all the crops studied and ranged from 34% for cucumber to 47% for tomato. There was a significant reduction in the number of egg masses produced by the females ranging from 37% for soybean to 70% for pepper. This indicated a direct effect on female development in the root after penetration or delayed penetration on certain crops. The bacteria caused significant increases in shoot fresh weight from 11% for soybean to 31% for pepper and in root fresh weight from 3% for soybean to 39% for tomato and in root length from 11% for cucumber to 24% for pepper. R. etli G12 gave significant control of M. incognita on a broad range of host plants, but the level of control varied. The suitability of each plant species, therefore, must be examined before R. etli G12 can be recommend for control of this nematode. PMID:12425090

Mahdy, M; Hallmann, J; Sikora, R A

2001-01-01

256

Descripción morfológica de selecciones de Psidium guajava L. tolerantes y Psidium friedrichsthalianum (Berg. Nied resistente a Meloidogyne incognita en el estado Zulia, Venezuela Morphological description of selections of Psidium guajava L. tolerants and Psidium friedrichsthalianum (Berg. Nied resistant to Meloidogyne incognita in Zulia state, Venezuela  

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Full Text Available Con el objetivo de realizar una descripción morfológica se escogieron siete selecciones de P. guajava tolerantes, una susceptible y una de P. friedrichsthalianum "Cas" resistente al nematodo Meloidogyne incognita, ubicadas en el Centro Frutícola del Zulia-CORPOZULIA, municipio Mara, estado Zulia, Venezuela. Se recolectaron hojas, flores y frutos y se evaluó forma, margen, color, longitud del pecíolo, ancho y longitud de las hojas, relación ancho por longitud, número de nervaduras, tamaño de la flor, número de pétalos, longitud del pedicelo, longitud y ancho de los pétalos, forma de los granos de polen, diámetro ecuatorial del fruto, masa fresca, diámetro polar, perímetro, grosor del casco, longitud de la cavidad ocupada por las semillas y color de la pulpa. Los resultados obtenidos indicaron que existen diferencias entre las selecciones en cada uno de las variables analizadas, determinando que por las características del fruto y su tolerancia a Meloidogyne incognita se recomiendan a las selecciones P. guajava "AGROLUZ-43" y "AGROLUZ-21" para ser propagadas asexualmente e incluirlas en programas de mejoramiento genético.A morphological study was performed on seven selections of tolerant P. guajava, one susceptible selection and one selection P. friedrichsthalianum"Cas" resistant to the nematode Meloidogyne incognita. The vegetative materials were recollected in the Centro Frutícola del Zulia-CORPOZULIA in Mara municipality. Leaves, flowers and fruits in all the selections were collected for the study of shape, margin, color, length of the pedicel, width and length of the leaves, the with/length relation , number of veins, number of petals, width and length of the petals, flower diameter, shape of pollen grain; shape, diameter, perimeter, length and side of fruit, thickness of mesocarp, cavity of the seed and color of the mesocarp. The morphological study indicated that there are differences between all the selections studied for all the evaluated characteristics in this study. Considering the fruit characteristics and tolerance to nematode M. incognita, it is recommended that the selections P. guajava "AGROLUZ-43" and "AGROLUZ-21" be asexually propagated.

T Molero

2003-10-01

257

Multiyear evaluation of the durability of the resistance conferred by Ma and RMia genes to Meloidogyne incognita in Prunus under controlled conditions.  

Science.gov (United States)

Root-knot nematodes (RKNs) (Meloidogyne spp.) are highly polyphagous pests that parasitize Prunus crops in Mediterranean climates. Breeding for RKN-resistant Prunus cultivars, as an alternative to the now-banned use of nematicides, is a real challenge, because the perennial nature of these trees increases the risk of resistance breakdown. The Ma plum resistance (R) gene, with a complete spectrum, and the RMia peach R gene, with a more restricted spectrum, both provide total control of Meloidogyne incognita, the model parthenogenetic species of the genus and the most important RKN in terms of economic losses. We investigated the durability of the resistance to this nematode conferred by these genes, comparing the results obtained with those for the tomato Mi-1 reference gene. In multiyear experiments, we applied a high and continuous nematode inoculum pressure by cultivating nematode-infested susceptible tomato plants with either Prunus accessions carrying Ma or RMia R genes, or with resistant tomato plants carrying the Mi-1 gene. Suitable conditions for Prunus development were achieved by carrying out the studies in a glasshouse, in controlled conditions allowing a short winter leaf fall and dormancy. We first assessed the plum accession 'P.2175', which is heterozygous for the Ma gene, in two successive 2-year evaluations, for resistance to two M. incognita isolates. Whatever the isolate used, no nematodes reproducing on P.2175 were detected, whereas galls and nematodes reproducing on tomato plants carrying Mi-1 were observed. In a second experiment with the most aggressive isolate, interspecific full-sib material (P.2175 × ['Garfi' almond × 'Nemared' peach]), carrying either Ma or RMia (from Nemared) or both (in the heterozygous state) or neither of these genes, was evaluated for 4 years. No virulent nematodes developed on Prunus spp. carrying R genes, whereas galling and virulent individuals were observed on Mi-1-resistant tomato plants. Thus, the resistance to M. incognita conferred by Ma in Prunus material in both a pure-plum and an interspecific genetic background, or by RMia in an interspecific background, appears to be durable, highlighting the value of these two genes for the creation of Prunus rootstock material. PMID:23425239

Khallouk, Samira; Voisin, Roger; Portier, Ulysse; Polidori, Joël; Van Ghelder, Cyril; Esmenjaud, Daniel

2013-08-01

258

Efecto del filtrado crudo de Purpureocillium sp. (Cepa UdeA0106, sobre la eclosión de huevos y movilidad de juveniles de Meloidogyne incognita-javanica  

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Full Text Available Meloidogyne incognita-javanica represents an important threat to the agricultural crops, and it is necessary to seek alternatives for its control. The aim of this research it was to evaluate a crude filtrate from the strain Purpureocillium sp. UdeA0106 in order to establish the in vitro effect on the egg hatching and the immobility of juvenile stages of Meloidogyne spp. The mediums evaluated were malt extract broth (MEB, yeast extract broth (YEB, and potato dextrose broth (PDB, after which it was chosen the one that didn’t produce any damages on nematode eggs and allowed the emergence of the larval stages. The fungus was multiplied for 7 days, and then it was filtrated. To evaluate its effect on the eggs and the J2 of Meloidogyne spp., filtrate concentrations were made at 100 %, 90 %, 70 %, 50 %, 25 % and 10 %, contrasting them with a control composed of the J2 stages in sterile distilled water and PDB. The variables evaluated were the percentage of altered eggs and the immobility observed in J2 stages. The experimental unit was the Petri dish, each one containing 200 eggs /J2. Each treatment was replicated 5 times. It was used a completely randomized design, and an ANOVA was performed (P = 0,05 as well as a multiple comparison test (Tukey. Significant differences were found between all treatments (P < 0,05, although the most effective in inhibiting both egg hatching and J2 mobility (96,8 % were the full strength filtering (100 %. The dilutions at 90 % and 70 %, were able to produce effects with high percentages in the immobility.

Nadya Lorena Cardona Bustos; M.Sc., Ph.D.

2014-12-01

259

Isolamento e avaliação da atividade nematicida de constituintes químicos de Mucuna cinerea contra Meloidogyne incognita e Heterodera glycines Isolation and nematocidal activity evaluation of chemical constituents from Mucuna cinerea against Meloidogyne incognita and Heterodera glycines  

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Full Text Available Phytochemical investigation of the aerial parts and roots of Mucuna cinerea led to the isolation of a mixture of fatty acids, triacylglicerols, beta-sitosterol, stigmasterol, stigmasterol glucoside, daucosterol, asperglaucide (4 and the isoflavonoids prunetin (1, genistein (2, medicarpin (3, daidzein (5, 7-O-alpha-glycopiranosyl daidzein (6. An in vitro bioassay was carried out with compounds 1-4, at the concentration of 50 and 5 mug mL-1 against the phytonematodes M. incognita and H. glycines. Although the four compounds showed some nematocidal property, the most active was (1, causing 70% mortality of M. incognita at the concentration of 50 mug mL-1.

Antonio Jacinto Demuner

2003-05-01

260

In vitro and foliar spray evaluation of Verbena officinalis (L.), Erythrina mulungu (Mart. ex Benth.), Quassia amara (L.), Bidens pilosa (L.) and Plantago lanceolata (L.), extracts on Meloidogyne incognita (Kofoid & White, 1919) Chitwood, 1949 Evaluación in vitro y aplicación foliar de Verbena officinalis (L.), Erythrina mulungu (Mart. ex Benth.), Quassia amara (L.), Bidens pilosa (L.) y Plantago lanceolata (L.), sobre Meloidogyne incognita (Kofoid & White, 1919) Chitwood, 1949  

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This study aimed to evaluate the efficiency of aqueous extracts of five species of medicinal plant, Verbena officinalis (L.), Erythrina mulungu (Mart. ex Benth.), Quassia amara (L.), Bidens pilosa (L.) and Plantago lanceolata (L.) in vitro, and sprayed on tomato plants for the control of Meloidogyne incognita. In vitro experiments were conducted in growth chambers in acrylic ELISA plates. The treatments were doses of 0, 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 g • L-1 of different aqueous extracts. On the...

Ferrari Mateus, Milena A.; Duarte Rios Faria¹, Cacilda M.; Botelho, Renato V.; Rosangela Dallemole-Giaretta; Martins Ferreira, Silvana G.; Zaluski, Welton L.

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
261

Isolamento e avaliação da atividade nematicida de constituintes químicos de Mucuna cinerea contra Meloidogyne incognita e Heterodera glycines / Isolation and nematocidal activity evaluation of chemical constituents from Mucuna cinerea against Meloidogyne incognita and Heterodera glycines  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese [...] Abstract in english Phytochemical investigation of the aerial parts and roots of Mucuna cinerea led to the isolation of a mixture of fatty acids, triacylglicerols, beta-sitosterol, stigmasterol, stigmasterol glucoside, daucosterol, asperglaucide (4) and the isoflavonoids prunetin (1), genistein (2), medicarpin (3), dai [...] dzein (5), 7-O-alpha-glycopiranosyl daidzein (6). An in vitro bioassay was carried out with compounds 1-4, at the concentration of 50 and 5 mug mL-1 against the phytonematodes M. incognita and H. glycines. Although the four compounds showed some nematocidal property, the most active was (1), causing 70% mortality of M. incognita at the concentration of 50 mug mL-1.

Antonio Jacinto, Demuner; Luiz Cláudio de Almeida, Barbosa; Jeferson Chagas do, Nascimento; Jessy James, Vieira; Maria Amelia dos, Santos.

2003-05-01

262

Eclosão de Meloidogyne incognita, M. javanica e M. mayaguensis em lixiviados de caupi associado a Glomus etunicatum e Bradyrhizobium sp / Hatch of Meloidogyne incognita, M. javanica and M. mayaguensis in root leachates from cowpea associated with Glomus etunicatum and Bradyrhizobium sp  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O objetivo do presente estudo foi avaliar a influência de lixiviados de caupi (Vigna unguiculata) cultivar Epace 10 inoculada com Glomus etunicatum e/ou Bradyrhizobium sp. sobre eclosão de Meloidogyne incognita, M. javanica e M. mayaguensis. O solo foi infestado com 200 esporos do fungo micorrízico [...] e/ou 1 ml de suspensão contendo 10(8) UFC/ml das estirpes de Bradyrhizobium NFB 700 e NFB 652, e semeados com caupi, deixando-se plantas não inoculadas como testemunha. As plantas foram mantidas em condições de casa de vegetação, durante 57 dias após infestação, para coleta dos lixiviados. Procederam-se avaliações após 0, 24, 48 e 144 h de imersão de ovos dos nematóides em água ou lixiviados de plantas não inoculadas e inoculadas com fungo e bactéria em conjunto ou isoladamente. O delineamento adotado foi do tipo inteiramente casualizado em arranjo fatorial 3'5'4 (nematóide ' lixiviado ' período de exposição), com quatro repetições. Meloidogyne javanica apresentou maior (P Abstract in english The objective of the present work was to evaluate the influence of root leachates from cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) cultivar Epace 10 inoculated with Glomus etunicatum and/or Bradyrhizobium sp. on the hatching of Meloidogyne incognita, M. javanica and M. mayaguensis juveniles. Soil was infested at pla [...] nting with 200 spores of the fungus and/or 1 ml of 10(8) UFC/ml suspension of Bradyrhizobium sp. stirps NFB 700 and 652. Non infested soil was used as the control. Plants were allowed to grow under greenhouse conditions for 57 days after soil infestation for leachates collection. Hatch evaluations were done at 0, 24, 48 and 144 h after eggs were immersed in water or leachings of the inoculated and non inoculated 57-day old plants. The experimental design was completely randomized in a 3'5'4 (nematode ' leachate ' exposure time) factorial arrangement with four replicates. Meloidogyne javanica presented the highest (P 0.05) percentage of hatching in leachates of plants inoculated with G. etunicatum and Bradyrhizobium sp. simultaneously. Considering the time effect on hatch, M. javanica did not differ from M. mayaguensis but both of them differed (P

Kércya M. S., Siqueira; Gustavo R. C., Torres; Elvira M.R., Pedrosa; Romero M., Moura.

2004-06-01

263

Effects of fly ash, Pseudomonas striata and Rhizobium on the reproduction of nematode Meloidogyne incognita and on the growth and transpiration of pea.  

Science.gov (United States)

Glasshouse experiments were conducted twice to assess the ash amendments (0, 20, and 40% with soil), a phosphate solubilizing microorganism Pseudomonas striata and a root-nodule bacterium Rhizobium sp on the reproduction of root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita and on the growth and transpiration of pea. Amendments of fly ash with soil had no effect on transpiration. However, M. incognita reduced the rate of transpiration from 1st week onward after inoculation while inoculation of Rhizobium sp and P. striata increased transpiration from 1st week onward after their inoculation both in nematode inoculated and uninoculated plants. Increase in transpiration was greater when both organisms were inoculated together. Addition of 20 and 40% fly ash with soil was beneficial for plant growth both in nematode inoculated and uninoculated plants. Inoculation of above organisms also increases plant growth of nematode inoculated and uninoculated plants in different fly ash soil mixture but increase in growth was greater when both organisms were inoculated together. Use of 20% fly ash increased galling and nematode multiplication over plants grown in without fly ash while 40% fly ash had adverse effect on galling and nematode multiplication. Rhizobium sp had greater adverse effect on galling and nematode multiplication than P. striata. Use of both organisms together had greater adverse effect on galling and nematode multiplication than caused by either of them alone. Highest reduction in galling and nematode multiplication was observed when both organisms were used in 40% fly ash amended soil. However, highest transpiration was observed in plants without nematodes and inoculated with both organisms together both in with or without fly ash amended soil. PMID:16114471

Siddiqui, Zaki A; Singh, Lamabam Peter

2005-01-01

264

Nematicidal activity of leaf extracts from Lantana camara L. against Meloidogyne incognita (kofoid and white) chitwood and its use to manage roots infection of Solanum melongena L.  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Various concentrations of aqueous leaf extract of Lantana camara were assessed in vitro conditions against second stage juveniles (J2) of Meloidogyne incognita. The standard concentration 'S' of leaf extract was found to be highly nematostatic, where nematodes were completely paralyzed after 12 h an [...] d after 48 h of exposure, 96% of juveniles were killed at same concentration. However, the mortality of juveniles was 75% in S/2 dilution at 48 h. The degree of effectiveness and dilutions of extract were directly proportional. The percentage of paralyzed juveniles was decreased, when J2 transferred in distilled water after 48 h incubation in standard aqueous leaf extract. Addition of freeze-dried aqueous extract to sterile sandy substrate at S/2 dilution significantly decreased the root-knot infection to susceptible eggplants whereas second stage juveniles (J2) that penetrated roots of eggplant were able to complete development in sterile sandy substrate without treatment of freeze-dried aqueous extract.

Faheem, Ahmad; Mohmad Azhar, Rather; Mansoor Ahmad, Siddiqui.

2010-06-01

265

Heterologous expression of taro cystatin protects transgenic tomato against Meloidogyne incognita infection by means of interfering sex determination and suppressing gall formation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Plant-parasitic nematodes are a major pest of many plant species and cause global economic loss. A phytocystatin gene, Colocasia esculenta cysteine proteinase inhibitor (CeCPI), isolated from a local taro Kaosiang No. 1, and driven by a CaMV35S promoter was delivered into CLN2468D, a heat-tolerant cultivar of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum). When infected with Meloidogyne incognita, one of root-knot nematode (RKN) species, transgenic T1 lines overexpressing CeCPI suppressed gall formation as evidenced by a pronounced reduction in gall numbers. In comparison with wild-type plants, a much lower proportion of female nematodes without growth retardation was observed in transgenic plants. A decrease of RKN egg mass in transgenic plants indicated seriously impaired fecundity. Overexpression of CeCPI in transgenic tomato has inhibitory functions not only in the early RKN infection stage but also in the production of offspring, which may result from intervention in sex determination. PMID:20054551

Chan, Yuan-Li; Yang, Ai-Hwa; Chen, Jen-Tzu; Yeh, Kai-Wun; Chan, Ming-Tsair

2010-03-01

266

influence of some types of Algerian soil on the development of rot-knot nematodes Meloidogyne incognita, M. javanica and M. arenaria (Tylenchida,Meloidogynidae)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Crops under greenhouses offer the possibility of vegetables production of high added value by focusing on earliness. They help to spread the availability timing of vegetables and fruits in the market throughout the year. However, these crops are subject to numerous attacks entailing heavy losses of yield quantity and quality. The plant parasitic nematodes especially rot-knot nematodes of the genus Meloidogyne are considered dangerous enemies of these cultures. The evolution study of these nematodes in different soil types allows one to compare the migration and movement of these nematodes in sandy soils considered as light soils, in clay soils heavy and intermediate silty clay soils. These soils have also rates of organic matter and a percentage of magnesium and calcium that might provide better conditions to the survival and migration of second stage larvae inoculated at a rate of 650 juveniles per pot of 24 cm in diameter where plants of melon Cucumis melo var. (Charentais) known to be susceptible to Meloidogyne was cultivated. The results for the population development of Meloidogyne, after a growing period of 3 months show an increase in the number of eggs, juvenile stages, inflated, swollen females and males in the 3 types of soil and that independently of clay fraction although clay soil may asphyxiate Meloidogyne. The development of the three species of Meloidogyne studied in these soils, the parameters taken into consideration (index of galls, which were 1.58,deration (index of galls, which were 1.58, 1.75 and 1.5 for the sandy clay and the middle ground soils, vigour index and the evolution of populations of Meloidogyne and roots and soil as well as parameters related to production reveal the adaptation of these root-knot nematodes to the clay and sandy loam soils. At the end of culture, the final populations are important in the soils studied; 2680 for soil S. (sandy), 2272 for soil A (clay) and 2327 for soil I (intermediate) with a multiplication rate almost similar ( 4.12, 3.49 and 3.58 respectively). All these parameters can give one clues about the real possibility of developing root-knot nematodes on all types of soil. These findings may be real on the coastal areas of the southern regions characterized with sandy soils that are most infested, but the infestation potential of interior plains characterized by clay and clay loam are certain if necessary measures are not seriously taken to control them. (author)

267

Comparative study of Fusarium oxysporum f sp. lycopersici and Meloidogyne incognita race-2 on plant growth parameters of tomato  

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Full Text Available Many species of soil-inhabiting fungus Fusarium, cause severe yield loss in many crops. Experiments were conducted in net house condition with complete randomized block design to determine the individual effect of different in-oculum levels of root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita, Race-2 and Fusarium oxysporum f sp. lycopersici on plant growth parameters viz., Plant length, fresh and dry weight and number of fruits of tomato var. P21. The experimental results showed that both the pathogens cause significant reduction in plant growth parameters. However, the fungus was not much effective on plant growth parameters in comparison to root-knot nematode. Greatest reduction in plant growth parameters was recorded in plants inoculated with 8000 J2/Kg soil of Meloidogyne in-cognita race 2. The threshold level of root-knot nematode was 1000 J2/kg soil while threshold level of Fusarium was @ 1 g/Kg soil. Inoculum level of Fusarium oxysporum f sp. lycopersici and Meloidogyne in-cognita race-2 was pathogenic and caused significant reduction at and above 1 g/kg soil and 1000 J2/Kg soil respectively.

Safiuddin  

2012-10-01

268

Preservation of Meloidogyne hapla and M. chitwoodi in liquid nitrogen: Differences in response between populations  

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A procedure for long-term preservation of gennplasm of Meloidogyne hapla and M. chitwoodi in liquid nitrogen is described, including a pretrearrnenr with 10% ethanediol for 2 h at room temperature and 40 % ethanecliol for 45 min on ice. Survival rates ranged from 45 to 98 % with an average of 75 %. Comparison of three different populations of M. hapla, two populations of M. chitwoodi and two populations of Meloidogyne n. sp. revealed a significantly higher survival for one M. hapla population...

Beek, J. G.; Veldhuis, W. B. J.; Zijistra, C.; Silfhout, C. H.

1996-01-01

269

In vitro proteolysis of nematode FMRFamide-like peptides (FLPs) by preparations from a free-living nematode (Panagrellus redivivus) and two plant-parasitic nematodes (Heterodera glycines and Meloidogyne incognita).  

Science.gov (United States)

Proteolytic activities in extracts from three nematodes, the plant parasites Heterodera glycines and Meloidogyne incognita, and the free-living Panagrellus redivivus, were surveyed for substrate preferences using a battery of seven FRET-modified peptide substrates, all derived from members of the large FMRF-amide like peptide (FLP) family in nematodes. Overall protease activity in P. redivivus was four- to fivefold greater than in either of the parasites, a result that might reflect developmental differences. Digestion of the M. incognita FLP KHEFVRFa (substrate Abz-KHEFVRF-Y(3-NO2)a) by M. incognita extract was sevenfold greater than with H. glycines extract and twofold greater than P. redivivus, suggesting species-specific preferences. Additional species differences were revealed upon screening 12 different protease inhibitors. Two substrates were used in the screen, Abz-KHEFVRF-Y(3-NO2)a and Abz-KPSFVRF-Y(3-NO2)a), which was digested equally by all three species. The effects of various inhibitor, substrate and extract source combinations on substrate digestion suggest that M. incognita differs significantly from P. redivivus and H. glycines in its complement of cysteine proteases, particularly cathepsin L-type protease. PMID:21392420

Masler, E P

2012-03-01

270

Efeito do armazenamento na energia corporal de juvenis do segundo estádio de Meloidogyne incognita infestados por Pasteuria penetrans / Effect of storage on body energy of second stage juveniles of Meloidogyne incognita infested by Pasteuria penetrans  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Neste trabalho, objetivou-se estudar o efeito do período de armazenamento no teor de lipídios de juvenis do segundo estádio (J2) de M. incognita com endósporos de P. penetrans na infectividade e reprodução em tomateiro. Suspensões de M. incognita contendo ou não endósporos de P. penetrans aderidos à [...] cutícula foram armazenadas por 0, 3, 6, 9 e 12 dias, a 28ºC. Após cada período de estocagem, determinou-se a concentração de lipídios neutros corporais por meio da análise de imagem dos J2 coloridos com o corante "Oil Red O". Em seguida, 1.000 J2 foram inoculados em mudas de tomateiros. Após 28 dias, avaliou-se o número de fêmeas parasitadas, número de endósporos/fêmea, número de galhas, massas de ovos e de ovos/g de raiz. O teor de lipídio dos J2 reduziu-se com o aumento do período de estocagem. Porém, maiores perdas ocorreram nos J2 sem endósporos de P. penetrans. A proporção entre as perdas dos J2 com e sem P. penetrans foi pequena e decrescente com o período de estocagem. Entretanto, a desproporção foi grande entre 3 e 6 dias de armazenamento dos J2 com e sem P. penetrans com relação aos parâmetros reprodução e número de galhas, indicando consumo de fontes alternativas ao lipí dio neutro de energia p elo J2 parasitado. Mas o período de armazenamento sempre reduziu a reprodução e número de galhas formadas em tomateiros por J2 com e sem P. penetrans. A perda dessas fontes de energia, ao que tudo indica, leva muitos J2 a morrer antes de chegar ao estádio adulto, pois o número de fêmeas parasitadas reduz-se com o armazenamento, além de propiciar menor produção de endósporos por fêmea. O J2 parasitado por P. penetrans necessita encontrar rapidamente a raiz e não permanecer no solo por mais de 6 dias antes de parasitar a planta. Abstract in english This work aimed to study the effect of storage period on lipid content of second stage juveniles (J2) of M. incognita with endospores of P. penetrans on infectivity and reproduction in tomato. Suspensions of M. incognita containing or not endospores of P. penetrans adhered to cuticle were stored by [...] 0, 3, 6, 9 and 12 days at 28ºC. After each storage period, the concentration of neutral lipids in the body of J2 was determined by image analysis of J2 stained with "Oil Red O". After that, 1.000 J2 were inoculated in tomato seedlings. After 28 days, the number of infected females, number of endospores per females, number of galls, number of egg masses and number of eggs per gram of root were evaluated. The lipid content of J2 reduced with the increase of storage period. However, greater lost occurred on J2 without endospores of P. penetrans. The ratio between J2 lipid losses with and without P. penetrans was small and decreased with storage period. However, the ratio between J2 with and without P. penetrans was greatest between 3 and 6 days of storage in relation to parameters reproduction and number of galls, indicating consumption of alternative energy sources others than neutral lipids by infected J2. But the storage period always reduced the reproduction and number of galls formed in tomatoes by J2 with and without P. penetrans. The loss of those energy sources indicate that many J2 dye before adult stage, because the number of parasitized females reduced with storage, besides of smaller endospores production per female. The J2 infested by P. penetrans needs to find the root quickly and should not stay in the soil for more than 6 days before parasitizing the plant.

Fernando da Silva, Rocha; Vicente Paulo, Campos; Renata da Silva, Canuto; Ricardo Magela de, Souza.

2009-02-01

271

Efeito do armazenamento na energia corporal de juvenis do segundo estádio de Meloidogyne incognita infestados por Pasteuria penetrans Effect of storage on body energy of second stage juveniles of Meloidogyne incognita infested by Pasteuria penetrans  

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Full Text Available Neste trabalho, objetivou-se estudar o efeito do período de armazenamento no teor de lipídios de juvenis do segundo estádio (J2 de M. incognita com endósporos de P. penetrans na infectividade e reprodução em tomateiro. Suspensões de M. incognita contendo ou não endósporos de P. penetrans aderidos à cutícula foram armazenadas por 0, 3, 6, 9 e 12 dias, a 28ºC. Após cada período de estocagem, determinou-se a concentração de lipídios neutros corporais por meio da análise de imagem dos J2 coloridos com o corante "Oil Red O". Em seguida, 1.000 J2 foram inoculados em mudas de tomateiros. Após 28 dias, avaliou-se o número de fêmeas parasitadas, número de endósporos/fêmea, número de galhas, massas de ovos e de ovos/g de raiz. O teor de lipídio dos J2 reduziu-se com o aumento do período de estocagem. Porém, maiores perdas ocorreram nos J2 sem endósporos de P. penetrans. A proporção entre as perdas dos J2 com e sem P. penetrans foi pequena e decrescente com o período de estocagem. Entretanto, a desproporção foi grande entre 3 e 6 dias de armazenamento dos J2 com e sem P. penetrans com relação aos parâmetros reprodução e número de galhas, indicando consumo de fontes alternativas ao lipí dio neutro de energia p elo J2 parasitado. Mas o período de armazenamento sempre reduziu a reprodução e número de galhas formadas em tomateiros por J2 com e sem P. penetrans. A perda dessas fontes de energia, ao que tudo indica, leva muitos J2 a morrer antes de chegar ao estádio adulto, pois o número de fêmeas parasitadas reduz-se com o armazenamento, além de propiciar menor produção de endósporos por fêmea. O J2 parasitado por P. penetrans necessita encontrar rapidamente a raiz e não permanecer no solo por mais de 6 dias antes de parasitar a planta.This work aimed to study the effect of storage period on lipid content of second stage juveniles (J2 of M. incognita with endospores of P. penetrans on infectivity and reproduction in tomato. Suspensions of M. incognita containing or not endospores of P. penetrans adhered to cuticle were stored by 0, 3, 6, 9 and 12 days at 28ºC. After each storage period, the concentration of neutral lipids in the body of J2 was determined by image analysis of J2 stained with "Oil Red O". After that, 1.000 J2 were inoculated in tomato seedlings. After 28 days, the number of infected females, number of endospores per females, number of galls, number of egg masses and number of eggs per gram of root were evaluated. The lipid content of J2 reduced with the increase of storage period. However, greater lost occurred on J2 without endospores of P. penetrans. The ratio between J2 lipid losses with and without P. penetrans was small and decreased with storage period. However, the ratio between J2 with and without P. penetrans was greatest between 3 and 6 days of storage in relation to parameters reproduction and number of galls, indicating consumption of alternative energy sources others than neutral lipids by infected J2. But the storage period always reduced the reproduction and number of galls formed in tomatoes by J2 with and without P. penetrans. The loss of those energy sources indicate that many J2 dye before adult stage, because the number of parasitized females reduced with storage, besides of smaller endospores production per female. The J2 infested by P. penetrans needs to find the root quickly and should not stay in the soil for more than 6 days before parasitizing the plant.

Fernando da Silva Rocha

2009-02-01

272

Reaction of coffee genotypes to different populations of Meloidogyne spp.: detection of a naturally virulent M. exigua population Reação de genótipos de cafeeiro a diferentes populações de Meloidogyne spp.: detecção de uma população de M. exigua naturalmente virulenta  

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Full Text Available The reaction of seven genotypes of Coffea arabica to 10 Meloidogyne spp. populations collected mainly from coffee plantations in Brazil and Costa Rica was evaluated under greenhouse conditions. The inoculum consisted of 10,000 eggs per plant. Evaluations were done 8 months after inoculations considering the root fresh weight, gall and egg mass indices, number of eggs per gram of root and reproduction factor (RF. The cultivars Obatã IAC 1669-20, Sarchimor IAC 4361 and Tupi Amarelo IAC 5111 exhibited susceptibility to the four Brazilian M. exigua populations tested. However, cv. Tupi Vermelho IAC 1669-33 revealed resistance (RF value of 0.7 to the M. exigua population from Lavras, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. A population of M. exigua from Bom Jesus de Itabapoana, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil, was highly virulent on cv. IAPAR 59 (RF= 165.7, bearing resistance gene Mex-1, and was also virulent on genotype Paraíso (H 419-5-4-5-2 (RF=396.2. A Meloidogyne sp. population on coffee from Garça, São Paulo State, Brazil, reproduced at low rates (RF ranging from 0.1 to 3.9 on all genotypes. All tested cultivars were susceptible to M. incognita and M. paranaensis. M. mayaguensis of guava from Paraná State, Brazil, reproduced at low rates in all coffee genotypes; however, another population of coffee, from Costa Rica, was more aggressive and showed RF value that ranged from 0.8 to 12.4. Results of this study point for the first time to the ability of a naturally occurring M. exigua population to overcome the resistance conferred by the Mex-1 gene.A reação de sete genótipos de Coffea arabica a 10 populações de Meloidogyne spp. coletadas principalmente em plantios de café no Brasil e Costa Rica foi avaliada em casa de vegetação. O inóculo consistiu de 10.000 ovos por planta. As avaliações foram realizadas 8 meses após as inoculações considerando-se a massa da matéria fresca das raízes, índices de galhas e massas de ovos, número de ovos por grama de raiz e fator de reprodução (FR. As cultivares Obatã IAC 1669-20, Sarchimor IAC 4361 e Tupi Amarelo IAC 5111 exibiram suscetibilidade às quatro populações brasileiras de M. exigua. Entretanto, cv. Tupi Vermelho IAC 1669-33 mostrou-se resistente (FR=0,7 a uma população de M. exigua proveniente de Lavras, MG, Brasil. A população de M. exigua oriunda de Bom Jesus de Itabapoana, RJ, Brasil foi altamente virulenta à cv. IAPAR 59 (FR= 165,7, portadora do gene de resistência Mex-1 e ao genótipo Paraíso (H 419-5-4-5-2 (FR=396,2. A população de Meloidogyne sp. do cafeeiro, Garça, SP, Brasil, reproduziu-se em baixos níveis (FR = 0,1 - 3,9 sobre todos os genótipos. Todas as cultivares testadas foram suscetíveis a M. incognita e M. paranaensis. A reprodução de M. mayaguensis obtida de goiabeira, PR, Brasil, foi baixa (FR = 0,0-1,6, em todos os genótipos. Entretanto, outra população obtida do cafeeiro na Costa Rica apresentou valores de FR que variaram de 0,8 a 12,4. Os resultados deste trabalho mostraram, pela primeira vez, a capacidade de uma população de M. exigua obtida em campo de superar a resistência conferida pelo gene Mex-1.

Maria de Fátima S. Muniz

2009-12-01

273

Reaction of coffee genotypes to different populations of Meloidogyne spp.: detection of a naturally virulent M. exigua population / Reação de genótipos de cafeeiro a diferentes populações de Meloidogyne spp.: detecção de uma população de M. exigua naturalmente virulenta  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese A reação de sete genótipos de Coffea arabica a 10 populações de Meloidogyne spp. coletadas principalmente em plantios de café no Brasil e Costa Rica foi avaliada em casa de vegetação. O inóculo consistiu de 10.000 ovos por planta. As avaliações foram realizadas 8 meses após as inoculações consideran [...] do-se a massa da matéria fresca das raízes, índices de galhas e massas de ovos, número de ovos por grama de raiz e fator de reprodução (FR). As cultivares Obatã IAC 1669-20, Sarchimor IAC 4361 e Tupi Amarelo IAC 5111 exibiram suscetibilidade às quatro populações brasileiras de M. exigua. Entretanto, cv. Tupi Vermelho IAC 1669-33 mostrou-se resistente (FR=0,7) a uma população de M. exigua proveniente de Lavras, MG, Brasil. A população de M. exigua oriunda de Bom Jesus de Itabapoana, RJ, Brasil foi altamente virulenta à cv. IAPAR 59 (FR= 165,7), portadora do gene de resistência Mex-1 e ao genótipo Paraíso (H 419-5-4-5-2) (FR=396,2). A população de Meloidogyne sp. do cafeeiro, Garça, SP, Brasil, reproduziu-se em baixos níveis (FR = 0,1 - 3,9) sobre todos os genótipos. Todas as cultivares testadas foram suscetíveis a M. incognita e M. paranaensis. A reprodução de M. mayaguensis obtida de goiabeira, PR, Brasil, foi baixa (FR = 0,0-1,6), em todos os genótipos. Entretanto, outra população obtida do cafeeiro na Costa Rica apresentou valores de FR que variaram de 0,8 a 12,4. Os resultados deste trabalho mostraram, pela primeira vez, a capacidade de uma população de M. exigua obtida em campo de superar a resistência conferida pelo gene Mex-1. Abstract in english The reaction of seven genotypes of Coffea arabica to 10 Meloidogyne spp. populations collected mainly from coffee plantations in Brazil and Costa Rica was evaluated under greenhouse conditions. The inoculum consisted of 10,000 eggs per plant. Evaluations were done 8 months after inoculations conside [...] ring the root fresh weight, gall and egg mass indices, number of eggs per gram of root and reproduction factor (RF). The cultivars Obatã IAC 1669-20, Sarchimor IAC 4361 and Tupi Amarelo IAC 5111 exhibited susceptibility to the four Brazilian M. exigua populations tested. However, cv. Tupi Vermelho IAC 1669-33 revealed resistance (RF value of 0.7) to the M. exigua population from Lavras, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. A population of M. exigua from Bom Jesus de Itabapoana, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil, was highly virulent on cv. IAPAR 59 (RF= 165.7), bearing resistance gene Mex-1, and was also virulent on genotype Paraíso (H 419-5-4-5-2) (RF=396.2). A Meloidogyne sp. population on coffee from Garça, São Paulo State, Brazil, reproduced at low rates (RF ranging from 0.1 to 3.9) on all genotypes. All tested cultivars were susceptible to M. incognita and M. paranaensis. M. mayaguensis of guava from Paraná State, Brazil, reproduced at low rates in all coffee genotypes; however, another population of coffee, from Costa Rica, was more aggressive and showed RF value that ranged from 0.8 to 12.4. Results of this study point for the first time to the ability of a naturally occurring M. exigua population to overcome the resistance conferred by the Mex-1 gene.

Maria de Fátima S., Muniz; Vicente P., Campos; Antônio W., Moita; Wallace, Gonçalves; Maria Ritta A., Almeida; Fábio Rodrigues de, Sousa; Regina Maria D. G., Carneiro.

2009-12-01

274

Purification and identification of metabolites produced by Bacillus cereus and B. subtilis active against Meloidogyne exigua, and their in silico interaction with a putative phosphoribosyltransferase from M. incognita  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Com o objetivo de contribuir para o desenvolvimento de produtos para o controle de Meloidogyne exigua, as bactérias Bacillus cereus e B. subtilis foram cultivadas em meio líquido de cultura para produzirem metabólitos ativos contra este nematoide parasita de plantas. Os fracionamentos dos extratos e [...] m diclorometano dos meios de cultura produziram uracila, 9H-purina e di-idrouracila. Todos os compostos foram ativos contra M. exigua, sendo o último o mais eficiente. Ele apresentou CL50 de 204 µg/mL contra o nematoide, enquanto uma CL50 de 260 µg/mL foi observada para o nematicida comercial carbofuran. Uma busca por complexos proteína-ligante nos quais o ligante fosse estruturalmente similar à di-idrouracila resultou na seleção de fosforibosiltransferases, cujas sequências foram utilizadas em uma busca in silico no genoma de M. incognita por sequência de aminoácidos semelhante. A sequência resultante foi modelada e di-idrouracila e 9H-purina foram inseridos nos sítios ativos desta provável fosforibosiltransferase, resultando em complexos proteína-ligante que foram submetidos a simulações por dinâmica molecular. Cálculos das energias livres de ligação destes complexos revelaram que a constante de dissociação de di-idrouracila e 9H-purina da enzima é da ordem de 8,3 x 10-7 e 1,6 x 10-6 M, respectivamente. Consequentemente, estas substâncias e a provável fosforibosiltransferase podem ser de grande utilidade para o desenvolvimento de novos produtos para o controle de M. exigua. Abstract in english To contribute to the development of products to control Meloidogyne exigua, the bacteria Bacillus cereus and B. subtilis were cultivated in liquid medium to produce metabolites active against this plant-parasitic nematode. Fractionation of the crude dichloromethane extracts obtained from the culture [...] s afforded uracil, 9H-purine and dihydrouracil. All compounds were active against M. exigua, the latter being the most efficient. This substance presented a LC50 of 204 µg/mL against the nematode, while a LC50 of 260 µg/mL was observed for the commercial nematicide carbofuran. A search for protein-ligand complexes in which the ligands were structurally similar to dihydrouracil resulted in the selection of phosphoribosyltransferases, the sequences of which were used in an in silico search in the genome of M. incognita for a similar sequence of amino acids. The resulting sequence was modelled and dihydrouracil and 9H-purine were inserted in the active site of this putative phosphoribosyltransferase resulting in protein-ligand complexes that underwent molecular dynamics simulations. Calculation of the binding free-energies of these complexes revealed that the dissociation constant of dihydrouracil and 9H-purine to this protein is around 8.3 x 10-7 and 1.6 x 10-6 M, respectively. Consequently, these substances and the putative phosphoribosyltransferase are promising for the development of new products to control M. exigua.

DENILSON F., OLIVEIRA; HELVÉCIO M. DOS, SANTOS JÚNIOR; ALEXANDRO S., NUNES; VICENTE P., CAMPOS; RENATA S.C. DE, PINHO; GIOVANNA C., GAJO.

2014-04-25

275

Purification and identification of metabolites produced by Bacillus cereus and B. subtilis active against Meloidogyne exigua, and their in silico interaction with a putative phosphoribosyltransferase from M. incognita  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Com o objetivo de contribuir para o desenvolvimento de produtos para o controle de Meloidogyne exigua, as bactérias Bacillus cereus e B. subtilis foram cultivadas em meio líquido de cultura para produzirem metabólitos ativos contra este nematoide parasita de plantas. Os fracionamentos dos extratos e [...] m diclorometano dos meios de cultura produziram uracila, 9H-purina e di-idrouracila. Todos os compostos foram ativos contra M. exigua, sendo o último o mais eficiente. Ele apresentou CL50 de 204 µg/mL contra o nematoide, enquanto uma CL50 de 260 µg/mL foi observada para o nematicida comercial carbofuran. Uma busca por complexos proteína-ligante nos quais o ligante fosse estruturalmente similar à di-idrouracila resultou na seleção de fosforibosiltransferases, cujas sequências foram utilizadas em uma busca in silico no genoma de M. incognita por sequência de aminoácidos semelhante. A sequência resultante foi modelada e di-idrouracila e 9H-purina foram inseridos nos sítios ativos desta provável fosforibosiltransferase, resultando em complexos proteína-ligante que foram submetidos a simulações por dinâmica molecular. Cálculos das energias livres de ligação destes complexos revelaram que a constante de dissociação de di-idrouracila e 9H-purina da enzima é da ordem de 8,3 x 10-7 e 1,6 x 10-6 M, respectivamente. Consequentemente, estas substâncias e a provável fosforibosiltransferase podem ser de grande utilidade para o desenvolvimento de novos produtos para o controle de M. exigua. Abstract in english To contribute to the development of products to control Meloidogyne exigua, the bacteria Bacillus cereus and B. subtilis were cultivated in liquid medium to produce metabolites active against this plant-parasitic nematode. Fractionation of the crude dichloromethane extracts obtained from the culture [...] s afforded uracil, 9H-purine and dihydrouracil. All compounds were active against M. exigua, the latter being the most efficient. This substance presented a LC50 of 204 µg/mL against the nematode, while a LC50 of 260 µg/mL was observed for the commercial nematicide carbofuran. A search for protein-ligand complexes in which the ligands were structurally similar to dihydrouracil resulted in the selection of phosphoribosyltransferases, the sequences of which were used in an in silico search in the genome of M. incognita for a similar sequence of amino acids. The resulting sequence was modelled and dihydrouracil and 9H-purine were inserted in the active site of this putative phosphoribosyltransferase resulting in protein-ligand complexes that underwent molecular dynamics simulations. Calculation of the binding free-energies of these complexes revealed that the dissociation constant of dihydrouracil and 9H-purine to this protein is around 8.3 x 10-7 and 1.6 x 10-6 M, respectively. Consequently, these substances and the putative phosphoribosyltransferase are promising for the development of new products to control M. exigua.

DENILSON F., OLIVEIRA; HELVÉCIO M. DOS, SANTOS JÚNIOR; ALEXANDRO S., NUNES; VICENTE P., CAMPOS; RENATA S.C. DE, PINHO; GIOVANNA C., GAJO.

2014-06-01

276

Integrated Management of Meloidogyne incognita Infecting Eggplant by Certain Organic Amendments, Bacillus thuringiensis and Oxamyl with Reference to N P K and Total Chlorophyll Status  

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Full Text Available Greenhouse experiment on the impact of horse manure or sesame-oil-cake or Bacillus thuringiensis singly and/or integrated with oxamyl on Meloidogyne incognita infecting eggplant cv. Black long at 25±5°C, revealed that all tested treatments obviously improved plant growth response and reduced nematode development. Among the tested components, B. thuringiensis applied alone or mixed with oxamyl gave the highest percentage of increase in plant growth parameters i.e., plant fresh weight and shoot dry weight with values of 105.9 and 85.8% and 127.8 and 107.5%, respectively, as well as the lowest percent reduction of nematode developmental criteria. Moreover, in concomitant application of horse manure plus oxamyl appeared to be the best treatment in suppressing nematode development and improving plant growth parameters, followed by sesame oil-cake plus oxamyl, then sesame oil-cake and horse manure alone. Meanwhile, length of shoot and number of leaves were positively affected by the tested materials either when applied singly or integrated with oxamyl as compared to nematode alone. Regarding N, P and K status in shoots of eggplant, their concentrations were remarkably reduced by nematode infection. Moreover, single application of any organic amendment or bacterium or oxamyl achieved the highest concentration of N, P and K, whereas the concomitant application of horse manure plus oxamyl showed the highest concentration of phosphorus with value of 0.56 ppm. In addition, the previous treatments obviously decreased the total chlorophyll content of eggplant shoot, whereas nematode infection alone recorded the highest increase percentage for this plant parameter with value of 51.3%.

A.G. El-Sherif

2007-01-01

277

In vitro and foliar spray evaluation of Verbena officinalis (L., Erythrina mulungu (Mart. ex Benth., Quassia amara (L., Bidens pilosa (L. and Plantago lanceolata (L., extracts on Meloidogyne incognita (Kofoid & White, 1919 Chitwood, 1949 Evaluación in vitro y aplicación foliar de Verbena officinalis (L., Erythrina mulungu (Mart. ex Benth., Quassia amara (L., Bidens pilosa (L. y Plantago lanceolata (L., sobre Meloidogyne incognita (Kofoid & White, 1919 Chitwood, 1949  

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Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the efficiency of aqueous extracts of five species of medicinal plant, Verbena officinalis (L., Erythrina mulungu (Mart. ex Benth., Quassia amara (L., Bidens pilosa (L. and Plantago lanceolata (L. in vitro, and sprayed on tomato plants for the control of Meloidogyne incognita. In vitro experiments were conducted in growth chambers in acrylic ELISA plates. The treatments were doses of 0, 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 g • L-1 of different aqueous extracts. On the sixteenth day the number of second stage juveniles (J2 hatched per treatment was evaluated. The results showed that aqueous extracts of V. officinalis, E. mulungu, Q. amara, B. pilosa and P. lanceolata, reduced the hatching of M. incognita, with the aqueous extract of P. lanceolata showing up to 100% reduction in hatching. The in vivo assay was conducted in a greenhouse. For this, four sprays of different extracts were applied to tomato shoots. According to the results of this test, none of the extracts were efficient at controlling M. incognita through foliar spraying. The efficiency of these extracts to control plant parasitic nematodes during in vivo tests should not be disregarded, however, further studies should be conducted to test different methods of application, doses or methods of extracting the active principles.El objetivo del estudio fue evaluar la eficacia de los extractos acuosos de cinco especies de plantas medicinales, Verbena officinalis (L., Erythrina mulungu (Mart. ex Benth., Quassia amara (L., Bidens pilosa (L. y Plantago lanceolata (L. in vitro, y se pulverizaron en las plantas de tomates para el control de Meloidogyne incognita. Los experimentos in vitro fueron realizados en cámaras de crecimiento en placas de ELISA de tipo acrílico. Los tratamientos fueron dosis de 0,10, 20, 30, 40 y 50 g • L-1 de diferentes extractos acuosos. En el día dieciséis se evaluó el número de juveniles segunda etapa (J2nacidos por tratamiento. Los resultados mostraron que los extractos acuosos de V. officinalis, E. mulungu, Q. amara, B. pilosa y P. lanceolata reducen la eclosión de los juveniles de M. incognita, y el extracto acuoso de P. lanceolata mostró hasta 100% de reducción de la tasa de eclosión. El ensayo in vivo se realizó en un invernadero, y para ello, había cuatro pulverizaciones de diferentes extractos en los brotes de tomate. Según los resultados de esta prueba, ninguno de los extractos por pulverización foliar era eficaz en el control de M. incognita. Sin embargo, no se debe descartar la eficiencia de estos extractos en el control de nematodos parásitos de plantas, pero más estudios se llevan a cabo utilizando diferentes métodos de aplicación, las dosis o métodos de extracción de los principios activos de los extractos.

Milena A Ferrari Mateus

2013-04-01

278

EVALUACION DE DOS VARIADES DE LECHUGA (Lactuca sativa L.) PARA SU USO COMO PLANTAS TRAMPAS DE Meloidogyne incognita Kofoid Y white (Chitwood ) / EVALUATION OF TWO VARIETIES OF LETTUCE (Lactuca sativa L.) TO BE USED AS TRAP OF CROP OF Meloidogyne incognita Kofoid AND white (Chitwood)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Se realizó un experimento en condiciones semicontroladas, donde se evaluaron dos variedades de lechuga (var. "Chile 1185-3" y "Black Seeded Simpson " como plantas trampa para disminuir las poblaciones de Meloidogyne incognita . Las evaluaciones se realizaron a los 25 y 30 días después de la inoculac [...] ión de tres niveles de inóculo del nematodo (0.5 J2. g-1 suelo, 1.5 J2. g-1 suelo, 2.5 J2. g-1 suelo). Se manifestó la susceptibilidad de las variedades frente al ataque de esta plaga, observándose los síntomas y daños en el sistema radical y la producción de ootecas y huevos a los 30 días. Los efectos del nematodo sobre las plantas se agudizaron con el incremento del nivel de inóculo. Se observó un ligero aumento en la producción de huevos de la variedad "Chile 1185-3" sobre la variedad "Black Seeded Simpson ". Se demostró que la extracción de las raíces de lechuga, utilizada como planta trampa para el manejo de las poblaciones de este nematodo, debe realizarse entre los 25 y 30 días. De ser extendido este período, se perdería el objetivo de esta práctica cultural, con la consiguiente re-infestación del suelo, una vez que las larvas contenidas en los huevos lleguen a eclosionar. Abstract in english Two varieties of lettuce ("Chile 1185-3" and "Black Seeded Simpson") were evaluated as trap crops for M. incognita in semi-controlled conditions. Evaluations were carried out at 25 and 30 days after the inoculation of three nematode levels (0.5 J2. g-1 soil, 1.5 J2. g-1 soil and 2.5 J2. g-1 soil). H [...] igh susceptibility to M. incognita was shown by the two varieties of lettuce evaluated. Root symptoms and damages, as well as the production of egg masses and eggs were increased as long as the infestation levels of nematodes were higher. A slight increasing of nematode eggs and egg mass productions was observed on lettuce var. "Chile1185-3". It was demonstrated that the nematode infesting lettuce roots when used as a trap crop have to be removed from the soil between 25 and 30 days. Otherwise, the main goal of this cultural practice could be failed.

M.A, Hernández; Lucila, Gómez; Mayra G, Rodríguez; R, Enrique; Ileana, Miranda.

2008-08-01

279

Potential of Leguminous Cover Crops in Management of a Mixed Population of Root-knot Nematodes (Meloidogyne spp.)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Root-knot nematode is an important pest in agricultural production worldwide. Crop rotation is the only management strategy in some production systems, especially for resource poor farmers in developing countries. A series of experiments was conducted in the laboratory with several leguminous cover crops to investigate their potential for managing a mixture of root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne arenaria, M. incognita, M. javanica). The root-knot nematode mixture failed to multiply on Mucuna pru...

Osei, Kingsley; Gowen, Simon R.; Pembroke, Barbara; Brandenburg, Rick L.; Jordan, David L.

2010-01-01

280

Interaction of Concurrent Populations of Meloidogyne partityla and Mesocriconema xenoplax on Pecan  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The effect of the interaction between Meloidogyne partityla and Mesocriconema xenoplax on nematode reproduction and vegetative growth of Carya illinoinensis ‘Desirable’ pecan was studied in field microplots. Meloidogyne partityla suppressed reproduction of M. xenoplax, whereas the presence of M. xenoplax did not affect the population density of M. partityla second-stage juveniles in soil. Above-ground tree growth, as measured by trunk diameter 32 months following inoculation, was reduced ...

Nyczepir, A. P.; Wood, B. W.

2008-01-01

 
 
 
 
281

In vitro comparison of protease activities in preparations from free-living (Panagrellus redivivus) and plant-parasitic (Meloidogyne incognita) nematodes using FMRFa and FMRFa-like peptides as substrates.  

Science.gov (United States)

Extracts prepared from the microbivorous nematode Panagrellus redivivus and the plant-parasitic nematode Meloidogyne incognita were used to provide general protease activities for peptide substrate screening and species comparisons. Each extract was evaluated for its ability to degrade a broad range of nematode FMRFamide-like peptides (FLPs), key regulatory messengers governing nematode growth and development. Clear quantitative differences between the two extracts were observed using FMRFamide as a substrate. Extract potency assessed at EC50 (?g/? l extract protein for 50% substrate digestion) was 1.8-fold greater for P. redivivus than for M. incognita, and potency assessed at EC90 was 2.5-fold greater. An overall potency difference was also present when screening the digestion of 17 nematode FLPs, but it was not universal. The mean percentage digestion of eight of the 17 FLPs was greater (P < 0.02) with P. redivivus extract (76.3 ± 8.2) than with M. incognita extract (38.1 ± 8.7), but the means for the other nine FLPs were not different. Three FLPs (KPSFVRFa, AQTFVRFa, RNKFEFIRFa) were degraded extensively by the extracts of both species, and two FLPs (SAPYDPNFLRFa, SAEPFGTMRFa) were degraded 2.9-fold and 5.3-fold greater, respectively, with M. incognita extract than with P. redivivus extract. The ability of each extract to degrade FMRFa and KSAYMRFa was significantly reduced by using peptide analogues containing single d-amino acid substitutions, and the substitution effects were positional. Both FMRFa and KSAYMRFa were competitive substrates for aminopeptidases in each extract, but only the competitive ability of FMRFa was reduced by d-amino acid substitution. The variety and complexity of nematode FLP degradation by preparations representing phylogenetically and developmentally different nematode sources are discussed. PMID:20334714

Masler, E P

2010-12-01

282

Preservation of Meloidogyne hapla and M. chitwoodi in liquid nitrogen : differences in response between populations  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Une procédure est décrite pour la conservation de lignées de #Meloidogyne hapla$ et #M. chitwoodi$ dans l'azote liquide avec un prétraitement avec de l'éthanediol à 10% pendant 2 h à la température du laboratoire et avec de l'éthanediol à 40% pendant 45 min sur la glace. Les taux de survie varient de 45 à 98% avec une moyenne de 75%. La comparaison de trois populations de #M. hapla$, de deux populations de #M. chitwoodi$ et de deux populations de #Meloidogyne$ n. sp. révèle un ta...

Beek, H. J. G.; Veldhuis, W. B. J.; Zijlstra, C.; Silfhout, C. H.

1996-01-01

283

Efecto de la biodesinfección con residuos de nim (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) sobre población de Meloidogyne spp. en suelo / Effect of neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) Waste on Meloidogyne spp. population in soil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Se evaluó el efecto de residuos del proceso industrial de obtención de plaguicidas del nim (Azadirachta indica A. Juss), provenientes de la Fábrica «Rosa E. Simeón», Güines (Mayabeque, Cuba) sobre una población de Meloidogyne spp. El experimento se desarrolló en condiciones semicontroladas, utilizan [...] do suelo no estéril, con nivel inicial de Meloidognye spp. de 0,5 juveniles de segundo estadio (J2)-huevos.g de suelo-1. Se establecieron ocho tratamientos, cuatro de los cuales se inocularon adicionalmente con 5 J2-huevos.g de suelo-1 de Meloidogyne incognita (Kofoid y White) Chitwood y se empleó como hospedante tomate (Solanum lycopersicom L. var. Campbell 28). Se aplicaron tres dosis de residuos 138,47 g.maceta-1, 60,28 g.maceta-1 y 40,19 g.maceta-1 (lo que equivale a aplicar 4, 3 y 2 kg.m2-1 respectivamente). A los 50 días se determinó el Índice de Agallamiento (IA) (0 a 5 grados), longitud del tallo y masa fresca de raíces. Las mayores poblaciones de nematodos se produjeron en el tratamiento testigo (sin nim) (IA =5), exhibiendo diferencias significativas con aquellos donde se aplicaron los residuos, destacándose el tratamiento con 138,47 g.maceta-1 (equivalente a 4 kg.m2-1) que mostró un IA de 2,4. Los resultados mostraron la potencialidad que posee este desecho para el manejo de nematodos y la necesidad de estudiar su efecto sobre las plantas y las propiedades físico, químicas y biota del suelo. Abstract in english The effect of the waste from the industrial production of neem-based pesticides (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) originated in «Rosa Elena Simeón» factory in Güines (Mayabeque, Cuba) on Meloidogyne spp. population was evaluated, The experiment was carried out under semi-controlled conditions, using non [...] sterilized soil with an initial level of Meloidogyne spp. of 0,5 juveniles-eggs.g of soil-1. Eight treatments were set up; four of them were additionally inoculated with 5 juveniles-eggs.g of soil-1 of Meloidogyen incognita (Kofoid and White) Chitwood. Tomato (Solanum lycopersicom L. var. Campbell 28) was used as host. Three doses of the waste (138,47g.pot-1, 60,288 g.pot-1 and 40,19 g.pot¹; -equivalent to 4, 3 and 2 kg.m2-1 respectively) were applied. After fifty days, root knot galling index (GI) (0 to 5 grades), stem length and fresh weight of roots were evaluated. The highest populations appeared in the control treatment (without neem) (GI=5), which differed significantly from the treatments with the waste, where the best behavior was observed with 138,47 g.pot-1 (equivalent to 4 kg.m2-1) with a GI of 2,4. The results showed the potential of this waste for the management of plant parasitic nematodes and the need for studies on the effect upon the plants and the physical-chemical properties and biota of soils.

Mayra G, Rodríguez; Lucila, Gómez; Dainé, Hernández-Ochandía; R, Enrique; Ileana, Miranda; Oriela, Pino; I, Castro-Lizazo; L. Carolina, Rosales; Luisa, Díaz-Viruliche.

2012-12-01

284

Diversity of Meloidogyne spp. on Musa in Martinique, Guadeloupe, and French Guiana.  

Science.gov (United States)

Ninety-six isolates of Meloidogyne species collected from banana fields from Martinique, Guadeloupe, and French Guiana, were examined using esterase (Est) and malate dehydrogenase (Mdh) phenotypes. Adult females identified as M. arenaria, M. incognita, M. javanica, M. cruciani, M. hispanica, and Meloidogyne sp. showed species-specific phenotypes only for the esterase enzymes. Intraspecific variability among isolates of M. arenaria, M. incognita, and M. javanica was detected using Est and Mdh. Perineal patterns were used as a complementary tool together with enzyme characterization and were essential for checking the morphological consistency of the identification. The major species of M. arenaria and M. incognita were detected at 61.9% and 34.3% of the total number of isolates, respectively, and the other minor species at 3.8%. The mixed Meloidogyne species were detected in 45.1% of the samples. Genetic analysis was conducted using RAPD markers, which alone or in combination provided reliable polymorphisms both between and within species. RAPD analysis of the data resulted in clustering of species and isolates congruent with esterase phenotype characterization. The intraspecific variability in M. incognita and in M. arenaria represented 14.9% and 61.6% of the amplified polymorphic fragments, respectively. This high level of variation in M. arenaria isolates may indicate multiple origins for populations classified as M. arenaria or more than one species inside the same group, but more detailed morphological and DNA studies will be necessary to test this hypothesis. PMID:19262879

Cofcewicz, E T; Carneiro, R M D G; Randig, O; Chabrier, C; Quénéhervé, P

2005-09-01

285

Efecto del filtrado crudo de Purpureocillium sp. (Cepa UdeA0106), sobre la eclosión de huevos y movilidad de juveniles de Meloidogyne incognita-javanica / Effect of the raw filtrate of Purpureocillium sp. (UdeA0106 strain) on the eclosion of eggs and the motility of Meloidogyne incognitajavanica juveniles  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Meloidogyne incognita-javanica representa una limitación de los cultivos agrícolas y es necesario buscar alternativas para su manejo. El presente trabajo tuvo como objetivo evaluar el efecto in vitro del filtrado crudo de Purpureocillium sp. (Cepa UdeA0106) sobre laeclosión de huevos y los estadios [...] juveniles de Meloidogyne spp. Adicionalmente, se evaluaron los medios: caldo extracto de malta (CEM), caldo extracto de levadura (CEL) y caldo papa glucosa (CPG), escogiéndose aquel que no ejerciera daño sobre la morfología de los huevos y permitiera la eclosión de los estadios juveniles. El hongo se multiplicó durante 7 días y fue filtrado. Para establecer su efecto sobre los huevos y estadios J2 de Meloidogyne spp., se probaron concentraciones del filtrado al 100 %, 90 %, 70 %, 50 %, 25 % y 10 %; comparándolas con un control compuesto de estadios J2 en agua destilada estéril (ADE) y CPG. Las variables a evaluar fueron el porcentaje de eclosión e inmovilidad en los J2. La unidad experimental fue la caja de Petri, cada una con 200 huevos/J2, con 5 réplicas de cada tratamiento. Se utilizó un diseño experimental completamente aleatorizado con ANOVA (P = 0,05) y análisis de comparación múltiple de Tukey. Se encontraron diferencias significativas entre todos los tratamientos (P Abstract in english Meloidogyne incognita-javanica represents an important threat to the agricultural crops, and it is necessary to seek alternatives for its control. The aim of this research it was to evaluate a crude filtrate from the strain Purpureocillium sp. UdeA0106 in order to establish the in vitro effect on th [...] e egg hatching and the immobility of juvenile stages of Meloidogyne spp. The mediums evaluated were malt extract broth (MEB), yeast extract broth (YEB), and potato dextrose broth (PDB), after which it was chosen the one that didn't produce any damages on nematode eggs and allowed the emergence of the larval stages. The fungus was multiplied for 7 days, and then it was filtrated. To evaluate its effect on the eggs and the J2 of Meloidogyne spp., filtrate concentrations were made at 100 %, 90 %, 70 %, 50 %, 25 % and 10 %, contrasting them with a control composed of the J2 stages in sterile distilled water and PDB. The variables evaluated were the percentage of altered eggs and the immobility observed in J2 stages. The experimental unit was the Petri dish, each one containing 200 eggs /J2. Each treatment was replicated 5 times. It was used a completely randomized design, and an ANOVA was performed (P = 0,05) as well as a multiple comparison test (Tukey). Significant differences were found between all treatments (P

Nadya Lorena, Cardona Bustos; Harold, Pavas; Erika Pamela, Fernández.

2014-12-01

286

Effects of Tropical Rotation Crops on Meloidogyne arenaria Population Densities and Vegetable Yields in Microplots  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The effects of 12 summer crop rotation treatments on population densities of Meloidogyne arenaria race 1 and on yields of subsequent spring vegetable crops were determined in microplots. The crop sequence was: (i) rotation crops during summer 1991 ; (ii) cover crop of rye (Secale cereale) during winter 1991-92; (iii) squash (Cucurbita pepo) during spring 1992; (iv) rotation crops during summer 1992; (v) rye during winter 1992-93; (vi) eggplant (Solanum melongena) during spring 1993. The 12 ro...

Mcsorley, R.; Dickson, D. W.; Brito, J. A.; Hewlett, T. E.; Frederick, J. J.

1994-01-01

287

Effect of Tillage System and Irrigation on Population Densities of Plant Nematodes in Field Corn  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Soil populations of plant-parasitic nematodes were monitored bimonthly for 18 months in irrigated and nonirrigated corn plantings using four production systems: conventional and minimum tillage with crop residue returned and minimum tillage with 60% or 90% of previous corn crop residue removed. Populations of Meloidogyne incognita, Scutellonema brachyurum, Pratylenchus scribneri, and Paratrichodorus christiei varied among the tillage, nematicide, and irrigation treatments. Meloidogyne incogni...

Fortnum, B. A.; Karlen, D. L.

1985-01-01

288

Protein variability in Meloidogyne spp. (Nematoda:Meloidogynidae) revealed by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry.  

Science.gov (United States)

Total protein variation as revealed by two-dimensional electrophoresis (2D-E) was studied in 18 isolates from populations of Meloidogyne arenaria (six isolates), Meloidogyne incognita (10 isolates), and Meloidogyne javanica (one isolate) plus an unclassified isolate. Gels (80 x 60 x 0.75 mm) were silverstained and digitized in order to compare their protein patterns. Optical density and position of protein patterns were measured using statistical cluster analysis and computer-assisted image analysis software. Only those protein stains or positions that were clearly defined (i.e., without background) were considered. The number of positions in gels ranged from 86 to 203. Each of these positions had 95 clearly expressed proteins that were present in at least two replicates for each isolate. Spot position was considered a taxonomical character with two different states: presence (1) and absence (0). Accordingly, genetic distance was estimated among isolates and species, and a phylogenetic tree was constructed following the cladistic approach based on maximum parsimony analysis. Isolates of M. arenaria--M. javanica--Meloidogyne sp. and of M. incognita formed two separate monophyletic groups. Both groups were clearly defined on the basis of two sets of protein positions that can be considered as diagnostic characters. An attempt to identify these proteins by mass spectrometry was made. Group diagnostic proteins for M. incognita and M. arenaria (and for other proteins common to all isolates) were distinguished by protonated mass signals in the MALDI fingerprinting spectrum. PMID:12645913

Navas, A; López, J A; Espárrago, G; Camafeita, E; Albar, J P

2002-01-01

289

Influência da porcentagem de areia no solo e Meloidogyne incognita (Kofoid e White) Chitwood sobre a incidência de murcha de algodoeiro causada por Fusarium oxysporum f. vasinfectum (Atk) Snyder e Hansen  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O presente trabalho teve por finalidade estudar o efeito das diferentes porcentagens de areia, em substratos artificiais sobre a severidade de murcha do algodoeiro. Para êste fim foram utilizados substratos artificiais com quantidades variáveis de areia. Como inóculo foram utilizados suspensões de M [...] eloidogyne, Fusarium e Fusarium mais Meloidogyne. Os três inóculos foram testados em duas; variedades de algodão. Os resultados obtidos com a variedade RM2 no 1.° ensaio mostraram uma maior incidência de murcha nos substratos, com maior porcentagem de areia, isto é, 90% e 60%. Quanto ao inóculo utilizado, a maior incidência da doença ocorreu nos tratamentos que receberam inoculação conjunta de Fusarium mais Meloidogyne. No segundo ensaio, utilizando-se a variedade RM4 não foram obtidos dados que mostrassem diferenças significativas entre substratos. Isto provavelmente se deve a um aumento no potencial de inóculo e uma melhor distribuição do mesmo. No entanto, houve uma diferença significativa para os tipos de inóculo utilizados, sendo que a maior severidade de doença ocorreu quando o inóculo era constituído de fungo e de nematóide, seguindo-se o tratamento cujo inóculo era constituido só de fungo No ensaio feito com variedade RM4 foi obtida significância para a interação tipos de inóculo versus substratos. A interação mostrou que o inóculo constituído só de Fusarium comportou-se diferentemente nos diferentes, tipos de substratos, utilizados. Tendo a maior severidade da doença ocorrido no substrato contendo a maior porcentagem de areia. No entanto, não houve diferenças significativas para a severidade da doença causada pelo inóculo constituido do fungo mais nematóides nos diferentes substratos, o que mostra efeito do inóculo de Meloidogyne sôbre o inóculo em potencial de Fusarium. Os diferentes tipos de inóculo comportaram-se de modo diferentes nos substratos de terra roxa, e nos substratos contendo 60% e 90% de areia, sendo que a maior coloração dos vasos foi obtida nos tratamentos que receberam os inóculos de Fusarium e Fusarium mais Meloidogyne. Abstract in english The cotton wilt incidence caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. vasinfectum separate and mixed with Meloidogyne incognita, was studied on artificial substrates containing different sand percentages. When a susceptible cotton variety was used the highest wilt incidence occurred in the substrates containing [...] 60 and 90 percent sand. The inoculum that caused the highest amount of wilt was the mixture of Nematodes and Fusarium. When a resistant variety was used no differences in wilt incidence were observed that could be attributed to differences in sand percentage of the different substrates. Again the highest wilt incidence was obtained with the inoculum consisting of the mixture of nematodes and Fusarium. The inoculum versus substrate interection showed that the incidence of wilt caused by the inoculum consisting only of Fusarium was highest in the substrate containing 90% sand. On the other hand the inoculum of Nematodes and Fusarium caused about the same amount of wilt in the different substrates. This shows the importance of the nematodes on the Fusarium inoculum. The interection also showed that the differences in wilt incidence caused by the different inocula was different in the same substrates, with the exception of the substrate containing 30% sand.

C., Salgado; E., Cia; E., Balmer; A. R., Monteiro; C. P. de, Abreu.

290

Meloidogyne incognita (Kofoid and White, 1919 Chitwood 1949 y Meloidogyne arenaria (Neal 1889 Chitwood 1949: NEMATODOS DE LAS NUDOSIDADES RADICULARES EN GUAYABA (Psidium guajava L. C.V. MANZANA EN MONTERIA, CORDOBA  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available El presente trabajo tubo como objetivo identificar los nematodos agalladores asociados al cultivo de Guayaba ( Psidium guajava L. en Montería, Córdoba. Se tomaron muestras de raíces y suelo rizosférico. Las hembras, machos y juveniles de segundo estadío larval (J2 se obtuvieron mediante los métodos de hipoclorito de sodio-fuscina ácida, tamizado centrifugado y eclosión de masas de huevecillos, respectivamente. Se evaluaron variables morfológicas y morfométricas para determinar la especie. Se encontraron dos tipos de patrones perineales: El primer patrón con arco dorsal alto y cuadrado. El estilete de 14 ?m a 16 ?m, los nódulos anchos y planos. La distancia DGO de 2 ?m a 4 ?m. Los machos presentaron el disco labial redondeado y cóncavo centralmente. El estilete de 22 ?m a 25 ?m; nódulos planos y redondeados. La distancia DGO de 2 ?m a 4.5 ?m. Lo cual es típico de la especie M. incognita . En el segundo tipo de patrón, el arco dorsal es bajo, redondeado. Las estrías se curvan ligeramente hacia las líneas laterales y forman una ondulación, conocida como “hombrera”. El estilete midió de 13 ?m a 17 ?m, los nódulos son anchos y redondeados en su parte posterior. La distancia DGO de 3 ?m a 6 ?m. Estas características coinciden con las descritas para M. arenaria . Los resultados permiten el reporte por primera vez de M. incognita y M. arenaria afectando conjuntamente el cultivo de guayaba en la Costa Caribe Colombiana.

Juan D. Jaraba

2003-07-01

291

Molecular and morphological characterization of an unusual Meloidogyne arenaria population from traveler’s tree (Ravenala madagascariensis)  

Science.gov (United States)

An unusual Meloidogyne arenaria population was discovered on roots of a traveler’s tree (Ravenala madagascariensis) intended for display at a public arboretum in Pennsylvania. The population aroused curiosity by the lack of visible galling on the roots of the infected plant, and the females were typ...

292

Comparisons of Isozyme Phenotypes in Five Meloidogyne spp. with Isoelectric Focusing  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Meloidogyne incognita race 1, M. javanica, M. arenaria race 1, M. hapla, and an undescribed Meloidogyne sp. were analyzed by comparing isozyme phenotypes of esterase, malate dehydrogenase, phosphoglucomutase, isocitrate dehydrogenase, and ?-glycerophosphate dehydrogenase. Isozyme phenotypes were obtained from single mature females by isoelectric focusing electrophoresis. Of these five isozymes, only esterase and phosphoglucomutase could be used to separate all five Meloidogyne spp.; however,...

Venkatachari, Sudha; Payan, L. A.; Dickson, D. W.; Hewlett, T. E.

1991-01-01

293

Reproductive and Damage Potentials of Two Populations of Rotylenchulus reniformis on Sweetpotato and Related Comparisons with Meloidogyne javanica on Tomato  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Two Rotylenchulus reniformis populations (North Carolina and Georgia) were compared on sweetpotato and tomato. 'Beauregard' sweetpotato and 'Better Boy' and 'Marion' tomato were excellent hosts for both R. reniformis populations. On Beauregard sweetpotato, the two populations did not differ in fecundity; however, on both tomato cultivars, the Georgia population reproduced at a higher rate than the North Carolina population (P ? 0.05). Meloidogyne javanica reproduction was higher (P ? 0.05...

Walters, S. A.; Barker, K. R.

1993-01-01

294

Resistance of Interspecific Arachis Breeding Lines to Meloidogyne javanica and an Undescribed Meloidogyne Species  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Resistance to a peanut-parasitic population of Meloidogyne javanica and an undescribed Meloidogyne sp. in peanut breeding lines selected for resistance to Meloidogyne javanica was examined in greenhouse tests. The interspecific hybrid TxAG-7 was resistant to reproduction of Meloidogyne javanica, M. javanica, and Meloidogyne sp. An Meloidogyne javanica-resistant selection from the second backcross (BC) of TxAG-7 to the susceptible cultivar Florunner also was resistant to M. javanica but appear...

Abdel-momen, S. M.; Simpson, C. E.; Starr, J. L.

1998-01-01

295

Multiguard: Effects on nematode populations and galling on tomato and pepper  

Science.gov (United States)

Multiguard® Protect, a commercial formulation of furfural (2-furancarboxaldehyde), was evaluated in a series of greenhouse trials over three seasons for effects on plant growth, nematode populations in roots and soil, and galling caused by Meloidogyne incognita. ‘Tiny Tim’ tomato (Lycopersinon escu...

296

Interaction of Concurrent Populations of Meloidogyne partityla and Mesocriconema xenoplax on Pecan.  

Science.gov (United States)

The effect of the interaction between Meloidogyne partityla and Mesocriconema xenoplax on nematode reproduction and vegetative growth of Carya illinoinensis 'Desirable' pecan was studied in field microplots. Meloidogyne partityla suppressed reproduction of M. xenoplax, whereas the presence of M. xenoplax did not affect the population density of M. partityla second-stage juveniles in soil. Above-ground tree growth, as measured by trunk diameter 32 months following inoculation, was reduced in the presence of M. partityla alone or in combination with M. xenoplax as compared with the uninoculated control trees. The interaction between M. partityla and M. xenoplax was significant for dry root weight 37 months after inoculation. Results indicate that the presence of the two nematode species together caused a greater reduction in root growth than M. xenoplax alone, but not when compared to M. partityla alone. Mouse-ear symptom severity in pecan leaves was increased in the presence of M. partityla compared with M. xenoplax and the uninoculated control. Infection with M. partityla increased severity of mouse-ear symptoms expressed by foliage. The greater negative impact of M. partityla on vegetative growth of pecan seedlings in field microplots indicates that it is likely a more detrimental pathogen to pecan than is M. xenoplax and is likely an economic pest of pecan. PMID:19440263

Nyczepir, A P; Wood, B W

2008-09-01

297

DNA Complexity of the Root-knot Nematode (Meloidogyne spp.) Genome.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cot curves derived from renaturation kinetics of sheared denatured DNA indicated that the genome of six populations representing the four most common root-knot nematode species (Meloidogyne incognita, M. arenaria, M. javanica, and M. hapla) is composed of 20% repetitive and 80% nonrepetitive sequences of DNA. Cot curves were almost identical, indicating that all populations had a haploid genome of approximately the same size. Calculations from an average Cot curve gave an estimate of 0.51 x 108 nucleotide base pairs for the haploid genome of the four Meloidogyne species. This genome is about 12-13 times larger than the genome of the E. coli strain used as a control. PMID:19287606

Pableo, E C; Triantaphyllou, A C

1989-04-01

298

Diversity of Meloidogyne spp. on Musa in Martinique, Guadeloupe, and French Guiana  

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Ninety-six isolates of Meloidogyne species collected from banana fields from Martinique, Guadeloupe, and French Guiana, were examined using esterase (Est) and malate dehydrogenase (Mdh) phenotypes. Adult females identified as M. arenaria, M. incognita, M. javanica, M. cruciani, M. hispanica, and Meloidogyne sp. showed species-specific phenotypes only for the esterase enzymes. Intraspecific variability among isolates of M. arenaria, M. incognita, and M. javanica was detected using Est and Mdh....

Cofcewicz, E. T.; Carneiro, R. M. D. G.; Randig, O.; Chabrier, C.; Que?ne?herve?, P.

2005-01-01

299

Effects of Tropical Rotation Crops on Meloidogyne arenaria Population Densities and Vegetable Yields in Microplots.  

Science.gov (United States)

The effects of 12 summer crop rotation treatments on population densities of Meloidogyne arenaria race 1 and on yields of subsequent spring vegetable crops were determined in microplots. The crop sequence was: (i) rotation crops during summer 1991 ; (ii) cover crop of rye (Secale cereale) during winter 1991-92; (iii) squash (Cucurbita pepo) during spring 1992; (iv) rotation crops during summer 1992; (v) rye during winter 1992-93; (vi) eggplant (Solanum melongena) during spring 1993. The 12 rotation treatments were castor (Ricinus communis), cotton (Gossypium hirsutum), velvetbean (Mucuna deeringiana), crotalaria (Crotalaria spectabilis), fallow, hairy indigo (Indigofera hirsuta), American jointvetch (Aeschynomene americana), sorghum-sudangrass (Sorghum bicolor x S. sudanense), soybean (Glycine max), horsebean (Canavalia ensiformis), sesame (Sesamum indicum), and peanut (Arachis hypogaea). Compared to peanut, the first eight rotation treatments resulted in lower (P castor, cotton, velvetbean, and crotalaria than following peanut. Compared to the peanut rotation, yield of eggplant was enhanced (P castor, crotalaria, hairy indigo, American jointvetch, and sorghum-sudangrass. Several of these rotation crops may provide a means for depressing M. arenaria population densities on a short-term basis to enhance yields in a subsequent susceptible vegetable crop. PMID:19279880

McSorley, R; Dickson, D W; de Brito, J A; Hewlett, T E; Frederick, J J

1994-06-01

300

Reprodução de Meloidogyne spp. em porta-enxertos e híbridos de pepino Reproduction of Meloidogyne spp. in rootstocks and cucumber hybrids  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A enxertia é uma técnica alternativa frequentemente recomendada para a cultura do pepino em áreas infestadas com nematóides das galhas. O presente trabalho teve como objetivo determinar o fator de reprodução de Meloidogyne javanica e de Meloidogyne incognita raça 2 em seis porta-enxertos para pepino (abóbora 'Menina Brasileira', moranga 'Exposição', 'Shelper', 'Tetsukabuto', 'B8-A Tetsukabuto' e 'Excite Ikki' e quatro híbridos de pepino (Cucumis sativus tipo japonês ('Yoshinari', 'Kouki', 'Taisho' e 'Tsuyataro'. Foram conduzidos dois experimentos em casa-de-vegetação, um com cada espécie do nematóide, sendo cada parcela constituída de uma planta mantida em vaso contendo 2 litros de solo autoclavado. Nove dias após transplante, cada planta foi inoculada com 5.000 ovos e juvenis de segundo estádio (população inicial - Pi de M. javanica ou M. incognita raça 2. Tomateiros 'Rutgers' foram utilizados como padrão de viabilidade do inóculo, em ambos os experimentos. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado com cinco repetições por tratamento. Sessenta dias após a inoculação, cada planta foi avaliada, quanto ao peso fresco da raiz, número total de nematóides presentes no solo e na raiz (população final - Pf, número de nematóides/g de raiz e fator de reprodução de ambas as espécies de Meloidogyne (FR=Pf/Pi. Todos os porta-enxertos e híbridos de pepino testados apresentaram fatores de reprodução superiores a um, proporcionando a multiplicação de M. javanica e de M. incognita raça 2, porém, os valores nos híbridos de pepino foram superiores aos dos porta-enxertos.Grafting is an alternative technique often recommended for the cucumber crop in root-knot nematodes infested areas. This study aimed to determine the reproduction factor of Meloidogyne javanica and M. incognita race 2 on six rootstocks for cucumber (squash 'Menina Brasileira, pumpkim 'Exposição', 'Shelper', 'Tetsukabuto', 'B8-A Tetsukabuto' and 'Excite Ikki' and four cucumber (Cucumis sativus Japanese type hybrids of ('Yoshinari', 'Kouki', 'Taisho' and 'Tsuyataro'. Two experiments were carried out in greenhouse, each one with a nematode specie. Each plot consisted of one plant per pot containing 2 liters of autoclaved soil. Nine days after the seedlings transplantation, each plant was inoculated with 5,000 eggs and second-stage juveniles (initial population - Pi of M. javanica or M. incognita race 2. 'Rutgers' tomatoes were used as a standard for inoculum viability in both experiments. The experimental design was completely randomized with five replicates per treatment. Sixty days after inoculated, each plant was evaluated, when root fresh weight, total number of nematodes in the soil and in the roots (final population - Pf, nematodes number per gram of root and the reproduction factor of both Meloidogyne species (FR=Pf/Pi were determined. All rootstocks and cucumber hybrids allowed the M. javanica and M. incognita race 2 multiplication, but, generally, reproduction factor values were greater in cucumbers than in rootstocks.

Silvia Renata S Wilcken

2010-03-01

 
 
 
 
301

Reprodução de Meloidogyne spp. em porta-enxertos e híbridos de pepino / Reproduction of Meloidogyne spp. in rootstocks and cucumber hybrids  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A enxertia é uma técnica alternativa frequentemente recomendada para a cultura do pepino em áreas infestadas com nematóides das galhas. O presente trabalho teve como objetivo determinar o fator de reprodução de Meloidogyne javanica e de Meloidogyne incognita raça 2 em seis porta-enxertos para pepino [...] (abóbora 'Menina Brasileira', moranga 'Exposição', 'Shelper', 'Tetsukabuto', 'B8-A Tetsukabuto' e 'Excite Ikki') e quatro híbridos de pepino (Cucumis sativus) tipo japonês ('Yoshinari', 'Kouki', 'Taisho' e 'Tsuyataro'). Foram conduzidos dois experimentos em casa-de-vegetação, um com cada espécie do nematóide, sendo cada parcela constituída de uma planta mantida em vaso contendo 2 litros de solo autoclavado. Nove dias após transplante, cada planta foi inoculada com 5.000 ovos e juvenis de segundo estádio (população inicial - Pi) de M. javanica ou M. incognita raça 2. Tomateiros 'Rutgers' foram utilizados como padrão de viabilidade do inóculo, em ambos os experimentos. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado com cinco repetições por tratamento. Sessenta dias após a inoculação, cada planta foi avaliada, quanto ao peso fresco da raiz, número total de nematóides presentes no solo e na raiz (população final - Pf), número de nematóides/g de raiz e fator de reprodução de ambas as espécies de Meloidogyne (FR=Pf/Pi). Todos os porta-enxertos e híbridos de pepino testados apresentaram fatores de reprodução superiores a um, proporcionando a multiplicação de M. javanica e de M. incognita raça 2, porém, os valores nos híbridos de pepino foram superiores aos dos porta-enxertos. Abstract in english Grafting is an alternative technique often recommended for the cucumber crop in root-knot nematodes infested areas. This study aimed to determine the reproduction factor of Meloidogyne javanica and M. incognita race 2 on six rootstocks for cucumber (squash 'Menina Brasileira, pumpkim 'Exposição', 'S [...] helper', 'Tetsukabuto', 'B8-A Tetsukabuto' and 'Excite Ikki') and four cucumber (Cucumis sativus) Japanese type hybrids of ('Yoshinari', 'Kouki', 'Taisho' and 'Tsuyataro'). Two experiments were carried out in greenhouse, each one with a nematode specie. Each plot consisted of one plant per pot containing 2 liters of autoclaved soil. Nine days after the seedlings transplantation, each plant was inoculated with 5,000 eggs and second-stage juveniles (initial population - Pi) of M. javanica or M. incognita race 2. 'Rutgers' tomatoes were used as a standard for inoculum viability in both experiments. The experimental design was completely randomized with five replicates per treatment. Sixty days after inoculated, each plant was evaluated, when root fresh weight, total number of nematodes in the soil and in the roots (final population - Pf), nematodes number per gram of root and the reproduction factor of both Meloidogyne species (FR=Pf/Pi) were determined. All rootstocks and cucumber hybrids allowed the M. javanica and M. incognita race 2 multiplication, but, generally, reproduction factor values were greater in cucumbers than in rootstocks.

Silvia Renata S, Wilcken; Juliana MO, Rosa; Andréa RO, Higuti; Maria José de M, Garcia; Antonio Ismael Inácio, Cardoso.

2010-03-01

302

Histopathology of Selected cultivars of Tobacco infected with Meloidogyne species  

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Rates of nematode penetration and the histopathology of root infections in fluecured tobacco cultivars 'McNair-944,' 'Speight G-28,' and 'NC-89' with either Meloidogyne arenaria, M. incognita, M. hapla, or M. javanica were investigated. Penetration of root tips by juveniles of all species into the M. incognita-resistant NC-89 and G-28 was much less than that on the susceptible McNair-944. Few juveniles of M. incognita were detected in resistant cultivars 7 and 14 days after inoculation. Infec...

Sosa-moss, C.; Barker, K. R.; Daykin, M. E.

1983-01-01

303

Native-plant hosts of Meloidogyne spp. from Western Paraná, Brazil  

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Full Text Available The present study was focused on the parasitism of Meloidogyne species on the roots of native nursery plants from the Atlantic forest. Native plants were selected from a commercial nursery in Western Paraná, searching for the natural infection of Meloidogyne. Also, the seeds of native plants were cultivated in sterile soil and inoculated with M. incognita. In both the experiments, the number of galls and number of eggs and J2 per root, allied to the reproduction factor of M. incognita on each inoculated plant were assessed. Natural infection by M. javanica was found on Cordia ecalyculata, Citharexyllum myrianthum and Aspidosperma subincanum and by M. incognita on Croton urucurana, Lonchocarpus muehlbergianus, Tabebuia impetiginosa and T. serratifolia. Meloidogyne incognita induced galls formation on Genipa americana, Schinus terebinthifolius and Rollinia mucosa after inoculation, which suggested that those plants could host this nematode in natural biomes. Nursery soil should be disinfested before seeding the native forest plants for reforestation purposes

Vanessa A. Antes

2012-04-01

304

Comparisons of Isozyme Phenotypes in Five Meloidogyne spp. with Isoelectric Focusing.  

Science.gov (United States)

Meloidogyne incognita race 1, M. javanica, M. arenaria race 1, M. hapla, and an undescribed Meloidogyne sp. were analyzed by comparing isozyme phenotypes of esterase, malate dehydrogenase, phosphoglucomutase, isocitrate dehydrogenase, and alpha-glycerophosphate dehydrogenase. Isozyme phenotypes were obtained from single mature females by isoelectric focusing electrophoresis. Of these five isozymes, only esterase and phosphoglucomutase could be used to separate all five Meloidogyne spp.; however, the single esterase electromorphs were similar for M. incognita and M. hapla. Yet when both nematodes were run on the same gel, differences in their esterase phenotypes were detectable. Isozyme phenotypes from the other three isozymes revealed a great deal of similarity among M. incognita, M. javanica, M. arenaria, and the undescribed Meloidogyne sp. PMID:19283155

Venkatachari, S; Payan, L A; Dickson, D W; Hewlett, T E

1991-10-01

305

Resistance of Interspecific Arachis Breeding Lines to Meloidogyne javanica and an Undescribed Meloidogyne Species.  

Science.gov (United States)

Resistance to a peanut-parasitic population of Meloidogyne javanica and an undescribed Meloidogyne sp. in peanut breeding lines selected for resistance to Meloidogyne javanica was examined in greenhouse tests. The interspecific hybrid TxAG-7 was resistant to reproduction of Meloidogyne javanica, M. javanica, and Meloidogyne sp. An Meloidogyne javanica-resistant selection from the second backcross (BC) of TxAG-7 to the susceptible cultivar Florunner also was resistant to M. javanica but appeared to be segregating for resistance to the Meloidogyne sp. When reproduction of M. javanica and Meloidogyne javanica were compared on five BC4F3 peanut breeding lines, each derived from Meloidogyne javanica-susceptible BC4F2 individuals, all five lines segregated for resistance to M. javanica, whereas four of the lines appeared to be susceptible to Meloidogyne javanica. These data indicate that several peanut lines selected for resistance to Meloidogyne javanica also contain genes for resistance to populations of M. javanica and the undescribed Meloidogyne sp. that are parasitic on peanut. Further, differences in segregation patterns suggest that resistance to each Meloidogyne sp. is conditioned by different genes. PMID:19274226

Abdel-Momen, S M; Simpson, C E; Starr, J L

1998-09-01

306

Meloidogyne mayaguensis RAMMAH Y HIRSCHMANN, PLAGA EMERGENTE PARA LA AGRICULTURA TROPICAL Y SUBTROPICAL / Meloidogyne mayaguensis RAMMAH Y HIRSCHMANN, EMERGENT PEST FOR TROPICAL AND SUBTROPICAL AGRICULTURE  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Meloidogyne mayaguensis Rammah y Hirschmann, constituye una importante plaga en países de la zona tropical y subtropical, donde parasita de manera natural más de 30 especies de diferentes plantas de cultivo como guayaba (Psidium guajava), cafeto (Coffea spp.), hortalizas, ornamentales y arvenses. Su [...] distribución ha ocurrido relativamente rápido debido a factores antropogénicos y la mayor preocupación con esta especie es su capacidad para parasitar y reproducirse en plantas con resistencia a Meloidogyne spp. Esta especie presenta alta variabilidad en la morfología de su patrón perineal, por lo que es recomendable, para su identificación, el uso de elementos complementarios como los que ofrecen los perfiles de esterasas. Esta especie puede hallarse en poblaciones concomitantes junto a Meloidogyne incognita, Meloidogyne arenaria y Meloidogyne javanica, haciendo más complejo su diagnóstico y manejo. Entre las regulaciones empleadas para mitigar su efecto negativo se encuentran, la implementación de medidas de cuarentena interna y el uso de Cadusafos y Abamectina, con resultados variables. De igual modo, grupos de investigación en África y América han evaluado extractos de Crotalaria spp. y agentes de control biológico (Arthrobotrys spp.), entre otras tácticas. M. mayaguensis se considera una de las especies más peligrosas del género, su detección, correcta identificación y contención en las áreas donde aparece constituyen uno de los retos más importantes de las autoridades sanitarias en los países donde ha sido encontrada, para los cuales la información oportuna y capacitación efectiva de los actores involucrados en esta esfera representa un elemento de vital importancia para el enfrentamiento a esta plaga emergente. Abstract in english Meloidogyne mayaguensis Rammah y Hirschmann, is an important pest in tropical and subtropical countries, because it affects in natural way more than 30 different species like guava (Psidium guajava), coffee (Coffea spp.), vegetables, ornamental plants and weeds. Its distribution has been very fast d [...] ue to anthropogenic factors, and the highest concern about this species is its capacity to infest and reproduce on resistant plants to Meloidogyne spp. This species has a high variability in its perineal pattern morphology; thus the use of complementary elements like the offered by esterase profile is recommended. This specie has been found in mixed population with Meloidogyne incognita, Meloidogyne arenaria and Meloidogyne javanica, making more complex its diagnosis and management. Among the measurements to diminish its negative effect are the implementation of internal quarantine measures and the use of Cadusafos and Abermectine with variable results. In the same way, different research teams from Africa and America have evaluated extracts from Crotalaria spp., biological control agents (Arthrobotrys spp.), among other tactics. M. mayaguensis has been considered one of the most dangerous species of this genus. Its detection, right identification and contention in the areas in which it is found constitute one of the most important challenges for the sanitary authorities in the countries when the species has been reported. The opportune information and the effective training of the staff involved in the phytosanitary area represent a vital element for facing this emergent pest.

Mayra G, Rodríguez; Lucila, Gómez; Belkis, Peteira.

2007-12-01

307

Pathogenicity of Meloidogyne spp. (Tylenchida: Meloidogynidae from Brazil and Central America on two genotypes of Coffea arabica Patogenicidade de Meloidogyne spp. (Tylenchida: Meloidogynidae originárias do Brasil e América Central a dois genótipos de Coffea arabica  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Among the most damaging root-knot nematode species, Meloidogyne exigua, M. paranaensis, M. incognita, M. arabicida, M. izalcoensis and M. mayaguensis are major agronomic constraints in coffee-growing areas in Brazil and other Latin American countries. The resistance reaction to those six species was studied for the H 419-5-4-5-2 progeny, derived from the artificial hybridization between Catuaí Amarelo 'IAC 30' x Timor Hybrid UFV 445-46 selection. The Catuaí Vermelho IAC 144 genotype was used as susceptibility control for Meloidogyne spp. The genotypes were inoculated with 6,000 eggs/plant and the experiment was set up in a completely randomized design, replicated 10 times for each Meloidogyne species and genotype. The evaluation was performed at 240 days after inoculation and the reproduction factor (RF= Final population/6000 was used as the variable to evaluate resistance. M. exigua caused typical rounded galls mostly on new roots, and egg-masses were produced mostly in the cortex under the root epidermis. M. incognita, M. paranaensis and M. arabicida caused swollen roots, peeling and cracking of cortical root tissue. No symptoms were observed for M. mayaguensis. M. izalcoensis induced very small galls, mostly on the extremity of new roots. Egg-masses were produced outside the roots in large quantities. The genotype IAC 144 was susceptible (FR>1.0 to all Meloidogyne spp. studied, except to M. mayaguensis. The nematode isolate used in this experiment seems to be a weak parasite for coffee. The H 419-5-4-5-2 progeny was resistant to M. exigua (FREntre as espécies de nematóides de galhas mais danosas ao cafeeiro, Meloidogyne exigua, M. paranaensis, M. incognita, M. arabicida, M. izalcoensis e M. mayaguensis são as que causam os maiores problemas em áreas de cultivo de café no Brasil e países da América Latina. A reação de resistência a essas seis espécies foi estudada na progênie H 419-5-4-5-2, obtida do cruzamento artificial entre a cultivar Catuaí Amarelo IAC 30 com a seleção de Híbrido de Timor UFV 445-46. As genótipos foram inoculados com 6.000 ovos/planta e o experimento foi conduzido no delineamento inteiramente ao acaso, com 10 repetições para cada espécie de Meloidogyne e cada genótipo de cafeeiro. A avaliação foi realizada 240 dias após a inoculação. O Fator de Reprodução (FR= População Final/6000 foi usado como variável para se avaliar a resistência. M. exigua causou galhas arredondadas típicas, sobretudo nas raízes novas. M. incognita, M. paranaensis e M. arabicida causaram engrossamento nas raízes, descolamento cortical e rachaduras em várias partes do sistema radicular.Nenhum sintoma foi observado para M. mayaguensis. M. izalcoensis causou galhas pequenas, a maioria na extremidade das raízes novas. As massas de ovos foram produzidas externamente e em grande número. O genótipo IAC 144 (testemunha foi suscetível (FR>1.0 a todas espécies de Meloidogyne, exceto a M. mayaguensis. Esse isolado mostrou-se um parasita fraco para o cafeeiro. A progênie H 419-5-4-5-2 foi resistente a M. exigua e M. mayaguensis (FR<1 e suscetível a M. incognita, M. paranaensis, M. arabicida e M. izalcoensis.

Regina M.D.G. Carneiro

2008-08-01

308

Étude de partenaires protéiques d'une protéine associée aux microtubules, MAP65-3, indispensable à la formation des cellules géantes induites par le nématode à galles Meloidogyne incognita : caractérisation du complexe de surveillance de la mitose chez Arabidopsis  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Les nématodes à galles du genre Meloidogyne sont des parasites obligatoires des plantes. Lors de l'interaction compatible, ils induisent la formation de cellules nourricières hypertrophiées et plurinucléées leur permettant d'assurer croissance et reproduction. L'étude des mécanismes moléculaires impliqués dans la formation de ces cellules géantes a permis d'identifier une protéine associée aux microtubules, MAP65-3, essentielle à la formation de ces cellules géantes et au déve...

Paganelli, Lae?titia

2013-01-01

309

Reprodução de Meloidogyne spp. em porta-enxertos e híbridos de pepino Reproduction of Meloidogyne spp. in rootstocks and cucumber hybrids  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A enxertia é uma técnica alternativa frequentemente recomendada para a cultura do pepino em áreas infestadas com nematóides das galhas. O presente trabalho teve como objetivo determinar o fator de reprodução de Meloidogyne javanica e de Meloidogyne incognita raça 2 em seis porta-enxertos para pepino (abóbora 'Menina Brasileira', moranga 'Exposição', 'Shelper', 'Tetsukabuto', 'B8-A Tetsukabuto' e 'Excite Ikki') e quatro híbridos de pepino (Cucumis sativus) tipo japonês ('Yoshinari'...

Wilcken, Silvia Renata S.; Mo, Juliana Rosa; Ro, Andre?a Higuti; Garcia, Maria Jose? M.; Antonio Ismael Inácio Cardoso

2010-01-01

310

Meloidogyne partityla on Pecan Isozyme Phenotypes and Other Host.  

Science.gov (United States)

Meloidogyne sp. from five pecan (Carya illinoensis) orchards in Texas were distinctive in host range and iszoyme profiles from common species of Meloidogyne but were morphologically congruent with Meloidogyne partityla Kleynhans, a species previously known only in South Africa. In addition to pecan, species of walnut (Juglans hindsii and J. regia) and hickory (C. ovata) also were hosts. No reproduction was observed on 15 other plant species from nine families, including several common hosts of other Meloidogyne spp. Three esterase phenotypes and two malate dehydrogenase phenotypes of M. partityla were identified by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Each of these isozyme phenotypes was distinct from those of the more common species M. arenaria, M. hapla, M. incognita, and M. javanica. PMID:19277175

Starr, J L; Tomaszewski, E K; Mundo-Ocampo, M; Baldwin, J G

1996-12-01

311

Penetration Rates by Second-stage Juveniles of Meloidogyne spp. and Heterodera glycines into Soybean Roots  

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The rates of soybean root penetration by freshly hatched second-stage juveniles (J2) of Meloidogyne arenaria, M. hapla, M. incognita, M. javanica, and Heterodera glycines races 1 and 5 were examined over a period of 1 to 240 hours. Heterodera glycines entered roots more quickly than Meloidogyne spp. Penetration by most nematodes was accomplished within 48 hours. The increases in penetration after 48 hours were insufficient to warrant further assessments. Penetration of J2 into roots of soybea...

Gourd, T. R.; Schmitt, D. P.; Barker, K. R.

1993-01-01

312

Evaluation of Cover Crops with Potential for Use in Anaerobic Soil Disinfestation (ASD) for Susceptibility to Three Species of Meloidogyne.  

Science.gov (United States)

Several cover crops with potential for use in tropical and subtropical regions were assessed for susceptibility to three common species of root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne arenaria, M. incognita, and M. javanica. Crops were selected based on potential use as organic amendments in anaerobic soil disinfestation (ASD) applications. Nematode juvenile (J2) numbers in soil and roots, egg production, and host plant root galling were evaluated on arugula (Eruca sativa, cv. Nemat), cowpea (Vigna unguiculata, cv. Iron & Clay), jack bean (Canavalia ensiformis, cv. Comum), two commercial mixtures of Indian mustard and white mustard (Brassica juncea & Sinapis alba, mixtures Caliente 61 and Caliente 99), pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum, cv. Tifleaf III), sorghum-sudangrass hybrid (Sorghum bicolor × S. bicolor var. sudanense, cv. Sugar Grazer II), and three cultivars of sunflower (Helianthus annuus, cvs. 545A, Nusun 660CL, and Nusun 5672). Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum, cv. Rutgers) was included in all trials as a susceptible host to all three nematode species. The majority of cover crops tested were less susceptible than tomato to M. arenaria, with the exception of jack bean. Sunflower cv. Nusun 5672 had fewer M. arenaria J2 isolated from roots than the other sunflower cultivars, less galling than tomato, and fewer eggs than tomato and sunflower cv. 545A. Several cover crops did not support high populations of M. incognita in roots or exhibit significant galling, although high numbers of M. incognita J2 were isolated from the soil. Arugula, cowpea, and mustard mixture Caliente 99 did not support M. incognita in soil or roots. Jack bean and all three cultivars of sunflower were highly susceptible to M. javanica, and all sunflower cultivars had high numbers of eggs isolated from roots. Sunflower, jack bean, and both mustard mixtures exhibited significant galling in response to M. javanica. Arugula, cowpea, and sorghum-sudangrass consistently had low numbers of all three Meloidogyne species associated with roots and are good selections for use in ASD for root-knot nematode control. The remainder of crops tested had significant levels of galling, J2, and eggs associated with roots, which varied among the Meloidogyne species tested. PMID:24379486

Kokalis-Burelle, Nancy; Butler, David M; Rosskopf, Erin N

2013-12-01

313

Bahiagrass for the Management of Meloidogyne arenaria in Peanut  

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Bahiagrass (Paspalum notatum) cultivars Argentine, Pensacola, and Tifton-9 were non-hosts for Meloidogyne arenaria, M. incognita, and Heterodera glycines in a greenhouse experiment using field soil infested with these nematodes. The effect of Pensacola bahiagrass in rotation with peanut (Arachis hypogaea) on M. arenaria was studied in 1986 and 1987 in a field at the Wiregrass substation near Headland, Alabama. Each year soil densities of second-stage juveniles of M. arenaria, determined near ...

Rodri?guez-ka?bana, R.; Weaver, C. F.; Robertson, D. G.; Ivey, H.

1988-01-01

314

Soil suppressiveness towards Meloidogyne Verticillium or Pythium in greenhouse horticulture  

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Soils originating from fourteen greenhouse horticultural companies were assessed for the level of suppressiveness of three major pathogens of vegetables and flowers, namely the root knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita, Pythium aphanidermatum and Verticillium dahlia. As controls, three well-documented soils in terms of disease suppressiveness and coarse sand were included for each pathogen. Soils were distributed over three treatments with forty replicates each in a random block design under s...

Wurff, A. W. G.; Slooten, M. A.; Hamelink, R.; Bohne, S.; Wensveen, W.

2011-01-01

315

Efeito de isolados de Paecilomyces lilacinus no desenvolvimento de cafezais e na população de Meloidogyne paranaensis Effect of isolates of Paecilomyces lilacinus on the development of coffee plantations and on the population of Meloidogyne paranaensis  

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Full Text Available Com a finalidade de diminuir as perdas causadas pelos nematóides do gênero Meloidogyne (Goeldi, 1887 na cultura do cafeeiro, dentre as diversas medidas de manejo, o controle biológico com o fungo Paecilomyces lilacinus (Thom., 1910 Samson, 1974 se destaca como uma alternativa de controle vantajosa, quer dos pontos de vista ecológico ou econômico. Assim, neste trabalho, objetivou-se avaliar a eficiência de 10 isolados de Paecilomyces lilacinus no controle de Meloidogyne paranaensis em cafeeiro (Coffea arabica L. cv. Icatú, em casa-de-vegetação. No experimento I, as mudas de cafeeiro foram transplantadas em solo onde foram, anteriormente, cultivados tomateiros para multiplicação de M. paranaensis mais 50 g de arroz colonizado com os 10 isolados. No segundo experimento, mudas de cafeeiro foram transplantadas para substrato solo e areia (1:1 juntamente com 50 g de arroz colonizado com os isolados. Em seguida, as mudas foram inoculadas com ± 5000 ovos de M. paranaensis. Nos dois experimentos, após 15 dias procedeu-se aplicação por cobertura de 50 g dos isolados. O delineamento foi inteiramente casualizado com 12 tratamentos. Após 90 dias, foram feitas as avaliações. Os isolados de P. lilacinus não afetaram o diâmetro do caule de cafeeiro. No experimento I, os isolados Pae 22, 24 e 28 promoveram o crescimento dos cafeeiros; todos os isolados reduziram a população de ovos no sistema radicular; e os isolados Pae 3 e 12 reduziram a população de J2 de M. paranaensis no solo. No experimento II, os isolados Pae 03, 10, 12 e 13 favoreceram o crescimento das plantas, mas reduziram o peso fresco do sistema radicular; todos os isolados reduziram a população de J2 no solo; e os isolados Pae 3, 10, 13, 18, 22 e 24 reduziram as malformações causadas por M. paranaensis nas raízes.In order to reduce the losses caused by nematodes of the genus Meloidogyne (Goeldi, 1887 in coffee plantation, among several management measures, biological control with the fungus Paecilomyces lilacinus (Thom., 1910 Samson, 1974 stands out as an advantageous alternative of control, from the ecological or economy points of view. Thus, the objective of this work was to evaluate ten isolates of Paecilomyces lilacinus in the control of Meloidogyne paranaensis in coffee trees (Coffea arabica L. cv. Icatú, in greenhouse conditions. In the first experiment, the coffee seedlings were transplanted to substrate where tomato plants were previously cultivated, for M. paranaensis multiplication. The soil was mixed with 50 g rice colonized with ten isolates of P. lilacinus. In the second experiment, coffee seedlings were transplanted to substrate (1 sand: 1 dirt with 50 g rice colonized with the isolates of P. lilacinus. Then, the seedlings were inoculated with suspension of ±5000 eggs of M. paranaensis. In the two experiments, a new application was made with 50 g of the isolates after fifteen days. The design was completely randomized with twelve treatments and ten replicates. After 90 they days were evaluated. The isolated of P. lilacinus did not affect the diameter of the coffee stalk. In the first experiment, the isolates Pae 22, 24, and 28 promoted the growth of the seedlings, all of the isolates reduced the population of eggs in the root system, and the isolates Pae 3 and 12 reduced the population of J2 of M. paranaensis in the soil. In the second experiment, the isolates Pae 3, 10, 12, and 13 favored the growth of the plants but reduced the weight of the fresh roots, all of the isolates reduced the population of J2 in the soil, and the isolates Pae 3, 10, 13, 18, 22, and 24 reduced the malformations caused by M. paranaensis roots.

Marina Capparelli Cadioli

2009-06-01

316

Native-plant hosts of Meloidogyne spp. from Western Paraná, Brazil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english The present study was focused on the parasitism of Meloidogyne species on the roots of native nursery plants from the Atlantic forest. Native plants were selected from a commercial nursery in Western Paraná, searching for the natural infection of Meloidogyne. Also, the seeds of native plants were cu [...] ltivated in sterile soil and inoculated with M. incognita. In both the experiments, the number of galls and number of eggs and J2 per root, allied to the reproduction factor of M. incognita on each inoculated plant were assessed. Natural infection by M. javanica was found on Cordia ecalyculata, Citharexyllum myrianthum and Aspidosperma subincanum and by M. incognita on Croton urucurana, Lonchocarpus muehlbergianus, Tabebuia impetiginosa and T. serratifolia. Meloidogyne incognita induced galls formation on Genipa americana, Schinus terebinthifolius and Rollinia mucosa after inoculation, which suggested that those plants could host this nematode in natural biomes. Nursery soil should be disinfested before seeding the native forest plants for reforestation purposes

Vanessa A., Antes; Anna P., Comerlato; Adílson Ricken, Schuelter; Regina M.D.G., Carneiro; Cleber, Furlanetto.

2012-04-01

317

Meloidoginose da bananeira (sintomas e susceptibilidade de cultivares) / Behavior of banana cultivars exposed to infestation by M. incognita and M. javanica  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Vinte cultivares de banana (Musa spp.) foram avaliados em condições naturais de infestação em relação aos nematóides formadores de galhas Meloidogyne incognita e M. javanica, espécies estas mais difundidas no País. Verificou-se que todos os cultivares foram susceptíveis a M. incognita e oito a M. ja [...] vanica. Suspeitou-se, no entanto, que caso houvesse infestação uniforme do nematóide javanês, todos os cultivares seriam eventualmente parasitados. Descrevem-se também os sintomas apresentados pelos sistemas radiculares dos cultivares. Do ponto de vista econômico, resta recomendar remoção das raízes das mudas e do solo a elas aderido, e plantio em solos preferencialmente livres de Meloidogyne spp. Abstract in english Twenty banana cultivars (Musa spp.) were exposed in natural conditions to infestation by two root knot nematodes, namely Meloidogyne incognita and M. javanica. It was found that all cultivars were attacked by M. incognita and eight by M. javanica. However, in an uniform infestation by the Javanese n [...] ematode, all cultivars would be eventually attacked by this species. Symptoms shown by the radicular systems are described. Bruning of "seedling" root and cleaning the soil adhering to them, and planting them in soils not infested with Meloidogyne spp. are recommended.

Antonio Carlos, Zem; Luiz Gonzaga E., Lordello.

318

Identification of proteins expressing differences among isolates of Meloidogyne spp. (Nematoda: Meloidogynidae) by nano-liquid chromatography coupled to ion-trap mass spectrometry.  

Science.gov (United States)

Total protein variation (up to ninety-five different positions) was revealed by two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) in 18 isolates from populations of M. arenaria (6 isolates), M. incognita (10), M. javanica (1) plus an unclassified isolate in a previously reported study. Isolates of M. arenaria, M. javanica, Meloidogyne sp., and M. incognita formed two separate groups defined on the basis of two sets of protein positions that could be considered as diagnostic characters, but we could not identify these proteins by MALDI-TOF. To identify these marker positions, nano-liquid chromatography as peptides separation method was coupled to an ion-trap mass spectrometer for induced real-time fragmentation of eluted peptides. Group diagnostic proteins for M. incognita and M. arenaria were in-gel digested and on line analyzed by tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Six proteins out of seven selected spots were unambiguously identified by the analysis of the corresponding MS/MS (MS2) spectrum from parent ions fragmentation: Actin, Enolase, CG3752-PA protein similar to Aldehyde Dehydrogenase, HSP-60 and Translation initiation factor elF-4A. In M. incognita sample, de novo sequencing experiment of doubly charged ion at m/z=936.9 Da in spot 29 identified as enolase, reveals three residue substitutions (K to T, N to T, and D to E) when tentative sequence was compared with that of Anisakis simplex and Onchocerca volvulus enolase, thus three SNPs (single nucleotide polymorphisms) were also possibly identified. PMID:15952751

Calvo, E; Flores-Romero, P; López, J A; Navas, A

2005-01-01

319

Effect of Carbamate, Organophosphate, and Avermectin Nematicides on Oxygen Consumption by Three Meloidogyne spp.  

Science.gov (United States)

Second-stage juveniles (I2) of Meloidogyne arenaria consumed more oxygen (P incognita J2, which in turn consumed more than M. javanica J2 (4,820, 4,530, and 3,970 mul per hour per g nematode dryweight, respectively). Decrease in oxygen consumption depended on the nematicide used. Except for aldicarb, there was no differential sensitivity among the three nematode species. Meloidogyne javanica had a greater percentage decrease (P incognita. Meloidogyne javanica J2 had a greater degree of recovery from fenamiphos or aldicarb intoxication, after subsequent transfer to water, than did M. incognita. This finding may relate to differential sensitivity among Meloidogyne spp. in the field. Degree of respiratory inhibition and loss of nematode motility for M. javanica after exposure to the nematicides were positively correlated (P

Nordmeyer, D; Dickson, D W

1989-10-01

320

SINTOMATOLOGÍA Y ESPECIES DE Meloidogyne ASOCIADAS A VID (Vitis vinifera L. cv. Aramond) EN GÜIRA DE MELENA, ARTEMISA. (Resultados preliminares) / SYMPTOMATOLOGY AND SPECIES OF Meloidogyne ASSOCIATED WITH GRAPEVINE (Vitis vinifera L. cv. Aramond) IN GÜIRA DE MELENA, Artemisa. (Preliminary results)  

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Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Un viñedo (Vitis vinifera L. cv. Aramond) de 21 años de plantado mostraba síntomas semejantes a los producidos por la presencia de nematodos formadores de agallas (Meloidogyne spp.), así como mermas en los rendimientos. En visita realizada a la plantación, se constató la existencia de áreas con plan [...] tas cloróticas y con diversos grados de defoliación. Las bases de los tallos mostraban rajaduras longitudinales y ensanchamientos en la región que se encontraba por encima de la superficie del suelo. Al examinar las raíces se encontraron agallas de diversos tamaños y la pérdida de volúmenes importantes de raíces secundarias. En las agallas, se encontraron hembras adultas de Meloidogyne con ootecas desarrolladas, y el estudio de los patrones perineales de estas hembras evidenció la presencia de especímenes de tres especies (Meloidogyne arenaria (Neal) Chitwood, Meloidogyne incognita (Kofoid & White) Chitwood y Meloidogyne javanica (Trueb) Chitwood), mientras otros fueron ubicados en la categoría de Meloidogyne spp., hasta completar los estudios moleculares. Del total de especímenes examinados, M. arenaria mostró ser componente mayoritario de la comunidad con un 53%, seguido de M. incognita (21%) y M. javanica (4%). La presencia de M. arenaria en vid, representa el primer informe de la especie en este cultivo en Cuba y constituye foco de atención para el servicio fitosanitario, por ser una de las plagas más importante para la vid a nivel mundial. Abstract in english A 21 year old vineyard (Vitis vinifera L. cv. Aramond) showed symptoms similar to those caused by the root knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp.) as well as decreases in yield. In a visit to the area, several chlorotic plants with different degree of defoliation were observed. The stem bases above the so [...] il surface were swollen and they showed longitudinal cracks. Galls of different sizes were observed on the roots with significant losses of secondary roots. Adult females of Meloidogyne with well developed egg masses were found inside the galls. The study of the perineal patterns of these females showed the presence of specimens belonging to three species (Meloidogyne arenaria (Neal) Chitwood, Meloidogoyne incognita (Kofoid & White) Chitwood and Meloidogyne javanica (Trueb) Chitwood), as well as others that were grouped as Meloidogyne spp. until completing the molecular studies of all the specimens observed. M. arenaria showed to be the majority component of the community with 53%, followed by M. incognita and M. javanica with 21% and 4% respectively. The presence of M. arenaria in grapevine is the first report of this specie in the crop in Cuba and constitutes a focus of attention for the plant protection service because it is one of the most important pests in grapevine in the world.

Mayra G, Rodríguez; Dainé, Hernández; R, Enrique; Lucila, Gómez; Luisa, Díaz-Viruliche; Belkis, Peteira.

2011-08-01

 
 
 
 
321

Mentha x piperita, Mentha spicata and Effects of Their Essential Oils on Meloidogyne in Soil  

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Six peppermint (Mentha x piperita) and six spearmint (M. spicata) PI accessions were inoculated with Meloidogyne incognita race 3 and M. arenaria race 2, under greenhouse conditions. No galls formed on roots of any of the plants inoculated with 1,800 eggs/pot. Fewer than two galls per root system formed on three PI accessions of peppermint inoculated with M. incognita at 5,400 eggs/pot. Only one peppermint accession developed galls when inoculated with M. arenaria, whereas none of the spearmi...

Walker, J. T.; Melin, J. B.

1996-01-01

322

Virulence and molecular diversity of parthenogenetic root-knot nematodes, Meloidogyne spp.  

Science.gov (United States)

Root-knot nematodes (RKN) are sedentary endoparasites causing severe damage to a wide variety of crops, including tomato. Among them, the parthenogenetic species Meloidogyne arenaria, M. incognita and M. javanica are of particular economic importance. The genetic diversity and relationships of 17 populations belonging to these three major species, either avirulent or virulent against the tomato Mi resistance gene, were investigated in order to determine whether (a)virulence of the nematodes could be related to their molecular fingerprints. Genomic polymorphisms between populations were assessed by using amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers, and data were treated by means of a multiple correspondence analysis. A total of 1550 polymorphic amplified DNA fragments were identified and used to compute the relationships between the populations. As expected, the three RKN species were clearly distributed into distinct groups, but combination of data for virulence phenotypes and DNA markers showed that clustering of populations was not associated with their (a)virulence against the tomato Mi resistance gene. Such a lack of correlation indicates that most of the observed DNA polymorphism is independent of virulence, which is presumably under host selection. This result demonstrates that virulent populations do not share a common origin, and strongly suggests that they might have appeared late after the establishment of these clonal lineages, as the result of independent mutational events. PMID:10692014

Semblat, J P; Bongiovanni, M; Wajnberg, E; Dalmasso, A; Abad, P; Castagnone-Sereno, P

2000-01-01

323

Purificação de metabólitos fúngicos com efeitos tóxicos sobre Meloidogyne incognita  

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Objetivando o desenvolvimento de novas metodologias de controle de fitonematóides, este trabalho buscou purificar as substâncias nematicidas produzidas por Cunninghamella elegans, Fusarium sp., Paecilomyces lilacinus eP. variotii. Esses fungos foram cultivados em meio líquido Czapek-Dox durante 15 dias, a 25 ºC, em agitador orbital. Em seguida, filtraram-se as misturas, o que permitiu a obtenção de soluções que foram concentradas sob vácuo e submetidas à purificação direcionada po...

Silva Geraldo, H.; Oliveira Denilson, F.; Campos Vicente, P.

2002-01-01

324

Effect of tillage system and irrigation on population densities of plant nematodes in field corn.  

Science.gov (United States)

Soil populations of plant-parasitic nematodes were monitored bimonthly for 18 months in irrigated and nonirrigated corn plantings using four production systems: conventional and minimum tillage with crop residue returned and minimum tillage with 60% or 90% of previous corn crop residue removed. Populations of Meloidogyne incognita, Scutellonema brachyurum, Pratylenchus scribneri, and Paratrichodorus christiei varied among the tillage, nematicide, and irrigation treatments. Meloidogyne incognita and P. christiei populations were not significantly affected by tillage method, but S. brachyurum populations were highest during April 1981 and 1982 in minimum tillage treatments where crop debris was not removed. In contrast, S. brachyurum populations were lowest during the same period in minimum tillage plots where 90% of previous crop debris had been removed or where residues were incorporated with conventional tillage. Populations of P. scribneri were lowest in minimum tillage during August 1981 and April 1982. Regardless of tillage system, corn yields in all nonirrigated plots were increased during 1982 by application of carbofuran (2.24 kg a.i./ha). No yield increases were observed following nematicide application in 1981. PMID:19294053

Fortnum, B A; Karlen, D L

1985-01-01

325

Nematode Population Changes and Forage Yields of Six Corn and Sorghum Cultivars  

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Two temperate corn (Zea mays) hybrids (Pioneer 3320 and Northrup King 508), two tropical corn cultivars (Pioneer X304C hybrid and Florida SYN-1 experimental open pollinated cultivar), the sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) x sudangrass (Sorghum sudanense) hybrid DeKalb SX-17, and the sorghum hybrid DeKalb FS25E were compared for effect on nematode densities and forage yield in three plantings (one single-crop and one double-crop system) in Florida. Final population densities of Meloidogyne incognita i...

Mcsorley, R.; Gallaher, R. N.

1991-01-01

326

Purificação de metabólitos fúngicos com efeitos tóxicos sobre Meloidogyne incognita Purification of fungal metabolites with toxic effects on Meloidogyne incognita  

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Objetivando o desenvolvimento de novas metodologias de controle de fitonematóides, este trabalho buscou purificar as substâncias nematicidas produzidas por Cunninghamella elegans, Fusarium sp., Paecilomyces lilacinus eP. variotii. Esses fungos foram cultivados em meio líquido Czapek-Dox durante 15 dias, a 25 ºC, em agitador orbital. Em seguida, filtraram-se as misturas, o que permitiu a obtenção de soluções que foram concentradas sob vácuo e submetidas à purificação direcionada po...

Silva, Geraldo H.; Oliveira, Denilson F.; Campos, Vicente P.

2002-01-01

327

Meloidogyne morocciensis n. sp. (Meloidogyninae), a Root-knot Nematode from Morocco  

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Meloidogyne morocciensis n. sp. is described from specimens parasitic on peach rootstock from Morocco. This species exhibits a combination of morphological characters similar to M. arenaria, M. incognita, and M. javanica. The perineal pattern of females is oval to squarish with a moderately high to high dorsal arch, and widely spaced, smooth striae; lateral lines are absent. The stylet, 16.5 ?m long, has transversely ovoid, set-off knobs. Males have a set-off, annulated head region. The larg...

Rammah, Abdallah; Hirschmann, Hedwig

1990-01-01

328

Host plants of root-knot nematodes / Algumas plantas hospedeiras de nematóides do gênero Meloidogyne  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Coletaram-se plantas do gênero Coffea e de diversas ervas daninhas, as quais foram examinadas em laboratório visando verificar a ocorrência de nematóides do gênero Meloidogyne Goeldi, 1887. As plantas parasitadas por M. exigua, M. incognita, M. arenaria e por uma espécie não identificada, referida c [...] omo Meloidogyne sp., são. apresentadas. Indicam-se os hospedeiros novos de alguns dos nematóides mencionados e confirma-se o parasitismo de outras plantas, nas condições estudadas. Abstract in english Root-knot nematodes were found attacking Coffea spp. and also roots of a few weed species usually found in the coffee orchards in São Paulo. C. arabica cv. Catuaí, C. arabica cv. Mundo Novo, Timor Hybrid and a few plants of C. racemosa showed to be susceptible to Meloidogyne exigua. Roots of Ageratu [...] m conyzoides, Amaranthus viridis, Bidens pilosa, Coffea arabica cv. Mundo Novo, Coffea racemosa, Commelina virginica, Digitaria sanguinalis, Galinsoga parviflora, Gnaphalium spathulatum, Porophyllum ruderale, Portulaca oleracea, Pterocaulon virgatum and Solanum americanum were disfigured by M. incognita M. arenaria was found attacking roots of Eleusine indica and Gnaphalium spathulatum, and the presence of an unidentified Meloidogyne species was verified in roots of the following species: Vernonia ferruginea, C. arabica x C. canephora, Eupatorium pauciflorum, Coffea canephora cv. Kouillou, Coffea eugenioides, Coffea racemosa, Coffea stenophylla, Euphorbia pilullifera, Solanum americanum, Ageratum conyzoides, Phyllanthus corcovadensis, and Emilia sagittata.

Luiz Gonzaga E., Lordello; Luiz Carlos, Fazuoli; Condorcet, Aranha; Rubens R.A., Lordello.

329

Characterization of acetylcholinesterase molecular forms of the root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne.  

Science.gov (United States)

Multiple molecular forms of acetylcholinesterase have been isolated and characterized from the root-knot nematodes Meloidogyne arenaria and Meloidogyne incognita. The forms of enzyme present in these 2 species are similar but not identical to those that occur in the free-living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. The 5 enzyme forms exhibit differential solubilities and can be classified into 3 classes, A, B, and C, based on substrate affinity, inhibitor and detergent sensitivity, and thermal inactivation profiles. An unusual class of acetylcholinesterase has been isolated from Meloidogyne which has very high affinity for acetylcholine, but is highly resistant to carbamate and organophosphate inhibitors. The potential roles of the molecular forms in nematode behavior and sensitivity to nematicides are discussed. PMID:1775164

Chang, S; Opperman, C H

1991-12-01

330

Efecto de diferentes densidades poblacionales de Meloidogyne hapla sobre uchuva (Physalis peruviana L.) en invernadero / Effect of different population densities of Meloidogyne hapla on the cape gooseberry (Physalis peruviana L.) in greenhouse  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Este estudio se realizó en el Centro de Investigaciones y Asesorías Agroindustriales de la Universidad de Bogotá Jorge Tadeo Lozano, Chía (Cundinamarca), bajo condiciones de invernadero, durante diez meses de cultivo. Se evaluó el efecto de diferentes densidades poblacionales de Meloidogyne hapla (0 [...] , 50, 100, 200, 500 y 1.000 larvas J2/100 cc de suelo), sobre parámetros productivos de la uchuva: altura de las plantas, diámetro de tallo, peso fresco, peso seco y biomasa de follaje, peso fresco de raíces, índice de nodulación radicular y peso fresco de frutos. Se hizo análisis de varianza, pruebas de contrastes y prueba de Tukey (?=0,05), en un diseño completamente aleatorio, con seis tratamientos y cinco repeticiones, mediante el programa SAS v.8.0. El tratamiento de 500 larvas J2/100 cc suelo fue el que más afectó la altura de las plantas, el diámetro del tallo, la biomasa de follaje, el peso fresco de raíces y presentó el índice de nodulación radical más alto. No se encontraron diferencias significativas entre los tratamientos inoculados con M. hapla, para peso fresco, peso seco de follaje y peso fresco de frutos, ni para el número de larvas J2 en suelo y masas de huevos. Mediante la ecuación: Y = m + (1-m)Z P-T propuesta por Seinhorst (1965), se estableció un límite de tolerancia de 50 larvas J2 de M. hapla/100 cc suelo, para peso fresco de raíces y un límite de tolerancia de 450 larvas J2 de M. hapla/100 cc suelo, para biomasa de follaje. Abstract in english A trial was conducted at the Center of Investigations and Agroindustrial Accessory of the University Jorge Tadeo Lozano, Chía (Cundinamarca) under greenhouse condition during ten months of cultivation. The effect of different population densities of M. hapla (0, 50, 100, 200, 500 and 1,000 larvae J2 [...] /100 cc soil) on productive parameters of the cape gooseberry, such as plant height, stem diameter, fresh and dry weights of leaves, fresh weight of roots, root nodulation index and weight of fruits in four harvests were evaluated. A variance analysis, contrasts test and Tukey test, within a randomized design with six treatments, and five repetitions was done within SAS v.8.0 program. It was determined that a treatment 500 larvae J2/100 cc soil had the highest effect on the plant height, stem diameter, leaf biomass and fresh weight of roots, besides it showed the highest root nodulation index. There were no significant differences found among the treatments for fresh weight and dry weight of leaves and fruits weight. For J2 larvae’s number in soil and eggs mass, the differences among the treatments inoculated with M. hapla were not found. A tolerance limit of 50 larvas J2/l00 cc soil was derived from fitting the data of root fresh weight and a tolerance limit of 450 larvas J2/l00 cc soil from data of biomass using the equation Y=m+(1-m)Z P-T proposed by Seinhorst (1965).

Nancy Eunice, Niño; Germán, Arbeláez; Rafael, Navarro.

2008-04-30

331

Efeito da Incorporação de Folhas de Nim ao Solo sobre o Complexo Fusarium x Meloidogyne em Quiabeiro Effect of amendment of soil with neem leaf on Fusarium x Meloidogyne on okra  

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O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito da incorporação de folhas frescas de nim (Azadirachta indica) ao solo, sobre o complexo Fusarium x Meloidogyne em quiabeiro (Abelmoschus esculentum) em um experimento realizado em condições de casa de vegetação. Os tratamentos constaram da adição de 25g ou 50g de folhas trituradas/kg de solo previamente autoclavado e inoculado com M. incognita, Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum, juntos e isoladamente, contidos em vasos com capacidade ...

Gilson Soares da Silva; Aurenice Lucena Pereira

2008-01-01

332

Phylogenetic Analyses of Meloidogyne Small Subunit rDNA.  

Science.gov (United States)

Phylogenies were inferred from nearly complete small subunit (SSU) 18S rDNA sequences of 12 species of Meloidogyne and 4 outgroup taxa (Globodera pallida, Nacobbus abberans, Subanguina radicicola, and Zygotylenchus guevarai). Alignments were generated manually from a secondary structure model, and computationally using ClustalX and Treealign. Trees were constructed using distance, parsimony, and likelihood algorithms in PAUP* 4.0b4a. Obtained tree topologies were stable across algorithms and alignments, supporting 3 clades: clade I = [M. incognita (M. javanica, M. arenaria)]; clade II = M. duytsi and M. maritima in an unresolved trichotomy with (M. hapla, M. microtyla); and clade III = (M. exigua (M. graminicola, M. chitwoodi)). Monophyly of [(clade I, clade II) clade III] was given maximal bootstrap support (mbs). M. artiellia was always a sister taxon to this joint clade, while M. ichinohei was consistently placed with mbs as a basal taxon within the genus. Affinities with the outgroup taxa remain unclear, although G. pallida and S. radicicola were never placed as closest relatives of Meloidogyne. Our results show that SSU sequence data are useful in addressing deeper phylogeny within Meloidogyne, and that both M. ichinohei and M. artiellia are credible outgroups for phylogenetic analysis of speciations among the major species. PMID:19265950

De Ley, Irma Tandingan; De Ley, Paul; Vierstraete, Andy; Karssen, Gerrit; Moens, Maurice; Vanfleteren, Jacques

2002-12-01

333

Pathogenic Variability Among Isolates of Meloidogyne javanica on Capsicum annum  

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Meloidogyne javanica isolates were collected from nine districts of Uttar Pradesh. These isolates showed pathogenic variability when inoculated on the pepper cultivars California Wonder and Suryamukhi Green. Meloidogyne javanica that infected Suryamukhi Green but not California Wonder were designated as pepper race 1 and the populations that infected both the cultivars were designated pepper race 2. Race 1 was more frequent than race 2 in Almora, Pauri Garhwal, Basti, Gorakhpur, and Deoria, w...

Khan, B.; Khan, A. A.; Khan, M. R.

2003-01-01

334

Enhanced Synthesis of Antioxidant Enzymes, Defense Proteins and Leghemoglobin in Rhizobium-Free Cowpea Roots after Challenging with Meloydogine incognita  

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Full Text Available The root knot nematodes (RKN, Meloydogine spp., particularly Meloidogyne incognita and Meloidogyne javanica species, parasitize several plant species and are responsible for large annual yield losses all over the world. Only a few available chemical nematicides are still authorized for RKN control owing to environmental and health reasons. Thus, plant resistance is currently considered the method of choice for controlling RKN, and research performed on the molecular interactions between plants and nematodes to identify genes of interest is of paramount importance. The present work aimed to identify the differential accumulation of root proteins of a resistant cowpea genotype (CE-31 inoculated with M. incognita (Race 3 in comparison with mock-inoculated control, using 2D electrophoresis assay, mass spectrometry identification and gene expression analyses by RT-PCR. The results showed that at least 22 proteins were differentially represented in response to RKN challenge of cowpea roots mainly within 4–6 days after inoculation. Amongst the up-represented proteins were SOD, APX, PR-1, ?-1,3-glucanase, chitinases, cysteine protease, secondary metabolism enzymes, key enzymes involved in ethylene biosynthesis, proteins involved in MAPK pathway signaling and, surprisingly, leghemoglobin in non-rhizobium-bacterized cowpea. These findings show that an important rearrangement in the resistant cowpea root proteome occurred following challenge with M. incognita.

Jose T. A. Oliveira

2014-11-01

335

Effects of Root Decay on the Relationship between Meloidogyne spp. Gall Index and Egg Mass Number in Cucumber and Horned Cucumber  

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A greenhouse study was conducted to determine if root necrosis had an effect on the relationship between root-knot nematode gall index and egg mass number. Thirty-four cultigens of Cucumis (14 accessions, 12 cultivars, and six breeding lines of C. sativus, and two accessions of C. metuliferus) were evaluated against four root-knot species (Meloidogyne arenaria race 2, M. incognita race 1, M. incognita race 3, and M. javanica) measuring gall index, root necrosis, and egg mass number. Root necr...

Walters, S. Alan; Wehner, Todd C.; Barker, Kenneth R.

1992-01-01

336

Evolution of the AT-rich mitochondrial DNA of the root knot nematode, Meloidogyne hapla.  

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Mitochondrial DNA of the root knot nematode Meloidogyne hapla was investigated for intraspecific diversity and divergence from other parthenogenetic root knot nematodes. A 1,900-bp fragment containing COII, tRNAHis, 16S rRNA, ND3 and Cyt b genes has been cloned and sequenced from one individual and an 1,188-bp region within this region was sequenced from four other Australian isolates. M. hapla mtDNA is more than 80% AT-rich, like other Meloidogyne spp. Nucleotide diversity within M. hapla is some 10-fold higher than across three other parthenogenetic species of root-knot nematode (M. arenaria, M. javanica, and M. incognita), implying an earlier origin for M. hapla. Nucleotide divergence between M. hapla and its congener M. javanica is as great as that between Ascaris suum and Caenorhabditis elegans, members of different nematode subclasses, while amino acid sequence difference between Meloidogyne is more than twice as great. This is interpreted as an AT-bias-induced acceleration of the amino acid substitution rate, over and above saturation of nucleotide divergence in the strongly AT-biased DNA, on three lines of evidence: (1) in conserved blocks in 16S rDNA congeneric Meloidogyne have no more differences than between A. suum and C. elegans; (2) the Meloidogyne lineage has more amino acid changes relative to the Ascaris/Caenorhabditis lineage with respect to four of five outgroups, the exceptional outgroup being the only species (Apis) as AT-rich as Meloidogyne; and (3) between the two Meloidogyne there are more first and second but fewer third codon position changes than between the other nematode species. M. hapla is also found to contain a 102-bp tandem repeat of at least 40 copies; a size, arrangement, and position the same as in M. javanica, but sequence comparisons did not demonstrate homology between the two repeats. PMID:9000752

Hugall, A; Stanton, J; Moritz, C

1997-01-01

337

Occurrence of the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne arenaria on balm and in a mixed population with M. javanica on grapevine in Greece  

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Summary The root-knot nematode Meloidogyne arenaria was found in Greece infecting balm (Melissa officinalis L.) and grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.). The isolate from balm was M. arenaria while the one from grapevine was a mixture of M. arenaria and M. javanica (prevalent species). This is the first report of the M. arenaria species in the country in which identification was based on biochemical methods and its occurrence on balm is a new host record.

Karanastasi, E.; Conceic?a?o, I. Da; Santos, M. Dos; Tzortzakakis, E.; Abrantes, I. O.

2008-01-01

338

Efeito de diferentes lâminas de irrigação sobre a população de meloidogyne javanica e a produtividade de bananeira no norte de minas gerais Effect of different levels of irrigation on population of meloidogyne javanica and banana productivity in north of minas gerais  

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Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar o efeito de diferentes lâminas de irrigação (100; 125; 150 e 175%, determinadas pela evapotranspiração de referência do tanque classe A, sobre a população de Meloidogyne javanica no solo, e sobre a produtividade e número de dias necessários para a floração e a colheita da bananeira Prata-Anã, no norte de Minas Gerais. Verificou-se que o número de juvenis de segundo estádio de M. javanica aumentou com o aumento das lâminas de irrigação com pico máximo em 118% da evapotranspiração do tanque classe A (ETtca e que as lâminas de 125; 150 e 175% da ETtca proporcionaram produtividade da bananeira (kg ha -1 significativamente superior à lâmina de 100 %. No entanto, não afetou o número de dias para a floração e para a colheita da bananeira.The present work aimed to assess in the field the effect of irrigation different levels (100%, 125%, 150% and 175% determined by evapotranspiration from the tank class A (ETtca, on the population of Meloidogyne javanica in the soil, banana productivity and number of days needs for flowering and yield of Prata-Anã cultivar of banana on the North of Minas Gerais state, Brazil. The number of second stage juveniles of M. javanica increased reaching the maximum J2 level at 118% of ETtca. The irrigation levels, 125, 150 and 175% ETtca increased the banana productity in kg/ha-1 significantly as compared to 100% level. However, no effect was observed on the number of days for flowering and for harvesting of Prata-Anã banana.

Regina Cássia Ferreira Ribeiro

2009-03-01

339

Mode of Parasitism of Meloidogyne and Other Nemaiode Eggs by Dactylella oviparasitica.  

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Hyphae of Dactylella oviparasitica proliferated rapidly through MeIoidogyne egg masses, and appressoria formed when they contacted eggs. The fungus probably penetrated egg shells mechanically, although chitinase production detected in culture suggested that enzymatic penetration was also possible. In soil, D. oviparasitica invaded egg masses soon after they were deposited on the root surface and eventually parasitized most of the first eggs laid. Occasionally the fungus grew into Meloidogyne females, halting egg production prematurely. The fungus parasitized eggs in the gelatinous matrix or eggs freed from the matrix and placed on agar or in soil. Specificity in nematode egg parasitism was not displayed, for D. oviparasitica parasitized eggs of four Meloidogyne spp., Acrobeloides sp., Heterodera schachtii, and Tylenchulus semipenetrans. In tests in a growth chamber, parasitism by D. oviparasitica suppressed galling on M. incognita-infected tomato plants. PMID:19300648

Stirling, G R; Mankau, R

1979-07-01

340

Cuticle heterogeneity as exhibited by Pasteuria spore attachment is not linked to the phylogeny of parthenogenetic root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp.).  

Science.gov (United States)

The cuticle is a major barrier prohibiting the infection of nematodes against micro-organisms. The attachment of bacterial spores of the nematode hyperparasite Pasteuria penetrans (PP1) to field populations of root-knot nematodes (RKN, Meloidogyne spp.) from Burkino Faso, Ecuador, Greece, Malawi, Senegal and Trinidad and Tobago were assayed in standard attachment tests. The attachment of spore population PP1 to different field populations of root-knot nematode showed that the rates of attachment differed between countries. Similar tests were also undertaken on P. penetrans spores from these countries against 2 species of RKN, M. incognita and M. arenaria. The results showed a high degree of variability in spore attachment with no clear distinction between the 2 species of nematode. It has been hypothesized that Pasteuria spore attachment is linked to nematode species designations and this study clearly shows that this is not the case. Further tests showed that variation in spore attachment was not linked to nematode phylogeny. The results therefore beg the question of how do parthenogenetic root-knot nematodes maintain cuticle variability in the face of such an aggressive hyperparasite. PMID:11197759

Davies, K G; Fargette, M; Balla, G; Daud, A I; Duponnois, R; Gowen, S R; Mateille, T; Phillips, M S; Sawadogo, A; Trivino, C; Vouyoukalou, E; Trudgill, D L

2001-01-01

 
 
 
 
341

Morphological and Molecular Characterization of a New Root-Knot Nematode, Meloidogyne thailandica n. sp. (Nematoda: Meloidogynidae), Parasitizing Ginger (Zingiber sp.)  

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A root-knot nematode Meloidogyne thailandica n. sp. was discovered on roots of ginger (Zingiber spp.) intercepted from Thailand in October 2002 by the U.S. Department of Agriculture Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service at the port of San Francisco. Comparison by light microscopy (LM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to five other morphologically related species (M. incognita, M. arenaria, M. microcephala, M. megatyla, and M. enterolobii) revealed that the new species differs from ...

Handoo, Z. A.; Skantar, A. M.; Carta, L. K.; Erbe, E. F.

2005-01-01

342

Morphological, molecular, and differential-host characterization of Meloidogyne floridensis n. sp (Nematoda : Meloidogynidae), a root-knot nematode parasitizing peach in Florida  

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A root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne floridensis n. sp., is described and illustrated from peach originally collected from Gainesville, Florida. This new species resembles M. incognita, M. christiei, M. graminicola, and M. hispanica, but with LM and SEM observations it differs from these species either by the body length, shape of head, tail and tail terminus of second-stage juveniles, body length and shape of spicules in males, and its distinctive female perineal pattern. This pattern has a hig...

Handoo, Z. A.; Nyczepir, A. P.; Esmenjaud, D.; Beek, J. G.; Castagnone-sereno, P.; Carta, L. K.; Skantar, A. M.; Higgins, J. A.

2004-01-01

343

Morphological, Molecular, and Differential-Host Characterization of Meloidogyne floridensis n. sp. (Nematoda: Meloidogynidae), a Root-Knot Nematode Parasitizing Peach in Florida  

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A root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne floridensis n. sp., is described and illustrated from peach originally collected from Gainesville, Florida. This new species resembles M. incognita, M. christiei, M. graminicola, and M. hispanica, but with LM and SEM observations it differs from these species either by the body length, shape of head, tail and tail terminus of second-stage juveniles, body length and shape of spicules in males, and its distinctive female perineal pattern. This pattern has a hig...

Handoo, Z. A.; Nyczepir, A. P.; Esmenjaud, D.; Beek, J. G.; Castagnone-sereno, P.; Carta, L. K.; Skantar, A. M.; Higgins, J. A.

2004-01-01

344

Velvetbean and Bahiagrass as Rotation Crops for Management of Meloidogyne spp. and Heterodera glycines in Soybean  

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Soybean (Glycine max) yield often is limited by the phytoparasitic nematodes Meloidogyne spp. and Heterodera glycines in the southeastern United States. We studied the effects of rotation with bahiagrass (Paspalum notatum), velvetbean (Mucuna pruiens), or continuous soybean, aldicarb, and soybean cultivar on yield and population densities in two fields infested with a mixture of Meloidogyne spp. and H. glycines. Velvetbean and bahiagrass reduced population levels of both nematode species to n...

Weaver, D. B.; Rodri?guez-ka?bana, R.; Carden, E. L.

1998-01-01

345

Further Details and SEM Observations on Meloidogyne marylandi (Nematoda: Meloidogynidae)  

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Specimens of Meloidogyne marylandi from Bermuda grass and a population from Zoysia grass were examined and compared morphologically by light and electron microscopy. The populations probably are conspecific and the differences noted in the Zoysia population, mainly those of second-stage juveniles (J2) with shorter tails, are considered normal variations rather than representing another form. Scanning electron microscope observations provided additional details of the perineal pattern and head...

Golden, A. Morgan

1989-01-01

346

Susceptibilidad de genotipos de Solanum spp. al nematodo causante del nudo radical Meloidogyne spp. (chitwood  

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Full Text Available

El cultivo del lulo (Solanum quitoense L. presenta una disminución en su productividad, debido al ataque de patógenos como el nematodo del nudo radical Meloidogyne  spp., en el Departamento  de Nariño (Colombia, se han reportado incidencias cercanas al 79%, y pérdidas del 50%.   En la presente investigación, se colectaron 45 genotipos de (Solanum quitoense  L. en los Departamentos  de Nariño  y Putumayo  y 4 genotipos  silvestres  (S. mammosum, S. hirtum,       S. marginatum  y S. umbellatum buscando fuentes de resistencia al nematodo. Se inocularon 9 plantas de cada genotipo de dos meses de edad con 10000 huevos de Meloidogyne spp., dejando tres testigos por cada material. Las variables evaluadas fueron: altura de planta, severidad, incidencia, peso fresco (tallo y raíz y especies prevalentes de Meloidogyne spp. Se hizo una clasificación de genotipos mediante escala de resistencia y regresión entre la severidad y las demás variables para establecer el efecto de Meloidogyne spp. sobre los genotipos de planta. Los resultados mostraron 100% de incidencia del nematodo en  todos  los  genotipos,  2.04%  genotipos  resistentes,  34.7%  moderadamente  resistentes, 42.8% moderadamente susceptibles, 18.3% susceptibles, y 2.04% altamente susceptibles. El genotipo SQbr05 resistente, no se vio afectado por la severidad, al contrario SQbc04 genotipo susceptible, mostró reducciones significativas en peso fresco de tallo y raIz, (R2 = 0.71 y 0.98,el genotipo silvestre (S. mammosum es altamente susceptible, Meloidogyne incognita presentó 55.31% de presencia. El genotipo SQbr05 es promisorio para ser evaluado en campo.

Gelpud Chaves Cristian

2011-03-01

347

Esterase Polymorphism in Meloidogyne konaensis  

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The continual detection of a slow (I1) esterase band in greenhouse cultures of Meloidogyne konaensis isolated from the field led to a hypothesis that the nematode may be polymorphic for esterase. A survey of coffee fields demonstrated at least four esterase phenotypes were present in Meloidogyne recovered. An F1 phenotype predominated (60% of the females), but an I1 phenotype was also common (30% of samples). A series of greenhouse and laboratory experiments were undertaken to understand this...

Sipes, B. S.; Schmitt, D. P.; Xu, K.; Serracin, M.