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Sample records for meloidogyne incognita population

  1. Susceptibility in crops varieties to a population of Meloidogyne incognita (Nematoda: Meloidogynidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther Calvo

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Thirteen varieties belonging to different crops were tested for resistance to one population of Meloido-gyne incognita. Ten of them were highly susceptible, two moderately susceptible and another one was resistant.

  2. Molecular Comparison of Iranian Populations of Meloidogyne javanica and Meloidogyne incognita with PCR-RFLP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mohammadi

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available To carry out this study, total DNA was extracted from eggs and from second stage juveniles of several populations of Meloidogyne javanica and Meloidogyne incognita, using phenol / chloroform method. Following extraction, DNA was electrophoresed on 1% agarose gel to determine its quality and quantity. A specific primer pair (C2F3 / 1108; 23 and 20 nucleotides, respectively was used to discriminate M. javanica from M. incognita populations using polymerase chain reaction (PCR. Primer annealing sites were located in the 3? portion of mitochondrial gene encoding cytochrome oxidase subunit II (COII and in the 16S rRNA gene. Following PCR amplification, electrophoresis of amplified DNA showed 1.7 kb fragment in populations of both species. Digestion of 1.7 kb amplified product with HinfI restriction endonuclease resulted in the generation of two DNA fragments of 0.7 and 1.0 kb in M. javanica and three DNA fragments of 0.3, 0.4 and 1.0 kb in M. incognita. There were no differences in the digestion patterns among various populations of each species examined.

  3. Characteristics of mixed Meloidogyne arenaria and M. incognita populations in flue-cured tobacco

    OpenAIRE

    Baum, T.J.; Fortnum, B.A.; Lewis, S. A.

    1995-01-01

    Des expériences en champ ont été poursuivies pendant deux ans afin de caractériser l'association de #Meloidogyne arenaria$ race 2 (populations Pelion et Govan) et de #M. incognita$ race 3 sur des plants de tabac résistant à #M. incognita$ races 1 et 3 ainsi que sur des plants de tabac sensible aux deux espèces. A été également étudié l'effet potentiel de l'infestation par #M. arenaria$ sur la résistance de l'hôte à #M. incognita$ races 1 et 3. L'identité spécifique des #Meloidogyne$ a été éta...

  4. Population Dynamics of Meloidogyne incognita on Corn Grown in Soil in Fested with Arthrobotrys conoides

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Hazmi, A. S.; Schmitt, D.P.; Sasser, J. N.

    1982-01-01

    Microplot and greenhouse experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of soil incorporation of the nematophagous fungus Arthrobotrys conoides and green alfalfa mulch on the population dynamics of Meloidogyne incognita on corn. Reproduction of M. incognita and the incidence of root galling were reduced by the addition of A. conoides and/or green alfalfa in all tests. Numbers of juveniles were reduced by as much as 84%, and eggs were fewest in early to mid-season soil samples from micropl...

  5. Predicting Damage of Meloidogyne incognita on Watermelon

    OpenAIRE

    Xing, Lijuan; Westphal, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    Quantitative growth response of watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) sensitive to Meloidogyne incognita is poorly understood. Determination of soil population densities of second-stage juveniles (J2) of M. incognita with Baermann funnel extraction often is inaccurate at low soil temperatures. In greenhouse experiments, three sandy soils were inoculated with dilution series of population densities of eggs or J2 of M. incognita and planted in small containers to watermelon ‘Royal Sweet’ or subjected ...

  6. INTERACCIÓN ENTRE EL ECOMIC® Y UNA POBLACIÓN CUBANA DE Meloidogyne incognita EN TOMATE / INTERACTION BETWEEN ECOMIC® AND A CUBAN POPULATION OF Meloidogyne incognita IN TOMATO

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Lucila, Gómez; MayraG, Rodríguez; Blanca, de la Noval; Miranda, Ileana; M.A, Hernández.

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available El estudio de tácticas para el manejo de los nematodos agalleros en la producción protegida de hortalizas en Cuba, se ha incrementado en los últimos años. El objetivo del trabajo fue determinar la interacción entre el ECOMICâ, producto a base de hongos formadores de micorrizas arbusculares, y una po [...] blación cubana de Meloidogyne incognita en el tomate (Lycopersicon esculentum. Mill var. Vyta). El experimento se desarrolló en los aisladores biológicos del CENSA empleando un diseño completamente aleatorio. Se emplearon dos formas de inoculación del ECOMICâ: peletización de la semilla e incorporación al sustrato para semilleros (1.5 g del producto/alveolo de cepellón). La dosis de nematodos fue de 1.5 huevos-J2. g suelo-1. Se evaluó el índice de agallamiento (IA), el número de juveniles infectivos (J2) en suelo y peso del sistema radical. La evaluación de la simbiosis micorrícica comprendió el porcentaje de colonización, densidad visual y peso del endófito. Se demostró que la aplicación de ECOMICâen la rizosfera del tomate favoreció el desarrollo de la raíz aparejado con un alto número de agallas (IA=4). En el control el desarrollo de la raíz fue menor con un IA=5. Se observó una disminución de los J2 en el suelo de las plantas micorrizadas. El establecimiento de la simbiosis micorrícica no se afectó por el desarrollo del nematodo. Abstract in english The study of tactics for the root-knot nematode management in vegetable production under crop protected systems has been increased in Cuba in the last decade. The main goal of this work was to assess the relationship of ECOMIC®, a commercial product containing several mycorrhizal fungi, and a Cuban [...] population of Meloidogyne incognita in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill var. Vyta). The experiment was carried out in a green house at CENSA using a completely randomized design. ECOMICâ was inoculated by seed pelleting or mixed with the seedbed substrate. The nematode dose used was 1.5 egg-J2. g soil-1. Gall index, infective juveniles in soil and root weight were evaluated. The percentage of colonization, the visual density and the mycellial weight were also estimated. ECOMICâ was shown to benefit root development despite the high value of the gall index (GI=4) in the inoculated plants. Root development was lower in the untreated plants with a GI=5. A decreased number of infective juveniles was observed in the soil with mycorrhized plants. The micorrhizal colonization was not affected by nematode establishment.

  7. Mitochondrial DNA length variation in Meloidogyne incognita isolates of established genetic relationships : utility for nematode population studies

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    Whipple, L. E.; Lunt, D.H.; Hyman, B C

    1998-01-01

    Six isolats de #Meloidogyne incognita$, dont les relations génétiques ont été précédemment établies, sont utilisés pour tester l'utilité d'une "répétition de tandems en nombre variable" (VNTR) d'une valeur de 63 paires de bases mitochondriales comme marqueurs en vue d'étude de populations. La réaction en chaîne de polymérase (PCR) est utilisée pour amplifier ce locus et mesurer le nombre de copies et la fréquence des allèles des VNTR à 63 paires de bases. Les individus du nématode sont typiqu...

  8. Predicting Damage of Meloidogyne incognita on Watermelon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Lijuan; Westphal, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    Quantitative growth response of watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) sensitive to Meloidogyne incognita is poorly understood. Determination of soil population densities of second-stage juveniles (J2) of M. incognita with Baermann funnel extraction often is inaccurate at low soil temperatures. In greenhouse experiments, three sandy soils were inoculated with dilution series of population densities of eggs or J2 of M. incognita and planted in small containers to watermelon ‘Royal Sweet’ or subjected to Baermann funnel extraction. After five weeks of incubation in the greenhouse bioassay plants in egg-inoculated soils, gall numbers on watermelon roots related more closely to inoculated population densities than J2 counts after Baermann funnel extraction. In April 2004, perpendicularly-inserted tubes (45-cm diameter, 55-cm deep) served as microplots where two methyl bromide-fumigated sandy soils were inoculated with egg suspensions of M. incognita at 0, 100, 1,000 or 10,000 eggs/100 cm3 of soil in 15-cm depth. At transplanting of 4-week old watermelon seedlings, soils were sampled for the bioassay or for extraction of J2 by Baermann funnel. In the Seinhorst function of harvested biomass in relation to nematode numbers, decline of biomass with increasing population densities of M. incognita was accurately modeled by the inoculated eggs (R2 = 0.93) and by the counts of galls on the bioassay roots (R2 = 0.98); but poorly by J2 counts (R2 = 0.68). Threshold levels of watermelon top dry weight to M. incognita were 122 eggs/100 cm3 soil, 1.6 galls on bioassay roots, or 3.6 J2/100 cm3 of soil. Using the bioassay in early spring for predicting risk of nematode damage appeared useful in integrated pest management systems of watermelon. PMID:23482631

  9. Extraction of Root-associated Meloidogyne incognita and Rotylenchulus reniformis

    OpenAIRE

    Stetina, S. R.; McGawley, E. C.; Russin, J. S.

    1997-01-01

    A technique based on physical maceration of root tissue was developed to extract vermiform and swollen stages of Meloidogyne incognita and Rotylenchulus reniformis. Experiments conducted on soybean and tomato evaluated the efficiency of method (stir, grind), NaOC1 concentration (0%, 0.5%), and duration (lx, 2x) on extraction of nematodes and eggs from 60-day-old populations. Root-associated populations of R. reniformis were considerably lower than those of M. incognita, so development of the ...

  10. Characterization of Meloidogyne incognita populations from São Paulo and Minas Gerais state and their pathogenicity on coffee plants / Caracterização de populações de Meloidogyne incognita de São Paulo e Minas Gerais e sua patogenicidade em cafeeiro

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Dagoberto S., Oliveira; Rosângela D' Arc Lima, Oliveira; Débora G., Silva; Rodrigo V., Silva.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available No Brasil, Meloidogyne incognita é considerado um dos fitonematóides mais agressivos e prejudiciais ao cafeeiro. Entretanto, populações desse nematóide, presentes em Minas Gerais, são incapazes de infectar esse hospedeiro. O objetivo deste trabalho foi caracterizar e avaliar a penetração e o desenvo [...] lvimento pós-infectivo de populações de M. incognita que diferem quanto à capacidade de infectar o cafeeiro. As duas populações foram confirmadas como M. incognita pelo fenótipo isoenzimático de esterase, I1, e PCR específico. Foram classificadas como raça 2 pela reação dos hospedeiros diferenciadores. Mudas de cafeeiro suscetível e resistente foram inoculadas com juvenis de segundo estádio (J2) de cada população e avaliadas quanto à penetração e desenvolvimento do nematóide a partir do segundo até o quadragésimo dia após a inoculação. A penetração de J2 da população de M. incognita de São Paulo foi maior do que a da população de Minas Gerais, tanto em cafeeiro suscetível (C. arabica 'Catuaí Vermelho IAC 44') quanto resistente (C. canephora 'Apoatã IAC 2258'). Como esperado, ocorreu maior penetração de J2 das duas populações de M. incognita no cafeeiro suscetível. Nas avaliações posteriores, somente foi observado desenvolvimento pós-infectivo nos indivíduos pertencentes à população de M. incognita de São Paulo em cafeeiro suscetível. Os mecanismos que conferiram incompatibilidade entre as populações de M. incognita de Minas Gerais e o cafeeiro atuaram principalmente na fase de penetração, mas também foi acompanhada pela ação de fatores de resistência pós-penetração que ocasionaram uma significativa emigração de J2 e impediram o estabelecimento do nematóide. Abstract in english Meloidogyne incognita is one of the most aggressive and harmful plant-parasitic nematodes attacking coffee plantations in Brazil. However, populations from Minas Gerais state (MG) do not incite disease on coffee plants as strongly as populations from São Paulo state (SP). This study aimed to compare [...] the capacity to incite disease on coffee plants from SP and MG-populations based on penetration and post-infective development of second-stage juveniles (J2) stage. Both populations were confirmed as M. incognita by using esterase phenotype I1 and species-specific PCR. Physiologically they were classified as race 2 by differential host test. Susceptible (C. arabica 'Catuaí Vermelho IAC 44') and resistant coffee seedlings (C. canephora 'Apoatã IAC 2258') were inoculated with J2 and assessed for penetration and development from 2nd to 40th day after inoculation. Although the penetration rate of the J2 from both populations was higher in susceptible than in resistant seedlings, the SP-population showed a higher penetration than the MG-population for both variables. Post-infective development proceeded only in individuals of the SP-population in susceptible seedlings. The incompatibility between the MG-population and coffee seedlings was evident at the penetration phase, which was also followed by post-penetration resistance factors leading to significant J2 emigration, impeding nematode establishment.

  11. Reação de crisântemos a Meloidogyne incognita, Meloidogyne javanica e Meloidogyne enterolobii / Chrysanthemum reaction to Meloidogyne incognita, Meloidogyne javanica and Meloidogyne enterolobii

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Lucivane Aparecida, Gonçalves; Andressa Lima de, Brida; Maria de Fátima Almeida, Silva; Cezar, Bueno Junior; Silvia Renata Siciliano, Wilcken.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a resistência de 14 variedades de crisântemos aos nematoides Meloidogyne incognita, M. javanica e M. enterolobii. O experimento foi conduzido em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, constando de 15 tratamentos e 4 repetições, por espécie de nematoide. Cada [...] parcela foi constituída por uma planta por vaso, mantidas em casa de vegetação e inoculadas com 5.000 ovos e eventuais juvenis de M. incognita, M. javanica e M. enterolobii. Após 60 dias, os índices de massas de ovos, número de nematoides por grama de raiz e o fator de reprodução foram avaliados. As variedades apresentaram imunidade a M. incognita, M. javanica e M. enterolobii, exceto 'Capello Vermelho' e 'White Reagon', que foram respectivamente suscetível e resistente a M. incognita. Abstract in english This study aimed to evaluate the resistance of 14 chrysanthemum varieties to the nematodes Meloidogyne incognita, M. javanica and M. enterolobii. The experiment was conducted in a completely randomized design, consisting of 15 treatments and 4 replicates per nematode species. Each plot was constitut [...] ed of one plant per pot; plants were kept in a greenhouse and inoculated with 5,000 eggs and possible juveniles of M. incognita, M. javanica and M. enterolobii. After 60 days, the rates of egg masses, the number of nematodes per gram of root and the reproduction factor were evaluated. The varieties showed immunity to M. incognita, M. javanica and M. enterolobii, except 'Capello Vermelho' and 'White Reagon', which were susceptible and resistant, respectively, to M. incognita.

  12. Virulence of Meloidogyne incognita to expression of N gene in pepper

    OpenAIRE

    Thies, Judy A.

    2011-01-01

    Four pepper genotypes classified as resistant and four pepper genotypes classified as susceptible to several avirulent populations of M. incognita were compared for their reactions against a population of Meloidogyne incognita (Chitwood) Kofoid and White which had been shown to be virulent to resistant bell pepper (Capsicum annuum) in preliminary tests. The virulent population of M. incognita originated from a commercial bell pepper field in California. The resistant pepper genotypes used in ...

  13. Development of Meloidogyne incognita Inhibited by Digtaria decumbens cv. Pangola

    OpenAIRE

    Haroon, Sanaa; Smart, Grover C.

    1983-01-01

    Population densities of the root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita, were lower after 90 days in soil planted to digitgrass (Digitaria decumbens cv. Pangola) than in soil left fallow or planted to tomato. Roots of tomato seedlings interplanted with Pangola digitgrass were less galled than were roots of tomato seedlings planted alone. Fewer second stage larvae invaded roots of Pangola digitgrass than tomato and those that entered the grass roots failed to develop beyond the late second stage.

  14. Dynamics of damage to tomato by Meloidogyne incognita

    OpenAIRE

    Ehwaeti, M.E.; Phillips, M. S.; Trudgill, D.L.

    1998-01-01

    Les dommages causés par #Meloidogyne incognita$ à des tomates cv. Moneymaker poussant dans des pots de grande tailles (3,65 kg de sol sec) ont été mis en relation avec la densité initiale de la population du mématode (Pi). Les dommages sont estimés après 42 et 135 jours de culture ; seule la Pi la plus élevée (20 oeufs viables/g de sol) cause une diminution statistiquement significative de la croissance aux deux dates de récolte. Après 135 jours, la croissance est également significativement ...

  15. Evaluation of Asteraceae Plants for Control of Meloidogyne incognita

    OpenAIRE

    Tsay, T. T.; Wu, S. T.; Lin, Y. Y.

    2004-01-01

    Of the 56 species and 43 genera of Asteraceae tested, 9 were highly resistant or immune to Meloidogyne incognita and did not form root galls. Twenty-six species and six cultivars had 25% or fewer roots galled and were considered moderately resistant to M. incognita. Pre-planting Cosmos bipinnatus (F190), Gaillardia pulchella, Tagetes erecta, Tithonia diversifolia, or Zinnia elegans (F645) reduced root galling and M. incognita J2 in and around Ipomoea reptans. Amendment of soils with roots, st...

  16. Elementos del ciclo de vida de población cubana de Meloidogyne incognita (Kofoid y White) Chitwood en Solanum lycopersicum L. / Life cycle elements of a Cuban population Meloidogyne incognita (Kofoid and White) in Solanum lycopersicum L.

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Dainé, Hernández-Ochandía; Yailén, Arias; Lucila, Gómez; Belkis, Peteira; Ileana, Miranda; Mayra G, Rodríguez.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available El experimento se desarrolló en condiciones semicontroladas, en aisladores biológicos (18-21ºC), con el objetivo de determinar la duración del ciclo de vida de Meloidogyne incognita (Kofoid y White) Chitwood y la producción de huevos por hembras adultas en las primeras 96h en tomate (Solanum lycoper [...] sicum L.). Plantas de unos 15cm de altura se trasplantaron a macetas y una semana después se inocularon 2500±5 J2 de M. incognita raza 2. A las 72 horas se retiraron y plantaron en macetas con suelo estéril. El sistema radical fue extraído seis días post-inoculación para observar los diferentes estadios. La temperatura media en el período del estudio fue de 18-21ºC. Tres plantas fueron extraídas diariamente y se detuvo la extracción 96h después de haberse observado las primeras hembras adultas con huevos en la matriz gelatinosa. Entre 7 y 10 días posteriores a la inoculación, las raíces del tomate mostraron zonas hinchadas, indicativo de la entrada de los juveniles y de su alimentación. El ciclo de vida, desde J2 a hembra con matriz gelatinosa y huevos fue de 24 días. Las hembras en las primeras 24 horas depositaron más de 50 huevos en las matrices y a las 96h, tenían como promedio más de 100 huevos cada una. Abstract in english The experiment was carried out under semi controlled conditions in biological insulators (18-21ºC), with the objective of determining the duration of the life cycle of Meloidogyne incognita (Kofoid & White) Chitwood and the egg production of the adult females on tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) in t [...] he first 96h. Plants with about 15cm of height were transplanted to pots and, a week later, inoculated with 2500 ±5 J2 of M. incognita race 2. At 72 hours, they were removed and planted in pots with sterile soil. The root system was drawn out six days after inoculation to observe the different stages. The average temperature during the study was 18 to 21ºC. Three plants were removed and the daily extraction was stopped 96 h after the first adult females with eggs in the gelatinous matrix were observed. Between 7 and 10 days after inoculation, the roots of tomato showed swollen areas, indicative of the entrance of the juveniles and their feeding. The life cycle from J2 to female eggs with gelatinous matrix was 24 days. In the first 24 hours, the females deposited over 50 eggs in the wombs, and at 96h, each of them had an average of eggs higher than 100.

  17. Toxicidade de filtrados fúngicos a meloidogyne incognita / Fungus filtrates toxicity to Meloidogyne incognita

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    MAURO J.N., COSTA; VICENTE P., CAMPOS; LUDWIG H., PFENNING; DENILSON F., OLIVEIRA.

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Visando à obtenção de novas moléculas nematicidas, 18 filtrados de espécies fúngicas e extratos de sete micélios fúngicos foram estudados in vitro quanto aos efeitos sobre a eclosão, motilidade e mortalidade de juvenis do segundo estádio (J2) de Meloidogyne incognita. Filtrados fúngicos foram obtido [...] s de culturas em meio Czapek. Metanol foi usado como solvente para obter extratos dos micélios fúngicos. Filtrados de Paecilomyces lilacinus, Fusarium moniliforme e Fusarium oxysporum reduziram a motilidade e eclosão, e aumentaram a mortalidade (P Abstract in english In the search for new nematicidal molecules, 18 fungal species filtrates and seven fungus mycelium extracts were studied in vitro to see their influence on hatching, mobility and mortality of second stage juveniles (J2) of Meloidogyne incognita. Fungal filtrates were obtained from fifteen day Czapek [...] cultures. Methanol was used as solvent to obtain fungus mycelium extracts. Paecilomyces lilacinus, Fusarium moniliforme and Fusarium oxysporum filtrates reduced J2 motility and hatching, and increased J2 mortality (P

  18. Reação de genótipos de maracujazeiro a Meloidogyne incognita raça 3 e Meloidogyne javanica / Reaction of passion fruit genotypes to Meloidogyne incognita race 3 and Meloidogyne javanica

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Leandro Souza, Rocha; Regina Cássia Ferreira, Ribeiro; Adelica Aparecida, Xavier; Fabíola de Jesus, Silva; Claudio Horst, Bruckner.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar a reação de genótipos de maracujazeiro a Meloidogyne spp.. O experimento foi conduzido em casa de vegetação em DBC, com seis repetições, em esquema fatorial 9x2 (Passiflora giberti, P. nitida, P. setacea, P. mucronata, P. cincinnata, P. ligularis, P.alata, híbrido [...] BRS Sol do Cerrado e seleção M19-UFV x Meloidogyne javanica e M. incognita raça 3). Segundo os critérios de Oostenbrink, e Moura e Régis, o BRS Sol do Cerrado, a seleção M-19-UFV e P. alata comportaram-se como imunes a M. incognita. Além destes, P. cincinnata e P. setacea foram imunes a M. javanica. Passiflora cincinnata e P.giberti comportaram-se como resistentes a M. incognita e M. javanica, respectivamente. Segundo Taylor e Sasser, os genótipos classificados como imunes pelos outros critérios foram classificados como resistentes aos nematoides. Todas as variáveis nematológicas avaliadas em P. giberti, P. ligularis, P. mucronata e P. nitida foram superiores em plantas infectadas por M. incognita. Independentemente do nematoide, P. mucronata apresentou maior número de galhas, massas de ovos, ovos, J2 e FR, em relação aos outros genótipos. O peso de matéria fresca de raiz de P. ligularis e P. mucronata foi menor na presença de M. incognita em relação a M. javanica. Abstract in english The aim of this study was to evaluate the reaction of genotypes of passion fruit to Meloidogyne spp.. The experiment was carried out in a greenhouse in RBD with six replications in 9 x 2 factorial designs (Passiflora giberti, P. nitida, P. setacea, P. mucronata, P. cincinnata, P. ligularis, P. alata [...] , BRS Sol do Cerrado cultivar and selection M19-UFV x Meloidogyne javanica and M. incognita race 3). According to Oostenbrink criteria, and Moura and Régis, the BRS Sol do Cerrado, and selection M-19-UFV and P. alata behaved as immune to M. incognita. In addition to these, P. cincinnata and P. setacea were immune to M. javanica. Passiflora cincinnata and P.giberti behaved as resistant to M. incognita and M. javanica, respectively. According to Taylor and Sasser, the genotypes classified as immune by the other criteria were classified as resistant to nematodes. All the nematological variables evaluated in P. giberti, P. ligularis, P. mucronata and P. nitida were superior in plants infected by M. incognita. Regardless of the nematode, P mucronata presented larger number of root galls, egg masses, eggs, J2 and RF, as compared to the other genotypes. The root fresh matter weight of P. ligularis and P. mucronata was smaller in the presence of M. incognita as compared to M. javanica.

  19. GENOTYPIC DIVERSITY OF POTATO GERMPLASM AGAINST ROOT KNOT NEMATODE (MELOIDOGYNE INCOGNITA INFECTION IN PAKISTAN

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    Sajid A. Khan

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Potato (Solanum tuberosum, an important vegetable crop of Pakistan endures significant yield losses due to root knot nematode (Meloidogyne incognita.. Research wok was designed to identify resistant potato germplasm against RKN (Meloidogyne incognita infection. A field trial was conducted in the research area of Department of Plant Pathology, University of Agriculture Faisalabad. Thirty six (36 potato verities/ cultivars relocated five times were sown in four years sick plot containing root knot nematode (Meloidogyne incognita in RCBD layout. Root knot nematode reproduction and host damage was accessed by recording nematode root galls and egg mass indices, root weight, shoot weight, , number of leaves, fruit weight, rate of reproduction and final population of nematodes. Experiment revealed a considerable variation in response against Meloidogyne incognita infection among the genotype tested but none of the single cultivar was immune. FD-8-1 was used as negative control. The cultivar FD-19-2 was highly susceptible followed by SH-692 and SH-5. All other cultivars had less galling index with low fecundity rate indicating their ability to suppress the adult female reproduction. The cultivar FD-1-3 scored least number of galls and egg mass indices followed by FD-49-62, SH-339 and SH-332.

  20. Development of virulence to Meloidogyne incognita on resistant pepper rootstocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ros-Ibanez, C.; Robertson, L.; Martinez-Lluch, M. C.; Cano-Garcia, A.; Lacasa-Plasencia, A.

    2014-06-01

    The root-knot nematode (RKN) Meloidogyne incognita is a major soil parasite of pepper crops in greenhouses in Southeast Spain. Due to the limitations of the use of soil fumigants, grafting plants on resistant rootstocks (R-rootstocks) has become an important alternative to chemical nematicides. The repeated use of R-rootstocks can bring about the selection of virulent populations capable of overcoming resistance. We carried out a six-year investigation on resistant rootstocks in a naturally M. incognita infested greenhouse, and found that two successive years of growing plants grafted on R-rootstocks Atlante (ATL) were sufficient to overcome resistance (galling index 1.5 and 5.6 in the first and second years respectively). A large variability was observed between several R-rootstocks. Two R-rootstocks (C19 and Snooker) behaved like ATL while two others (Terrano and DRO 8801) were not infected by RKN. Laboratory studies with the same R-rootstocks, inoculated with two nematode isolates (avirulent and virulent against ATL) confirmed the greenhouse results, indicating that some rootstocks may be infested by virulent populations and others may not. It suggests that different R-genes, which are differentially overcome by RKN, have been introgressed into the rootstocks. This may have consequences for the management of resistant rootstocks in the field. (Author)

  1. Reaction of Prunus Rootstocks to Meloidogyne incognita and M. arenaria in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marull, J; Pinochet, J; Verdejo-Lucas, S; Soler, A

    1991-10-01

    Prunus rootstocks were evaluated for their reaction to Meloidogyne incognita and M. arenaria. Most rootstocks were peach-almond hybrids of Spanish origin. In one experiment three selections of Garfi x Nemared (G x N) and Hansen-5 were highly resistant to M. incognita, but four other rootstocks were susceptible showing high galling indices and population increases. In two experiments with M. arenaria, the hybrid selections G x N nos. 1 and 9 were immune, GF-305 and Hansen-5 were resistant, but nine other rootstocks expressed various degrees of susceptibility. All Spanish rootstocks were susceptible to both Meloidogyne species except for the three G x N selections. The root-knot nematode resistant peach Nemared used as a male parent with Garfi was found to transmit a high degree of resistance to M. incognita and immunity to M. arenaria. Progenies of P. davidiana (Ga x D no. 3), a known source of resistance to root-knot nematodes, were susceptible. PMID:19283164

  2. Reação de genótipos de Avena spp. a Meloidogyne incognita raça 4 / Host suitability of Avena spp. genotypes to Meloidogyne incognita race 4

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Dárcio C., Borges; Sonia R., Antedomênico; Viviane P., Santos; Mário M., Inomoto.

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available As aveias preta (Avena strigosa), branca (A. sativa) e amarela (A. byzantina) são muito utilizadas como culturas de cobertura, em sucessão a soja, algodão, feijão, batata e cenoura, que são culturas que sofrem elevadas perdas provocadas por Meloidogyne incognita. O manejo de M. incognita pode ter co [...] mo um dos componentes o uso de genótipos de aveia que reduzam a densidade populacional do nematóide. Foram conduzidos três experimentos em casa de vegetação com o objetivo de avaliar cinco genótipos de aveia preta ('CPAO 0010', 'Comum', 'Embrapa 29', 'Embrapa 140' e 'IPFA 99006'), um de aveia branca ('UFRGS 17') e um de aveia amarela ('São Carlos'), em relação a sua resposta a três isolados da raça 4 de M. incognita (BA, SP e MT). As aveias pretas aumentaram a densidade populacional do nematóide. As aveias branca e amarela reduziram ou causaram pequeno aumento da densidade populacional de M. incognita, não se diferenciando de Crotalaria spectabilis. Portanto, a aveia branca 'UFRGS 17' e a amarela 'São Carlos' devem ser preferidas em relação às aveias pretas como culturas de cobertura, em áreas infestadas com M. incognita raça 4. Abstract in english The black oat (Avena strigosa), the white oat (A. sativa) and the Algerian oat (A. byzantina) have been widely used as cover crops under succession with soybean, cotton, bean, potato and carrot, which are crops highly damaged by Meloidogyne incognita. The management of M. incognita may have as a com [...] ponent the use of oat genotypes that reduce the nematode population density. Three greenhouse experiments were carried out in order to evaluate the host suitability of five genotypes of black oat ('CPAO 0010', 'Common', 'Embrapa 29', 'Embrapa 140' and 'IPFA 99006'), one of white oat ('UFRGS 17') and one of Algerian oat ('São Carlos') to three isolates of M. incognita race 4 (BA, SP and MT). The black oats increased the population density of the nematode. The oats 'UFRGS 17' and 'São Carlos' reduced or caused a small increase in the population of M. incognita race 4, and neither differentiated from Crotalaria spectabilis. Therefore, the white oat 'UFRGS 17' and the Algerian oat 'São Carlos' should be used in preference to black oats as cover crops in areas infested with M. incognita race 4.

  3. Reação de genótipos de Avena spp. a Meloidogyne incognita raça 4 Host suitability of Avena spp. genotypes to Meloidogyne incognita race 4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dárcio C. Borges

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available As aveias preta (Avena strigosa, branca (A. sativa e amarela (A. byzantina são muito utilizadas como culturas de cobertura, em sucessão a soja, algodão, feijão, batata e cenoura, que são culturas que sofrem elevadas perdas provocadas por Meloidogyne incognita. O manejo de M. incognita pode ter como um dos componentes o uso de genótipos de aveia que reduzam a densidade populacional do nematóide. Foram conduzidos três experimentos em casa de vegetação com o objetivo de avaliar cinco genótipos de aveia preta ('CPAO 0010', 'Comum', 'Embrapa 29', 'Embrapa 140' e 'IPFA 99006', um de aveia branca ('UFRGS 17' e um de aveia amarela ('São Carlos', em relação a sua resposta a três isolados da raça 4 de M. incognita (BA, SP e MT. As aveias pretas aumentaram a densidade populacional do nematóide. As aveias branca e amarela reduziram ou causaram pequeno aumento da densidade populacional de M. incognita, não se diferenciando de Crotalaria spectabilis. Portanto, a aveia branca 'UFRGS 17' e a amarela 'São Carlos' devem ser preferidas em relação às aveias pretas como culturas de cobertura, em áreas infestadas com M. incognita raça 4.The black oat (Avena strigosa, the white oat (A. sativa and the Algerian oat (A. byzantina have been widely used as cover crops under succession with soybean, cotton, bean, potato and carrot, which are crops highly damaged by Meloidogyne incognita. The management of M. incognita may have as a component the use of oat genotypes that reduce the nematode population density. Three greenhouse experiments were carried out in order to evaluate the host suitability of five genotypes of black oat ('CPAO 0010', 'Common', 'Embrapa 29', 'Embrapa 140' and 'IPFA 99006', one of white oat ('UFRGS 17' and one of Algerian oat ('São Carlos' to three isolates of M. incognita race 4 (BA, SP and MT. The black oats increased the population density of the nematode. The oats 'UFRGS 17' and 'São Carlos' reduced or caused a small increase in the population of M. incognita race 4, and neither differentiated from Crotalaria spectabilis. Therefore, the white oat 'UFRGS 17' and the Algerian oat 'São Carlos' should be used in preference to black oats as cover crops in areas infested with M. incognita race 4.

  4. Evaluation of Asteraceae Plants for Control of Meloidogyne incognita.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsay, T T; Wu, S T; Lin, Y Y

    2004-03-01

    Of the 56 species and 43 genera of Asteraceae tested, 9 were highly resistant or immune to Meloidogyne incognita and did not form root galls. Twenty-six species and six cultivars had 25% or fewer roots galled and were considered moderately resistant to M. incognita. Pre-planting Cosmos bipinnatus (F190), Gaillardia pulchella, Tagetes erecta, Tithonia diversifolia, or Zinnia elegans (F645) reduced root galling and M. incognita J2 in and around Ipomoea reptans. Amendment of soils with roots, stems, or leaves of G. pulchella was effective in controlling M. incognita on I. reptans. Tissue extracts of G. pulchella were lethal to various plant-parasitic nematodes but were innocuous to free-living nematodes. Root exudates of G. pulchella were lethal to J2 of M. incognita and were inhibitory to the hatch of eggs at the concentration of 250 ppm or higher. Gaillardia pulchella could be used to manage M. incognita as a rotation crop, a co-planted crop, or a soil amendment for control of root-knot nematode. PMID:19262785

  5. Efectividad biológica de extractos de Carya illinoensis, para el control de Meloidogyne incognita / Biological effectiveness of Carya illinoensis extracts for Meloidogyne incognita management

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Fabiola, Garrido Cruz; Melchor, Cepeda Siller; Francisco Daniel, Hernández Castillo; Yisa María, Ochoa Fuentes; Ernesto, Cerna Chávez; Diana Margarita, Morales Adame.

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available El trabajo se desarrolló durante 2012 en el Laboratorio de Nematología de la Universidad Autónoma Agraria Antonio Narro, con el objetivo de evaluar extractos vegetales derivados del nogal Carya illinoinensis (Wangenh) K. Koch, para el control del nematodo agallador Meloidogyne sp. Göldi 1889. Los ne [...] matodos fueron obtenidos a partir de tubérculos de papa (Solanum tuberosum L.) Var. "Alpha", que presentaban sintomatología. Se realizó la identificación de los nematodos y se determinó que correspondían a Meloidogyne incognita. Para el estudio de evaluació de efectividad biológica de los extractos se colocaron los extractos a diferentes concentraciones, (1.0, 1.5 y 2%) utilizando una población de 30 ±5 especímenes de Meloidogyne incognita activos, se estableció un experimento completamente al azar, con once tratamientos incluyendo al testigo y cinco repeticiones. Se observaron al microscopio estereoscópico a las 24, 48 y 72 h de exposición con los extractos, para determinar el porcentaje de mortalidad. De los extractos evaluados, los que presentaron mayor actividad nematicida fueron el FIM8 (ruezno acuoso) con 89.16%, FIM6 (Ruezno etanolítico) con 69.22%, y el FIM7 (Cáscara acuoso) con 60.77%, todos éstos en la concentración al 2% y en la observación a las 72 h de exposición con el extracto. Abstract in english The work was developed in 2012 at the Nematology Laboratory of the Universidad Autonoma Agraria Antonio Narro, with the aim of evaluating plant extracts derived hickory Carya illinoinensis (Wangenh) K. Koch, for the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne sp. Göldi (1889) management. Nematodes were obtained [...] from potato tubers (Solanum tuberosum L.) Var. "Alpha", presenting symptoms. Identification of nematodes was performed and it was determined that corresponded to Meloidogyne incognita. Assessment study for the biological effectiveness of the extracts extracts were placed at different concentrations (1.0, 1.5 and 2%) using a population of 30 ± 5 Meloidogyne incognita specimens of assets, an experiment was completely randomized, with eleven treatments including control and five replications. Stereoscopic microscope at 24, 48 and 72 h of exposure to the extracts were observed to determine the percentage of mortality. Of the extracts tested, those with higher nematicidal activity were FIM8 (aqueous husk) with 89.16%, FIM6 (etanolítico husk) with 69.22%, and FIM7 (aqueous shell) with 60.77%, all these in the concentration of 2% and observation at 72 h of exposure to the extract.

  6. Effect of Crotalaria juncea Amendment on Squash Infected with Meloidogyne incognita

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, K.-H.; McSorley, R.; Gallaher, R. N.

    2004-01-01

    Two greenhouse experiments were conducted to examine the effect of Crotalaria juncea amendment on Meloidogyne incognita population levels and growth of yellow squash (Cucurbita pepo). In the first experiment, four soils with a long history of receiving yard waste compost (YWC+), no-yard-waste compost (YWC-), conventional tillage, or no-tillage treatments were used; in the second experiment, only one recently cultivated soil was used. Half of the amount of each soil received air-dried residues...

  7. Meloidogyne incognita Inoculum Source Affects Host Suitability and Growth of Yellow Nutsedge and Chile Pepper

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas, S. H.; Schroeder, J.; Kenney, M. J.; Murray, L W

    1997-01-01

    Meloidogyne incognita (Mi) reproduction and host plant responses in chile pepper (Capsicum annuum) and yellow nutsedge (Cyperus esculentus = YNS) to three sources of inoculum obtained by rearing a single Mi population on chile, YNS, and tomato were evaluated in two factorial greenhouse experiments. The interactive effects of Mi inoculum source and crop-weed competition were determined. In the absence of YNS competition, chile growth was reduced less by Mi inoculum from chile than by inoculum ...

  8. REPRODUÇÃO DE Meloidogyne incognita RAÇA 2 E DE Meloidogyne javanica EM OITO ESPÉCIES DE PLANTAS MEDICINAIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.L. MACIEL

    1996-05-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se as taxas reprodutivas de Meloidogyne incognita raça 2 e de Meloidogyne javanica em oito espécies de plantas consideradas medicinais, em vasos com 500 ml de solo, sob condição de casa de vegetação. Cada planta foi inoculada com 5000 ovos, em média, estabelecendo-se cinco repetições. Realizaram-se as avaliações após 45 a 55 dias das inoculações, com base nos índices de massas de ovos e nos fatores de reprodução dos nematóides. Achillea millefolium (mil-folhas, Arctium lappa (bardana, Bryophyllum calycinum (folha-da-fortuna e Crassula portulacea (bálsamo foram hospedeiras não eficientes ou desfavoráveis a ambas as espécies. Plectranthus barbatus (boldo e Polygonum hidropiperoides (polígono foram eficientes à reprodução das duas espécies. Achyrocline satureoides (macela e Tropaeolum majus (chagas foram eficientes para M. javanica e não para M. incognita.The reproductive rates of the root-knot nematodes Meloidogyne incognita race 2 and M. javanica in the roots of eight medicinal plant species were assessed under greenhouse condition. Each plant, growing in a pot containing 500 ml of sterilized soil, was inoculated with an average number of 5,000 eggs, with five repetitions. Egg mass index and reproduction factor data were used for the evaluation, 45-55 days after plant inoculation. Achillea millefolium, Arctium lappa, Bryophyllum calycinum, and Crassula portulacea were rated as poor or nonefficient hosts, while Plectranthus barbatus and Polygonum hidropiperoides were efficient for both nematode species. Achyrocline satureoides and Tropaeolum majus were efficient for M. javanica, but nonefficient for M. incognita.

  9. Resistência de cultivares de batata-doce a Meloidogyne incognita / Resistance of sweet potato cultivars to Meloidogyne incognita

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Maria J. A., Wanderley; Jaime M., Santos.

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve o objetivo de estudar a resistência em 35 cultivares de batata-doce (Ipomoea batatas) a Meloidogyne incognita, bem como documentar alterações anatômicas em tecidos de raízes de cultivares infetadas. As plantas foram inoculadas em vasos com 3.000 ovos e juvenis de segundo est [...] ádio do nematóide e avaliadas aos 90 dias após com base no fator de reprodução (FR). Entre as 35 cultivares 15 foram consideradas resistentes. Alterações anatômicas nas raízes de cultivares suscetíveis são ilustradas, observando-se bloqueio de vasos do xilema e supressão de tecidos vasculares. Abstract in english The objectives of this study were to evaluate the resistance of 35 sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) cultivars to Meloidogyne incognita and illustrating anatomical changes in tissue of infected plants. The plants were inoculated with 3,000 eggs and juveniles of M. incognita and evaluated at 90 days aft [...] er inoculation based on the reproduction factor of the nematode (RF). Among the 35 cultivars tested, 15 of them were considered resistant. Anatomical changes in sweet potato roots are illustrated, showing interruption of xylem vessels and progressive suppression of vascular tissues.

  10. Impact of Meloidogyne incognita on Physiological Efficiency of Vitis vinifera

    OpenAIRE

    Melakeberhan, H.; Ferris, H.

    1989-01-01

    Four-week-old French Colombard plants rooted from green cuttings were inoculated with 0, 1,000, 2,000, 4,000, or 8,000 Meloidogyne incognita second-stage juveniles and maintained at 25 C night and 30 C day. Leaf area and dry weight and the rates of photosynthesis, stomatal conductance, and internal leaf CO? concentration were measured at intervals up to 59 days after inoculation. Nematode stress dosage, measured as the product of cumulative number of juveniles and females and their total ener...

  11. Resistência de cultivares de batata-doce a Meloidogyne incognita

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanderley Maria J. A.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve o objetivo de estudar a resistência em 35 cultivares de batata-doce (Ipomoea batatas a Meloidogyne incognita, bem como documentar alterações anatômicas em tecidos de raízes de cultivares infetadas. As plantas foram inoculadas em vasos com 3.000 ovos e juvenis de segundo estádio do nematóide e avaliadas aos 90 dias após com base no fator de reprodução (FR. Entre as 35 cultivares 15 foram consideradas resistentes. Alterações anatômicas nas raízes de cultivares suscetíveis são ilustradas, observando-se bloqueio de vasos do xilema e supressão de tecidos vasculares.

  12. Identificación morfológica, morfométrica y molecular de meloidogyne incognita en higuera (ficus carica l.) en Costa Rica

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Walter, Peraza-Padilla; Johaner, Rosales-Flores; Alejandro, Esquivel-Hernández; Irena, Hilje-Rodríguez; Ramón, Molina-Bravo; Pablo, Castillo-Castillo.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Identificación morfológica, morfométrica y molecular de Meloidogyne incognita en higuera (Ficus carica L.) en Costa Rica. El objetivo de este estudio fue identificar la especie de Meloidogyne asociada a dos plantaciones de higuera en Costa Rica. En marzo de 2012, en el distrito de Pacayas, provincia [...] de Cartago, se detectaron agallas en los sistemas radicales de plantas de higuera (Ficus carica L.) de dos fincas. De las raíces agalladas se extrajeron hembras, masas de huevos y juveniles (J2) de Meloidogyne sp. Se examinaron los patrones perineales de las hembras y los segundos estadios infectivos se analizaron morfológica y molecularmente mediante PCR-RFLP. Se amplificó la región intergénica (IGS) del genoma mitocondrial, delimitada por el gen de la subunidad II de la citocromo oxidasa (COII) y el gen ribosomal 16S. La población de nematodos se identificó como M. incognita. El tamaño de los productos de PCR generados con los imprimadores C2F3 y 1108 fue de 1,7 kb. Al tratar los productos de PCR con enzimas de restricción, se generaron cuatro fragmentos de 850, 450, 250 y 150 pb con la enzima AluI y dos fragmentos de 1300 y 400 pb con la enzima HinfI. Abstract in english Morphological, morphometrical and molecular identification of Meloidogyne incognita in fig (Ficus carica L.) in Costa Rica. The objective of this study was to identify species of Meloidogyne associated with two fig plantations in Costa Rica. On March 2012 in Pacayas, Cartago province, root-galls wer [...] e found in two fig plantations of Ficus carica L. Females, egg-masses and juveniles (J2) of Meloidogyne sp. were extracted from the galled roots. Female perineal patterns were examined and second infective stages were analyzed morphometrically and molecularly by PCR-RFLP. The mitochondrial intergenic region (IGS) flanked by the cytochrome oxidase subunit II gene (COII) and the 16S ribosomal gene was amplified. The population was identified morphologically, morphometrically and molecularly as M. incognita. The PCR product obtained with primers C2F3 and 1108 were 1.7 kb in size. When PCR products were treated with restriction enzymes they generated four fragments of 850, 450, 250 and 150 bp with AluI and two fragments of 1300 and 400 bp with HinfI.

  13. RESPUESTA DE GENOTIPOS DE SOLANÁCEAS FRENTE A Meloidogyne incognita (KOFOID Y WHITE) CHITWOOD RAZA 2 Y M. arenaria (NEAL) CHITWOOD / RESPONSE OF DIFFERENT GENOTYPES OF SOLANACEAE TO Meloidogyne incognita (KOFOID AND WHITE) CHITWOOD RACE 2 AND M. arenaria (NEAL) CHITWOOD

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Farah María, González; Lucila, Gómez; Mayra G, Rodríguez; Maité, Piñón; A, Casanova; Olimpia, Gómez; Yaritza, Rodríguez.

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Con el objetivo de conocer el grado de resistencia/susceptibilidad de seis genotipos de solanáceas, frente a Meloidogyne incognita raza 2 y de M. arenara, en macetas, se inocularon las plantas con tres niveles de nematodo (0,5, 1,5 y 2,5 huevos - J2.g de suelo-1). Se utilizó como control susceptible [...] la variedad de tomate Campbell-28. Para la categorización de los genotipos se determinó el Índice de Agallamiento (IA), el Factor de Reproducción (FR) y el Índice de Reproducción (IR) de los nematodos, siguiendo la metodología establecida. Los genotipos S. torvum y S. erianthum tuvieron un comportamiento inmune frente M. incognita y altamente resistentes a M. arenaria. S. mammosum fue altamente resistente a ambas especies pero su eficiencia disminuyó cuando se enfrentó al nivel más alto de M. incognita. Los cultivares de tomate Motelle y Rossol fueron altamente resistentes a M. incognita. D. stramoniun no mostró síntomas de agallamiento ni grado de reproducción de los nematodos por lo que se clasificó como inmune para ambas especies. La población de M. arenaria se mostró más virulenta que la de M. incognita raza 2. Se discute la respuesta mostrada por los genotipos y las poblaciones de Meloidogyne, así como los posibles usos de los genotipos como patrones porta injertos. Abstract in english The resistance/susceptibility of six solanaceous genotypes to Meloidogyne incognita race 2 and M. arenaria were assessed, under a range of population densities (0,5, 1,5 and 2,5 eggs - J2.g of soil-1) of both nematodes. The plants were grown in pots in a greenhouse. The tomato variety Campbell-28 wa [...] s used as a susceptible control. The gall index, reproductive index and reproductive factor were the parameter evaluated to assign a resistance/susceptible category of the genotypes according to the established methodology. S. torvum and S. erianthum were immune to M. incognita whereas they were highly resistant to M. arenaria with no significant differences at any inoculum level. S. mammosum responded as highly resistant to both populations but the efficiency was negatively affected by the highest level of M. incognita. The tomato cultivars Motelle and Rossol were also highly resistant to M. incognita. D. stramoniun was classified as immune to both M incognita and M. arenaria populations as no symptoms or reproduction of the nematode were observed on its roots. M. arenaria population appeared to be more virulent than the population of M. incognita race 2. The reaction of the genotypes and nematodes, as well as the possible use of the genotypes as stocks for grafting are discussed.

  14. Purificação de metabólitos fúngicos com efeitos tóxicos sobre Meloidogyne incognita / Purification of fungal metabolites with toxic effects on Meloidogyne incognita

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    GERALDO H., SILVA; DENILSON F., OLIVEIRA; VICENTE P., CAMPOS.

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available Objetivando o desenvolvimento de novas metodologias de controle de fitonematóides, este trabalho buscou purificar as substâncias nematicidas produzidas por Cunninghamella elegans, Fusarium sp., Paecilomyces lilacinus eP. variotii. Esses fungos foram cultivados em meio líquido Czapek-Dox durante 15 d [...] ias, a 25 ºC, em agitador orbital. Em seguida, filtraram-se as misturas, o que permitiu a obtenção de soluções que foram concentradas sob vácuo e submetidas à purificação direcionada por testes in vitro com Meloidogyne incognita. Observou-se que os filtrados de P. lilacinus e P. variotii perdiam suas atividades nematicidas após a concentração sob vácuo, sugerindo que as substâncias ativas produzidas por esses fungos são consideravelmente voláteis. Para o filtrado de Fusarium sp., observou-se perda total da atividade contra M. incognita após fracionamento em coluna de sílica gel, indicando instabilidade da substância nematicida frente às condições empregadas.Do filtrado de C. elegans isolou-se uma substância que, em solução aquosa na concentração de 250 ppm, imobilizou 94% dos juvenis do segundo estádio de M. incognita expostos a tal solução durante 48 h. Abstract in english In a search for new molecules toxic to plant parasitic nematodes, procedures were set up to purify nematode toxic molecules produced by Cunninghamella elegans, Fusarium sp., Paecilomyces lilacinus and P. variotii. Those fungi were grown in Czapek-Dox liquid medium during 15 days, at 25 ºC, in an orb [...] ital shaker. After fungus mycelium removal by filtration, the solutions were concentrated under vacuum and submitted to purification, guided by in vitro assays with Meloidogyne incognita juveniles. As a result, it was observed that P. lilacinus and P.variotii filtrates lost their activity after vacuum concentration, which suggests that the nematocides produced by those fungi are considerably volatile. In the case of Fusarium sp. filtrate, the active substance seems to be unstable, as the activity against M. incognita juveniles completely disappeared after chromatography in a silica gel column. The C. elegans filtrate rendered one isolated substance that immobilized 94% of the M. incognita juveniles exposed during 48 h to an aqueous solution of the substance at 250 ppm.

  15. REPRODUÇÃO DE Meloidogyne incognita RAÇA 2 E DE Meloidogyne javanica EM OITO ESPÉCIES DE PLANTAS MEDICINAIS

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    S.L., MACIEL; L.C.C.B., FERRAZ.

    1996-05-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se as taxas reprodutivas de Meloidogyne incognita raça 2 e de Meloidogyne javanica em oito espécies de plantas consideradas medicinais, em vasos com 500 ml de solo, sob condição de casa de vegetação. Cada planta foi inoculada com 5000 ovos, em média, estabelecendo-se cinco repetições. Real [...] izaram-se as avaliações após 45 a 55 dias das inoculações, com base nos índices de massas de ovos e nos fatores de reprodução dos nematóides. Achillea millefolium (mil-folhas), Arctium lappa (bardana), Bryophyllum calycinum (folha-da-fortuna) e Crassula portulacea (bálsamo) foram hospedeiras não eficientes ou desfavoráveis a ambas as espécies. Plectranthus barbatus (boldo) e Polygonum hidropiperoides (polígono) foram eficientes à reprodução das duas espécies. Achyrocline satureoides (macela) e Tropaeolum majus (chagas) foram eficientes para M. javanica e não para M. incognita. Abstract in english The reproductive rates of the root-knot nematodes Meloidogyne incognita race 2 and M. javanica in the roots of eight medicinal plant species were assessed under greenhouse condition. Each plant, growing in a pot containing 500 ml of sterilized soil, was inoculated with an average number of 5,000 egg [...] s, with five repetitions. Egg mass index and reproduction factor data were used for the evaluation, 45-55 days after plant inoculation. Achillea millefolium, Arctium lappa, Bryophyllum calycinum, and Crassula portulacea were rated as poor or nonefficient hosts, while Plectranthus barbatus and Polygonum hidropiperoides were efficient for both nematode species. Achyrocline satureoides and Tropaeolum majus were efficient for M. javanica, but nonefficient for M. incognita.

  16. Chemical-Mediated Toxicity of N-Viro Soil to Heterodera glycines and Meloidogyne incognita

    OpenAIRE

    Zasada, I. A.; Tenuta, M.

    2004-01-01

    N-Viro Soil (NVS) is an alkaline-stabilized municipal biosolid that has been shown to lower population densities and reduce egg hatch of Heterodera glycines and other plant-parasitic nematodes; but the mechanism(s) of nematode suppression of this soil amendment are unknown. This study sought to identify NVS-mediated changes in soil chemical properties and their impact upon H. glycines and Meloidogyne incognita mortality. N-Viro Soil was applied to sand in laboratory assays at 0.5%, 1.0%, 2.0%...

  17. Damage Potential and Reproduction of Meloidogyne incognita Race 3 and M. arenaria Race 1 on Kenaf

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, F.; Noe, J. P.

    1996-01-01

    The effects of Meloidogyne incognita race 3 and M. arenaria race 1 on growth of kenaf cv. Everglades 41 was determined under greenhouse conditions. Seedlings of kenaf were inoculated with initial population densities (Pi) of 0, 625, 1,250, 2,500, 5,000, and 10,000 eggs/plant and placed on greenhouse benches in a randomized complete block design. Plant growth and nematode reproduction were assessed 6 and 12 weeks after inoculation. Growth suppression of kenaf in response to increasing Pi was o...

  18. Reducing Meloidogyne incognita Injury to Cucumber in a Tomato-Cucumber Double-Cropping System

    OpenAIRE

    Colyer, P. D.; Kirkpatrick, T L; Vernon, P. R.; Barham, J. D.; Bateman, R.J.

    1998-01-01

    The effects of a root-knot nematode-resistant tomato cultivar and application of the nematicide ethoprop on root-knot nematode injury to cucumber were compared in a tomato-cucumber double-cropping system. A root-knot nematode-resistant tomato cultivar, Celebrity, and a susceptible cultivar, Heatwave, were grown in rotation with cucumber in 1995 and 1996. Celebrity suppressed populations of Meloidogyne incognita in the soil and resulted in a low root-gall rating on the subsequent cucumber crop...

  19. Interactions of Meloidogyne incognita, Xanthomonas campestris, and Rhizobium sp. in the disease complex of chickpea

    OpenAIRE

    SIDDIQUI, Zaki Anwar; FATIMA, Munavvar; ALAM, Subha

    2013-01-01

    The effects of Meloidogyne incognita, Xanthomonas campestris, and Rhizobium sp., alone or in combination, on the disease complex in chickpea were examined. Individual inoculation with M. incognita and X. campestris caused significant reductions in plant growth, while inoculation with Rhizobium sp. resulted in a significant increase in plant growth. Inoculation with M. incognita and X. campestris together caused a greater reduction in plant growth than the damage caused by each of them alone. ...

  20. Screening of pepper Cuarentino (Capsicum annuum L.) for resistance to Meloidogyne incognita

    OpenAIRE

    Piedra Buena, A.; López-Pérez, J. A.; A. Bello; Díez-Rojo, M. A.; Robertson, L; Escuer, M.; L León

    2006-01-01

    The response of Cuarentino pepper (Capsicum annuum) against 66 isolates of Meloidogyne incognita, 52 from Spain and 14 from Uruguay, was studied with the objective of evaluating its potential to be included in breeding programs as a source of resistance genes against M. incognita. A bioassay was performed to determine races and biotypes of M. incognita, as well as to characterize the resistance of Cuarentino. Cuarentino was resistant to 13.5% of the Spanish isolates (7 of 52), but was not res...

  1. Raphanus sativus, Sinapis alba, and Fagopyrum esculentum as Hosts to Meloidogyne incognita, Meloidogyne javanica, and Plasmodiophora brassicae

    OpenAIRE

    Gardner, J.; Caswell-Chen, E.P.

    1994-01-01

    Cultivars of oilseed radish (Raphanus sativus var. oleifera cv. Adagio, Nemex, Pegletta, Renova, Siletina, Siletta Nova, and Ultimo), white mustard (Sinapis alba cv. Albatross, Emergo, Maxi, Martigena, Metex, and Serval), buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum cv. Prego, Tardo), and phacelia (Phacelia tanacetifolia cv. Angelia) were tested for susceptibility to Meloidogyne incognita race 3 and Meloidogyne javanica. Experiments were conducted in growth chambers at 25 C and 16 hours light for 42 days ...

  2. Effects of Meloidogyne arenaria infection on M. incognita resistance in tobacco

    OpenAIRE

    Baum, T.J.; Fortnum, B.A.; Lewis, S. A.

    1995-01-01

    Le système racinaire de plants de tabac résistants à #Meloidogyne incognita$ races 1 et 3 est séparé en deux parties en utilisant trois techniques différentes. Une partie est inoculée avec des oeufs de #M. arenaria$ et l'autre avec des oeufs de #M. incognita$. Les oeufs de #M. arenaria$ ou de #M. incognita$ sont placés sur l'une ou l'autre partie du système racinaire, soit simultanément, soit successivement, mais en décalant l'inoculation de #M. incognita$. Après 45 à 60 jours de croissance e...

  3. Susceptibilidad de genotipos de Solanum lycopersicum L. frente a Meloidogyne incognita Kofoid y White (Chitwood) / Susceptibility of Solanum lycopersicum L. genotypes against Meloidogyne incognita Kofoid & White (Chitwood)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Lucila, Gómez; R, Enrique; Dainé, Hernández-Ochandía; Ileana, Miranda; E, González; Belkis, Peteira; Mayra G, Rodríguez.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó la resistencia/susceptibilidad de los genotipos Aro 8484, HA 3063, Caramba y HA 8476 de Solanum lycopersicum L. frente a Meloidogyne incognita Kofoid y White (Chitwood) raza 2 y se determinó la influencia de este nematodo sobre su crecimiento. Se establecieron dos experimentos en condicion [...] es semi-controladas, en macetas de 1,5L de capacidad. En el primero, cada genotipo, incluyendo el control susceptible tomate cv. Campbell-28, se inoculó con 1,5 J2. g de suelo-1. Para la categorización de los genotipos en resistentes/susceptibles se determinó el índice de agallamiento, el factor de reproducción y el índice de reproducción del nematodo. En el segundo experimento los genotipos se inocularon con 0; 0,5; 1,5 y 2,5 J2. g de suelo-1. Los cuatro genotipos con niveles 0 de nematodos constituyeron los controles. Cada experimento contó con 10 réplicas por tratamiento con una distribución aleatoria en casas de vegetación. Se realizó un análisis de regresión lineal para establecer la relación entre los niveles de nematodos y la altura de las plantas. Todos los genotipos fueron susceptibles a M. incognita. Se demostró que entre el 60 y el 94% de la disminución del tamaño de las plantas está relacionado con el aumento de las poblaciones del nematodo. No se recomienda el uso de estos genotipos en instalaciones de producción protegida de hortalizas con suelos infestados por M. incognita, sin antes establecer medidas de manejo que disminuyan las poblaciones por debajo de 0,5 J2.g de suelo-1. Abstract in english The resistance/susceptibility of Solanum lycopersicum L genotypes Aro 8484, HA 3063, Caramba and HA 8476 against Meloidogyne incognita Kofoid and White (Chitwood) race 2 and the influence of the nematode on the genotype growths were evaluated in two experiments under semi-controlled conditions. In t [...] he first experiment, the genotypes, including a susceptible control tomato Campbell-28, were inoculated with a level of 1,5 J2. g of soil-1. Root gall index, was reproduction factor and reproduction index of the nematode were determined for categorizing resistant/susceptible genotypes. In the second experiment, three levels of nematodes (0,5; 1,5 and 2,5 J2. g of soil-1) were used. Not inoculated genotypes were established as a control. Both experiments had 10 repetitions and were placed in a green house using a randomized distribution design. A lineal regression analysis was used to establish the relation of nematode levels and the plant growths. All genotypes were susceptible to M. incognita. It was demonstrated that the 60 to 94% of plant growth decrease related to the nematode population increase. The use of genotypes is not recommended in soils infected with M. incognita unless management measures are established for keeping nematode population below 0,5 J2.g of soil-1.

  4. Interaction of Vesicular-arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi and Phosphorus with Meloidogyne incognita on Tomato

    OpenAIRE

    Cason, K. M. Thomson; Hussey, R.S.; Roncadori, R. W.

    1983-01-01

    The influence of two vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and phosphorus (P) nutrition on penetration, development, and reproduction by Meloidogyne incognita on Walter tomato was studied in the greenhouse. Inoculation with either Gigaspora margarita or Glomus mosseae 2 wk prior to nematode inoculation did not alter infection by M. incognita compared with nonmycorrhizal plants, regardless of soil P level (either 3 ?g [low P] or 30 ?g [high P] available P/g soil). At a given soil P level, nem...

  5. Mustard seed meal mixtures: management of Meloidogyne incognita on pepper and potential phytotoxicity

    OpenAIRE

    Meyer, Susan l. F.; ZASADA, INGA A; Orisajo, Samuel B.; Morra, Matthew J.

    2011-01-01

    Meals produced when oil is extracted from seeds in the Brassicaceae have been shown to suppress weeds and soilborne pathogens. These seed meals are commonly used individually as soil amendments; the goal of this research was to evaluate seed meal mixes of Brassica juncea (Bj) and Sinapis alba (Sa) against Meloidogyne incognita. Seed meals from Bj ‘Pacific Gold’ and Sa ‘IdaGold’ were tested alone and in combinations to determine rates and application times that would suppress M. incognita on p...

  6. Comportamiento de Meloidogyne incognita sobre tomate y pimiento resistente en Uruguay

    OpenAIRE

    Piedra Buena, A.; Díez-Rojo, M. A.; A BELLO; Robertson, L.; López-Pérez, J. A.; Escuer, M.; León, L.

    2005-01-01

    [ES] Para evaluar la influencia del sistema de cultivo en la selección de biotipos virulentos de Meloidogyne incognita en Uruguay, se estudió la virulencia de 33 poblaciones de este nematodo procedentes de invernaderos, tanto en monocultivo como en rotación, mediante bioensayos con cultivares de tomate y pimiento resistentes a M. incognita. Se encontraron 36,4% de las poblaciones virulentas a tomate y pimiento resistentes; 33,3% virulentas a tomate resistente, pero ...

  7. Interaction between Meloidogyne incognita and Rhizoctonia solani on green beans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hazmi, A S; Al-Nadary, S N

    2015-09-01

    The interaction between Meloidogyne incognita (race 2) and Rhizoctonia solani (AG 4) in a root rot disease complex of green beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) was examined in a greenhouse pot experiment. Three week-old seedlings (cv. Contender) were inoculated with the nematode and/or the fungus in different combinations and sequences. Two months after last nematode inoculation, the test was terminated and data were recorded. The synchronized inoculation by both pathogens (N + F) increased the index of Rhizoctonia root rot and the number of root galls; and suppressed plant growth, compared to controls. However, the severity of root rot and suppression of plant growth were greater and more evident when inoculation by the nematode preceded the fungus (N ? F) by two weeks. Nematode reproduction (eggs/g root) was adversely affected by the presence of the fungus except by the synchronized inoculation. When inoculation by nematode preceded the fungus, plant growth was severely suppressed and roots were highly damaged and rotted leading to a decrease of root galls and eggs. PMID:26288560

  8. Resistência de clones de umezeiro e cultivares de pessegueiro a Meloidogyne incognita (nemata: Heteroderidae) / Resistance of mume clones and peach tree cultivars to Meloidogyne incognita (nemata: heteroderidae)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Newton Alex, Mayer; Fernando Mendes, Pereira; Jaime Maia dos, Santos.

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo teve por objetivo avaliar a reação dos Clones 05; 10 e 15 de umezeiro (Prunus mume Sieb. et Zucc.) e das cultivares Okinawa, Aurora-1 e Dourado-1 de pessegueiro [Prunus persica (L.) Batsch] a Meloidogyne incognita (Kofoid and White) Chitwood, em condições de casa de vegetação. As p [...] lantas foram mantidas em vasos de cerâmica contendo uma mistura de solo e areia (1:1, v/v), previamente autoclavada a 121ºC e 1kgf.cm-2 por 2 horas. Aos 60 dias após o plantio, cada planta foi inoculada com 2.000 ovos e juvenis de segundo estádio de Meloidogyne incognita. O experimento foi conduzido em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com 6 tratamentos (genótipos) e 9 repetições. Transcorridos 116 dias após a inoculação, as plantas foram colhidas para avaliação do sistema radicular. Foi possível verificar que o número de galhas por sistema radicular, o número de ovos e juvenis por 10g de raízes e por sistema radicular foi nulo ou praticamente nulo em todos os clones e nas cultivares estudadas, de forma que os respectivos fatores de reprodução foram todos inferiores a 1. Conclui-se que os Clones 05; 10 e 15 de umezeiro, assim como as cultivares Okinawa, Aurora-1 e Dourado-1 de pessegueiro são resistentes a Meloidogyne incognita. Abstract in english The present study had for objective to study the reaction of mume Clones 05, 10 and 15 (Prunus mume Sieb. et Zucc.) and 'Okinawa', 'Aurora-1' and 'Dourado-1' peach tree cultivars [Prunus persica (L.) Batsch] to Meloidogyne incognita (Kofoid and White) Chitwood, in greenhouse conditions. The plants w [...] ere maintained in ceramic boxes containing a soil-sand mixture (1:1, v/v), previously autoclaved at 121ºC and 1 kgf.cm-2 for 2 hours. On the sixtieth day after planting, each plant was inoculated with 2,000 eggs in the second stage juvenile of Meloidogyne incognita. The experiment was carried out in randomized design with 6 treatments (genotypes) and 9 repetitions. After 116 days from inoculation, plants were harvested for radicular system evaluation. It was possible to verify that galls number for radicular system, eggs and juvenile number in a 10 g sample, eggs and juvenile number for the whole radicular system were null or practically null in all clones and cultivars studied, so that respective reproduction factors (RF) were all lower than 1. It was verified that mume Clones 05, 10 and 15, such as 'Okinawa', 'Aurora-1' and 'Dourado-1' peach tree cultivars are resistant to Meloidogyne incognita.

  9. Efficacy of Fenamiphos Formulations Applied through Irrigation for Control of Meloidogyne incognita on Squash

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, A.W.; Young, J. R.

    1994-01-01

    Management ofMeloidogyne incognita by chemigation with fenamiphos was studied in an infested field planted to M. incognita-suscepfible yellow summer squash cv. Dixie Hybrid. Fenamiphos (VL 73.1% a.i. manufacturing concentrate in propylene glycol) was mixed with Unitol DSR-90 or used as fenamiphos 3 SC (spray concentrate). Both formulations, applied with 63.5 kl irrigation water per hectare, decreased numbers of M. incognita second-stage juveniles in the soil and root-gall indices, and increas...

  10. Development of Multi-Component Transplant Mixes for Suppression of Meloidogyne incognita on Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)

    OpenAIRE

    Kokalis-Burelle, N.; Martinez-Ochoa, N.; Rodríguez-Kábana, R.; Kloepper, J.W.

    2002-01-01

    The effects of combinations of organic amendments, phytochemicals, and plant-growth promoting rhizobacteria on tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) germination, transplant growth, and infectivity of Meloidogyne incognita were evaluated. Two phytochemicals (citral and benzaldehyde), three organic amendments (pine bark, chitin, and hemicellulose), and three bacteria (Serratia marcescens, Brevibacterium iodinum, and Pseudomonas fluorescens) were assessed. Increasing rates of benzaldehyde and citral ...

  11. Protease inhibition by Heterodera glycines cyst content: evidence for effects on the Meloidogyne incognita proteasome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proteases from Heterodera glycines and Meloidogyne incognita juveniles were inhibited by heat-stable content of H. glycines female cysts (HglCE), and by the plant polyphenol epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG). General protease activities detected using the nematode peptide KSAYMRFa were inhibited by EG...

  12. Efficacy of rootstocks for control of Meloidogyne incognita on grafted tomato and cantaloupe

    Science.gov (United States)

    A microplot experiment was conducted to evaluate root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne incognita) resistance in rootstocks used for producing grafted tomato (Solanum esculentum) and muskmelon (Cucumis melo). Three tomato rootstocks including ‘TX301’ (Syngenta Seeds), ‘Multifort’ (De Ruiter Seeds), and ‘A...

  13. Evaluation of repeated bio disinfestation using Brassica carinata pellets to control Meloidogyne incognita in protected pepper crops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guerrero-Diaz, M. M.; Lacasa-Martinez, C. M.; Hernandez-Pinera, A.; Martinez-Alarcon, V.; Lacasa Plasencia, A.

    2013-06-01

    The nematode Meloidogyne incognita is responsible for substantial losses in greenhouse-grown peppers in southeastern Spain. This study evaluates the use of biodisinfestation (BS) (organic amendment + solarisation) as an alternative to using methyl bromide (MB) over three consecutive years to control the nematode in greenhouse conditions. Brassica carinata (BP) pellets or B. carinata (BP) + fresh sheep manure (M) were evaluated in treatments which began on two different dates (August and October) and the results were compared with MB-disinfested and untreated controls. During the third year, the gall index for BP was lower than that obtained for BP +M and in the August treatment than in the October treatment. The commercial crop of pepper fruit obtained with the biodisinfestation treatments begun in August was similar to or higher than that obtained with MB, and higher than that obtained with both October biodisinfestation treatments. The yield of the October biodisinfestation treatments was higher than that of the untreated one. In August of all the years studied, the accumulated exposure times were greater than the thresholds required to kill M. incognita populations at 15 cm depth. The incidence of the nematode did not correspond to the reduction achieved during solarisation, and seemed to increase during the crop cycle. Further studies should look at why high temperatures do not produce a sustained reduction in the populations of Meloidogyne incognita. (Author) 56 refs.

  14. Susceptibility of Several Common Subtropical Weeds to Meloidogyne arenaria, M. incognita, and M. javanica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokalis-Burelle, Nancy; Rosskopf, Erin N

    2012-06-01

    Experiments were conducted in the greenhouse to assess root galling and egg production of three root-knot nematode species, Meloidogyne arenaria, M. incognita, and M. javanica, on several weeds common to Florida agricultural land. Weeds evaluated were Amaranthus retroflexus (redroot pigweed), Cyperus esculentus (yellow nutsedge), Eleusine indica (goosegrass), Portulaca oleracea (common purslane), and Solanum americanum (American black nightshade). Additionally, although it is recommended as a cover crop in southern regions of the U.S., Aeschynomene americana (American jointvetch) was evaluated as a weed following the detection of root galling in a heavy volunteer infestation of an experimental field in southeastern Florida. Weeds were propagated from seed and inoculated with 1000 nematode eggs when plants reached the two true-leaf stage. Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum 'Rutgers') was included as a positive control. Aeschynomene americana and P. oleracea roots supported the highest number of juveniles (J2) and had the highest number of eggs/g of root for all three species of Meloidogyne tested. However, though P. oleracea supported very high root levels of the three nematode species tested, its fleshy roots did not exhibit severe gall symptoms. Low levels of apparent galling, combined with high egg production, increase the potential for P. oleracea to support populations of these three species of root-knot nematodes to a degree that may not be appropriately recognized. This research quantifies the impact of P. oleracea as a host for M. arenaria, M. incognita, and M. javanica compared to several other important weeds commonly found in Florida agricultural production, and the potential for A. americana to serve as an important weed host of the three species of root-knot nematode tested in southern regions of Florida. PMID:23482324

  15. Produtos naturais aplicados para manejo de Meloidogyne incognita em tomateiros / Natural products applied to the management of Meloidogyne incognita in tomato plants

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Thiago Anchieta de, Melo; Ilka Márcia Ribeiro de Sousa, Serra; Gilson Soares da, Silva; Rosa Maria Souto de, Sousa.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar o efeito de produtos naturais na expressão da resistência a Meloidogyne incognita em plantas de tomate produzidos organicamente. Os indutores Rocksil, Quitosana, Neemseto e Biopirol foram aplicados 5, 10 e 15 dias, em tratamentos independentes, antes da inocul [...] ação do patógeno através da pulverização foliar, utilizando-se duas dosagens para cada indutor. A inoculação do nematoide foi realizada 30 dias após o plantio, usando-se 5000 ovos/ planta. Avaliando-se o número de ovos e o fator de reprodução, 30 dias após a inoculação, observou-se que todos os tratamentos diferiram estatisticamente da testemunha, impedindo o aumento da população inicial do patógeno. Dentre os indutores, o indutor silicatado Rocksil foi o que apresentou os melhores resultados para o controle da meloidoginose em todas as épocas de aplicação e em todas as dosagens. Contudo, plantas tratadas com o produto apresentaram baixos pesos de parte aérea sugerindo que houve um custo adaptativo de resistência. Considerando-se o fator de reprodução não foram observadas diferenças estatísticas quando comparadas a dosagem e época de aplicação entre os indutores, com exceção da Quitosana aplicada aos 5 dias antes da inoculação e do Neemseto aplicado aos 15 dias antes da inoculação do nematóide. Abstract in english This study aimed to evaluate the effect of natural products on the expression of resistance to Meloidogyne incognita in organically produced tomato plants. The inducers Rocksil, Chitosan, Neemseto and Biopirol were applied at 5, 10 and 15 days as independent treatments before the pathogen inoculatio [...] n by means of leaf spraying, using two levels for each inducer. The nematode inoculation was performed at 30 days after planting, using 5000 eggs/plant. Evaluating the number of eggs and the reproduction factor, at 30 days after inoculation, all treatments statistically differed from the control, preventing an increase in the initial population of the pathogen. Of the natural inducers, Rocksil showed the best results for controlling the root-knot nematode in all application times and at all levels. However, plants treated with the product had low shoot weights, suggesting that there was a fitness cost of resistance. Considering the reproduction factor, there were not statistical differences when the level and the application time were compared among natural inducers, except for Chitosan applied at 5 days before the nematode inoculation and Neemseto applied at 15 days before the nematode inoculation.

  16. HISTOPATHOLOGICAL CHANGES AND ENZYMATIC ACTIVITIES INDUCED BY MELOIDOGYNE INCOGNITA ON RESISTANT AND SUSCEPTIBLE POTATO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moawad M. Mohamad

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available All potato cultivars are susceptible to root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp. which infest the roots and induce galls on the surface and necrotic spots in the flesh tuber of potato, Solanum tuberosum. Infested tubers are unacceptable for processing and fresh market. Tubers are also putative source of dissemination of the nematode. A French nematode- resistant tetraploid potato genotype gained from ex-S. sparsipilum material hybridized with S. tuberosum in F1 and in their back cross progenies and designated as 02T.155.6 was tested and compared in the present study in Egypt as a suitable different environment. Histopathological changes and chitinase activity induced by M. incognita population, of common occurrence in Egypt, in four French tetraploid materials and two common cultivars known as nematode- resistant and susceptible potato genotypes were investigated. Hypertrophied cells were initiated in both cortical and steler regions of the roots which were then developed to abnormal xylem elements expanding into the cortex in French susceptible genotypes designated as 02T.149.6, 02T.150.54, and 02T.157.16. Nematode within the vascular tissue (stele could induce giant cell development close to nematode heads. The largest number of such induced cells was shown by the cultivars Spunta and Diamant. The clone 02T.155.6 with putative nematode resistance demonstrated none or very little nematode development. Recently dead second stage juveniles could also indicate incompatible plant reaction to the invading nematodes in 02T.155.6. M. incognita, Giza population, resistance was generally more coherent to 02T.155.6 as demonstrated by our histological investigations but less coherent as shown by another Egyptian M. incognita population. Chitinase activity was enhanced in M. incognita (Giza-inoculated with respect to uninoculated roots in all plants. After inoculation, such an activity generally increased more in roots of a potato genotype previously known to have resistance or relatively low numbers of both nematode galls and eggmasses than in the other tested cultivars. Peroxidase and catalase activities of nematode- inoculated with respect to uninoculated potato roots were presented and discussed.

  17. Associated bacteria of different life stages of Meloidogyne incognita using pyrosequencing-based analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yi; Tian, Baoyu; Ji, Xinglai; Shang, Shenghua; Lu, Chaojun; Zhang, Keqin

    2015-08-01

    The root knot nematode (RKN), Meloidogyne incognita, belongs to the most damaging plant pathogens worldwide, and is able to infect almost all cultivated plants, like tomato. Recent research supports the hypothesis that bacteria often associated with plant-parasitic nematodes, function as nematode parasites, symbionts, or commensal organisms etc. In this study, we explored the bacterial consortia associated with M. incognita at different developmental stages, including egg mass, adult female and second-stage juvenile using the pyrosequencing approach. The results showed that Proteobacteria, with a proportion of 71-84%, is the most abundant phylum associated with M. incognita in infected tomato roots, followed by Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes etc. Egg mass, female and second-stage juvenile of M. incognita harbored a core microbiome with minor difference in communities and diversities. Several bacteria genera identified in M. incognita are recognized cellulosic microorganisms, pathogenic bacteria, nitrogen-fixing bacteria and antagonists to M. incognita. Some genera previously identified in other plant-parasitic nematodes were also found in tomato RKNs. The potential biological control microorganisms, including the known bacterial pathogens and nematode antagonists, such as Actinomycetes and Pseudomonas, showed the largest diversity and proportion in egg mass, and dramatically decreased in second-stage juvenile and female of M. incognita. This is the first comprehensive report of bacterial flora associated with the RKN identified by pyrosequencing-based analysis. The results provide valuable information for understanding nematode-microbiota interactions and may be helpful in the development of novel nematode-control strategies. PMID:25809195

  18. Evaluation of Nicotiana otophora as a Source of Resistance to Meloidogyne incognita Race 4 for Tobacco

    OpenAIRE

    Reed, S M; Schneider, S.M.

    1992-01-01

    No currently available tobacco cultivar possesses resistance to Meloidogyne incognita race 4, nor has any source of resistance been reported within Nicotiana tabacum. The purpose of this study was to evaluate N. otophora acc. La Quinta as a source of resistance to this pathogen. Plants of tobacco cvs. NC 95 and NC 2326, N. otophora La Quinta and N. repanda were inoculated with second-stage juveniles of M. incognita race 4. Gall indices and egg-mass ratings were assessed at 4 and 8 weeks after...

  19. Response of Trifolium repens Clones to Infection by Meloidogyne incognita and Peanut Stunt Virus

    OpenAIRE

    McLaughlin, M. R.; Windham, G. L.; Heagle, A. S.

    1993-01-01

    The responses of selected clones of white clover (Trifolium repens) to simultaneous infection by the southern root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne incognita) and peanut stunt virus (PSV) were determined. Two white clover clones, which were resistant (NC-R) or sensitive (NC-S) to ozone injury, were evaluated. Plant growth and M. incognita reproduction were measured. Root, stolon, and top growth were reduced by PSV infection, which affected NC-R more than NC-S. Both clones were tolerant of M. incogn...

  20. Immunocytochemical analysis of the stage-specific distribution of collagen in the cuticle of Meloidogyne incognita

    OpenAIRE

    Ray, C; Reddigari, S R; Jansma, P.L.; Allen, R.; Hussey, R.S.

    1996-01-01

    Il a été porduit un antisérum polyclonal dirigé contre la protéine majeure du collagène (76 kDa) extraite de la cuticule de femelles adultes de #Meloidogyne incognita$. La composition en acides aminés de cette protéine est semblable à celle du collagène d'autres nématodes. Parmi les protéines extraites de la cuticule de femelles adultes de #Meloidogyne$ et solubles dans le bêta-mercaptoéthanol, deux protéines du collagène (Mr 76 et 140 kDa) ainsi que plusieurs protéines du collagène de junévi...

  1. Chloroplast Differentiation in Tomato Root Galls Induced by the Root Knot Nematode Meloidogyne incognita

    OpenAIRE

    Orion, D.; Wergin, W.P.

    1982-01-01

    Primary roots of tomato, Lycopersicon esculentum cv. Marglobe, were cultured aseptically on agar containing a standard nutrient formulation with or without kinetin. When secondary roots developed, cultures were inoculated with the root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita. Following inoculation, the cultures were divided into two groups which were incubated either in total darkness or in 16-h light-8-h dark cycles. At 24 h, 1, 2, 3, and 4 wk after incubation, roots from all cultures were proc...

  2. Scanning Electron Microscope Study of the Root-knot Nematode (Meloidogyne incognita) on Tomato Root

    OpenAIRE

    Wergin, W.P.; Orion, D.

    1981-01-01

    This study examines the types of structural information that can be gained by utilizing the scanning electron microscope (SEM) and a cryofracture technique to examine the host-parasite interaction. Roots of tomato, Lycopersicon esculentum cv. Marglobe, were cultured aseptically and inoculated with the root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita. Twenty-four hours to four weeks after inoculation, developing galls were removed from the cultures and processed for SEM observation. The cryofracture ...

  3. Interaction between Meloidogyne incognita and Agrobacterium tumefaciens or Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici on Tomato

    OpenAIRE

    El-Sherif, Ahmed G.; Elwakil, M. A.

    1991-01-01

    Agrobacterium tumefaciens stimulated and Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici inhibited development and reproduction of Meloidogyne incognita when applied to the opposite split root of tomato, Lycopersicon esculentum cv. Tropic, plants. The lowest rate of nematode reproduction occurred after 2,000 juveniles were applied and the fungus was present in the opposite split root. The effects of all three pathogens alone on the growth of roots and shoots of tomato plants were evident, but M. incogn...

  4. Effects of Nematicides and Herbicides Alone or Combined on Meloidogyne incognita Egg Hatch and Development

    OpenAIRE

    Payan, L. A.; Johnson, A.W.; Littrell, R. H.

    1987-01-01

    The effects of nematicides carbofuran (C) and fenamiphos (F) and herbicides metribuzin (M) and trifluralin (T), alone and in combination, on hatching, penetration, development, and reproduction of Meloidogyne incognita race 3 were determined under laboratory conditions. To study hatching, entire egg masses were exposed to nematicides (6 ?g/ml), herbicides (0.5 ?g/ml), and their combinations over a period of 16 days; the hatched juveniles were extracted and counted every 48 hours. Second-stage...

  5. Susceptibility of Several Common Subtropical Weeds to Meloidogyne arenaria, M. incognita, and M. javanica

    OpenAIRE

    Kokalis-Burelle, Nancy; Rosskopf, Erin N.

    2012-01-01

    Experiments were conducted in the greenhouse to assess root galling and egg production of three root-knot nematode species, Meloidogyne arenaria, M. incognita, and M. javanica, on several weeds common to Florida agricultural land. Weeds evaluated were Amaranthus retroflexus (redroot pigweed), Cyperus esculentus (yellow nutsedge), Eleusine indica (goosegrass), Portulaca oleracea (common purslane), and Solanum americanum (American black nightshade). Additionally, although it is recommended as a...

  6. Weed Hosts of Meloidogyne arenaria and M. incognita Common in Tobacco Fields in South Carolina

    OpenAIRE

    Tedford, E. C.; Fortnum, B.A.

    1988-01-01

    Thirty-two weed species common in South Carolina and one cultivar of tobacco were evaluated as hosts of Meloidogyne arenaria race 2 and M. incognita race 3 in the greenhouse. Egg mass production and galling differed (P < 0.05) among weed species. Chenopodium album, Euphorbia maculata, and Vicia villosa were good hosts of M. arenaria. Amaranthus palmeri, Rumex crispus, Amaranthus hybridus, Ambrosia artemisiifolia, lpomoea hederacea var. integriuscula, Setaria lutescens, Sida spinosa, Portulaca...

  7. Physiological Response of Resistant and Susceptible Vitis vinifiera Cultivars to Meloidogyne incognita

    OpenAIRE

    Melakeberhan, H.; Ferris, H.; Dias, J. M.

    1990-01-01

    The effect of Meloidogyne incognita on growth, general physiological response, and the concentration of reducing and nonreducing sugars at the nematode feeding sites of French Colombard (susceptible) and Thompson Seedless (moderately resistant) Vitis vinifiera cultivars was studied up to 2,100 degree-days (DD-base 10 C). Nematode stress dosage, measured as the product of cumulative number of juveniles and females and their total energy (calories) demand, accounted for up to 15 and 10% of the ...

  8. Responses of Meloidogyne arenaria and M. incognita to Green Manures and Supplemental Urea in Glasshouse Culture

    OpenAIRE

    Crow, W. T.; Guertal, E. A.; Rodríguez-Kábana, R.

    1996-01-01

    The recent loss of many effective nematicides has led to renewed interest in alternative methods of nematode management. Greenhouse experiments were conducted to determine the effects of rapeseed and velvetbean green manures, and supplemental urea, on the root-knot nematodes Meloidogyne arenaria and M. incognita. Green manures were incorporated with M. arenaria-infested soil using rates totaling 200,300, and 400 mg N/kg soil. Squash plants grown in this soil were evaluated using a gall index ...

  9. Response of Sesamum indicum and S. radiatum Accessions to Root-knot Nematode, Meloidogyne incognita

    OpenAIRE

    Walker, J.T.; Melin, J. B.; Davis, J

    1998-01-01

    Twenty Sesame indicum and four S. radiatum accessions in the USDA Plant Introduction collection were evaluated for reaction to the root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita race 3, at two initial egg densities under greenhouse conditions. All sesame accessions produced considerably fewer root galls than the tomato cultivar Rutgers. Gall numbers varied slightly among accessions at the higher infestation density with even less variation at the lower density. Egg mass indices indicated little re...

  10. Evidence Against Amplification of Four Genes in Giant Cells Induced by Meloidogyne incognita

    OpenAIRE

    Wiggers, R. J.; Magill, C W; Starr, J L; Price, H. J.

    1991-01-01

    Giant-cell DNA was isolated from pea (Pisum sativum) inoculated with Meloidogyne incognita and used in slot blots to test for selective sequence amplification. Four sequences representing low (ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase and actin), mid-level (histone 3), and highly repetitive (large ribosomal repeat) sequence DNA were used as probes. Known amounts of root-tip DNA and giant-cell DNA were blotted onto hybridization membranes and probed. The signal strength on autoradiographs containi...

  11. Host Status of Herbaceous Perennials to Meloidogyne incognita and M. arenaria

    OpenAIRE

    Walker, J.T.; Melin, J. B.

    1998-01-01

    Twenty-two different herbaceous perennials were studied for their reaction to separate inoculations of Meloidogyne arenaria and M. incognita under greenhouse conditions. Perennial taxa that did not develop root-galls following inoculation, and therefore are considered as nonhosts of both nematode species, included species and cultivars of Aethionema, Fragaria, Phlox, and Polygonum. Echinacea, Monarda, and Patrinia developed only a few galls. Root-galls developed on species and cultivars of Ac...

  12. Yield-loss Models for Tobacco Infected with Meloidogyne incognita as Affected by Soil Moisture

    OpenAIRE

    Wheeler, T. A.; Barker, K.R.; Schneider, S.M.

    1991-01-01

    Yield-loss models were developed for tobacco infected with Meloidogyne incognita grown in microplots under various irrigation regimes. The rate of relative yield loss per initial nematode density (Pi), where relative yield is a proportion of the value of the harvested leaves in uninfected plants with the same irrigation treatment, was greater under conditions of water stress or with high irrigation than at an intermediate level of soil moisture. The maximum rate of plant growth per degree-day...

  13. The nematicidal effect of some bacterial biofertilizers on Meloidogyne incognita in sandy soil

    OpenAIRE

    El-Hadad, M.E.; M.I Mustafa; Selim, Sh.M.; T. S. El-Tayeb; Mahgoob, A.E.A.; Abdel Aziz, Norhan H.

    2011-01-01

    In a greenhouse experiment, the nematicidal effect of some bacterial biofertilizers including the nitrogen fixing bacteria (NFB) Paenibacillus polymyxa (four strains), the phosphate solubilizing bacteria (PSB) Bacillus megaterium (three strains) and the potassium solubilizing bacteria (KSB) B. circulans (three strains) were evaluated individually on tomato plants infested with the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita in potted sandy soil. Comparing with the uninoculated nematode-infest...

  14. Identification of the Chromosome Carrying the Factor for Resistance to Meloidogyne incognita in Tobacco

    OpenAIRE

    Slana, L. J.; Stavely, J. R.

    1981-01-01

    To identify the chromosome carrying the factor for resistance to Meloidogyne incognita in tobacco, crosses were made between resistant tobacco 'NC95' as pollen parent and each of the 12 tobacco monosomics (A-L) representative of the Tomentosae half of the Nicotiana tabacum chromosome complement. Of the F? seedlings, 927 plants were grown for observation. From these, 223 plants were selected as possible monosomics on the basis of morphological characteristics. These plants were self-pollinated...

  15. Intensity and duration of water deficit on the pathosystem sugarcane x Meloidogyne incognita / Intensidade e duração do déficit hídrico no patossistema cana-de-açúcar x Meloidogyne incognita

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Matheus P., Quintela; Elvira M. R., Pedrosa; Lilia, Willadino; Mario M., Rolim; Ênio F. de F. e, Silva; Mariana F. de L., David.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO Neste trabalho objetivou-se estudar a interação entre a intensidade e a duração do déficit hídrico (90, 56 e 22% capacidade de pote [CP] por 30, 60 e 90 dias de estresse contínuo) associado ao parasitismo do nematoide Meloidogyne incognita no crescimento inicial da cana-de-açúcar variedade RB [...] 92579 e à atividade das enzimas catalase e ascorbato peroxidase. O delineamento adotado foi inteiramente casualizado em esquema fatorial 7 (tratamentos hídricos: controle [90% da CP], 56% CP com duração de 30, 60 e 90 dias, 22% CP com duração de 30, 60 e 90 dias) × 2 (densidade de M. incognita: 0 e 20000 ovos por planta), com quatro repetições. O estresse hídrico correspondente a 56% da CP com duração de 30 e 60 dias não afetou o desenvolvimento da variedade RB92579. Os tratamentos hídricos testados aumentaram a atividade da enzima ascorbato peroxidase, porém não afetaram a atividade da enzima catalase. O nematoide não afetou as respostas da RB92579 nas condições estudadas; enfim, o déficit hídrico com maior severidade (22% CP por 90 dias) reduziu a reprodução do M. incognita. Abstract in english ABSTRACT This study aimed to evaluate the interaction between intensity and duration of water deficit (90, 56 and 22% of pot capacity [PC] for 30, 60 and 90 days under continuous stress) associated to the parasitism of the nematode Meloidogyne incognita on the growth of the sugarcane variety RB92579 [...] and the activity of the enzymes catalase and ascorbate peroxidase. The experiment was conducted in completely randomized design in a 7 x 2 factorial scheme (seven water deficit treatments: control [90% PC], 56% PC for 30, 60 and 90 days, 20% PC for 30, 60 and 90 days; and two densities of M. incognita: 0 and 20000 eggs plant-1), with four replicates. The water stress corresponding to 56% PC for 30 or 60 days did not affect RB92579 development. The evaluated water treatments increased ascorbate peroxidase activity, but it did not affect catalase activity. Nematode inoculation did not affect RB92579 responses to drought stress conditions. The higher severity of water deficit (22% PC for 90 days) reduced M. incognita reproduction.

  16. Histopathological Response of Lens culinaris Roots Towards Root-knot Nematode, Meloidogyne incognita

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hisamuddin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Lens culinaris (lentil is an important pulse crop. The yield of the crop is reduced if grown in root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne incognita infested field. Meloidogyne incognita caused infection in primary and the secondary roots leading to the anomalies in the affected part of the root. The study revealed that the second stage juveniles (J2 of Meloidogyne incognita entered the growing roots and their branches inter and intracellularly. The immediate response was hypertrophy and hyperplasia in the root tissue near the nematode head. In response to hypertrophy some cells became very large and contained dense and granular cytoplasm. Adjacent to the giant cells, the vascular tissue was found to be disturbed. Shape, size and orientation of the vascular elements was so much altered that it had become difficult to trace the normal course of vascular strands. In various sections vascular strands were found disrupted. The vessel elements had the shapes resembling the shapes of parenchyma cells. Similarly sieve tube elements of the phloem, near the giant cells were shorter and resembled with nearby parenchyma cells. Abnormalities in xylem and phloem favored transport water, minerals and metabolites towards the giant cells. From this study, it might be inferred that alteration in the cells of galled tissue was essential for the sustenance of giant cells and for the survival of the nematode.

  17. Weed Hosts of Meloidogyne arenaria and M. incognita Common in Tobacco Fields in South Carolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tedford, E C; Fortnum, B A

    1988-10-01

    Thirty-two weed species common in South Carolina and one cultivar of tobacco were evaluated as hosts of Meloidogyne arenaria race 2 and M. incognita race 3 in the greenhouse. Egg mass production and galling differed (P Eleusine indica, Sorghum halepense, Setaria viridis, Digitaria sanguinalis, and Datura stramonium were poor hosts for M. arenaria. Amaranthus palmeri, Amaranthus hybridus, Chenopodium album, Euphorbia maculata, Setaria lutescens, Vicia villosa, Sida spinosa, Rumex crispus, and Portulaca oleracea were moderate hosts and Ipomoea hederacea var. integriuscula, Xanthium strumarium, Cyperus esculentus, Cynodon dactylon, Paspalum notatum, Eleusine indica, Setaria viridis, and Rumex acetosella were poor hosts for M. incognita. None of the above were good hosts for M. incognita. Tobacco 'PD4' supported large numbers of both nematode species. PMID:19290313

  18. The nematicidal effect of some bacterial biofertilizers on Meloidogyne incognita in sandy soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Hadad, M E; Mustafa, M I; Selim, Sh M; El-Tayeb, T S; Mahgoob, A E A; Abdel Aziz, Norhan H

    2011-01-01

    In a greenhouse experiment, the nematicidal effect of some bacterial biofertilizers including the nitrogen fixing bacteria (NFB) Paenibacillus polymyxa (four strains), the phosphate solubilizing bacteria (PSB) Bacillus megaterium (three strains) and the potassium solubilizing bacteria (KSB) B. circulans (three strains) were evaluated individually on tomato plants infested with the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita in potted sandy soil. Comparing with the uninoculated nematode-infested control, the inoculation with P. polymyxa NFB7, B. megaterium PSB2 and B. circulans KSB2, increased the counts of total bacteria and total bacterial spores in plants potted soil from 1.2 to 2.6 folds estimated 60 days post-inoculation. Consequently, the inoculation with P. polymyxa NFB7 increased significantly the shoot length (cm), number of leaves / plant, shoot dry weight (g) / plant and root dry weight (g) / plant by 32.6 %, 30.8 %, 70.3 % and 14.2 %, respectively. Generally, the majority treatments significantly reduced the nematode multiplication which was more obvious after 60 days of inoculation. Among the applied strains, P. polymyxa NFB7, B. megaterium PSB2 and B. circulans KSB2 inoculations resulted in the highest reduction in nematode population comparing with the uninoculated nematode-infested control. They recorded the highest reduction in numbers of hatched juveniles/root by 95.8 %, females/root by 63.75 % and juveniles/1kg soil by 57.8 %. These results indicated that these bacterial biofertilizers are promising double purpose microorganisms for mobilizing of soil nutrients (nitrogen, phosphate and potassium) and for the biological control of M. incognita. PMID:24031611

  19. The nematicidal effect of some bacterial biofertilizers on Meloidogyne incognita in sandy soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.E El-Hadad

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available In a greenhouse experiment, the nematicidal effect of some bacterial biofertilizers including the nitrogen fixing bacteria (NFB Paenibacillus polymyxa (four strains, the phosphate solubilizing bacteria (PSB Bacillus megaterium (three strains and the potassium solubilizing bacteria (KSB B. circulans (three strains were evaluated individually on tomato plants infested with the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita in potted sandy soil. Comparing with the uninoculated nematode-infested control, the inoculation with P. polymyxa NFB7, B. megaterium PSB2 and B. circulans KSB2, increased the counts of total bacteria and total bacterial spores in plants potted soil from 1.2 to 2.6 folds estimated 60 days post-inoculation. Consequently, the inoculation with P. polymyxa NFB7 increased significantly the shoot length (cm, number of leaves / plant, shoot dry weight (g / plant and root dry weight (g / plant by 32.6 %, 30.8 %, 70.3 % and 14.2 %, respectively. Generally, the majority treatments significantly reduced the nematode multiplication which was more obvious after 60 days of inoculation. Among the applied strains, P. polymyxa NFB7, B. megaterium PSB2 and B. circulans KSB2 inoculations resulted in the highest reduction in nematode population comparing with the uninoculated nematode-infested control. They recorded the highest reduction in numbers of hatched juveniles/root by 95.8 %, females/root by 63.75 % and juveniles/1kg soil by 57.8 %. These results indicated that these bacterial biofertilizers are promising double purpose microorganisms for mobilizing of soil nutrients (nitrogen, phosphate and potassium and for the biological control of M. incognita.

  20. The nematicidal effect of some bacterial biofertilizers on Meloidogyne incognita in sandy soil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    M.E, El-Hadad; M.I, Mustafa; Sh.M, Selim; T.S, El-Tayeb; A.E.A, Mahgoob; Norhan H. Abdel, Aziz.

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available In a greenhouse experiment, the nematicidal effect of some bacterial biofertilizers including the nitrogen fixing bacteria (NFB) Paenibacillus polymyxa (four strains), the phosphate solubilizing bacteria (PSB) Bacillus megaterium (three strains) and the potassium solubilizing bacteria (KSB) B. circu [...] lans (three strains) were evaluated individually on tomato plants infested with the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita in potted sandy soil. Comparing with the uninoculated nematode-infested control, the inoculation with P. polymyxa NFB7, B. megaterium PSB2 and B. circulans KSB2, increased the counts of total bacteria and total bacterial spores in plants potted soil from 1.2 to 2.6 folds estimated 60 days post-inoculation. Consequently, the inoculation with P. polymyxa NFB7 increased significantly the shoot length (cm), number of leaves / plant, shoot dry weight (g) / plant and root dry weight (g) / plant by 32.6 %, 30.8 %, 70.3 % and 14.2 %, respectively. Generally, the majority treatments significantly reduced the nematode multiplication which was more obvious after 60 days of inoculation. Among the applied strains, P. polymyxa NFB7, B. megaterium PSB2 and B. circulans KSB2 inoculations resulted in the highest reduction in nematode population comparing with the uninoculated nematode-infested control. They recorded the highest reduction in numbers of hatched juveniles/root by 95.8 %, females/root by 63.75 % and juveniles/1kg soil by 57.8 %. These results indicated that these bacterial biofertilizers are promising double purpose microorganisms for mobilizing of soil nutrients (nitrogen, phosphate and potassium) and for the biological control of M. incognita.

  1. Rootstocks resistant to Meloidogyne incognita and compatibility of grafting in net melon / Porta-enxertos resistentes a Meloidogyne incognita e compatibilidade de enxertia de melão rendilhado

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Francine de Souza, Galatti; Alexandre Junqueira, Franco; Letícia Akemi, Ito; Hamilton de Oliveira, Charlo; Lucas Aparecido, Gaion; Leila Trevisan, Braz.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Devido aos poucos estudos realizados com enxertias em melão rendilhado, visando um maior controle de patógenos do solo, este trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar 16 genótipos de cucurbitáceas quanto à resistência a Meloidogyne incognita e a compatibilidade da enxertia do melão rendilhado. Foram avalia [...] dos 16 acessos de cucurbitáceas: Benincasa hispida, Bucha, Abóbora 'Jacarezinho', Abóbora 'Menina Brasileira', Moranga 'Exposição', Moranga 'Coroa', Abóbora 'Canhão Seca', Abóbora 'Squash', Mogango 'Enrrugado Verde', Abóbora 'Mini Paulista', Abóbora 'Goianinha', Melancia 'Charleston Gray', Melão 'Rendondo Gaúcho', Melão 'Redondo Amarelo', Pepino 'Caipira HS' e Pepino 'Caipira Rubi', quanto à resistência ao nematóide M. incognita, com base no fator de reprodução (FR), segundo Oostenbrink (1966). Para avaliação da resistência, as mudas foram transplantadas para vasos de cerâmica e foram aplicados 300 ovos ou juvenis de segundo estádio/mL de M. incognita, num total de 10 mL por vaso. Aos 50 dias após o transplantio, as plantas foram removidas dos vasos e realizou-se a avaliação da resistência. Para a compatibilidade entre os porta-enxertos resistentes e enxerto de melão rendilhado, foram realizadas enxertias do tipo garfagem fenda simples, em híbrido comercial de melão rendilhado de grande aceitação comercial e suscetíveil a M. incognita (Bônus N° 2). Os genótipos Bucha, Abóbora 'Goianinha', Abóbora 'Mini-Paulista', Melão 'Redondo Amarelo', Melancia 'Charleston Gray', foram resistentes ao nematóide M. incognita. As melhores compatibilidades ocorreram com os porta-enxertos Melão 'Amarelo', o qual teve 100% de pegamento, seguido da Abóbora 'Mini-Paulista' com 94%. Já Bucha, Melancia 'Charleston Gray' e Abóbora 'Goianinha', tiveram baixas porcentagens de pegamento: 66%, 62% e 50% respectivamente. Abstract in english Due to the few studies about grafting in net melon, in order to obtain better control of soil pathogens, the aim of the present study was to evaluate 16 genotypes of Cucurbitaceae: Benincasa hispida, Luffa cylindrica, pumpkin 'Jacarezinho', pumpkin 'Menina Brasileira', squash 'Exposição', squash 'Co [...] roa', pumpkin 'Canhão Seca', pumpkin 'Squash', pumpkin 'Enrrugado Verde', pumpkin 'Mini Paulista', pumpkin 'Goianinha', watermelon 'Charleston Gray', melon 'Rendondo Gaucho', melon 'Redondo Amarelo', cucumber 'Caipira HS' and cucumber 'Caipira Rubi', regarding to compatibility of grafting in net melon and resistance to Meloidogyne incognita, based on the reproduction factor (RF), according to Oostenbrink (1966). To assess resistance, the seedlings were transplanted to ceramic pots and inoculated with 300/mL eggs and/or second stage juveniles of M. incognita. At 50 days after transplanting, the plants were removed from the pots and the resistance was evaluated. The compatibility between resistant rootstock and grafts of net melon was determined by performing simple cleft grafting, in a commercial net melon hybrid of great market acceptance and susceptible to M. incognita (Bonus no. 2). The genotypes Luffa cylindrica, pumpkin 'Goianinha', pumpkin 'Mini-Paulista', melon 'Redondo Amarelo', watermelon 'Charleston Gray' are resistant to the nematode M. incognita. The better compatibilities occurred with the rootstocks melon 'Amarelo', which presented 100% of success, followed by pumpkin 'Mini-Paulista' with 94%. On the other hand, Sponge gourd, watermelon 'Charleston Gray' and pumpkin 'Goianinha' showed low graft take percentages of 66%, 62% and 50%, respectively.

  2. Interactions between arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and Meloidogyne incognita in the ornamental plant Impatiens balsamina

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    J, Banuelos; A, Alarcón; J, Larsen; S, Cruz-Sánchez; D, Trejo.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Biocontrol traits of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF), in terms of single and mixed species inoculum, against the root knot nematode Meloidogyne incongita in Impatiens balsamina L., were examined with and without mineral fertilization in a greenhouse pot experiment. At harvest, 60 days after sowin [...] g, general plant growth parameters and plant defense response in terms of antioxidant activity and content of phenolic compounds in roots and leaves were measured. Also AMF root colonization and abundance ofnematode root-knots were determined. Mineral fertilization increased all plant growth parameters measured, which coincided with an increased disease development caused by M. incognita. Inoculation with AMF mitigated the observed plant growth reduction caused by M.incognita, though, higher abundance of M. incognita root knots was found in mycorrhizal plants. Plant defense responses in terms of antioxidant activity and content of phenolic compounds did not seem to be linked to the observed biocontrol traits of AMF against M. incognita. However, roots inoculated with a consortium of AMF, which presented less nematode root knots than roots with the single species inoculum, had the highest level of phenolic compounds. The results from the present study suggest that AMF induce tolerance in I. balsamina against the root knot nematode M. incognita.

  3. Resistance of sweet potato clones to meloidogyne incognita races 1 and 3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Augusto Assis Gomes

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate sweet potato clones for resistance to root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita races 1 and 3. For each nematode physiological race, a greenhouse experiment was set up in a randomized block experimental design with three replications and six plants per plot. Fifty-eight sweet potato clones from the UFVJM germplasm bank were evaluated, plus five commercial cultivars (Brazlândia Rosada, Brazlândia Branca, Palmas, Princesa and Coquinho, plus the cv. Santa Clara tomato (susceptible to Meloidogyne spp.. Stems were planted in 72-cell expanded polystyrene trays, filled with commercial substrate and inoculated with the pathogen thirty days after planting. Forty-five days after inoculation, the eggs were extracted, counted, and later evaluated. Resistance level classification was performed based on reproduction factor (RF and reproduction index (RI. Among the 63 analyzed clones, a percentage of 78% were classified as resistant to M. incognita race 1.79% to race 3 and 67% showed multiple resistance to both M. incognita races.

  4. Uso de agentes microbianos e químico para o controle de Meloidogyne incognita em soja / Use of microbial and chemical agents to control Meloidogyne incognita in soybean

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Henrique Teixeira, Nunes; Antonio Carlos, Monteiro; Alan William Vilela, Pomela.

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Nematoides de galhas constituem importante grupo de patógenos da cultura da soja e o manejo integrado é uma das principais medidas de controle que visam à redução de perdas econômicas. Neste trabalho foi avaliada a eficácia dos fungos Paecilomyces lilacinus (Thom.) Samsom e Pochonia chlamydosporia ( [...] Goddard) Zare & Gams (sinonímia Verticillium chlamydosporium), de um produto comercial à base de Bacillus sp. (Nemix) e do nematicida químico Aldicarb no controle de Meloidogyne incognita em soja, variedade M-SOY 6101. O experimento foi realizado em casa-de-vegetação no delineamento experimental de blocos casualizados com nove tratamentos (três produtos biológicos usados no tratamento de sementes com ou sem a aplicação em pós-emergência, Aldicarb aplicado apenas em pós-emergência e duas testemunhas) e quatro repetições. Aldicarb reduziu o número de ovos e de juvenis do nematoide. P. lilacinus foi o mais atuante dos agentes biológicos, favorecendo a manutenção da quantidade de matéria seca da raiz de soja e reduzindo o número de ovos. O produto Nemix e P. chlamydosporia somente tiveram ação efetiva na redução do número de ovos do nematoide. Com base nos resultados, foi possível concluir que o agente químico e os agentes biológicos avaliados neste trabalho tiveram moderada atividade no controle de M. incognita em soja. Abstract in english Root-knot nematodes are considered significant pathogens of soybean crops. The objective of this work was to evaluate the efficacy of two fungi (Paecilomyces lilacinus (Thom.) Samsom and Pochonia chlamydosporia (Goddard) Zare & Gams (syn. Verticillium chlamydosporium), a commercial product based on [...] Bacillus sp. and Aldicarb on the control of Meloidogyne incognita on soybean, cultivar M-SOY 6101. The experimental design was set as randomized blocks with four replications. Nine treatments were evaluated: three biological agents used for seed treatment with and without post-emergence application, Aldicarb on post-emergence only, and two controls. All treatments were inoculated with the nematode, except for a blank control where only water was applied. One control-only treated with the nematode was also included. Aldicarb could reduce the number of eggs and juveniles in the roots. P. lilacinus showed the best performance among the biological control agents, reducing the number of eggs and increasing dry root weight. Nemix, a Bacillus sp. based commercial product and P. chlamydosporia could only reduce significantly the number of eggs of the nematode. In this work, it was possible to conclude that the chemical and biological agents showed a moderate activity in the control of M. incognita in soybean.

  5. Seleção de clones de batata-doce resistentes a Meloidogyne incognita raça 1 / Selection of sweetpotato clones resistant to Meloidogyne incognita race 1

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Aline, Marchese; Wilson Roberto, Maluf; Álvaro Carlos, Gonçalves Neto; Ranoel José de Sousa, Gonçalves; Luiz Antonio Augusto, Gomes.

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi selecionar clones de batata-doce (Ipomoea batatas) resistentes à raça 1 de Meloidogyne incognita e avaliar a eficiência do método de seleção empregado, pela estimação dos coeficientes de variação genética e ambiental e das herdabilidades no sentido amplo. Foram utilizad [...] os 123 genótipos de batata-doce, entre os quais quatro cultivares comerciais - Brazlândia Rosada, Brazlândia Roxa, Brazlândia Branca e Palmas -, e 119 acessos previamente selecionados no programa de melhoramento vegetal da Universidade Federal de Lavras. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o de blocos aumentados, com três tratamentos comuns: as cultivares de batata-doce Brazlândia Branca e Palmas, e a cultivar de tomate Santa Clara, suscetível ao nematoide. A classificação dos níveis de resistência foi realizada de acordo com o fator de reprodução do nematoide e o índice de reprodução relativo à cultivar Santa Clara, de tomateiro. A relação entre os coeficientes de variação genética e ambiental e as herdabilidades no sentido amplo foram altas, tanto para o fator de reprodução quanto para o índice de reprodução dos nematoides, o que demonstra a eficiência do método empregado para a seleção de genótipos resistentes. Foram identificados 57 genótipos promissores de batata-doce, resistentes à raça 1 de M. incognita, e selecionados para continuar no programa de melhoramento. Abstract in english The objective of this work was to select sweetpotato (Ipomoea batatas) resistant clones to Meloidogyne incognita race 1, and to assess the efficiency of the selection method deployed, through the estimation of genetic and environmental coefficients of variation, and broad-sense heritabilities. Genot [...] ypes assessed comprised 123 sweetpotato entries altogether, including four commercial cultivars - Brazlândia Rosada, Brazlândia Roxa, Brazlândia Branca, Palmas - and 119 clones previously selected by the Universidade Federal de Lavras sweetpotato breeding program. The experimental setup was a an augmented block design, using three common treatments: the sweetpotato cultivars Brazlândia branca and Palmas, and the nematode-susceptible tomato cultivar Santa Clara. Nematode resistance levels were defined both by the nematode reproduction factor and by the nematode reproduction index relative to tomato cv. Santa Clara. The ratio between genetic and environmental coefficients of variation and the broad-sense heritability estimates were high, for both nematodes reproduction factor and reproduction index, indicating that the selection method deployed was efficient for the selection of resistant genotypes. Fifty-seven sweetpotato clones were identified as resistant to M. incognita race 1, and selected to continue in the sweetpotato breeding program.

  6. Seleção de clones de batata-doce resistentes a Meloidogyne incognita raça 1 Selection of sweetpotato clones resistant to Meloidogyne incognita race 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Marchese

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi selecionar clones de batata-doce (Ipomoea batatas resistentes à raça 1 de Meloidogyne incognita e avaliar a eficiência do método de seleção empregado, pela estimação dos coeficientes de variação genética e ambiental e das herdabilidades no sentido amplo. Foram utilizados 123 genótipos de batata-doce, entre os quais quatro cultivares comerciais - Brazlândia Rosada, Brazlândia Roxa, Brazlândia Branca e Palmas -, e 119 acessos previamente selecionados no programa de melhoramento vegetal da Universidade Federal de Lavras. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o de blocos aumentados, com três tratamentos comuns: as cultivares de batata-doce Brazlândia Branca e Palmas, e a cultivar de tomate Santa Clara, suscetível ao nematoide. A classificação dos níveis de resistência foi realizada de acordo com o fator de reprodução do nematoide e o índice de reprodução relativo à cultivar Santa Clara, de tomateiro. A relação entre os coeficientes de variação genética e ambiental e as herdabilidades no sentido amplo foram altas, tanto para o fator de reprodução quanto para o índice de reprodução dos nematoides, o que demonstra a eficiência do método empregado para a seleção de genótipos resistentes. Foram identificados 57 genótipos promissores de batata-doce, resistentes à raça 1 de M. incognita, e selecionados para continuar no programa de melhoramento.The objective of this work was to select sweetpotato (Ipomoea batatas resistant clones to Meloidogyne incognita race 1, and to assess the efficiency of the selection method deployed, through the estimation of genetic and environmental coefficients of variation, and broad-sense heritabilities. Genotypes assessed comprised 123 sweetpotato entries altogether, including four commercial cultivars - Brazlândia Rosada, Brazlândia Roxa, Brazlândia Branca, Palmas - and 119 clones previously selected by the Universidade Federal de Lavras sweetpotato breeding program. The experimental setup was a an augmented block design, using three common treatments: the sweetpotato cultivars Brazlândia branca and Palmas, and the nematode-susceptible tomato cultivar Santa Clara. Nematode resistance levels were defined both by the nematode reproduction factor and by the nematode reproduction index relative to tomato cv. Santa Clara. The ratio between genetic and environmental coefficients of variation and the broad-sense heritability estimates were high, for both nematodes reproduction factor and reproduction index, indicating that the selection method deployed was efficient for the selection of resistant genotypes. Fifty-seven sweetpotato clones were identified as resistant to M. incognita race 1, and selected to continue in the sweetpotato breeding program.

  7. COMPORTAMIENTO DE GENOTIPOS DE LA FAMILIA SOLANACEAE FRENTE A Meloidogyne incognita (KOFOID Y WHITE) CHITWOOD1 / BEHAVIOUR OF GENOTYPES FROM SOLANACEA FAMILY IN FRONT TO Meloidogyne incognita (KOFOID Y WHITE) CHITWOOD1

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Mayra G, Rodríguez; Lucila, Gómez; Farah M, González; Yudines, Carrillo; Maite, Piñón; Olimpia, Gómez; A.S, Casanova; Martha, Álvarez; Belkis, Peteira.

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Los nematodos formadores de agallas (Meloidogyne spp.) constituyen factores limitantes de los rendimientos en la producción de hortalizas en campo abierto y casas de cultivo, donde el tomate (Solanum lycopersicum L. (ex Lycopersicon esculentum Mill)) representa un buen hospedante de estos nematodos. [...] Para manejar las poblaciones de estos organismos, entre otras tácticas se hace uso de genotipos resistentes o se acude al injerto herbáceo para obtener resultados productivos favorables, resultando necesaria la evaluación de los genotipos a emplear frente a poblaciones nativas, pues se sabe que la resistencia puede ser quebrada por factores tales como la virulencia de la población de Meloidogyne. El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar el comportamiento de líneas, híbridos y variedades de tomate ante una población nativa de M. incognita raza 2, como elemento básico del programa de injerto herbáceo que se desarrolla en Cuba para contar con alternativas al bromuro de metilo. Se inocularon 10 plantas por genotipo, con 1,5 huevos/juveniles.g de suelo-1 y se evaluaron a los 60 días, determinándose el Índice de Agallamiento (IA), Factor de Reproducción (FR) e índice de reproducción (IR). Los cultivares evaluados fueron Lycopersicon peruvianum acc. B6-140; Physalis ixocarpa acc. B6236; Lycopersicon pimpinelifolium acc. Mex 121-A; las variedades/híbridos de S. lycopersicum var. cerasiforme, Vyta, Mariela, Amalia, HC 3880 y HA 3019; el híbrido inter-específico Lycopersicon hirsutum x L. esculentum, Solanum torvum y los híbridos de tomate T-1x14, T-1x15, T-2x16 y LTM. Resultó inmune L. hirsutum x L. esculentum y muy resistentes S. torvum y L. peruvianum. Por su parte, P. ixocarpa se comportó como moderadamente resistente y el resto de los materiales evaluados fueron susceptibles a la población cubana de M. incognita raza 2. Abstract in english The root knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp.) are limiting factors for yields of vegetables in open areas and crops under shelter conditions, where tomato Solanum lycopersicon L. (ex Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) represents a very good host for these nematodes. For population management of this pest, [...] resistance and graffing are used, among other tactics, to obtain good productive results, but it is necessary to evaluated the resistance of genotypes to native populations, since as it is know resistancemay be broken by factors like virulence of Meloidogyne population. The objective of this study was to determine the behaviour of tomato lines hybrids and varieties to native population of M. incognita race 2, as a basic element for the graffting program being develop in Cuba as an alternative to methyl bromide. Ten plants per genotype were inoculated with 1,5 eggs/juvenils.g of soil-1 and evaluated after 60 days to determined the Root Galling Index (IA), the Reproduction Factor (FR) and the Reproduction Index (IR). The cultivars evaluated were Lycopersicon peruvianum acc. B6-140; Physalis ixocarpa acc. B6236; Lycopersicon pimpinellifolium acc. Mex 121-A; the following varieties/hybrids of Solanum lycopersicum var. ceraciforme, Vyta, Mariela, Amalia, HC 3880 and HA 3019; the interespecific hybrid Lycopersicon hirsutum x L. esculentum, Solanum torvum and the tomato hybrids T-1x14, T-1x15, T-2x16 and LTM. The interespecific hybrid L. hirsutum x L. esculentum was immune, whereas S. torvum and L. peruvianum were very resistant. In other hand, P. ixocarpa behaved as moderately resistant and the rest of genotypes were susceptibles to the Cuban population of M. incognita race 2.

  8. Host Status of Herbaceous Perennials to Meloidogyne incognita and M. arenaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, J T; Melin, J B

    1998-12-01

    Twenty-two different herbaceous perennials were studied for their reaction to separate inoculations of Meloidogyne arenaria and M. incognita under greenhouse conditions. Perennial taxa that did not develop root-galls following inoculation, and therefore are considered as nonhosts of both nematode species, included species and cultivars of Aethionema, Fragaria, Phlox, and Polygonum. Echinacea, Monarda, and Patrinia developed only a few galls. Root-galls developed on species and cultivars of Achillea, Geranium, Heuchera, Heucherella, Linaria, Nepeta, Nierembergia, Penstemon, and Salvia. There was no difference in the number of root-galls caused by M. arenaria or M. incognita on most plants except for Penstemon cultivars. Plant heights and dry weights varied between species and nematode density. PMID:19274254

  9. Effects of a Resistant Corn Hybrid and Fenamiphos on Meloidogyne incognita in a Corn-Squash Rotation

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, A.W.; Sumner, D.R.; Windham, G. L.; Williams, W. P.

    1999-01-01

    The efficacy of a double-cross corn (Zea mays) hybrid (Old Raccoon selection X T216) X (Tebeau selection X Mp 307) resistant to Meloidogyne incognita as a rotational crop, and fenamiphos treatment for management of root-knot nematode (M. incognita race 1) in squash (Cucurbita pepo var. melopepo) was evaluated in field tests during 1996 and 1997. Numbers of M. incognita in the soil and root-gall indices were lower on the resistant hybrid than on a commercial cultivar DeKalb DK-683. Treatment m...

  10. Recovery and Longevity of Egg Masses of Meloidogyne incognita during Simulated Winter Survival

    OpenAIRE

    Starr, J. L.

    1993-01-01

    Effects of soil matrix potential on longevity of egg masses of Meloidogyne incognita were determined during simulated winter conditions. Egg masses were recovered from isolated root fragments incubated in field soil at matrix potentials of -0.1, -0.3, -1.0, and -4.0 bars throughout winter survival periods of 10 weeks for tomato roots and 12 weeks for cotton roots. Egg masses were more superficial on cotton roots than on tomato roots and were more easily dislodged from cotton roots during reco...

  11. Resistance of Commercial Tomato Cultivars to Meloidogyne arenaria and M. incognita

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donggeun Kim

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp. are among the main pathogens of greenhouse crops worldwide. Plant resistance is currently the method of choice for controlling these pests. To select resistant tomato against two common species of root-knot nematodes, M. incognita and M. arenaria, 36 commercial tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. cultivars were screened. Seventeen tomato cultivars were resistant to both root-knot nematodes: six in cherry tomato, ‘Tenten’, ‘Cadillac’, ‘Cutti’, ‘Sweet’, ‘Ppotto’, ‘Lycopin-9’, eight in globe tomato, ‘Lovely 240’, ‘Dotaerang Dia’, ‘Cupirang’, ‘Dotaerang Master’, ‘Super Dotaerang’, ‘Dotaerang Season’, ‘Miroku’, ‘Hoyong’, and three in root stock, ‘Special’, ‘Fighting’, and ‘Magnet’.

  12. Carbon Partitioning in Soybean Infected with Meloidogyne incognita and M. javanica

    OpenAIRE

    Carneiro, R.G.; P. MAZZAFERA; L.C.C.B. FERRAZ

    1999-01-01

    Seven-day-old seedlings of two cultivars (Cristalina and UFV ITM1) of Glycine max were inoculated with 0, 3,000, 9,000, or 27,000 eggs of Meloidogyne incognita race 3 or M. javanica and maintained in a greenhouse. Thirty days later, plants were exposed to ¹?CO? for 4 hours. Twenty hours after ¹?CO? exposure, the root fresh weight, leaf dry weight, nematode eggs per gram of root, total and specific radioactivity of carbohydrates in roots, and root carbohydrate content were evaluated. Meloidogy...

  13. Resistance of Commercial Tomato Cultivars to Meloidogyne arenaria and M. incognita

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donggeun Kim

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp. are among the main pathogens of greenhouse crops worldwide.Plant resistance is currently the method of choice for controlling these pests. To select resistant tomato againsttwo common species of root-knot nematodes, M. incognita and M. arenaria, 36 commercial tomato(Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. cultivars were screened. Seventeen tomato cultivars were resistant to bothroot-knot nematodes: six in cherry tomato, ‘Tenten’, ‘Cadillac’, ‘Cutti’, ‘Sweet’, ‘Ppotto’, ‘Lycopin-9’, eightin globe tomato, ‘Lovely 240’, ‘Dotaerang Dia’, ‘Cupirang’, ‘Dotaerang Master’, ‘Super Dotaerang’,‘Dotaerang Season’, ‘Miroku’, ‘Hoyong’, and three in root stock, ‘Special’, ‘Fighting’, and ‘Magnet’.

  14. Reproduction of Meloidogyne arenaria, M. incognita, and M. javanica on Sesame

    OpenAIRE

    Starr, J L; Black, M.C.

    1995-01-01

    Reproduction of Meloidogyne arenaria race 1, M. ineognita races 1 and 3, and M. javanica on 10 cultivars of sesame (Sesame indicum) was examined in greenhouse tests. Sesame cultivars were also evaluated in a field infested with M. arenaria. Sesame was a poor host for M. incognita races 1 and 3 as no sesame genotype supported more than 70 eggs/g root. Reproduction of M. arenaria race 1 on sesame varied from 20 eggs/g roots for cultivar Sesaco 7CB to 1,570 eggs/g roots for Sesaco 119 in the gre...

  15. Resistência do Abacaxizeiro 'Turiaçu' a Meloidogyne arenaria, M. enterolobii, M. incognita e M. javanica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilson Soares da Silva

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho avaliou-se, em condições de casa de vegetação, a reação do abacaxizeiro 'Turiaçu' [Ananas comosus (L. Merril 'Turiaçu'] a Meloidogyne arenaria, M. enterolobii, M. incognita e M. javanica. Mudas tipo filhote foram plantadas em vasos com capacidade de 3L contendo solo autoclavado. Quando as mudas apresentaram raízes desenvolvidas, foram inoculadas com 5000 ovos de cada espécie do nematoide, separadamente. Foi adotado um delineamento inteiramente casualizado com dez repetições. Cento e cinquenta dias após a inoculação, as plantas foram avaliadas quanto ao fator de reprodução do nematoide (FR=população final/população inicial. O abacaxizeiro 'Turiaçu' mostrou-se altamente resistente às quatro espécies de Meloidogyne, com fatores de reprodução variando entre 0,00 a 0,03.

  16. Resistance induction for Meloidogyne incognita in sugarcane through mineral organic fertilizers

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Andréa, Chaves; Elvira Maria Régis, Pedrosa; Rejane Magalhães de Mendonça, Pimentel; Rildo Sartori Barbosa, Coelho; Lílian Margarete Paes, Guimarães; Sandra Roberta Vaz Lira, Maranhão.

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo investigou, em condições de casa de vegetação, os efeitos de três complexos organo-minerais (Coda Radimax, Coda Humus-PK e Coda Vit) na indução de resistência a Meloidogyne incognita em três variedades: RB92579, RB863129, RB867515 de cana-de-açúcar (Saccharum sp.), considerando-se a repr [...] odução do nematóide, desenvolvimento das plantas e anatomia das raízes, com ênfase a diferenças na deposição de lignina e proporções do córtex e cilindro vascular. As avaliações foram efetuadas 90 dias após a inoculação com 5000 ovos de M. incognita por planta. Em relação à testemunha, Coda Radimax reduziu significativamente o número final de ovos por sistema radicular em todas as variedades. Coda Humus-PK e Coda Vit se mostraram eficientes em diminuir a densidade de ovos em RB867515, mas não em RB863129. Todos os compostos testados não afetaram o diâmetro do colmo, peso da biomassa seca da parte aérea e número de perfilho. Coda Radimax aumentou significativamente o número de colmos em RB92579 e a biomassa fresca da parte aérea em RB863129 e RB92579. Coda Humus-PK aumentou significativamente a altura da planta em RB92579 e a biomassa fresca da parte aérea em RB92579 e RB867515, enquanto Coda Vit afetou, significativamente, a biomassa fresca da parte aérea e raízes de RB863129. Fundamentando-se nas sessões transversais obtidas das raízes de cada variedade de cana observada sob microscópio ótico, não ocorreram modificações anatômicas significativas nos tecidos inoculados com M. incognita em relação aos tecidos sadios. Abstract in english The effects of Coda Radimax (CR), Coda Humus-PK (CH) and Coda Vit (CV) on the induction of resistance for Meloidogyne incognita in sugarcane (Saccharum sp.) varieties (RB92579, RB863129, RB867515) through nematode reproduction, plant development and root anatomy analysis, emphasizing the differences [...] of the lignin deposition, and cortex-vascular cylinder proportions were investigated. In 90 days after inoculation with eggs of M. incognita, CR reduced the number of eggs per root system in all the sugarcane varieties; CH and CV reduced eggs density in RB867515; CR increased stalk number in RB92579 and fresh weight of shoots in RB863129 and RB92579; CH increased plant height in RB92579 and fresh weight of shoots in RB92579 and RB867515, CV affected fresh weigh of shoots and roots of RB863129. All the tested compounds did not affect stalk diameter, number and dry weight of shoots. Cross-sections of roots showed no anatomical changes in the M. incognita inoculated tissues.

  17. Efecto del Vermicompost y Quitina sobre el control de meloidogyne incognita en tomate a nivel de invernadero / Effect of vermicompost and chitin on the control of Meloidogyne incognita in greenhouse tomato

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Leida, Castro; Lorena, Flores; Lidieth, Uribe.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Meloidogyne incognita es un nematodo endoparásito sedentario, de penetración total y formador de nódulos radicales; tiene una amplia distribución geográfica y causa pérdidas agrícolas importantes. Recientemente se han utilizado abonos orgánicos y compuestos como la quitina en la supresión de plagas [...] y enfermedades de plantas. El objetivo de esta investigación fue evaluar el efecto de la aplicación de vermicompost de estiércol bovino y su enriquecimiento con quitina, sobre la infección de M. incognita en plantas de tomate var. Hayslip bajo condiciones de invernadero. Para esto se inocularon las plantas con 5000 unidades de inóculo (huevos+juveniles en segundo estado) por maceta y se compararon con controles que fueron sembrados en suelo sin enmienda orgánica o quitina. La evaluación se llevó a cabo 60 días después y se midió el peso fresco aéreo y radical, peso seco aéreo, población total de nematodos en raíz y suelo, índice de nódulos radicales (INR), índice de masas de huevos (IMH), el factor de reproducción del nematodo (FR) y recuento de grupos funcionales (hongos, bacterias y actinomicetes). La adición al suelo de vermicompost provocó un incremento en las variables peso fresco y seco foliar y peso fresco radical: a mayor porcentaje de vermicompost, mayor incremento; así mismo, la aplicación del vermicompost redujo la cantidad del nematodo en raíz y en suelo. La aplicación de quitina acentuó estos resultados, obteniéndose el menor factor de reproducción de M. Incognita, con un valor de 3,76 para la dosis de 50% vermicompost+quitina, mientras que en el testigo este factor fue de 93,20. La aplicación de quitina como enmienda única solo afectó la población de hongos en el suelo, mientras que la de actinomicetes aumentó en los tratamientos enmendados Abstract in english Meloidogyne incognita is a sedentary endoparasitic nematode, with total penetration and gall-forming; it has a wide geographical distribution and causes significant agricultural losses. Recently, organic fertilizers and compounds such as chitin have been used in the suppression of plant pests and di [...] seases. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of applying cattle manure vermicompost, and its enrichment with chitin, on the infection of M. incognita in tomato plants var. Hayslip under greenhouse conditions. For this purpose, plants were inoculated with 5000 units of eggs+second stage juveniles per pot and were compared with controls grown in soil without organic amendment or chitin. The evaluation was carried out 60 days afterwards: the shoot and root fresh weight, shoot dry weight, total population in root and soil nematodes, root knot index (INR), rate of egg masses (IMH), the nematode reproduction factor (FR) and functional-groups numbers (fungi, bacteria and actinomycetes) were measured. The addition of vermicompost to soil caused an increase in the variables of shoot fresh and dry weight and fresh root weight: the higher the percentage of vermicompost, the higher the increase; likewise, the application of vermicompost reduced the number of nematodes both in root and soil. The application of chitin accentuated these results by bringing about the lowest reproduction factor of M. incognita, with a value of 3.76 for the dose of vermicompost+50% chitin, whereas in the control this factor had a value of 93.20. The application of chitin as sole amendment affected only the soil fungi population, while the actinomycetes population nincreased in the amended treatments

  18. Efectividad de hongos nematófagos sobre Meloidogyne incognita (Kofoid y White) Chitwood en tomate en condiciones de campo, Loja, Ecuador / Effectiveness of nematophagous fungi on Meloidogyne incognita (Kofoid and White) Chitwood on tomato in field conditions in Loja, Ecuador

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Tulio F., Solano Castillo; Marcia L., Castillo Ávila; José V., Medina Medina; Elio M., del Pozo Núñez.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del presente trabajo fue determinar el efecto de varios aislamientos autóctonos de los hongos Pochonia chlamydosporia (Goddard) Zare y Gams (Hypocreales: Clavicipitaceae) y Purpureocillium lilacinum Luansa-ard et al. (Hypocreales: Ophiocordycipitaceae) en el control de Meloidogyne incogn [...] ita (Kofoid y White) Chitwood, en tomate, en condiciones de campo. Se utilizaron seis aislamientos fúngicos y un control sin aplicación, distribuidos según un diseño de bloques al azar con cuatro réplicas. Las aplicaciones de los hongos lograron reducir el índice de agallamiento por M. incognita, así como las poblaciones de juveniles infestivos (J2) en el suelo y en las raíces del cultivo, a la vez que se observó un estímulo en las variables agronómicas número de frutos, masa de los frutos y rendimiento agrícola. Estos resultados constituyen una contribución a la solución del problema de los nematodos formadores de agalla, en el cultivo del tomate en las condiciones de Loja, Ecuador, con recursos locales, no agresivos al medio ambiente. Abstract in english This work was aimed to evaluate the effect of isolates of the fungi Pochonia chlamydosporia (Goddard) Zare and Gams (Hypocreales: Clavicipitaceae) and Purpureocillium lilacinum Luansa-ard et al. (Hypocreales: Ophiocordycipitaceae) in the Meloidogyne incognita (Kofoid and White) Chitwood control in t [...] omato in field conditions. The assay comprised six fungic isolates and a control without fungi, in a ramdomized block design. In treated plants the gall index and the nematode population in roots and in the soil were reduced in comparison with the untreated plots. The number of fruits, the weight of fruits and yields were enhanced in the plots treated with the fungi. These results are a contribution to the solution of the root-knot nematode problem in the conditions of Loja, Ecuador, with local resources and no harmful to the environment.

  19. Physiological effects of Meloidogyne incognita infection on cotton genotypes with differing levels of resistance in the greenhouse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenhouse tests were conducted to evaluate 1) the effect of Meloidogyne incognita infection in cotton on plant growth and physiology including the height-to-node ratio, chlorophyll content, dark adapted quantum yield of photosystem II, and leaf area, and 2) the extent to which moderate or high leve...

  20. Dose-response effects of clove oil from Syzygium aromaticum on the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita

    Science.gov (United States)

    BACKGROUND: Clove oil, derived from the plant Syzygium aromaticum (L.) Merr. & Perry, is active against various organisms, and was prepared in a soy lecithin/detergent formulation to determine concentrations active against the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita (Kofoid and White) Chitwood. RE...

  1. Microorganismos Benéficos Asociados a Meloidogyne incognita (Kofoid y White) Chitwood en Guayabo (Psidium guajava L.) de Calvillo, Aguascalientes, México / Beneficent Microorganisms Associated to Meloidogyne incognita (Kofoid & White) Chitwood in Guava (Psidium guajava L.) of Calvillo, Aguascalientes, México

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Gabriel, Gallegos-Morales; Melchor, Cepeda-Siller; Francisco Daniel, Hernández-Castillo; Ana María, Acosta-Zamarripa; Rodolfo, Velásquez-Valle; Ernesto, González-Gaona; Juan Manuel, Sánchez-Yánez.

    Full Text Available Se identificó a Meloidogyne incognita como la especie del nematodo agallador que parásita al cultivo del guayabo, en la región de Calvillo (Aguascalientes, México). También se aisló hongos y bacterias benéficos asociados a suelo y raíces colectadas en las localidades de Cerro Blanco, Mesa Grande, La [...] Labor y Malpaso. Veinte muestras distintas de Meloidogyne sp., fueron identificadas tomando en cuenta las características de patrones perineales de las hembras adultas así como por la observación de la región anterior de los machos. La especie Meloidogyne incognita fue identificada en todas las muestras. Los microorganismos benéficos aislados y asociados a la rizósfera del guayabo con uso potencial en control biológico, pertenecen a las especies de Bacillus cereus, B. subtilis B. megaterium y Paecilomyces farinosus. Además los nematodos edáficos Rhabditis y Mononchus fueron identificados en las muestras. Abstract in english The root-knot nematode species Meloidogyne incognita was identified as the one species that parasites guava orchards in the Calvillo region (Aguascalientes, Mexico). Beneficent fungi and bacteria were isolated as well, associated to soil and roots collected from the Cerro Blanco, Mesa Grande, La Lab [...] or and Malpaso locations. Twenty different Meloidogyne sp., samples were identified taking adult female perinea pattern characteristics into account, as well as the male anterior region observation. The Meloidogyne incognita species was identified in all the samples. The isolated beneficent microorganisms and associated to guava rhizosphere with a potential use in biological control, belong to the Bacillus cereus, B. subtilis B. megaterium and Paecilomyces farinosus species. Furthermore, the Rhabditis and Mononchus soil nematodes were identified in the samples.

  2. Potential of sucrose and Pennisetum purpureum cv. Cameroon mulch on the management of Meloidogyne javanica and M. incognita

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Débora Cristina, Santiago; Martin, Homechin; Ricardo, Montalvan; Alaide Aparecida, Krzyzanowski.

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Os efeitos da sacarose sobre a motilidade e a infectividade de juvenis de Meloidogyne javanica foram avaliados em condições de laboratório e casa-de-vegetação, usando açúcar mascavo e açúcar cristal. Os resultados indicaram que as soluções de açúcar mascavo e cristal reduziram a motilidade e promove [...] ram alterações morfológicas em juvenis dos nematóides in vitro. A eficiência da sacarose em grânulos e da sacarose em solução, com e sem a cobertura com matéria vegetal de capim elefante, na redução da reprodução e da população final de M. incognita raça 2 também foi avaliada. A sacarose em grânulos diminuiu os números de galhas e massas de ovos por sistema radicular e também de juvenis no solo. Para o ensaio com sacarose em solução, os melhores resultados para a redução da reprodução foram obtidos com a dose de 300 g de sacarose por litro de solo, aplicada a intervalos de sete dias, juntamente com a cobertura do solo com cobertura de matéria verde de capim-elefante. Abstract in english The effects of sucrose on motility and infectiveness of juveniles of Meloidogyne javanica were evaluated under laboratory and greenhouse conditions, using brown sugar and crystal sugar. Results showed that crystal and brown sugar solutions reduced motility and promoted morphological alterations of j [...] uvenile nematodes in vitro. The increasing dosages of sucrose reduced the number of galls and egg masses in tomato root by reducing the number of infective juveniles. The efficiency of granular sucrose, sucrose solution, with and without elephant-grass mulch, in the reduction of reproduction and final population of M. incognita race 2, were also evaluated. Granular sucrose induced decrease on the numbers of galls and eggs masses per root system as well as on juveniles in the soil. For sucrose solution assay, the best results for reproductive reduction were obtained with 300g of granular sucrose per liter of soil, applied at seven days intervals, associated with elephant-grass mulch.

  3. Chemical Composition and Nematicidal Activity of Essential Oil of Agastache rugosa against Meloidogyne incognita

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi Wei Deng

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to determine the chemical composition and nematicidal activity of essential oil of Agastache rugosa flowering aerial parts against the root knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita, and to isolate and identify any nematicidal constituents from the essential oil. The essential oil of A. rugosa aerial parts was obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by GC-FID and GC-MS. A total of 37 components of the essential oil were identified, with the principal compounds being methyleugenol (50.51%, estragole (8.55%, and eugenol (7.54%, followed by thymol (3.62%, pulegone (2.56%, limonene (2.49% and caryophyllene (2.38%. Based on bioactivity-guided fractionation, the three active constituents were isolated from the essential oil and identified as methyleugenol, estragole and eugenol. The essential oil of A. rugosa exhibited strong nematicidal activity against M. incognita, with a LC50 value of 47.3 ?g/mL. The components eugenol (LC50 = 66.6 ?g/mL and methyleugenol (LC50 = 89.4 ?g/mL exhibited stronger nematicidal activity against M. incognita (LC50 = 185.9 ?g/mL. The results indicate that the essential oil of A. rugosa aerial parts and its constituent compounds have potential for development into natural nematicides for control of the root knot nematode.

  4. Evaluation of Nicotiana otophora as a Source of Resistance to Meloidogyne incognita Race 4 for Tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, S M; Schneider, S M

    1992-06-01

    No currently available tobacco cultivar possesses resistance to Meloidogyne incognita race 4, nor has any source of resistance been reported within Nicotiana tabacum. The purpose of this study was to evaluate N. otophora acc. La Quinta as a source of resistance to this pathogen. Plants of tobacco cvs. NC 95 and NC 2326, N. otophora La Quinta and N. repanda were inoculated with second-stage juveniles of M. incognita race 4. Gall indices and egg-mass ratings were assessed at 4 and 8 weeks after inoculation. The two N. tabacum cultivars were heavily galled and had numerous egg masses at both rating periods. Nicotiana repanda was only weakly resistant. The galls on this species were very small and present at a low to moderate level; however, egg-mass ratings approaching those of the tobacco cultivars were observed 8 weeks after inoculation. In contrast, low gall indices and egg-mass ratings were found for N. otophora La Quinta at both the 4- and 8-week rating periods. In addition, little variability was observed within this species for either disease rating. Therefore, it appears that the La Quinta accession of N. otophora is a very promising source of M. incognita race 4 resistance for transfer to N. tabacum. PMID:19282991

  5. Effect of Crop Rotation on Meloidogyne spp. and Pratylenchus spp. Populations in Strawberry Fields in Taiwan

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, P.; Tsay, T. T.

    2006-01-01

    Changes in population levels of Meloidogyne hapla, M. incognita, Pratylenchus coffeae, and P. penetrans were studied in 12 strawberry fields in the Dahu region of Taiwan. Ten potential rotation crops and two cultural practices were evaluated for their effect on nematode populations and influence on strawberry yield. Rotation with rice or taro and the cultural practice of flooding and bare fallowing for four months were found to reduce nematode soil populations to two or fewer nematodes per 10...

  6. Elucidating the molecular bases of epigenetic inheritance in non-model invertebrates: the case of the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita

    OpenAIRE

    LaetitiaPerfus-Barbeoch; MichaelReichelt; ChristophGrunau

    2014-01-01

    Root-knot nematodes of the genus Meloidogyne are biotrophic plant parasites that exhibit different reproduction modes, ranging from classical amphimixis to obligatory mitotic parthenogenesis (apomixis), depending on the species. Meloidogyne incognita, an apomictic species, exhibits a worldwide distribution and a wide host range affecting more than 3,000 plant species. Furthermore, evidences suggest that apomixis does not prevent M. incognita from adapting to its environment in contrast to wha...

  7. Histopathological Studies of Eggplant Roots as Affected by IAA, Agrobacterium tumefaciens and Meloidogyne incognita Alone and in Combinations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed A. Elwakil

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The anatomy of eggplant roots as affected by the application of IAA, Agrobacterium tumefaciens and Meloidogyne incognita alone and in combination was studied. IAA and A. tumefaciens, alone and in combination increased the root diameter, cortex thickness, number of cortex layers, stele diameter, number of xylem vessels but decreased the vessel diameter. Inoculation with M. incognita led to the formation of multinucleated giant cells surrounded by deformed xylem elements, hypertrophy of the cortex and hyperplasia of the pericycle. More giant cells with higher dimensions were formed and more eggs/egg mass were produced in plants where IAA, A. tumefaciens alone or in combination was introduced with M. incognita. On the other hand, the presence of IAA, A. tumefaciens or their combination extended the life-span of giant cells, providing long-lasting feeding sites for the nematode. The auxin-mediated role of A. tumefaciens in development and reproduction of M. incognita was discussed.

  8. Morphological and Molecular Evaluation of a Meloidogyne hapla Population Damaging Coffee (Coffea arabica) in Maui, Hawaii

    OpenAIRE

    Handoo, Z.A.; Skantar, A. M.; Carta, L.K.; Schmitt, D. P.

    2005-01-01

    An unusual population of Meloidogyne hapla, earlier thought to be an undescribed species, was found causing large galls, without adventitious roots, and substantial damage to coffee in Maui, Hawaii. Only in Brazil had similar damage to coffee been reported by this species. Unlike M. exigua from South and Central America, this population reproduced well on coffee cv. Mokka and M. incognita-susceptible tomato but poorly on tomato with the Mi resistance gene. Characterization included SEM images...

  9. Registro da ocorrência de Meloidogyne incognita no porta-enxerto 'IAC 766-Campinas' no estado de Pernambuco e reação de porta-enxertos e de cultivares copa de videira a Meloidogyne spp. / Meloidogyne incognita report on 'IAC 766-Campinas' rootstock in the state of Pernambuco and reaction of grape rootstocks and cultivars to Meloidogyne spp.

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Lúcia, Somavilla; Cesar Bauer, Gomes; Vera Maria, Quecini.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Relata-se a ocorrência de Meloidogyne incognita (Est. I2) em pomar de videira na cidade de Petrolina, Pernambuco. Plantas da cultivar Festival enxertadas sobre 'IAC 766-Campinas', atacadas por Meloidogyne incognita, apresentavam sintomas de menor vigor, folhas amarelecidas e folhagem mais esparsa, e [...] raízes com numerosas galhas em meio ao cultivo de feijão-de-porco (Canavalia ensiformis), também atacado pelo nematoide. Com o objetivo de avaliar a resistência de quatro porta-enxertos tropicais, oito de clima temperado, e as cultivares Niágara Rosada e Chardonnay quanto à reação a M. incognita e M. arenaria, em casa de vegetação, realizou-se este trabalho. Mudas das videiras, mantidas em vaso com solo esterilizado, foram inoculadas com 10.000 ovos + J2 de M. incognita ou M. arenaria por planta. Decorridos oito meses da inoculação, cada planta foi avaliada quanto ao número de galhas e número de ovos por planta, determinando-se, a seguir, o fator de reprodução de cada espécie do nematoide (FR=população inicial/população final) nos diferentes materiais testados. Entre os porta-enxertos avaliados, 'Harmony', 'Salt Creek', '1103 Paulsen', 'IAC 572-Jales', 'IAC 313-Tropical', 'K5BB Kober' e 'SO4', foram resistentes (FR1,00) ao nematoide. No entanto, ambas as cultivares copa foram suscetíveis às duas espécies de Meloidogyne testadas. Abstract in english The occurrence of root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita (Est. I2) is reported in grapevine in Petrolina municipality, State of Pernambuco. Grape plants of Festival cultivar grafted on the 'IAC 766 - Campinas' rootstock attacked by M. incognita exhibited symptoms of less vigorous growth, yellowing [...] and sparse leaves and multiple galls in the root system in an area cultivated with jack-bean (Canavalia ensiformis) also infected by the same nematode. In order to evaluate resistance of four tropical rootstocks, eight temperate and two cultivars Chardonnay and Niagara Rosada in reaction to M. incognita and M. arenaria, this study was carried out. Seedlings of the investigated grapevine genotypes were maintained in pots with sterilized soil and subsequently inoculated with 10,000 eggs + J2 of M. incognita or M. arenaria per plant in a six replicate design. Eight months after nematode inoculation, each plant was evaluated by counting gall and eggs. The final number of eggs (FP) of each Meloidogyne specie was calculated and the reproductive factor (RF = FP/IP), determined. Among the tested rootstocks, 'Harmony', 'Salt Creek', '1103 Paulsen', 'IAC 572-Jales', 'IAC 313-Tropical', 'K5BB Kober', 'SO4' , were resistant (RF1.00) to M. arenaria. In contrast, both tested grapevine scion cultivars were susceptible to the investigated Meloidogyne species.

  10. Reação de genótipos de milho ao parasitismo de Meloidogyne incognita raça 1 e a M. paranaensis / Reaction of corn genotypes to parasitism from Meloidogyne incognita breed 1and M. paranaensis

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ricardo Michael, Levy; Martin, Homechin; Débora Cristina, Santiago; Marina Capparelli, Cadioli; Fernando César, Baida.

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available O uso de híbridos e genótipos de milho resistentes aos nematóides formadores de galhas em sistemas de rotação de culturas mantém sua população em níveis baixos, diminuindo as perdas e possibilitando, posteriormente, o uso de genótipos mais suscetíveis. No presente trabalho, foi avaliada a resistênci [...] a de 18 genótipos de milho ao parasitismo de M. paranaensis e a M. incognita raça 1 em casa-de-vegetação. As plantas foram inoculadas com 5.000 ovos e eventuais juvenis dos respectivos nematóides. O delineamento utilizado foi inteiramente ao acaso, com dez repetições para cada tratamento com os nematóides e cinco repetições para a testemunha sem inoculação. Também foi realizada a técnica de coloração das raízes com fucsina ácida, pelo método de Byrd et al. (1972). Sessenta dias após a inoculação, os sistemas radiculares foram coletados, lavados e avaliados quanto à penetração, produção de ovos e estimativa do Fator de Reprodução (FR). Os resultados mostraram que, para M. paranaensis, o FR variou de 0,01 a 0,08; para M. incognita, a variação foi de 0,01 a 0,03, mostrando que todos os genótipos se comportaram como resistentes, apresentando FR Abstract in english The use of corn hybrids and genotypes resistant to root-knot nematodes in crop rotation systems reduce the population of nematodes, preventing losses and allowing for the use of more susceptible genotypes. In this study, the resistance of eighteen hybrids of corn to parasitism of Meloidogyne paranae [...] nsis and M. incognita breed 1 were evaluated in a greenhouse. The plants were inoculated with 5,000 eggs and possible juveniles of each nematode in a completely randomized design, using ten replicates for each treatment with nematodes, and five replicates for the treatment without inoculation (control). The root staining technique using acid fuchsin was also applied, according to Byrd et al. (1972). Sixty days after the inoculation, the roots systems were collected, washed and evaluated for penetration, egg production and estimated reproduction factor (RF). The results showed that, for M. paranaensis, the RF varied from 0.01 to 0.08, while for M. incognita the variation was from 0.01 to 0.03, showing that all corn genotypes were resistant, presenting a RF

  11. Effects of insect cadavers infected by Heterorhabditis bacteriophora and Steinernema diaprepesi on Meloidogyne incognita parasitism in pepper and summer squash plants / Efecto de insectos cadáveres infectados por Heterorhabditis bacteriophora y Steinernema diaprepesi sobre el parasitismo de Meloidogyne incognita en plantas de pimiento y zapallito redondo de tronco

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Eleodoro E, Del Valle; Paola, Lax; Juan, Rondán Dueñas; Marcelo E, Doucet.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available E.E. Del Valle, P. Lax, J. Rondán Dueñas y M.E. Doucet. 2013. Efecto de insectos cadáveres infectados por Heterorhabditis bacteriophora y Steinernema diaprepesi sobre el parasitismo de Meloidogyne incognita en plantas de pimiento y zapallito redondo de tronco. Cien. Inv. Agr. 40(1):109-118. El efect [...] o de cadáveres de insectos infectados con tres aislados de Heterorhabditis bacteriophora y un aislado de Steinernema diaprepesi sobre una población de Meloidogyne incognita en plantas de pimiento (Capsicum annuum) y zapallito redondo de tronco (Cucurbita maxima) fue evaluado en experiencias de invernadero conducidas en Santa Fe (Argentina). Los cadáveres de insectos necesarios para la experiencia se obtuvieron infectando larvas de último estadio de Galleria mellonella y Tenebrio monitor con nematodos entomopatógenos. Dos cadáveres de seis días de infección se colocaron debajo de la superficie del suelo de macetas que fueron inoculadas con 100 juveniles de segundo estadio de M. incognita. A los sesenta días se registraron los siguientes parámetros en cada planta: número de hojas, peso seco de la parte aérea, número de agallas, masas de huevos y huevos, y número de agallas, masas de huevos y huevos g-1 de materia fresca radical. En pimiento, la única variable afectada por los cadáveres en relación al testigo fue el número de huevos de M. incognita en el tratamiento de cadáveres de T. molitor infectados con H. bacteriophora aislado Rama Caída. En zapallito redondo de tronco, varios tratamientos provocaron una disminución en el número de agallas y masas de huevos. Sólo la aplicación de cadáveres de G. mellonella infectados con H. bacteriophora aislado Rama Caída demostró ser eficiente en reducir el número de huevos de M. incognita. Nuestros resultados indicaron que la aplicación de cadáveres de insectos infectados con los nematodos entomopatógenos estudiados podría reducir los daños causados por M. incognita en plantas de pimiento y zapallito redondo de tronco. Abstract in english E. E. Del Valle, P. Lax, J. Rondán Dueñas, and M. E. Doucet. 2013. Effects of insect cadavers infected by Heterorhabditis bacteriophora and Steinernema diaprepesi on Meloidogyne incognita parasitism in pepper and summer squash plants. Cien. Inv. Agr. 40(1):109-118. The effects of insect cadavers inf [...] ected with three isolates of Heterorhabditis bacteriophora and one isolate of Steinernema diaprepesi on a population of Meloidogyne incognita in pepper (Capsicum annuum) and summer squash (Cucurbita maxima) were evaluated in greenhouse experiments carried out in Santa Fe (Argentina). Insect cadavers were obtained for the experiments from last instar larvae of Galleria mellonella and Tenebrio molitor that had been infected with entomopathogenic nematodes. Two six-day-old insect cadavers per pot were placed below the soil surface, and the soil was inoculated with 100 second-stage juveniles ofM incognita. Sixty days after inoculation, the following parameters were recorded for each plant: number of leaves; dry weight of aerial parts; numbers of galls, egg masses and eggs; and numbers of galls, egg masses and eggs g-1 of root fresh matter. In pepper, the only variable affected by the infected cadavers with respect to control was the number of eggs in the treatment involving T. molitor cadavers infected with the H. bacteriophora isolate Rama Caída. In summer squash, several treatments using infected cadavers resulted in a decrease in the numbers of galls and egg masses. Only the treatment involving G. mellonella cadavers infected with the H. bacteriophora isolate Rama Caída proved to be efficient in reducing the number of M. incognita eggs. Our results indicated that the application of insect cadavers infected with the entomopathogenic nematodes studied might reduce M. incognita damage in pepper and summer squash plants.

  12. Rotations with Coastal Bermudagrass and Fallow for Management of Meloidogyne incognita and Soilborne Fungi on Vegetable Crops

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, A.W.; Burton, G W; Wilson, J. P.; Golden, A. M.

    1995-01-01

    The efficacy of fallow and coastal bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon) as a rotation crop for control of root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne incognita race 1) and soilborne fungi in okra (Hibiscus esculentus cv. Emerald), squash (Cucurbita pepo cv. Dixie Hybrid), and sweet corn (Zea mays cv. Merit) was evaluated in a 3-year field trial. Numbers of M. incognita in the soil and root-gall indices were greater on okra and squash than sweet corn and declined over the years on vegetable crops following fal...

  13. Extracellular Protease of Pseudomonas fluorescens CHA0, a Biocontrol Factor with Activity against the Root-Knot Nematode Meloidogyne incognita

    OpenAIRE

    Siddiqui, Imran Ali; Haas, Dieter; Heeb, Stephan

    2005-01-01

    In Pseudomonas fluorescens CHA0, mutation of the GacA-controlled aprA gene (encoding the major extracellular protease) or the gacA regulatory gene resulted in reduced biocontrol activity against the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita during tomato and soybean infection. Culture supernatants of strain CHA0 inhibited egg hatching and induced mortality of M. incognita juveniles more strongly than did supernatants of aprA and gacA mutants, suggesting that AprA protease contributes to biocon...

  14. Presencia del marcador mi-23 de resistencia a Meloidogyne incognita como apoyo a la caracterización del germoplasma de tomate en Venezuela / Presence of marker Mi-23 for resistance to Meloidogyne incognita as support to tomato germplasm characterization in Venezuela

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Iris, Pérez-Almeida; Ariadne, Vegas García; Delis, Pérez; Julio, Muñoz; Sergei, Malyshev.

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Especies del género Meloidogyne causan daños económicamente significativos en cultivos como el tomate, induciendo agallas en las raíces y causando amarillamiento en las plantas infestadas. El empleo de cultivares resistentes garantiza una agricultura sostenible y productos de alta calidad. Se plante [...] ó el uso del marcador co-dominante Mi-23 ligado al gen de resistencia Mi-1.2, el cual confiere resistencia a Meloidogyne spp. como apoyo a la caracterización de 39 accesiones de germoplasma de tomate del INIA-CENIAP y Lara, incluyendo tomates silvestres Solanum pimpinellifolium y S. lycopersicum locales (tipo Cherry, Perita y Margariteño), poblaciones avanzadas y variedades e híbridos comerciales. El ADN se extrajo siguiendo la metodología del CTAB y las amplificaciones de PCR se realizaron con los cebadores Mi23F/R. Los materiales genéticos formaron tres grupos de acuerdo al patrón de amplificación: 1) la población 9, del INIA-Lara, con un fragmento de 400 pb, como el ADN testigo (proveniente de Belarús); 2) Cherry-Lobatera, Perita Agrovitas, poblaciones 5 y 10, Cherry-189, híbridos Mariana y Salad-F1, con dos fragmentos de 450 y 400 pb; y 3) los restantes 31 materiales, entre ellos, tomates silvestres, cultivares locales, poblaciones avanzadas o promisorias, y variedades e híbridos comerciales, con un fragmento de 450 pb. Los dos primeros grupos se pueden correlacionar con genotipos resistentes homocigotos y heterocigotos, respectivamente, y el último con genotipos susceptibles. La utilización del marcador SCAR Mi-23, ligado al gen Mi-1.2 permitió discriminar las accesiones de tomate del INIA, e identificar ocho de ellas con patrones asociados a genotipos resistentes al nematodo M. incognita, incluyendo tres poblaciones avanzadas del INIA-Lara y una local del INIA-CENIAP. Abstract in english Meloidogyne species cause economically significant damage to crops such as tomatoes, inducing galls on roots and causing yellowing of infested plants. The use of resistant cultivars ensures sustainable agriculture and high quality products. We proposed the use of co-dominant marker Mi-23, linked to [...] the resistance gene Mi-1.2, which confers resistance to Meloidogyne spp. to support the characterization of 39 accessions of tomato germplasm from INIA-CENIAP and Lara, including wild tomatoes Solanum pimpinellifolium, and S. lycopersicum local types (Cherry, Pera and Margariteño), advanced populations, and commercial hybrids and varieties. DNA was extracted following CTAB methodology, and PCR amplifications using Mi23F/R primers. Genetic materials formed three groups according to the amplification patterns: 1) population 9, from INIA-Lara, with a fragment of 400 bp, as the DNA control from Belarus; 2) Cherry-Lobatera, Perita Agrovitas, populations 5 and 10, Cherry-189, Mariana and Salad-F1 hybrids, with two fragments of 450 and 400 bp; and 3) the remaining 31 materials, among them, wild tomatoes, locals, advanced populations, and commercial varieties and hybrids, with amplification of a single 450 bp fragment. The first two groups can be correlated to homozygous and heterozygous resistance genotypes, respectively, and the last group to susceptible ones. By using the SCAR marker Mi-23, linked to gen Mi-1.2, we were able to discriminate the INIA tomatoes accessions, and identify eight of them associated with the resistance genotypes to nematode M. incognita, including three advanced populations from INIA-Lara and one local from INIA-CENIAP.

  15. Biocontrol of Meloidogyne incognita in Lycopersicon esculentum with AM Fungi and Oil Cakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anuja Bharadwaj

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently chemical pesticides are the major means to control nematode-induced diseases but they are neither economical nor ecofriendly. Alternative methods are being sought to reduce the amount of chemical pesticides required. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi have been reported to reduce the infestation of root-knot nematodes on vegetable crops. Amendment of soil with some oil cakes has been found effective. A study was conducted on exploitation of the combined effect of AM with three different oil cakes Azadirachta indica, Brassica campestris and Ricinus communis oil cakes in controlling the root knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita. Combined use of AMF and cakes resulted in reducing the galling and nematode multiplication thus improving the plant growth and yield. The best results pertaining to AM root infection, nematode reproduction and plant growth and yield were obtained with the combination of AMF and R. communis oil cake.

  16. GAMMA IRRADIATION OF SUGAR BEET SEEDS INDUCED PLANT RESISTANCE TO ROOT-KNOT NEMATODE MELOIDOGYNE INCOGNITA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main objective of this study was to investigate the effect of irradiation of sugar beet seeds on the plant resistance to root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita infection in addition to some morphological parameters, biochemical components and root technological characters. Relative to control (non-irradiated seeds), the obtained data showed that, all doses except 10 Gy significantly increased root length of un inoculated plants and the most effective dose was 200 Gy. All doses significantly decreased root diameter except 50 and 100 Gy. The 10 and 400 Gy significantly reduced root fresh weight while 50, 100 and 200 Gy caused non-significant increase. All doses significantly increased root fresh weight/dry weight than control. There was non-significant effect on the morphological parameters of the plants germinated from gamma irradiated seeds and inoculated with Meloidogyne incognita. Total chlorophyll of seed irradiated and un inoculated plants were significantly reduced by all doses except 200 Gy. All doses of gamma radiation caused non-significant decrease in the total chlorophyll of the infected plants. In un inoculated plants, a significant reduction in the total phenol was occurred due to all doses of gamma radiation. In contrast, in inoculated plants, 10 and 25 Gy caused significant reduction in the total phenol while 50 and 400 Gy caused significant increase in the total phenol.Significant increase in sucrose % was observed due to 10 Gy in the un inoculated plants. The 400 Gy caused significant decrease while other doses caused non-significant decrease in the sucrose %. In the inoculated plants, 50, 100 and 400 Gy caused significant increase in sucrose %. All doses significantly increased total soluble salts percent (TSS %) of either inoculated or un inoculated plants. Purity % was increased by all doses in the inoculated plants.The number of galls and egg masses were reduced gradually by increasing gamma doses and 100 Gy caused the highest reduction 89.5 % and 94.7 % for galls and egg masses, respectively

  17. Comportamiento de cuatro cultivares de Cucurbita maxima cv. zapallito frente al parasitismo del nematodo de las agallas Meloidogyne incognita

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    E.E, Del Valle; A.M, Guzmán; A.M, Belavi; M, Soressi.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available El nematodo de las agallas, Meloidogyne incognita, es causante de pérdidas productivas en los principales cultivos hortícolas que se realizan en el albardón costero santafesino. El objetivo de la investigación fue determinar la reacción de cuatro cultivares comerciales de zapallito redondo de tronco [...] (Cucurbita maxima cv. zapallito) frente al parasitismo de M. incognita. Las experiencias se condujeron en macetas bajo invernadero y se evaluaron los cultivares Nacional, Premier, Sais superselección y Máximo. Los tratamientos consistieron en inocular plantas de cada cultivar con 100 juveniles de segundo estadio de M. incognita y de sus correspondientes testigos no inoculados. A los 45 días de la inoculación se determinó el número de agallas, Índice de Agallas, número de masas de huevos, Índice de Masas de Huevos, número de huevos y el factor e reproducción. Los cuatro cultivares estudiados demostraron ser susceptibles a M. incognita. Abstract in english The root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita, causes yield losses in many horticultural crops in the coastal área of Santa Fe province. The aim of this research was to determine the reaction of four commercial cultivars of summer squash (Cucurbita maxima cv. zapallito) when parasitized by M. incogn [...] ita. The experiments were conducted in pots under greenhouse conditions and Nacional, Premier, Sais superselection and Máximo cultivars were evaluated. The treatments consisted of plants of each cultivar inoculated with 100 second-stage juveniles of M. incognita and its corresponding control. 45 days after inoculation the number of galls, Gall Index, number of egg masses, Eggs Mass Index, number of eggs and reproduction factor were determined. The four cultivars studied showed susceptibility to M. incognita.

  18. Cowpea-Meloidogyne incognita interaction: Root proteomic analysis during early stages of nematode infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villeth, Gabriela R C; Carmo, Lilian S T; Silva, Luciano P; Fontes, Wagner; Grynberg, Priscila; Saraiva, Mario; Brasileiro, Ana C M; Carneiro, Regina M D; Oliveira, José T A; Grossi-de-Sá, Maria F; Mehta, Angela

    2015-05-01

    Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) is an important legume species well adapted to low fertility soils and prolonged drought periods. One of the main problems that cause severe yield losses in cowpea is the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita. The aim of this work was to analyze the differential expression of proteins in the contrasting cultivars of cowpea CE 31 (highly resistant) and CE 109 (slightly resistant) during early stages of M. incognita infection. Cowpea roots were collected at 3, 6, and 9 days after inoculation and used for protein extraction and 2-DE analysis. From a total of 59 differential spots, 37 proteins were identified, mostly involved in plant defense, such as spermidine synthase, patatin, proteasome component, and nitrile-specifier protein. A follow-up study was performed by quantitative RT-PCR analysis of nine selected proteins and the results revealed a very similar upregulation trend between the protein expression profiles and the corresponding transcripts. This study also identified ACT and GAPDH as a good combination of reference genes for quantitative RT-PCR analysis of the pathosystem cowpea/nematode. Additionally, an interactome analysis showed three major pathways affected by nematode infection: proteasome endopeptidase complex, oxidative phosphorylation, and flavonoid biosynthesis. Taken together, the results obtained by proteome, transcriptome, and interactome approaches suggest that oxidative stress, ubiquitination, and glucosinolate degradation may be part of cowpea CE 31 resistance mechanisms in response to nematode infection. PMID:25736976

  19. Characterization of Streptomyces netropsis Showing a Nematicidal Activity against Meloidogyne incognita

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ja Yeong Jang

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Control of nematode has become difficult owing to the restricted use of effective soil fumigant, methyl bromide, and other non-fumigant nematicides. Therefore, it is urgently necessary to develop microbial nematicide to replace chemical nematicides. In this study, the 50% aqueous methanol extraction solution of fermentation broths of 2,700 actinomycete strains were tested for their nematicidal activity against second stage of juveniles (J2s of Meloidogyne incognita. As the results, only the 50% aqueous methanol extraction solution of AN110065, at 20% equivalent to 10% fermentation broth, showed strong nematicidal activity with 78.9% of mortality 24 h after treatment and 94.1% of mortality at 72 h. The 16S rRNA gene sequencing showed that the strain sequence was 99.78% identical to Streptomyces netropsis. The extract of S. netropsis AN110065 fermentation broth was successively partitioned with ethyl acetate and butanol and then the ethyl acetate, butanol and water layers were investigated for their nematicidal activity against the M. incognita. At 1,000 mg/ml, ethyl acetate layer showed the strongest activity of 83.5% of juvenile mortality 72 h after treatment. The pot experiment using the fermentation broth of AN110065 on tomato plant against M. incognita displayed that it evidently suppressed gall formation at a 10-fold diluent treatment. The tomato plants treated with the fermentation broth of S. netropsis AN110065 did not show any phytotoxicity. The results suggest that S. netropsis AN110065 has a potential to serve as microbial nematicide in organic agriculture.

  20. IDENTIFICACIÓN MORFOLÓGICA, MORFOMÉTRICA Y MOLECULAR DE Meloidogyne incognita EN HIGUERA (Ficus carica L. EN COSTA RICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter Peraza-Padilla

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este estudio fue identificar la especie de Meloidogyne asociada a dos plantaciones de higuera en Costa Rica. En marzo de 2012, en el distrito de Pacayas, provincia de Cartago, se detectaron agallas en los sistemas radicales de plantas de higuera (Ficus carica L. de dos fincas. De las raíces agalladas se extrajeron hembras, masas de huevos y juveniles (J2 de Meloidogyne sp. Se examinaron los patrones perineales de las hembras y los segundos estadios infectivos se analizaron morfológica y molecularmente mediante PCR-RFLP. Se amplificó la región intergénica (IGS del genoma mitocondrial, delimitada por el gen de la subunidad II de la citocromo oxidasa (COII y el gen ribosomal 16S. La población de nematodos se identificó como M. incognita. El tamaño de los productos de PCR generados con los imprimadores C2F3 y 1108 fue de 1,7 kb. Al tratar los productos de PCR con enzimas de restricción, se generaron cuatro fragmentos de 850, 450, 250 y 150 pb con la enzima AluI y dos fragmentos de 1300 y 400 pb con la enzima HinfI.

  1. Root Cortical Cell Spherical Bodies Associated with an Induced Resistance Reaction in Monoxenic Cultures of Meloidogyne incognita

    OpenAIRE

    Orion, D.; Wergin, W.P.; Chitwood, D. J.

    1995-01-01

    The root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita was monoxenically cultured on excised roots of soybean cv. Pickett and tomato cv. Rutgers in agar media containing either 0 to 1,600 ?g/ml ammonium nitrate or 0 to 100 ?g/ml urea. Observations with scanning and transmission electron microscopy indicated that an elevated concentration of ammonium nitrate or urea inhibited giant cell formation and suppressed nematode development in the infected soybean roots. In the tomato roots, concentrations of am...

  2. Brassicaceous Seed Meals as Soil Amendments to Suppress the Plant-parasitic Nematodes Pratylenchus penetrans and Meloidogyne incognita1

    OpenAIRE

    Zasada, I. A.; Meyer, S.L.F.; Morra, M. J.

    2009-01-01

    Brassicaceous seed meals are the residual materials remaining after the extraction of oil from seeds; these seed meals contain glucosinolates that potentially degrade to nematotoxic compounds upon incorporation into soil. This study compared the nematode-suppressive ability of four seed meals obtained from Brassica juncea ‘Pacific Gold’, B. napus ‘Dwarf Essex’ and ‘Sunrise’, and Sinapis alba ‘IdaGold’, against mixed stages of Pratylenchus penetrans and Meloidogyne incognita second-stage juven...

  3. Studies on the interactions of Meloidogyne incognita, Radopholus similis and Fusarium solani on black pepper (Piper nigrum L.).

    OpenAIRE

    Mustika, I.

    1990-01-01

    This study on the interactions between various cultivars of the black pepper plant (Piper nigrum L. ) and three of its pathogens, Meloidogyne Incognita (Kofoid & White) , Radopholus similis (Cobb) , Thorne and Fusarium solani f. sp. piperi Albuquerque was initiated to search for a biological cause of "yellow disease" of black pepper.This disease was described already in 1932 by Van der Vecht as "geelziektel" and its symptoms on the aerial parts of the pepper plants were yellowing of the leave...

  4. INFLUENCIA DE LA PLANTA HOSPEDANTE Y SU INTERACCIÓN CON Meloidogyne incognita SOBRE LA EFECTIVIDAD DE Pochonia chlamydosporia var. catenulata / INFLUENCE OF THE HOST PLANT AND ITS INTERACTION WITH Meloidogyne incognita ON THE EFFECTIVENESS OF Pochonia chlamydosporia var. catenulata

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ana, Puertas; L, Hidalgo-Díaz.

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available El efecto de las plantas hospedantes y su interacción con Meloidogyne incognita (Kofoid y White) Chitwood sobre la efectividad de Pochonia chlamydosporia var. catenulata (Kamyscho ex Barron y Onions) Zare y Gams como agente de control biológico de nematodos formadores de agallas se estudió en condic [...] iones de aisladores biológicos. Para el desarrollo de la experiencia se utilizaron diferentes especies de plantas que se cultivan en los sistemas intensivos de producción de hortalizas en Cuba y se evaluó la colonización de la rizosfera, a partir del conteo de UFC del hongo, en plantas sanas e infestadas por M. incognita. Los resultados demostraron que el crecimiento del hongo en la rizosfera varió en dependencia de la especie de planta. Entre los mejores hospedantes de P. chlamydosporia var. catenulata estuvieron la col, coliflor y acelga china, cultivos resistentes a M. incognita. Las plantas infestadas por M. incognita mostraron mayores niveles de colonización del hongo que las plantas sanas y el cultivo de la habichuela resultó ser un buen hospedante, en presencia del nematodo. Se recomienda la utilización de estos cultivos dentro de esquemas de rotación que incluyan la aplicación de P. chlamydosporia var. catenulata como agente de control biológico para el manejo de M. incognita en sistemas intensivos de producción de hortalizas. Abstract in english The effect of the host plants and their interaction with Meloidogyne incognita (Kofoid and White) Chitwood on the effectiveness of Pochonia chlamydosporia var. catenulata (Kamyscho ex Barron and Onions) Zare and Gams as a biological control agent of root-knot nematodes was studied in glasshouse cond [...] itions. Different plant species from the Cuban Intensive Vegetable Production Systems were used to perform the experience. The growth of the fungus in the rhizosphere differed with the host plant. Among the best host plants of P. chlamydosporia var. catenulata were cabbage, salt-wort and cauliflower, resistant crops to M. incognita. The plants infested by M. incognita showed higher levels of fungus colonization than those healthy, and the kidney bean crop was a good host in the presence of the nematode. The use of these crops into rotation systems, with the application of Pochonia chlamydosporia var. catenulata as biological control agent for the management of M. incognita on Intensive Vegetable Production Systems, was recommended.

  5. Efeito de extratos aquosos de espécies de Asteraceae sobre Meloidogyne incognita Effect of aqueous extracts of Asteraceae species on Meloidogyne incognita

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Cristina Madeira Ferreira

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se, in vitro e in vivo a atividade nematicida dos extratos aquosos de vedélia (Sphagneticola trilobata, erva-de-touro (Tridax procumbens, cravo-de-defunto (Tagetes patula, girassol mexicano (Tithonia diversifolia, botão de ouro (Unxia suffruticosa e zínia (Zinnia peruviana, sobre Meloidogyne incognita. Os extratos foram preparados na proporção de 1,0g do material seco e triturado para 10mL de água destilada e armazenados por 24h, sendo seguidamente utilizados nos experimentos. Nos testes in vitro, foram depositados 4,0mL do extrato bruto e 2,0mL de uma suspensão aquosa contendo 200 ovos do nematóide em placas de Petri de 5cm de diâmetro e, quinze dias após, procedeu-se a contagem do número de juvenis eclodidos e dos ovos remanescentes para o cálculo das porcentagens de eclosão. Nos testes in vivo, os extratos foram aplicados, separadamente, via pulverização foliar, tratamento de raiz e vertido no solo, semanalmente durante 60 dias. Como testemunha utilizou-se apenas água nos dois experimentos. No ensaio in vitro observou-se que todos os extratos foram eficientes na redução da eclosão de juvenis de M. incognita quando comparados à testemunha, as porcentagens de redução foram 89,96%, 91,13%, 92,48%, 92,72%, 93,2% e 97,48% para erva-de-touro, cravo-de-defunto, girassol mexicano, vedélia, botão de ouro e zínia, respectivamente, e no ensaio in vivo, que os tratamentos não exerceram nenhum efeito sobre o peso do sistema radicular dos tomateiros, no entanto, observou-se que os resultados diferiram entre as espécies utilizadas e a forma de aplicação do extrato na avaliação do peso fresco da parte aérea das plantas. Quanto ao fator de reprodução, observou-se que nenhum dos extratos apresentou diferença estatística em relação à testemunha, no entanto, quando se compara as diferentes formas de aplicação dos mesmos, observa-se que houve diferença estatística quando os extratos de erva de touro e girassol mexicano foram aplicados via pulverização foliar e no tratamento de raiz, contudo, não houve diferença quando estes extratos foram aplicados em forma de rega no solo.The nematicide activity of aqueous extracts of Wedelia (Sphagneticola trilobata, tridax daisy (Tridax procumbens, marigold (Tagetes patula, Mexican sunflower (Tithonia diversifolia, "botão de ouro" (Unxia suffruticosa and Peruvian zinnia (Zinnia peruviana was studied in vitro and in vivo on Meloidogyne incognita. The extracts were prepared at a ratio of 1.0 g of dry and crushed material to 10 ml of distilled water, stored for 24 hours, and then used in the experiments. In in vitro tests, 4.0 mL of crude extract and 2.0 ml of an aqueous suspension containing 200 nematode eggs were deposited on Petri plates of 5cm diameter and, fifteen days later, the number of hatched juveniles and the remaining eggs were counted to calculate the percentages of hatching. In in vivo tests, the extracts were separately applied by leaf spraying, root treatment and pouring onto the soil, weekly for 60 days. As control, only water was used in both experiments. The in vitro test showed that all extracts were effective in reducing the hatching of juveniles of M. incognita when compared to the control; the reduction percentages were 89.96%, 91.13%, 92.48%, 92.72%, 93.2% and 97.48% for tridax daisy, marigold, Mexican sunflower, Wedelia, "botão de ouro" and Peruvian zinnia, respectively, while in the in vivo assay, treatments did not have any effect on the root system weight of tomato plants; however, results differed between the used species and the way of application of the extract in the evaluation of the fresh weight of shoots. As to the reproduction rate, none of the extracts showed a statistical difference, compared to control; however, comparing the different ways of application, there was statistical difference when the extracts of tridax daisy and Mexican sunflower were applied through leaf spraying and root treatment, but there was no difference when these extracts were applied as irrigation on the soil.

  6. Inconsistency of the biological control of Meloidogyne incognita race 2 in melon by endophytic bacteria Inconsistência do controle biológico de Meloidogyne incognita raça 2 em meloeiro por bactérias endofíticas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeane E de Medeiros

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available We obtained 61 rhizobacterium isolates from rhizosphere soil samples collected in melon commercial fields located in Mossoró, Rio Grande do Norte State, Brazil. These isolates, along with 56 endophytic bacteria from the Collection of Cultures of the Plant Bacteriology Laboratory of the Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco, were tested for controlling Meloidogyne incognita race 2 in melon. To infest the soil with nematodes, 1000 eggs of Meloidogyne incognita race 2 per plant were placed in pots where seedlings of the yellow-type melon, cultivar AF 682, were growing for 10 days. Two days before, 20 mL of bacterial suspension (0.7 OD570nm were poured into each pot. After 60 days, fresh root biomass, gall index, egg mass, and the nematode reproduction factor were assessed. Among the 117 isolates screened, the endophytic Bacillus ENM7, ENM10, and ENM51 were selected because they significantly reduced egg mass and/or gall index. However, when tested again, separately and in mixtures, these isolates nor confirmed their efficiency in vivo, neither affected juvenile emergence in vitro. These results give evidence on the inconsistency of using endophytic-bacteria in the control of M. incognita race 2 in melon.A partir de amostras de solo coletadas em plantios comerciais de meloeiro, situados em Mossoró-RN, foram obtidos 61 isolados de rizobactérias que, juntamente com outros 56 isolados endofíticos pertencentes à Coleção de Culturas do Laboratório de Fitobacteriologia da Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco, foram avaliados para o controle de Meloidogyne incognita raça 2 em melão. Plantas de meloeiro Amarelo, cultivar AF 682, com dez dias de idade tiveram o solo infestado com 1000 ovos de M. incognita raça 2 por planta. Dois dias antes, foram depositados em cada vaso 20 mL da suspensão bacteriana (DO570nm = 0,7. Decorridos 60 dias, foram determinados a biomassa fresca das raízes, os índices de galhas e de massa de ovos e o fator de reprodução do nematóide. Dos 117 isolados avaliados, foram selecionados inicialmente os isolados endofíticos ENM7, ENM10 e ENM51, todos pertencentes ao gênero Bacillus, que reduziram significativamente a massa de ovos e/ou o índice de galhas. Contudo, quando testados novamente, separadamente ou em misturas, esses isolados não mantiveram a eficiência na redução dessas variáveis e, in vitro, não afetaram a eclosão dos juvenis. Os resultados obtidos evidenciam a inconstância da ação das bactérias endofíticas no controle de M. incognita raça 2 em meloeiro.

  7. Inconsistency of the biological control of Meloidogyne incognita race 2 in melon by endophytic bacteria / Inconsistência do controle biológico de Meloidogyne incognita raça 2 em meloeiro por bactérias endofíticas

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Jeane E de, Medeiros; Rosa de LR, Mariano; Elvira MR, Pedrosa; Elineide B da, Silveira.

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available A partir de amostras de solo coletadas em plantios comerciais de meloeiro, situados em Mossoró-RN, foram obtidos 61 isolados de rizobactérias que, juntamente com outros 56 isolados endofíticos pertencentes à Coleção de Culturas do Laboratório de Fitobacteriologia da Universidade Federal Rural de Per [...] nambuco, foram avaliados para o controle de Meloidogyne incognita raça 2 em melão. Plantas de meloeiro Amarelo, cultivar AF 682, com dez dias de idade tiveram o solo infestado com 1000 ovos de M. incognita raça 2 por planta. Dois dias antes, foram depositados em cada vaso 20 mL da suspensão bacteriana (DO570nm = 0,7). Decorridos 60 dias, foram determinados a biomassa fresca das raízes, os índices de galhas e de massa de ovos e o fator de reprodução do nematóide. Dos 117 isolados avaliados, foram selecionados inicialmente os isolados endofíticos ENM7, ENM10 e ENM51, todos pertencentes ao gênero Bacillus, que reduziram significativamente a massa de ovos e/ou o índice de galhas. Contudo, quando testados novamente, separadamente ou em misturas, esses isolados não mantiveram a eficiência na redução dessas variáveis e, in vitro, não afetaram a eclosão dos juvenis. Os resultados obtidos evidenciam a inconstância da ação das bactérias endofíticas no controle de M. incognita raça 2 em meloeiro. Abstract in english We obtained 61 rhizobacterium isolates from rhizosphere soil samples collected in melon commercial fields located in Mossoró, Rio Grande do Norte State, Brazil. These isolates, along with 56 endophytic bacteria from the Collection of Cultures of the Plant Bacteriology Laboratory of the Universidade [...] Federal Rural de Pernambuco, were tested for controlling Meloidogyne incognita race 2 in melon. To infest the soil with nematodes, 1000 eggs of Meloidogyne incognita race 2 per plant were placed in pots where seedlings of the yellow-type melon, cultivar AF 682, were growing for 10 days. Two days before, 20 mL of bacterial suspension (0.7 OD570nm) were poured into each pot. After 60 days, fresh root biomass, gall index, egg mass, and the nematode reproduction factor were assessed. Among the 117 isolates screened, the endophytic Bacillus ENM7, ENM10, and ENM51 were selected because they significantly reduced egg mass and/or gall index. However, when tested again, separately and in mixtures, these isolates nor confirmed their efficiency in vivo, neither affected juvenile emergence in vitro. These results give evidence on the inconsistency of using endophytic-bacteria in the control of M. incognita race 2 in melon.

  8. COMPORTAMIENTO DE MATERIALES DE LOS GÉNEROS Carica Y Vasconcellea FRENTE A Erwinia papayae, Meloidogyne incognita Y Rotylenchulus reniformis / REACTION OF THE GENERA Carica AND Vasconcellea MATERIALS TO Erwinia papayae, Meloidogyne incognita AND Rotylenchulus reniformis

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Anna, Maselli; Ligia Carolina, Rosales; Yolanda, Guevara; Zoraida, Suárez H.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available La bacteriosis del cancro y el ataque de los nematodos constituyen graves obstáculos en la extensión del cultivo de la papaya (Carica papaya L.). El objetivo principal de este trabajo fue la selección de genotipos tanto comerciales como silvestres resistentes a los patógenos mencionados. Para la eva [...] luación del comportamiento ante la bacteria del cancro causada por Erwinia papayae, se seleccionaron once accesiones de C. papaya, Vasconcellea goudotiana y V. cauliflora y se inocularon 10 plantas de cada genotipo con una suspensión bacteriana de concentración de 10(8) UFC.mL-1. La inoculación se realizó produciendo heridas en los tallos de las plantas sanas. Los testigos se trataron de igual forma con agua destilada estéril. Para la evaluación de la resistencia a nematodos se realizaron dos experimentos; en el primero se utilizaron materiales de C. papaya y V. goudotiana, los cuales se inocularon con una población mixta de Meloidogyne incognita raza 1 y Rotylenchulus reniformis con 2000 huevos+juveniles.1000 cm-3 en suelo-arena estéril. Para el segundo experimento se usaron, además de los materiales mencionados, V. cauliflora, V. cundinamarcensis, V. microcarpa var. microcarpa, V. microcarpa var. pilifera, inoculados sólo con M. incognita raza 1 con 2500 huevos+juveniles.1000 cm-3. A las 12 semanas se calculó la población final y se midieron las siguientes variables: peso aéreo y radical fresco y seco. Los resultados del comportamiento de los genotipos frente a la bacteria determinó que V. goudotiana y V. cauliflora no se enfermaron, no así el género Carica, donde todas las plantas resultaron susceptibles, coincidiendo con la evaluación de nematodos, donde todas las accesiones de C. papaya y V. goudotiana fueron susceptibles y no tolerante al ataque de la población mixta de M. incognita raza 1 y R. reniformis, por afectarse las variables agronómicas evaluadas; mientras que la mayoría de los materiales de V. cundinamarcencis y V. microcarpa resultaron resistentes al ataque de M. incognita raza 1. Estos resultados permiten la obtención de genes de resistencias en los materiales silvestres, los cuales podrían ser incorporados a los genotipos mejorados o comerciales, y permitiría un mejor manejo de los patógenos mencionados, que resultan limitantes severos en el cultivo de papaya en Venezuela. Abstract in english The bacterial canker and the attack of nematodes are serious obstacles to the extension of Carica papaya L. crop. The main objective of this work was the selection of both commercial and wild genotypes resistant to the above mentioned pathogens. To assess the response to the bacterial canker caused [...] by Erwinia papayae, eleven accesions of C. papaya, Vasconcellea goudotiana y V. cauliflora were selected and ten plants of each genotype were inoculated with a bacterial suspension with a concentration of 10(8) CFU.mL-1 . The plants were inoculated by wounds on the stems of the healthy plants. The controls were similarly treated but with sterile distilled water. Two trials were carried out to evaluate the resistance to nematodes. In the first trial, materials of C. papaya and V. goudotiana were inoculated with a mixed population of Meloidogyne incognita race 1 and Rotylenchulus reniformis, with 2000 eggs+juveniles. 1000 cm-3 in sterile soil-sand. In the second trial, V. cauliflora, V. cundinamarcensis, V. microcarpa var. microcarpa and V. microcarpa var. pilifera, in addition to the genotypes previously used, were inoculated only with M. incognita race 1, with 2500 eggs+juvenils.1000 cm-3. After 12 weeks, the final population was calculated and the fresh and dried weights of the aerial parts and roots were determined. The results of the reaction of the genotypes towards the bacterium determined that V. goudotiana and V. cauliflora did not get the disease, what differed from the Carica genus, where all the plants resulted susceptible, a result that was similar to the evaluation to nematodes, where all the genotypes of C. papaya and V. goudotiana were susceptible and

  9. Tolerancia de 26 colectas de tomates nativos de México al nematodo Meloidogyne incognita (Kofoid y White) Chitwood / Tolerance of 26 native tomato collections from Mexico to nematode Meloidogyne incognita (Kofoid and White) Chitwood

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Raquel, Cervantes-Moreno; Juan Enrique, Rodríguez-Pérez; Calixto, Carrillo Fonseca; Jaime, Sahagún-Castellanos; Eduardo, Rodríguez-Guzmán.

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Se determinó la tolerancia de 26 colectas de tomates nativos de México a Meloidogyne incongnita (Kofoid y White) Chitwood, con el fin de identificar aquellas con potencial para su empleo en el mejoramiento genético o como portainjertos. Para ello, plantas de 30 días de edad fueron establecidas en hi [...] droponia bajo invernadero. Diez días después del trasplante (ddt) fue aplicada al sustrato una solución con 100,000 huevecillos-larva por planta. Se registraron caracteres de la parte aérea de plantas y a los 210 ddt se cuantificó el desarrollo de poblaciones de nematodos en raíces. M. incognita disminuyó el diámetro de frutos y el porte de planta (altura al primer racimo, peso seco de tallo y número de nudos), e incrementó el número de frutos y flores. Además, redujo la longitud de raíces y aumentó el volumen de éstas por la formación de nódulos. Mediante análisis multivariados (agrupamiento y discriminante) se definieron cinco grupos de colectas en función de la cantidad de agallas pequeñas y grandes, así como el total de éstas (82% de variación) y por la cantidad de larvas en raíz y huevecillos en sustrato (13% de variación). Se identificaron tres colectas tolerantes con bajos índices de agallas y menor presencia de huevecillos-larva en raíz y en sustrato. Ocho colectas fueron moderadamente tolerantes; nueve, moderadamente susceptibles, y seis, susceptibles. No se detectaron asociaciones entre orígenes de colectas o forma de fruto con respecto a la tolerancia al nematodo. Abstract in english The tolerance of 26 native tomato collections from Mexico to Meloidogyne incongnita (Kofoid and White) Chitwood was studied to identify those with potential for use in breeding or as rootstock. To do this, 30-day-old plants were established in a hydroponic system under greenhouse conditions. A solut [...] ion with 100,000 eggs-larvae per plant was applied to the substrate 10 days after transplantation (dat). Characters of the above-ground part of the plants were recorded and at 210 dat the development of nematode populations in roots was quantified. Meloidogyne incognita reduced fruit diameter and plant size (first truss height, stem dry weight, and node number), and increased the number of fruits and flowers. Additionally, it reduced root length and increased root volume due to nodule formation. By means of multivariate analysis (cluster and discriminant), five collection groups were defined based on the number of small and large galls, as well as total galls (82 % variation), and by the number of larvae in roots and eggs in the substrate (13 % variation). Three tolerant collections with low gall indices and a lower number of eggs-larvae in the roots and substrate were identified. Eight collections were moderately tolerant, nine moderately susceptible and six susceptible. No associations were detected between collection origins or fruit shape and tolerance to nematode.

  10. Nematicidal Activity of the Volatilome of Eruca sativa on Meloidogyne incognita.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aissani, Nadhem; Urgeghe, Pietro Paolo; Oplos, Chrisostomos; Saba, Marco; Tocco, Graziella; Petretto, Giacomo Luigi; Eloh, Kodjo; Menkissoglu-Spiroudi, Urania; Ntalli, Nikoletta; Caboni, Pierluigi

    2015-07-15

    Research on new pesticides based on plant extracts, aimed at the development of nontoxic formulates, has recently gained increased interest. This study investigated the use of the volatilome of rucola (Eruca sativa) as a powerful natural nematicidal agent against the root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita. Analysis of the composition of the volatilome, using GC-MS-SPME, showed that the compound (Z)-3-hexenyl acetate was the most abundant, followed by (Z)-3-hexen-1-ol and erucin, with relative percentages of 22.7 ± 1.6, 15.9 ± 2.3, and 8.6 ± 1.3, respectively. Testing of the nematicidal activity of rucola volatile compounds revealed that erucin, pentyl isothiocyanate, hexyl isothiocyanate, (E)-2-hexenal, 2-ethylfuran, and methyl thiocyanate were the most active with EC50 values of 3.2 ± 1.7, 11.1 ± 5.0, 11.3 ± 2.6, 15.0 ± 3.3, 16.0 ± 5.0, and 18.1 ± 0.6 mg/L, respectively, after 24 h of incubation. Moreover, the nematicidal activity of fresh rucola used as soil amendant in a containerized culture of tomato decreased the nematode infection in a dose-response manner (EC50 = 20.03 mg/g) and plant growth was improved. On the basis of these results, E. sativa can be considered as a promising companion plant in intercropping strategies for tomato growers to control root-knot nematodes. PMID:26082278

  11. Nematicidal activity of mint aqueous extracts against the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caboni, Pierluigi; Saba, Marco; Tocco, Graziella; Casu, Laura; Murgia, Antonio; Maxia, Andrea; Menkissoglu-Spiroudi, Urania; Ntalli, Nikoletta

    2013-10-16

    The nematicidal activity and chemical characterization of aqueous extracts and essential oils of three mint species, namely, Mentha × piperita , Mentha spicata , and Mentha pulegium , were investigated. The phytochemical analysis of the essential oils was performed by means of GC-MS, whereas the aqueous extracts were analyzed by LC-MS. The most abundant terpenes were isomenthone, menthone, menthol, pulegone, and carvone, and the water extracts yielded mainly chlorogenic acid, salvianolic acid B, luteolin-7-O-rutinoside, and rosmarinic acid. The water extracts exhibited significant nematicidal activity against Meloidogyne incognita , and the EC50/72h values were calculated at 1005, 745, and 300 mg/L for M. × piperita, M. pulegium, and M. spicata, respectively. Only the essential oil from M. spicata showed a nematicidal activity with an EC50/72h of 358 mg/L. Interestingly, menthofuran and carvone showed EC50/48h values of 127 and 730 mg/L, respectively. On the other hand, salicylic acid, isolated in the aqueous extracts, exhibited EC50 values at 24 and 48 h of 298 ± 92 and 288 ± 79 mg/L, respectively. PMID:24050256

  12. Efecto del follaje de Tagetes minuta sobre la nodulación radicular de Meloidogyne incognita en Capsicum annuum, en invernadero / Effect of the foliage of Tagetes minuta on Meloidogyne incognita root-galling on Capsicum annuum in a greenhouse

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Santos Nélida, Murga-Gutiérrez; Juan Carlos, Alvarado-Ibáñez; Nora Yessenia, Vera-Obando.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Se investigó el efecto del follaje del "huacatay" Tagetes minuta sobre la nodulación radicular producida por el nematodo Meloidogyne incognita que parasita el "pimiento páprika" Capsicum annuum cultivado en invernadero, con la finalidad de obtener una alternativa de control de este nematodo. Se util [...] izaron tres grupos experimentales y un testigo, con 12 macetas cada uno, las cuales contenían suelo y arena estériles (1:1). A este substrato se adicionó el follaje de T. minuta al 20, 35 y 50% (v/v) según grupo experimental, y el testigo no recibió esta enmienda. En cada maceta se sembró una plántula de C. annuum, y a la semana postsiembra se inoculó 5000 huevos de M. incognita. A las ocho semanas, se evaluaron los nódulos en sus raíces. Todas las plantas presentaron nódulos; aunque, en aquellas de los grupos experimentales el número de éstos fue menor que en las plantas testigo, con diferencia estadística significativa (p 0,05). Se concluye que el follaje de T. minuta adicionado como enmienda orgánica al 20, 35 y 50% al suelo de cultivo de plantas de C. annuum limita la nodulación radicular ocasionada por M. incognita. Lo cual sugiere su uso potencial en el control de este nematodo Abstract in english The effect of the foliage of Tagetes minuta "huacatay" on Meloidogyne incognita root-galling on Capsicum annuum "paprika pepper" cultured in a greenhouse was researched, to obtain a control strategy for this nematode. Three experimental groups and one control with 12 pots each were used, which conta [...] ined sterilized soil and sand (1:1). To this substrate was added cut foliage of T. minuta at 20, 35 and 50% (v/v) according to the experimental group, and the control group remained without this amendment. In each pot a seedling of C. annuum was sown, and one week post-seeding was inoculated with 5000 eggs of M. incognita. Eight weeks later the root galling was evaluated. All the plants had root galling; although the number of galls in plants of the experimental groups was less than those in the control group with statistical significant difference (p 0.05). It is concluded that the foliage of T. minuta added as organic amendment at 20, 35 and 50% to the culture soil for C. annuum plants limits the M. incognita root galling. That suggests its potential use in the control of this nematode

  13. Influence of Meloidogyne incognita on Fusarium Wilt of Tomato at or below the Minimum Temperature for Wilt Development

    OpenAIRE

    Morrell, J. J.; Bloom, J. R.

    1981-01-01

    'Bonny Best' tomato plants were grown at 16, 21, or 24 C for 28 d in soil infested with either of two isolates of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici race 1 and Meloidogyne incognita. Significant levels of fusarium wilt occurred at all temperatures including 16 C, which has not been reported previously. One Fusarium isolate resulted in the highest levels of disease incidence at 21 and 24 C in the presence of root-knot nematodes, and at 24 C when the nematodes were not present. At 16 C there...

  14. Solarization of soil in piles for the control of Meloidogyne incognita in olive nurseries in southern Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Nico, Andrés I; Jiménez-Díaz, Rafael M.; Castillo, Pablo

    2003-01-01

    The potential of solarization to control Meloidogyne incognita in piles of soil used at olive nurseries in southern Spain was studied in 1999 and 2000. Kaolin and soil infested with free eggs and egg masses of the nematode in nylon bags were buried 20 and 40 cm deep inside conical piles of soil 80 cm high and with a base diameter of 1 m. Soil piles were solarized for 3 weeks in July and August. The effect of various periods of solarization was assessed by egg hatch bioassays in sterile wat...

  15. COMPORTAMIENTO DE GENOTIPOS DE TOMATE (Solanum lycopersicum L.) FRENTE A Meloidogyne incognita (Kofoid y White) CHITWOOD¹ / RESPONCE OF TOMATO GENOTYPES (Solanum lycopersicum L.) TO THE PARASITISM OF of Meloidogyne incognita (Kofoid y White) CHITWOOD¹

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    L, Navarro-Barthelemy; Lucila, Gómez; R, Enrique; Farah M, González; Mayra G, Rodríguez.

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Los nematodos del género Meloidogyne Göldi representan un factor limitante en la producción protegida de hortalizas en Cuba. Los híbridos y variedades de tomate empleados en esta tecnología provienen de firmas extranjeras, cuyo comportamiento ante Meloidogyne incognita (Kofoid y White) Chitwood se d [...] esconoce. El objetivo de este trabajo es evaluar la resistencia/susceptibilidad de los híbridos de tomate FA 572- Katherine y LT-M12 frente a M. incognita. El experimento se estableció en condiciones semi-controladas en macetas con plantas de cada genotipo inoculadas con 1,5 J2 de M. incognita por gramo de suelo. El cultivo susceptible Cucurbita sp. var. RG5 fue utilizado como control de la población de nematodos. Se establecieron diez repeticiones para cada tratamiento. A los 60 días después de la inoculación se determinó el Índice de Agallamiento (IA), el factor de reproducción (FR) y el índice de reproducción(IR) para la categorización de los genotipos en resistentes/susceptibles. Se evidenció que los IA para los dos genotipos fueron bajos (IA= 2 - 3) con respecto al control (IA= 5). Sin embargo, permitieron la reproducción del nematodo y que estos aumentaran su población nueve veces más que la inoculada inicialmente. El índice de reproducción obtenido los sitúa dentro de la categoría de muy susceptibles (MS), ya que la reproducción tuvo un incremento de más del 50 % con respecto al cultivo susceptible utilizado como control. Este trabajo ratifica que el IA no debe ser utilizado como único elemento para determinar la resistencia/susceptibilidad de los genotipos. Abstract in english Root-knot nematodes Meloidogyne spp., represent one of the factors that limit vegetable production under sheltered conditions. The hybrids and varieties of tomato produced under this technology are imported and their responses to Meloidogyne incognita Kofoi y White (Chitwood) under these conditions [...] are unknown. The main objective of this work was to evaluate the resistant/susceptibility of tomato hybrids FA 572- Katherine and LT-M12 to M. incognita. The experiment was set up under semi-controlled conditions using potted plants of each genotype and the susceptible crop Cucurbita sp. var. RG5, used as a control of the experiment. The plants were inoculated with 1,5 egg-juveniles per gram of soil with 10 replications per treatment. At sixty days after nematode inoculation, the gall index (GI), the reproduction factor and the reproduction index were determined to categorize the genotypes as resistant/susceptible. Both genotypes showed a low root gall index (GI=2-3) in comparison with the control (GI=5) although they responded very susceptible to M. incognita as they allowed higher reproduction of the nematode in a 50% than the control. The results of this work confirmed that the gall index can not be used as a unique criterion to determine genotype resistance to M. incognita.

  16. Reação de clones de batata-doce à Meloidogyne incognita raças 1 e 4 e estimativa de parâmetros genéticos / Reaction of sweet potato clones to Meloidogyne incognita races 1 and 4, and estimation of genetic parameters

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Danielle C, Kalkmann; José R, Peixoto; Daiane da S, Nóbrega.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi selecionar clones de batata-doce resistentes às raças 1 e 4 de Meloidogyne incognita, além de avaliar a eficiência do método de seleção empregado, pela estimativa de parâmetros genéticos. Foram avaliados 21 acessos do jardim clonal da Universidade de Brasília e três cul [...] tivares de batata-doce (Brazlândia Branca, Brazlândia Roxa e Amarela). O experimento foi conduzido em casa de vegetação, com delineamento de blocos casualizados em arranjo simples, com 24 tratamentos, quatro repetições e três plantas por parcela. A inoculação do patógeno foi feita trinta dias após o plantio das ramas e, após noventa dias, foi feita a contagem do número médio de massas de ovos encontradas nas raízes das plantas inoculadas. Foram considerados resistentes os clones que apresentaram em média 0 a 1,9 massas de ovos por sistema radicular, moderadamente resistentes aqueles que apresentaram de 2,0 a 2,9 massas de ovos, moderadamente suscetíveis os que obtiveram número médio de massas de ovos variando entre 3,0 e 3,9, e suscetíveis aqueles com 4,0 a 5,0 massas de ovos por sistema radicular. Dos 24 materiais analisados, nove (37,5%) foram classificados como resistentes à raça 1 de M. incognita e 16 (66,67%) foram classificados como resistentes à M. incognita raça 4. Os clones 1200, 1210, 1199, 1229, 1230, 1202, 1231, 1216 e 1209 apresentaram resistência tanto à raça 1 quanto à raça 4 de M. incognita. A resistência das plantas a essas duas populações de nematoides testadas apresentou alta herdabilidade, e a relação entre os coeficientes de variação genético e ambiental do experimento para resistência à raça 4 de M. incognita apresentou-se mais baixa que aquela encontrada no outro experimento para resistência à raça 1. Abstract in english The objective of this work was to select sweet potato resistant clones to the races 1 and 4 of Meloidogyne incognita, and measure the efficiency of the selection method used, by means of the estimation of genetic and environmental coefficients of variation, and broad-sense heritabilities. We evaluat [...] ed 21 accessions of the clonal garden of the Universidade de Brasilia, and three cultivars of sweet potato (Brazlândia Branca, Brazlândia Roxa and Amarela). The experiment was carried out in a greenhouse with a randomized block design in simple arrangement, with 24 treatments, four replications and three plants per plot. The inoculation of the pathogen was made thirty days after planting the slips and, after ninety days, the counting of the average number of egg masses of the infected plants was completed. Clones were considered resistant when presented a number of egg masses per root system from 0 to 1.9, moderately resistant 2.0 to 2.9, moderately susceptible 3.0 to 3.9, and, susceptible 4.0 to 5.0. From 24 clones analyzed, nine (37.5%) were classified as resistant to the race 1 of M. incognita, and 16 (66.67%) were classified as resistant to the race 4 of M. incognita. The clones 1200, 1210, 1199, 1229, 1230, 1202, 1231, 1216 and 1209 were resistant to the two races tested of M. incognita. The resistance of the plants to these two races of root-knot nematodes presented high heritability, and the relationship between the coefficients of genetic and environmental variation of the experiment to resistance to race 4 of M. incognita was shorter than that one found in the another experiment, that aimed resistance to the race 1.

  17. Efeito de extratos aquosos de espécies de Asteraceae sobre Meloidogyne incognita

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Cristina Madeira Ferreira

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se, in vitro e in vivo a atividade nematicida dos extratos aquosos de vedélia (Sphagneticola trilobata, erva-de-touro (Tridax procumbens, cravo-de-defunto (Tagetes patula, girassol mexicano (Tithonia diversifolia, botão de ouro (Unxia suffruticosa e zínia (Zinnia peruviana, sobre Meloidogyne incognita. Os extratos foram preparados na proporção de 1,0g do material seco e triturado para 10mL de água destilada e armazenados por 24h, sendo seguidamente utilizados nos experimentos. Nos testes in vitro, foram depositados 4,0mL do extrato bruto e 2,0mL de uma suspensão aquosa contendo 200 ovos do nematóide em placas de Petri de 5cm de diâmetro e, quinze dias após, procedeu-se a contagem do número de juvenis eclodidos e dos ovos remanescentes para o cálculo das porcentagens de eclosão. Nos testes in vivo, os extratos foram aplicados, separadamente, via pulverização foliar, tratamento de raiz e vertido no solo, semanalmente durante 60 dias. Como testemunha utilizou-se apenas água nos dois experimentos. No ensaio in vitro observou-se que todos os extratos foram eficientes na redução da eclosão de juvenis de M. incognita quando comparados à testemunha, as porcentagens de redução foram 89,96%, 91,13%, 92,48%, 92,72%, 93,2% e 97,48% para erva-de-touro, cravo-de-defunto, girassol mexicano, vedélia, botão de ouro e zínia, respectivamente, e no ensaio in vivo, que os tratamentos não exerceram nenhum efeito sobre o peso do sistema radicular dos tomateiros, no entanto, observou-se que os resultados diferiram entre as espécies utilizadas e a forma de aplicação do extrato na avaliação do peso fresco da parte aérea das plantas. Quanto ao fator de reprodução, observou-se que nenhum dos extratos apresentou diferença estatística em relação à testemunha, no entanto, quando se compara as diferentes formas de aplicação dos mesmos, observa-se que houve diferença estatística quando os extratos de erva de touro e girassol mexicano foram aplicados via pulverização foliar e no tratamento de raiz, contudo, não houve diferença quando estes extratos foram aplicados em forma de rega no solo.

  18. Preliminary evaluation of meloidogyne incognita race 3 reproduction on garden pea cultivars in Brazil/ Avaliação preliminar da reprodução de Meloidogyne incognita raça 3 em cultivares de ervilha no Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Carlos Camargo Barbosa Ferraz

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Thirteen garden pea cultivars, were assessed for the reproductive rate of the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita race 3 under greenhouse conditions. Two-week old plants growing were inoculated with 5.000 eggs. The nematode reproduction data was determined 55 days later according to the three adopted evaluation criteria (root-gall and egg-mass indexes, reproduction factor, percentage of reduction of the reproduction factor in relation to the susceptible standard cultivar. The tested cultivars were rated as highly susceptible ('Trolly'. 'Jurema', susceptible ('Luiza'. 'Mini'. 'Asterix', 'Verde Temprana' or moderately susceptible ('Marina', 'Telephone'., 'Dileta'. 'Bolero', 'Flávia'. 'Viçosa', and 'Maria' hosts for the nematode.Avaliaram-se as taxas reprodutivas e caracterizaram-se as reações de 13 cut tiveres de ervilha em relação ao nematóide de galhas Meloidogyne incognita raça 3, em casa-de-vegetação. Plantas com duas semanas de idade, foram inoculadas com 5000 ovos do nematóide. As avaliações foram realizadas após 55 dias com base nos critérios - índices de galhas/índices de massas de ovos, fator de reprodução e porcentagem de redução do fator de reprodução. Duas cultivares foram consideradas hospedeiras altamente suscetíveis (‘Trolly’, ‘Jurema’, cinco suscetíveis ('Luíza', 'Mini', 'Asterix', 'Verde Temprana', 'Telefone' e seis moderadamente suscetíveis ('Marina'. 'Dileta', 'Boiero'. 'Flávia'. 'Viçosa', 'Maria'.

  19. Eficiência e atividade enzimática elicitada por metil jasmonato e silicato de potássio em cana-de-açúcar parasitada por Meloidogyne incognita / Efficiency and enzymatic activity elicited by methyl jasmonate and potassium silicate on sugarcane under Meloidogyne incognita parasitism

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Lílian Margarete Paes, Guimarães; Elvira Maria Régis, Pedrosa; Rildo Sartori Barbosa, Coelho; Erick Farias, Couto; Sandra Roberta Vaz Lira, Maranhão; Andréa, Chaves.

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo teve como objetivo avaliar o efeito de metil jasmonato e silicato de potássio sobre o parasitismo de Meloidogyne incognita na variedade RB863129 de cana-de-açúcar (Saccharum sp.) e a atividade enzimática da peroxidase e ?-1,3-glucanase elicitada, em condições de casa de vegetação. [...] Metil jasmonato diminuiu significativamente o número de ovos por grama de raiz, mas não afetou à biomassa da parte aérea da planta. Sete dias após a aplicação, os dois indutores afetaram a atividade de ?-glucanase na plantas parasitadas e, aos 14 e 21 dias, promoveram variações significativas nos níveis de peroxidase e ?-1,3-glucanase, muito embora, ao contrário da peroxidase, a atividade ?-1,3-glucanase não diferiu entre plantas inoculadas e não inoculadas. Abstract in english The present study had as objective to evaluate methyl jasmonate and potassium silicate effect on Meloidogyne incognita parasitism in sugarcane (Saccharum sp.) variety RB863129 and peroxidase and ?-1,3-glucanase activity elicited, under greenhouse. The effect of Methyl jasmonate and potassium silicat [...] e did not affect shoot biomass. Methyl jasmonate and potassium silicate significantly decreased eggs number per gram of roots. Seven days after application, both inducers affected b-glucanase activity in parasited plants and at 14 and 21 days, inducers promoted significant variations in peroxidase e -1,3-glucanase levels in plants under parasitism, although, inversely to peroxidase, ?-1,3-glucanase activity did not differ between inoculated and non inoculated plants.

  20. Eficiência e atividade enzimática elicitada por metil jasmonato e silicato de potássio em cana-de-açúcar parasitada por Meloidogyne incognita Efficiency and enzymatic activity elicited by methyl jasmonate and potassium silicate on sugarcane under Meloidogyne incognita parasitism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lílian Margarete Paes Guimarães

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo teve como objetivo avaliar o efeito de metil jasmonato e silicato de potássio sobre o parasitismo de Meloidogyne incognita na variedade RB863129 de cana-de-açúcar (Saccharum sp. e a atividade enzimática da peroxidase e ?-1,3-glucanase elicitada, em condições de casa de vegetação. Metil jasmonato diminuiu significativamente o número de ovos por grama de raiz, mas não afetou à biomassa da parte aérea da planta. Sete dias após a aplicação, os dois indutores afetaram a atividade de ?-glucanase na plantas parasitadas e, aos 14 e 21 dias, promoveram variações significativas nos níveis de peroxidase e ?-1,3-glucanase, muito embora, ao contrário da peroxidase, a atividade ?-1,3-glucanase não diferiu entre plantas inoculadas e não inoculadas.The present study had as objective to evaluate methyl jasmonate and potassium silicate effect on Meloidogyne incognita parasitism in sugarcane (Saccharum sp. variety RB863129 and peroxidase and ?-1,3-glucanase activity elicited, under greenhouse. The effect of Methyl jasmonate and potassium silicate did not affect shoot biomass. Methyl jasmonate and potassium silicate significantly decreased eggs number per gram of roots. Seven days after application, both inducers affected b-glucanase activity in parasited plants and at 14 and 21 days, inducers promoted significant variations in peroxidase e -1,3-glucanase levels in plants under parasitism, although, inversely to peroxidase, ?-1,3-glucanase activity did not differ between inoculated and non inoculated plants.

  1. Efeito de manipueira sobre Meloidogyne incognita em ensaios in vitro e em tomateiros em casa de vegetação Effect of manipueira on Meloidogyne incognita through in vitro and in vivo essays on tomatoes in greenhouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Érica G.C. Nasu

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se estudar o efeito nematicida de manipueira no controle de Meloidogyne incognita. Testes in vitro foram divididos em dois ensaios inteiramente casualizados: 1. manipueira a 100%, 75%, 50% e 25% em 12 repetições; 2. manipueira a 15%, 10%, 8%, 6%, 4% e 2% em 5 repetições. O ensaio em vasos seguiu o delineamento inteiramente casualisado com manipueira a 10%, 25% e 50% em 5 repetições. Para ambos os ensaios utilizou-se o tratamento somente água como testemunha positiva e Carbofuran (50 mg.L-1 de ingrediente ativo (i.a. ou 2 g de produto comercial/vaso como negativa. Para os ensaios in vitro foram avaliados nematóides vivos e mortos e número de galhas em plantas inoculadas. Para os ensaios em vaso foram avaliadas as variáveis altura de plantas, comprimento de raízes, número de galhas, número de ovos e fator de reprodução (FR. Os resultados in vitro demonstraram que os tratamentos com manipueira até 10% de diluição apresentaram 100% de controle. O ensaio com tomateiros previamente inoculados demonstrou que o tratamento manipueira 50% causou um melhor desenvolvimento da parte aérea das plantas de tomate. Os tratamentos manipueira a 10% e 25% foram mais efetivos no controle de M. incognita em vasos.The aim of this work was to study the nematicidal effect of manipueira on the control of Meloidogyne incognita. In vitro tests were split into two completely randomized assays: 1. manipueira 100%, 75%, 50% and 25% in 12 replications; 2. manipueira 15%, 10%, 8%, 6%, 4% and 2% in 5 replications. The pot assay followed a completely randomized design with the treatments manipueira 10%, 25% and 50% in 5 replications. For both assays the positive control was water and the negative control was the nematicide Carbofuran (50 mg.L-1 of active ingredient (a.i. or 2 g of commercial product/pot. For in vitro assays the variables assessed were live or dead nematodes and number of galls on inoculated plants. For the pot assay the variables evaluated were plant height, root length, number of galls, number of eggs and reproduction factor (RF. The in vitro results indicated that only the manipueira treatments from 100% to 10% dilution showed maximum control. The pot assay demonstrated that the treatment manipueira 50% caused better development of tomato shoots than the others. However, manipueira 10% and 25% were more effective against of M. incognita in pots.

  2. Efeito de manipueira sobre Meloidogyne incognita em ensaios in vitro e em tomateiros em casa de vegetação / Effect of manipueira on Meloidogyne incognita through in vitro and in vivo essays on tomatoes in greenhouse

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Érica G.C., Nasu; Ely, Pires; Heloísa M., Formentini; Cleber, Furlanetto.

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se estudar o efeito nematicida de manipueira no controle de Meloidogyne incognita. Testes in vitro foram divididos em dois ensaios inteiramente casualizados: 1. manipueira a 100%, 75%, 50% e 25% em 12 repetições; 2. manipueira a 15%, 10%, 8%, 6%, 4% e 2% em 5 repetições. O ensaio em vasos [...] seguiu o delineamento inteiramente casualisado com manipueira a 10%, 25% e 50% em 5 repetições. Para ambos os ensaios utilizou-se o tratamento somente água como testemunha positiva e Carbofuran (50 mg.L-1 de ingrediente ativo (i.a.) ou 2 g de produto comercial/vaso) como negativa. Para os ensaios in vitro foram avaliados nematóides vivos e mortos e número de galhas em plantas inoculadas. Para os ensaios em vaso foram avaliadas as variáveis altura de plantas, comprimento de raízes, número de galhas, número de ovos e fator de reprodução (FR). Os resultados in vitro demonstraram que os tratamentos com manipueira até 10% de diluição apresentaram 100% de controle. O ensaio com tomateiros previamente inoculados demonstrou que o tratamento manipueira 50% causou um melhor desenvolvimento da parte aérea das plantas de tomate. Os tratamentos manipueira a 10% e 25% foram mais efetivos no controle de M. incognita em vasos. Abstract in english The aim of this work was to study the nematicidal effect of manipueira on the control of Meloidogyne incognita. In vitro tests were split into two completely randomized assays: 1. manipueira 100%, 75%, 50% and 25% in 12 replications; 2. manipueira 15%, 10%, 8%, 6%, 4% and 2% in 5 replications. The p [...] ot assay followed a completely randomized design with the treatments manipueira 10%, 25% and 50% in 5 replications. For both assays the positive control was water and the negative control was the nematicide Carbofuran (50 mg.L-1 of active ingredient (a.i.) or 2 g of commercial product/pot). For in vitro assays the variables assessed were live or dead nematodes and number of galls on inoculated plants. For the pot assay the variables evaluated were plant height, root length, number of galls, number of eggs and reproduction factor (RF). The in vitro results indicated that only the manipueira treatments from 100% to 10% dilution showed maximum control. The pot assay demonstrated that the treatment manipueira 50% caused better development of tomato shoots than the others. However, manipueira 10% and 25% were more effective against of M. incognita in pots.

  3. Registro da ocorrência de Meloidogyne incognita no porta-enxerto 'IAC 766-Campinas' no estado de Pernambuco e reação de porta-enxertos e de cultivares copa de videira a Meloidogyne spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lúcia Somavilla

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Relata-se a ocorrência de Meloidogyne incognita (Est. I2 em pomar de videira na cidade de Petrolina, Pernambuco. Plantas da cultivar Festival enxertadas sobre 'IAC 766-Campinas', atacadas por Meloidogyne incognita, apresentavam sintomas de menor vigor, folhas amarelecidas e folhagem mais esparsa, e raízes com numerosas galhas em meio ao cultivo de feijão-de-porco (Canavalia ensiformis, também atacado pelo nematoide. Com o objetivo de avaliar a resistência de quatro porta-enxertos tropicais, oito de clima temperado, e as cultivares Niágara Rosada e Chardonnay quanto à reação a M. incognita e M. arenaria, em casa de vegetação, realizou-se este trabalho. Mudas das videiras, mantidas em vaso com solo esterilizado, foram inoculadas com 10.000 ovos + J2 de M. incognita ou M. arenaria por planta. Decorridos oito meses da inoculação, cada planta foi avaliada quanto ao número de galhas e número de ovos por planta, determinando-se, a seguir, o fator de reprodução de cada espécie do nematoide (FR=população inicial/população final nos diferentes materiais testados. Entre os porta-enxertos avaliados, 'Harmony', 'Salt Creek', '1103 Paulsen', 'IAC 572-Jales', 'IAC 313-Tropical', 'K5BB Kober' e 'SO4', foram resistentes (FR1,00 ao nematoide. No entanto, ambas as cultivares copa foram suscetíveis às duas espécies de Meloidogyne testadas.

  4. Elucidating the molecular bases of epigenetic inheritance in non-model invertebrates: the case of the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LaetitiaPerfus-Barbeoch

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Root-knot nematodes of the genus Meloidogyne are biotrophic plant parasites that exhibit different reproduction modes, ranging from classical amphimixis to obligatory mitotic parthenogenesis (apomixis, depending on the species. Meloidogyne incognita, an apomictic species, exhibits a worldwide distribution and a wide host range affecting more than 3,000 plant species. Furthermore, evidences suggest that apomixis does not prevent M. incognita from adapting to its environment in contrast to what is expected from mitotic parthenogenesis that should theoretically produce clonal progenies. This raises questions about mechanisms of genome plasticity leading to genetic variation and adaptive evolution in apomictic animals. We reasoned that epigenetic mechanisms might in part be responsible for the generation of phenotypic variants that provide potential for rapid adaptation. We investigated therefore the principal carriers of epigenetic information, DNA methylation and post-translational histone modifications. Even if M. incognita possesses the epigenetic machinery i.e. chromatin modifying enzymes, 5-methyl-cytosine and 5-hydroxy-methyl-cytosine content is absent or very weak. In contrast, we demonstrated that the canonical histone modifications are present and chromatin shows typical nucleosome structure. This work is the first characterization of carriers of epigenetic information in M. incognita and constitutes a preamble to further investigate whether M. incognita development and its adaptation to plant hosts are under epigenetic control.

  5. Efeito da incorporação de sementes trituradas defeijão de porco ao solo sobre o parasitismo de Meloidogyne incognita em tomateiro / Effect of soil amendment with powdered seeds of pig bean on Meloidogyne incognita in tomato

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    GILSON S., SILVA; ILKA M. R., SOUZA; FLÁVIA A., CUTRIM.

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se, em condições de casa de vegetação, o efeito da suplementação do solo com sementes trituradas de feijão de porco (Canavalia ensiformis) sobre os índices de galhas e de massas de ovos de Meloidogyne incognita raça 1 em tomateiro (Lycopersicon esculentum). O substrato utilizado foi solo aut [...] oclavado suplementado com 2,5; 5,0; 7,5 e 10,0 g de sementes trituradas/kg de solo. Solo sem a suplementação serviu como testemunha. Para efeito de comparação, o nematicida Carbofuran foi incluído como tratamento adicional. Controle do nematóide foi obtido a partir da incorporação de 5,0 g de sementes trituradas/kg de solo, sendo o efeito proporcional à dosagem. Os índices de galhas e massas de ovos foram reduzidos em 48% e 64%, respectivamente, com a aplicação de 10 g de sementes trituradas/kg de solo. Abstract in english A greenhouse experiment was carried out to study the effect of powdered seeds of pig bean (Canavalia ensiformis) incorporated into the soil, for the control of Meloidogyne incognita race 1 in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) plants. Autoclaved soil was amended with 2.5, 5.0, 7.5 and 10.0 g of powder [...] ed seeds/kg of soil. Soil without amendment served as control. For comparison, the nematicide Carbofuran was included as an additional treatment. Nematode was controlled at rates above 5.0 g. Gall and egg mass indexes were reduced by 48% and 64%, respectively, with the application of 10 g of powdered seeds/kg of soil.

  6. Identification and analysis of a cuticular collagen-encoding gene from the plant-parasitic nematode Meloidogyne incognita.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van der Eycken, W; de Almeida Engler, J; Van Montagu, M; Gheysen, G

    1994-12-30

    The vast majority of proteins in the nematode cuticle are collagens. Cuticular collagen-encoding genes (col) have been described for the animal parasites Ascaris suum and Haemonchus contortus and for the free-living Caenorhabditis elegans. The proteins encoded by all these genes seem to have the same basic structure, indicating that there is a conserved subfamily of cuticular col in these nematodes. In this paper, we describe the identification and characterization of a cDNA (Lemmi 5) which corresponds to a cuticular col of the plant-parasitic nematode Meloidogyne incognita. The derived protein structure is very similar to the basic structure of the C. elegans cuticular collagens. Using PCR technology, we have shown the presence of Lemmi 5-related sequences in the genome of Ditylenchus destructor. Our data strongly support the existence of a cuticular col subfamily which is highly conserved in the phylum Nemata. PMID:7828882

  7. Efeito da incorporação de sementes trituradas defeijão de porco ao solo sobre o parasitismo de Meloidogyne incognita em tomateiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SILVA GILSON S.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se, em condições de casa de vegetação, o efeito da suplementação do solo com sementes trituradas de feijão de porco (Canavalia ensiformis sobre os índices de galhas e de massas de ovos de Meloidogyne incognita raça 1 em tomateiro (Lycopersicon esculentum. O substrato utilizado foi solo autoclavado suplementado com 2,5; 5,0; 7,5 e 10,0 g de sementes trituradas/kg de solo. Solo sem a suplementação serviu como testemunha. Para efeito de comparação, o nematicida Carbofuran foi incluído como tratamento adicional. Controle do nematóide foi obtido a partir da incorporação de 5,0 g de sementes trituradas/kg de solo, sendo o efeito proporcional à dosagem. Os índices de galhas e massas de ovos foram reduzidos em 48% e 64%, respectivamente, com a aplicação de 10 g de sementes trituradas/kg de solo.

  8. Efeito de exsudatos de cultura de células de plantas em juvenis de segundo estádio de Meloidogyne incognita / Effect of exudates of plant cell culture on second-stage juveniles of Meloidogyne incognita

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Fernando S., Rocha; Vicente P., Campos.

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Calus foram obtidos de tomateiro (Lycopersicon esculentum), cafeeiro (Coffea arabica), alfafa (Medicago sativa), orquídea (Dendrobium nobile), mostarda (Brassica rapa), batata doce (Ipomoea batatas), fumo (Nicotiana tabacum), cenoura (Daucus carota) e Crotalaria juncea em meio sólido de Murashige & [...] Skoog (MS) seguido do cultivo em meio líquido MS em temperatura de 25-28 ºC. Após um mês, a suspensão foi passada em membrana Millipore 0,22 µm, obtendo-se, assim, o exsudato da cultura de células de cada planta testada. Ovos ou juvenis de segundo estádio (J2) de Meloidogyne incognita foram incubados nesses exsudatos e avaliadas as percentagens de eclosão, mobilidade e mortalidade dos J2. Com exceção dos ovos incubados em exsudato de orquídea, todos os demais inibiram a eclosão quando comparados com a incubação em água (testemunha). Entretanto, nos exsudatos de L. esculentum, cafeeiro e C. juncea a inibição foi mais drástica, semelhante ao aldicarb, mas significativamente diferente e menor do que em soluções contendo ingredientes do meio MS (1-5). Todos os exsudatos reduziram a mobilidade e aumentaram a mortalidade, com maior intensidade em 24 h de exposição. Porém, maior redução na mobilidade ocorreu nos exsudatos de tomateiro e alfafa, enquanto maior mortalidade no exsudato de tomateiro, seguido pelo de mostarda. Abstract in english Callus of Lycopersicon esculentum, Coffea arabica, Medicago sativa, Dendrobium nobile, Brassica rapa, Ipomoea batatas, Nicotiana tabacum, Daucus carota and Crotalaria juncea were obtained in Murashige & Skoog (MS) solid medium followed by cell cultivation in MS liquid medium at temperature varying f [...] rom 25-28 ºC. After one month, the cell suspension was passed through a 0,22 µm Millipore membrane, and the resulting liquid was the cell exudate from each of the tested plants. Eggs or second-stage juveniles (J2) of Meloidogyne incognita were then incubated in these exudates and hatching, mobility and mortality percentages of the J2 were evaluated. Except for the eggs incubated in the exudate of orchid, all the exudates inhibited J2 hatching when compared with incubation in water (control). However, in L. esculentum, C. arabica and C. juncea exudates the inhibition was greatest, similar to aldicar, but significantly less and different than that found in solution of culture medium ingredients MS (1-5). All exudates reduced mobility and increased mortality of M. incognita J2, although theses were enhanced when exposed for 24 h. The greatest reduction of mobility occurred with the exudates of tomato and M. sativa, while greatest mortality occurred with the exudate of L. esculentum, followed by B. rapa.

  9. Efeito de exsudatos de cultura de células de plantas em juvenis de segundo estádio de Meloidogyne incognita Effect of exudates of plant cell culture on second-stage juveniles of Meloidogyne incognita

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando S. Rocha

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Calus foram obtidos de tomateiro (Lycopersicon esculentum, cafeeiro (Coffea arabica, alfafa (Medicago sativa, orquídea (Dendrobium nobile, mostarda (Brassica rapa, batata doce (Ipomoea batatas, fumo (Nicotiana tabacum, cenoura (Daucus carota e Crotalaria juncea em meio sólido de Murashige & Skoog (MS seguido do cultivo em meio líquido MS em temperatura de 25-28 ºC. Após um mês, a suspensão foi passada em membrana Millipore 0,22 µm, obtendo-se, assim, o exsudato da cultura de células de cada planta testada. Ovos ou juvenis de segundo estádio (J2 de Meloidogyne incognita foram incubados nesses exsudatos e avaliadas as percentagens de eclosão, mobilidade e mortalidade dos J2. Com exceção dos ovos incubados em exsudato de orquídea, todos os demais inibiram a eclosão quando comparados com a incubação em água (testemunha. Entretanto, nos exsudatos de L. esculentum, cafeeiro e C. juncea a inibição foi mais drástica, semelhante ao aldicarb, mas significativamente diferente e menor do que em soluções contendo ingredientes do meio MS (1-5. Todos os exsudatos reduziram a mobilidade e aumentaram a mortalidade, com maior intensidade em 24 h de exposição. Porém, maior redução na mobilidade ocorreu nos exsudatos de tomateiro e alfafa, enquanto maior mortalidade no exsudato de tomateiro, seguido pelo de mostarda.Callus of Lycopersicon esculentum, Coffea arabica, Medicago sativa, Dendrobium nobile, Brassica rapa, Ipomoea batatas, Nicotiana tabacum, Daucus carota and Crotalaria juncea were obtained in Murashige & Skoog (MS solid medium followed by cell cultivation in MS liquid medium at temperature varying from 25-28 ºC. After one month, the cell suspension was passed through a 0,22 µm Millipore membrane, and the resulting liquid was the cell exudate from each of the tested plants. Eggs or second-stage juveniles (J2 of Meloidogyne incognita were then incubated in these exudates and hatching, mobility and mortality percentages of the J2 were evaluated. Except for the eggs incubated in the exudate of orchid, all the exudates inhibited J2 hatching when compared with incubation in water (control. However, in L. esculentum, C. arabica and C. juncea exudates the inhibition was greatest, similar to aldicar, but significantly less and different than that found in solution of culture medium ingredients MS (1-5. All exudates reduced mobility and increased mortality of M. incognita J2, although theses were enhanced when exposed for 24 h. The greatest reduction of mobility occurred with the exudates of tomato and M. sativa, while greatest mortality occurred with the exudate of L. esculentum, followed by B. rapa.

  10. Reaction of vegetables and aromatic plants to Meloidogyne javanica and M. incognita / Reação de hortaliças e plantas aromáticas aos nematoides Meloidogyne javanica e M. incognita

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Cláudia Regina, Dias-Arieira; Tatiana PL da, Cunha; Fernando Marcelo, Chiamolera; Heriksen H, Puerari; Fabio, Biela; Simone de M, Santana.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Para avaliar a reação, mudas com 15 dias de idade foram transplantadas para vasos de 2 L de capacidade e inoculadas com 4.000 ovos e eventuais juvenis (J2) dos nematoides. Decorridos 60 dias, os sistemas radiculares foram retirados e avaliados quanto ao número de galhas e ovos, determinando-se o fat [...] or de reprodução (FR) dos nematoides nas respectivas plantas. Tomateiro cv. Santa Cruz foi utilizado como testemunha. O experimento foi conduzido em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com seis repetições, e as médias foram comparadas pelo teste Tukey ou Scott-Knott a 5% de probabilidade. Nas alfaces tipo Mimosa cv. Salad Bowl; nas cultivares do tipo Lisa, Elizabeth e Elisa; e na cultivar Vera (tipo crespa), o número de galhas e o FR de M. javanica foi superior ao observado para a testemunha; enquanto para as demais oleráceas, os maiores números de galhas e ovos foram para as cultivares de chicória e para o manjericão. Maior suscetibilidade a M. incognita foi observada para a alface tipo Mimosa cv. Salad Bowl, para as cultivares de chicória, salsa cv. Graúda Portuguesa e manjericão. Apenas manjerona apresentou número de galhas de M. incognita igual a zero. Abstract in english For this research we used 15 day-old seedlings which were transplanted to 2 L pots and inoculated with 4,000 nematode eggs plus juveniles (J2). After 60 days, the root systems were removed and the number of galls and eggs evaluated and used to calculate the nematode reproduction factor (RF). The tom [...] ato cv. Santa Cruz was used as a susceptible control. The experimental design was completely randomized, with six replications. Averages were compared using the Tukey or Scott-Knott test at 5%. For lettuce, Salad Bowl (Mimosa type), Elizabeth and Elisa (Lisa) and Vera cultivars (crisphead), the number of galls and the RF for M. javanica were statistically higher than for the control, whereas, for the other vegetable crops, the highest number of galls and eggs were found in chicory and basil. The highest susceptibility to M. incognita was observed in Mimosa lettuce cv. Salad Bowl, chicory cultivars, parsley cv. Graúda Portuguesa and basil. Marjoram exhibited no M. incognita galls.

  11. Reaction of vegetables and aromatic plants to Meloidogyne javanica and M. incognita Reação de hortaliças e plantas aromáticas aos nematoides Meloidogyne javanica e M. incognita

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudia Regina Dias-Arieira

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available For this research we used 15 day-old seedlings which were transplanted to 2 L pots and inoculated with 4,000 nematode eggs plus juveniles (J2. After 60 days, the root systems were removed and the number of galls and eggs evaluated and used to calculate the nematode reproduction factor (RF. The tomato cv. Santa Cruz was used as a susceptible control. The experimental design was completely randomized, with six replications. Averages were compared using the Tukey or Scott-Knott test at 5%. For lettuce, Salad Bowl (Mimosa type, Elizabeth and Elisa (Lisa and Vera cultivars (crisphead, the number of galls and the RF for M. javanica were statistically higher than for the control, whereas, for the other vegetable crops, the highest number of galls and eggs were found in chicory and basil. The highest susceptibility to M. incognita was observed in Mimosa lettuce cv. Salad Bowl, chicory cultivars, parsley cv. Graúda Portuguesa and basil. Marjoram exhibited no M. incognita galls.Para avaliar a reação, mudas com 15 dias de idade foram transplantadas para vasos de 2 L de capacidade e inoculadas com 4.000 ovos e eventuais juvenis (J2 dos nematoides. Decorridos 60 dias, os sistemas radiculares foram retirados e avaliados quanto ao número de galhas e ovos, determinando-se o fator de reprodução (FR dos nematoides nas respectivas plantas. Tomateiro cv. Santa Cruz foi utilizado como testemunha. O experimento foi conduzido em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com seis repetições, e as médias foram comparadas pelo teste Tukey ou Scott-Knott a 5% de probabilidade. Nas alfaces tipo Mimosa cv. Salad Bowl; nas cultivares do tipo Lisa, Elizabeth e Elisa; e na cultivar Vera (tipo crespa, o número de galhas e o FR de M. javanica foi superior ao observado para a testemunha; enquanto para as demais oleráceas, os maiores números de galhas e ovos foram para as cultivares de chicória e para o manjericão. Maior suscetibilidade a M. incognita foi observada para a alface tipo Mimosa cv. Salad Bowl, para as cultivares de chicória, salsa cv. Graúda Portuguesa e manjericão. Apenas manjerona apresentou número de galhas de M. incognita igual a zero.

  12. Nematicidal activity of the essential oil of Rhododendron anthopogonoides aerial parts and its constituent compounds against Meloidogyne incognita.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Peng Hua; Bai, Chun Qi; Liu, Qi Zhi; Du, Shu Shan; Liu, Zhi Long

    2013-01-01

    Hydrodistilled essential oil from Rhododendron anthopogonoides Maxim. (Ericaceae) aerial parts was analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). A total of 42 compounds, accounting for 95.48% of the total oil, were identified. The main constituents of the essential oil were benzyl acetone (34.41%), nerolidol (10.19%), 1,4-cineole (8.41%), beta-caryophyllene (5.63%), gamma-elemene (5.10%), and spathulenol (3.06%). Four constituents were isolated from the essential oil based on fractionation. The essential oil of R. anthopogonoides possessed nematicidal activity against the root knot nematode (Meloidogyne incognita) with an LC50 value of 130.11 microg/ml. The main compound of the essential oil, benzyl acetone, exhibited nematicidal activity against M. incognita with an LC50 value of 74.17 microg/ml while 1,4-cineole, nerolidol, and beta-caryophyllene were not nematicidal at a concentration of 5 mg/ml. The essential oil of R. anthopogonoides and benzyl acetone show potential for their development as possible natural nematicides for the control of the root knot nematode. PMID:24066516

  13. EFECTO DEL VERMICOMPOST Y QUITINA SOBRE EL CONTROL DE Meloidogyne incognita EN TOMATE A NIVEL DE INVERNADERO

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    Leida Castro

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Meloidogyne incognita es un nematodo endoparásito sedentario, de penetración total y formador de nódulos radicales; tiene una amplia distribución geográfica y causa pérdidas agrícolas importantes. Recientemente se han utilizado abonos orgánicos y compuestos como la quitina en la supresión de plagas y enfermedades de plantas. El objetivo de esta investigación fue evaluar el efecto de la aplicación de vermicompost de estiércol bovino y su enriquecimiento con quitina, sobre la infección de M. incognita en plantas de tomate var. Hayslip bajo condiciones de invernadero. Para esto se inocularon las plantas con 5000 unidades de inóculo (huevos+juveniles en segundo estado por maceta y se compararon con controles que fueron sembrados en suelo sin enmienda orgánica o quitina. La evaluación se llevó a cabo 60 días después y se midió el peso fresco aéreo y radical, peso seco aéreo, población total de nematodos en raíz y suelo, índice de nódulos radicales (INR, índice de masas de huevos (IMH, el factor de reproducción del nematodo (FR y recuento de grupos funcionales (hongos, bacterias y actinomicetes. La adición al suelo de vermicompost provocó un incremento en las variables peso fresco y seco foliar y peso fresco radical: a mayor porcentaje de vermicompost, mayor incremento; así mismo, la aplicación del vermicompost redujo la cantidad del nematodo en raíz y en suelo. La aplicación de quitina acentuó estos resultados, obteniéndose el menor factor de reproducción de M. Incognita, con un valor de 3,76 para la dosis de 50% vermicompost+quitina, mientras que en el testigo este factor fue de 93,20. La aplicación de quitina como enmienda única solo afectó la población de hongos en el suelo, mientras que la de actinomicetes aumentó en los tratamientos enmendados.

  14. Virtual screening and in vitro assay of potential drug like inhibitors from spices against Glutathione-S-Transferase of Meloidogyne incognita

    OpenAIRE

    Babu, Rosana O; Moorkoth, Dinsha; Azeez, Shamina; Eapen, Santhosh J

    2012-01-01

    Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) enzymes are critical antioxidant and detoxification system responsible for long-term existence of nematodes in host species. Hence, 16 phytochemicals predicted and reported to have potential nematicidal activity have been docked to GST enzyme of Meloidogyne incognita to assess their binding affinity and inhibitory activity. In vitro effects of these phytochemicals from in silico results have been done for validation of docking studies and efficacy in...

  15. COMPORTAMIENTO DE MATERIALES DE GUAYABO (Psidium guajava LINNEO) AL PARASITISMO DEL NEMATODO FORMADOR DE AGALLAS [Meloidogyne incognita (KOFOID & WHITE) CHITWOOD Y Meloidogyne javanica (TREUB) CHITWOOD] / BEHAVIOR OF GUAVA MATERIALS (Psidiumguajava LINNEO) ON THE ROOT KNOT NEMATODE [Meloidogyne incognita (KOFOID & WHITE) CHITWOOD AND Meloidogyne javanica (TREUB) CHITWOOD] PARASITISM

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    ALEJANDRA, DUQUE ARISTIZÁBAL; ÓSCAR ADRIÁN, GUZMÁN PIEDRAHÍTA.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Las raíces del guayabo son parasitadas por el nematodo del nudo radical (Meloidogyne spp.), ocasionando pérdidas de la producción entre 30 y 60%. Debido a esto, el principal objetivo de esta investigación fue evaluar en condiciones de almácigo la reacción de cuatro variedades de guayabo al ataque de [...] l complejo Meloidogyne incognita y M. javanica. En el vivero Jaibaná Frutales, del municipio de Pereira (Risaralda), plántulas de cuatro variedades: Pera y Común (Psidium guajava), Agrio (Psidium friedrichsthalianum) y Peruano (Psidium cattleianum), fueron sembradas en bolsas de plástico que contenían suelo y cascarilla de arroz en proporción 3:1. Veinte días después de sembradas, a 15 plántulas de cada una de las variedades le fueron inoculadas una mezcla de 1.000, 5.000 y 10.000 huevos y juveniles de Meloidogyne, y los respectivos testigos sin inocular. Las plántulas fueron asignadas bajo un diseño experimental completamente aleatorio. Las variedades Peruano con 5,75g y 8,03g de peso seco de raíces y parte aérea, respectivamente, y Agrio con 10,27g y 9,23g de peso seco de raíces y parte aérea, respectivamente, presentaron el menor índice de nudosidad con 0,1 y 1,1, y reproducción de Meloidogyne spp. con valores entre 75 y 4.575 huevos y juveniles/100g de raíces. Estas variedades fueron estadísticamente diferentes a la variedad Pera con 13,96g y 11,33g de peso seco de raíces y parte aérea, respectivamente, y Común con 11,35g y 13,9g de peso seco de raíces y parte aérea, respectivamente, quienes presentaron mayor índice de nudosidad con 5 y reproducción con 149.775 huevos y 72.950 juveniles/100g de raíces. Las variedades Agrio y Peruano fueron resistentes e inmunes, respectivamente, al ataque de Meloidogyne incognita y M. javanica, permitiendo ser utilizadas como portainjertos o patrones; mientras que las variedades Pera y Común fueron altamente susceptibles. Abstract in english Guava roots are parasitized by the root knot nematode (Meloidogyne spp.), which causes production losses between 30 and 60%. Due to this, the main goal of this research was to evaluate the reaction of four varieties of guava under nursery conditions to the attack of Meloidogyne incognita and M. java [...] nica complex. In the Jaibaná Frutales nursery, in the municipality of Pereira (Risaralda), seedlings of four varieties of guava: Guava pear and Common guava (Psidiumguajava), Cas guava (Psidiumfriedrichsthalianum), and Peruvian guava (Psidiumcattleianum), were planted in plastic bags containing soil and rice hull in a 3:1 proportion. Twenty days after planted, 15 seedlings of each variety were inoculated with a mixture of 1,000, 5,000 and 10,000 eggs and Meloidogyne spp juveniles, and their respective controls without inoculation. Seedlings were assigned under a completely randomized design. The Peruvian guava variety with 5.75g and 8.03g roots and aerial parts dry weight respectively, and Cas guava variety with 10.27g and 9.23g roots and aerial parts dry weight, respectively, had the lowest root gall index with 0.1 and 1.1, and Meloidogyne spp. reproduction with values between 75 and 4.575 eggs and juveniles/100g of roots. These varieties were statistically different from the guava Pear variety with 13,96g y 11,33g roots and aerial parts dry weight respectively, and Common guava with 11,35g y 13,9g roots and aerial parts dry weight respectively, which had the highest root gall index with 5 and reproduction with 149.775 eggs and 72.950 juveniles/100g of roots. In conclusion, the Cas and Peruvian varieties were resistant and immune respectively, to Meloidogyne incognita and M. javanica, allowing them to be used as rootstocks or patronages, while guava Pear and Common guava were highly susceptible to both species.

  16. Enxertia e sua influencia na produção de pepino e reprodução de Meloidogyne javanica e M. incognita / Effect of grafting on cucumber production and reproduction of Meloidogyne javanica and M. incognita

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ariane C, Salata; Erick Vinicius, Bertolini; Felipe O, Magro; Antonio II, Cardoso; Silvia Renata S, Wilcken.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A enxertia em porta-enxertos resistentes é uma técnica frequentemente recomendada para a cultura do pepino em áreas infestadas com nematoides-das-galhas. O presente trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a produção de pepino enxertado em dois porta-enxertos comparado com pé-franco em solo infestado com [...] Meloidogyne incognita raça 2 ou com M. javanica. Foram avaliados nove tratamentos (fatorial 3x3: pepino híbrido Tsuyataro pé-franco, enxertado na abóbora híbrida 'Shelper' e enxertado na abóbora híbrida 'Excitte Ikki' x sem inoculação, inoculação com M. incognita e inoculação com M. javanica), no delineamento em blocos ao acaso, com quatro repetições e seis plantas por parcela. Para as características de produção de frutos (número de frutos totais e comerciais por planta, massa de frutos totais e comerciais por planta) não foi obtida interação entre os fatores. Obteve-se maior produção de frutos em plantas enxertadas sobre a abóbora 'Shelper', independente da espécie de nematoide, enquanto que a enxertia sobre 'Excitte Ikki' não diferiu do pé-franco para produção total. Ambas as espécies de nematoide reduziram a produção de frutos, porém este efeito foi mais pronunciado com M. javanica. Tanto o pepino pé-franco como as plantas enxertadas foram suscetíveis, pois permitiram a multiplicação dos nematoides, com fator de reprodução, em avaliação realizada aos 72 dias após a inoculação, variando de 3,57 a 15,04, sendo que para M. javanica este valor foi maior no pepino pé-franco. Abstract in english Grafting on resistant rootstock is a technique often recommended for cucumber crop in root-knot nematodes infested areas. We studied the yield of grafted cucumber on two rootstocks compared with non grafted in soil infested with Meloidogyne javanica or with M. incognita race 2. Nine treatments (fact [...] orial 3x3: Japanese cucumber hybrid Tsuyataro without grafting, grafted on squash hybrid Shelper and grafted on squash hybrid Excitte Ikki x without nematode inoculation, inoculated with M. incognita and inoculated with M. javanica) were evaluated in a randomized block design, with four replications and six plants per plot. There was no interaction between factors for yield evaluated characteristics (total and marketable fruit number per plant, total and marketable fruit weight per plant). Higher fruit yield was obtained in cucumber grafted on 'Shelper', for both nematode species, while cucumber grafted on 'Excitte Ikki' did not differ from non grafted plants for total fruit weight. Both nematode species reduced fruit yield, which was more evident when M. javanica was inoculated. Grafted and non grafted plants were susceptible, because they enabled the multiplication of nematodes, with a reproduction factor, at 72 days after inoculation, ranging from 3.57 to 15.04, with the highest value in cucumber non grafted inoculated with M. javanica.

  17. Grafted eggplant yield, quality and growth in infested soil with Verticillium dahliae and Meloidogyne incognita / Produção, qualidade e crescimento de beringela enxertada, em solo infestado com Verticillium dahliae e Meloidogyne incognita

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Sebahattin, Çürük; H. Y& #305; ld& #305; z, Dasgan; Sedat, Mansuro& #287; lu; & #350; ener, Kurt; Meltem, Mazmano& #287; lu; Özgür, Antakl& #305; ; Gülcan, Tarla.

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito sobre a altura de planta, a produção e a qualidade de frutos do enxerto das cultivares de beringela (Solanum melongena L.) Pala e Faselis em Solanum torvum Sw., quando cultivadas em solo infestado com Verticillium dahliae e Meloidogyne incognita ou em s [...] olo não infestado. A infestação do solo reduziu a produção, altura da planta, biomassa da parte aérea, massa média dos frutos, massa de matéria seca da parte aérea, conforme a cultivar utilizada e a enxertia. A enxertia reduziu os conteúdos de ácido oxálico e de sólidos solúveis e aumentou a massa média de frutos, conforme a cultivar ou a presença do patógeno no solo. A enxertia também reduziu o efeito negativo dos patógenos sobre o índice de doença, a altura de planta e a massa de matéria seca da parte aérea. A cultivar Pala foi mais vigorosa que a Faselis, e S. torvum foi um porta-enxerto vigoroso. A combinação de porta-enxerto vigoroso com a cultivar fraca (Faselis) foi mais adequada que a de porta-enxerto vigoroso e a cultivar vigorosa (Pala). Ouso de S. torvum como porta-enxerto para a cultivar Faselis, em solo infestado, é provavelmente promissora na horticultura convencional e na horticultura sustentável de baixos insumos, pois a enxertia aumenta a proteção contra os patógenos, e reduz a perda de qualidade dos frutos e da produção. Abstract in english The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of grafting (onto Solanum torvum Sw.) on plant growth, yield and fruit quality of the Pala and Faselis eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) cultivars, grown in a soil infested with Verticillium dahliae Kleb. and Meloidogyne incognita, or in noninfeste [...] d soil. Soil infestation decreased yield, plant height, final above-ground biomass, and also reduced fruit mean weight and shoot dry weight depending on cultivar or grafting. Grafting decreased fruit oxalic acid and the soluble solid contents, and increased mean fruit weight, depending on cultivar and soil infestation. Grafting also reduced the negative effects of the pathogens on disease index, plant height and shoot dry weight. Cultivar Pala was more vigorous than Faselis, and S. torvum was a vigorous rootstock. The combination of a vigorous rootstock with a weak cultivar (Faselis) is more profitable than that of a vigorous rootstock and a vigorous cultivar (Pala). Using S. torvum as a rootstock for cultivar Faselis, grown in soil infested with the pathogens, is most likely to be useful in conventional and low-input sustainable horticulture, since grafting increases protection against the pathogens, and reduces the losses in quality and yield.

  18. Efeito de extratos aquosos de espécies de Asteraceae sobre Meloidogyne incognita / Effect of aqueous extracts of Asteraceae species on Meloidogyne incognita

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Isabel Cristina Madeira, Ferreira; Gilson Soares da, Silva; Fagner Sousa, Nascimento.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se, in vitro e in vivo a atividade nematicida dos extratos aquosos de vedélia (Sphagneticola trilobata), erva-de-touro (Tridax procumbens), cravo-de-defunto (Tagetes patula), girassol mexicano (Tithonia diversifolia), botão de ouro (Unxia suffruticosa) e zínia (Zinnia peruviana), sobre Meloi [...] dogyne incognita. Os extratos foram preparados na proporção de 1,0g do material seco e triturado para 10mL de água destilada e armazenados por 24h, sendo seguidamente utilizados nos experimentos. Nos testes in vitro, foram depositados 4,0mL do extrato bruto e 2,0mL de uma suspensão aquosa contendo 200 ovos do nematóide em placas de Petri de 5cm de diâmetro e, quinze dias após, procedeu-se a contagem do número de juvenis eclodidos e dos ovos remanescentes para o cálculo das porcentagens de eclosão. Nos testes in vivo, os extratos foram aplicados, separadamente, via pulverização foliar, tratamento de raiz e vertido no solo, semanalmente durante 60 dias. Como testemunha utilizou-se apenas água nos dois experimentos. No ensaio in vitro observou-se que todos os extratos foram eficientes na redução da eclosão de juvenis de M. incognita quando comparados à testemunha, as porcentagens de redução foram 89,96%, 91,13%, 92,48%, 92,72%, 93,2% e 97,48% para erva-de-touro, cravo-de-defunto, girassol mexicano, vedélia, botão de ouro e zínia, respectivamente, e no ensaio in vivo, que os tratamentos não exerceram nenhum efeito sobre o peso do sistema radicular dos tomateiros, no entanto, observou-se que os resultados diferiram entre as espécies utilizadas e a forma de aplicação do extrato na avaliação do peso fresco da parte aérea das plantas. Quanto ao fator de reprodução, observou-se que nenhum dos extratos apresentou diferença estatística em relação à testemunha, no entanto, quando se compara as diferentes formas de aplicação dos mesmos, observa-se que houve diferença estatística quando os extratos de erva de touro e girassol mexicano foram aplicados via pulverização foliar e no tratamento de raiz, contudo, não houve diferença quando estes extratos foram aplicados em forma de rega no solo. Abstract in english The nematicide activity of aqueous extracts of Wedelia (Sphagneticola trilobata), tridax daisy (Tridax procumbens), marigold (Tagetes patula), Mexican sunflower (Tithonia diversifolia), "botão de ouro" (Unxia suffruticosa) and Peruvian zinnia (Zinnia peruviana) was studied in vitro and in vivo on Me [...] loidogyne incognita. The extracts were prepared at a ratio of 1.0 g of dry and crushed material to 10 ml of distilled water, stored for 24 hours, and then used in the experiments. In in vitro tests, 4.0 mL of crude extract and 2.0 ml of an aqueous suspension containing 200 nematode eggs were deposited on Petri plates of 5cm diameter and, fifteen days later, the number of hatched juveniles and the remaining eggs were counted to calculate the percentages of hatching. In in vivo tests, the extracts were separately applied by leaf spraying, root treatment and pouring onto the soil, weekly for 60 days. As control, only water was used in both experiments. The in vitro test showed that all extracts were effective in reducing the hatching of juveniles of M. incognita when compared to the control; the reduction percentages were 89.96%, 91.13%, 92.48%, 92.72%, 93.2% and 97.48% for tridax daisy, marigold, Mexican sunflower, Wedelia, "botão de ouro" and Peruvian zinnia, respectively, while in the in vivo assay, treatments did not have any effect on the root system weight of tomato plants; however, results differed between the used species and the way of application of the extract in the evaluation of the fresh weight of shoots. As to the reproduction rate, none of the extracts showed a statistical difference, compared to control; however, comparing the different ways of application, there was statistical difference when the extracts of tridax daisy and Mexican sunflower were applied through leaf spraying and root treatment, but there was no difference when these extracts

  19. Pyramiding taro cystatin and fungal chitinase genes driven by a synthetic promoter enhances resistance in tomato to root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Yuan-Li; He, Yong; Hsiao, Tsen-Tsz; Wang, Chii-Jeng; Tian, Zhihong; Yeh, Kai-Wun

    2015-02-01

    Meloidogyne incognita, one of the major root-knot nematode (RKN) species in agriculture, attacks many plant species, causing severe economic losses. Genetic engineering of plants with defense-responsive genes has been demonstrated to control RKN. These studies, however, focused on controlling RKN at certain growth stages. In the present study, a dual gene overexpression system, utilizing a plant cysteine proteinase inhibitor (CeCPI) and a fungal chitinase (PjCHI-1), was used to transform tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) in order to provide protection from all growth stages of RKN. A synthetic promoter, pMSPOA, containing NOS-like and SP8a elements, was employed to drive the expression of introduced genes. Gall formation and the proportion of female nematodes in the population, as well as effects on the reproduction of RKN, were monitored in both transgenic and control plants. RKN eggs collected from transgenic plants displayed reduced chitin content and retardation in embryogenesis. The results demonstrated that transgenic plants had inhibitory effects on RKN that were superior to plants transformed with a single gene. The pyramiding expression system produced synergistic effects by the two defense-responsive genes, leading to a detrimental effect on all growth stages of RKN. PMID:25575993

  20. Evaluation of Verticilum Chlamydosporium and Arrthrobotrys for Biological Control of Meloidogyne Incognita in Celery and Tomato

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ability of nematode trapping fungi and egg-parasitic fungi to colonize and persist in the rhizosphere of crop plants is thought to be an important factor influencing the success of bi logical control of root infecting nematodes. In this study, two strains of an egg parasite fungus Verticillium chlamydosporium (Vc-10 and Vc-2M) and an isolate of the nematode-trapping fungus Arthrobotrys oligospora and persistence in the rhizosphere and tomato plants in a green house pot experiment. The isolates tested differed in their pathogenicity to M. incognita and survival in the rhizosphere. An isolate of Verticillum chlamydosporium (Vc-10) was the most virulent pathogen of the nematode. Root galling was slowest in tomato plants treated with V-10 (2.2); pots treated with this isolate had the lowest final soil population of infective juveniles; there was a 62.2% and 98.5% infections of eggs and egg masses respectively by Vc-10 on tomato plants. The two isolates of Verticillium chlamydosporium (Vc-10 and Vc2M) persisted in the soil and could be re-isolated from the rhizosphere and roots of tomato plants at least 16 weeks after soil application. The final inoculum density was, however higher for Vc-10 (1.35x105 cfu/g soil) than Vc-2M (9.25x104 cfu/g soil). Arthrobotrys oligospora on the other hand did not give any significant control of the nematode on both crops, there was severe galling on the roots of plants treated with this agent. It could not be re-isolated from the plant rhizosphere sixteen weeks after soil infestation. Lack of nematode control on both crops by A.oligo spora was attributed to it's poor on establishment in the plant rhizosphere; low density and roots penetration by infective juveniles before they were ensnared in the trapping devices of this fungal biocontrol agent. The fact that it could not be re-isolated from the rhizosphere may imply that the fungus did not survive in the rhizosphere in quantities enough to enhance nematode control

  1. Actividad antagónica in vitro de cepas de Bacillus subtilis aisladas de suelos de la Península de Yucatán contra Macrophomina phaseolina y Meloidogyne incognita / In vitro antagonistic activity of Bacillus subtilis strains isolated from soils of the Yucatan Peninsula against Macrophomina phaseolina and Meloidogyne incognita

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    SE, Ruiz; AJ, Cristóbal; RA, Reyes; SJ, Tun; RA, García; AJ, Pacheco.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available La actividad antagónica de las cepas de Bacillus subtilis nativas de los suelos de la península de Yucatán fueron evaluadas en dos patógenos de suelo. Bacillus subtilis cbck36 y cbrf24 causaron la inhibición de más de 60% de crecimiento en la colonia de Machophomina phaseolina. El filtrado libre de [...] células de B. subtilis cbr24 fue activo contra el segundo estado juvenil (J2) de Meloidogyne incognita (CL50 25,8% v/v). Abstract in english The antagonistic activity of native Bacillus subtilis strains from Yucatán peninsula soils were evaluated on two soilborne pathogens. Bacillus subtilis cbck36 and cbrf24 caused more than 60% inhibition of colony growth in Machophomina phaseolina. Cell-free culture filtrate of B. subtilis cbr24 were [...] active against second-stage juveniles (J2) of Meloidogyne incognita (LC50 25.8% v/v).

  2. Exploitation of microbes for enhancing bacoside content and reduction of Meloidogyne incognita infestation in Bacopa monnieri L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Rupali; Tiwari, Sudeep; Saikia, Shilpi K; Shukla, Virendra; Singh, Rashmi; Singh, S P; Kumar, P V Ajay; Pandey, Rakesh

    2015-01-01

    Despite the vast exploration of rhizospheric microbial wealth for crop yield enhancement, knowledge about the efficacy of microbial agents as biocontrol weapons against root-knot disease is scarce, especially in medicinal plants, viz., Bacopa monnieri. In the present investigation, rhizospheric microbes, viz., Bacillus megaterium, Glomus intraradices, Trichoderma harzianum ThU, and their combinations were evaluated for the management of Meloidogyne incognita (Kofoid and White) Chitwood and bacoside content enhancement in B. monnieri var CIM-Jagriti. A novel validated method Fourier transform near infrared was used for rapid estimation of total bacoside content. A significant reduction (2.75-fold) in root-knot indices was observed in the combined treatment of B. megaterium and T. harzianum ThU in comparison to untreated control plants. The same treatment also showed significant enhancement (1.40-fold) in total bacoside contents (plant active molecule) content using Fourier transform near-infrared (FT-NIR) method that analyses samples rapidly in an hour without solvent usage and provides ample scope for natural product studies. PMID:24841892

  3. Descripción morfológica de selecciones de Psidium guajava L. tolerantes y Psidium friedrichsthalianum (Berg.) Nied resistente a Meloidogyne incognita en el estado Zulia, Venezuela Morphological description of selections of Psidium guajava L. tolerants and Psidium friedrichsthalianum (Berg.) Nied resistant to Meloidogyne incognita in Zulia state, Venezuela

    OpenAIRE

    Molero, T.; Molina, J.; A Casassa-Padrón

    2003-01-01

    Con el objetivo de realizar una descripción morfológica se escogieron siete selecciones de P. guajava tolerantes, una susceptible y una de P. friedrichsthalianum "Cas" resistente al nematodo Meloidogyne incognita, ubicadas en el Centro Frutícola del Zulia-CORPOZULIA, municipio Mara, estado Zulia, Venezuela. Se recolectaron hojas, flores y frutos y se evaluó forma, margen, color, longitud del pecíolo, ancho y longitud de las hojas, relación ancho por longitud, número de nervaduras, tamaño de l...

  4. Virtual screening and in vitro assay of potential drug like inhibitors from spices against Glutathione-S-Transferase of Meloidogyne incognita.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babu, Rosana O; Moorkoth, Dinsha; Azeez, Shamina; Eapen, Santhosh J

    2012-01-01

    Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) enzymes are critical antioxidant and detoxification system responsible for long-term existence of nematodes in host species. Hence, 16 phytochemicals predicted and reported to have potential nematicidal activity have been docked to GST enzyme of Meloidogyne incognita to assess their binding affinity and inhibitory activity. In vitro effects of these phytochemicals from in silico results have been done for validation of docking studies and efficacy in GST inhibition of following compounds such as alpha- pinene, alpha- terpineol, beta- caryophyllene, capsaicin, cinnamic acid, citronellol, curcumin, eugenol, geraniol, isoeugenol, linalool, myristicin, neral, NVA (N-vanillylnonanamide), piperine, vanillin have been revealed. Nematode inhibition in vitro bioassay for selected compounds could conclude that maximum mortality was observed with highest concentrations of beta- caryophyllene (78%) followed by eugenol (61.6%), cinnamic acid (55%) and N-vanillylnonanamide (49%). These findings thus suggest that the above phytochemicals could be potentially developed as nematicidal molecules against M. incognita infections. PMID:22553389

  5. Dynamic role of organic matter and bioagent for the management of Meloidogyne incognita–Rhizoctonia solani disease complex on tomato in relation to some growth attributes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rose Rizvi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A disease complex involving Meloidogyne incognita–Rhizoctonia solani was studied on tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum var. Pusa Ruby under glasshouse conditions to determine their concomitant effect on plant growth variables. Biofertilizers Nerium indicum and Trichoderma harzianum were tested against both pathogens individually as well as concomitantly and found its role in minimizing disease severity. Inoculation of M. incognita and R. solani resulted a significant reduction in plant growth variables over control. The plant growth variables reduction was more pronounced by M. incognita as compared to R. solani. However, T. harzianum exhibited their potential against the disease complex but was less effective than N. indicum. A manifold improvement in plant growth parameters was observed when plants were treated with biofertilizers, N. indicum and T. harzianum simultaneously. The present work has revealed that the combined application of N. indicum and T. harzianum may be a better option for the management of disease complex M. incognita–R. solani on tomato. Application of these biofertilizers after field trials may be suitable module of organic farming.

  6. Resistance of Newly Introduced Vegetables to Meloidogyne arenaria and M. incognita in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donggeun Kim

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available To select resistant vegetables against two species of root-knot nematodes, M. incognita and M. arenaria, 39 vegetables belongs to 7 families, 13 genera, 25 species were screened in greenhouse pot test. Susceptible vegetables to both nematodes were amarath and leaf beet in Amaranthaceae, Malabar spinach in Basellaceae, Moroheiya in Tiliaceae, and Water-convolvulus in Convolvulaceae, Pak-choi in Brassica campestris var. chinensis, Tah tasai in B. campestris var. narinosa, B. campestris var. chinensis x narinosa, Leaf mustard, Mustard green in B. juncea, Kyona in B. juncea var. laciniate, Choy sum in B. rapa subsp. arachinenesis, Kairan in B. oleracea var. alboglabra, Arugula in Eruca sativa, Garland chrysanthemum in Chrysanthemum coronarium, Endive in Cichorium endivia, Artichoke in Cynara cardunculus var. scolymus, Lettuce in Lactuca sativa. Resistant to M. arenaria but susceptible to M. incognita were B. oleracea cv. Matjjang kale, B. oleracea var. gongyloides cv. Jeok kohlrabi, and C. intybus cv. Radicchio. Resistant vegetables to both nematodes were C. intybus cv. Sugar loaf, Grumoro, Radichio treviso, B. oleracea cv. Manchu collard, Super matjjang, B. oleracea italica, B. oleracea var. botrytis italiana, and Perilla in Lamiaceae. Vegetables resistant to both species of root-knot nematodes could be used as high-valued rotation crops in greenhouses where root-knot nematodes are problem.

  7. Efecto in vitro de concentraciones del NEMACID® sobre huevos y juveniles de Meloidogyne incognita (Kofoid y White) Chitwood / In vitro effect of different concentrations of NEMACID® on eggs and juveniles of Meloidogyne incognita (Kofoid and White) Chitwood

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Yusmila, Guevara; Eulalia, Gómez; Oriela, Pino; Y, Rodríguez; Ileana, Miranda; R, Enrique; Mayra G, Rodríguez.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Para el manejo de nematodos, se desarrolló en Cuba el producto NEMACID®, que posee como ingrediente activo metabolitos obtenidos a partir de los efluentes de la fermentación líquida de Lecanicillium lecanii (Zare & Gams) formulado con sulfato de amonio. El objetivo de este ensayo fue determinar el e [...] fecto del NEMACID® sobre los huevos y juveniles (J2) de Meloidogyne incognita (Kofoid y White) Chitwood. En el ensayo se utilizaron como controles agua destilada, sulfato de amonio ((NH4)2SO4; 1,69 mg.ml-1) y Dazomet (1g.1000ml-1); y se evaluaron cinco concentraciones de NEMACID® (18,75; 3,75; 1,875; 0, 1875 y 0,01875mg.ml-1). Los valores de LC50 y LC90, se calcularon usando el método Probit. Las evaluaciones se llevaron a cabo a las 24 horas, contabilizándose el número de J2 inmóviles y huevos no eclosionados del total. Los resultados corroboraron la acción nematicida del producto que provocó el colapso del contenido interno de los juveniles y resultó imposible su recuperación posterior. El NEMACID® a la concentración de 18,75 mg.ml-1 produjo mayor efectividad sobre la eclosión de los huevos y mortalidad de los juveniles que el Dazomet (control). El sulfato de amonio, producto que acompaña al hongo en el proceso de fermentación y forma parte de la formulación final del NEMACID®, no produjo afectación a huevos y juveniles. Las concentraciones de NEMACID® de 3,75 mg.ml-1 e inferiores no resultaron satisfactorias en el tratamiento de los huevos, donde el porcentaje de inhibición de la eclosión de los mismos estuvo por debajo del 50. Mientras que en juveniles, la concentración de 3,75 mg.ml-1 del producto ocasionó mortalidad por encima del 70%, sin diferencia significativa con el producto Dazomet. Abstract in english NEMACID® was developed in Cuba for root knot nematode management. This product contains the effluents from liquid fermentation of Lecanicillium lecani (Zare and Gams) as active ingredient, and is formulated with ammonium sulfate. The objective of this test was to determine the effect of NEMACID® on [...] eggs and juveniles (J2) of Meloidogyne incognita (Kofoid and White) Chitwood. In the test, five concentrations of NEMACID® (18,75; 3,75; 1,875; 0,1875 y 0,01875mg.ml-1) were evaluated using distilled water, ammonium sulfate ((NH4)2SO4; 1,69mg.ml-1) and Dazomet (1g.1000ml-1) as controls. The CL50 and CL90 were calculated using Probit analysis. The evaluations were done at 24h, when the total number of non mobile juveniles and non hatched eggs from the total were counted. The result corroborated the nematicide action of the product by producing the collapse of the internal content in juveniles with an impossible recovery. NEMACID® at a concentration of 18,75 mg. ml-1 showed a higher effect on egg hatching and juvenile mortality than Dazomet (control). The ammonium sulfate, a product accompanying the fungus in the fermentation process as part of the final formulation of NEMACID®, did not affect eggs or juveniles. Concentrations of NEMACID® equal to 3,75mg.ml-1 or lower did not affect the eggs, with a percentage of hatching inhibition below 50%. Meanwhile, in juveniles, the concentration of 3.75mg.ml-1 caused a mortality over 70%, without significant differences with Dazomet.

  8. Damage quantification and reaction of bean genotypes (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) to Meloidogyne incognita race 3 and M. javanica / Quantificação de danos e reção de genótipos de feijoeiro (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) à Meloidogyne incognita raça 3 e M. javanica

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Leonardo Nazário Silva dos, Santos; Fábio Ramos, Alves; Leônidas Leoni, Belan; Pablo Diego Silva, Cabral; Frederico de Pina, Matta; Waldir Cintra de, Jesus Junior; Willian Bucker de, Moraes.

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se danos e os níveis de resistência de cultivares e acessos de feijoeiro-comum resgatados nas regiões Sul e Serrana do Estado do Espírito Santo ao parasitismo de M. incognita raça 3 e M. javanica em casa de vegetação. Foram testados quatro genótipos resgatados de feijoeiro ("FORT-10", "FOR [...] T-13", "FORT-16" e "FORT-19"), e mais 2 cultivares comerciais: "Pérola"; e "Aporé". O cultivar "Rico-23" foi incluído como padrão de suscetibilidade aos nematóides e plantas não inoculadas constituíram a testemunha. Desta forma, o experimento foi conduzido em delineamento inteiramente casualizado em esquema fatorial 3 (tratamentos considerando nematóides) x 7 (genótipos e cultivares de feijoeiros), com 7 repetições. Os dados foram mensurados aos 50 dias após a inoculação das plantas. Para a quantificação de danos foram avaliadas: altura das plantas (ALT), número de nós (NOS), número de folhas trifolioladas (NFT), peso da matéria fresca (PMF) e da matéria seca (PMS) da parte aérea, peso de raiz (PR), número de nódulos radiculares (NOD) e população final (PF) de nematóides por sistema radicular. Não foram observadas diferenças significativas entre os efeitos causados por M. incognita e M. javanica, porém ambas as espécies apresentaram valores inferiores quanto à ALT, NOS, NFT, PR, PMF e PMS em relação às testemunhas. Em relação aos níveis de resistência dos feijoeiros a M. incognita os feijoeiros "FORT-10", "FORT-13", "Aporé" e "FORT-16" comportaram-se como moderadamente resistente, as cultivares "Rico 23" e "Pérola" como pouco resistente e o genótipo "FORT-19" como altamente suscetível. Quando parasitados por M. javanica, os feijoeiros "FORT-19", "Rico 23", "FORT-16" e "FORT-13" foram pouco resistentes, "Pérola" e "Aporé" suscetíveis e "FORT-10" altamente suscetíveis. Abstract in english The damage and the resistance levels of cultivars and accessions of common beans rescued in the South and mountain regions of Espírito Santo State, Brazil, to M. incognita race 3 and M. javanica parasitism were evaluated under a greenhouse. Four rescued bean genotypes ("FORT-10", "FORT-13", "FORT-16 [...] " and "FORT-19") and 2 commercial cultivars: "Pérola", and "Aporé", were tested. The cultivar "Rico-23" was included as standard of susceptibility to nematodes and non-inoculated plants constituted the control. Thus, the experiment was carried out in a completely randomized design in 3 (treatments considering nematodes) x 7 (genotypes and bean cultivars) factorial arrangement, with 7 replicates. Data were measured at 50 days after plant inoculation. For damage quantification, the following variables were evaluated: plant height (PHE), number of nodes (NNO), number of trifoliate leaves (NRT), fresh matter weight (FWE) and dry matter weight (DWE) of shoots, root weight (RWE), number of root nodules (NRO) and final population (FPO) of nematodes per root system. There were no significant differences between the effects caused by M. incognita and M. javanica, but both species showed inferior values of PHE, NNO, NRT, RWE, FWE and DWE compared to controls. Concerning the levels of resistance of bean plants to M. incognita, the genotypes "FORT-10", "FORT-13", "Aporé" and "FORT-16" behaved as moderately resistant, the cultivars "Rico 23" and "Pérola" low resistant, and the genotype "FORT-19" as highly susceptible. When parasitized by M. javanica, the beans "FORT-19", "Rico-23", "FORT-16" and "FORT-13" were low resistant, "Pérola" and "Aporé" susceptible and "FORT-10" highly susceptible.

  9. Pathogenicity of Meloidogyne incognita Race 1 on Turmeric (Curcuma longa L. as Influenced by Inoculum Density and Poultry Manure Amendment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin I. Ugwuoke

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A glasshouse experiment was conducted to assess the pathogenicity of Meloidogyne incognita race 1 on turmeric (Curcuma longa L. at three inoculum densities (0, 2500, 5000 eggs plant-1 and soil amendment with different levels of Poultry Manure (PM (0, 10, 20, 30 and 40 t ha-1. The results obtained showed that root-galling and egg production decreased in a linear response to increasing PM level at both low and high inoculum densities (r = -0.88 and r = -0.85, respectively; p=0.01. The lowest gall index and egg mass index of 2.0 were recorded in plants amended with 40 and 30 t ha-1 PM, respectively. The high nematode density was more pathogenic (p=0.05 than the low density. Shoot length, fresh shoot and root weights responded in a curvilinear pattern with increasing levels of PM. In general, these growth variables increased with increase in PM level up to 20 t ha-1 and then declined with further increase. At high inoculum density, shoot growth was enhanced by 242 and 58% with 20 and 40 t ha-1 PM relative to unamended soil, respectively. Conversely, fresh root weight was increased by 120% and reduced by 12.8% with 20 and 40 t ha-1 PM, respectively. From this study, it could be inferred that higher levels of PM were highly nematicidal but phytotoxic to turmeric plants; the optimal rate of PM amendment is predicted to be 18-22 t ha-1. However, for this method to be incorporated into Integrated Nematode Management Programme of turmeric, field trials are needed for the optimization of the quantity, time and method of application.

  10. Analysis of Gene expression in soybean (Glycine max roots in response to the root knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita using microarrays and KEGG pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gamal El-Din Abd El Kader Y

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Root-knot nematodes are sedentary endoparasites that can infect more than 3000 plant species. Root-knot nematodes cause an estimated $100 billion annual loss worldwide. For successful establishment of the root-knot nematode in its host plant, it causes dramatic morphological and physiological changes in plant cells. The expression of some plant genes is altered by the nematode as it establishes its feeding site. Results We examined the expression of soybean (Glycine max genes in galls formed in roots by the root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita, 12 days and 10 weeks after infection to understand the effects of infection of roots by M. incognita. Gene expression was monitored using the Affymetrix Soybean GeneChip containing 37,500 G. max probe sets. Gene expression patterns were integrated with biochemical pathways from the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes using PAICE software. Genes encoding enzymes involved in carbohydrate and cell wall metabolism, cell cycle control and plant defense were altered. Conclusions A number of different soybean genes were identified that were differentially expressed which provided insights into the interaction between M. incognita and soybean and into the formation and maintenance of giant cells. Some of these genes may be candidates for broadening plants resistance to root-knot nematode through over-expression or silencing and require further examination.

  11. Morphological and Molecular Evaluation of a Meloidogyne hapla Population Damaging Coffee (Coffea arabica) in Maui, Hawaii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handoo, Z A; Skantar, A M; Carta, L K; Schmitt, D P

    2005-06-01

    An unusual population of Meloidogyne hapla, earlier thought to be an undescribed species, was found causing large galls, without adventitious roots, and substantial damage to coffee in Maui, Hawaii. Only in Brazil had similar damage to coffee been reported by this species. Unlike M. exigua from South and Central America, this population reproduced well on coffee cv. Mokka and M. incognita-susceptible tomato but poorly on tomato with the Mi resistance gene. Characterization included SEM images, esterase isozymes, and five DNA sequences: i) the D3 segment of the large subunit (LSU-D3 or 28S) rDNA, ii) internal transcribed spacer (ITS-1) rDNA, iii) intergenic spacer (IGS) rDNA, iv) the mitochondrial interval from cytochrome oxidase (CO II) to 16S mtDNA, and v) the nuclear gene Hsp90. Sequences for ITS-1, IGS, and COII were similar to other M. hapla populations, but within species ITS-1 variability was not less than among species. One LSU-D3 haplotype was similar to a previously analyzed population with two minor haplotypes. Hsp90 exhibited some variation between Maryland and Hawaiian populations distinct from other species. Females were narrow with wide vulval slits, large interphasmidial distances, and more posterior excretory pores; 20% of perineal patterns had atypical perivulval lines. Males had a low b ratio (<12 microm). Juveniles had a short distance between stylet and dorsal gland orifice. Juvenile body length was short (<355 microm) and was different between summer and winter populations. PMID:19262853

  12. Separate and Combined Effects of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. tracheiphilum and Meloidogyne incognita on Growth and Yield of Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp Var. Moussa-Local

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.O. Ogaraku

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A study was undertaken to determine the separate and combined affects of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. tracheiphilum and Meloidogyne incognita on growth and yield of cowpea variety Moussa-local. It was observed that growth and yield components of the cowpea were generally reduced in all treatments as compared to that of control. Single infection with only nematode caused more growth and yield reductions than infection with only fungus. Reduction in the growth and yield components were generally higher in simultaneous infection than infection with either of the pathogens. Growth and yield reduction in combined infection did not vary significantly from those caused by successive infection where either of the pathogens was made to precede the other. Infection with both pathogens caused significant increases in the root galls, number of eggs and juveniles when compared with infection with nematode only.

  13. Identification of the resistance breaking populations of Meloidogyne on tomatoes in Morocco and their effect on new sources of resistance

    OpenAIRE

    Eddaoudi, M.; Ammati, M.; Rammah, A.

    1997-01-01

    Vingt-cinq isolats de #Meloidogyne$ collectés dans deux zones maraîchères marocaines ont été identifiés par les profils estérasiques. #M. javanica$ représente 80 à 82% des isolats et #M. incognita$ 18 à 20%. #M. javanica$ a été observé sur plusieurs cultures sous serre plastique et en plein champ, surtout sur tomate, aubergine, melon, bananier et sur plantes adventices. #M. incognita$ a été observé sur poivron et oeillet sous serre et sur tomate de plein champ. Parmi vingt isolats de #M. java...

  14. Salicylic acid-induced glutathione status in tomato crop and resistance to root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita (Kofoid & White Chitwood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hari C. Meher

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Salicylic acid-(SA is a plant defense stimulator. Exogenous application of SA might influence the status of glutathione-(GSH. GSH activates and SA alters the expression of defense genes to modulate plant resistance against pathogens. The fate of GSH in a crop following SA treatment is largely unknown. The SA-induced profiles of free reduced-, free oxidized-(GSSG and protein bound-(PSSG glutathione in tomato crop following foliar treatment of transplant at 5.0-10.0 ?g mL–1 were measured by liquid chromatography. Resistance to root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita damaging tomato and crop performance were also evaluated. SA treatment at 5.0-10.0 ?g mL–1 to tomato transplants increased GSH, GSSG and PSSG in plant leaf and root, more so in leaf, during crop growth and development. As the fruits ripened, GSH and PSSG increased and GSSG declined. SA reduced the root infection by M. incognita, nematode reproduction and thus, improved the resistance of tomato var. Pusa Ruby, but reduced crop growth and redox status. SA at 5.0 ?g mL–1 improved yield and fruit quality. The study firstly linked SA with activation of glutathione metabolism and provided an additional dimension to the mechanism of induced resistance against obligate nematode pathogen. SA increased glutathione status in tomato crop, imparted resistance against M. incognita, augmented crop yield and functional food quality. SA can be applied at 5.0 ?g mL–1 for metabolic engineering of tomato at transplanting to combine host-plant resistance and health benefits in formulating a strategic nematode management decision.

  15. Effects of Meloidogyne spp. and Rhizoctonia solani on the Growth of Grapevine Rootings

    OpenAIRE

    Walker, G. E.

    1997-01-01

    A disease complex involving Meloidogyne incognita and Rhizoctonia solani was associated with stunting of grapevines in a field nursery. Nematode reproduction was occurring on both susceptible and resistant cultivars, and pot experiments were conducted to determine the virulence of this M. incognita population, and of M. javanica and M. hapla populations, to V. vinifera cv. Colombard (susceptible) and to V. champinii cv. Ramsey (regarded locally as highly resistant). The virulence of R. solani...

  16. Multiyear evaluation of the durability of the resistance conferred by Ma and RMia genes to Meloidogyne incognita in Prunus under controlled conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khallouk, Samira; Voisin, Roger; Portier, Ulysse; Polidori, Joël; Van Ghelder, Cyril; Esmenjaud, Daniel

    2013-08-01

    Root-knot nematodes (RKNs) (Meloidogyne spp.) are highly polyphagous pests that parasitize Prunus crops in Mediterranean climates. Breeding for RKN-resistant Prunus cultivars, as an alternative to the now-banned use of nematicides, is a real challenge, because the perennial nature of these trees increases the risk of resistance breakdown. The Ma plum resistance (R) gene, with a complete spectrum, and the RMia peach R gene, with a more restricted spectrum, both provide total control of Meloidogyne incognita, the model parthenogenetic species of the genus and the most important RKN in terms of economic losses. We investigated the durability of the resistance to this nematode conferred by these genes, comparing the results obtained with those for the tomato Mi-1 reference gene. In multiyear experiments, we applied a high and continuous nematode inoculum pressure by cultivating nematode-infested susceptible tomato plants with either Prunus accessions carrying Ma or RMia R genes, or with resistant tomato plants carrying the Mi-1 gene. Suitable conditions for Prunus development were achieved by carrying out the studies in a glasshouse, in controlled conditions allowing a short winter leaf fall and dormancy. We first assessed the plum accession 'P.2175', which is heterozygous for the Ma gene, in two successive 2-year evaluations, for resistance to two M. incognita isolates. Whatever the isolate used, no nematodes reproducing on P.2175 were detected, whereas galls and nematodes reproducing on tomato plants carrying Mi-1 were observed. In a second experiment with the most aggressive isolate, interspecific full-sib material (P.2175 × ['Garfi' almond × 'Nemared' peach]), carrying either Ma or RMia (from Nemared) or both (in the heterozygous state) or neither of these genes, was evaluated for 4 years. No virulent nematodes developed on Prunus spp. carrying R genes, whereas galling and virulent individuals were observed on Mi-1-resistant tomato plants. Thus, the resistance to M. incognita conferred by Ma in Prunus material in both a pure-plum and an interspecific genetic background, or by RMia in an interspecific background, appears to be durable, highlighting the value of these two genes for the creation of Prunus rootstock material. PMID:23425239

  17. Heterologous expression of taro cystatin protects transgenic tomato against Meloidogyne incognita infection by means of interfering sex determination and suppressing gall formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Yuan-Li; Yang, Ai-Hwa; Chen, Jen-Tzu; Yeh, Kai-Wun; Chan, Ming-Tsair

    2010-03-01

    Plant-parasitic nematodes are a major pest of many plant species and cause global economic loss. A phytocystatin gene, Colocasia esculenta cysteine proteinase inhibitor (CeCPI), isolated from a local taro Kaosiang No. 1, and driven by a CaMV35S promoter was delivered into CLN2468D, a heat-tolerant cultivar of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum). When infected with Meloidogyne incognita, one of root-knot nematode (RKN) species, transgenic T1 lines overexpressing CeCPI suppressed gall formation as evidenced by a pronounced reduction in gall numbers. In comparison with wild-type plants, a much lower proportion of female nematodes without growth retardation was observed in transgenic plants. A decrease of RKN egg mass in transgenic plants indicated seriously impaired fecundity. Overexpression of CeCPI in transgenic tomato has inhibitory functions not only in the early RKN infection stage but also in the production of offspring, which may result from intervention in sex determination. PMID:20054551

  18. influence of some types of Algerian soil on the development of rot-knot nematodes Meloidogyne incognita, M. javanica and M. arenaria (Tylenchida,Meloidogynidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crops under greenhouses offer the possibility of vegetables production of high added value by focusing on earliness. They help to spread the availability timing of vegetables and fruits in the market throughout the year. However, these crops are subject to numerous attacks entailing heavy losses of yield quantity and quality. The plant parasitic nematodes especially rot-knot nematodes of the genus Meloidogyne are considered dangerous enemies of these cultures. The evolution study of these nematodes in different soil types allows one to compare the migration and movement of these nematodes in sandy soils considered as light soils, in clay soils heavy and intermediate silty clay soils. These soils have also rates of organic matter and a percentage of magnesium and calcium that might provide better conditions to the survival and migration of second stage larvae inoculated at a rate of 650 juveniles per pot of 24 cm in diameter where plants of melon Cucumis melo var. (Charentais) known to be susceptible to Meloidogyne was cultivated. The results for the population development of Meloidogyne, after a growing period of 3 months show an increase in the number of eggs, juvenile stages, inflated, swollen females and males in the 3 types of soil and that independently of clay fraction although clay soil may asphyxiate Meloidogyne. The development of the three species of Meloidogyne studied in these soils, the parameters taken into consideration (index of galls, which were 1.58, 1.75 and 1.5 for the sandy clay and the middle ground soils, vigour index and the evolution of populations of Meloidogyne and roots and soil as well as parameters related to production reveal the adaptation of these root-knot nematodes to the clay and sandy loam soils. At the end of culture, the final populations are important in the soils studied; 2680 for soil S. (sandy), 2272 for soil A (clay) and 2327 for soil I (intermediate) with a multiplication rate almost similar ( 4.12, 3.49 and 3.58 respectively). All these parameters can give one clues about the real possibility of developing root-knot nematodes on all types of soil. These findings may be real on the coastal areas of the southern regions characterized with sandy soils that are most infested, but the infestation potential of interior plains characterized by clay and clay loam are certain if necessary measures are not seriously taken to control them. (author)

  19. Potential of sucrose and Pennisetum purpureum cv. Cameroon mulch on the management of Meloidogyne javanica and M. incognita

    OpenAIRE

    Débora Cristina Santiago; Martin Homechin; Ricardo Montalvan; Alaide Aparecida Krzyzanowski

    2005-01-01

    The effects of sucrose on motility and infectiveness of juveniles of Meloidogyne javanica were evaluated under laboratory and greenhouse conditions, using brown sugar and crystal sugar. Results showed that crystal and brown sugar solutions reduced motility and promoted morphological alterations of juvenile nematodes in vitro. The increasing dosages of sucrose reduced the number of galls and egg masses in tomato root by reducing the number of infective juveniles. The efficiency of granular suc...

  20. Reaction of coffee genotypes to different populations of Meloidogyne spp.: detection of a naturally virulent M. exigua population / Reação de genótipos de cafeeiro a diferentes populações de Meloidogyne spp.: detecção de uma população de M. exigua naturalmente virulenta

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Maria de Fátima S., Muniz; Vicente P., Campos; Antônio W., Moita; Wallace, Gonçalves; Maria Ritta A., Almeida; Fábio Rodrigues de, Sousa; Regina Maria D. G., Carneiro.

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available A reação de sete genótipos de Coffea arabica a 10 populações de Meloidogyne spp. coletadas principalmente em plantios de café no Brasil e Costa Rica foi avaliada em casa de vegetação. O inóculo consistiu de 10.000 ovos por planta. As avaliações foram realizadas 8 meses após as inoculações consideran [...] do-se a massa da matéria fresca das raízes, índices de galhas e massas de ovos, número de ovos por grama de raiz e fator de reprodução (FR). As cultivares Obatã IAC 1669-20, Sarchimor IAC 4361 e Tupi Amarelo IAC 5111 exibiram suscetibilidade às quatro populações brasileiras de M. exigua. Entretanto, cv. Tupi Vermelho IAC 1669-33 mostrou-se resistente (FR=0,7) a uma população de M. exigua proveniente de Lavras, MG, Brasil. A população de M. exigua oriunda de Bom Jesus de Itabapoana, RJ, Brasil foi altamente virulenta à cv. IAPAR 59 (FR= 165,7), portadora do gene de resistência Mex-1 e ao genótipo Paraíso (H 419-5-4-5-2) (FR=396,2). A população de Meloidogyne sp. do cafeeiro, Garça, SP, Brasil, reproduziu-se em baixos níveis (FR = 0,1 - 3,9) sobre todos os genótipos. Todas as cultivares testadas foram suscetíveis a M. incognita e M. paranaensis. A reprodução de M. mayaguensis obtida de goiabeira, PR, Brasil, foi baixa (FR = 0,0-1,6), em todos os genótipos. Entretanto, outra população obtida do cafeeiro na Costa Rica apresentou valores de FR que variaram de 0,8 a 12,4. Os resultados deste trabalho mostraram, pela primeira vez, a capacidade de uma população de M. exigua obtida em campo de superar a resistência conferida pelo gene Mex-1. Abstract in english The reaction of seven genotypes of Coffea arabica to 10 Meloidogyne spp. populations collected mainly from coffee plantations in Brazil and Costa Rica was evaluated under greenhouse conditions. The inoculum consisted of 10,000 eggs per plant. Evaluations were done 8 months after inoculations conside [...] ring the root fresh weight, gall and egg mass indices, number of eggs per gram of root and reproduction factor (RF). The cultivars Obatã IAC 1669-20, Sarchimor IAC 4361 and Tupi Amarelo IAC 5111 exhibited susceptibility to the four Brazilian M. exigua populations tested. However, cv. Tupi Vermelho IAC 1669-33 revealed resistance (RF value of 0.7) to the M. exigua population from Lavras, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. A population of M. exigua from Bom Jesus de Itabapoana, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil, was highly virulent on cv. IAPAR 59 (RF= 165.7), bearing resistance gene Mex-1, and was also virulent on genotype Paraíso (H 419-5-4-5-2) (RF=396.2). A Meloidogyne sp. population on coffee from Garça, São Paulo State, Brazil, reproduced at low rates (RF ranging from 0.1 to 3.9) on all genotypes. All tested cultivars were susceptible to M. incognita and M. paranaensis. M. mayaguensis of guava from Paraná State, Brazil, reproduced at low rates in all coffee genotypes; however, another population of coffee, from Costa Rica, was more aggressive and showed RF value that ranged from 0.8 to 12.4. Results of this study point for the first time to the ability of a naturally occurring M. exigua population to overcome the resistance conferred by the Mex-1 gene.

  1. Efeito do armazenamento na energia corporal de juvenis do segundo estádio de Meloidogyne incognita infestados por Pasteuria penetrans / Effect of storage on body energy of second stage juveniles of Meloidogyne incognita infested by Pasteuria penetrans

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Fernando da Silva, Rocha; Vicente Paulo, Campos; Renata da Silva, Canuto; Ricardo Magela de, Souza.

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho, objetivou-se estudar o efeito do período de armazenamento no teor de lipídios de juvenis do segundo estádio (J2) de M. incognita com endósporos de P. penetrans na infectividade e reprodução em tomateiro. Suspensões de M. incognita contendo ou não endósporos de P. penetrans aderidos à [...] cutícula foram armazenadas por 0, 3, 6, 9 e 12 dias, a 28ºC. Após cada período de estocagem, determinou-se a concentração de lipídios neutros corporais por meio da análise de imagem dos J2 coloridos com o corante "Oil Red O". Em seguida, 1.000 J2 foram inoculados em mudas de tomateiros. Após 28 dias, avaliou-se o número de fêmeas parasitadas, número de endósporos/fêmea, número de galhas, massas de ovos e de ovos/g de raiz. O teor de lipídio dos J2 reduziu-se com o aumento do período de estocagem. Porém, maiores perdas ocorreram nos J2 sem endósporos de P. penetrans. A proporção entre as perdas dos J2 com e sem P. penetrans foi pequena e decrescente com o período de estocagem. Entretanto, a desproporção foi grande entre 3 e 6 dias de armazenamento dos J2 com e sem P. penetrans com relação aos parâmetros reprodução e número de galhas, indicando consumo de fontes alternativas ao lipí dio neutro de energia p elo J2 parasitado. Mas o período de armazenamento sempre reduziu a reprodução e número de galhas formadas em tomateiros por J2 com e sem P. penetrans. A perda dessas fontes de energia, ao que tudo indica, leva muitos J2 a morrer antes de chegar ao estádio adulto, pois o número de fêmeas parasitadas reduz-se com o armazenamento, além de propiciar menor produção de endósporos por fêmea. O J2 parasitado por P. penetrans necessita encontrar rapidamente a raiz e não permanecer no solo por mais de 6 dias antes de parasitar a planta. Abstract in english This work aimed to study the effect of storage period on lipid content of second stage juveniles (J2) of M. incognita with endospores of P. penetrans on infectivity and reproduction in tomato. Suspensions of M. incognita containing or not endospores of P. penetrans adhered to cuticle were stored by [...] 0, 3, 6, 9 and 12 days at 28ºC. After each storage period, the concentration of neutral lipids in the body of J2 was determined by image analysis of J2 stained with "Oil Red O". After that, 1.000 J2 were inoculated in tomato seedlings. After 28 days, the number of infected females, number of endospores per females, number of galls, number of egg masses and number of eggs per gram of root were evaluated. The lipid content of J2 reduced with the increase of storage period. However, greater lost occurred on J2 without endospores of P. penetrans. The ratio between J2 lipid losses with and without P. penetrans was small and decreased with storage period. However, the ratio between J2 with and without P. penetrans was greatest between 3 and 6 days of storage in relation to parameters reproduction and number of galls, indicating consumption of alternative energy sources others than neutral lipids by infected J2. But the storage period always reduced the reproduction and number of galls formed in tomatoes by J2 with and without P. penetrans. The loss of those energy sources indicate that many J2 dye before adult stage, because the number of parasitized females reduced with storage, besides of smaller endospores production per female. The J2 infested by P. penetrans needs to find the root quickly and should not stay in the soil for more than 6 days before parasitizing the plant.

  2. Efeito do armazenamento na energia corporal de juvenis do segundo estádio de Meloidogyne incognita infestados por Pasteuria penetrans Effect of storage on body energy of second stage juveniles of Meloidogyne incognita infested by Pasteuria penetrans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando da Silva Rocha

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho, objetivou-se estudar o efeito do período de armazenamento no teor de lipídios de juvenis do segundo estádio (J2 de M. incognita com endósporos de P. penetrans na infectividade e reprodução em tomateiro. Suspensões de M. incognita contendo ou não endósporos de P. penetrans aderidos à cutícula foram armazenadas por 0, 3, 6, 9 e 12 dias, a 28ºC. Após cada período de estocagem, determinou-se a concentração de lipídios neutros corporais por meio da análise de imagem dos J2 coloridos com o corante "Oil Red O". Em seguida, 1.000 J2 foram inoculados em mudas de tomateiros. Após 28 dias, avaliou-se o número de fêmeas parasitadas, número de endósporos/fêmea, número de galhas, massas de ovos e de ovos/g de raiz. O teor de lipídio dos J2 reduziu-se com o aumento do período de estocagem. Porém, maiores perdas ocorreram nos J2 sem endósporos de P. penetrans. A proporção entre as perdas dos J2 com e sem P. penetrans foi pequena e decrescente com o período de estocagem. Entretanto, a desproporção foi grande entre 3 e 6 dias de armazenamento dos J2 com e sem P. penetrans com relação aos parâmetros reprodução e número de galhas, indicando consumo de fontes alternativas ao lipí dio neutro de energia p elo J2 parasitado. Mas o período de armazenamento sempre reduziu a reprodução e número de galhas formadas em tomateiros por J2 com e sem P. penetrans. A perda dessas fontes de energia, ao que tudo indica, leva muitos J2 a morrer antes de chegar ao estádio adulto, pois o número de fêmeas parasitadas reduz-se com o armazenamento, além de propiciar menor produção de endósporos por fêmea. O J2 parasitado por P. penetrans necessita encontrar rapidamente a raiz e não permanecer no solo por mais de 6 dias antes de parasitar a planta.This work aimed to study the effect of storage period on lipid content of second stage juveniles (J2 of M. incognita with endospores of P. penetrans on infectivity and reproduction in tomato. Suspensions of M. incognita containing or not endospores of P. penetrans adhered to cuticle were stored by 0, 3, 6, 9 and 12 days at 28ºC. After each storage period, the concentration of neutral lipids in the body of J2 was determined by image analysis of J2 stained with "Oil Red O". After that, 1.000 J2 were inoculated in tomato seedlings. After 28 days, the number of infected females, number of endospores per females, number of galls, number of egg masses and number of eggs per gram of root were evaluated. The lipid content of J2 reduced with the increase of storage period. However, greater lost occurred on J2 without endospores of P. penetrans. The ratio between J2 lipid losses with and without P. penetrans was small and decreased with storage period. However, the ratio between J2 with and without P. penetrans was greatest between 3 and 6 days of storage in relation to parameters reproduction and number of galls, indicating consumption of alternative energy sources others than neutral lipids by infected J2. But the storage period always reduced the reproduction and number of galls formed in tomatoes by J2 with and without P. penetrans. The loss of those energy sources indicate that many J2 dye before adult stage, because the number of parasitized females reduced with storage, besides of smaller endospores production per female. The J2 infested by P. penetrans needs to find the root quickly and should not stay in the soil for more than 6 days before parasitizing the plant.

  3. Purification and identification of metabolites produced by Bacillus cereus and B. subtilis active against Meloidogyne exigua, and their in silico interaction with a putative phosphoribosyltransferase from M. incognita

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    DENILSON F., OLIVEIRA; HELVÉCIO M. DOS, SANTOS JÚNIOR; ALEXANDRO S., NUNES; VICENTE P., CAMPOS; RENATA S.C. DE, PINHO; GIOVANNA C., GAJO.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de contribuir para o desenvolvimento de produtos para o controle de Meloidogyne exigua, as bactérias Bacillus cereus e B. subtilis foram cultivadas em meio líquido de cultura para produzirem metabólitos ativos contra este nematoide parasita de plantas. Os fracionamentos dos extratos e [...] m diclorometano dos meios de cultura produziram uracila, 9H-purina e di-idrouracila. Todos os compostos foram ativos contra M. exigua, sendo o último o mais eficiente. Ele apresentou CL50 de 204 µg/mL contra o nematoide, enquanto uma CL50 de 260 µg/mL foi observada para o nematicida comercial carbofuran. Uma busca por complexos proteína-ligante nos quais o ligante fosse estruturalmente similar à di-idrouracila resultou na seleção de fosforibosiltransferases, cujas sequências foram utilizadas em uma busca in silico no genoma de M. incognita por sequência de aminoácidos semelhante. A sequência resultante foi modelada e di-idrouracila e 9H-purina foram inseridos nos sítios ativos desta provável fosforibosiltransferase, resultando em complexos proteína-ligante que foram submetidos a simulações por dinâmica molecular. Cálculos das energias livres de ligação destes complexos revelaram que a constante de dissociação de di-idrouracila e 9H-purina da enzima é da ordem de 8,3 x 10-7 e 1,6 x 10-6 M, respectivamente. Consequentemente, estas substâncias e a provável fosforibosiltransferase podem ser de grande utilidade para o desenvolvimento de novos produtos para o controle de M. exigua. Abstract in english To contribute to the development of products to control Meloidogyne exigua, the bacteria Bacillus cereus and B. subtilis were cultivated in liquid medium to produce metabolites active against this plant-parasitic nematode. Fractionation of the crude dichloromethane extracts obtained from the culture [...] s afforded uracil, 9H-purine and dihydrouracil. All compounds were active against M. exigua, the latter being the most efficient. This substance presented a LC50 of 204 µg/mL against the nematode, while a LC50 of 260 µg/mL was observed for the commercial nematicide carbofuran. A search for protein-ligand complexes in which the ligands were structurally similar to dihydrouracil resulted in the selection of phosphoribosyltransferases, the sequences of which were used in an in silico search in the genome of M. incognita for a similar sequence of amino acids. The resulting sequence was modelled and dihydrouracil and 9H-purine were inserted in the active site of this putative phosphoribosyltransferase resulting in protein-ligand complexes that underwent molecular dynamics simulations. Calculation of the binding free-energies of these complexes revealed that the dissociation constant of dihydrouracil and 9H-purine to this protein is around 8.3 x 10-7 and 1.6 x 10-6 M, respectively. Consequently, these substances and the putative phosphoribosyltransferase are promising for the development of new products to control M. exigua.

  4. Integrated Management of Meloidogyne incognita Infecting Eggplant by Certain Organic Amendments, Bacillus thuringiensis and Oxamyl with Reference to N P K and Total Chlorophyll Status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.G. El-Sherif

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Greenhouse experiment on the impact of horse manure or sesame-oil-cake or Bacillus thuringiensis singly and/or integrated with oxamyl on Meloidogyne incognita infecting eggplant cv. Black long at 25±5°C, revealed that all tested treatments obviously improved plant growth response and reduced nematode development. Among the tested components, B. thuringiensis applied alone or mixed with oxamyl gave the highest percentage of increase in plant growth parameters i.e., plant fresh weight and shoot dry weight with values of 105.9 and 85.8% and 127.8 and 107.5%, respectively, as well as the lowest percent reduction of nematode developmental criteria. Moreover, in concomitant application of horse manure plus oxamyl appeared to be the best treatment in suppressing nematode development and improving plant growth parameters, followed by sesame oil-cake plus oxamyl, then sesame oil-cake and horse manure alone. Meanwhile, length of shoot and number of leaves were positively affected by the tested materials either when applied singly or integrated with oxamyl as compared to nematode alone. Regarding N, P and K status in shoots of eggplant, their concentrations were remarkably reduced by nematode infection. Moreover, single application of any organic amendment or bacterium or oxamyl achieved the highest concentration of N, P and K, whereas the concomitant application of horse manure plus oxamyl showed the highest concentration of phosphorus with value of 0.56 ppm. In addition, the previous treatments obviously decreased the total chlorophyll content of eggplant shoot, whereas nematode infection alone recorded the highest increase percentage for this plant parameter with value of 51.3%.

  5. Microbiological evaluation and pathogenicity of a liquid bioformulation of the fungus Purpureocillium sp. (strain UdeA 0109) on Meloidogyne incognita-javanica stages / Microbiological evaluation and pathogenicity of a liquid bioformulation of the fungus Purpureocillium sp. (strain UdeA 0109) on Meloidogyne incognita-javanica stages

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Nadya, Lorena Cardona; David, Andrés Borrego; Erika, Pamela Fernández; Jessika, Sánchez; Valentina, Cardona; Gabriel, Montoya.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available El Grupo de Biocontrol y Microbiología Ambiental (BIOMA) cuenta con una formulación industrial líquida del hongo Purpureocillium sp. (cepa UdeA 0109), desarrollada de conjunto con la casa comercial Laverlam S.A. (Cali, Colombia). En la presente investigación se evaluaron la viabilidad y la pureza de [...] l producto a diferentes temperaturas de almacenamiento, así como el potencial biocontrolador in vitro y en condiciones de invernadero. Los resultados de viabilidad mostraron cómo las estructuras infectivas no se afectaron por los tiempos de evaluación ni por las temperaturas de almacenamiento. Los estudios también mostraron cómo la pureza del bioformulado bajo las mismas condiciones, se mantuvo por encima del 99 %, y además se corroboró su patogenicidad in vitro con una CL50 de 104 conidias/mL. Las evaluaciones en invernadero demostraron la propiedad de afectación de los huevos del complejo Meloidogyne incognita-javanica así como la disminución de los estadios jóvenes con una concentración de 108 conidias/mL en tres pruebas, con distintas aplicaciones y tiempos de aplicación. Abstract in english The BIOMA research group (Biocontrol and environmental microbiology) has an industrial liquid formulation based on Purpureocillium sp. (UdeA 0109 strain), developed with the collaboration of Laverlam S.A, a Colombian (Cali) commercial house. In the present study the researchers tested the viability [...] and the purity at different storage temperatures as well as its biological potential both in vitro and under greenhouse conditions. The results of viability showed how the infective structures were affected neither by the evaluation time nor by the storage temperatures. Studies also showed that the purity of the bioformulation in the same conditions was over 99 %, and its pathogenicity in vitro with an LC50 of 104 conidia/mL was corroborated. The greenhouse tests showed the ability to produce damages in eggs of the Meloidogyne incognita-javanica complex, and a decreasing of the J2 stages at a concentration of 108 conidia/mL in three tests performed with a different number of applications and at different times each.

  6. Potential of Leguminous Cover Crops in Management of a Mixed Population of Root-knot Nematodes (Meloidogyne spp.)

    OpenAIRE

    Osei, Kingsley; Gowen, Simon R.; Pembroke, Barbara; Brandenburg, Rick L.; Jordan, David L.

    2010-01-01

    Root-knot nematode is an important pest in agricultural production worldwide. Crop rotation is the only management strategy in some production systems, especially for resource poor farmers in developing countries. A series of experiments was conducted in the laboratory with several leguminous cover crops to investigate their potential for managing a mixture of root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne arenaria, M. incognita, M. javanica). The root-knot nematode mixture failed to multiply on Mucuna pru...

  7. Efecto del filtrado crudo de Purpureocillium sp. (Cepa UdeA0106), sobre la eclosión de huevos y movilidad de juveniles de Meloidogyne incognita-javanica / Effect of the raw filtrate of Purpureocillium sp. (UdeA0106 strain) on the eclosion of eggs and the motility of Meloidogyne incognitajavanica juveniles

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Nadya Lorena, Cardona Bustos; Harold, Pavas; Erika Pamela, Fernández.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Meloidogyne incognita-javanica representa una limitación de los cultivos agrícolas y es necesario buscar alternativas para su manejo. El presente trabajo tuvo como objetivo evaluar el efecto in vitro del filtrado crudo de Purpureocillium sp. (Cepa UdeA0106) sobre laeclosión de huevos y los estadios [...] juveniles de Meloidogyne spp. Adicionalmente, se evaluaron los medios: caldo extracto de malta (CEM), caldo extracto de levadura (CEL) y caldo papa glucosa (CPG), escogiéndose aquel que no ejerciera daño sobre la morfología de los huevos y permitiera la eclosión de los estadios juveniles. El hongo se multiplicó durante 7 días y fue filtrado. Para establecer su efecto sobre los huevos y estadios J2 de Meloidogyne spp., se probaron concentraciones del filtrado al 100 %, 90 %, 70 %, 50 %, 25 % y 10 %; comparándolas con un control compuesto de estadios J2 en agua destilada estéril (ADE) y CPG. Las variables a evaluar fueron el porcentaje de eclosión e inmovilidad en los J2. La unidad experimental fue la caja de Petri, cada una con 200 huevos/J2, con 5 réplicas de cada tratamiento. Se utilizó un diseño experimental completamente aleatorizado con ANOVA (P = 0,05) y análisis de comparación múltiple de Tukey. Se encontraron diferencias significativas entre todos los tratamientos (P Abstract in english Meloidogyne incognita-javanica represents an important threat to the agricultural crops, and it is necessary to seek alternatives for its control. The aim of this research it was to evaluate a crude filtrate from the strain Purpureocillium sp. UdeA0106 in order to establish the in vitro effect on th [...] e egg hatching and the immobility of juvenile stages of Meloidogyne spp. The mediums evaluated were malt extract broth (MEB), yeast extract broth (YEB), and potato dextrose broth (PDB), after which it was chosen the one that didn't produce any damages on nematode eggs and allowed the emergence of the larval stages. The fungus was multiplied for 7 days, and then it was filtrated. To evaluate its effect on the eggs and the J2 of Meloidogyne spp., filtrate concentrations were made at 100 %, 90 %, 70 %, 50 %, 25 % and 10 %, contrasting them with a control composed of the J2 stages in sterile distilled water and PDB. The variables evaluated were the percentage of altered eggs and the immobility observed in J2 stages. The experimental unit was the Petri dish, each one containing 200 eggs /J2. Each treatment was replicated 5 times. It was used a completely randomized design, and an ANOVA was performed (P = 0,05) as well as a multiple comparison test (Tukey). Significant differences were found between all treatments (P

  8. Integrated Management of Meloidogyne incognita Infecting Soybean by Certain Organic Amendments, Bacillus thuringiensis, Trichoderma harzianum and Oxamyl with Reference to NPK and Total Chlorophyll Statuus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.G. El-Sherif

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The integrated control of M. incognita infecting soybean cv. Giza 21 using camel manure, dried leaf powder of marigold, Trichoderma harzianum 100% filtrate, Bacillus thringiensis singly or in combination with oxamyl under greenhouse condition (22±3°C indicated that the concomitant treatments obviously gave better results than single ones did. Moreover, B. thringiensis plus oxamyl at half dose each surpassed all other tested materials in percentage increase of total plant fresh and shoot dry weights (99 and 88 %, respectively, followed by T. harzianum filtrate plus oxamyl (95 and 61% in this respect. On the other hand, pots received T. harzianum filtrate plus oxamyl ranked first in suppressing final nematode population (90%, root galling (65% and eggmass numbers (62.79%, followed by B.t. plus oxamyl, marigold powder +oxamyl and then camel manure + oxamyl, where their reduction percentage values amounted to 88.7, 62.5 and 61%; 88.5, 59.87 and 58.9% and 67, 50.5 and 52.97%, respectively. Of the tested singly applications, T. harzianum filtrate showed the best results in improving plant growth and suppressing nematode development criteria, followed by B.t., whereas, marigold powder and camel manure achieved the lowest values in this respect comparing to nematode alone. Regarding the N, P and K concentrations in leaves of soybean plants inoculated with M. incognita treated with certain organic matters or fungal filtrate or bacterium alone or mixed with oxamyl, they were obviously enhanced by all tested materials whereas the opposite results was recorded for total chlorophyll content comparing to nematode alone.

  9. Efecto de la biodesinfección con residuos de nim (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) sobre población de Meloidogyne spp. en suelo / Effect of neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) Waste on Meloidogyne spp. population in soil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Mayra G, Rodríguez; Lucila, Gómez; Dainé, Hernández-Ochandía; R, Enrique; Ileana, Miranda; Oriela, Pino; I, Castro-Lizazo; L. Carolina, Rosales; Luisa, Díaz-Viruliche.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó el efecto de residuos del proceso industrial de obtención de plaguicidas del nim (Azadirachta indica A. Juss), provenientes de la Fábrica «Rosa E. Simeón», Güines (Mayabeque, Cuba) sobre una población de Meloidogyne spp. El experimento se desarrolló en condiciones semicontroladas, utilizan [...] do suelo no estéril, con nivel inicial de Meloidognye spp. de 0,5 juveniles de segundo estadio (J2)-huevos.g de suelo-1. Se establecieron ocho tratamientos, cuatro de los cuales se inocularon adicionalmente con 5 J2-huevos.g de suelo-1 de Meloidogyne incognita (Kofoid y White) Chitwood y se empleó como hospedante tomate (Solanum lycopersicom L. var. Campbell 28). Se aplicaron tres dosis de residuos 138,47 g.maceta-1, 60,28 g.maceta-1 y 40,19 g.maceta-1 (lo que equivale a aplicar 4, 3 y 2 kg.m2-1 respectivamente). A los 50 días se determinó el Índice de Agallamiento (IA) (0 a 5 grados), longitud del tallo y masa fresca de raíces. Las mayores poblaciones de nematodos se produjeron en el tratamiento testigo (sin nim) (IA =5), exhibiendo diferencias significativas con aquellos donde se aplicaron los residuos, destacándose el tratamiento con 138,47 g.maceta-1 (equivalente a 4 kg.m2-1) que mostró un IA de 2,4. Los resultados mostraron la potencialidad que posee este desecho para el manejo de nematodos y la necesidad de estudiar su efecto sobre las plantas y las propiedades físico, químicas y biota del suelo. Abstract in english The effect of the waste from the industrial production of neem-based pesticides (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) originated in «Rosa Elena Simeón» factory in Güines (Mayabeque, Cuba) on Meloidogyne spp. population was evaluated, The experiment was carried out under semi-controlled conditions, using non [...] sterilized soil with an initial level of Meloidogyne spp. of 0,5 juveniles-eggs.g of soil-1. Eight treatments were set up; four of them were additionally inoculated with 5 juveniles-eggs.g of soil-1 of Meloidogyen incognita (Kofoid and White) Chitwood. Tomato (Solanum lycopersicom L. var. Campbell 28) was used as host. Three doses of the waste (138,47g.pot-1, 60,288 g.pot-1 and 40,19 g.pot¹; -equivalent to 4, 3 and 2 kg.m2-1 respectively) were applied. After fifty days, root knot galling index (GI) (0 to 5 grades), stem length and fresh weight of roots were evaluated. The highest populations appeared in the control treatment (without neem) (GI=5), which differed significantly from the treatments with the waste, where the best behavior was observed with 138,47 g.pot-1 (equivalent to 4 kg.m2-1) with a GI of 2,4. The results showed the potential of this waste for the management of plant parasitic nematodes and the need for studies on the effect upon the plants and the physical-chemical properties and biota of soils.

  10. In vitro and foliar spray evaluation of Verbena officinalis (L.), Erythrina mulungu (Mart. ex Benth.), Quassia amara (L.), Bidens pilosa (L.) and Plantago lanceolata (L.), extracts on Meloidogyne incognita (Kofoid & White, 1919) Chitwood, 1949 / Evaluación in vitro y aplicación foliar de Verbena officinalis (L.), Erythrina mulungu (Mart. ex Benth.), Quassia amara (L.), Bidens pilosa (L.) y Plantago lanceolata (L.), sobre Meloidogyne incognita (Kofoid & White, 1919) Chitwood, 1949

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Milena A, Ferrari Mateus; Cacilda M, Duarte Rios Faria¹; Renato V, Botelho; Rosangela, Dallemole-Giaretta; Silvana G, Martins Ferreira; Welton L, Zaluski.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del estudio fue evaluar la eficacia de los extractos acuosos de cinco especies de plantas medicinales, Verbena officinalis (L.), Erythrina mulungu (Mart. ex Benth.), Quassia amara (L.), Bidens pilosa (L.) y Plantago lanceolata (L.) in vitro, y se pulverizaron en las plantas de tomates pa [...] ra el control de Meloidogyne incognita. Los experimentos in vitro fueron realizados en cámaras de crecimiento en placas de ELISA de tipo acrílico. Los tratamientos fueron dosis de 0,10, 20, 30, 40 y 50 g • L-1 de diferentes extractos acuosos. En el día dieciséis se evaluó el número de juveniles segunda etapa (J2)nacidos por tratamiento. Los resultados mostraron que los extractos acuosos de V. officinalis, E. mulungu, Q. amara, B. pilosa y P. lanceolata reducen la eclosión de los juveniles de M. incognita, y el extracto acuoso de P. lanceolata mostró hasta 100% de reducción de la tasa de eclosión. El ensayo in vivo se realizó en un invernadero, y para ello, había cuatro pulverizaciones de diferentes extractos en los brotes de tomate. Según los resultados de esta prueba, ninguno de los extractos por pulverización foliar era eficaz en el control de M. incognita. Sin embargo, no se debe descartar la eficiencia de estos extractos en el control de nematodos parásitos de plantas, pero más estudios se llevan a cabo utilizando diferentes métodos de aplicación, las dosis o métodos de extracción de los principios activos de los extractos. Abstract in english This study aimed to evaluate the efficiency of aqueous extracts of five species of medicinal plant, Verbena officinalis (L.), Erythrina mulungu (Mart. ex Benth.), Quassia amara (L.), Bidens pilosa (L.) and Plantago lanceolata (L.) in vitro, and sprayed on tomato plants for the control of Meloidogyne [...] incognita. In vitro experiments were conducted in growth chambers in acrylic ELISA plates. The treatments were doses of 0, 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 g • L-1 of different aqueous extracts. On the sixteenth day the number of second stage juveniles (J2) hatched per treatment was evaluated. The results showed that aqueous extracts of V. officinalis, E. mulungu, Q. amara, B. pilosa and P. lanceolata, reduced the hatching of M. incognita, with the aqueous extract of P. lanceolata showing up to 100% reduction in hatching. The in vivo assay was conducted in a greenhouse. For this, four sprays of different extracts were applied to tomato shoots. According to the results of this test, none of the extracts were efficient at controlling M. incognita through foliar spraying. The efficiency of these extracts to control plant parasitic nematodes during in vivo tests should not be disregarded, however, further studies should be conducted to test different methods of application, doses or methods of extracting the active principles.

  11. Development of Four Populations of Meloidogyne hapla on Two Cultivars, of Cucumber at Different Temperatures

    OpenAIRE

    Stephan, Z.A.; Trudgill, D. L.

    1982-01-01

    The infectivity and development of four populations of Meloidogyne hapla were compared, at three temperatures, on tomato and two varieties of cucumber. A population from Canada produced few root-galls on cucumber and, except at 24 C, no larvae developed into adult females and produced egg masses. In contrast, a population with 45 chromosomes from America produced many galls on cucumber and small proportions of larvae became females and produced egg masses at 20 and 24 C. At 18 C this populati...

  12. Characterization of Carbohydrates on the Surface of Second-stage Juveniles of Meloidogyne spp.

    OpenAIRE

    Davis, E.L.; Kaplan, D T; Permar, T. A.; Dickson, D W.; Mitchell, D.J.

    1988-01-01

    Fluorescent conjugates of the lectins soybean agglutinin (SBA), Concanavalin A (Con A), wheat germ agglutinin (WGA), Lotus tetragonolobus agglutinin (LOT), and Limulus polyphemus agglutinin (LPA) bound primarily to amphidial openings and amphidial secretions of viable, preinfective second-stage juveniles (J2) of Meloidogyne incognita races 1 and 3 (Mil, Mi3) and M. javanica (Mj). No substantial difference in fluorescent lectin binding was observed among the populations examined. Binding of on...

  13. Seasonal Populations of Pratylenchus penetrans and Meloidogyne hapla in Strawberry Roots

    OpenAIRE

    Lamindia, J. A.

    2002-01-01

    Strawberry roots were sampled through the year to determine the populations and distribution of Pratylenchus penetrans and Meloidogyne hapla. Three strawberry root types were sampled—structural roots; feeder roots without secondary tissues; and suberized, black perennial roots. Both lesion and root-knot nematodes primarily infected feeder roots from structural roots or healthy perennial roots. Few nematodes were recovered from soil, diseased roots, or suberized roots. Lesion nematode recovery...

  14. Effects of Meloidogyne spp. and Rhizoctonia solani on the Growth of Grapevine Rootings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, G E

    1997-06-01

    A disease complex involving Meloidogyne incognita and Rhizoctonia solani was associated with stunting of grapevines in a field nursery. Nematode reproduction was occurring on both susceptible and resistant cultivars, and pot experiments were conducted to determine the virulence of this M. incognita population, and of M. javanica and M. hapla populations, to V. vinifera cv. Colombard (susceptible) and to V. champinii cv. Ramsey (regarded locally as highly resistant). The virulence of R. solani isolates obtained from roots of diseased grapevines also was determined both alone and in combination with M. incognita. Ramsey was susceptible to M. incognita (reproduction ratio 9.8 to 18.4 in a shadehouse and heated glasshouse, respectively) but was resistant to M. javanica and M. hapla. Colombard was susceptible to M. incognita (reproduction ratio 24.3 and 41.3, respectively) and M. javanica. Shoot growth was suppressed (by 35%) by M. incognita and, to a lesser extent, by M. hapla. Colombard roots were more severely galled than Ramsey roots by all three species, and nematode reproduction was higher on Colombard. Isolates of R. solani assigned to putative anastomosis groups 2-1 and 4, and an unidentified isolate, colonized and induced rotting of grapevine roots. Ramsey was more susceptible to root rotting than Colombard. Shoot growth was inhibited by up to 15% by several AG 4 isolates and by 20% by the AG 2-1 isolate. AG 4 isolates varied in their virulence. Root rotting was higher when grapevines were inoculated with both M. incognita and R. solani and was highest when nematode inoculation preceded the fungus. Shoot weights were lower when vines were inoculated with the nematode 13 days before the fungus compared with inoculation with both the nematode and the fungus on the same day. It was concluded that both the M. incognita population and some R. solani isolates were virulent against both Colombard and Ramsey, and that measures to prevent spread in nursery stock were therefore important. PMID:19274149

  15. Colonization by the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus Glomus versiforme induces a defense response against the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita in the grapevine (Vitis amurensis Rupr.), which includes transcriptional activation of the class III chitinase gene VCH3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hai-Yan; Yang, Guo-Dong; Shu, Huai-Rui; Yang, Yu-Tao; Ye, Bao-Xing; Nishida, Ikuo; Zheng, Cheng-Chao

    2006-01-01

    Inoculation of the grapevine (Vitis amurensis Rupr.) with the arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungus Glomus versiforme significantly increased resistance against the root-knot nematode (RKN) Meloidogyne incognita. Studies using relative quantitative reverse transcription-PCR (RQRT-PCR) analysis of grapevine root inoculation with the AM fungus revealed an up-regulation of VCH3 transcripts. This increase was greater than that observed following infection with RKN. However, inoculation of the mycorrhizal grapevine roots with RKN was able to enhance VCH3 transcript expression further. Moreover, the increase in VCH3 transcripts appeared to result in a higher level of resistance against subsequent RKN infection. Constitutive expression of VCH3 cDNA in transgenic tobacco under the control of the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter also conferred resistance against RKN, but had no significant effect on the growth of the AM fungus. We analyzed beta-glucuronidase (GUS) activity directed by a 1,216 bp VCH3 promoter in transgenic tobacco following inoculation with both the AM fungus and RKN. GUS activity was negligible in the root tissues before inoculation, and was more effectively induced after inoculation with the AM fungus than with RKN. Moreover, GUS staining in the mycorrhizal transgenic tobacco roots was enhanced by subsequent RKN infection, and was found ubiquitously throughout the whole root tissue. Together, these results suggest that AM fungus induced a defense response against RKN in the mycorrhizal grapevine roots, which appeared to involve transcriptional control of VCH3 expression throughout the whole root tissue. PMID:16326755

  16. Pathogenicity of Two Populations of Meloidogyne hapla Chitwood on Alfalfa and Sainfoin

    OpenAIRE

    Wofford, D. S.; Gray, F. A.; Eckert, J. W.

    1989-01-01

    The pathogenicity of two populations of the northern root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne hapla Chitwood, population 1 (P1) from alfalfa and population 2 (P2) from sainfoin, was studied on both alfalfa and sainfoin for 25 weeks. Alfalfa and sainfoin plants inoculated with P2 had significantly (P ? 0.05) higher mortality than plants inoculated with P1. Plant stands over all weeks for the uninoculated control, P1, and P2 were 90.5, 78.5, and 64.0% for alfalfa and 84.5, 51.0, and 41.0% for sainfoin, ...

  17. Potential of Leguminous Cover Crops in Management of a Mixed Population of Root-knot Nematodes (Meloidogyne spp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osei, Kingsley; Gowen, Simon R; Pembroke, Barbara; Brandenburg, Rick L; Jordan, David L

    2010-09-01

    Root-knot nematode is an important pest in agricultural production worldwide. Crop rotation is the only management strategy in some production systems, especially for resource poor farmers in developing countries. A series of experiments was conducted in the laboratory with several leguminous cover crops to investigate their potential for managing a mixture of root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne arenaria, M. incognita, M. javanica). The root-knot nematode mixture failed to multiply on Mucuna pruriens and Crotalaria spectabilis but on Dolichos lablab the population increased more than 2- fold when inoculated with 500 and 1,000 nematodes per plant. There was no root-galling on M. pruriens and C. spectabilis but the gall rating was noted on D. lablab. Greater mortality of juvenile root-knot nematodes occurred when exposed to eluants of roots and leaves of leguminous crops than those of tomato; 48.7% of juveniles died after 72 h exposure to root eluant of C. spectabilis. The leaf eluant of D. lablab was toxic to nematodes but the root eluant was not. Thus, different parts of a botanical contain different active ingredients or different concentrations of the same active ingredient. The numbers of root-knot nematode eggs that hatched in root exudates of M. pruriens and C. spectabilis were significantly lower (20% and 26%) than in distilled water, tomato and P. vulgaris root exudates (83%, 72% and 89%) respectively. Tomato lacks nematotoxic compounds found in M. pruriens and C. spectabilis. Three months after inoculating plants with 1,000 root-knot nematode juveniles the populations in pots with M. pruriens, C. spectabilis and C. retusa had been reduced by approximately 79%, 85% and 86% respectively; compared with an increase of 262% nematodes in pots with Phaseolus vulgaris. There was significant reduction of 90% nematodes in fallow pots with no growing plant. The results from this study demonstrate that some leguminous species contain compounds that either kill root-knot nematodes or interfere with hatching and affect their capacity to invade and develop within their roots. M. pruriens, C. spectabilis and C. retusa could be used with effect to decrease a mixed field populations of root-knot nematodes. PMID:22736854

  18. Meloidogyne incognita (Kofoid and White, 1919 Chitwood 1949 y Meloidogyne arenaria (Neal 1889 Chitwood 1949: NEMATODOS DE LAS NUDOSIDADES RADICULARES EN GUAYABA (Psidium guajava L. C.V. MANZANA EN MONTERIA, CORDOBA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan D. Jaraba

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo tubo como objetivo identificar los nematodos agalladores asociados al cultivo de Guayaba ( Psidium guajava L. en Montería, Córdoba. Se tomaron muestras de raíces y suelo rizosférico. Las hembras, machos y juveniles de segundo estadío larval (J2 se obtuvieron mediante los métodos de hipoclorito de sodio-fuscina ácida, tamizado centrifugado y eclosión de masas de huevecillos, respectivamente. Se evaluaron variables morfológicas y morfométricas para determinar la especie. Se encontraron dos tipos de patrones perineales: El primer patrón con arco dorsal alto y cuadrado. El estilete de 14 ?m a 16 ?m, los nódulos anchos y planos. La distancia DGO de 2 ?m a 4 ?m. Los machos presentaron el disco labial redondeado y cóncavo centralmente. El estilete de 22 ?m a 25 ?m; nódulos planos y redondeados. La distancia DGO de 2 ?m a 4.5 ?m. Lo cual es típico de la especie M. incognita . En el segundo tipo de patrón, el arco dorsal es bajo, redondeado. Las estrías se curvan ligeramente hacia las líneas laterales y forman una ondulación, conocida como “hombrera”. El estilete midió de 13 ?m a 17 ?m, los nódulos son anchos y redondeados en su parte posterior. La distancia DGO de 3 ?m a 6 ?m. Estas características coinciden con las descritas para M. arenaria . Los resultados permiten el reporte por primera vez de M. incognita y M. arenaria afectando conjuntamente el cultivo de guayaba en la Costa Caribe Colombiana.

  19. Reproductive and Damage Potentials of Two Populations of Rotylenchulus reniformis on Sweetpotato and Related Comparisons with Meloidogyne javanica on Tomato

    OpenAIRE

    Walters, S. A.; Barker, K.R.

    1993-01-01

    Two Rotylenchulus reniformis populations (North Carolina and Georgia) were compared on sweetpotato and tomato. 'Beauregard' sweetpotato and 'Better Boy' and 'Marion' tomato were excellent hosts for both R. reniformis populations. On Beauregard sweetpotato, the two populations did not differ in fecundity; however, on both tomato cultivars, the Georgia population reproduced at a higher rate than the North Carolina population (P ? 0.05). Meloidogyne javanica reproduction was higher (P ? 0.05) on...

  20. Effects of furfural on nematode populations and galling on tomato and pepper

    Science.gov (United States)

    A commercial formulation of furfural (Multiguard® Protect) was evaluated in greenhouse trials over three seasons for effects on parasitic and beneficial nematode populations in roots and soil, plant growth, and galling on tomato and bell pepper caused by Meloidogyne incognita. ‘Tiny Tim’ tomato (So...

  1. Reprodução de Meloidogyne spp. em porta-enxertos e híbridos de pepino Reproduction of Meloidogyne spp. in rootstocks and cucumber hybrids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Renata S Wilcken

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available A enxertia é uma técnica alternativa frequentemente recomendada para a cultura do pepino em áreas infestadas com nematóides das galhas. O presente trabalho teve como objetivo determinar o fator de reprodução de Meloidogyne javanica e de Meloidogyne incognita raça 2 em seis porta-enxertos para pepino (abóbora 'Menina Brasileira', moranga 'Exposição', 'Shelper', 'Tetsukabuto', 'B8-A Tetsukabuto' e 'Excite Ikki' e quatro híbridos de pepino (Cucumis sativus tipo japonês ('Yoshinari', 'Kouki', 'Taisho' e 'Tsuyataro'. Foram conduzidos dois experimentos em casa-de-vegetação, um com cada espécie do nematóide, sendo cada parcela constituída de uma planta mantida em vaso contendo 2 litros de solo autoclavado. Nove dias após transplante, cada planta foi inoculada com 5.000 ovos e juvenis de segundo estádio (população inicial - Pi de M. javanica ou M. incognita raça 2. Tomateiros 'Rutgers' foram utilizados como padrão de viabilidade do inóculo, em ambos os experimentos. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado com cinco repetições por tratamento. Sessenta dias após a inoculação, cada planta foi avaliada, quanto ao peso fresco da raiz, número total de nematóides presentes no solo e na raiz (população final - Pf, número de nematóides/g de raiz e fator de reprodução de ambas as espécies de Meloidogyne (FR=Pf/Pi. Todos os porta-enxertos e híbridos de pepino testados apresentaram fatores de reprodução superiores a um, proporcionando a multiplicação de M. javanica e de M. incognita raça 2, porém, os valores nos híbridos de pepino foram superiores aos dos porta-enxertos.Grafting is an alternative technique often recommended for the cucumber crop in root-knot nematodes infested areas. This study aimed to determine the reproduction factor of Meloidogyne javanica and M. incognita race 2 on six rootstocks for cucumber (squash 'Menina Brasileira, pumpkim 'Exposição', 'Shelper', 'Tetsukabuto', 'B8-A Tetsukabuto' and 'Excite Ikki' and four cucumber (Cucumis sativus Japanese type hybrids of ('Yoshinari', 'Kouki', 'Taisho' and 'Tsuyataro'. Two experiments were carried out in greenhouse, each one with a nematode specie. Each plot consisted of one plant per pot containing 2 liters of autoclaved soil. Nine days after the seedlings transplantation, each plant was inoculated with 5,000 eggs and second-stage juveniles (initial population - Pi of M. javanica or M. incognita race 2. 'Rutgers' tomatoes were used as a standard for inoculum viability in both experiments. The experimental design was completely randomized with five replicates per treatment. Sixty days after inoculated, each plant was evaluated, when root fresh weight, total number of nematodes in the soil and in the roots (final population - Pf, nematodes number per gram of root and the reproduction factor of both Meloidogyne species (FR=Pf/Pi were determined. All rootstocks and cucumber hybrids allowed the M. javanica and M. incognita race 2 multiplication, but, generally, reproduction factor values were greater in cucumbers than in rootstocks.

  2. Reprodução de Meloidogyne spp. em porta-enxertos e híbridos de pepino / Reproduction of Meloidogyne spp. in rootstocks and cucumber hybrids

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Silvia Renata S, Wilcken; Juliana MO, Rosa; Andréa RO, Higuti; Maria José de M, Garcia; Antonio Ismael Inácio, Cardoso.

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available A enxertia é uma técnica alternativa frequentemente recomendada para a cultura do pepino em áreas infestadas com nematóides das galhas. O presente trabalho teve como objetivo determinar o fator de reprodução de Meloidogyne javanica e de Meloidogyne incognita raça 2 em seis porta-enxertos para pepino [...] (abóbora 'Menina Brasileira', moranga 'Exposição', 'Shelper', 'Tetsukabuto', 'B8-A Tetsukabuto' e 'Excite Ikki') e quatro híbridos de pepino (Cucumis sativus) tipo japonês ('Yoshinari', 'Kouki', 'Taisho' e 'Tsuyataro'). Foram conduzidos dois experimentos em casa-de-vegetação, um com cada espécie do nematóide, sendo cada parcela constituída de uma planta mantida em vaso contendo 2 litros de solo autoclavado. Nove dias após transplante, cada planta foi inoculada com 5.000 ovos e juvenis de segundo estádio (população inicial - Pi) de M. javanica ou M. incognita raça 2. Tomateiros 'Rutgers' foram utilizados como padrão de viabilidade do inóculo, em ambos os experimentos. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado com cinco repetições por tratamento. Sessenta dias após a inoculação, cada planta foi avaliada, quanto ao peso fresco da raiz, número total de nematóides presentes no solo e na raiz (população final - Pf), número de nematóides/g de raiz e fator de reprodução de ambas as espécies de Meloidogyne (FR=Pf/Pi). Todos os porta-enxertos e híbridos de pepino testados apresentaram fatores de reprodução superiores a um, proporcionando a multiplicação de M. javanica e de M. incognita raça 2, porém, os valores nos híbridos de pepino foram superiores aos dos porta-enxertos. Abstract in english Grafting is an alternative technique often recommended for the cucumber crop in root-knot nematodes infested areas. This study aimed to determine the reproduction factor of Meloidogyne javanica and M. incognita race 2 on six rootstocks for cucumber (squash 'Menina Brasileira, pumpkim 'Exposição', 'S [...] helper', 'Tetsukabuto', 'B8-A Tetsukabuto' and 'Excite Ikki') and four cucumber (Cucumis sativus) Japanese type hybrids of ('Yoshinari', 'Kouki', 'Taisho' and 'Tsuyataro'). Two experiments were carried out in greenhouse, each one with a nematode specie. Each plot consisted of one plant per pot containing 2 liters of autoclaved soil. Nine days after the seedlings transplantation, each plant was inoculated with 5,000 eggs and second-stage juveniles (initial population - Pi) of M. javanica or M. incognita race 2. 'Rutgers' tomatoes were used as a standard for inoculum viability in both experiments. The experimental design was completely randomized with five replicates per treatment. Sixty days after inoculated, each plant was evaluated, when root fresh weight, total number of nematodes in the soil and in the roots (final population - Pf), nematodes number per gram of root and the reproduction factor of both Meloidogyne species (FR=Pf/Pi) were determined. All rootstocks and cucumber hybrids allowed the M. javanica and M. incognita race 2 multiplication, but, generally, reproduction factor values were greater in cucumbers than in rootstocks.

  3. Metagenomic insights into communities, functions of endophytes, and their associates with infection by root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita, in tomato roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Bao-Yu; Cao, Yi; Zhang, Ke-Qin

    2015-01-01

    Endophytes are known to play important roles in plant's health and productivity. In this study, we investigated the root microbiome of tomato in association with infection by root knot nematodes. Our objectives were to observe the effects and response of the bacterial endophytes before nematode attacks and to reveal the functional attributes of microbes in plant health and nematode pathogenesis. Community analysis of root-associated microbiomes in healthy and nematode-infected tomatoes indicated that nematode infections were associated with variation and differentiation of the endophyte and rhizosphere bacterial populations in plant roots. The community of the resident endophytes in tomato root was significantly affected by nemato-pathogenesis. Remarkably, some bacterial groups in the nematode feeding structure, the root gall, were specifically enriched, suggesting an association with nematode pathogenesis. Function-based metagenomic analysis indicated that the enriched bacterial populations in root gall harbored abundant genes related to degradation of plant polysaccharides, carbohydrate and protein metabolism, and biological nitrogen fixation. Our data indicated that some of the previously assumed beneficial endophytes or bacterial associates with nematode might be involved in nematode infections of the tomato roots. PMID:26603211

  4. Native-plant hosts of Meloidogyne spp. from Western Paraná, Brazil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Vanessa A., Antes; Anna P., Comerlato; Adílson Ricken, Schuelter; Regina M.D.G., Carneiro; Cleber, Furlanetto.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study was focused on the parasitism of Meloidogyne species on the roots of native nursery plants from the Atlantic forest. Native plants were selected from a commercial nursery in Western Paraná, searching for the natural infection of Meloidogyne. Also, the seeds of native plants were cu [...] ltivated in sterile soil and inoculated with M. incognita. In both the experiments, the number of galls and number of eggs and J2 per root, allied to the reproduction factor of M. incognita on each inoculated plant were assessed. Natural infection by M. javanica was found on Cordia ecalyculata, Citharexyllum myrianthum and Aspidosperma subincanum and by M. incognita on Croton urucurana, Lonchocarpus muehlbergianus, Tabebuia impetiginosa and T. serratifolia. Meloidogyne incognita induced galls formation on Genipa americana, Schinus terebinthifolius and Rollinia mucosa after inoculation, which suggested that those plants could host this nematode in natural biomes. Nursery soil should be disinfested before seeding the native forest plants for reforestation purposes

  5. Native-plant hosts of Meloidogyne spp. from Western Paraná, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa A. Antes

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study was focused on the parasitism of Meloidogyne species on the roots of native nursery plants from the Atlantic forest. Native plants were selected from a commercial nursery in Western Paraná, searching for the natural infection of Meloidogyne. Also, the seeds of native plants were cultivated in sterile soil and inoculated with M. incognita. In both the experiments, the number of galls and number of eggs and J2 per root, allied to the reproduction factor of M. incognita on each inoculated plant were assessed. Natural infection by M. javanica was found on Cordia ecalyculata, Citharexyllum myrianthum and Aspidosperma subincanum and by M. incognita on Croton urucurana, Lonchocarpus muehlbergianus, Tabebuia impetiginosa and T. serratifolia. Meloidogyne incognita induced galls formation on Genipa americana, Schinus terebinthifolius and Rollinia mucosa after inoculation, which suggested that those plants could host this nematode in natural biomes. Nursery soil should be disinfested before seeding the native forest plants for reforestation purposes

  6. DNA characterization and relationship of the genomes of some Meloidogyne species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pableo, E.C.

    1987-01-01

    Cesium trifluoroacetate (CsTFA) ultracentrifugation method of DNA isolation proved more satisfactory than phenol extraction. The base composition (%GC) of the DNAs of M. incognita, M. javanica, M. arenaria, and M. hapla, as determined by thermal denaturation tests ranged from 31.0 to 32.6% for all the four species. Similarly, the thermal stability covered a narrow range from 82.97 to 83.63/sup 0/C. The relationship of the genomes of twelve populations representing the four Meloidogyne species was measured by binding hybridized DNA by hydroxyapatite. M. incognita, M. javanica, and M. arenaria were found to be closely related to each other, with 80 to 100% DNA homology to labeled /sup 32/P-DNA probes prepared from M. incognita and M. arenaria. M. hapla showed wide divergence with 24.5 to 33.5% DNA homology to the probes. One half of the populations showed a slightly higher percent DNA homology with the non-repetitive sequences of the probes, whereas, the other half with the repetitive fraction. The thermal stabilities of the reassociated DNAs indicated differences of 0 to 2.5% in nucleotide base pairs between the populations and the probes.

  7. DNA characterization and relationship of the genomes of some Meloidogyne species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cesium trifluoroacetate (CsTFA) ultracentrifugation method of DNA isolation proved more satisfactory than phenol extraction. The base composition (%GC) of the DNAs of M. incognita, M. javanica, M. arenaria, and M. hapla, as determined by thermal denaturation tests ranged from 31.0 to 32.6% for all the four species. Similarly, the thermal stability covered a narrow range from 82.97 to 83.630C. The relationship of the genomes of twelve populations representing the four Meloidogyne species was measured by binding hybridized DNA by hydroxyapatite. M. incognita, M. javanica, and M. arenaria were found to be closely related to each other, with 80 to 100% DNA homology to labeled 32P-DNA probes prepared from M. incognita and M. arenaria. M. hapla showed wide divergence with 24.5 to 33.5% DNA homology to the probes. One half of the populations showed a slightly higher percent DNA homology with the non-repetitive sequences of the probes, whereas, the other half with the repetitive fraction. The thermal stabilities of the reassociated DNAs indicated differences of 0 to 2.5% in nucleotide base pairs between the populations and the probes

  8. Nematode Population Densities and Yield of Sweet Potato and Onion as Affected by Nematicides and Time of Application

    OpenAIRE

    Hall, M. R.; Johnson, A.W.; Smittle, D. A.

    1988-01-01

    Nematode population densities and yield of sweet potato and onion as affected by nematicides and time of application were determined in a 3-year test. Population densities of Meloidogyne incognita race 1 in untreated plots of sweet potato increased each year, but Helicotylenchus dihystera and Criconemella ornata did not. Ethoprop (6.8 kg a.i./ha) incorporated broadcast in the top 15-cm soil layer each spring before planting sweet potato reduced population densities of nematodes in the soil an...

  9. Meloidogyne mayaguensis RAMMAH Y HIRSCHMANN, PLAGA EMERGENTE PARA LA AGRICULTURA TROPICAL Y SUBTROPICAL / Meloidogyne mayaguensis RAMMAH Y HIRSCHMANN, EMERGENT PEST FOR TROPICAL AND SUBTROPICAL AGRICULTURE

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Mayra G, Rodríguez; Lucila, Gómez; Belkis, Peteira.

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Meloidogyne mayaguensis Rammah y Hirschmann, constituye una importante plaga en países de la zona tropical y subtropical, donde parasita de manera natural más de 30 especies de diferentes plantas de cultivo como guayaba (Psidium guajava), cafeto (Coffea spp.), hortalizas, ornamentales y arvenses. Su [...] distribución ha ocurrido relativamente rápido debido a factores antropogénicos y la mayor preocupación con esta especie es su capacidad para parasitar y reproducirse en plantas con resistencia a Meloidogyne spp. Esta especie presenta alta variabilidad en la morfología de su patrón perineal, por lo que es recomendable, para su identificación, el uso de elementos complementarios como los que ofrecen los perfiles de esterasas. Esta especie puede hallarse en poblaciones concomitantes junto a Meloidogyne incognita, Meloidogyne arenaria y Meloidogyne javanica, haciendo más complejo su diagnóstico y manejo. Entre las regulaciones empleadas para mitigar su efecto negativo se encuentran, la implementación de medidas de cuarentena interna y el uso de Cadusafos y Abamectina, con resultados variables. De igual modo, grupos de investigación en África y América han evaluado extractos de Crotalaria spp. y agentes de control biológico (Arthrobotrys spp.), entre otras tácticas. M. mayaguensis se considera una de las especies más peligrosas del género, su detección, correcta identificación y contención en las áreas donde aparece constituyen uno de los retos más importantes de las autoridades sanitarias en los países donde ha sido encontrada, para los cuales la información oportuna y capacitación efectiva de los actores involucrados en esta esfera representa un elemento de vital importancia para el enfrentamiento a esta plaga emergente. Abstract in english Meloidogyne mayaguensis Rammah y Hirschmann, is an important pest in tropical and subtropical countries, because it affects in natural way more than 30 different species like guava (Psidium guajava), coffee (Coffea spp.), vegetables, ornamental plants and weeds. Its distribution has been very fast d [...] ue to anthropogenic factors, and the highest concern about this species is its capacity to infest and reproduce on resistant plants to Meloidogyne spp. This species has a high variability in its perineal pattern morphology; thus the use of complementary elements like the offered by esterase profile is recommended. This specie has been found in mixed population with Meloidogyne incognita, Meloidogyne arenaria and Meloidogyne javanica, making more complex its diagnosis and management. Among the measurements to diminish its negative effect are the implementation of internal quarantine measures and the use of Cadusafos and Abermectine with variable results. In the same way, different research teams from Africa and America have evaluated extracts from Crotalaria spp., biological control agents (Arthrobotrys spp.), among other tactics. M. mayaguensis has been considered one of the most dangerous species of this genus. Its detection, right identification and contention in the areas in which it is found constitute one of the most important challenges for the sanitary authorities in the countries when the species has been reported. The opportune information and the effective training of the staff involved in the phytosanitary area represent a vital element for facing this emergent pest.

  10. Pathogenicity of Meloidogyne spp. (Tylenchida: Meloidogynidae from Brazil and Central America on two genotypes of Coffea arabica Patogenicidade de Meloidogyne spp. (Tylenchida: Meloidogynidae originárias do Brasil e América Central a dois genótipos de Coffea arabica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina M.D.G. Carneiro

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Among the most damaging root-knot nematode species, Meloidogyne exigua, M. paranaensis, M. incognita, M. arabicida, M. izalcoensis and M. mayaguensis are major agronomic constraints in coffee-growing areas in Brazil and other Latin American countries. The resistance reaction to those six species was studied for the H 419-5-4-5-2 progeny, derived from the artificial hybridization between Catuaí Amarelo 'IAC 30' x Timor Hybrid UFV 445-46 selection. The Catuaí Vermelho IAC 144 genotype was used as susceptibility control for Meloidogyne spp. The genotypes were inoculated with 6,000 eggs/plant and the experiment was set up in a completely randomized design, replicated 10 times for each Meloidogyne species and genotype. The evaluation was performed at 240 days after inoculation and the reproduction factor (RF= Final population/6000 was used as the variable to evaluate resistance. M. exigua caused typical rounded galls mostly on new roots, and egg-masses were produced mostly in the cortex under the root epidermis. M. incognita, M. paranaensis and M. arabicida caused swollen roots, peeling and cracking of cortical root tissue. No symptoms were observed for M. mayaguensis. M. izalcoensis induced very small galls, mostly on the extremity of new roots. Egg-masses were produced outside the roots in large quantities. The genotype IAC 144 was susceptible (FR>1.0 to all Meloidogyne spp. studied, except to M. mayaguensis. The nematode isolate used in this experiment seems to be a weak parasite for coffee. The H 419-5-4-5-2 progeny was resistant to M. exigua (FREntre as espécies de nematóides de galhas mais danosas ao cafeeiro, Meloidogyne exigua, M. paranaensis, M. incognita, M. arabicida, M. izalcoensis e M. mayaguensis são as que causam os maiores problemas em áreas de cultivo de café no Brasil e países da América Latina. A reação de resistência a essas seis espécies foi estudada na progênie H 419-5-4-5-2, obtida do cruzamento artificial entre a cultivar Catuaí Amarelo IAC 30 com a seleção de Híbrido de Timor UFV 445-46. As genótipos foram inoculados com 6.000 ovos/planta e o experimento foi conduzido no delineamento inteiramente ao acaso, com 10 repetições para cada espécie de Meloidogyne e cada genótipo de cafeeiro. A avaliação foi realizada 240 dias após a inoculação. O Fator de Reprodução (FR= População Final/6000 foi usado como variável para se avaliar a resistência. M. exigua causou galhas arredondadas típicas, sobretudo nas raízes novas. M. incognita, M. paranaensis e M. arabicida causaram engrossamento nas raízes, descolamento cortical e rachaduras em várias partes do sistema radicular.Nenhum sintoma foi observado para M. mayaguensis. M. izalcoensis causou galhas pequenas, a maioria na extremidade das raízes novas. As massas de ovos foram produzidas externamente e em grande número. O genótipo IAC 144 (testemunha foi suscetível (FR>1.0 a todas espécies de Meloidogyne, exceto a M. mayaguensis. Esse isolado mostrou-se um parasita fraco para o cafeeiro. A progênie H 419-5-4-5-2 foi resistente a M. exigua e M. mayaguensis (FR<1 e suscetível a M. incognita, M. paranaensis, M. arabicida e M. izalcoensis.

  11. Reprodução de Meloidogyne spp. em porta-enxertos e híbridos de pepino Reproduction of Meloidogyne spp. in rootstocks and cucumber hybrids

    OpenAIRE

    Silvia Renata S Wilcken; Juliana MO Rosa; Andréa RO Higuti; Maria José de M Garcia; Antonio Ismael Inácio Cardoso

    2010-01-01

    A enxertia é uma técnica alternativa frequentemente recomendada para a cultura do pepino em áreas infestadas com nematóides das galhas. O presente trabalho teve como objetivo determinar o fator de reprodução de Meloidogyne javanica e de Meloidogyne incognita raça 2 em seis porta-enxertos para pepino (abóbora 'Menina Brasileira', moranga 'Exposição', 'Shelper', 'Tetsukabuto', 'B8-A Tetsukabuto' e 'Excite Ikki') e quatro híbridos de pepino (Cucumis sativus) tipo japonês ('Yoshinari', 'Kouki', '...

  12. Influence of Meloidogyne hapla on Alfalfa Yield and Host Population Dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Noling, J. W.; Ferris, H.

    1985-01-01

    Self-thinning in alfalfa, a dynamic process involving the progressive elimination of the weakest plants, was enhanced by Meloidogyne hapla. Alfalfa stand densities decreased exponentially with time and were reduced 62% (P = 0.05) in the presence of M. hapla. As stand densities decreased over time, mean plant weights increased at a rate 2.59 times faster in the absence of M. hapla. In a stepwise multiple regression analysis, 65% of the total variation in yield could be explained by changes in ...

  13. Host Status of Endophyte-Infected and Noninfected Tall Fescue Grass to Meloidogyne spp.

    OpenAIRE

    Nyczepir, A. P.; Meyer, S.L.F.

    2010-01-01

    Tall fescue grass cultivars with or without endophytes were evaluated for their susceptibility to Meloidogyne incognita in the greenhouse. Tall fescue cultivars evaluated included, i) wild-type Jesup (E+, ergot-producing endophyte present), ii) endophyte-free Jesup (E-, no endophyte present), iii) Jesup (Max-Q, non-ergot producing endophyte) and iv) Georgia 5 (E+). Peach was included as the control. Peach supported greater (P ? 0.05) reproduction of M. incognita than all tall fescue cultivars...

  14. Identification of Meloidogyne javanica Using Morphological and Morphometerical Characters and Species Specific Primers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Mahdikhani

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Root knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp. cause yield loss in all countries, of which, M. javanica, is the most widespread species in Iran. In order to identify M. javanica, 100 infected root and soil samples of root knot nematode were collected from different regions of Kerman province. After purification of populations and identification of M. javanica based on morphological and morphometerical characters of females and second stage juveniles (J2, total DNA was extracted from eggs, J2 and female adults. Specific 670 and 1600 bp bands were amplified in all M. javanica populations using species-specific primer pairs including OPARjav / OPAFjav and Mjavf / Mjavr These specific bands could not be amplified in other species such as M. incognita and M. arenaria. It seems that, application of these species specific primers in comparison with morphological characters would be more applicable, leading to easier identification of M. javanica.

  15. Greenhouse Studies on the Effect of Marigolds (Tagetes spp.) on Four Meloidogyne Species

    OpenAIRE

    Ploeg, Antoon T.

    1999-01-01

    The effects of preplanted marigold on tomato root galling and multiplication of Meloidogyne incognita, M. javanica, M. arenaria, and M. hapla were studied. Marigold cultivars of Tagetes patula, T. erecta, T. signata, and a Tagetes hybrid all reduced galling and numbers of second-stage juveniles in subsequent tomato compared to the tomato-tomato control. All four Meloidogyne spp. reproduced on T. signata 'Tangerine Gem'. Several cultivars of T. patula and T. erecta suppressed galling and repro...

  16. Efeito de isolados de Paecilomyces lilacinus no desenvolvimento de cafezais e na população de Meloidogyne paranaensis / Effect of isolates of Paecilomyces lilacinus on the development of coffee plantations and on the population of Meloidogyne paranaensis

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Marina Capparelli, Cadioli; Débora Cristina, Santiago; Arian Derdote de, Oliveira; Vanessa dos Santos, Paes; Giovani de Oliveira, Arieira; Fernando Cesar, Baida.

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Com a finalidade de diminuir as perdas causadas pelos nematóides do gênero Meloidogyne (Goeldi, 1887) na cultura do cafeeiro, dentre as diversas medidas de manejo, o controle biológico com o fungo Paecilomyces lilacinus (Thom., 1910) Samson, 1974 se destaca como uma alternativa de controle vantajosa [...] , quer dos pontos de vista ecológico ou econômico. Assim, neste trabalho, objetivou-se avaliar a eficiência de 10 isolados de Paecilomyces lilacinus no controle de Meloidogyne paranaensis em cafeeiro (Coffea arabica L. cv. Icatú), em casa-de-vegetação. No experimento I, as mudas de cafeeiro foram transplantadas em solo onde foram, anteriormente, cultivados tomateiros para multiplicação de M. paranaensis mais 50 g de arroz colonizado com os 10 isolados. No segundo experimento, mudas de cafeeiro foram transplantadas para substrato solo e areia (1:1) juntamente com 50 g de arroz colonizado com os isolados. Em seguida, as mudas foram inoculadas com ± 5000 ovos de M. paranaensis. Nos dois experimentos, após 15 dias procedeu-se aplicação por cobertura de 50 g dos isolados. O delineamento foi inteiramente casualizado com 12 tratamentos. Após 90 dias, foram feitas as avaliações. Os isolados de P. lilacinus não afetaram o diâmetro do caule de cafeeiro. No experimento I, os isolados Pae 22, 24 e 28 promoveram o crescimento dos cafeeiros; todos os isolados reduziram a população de ovos no sistema radicular; e os isolados Pae 3 e 12 reduziram a população de J2 de M. paranaensis no solo. No experimento II, os isolados Pae 03, 10, 12 e 13 favoreceram o crescimento das plantas, mas reduziram o peso fresco do sistema radicular; todos os isolados reduziram a população de J2 no solo; e os isolados Pae 3, 10, 13, 18, 22 e 24 reduziram as malformações causadas por M. paranaensis nas raízes. Abstract in english In order to reduce the losses caused by nematodes of the genus Meloidogyne (Goeldi, 1887) in coffee plantation, among several management measures, biological control with the fungus Paecilomyces lilacinus (Thom., 1910) Samson, 1974 stands out as an advantageous alternative of control, from the ecolo [...] gical or economy points of view. Thus, the objective of this work was to evaluate ten isolates of Paecilomyces lilacinus in the control of Meloidogyne paranaensis in coffee trees (Coffea arabica L.) cv. Icatú, in greenhouse conditions. In the first experiment, the coffee seedlings were transplanted to substrate where tomato plants were previously cultivated, for M. paranaensis multiplication. The soil was mixed with 50 g rice colonized with ten isolates of P. lilacinus. In the second experiment, coffee seedlings were transplanted to substrate (1 sand: 1 dirt) with 50 g rice colonized with the isolates of P. lilacinus. Then, the seedlings were inoculated with suspension of ±5000 eggs of M. paranaensis. In the two experiments, a new application was made with 50 g of the isolates after fifteen days. The design was completely randomized with twelve treatments and ten replicates. After 90 they days were evaluated. The isolated of P. lilacinus did not affect the diameter of the coffee stalk. In the first experiment, the isolates Pae 22, 24, and 28 promoted the growth of the seedlings, all of the isolates reduced the population of eggs in the root system, and the isolates Pae 3 and 12 reduced the population of J2 of M. paranaensis in the soil. In the second experiment, the isolates Pae 3, 10, 12, and 13 favored the growth of the plants but reduced the weight of the fresh roots, all of the isolates reduced the population of J2 in the soil, and the isolates Pae 3, 10, 13, 18, 22, and 24 reduced the malformations caused by M. paranaensis roots.

  17. Efeito de isolados de Paecilomyces lilacinus no desenvolvimento de cafezais e na população de Meloidogyne paranaensis Effect of isolates of Paecilomyces lilacinus on the development of coffee plantations and on the population of Meloidogyne paranaensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Capparelli Cadioli

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Com a finalidade de diminuir as perdas causadas pelos nematóides do gênero Meloidogyne (Goeldi, 1887 na cultura do cafeeiro, dentre as diversas medidas de manejo, o controle biológico com o fungo Paecilomyces lilacinus (Thom., 1910 Samson, 1974 se destaca como uma alternativa de controle vantajosa, quer dos pontos de vista ecológico ou econômico. Assim, neste trabalho, objetivou-se avaliar a eficiência de 10 isolados de Paecilomyces lilacinus no controle de Meloidogyne paranaensis em cafeeiro (Coffea arabica L. cv. Icatú, em casa-de-vegetação. No experimento I, as mudas de cafeeiro foram transplantadas em solo onde foram, anteriormente, cultivados tomateiros para multiplicação de M. paranaensis mais 50 g de arroz colonizado com os 10 isolados. No segundo experimento, mudas de cafeeiro foram transplantadas para substrato solo e areia (1:1 juntamente com 50 g de arroz colonizado com os isolados. Em seguida, as mudas foram inoculadas com ± 5000 ovos de M. paranaensis. Nos dois experimentos, após 15 dias procedeu-se aplicação por cobertura de 50 g dos isolados. O delineamento foi inteiramente casualizado com 12 tratamentos. Após 90 dias, foram feitas as avaliações. Os isolados de P. lilacinus não afetaram o diâmetro do caule de cafeeiro. No experimento I, os isolados Pae 22, 24 e 28 promoveram o crescimento dos cafeeiros; todos os isolados reduziram a população de ovos no sistema radicular; e os isolados Pae 3 e 12 reduziram a população de J2 de M. paranaensis no solo. No experimento II, os isolados Pae 03, 10, 12 e 13 favoreceram o crescimento das plantas, mas reduziram o peso fresco do sistema radicular; todos os isolados reduziram a população de J2 no solo; e os isolados Pae 3, 10, 13, 18, 22 e 24 reduziram as malformações causadas por M. paranaensis nas raízes.In order to reduce the losses caused by nematodes of the genus Meloidogyne (Goeldi, 1887 in coffee plantation, among several management measures, biological control with the fungus Paecilomyces lilacinus (Thom., 1910 Samson, 1974 stands out as an advantageous alternative of control, from the ecological or economy points of view. Thus, the objective of this work was to evaluate ten isolates of Paecilomyces lilacinus in the control of Meloidogyne paranaensis in coffee trees (Coffea arabica L. cv. Icatú, in greenhouse conditions. In the first experiment, the coffee seedlings were transplanted to substrate where tomato plants were previously cultivated, for M. paranaensis multiplication. The soil was mixed with 50 g rice colonized with ten isolates of P. lilacinus. In the second experiment, coffee seedlings were transplanted to substrate (1 sand: 1 dirt with 50 g rice colonized with the isolates of P. lilacinus. Then, the seedlings were inoculated with suspension of ±5000 eggs of M. paranaensis. In the two experiments, a new application was made with 50 g of the isolates after fifteen days. The design was completely randomized with twelve treatments and ten replicates. After 90 they days were evaluated. The isolated of P. lilacinus did not affect the diameter of the coffee stalk. In the first experiment, the isolates Pae 22, 24, and 28 promoted the growth of the seedlings, all of the isolates reduced the population of eggs in the root system, and the isolates Pae 3 and 12 reduced the population of J2 of M. paranaensis in the soil. In the second experiment, the isolates Pae 3, 10, 12, and 13 favored the growth of the plants but reduced the weight of the fresh roots, all of the isolates reduced the population of J2 in the soil, and the isolates Pae 3, 10, 13, 18, 22, and 24 reduced the malformations caused by M. paranaensis roots.

  18. Terra Incognita I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The topics discussed in the workshop session 'Terra Incognita I' included a wide range of science. Central to the discussion however was the study of sub-leading neutrino oscillations driven by ?13 and the possibility to observe CP-violation in the leptonic sector. Furthermore, the long-standing problem of sterile neutrinos was addressed, as well as the scenario that UHECR could be produced via so called Z-bursts. To employ neutrinos in the literal meaning of the workshop session title 'Terra Incognita', namely to explore the unknown earth with neutrinos from geo-chemical origin, completed the session

  19. SINTOMATOLOGÍA Y ESPECIES DE Meloidogyne ASOCIADAS A VID (Vitis vinifera L. cv. Aramond) EN GÜIRA DE MELENA, ARTEMISA. (Resultados preliminares) / SYMPTOMATOLOGY AND SPECIES OF Meloidogyne ASSOCIATED WITH GRAPEVINE (Vitis vinifera L. cv. Aramond) IN GÜIRA DE MELENA, Artemisa. (Preliminary results)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Mayra G, Rodríguez; Dainé, Hernández; R, Enrique; Lucila, Gómez; Luisa, Díaz-Viruliche; Belkis, Peteira.

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Un viñedo (Vitis vinifera L. cv. Aramond) de 21 años de plantado mostraba síntomas semejantes a los producidos por la presencia de nematodos formadores de agallas (Meloidogyne spp.), así como mermas en los rendimientos. En visita realizada a la plantación, se constató la existencia de áreas con plan [...] tas cloróticas y con diversos grados de defoliación. Las bases de los tallos mostraban rajaduras longitudinales y ensanchamientos en la región que se encontraba por encima de la superficie del suelo. Al examinar las raíces se encontraron agallas de diversos tamaños y la pérdida de volúmenes importantes de raíces secundarias. En las agallas, se encontraron hembras adultas de Meloidogyne con ootecas desarrolladas, y el estudio de los patrones perineales de estas hembras evidenció la presencia de especímenes de tres especies (Meloidogyne arenaria (Neal) Chitwood, Meloidogyne incognita (Kofoid & White) Chitwood y Meloidogyne javanica (Trueb) Chitwood), mientras otros fueron ubicados en la categoría de Meloidogyne spp., hasta completar los estudios moleculares. Del total de especímenes examinados, M. arenaria mostró ser componente mayoritario de la comunidad con un 53%, seguido de M. incognita (21%) y M. javanica (4%). La presencia de M. arenaria en vid, representa el primer informe de la especie en este cultivo en Cuba y constituye foco de atención para el servicio fitosanitario, por ser una de las plagas más importante para la vid a nivel mundial. Abstract in english A 21 year old vineyard (Vitis vinifera L. cv. Aramond) showed symptoms similar to those caused by the root knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp.) as well as decreases in yield. In a visit to the area, several chlorotic plants with different degree of defoliation were observed. The stem bases above the so [...] il surface were swollen and they showed longitudinal cracks. Galls of different sizes were observed on the roots with significant losses of secondary roots. Adult females of Meloidogyne with well developed egg masses were found inside the galls. The study of the perineal patterns of these females showed the presence of specimens belonging to three species (Meloidogyne arenaria (Neal) Chitwood, Meloidogoyne incognita (Kofoid & White) Chitwood and Meloidogyne javanica (Trueb) Chitwood), as well as others that were grouped as Meloidogyne spp. until completing the molecular studies of all the specimens observed. M. arenaria showed to be the majority component of the community with 53%, followed by M. incognita and M. javanica with 21% and 4% respectively. The presence of M. arenaria in grapevine is the first report of this specie in the crop in Cuba and constitutes a focus of attention for the plant protection service because it is one of the most important pests in grapevine in the world.

  20. Mentha x piperita, Mentha spicata and Effects of Their Essential Oils on Meloidogyne in Soil

    OpenAIRE

    Walker, J.T.; Melin, J. B.

    1996-01-01

    Six peppermint (Mentha x piperita) and six spearmint (M. spicata) PI accessions were inoculated with Meloidogyne incognita race 3 and M. arenaria race 2, under greenhouse conditions. No galls formed on roots of any of the plants inoculated with 1,800 eggs/pot. Fewer than two galls per root system formed on three PI accessions of peppermint inoculated with M. incognita at 5,400 eggs/pot. Only one peppermint accession developed galls when inoculated with M. arenaria, whereas none of the spearmi...

  1. Crop Yields and Nematode Population Densities in Triticale-Cotton and Triticale-Soybean Rotations

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, A.W.; Dowler, C. C.; Baker, S H; Handoo, Z.A.

    1998-01-01

    Triticale cv. Beagle 82, cotton cv. McNair 235, and soybean cv. Twiggs were arranged in three cropping sequences to determine the effects of fenamiphos and cropping sequence on nematode population densities and crop yields under conservation tillage for 4 years. The cropping sequences were triticale (T)-cotton (C)-T-C, T-soybean (S)-T-S, and T-C-T-S. Numbers of Meloidogyne incognita second-stage juveniles declined on trificale but increased on cotton and soybean each year. Root-gall indices o...

  2. Host plants of root-knot nematodes / Algumas plantas hospedeiras de nematóides do gênero Meloidogyne

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Luiz Gonzaga E., Lordello; Luiz Carlos, Fazuoli; Condorcet, Aranha; Rubens R.A., Lordello.

    Full Text Available Coletaram-se plantas do gênero Coffea e de diversas ervas daninhas, as quais foram examinadas em laboratório visando verificar a ocorrência de nematóides do gênero Meloidogyne Goeldi, 1887. As plantas parasitadas por M. exigua, M. incognita, M. arenaria e por uma espécie não identificada, referida c [...] omo Meloidogyne sp., são. apresentadas. Indicam-se os hospedeiros novos de alguns dos nematóides mencionados e confirma-se o parasitismo de outras plantas, nas condições estudadas. Abstract in english Root-knot nematodes were found attacking Coffea spp. and also roots of a few weed species usually found in the coffee orchards in São Paulo. C. arabica cv. Catuaí, C. arabica cv. Mundo Novo, Timor Hybrid and a few plants of C. racemosa showed to be susceptible to Meloidogyne exigua. Roots of Ageratu [...] m conyzoides, Amaranthus viridis, Bidens pilosa, Coffea arabica cv. Mundo Novo, Coffea racemosa, Commelina virginica, Digitaria sanguinalis, Galinsoga parviflora, Gnaphalium spathulatum, Porophyllum ruderale, Portulaca oleracea, Pterocaulon virgatum and Solanum americanum were disfigured by M. incognita M. arenaria was found attacking roots of Eleusine indica and Gnaphalium spathulatum, and the presence of an unidentified Meloidogyne species was verified in roots of the following species: Vernonia ferruginea, C. arabica x C. canephora, Eupatorium pauciflorum, Coffea canephora cv. Kouillou, Coffea eugenioides, Coffea racemosa, Coffea stenophylla, Euphorbia pilullifera, Solanum americanum, Ageratum conyzoides, Phyllanthus corcovadensis, and Emilia sagittata.

  3. Efecto de diferentes densidades poblacionales de Meloidogyne hapla sobre uchuva (Physalis peruviana L.) en invernadero / Effect of different population densities of Meloidogyne hapla on the cape gooseberry (Physalis peruviana L.) in greenhouse

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Nancy Eunice, Niño; Germán, Arbeláez; Rafael, Navarro.

    2008-04-30

    Full Text Available Este estudio se realizó en el Centro de Investigaciones y Asesorías Agroindustriales de la Universidad de Bogotá Jorge Tadeo Lozano, Chía (Cundinamarca), bajo condiciones de invernadero, durante diez meses de cultivo. Se evaluó el efecto de diferentes densidades poblacionales de Meloidogyne hapla (0 [...] , 50, 100, 200, 500 y 1.000 larvas J2/100 cc de suelo), sobre parámetros productivos de la uchuva: altura de las plantas, diámetro de tallo, peso fresco, peso seco y biomasa de follaje, peso fresco de raíces, índice de nodulación radicular y peso fresco de frutos. Se hizo análisis de varianza, pruebas de contrastes y prueba de Tukey (?=0,05), en un diseño completamente aleatorio, con seis tratamientos y cinco repeticiones, mediante el programa SAS v.8.0. El tratamiento de 500 larvas J2/100 cc suelo fue el que más afectó la altura de las plantas, el diámetro del tallo, la biomasa de follaje, el peso fresco de raíces y presentó el índice de nodulación radical más alto. No se encontraron diferencias significativas entre los tratamientos inoculados con M. hapla, para peso fresco, peso seco de follaje y peso fresco de frutos, ni para el número de larvas J2 en suelo y masas de huevos. Mediante la ecuación: Y = m + (1-m)Z P-T propuesta por Seinhorst (1965), se estableció un límite de tolerancia de 50 larvas J2 de M. hapla/100 cc suelo, para peso fresco de raíces y un límite de tolerancia de 450 larvas J2 de M. hapla/100 cc suelo, para biomasa de follaje. Abstract in english A trial was conducted at the Center of Investigations and Agroindustrial Accessory of the University Jorge Tadeo Lozano, Chía (Cundinamarca) under greenhouse condition during ten months of cultivation. The effect of different population densities of M. hapla (0, 50, 100, 200, 500 and 1,000 larvae J2 [...] /100 cc soil) on productive parameters of the cape gooseberry, such as plant height, stem diameter, fresh and dry weights of leaves, fresh weight of roots, root nodulation index and weight of fruits in four harvests were evaluated. A variance analysis, contrasts test and Tukey test, within a randomized design with six treatments, and five repetitions was done within SAS v.8.0 program. It was determined that a treatment 500 larvae J2/100 cc soil had the highest effect on the plant height, stem diameter, leaf biomass and fresh weight of roots, besides it showed the highest root nodulation index. There were no significant differences found among the treatments for fresh weight and dry weight of leaves and fruits weight. For J2 larvae’s number in soil and eggs mass, the differences among the treatments inoculated with M. hapla were not found. A tolerance limit of 50 larvas J2/l00 cc soil was derived from fitting the data of root fresh weight and a tolerance limit of 450 larvas J2/l00 cc soil from data of biomass using the equation Y=m+(1-m)Z P-T proposed by Seinhorst (1965).

  4. Reaction of citrus rootstocks to Meloidogyne javanica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inserra, R N; Perrotta, G; Vovlas, N; Catara, A

    1978-04-01

    The response of Citrus spp. and related rootstocks to a population of Meloidogyne javanica was evaluated in a screenhouse experiment. Palestine and Rangpur lime, rough lemon, sour orange, Sexton and Thentriton tangelo, and Volkamer lemon were not infected by M. javanica. Galls and tip swellings were observed on the roots of Poncirus triloliata and Troyer citrange. There was no evidence of nematode development. Symptoms induced by the nematode were stelar division, syncytia formation in the vascular tissues, and necrotic cells. PMID:19305835

  5. Molecular Characterisation and Diagnosis of Root-Knot Nematodes (Meloidogyne spp.) from Turfgrasses in North Carolina, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Weimin; Zeng, Yongsan; Kerns, James

    2015-01-01

    Root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp.) are the most common and destructive plant-parasitic nematode group worldwide and adversely influence both crop quality and yield. In this study, a total of 51 root-knot nematode populations from turfgrasses were tested, of which 44 were from North Carolina, 6 from South Carolina and 1 from Virginia. Molecular characterisation was performed on these samples by DNA sequencing on the ribosomal DNA 18S, ITS and 28S D2/D3. Species-specific primers were developed to identify turfgrass root-knot nematode through simplex or duplex PCR. Four species were identified, including M. marylandi Jepson & Golden in Jepson, 1987, M. graminis (Sledge & Golden, 1964) Whitehead, 1968, M. incognita (Kofoid & White, 1919) Chitwood, 1949 and M. naasi Franklin, 1965 through a combined analysis of DNA sequencing and PCR by species-specific primers. M. marylandi has been reported from North Carolina and South Carolina for the first time. Molecular diagnosis using PCR by species-specific primers provides a rapid and cheap species identification approach for turfgrass root-knot nematodes. PMID:26599462

  6. Morphological and Molecular Characterization of a New Root-Knot Nematode, Meloidogyne thailandica n. sp. (Nematoda: Meloidogynidae), Parasitizing Ginger (Zingiber sp.)

    OpenAIRE

    Handoo, Z.A.; Skantar, A. M.; Carta, L. K.; Erbe, E F

    2005-01-01

    A root-knot nematode Meloidogyne thailandica n. sp. was discovered on roots of ginger (Zingiber spp.) intercepted from Thailand in October 2002 by the U.S. Department of Agriculture Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service at the port of San Francisco. Comparison by light microscopy (LM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to five other morphologically related species (M. incognita, M. arenaria, M. microcephala, M. megatyla, and M. enterolobii) revealed that the new species differs from ...

  7. Resistência de porta-enxertos para pessegueiro e ameixeira aos nematóides causadores de galhas (Meloidogyne spp. Resistance of rootstock for peach tree and plum to root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Carlos Fachinello

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho foi realizado com o objetivo de comparar o comportamento de cinco diferentes porta-enxertos para frutas de caroço em frente a duas espécies de nematóides do gênero Meloidogyne (Meloidogyne javanica e Meloidogyne incognita. O cultivar GF 677 foi obtido a partir do cultivo in vitro e os demais porta-enxertos a partir de sementes. Aos dois meses, as plântulas foram repicadas e inoculadas com uma mistura de Meloidogyne javanica e M. incognita aos 30, 60 e 70 dias após o plantio em canteiros incorporando-se 0,2kg de solo altamente infestado com os nematóides ao redor de cada planta. Ao final do experimento, avaliaram-se o desenvolvimento das plantas e o grau de infecção de cada cultivar. O grau de resistência dos cultivares foi estimado a partir do índice de galhas, obtido através de uma escala de grau ou nota, a qual varia de 0 a 5, em função do número de galhas ou ootecas. Os resultados obtidos demonstraram que o cultivar Okinawa não apresentou galhas no sistema radicular e na análise de crescimento foi superior aos demais cultivares. Os cultivares R-15-2 e Aldrighi foram considerados resistentes aos fitonematóides por apresentarem pequeno número de galhas no sistema radicular. Já o cultivar GF 677 apresentou maior número de galhas no sistema radicular, chegando a 126 galhas/g de raiz.The work was carried out with the objective of comparing the response of five different stone fruit rootstocks to two nematode species (Meloidogyne javanica and Meloidogyne incognita. The cultivar GF677, which was obtained from in vitro cultivation and the others rootstocks, were obtained from seedlings. Two month old plants were transplanted and inoculated with a mixture of both nematode species at 30, 60, 70 days after planting, by incorporating 0.2kg of highly infested soil around each cultivar. The development of the roststocks were evaluated at the end of the experiment. Number of galls, ranging from 0 to 5 was used to score the level of resistance of each cultivar. The results showed that cultivar Okinawa did not present any root galls and also had a superior growth than the other cultivars. The cultivars R-15-2 and Aldrighi presented small numbers of galls in the roots, they were considered resistant to nematodes. On the other hand, the cultivar GF677 presented the largest number of galls in the roots, achieving 126 galls/g of root.

  8. Reação de porta-enxertos comerciais de tomateiro a Meloidogyne mayaguensis Reaction of commercial tomato rootstocks plant to Meloidogyne mayaguensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Ricardo Cantu

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do presente trabalho foi verificar a resistência ao nematóide Meloidogyne mayaguensis em oito porta-enxertos de tomateiro considerados resistentes à Meloidogyne incognita, M. javanica e M. arenaria, comercializados no Brasil. Os porta-enxertos testados foram: 'Guardião', 'Helper-M', 'Anchor-T', 'Dr. K', 'Kagemuscha', 'TMA 809', 'Magnet' e 'He-Man'. O experimento constou de 9 tratamentos (8 porta-enxertos e a cultivar Rutgers utilizada como padrão de suscetibilidade, com 6 repetições, sendo cada parcela constituída por 1 planta por vaso, mantidas em casa de vegetação. As plantas foram inoculadas com 5.000 ovos e eventuais juvenis infectantes de M. mayaguensis. O experimento seguiu o delineamento inteiramente casualizado. Aos 60 dias da inoculação procederam-se as avaliações, quando foram avaliados os índices de galhas e massas de ovos, número de nematóides no solo e na raiz, peso do sistema radicular e o fator de reprodução. Todos os porta-enxertos estudados demonstraram-se suscetíveis a M. mayaguensis.The objective of this research was to verify the resistance response of eight Brazilian commercial tomato rootstocks to the nematode Meloidogyne mayaguensis. The studied rootstocks were: 'Guardião', 'Helper-M', 'Anchor-T', 'Dr. K', 'Kagemuscha', 'TMA 809', 'Magnet' and 'He-Man'. The experiment consisted of 9 treatments (8 rootstocks and 'Rutgers' used as susceptible control, with 6 replication. Each plot was constituted by 1 plant per pot, maintained in green-house. The plants were inoculated with 5,000 eggs and second stage juvenile of M. mayaguensis. The experimental design was completely randomized. The evaluation was 60 days after inoculation, when the root weight, gall and egg mass index, nematode number in soil and in root and reproduction factor were evaluated. All studied rootstocks were susceptible to M. mayaguensis.

  9. Reação de porta-enxertos comerciais de tomateiro a Meloidogyne mayaguensis / Reaction of commercial tomato rootstocks plant to Meloidogyne mayaguensis

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Rafael Ricardo, Cantu; Silvia Renata Siciliano, Wilcken; Juliana Magrinelli Osório, Rosa; Rumy, Goto.

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do presente trabalho foi verificar a resistência ao nematóide Meloidogyne mayaguensis em oito porta-enxertos de tomateiro considerados resistentes à Meloidogyne incognita, M. javanica e M. arenaria, comercializados no Brasil. Os porta-enxertos testados foram: 'Guardião', 'Helper-M', 'Anch [...] or-T', 'Dr. K', 'Kagemuscha', 'TMA 809', 'Magnet' e 'He-Man'. O experimento constou de 9 tratamentos (8 porta-enxertos e a cultivar Rutgers utilizada como padrão de suscetibilidade), com 6 repetições, sendo cada parcela constituída por 1 planta por vaso, mantidas em casa de vegetação. As plantas foram inoculadas com 5.000 ovos e eventuais juvenis infectantes de M. mayaguensis. O experimento seguiu o delineamento inteiramente casualizado. Aos 60 dias da inoculação procederam-se as avaliações, quando foram avaliados os índices de galhas e massas de ovos, número de nematóides no solo e na raiz, peso do sistema radicular e o fator de reprodução. Todos os porta-enxertos estudados demonstraram-se suscetíveis a M. mayaguensis. Abstract in english The objective of this research was to verify the resistance response of eight Brazilian commercial tomato rootstocks to the nematode Meloidogyne mayaguensis. The studied rootstocks were: 'Guardião', 'Helper-M', 'Anchor-T', 'Dr. K', 'Kagemuscha', 'TMA 809', 'Magnet' and 'He-Man'. The experiment consi [...] sted of 9 treatments (8 rootstocks and 'Rutgers' used as susceptible control), with 6 replication. Each plot was constituted by 1 plant per pot, maintained in green-house. The plants were inoculated with 5,000 eggs and second stage juvenile of M. mayaguensis. The experimental design was completely randomized. The evaluation was 60 days after inoculation, when the root weight, gall and egg mass index, nematode number in soil and in root and reproduction factor were evaluated. All studied rootstocks were susceptible to M. mayaguensis.

  10. Velvetbean and Bahiagrass as Rotation Crops for Management of Meloidogyne spp. and Heterodera glycines in Soybean

    OpenAIRE

    Weaver, D. B.; Rodríguez-Kábana, R.; Carden, E. L.

    1998-01-01

    Soybean (Glycine max) yield often is limited by the phytoparasitic nematodes Meloidogyne spp. and Heterodera glycines in the southeastern United States. We studied the effects of rotation with bahiagrass (Paspalum notatum), velvetbean (Mucuna pruiens), or continuous soybean, aldicarb, and soybean cultivar on yield and population densities in two fields infested with a mixture of Meloidogyne spp. and H. glycines. Velvetbean and bahiagrass reduced population levels of both nematode species to n...

  11. Immunolocalisation of secreted-excreted products of Meloidogyne spp. using polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies Imunolocalização de produtos secretados-excretados de Meloidogyne spp. usando anticorpos policlonais e monoclonais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liziane M. Lima

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Molecules expressed at the surface cuticle (SC of plant parasitic nematodes represent the primary plant-nematode interface, and together with secreted-excreted (S-E products are probably the first signals perceived by the host. These molecules, which are released into plant tissue, probably play important roles in the host-parasite interactions. Characterisation of these antigens will help in the identification of nematode targets useful for novel control strategies, which interfere with the nematode infection of plants. Three monoclonal (MAbs and three polyclonal (PAbs antibodies produced to S-E products of Meloidogyne spp. and Heterodera avenae were used to examine their reactivity towards M. incognita and/or M. arenaria second stage juveniles and adult females. The three PAbs showed cross-reactivity with M. incognita and M. arenaria. Antibody Roth-PC 373 strongly recognised molecules present in the SC, amphids and intestine, antibody Roth-PC 389 recognised the nematode amphids and metacorpus, while antibody Roth-PC 419 bound to molecules present in the subventral glands. Reactivity of the MAbs was only tested against M. arenaria. Monoclonal antibody Roth-MAb T116C1.1 showed intense reactivity with molecules present in the amphidial and phasmidial glands. Monoclonal antibodies Roth-MAb T46.2 and T42D.2 labeled the nematode amphids and molecules present in the nematode oesophagus (metacorpus, respectively.Moléculas expressadas na cutícula dos nematóides parasitas de plantas representam o primeiro contato planta-nematóide e, junto com produtos secretados/excretados (S-E, são, provavelmente, os primeiros sinais percebidos pelo hospedeiro. Essas moléculas, as quais são liberadas dentro do tecido da planta, podem ter papel importante na interação parasita-hospedeiro. A caracterização desses antígenos pode ajudar na identificação de alvos para novas estratégias que interfiram na infecção de plantas por nematóides. Três anticorpos monoclonais e três anticorpos policlonais produzidos para secreções-excreções de Meloidogyne spp. e Heterodera avenae foram usados para examinar a reatividade a juvenis de segundo estádio (J2 e/ou fêmeas de M. incognita e M. arenaria. Os três anticorpos policlonais mostraram reação tanto para M. incognita quanto para M. arenaria. Roth-PC 373 reconheceu fortemente moléculas presentes na cutícula, anfídios e intestino, Roth-PC 389 reconheceu anfidios e metacorpo, enquanto Roth-PC 419 ligou-se a moléculas presentes nas glândulas subventrais. A reatividade dos MAbs foi testada somente com M. Arenaria. Roth-MAb T116C1.1 reagiu intensamente com moléculas presentes nas glândulas anfidial e fasmidial. Roth-MAb T46.2 e T42D.2 marcaram anfídios e moléculas presentes no esôfago (metacorpo do nematóide, respectivamente.

  12. Nematode population densities and yield of sweet potato and onion as affected by nematicides and time of application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, M R; Johnson, A W; Smittle, D A

    1988-10-01

    Nematode population densities and yield of sweet potato and onion as affected by nematicides and time of application were determined in a 3-year test. Population densities of Meloidogyne incognita race 1 in untreated plots of sweet potato increased each year, but Helicotylenchus dihystera and Criconemella ornata did not. Ethoprop (6.8 kg a.i./ha) incorporated broadcast in the top 15-cm soil layer each spring before planting sweet potato reduced population densities of nematodes in the soil and increased marketable yield in 1982, but not in 1983 and 1984. When DD, fenamiphos, and aldicarb were applied just before planting either sweet potato or onion, nematode population densities at harvest were lower in treated than in untreated plots. No additional benefits resulted when the nematicides were applied immediately before planting both sweet potato and onion. Correlation coefficients (P onion crops. Correlation coefficients for marketable yield of onion seeded in 1982 and harvested in 1983 vs. densities of M. incognita juveniles and H. dihystera in the soil at harvest were r = -0.42 and r = -0.31 (P

  13. Susceptibilidad de genotipos de Solanum spp. al nematodo causante del nudo radical Meloidogyne spp. (chitwood) Susceptibility of genotypes of Solanum spp. to the nematode causative of the root knot Meloidogyne spp. (chitwood)

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian Gelpud Chaves

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available El cultivo del lulo (Solanum quitoense L.) presenta una disminución en su productividad, debido al ataque de patógenos como el nematodo del nudo radical Meloidogyne spp., en el Departamento de Nariño (Colombia), se han reportado incidencias cercanas al 79%, y pérdidas del 50%. En la presente investigación, se colectaron 45 genotipos de (Solanum quitoense L.) en los Departamentos de Nariño y Putumayo y 4 genotipos silvestres (S. mammosum, S. hirtum, S. marginatum y S. umbellatum) buscando fuentes de resistencia al nematodo. Se inocularon 9 plantas de cada genotipo de dos meses de edad con 10000 huevos de Meloidogyne spp., dejando tres testigos por cada material. Las variables evaluadas fueron: altura de planta, severidad, incidencia, peso fresco (tallo y raíz) y especies prevalentes de Meloidogyne spp. Se hizo una clasificación de genotipos mediante escala de resistencia y regresión entre la severidad y las demás variables para establecer el efecto de Meloidogyne spp. sobre los genotipos de planta. Los resultados mostraron 100% de incidencia del nematodo en todos los genotipos, 2.04% genotipos resistentes, 34.7% moderadamente resistentes, 42.8% moderadamente susceptibles, 18.3% susceptibles, y 2.04% altamente susceptibles. El genotipo SQbr05 resistente, no se vio afectado por la severidad, al contrario SQbc04 genotipo susceptible, mostró reducciones significativas en peso fresco de tallo y raíz, (R² = 0.71 y 0.98), el genotipo silvestre (S. mammosum) es altamente susceptible, Meloidogyne incognita presentó 55.31% de presencia. El genotipo SQbr05 es promisorio para ser evaluado en campo.The green orange (Solanum quitoense L.) crop has decreased in its productivity due to the pathogens attack such as the root knot nematode Meloidogyne spp. In the Nariño Department of Colombia, pest incidences near to 79% and losses of 50% have been reported. In this study, 45 genotypes of Solanum quitoense were collected in Nariño and Putumayo Departments. Four wild genotypes (S. mammosum, S. hirtum, S. marginatum and S. umbellatum) were collected to look for nematode resistance sources. Nine plants of each genotype two month old were inoculated with 10000 eggs of Meloidogyne spp., leaving three plants as control by each material. The evaluated variables were: plant height, pest severity, pest incidence, fresh weight (stem and root) and Meloidogyne spp. prevalent species. A genotype classification was made through a pest resistance scale and regression among severity and the rest of variables to determine the effect of Meloidogyne spp. over the plant genotypes. The results showed 100% nematode incidence in all genotypes, resistant genotypes ².04%, 34.7% moderately resistant, 42.8% moderately susceptible, 18.3% were susceptible, and 2.04% highly susceptible. The SQbr05 resistant genotype, was not affected by severity. On the other hand, the pest susceptible genotype SQbc04 showed significant reductions in stem and root fresh weight (R² = 0.71 and 0.98), the wild genotype (S. mammosum) was highly susceptible, Meloidogyne incognita showed 55.31% of presence. The SQbr05 genotype is promising to be evaluated in field.

  14. Influence of Glomus fasciculatum on Meloidogyne hapla Infecting Allium cepa

    OpenAIRE

    MacGuidwin, A. E.; Bird, G. W.; Safir, G. R.

    1985-01-01

    The impact of Glomus fasciculatum on Meloidogyne hapla associated with Allium cepa was evaluated in two experiments. Nematode density was not different in mycorrhizal and nonmycorrhizal plants 10 weeks after the joint inoculation of M. hapla and G. fasciculatum. Differences in the age structure of M. hapla populations reared on mycorrhizal and nonmycorrhizat plants were noted. G. fasciculatum enhanced leaf and bulb growth of A. cepa in the absence of M. hapla, but did not affect plant weight ...

  15. QTL analysis for transgressive resistance to root-knot nematode in a cotton RIL population derived from interspecific susceptible parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    The root-knot nematode (RKN, Meloidogyne incognita) resistance gene rkn1 in Gossypium hirsutum Acala NemX interacts with a transgressive factor RKN2 from susceptible G. barbadense Pima S-7 to produce high resistance to RKN. The rkn1 and RKN2 genes are clustered and linked to SSR markers CIR316 and M...

  16. Identification of Meloidogyne species associated with upland ornamentals plants in Costa Rica.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefany Solano-González

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to identify nematodes species of the genus Meloidogyne associated with upland ornamental plants. We sampled ten ornamental species in a commercial nursery in San Isidro, Heredia, Costa Rica between 2011-2012. Morphometric measurements of the stylet length, the tail length, and the hyaline region of J2s, as well as perineal patterns of egg-carrying females were used for identification, Genomic DNA was extracted from single J2s and molecular analyses were performed by amplifying the intergenic region between cytochrome oxidase subunit II of the COII and the long subunit of the ARN ribosomal genes by PCR-RFLP. Combining these methods allowed identification of five species of nematodes of the genus Meloidogyne (M. arenaria, M. hapla, M. hispanica, M. incognita and M. javanica, and new restriction enzyme patterns were reported for M. hapla and M. javanica using AluI. Additionally, a preliminary report of M. hispanica was described by sequencing the 28S and 18S regions.

  17. Interaction of Meloidogyne incognita and coal-smoke pollutants on tomato

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khan, M.R.; Khan, M.W. [Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh (India). Dept. of Plant Protection

    1996-06-01

    Seedlings of tomato cv. Pusa Ruba were placed in clay pots at 3 sites, 1 (K1) and 2 (K2) km from a coal-fired thermal power station and at a control site at the Department of Botany, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh, India in 1988 and 1989. Mean concentrations of SO{sub 2}, NO{sub 2} and suspended particulate matter were very low at the control site but at K1 were 145, 89 and 563 {mu}g/m{sup 3} in 1958 and 135, 83 and 553 {mu}g/m{sup 3} in 1989, respectively. The corresponding concentrations at K2 were 193, 107 and 329 {mu}g/m{sup 3} in 1988 and 181, 98 and 363 {mu}g/m{sup 3} in 1989, respectively. The corresponding concentrations at K2 were 193, 98 and 363 {mu}g/m{sup 3} in 1989, respectively. Chlorosis and browning developed on the leaves of tomatoes grown at the polluted sites, particularly at K2. Foliar injury was invariably greater on nematode-infected plants. The coal-smoke pollutants (except at K1 in 1989) and the nematodes singly caused suppressions in shoot and root growth, leaf pigments and yield. The interactive effects of the coal-smoke pollutants and the nematodes on these parameters were synergistic and mostly significant at K1 in both 1988 and 1989. The amount of sulfur in leaves was greatly enhanced in nematode infected plants, being higher at K2. The stomata formation on the leaves was suppressed by both nematode infection and exposure to coal-smoke. Root galling and egg mass production per g fresh root weight were enhanced at both the polluted sites.

  18. Effects of Anaerobically Digested Slurry on Meloidogyne incognita and Pratylenchus penetrans in Tomato and Radish Production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since effective disposable way of anaerobically digested biogas slurry is expected, ADS was applied to soil to evaluate its effects on nematode damage. Damage index of tomato by root-knot nematode was significantly (P4+ -N kg-1) than that in those with chemical fertilizer and control (no ADS). ADS was applied into radish cultivated fields infested with the root-lesion nematode: a single (100 kg NH4+ -N ha-1) in 2007 and 2008 and multiple applications (25, 50, 25 kg NH4+-N ha-1 soil) in 2009. Damage to radish was 30% and 50% lower in ADS-treated fields than that in the control in 2007 and 2009, respectively, although not in 2008. These results suggest that application of ADS to fields might be feasible for mitigating nematode damage, but the rate and timing should be considered further for the best application way.

  19. Management of Root-Nematode (Meloidogyne SPP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenhouse and field experiments were undertaken to determine the possibility of using soil amendments with different C:N levels or applied at different rates and times in the control of root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp.)in tomato c.v Cal J.A naturally infested field was used while artificial inoculation was done in the greenhouse. Root galling was rated on a scale of 0-10, nematode population was estimated by counting second stage juveniles extracted from 200 cm3 soil and fruit yields were recorded at the end of the season. Nematode population densities and galling indices were significantly (P< or=0.05) lower in amended soils compared to the control. Application of the amendments also resulted in significant (P< or=0.05) increase in yields. Chicken manure, compost manure, neem products and pig manure were were the most effective amendments. Fresh chicken manure had a more suppressive effect on nematode than when the manure was decomposed within or outside a nematode infested field. A general decrease in juvenile populations and galling was observed with increase of organic amendments applied

  20. Immunolocalisation of secreted-excreted products of Meloidogyne spp. using polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies / Imunolocalização de produtos secretados-excretados de Meloidogyne spp. usando anticorpos policlonais e monoclonais

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Liziane M., Lima; Maria F., Grossi-de-Sa; Railene A., Pereira; Rosane H.C., Curtis.

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Moléculas expressadas na cutícula dos nematóides parasitas de plantas representam o primeiro contato planta-nematóide e, junto com produtos secretados/excretados (S-E), são, provavelmente, os primeiros sinais percebidos pelo hospedeiro. Essas moléculas, as quais são liberadas dentro do tecido da pla [...] nta, podem ter papel importante na interação parasita-hospedeiro. A caracterização desses antígenos pode ajudar na identificação de alvos para novas estratégias que interfiram na infecção de plantas por nematóides. Três anticorpos monoclonais e três anticorpos policlonais produzidos para secreções-excreções de Meloidogyne spp. e Heterodera avenae foram usados para examinar a reatividade a juvenis de segundo estádio (J2) e/ou fêmeas de M. incognita e M. arenaria. Os três anticorpos policlonais mostraram reação tanto para M. incognita quanto para M. arenaria. Roth-PC 373 reconheceu fortemente moléculas presentes na cutícula, anfídios e intestino, Roth-PC 389 reconheceu anfidios e metacorpo, enquanto Roth-PC 419 ligou-se a moléculas presentes nas glândulas subventrais. A reatividade dos MAbs foi testada somente com M. Arenaria. Roth-MAb T116C1.1 reagiu intensamente com moléculas presentes nas glândulas anfidial e fasmidial. Roth-MAb T46.2 e T42D.2 marcaram anfídios e moléculas presentes no esôfago (metacorpo) do nematóide, respectivamente. Abstract in english Molecules expressed at the surface cuticle (SC) of plant parasitic nematodes represent the primary plant-nematode interface, and together with secreted-excreted (S-E) products are probably the first signals perceived by the host. These molecules, which are released into plant tissue, probably play i [...] mportant roles in the host-parasite interactions. Characterisation of these antigens will help in the identification of nematode targets useful for novel control strategies, which interfere with the nematode infection of plants. Three monoclonal (MAbs) and three polyclonal (PAbs) antibodies produced to S-E products of Meloidogyne spp. and Heterodera avenae were used to examine their reactivity towards M. incognita and/or M. arenaria second stage juveniles and adult females. The three PAbs showed cross-reactivity with M. incognita and M. arenaria. Antibody Roth-PC 373 strongly recognised molecules present in the SC, amphids and intestine, antibody Roth-PC 389 recognised the nematode amphids and metacorpus, while antibody Roth-PC 419 bound to molecules present in the subventral glands. Reactivity of the MAbs was only tested against M. arenaria. Monoclonal antibody Roth-MAb T116C1.1 showed intense reactivity with molecules present in the amphidial and phasmidial glands. Monoclonal antibodies Roth-MAb T46.2 and T42D.2 labeled the nematode amphids and molecules present in the nematode oesophagus (metacorpus), respectively.

  1. Soybean-Peanut Rotations for the Management of Meloidogyne arenaria

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez-Kábana, R.; Robertson, D. G.; Backman, P A; Ivey, H.

    1988-01-01

    Rotating soybean (Glycine max cv. Kirby) with peanut (Arachis hypogaea cv. Florunner) for managing Meloidogyne arenaria race 1 was studied for 3 years (1985-87) in a field near Headland, Alabama. Each year soybean plots had lower soil numbers of M. arenaria second-stage juveniles (J2) at peanut harvest than did plots in peanut monocnlture. Peanut following either 1 or 2 years of soybean resulted in approximately 50% reduction in J2 soil population densities and a 14% (1-year soybean) or 20% (...

  2. Interaction Between Meloidogyne arenaria and Glomus fascicuqlatus in Grape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atilano, R A; Menge, J A; Gundy, S D

    1981-01-01

    Root zones of grape (Fitis vinifera cv Thompson Seedless) cuttings were infested with chlamydospores of Glomus fasciculatus or eggs of Meloidogyne arenaria or both. Growth of grapevines was greatest in mycorrhizal (G. fasciculatus) plants. Mycorrhizal development and growth of mycorrhizal and nonmycorrhizal plants were reduced in the presence of M. arenaria. At low initial nematode inoculum (PI) levels (approx. 200 eggs/plant), the presence of mycorrhizae enhanced plant growth during 1 yr, but no significant benefit was achieved by mycorrhizae where PI was high (approx. 2,000 eggs/plant). Final nematode populations were highest in mycorrhizal plants. PMID:19300722

  3. Influence of Glomus fasciculatum and Meloidogyne hapla on Allium cepa in Organic Soils

    OpenAIRE

    Kotcon, J. B.; Bird, G. W.; Rose, L.M.; Dimoff, K.

    1985-01-01

    The influence of Meloidogyne hapla and Glomus fasciculatum on Allium cepa (onion) grown in organic soil was evaluated under greenhouse conditions. In the absence of G. fasciculatum, M. hapla significantly retarded the growth of A. cepa cv. Krummery Special and MSU 8155 × 826, but had no detrimental influence on Downing Yellow Globe, Spartan Banner, or Spartan Sleeper. All five cultivars maintained populations of M. hapla, Final root population densities of M. hapla associated with Spartan Ban...

  4. Comparison of Nematode Population Densities on Six Summer Crops at Seven Sites in North Florida

    OpenAIRE

    McSorley, R.; Gallaher, R. N.

    1992-01-01

    Densities of plant-parasitic nematodes were compared on six crops grown for forage during the summer of 1991 at seven sites in north central Florida. The cropping treatments were 'Howard' soybean (Glycine max), 'Deltapine 105' soybean, velvetbean (Mucuna deeringiana), 'California Blackeye #5' cowpea (Vigna unguiculata), 'Pioneer 3098' tropical corn (Zea mays), and 'Asgrow Chaparral' sorghum (Sorghum bicolor). Highest final densities (Pf) of Meloidogyne incognita and Criconemella spp. were obt...

  5. Effets de l'iboga (Tabernanthe iboga Baillon sur les nématodes à galles (Meloidogyne sp. parasites de tomate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bayonne, L.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Effects of Iboga (Tabernanthe iboga Baillon on the Root-Knot Nematodes (Meloidogyne sp. in Tomato. The tomato crop in tropical areas arises phytosanitary problems because of many disastrous parasites among which the Meloidogyne genus are in the origin of important damages and the origin of the tomato production decrease in Gabon. How can people manage to control these parasites by using local plants? Out of the chemical control, the works we have done, focused on the usage of Tabernanthe iboga as a biological control agent of crop protection. The results of these experiences show that the iboga decoction seems to be able to reduce considerably the Meloidogyne population, and to protect the crop.

  6. Host status of different crops for Meloidogyne ethiopica control / Reação de diferentes culturas para controlar Meloidogyne ethiopica

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Edriana A., Lima; Jean K., Mattos; Antônio W., Moita; Rui Gomes, Carneiro; Regina M.D.G., Carneiro.

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Dois experimentos foram realizados em casa de vegetação, visando a caracterização de resistência ou suscetibilidade de 52 espécies vegetais a Meloidogyne ethiopica e os seus possíveis efeitos adversos sobre a população do nematóide, em condições de casa de vegetação. As plantas que apresentaram o Fa [...] tor de Reprodução menor que um (FR1.0). Alguns sistemas de rotação de culturas alternando plantas de verão e de inverno não hospedeiras foram sugeridos para realização de experimentos a campo para validar os resultados de casa de vegetação. Abstract in english Two greenhouse experiments were carried out to characterize the resistance or susceptibility reactions of 52 species of plants to Meloidogyne ethiopica and their possible adverse effect on nematode population under greenhouse conditions. Tested plants with Reproduction Factor less than one (RF[...] were rated as non-hosts or resistant, including: peanut (Arachis hypogaea) 'Cavalo Vermelho', forage pigeon peas (Cajanus cajan) 'IAPAR 43'and 'PPI 832', Crotalaria grantiana, C. apioclice, C. spectabilis, dwarf velvet bean (Mucuna deeringiana), castor bean (Ricinus communis) 'IAC 80', sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) 'SARA', cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) 'Espace 10' and 'Australian', black oat (Avena strigosa) 'IAPAR' 61', ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum) 'Italian', forage radish (Raphanus sativus var. oleiferus) IPR116' and rye (Secale cereale) 'IPR 69'. The first 11 are summer plants and the last four winter plants. The other 37 species/cultivars tested were good hosts or susceptible. Some crop succession systems alternating summer and winter non-host plants are suggested for field experiments to validate these greenhouse results.

  7. Resistance to Meloidogyne paranaensis in wild Coffea arabica / Avaliação da resistência de cafeeiros silvestres (Coffea arabica) a Meloidogyne paranaensis

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Marc, Boisseau; Jamel, Aribi; Fábio Rodriguez de, Sousa; Regina M.D.G., Carneiro; François, Anthony.

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Foram avaliados quanto à resistência a Meloidogyne paranaensis, nove acessos de cafeeiros silvestres incluindo dois cultivares bem caracterizados como testemunhas de suscetibilidade e resistência. Os experimentos foram realizados sob condições controladas em câmara de crescimento, utilizando uma pop [...] ulação clonal de M. paranaensis (fenótipo de esterase P1), proveniente do Brasil. A resistência e a suscetibilidade ao nematóide foram avaliadas com base no número total de nematóides por planta (ovos + J2) e por grama de raiz e no fator de reprodução (FR). Todos os acessos mostraram resposta à infecção por M. paranaensis similar à da testemunha resistente (FR Abstract in english Nine accessions of wild Coffea arabica from Ethiopia were evaluated for resistance to Meloidogyne paranaensis. Two well-characterized susceptible and resistant cultivars were used as comparative controls. The experiments were conducted in a growth chamber using a clonal population of M. paranaensis [...] (esterase phenotype P1) originating from Brazil. Resistance and susceptibility to the nematode were evaluated using the number of nematodes (eggs and J2) per plant, number of nematodes per gram of root and the reproduction factor (RF). All wild coffee accessions expressed a resistance response to M. paranaensis similar to that of the resistant control Nemaya (RF

  8. Influence of Rotation Crops on the Strawberry Pathogens Pratylenchus penetrans, Meloidogyne hapla, and Rhizoctonia fragariae

    OpenAIRE

    LaMondia, J.A.

    1999-01-01

    Field microplot, small plot, and greenhouse experiments were conducted to determine the effects of rotation crops on Pratylenchus penetrans, Meloidogyne hapla, and Rhizoctonia fragariae populations. Extraction of P. penetrans from roots and soil in microplots and field plots planted to rotation crops was highest for Garry oat, lowest for Triple S sorgho-sudangrass and Saia oat, and intermediate for strawberry, buckwheat, and canola. Isolation of R. fragariae from bait roots was highest for st...

  9. Interrelations between Meloidogyne javanica, Rotylenchulus reniformis, and Rhizobium Sp. on Vigna sinensis

    OpenAIRE

    Taha, A. H. Y.; Kassab, A.S.

    1980-01-01

    The interactions of Meloidogyne javanica, Rotylenchulus reniformis, and Rhizobium sp. on cowpea seedlings were investigated. Upon simultaneous inoculation with the two nematode species, M. javanica invaded first but did not affect root invasion by R. reniformis. M. javanica populations increased less in competition with R. reniformis than when present alone. Preinvasion by R. renilormis significantly suppressed the number of M. javanica in the roots. Inoculation of M. javanica and/or R. renif...

  10. EFFECT OF SOLE AND COMBINED INOCULATION OF RALSTONIA SOLANACEARUM AND MELOIDOGYNE JAVANICA ON TOMATO

    OpenAIRE

    P. P. GHOSH; Dutta, S

    2014-01-01

    The effects of Meloidogyne javanica alone and in different combination with Ralstonia solanacearum on tomato were investigated. The highest shoot length reduction (32.1%) was at the highest density of both the parasites over control. The highest initial population density of M. javanica was solely responsible for the highest root length reduction (33.25%) and shoot dry weight reduction (67.44%). The highest density of R. solanacearum is solely responsible for root fresh weight red...

  11. Tinea Incognita in a Patient with Crest Syndrome: Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorgievska-Sukarovska, Biljana; Skerlev, Mihael; Žele-Star?evi?, Lidija

    2015-09-01

    Tinea incognita is a dermatophytic infection that is difficult to diagnose, usually modified by inappropriate topical or systemic corticosteroid therapy. We report an extensive case of tinea incognita caused by the zoophilic dermatophyte Trichophyton mentagrophytes (var. granulosa) in a 49-year-old female patient with CREST (Calcinosis; Raynaud phenomenon; Esophageal involvement; Sclerodactyly; Teleangiectasia) syndrome. Immunocompromised patients, as well as patients with keratinization disorders, seem to be especially susceptible to dermatophytic infections with atypical clinical presentation that is sometimes bizarre and difficult to recognize. Therefore, close monitoring and mycological skin examination is recommended in order to avoid misdiagnosis and to give the patient the best chance of recovery. PMID:26476904

  12. The Multi-Resistant Reaction of Drought-Tolerant Coffee 'Conilon Clone 14' to Meloidogyne spp. and Late Hypersensitive-Like Response in Coffea canephora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Edriana A; Furlanetto, Cleber; Nicole, Michel; Gomes, Ana C M M; Almeida, Maria R A; Jorge-Júnior, Aldemiro; Correa, Valdir R; Salgado, Sônia Maria; Ferrão, Maria A G; Carneiro, Regina M D G

    2015-06-01

    Root-knot nematodes (RKN), Meloidogyne spp., have major economic impact on coffee production in Central and South America. Genetic control of RKN constitutes an essential part for integrated pest management strategy. The objective of this study was to evaluate the resistance of Coffea canephora genotypes (clones) to Meloidogyne spp. Sensitive and drought-tolerant coffee genotypes were used to infer their resistance using nematode reproduction factor and histopathology. Eight clonal genotypes were highly resistant to M. paranaensis. 'Clone 14' (drought-tolerant) and 'ESN2010-04' were the only genotypes highly resistant and moderately resistant, respectively, to both M. incognita races 3 and 1. Several clones were highly resistant to both avirulent and virulent M. exigua. Clone 14 and ESN2010-04 showed multiple resistance to major RKNs tested. Roots of 'clone 14' (resistant) and 'clone 22' (susceptible) were histologically studied against infection by M. incognita race 3 and M. paranaensis. Reduction of juvenile (J2) penetration in clone 14 was first seen at 2 to 6 days after inoculation (DAI). Apparent early hypersensitive reaction (HR) was seen in root cortex between 4 and 6 DAI, which led to cell death and prevention of some nematode development. At 12 to 20 DAI, giant cells formed in the vascular cylinder, besides normal development into J3/J4. From 32 to 45 DAI, giant cells were completely degenerated. Late, intense HR and cell death were frequently observed around young females and giant cells reported for the first time in coffee pathosystem. These results provide rational bases for future studies, including prospection, characterization, and expression profiling of genomic loci involved in both drought tolerance and resistance to multiple RKN species. PMID:25738554

  13. Parasitism of Woody Ornamentals by Meloidogyne hapla

    OpenAIRE

    Bernard, E. C.; Witte, W. T.

    1987-01-01

    Meloidogyne hapla is the dominant root-knot nematode found in Tennessee woody ornamental nurseries. In greenhouse tests, M. hapla produced galls and formed egg masses on roots of Abelia x grandiflora, Comus florida, Hydrangea paniculata grandiflora, Photinia x fraseri, Spiraea x bumalda, Spiraea x vanhouttei, and Viburnum carlesii. Galls on H. grandiflora and V. carlesii were mostly large and fusiform. Galls on C. florida were spherical and usually terminal, whereas those on the other species...

  14. Efecto de las micorrizas arbusculares y Meloidogyne spp. en tomate (Solanum lycopersicum L.) / Effect of arbuscular mycorrhizas and Meloidogyne spp. on tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Alejandro, Alarcón; Tony, Boicet; María, Godefoy; Macario, Bacilio-Jiménez; Wilson, Ceiro; Yurdanys, Bazán.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available El estudio se desarrolló en la Universidad de Granma (Cuba) en el período comprendido de octubre/2007 a enero/2008, para determinar los efectos de las micorrizas arbusculares y Meloidogyne spp., en el cultivo del tomate (Solanum lycopersicum L.) cv. Vyta. Se utilizaron siete tratamientos, consistent [...] es en aplicaciones simples y combinadas de un concentrado de cepas nativas y no nativas de micorrizas (Glomus mosseae (Gerdemann y Trappe) y Glomus sp. (Schenck y Smith), incluyendo un testigo y dos niveles poblacionales de Meloidogyne spp., con 30 repeticiones, los cuales se establecieron sobre un diseño completamente aleatorizado en condiciones semi-controladas, con arreglo factorial. Se utilizaron macetas de 2 kg de capacidad, que contenían un sustrato estéril, compuesto por una mezcla de suelo y estiércol ovino en proporción 3:1 v:v y una población de Meloidogyne spp. procedente de Granma. Se evaluaron las variables: índice de agallamiento e indicadores del crecimiento de las plantas: altura promedio (cm), masa seca promedio (g) y el rendimiento (kg.planta-1) a los 60 días después de la inoculación del nematodo. Los datos fueron procesados mediante un análisis de varianza y comparación de medias por la prueba del rango múltiple de Duncan (p Abstract in english This study was carried out at the University of Granma (Cuba) from October 2007 to January 2008 in order to determine the effect of arbuscular mycorrhizas and Meloidogyne spp. on tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.), var. Vyta. Seven treatments of single or combined applications of native and non-native [...] strains(Glomus mosseae (Gerdemann and Trappe), and Glomus sp. (Schenck and Smith), of arbuscular mycorrhizas and an uninoculated control) and two levels of Meloidogine spp. were included in a completely randomized design set up in a factorial arrangement with thirty replicates under semi-controlled conditions. Two kg plastic pots containing a sterile substrate with a mixture of soil and ovine manure in a 3:1 v:v. ratio, as well as a population of Meloidogyne spp. from Granma were used. The gall index and plant growth parameters such as average height (cm), average dry weight (g) and crop yield (kg.plant-1) were evaluated 60 days after nematode inoculation. The data were analyzed by an analysis of variance and the means compared by Duncan's multiple range test (p

  15. Effects of some rhizosphere bacteria for the biocontrol of nematodes of the genus Meloidogyne with Arthrobotrys oligospora

    OpenAIRE

    Duponnois, Robin; Ba, A.M.; Mateille, Thierry

    1998-01-01

    A été étudiée l'action d'isolats bactériens au champignon nématophage #Arthrobotrys oligospora$ ORS 18692 S7 isolé au Sénégal sur le développement du champignon (croissance saprophytique et activité prédatrice), la multiplication d'une population de #Meloidogyne mayaguensis$ sur des plants de tomate, et la croissance de la plante hôte. Trois isolats bactériens ont été capables de stimuler in vitro l'activité prédatrice du champignon et de réduire le développement d'une population de #M. mayag...

  16. Host Status of Crotalaria juncea, Sesamum indicum, Dolichos lablab, and Elymus glaucus to Meloidogyne javanica

    OpenAIRE

    Araya, M.; Caswell-Chen, E.P.

    1994-01-01

    Reproduction of Meloidogyne javanica on Crotalaria juncea PI 207657 and cv. Tropic Sun, Sesamum indicum, Dolichos lablab, and Elymus glaucus was assessed using a root-gall index, a reproductive index obtained by dividing the final population of juveniles (J2) in soil by the initial J2 population (Pf/Pi), and the number of J2 per gram of root recovered from roots by mist chamber extraction. Lycopersicon esculentum (cv. UC 204 C) was included as a susceptible host. The root-gall index and soil ...

  17. Effects of catechins and low temperature on embryonic development and hatching in Heterodera glycines and Meloidogyne incognita

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mimics of two natural influences, a chemical similar to one present in cyst nematodes and low temperature exposure of nematode eggs, were evaluated for their effects on quantitative and qualitative features of embryonic development and hatching. The polyphenol epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), an ana...

  18. Ovicidal activity of lactic acid produced by Lysobacter capsici YS1215 on eggs of root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yong Seong; Naning, Kyaw Wai; Nguyen, Xuan Hoa; Kim, Sun Bae; Moon, Jae Hak; Kim, Kil Yong

    2014-11-28

    Lysobacter capsici YS1215 isolated from soil previously showed nematicidal potential for biological control of the root-knot nematode. In this study, lactic acid, a nematicidal compound, was isolated from culture filtrate of YS1215, and its ovicidal activity was investigated. Purification and identification of lactic acid were performed by a series of column chromatographies and identified by (1)H and (13)C NMR spectra and GC-MS analysis. Our results showed that bacterial culture filtrate containing lactic acid significantly inhibited egg hatching. The lowest egg hatch rate (5.9%) was found at a high concentration (25 ?l/ml) of lactic acid at 5 days after incubation, followed by 20 (15.2%), 15 (23.7%), 10 (29.8%), and 5 (36.4%) ?l/ml, while egg hatching in the control (sterile distilled water) was 44.5%. This is the first report of lactic acid as an ovicidal compound, and it may be considered as an alternative of chemical pesticide against root-knot nematodes. PMID:25085571

  19. Genetic variation in tropical Meloidogyne spp. as shown by RAPDs

    OpenAIRE

    Blok, V C; Phillips, M.S.; McNicol, J W; Fargette, Mireille

    1997-01-01

    La technique des RAPD a été utilisée pour évaluer la variabilité intra- et inter-spécifique chez des lignées de #Meloidogyne$ tropicaux. La reproductibilité de la technique a été évaluée ; pour chaque couple "amorce - ADN testé", l'ADN des différentes lignées de #Meloidogyne$ testées n'est pas en cause pour expliquer les différences de reproductibilité ; ce sont les amorces qui en sont responsables, certaines se révélant meilleures que d'autres en terme de reproductibilité des résultats et do...

  20. A mathematic model for the interaction between Meloidogyne spp. and Pasteuria penetrans / Modelo matemático de la interacción entre Meloidogyne spp. y Pasteuria penetrans

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ileana, Miranda; Lucila, Gómez; Hugo L., Benítez; Yoannia, Castillo; Dainé, Hernández-Ochandía; Mayra G., Rodríguez.

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available El estudio de algunos aspectos de la regulación del crecimiento de los nematodos agalleros del género Meloidogyne Goeldi por la acción de la bacteria Pasteuria penetrans, permitió proponer un modelo matemático para predecir la dinámica de ambos organismos. El modelo incluye 11 ecuaciones diferencial [...] es y 31 constantes biológicas que describen las fases de desarrollo del nematodo y su relación con la bacteria. Para simular el comportamiento real de las poblaciones, las constantes, que representan parámetros biológicos, deberán ser evaluadas en condiciones controladas similares a la del microcosmo del suelo. Abstract in english Some aspects of Meloidogyne spp. (root-knot nematode) growth regulation by the gram-negative bacterium Pasteuria penetrans were reviewed. The study allowed the construction of a mathematical model to predict the dynamics of both organisms. The model includes 11 differential equations and 31biologica [...] l constants describing the life-cycle of the nematode and its relationship with the bacterium. To simulate the real behavior of the populations, the constants, which represent biological parameters, have to be evaluated under controlled conditions similar to those of soil microcosm.

  1. Metabolism of alpha-terpineol by Pseudomonas incognita.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madyastha, K M; Renganathan, V

    1984-12-01

    Details of the metabolism of alpha-terpineol by Pseudomonas incognita are presented. Degradation of alpha-terpineol by this organism resulted in the formation of a number of acidic and neutral metabolites. Among the acidic metabolites, beta-isopropyl pimelic acid, 1-hydroxy-4-isopropenyl-cyclohexane-1-carboxylic acid, 8-hydroxycumic acid, oleuropeic acid, cumic acid, and p-isopropenyl benzoic acid have been identified. Neutral metabolites identified were limonene, p-cymene-8-ol, 2-hydroxycineole, and uroterpenol. Cell-free extracts prepared from alpha-terpineol adapted cells were shown to convert alpha-terpineol, p-cymene-8-ol, and limonene to oleuropeic acid, 8-hydroxycumic acid, and perillic acid, respectively, in the presence of NADH. The same cell-free extract contained NAD+ -specific dehydrogenase(s) which converted oleuropyl alcohol, p-cymene-7,8-diol, and perillyl alcohol to their corresponding 7-carboxy acids. On the basis of various metabolites isolated from the culture medium, together with the supporting evidence obtained from enzymatic and growth studies, it appears that P. incognita degrades alpha-terpineol by at least three different routes. While one of the pathways seems to operate via oleuropeic acid, a second may be initiated through the aromatization of alpha-terpineol. The third pathway may involve the formation of limonene from alpha-terpineol and its further metabolism. PMID:6525582

  2. Efecto de poblaciones de Meloidogyne sp. en el desarrollo y rendimiento del tomate

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Wilber, Salazar-Antón; Tomás de Jesús, Guzmán-Hernández.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Efecto de poblaciones de Meloidogyne sp. en el desarrollo y rendimiento del tomate. El objetivo de este trabajo fue determinar el efecto de la población inicial de Meloidogyne sp. en el cultivo del tomate. El estudio se realizó en León, Nicaragua en el año 2011. Las variables medidas fueron número d [...] e nematodos al trasplante y al momento de la cosecha, altura de la planta al momento de la madurez fisiológica y el rendimiento en kilogramos. La extracción de nematodos se realizó mediante el método de Baermann modificado. En el estudio, la densidad inicial (Pi) presentó una correlación lineal positiva con la densidad final (Pf). Sin embargo, se observó que cuando la Pi era igual a 400 nematodos/100 g de suelo, el factor de reproducción se incrementaba a 3,64; por el contrario, cuando la Pi era igual a 700 nematodos/100 g de suelo, el factor de reproducción se reducía a 2,48. La Pi se correlacionó inversamente con el peso de frutos y altura de las plantas. Plantas con 200 nematodos/100 g de suelo presentaban peso de frutos de 2,19 kg y altura de 153,20 cm en comparación con 0,93 kg y 135,24 cm en plantas con 600 nematodos/100 g de suelo. Existió una correlación positiva entre Pi y Pf de Meloidogyne sp. en el tomate. Las poblaciones de este nematodo, se correlacionaron inversamente con las variables altura y peso de los frutos. Abstract in english Effect of Meloidogyne sp. on growth and yield of tomato. The objective of this work was to determinate the relationship between initial density and final density of Meloidogyne sp in tomato crop. The study was carried out at León, Nicaragua during 2011. The variables measured were number of nematode [...] s at transplant, number of nematodes at harvest time, height at maturity of plants and yield in kilograms. Nematode extraction was performed through the Baermann modified method. In the study, the initial density (Pi) showed a positive linear correlation with the final density (Pf). However, it was observed that when Pi was equal to 400 nematodes/100 g of soil, the reproduction factor was increased to 3.64, on the contrary, when Pi was equal to 700 nematodes/100 g of soil, reproduction factor was reduced to 2.48. Pi was inversely correlated to weight of tomato fruits and height of plants. Plants with 200 nematodes/100 g of soil had fruit weight 2.19 kg and height 153.20 cm compared to 0.93 kg and 135.24 cm in plants with 600 nematodes/100 g of soil. There was a positive correlation between Pi and Pf of Meloidogyne sp. in tomatoes. The populations of this nematode, were inversely correlated with plant height and fruits weight.

  3. The terra incognita of exotic nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atomic nuclei are made of nucleons, protons and neutrons, composed of quarks strongly interacting via gluons. ''How such complex objects as particles and nuclei are built?'', remains a fundamental question. A new ''frontier'' of subatomic physics is the exploration of exotic nuclei, elements and isotopes not stable enough to have survived on Earth. Exotic nuclei populate vast unknown regions of the nuclear chart where many unexpected structures have recently been discovered. Exotic nuclei synthesized in laboratory allow large variation of the neutron and proton chemical composition of nuclear systems needed to uncover the true nature of the subatomic structures and to understand the origin of elements in the Universe. (author)

  4. Efeito de indutores de resistência sobre Meloidogyne exigua do cafeeiro / Effect of resistance inducers on Meloidogyne exígua of coffee

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Sônia Maria de Lima, Salgado; Mário Lúcio Vilela, Resende; Vicente Paulo, Campos.

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available A possibilidade de manejo de Meloidogyne exigua Goeldi, 1887, pela ativação de mecanismos de defesa no cafeeiro representa uma alternativa potencialmente útil no manejo desse patógeno. Com este trabalho, objetivou-se avaliar a eclosão e mortalidade de juvenis do segundo estádio (J2) de M. exigua na [...] presença de produtos indutores de resistência e avaliar o efeito do acibenzolar-S-metil (ASM, Bion®) na indução de resistência do cafeeiro (Coffea arabica L.) 'Catuaí- 144' contra M. exigua. A eclosão e mortalidade do J2 foram avaliadas no ASM e ácido salicílico (AS) nas dosagens de 0,2; 0,35 e 0,5 g. i. a./L; e no fosfito de potássio (Hortifós® PK) e silicato de potássio (Supa-potássio®) nas dosagens 5,0; 7,5 e 10,0 mL/L, empregando água e aldicarbe como testemunhas. No segundo ensaio o ASM (0,2 g i.a./L) foi aplicado na quantidade de 125 mL por planta de 'Catuaí-144' com um ano de idade, via pulverização foliar e diretamente ao solo aos 7 dias antes da inoculação e aos 2 e 7 dias após a inoculação de aproximadamente 7000 ovos de M. exigua/planta. Foram utilizadas 8 plantas/tratamento/bloco, totalizando 6 tratamentos (3 épocas de aplicação do ASM), testemunhas absoluta e inoculada, em 4 blocos. Aos 90 dias da inoculação, foi feita a avaliação da população final (número de ovos e juvenis de M. exigua), número de galhas, fator de reprodução (população final/população inicial) e peso da matéria fresca da raiz. A dosagem dos produtos não influenciou a eclosão e mortalidade dos J2 de M. exigua. Menor eclosão dos J2 de M. exigua ocorreu igualmente no Supa-potássio® e ácido salicílico, enquanto que a eclosão no ASM e na água foi igual (P Abstract in english The parasitism of coffee roots by Meloidogyne exigua Goeldi, 1887, widespread nematode in the main producing regions, can provoke a series of modifications in the normal development of the plant. The induction of resistance for the activation of existing latent mechanisms of defense in plants repres [...] ents a potentially useful alternative for the management of M. exigua in coffee plantations. In a first assay, the present work aimed at evaluating hatching and mortality of second stage juveniles (J2) of M. exigua in solutions of acibenzolar-S-metil (ASM, Bion®) and salicylic acid (SA) at the dosages of 0.2, 0.35 and 0.5 g. of a. i./L and Supa-potássio® (potassium silicate), Hortifós® PK (potassium phosphite) at the dosages 5.0; 7.5 and 10.0 mL/L, using water and aldicarb as control. The effect of ASM (0.2 g of a.i./L) was also evaluated by foliar and drench applications at 7 days before inoculation and at 2 and 7 days after inoculation of 7000 eggs of M. exigua/plant. The hatching of M. exigua J2 was inhibited in potassium silicate and in salicylic acid solutions independent of the used dosage, while J2 hatching in ASM and water was equal and significantly lower than J2 hatching verified in potassium phosphite. The mortality of J2 in SA was next to 100% and equal to the observed in aldicarb (500 ppm). The remaining products caused the same mortality of J2, however lesser than the observed in water. At ninety days of the inoculation of M. exigua on seedlings, the final population (number of eggs + J2), number of galls, reproduction factor (final population/initial population) and fresh weight of roots of plants treated with ASM did not differed significantly from control (inoculated plants).

  5. Ocorrência de Meloidogyne ethiopica no Paraná e reação de cultivares de batata ao nematoide das galhas / Meloidogyne ethiopica report in Parana state, Brazil, and reaction of potato cultivars to root-knot nematode

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Israel, L-Medina; Víctor, HC-Coila; Cesar B, Gomes; Arione S, Pereira; Nilceu RX, Nazareno.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Plantas de batata das cultivares Agata e Caesar debilitadas, com sistema radicular repleto de galhas e empipocamento severo nos tubérculos causado pelo nematoide das galhas (Meloidogyne sp.), foram detectadas em Contenda, município produtor tradicional do estado do Paraná. Posteriormente, fêmeas ad [...] ultas do nematoide foram extraídas das raízes e tubérculos e submetidas à eletroforese identificando-se Meloidogyne ethiopica (Est E3) pelo perfil das bandas esterásticas reveladas. Utilizando-se uma população pura de M. ethiopica, plantas de batata de diferentes genótipos, mantidas em casa de vegetação em vasos contendo solo esterilizado, foram inoculadas com 5.000 ovos + juvenis de 2o estádio do nematoide por planta. Decorridos 55 dias da inoculação, cada planta foi avaliada quanto ao número de galhas e número de ovos, determinando-se o fator de reprodução do nematoide (FR) nos diferentes materiais testados. A cultivar Eliza comportou-se como moderadamente resistente a M. ethiopica; 'Ana', 'Bel', 'Agata' e 'Catucha', como moderadamente suscetíveis; 'Clara', 'Asterix', 'Cris' e 'Cota', suscetíveis (FR>4,00); e 'Caesar', como altamente suscetível. Abstract in english Potato plants of cultivars Agata and Caesar attacked by root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne sp.) showing root systems with multiple galls and protuberances in tubers were detected in Contenda, municipality traditionally producer of the Paraná state. Adult female of Meloidogyne sp. extracted from the pot [...] ato roots and tubers and submitted to electrophoresis showed esterastic band profile as Meloidogyne ethiopica (Est E3). Using a pure population of M. ethiopica, potato plants of different cultivars, kept in pots with sterilized soil in greenhouse, were inoculated with 5,000 eggs + second stage juvenile of the nematode. Fifty-five days after the inoculation, each plant was evaluated by counting the number of galls and eggs, and determined the nematode reproduction factor (RF) in the different tested genotypes. The cultivar Eliza behaved as moderately resistant to M. ethiopica; 'Ana', 'Bel', 'Agata', and 'Catucha', as moderately susceptible; 'Clara', 'Asterix', 'Cris', and 'Cota', susceptible; and 'Caesar', as highly susceptible.

  6. Reação de genótipos e híbridos de tomateiro à Meloidogyne enterolobii / Reaction of tomato genotypes and hybrids to Meloidogyne enterolobii

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Juliana Magrinelli Osório, Rosa; Juliana Nogueira, Westerich; Silvia Renata Siciliano, Wilcken.

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available A meloidoginose tem sido considerada uma das mais importantes doenças da cultura do tomate. O uso de tomateiros resistentes ao nematoide das galhas é medida bastante utilizada no controle de diferentes espécies, entretanto, a reação de tomateiros à Meloidogyne enterolobii ainda é pouco conhecida. Po [...] rtanto, objetivou-se a determinação da reprodução de M. enterolobii em dez híbridos de tomate (Absoluto, Cascade, Cordillera, Donatto, Ellen, Fascínio, Laura, Marguerita, Nícolas e Sanni) e dois genótipos experimentais (05 tom0041 e 08 tom00345). Os ensaios foram conduzidos em casa de vegetação e em BOD (25°C), com cinco e três repetições por tratamento, respectivamente. A infestação do substrato foi realizada com 5.000 ovos e eventuais juvenis de segundo estádio de M. enterolobii/vaso, dois dias após o transplante das plântulas. A avaliação do índice de galhas, índice de massa de ovos, população final e fator de reprodução foi realizada 60 dias após a inoculação. Em ambos os ensaios, verificou-se a suscetibilidade de todos os genótipos e híbridos avaliados. Abstract in english The diseases caused by root-knot nematodes on tomato have been considered as the most dangerous for this crop. This research aimed to study the reaction of ten tomato hybrids (Absoluto, Cascade, Cordillera, Donatto, Ellen, Fascínio, Laura, Marguerita, Nícolas and Sanni) and two genotypes (05 tom0041 [...] and 08 tom00345) to M. enterolobii. The experiments were developed out separately in a greenhouse and BOD (25°C). The substrate inoculation was made with 5,000 eggs and second stage juveniles of M. enterolobii. The variables gall and egg mass indexes, final population and the reproduction factor were determined 60 days after inoculation. On both experiments, all the genotypes and hybrids were susceptible to M. enterolobii.

  7. Parasitismo de Meloidogyne enterolobii em espécies de myrtaceae / Parasitism of Meloidogyne enterolobii in myrtaceae species

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Luiza Suely Semen, Martins; Rosimar dos Santos, Musser; Aline das Graças, Souza; Luciane Vilela, Resende; Wilson Roberto, Maluf.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available A meloidoginose da goiabeira, causada por M. enterolobii (= M. mayaguensis), é hoje considerado o principal problema fitossanitário desta cultura em todo o País, pois sua incidência resulta em acentuada queda de produtividade e, na maioria das vezes, a morte das plantas em médio prazo. Visando a seu [...] controle, objetivou-se neste trabalho identificar fontes de resistência em goiabeira Psidium guajava L e araçazeiro Psidium sp.. Foram avaliados onze genótipos oriundos do Câmpus da Universidade Federal de Lavras (UFLA) e de regiões próximas ao município de Lavras (MG). As sementes foram coletadas de frutos fisiologicamente maduros e germinadas em piscinas hidropônicas. Ao atingirem 12 cm de altura, foram transferidas para casa de vegetação, em vasos individuais, e mantidas a temperatura entre 18-38°C. Após quinze dias, foram inoculados individualmente com suspensão de 10.000 ovos e juvenis de segundo estádio (J2) de M. enterolobii e avaliadas após 120 dias. As reações dos hospedeiros foram enquadradas nos parâmetros estabelecidos pelo fator de reprodução FR, estimado pelo quociente Pf/Pi, em que Pf representa a população final e Pi a população inicial. O delineamento utilizado foi o inteiramente casualizado, com 11 genótipos, uma espécie de nematoide e seis repetições, sendo duas plantas em cada genótipo adicionadas como controle. Quatro meses depois, foram avaliados os teores foliares de macro e micronutrientes e o grau de infecção de cada genótipo. A produção média de ovos e J2 de M. enterolobii variou de 200 a 428.146,1, e os fatores de reprodução (FR) médios variaram de 0,02(ALU1) a 42,81(A-PASTO). Os genótipos de araçazeiro (Psidium spp.) AUFLA1, AUFLA4, AUFLA5 e APASTO e os genótipos de goiabeira (P. guajava) G-ROXA e G-AMAR foram considerados suscetíveis. Os genótipos de araçazeiro ALU1, ALU2, ALU3, AROXO-C e AROXO-U mostraram-se resistentes, reforçando a necessidade de trabalhos complementares com essas espécies para uso como porta-enxerto em cultivares comerciais de goiabeira. A absorção de macro e micronutrientes é alterada quando os genótipos de Psidium spp. são inoculados com o fitonematoide M. enterolobii. Abstract in english Guava tree root-knot, caused by M. enterolobii (= M. mayaguensis), is today regarded as the main phytosanitary problem of this crop all over the country, for its incidence results into marked yield fall and most of the time, the death of the plant on a medium term. Aiming at its control, it was inte [...] nded in this study to identify resistance sources on guava tree, Psidium guajava L and Surinam cherry tree, Psidium sp. Eleven genotypes coming from the campus of the Federal University of Lavras (UFLA - Universidade Federal de Lavras) and regions close to Lavras (MG) were evaluated. The seeds were collected from physiologically ripe fruits and germinated in hydroponic pools. Reaching 12 cm high, they were transferred to the greenhouse in individual pots and kept at the temperature between 18 to 38°C. After fifteen days, they were inoculated with a suspension of 10,000 eggs and J2 of M. enterolobii and evaluated after 120 days. The hosts' reactions were fitted in the parameters established by the reproduction factor FR, estimated by the Pf/Pi quotient, where Pf stands for the final population and Pi the initial population and by the gall index (IG) and index of egg mass (IMO) through the score scale of the International Meloidogyne Project (IMP). The design utilized was the completely randomized with 11 genotypes, one nematode species and six replicates, that is, two plants in each genotype being added as a control. Four months later, the leaf contents of macro and micronutrients and degree of infection of each genotype were evaluated. The average yield of eggs and J2 of M. enterolobii ranged from 200 to 428,146.1 and the average reproduction factors (FR) varied from 0.02(ALU1) to 42.81(A-PASTO). The genotypes of Surinam cherry (Psidium spp.) AUFLA1, AUFLA4, AUFLA5 and APASTO and the genotypes of guava (P. g

  8. Use of Trichoderma Species in the Control of Meloidogyne javanica Root Knot Nematode in Okra and Mungbean

    OpenAIRE

    Imran A. Siddiqui; Amer-Zareen; M. Javed Zaki; S.Shahid Shaukat

    2001-01-01

    The efficacy of Trichoderma viride, T. harzianum, T. hamatum, T. koningii and T. pseudokoningii was tested for the control of Meloidogyne javanica, root knot nematode in okra and mungbean. Culture filtrates of Trichoderma spp., significantly reduced egg hatching and showed nematicidal activity by killing second stage juveniles of M. javanica. Soil application with conidial suspension of T. harzianum significantly reduced nematode population densities and root knot development in okra and mung...

  9. REDUÇÃO DA TAXA DE EXPANSÃO FOLIAR DE TOMATEIROS PARASITADOS POR Meloidogyne javanica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BELAN, Leônidas Leoni

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Among the problems affecting tomato production phytopatogens are the most important.Among these, nematodes of the genus Meloidogyne cause large annual economic yield losses in tomatocultivation around the world. The knowledge of the physiological indices of growth is extremely important in theinterpretation of pathogen-host-environment relationships. This way, the effect of growing populations of M.javanica (Treub on the leaf area expansion rate (LAX during the early development of cherry tomato accesswas evaluated. The negative effects of nematodes were expressed in early development of tomato plants. Therewas linear increase in population (FP of M. javanica in all cherry tomato access as it was increased the initiallevel of nematode, resulting in reduction of linear TEAF. Thus any management practice that reduces thenematode population of soil during the growing season of tomatoes, will may favor the growth and developmentof plants and subsequently the production.Entre os problemas que mais afetam a produção do tomateiro estão os fitopatógenos. Dentreesses, os nematoides do gênero Meloidogyne causam consideráveis perdas econômicas anuais no cultivo detomate em todo o mundo. O conhecimento dos índices fisiológicos de crescimento é extremamente importantena interpretação das relações patógeno-hospedeiro-ambiente. Neste contexto, quantificou-se a influência doparasitismo de populações crescentes de M. javanica (Treub sobre a taxa expansão da área foliar (TEAF nafase de desenvolvimento inicial de acessos de tomateiro tipo cereja. Os efeitos negativos do parasitismo dosnematoides se manifestaram na fase inicial de desenvolvimento das plantas. Verificou-se crescimento linear dapopulação final (PF de M. javanica em todos os acessos de tomateiro cereja avaliados à medida que seaumentou o nível do inóculo inicial do nematoide, ocasionando redução linear da TEAF. Dessa forma, práticasde manejo que reduzam a população de nematoides do solo durante a fase vegetativa dos tomateiros, poderãofavorecer o crescimento e desenvolvimento das plantas e a consequente produção de frutos.

  10. Use of Trichoderma Species in the Control of Meloidogyne javanica Root Knot Nematode in Okra and Mungbean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imran A. Siddiqui

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The efficacy of Trichoderma viride, T. harzianum, T. hamatum, T. koningii and T. pseudokoningii was tested for the control of Meloidogyne javanica, root knot nematode in okra and mungbean. Culture filtrates of Trichoderma spp., significantly reduced egg hatching and showed nematicidal activity by killing second stage juveniles of M. javanica. Soil application with conidial suspension of T. harzianum significantly reduced nematode population densities and root knot development in okra and mungbean. Apart from suppressing root knot nematode, T. harzianum also elevated plant height and fresh shoot weight of both okra and munhbean.

  11. Suppression of Meloidogyne javanica by Conyza canadensis, Blumea obliqua, Amaranthus viridis and Eclipta prostrata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zarina Begum

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Aqueous shoot extract of four weed species including Conyza canadensis, Blumea obliqua, Amaranthus viridis and Eclipta prostrata inhibited egg hatch and caused mortality of Meloidogyne javanica, the root-knot nematode juveniles in vitro to varying extent with A. viridis being the most effective. The efficacy of the powdered shoot material as soil organic amendment was tested against two nematode inoculum levels (2000 and 4000 J2 pot G 1 in a pot experiment. Soil amendment with the powdered shoot material generally reduced nematode population density, root-knot development and reproductive potential of M. javanica in brinjal roots. A. viridis was most effective in the suppression of root-knot nematode at both the nematode inoculum rates but caused slightly reduction in plant growth presumably owing to its allelopathic activity in soil.

  12. Interaction of Three Plant-Parasitic Nematodes on Corn and Soybean

    OpenAIRE

    Dickson, D W.; McSorley, R.

    1990-01-01

    Interaction of Belonolaimus longicaudatus, Meloidogyne incognita, and Pratylenchus brachyurus on corn and B. longicaudatus, M. incognita, and Heterodera glycines on soybean was investigated in micropiots during two seasons for corn and one season for soybean. Changes in population densities and effects on plant growth of each nematode on corn or soybean alone and in mixed culture were compared. No interactions occurred on corn in 1987. In 1988, midseason population densities of B. longicaudat...

  13. Alterações anatômicas induzidas por Meloidogyne enterolobii (=M. mayaguensis e Meloidogyne javanica em tomateiros resistentes a meloidoginose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Nogueira Westerich

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available A resistência de tomateiros (Solanum lycopersicum L. a M. incognita, M. javanica e M. arenaria, conferida pela presença do gene Mi, não contempla a espécie M. enterolobii (=M. mayaguensis. O objetivo da pesquisa foi verificar as alterações anatômicas causadas por M. enterolobii no sistema radicular de porta-enxertos de tomateiro com o gene de resistência Mi ('Magnet' e Helper M' e compará-las com as causadas por M. javanica. As observações anatômicas das raízes foram feitas com auxílio de microscópio de luz e os aspectos mais relevantes foram fotografados. Com base em contagens e mensurações do tamanho dos sítios de alimentação e das células gigantes, foram efetuadas analises utilizando o método estatístico de Análise de Agrupamento. O aparecimento de células nutridoras incitadas por M. enterolobii foi verificado em ambos os porta-enxertos de tomateiro, entre 10 e 17 dias após a inoculação (DAI. O número e a área de sítios de alimentação e de células gigantes foram menores aos 17 DAI do que aos 24 DAI. Nesta época (24 DAI, foram observados sítios de alimentação constituídos pela presença de várias células nutridoras multinucleadas, com parede celular espessa, citoplasma denso e granuloso. Os tecidos vasculares apresentaram-se comprimidos e desorganizados, foi observada, também, hipertrofia de células do parênquima cortical. As raízes inoculadas com M. javanica não apresentaram alterações anatômicas.

  14. Control of the Root-Knot Nematode (Meloidogyne spp. on Cucumber by a Liquid Bio-Formulation Containing Chitinolytic Bacteria, Chitin and Their Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woo Jong Ha

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available A liquid bio-formulation containing chitinolytic bacteria, chitin and their products was assessed for its potential biological control against root-knot nematodes on cucumber. The bio-formulation was prepared by cultures of three chitinolytic bacteria, Chromobacterium sp. strain C-61, Lysobacter engymogenes and Serratia plymuthica in minimal medium supplemented with chitin. Under pot conditions, the bio-formulation showed better growth of cucumber plants, and less root galls and population density of Meloidogyne spp. than control media without the bio-formulation. In a greenhouse, 75-fold diluted bio-formulations were treated instead of water around cucumber plants through hoses for drip irrigation six times at 5-day intervals from the transplanting date. After 30 and 60 days, the treatment provided about 7% and 10% enhancement in the plant height and about 78% and 69% reduction in population density of Meloidogyne spp. in the rhizosphere, respectively. In addition, the experiments showed that the control effects occurred only in the soils contacted with the bio-formulation. Undiluted bio-formulations were drenched three times at 10-day intervals around cucumber plants severely infested with Meloidogyne spp. The treatment showed about 37% plant enhancement without dead plants compared with 37% death in the untreated control, and about 82% nematode reduction. These results suggest that the bio-formulation can be practically used to control the root-knot nematode on cucumber.

  15. CONTROLE DE MELOIDOGYNE JAVANICA COM PASTEURIA PENETRANS / CONTROL OF MELOIDOGYNE JAVANICA BY PASTEURIA PENETRANS

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    RAVI DATT, SHARMA; LÚCIO JOSÉ, VIVALDI.

    1999-11-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se, com esse trabalho, avaliar a eficiência de Pasteuria penetrans no controle de Meloidogyne javanica em condições de casa de vegetação. Os tratamentos eram compostos de quatro níveis de inóculo de P. penetrans, 0, 10x10(5), 50x10(5) e 100x10(5) endósporos/kg de solo autoclavado. Imediata [...] mente após a inoculação da bactéria P. penetrans no solo autoclavado, 1.000 juvenis de segundo estádio de M. javanica foram inoculados em cada vaso. Quarenta e oito horas após a inoculação do nematóide, uma plântula de soja cv. FT-Cristalina, com três dias de idade, foi transplantada para cada vaso. O experimento foi avaliado em duas etapas: a primeira, 89 dias após o transplantio da soja, e a segunda, 90 dias após um segundo()plantio de soja, em seqüência a um pousio de 30 dias. Na primeira avaliação, o maior peso da matéria fresca da planta foi obtido no tratamento com 100x10(5) endósporos/kg de solo, o que diferiu significativamente (P Abstract in english In a greenhouse experiment, the efficiency of Pasteuria penetrans against Meloidogyne javanica was evaluated on soybean cv. FT-Cristalina using four inoculum levels of P. penetrans viz: 0, 10x10(5), 50x10(5) and 100x10(5) endospores/kg of soil. Immediately after inoculating the autoclaved soil with [...] P. penetrans, 1,000 second-stage juveniles were inoculated in each pot. After 48 hours of nematode inoculation, a 3-day old soybean seedling was transplanted in each pot. The experiment was evaluated in two steps of which the first evaluation was made after 89 days of transplanting the seedlings; and the second after 90 days of soybean sowing in sequence with a following period of 30 days. In the first evaluation, the highest fresh plant weight was observed in treatment with 100x10(5) endospores/kg of soil which differed significantly (P

  16. Preservação da capacidade reprodutiva de Meloidogyne exigua em mudas de pimentão / Maintenance of the reproductive capacity of Meloidogyne exigua on pepper seedlings

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Rodrigo V., Silva; Rosângela D.L., Oliveira; Patrícia S., Ferreira; Dalila J., Sêni; Douglas B., Castro.

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available O cafeeiro é o hospedeiro tipo de Meloidogyne exigua, no qual a produção de inóculo em larga escala demanda tempo prolongado. Objetivou-se comparar a reprodução de populações de M. exigua em plantas de café e pimentão, e avaliar a possível ocorrência de seletividade fisiológica depois de sucessivas [...] gerações em pimentão. A reprodução foi estudada em cinco populações e a seletividade envolveu uma população que foi mantida em plantas de café e pimentão por 30 meses, com as avaliações realizadas a cada 90 dias. O número de galhas e de ovos foi sempre superior em pimentão. A taxa reprodutiva de M. exigua foi cerca de quatro vezes maior em pimentão do que em cafeeiro. Não houve diferença na reprodução de M. exigua em cafeeiro, para as duas fontes de inóculo, cafeeiro e pimentão, durante os 30 meses. Conclui-se que o pimentão é melhor hospedeiro que o cafeeiro para a multiplicação de inóculo de M. exigua, inclusive, para as populações que não se multiplicam em tomateiro, com as vantagens da rapidez e facilidade de condução das plantas em casa de vegetação. Assim, a produção de grande quantidade de inóculo de M. exigua é possível pela utilização do pimentão, uma vez que o nematóide não perde sua habilidade de infectar o cafeeiro. Abstract in english Coffee is the host-type of Meloidogyne exigua and significant inoculum production on this plant takes a long time. The objective of this study was to evaluate the reproduction of five M. exigua populations on coffee comparatively with reproduction on pepper, and the possible occurrence of physiologi [...] cal selectivity after successive generations on pepper. In the selectivity test, one population was maintained on coffee and pepper for 30 months and reproduction was evaluated 10 times, at 90 day intervals. The number of galls and eggs was always higher in pepper roots than in coffee ones. The reproductive rate in pepper was four times higher than in coffee. There was no difference in nematode reproduction in coffee between the two inoculum sources, coffee and pepper, during 30 months. Pepper proved to be a better host than coffee for the rearing of M. exigua, including those populations unable to reproduce in tomato roots, since pepper plants are easy to manage under green-house conditions and nematode reproduction is faster than in coffee. Therefore, pepper should be used to rear M. exigua since the nematode does not lose its ability to infect coffee.

  17. Meloidogyne javanica-Rhizoctonia solani disease complex of peanut

    OpenAIRE

    Abdel-Momen, S. M.; Starr, J L

    1998-01-01

    L'interaction entre #Meloidogyne javanica$ et #Rhizoctonia solani$ a été étudiée sur arachide en serre et en microparcelles au champ. L'action de #R. solani$ sur la reproduction de #M. javanica$ est variable, la Pi du nématode ayant une plus grande influence sur sa reproduction que la présence de #R. solani$. Lors d'expériences en microparcelles ayant une disposition factorielle et comportant quatre niveaux d Pi du nématode et deux (1995) ou trois (1996) niveaux de #R. solani$, la pourriture ...

  18. Interaction Between Meloidogyne arenaria and Glomus fascicuqlatus in Grape

    OpenAIRE

    Atilano, R. A.; Menge, J. A.; Gundy, S. D. Van

    1981-01-01

    Root zones of grape (Fitis vinifera cv Thompson Seedless) cuttings were infested with chlamydospores of Glomus fasciculatus or eggs of Meloidogyne arenaria or both. Growth of grapevines was greatest in mycorrhizal (G. fasciculatus) plants. Mycorrhizal development and growth of mycorrhizal and nonmycorrhizal plants were reduced in the presence of M. arenaria. At low initial nematode inoculum (PI) levels (approx. 200 eggs/plant), the presence of mycorrhizae enhanced plant growth during 1 yr, bu...

  19. Response of Additional Herbaceous Perennial Ornamentals to Meloidogyne hapla

    OpenAIRE

    LaMondia, J.A.

    1996-01-01

    Twenty-nine herbaceous perennial ornamentals were evaluated for root galling after 2 months in soil infested with Meloidogyne hapla u n d e r greenhouse conditions. Plants such as Asclepias, Epimedium, Liriope, Lithospermura, Myosotis, Penstemon, Sidalecea, and Solidago did not have galls or egg masses present on the root system and were rated as resistant. Astrantia, Boltonia, Centranthus, and Miscanthus had more than 100 galls on the roots (similar to 'Rutgers' tomato controls) and were rat...

  20. EFECTIVIDAD DE LACTUCA SATIVA USADA COMO PLANTA TRAMPA DE Meloidogyne spp. EN LA PRODUCCIÓN PROTEGIDA DE HORTALIZAS / EFFECTIVINESS OF LACTUCA SATIVA USED AS A TRAP CROP OF Meloidogyne spp. IN THE VEGETABLE PRODUCTION UNDER SHELTER CONDITIONS

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Lucila, Gómez; Mayra G, Rodríguez; R, Enrique.

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo es evaluar la efectividad de la lechuga (Lactuca sativa var. Black Seeded Simpson) como planta trampa de Meloidogyne spp., en una instalación de producción protegida de hortalizas. Las plantas de lechuga se trasplantaron a una densidad de siembra de 49 plántulas. m2-1 y s [...] e cosecharon conjuntamente con el sistema radical a los 25-27 días. El nivel de infestación inicial y final se determinó a través de la técnica de bioensayo con el uso de tomate (Solanum lycopersicum var. Campbell-28). Los resultados evidenciaron que con el empleo de esta táctica fue posible reducir el índice de agallamiento de las plantas en 1,5 grados, lo que refleja una disminución en el nivel de la población de los nematodos en el suelo. Abstract in english The aim of this work was to evaluate the effectiveness of lettuce (Lactuca sativa var Black Seeded Simpson) used as a trap crop of Meloidogyne spp. under shelter conditions. Lettuce plants were transplanted at a density of 49 plants per m² and they were harvested by extracting the entire root system [...] from the soil 25-27 days later. Te initial and final nematode infestations were determined by a bioassay technique using tomato (Solanum lycopersicum var. Campbell-28). The results showed a reduction in 1,5 degree of the gall index in tomato roots, which suggested that the population of this nematode was reduced in the soil.

  1. On the species status of the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne ulmi Palmisano & Ambrogioni, 2000 (Nematoda, Meloidogynidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Ahmed

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The root-knot nematode Meloidogyne ulmi is synonymised with Meloidogyne mali based on morphological and morphometric similarities, common hosts, as well as biochemical similarities at both protein and DNA levels. M. mali was first described in Japan on Malus prunifolia Borkh.; and M. ulmi in Italy on Ulmus chenmoui W.C. Cheng. Morphological and morphometric studies of their holo- and paratypes revealed important similarities in the major characters as well as some general variability in a few others. Host test also showed that besides the two species being able to parasitize the type hosts of the other, they share some other common hosts. Our study of the esterase and malate dehydrogenase isozyme phenotypes of some M. ulmi populations gave a perfectly comparable result to that already known for M. mali. Finally, phylogenetic studies of their SSU and LSU rDNA sequence data revealed that the two are not distinguishable at DNA level. All these put together, leave strong evidences to support the fact that M. ulmi is not a valid species, but a junior synonym of M. mali. Brief discussion on the biology and life cycle of M. mali is given. An overview of all known hosts and the possible distribution of M. mali in Europe are also presented.

  2. Parasitism of Beta vulgaris by Meloidogyne hapla and Heterodera schachtii alone and in combination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jatala, P; Jensen, H J

    1976-07-01

    Interrelationships of Meloidogyne hapla and Heterodera schachtii in combinations of several population levels and different inoculation periods were studied. Results indicated suppression of gall development of M. hapla in any treatment in which inoculations of H. schachtii preceded those of M. hapla by 10 days. This interrelationship was characterized by amensalism with M. hapla serving as an amensat and H. schachtii serving as an inhibitor. Conversely, when inoculations of M. hapla preceded H. schachtii inoculations by 10 days, there were increases in cyst development. This relationship was characterized by commensalism with H. schachtii serving as a commensal. In both interactions, the preinvading parasites acted independently and established populations equal to treatments receiving either parasite alone. When both nematodes were inoculated simultaneously, there were no effects on populations of either. Relationships of this nature were characterized by neutralism. Ratios of total soluble/reducing carbohydrates were lower in treatments when M. hapla inoculations preceded those of H. schachtii. Plants inoculated with both nematodes died earlier than those inoculated with either parasite alone. High concentrations of Al and Fe occurred in treatments wherein M. hapla or H. schachtii inoculations preceded each other by 10 days. Generally, noninoculated control plants exhibited higher concentrations of K, P, Mg, and B than other treatments. PMID:19308223

  3. EFFECT OF SOLE AND COMBINED INOCULATION OF RALSTONIA SOLANACEARUM AND MELOIDOGYNE JAVANICA ON TOMATO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. P. GHOSH

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The effects of Meloidogyne javanica alone and in different combination with Ralstonia solanacearum on tomato were investigated. The highest shoot length reduction (32.1% was at the highest density of both the parasites over control. The highest initial population density of M. javanica was solely responsible for the highest root length reduction (33.25% and shoot dry weight reduction (67.44%. The highest density of R. solanacearum is solely responsible for root fresh weight reduction (22.28-30.85% irrespective of M. javanica densities. Higher density of M. javanica produced higher root fresh weight (1.69 - 1.96 g in the absence of R. solanacearum over control (1.75 g. The gall intensity was dose dependent in absence of R. solanacearum. However, in the presence of R. solanacearum at its higher density, M. javanica produced lowest number of galls (20.9-34.7. The synergistic effects on percent wilt incidences (52 - 95% were more prominent at lower levels of R. solanacearum population with pathogenic levels of M. javanica. Conclusively, the role of M. javanica is synergistic only if the density of R. solanacearum is lower than 105 cfug-1 soil, however, higher R. solanacearum population (107-109 cfug-1 soil drastically inhibits the activity of root-knot nematode in the rhizosphere.

  4. Salicylic acid-induced glutathione status in tomato crop and resistance to root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita (Kofoid & White) Chitwood

    OpenAIRE

    Ghanendra Singh; Vijay T. Gajbhiye; Hari C. Meher

    2011-01-01

    Salicylic acid-(SA) is a plant defense stimulator. Exogenous application of SA might influence the status of glutathione-(GSH). GSH activates and SA alters the expression of defense genes to modulate plant resistance against pathogens. The fate of GSH in a crop following SA treatment is largely unknown. The SA-induced profiles of free reduced-, free oxidized-(GSSG) and protein bound-(PSSG) glutathione in tomato crop following foliar treatment of transplant at 5.0-10.0 ?g mL–1 were me...

  5. Biocontrol of Meloidogyne incognita in Lycopersicon esculentum with AM Fungi and Oil Cakes

    OpenAIRE

    Anuja Bharadwaj; Satyawati Sharma

    2006-01-01

    Currently chemical pesticides are the major means to control nematode-induced diseases but they are neither economical nor ecofriendly. Alternative methods are being sought to reduce the amount of chemical pesticides required. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi have been reported to reduce the infestation of root-knot nematodes on vegetable crops. Amendment of soil with some oil cakes has been found effective. A study was conducted on exploitation of the combined effect of AM with three different o...

  6. Biology of Meloidogyne platani Hirschmann Parasitic on Sycamore, Platanus occidentalis

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Hazmi, A. S.; Sasser, J. N.

    1982-01-01

    The development of Meloidogyne platani on sycamore was followed for 40 days (22-28 C). Juveniles penetrated the feeder roots behind the root cap and invaded the vascular cylinder within 3 days after inoculation. All subsequent development of the nematodes and host effects occurred only within the stele. The second juvenile molt and sex differentiation occurred by the 17th day. Young females were observed by the 26th day. Eggs were observed inside the roots by the 35th day and were exposed to ...

  7. HERANÇA DA RESISTÊNCIA DE MILHO A MELOIDOGYNE JAVANICA

    OpenAIRE

    SAWAZAKI EDUARDO; LORDELLO ANA INES LUCENA; LORDELLO RUBENS RODOLFO ALBUQUERQUE

    1998-01-01

    Duas linhagens de milho, resistente (IAC Ip 365-4-1) e suscetível (IAC Ip 48-5-3) a Meloidogyne javanica, suas gerações F1, F2 e retrocruzamentos, bem como os cruzamentos recíprocos, foram avaliados em dois ensaios em casa de vegetação, em 1989/90 e 1992, em Campinas, para estudar a herança da resistência a M. javanica. Utilizou-se o delineamento inteiramente casualizado com número de repetição maior nas gerações segregantes, parcelas de uma planta por vaso plástico com 500 cm3 de areia fina,...

  8. Densidad crítica de Meloidogyne Exigua en plantas de Almácigo de café variedad Caturra

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Mainor, Rojas; Luis, Salazar.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del estudio fue evaluar el efecto de densidad creciente de Meloidogyne exigua sobre el desarrollo de plantas de almácigo. Se trasplantaron plántulas de café variedad caturra a bolsas de polietileno con 1335 cm³ de sustrato desinfectado, para establecer un ensa-yo con diseño de bloques co [...] mpletos al azar, con 8 repeticiones. Los tratamientos aplicados consistieron de poblaciones iniciales (Pi) de 0; 0,125; 0,25; 0,5; 1; 2; 4; 8; 16; 32 y 64 huevos+J2/ cm³ de sustrato, aplicadas un mes después del trasplante. El modelo y=m+(1-m) Z P-T aplicado 234 días después del trasplante para la altura, diámetro, número de nudos y peso fresco aéreo, indicó que el límite de tolerancia (T) fue de 0,66; 0,06; 0,13 y 0,88 huevos+J2/cm³, respectivamen-te; la producción mínima relativa (m) fue de 0,79; 0,79; 0,33 y 0,54 respectivamente, a Pi iguales o mayores a 64 huevos+J2/cm³. El índice de agallas alcanzó el máximo a partir de una Pi de 2; el pico máximo de nematodos en el suelo y las raíces se alcanzó con Pi entre 2 y 4; mientras la tasa máxima de reproducción fue de 114 con Pi de 0,125. Se concluyó que la densidad crítica fue cercana a cero huevos/cm3 de sustrato como población inicial, y que el almácigo se debe desarrollar libre de nematodos, ya que aún con Pi bajas se puede alcanzar la máxima población en corto tiempo. Abstract in english Critical density of Meloidogyne exigua in nursery coffee plants, Caturra variety. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of increasing density of Meloidogyne exigua on the development of nursery plants. Coffee plantlets of the Caturra variety were transplanted into polyethylene bags wi [...] th 1335 cm3 of disinfected substrate, to establish a trial with a randomized complete block design, with 8 replicates. The treatments applied included initial populations (Pi) of 0; 0,125; 0,25; 0,5; 1; 2; 4; 8; 16; 32 and 64 eggs + J2/cm ³ substrate applied one month after transplant. The model y=m+(1-m) Z P-T applied 234 days after transplant to the height, diameter, number of nodes and aerial fresh weight, indicated that the tolerance limit (T) was 0,66; 0,06; 0,13 and 0,88 eggs + J2/cm³, respectively; the relative minimum production (m) was 0,79; 0,79; 0,33 and 0,54 respectively, at Pi equal to or higher than 64 eggs + J2/cm³. The gall index reached its maximum from a Pi of 2; the maximum peak of nematodes on the soil and roots was reached with a Pi between 2 and 4 while, the maximum rate of reproduction rate was 114 with a Pi of 0,125. It was concluded that the critical density was close to zero eggs/cm3 of substrate as initial population, and the nursery plants should develop free of nematodes since, even with a low Pi; it could reach the maximum population in a short time.

  9. Triagem de genótipos de hortaliças para resistência a Meloidogyne enterolobii / Screening vegetable crop species for resistance to Meloidogyne enterolobii

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Osvânder David de, Melo; Wilson Roberto, Maluf; Ranoel José de Sousa, Gonçalves; Álvaro Carlos, Gonçalves Neto; Luiz Antonio Augusto, Gomes; Regis de Castro, Carvalho.

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi identificar genótipos de alface, batata-doce, feijão, tomate e Capsicum resistentes ao nematoide Meloidogyne enterolobii (Syn. M. mayaguensis) e classificá-los quanto ao grau de resistência. Foram avaliados: 10 genótipos de alface, 8 de batata-doce, 10 de feijão e feijã [...] o-vagem, 25 de Capsicum e 6 de tomate. Foram calculados o fator de reprodução e o índice de reprodução, e os genótipos foram classificados quanto ao grau de resistência ao nematoide. Foram observados níveis moderados de resistência na cultivar de feijão Aporé e nos acessos de pimenta, BGH-433 e BGH-4285, e de pimentão, PIM-031, PIX-022I-31-07-02 e PIX-022I-31-13-01. Todos os genótipos de tomate são suscetíveis a M. enterolobii. As cultivares de alface Julia, Hortência, Verônica, Grand Rapids e Babá de Verão, e os clones de batata-doce UFLA07-49 e UFLA07-53 são muito resistentes ao nematoide. A resistência a M. enterolobii aparentemente é mediada por genes diferentes dos que conferem resistência a outras espécies e raças de Meloidogyne. Abstract in english The objective of this work was to identify genotypes of lettuce, sweet potato, bean, tomato, and Capsicum resistant to the nematode Meloidogyne enterolobii (Syn. M. mayaguensis), and to classify them according to their resistance degree. The following were evaluated: 10 genotypes of lettuce, 8 of sw [...] eet potato, 10 of bean and snap bean, 25 of Capsicum, and 6 of tomato genotypes. Reproduction factor and reproduction index were determined, and genotypes were classified according to their resistance degree to the nematode. Moderate levels of resistance were observed in the bean cultivar Aporé and in the accessions of pepper BGH-433 and BGH-4285, and of sweet pepper, PIM-031, PIX-022I-31-07-02, and PIX-022I-31-13-01. All tomato genotypes are susceptible to M. enterolobii. Lettuce cultivars Julia, Hortência, Verônica, Grand Rapids and Babá de Verão, and sweetpotato clones UFLA07-49 and UFLA07-53 are very resistant to the nematode. Apparently, the resistance to M. enterolobii is controlled by different genes from the ones which confer resistance to other species and races of Meloidogyne.

  10. Trigonella foenum-graecum (fenugreek-mediated suppression of Meloidogyne javanica in mungbean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tayyaba Zia

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Soil amendments with powdered seeds of Trigonella foenum - graecum (fenugreek caused soil suppressiveness against Meloidogyne javanica. Decomposed seeds of fenugreek caused marked reduction in nematode population densities and subsequent root-knot development as compared to the aqueous extract of the seeds indicating that some indirect factors are involved in the suppression of root-knot nematode. Both decomposed seeds and aqueous extracts enhanced plant height and fresh weights of shoot whereas root growth remained uninfluenced. Changes in fungal communities associated with nematode control were studied by comparing population numbers of fungi in the soil and in internal root tissues (endorhiza in non-amended and fenugreekamended soils. Acremonium sp., Chaetomium globosum, Fusarium solani, Macrophomina phaseolina and Rhizoctonia solani were found to colonize inner root tissues of mungbean. Acremonium sp., C. globosum and F.solani were isolated in a relatively higher frequency from roots growing in the amended soils while M. phaseolina and R. solani colonized greatly in roots growing in non-amended soil. Of the fungi isolated from soils, Penicillium brefaldianum caused maximum juvenile mortality of M.javanica whereas F.solani caused greatest inhibition of egg hatch.

  11. Morphological and molecular characteristics of a new species of Pasteuria parasitic on Meloidogyne ardenensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, Alistair H; Gowen, Simon R; Pembroke, Barbara; Trotter, James R

    2007-09-01

    A species of the hyper-parasitic bacterium Pasteuria was isolated from the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne ardenensis infecting the roots of ash (Fraxinus excelsior). It is morphologically different from some other Pasteuria pathogens of nematodes in that the spores lack a basal ring on the ventral side of the spore and have a unique clumping nature. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) showed that the clumps of spores are not random aggregates but result from the disintegration of the suicide cells of the thalli. Sporulation within each vegetative mycelium was shown to be asynchronous. In addition to the novel morphological features 16S rRNA sequence analysis showed this to be a new species of Pasteuria which we have called P. hartismeri. Spores of P. hartismeri attach to juveniles of root-knot nematodes infecting a wide range of plants such as mint (Meloidogyne hapla), rye grass (unidentified Meloidogyne sp.) and potato (Meloidogyne fallax). PMID:17399736

  12. Meloidogyne californiensis n. sp. (Nemata: Meloidogyninae), Parasitic On Bulrush, Scirpus robustus Pursh

    OpenAIRE

    Abdel-Rahman, Fawzia; Maggenti, A.R.

    1987-01-01

    Meloidogyne californiensis n. sp. is described and illustrated from bulrush Scirpus robustus in California. LM and SEM studies revealed that this species differs from other known species in the genus Meloidogyne especially by the prominent posterior cuticular protuberances in the female, the distinct shape of the perineal pattern which is marked by one prominent stria in the perineum, indistinct lateral lines, many broken discontinuous striae on both sides of the arch, and the excretory pore ...

  13. Reproduction of Meloidogyne enterolobii in rootstocks and cucumber hybrids / Reprodução de Meloidogyne enterolobii em porta-enxertos e híbridos de pepino

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Silvia Renata S, Wilcken; Juliana MO, Rosa; Juliana N, Westerich; Maria José de M, Garcia; Antonio Ismael Inácio, Cardoso.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo teve como objetivo determinar a resistência de seis porta-enxertos para pepino (abóbora 'Menina Brasileira', moranga 'Exposição', 'Shelper', 'Tetsukabuto Takaiama', 'B8-A Tetsukabuto' e 'Excite Ikki') e quatro híbridos de pepino tipo japonês ('Yoshinari', 'Kouki', 'Taisho' e 'Tsuyataro') [...] a Meloidogyne enterolobii. O experimento foi conduzido em casa de vegetação, cada parcela constou de uma planta por vaso contendo 2 litros de solo autoclavado. Dois dias após o transplantio das mudas, cada planta foi inoculada com 5.000 ovos e juvenis de segundo estádio (população inicial = Pi) de M. enterolobii. Tomateiros 'Rutgers' foram utilizados como padrão de viabilidade do inóculo. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado com cinco repetições por tratamento. Sessenta dias após a inoculação, cada planta foi avaliada quanto ao número total de nematoides nas raízes (população final = Pf) e fator de reprodução (FR = Pf / Pi). Todos os porta-enxertos e híbridos de pepino estudados permitiram a multiplicação de M. enterolobii, entretanto os valores do FR foram menores nos porta-enxertos 'Shelper', 'Excite Ikki KY' e 'Menina Brasileira'. Em um segundo experimento, confirmou-se o baixo valor do FR destes três porta-enxertos, porém, com valor pouco maior para 'Menina Brasileira'. Desta maneira, estes porta-enxertos podem ser recomendados em áreas infestadas com M. enterolobii, desde que em baixa população, por restringirem drasticamente a multiplicação do patógeno. Conclui-se que os porta-enxertos 'Shelper' e 'Excite Ikki KY' foram os que apresentaram os menores FR podendo ser classificados como moderadamente resistentes a este nematoide. Abstract in english This study aimed to determine the resistance of six rootstocks for cucumber (squash 'Menina Brasileira', pumpkin 'Exposição', 'Shelper', 'Tetsukabuto Takaiama', 'B8-A Tetsukabuto' and 'Excite Ikki') and four Japanese cucumber hybrids ('Yoshinari', 'Kouki', 'Taisho' and 'Tsuyataro') to Meloidogyne en [...] terolobii. The experiment was conducted in greenhouse; each plot consisted of one plant per pot containing 2 liters of autoclaved soil. The experimental design was completely randomized, with five replicates per treatment. Two days after transplanting the seedlings, each plant was inoculated with 5,000 eggs and second-stage juveniles (initial population = Pi) of M. enterolobii. Tomato 'Rutgers' was used as indicative of inoculum viability. Sixty days after inoculated, each plant was evaluated for total number of nematodes in the roots (final population = Pf) and reproduction factor (FR=Pf/Pi). All rootstocks and cucumber hybrids allowed M. enterolobii multiplication, but FR values were lower in 'Shelper', 'Excite Ikki KY' and 'Menina Brasileira' rootstocks. In a second experiment, the low FR in these three rootstocks was confirmed, but with higher values in 'Menina Brasileira'. So, these rootstocks can be recommended to M. enterolobii infested areas, but with low populations, because they don't permit great multiplication of the patogen. It is concluded that 'Shelper' and 'Excite Ikki KY' rootstocks had the lowest FR and can be classified as moderate resistant to this nematode.

  14. Nematicidal activity of leaves of common shrub and tree species from Southern Chile against Meloidogyne hapla

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Laura, Böhm; Nolberto, Arismendi; Luigi, Ciampi.

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Buscando alternativas biológicas para el control del nemátodo de las agallas radicales, Meloidogyne hapla, se evaluó la incorporación al sustrato de follaje seco y molido de Buddleja globosa, Drymis winteri, Eucalyptus globulus, Gevuina avellana, Laurelia sempervirens, huma apiculata, Maytenus boari [...] a y Ugni molinae. Se utilizó como control un tratamiento sin follaje. El ensayo se realizó en macetas en las que se trasplantaron plantas de lechuga (cv Reina de Mayo). Todas las macetas se inocularon con 2000 huevos y juveniles de M. hapla y se mantuvieron por 45 días en invernadero. Los resultados indicaron que las plantas de lechuga desarrolladas en sustratos con hojas secas de L. sempervirens, G. avellana, M. boaria, D. winteri y B. globosa redujeron significativamente el agallamiento radical. Mientras que todos los tratamientos afectaron significativamente la formación de huevos y juveniles de M. hapla, destacando el efecto inhibitorio sobre este parámetro el follaje seco de U. molinae, D. winteri y L. sempervirens. En todas las especies, el incremento de la concentración de follaje incorporado al sustrato resultó en un mayor control en la multiplicación de M. hapla. Abstract in english The biological control of the root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne hapla , was evaluated through the addition of organic amendments of dry and chopped leaves of Buddleia globes, Dramas winter, Eucalyptus globules, Genuine aflame, Aurelia sempervirens, huma apiculata, Maytenus boaria and Ugni molinae to t [...] he soil substratum. The assays were carried out in pots seeded with lettuce plants (cv. Reina de Mayo). All pots were inoculated with 2000 eggs and juveniles of M. hapla, and then maintained under greenhouse conditions for 45 days. Control pots without foliage additions were also seeded with lettuce. The results show that the addition of dry leaves of L. sempervirens, G. avellana, M. boaria, D. winteri , and B. globosa significantly reduced root-knot nematode development in soil in which lettuce plants were grown. On the other hand, while all of the treatments significantly affected the development of eggs and juveniles of M hapla, the best inhibitory effect was found with dry leaves of U. molinae, D. winteri and L. sempervirens . For all plant species, an increase in the concentration of dry leaves incorporated into the substratum resulted in better control of nematode population.

  15. Influence of Rotation Crops on the Strawberry Pathogens Pratylenchus penetrans, Meloidogyne hapla, and Rhizoctonia fragariae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamondia, J A

    1999-12-01

    Field microplot, small plot, and greenhouse experiments were conducted to determine the effects of rotation crops on Pratylenchus penetrans, Meloidogyne hapla, and Rhizoctonia fragariae populations. Extraction of P. penetrans from roots and soil in microplots and field plots planted to rotation crops was highest for Garry oat, lowest for Triple S sorgho-sudangrass and Saia oat, and intermediate for strawberry, buckwheat, and canola. Isolation of R. fragariae from bait roots was highest for strawberry and canola after 2 years of rotation and lowest for Saia oat. Nematode extraction from roots of rotation crops in field soils was generally higher than from roots in microplots. Grasses were nonhosts of M. hapla. Strawberry, canola, and buckwheat supported root-knot populations over time, but there were no differences in nematode numbers regardless of crop after one season of strawberry growth. Garry oat, canola, and, to a lesser extent, buckwheat supported large populations of P. penetrans without visible root symptoms. Strawberry plants supported fewer nematodes due to root damage. Nematode numbers from soil were less than from roots for all crops. While there were similar trends for pathogen recovery after more than 1 year of strawberry growth following rotation, differences in pathogen density and fruit yield were not significant. In the greenhouse, P. penetrans populations in roots and soil in pots were much higher for Garry oat than for Saia oat. Total P. penetrans adult and juvenile numbers per pot ranged from 40 to 880 (mean = 365.6) for Garry oat and 0 to 40 (mean = 8.7) for Saia oat. Production of Saia oat as a rotation crop may be a means of managing strawberry nematodes and black root rot in Connecticut. PMID:19270931

  16. Evaluation of the Combined Effects of Paecilomyces lilacinus and Trichoderma harzianum Against Root-knot Disease of Tomato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hafeez Ullah Khan

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The addition of Paecilomyces lilacinus and Trichoderma harzianum as nematophagous fungi separately along with organic substrate to the infested soil, sufficiently retarded the pathogenic activity of Meloidogyne incognita. Addition of Paecilomyces lilacinus and Trichoderma harzianum in combination amended with organic substrate gave the effective control of root-knot nematodes population thus reduced root-knot disease and increased plant vigour.

  17. Evaluation of the Combined Effects of Paecilomyces lilacinus and Trichoderma harzianum Against Root-knot Disease of Tomato

    OpenAIRE

    Hafeez Ullah Khan; Riaz Ahmad; Waqar Ahmed; Khan, S.M.; M. Aslam Khan

    2001-01-01

    The addition of Paecilomyces lilacinus and Trichoderma harzianum as nematophagous fungi separately along with organic substrate to the infested soil, sufficiently retarded the pathogenic activity of Meloidogyne incognita. Addition of Paecilomyces lilacinus and Trichoderma harzianum in combination amended with organic substrate gave the effective control of root-knot nematodes population thus reduced root-knot disease and increased plant vigour.

  18. Effects of silicon on the penetration and reproduction events of Meloidogyne exigua on coffee roots

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Rodrigo Vieira, Silva; Rosângela D& #8217; Arc de Lima, Oliveira; Patrícia da Silva, Ferreira; Douglas Barbosa, Castro; Fabrício Ávila, Rodrigues.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Considering that the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne exigua has caused great yield losses to coffee production in Brazil, this study aimed to determine whether the penetration and the reproduction events of this nematode on the roots of plants from two coffee cultivars with different levels of basal [...] resistance to this nematode could be affected by silicon (Si). Coffee plants from the cultivars Catuaí and IAPAR 59, which are susceptible and resistant, respectively, to M. exigua, were grown in pots containing Si-deficient soil that was amended with either calcium silicate (+Si) or calcium carbonate (–Si). The Si concentration on the root tissue significantly increased by 159 and 97% for the +Si plants from the cultivars Catuaí and IAPAR 59, respectively, compared to the –Si plants of these cultivars. The population of M. exigua, the number of galls and the number of eggs were significantly reduced on the roots of the +Si plants of the cultivars Catuaí and IAPAR 59 compared to the –Si plants of these cultivars. It was concluded that the development and reproduction events of M. exigua were negatively impacted on the roots of coffee plants supplied with Si.

  19. Effects of silicon on the penetration and reproduction events of Meloidogyne exigua on coffee roots

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Rodrigo Vieira, Silva; Rosângela D& #8217; Arc de Lima, Oliveira; Patrícia da Silva, Ferreira; Douglas Barbosa, Castro; Fabrício Ávila, Rodrigues.

    Full Text Available Considering that the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne exigua has caused great yield losses to coffee production in Brazil, this study aimed to determine whether the penetration and the reproduction events of this nematode on the roots of plants from two coffee cultivars with different levels of basal [...] resistance to this nematode could be affected by silicon (Si). Coffee plants from the cultivars Catuaí and IAPAR 59, which are susceptible and resistant, respectively, to M. exigua, were grown in pots containing Si-deficient soil that was amended with either calcium silicate (+Si) or calcium carbonate (–Si). The Si concentration on the root tissue significantly increased by 159 and 97% for the +Si plants from the cultivars Catuaí and IAPAR 59, respectively, compared to the –Si plants of these cultivars. The population of M. exigua, the number of galls and the number of eggs were significantly reduced on the roots of the +Si plants of the cultivars Catuaí and IAPAR 59 compared to the –Si plants of these cultivars. It was concluded that the development and reproduction events of M. exigua were negatively impacted on the roots of coffee plants supplied with Si.

  20. Defense responses to Meloidogyne exigua in resistant coffee cultivar and non-host plant

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Rodrigo V., Silva; Rosângela D.L., Oliveira; Patrícia S., Ferreira; Aline O., Ferreira; Fabrício A., Rodrigues.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The resistance of coffee plants to Meloidogyne exigua is conferred by the gene Mex-1. However, the mechanisms of resistance still need to be clarified. Therefore, the penetration, development and reproduction of two populations of M. exigua (M1, isolated from the coffee plant and M2, from rubber tre [...] e) in susceptible (Coffea arabica 'Catuai') and resistant (C. canephora 'Apoatã') cultivars were studied. A greater quantity of J2 from M1 penetrated the susceptible cultivar, but there was no difference between the cultivars for M2. Although the resistant coffee cultivar formed some galls, the nematode did not reproduce. M2 did not induce the formation of galls or the production of eggs in either cultivars. Events related to hypersensitive reaction (HR) were observed as well as other defense responses of the coffee cultivar against M. exigua, which inhibited the formation of the feeding site, provoked emigration of the J2 and delayed or inhibited development and reproduction. The response of the non-host plant was more effective, because it did not allow development of the nematode or, consequently, its reproduction. It was concluded that the coffee cultivar's resistance to M. exigua is not restricted to HR, but rather to a set of defense responses, both constitutive and induced, expressed after nematode penetration, especially phenolic-like compounds.

  1. Effects of silicon on the penetration and reproduction events of Meloidogyne exigua on coffee roots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Vieira Silva

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Considering that the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne exigua has caused great yield losses to coffee production in Brazil, this study aimed to determine whether the penetration and the reproduction events of this nematode on the roots of plants from two coffee cultivars with different levels of basal resistance to this nematode could be affected by silicon (Si. Coffee plants from the cultivars Catuaí and IAPAR 59, which are susceptible and resistant, respectively, to M. exigua, were grown in pots containing Si-deficient soil that was amended with either calcium silicate (+Si or calcium carbonate (–Si. The Si concentration on the root tissue significantly increased by 159 and 97% for the +Si plants from the cultivars Catuaí and IAPAR 59, respectively, compared to the –Si plants of these cultivars. The population of M. exigua, the number of galls and the number of eggs were significantly reduced on the roots of the +Si plants of the cultivars Catuaí and IAPAR 59 compared to the –Si plants of these cultivars. It was concluded that the development and reproduction events of M. exigua were negatively impacted on the roots of coffee plants supplied with Si.

  2. Efecto nematicida de extractos de Quassia amara y Brugmansia suaveolens sobre Meloidogyne sp. asociado al tomate en Nicaragua / Nematicidal effect of plant extracts from Quassia amara and Brugmansia suaveolens against Meloidogyne sp. on tomato plants in Nicaragua

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Wilber, Salazar-Anton; Tomas de Jesús, Guzman-Hernandez.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar extractos de hojas de Quassia amara L. (Simaroubaceae) y flores de Brugmansia suaveolens L. (Solanaceae) para determinar su efecto nematicida contra Meloidogyne sp. El estudio se realizó en el Campus Agropecuario de la Universidad Nacional Autónoma de Nicaragu [...] a-León (UNAN-León) en el año 2012. El material vegetal fue deshidratado, pulverizado y sus compuestos fueron extraídos utilizando como solvente metanol. Este estudio se realizó in vitro, se evaluó la mortalidad de los juveniles de Meloidogyne sp. en segundo instar después de 12, 24 y 48 horas de exposición a los extractos. Además, estos se aplicaron a plantas de tomate en maceteras bajo condiciones de invernadero, cuantificándose las poblaciones de nematodos a los 25, 50 y 75 días de exposición al extracto (DEE). En el experimento in vitro Q. amara y B. suaveolens diluidos al 10%, presentaron los más altos porcentajes de mortalidad después de 48 h, alcanzando 89 y 78% de juveniles muertos, respectivamente. En maceteras se evaluó la mortalidad de juveniles, índice de agallamiento (IA) y factor de reproducción (FR). Los mejores resultados para Q. amara se obtuvieron a los 25 DEE, con un porcentaje de mortalidad de 80%, un IA de 1 en una escala de 0-5 y FR de 0,20. Con B. suaveolens, a los 25 DEE se alcanzó el mayor porcentaje de mortalidad de 71%, un IA de 1,2 y un FR de 0,29. Estos resultados in vitro y en maceteras evidenciaron que ambos extractos poseen propiedades nematicidas, ya que redujeron significativamente (P? 0,05) las poblaciones de nematodos, su reproducción y el nivel de agallamiento de las raíces de tomate. Abstract in english The nematicidal activity of leaves of Quassia amara L. (Simaroubaceae) and flowers of Brugmansia suaveolens L. (Solanaceae) was evaluated against Meloidogyne sp. during a study conducted at the Agricultural Campus of the National Agricultural University in León (UNAN- León). The plant material was d [...] ehydrated, ground and the compounds quassin and scopolamine were extracted using methanol as a solvent. Then a study was conducted in vitro to evaluate mortality in second stage juveniles of Meloidogyne sp. after exposure to extracts (12, 24 and 48 hours). Subsequently, extracts were also evaluated in tomato plants established in pots under greenhouse conditions, and the corresponding nematode population was quantified after exposure to the extract (25, 50 and 75 days of exposure to extract, DEE). In vitro tests with extracts of B. suaveolens and Q. amara diluted at 10% showed that the highest rate of nematode mortality occurs after 48 h of exposure, leaving 89% and 78% of all juveniles dead, respectively. In the test in pots, several aspects were evaluated including juvenile mortality, the plant galling index (GI), and the nematode reproduction factor (RF). The best result for Q. amara was obtained at 25 DEE, with 80% of mortality, a GI of 1 (in a scale from 0-5) and a RF of 0.2. Similarly, the best effect for B. suaveolens, was obtained at 25 DEE with a 71% of mortality, a GI of 1.2, and a RF of 0.29. These results from tests in vitro and in pots results indicate that both extracts have nematicidal activities, as they significantly reduced the nematode population (.? 0.05), the reproductive ability and the incidence of root galling in tomato plants.

  3. Sisal leaf decortication liquid residue for controlling Meloidogyne javanica in tomato plants / Resíduo líquido do desfibramento de folhas de sisal no controle de Meloidogyne javanica em tomateiro

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Josilda CA, Damasceno; Ana CF, Soares; Fábio N, Jesus; Rosane S, Sant' Ana.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve o objetivo de avaliar o efeito do resíduo líquido (fresco e fermentado) de sisal no controle de Meloidogyne javanica em tomateiro. Foram conduzidos bioensaios in vitro com 100 µL de suspensão aquosa contendo 300 juvenis (J2) de M. javanica e 1000 µL de resíduo líquido. Os tratamen [...] tos consistiram do resíduo líquido fresco e fermentado, nas concentrações de 2,5, 5, 7,5, 10, 12,5, 15, 17,5 e 20%, o controle sem resíduo e o nematicida Carbofuran a 350 mg/L do i.a., com a imersão dos J2 nestes tratamentos, por 24 e 48 horas. Em casa de vegetação, 4000 juvenis de M. javanica foram inoculados em tomateiro e, após uma semana, foram vertidos na base da planta 100 mL do resíduo líquido de sisal nas concentrações de 0, 4, 8, 12, 16 e 20%, além da água destilada e o nematicida Carbofuran a 0,50 g por vaso, como testemunhas. Foram analisados o crescimento vegetativo e os danos nas raízes. Avaliou-se a seletividade do resíduo do sisal sobre micro-organismos benéficos do solo. Todas as concentrações do resíduo apresentaram efeito nematicida nos testes in vitro, após 48 horas de exposição dos nematoides, ocorrendo até 100% de mortalidade dos juvenis de M. javanica na concentração de 20%. O aumento das concentrações do resíduo fresco ou fermentado reduziu o número de galhas e massas de ovos por planta e por grama de raízes e também a população final de M. javanica no solo. Houve crescimento dos micro-organismos benéficos nos tratamentos com resíduo fresco de sisal, para todas as concentrações avaliadas. O resíduo fermentado inibiu o crescimento de micro-organismos benéficos do solo. Estudos futuros serão conduzidos visando comprovar a ação nematicida deste resíduo no controle de M. javanica em tomateiro a campo. Abstract in english The effect of sisal liquid residue (fresh and fermented) was evaluated in controlling the root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne javanica) in tomato plants. Bioassays were conducted in vitro with 100 µL of an aqueous suspension containing 300 juveniles (J2) of M. javanica and 1000 µL of sisal liquid residu [...] e. The treatments consisted of nematode immersion for 24 and 48 hours in sisal liquid residue, fresh or fermented, diluted in water to the final concentrations of 0, 2.5, 5, 7.5, 10, 12.5, 15, 17.5 and 20%, and nematicide Carbofuran at 350 mg of the active ingredient per liter. Under greenhouse conditions, 4000 juveniles of M. javanica were inoculated on tomato plants grown in pots, and after one week, 100 mL of sisal liquid residue at concentrations of 0, 4, 8, 12, 16 and 20%, were added to soil around the tomato plants. Control treatments received either 100 mL of distilled water or 0.5 g of Carbofuran per pot. Forty days after inoculation, plants were harvested and evaluated for plant growth and root damage. In addition, the selective effect of sisal liquid residue on growth of beneficial soil microorganisms was evaluated. All concentrations of sisal liquid residue presented nematicidal effect, after 48 h of nematode exposure. A mortality rate of 100% was obtained for M. javanica juveniles exposed to liquid residue at a concentration of 20%. Application of increasing concentrations of both sisal liquid residues reduced the number of galls and egg masses per plant and per gram of roots, as well as the final population of M. javanica in soil. Growth of beneficial soil microorganisms was observed in soil amended with sisal fresh liquid residue, for all concentrations tested. The fermented residue caused inhibition of soil beneficial microorganisms. Future studies should be conducted to test the nematicidal effect on tomato plants under field conditions.

  4. Alterações anatômicas induzidas por Meloidogyne enterolobii (=M. mayaguensis) e Meloidogyne javanica em tomateiros resistentes a meloidoginose / Anatomical changes induced by Meloidogyne enterolobii (=M. mayaguensis) and Meloidogyne javanica in tomato plants resistant to the root-knot nematode

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Juliana Nogueira, Westerich; Roberto Antonio, Rodella; Juliana Magrinelli Osório, Rosa; Silvia Renata Siciliano, Wilcken.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available A resistência de tomateiros (Solanum lycopersicum L.) a M. incognita, M. javanica e M. arenaria, conferida pela presença do gene Mi, não contempla a espécie M. enterolobii (=M. mayaguensis). O objetivo da pesquisa foi verificar as alterações anatômicas causadas por M. enterolobii no sistema radicula [...] r de porta-enxertos de tomateiro com o gene de resistência Mi ('Magnet' e Helper M') e compará-las com as causadas por M. javanica. As observações anatômicas das raízes foram feitas com auxílio de microscópio de luz e os aspectos mais relevantes foram fotografados. Com base em contagens e mensurações do tamanho dos sítios de alimentação e das células gigantes, foram efetuadas analises utilizando o método estatístico de Análise de Agrupamento. O aparecimento de células nutridoras incitadas por M. enterolobii foi verificado em ambos os porta-enxertos de tomateiro, entre 10 e 17 dias após a inoculação (DAI). O número e a área de sítios de alimentação e de células gigantes foram menores aos 17 DAI do que aos 24 DAI. Nesta época (24 DAI), foram observados sítios de alimentação constituídos pela presença de várias células nutridoras multinucleadas, com parede celular espessa, citoplasma denso e granuloso. Os tecidos vasculares apresentaram-se comprimidos e desorganizados, foi observada, também, hipertrofia de células do parênquima cortical. As raízes inoculadas com M. javanica não apresentaram alterações anatômicas. Abstract in english The resistance of tomato plants (Solanum Lycopersicum L.) to M. incognita, M. javanica and M. arenaria, provided by the presence of Mi gene, does not include the species M. enterolobii (=M. mayaguensis). The aim of this study was to verify the anatomical changes caused by M. enterolobii in the root [...] system of rootstocks from tomato plants with Mi resistance gene ('Magnet' and 'Helper M') and to compare these changes with those caused by M. javanica. The anatomical observations of roots were done with the aid of a light microscope and the most relevant aspects were photographed. Based on counts and measurements of the size of feeding sites and giant cells, the data were analyzed by using the statistical method of Cluster Analysis. The emergence of nurse cells stimulated by M. enterolobii was observed for both tomato rootstocks between 10 and 17 days after inoculation (DAI). The number and the area of feeding sites and giant cells were smaller at 17 DAI than at 24 DAI. On the latter occasion (24 DAI), there were feeding sites established by the presence of several multinucleate nurse cells with thick cell walls and dense and granular cytoplasm. Vascular tissues were compressed and disorganized; there was also hypertrophy of cortical parenchyma cells. Roots inoculated with M. javanica did not show anatomical changes.

  5. Nematicide Effect of Various Organic Soil Amendments on Meloidogyne ethiopica Whitehead, 1968, on Potted Vine Plants / Efecto Nematicida de Varias Enmiendas Orgánicas Sobre Meloidogyne ethiopica Whitehead, 1968, en Plantas de Vid en Macetas

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Lucia, Rivera; Erwin, Aballay.

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un experimento en macetas con plantas enraizadas de Vitis vinífera L. var. Chardonnay para evaluar el efecto nematicida de diferentes enmiendas orgánicas sobre el nematodo agallador Meloidogyne ethiopica Whitehead, 1968. Se usaron dos composts inmaduros: Compost A, elaborado con residuos [...] de té (Camellia sinensis (L.) Kuntze, guano de pollo seco y orujo de uva; Compost B, elaborado con residuos de té, escobajo y orujo de uva; y separadamente residuos sólidos de té; orujo de uva y guano de pollo seco. Estas enmiendas fueron aplicadas a principio de primavera, tanto en cobertera como incorporadas al suelo, considerando además un testigo químico fenamiphos y un testigo absoluto. Se determinó la población de nematodos de segundo estado juvenil (estado infestivo) de Meloidogyne spp., la cantidad de nódulos, huevos por gramo de raíz y el índice reproductivo, determinando de esta manera la tasa de reproducción de los nematodos. Además se evaluó el peso fresco de la parte aérea y de la masa radical. El testigo químico fue el tratamiento que obtuvo menor población final de Meloidogyne spp., y al evaluar la actividad nematicida de las enmiendas orgánicas, el Compost A incorporado al suelo, orujo de uva en cobertera y residuos sólidos de té en cobertera obtuvieron índices reproductivos bajos, que no fueron estadísticamente diferentes del testigo químico. En el peso fresco de la parte aérea no hubo diferencias significativas. El peso fresco de la masa radical del testigo químico presentó el valor más bajo comparado con los tratamientos de Compost B en cobertera y residuos sólidos de té en cobertera. Abstract in english Five organic soil amendments were evaluated for their nematicide effect on root-knot Meloidogyne ethiopica Whitehead, 1968, on potted Vitis vinifera L. var. Chardonnay plants. The amendments included two immature composts: Compost A made with tea (Camellia sinensis (L.) Kuntze) residues, broiler lit [...] ter and grape pomace; Compost B made with tea residues, rachis and grape pomace; and separately dried tea residues, grape pomace and broiler litter. These amendments were either incorporated or applied as cover to the substrate in 5 L pots at the beginning of spring. A chemical treatment with the nematicide fenamiphos and a control with substrate only were added for comparisons. The assay was composed of 11 treatments with six replicates, with a grape plant as experimental unit. Seven months later, the assessment of the treatments was carried out based on number of second stage juvenile, nodules, eggs per root gram and reproductive index. Fresh aerial and root plant weight were also measured. The chemical treatment presented the lowest final population of M. ethiopica. When evaluating the nematicide action of the organic amendments: compost A soil-incorporated and both grape pomace and solid dry tea residue as covers obtained low reproductive indexes, similar to the chemical treatment and control (P ? 0.05). No differences in aerial fresh weight were determined. However, the chemical treatment showed the smallest root mass as compared to compost B and solid dry tea residues, both as cover.

  6. Host Status of Crotalaria juncea, Sesamum indicum, Dolichos lablab, and Elymus glaucus to Meloidogyne javanica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araya, M; Caswell-Chen, E P

    1994-12-01

    Reproduction of Meloidogyne javanica on Crotalaria juncea PI 207657 and cv. Tropic Sun, Sesamum indicum, Dolichos lablab, and Elymus glaucus was assessed using a root-gall index, a reproductive index obtained by dividing the final population of juveniles (J2) in soil by the initial J2 population (Pf/Pi), and the number of J2 per gram of root recovered from roots by mist chamber extraction. Lycopersicon esculentum (cv. UC 204 C) was included as a susceptible host. The root-gall index and soil reproductive index were poor indicators of the host status of our test plants as compared with mist chamber extraction of J2 from roots. Lycopersicon esculentum had a mean root-gall index of 7.8. Some plants of S. indicum and E. glaucus had a few galls and other plants had none, with mean root-gall indices of 1.6 and 0.8, respectively. No galls were observed in C. juncea and D. lablab. Lycopersicon esculentum had the highest mean soil Pf/Pi value (mean = 1.93), while in C. juncea and some replicates of S. indicum no soil J2 were found. Even though some replicates had no galls, all replicates supported nematode reproduction. The mean numbers of J2 per gram root after 5 days of mist extraction were 447.7, 223.3, 165.5, 96.9, 42.3, and 41.9 for D. lablab, L. esculentum, E. glaucus, S. indicum, and C. juncea PI 207657 and cv. Tropic Sun, respectively. Accurate assessment of nematode resistance was influenced by sampling time and the nematode extraction technique used. Individual plants of both C. juncea and S. indicum supported nematode reproduction to some extent; however, both C. juncea and S. indicum have potential as cover crops to reduce M. javanica numbers. PMID:19279920

  7. Nematodos fitoparásitos asociados al cultivo de papaya (Carica papaya L.) en Colima, México / Phytoparasitic nematodes associated with the cultivation of papaya (Carica papaya L.) in Colima, Mexico

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    José Ángel, Martínez Gallardo; Tomás, Díaz Valdés; Raúl, Allende Molar; José Alfonso, Ortiz Meza; Raymundo Saúl, García Estrada; José Armando, Carrillo Fasio.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Este estudio tuvo como objetivo detectar e identificar los géneros de nematodos fitoparásitos asociados al cultivo de papaya (Caricapapaya L.) en los municipios de Tecomán y Colima, Colima. Se seleccionaron diez huertos, de siete ranchos en los que se colectaron muestras de raíces y suelo rizosféric [...] o; en cada muestra se cuantificó e identificaron las poblaciones de los fitonematodos. Para la identificación específica de Meloidogyne, se analizaron cortes perineales de las hembras y se confirmó por reacción en cadena de la polimerasa (PCR). Los géneros de fitonematodos detectados e identificados fueron: Aphelenchus, Ditylenchus, Helicotylenchus, Paratylenchus, Pratylenchus, Rotylenchulus, Rotylenchus, Trophurus, Tylenchorrhynchus, Tylenchus, y Meloidogyne, con la especie M. incognita. Los resultados permiten el reporte por primera vez de M. incognita, asociado al cultivo de papaya en Colima, México. Abstract in english This study aimed to detect and identify phytoparasitic nematodes associated with the cultivation of papaya (Caricapapaya L.) in the municipalities of Tecomán and Colima, Colima. We selected ten orchards, seven ranches in which samples were collected roots and rhizosphere soil, in each sample was qua [...] ntified and identified populations of phytoparasitic nematodes. For specific identification of Meloidogyne, perineal cuts were analyzed and confirmed females by chain reaction (PCR). The genera of phytoparasitic nematodes were detected and identified: Aphelenchus, Ditylenchus, Helicotylenchus, Paratylenchus, Pratylenchus, Rotylenchulus, Rotylenchus, Trophurus, Tylenchorrhynchus, Tylenchus, and Meloidogyne, with the species M. incognita. The results allow the first report of M incognita associated with papaya in Colima, Mexico.

  8. Grafting guava on cattley guava resistant to Meloidogyne enterolobii / Enxertia da goiabeira sobre araçazeiros resistentes a Meloidogyne enterolobii

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Renata Rodrigues, Robaina; Graziella Siqueira, Campos; Cláudia Sales, Marinho; Ricardo Moreira, Souza; Cíntia Aparecida, Bremenkamp.

    Full Text Available O uso de porta-enxertos resistentes poderá ser um método promissor para o controle do nematoide Meloidogyne enterolobii em plantios comerciais de goiaba, em caso de compatibilidade de enxertia. O presente trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o pegamento via enxertia por garfagem de topo em fenda chei [...] a, entre a goiabeira e acessos de araçazeiros resistentes a M. enterolobii. Os tratamentos foram constituídos pelos porta-enxertos utilizados, araçazeiros (três acessos de Psidium cattleyanum) e a goiabeira. O delineamento estatístico adotado foi em blocos casualizados (DBC), com quatro tratamentos, cinco repetições, e oito plantas por parcela. Após a enxertia, foi avaliada a percentagem de pegamento dos enxertos. As mudas produzidas foram plantadas no campo e avaliadas quanto ao crescimento inicial das diferentes combinações. Constatou-se pegamento de enxertia entre a goiabeira 'Paluma' e os porta-enxertos de goiabeira e araçazeiros dos acessos 115 e 117, ocorrendo uma taxa de pegamento de 63, 32 e 29%, respectivamente. No campo, os araçazeiros utilizados como porta-enxertos induziram menor desenvolvimento de copa e resultaram em morte de plantas. A incompatibilidade entre a goiabeira 'Paluma' e o porta-enxerto P. cattleyanum foi confirmada um ano após plantio no campo. Abstract in english The use of resistant rootstocks could be a promising method to control nematode Meloidogyne enterolobii in commercial plantations of guava. The present study aimed to evaluate the success of grafting guava as a scion on accessions of cattley guava as rootstocks resistant to M. enterolobii. The treat [...] ments consisted of the rootstocks cattley guava plants (three accessions of Psidium cattleyanum) and common guava (control). In the apical wedge grafting method, scion of Paluma cultivated variety was used. The experiment was arranged in a randomized block design with four treatments and five replicates, and eight plants per plot. The saplings produced as described before were planted in the field where the initial growth of the different combinations were evaluated. Graft success was observed for the control (common guava) and for accessions 115 and 117 of cattley guava plants, with success rates of 63, 32 and 29%, respectively. In the field, the cattley guava used as rootstocks hampered Paluma canopy development and caused death of plants. Incompatibility of P. cattleyanum as rootstocks for P. guajava Paluma was confirmed one year after cultivation in field.

  9. Effect of plant and fungous metabolites on Meloidogyne exigua / Efeito de metabólitos vegetais e fúngicos sobre Meloidogyne exigua

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Daniel Rufino, Amaral; Denilson Ferreira, Oliveira; Vicente Paulo, Campos; José Antônio, Pantaleão; Douglas Antônio de, Carvalho; Alexandro da Silva, Nunes.

    Full Text Available Os nematóides acarretam grandes perdas aos produtores brasileiros de café, sendo necessário o desenvolvimento de métodos eficientes para o seu controle. Em trabalho anterior, Allium cepa L., Cajanus cajan (L.) Mill., Crotalaria juncea L., Ficus elastica Roxb., Ruta graveolens L., Stylosanthes guiane [...] nsis Aubl., Leucaena leucocephala (Lam.) Dewit., Brachiaria decumbens Stapf., Catharanthus roseus G. Don, Tagetes minuta L., Ricinus communis L. e Coffea arabica L. produziram substâncias ativas contra o nematóide Meloidogyne exigua Goeldi, que é amplamente disseminado pelos cafezais brasileiros. Dando continuidade a esse trabalho, extratos aquosos das plantas mencionadas, coletadas em época diferente daquela mencionada no trabalho anterior, bem como metabólitos na forma bruta de Fusarium moniliforme Shelden e Cylindrocarpon magnusianum (Sacc.) Woll., produzidos em meio de cultura líquido, foram submetidos a testes in vitro com juvenis do segundo estádio (J2) de M. exigua. Todas as plantas e fungos produziram substâncias ativas contra J2. Portanto, seus metabólitos foram aplicados em mudas de café de seis meses de idade, inoculadas com M. exigua. Após 90 dias em casa de vegetação, verificou-se que os materiais oriundos de A. cepa, L. leucocephala, R. graveolens e F. moniliforme inibiram a produção de ovos e de galhas por M. exigua, demonstrando potencial para o controle de tal parasita. Abstract in english As nematodes cause great damage to Brazilian coffee production, effective methods to control these parasites are necessary. In a previous work Allium cepa L., Cajanus cajan (L.) Mill., Crotalaria juncea L., Ficus elastica Roxb., Ruta graveolens L., Stylosanthes guianensis Aubl., Leucaena leucocephal [...] a (Lam.) Dewit., Brachiaria decumbens Stapf., Catharanthus roseus G. Don, Tagetes minuta L., Ricinus communis L. and Coffea arabica L. produced active substances against Meloidogyne exigua Goeldi, a nematode widely disseminated through Brazilian coffee fields. Thus, aqueous extracts of such plants, collected in a different season from that of the previous work, as well as crude metabolites produced in liquid medium by Fusarium moniliforme Shelden and Cylindrocarpon magnusianum (Sacc.) Woll., were submitted to in vitro assays with M. exigua second-stage juveniles (J2). All plants and fungi produced active substances against J2. Therefore, their metabolites were applied to six-month-old coffee plants inoculated with M. exigua. After 90 days in a greenhouse, those samples obtained from A. cepa, L. leucocephala, R. graveolens and F. moniliforme inhibited the production of galls and eggs by M. exigua, demonstrating potential to control such parasite.

  10. Zinc Improves Biocontrol of Meloidogyne javanica by the Antagonistic Rhizobia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Shahid Shaukat

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Mineral amendments influence the performance of antagonistic microorganism to suppress soil-borne fungal and nematode diseases. Experiments were conducted to evaluate the influence of zinc on the production of nematicidal compound(s in vitro and root-knot infection by Meloidogyne javanica in tomato. Nutrient rich medium amended with various concentrations (0.25-2.0 mM markedly improved the nematicidal activity of rhizobia in vitro. Species and even strain-specific differences were observed among bacteria with respect to their response to different zinc concentrations. Efficacy of the 10 different isolates (66.6% of the total isolates was maximum when growth medium was amended with zinc at 1.5 mM while 4 isolates (26.6% of the total isolates exhibited optimal performance when exposed to 2.0 mM zinc. In vitro nematicidal activity of only one strain was optimal at 1.0 mM zinc. Soil amendment with zinc in the form of ZnSO4 at 0.9 mg/kg of soil alone or in conjunction with rhizobia caused significant inhibition of root-knot development and enhanced the growth of tomato plants under glasshouse conditions.

  11. Grafting guava on cattley guava resistant to Meloidogyne enterolobii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Rodrigues Robaina

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The use of resistant rootstocks could be a promising method to control nematodeMeloidogyne enterolobiiin commercial plantations of guava. The present study aimed to evaluate the success of grafting guava as a scion on accessions of cattley guava as rootstocks resistant to M. enterolobii.The treatments consisted of the rootstocks cattley guava plants (three accessions of Psidium cattleyanum and common guava (control. In the apical wedge grafting method, scion of Paluma cultivated variety was used. The experiment was arranged in a randomized block design with four treatments and five replicates, and eight plants per plot. The saplings produced as described before were planted in the field where the initial growth of the different combinations were evaluated. Graft success was observed for the control (common guava and for accessions 115 and 117 of cattley guava plants, with success rates of 63, 32 and 29%, respectively. In the field, the cattley guava used as rootstocks hampered Paluma canopy development and caused death of plants. Incompatibility of P. cattleyanumas rootstocks for P. guajavaPaluma was confirmed one year after cultivation in field.

  12. HERANÇA DA RESISTÊNCIA DE MILHO A MELOIDOGYNE JAVANICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SAWAZAKI EDUARDO

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Duas linhagens de milho, resistente (IAC Ip 365-4-1 e suscetível (IAC Ip 48-5-3 a Meloidogyne javanica, suas gerações F1, F2 e retrocruzamentos, bem como os cruzamentos recíprocos, foram avaliados em dois ensaios em casa de vegetação, em 1989/90 e 1992, em Campinas, para estudar a herança da resistência a M. javanica. Utilizou-se o delineamento inteiramente casualizado com número de repetição maior nas gerações segregantes, parcelas de uma planta por vaso plástico com 500 cm3 de areia fina, previamente tratada com brometo de metila e adubada com NPK. Cinco dias após a germinação das sementes, cada vaso foi inoculado com 5.000 ovos e larvas de M. javanica. Aos 70 e aos 60 dias após a inoculação, respectivamente, nos experimentos 1 e 2, avaliaram-se o índice de massa de ovos, o número de ovos por grama de raiz e o fator de reprodução. Não foram observadas diferenças entre os cruzamentos recíprocos. O comportamento da média do F1, a distribuição de freqüência da população F2 e a segregação monofatorial indicaram que a resistência a M. javanica da linhagem IAC Ip 365-4-1 se deve a um gene dominante associado a um pequeno efeito de polígenes.

  13. Ozone, antioxidant spray and meloidogyne hapla effects on tobacco

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisessar, S.; Palmer, K. T.

    The relationship between ozone and the northern root-knot nematode on tobacco was investigated. Seedlings of tobacco ( Nicotiana tabacum L.) cv. Virginia 115 were inoculated and not inoculated with root-knot ( Meloidogyne hapla (Chitwood) prior to transplanting to a field plot. One-half the plants were sprayed at weekly intervals with an antioxidant, EDU at the rate of 1 kg ha -1 to protect against oxidant injury. O 3 concentrations in excess of 80 ppb were recorded 14 times during the summer of 1982. Ambient ozone inhibited growth and yield of tobacco inoculated and not inoculated with M. hapla. Tobacco inoculated with nematode alone developed significantly more ozone injury than other treatments indicating that tobacco infected with M. hapla is more susceptible to ambient O 3. Significantly 20% more galls developed on plants with nematode inoculation compared to plants with nematode inoculation + EDU indicating that EDU indirectly reduced gall development in tobacco. Plants protected with EDU also showed an increase in dry weight of shoot, root and biomass.

  14. Efeito dos exsudatos radiculares de Solanum Sisymbriifolium na enclosão de Meloidogyne SPP / Hatching effect of root exudates from Solanum Sisymbriifolium on Meloidogyne SPP

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Isabel Luci, Conceição; Ana Margarida Caetano, Dias; Isabel, Abrantes; Maria José Moreno da, Cunha.

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Os nemátodes-das-galhas-radiculares (NGR), Meloidogyne spp., são fitoparasitas com uma grande distribuição e economicamente importantes, causando reduções significativas na quantidade e qualidade da produção agrícola. O seu controlo é difícil e muitos dos métodos utilizados são ineficazes. Algumas p [...] lantas libertam fitoquímicos naturais com propriedades nematodicidas e os exsudatos radiculares podem actuar como estimuladores ou inibidores da eclosão de jovens do segundo estádio (J2). O objectivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito dos exsudatos radiculares de Solanum sisiymbriifolium (cvs Sharp, Pion, Sis 4004 e Domino) na eclosão de J2 de cinco isolados de Meloidogyne (M. arenaria, M. chitwoodi, M. hapla, M. hispanica e M. javanica), contribuindo para o desenvolvimento de estratégias de protecção alternativas à utilização de nematodicidas. Os exsudatos radiculares obtidos através da lixiviação sucessiva do solo foram testados, com contagens diárias, durante o período de 15 dias. O exsudato de tomateiro (S. lycopersicum cv. Easypeel) e a água destilada foram utilizados como testemunhas. Abstract in english Root-knot nematodes (RKN), Meloidogyne spp., are widespread and economically important plant-parasitic nematodes, causing significant reduction on quantity and quality of agricultural production. Its control is difficult and many methods are inefficient. Some plants release natural phytochemicals th [...] at have been identified and proved to have nematicides properties. The root exudates may act as stimulants or inhibitors of second-stage juveniles (J2) hatching. The goal of this research was to evaluate the hatching effect of root exudates from Solanum sisiymbriifolium (cvs Sharp, Pion, Sis 4004 e Domino) on five Meloidogyne isolates (M. arenaria, M. chitwoodi, M. hapla, M. hispanica and M. javanica) and to contribute for the development of an alternative strategy to the use of the nematicides. The root exudates, obtained by successive soil leaching, were tested, with daily counts, for a period of 15 days. The exsudate from tomato (S. lycopersicum cv. Easypeel) and distilled water were used as controls.

  15. Parasitism of Trichoderma on Meloidogyne javanica and role of the gelatinous matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trichoderma (T. asperellum-203, 44 and GH11; T. atroviride-IMI 206040 and T. harzianum-248) parasitism on Meloidogyne javanica life stages was examined in vitro. Conidium attachment and parasitism differed among the various fungi. Egg masses, their derived eggs and second-stage juveniles (J2) were p...

  16. Avaliação em casa de vegetação do uso de sorgo, milheto e crotalária no manejo de Meloidogyne javanica / Greenhouse evaluation of the potential of sorghum, pearl millet and crotalaria in the management of Meloidogyne javanica

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Mário M., Inomoto; Sonia R., Antedomênico; Viviane P., Santos; Rosangela A., Silva; Giovane C., Almeida.

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available A rotação de cultura pode desempenhar um importante papel no manejo de nematóides fitoparasitos, dependendo da disponibilidade de culturas econômicas que lhes sejam não hospedeiras ou más hospedeiras. Como alternativa, culturas de cobertura ou adubos verdes podem ser utilizados em sucessão com as cu [...] lturas econômicas de verão. O objetivo do presente estudo foi avaliar, em casa de vegetação, a reação de híbridos e cultivares comerciais de sorgos (Sorghum bicolor) granífero e silageiro ao nematóide Meloidogyne javanica, e estimar seu efeito na população do nematóide, em comparação ao milheto (Pennisetum glaucum; mau hospedeiro), Crotalaria spectabilis e C. juncea, não hospedeiras. Com base em dois experimentos comparando diversos híbridos e cultivares de sorgo, estabeleceu-se que, como regra geral, o sorgo granífero é mau hospedeiro e o silageiro, bom hospedeiro de M. javanica; porém o sorgo silageiro ‘BRS 601’ foi exceção. Em outros experimentos, o sorgo granífero, o milheto ‘BN 2’, Crotalaria spectabilis ‘Comum’ e C. juncea ‘IAC-KR-1’ reduziram a densidade de M. javanica no solo e os sorgos silageiros aumentaram. Abstract in english Crop rotation can play a valuable role in managing plant parasitic nematodes, depending on the availability of profitable non-host or poor host crops. Alternatively, non-host cover crops or green manures can be used in succession to summer cash crops for this purpose. The aim of the current study wa [...] s to evaluate, under greenhouse conditions, the host status of commercial hybrids and cultivars of grain and silage sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) for Meloidogyne javanica, and to assess the effect of sorghum on nematode population in comparison with pearl millet (poor host for M. javanica), showy crotalaria and sunn hemp (both non-hosts). Based on two experiments, it was stated that, as a rule, grain sorghum is a poor host for M. javanica, but silage sorghum is a good host. Silage sorghum ‘BRS 601’ was an exception. In other experiments, grain sorghum, pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum ‘BN 2’), showy crotalaria (Crotalaria spectabilis ‘Comum’) and sunn hemp (C. juncea ‘IAC-KR-1’) reduced M. javanica population level, while silage sorghum increased the nematode density.

  17. Transcriptome analysis of resistant soybean roots infected by Meloidogyne javanica

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Maria Eugênia Lisei de, Sá; Marcus José Conceição, Lopes; Magnólia de Araújo, Campos; Luciano Vilela, Paiva; Regina Maria Santos de, Amorim; Magda Aparecida, Beneventi; Alexandre Augusto Pereira, Firmino; Maria Fátima Grossi de, Sá.

    Full Text Available Soybean is an important crop for Brazilian agribusiness. However, many factors can limit its production, especially root-knot nematode infection. Studies on the mechanisms employed by the resistant soybean genotypes to prevent infection by these nematodes are of great interest for breeders. For thes [...] e reasons, the aim of this work is to characterize the transcriptome of soybean line PI 595099-Meloidogyne javanica interaction through expression analysis. Two cDNA libraries were obtained using a pool of RNA from PI 595099 uninfected and M. javanica (J2) infected roots, collected at 6, 12, 24, 48, 96, 144 and 192 h after inoculation. Around 800 ESTs (Expressed Sequence Tags) were sequenced and clustered into 195 clusters. In silico subtraction analysis identified eleven differentially expressed genes encoding putative proteins sharing amino acid sequence similarities by using BlastX: metallothionein, SLAH4 (SLAC1 Homologue 4), SLAH1 (SLAC1 Homologue 1), zinc-finger proteins, AN1-type proteins, auxin-repressed proteins, thioredoxin and nuclear transport factor 2 (NTF-2). Other genes were also found exclusively in nematode stressed soybean roots, such as NAC domain-containing proteins, MADS-box proteins, SOC1 (suppressor of overexpression of constans 1) proteins, thioredoxin-like protein 4-Coumarate-CoA ligase and the transcription factor (TF) MYBZ2. Among the genes identified in non-stressed roots only were Ser/Thr protein kinases, wound-induced basic protein, ethylene-responsive family protein, metallothionein-like protein cysteine proteinase inhibitor (cystatin) and Putative Kunitz trypsin protease inhibitor. An understanding of the roles of these differentially expressed genes will provide insights into the resistance mechanisms and candidate genes involved in soybean-M. javanica interaction and contribute to more effective control of this pathogen.

  18. Effets de l'iboga (Tabernanthe iboga Baillon) sur les nématodes à galles (Meloidogyne sp.) parasites de tomate

    OpenAIRE

    Bayonne, L.; Madoungou, P.; Tabula, TK.

    2005-01-01

    Effects of Iboga (Tabernanthe iboga Baillon) on the Root-Knot Nematodes (Meloidogyne sp.) in Tomato. The tomato crop in tropical areas arises phytosanitary problems because of many disastrous parasites among which the Meloidogyne genus are in the origin of important damages and the origin of the tomato production decrease in Gabon. How can people manage to control these parasites by using local plants? Out of the chemical control, the works we have done, focused on the usage of Tabernanthe ib...

  19. USO DE LA BIOFUMIGACIÓN PARA EL MANEJO DE Meloidogyne spp., EN LAPRODUCCIÓN PROTEGIDA DE HORTALIZAS / USE OF BIOFUMIGATION FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF Meloidogyne spp.INVEGETABLE SHELTERED PRODUCTION

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Lucila, Gómez; E, González; R, Enrique; M.A, Hernández; Mayra G, Rodríguez.

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó el efecto de la biofumigación del suelo con estiércol vacuno sobreMeloidogyne spp., en un túnel de cultivo protegido durante dos ciclos sucesivos de tomate y pepino. El estiércol vacuno semi-descompuesto se incorporó al suelo de los canteros (10kg.m de suelo) antes del establecimiento de l [...] os cultivos. Para determinar el efecto de la biofumigación sobre las poblaciones de Meloidogyne spp. en el suelo, se determinó el índice de infestación antes y después de la biofumigación, utilizando el método indirecto de bioensayo por planta indicadora, a partir de muestras colectadas a lo largo de los cinco canteros del túnel. Previo a la conformación de los semilleros, las semillas de cada cultivo se peletizaron con ECOMIC (10% del peso de la semilla) y recibieron la aplicación de FITOMAS (3mL. L de agua). Al término de cada cosecha se extrajeron las raíces en su totalidad y se determinó el grado de agallamiento. También se registraron los rendimientos de cada cultivo, expresados en kg de producto.túnel. El índice de infestación en suelo por Meloidogyne spp., después de la biofumigación disminuyó de 4,8 a 1,8 grados. El grado de agallamiento al final de cada ciclo de los cultivos evaluados se mantuvo por debajo de tres y los rendimientos alcanzados superaron en un 50% el obtenido en cosechas anteriores. En este trabajo se confirma que la biogumigación de suelos es una alternativa práctica para el manejo de Meloidogyne spp. en la producción protegida de hortalizas. Abstract in english The effect of soil biofumigation on Meloidogyne spp. during two crop cycles (tomatocucumber) grown under sheltered conditions was evaluated. Semi-rotted cattle manure, used as the biofumigation material, was incorporated in the soil of the plots at a dose of 10 kg.m of soil. Before and after biofumi [...] gation, the soil infestation index of Meloidogyne spp. was determined in soil samples taken along the five plots of the tunnel using the indirect bioassay method. The seeds of both tomato and cucumber crops were pelleted with ECOMIC(10% of seed weight) and FITOMAS (3 mL.L of water) before the seedbeds were set up. The entire root system of each crop was removed from the soil at the end of the harvest. The gall index in the root system of both crops was evaluated. The yields of each crop were also recorded as kg of product per tunnel. The infestation level of the soil after biofumigation decreased from 4,8 to 1,8 degree. The gall index at the end of each crop cycle was always below three. The yields achieved in both crops were 50% higher than those obtained in these crops before this experiment. The results of this work confirm that soil biofumigation is a practicable alternative for the management of the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne spp. in the vegetable production under sheltered conditions.

  20. Seleção de isolados de Paecilomyces lilacinus (Thom.) Samson para controle de Meloidogyne paranaensis em tomateiro / Selection of isolates of Paecilomyces lilacinus (Thom.) Samson to control Meloidogyne paranaensis in tomato

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Débora Cristina, Santiago; Martin, Homechin; João Flávio Veloso, Silva; Emerson Rodrigo, Ribeiro; Bruno Caetano, Gomes; Patrícia Helena, Santoro.

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Paecilomyces lilacinus é uma espécie fúngica utilizada no controle biológico de nematóides, sendo uma das mais estudadas a campo. O trabalho teve como objetivo selecionar isolados de Paecilomyces lilacinus quanto à capacidade de controlar Meloidogyne paranaensis em tomateiro cv. "Santa Clara", em de [...] casa-de-vegetação. Plantas cultivadas em vasos foram inoculadas com M. paranaensis. Após 45 dias da inoculação, efetuou-se a substituição dos tomateiros e foram aplicados 50 gramas de arroz autoclavado e colonizado por P. lilacinus. Decorridos 45 dias da inoculação do fungo, foram avaliados: número de galhas, massa de ovos, número de ovos por sistema radicular, peso da massa fresca da parte aérea, do sistema radicular e sobrevivência do P. lilacinus no solo. Todos os tratamentos com incorporação de P. lilacinus reduziram a população de M. paranaensis em raízes de tomateiro. Os isolados UEL pae 05, 08, 09, 13, 20, 21, 38, 41, 44, 54, ESALQ 831 e 832 foram os melhores no controle de M. paranaensis, afetando a reprodução dos nematóides e apresentando elevada sobrevivência no solo. Abstract in english Paecilomyces lilacinus is a fungal species used in biological control of nematodes. It is considered one of the most frequently evaluated fungus under field conditions. The present study aimed to select P. lilacinus isolates with regard to their capacity in controlling Meloidogyne paranaensis in tom [...] ato. Santa Clara tomato plants were grown in pots and inoculated with M. paranaensis under greenhouse conditions. The tomato plants were replaced 45 days after inoculation with 50 grams of autoclaved rice colonized with P. lilacinus. Forty-five days after fungus inoculation the number of galls, egg masses, number of eggs in root system, aerial part mass weight, root mass weight and P. lilacinus survival in the soil were evaluated. All treatments involving P. lilacinus incorporation reduced the population of M. paranaensis in tomato roots. UEL pae 05, 08, 09, 13, 20, 21, 38, 41, 44, 54, ESALQ 831 e 832 were the best in the control of M. paranaensis, affecting reproduction of the nematodes and showing a high survival rate in the soil.

  1. Reaction of Cultivar Coffee 'Vitória INCAPER 8142' of Cornillon to Parasitism of Meloidogyne exigua / Reacción del Cultivar de café 'Vitória INCAPER 8142' de Cornillon al parasitismo de Meloidogyne exigua

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Cristiano C, Contarato; Marcelo A, Tomaz; Fábio R, Alves; Fabrício M, Sobreira; Waldir C. de Jesus, Junior; Lilian K.C, Rabello; Maria A.G, Ferrão; Romário G, Ferrão.

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Entre los factores que limitan la productividad de los cultivos de café en Brasil son las enfermedades, especialmente el nematodo Meloidogyne exigua presenta relevancia. El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar la resistencia de 13 clones (1V, 2V, 3V, 4V, 5V, 6V, 7V, 8V, 9V, 10V, 11V, 12V y 13V) que [...] comprenden la variedad clonal de café Conillón "Vitoria INCAPER 8142" (Coffea canephora Pierre), a M. exigua. Clones y un testigo (C. arabica cv. Catuai IAC-44) se inocularon con 7.000 individuos (huevos + juveniles) de M. exigua. Después de 180 días de la inoculación se determinó la población final de nematodos por planta. Para determinar los niveles de resistencia se consideró el factor de la reproducción y el Indice de reproducción. El cultivar "Victoria INCAPER 8142" mostró clones con diferentes niveles de resistencia. Los clones 1V, 4V, 7V, 9V e 12V se comportaron como huésped susceptible y eficiente, y los otros clones fueron anfitriones menos resistentes o ineficientes. Abstract in english Among factors limiting to the yield of the coffee crop are the diseases, deserving prominence the nematode Meloidogyne exigua. The objective of this work was to assess the level of resistance of 13 clones (1V, 2V, 3V, 4V, 5V, 6V, 7V, 8V, 9V, 10V, 11V, 12V and 13V) wich composes the clonal variety 'V [...] itória INCAPER 8142' of conilon coffee (Coffea canephora Pierre), to M. exigua. The 13 clones and more one control (C. arabica, cv. Catuaí IAC-44) were inoculated with 7,000 individuals of M. exigua. After 180 days of inoculation, the final population of nematodes per root system was determined. For determination of the resistance levels, both the reproduction factor and the reduction of the reproduction factor were considered. The variety 'Vitória INCAPER 8142' presented clones with different levels of resistance. Clones 1V, 4V, 7V, 9V and 12V behaved as susceptible or efficient host and the other clones were resistant or non-efficient host.

  2. Induction of Tolerance to Root-Knot Nematode by Oxycom

    OpenAIRE

    Anwar, Safdar A.; McKenry, M.V.; Yang, Kwang-Yeol; Anderson, A. J.

    2003-01-01

    Oxycom applications increased plant growth and population levels of Meloidogyne incognita on susceptible tomato. A single Oxycom drench at 2,500 ppm applied 7 days prior to inoculation with M. incognita provided remediation of plant growth measured 63 days later. This occurred without reducing nematode population levels. Follow-up drenches at 2,500 ppm at 10-day intervals stunted shoots and roots (P = 0.05). The same application rates at 20-day intervals did not reduce plant growth. Plants re...

  3. Efficacy of Bacillus thuringiensis, Paecilomyces marquandii,and Streptomyces costaricanus with and without Organic Amendments against Meloidogyne hapla Infecting Lettuce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, J; Abawi, G S; Zuckerman, B M

    2000-03-01

    Chitin, wheat mash, or brewery compost were incorporated into unfumigated and methyl bromide-fumigated organic soils placed in microplots formed from cylindrical drainage tiles (0.25 m-diam. clay tile). After 3 weeks, Meloidogyne hapla and cell or spore suspensions of Bacillus thuringiensis, Paecilomyces marquandii, and Streptomyces costaricanus were individually added to the soils of designated microplots. A B. thuringiensis + S. costaricanus combination was also tested. Lettuce seedlings, cv. Montello, were transplanted into the soils 3 to 4 days later. All the bacterial and fungal antagonists applied without a soil amendment, except the B. thuringiensis + S. costaricanus treatment, reduced root galling and increased lettuce head weight in the unfumigated organic soil, but not in the fumigated soil. All three amendments were also effective against M. hapla and reduced root galling in fumigated and unfumigated soils. Wheat mash amendment increased lettuce head weight in the unfumigated soil. In general, no antagonist x amendment interaction was detected. Soil populations of B. thuringiensis were maintained at >/=4.0 log10 colony-forming units/g organic soil during the first 14 days after planting. However, viable cells of B. thuringiensis were not detected after 49 days. PMID:19270951

  4. Respuesta de Zamia incognita L. al cultivo in vitro, una alternativa para su conservación / In vitro culture response of Zamia incognita, an alternative for preservation

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Aura, I. Urrea; Sonia, Gomez; Esther J., Naranjo.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Las Zamiaceas son plantas relictuales consideradas fósiles vivientes. En Colombia, el 65% de esta familia se encuentra en alguna categoría de amenaza, por la destrucción del hábitat e intensa recolección. Teniendo en cuenta que entre las ventajas de la propagación in vitro está la conservación ex si [...] tu de germoplasma, el presente trabajo tuvo como objetivo evaluar el potencial de regeneración de plantas de Z. incognita a partir de explantes foliares y embriones cigoticos. Se evaluó el efecto de diferentes combinaciones de Auxinas (2,4-D y ANA) y citoquininas (KIN, BAP y TDZ) sobre la formación de callo y la regeneración de brotes (directa o indirecta), utilizando como medio basal MS (MB1) y medio basal B5 modificado (MB2). La formación de callo se presentó sobre un amplio rango de concentraciones de 2,4-D con KIN y 2,4-D con BAP, independientemente del medio basal, pero no en los explantes tratados con ANA más KIN o TDZ. Para los explantes foliares no hubo respuesta a la formación de embriones somáticos y/o brotes con las combinaciones y concentraciones hormonales evaluadas, no obstante los callos inducidos en MB2 con 2,4-D (0,22 mg/l) y BAP (0, 1, 2, 3 mg/l) fueron diferentes, su aspecto nodular, color crema y apariencia proembriogénica coincidió con una gran cantidad de células meristemáticas potenciales para el proceso de regeneración. A partir de embriones cigoticos inmaduros se logró la formación de embriones somáticos en el medio MB2 exento de reguladores o conteniendo 2,4-D solo (0,22 mg/l) y en combinación con BAP (1 mg/l), sin lograr el proceso de conversión a plántulas. Abstract in english Zamiaceas are relict plants considered living fossils. In Colombia, 65% of this family is under some threat category due to their habitat destruction and their intense collection. Given that the advantages of in vitro propagation is ex situ conservation of germoplasm, this study aimed to evaluate th [...] e regeneration potential of Z incognita plants from leaf explants and zygotic embryos. The effect of different combinations of auxin (2.4-D and NAA) and cytokinins (KIN, BAP and TDZ) was evaluated on the formation of callus and shoot regeneration (direct or indirect), using MS (MB1) basal medium and B5 (MB2) basal modified medium. The callus formation was presented over a wide concentration range of 2.4-D with KIN and 2.4-D with BAP, regardless of the basal medium, but not in explants treated with ANA more TDZ or KIN. For leaf explants there was no response to the formation of somatic embryos or shoots with hormonal combinations and concentrations evaluated; however, MB2 calluses induced with 2.4-D (0.22 mg / l) and BAP (0. 1 , 2. 3 mg / l) were different, their nodular aspect, cream color and pro-embryogenic appearance coincided with a lot of potential meristematic cells for the regeneration process. From immature zygotic embryos, somatic embryo formation in the MB2 medium was achieved without growth regulators or containing 2.4-D alone (0.22 mg /l) or 2.4-D in combination with BAP (1 mg/l) without achieving the conversion process to seedlings.

  5. Desenvolvimento de Pasteuria penetrans em Meloidogyne spp. parasitando diferentes espécies vegetais Development of Pasteuria penetrans in Meloidogyne spp. parasitizing different host plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana K. Rodrigues

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available A bactéria Pasteuria penetrans é um parasita obrigatório do nematóide das galhas (Meloidogyne spp. e produz esporos que persistem por anos no solo. A sua produção por cultivo in vitro ainda é inviável e a produção de inoculo requer o seu cultivo in vivo em nematóides parasitando plantas em vasos. Neste trabalho, buscou-se, por meio do estudo histológico de raízes, averiguar diferenças no desenvolvimento de P. penetrans em Meloidogyne spp. parasitando raízes de tomateiro (Lycopersicon esculentum, maxixe (Cucumis anguria e camapu (Physalis angulata, e possíveis razões para estas diferenças, como forma e tamanho de células gigantes e das fêmeas do nematóide. O maxixe foi o pior dentre os hospedeiros em teste para a produção de inóculo e apresentou células gigantes anormais. A estrutura das células gigantes assim como o desenvolvimento da bactéria foram semelhantes no camapu e no tomateiro, entretanto o ciclo de vida de P. penetrans foi ligeiramente mais curto no tomateiro.The bacterium Pasteuria penetrans is an obligate parasite of root-knot nematodes and produces spores that persist in soil for many years. At present, in vitro cultivation is not feasible, thereby requiring inoculum production in vivo cultivation, inside nematode parasitizing potted plants. In this work, the differences in the development of P. penetrans in Meloidogyne spp. parasitizing roots of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum, gherkin (Cucumis anguria and "camapu" (Physalis angulata were evaluated by histopathology of infected roots. Possible reasons for the differences found were analyzed, such as change in the giant cells or nematode females. The gherkin was the worst host for inoculum production and presented abnormal giant cells. The anatomy of giant cells and the bacterium development were similar in tomato and "camapu" root systems, but the P. penetrans life cicle was slightly shorter in tomato than in camapu.

  6. Desenvolvimento de Pasteuria penetrans em Meloidogyne spp. parasitando diferentes espécies vegetais / Development of Pasteuria penetrans in Meloidogyne spp. parasitizing different host plants

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Adriana K., Rodrigues; Leandro G., Freitas; Aristéa A., Azevedo; Silamar, Ferraz.

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available A bactéria Pasteuria penetrans é um parasita obrigatório do nematóide das galhas (Meloidogyne spp.) e produz esporos que persistem por anos no solo. A sua produção por cultivo in vitro ainda é inviável e a produção de inoculo requer o seu cultivo in vivo em nematóides parasitando plantas em vasos. N [...] este trabalho, buscou-se, por meio do estudo histológico de raízes, averiguar diferenças no desenvolvimento de P. penetrans em Meloidogyne spp. parasitando raízes de tomateiro (Lycopersicon esculentum), maxixe (Cucumis anguria) e camapu (Physalis angulata), e possíveis razões para estas diferenças, como forma e tamanho de células gigantes e das fêmeas do nematóide. O maxixe foi o pior dentre os hospedeiros em teste para a produção de inóculo e apresentou células gigantes anormais. A estrutura das células gigantes assim como o desenvolvimento da bactéria foram semelhantes no camapu e no tomateiro, entretanto o ciclo de vida de P. penetrans foi ligeiramente mais curto no tomateiro. Abstract in english The bacterium Pasteuria penetrans is an obligate parasite of root-knot nematodes and produces spores that persist in soil for many years. At present, in vitro cultivation is not feasible, thereby requiring inoculum production in vivo cultivation, inside nematode parasitizing potted plants. In this w [...] ork, the differences in the development of P. penetrans in Meloidogyne spp. parasitizing roots of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum), gherkin (Cucumis anguria) and "camapu" (Physalis angulata) were evaluated by histopathology of infected roots. Possible reasons for the differences found were analyzed, such as change in the giant cells or nematode females. The gherkin was the worst host for inoculum production and presented abnormal giant cells. The anatomy of giant cells and the bacterium development were similar in tomato and "camapu" root systems, but the P. penetrans life cicle was slightly shorter in tomato than in camapu.

  7. Meloidogyne californiensis n. sp. (Nemata: Meloidogyninae), Parasitic On Bulrush, Scirpus robustus Pursh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Rahman, F; Maggenti, A R

    1987-04-01

    Meloidogyne californiensis n. sp. is described and illustrated from bulrush Scirpus robustus in California. LM and SEM studies revealed that this species differs from other known species in the genus Meloidogyne especially by the prominent posterior cuticular protuberances in the female, the distinct shape of the perineal pattern which is marked by one prominent stria in the perineum, indistinct lateral lines, many broken discontinuous striae on both sides of the arch, and the excretory pore being located posterior to stylet base. Second-stage juveniles 448-628 mum long, stylet length 11-13 mum, styler delicate, with small knobs sloping posteriorly, cephalic region with 2 or 3 annuli, and inflated rectum. Males vary greatly in size (712-1,952 mum), stylet length 18-28 mum (mean 22 mum), cephalic region slightly set off the body with two or three annuli, spear heavy with massive rounded knobs, lateral field marked by four areolated incisures as seen by SEM. PMID:19290131

  8. Reproduction of Meloidogyne enterolobii in lettuce cultivars of the American group / Multiplicação de Meloidogyne enterolobii em cultivares de alface do grupo americano

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Érika CSS, Correia; Norberto, Silva; Marylia GS, Costa; Silvia RS, Wilcken.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A alface é a principal hortaliça folhosa cultivada no Brasil, tanto em volume como em valor comercializado. Em áreas de cultivo, a alface tem a sua produtividade comprometida por diversas enfermidades, incluindo as causadas pelos nematoides-das-galhas (Meloidogyne spp). Este trabalho teve como objet [...] ivo avaliar o potencial reprodutivo de Meloidogyne enterolobii em vinte e duas cultivares de alface do tipo americana. As plantas foram inoculadas com 5.000 ovos e eventuais juvenis de segundo estádio de M. enterolobii por vaso, dois dias após o transplante das cultivares. O tomateiro 'Rutgers' foi utilizado como padrão de viabilidade do inóculo de M. enterolobii. Foram avaliados o índice de galhas (IG), índice de massas de ovos (IMO) e fator de reprodução (FR) do nematoide, aos 60 dias após a inoculação. As cultivares Ithaca, Raider Plus, RS-1397, L-104, Challenge, IP-11, Classic, Salinas 88, Vanguard 75, Calona e Desert Queen apresentaram resistência a M. enterolobii, com FR variando de 0,22 a 0,9, e as cultivares Lady, Winterset, Robinson, Sonoma, Raider, Lucy Brown, Bnondaga, Summer Time, Tainá, Sundevil e L-109 foram suscetíveis a esse nematoide, com FR variando de 1,06 a 5,73. Abstract in english Lettuce is the main vegetable cultivated in Brazil, in volume and in marketed value. There are ranges of diseases which may affect lettuce crops, including those caused by root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp.). We evaluated the reproductive potential of Meloidogyne enterolobii in 22 lettuce cultiva [...] rs. The plants were inoculated with 5,000 eggs and eventuals second stage juveniles of nematode per pot, two days after the transplanting. 'Rutgers' tomato was used as standard for inoculum viability of M. enterolobii. We evaluated, 60 days after inoculation, the gall index, egg mass index and reproduction factor (RF). The 'Ithaca', 'Raider Plus', 'RS-1397', 'L-104', 'Challenge', 'IP-11', 'Classic', 'Salinas 88', 'Vanguard 75', 'Calona' and 'Desert Queen' were resistant to M. enterolobii with RF varying from 0.22 to 0.9, and the cultivars Lady Winterset, Robinson, Sonoma, Raider, Lucy Brown, Bnondaga, Summer Time, Taina, Sundevil and L-109 were susceptible to this nematode, with RF ranging from 1.06 to 5.73.

  9. Histopathogenesis of susceptibe and resistant responses of wheat, barley and wild grasses to Meloidogyne naasi

    OpenAIRE

    Balhadère, P.; Evans, A. A. F.

    1995-01-01

    Les réactions des graminées sauvages #Aegilops variabilis$ et #Hordeum chilense$, plantes totalement résistantes au nématode à galles #Meloidogyne naasi$, sont comparées en microscopie optique aux réactions de deux variétés sensibles de céréales, #Triticum aestivum$ cv. Chinese Spring et #Hordeum vulgare$ cv. Doublet, ainsi qu'à la réaction du cv. d'orge partiellement résistant, Morocco. Dans ces deux premiers cas, la résistance totale fait intervenir de façon très précoce des réactions de ty...

  10. Influence of Urea, Hydroxyurea, and Thiourea on Meloidogyne javanica and Infected Excised Tomato Roots in Culture

    OpenAIRE

    Glazer, I.; Orion, D.

    1984-01-01

    Urea (U), hydroxyurea (HU), and thiourea (TU), in various concentrations, were added to chemically defined plant tissue culture medium on which Meloidogyne javanica was reared on excised tomato roots. Concentrations as low as 3 ppm HU or 12 ppm TU inhibited nematode maturation by 70-90% 4 weeks after inoculation, and the coenocytes in the parasitized tissue were poorly developed. Gall weight was also inhibited by 50% in cultures treated with 3 and 6 ppm HU. However, exposing juveniles of M. j...

  11. Effects of Etomopathiogenic Nematodes on Meloidogyne javanica on Tomatoes and Soybeans

    OpenAIRE

    Fallon, Declan J.; KAYA, Harry K.; Gaugler, Randy; Sipes, Brent S.

    2002-01-01

    Two Hawaiian isolates of Steinernema feltiae MG-14 and Heterohabditis indica MG-13, a French isolate of S. feltiae SN, and a Texan isolate of S. riobrave TX were tested for their efficacy against the root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne javanica, in the laboratory and greenhouse. Experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of treatment application time and dose on M. javanica penetration in soybean, and egg production and plant development in tomato. Two experiments conducted to assess t...

  12. Zinc Improves Biocontrol of Meloidogyne javanica by the Antagonistic Rhizobia

    OpenAIRE

    S.Shahid Shaukat; Imran A. Siddiqui

    2003-01-01

    Mineral amendments influence the performance of antagonistic microorganism to suppress soil-borne fungal and nematode diseases. Experiments were conducted to evaluate the influence of zinc on the production of nematicidal compound(s) in vitro and root-knot infection by Meloidogyne javanica in tomato. Nutrient rich medium amended with various concentrations (0.25-2.0 mM) markedly improved the nematicidal activity of rhizobia in vitro. Species and even strain-specific differences were observed ...

  13. Seleção de isolados de Paecilomyces lilacinus (Thom.) Samson para controle de Meloidogyne paranaensis em tomateiro

    OpenAIRE

    Santiago Débora Cristina; Homechin Martin; Silva João Flávio Veloso; Ribeiro Emerson Rodrigo; Gomes Bruno Caetano; Santoro Patrícia Helena

    2006-01-01

    Paecilomyces lilacinus é uma espécie fúngica utilizada no controle biológico de nematóides, sendo uma das mais estudadas a campo. O trabalho teve como objetivo selecionar isolados de Paecilomyces lilacinus quanto à capacidade de controlar Meloidogyne paranaensis em tomateiro cv. "Santa Clara", em de casa-de-vegetação. Plantas cultivadas em vasos foram inoculadas com M. paranaensis. Após 45 dias da inoculação, efetuou-se a substituição dos tomateiros e foram aplicados 50 gramas de arroz autocl...

  14. Analysis of phenolic and indole acetic acids in Meloidogyne graminicola infected rice plants (Oryza sativa L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Amitabh Singh; Ritesh Kumar Jaiswal; Sudarshan Maurya; Udai Pratap Singh

    2013-01-01

    Meloidogyne spp. incite root-knot disease in the roots of Solanaceous and Cereal crop plants inflicting heavy damage to the crops. M. graminicola, a root-knot nematode is ubiquitous as a rice pathogen wherever rice is grown. High Performance Liquid Chromatographic (HPLC) analysis of phenolic acids in healthy and root-knot infected plant parts of rice indicated that phenolic acid contents were highly variable in both the cases. Upper leaves of healthy plants had seven phenolic acids in which g...

  15. Description and SEM Observations of Meloidogyne sasseri n. sp. (Nematoda: Meloidogynidae), Parasitizing Beachgrasses

    OpenAIRE

    Handoo, Zafar A.; Huettel, Robin N.; Golden, A. Morgan

    1993-01-01

    Meloidogyne sasseri n. sp. is described and illustrated from American beachgrass (Ammophila breviliffulata) originally collected from Henlopen State Park and Fenwick Island near the Maryland state line in Delaware, United States (6). Its relationship to M. graminis, M. spartinae, and M. californiensis is discussed. Primary distinctive characters of the female perineal pattern were a high to rounded arch with shoulders, widely spaced lateral lines interrupting transverse striations, a sunken v...

  16. Levantamento de Meloidogyne exigua na cultura da seringueira em São José do Rio Claro, MT, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernardo Eduardo Roberto de Almeida

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi realizado com o objetivo de efetuar um levantamento da ocorrência de Meloidogyne exigua em seringueira em São José do Rio Claro, MT. Foram amostradas 191 propriedades agrícolas, totalizando cerca de 18.000ha. Os nematóides foram identificados no Laboratório de Nematologia do Departamento de Fitossanidade da FCAV/UNESP, em Jaboticabal, SP. Foram encontrados níveis populacionais de M. exigua entre 0 e 61.824 juvenis/5g de raízes.

  17. Biology and ecology of the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne hispanica : a species of emerging importance

    OpenAIRE

    Maleita, Carla Maria Nobre

    2011-01-01

    Meloidogyne hispanica Hirschmann, 1986 foi detectada pela primeira vez em Espanha causando perdas importantes em Prunus spp. Desde então, esta espécie tem vindo a ser detectada em vários continentes (África, Ásia, Austrália, Europa, e no Norte, Centro e Sul da América) associada a outras culturas economicamente importantes. A identificação correcta desta espécie de nemátodes-das-galhas radiculares (NGR) é fundamental não só para fins de investigação mas também para a concepção ...

  18. Control of Meloidogyne javanica by Formulations of Inula viscosa Leaf Extracts

    OpenAIRE

    Oka, Yuji; Ben-Daniel, Bat-Hen; Cohen, Yigal

    2006-01-01

    Inula viscosa is a perennial plant that is widely distributed in Mediterranean countries. Formulations of I. viscosa extracts were tested for their effectiveness in control of Meloidogyne javanica in laboratory, growth chamber, microplot, and field experiments. Oily pastes were obtained by extraction of dry leaves with a mixture of acetone and n-hexane or n-hexane alone, followed by evaporation of the solvents. Emulsifiable concentrate formulations of the pastes killed M. javanica juveniles i...

  19. Meloidogyne platani n. sp. (Meloidogynidae), a Root-knot Nematode Parasitizing American Sycamore

    OpenAIRE

    Hirschmann, Hedwig

    1982-01-01

    Meloidogyne platani n. sp. is described and illustrated from specimens obtained from roots of American sycamore, Platanus occidentalis, in Virginia. This new species shows certain similarities with M. arenaria but differs from it by a number of distinctive characters. The perineal pattern of females is rounded with fine, wavy to zig-zag striae and raised, convoluted striae in the inner lateral line regions. The stylet of females is 16.5 ?m long with large, rounded stylet knobs set off from th...

  20. Meloidogyne mayaguensis n. sp. (Meloidogynidae), a Root-knot Nematode from Puerto Rico

    OpenAIRE

    Rammah, Abdallah; Hirschmann, Hedwig

    1988-01-01

    Meloidogyne mayaguensis n. sp. is described and illustrated from specimens obtained from galled roots of eggplant, Solanum melongena L., from Puerto Rico. The perineal pattern of females is round to ovoid with fine, widely spaced striae. It has occasional breaks of striation laterally and a circular tail tip area lacking striae. The stylet, 15.8 ?m long, has reniform knobs that merge gradually with the stylet shaft. Males have a high, rectangular, smooth head region, not set off from the body...

  1. Meloidogyne trifoliophila n. sp. (Nemata: Meloidogynidae), a Parasite of Clover from Tennessee

    OpenAIRE

    Bernard, E. C.; Eisenback, J.D.

    1997-01-01

    Meloidogyne trifoliophila n. sp. is described from white clover collected at Ames Plantation, Fayette County, Tennessee. The perineal pattern is rounded, with long, smooth striae and rounded arch, and without distinct lateral lines or perivulval striae. The female stylet is 12.6-15.5 ?m long, the excretory pore is level with or up to one stylet length posterior to the stylet knobs, and the vulva is subterminal. The posterior terminus is weakly protuberant. The male lateral field is composed o...

  2. Penetration of Crotalaria juncea, Dolichos lablab, and Sesamum indicum Roots by Meloidogyne javanica

    OpenAIRE

    Araya, M.; Caswell-Chen, E.P.

    1994-01-01

    Penetration of Crotalaria juncea (PI 207657 and cv. Tropic Sun) Dolichos lablab cv. Highworth, and Sesamum indicum by juveniles (J2) of Meloidogyne javanica was assessed to investigate the mechanism by which these plants may reduce nematode numbers in the field. Growth chamber experiments were conducted at 25 C, with vials containing 90 g sand infested with 450 J2; tomato (UC 204 C) was included as a susceptible host. Fifteen days after inoculation, roots were stained and the nematodes within...

  3. Expression of Tolerance for Meloidogyne graminicola in Rice Cultivars as Affected by Soil Type and Flooding

    OpenAIRE

    Soriano, Imelda R. S.; Prot, Jean-Claude; Matias, Danilo M.

    2000-01-01

    The effects of different water regimes on the pathogenicity of Meloidogyne graminicola on six rice cultivars were determined in two soil types in three greenhouse experiments. Two water regimes, simulating continuous flooding and intermittent flooding, were used with five of the cultivars. All cultivars were susceptible to the nematode, but IR72 and IR74 were more tolerant than IR20 and IR29 under intermittent flooding. All were tolerant under continuous flooding. UPLRi-5 was grown under mult...

  4. Detecção de Meloidogyne enterolobii em mudas de amoreira (Morus nigra L.) / Detection of Meloidogyne Enterolobii in mulberry seedlings (Morus nigra L.)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Vanessa dos Santos, Paes-Takahashi; Pedro Luiz Martins, Soares; Franciele Alves, Carneiro; Rivanildo Junior, Ferreira; Eduardo José de, Almeida; Jaime Maia dos, Santos.

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available O comércio de mudas sem certificação contribui para disseminação de pragas e doenças, que podem causar sérios danos às plantas cultivadas. Na região de Itapetininga (SP), foram apreendidas, pela equipe da Defesa Agropecuária, mudas de aceroleira, goiabeira e amoreira, comercializadas em caminhões, q [...] ue apresentavam galhas nas raízes, sintoma típico causado por Meloidogyne spp. A identificação da espécie foi feita através da morfologia da configuração perineal de fêmeas e região labial de machos, bem como através da caracterização do fenótipo enzimático de esterase. Foi constatada a presença de M. enterolobii nas amostras analisadas. Trata-se do primeiro relato do parasitismo de M. enterolobii em mudas de amoreira no mundo. Abstract in english Trade seedlings without certification contributed to spread pests and diseases which can cause a large damage to grown plants. In Itapetininga (SP), was seized by Agricultural Defense staff, seedlings of barbados cherry, guava and mulberry, sold in trucks, all of that had galls on roots, typical sym [...] ptom caused by Meloidogyne spp. Specie identification was made by morphology of female perineal pattern and male head, as well as characterization of esterase enzyme phenotype. It was confirmed the presence of M. enterolobii in the samples analyzed. This is the first report of M. enterolobii in mulberry seedlings in the world.

  5. Eclosão e mortalidade de Meloidogyne exigua em extratos e em produtos naturais / Hatching and mortality of Meloidogyne exigua in extracts and in natural products

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Sônia M. L., Salgado; Vicente P., Campos.

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available A eclosão e mortalidade de juvenis de segundo estádio (J2) de Meloidogyne exigua foram avaliadas em extratos aquosos de urucum-colorau (Bixa orellana), cravo-da-índia (Syzygium aromaticum), canela (Cinnamomum zeylanicum), pimenta-do-reino (Piper nigrum), gengibre (Zingiber officinale), salsa (Petros [...] elium crispum), soro de leite, solução nutritiva hidropônica, solução aquosa de cloreto de sódio (NaCl) e açúcar (sacarose), fermento biológico e probiótico (Controlmix®). O soro de leite e os extratos de canela, fermento biológico e cloreto de sódio causaram 100% de mortalidade (P Abstract in english The hatching and mortality of Meloidogyne exigua second-stage juveniles (J2) were evaluated after 24 h in aqueous extracts of Bixa orellana, Cinnamomum zeylanicum, Petroselium crispum, Piper nigrum, Syzygium aromaticum, Zingiber officinale whey of milk, hidroponic solution, sodium chloride (NaCl) an [...] d saccharose aqueous solution, yeast and probiotic (Controlmix®) solutions. The whey of milk, C. zeylanicum, yeast and sodium chloride (NaCl) solutions caused 100% mortality of J2 (P

  6. Reação de aceroleira (Malpighia emarginata D.C.) à Meloidogyne enterolobii / Reaction in barbados cherry (Malpighia emarginata D.C.) to Meloidogyne enterolobii

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    José Carlos, Cavichioli; Maria José de Marchi, Garcia; Andressa Lima de, Brida; Sílvia Renata Siciliano, Wilcken.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available O Brasil é o maior produtor, consumidor e exportador de acerola (Malpighia emarginata D.C.) do mundo. Por conter altos teores de vitamina C, tornou-se uma fruta altamente requisitada no mercado mundial para o preparo de sucos e no consumo in natura. Nos últimos anos, as lavouras desta fruta vêm apre [...] sentando um decréscimo nas produções em razäo da ocorrência de nematoides de galhas (Meloidogyne spp.), um dos principais problemas que afetam a cultura. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a resistência de genótipos de aceroleira frente à Meloidogyne enterolobii. O experimento foi conduzido em casa de vegetação do Departamento de Proteção Vegetal, da Faculdade de Ciências Agronômicas/UNESP - Câmpus de Botucatu (SP). Foram utilizados cinco clones: Cereja-Brs-236; Fruta Cor- Brs-238; Roxinha-Brs-237; Mirandópolis; Japi, e três variedades: Okinawa; Olivier e Waldy-CATI. Cada planta foi inoculada com 2.500 ovos e eventuais juvenis de segundo estádio (Pi) de M. enterolobii. Após 60 dias, a parte área de cada planta foi descartada, e o sistema radicular lavado, submetido à coloração com floxina-B e examinado para a obtenção dos índices de galhas (IG) e massa de ovos (IMO), e processados pelo método de trituração em liquidificador, peneiramento e centrifugação com sacarose para a obtenção do número total de ovos (Pf), que foi utilizado para o cálculo do fator de reprodução (Pf/Pi). Todos os clones e as variedades foram considerados suscetíveis à Meloidogyne enterolobii apresentando os fatores de reprodução variando de 4,1 a 18,3. Abstract in english Brazil is the biggest producer, consumer and exporter of acerola (Malpighia emarginata D.C.). It has become a highly requested fruit in the world market for preparing juices and consumption in nature because it contains high levels of vitamin C. Nowadays brazilian acerola orchards have shown decreas [...] e in production due to the occurrence of root-knot nematodes, one of the main problem affecting the culture. The aim of this study was to evaluate the resistance of acerola genotypes to Meloidogyne enterolobii. The experiment was conducted in greenhouse of the Department of Plant Protection of Agronomic Science College - FCA/UNESP - Botucatu, SP. Five clones, Cherry-Brs-236; Fruit Color-Brs-238; Roxinha-Brs-237; Mirandópolis; Japi, and three varieties, Okinawa; Olivier and Waldy-CATI, were studied. Each plant was inoculated with 2,500 M. enterolobii eggs and second stage juveniles (Pi). After 60 days the roots of each plant was washed, staining with phloxine-B and examined for obtaining gall and egg mass indices (GI; EMI), and processed by blender, sieving and centrifugation method to obtain the total number of eggs (Pf), which was used to calculate the reproduction factor (Pf / Pi). All acerola clones and varieties were considered susceptible to Meloidogyne enterolobii, with RF ranging from 4.1 to 18.3.

  7. Differential Response to Root-Knot Nematodes in Prunus Species and Correlative Genetic Implications

    OpenAIRE

    Esmenjaud, D.; Minot, J. C.; Voisin, R.; Pinochet, J.; Simard, M. H.; Salesses, G.

    1997-01-01

    Responses of 17 Prunus rootstocks or accessions (11 from the subgenus Amygdalus and 6 from the subgenus Prunophora) were evaluated against 11 isolates of Meloidogyne spp. including one M. arenaria, four M. incognita, four M. javanica, one M. hispanica, and an unclassified population from Florida. Characterization of plant response to root-knot nematodes was based on a gall index rating. Numbers of females and juveniles plus eggs in the roots were determined for 10 of the rootstocks evaluated ...

  8. Resistance to Root-knot, Reniform, and Soybean Cyst Nematodes in Selected Soybean Breeding Lines

    OpenAIRE

    Davis, E. L.; Meyers, D. M.; Burton, J W; Barker, K.R.

    1998-01-01

    Soybean breeding lines and reported sources of nematode resistance were evaluated in repeated greenhouse tests for resistance to North Carolina populations of the soybean cyst nematode Heterodera glycines, reniform nematode Rotylenchulus reniformis, and the root-knot nematode species Meloidogyne incognita, M. arenaria, and M. arenaria. Lines from the soybean breeding program in Missouri that had 'Hartwig' soybean as a parent were the most resistant to races 1-4 of the soybean cyst nematode an...

  9. Survey of Nematodes on Coffee in Hawaii

    OpenAIRE

    Schenck, S.; Schmitt, D. P.

    1992-01-01

    Surveys of coffee fields in Hawaii during 1989-1991 indicated the presence of 10 nematode species in 8 genera. After coffee was planted in fields previously in sugarcane, populations of Criconemella sp. and Pratylenchus zeae gradually decreased, while Rotylenchulus reniformis and, in one field, Meloidogyne incognita, increased in numbers. Coffee is a poor host of R. reniformis, but weeds in coffee plantations may support this nematode. At present, nematodes pose no serious threat to Hawaii's ...

  10. Characteristics and Efficacy of a Sterile Hyphomycete (ARF18), a New Biocontrol Agent for Heterodera glycines and Other Nematodes

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, D G; Riggs, R. D.

    1991-01-01

    A filamentous, nonsporulating fungus, designated Arkansas Fungus 18 (ARF18), was isolated from 9 of 95 populations of Heterodera glycines, the soybean cyst nematode, in Arkansas. In petri dishes, ARF18 parasitized 89% of H. glycines eggs in cysts. The fungus also infected eggs of Meloidogyne incognita and eggs in cysts of Cactodera betulae, H. graminophila, H. lespedezae, H. leuceilyma, H. schachtii, and H. trifolii. In pot tests, reproduction of SCN was 70% less in untreated field soil that ...

  11. Effect of Gamma-irradiation and Heat on Root-knot Nematode, Meloidogyne javanica

    OpenAIRE

    Chinnasri, B.; Moy, J. H.; Sipes, B.S.; Schmitt, D. P.

    1997-01-01

    Effects of gamma-irradiation on the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne javanica were investigated. A dose of 7.5 kGy killed all second-stage juveniles (J2) within 1 day after treatment. Egg hatch was completely inhibited at 6.25 kGy. A bioassay on tomato measuring galling and egg production was used to determine the infectivity of irradiated J2 and J2 hatched from irradiated eggs. The J2 and eggs irradiated with a dose of 4.25 kGy did not induce galls or reproduce on tomato plants. When nematodes...

  12. Influence of water management on tolerance of rice cultivars for Meloidogyne graminicola

    OpenAIRE

    Tandingan, I.C.; Prot, Jean-Claude; Davide, R.G.

    1996-01-01

    Parmi quinze cultivars de riz testés pour leur sensibilité à #Meloidogyne graminicola$ en sol inondé IR72 était le plus résistant alors que IR29 était le plus sensible et IR36 et IR74 avaient une sensibilité intermédiaire. La multiplication de #M. graminicola$ sur IR29, IR36, IR72 et IR74 et son effet sur leurs rendements en grains ont été testés lorsque ces cultivars étaient cultivés dans des conditions simulant celles du riz pluvial et en sol inondé. Lorsque ces cultivars étaient cultivés e...

  13. Mixtures of Olive Pomace with Different Nitrogen Sources for the Control of Meloidogyne spp. on Tomato

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez-Kábana, R.; Estaún, V; Pinochet, J.; Marfá, O.

    1995-01-01

    The efficacy of mixtures of dry olive (Olea europea) pomace with biuret, guanidine, and melamine for control of root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp.) on tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) was studied in greenhouse experiments. Olive pomace (OP) applied pre-plant at 10 g/kg soil was phytotoxic. Mixtures of OP (10 g/kg soil) with biuret or guanidine at 200-300 mg/kg soil reduced or eliminated the phytotoxic effect, controlled root-knot nematodes, and increased soil esterase activity indicative o...

  14. Host Tests to Differentiate Meloidogyne chitwoodi Races 1 and 2 and M. hapla

    OpenAIRE

    Mojtahedi, H.; Santo, G. S.; Wilson, J. H.

    1988-01-01

    The reproductive factor (R = final egg density at 55 days ÷ 5,000, initial egg density) of Meloidogyne chitwoodi race 2 (alfalfa race) on 46 crop cultivars ranged from 0 to 130. The reproductive efficiency of M. chitwoodi race 1 (non-alfalfa race) and M. chitwoodi race 2 was compared on selected crop cultivars. The basic difference between the two races lay in their differential reproduction on Thor alfalfa and Red Cored Chantenay carrot. M. chitwoodi race 2 reproduced on alfalfa but not on c...

  15. Meloidogyne haplanaria n. sp. (Nematoda: Meloidogynidae), a Root-knot Nematode Parasitizing Peanut in Texas

    OpenAIRE

    Eisenback, J.D.; Bernard, E. C.; Starr, J L; Lee, T. A.; Tomaszewski, E. K.

    2003-01-01

    Meloidogyne haplanaria n. sp. is described and illustrated from specimens parasitizing peanut in Texas. The perineal pattern of the female is rounded to oval with a dorsal arch that is high and rounded except for striae near the vulva, which are low with rounded shoulders. The striae are distinctly forked in the lateral field, and punctations often occur as a small group near the tail tip and singly within the whole perineal pattern. The female stylet is 13-16 µm long and has broad, distinctl...

  16. First report of the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne minor on turfgrass in Belgium

    OpenAIRE

    Viaene, N.; Wiseborn, D.B.; Karssen, G.

    2007-01-01

    The root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne minor, was described during 2004 after it was found on potato roots in a field in the Netherlands and in golf courses in England, Wales, and Ireland (2). Since it is associated with yellow patch disease in turf grass and causes deformation of potato tubers (2), it is important to know whether this organism is already widespread in these and neighboring countries. In addition, it has a relatively wide host range (2,4). A small survey conducted in Belgium was...

  17. Host Suitability of 32 Common Weeds to Meloidogyne hapla in Organic Soils of Southwestern Quebec

    OpenAIRE

    Bélair, G.; Benoit, D.L.

    1996-01-01

    Thirty-two weeds commonly found in the organic soils of southwestern Quebec were evaluated for host suitability to a local isolate of the northern root-knot nematode Meloidogyne hapla under greenhouse conditions. Galls were observed on the roots of 21 species. Sixteen of the 21 had a reproduction factor (Pf/Pi = final number of M. hapla eggs and juveniles per initial number of M. hapla juveniles per pot) higher than carrot (Pf/Pi = 0.37), the major host crop in this agricultural area. Tomato ...

  18. Management of Meloidogyne hapla in Herbaceous Perennial Ornamentals by Sanitation and Resistance

    OpenAIRE

    Lamondia, J. A.

    1997-01-01

    Meloidogyne hapla can be spread in bare-root herbaceous perennial propagation material and may be difficult to control once established in new fields or in the landscape. Root pruning of bare-root plants was investigated as a means of reducing spread and establishment of M. hapla. Plants previously inoculated with 10,000 eggs/plant were root-pruned to remove either a portion or most of the fibrous root system without removing underground stems, buds, tubers, or tuberous roots. Root pruning of...

  19. Effect of Cutting Age on the Resistance of Prunus cerasifera (Myrobalan Plum) to Meloidogyne arenaria

    OpenAIRE

    Esmenjaud, D.; Minot, J. C.; Voisin, R.; Salesses, G.; BONNET, A

    1995-01-01

    The response of softwood cuttings of Myrobalan plum infested after 50 and 105 days with 3,000 second-stage juveniles (J2) of Meloidogyne arenaria was compared to 15-month-old hardwood cuttings in 13 genotypes ranging from highly resistant to susceptible. Gall index and number of galls were recorded 30 days after infestation. Fifty-day-old cuttings rooted in perlite developed many rootlets, but had only incipient galls after infestation. In sand, rooting of 50-day-old cuttings not treated with...

  20. Evaluation of soil treatments for control of Meloidogyne Arenaria in caladium tubers (Caladium × Hortulanum) and nematode susceptibility of selected cultivars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field and greenhouse studies were conducted to assess the effectiveness of soil fumigants for control of Meloidogyne arenaria on harvested caladium (Caladium × hortulanum) tubers, to determine the susceptibility of five commonly grown caladium cultivars to M. arenaria, and to evaluate effects of fum...

  1. MORPHOLOGICAL AND MOLECULAR CHARACTERIZATION OF MELOIDOGYNE FLORIDAE N. SP. (NEMATODA: MELOIDOGYNIDAE), A ROOT-KNOT NEMATODE PARASITIZING PEACH IN FLORIDA

    Science.gov (United States)

    A root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne floridae n. sp., is described and photographed from peach (Prunus persica (L.) Batsch) roots from Gainesville, Florida. It is characterized by: having a distinctive perineal pattern with a high to narrowly rounded arch, coarse broken and network like striae in and a...

  2. Analysis of Gene expression in soybean (Glycine max) roots in response to the root knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita using microarrays and KEGG pathways

    OpenAIRE

    Gamal El-Din Abd El Kader Y; Hussein Ebtissam HA; Alkharouf Nadim W; Hosseini Parsa; Ibrahim Heba MM; Aly Mohammed AM; Matthews Benjamin F.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Root-knot nematodes are sedentary endoparasites that can infect more than 3000 plant species. Root-knot nematodes cause an estimated $100 billion annual loss worldwide. For successful establishment of the root-knot nematode in its host plant, it causes dramatic morphological and physiological changes in plant cells. The expression of some plant genes is altered by the nematode as it establishes its feeding site. Results We examined the expression of soybean (Glycine max) g...

  3. HOSPEDABILITY OF Malphighia punicifolia L. TO Meloidogyne javanica AND M. arenaria, STRAIN 2 HOSPEDABILIDADE DE ACEROLA (Malpighia punicifolia L. A Meloidogyne javanica E M. arenaria RAÇA 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilson da Cunha Costa

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    The root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne spp. attacks several species causing significant yield losses. Plants of Barbados cherry (Malpighia punicifolia L. infected by root-knot nematodes exhibit yellowish, reduction in leaf size and dwarfism, and this may even result in death. Taking into consideration the importance of Barbados cherry in Brazil and the lack of research on the influence of these parasites on the crop, this study was carried out with the objective of studying the behaviour of selected genotypes of Barbados cherry infected by M. javanica and M. arenaria, strain 2. Two trials were established following a completely randomized experimental design with six replicates. Plants of M. punicifolia L. propagated by cuttings were inoculated with a suspension containing eggs plus second juvenile stage of M. arenaria, strain 2 (15,000 and M. javanica (17,900. Plants were kept in greenhouse for 90 days. Host capacity of the genotypes was evaluated by gall indexes and mass of eggs for each root system and classified as resistant and susceptible. All genotypes behaved as susceptible to the species of root-knot nematodes tested.

    KEY-WORDS: Malpighia punicifolia; root-knot nematodes; host plant resistance.

    O nematóide das galhas (Meloidogyne spp. ataca várias culturas causando elevadas perdas de produção. Plantas de acerola infectadas exibem amarelecimento, redução do tamanho das folhas e nanismo, podendo resultar na morte das mesmas. Devido à grande importância da cultura e à escassez de pesquisas sobre a severidade deste parasito em plantas de acerola no Brasil, este trabalho objetivou estudar o comportamento de alguns genótipos de acerola, a Meloidogyne javanica e M. arenaria raça 2. Foram realizados dois ensaios em delineamento inteiramente casualizado com seis repetições. Mudas de acerola produzidas por estaquia foram inoculadas com uma suspensão de ovos + juvenis de 2° estágio de 15.000 e 17.900 de M. arenaria raça 2 e M. javanica, respectivamente, permanecendo 90 dias em casa de vegetação. Após este período, a hospedabilidade dos genótipos foi caracterizada, com base nos índices de galhas e massas de ovos para cada sistema radicular, como resistente e suscetível. Todos os genótipos comportaram-se como suscetíveis às espécies de nematóides de galhas avaliadas.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Nematóides das galhas; resistência; Malpighia punicifolia.

  4. Reprodução de Meloidogyne javanica em olerícolas e em plantas utilizadas na adubação verde Meloidogyne javanica reproduction on vegetable crops and plants used as green manure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana M.O. Rosa

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do trabalho foi determinar o fator de reprodução de Meloidogyne javanica nas olerícolas alho poró (Allium porrum, cebolinha (A. schoenoprasum, coentro (Coriandrum sativum, salsa (Petroselinum crispum, beterraba (Beta vulgaris, cenoura (Dacus carota, rabanete (Raphanus sativus, brócolis, couve flor e repolho (Brassica spp., alface (Lactuca sativa, pimentão e pimenta (Capsicum spp., e em plantas de adubação verde Cajanus cajan, Crotalaria breviflora, C. juncea, C. mucronata, C. ochroleuca, C. spectabilis, Dolichos lalab, Helianthus annuus, Lollium multiflorum, M. aterrima, M. cinereum, Mucuna deeringiana, Pennisetum glaucum e Raphanus sativus. Os experimentos foram conduzidos em casa de vegetação durante 60 dias. A infestação do substrato foi realizada com 5.000 ovos e juvenis de segundo estádio de M. javanica. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado com seis repetições por tratamento. As plantas imunes a M. javanica foram: salsa graúda 'Portuguesa', os brócolis 'Bruxelas' e 'Tronchuda Portuguesa', as pimentas 'Dedo de Moça', 'Malagueta', 'Doce Italiana', 'Jalapeño M', 'Amarela Comprida' e 'Cambuci', os pimentões 'Dagmar', 'Casca Dura Ikeda', 'Magna Super' e os porta enxertos para pimentão 'Silver' e 'AF 8253'. As plantas resistentes a M. javanica foram: alface 'Roxa', cebolinhas 'Tokyo' e 'Nebuka', alho 'Poró Gigante', salsa 'Lisa Comum', brócolis 'Brasília', azevém, C. spectabilis, C. juncea, C. breviflora, girassol 'Uruguai', guandu anão, milheto e mucuna preta.The goal of this work was to determinate the Meloidogyne javanica reproduction factor on vegetable crops (Allium porrum, A. schoenoprasum, Beta vulgaris, Brassica spp., Capsicum spp., Coriandrum sativum, Daucus carota, Lactuca sativa, Petroselinum crispum and Raphanus sativus and on plants used as green manure (Cajanus cajan, Crotalaria breviflora, C. juncea, C. mucronata, C. ochroleuca, C. spectabilis, Dolichos lalab, Helianthus annuus, Lollium multiflorum, M. aterrima, M. cinereum, Mucuna deeringiana, Pennisetum glaucum and Raphanus sativus. The experiments were carried out in a greenhouse during 60 days. The substrate infestation was made with 5,000 eggs and possible second stage juveniles of M. javanica. The immune plants to M. javanica were: P. crispum 'Portuguesa', Brassica spp. 'Bruxelas and 'Tronchuda Portuguesa', Capsicum spp. 'Dedo de Moça', 'Malagueta', 'Doce Italiana', 'Jalapeño M', 'Amarela Comprida', 'Cambuci', 'Dagmar', 'Casca Dura Ikeda', 'Magna Super', 'Silver' and 'AF 8253'. The resistant plants were: L. sativa 'Roxa', A. schoenoprasum 'Tokyo' and 'Nebuka', A. porrum 'Poró Gigante', P. crispum 'Lisa Comum', D. carota 'Brasília', L. multiflorum, C. spectabilis, C. juncea, C. breviflora, H. annuus 'Uruguai', C. cajan 'Iapar 43', P. glaucum and M. aterrima.

  5. Reprodução de Meloidogyne javanica em olerícolas e em plantas utilizadas na adubação verde / Meloidogyne javanica reproduction on vegetable crops and plants used as green manure

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Juliana M.O., Rosa; Juliana N., Westerich; Silvia Renata S., Wilcken.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do trabalho foi determinar o fator de reprodução de Meloidogyne javanica nas olerícolas alho poró (Allium porrum), cebolinha (A. schoenoprasum), coentro (Coriandrum sativum), salsa (Petroselinum crispum), beterraba (Beta vulgaris), cenoura (Dacus carota), rabanete (Raphanus sativus), bróc [...] olis, couve flor e repolho (Brassica spp.), alface (Lactuca sativa), pimentão e pimenta (Capsicum spp.), e em plantas de adubação verde Cajanus cajan, Crotalaria breviflora, C. juncea, C. mucronata, C. ochroleuca, C. spectabilis, Dolichos lalab, Helianthus annuus, Lollium multiflorum, M. aterrima, M. cinereum, Mucuna deeringiana, Pennisetum glaucum e Raphanus sativus. Os experimentos foram conduzidos em casa de vegetação durante 60 dias. A infestação do substrato foi realizada com 5.000 ovos e juvenis de segundo estádio de M. javanica. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado com seis repetições por tratamento. As plantas imunes a M. javanica foram: salsa graúda 'Portuguesa', os brócolis 'Bruxelas' e 'Tronchuda Portuguesa', as pimentas 'Dedo de Moça', 'Malagueta', 'Doce Italiana', 'Jalapeño M', 'Amarela Comprida' e 'Cambuci', os pimentões 'Dagmar', 'Casca Dura Ikeda', 'Magna Super' e os porta enxertos para pimentão 'Silver' e 'AF 8253'. As plantas resistentes a M. javanica foram: alface 'Roxa', cebolinhas 'Tokyo' e 'Nebuka', alho 'Poró Gigante', salsa 'Lisa Comum', brócolis 'Brasília', azevém, C. spectabilis, C. juncea, C. breviflora, girassol 'Uruguai', guandu anão, milheto e mucuna preta. Abstract in english The goal of this work was to determinate the Meloidogyne javanica reproduction factor on vegetable crops (Allium porrum, A. schoenoprasum, Beta vulgaris, Brassica spp., Capsicum spp., Coriandrum sativum, Daucus carota, Lactuca sativa, Petroselinum crispum and Raphanus sativus) and on plants used as [...] green manure (Cajanus cajan, Crotalaria breviflora, C. juncea, C. mucronata, C. ochroleuca, C. spectabilis, Dolichos lalab, Helianthus annuus, Lollium multiflorum, M. aterrima, M. cinereum, Mucuna deeringiana, Pennisetum glaucum and Raphanus sativus). The experiments were carried out in a greenhouse during 60 days. The substrate infestation was made with 5,000 eggs and possible second stage juveniles of M. javanica. The immune plants to M. javanica were: P. crispum 'Portuguesa', Brassica spp. 'Bruxelas and 'Tronchuda Portuguesa', Capsicum spp. 'Dedo de Moça', 'Malagueta', 'Doce Italiana', 'Jalapeño M', 'Amarela Comprida', 'Cambuci', 'Dagmar', 'Casca Dura Ikeda', 'Magna Super', 'Silver' and 'AF 8253'. The resistant plants were: L. sativa 'Roxa', A. schoenoprasum 'Tokyo' and 'Nebuka', A. porrum 'Poró Gigante', P. crispum 'Lisa Comum', D. carota 'Brasília', L. multiflorum, C. spectabilis, C. juncea, C. breviflora, H. annuus 'Uruguai', C. cajan 'Iapar 43', P. glaucum and M. aterrima.

  6. DANOS CAUSADOS POR Meloidogyne javânica (TREUB 1885 Chitwood, 1949 NA CULTURA DO TOMATE DE ÁRVORE, Cyphomandra betacea (Canavilles Sendtner, 1845 (Solanaceae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SILVA, Pollyanna Tavares da

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The trial was realized in Dr. Francisco Maeda University area, in the city of Ituverava, state ofSão Paulo. The objective of this work was to evaluate the damage of five different densities population of thenematode Meloidogyne javanica in Cyphomandra betacea plants. The tests were realized in pots were inoculated0, 10, 100, 1.000, 10.000 e 100.000 eggs per plant. The trial was conducted in the period o f 01.05.2003 to01.11.2003. During the test was measuring the height of the plants were collected in fresh matter weight ofshoots, fresh weight of roots and applied note of infestation of galls on roots. The experimental delineation used was the complete randon design (CRD, with the averages compared with Tukey test, at 5% of probability. Theresults showed that during the test, the nematodes have taken whole the entire root system of the plant, reducingthe growth capacity of the same. The shoot has virtually no differences between treatments and control.O experimento foi realizado no Campus da Faculdade “Dr. Francisco Maeda”, Município deItuverava, SP. O presente trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar os danos de cinco diferentes densidadespopulacionais de nematóides do gênero Meloidogyne javânica nas plantas de Cyphomandra betacea. Os testesforam realizados em vasos onde foram inoculados 0, 10, 100, 1.000, 10.000 e 100.000 ovos por planta. O ensaiofoi conduzido no período de 01.05.2003 a 01.11.2003. Durante o ensaio foi medida a altura das plantas, foramcoletados peso de matéria fresca da parte aérea, peso de raízes frescas e aplicadas notas de infestação de galhasem raiz. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o Delineamento Inteiramente Casualizado (DIC, com asmédias comparadas com o teste de Tukey, a 5,0% de probabilidade. Os resultados demonstraram que no períododo ensaio, os nematóides tomaram praticamente todo o sistema radicular da planta, reduzindo a capacidade decrescimento da mesma. A parte aérea praticamente não sofreu diferenças entre os tratamentos e testemunha.

  7. Effect of continuous growing of resistant soybean genotypes on Meloidogyne arenaria race 1 reproduction Efeito do plantio contínuo de genótipos resistentes de soja na reprodução de Meloidogyne arenaria raça 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ELVIRA M.R. PEDROSA

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available Even though resistance is the most promising tactic for root-knot nematode management on soybean (Glycine max, virulent biotypes may occur and be selected on specific resistant plant genotypes. In the present study, reproduction rate of Meloidogyne arenaria race 1 increased after four sequences of continuous culture of the parasite on resistant soybean genotypes.Muito embora o uso de cultivares resistentes seja a tática de controle mais promissora para o manejo da meloidoginose em soja (Glycine max, biótipos virulentos podem ocorrer no campo e serem selecionados por genótipos resistentes específicos. No presente estudo, a taxa de reprodução de um isolado de Meloidogyne arenaria raça 1 aumentou após quatro cultivos contínuos em genótipos de soja resistentes.

  8. Effect of continuous growing of resistant soybean genotypes on Meloidogyne arenaria race 1 reproduction / Efeito do plantio contínuo de genótipos resistentes de soja na reprodução de Meloidogyne arenaria raça 1

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    ELVIRA M.R., PEDROSA; ROMERO M., MOURA.

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available Muito embora o uso de cultivares resistentes seja a tática de controle mais promissora para o manejo da meloidoginose em soja (Glycine max), biótipos virulentos podem ocorrer no campo e serem selecionados por genótipos resistentes específicos. No presente estudo, a taxa de reprodução de um isolado d [...] e Meloidogyne arenaria raça 1 aumentou após quatro cultivos contínuos em genótipos de soja resistentes. Abstract in english Even though resistance is the most promising tactic for root-knot nematode management on soybean (Glycine max), virulent biotypes may occur and be selected on specific resistant plant genotypes. In the present study, reproduction rate of Meloidogyne arenaria race 1 increased after four sequences of [...] continuous culture of the parasite on resistant soybean genotypes.

  9. Mangrove formulations for the management of meloidogyne javanica (treub) chitwood under field conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Six months field experiment were set up from June to November in Department of Botany, University of Karachi to investigate the influence of mangroves (Avicennia marina, Rhizophora mucronata) parts separately or combined parts for the control of Meloidogyne javanica (Treub.) Chitwood. Mangroves parts including leaves, stem, pneumatophore and combined parts were applied to field in form of powder at rate of 60 g/plot, capsules and pellets at 120 g/plot. Results pertaining to seed germination percentage, plant length, plant weight and yield showed outstanding improvement in both okra and mung bean when combined parts pellets of A. marina and R. mucronata were used. All parts of A. marina, R. mucronata pellets and powder were effective in controlling of M. javanica infection but maximum reduction in root knot nematode were obtained by the amendment of mangrove combined parts powder. (author)

  10. Comportamento de duas cultivares de feijoeiro em relação a Meloidogyne javanica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silva Rogério Theodoro Vieira da

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Devido à escassez de informações sobre fontes de resistência a Meloidogyne no gênero Phaseolus, o presente trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar, em casa-de-vegetação, nos períodos de verão e inverno, o comportamento das cultivares de feijoeiro Pérola e Iapar 81 frente a M. javanica. Os dados de reprodução de M. javanica, independente do período do ano e da época de avaliação, mostraram que ambas as cultivares foram eficientes hospedeiras na multiplicação de M. javanica. Em termos médios, a cultivar Pérola apresentou as maiores taxas de reprodução quando comparada a Iapar 81. Apesar de ambas as cultivares serem suscetíveis nas diferentes concentrações de inóculo, não houve redução no rendimento das mesmas.

  11. Seleção de isolados de Paecilomyces lilacinus (Thom.) Samson para controle de Meloidogyne paranaensis em tomateiro Selection of isolates of Paecilomyces lilacinus (Thom.) Samson to control Meloidogyne paranaensis in tomato

    OpenAIRE

    Débora Cristina Santiago; Martin Homechin; João Flávio Veloso Silva; Emerson Rodrigo Ribeiro; Bruno Caetano Gomes; Patrícia Helena Santoro

    2006-01-01

    Paecilomyces lilacinus é uma espécie fúngica utilizada no controle biológico de nematóides, sendo uma das mais estudadas a campo. O trabalho teve como objetivo selecionar isolados de Paecilomyces lilacinus quanto à capacidade de controlar Meloidogyne paranaensis em tomateiro cv. "Santa Clara", em de casa-de-vegetação. Plantas cultivadas em vasos foram inoculadas com M. paranaensis. Após 45 dias da inoculação, efetuou-se a substituição dos tomateiros e foram aplicados 50 gramas de arroz autocl...

  12. Nematicide Effect of Various Organic Soil Amendments on Meloidogyne ethiopica Whitehead, 1968, on Potted Vine Plants Efecto Nematicida de Varias Enmiendas Orgánicas Sobre Meloidogyne ethiopica Whitehead, 1968, en Plantas de Vid en Macetas

    OpenAIRE

    Lucia Rivera; Erwin Aballay

    2008-01-01

    Five organic soil amendments were evaluated for their nematicide effect on root-knot Meloidogyne ethiopica Whitehead, 1968, on potted Vitis vinifera L. var. Chardonnay plants. The amendments included two immature composts: Compost A made with tea (Camellia sinensis (L.) Kuntze) residues, broiler litter and grape pomace; Compost B made with tea residues, rachis and grape pomace; and separately dried tea residues, grape pomace and broiler litter. These amendments were either incorporated or app...

  13. Effect of Inhibitors and Stimulators of Ethylene Production on Gall Development in Meloidogyne javanica-Infected Tomato Roots

    OpenAIRE

    Glazer, Itamar; Apelbaum, Akiva; Orion, Daniel

    1985-01-01

    Excised tomato roots infected with Meloidogyne javanica produced ethylene at 3-6 times the rate of noninfected roots. This increase in ethylene production started 5 days after inoculation. Gall growth and ethylene production in infected roots were accelerated by 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC), indole acetic acid (IAA), and ethrel known as ethylene production stimulators. When inhibitors of ethylene production, like aminoethoxyvinylglycine (AVG) or aminoxyacetic acid (AOA), or inh...

  14. Interrelationships between Ethylene Production, Gall Formation, and Root-knot Nematode Development in Tomato Plants Infected with Meloidogyne javanica

    OpenAIRE

    Giazer, I.; Orion, D.; Apelbaum, A.

    1983-01-01

    Ethylene production was determined in excised tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) root cultures of Meloidogyne javanica susceptible and resistant cultivars infected with M. javanica. Uninfected cultivars produced very low amounts of ethylene. Relatively high amounts of ethylene were produced by the infected susceptible cultivars. Peak production of 1.6 n moles * g root?¹ * h¹? occurred between 9 and 16 days after inoculation (DAI). The period of high ethylene production coincided with that of ra...

  15. A metabolomic approach to study the rhizodeposition in the tritrophic interaction: tomato, Pochonia chlamydosporia and Meloidogyne javanica

    OpenAIRE

    Escudero Benito, Nuria; Marhuenda Egea, Frutos Carlos; Ibanco Cañete, Roberto; Zavala González, E.A.; López Llorca, Luis Vicente

    2014-01-01

    A combined chemometrics-metabolomics approach [excitation–emission matrix (EEM) fluorescence spectroscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and high performance liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry (HPLC–MS)] was used to analyse the rhizodeposition of the tritrophic system: tomato, the plant-parasitic nematode Meloidogyne javanica and the nematode-egg parasitic fungus Pochonia chlamydosporia. Exudates from M. javanica roots were sampled at root penetration (early) and gall development (lat...

  16. Cytochemical investigation of resistance to root-knot nematode Meloidogyne naasi in cereals and grasses using cryosections of roots

    OpenAIRE

    Balhadère, P.; Evans, A. A. F.

    1995-01-01

    La localisation histologique de certaines enzymes et constituants végétaux généralement mobilisés dans les réactions d'hypersensibilité a été étudiée sur du matériel sain et infesté provenant de deux plantes totalement résistantes à #Meloidogyne naasi$ - les graminées sauvages #Aegilops variabilis$ et #Hordeum chilense$ - ainsi que sur les plantes sensibles - #Triticum aestivum$ cv. Chinese Spring et #Hordeum vulgare$ cv. Doublet. Chez les plantes résistantes, et contrairement aux plantes sen...

  17. Long-Term Effect of Crop Rotation on Soybean in a Field Infested with Meloidogyne arenaria and Heterodera glycines

    OpenAIRE

    Weaver, D. B.; Rodríguez-Kábana, R.; Carden, E. L.

    1989-01-01

    Previous cropping sequence (corn-soybean vs. soybean-soybean) and aldicarb effects on soybean yield and nematode numbers at harvest for soybean cultivars with various combinations of nematode resistance were determined in 1988 in a sandy loam soil infested with Meloidogyne arenaria race 2 and Heterodera glycines races 3 and 4 at Elberta, Alabama. Yield and nematode numbers differed among cultivars with 'Leflore' having the highest yield. Aldicarb treatment resulted in increased soybean yield ...

  18. Effect of Culture Filtrate of Fungi in the Control of Meloidogyne javacnica, Root Knot Nematodes on Okra and Broad Bean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amer-Zareen

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Fungal cell free filtrates were used in two different doses, enhanced plant growth and root knot nematodes infection was reduced where high doses of filtrate (100% concentration were applied, in all test fungal filtrates. Culture filtrates of Paecilomyces lilacinus and Verticillium chlamydosporium at 100 percent concentration showed significant reduction in Meloidogyne javanica root knot infection on okra and broad bean as compared to Trichoderma harzianum, T. koningii, T. viride, Aspergillus restrictus and Aspergillus sp., which found less effective.

  19. Efficacy of Bacillus thuringiensis, Paecilomyces marquandii,and Streptomyces costaricanus with and without Organic Amendments against Meloidogyne hapla Infecting Lettuce

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, J.; Abawi, G.S.; Zuckerman, B.M.

    2000-01-01

    Chitin, wheat mash, or brewery compost were incorporated into unfumigated and methyl bromide-fumigated organic soils placed in microplots formed from cylindrical drainage tiles (0.25 m-diam. clay tile). After 3 weeks, Meloidogyne hapla and cell or spore suspensions of Bacillus thuringiensis, Paecilomyces marquandii, and Streptomyces costaricanus were individually added to the soils of designated microplots. A B. thuringiensis + S. costaricanus combination was also tested. Lettuce seedlings, c...

  20. Host status of six major weeds to Meloidogyne chitwoodi and Pratylenchus penetrans, including a preliminary field survey concerning other weeds

    OpenAIRE

    Kutywayo, V.; Been, T.H.

    2006-01-01

    A glasshouse experiment was carried out to investigate the host status of six important weeds in intensive agricultural cropping systems to Meloidogyne chitwoodi and Pratylenchus penetrans. Senecio vulgaris L., Capsella bursa-pastoris (L.) Medic. and Solanum nigrum L. were hosts of M. chitwoodi with reproduction factors of 2.5, 2.6 and 7.8, respectively. Echinochloa crusgalli (L.) Beauv. and Stellaria media (L.) Vill. were non-hosts for M. chitwoodi as no galls or eggs were observed. Galinsog...

  1. Controle de Meloidogyne javanica em mudas de bananeira 'prata-anã' por compostos orgânicos / Control of meloidogyne javanica on 'prata- anã' banana seedlings by organic compounds

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Bruna Hanielle Carneiro dos, Santos; Regina Cássia Ferreira, Ribeiro; Adelica Aparecida, Xavier; José Augusto dos, Santos Neto; Virgílio Jamir Gonçalves, Mota.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o efeito de compostos orgânicos no controle de Meloidogyne javanica, e no desenvolvimento de mudas de bananeiras 'Prata-Anã. O experimento foi conduzido em DIC, com dez repetições, e os tratamentos consistiram em quatro compostos constituídos de diferentes matér [...] ias-primas (restos da cultura da banana, cana-de-açúcar, esterco bovino, cascas de banana, plantas daninhas, capim andropogon), o esterco bovino, a torta de mamona e testemunhas (adubação mineral), carbofuran e testemunha absoluta (sem adição de composto orgânico). Em cada vaso, foram colocados 3 kg de solo autoclavado, incorporado com cada um dos tratamentos avaliados e inoculado com suspensão contendo 4.000 ovos de M. javanica. Após quatro dias, transplantou-se uma muda de bananeira 'Prata-Anã' micropropagada, e aos 60 dias, avaliaram-se: altura das plantas, diâmetro, número de folhas e peso de matéria seca da parte aérea, e número de galhas, massas de ovos, número de ovos e o número de juvenis de segundo estádio (J2), por 100 cm³ de solo. Testou-se in vitro o efeito das frações húmicas dos quatro compostos (que não causaram fitotoxidez) e esterco bovino sobre a mortalidade e motilidade de J2 de M. javanica. O ensaio foi montado em placas de ELISA em DIC, com cinco repetições. Os compostos orgânicos e o esterco bovino aumentaram o desenvolvimento das mudas. A torta de mamona provocou efeito fitotóxico às mudas. Menor número de variáveis nematológicas foi proporcionado pela torta de mamona e pelo carbofuran. O número de J2 também foi menor nas parcelas tratadas com carbofuran e também pelo Composto 3, constituído por plantas daninhas+restos de cana-de-açúcar+ esterco bovino e pelo adubo mineral. Para o teste in vitro, as substâncias húmicas conferiram efeito nematicida e nematostático. Dentre os compostos, o C3 mostrou-se promissor por reduzir o desenvolvimento do nematoides e não apresentar efeito fitotóxico. Abstract in english The study aimed to evaluate the effect of organic compounds in the control of Meloidogyne javanica, and in the development of 'Prata-Anã' banana seedlings. The experiment was carried out in a completely randomized design with ten replicates, and treatments consisted of four compounds made from diffe [...] rent raw materials (remnants of bananas crop, sugar cane, cattle manure, banana skins, weeds, Andropogon grass), the manure, the castor bean cake, and controls (mineral fertilizer; 'carbofuran' and absolute control (no added organic compounds). It was placed in each pot 3 kg of soil, autoclaved, mixed with each one of the treatments and inoculated with a suspension containing 4,000 eggs of M. javanica. After four days one 'Prata-Anã' micropropagated seedling was transplanted and at 60 days it was evaluated: plant height, diameter, number of leaves, dry matter weight of shoots, number of galls, egg masses, number of eggs and the number of second-stage juveniles (J2) per 100 cm³ of soil. It was tested in vitro the effect of humic fractions of the four compounds (which did not cause phytotoxicity) and cattle manure on mortality and motility of J2 of M. javanica. The essay was set on ELISA plates in a completely randomized design with five replications. Organic compounds and manure increased the growth of plantlets. The castor bean cake caused phytotoxic effect on the seedlings. Less number of nematological variables was provided by the castor bean cake and by the 'carbofuran'. The number of J2 was also lower in plots treated with 'carbofuran' and also by the Compound 3 constituted of weed + sugar cane residues + cattle manure and by the mineral fertilizer. For the in vitro test, the humic substances presented nematicide and nematostatic effects. Among the compounds, the C3 showed itself promise for reducing the development of the nematode and for not present phytotoxic effect.

  2. Resistência do cafeeiro a nematóides: I - Testes em progênies e híbridos, para Meloidogyne exigua / Coffee breeding for resistance to Meloidogyne exigua: I - Screening test using arabica progenies and interespecific hybrids

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    L. C., Fazuoli; L. C., Mônaco; A., Carvalho; A. J., Reis.

    Full Text Available Procurou-se identificar fontes de resistência ao nematóide Meloidogyne exígua em cafeeiros derivados de híbridos interespecíficos e em progênies de café arábica oriundas da Etiópia, em experimentos estabelecidos em duas localidades. A infestação foi feita por dois processos usados com freqüência nes [...] se tipo de trabalho. As avaliações do grau de ataque foram feitas quatro e 12 meses após a infestação, em Campinas e Ribeirão Preto, respectivamente, adotando-se escala variando de zero, para ausência de galhas, a cinco pontos para grande intensidade de ataque. Verificou-se que a leitura feita aos quatro meses é tão eficiente quanto aos 12 meses, indicando a possibilidade de abreviar consideravelmente a duração dessas avaliações. Notou-se, no experimento de Ribeirão Preto, uma redução de aproximadamente 8% no crescimento das mudas infestadas e verificou-se, também, uma redução de 11,5% e 12% nos pesos verde e seco das plantas, devido ao ataque do nematóide. De 1.692 plantas examinadas nos dois experimentos, selecionaram-se 106 (6,3%), caracterizadas pela ausência de galhas. As populações derivadas dos híbridos entre Coffea arabica e C. canephora revelaram-se mais promissoras, contribuindo com maior número de plantas resistentes. As plantas do experimento instalado em Campinas foram inoculadas também com a raça II de Hemileia vastatrix para o estudo da resistência conjunta aos dois patógenos. Essas seleções, em número de 38, representam valioso material para o programa de melhoramento do cafeeiro. Abstract in english Two coffee screening tests were undertaken in order to find out sources of resistance to the nematode M. exigua. Arabica progenies from Ethiopia origin and advanced popu-lations derived from interspecific crosses (Coffea arabica x C. canephora and C. arabica x C. dewevrei) were evaluated. A five poi [...] nt scale (0 point to the roots without galls and 5 points to severely attacked roots) was used for determination of the infection degree. The seedlings root system was analysed four months after the nematode infestation in one of the trial and after twelve months at another trial. The observed results were similar indicating the possibility to reduce considerably the time for the screening test. A reduction of 8.0 per cent on the average height and of 11.5 and 12.0 per cent in the green and dry weight of the infested seedlings was observed in one of this test. From the total of 1692 analysed seedlings, 106 were seleeted without nematode galls. It was verified that the number of resistant plants was particularly high among the populations derived from the C. arabica x C. canephora crosses. Seedlings from the trial carried out at Campinas were also inoculated with spores of the race II of Hemileia vastatrix in a tentative of isolation of resistant plants to both pathogens. Among the populations Arabica x Canephora it was possible to selected 38 seedlings with simultaneous resistance to M. exigua and H. vastatrix. The plants were considered useful for the prosecution of the breeding program.

  3. Resistência do cafeeiro a nematóides: I - Testes em progênies e híbridos, para Meloidogyne exigua Coffee breeding for resistance to Meloidogyne exigua: I - Screening test using arabica progenies and interespecific hybrids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. C. Fazuoli

    1977-01-01

    Full Text Available Procurou-se identificar fontes de resistência ao nematóide Meloidogyne exígua em cafeeiros derivados de híbridos interespecíficos e em progênies de café arábica oriundas da Etiópia, em experimentos estabelecidos em duas localidades. A infestação foi feita por dois processos usados com freqüência nesse tipo de trabalho. As avaliações do grau de ataque foram feitas quatro e 12 meses após a infestação, em Campinas e Ribeirão Preto, respectivamente, adotando-se escala variando de zero, para ausência de galhas, a cinco pontos para grande intensidade de ataque. Verificou-se que a leitura feita aos quatro meses é tão eficiente quanto aos 12 meses, indicando a possibilidade de abreviar consideravelmente a duração dessas avaliações. Notou-se, no experimento de Ribeirão Preto, uma redução de aproximadamente 8% no crescimento das mudas infestadas e verificou-se, também, uma redução de 11,5% e 12% nos pesos verde e seco das plantas, devido ao ataque do nematóide. De 1.692 plantas examinadas nos dois experimentos, selecionaram-se 106 (6,3%, caracterizadas pela ausência de galhas. As populações derivadas dos híbridos entre Coffea arabica e C. canephora revelaram-se mais promissoras, contribuindo com maior número de plantas resistentes. As plantas do experimento instalado em Campinas foram inoculadas também com a raça II de Hemileia vastatrix para o estudo da resistência conjunta aos dois patógenos. Essas seleções, em número de 38, representam valioso material para o programa de melhoramento do cafeeiro.Two coffee screening tests were undertaken in order to find out sources of resistance to the nematode M. exigua. Arabica progenies from Ethiopia origin and advanced popu-lations derived from interspecific crosses (Coffea arabica x C. canephora and C. arabica x C. dewevrei were evaluated. A five point scale (0 point to the roots without galls and 5 points to severely attacked roots was used for determination of the infection degree. The seedlings root system was analysed four months after the nematode infestation in one of the trial and after twelve months at another trial. The observed results were similar indicating the possibility to reduce considerably the time for the screening test. A reduction of 8.0 per cent on the average height and of 11.5 and 12.0 per cent in the green and dry weight of the infested seedlings was observed in one of this test. From the total of 1692 analysed seedlings, 106 were seleeted without nematode galls. It was verified that the number of resistant plants was particularly high among the populations derived from the C. arabica x C. canephora crosses. Seedlings from the trial carried out at Campinas were also inoculated with spores of the race II of Hemileia vastatrix in a tentative of isolation of resistant plants to both pathogens. Among the populations Arabica x Canephora it was possible to selected 38 seedlings with simultaneous resistance to M. exigua and H. vastatrix. The plants were considered useful for the prosecution of the breeding program.

  4. First Report of Northern Root-Knot Nematode, Meloidogyne hapla, Parasitic on Oaks, Quercus brantii and Q. infectoria in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohrabi, Effat; Maafi, Zahra Tanha; Panahi, Parisa; Barooti, Shapour

    2015-03-01

    Root-knot nematodes (RKN) are the most serious plant parasitic nematodes having a broad host range exceeding 2,000 plant species. Quercus brantii Lindl. and Q. infectoria Oliv are the most important woody species of Zagros forests in west of Iran where favors sub-Mediterranean climate. National Botanical Garden of Iran (NBGI) is scheduled to be the basic center for research and education of botany in Iran. This garden, located in west of Tehran, was established in 1968 with an area of about 150 ha at altitude of 1,320 m. The Zagros collection has about 3-ha area and it has been designed for showing a small pattern of natural Zagros forests in west of Iran. Brant's oak (Q. brantii) and oak manna tree (Q. infectoria) are the main woody species in Zagros collection, which have been planted in 1989. A nematological survey on Zagros forest collection in NBGI revealed heavily infection of 24-yr-old Q. brantii and Q. infectoria to RKN, Meloidogyne hapla. The roots contained prominent galls along with egg sac on the surface of each gall. The galls were relatively small and in some parts of root several galls were conjugated, and all galls contained large transparent egg masses. The identification of M. hapla was confirmed by morphological and morphometric characters and amplification of D2-D3 expansion segments of 28S rRNA gene. The obtained sequences of large-subunit rRNA gene from M. hapla was submitted to the GenBank database under the accession number KP319025. The sequence was compared with those of M. hapla deposited in GenBank using the BLAST homology search program and showed 99% similarity with those KJ755183, GQ130139, DQ328685, and KJ645428. The second stage juveniles of M. hapla isolated from Brant's oak (Q. Brantii) showed the following morphometric characters: (n = 12), L = 394 ± 39.3 (348 to 450) µm; a = 30.9 ± 4 (24.4 to 37.6); b = 4.6 ± 0.44 (4 to 5.1); b? = 3.3 ± 0.3 (2.7 to 3.7), c = 8.0 ± 1 (6.2 to 10.3), ? = 5.3 ± 0.8 (3.5 to 6.3); Stylet = 12.1 ± 0.8 (11 to 13) µm; Tail = 50 ± 5.6 (42 to 57) µm; Hyaline 15 ± 1.8 (12 to 18) µm. Oak manna, Q. infectoria population of second stage juveniles clearly possessed short body length and consequently other morphometric features were less than those determined for Q. brantii population, and these features were: (n = 12), L = 359.0 ± 17.3 (319 to 372) µm; a = 28.6 ± 3 (22.8 to 31); b = 5.0 ± 0.3 (4.8 to 5.2); b? = 3.3 ± 0.2 (3 to 3.6), c = 8.1 ± 0.5 (7.4 to 8.8), ? = 4.7 ± 0.5 (3.9 to 5.2); Stylet = 11.4 ± 0.7 (10 to 12) µm; Tail = 44 ± 1.8 (42 to 47) µm; Hyaline 12 ± 1.7 (10 to 15) µm. To date two species of Meloidogyne, M. quercianaGolden, 1979 and M. christieiGolden and Kaplan, 1986 have been reported to parasitize oaks (Quercus spp.) from the United States of America. M. querciana was found on pin oak Quercus palustris in Virginia. The oak RKN infected pine oak, red oak, and American chestnut heavily in greenhouse tests (Golden, 1979). The other species M. christiei was described from turkey oak and Q. laevis in Florida, which has monospecific host range (Golden and Kaplan, 1986). Both of these RKN species seem to be restricted to the United States of America and have not been reported from other place. According to our knowledge this is the first report of occurrence of M. hapla on Q. brantii and Q. infectoria in the world. This study includes these two oak species to the host range of RKN, M. hapla for the world and expands the information of RKN, M. hapla host ranges on oaks. PMID:25861121

  5. Efeito do silicato de cálcio e magnésio sobre a reprodução de Meloidogyne javanica e desenvolvimento de mudas de bananeira Prata-Anã / Effect of calcium and magnesium silicate on Meloidogyne javanica reproduction and development of banana Prata-Anã seedlings

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Rodrigo Mendes, Oliveira; Regina Cássia Ferreira, Ribeiro; Adelica Aparecida, Xavier; Lívia, Pimenta; Gaspar Henrique, Korndorfer.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o efeito de diferentes doses de silicato de cálcio e magnésio sobre a reprodução de Meloidogyne javanica e sobre o desenvolvimento de mudas de bananeira Prata-Anã em solo arenoso. O ensaio foi conduzido em casa de vegetação, em blocos (quatro) ao acaso, em esque [...] ma fatorial 5x2, correspondendo a cinco doses de silicato de cálcio e magnésio (0; 0,64; 1,28; 1,92 ou 2,56 g/dm³ de solo) e duas fontes de variação de M. javanica (presença e ausência). As parcelas constaram de três vasos com uma muda de bananeira cada. Nas doses de 1,28 e 2,56 g de silicato de cálcio e magnésio/dm³ de solo, o número de ovos e o fator de reprodução (FR=população final/população inicial) de M. javanica foram significativamente menores em relação ao tratamento-testemunha. Porém estas doses de silicato não afetaram o número de galhas e massa de ovos/raiz e número de juvenis de segundo estádio (J2) de M. javanica/100 cm³ de solo. Na ausência do nematoide, a dose estimada de 1,61 g de silicato de cálcio e magnésio/dm³ proporcionou maior peso de matéria seca do rizoma, porém não afetou a altura de planta, o diâmetro do pseudocaule, o número de folhas e o peso da matéria seca das folhas e da raiz. Maior desenvolvimento das plantas foi obtido naquelas não inoculadas com M. javanica. Conclui-se que as mudas tiveram seu desenvolvimento vegetativo afetado pela presença de M. javanica e, dependendo da dose do silicato aplicada ao solo, a reprodução do nematoide pode ser afetada, bem como pode proporcionar incremento na matéria seca do rizoma. Abstract in english The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of different doses of calcium and magnesium silicate on M. javanica reproduction and the development of banana Prata-Anã seedlings in sandy soil. The assay was carried out in a greenhouse in a randomized block (four) design in factorial 5x2 corr [...] esponding to five levels of silicate (0, 0.64, 1.28, 1.92 or 2.56, g/dm³ of soil) and two sources of variation: presence and absence of M. javanica. Plots consisted of three pots with one seedling per pot. The doses of 1.28 and 2.56 g of calcium and magnesium silicate/dm³ of soil significantly reduced the number of eggs of M. javanica and reproduction factor (RF = final population / initial population) of M. javanica compared to control. However these doses of silicate did not affect the number of galls and egg mass/roots and number of second stage juveniles (J2) of M. javanica/100 cm ³ of soil. In the absence of the nematode, the estimated dose of 1.61 g of calcium and magnesium silicate/dm³ provided higher dry matter of the rhizome, but did not affect plant height, pseudostem diameter, leaf number and weight of the dry matter of leaves and root. Greatest development of the plants was obtained in those ones not inoculated with M. javanica. It was concluded that vegetative development was affected by presence of M. javanica and certain doses of silicate applied to the soil can affect the nematode reproduction and increase the rhizome dry matter.

  6. Etude de trois souches d'Arthrobotrys oligospora : Caractérisation biologique et effets sur Meloidogyne mayaguensis parasite de la tomate au Sénégal

    OpenAIRE

    Gueyei, M.; Duponnois, R; Ibra Sambi, R.; Mateille, T.

    1997-01-01

    Etude de trois souches d'Arthrobotrys oligospora : Caractérisation biologique et effets sur Meloidogyne mayaguensis parasite de la tomate au Sénégal. Three strains (ORS 18690 S2, ORS 18691 S6 and ORS 18693 S5) of the nematophagous fungus Arthrobotrys oligospora have been isolated in Senegal for the first time. In vitro, two strains (ORS 18690 S2 and ORS 18693 S5) of them trapped 100 % and the other (ORS 18691 S5) 80 %> of 7-day-old juvenile Meloidogyne mayaguensis within 48h. Optimal growth o...

  7. Seleção de isolados de Paecilomyces lilacinus (Thom. Samson para controle de Meloidogyne paranaensis em tomateiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santiago Débora Cristina

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Paecilomyces lilacinus é uma espécie fúngica utilizada no controle biológico de nematóides, sendo uma das mais estudadas a campo. O trabalho teve como objetivo selecionar isolados de Paecilomyces lilacinus quanto à capacidade de controlar Meloidogyne paranaensis em tomateiro cv. "Santa Clara", em de casa-de-vegetação. Plantas cultivadas em vasos foram inoculadas com M. paranaensis. Após 45 dias da inoculação, efetuou-se a substituição dos tomateiros e foram aplicados 50 gramas de arroz autoclavado e colonizado por P. lilacinus. Decorridos 45 dias da inoculação do fungo, foram avaliados: número de galhas, massa de ovos, número de ovos por sistema radicular, peso da massa fresca da parte aérea, do sistema radicular e sobrevivência do P. lilacinus no solo. Todos os tratamentos com incorporação de P. lilacinus reduziram a população de M. paranaensis em raízes de tomateiro. Os isolados UEL pae 05, 08, 09, 13, 20, 21, 38, 41, 44, 54, ESALQ 831 e 832 foram os melhores no controle de M. paranaensis, afetando a reprodução dos nematóides e apresentando elevada sobrevivência no solo.

  8. EFECTO DE POBLACIONES DE Meloidogyne sp. EN EL DESARROLLO Y RENDIMIENTO DEL TOMATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilber Salazar-Ant\\u00F3n

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo fue determinar el efecto de la población inicial de Meloidogyne sp. en el cultivo del tomate. El estudio se realizó en León, Nicaragua en el año 2011. Las variables medidas fueron número de nematodos al trasplante y al momento de la cosecha, altura de la planta al momento de la madurez fisiológica y el rendimiento en kilogramos. La extracción de nematodos se realizó mediante el método de Baermann modificado. En el estudio, la densidad inicial (Pi presentó una correlación lineal positiva con la densidad final (Pf. Sin embargo, se observó que cuando la Pi era igual a 400 nematodos/100 g de suelo, el factor de reproducción se incrementaba a 3,64; por el contrario, cuando la Pi era igual a 700 nematodos/100 g de suelo, el factor de reproducción se reducía a 2,48. La Pi se correlacionó inversamente con el peso de frutos y altura de las plantas. Plantas con 200 nematodos/100 g de suelo presentaban peso de frutos de 2,19 kg y altura de 153,20 cm en comparación con 0,93 kg y 135,24 cm en plantas con 600 nematodos/100 g de suelo. Existió una correlación positiva entre Pi y Pf de Meloidogy- ne sp. en el tomate. Las poblaciones de este nematodo, se correlacionaron inversamente con las variables altura y peso de los frutos.

  9. How to reduce the number of Meloidogyne paranaensis galls in tomato using earthworms?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jair Alves Dionísio

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present work was to determine the incidence of Meloidogyne paranaensis galls in the roots of Solanum lycopersicum, after inoculation with Amynthas spp. and Pontoscolex corethrurus. The experiment was performed in the greenhouse in a randomised block experimental design was adopted, with four treatments and five repetitions: T1. M. paranaensis; T2. M. paranaensis + Amynthas spp. T3. M. paranaensis +P. corethrurus; T4. M. paranaensis + Amynthas spp. + P. corethrurus. Initially, six adult worms of Amynthas spp. or P. corethrurus, isolated or in the same proportion (3:3, with the previously determined fresh biomass. After one week, tomato seedlings (cultivar “Rutgers” were transplanted to the pots and inoculated with 5 mL of a suspension of M. paranaensis containing 5,000 eggs and/or juveniles per pot. Sixty-five days after inoculation, the number of remaining worms was counted after manual collection; the fresh biomass was determined by direct weighing, and the number of galls on the roots of the tomato was counted directly in a stereomicroscope. The results demonstrated a reduction in the number of galls per plant with treatments involving inoculation with worms, varying between 26,7% and 63,3%, respectively, for Amynthas spp. and P. corethrurus. Meanwhile, the combination of worms lead to a reduction of 50,0% in the incidence of galls. The results demonstrate that the use of worms in the biological control of nematodes, during tomato cultivation, has great potential that requires further investigation.

  10. Greenhouse and field assessment of different organic compounds against guava-parasitic Meloidogyne enterolobii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Macedo Almeida

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Guava decline is a complex disease involving Meloidogyne enterolobii and Fusarium solani and it has caused major direct losses to Brazilian growers. Although several strategies have been sought to control the nematode, the use of organic soil amendments is currently the best approach to manage this disease. To assess the best amount of meat and bone meal (MBM to be incorporated into the soil, guava seedlings inoculated with M. enterolobii were treated with 1-5% v/v of the MBM. Ninety days later variables related to nematode reproduction and plant development were evaluated, which indicated a potential nematicidal effect of the MBM at 3%. Another experiment assessed nematode- and plant-related variables 90 days after treatment of the seedlings with MBM, chitosan, shrimp shell or neem cake at 3%, 0.05%, 2% and 0.1% v/v, respectively. The MBM ranked first, reducing nematode reproduction. This MBM rate was converted to 25 kg/tree and assessed in three application regimes (monthly, bimonthly or trimonthly, for six months, in an orchard affected by guava decline. The variables assessed were soil density of colony forming units (CFU of bacteria and fungus, and soil and/or root density of M. enterolobii, Helicotylenchus sp., and of different nematode trophic groups. In all three application regimes the MBM reduced all plant-parasitic nematodes in the soil and the fungus CFUs. It also promoted an increase in bacterial CFU and bacterivorous nematodes.

  11. Control of Meloidogyne javanica by Formulations of Inula viscosa Leaf Extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oka, Yuji; Ben-Daniel, Bat-Hen; Cohen, Yigal

    2006-03-01

    Inula viscosa is a perennial plant that is widely distributed in Mediterranean countries. Formulations of I. viscosa extracts were tested for their effectiveness in control of Meloidogyne javanica in laboratory, growth chamber, microplot, and field experiments. Oily pastes were obtained by extraction of dry leaves with a mixture of acetone and n-hexane or n-hexane alone, followed by evaporation of the solvents. Emulsifiable concentrate formulations of the pastes killed M. javanica juveniles in sand at a concentration of 0.01% (paste, w/w) or greater and reduced the galling index of cucumber seedlings as well as the galling index and numbers of nematode eggs on tomato plants in growth chamber experiments. In microplot experiments, the hexane-extract formulation at 26 g paste/m(2) reduced nematode infection on tomato plants in one of two experiments. In a field experiment, a reduction of 40% in root galling index by one of two formulations was observed on lettuce plants. The plant extracts have potential as a natural nematicide, although the formulations need improvement. PMID:19259429

  12. Penetration of Crotalaria juncea, Dolichos lablab, and Sesamum indicum Roots by Meloidogyne javanica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araya, M; Caswell-Chen, E P

    1994-06-01

    Penetration of Crotalaria juncea (PI 207657 and cv. Tropic Sun) Dolichos lablab cv. Highworth, and Sesamum indicum by juveniles (J2) of Meloidogyne javanica was assessed to investigate the mechanism by which these plants may reduce nematode numbers in the field. Growth chamber experiments were conducted at 25 C, with vials containing 90 g sand infested with 450 J2; tomato (UC 204 C) was included as a susceptible host. Fifteen days after inoculation, roots were stained and the nematodes within stained roots were counted. Both C. juncea lines were highly resistant to penetration, as they contained significantly fewer nematodes per cm of root and per root system than the other plants. Although containing more nematodes per cm of root than C. juncea, S. indicum and D. lablab had significantly fewer nematodes per root system and per cm of root than tomato. Roots were significantly longer in the plants with the lowest nematode penetration. Although C. juncea, D. lablab, and S. indicum may have potential utility as cover or rotation crops in soil infested with M. javanica, further quantitative information on the reproduction of M. javanica and other nematodes in these plants is needed. PMID:19279887

  13. Volatile organic compounds for the control of Meloidogyne exigua in Coffea arabica

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Willian R. J., Silva; Alan R. T., Machado; Viviane A. C., Campos; Ana C. M., Zeri; Vicente P., Campos; Denilson F., Oliveira.

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Meloidogyne exigua is a plant-parasitic nematode that causes great losses to coffee farmers. Thus, to contribute to the development of new products to control this parasite, the present work studied the effect of volatile organic compounds (VOC) on the nematode and coffee plants (Coffea arabica), si [...] nce these compounds are known to be used in plant defense against other agronomical pests. The number of galls of M. exigua was reduced when the aerial part of coffee plants was sprayed with combinations of methyl jasmonate + jasmone, (Z)-hex-3-en-1-ol + (E)-hex-3-en-1-ol + (Z)-hex-2-en-1-ol + (E)-hex-2-enal, (E)-hex-2-enyl acetate + hexyl acetate, meso-butane-2,3-diol + butane-1,2-diol + butane-1,3-diol + butane-1,4-diol, 3-hydroxybutan-2-one + 4-hydroxybutan-2-one or linalyl acetate + nerolidol. These VOC also caused alterations in the concentrations of substances such as alkaloids, phenols, amino acids and carbohydrates, in the roots of coffee plants. The findings suggest that these VOC may be explored as potential products for the control of M. exigua in coffee plants.

  14. Variabilidade genética de acessos de araçazeiro e goiabeira suscetíveis e resistentes a Meloidogyne enterolobii / Genetic variability of araça and guava accessions susceptible and resistant Meloidogyne enterolobii

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Aline das Graças, Souza; Luciane Vilela, Resende; Isabela Pereira de, Lima; Rosimar Musser dos, Santos; Nilton Nagib Jorge, Chalfun.

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available A goiabeira representa uma importante atividade frutícola no Brasil, com mercado cada vez maior. Porém, desde 1989 vêm sendo relatados severos danos à cultura, causados pelo nematóide Meloidogyne enterolobii. Uma das alternativas para solucionar esse problema é a utilização de porta-enxertos com res [...] istência a este patógeno. Este trabalho teve por objetivo a caracterização molecular, com marcadores RAPD, de acessos de Psidium testados quanto à resistência a M. enterolobii e quanto à compatibilidade como porta-enxertos para as goiabeiras comerciais. Foram testados 30 primers, dos quais 19 forneceram resultados nítidos para a amplificação. Foram gerados 163 fragmentos, dos quais 86 polimórficos (63,0%). Em média, cada iniciador produziu 8,6 fragmentos, dos quais 5,4 apresentaram polimorfismo. A análise de agrupamento foi realizada por espécie, os acessos de Psidium sp apresentaram a formação de dois grupos, um formado pelo acesso A-UFLA e o segundo subdividido em quatro subgrupos, sendo os acessos com maiores distâncias genéticas A-Ufla, resistente a M. enterolobii, A-Ufla4 e A-Ufla5, ambos suscetíveis ao nematoide em questão, todos coletados em Lavras-MG, com similaridade aproximada de 66%. Na análise de agrupamento, dos treze acessos de P.cattleyanum, foi possível constatar a formação de dois grandes grupos. Um formado por três acessos suscetíveis a M. enterolobii (A-20.2, A-10.1 e A-9.2) e outro grupo formado por dez acessos. Os acessos se agruparam, conforme a região de origem, em seis grupos, sendo que o mais divergente é originário da região de Lavras - MG, com 0,65 de similaridade, onde as distâncias genéticas variaram de 0,88 a 0,65. Dos treze acessos de P. guineense, todos suscetíveis a M. enterolobii, sendo 12 oriundos de Recife e um de Pelotas (A-14.1) e agruparam-se em dois grupos com similaridades variando de 0,59 a 0,83. Quanto ao estudo de diversidade entre os acessos de goiabeiras, a maior distância genética foi detectada entre o acesso G-Ufla com 0,71 Lavras-MG. Abstract in english Guava culture stands for an important fruit-growing business in Brazil, with a greater and greater market. But, since 1989 severe damages to the culture caused by the nematode Meloidogyne enterolobii, have been reported. One the alternatives to solve this problem is the use of rootstocks with resist [...] ance to this nematode. This research aimed at the molecular characterization, with RAPD markers, of Psidium accessions susceptible to be utilized as rootstocks for the commercial guava trees. 30 primers were tested, from which 19 supplied distinct results for the amplification. The primers generated 163 polymorphic marks, resulting into a mean of 8,6 polymorphic bands per primer. The cluster analysis was performed per species, the accessions of Psidium sp presented the formation of two groups, one formed by A-UFLA accession and the other subdivided into four subgroups, that is, the accession with increased genetic distances, A-Ufla, resistant to M. enterolobii, A-Ufla4 and A-Ufla5, both susceptible to the nematode in issue, all collected in Lavras-MG with a similarity of about 66%. In the cluster analysis of the thirteen accessions of P.cattleyanum, it was possible to found the formation of two great groups. One made up by three accessions susceptible to M. enterolobii (A-20.2, A-10.1 and A-9.2) and the other group formed by ten accessions. The accessions grouped together according to the region of origin in six groups, the most divergent being that native to region of Lavras - MG, with 0.65 of similarity, where the genetic distances ranged from 0.88 to 0.65. The thirteen accessions of P. guineense, all susceptible to M. enterolobii, namely, 12 coming from Recife and one proceeding from Pelotas (A-14.1), grouped themselves together and two groups with similarity ranging from 0.59 to 0.83. As to the diversity study among the guava tree accessions, the greatest genetic distances were detected between the accessions G.P.S and G-Ufla with 0,71 Lavras-MG.

  15. Field Evaluation of Pasteuria Isolates for the Control of Root-Knot Nematodes, Meloidogyne javanica on Tomato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amer Zareen

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available In a mirco-plot field experiment four isolates of Pasteuria (one from UK and three local isolates viz., PK 1, PK2 and PK3 and a mixed inoculum of all four isolates (blend were tested against Meloidogyne javanica on tomato to understand the pathogenic variability of different bacterial isolates. Yield of tomato and plant growth as plant height, fresh shoot and root length was improved significantly by blend inoculum of bacterial antagonists compared to control. Nematode development in roots and soil was suppressed by blend applications followed by individual Pasteuria applications i.e. UK > PK 1> PK2 and >PK3 isolates compared to untreated control plots.

  16. Nucleotide polymorphisms and an improved PCR-based mtDNA diagnostic for parthenogenetic root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp.)

    OpenAIRE

    Stanton, J.; Hugall, A.; Moritz, C.

    1997-01-01

    L'analyse de séquences de 2212 paires de bases provenant de six ADN mitochondriaux haplotypes très voisins de #Meloidogyne$ (Hugall et al., 1994) a permis de mettre en évidence douze sites nucléotidiens polymorphiques et une délétion. En dépit de cette faible diversité, il existe assez de sites différents d'enzymes de restriction parmi ces séquences pour fournir des tests de diagnostic. En utilisant un choix de ces sites, il a été mis au point un test diagnostique multiplex fondé sur l'amplif...

  17. GeneTide—Terra Incognita Discovery Endeavor: a new transcriptome focused member of the GeneCards/GeneNote suite of databases

    OpenAIRE

    Shklar, Maxim; Strichman-Almashanu, Liora; Shmueli, Orit; Shmoish, Michael; Safran, Marilyn; Lancet, Doron

    2005-01-01

    GeneCards® is an automatically mined database of human genes that strives to create, along with its auxiliary databases—GeneLoc, GeneNote and GeneAnnot—the most inclusive resource of gene-centered information of the human genome. GeneTide, the Gene Terra Incognita Discovery Endeavor (http://genecards.weizmann.ac.il/genetide/), the newest addition to this family, is a transcriptome-focused database which aims to enhance GeneCards with additional expressed sequence tag (EST)-based genes. This i...

  18. Nematicidal effect of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) on the plant-parasitic nematode Meloidogyne javanica / Efeito nematicida de compostos orgânicos voláteis (COVs) sobre o nematóide parasita de planta Meloidogyne javanica

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Mauricio Batista, Fialho; Rosana, Bessi; Mário Massayuki, Inomoto; Sérgio Florentino, Pascholati.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Estudos anteriores demonstraram que compostos orgânicos voláteis (COVs), produzidos pela levedura Saccharomyces cerevisiae, são capazes de inibir o desenvolvimento de fungos fitopatogênicos. Neste contexto, foi avaliado o potencial nematicida da mistura sintética de COVs, constituída por alcoóis e é [...] steres, para o controle do nematóide das galhas Meloidogyne javanica, que causa perdas em culturas de alto valor econômico. A fumigação do substrato, contendo juvenis de segundo estádio, com COVs apresentou efeito nematicida superior a 30% na menor dosagem testada (33,3 µL g-1 de substrato), enquanto que nas dosagens de 66,6 e 133,3 µL g-1, a mortalidade atingiu 100%. Os resultados encorajam maiores estudos envolvendo COVs no manejo de nematóides. Abstract in english Previous studies have demonstrated that volatile organic compounds (VOCs), produced by the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, were able to inhibit the development of phytopathogenic fungi. In this context, the nematicidal potential of the synthetic mixture of VOCs, constituted of alcohols and esters, w [...] as evaluated for the control of the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne javanica, which causes losses to crops of high economic value. The fumigation of substrate containing second-stage juveniles with VOCs exhibited nematicidal effect higher than 30% for the lowest concentration tested (33.3 µL g-1 substrate), whereas at 66.6 and 133.3 µL g-1 substrate, the nematode mortality was 100%. The present results stimulate other studies on VOCs for nematode management.

  19. Controle de Meloidogyne javanica em mudas de bananeira 'prata-anã' por compostos orgânicos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruna Hanielle Carneiro dos Santos

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o efeito de compostos orgânicos no controle de Meloidogyne javanica, e no desenvolvimento de mudas de bananeiras 'Prata-Anã. O experimento foi conduzido em DIC, com dez repetições, e os tratamentos consistiram em quatro compostos constituídos de diferentes matérias-primas (restos da cultura da banana, cana-de-açúcar, esterco bovino, cascas de banana, plantas daninhas, capim andropogon, o esterco bovino, a torta de mamona e testemunhas (adubação mineral, carbofuran e testemunha absoluta (sem adição de composto orgânico. Em cada vaso, foram colocados 3 kg de solo autoclavado, incorporado com cada um dos tratamentos avaliados e inoculado com suspensão contendo 4.000 ovos de M. javanica. Após quatro dias, transplantou-se uma muda de bananeira 'Prata-Anã' micropropagada, e aos 60 dias, avaliaram-se: altura das plantas, diâmetro, número de folhas e peso de matéria seca da parte aérea, e número de galhas, massas de ovos, número de ovos e o número de juvenis de segundo estádio (J2, por 100 cm³ de solo. Testou-se in vitro o efeito das frações húmicas dos quatro compostos (que não causaram fitotoxidez e esterco bovino sobre a mortalidade e motilidade de J2 de M. javanica. O ensaio foi montado em placas de ELISA em DIC, com cinco repetições. Os compostos orgânicos e o esterco bovino aumentaram o desenvolvimento das mudas. A torta de mamona provocou efeito fitotóxico às mudas. Menor número de variáveis nematológicas foi proporcionado pela torta de mamona e pelo carbofuran. O número de J2 também foi menor nas parcelas tratadas com carbofuran e também pelo Composto 3, constituído por plantas daninhas+restos de cana-de-açúcar+ esterco bovino e pelo adubo mineral. Para o teste in vitro, as substâncias húmicas conferiram efeito nematicida e nematostático. Dentre os compostos, o C3 mostrou-se promissor por reduzir o desenvolvimento do nematoides e não apresentar efeito fitotóxico.

  20. Analysis of phenolic and indole acetic acids in Meloidogyne graminicola infected rice plants (Oryza sativa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amitabh Singh

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Meloidogyne spp. incite root-knot disease in the roots of Solanaceous and Cereal crop plants inflicting heavy damage to the crops. M. graminicola, a root-knot nematode is ubiquitous as a rice pathogen wherever rice is grown. High Performance Liquid Chromatographic (HPLC analysis of phenolic acids in healthy and root-knot infected plant parts of rice indicated that phenolic acid contents were highly variable in both the cases. Upper leaves of healthy plants had seven phenolic acids in which gallic acid was maximum (140.3 ?g/g fresh wt followed by ferulic, tannic and vanillic acids. However, in root knot-infected plants, upper leaves had six phenolic acids in which gallic acid was maximum (190.68 ?g followed by caffeic, ferulic, o-coumeric, cinnamic and salicylic acids. In healthy leaf sheath gallic acid was the maximum (8.6 ?g followed by tannic, ferulic, vanillic, caffeic acid but o-coumeric, cinnamic and Indole Acetic Acid (IAA were detected in traces. Root knot-infected leaf sheath had nine phenolic acids, where gallic was the maximum (26.84 ?g followed by vanillic, ferulic, o-coumeric and tannic acids but other phenolic acids, viz., cinnamic, salicylic and IAA were present in traces. Roots of healthy rice plants had seven phenolic acids while infected roots had nine phenolic acids. Moreover, in infected roots without root-knot had eight phenolic acids, in which gallic was the maximum (29.30 ?g followed by ferulic, caffeic, vanillic, tannic and o-coumeric acids but salicylic and IAA were present in traces.

  1. Strip-tilled cover cropping for managing nematodes, soil mesoarthropods, and weeds in a bitter melon agroecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marahatta, Sharadchandra P; Wang, Koon-Hui; Sipes, Brent S; Hooks, Cerruti R R

    2010-06-01

    A field trial was conducted to examine whether strip-tilled cover cropping followed by living mulch practice could suppress root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne incognita) and enhance beneficial nematodes and other soil mesofauna, while suppressing weeds throughout two vegetable cropping seasons. Sunn hemp (SH), Crotalaria juncea, and French marigold (MG), Tagetes patula, were grown for three months, strip-tilled, and bitter melon (Momordica charantia) seedlings were transplanted into the tilled strips; the experiment was conducted twice (Season I and II). Strip-tilled cover cropping with SH prolonged M. incognita suppression in Season I but not in Season II where suppression was counteracted with enhanced crop growth. Sunn hemp also consistently enhanced bacterivorous and fungivorous nematode population densities prior to cash crop planting, prolonged enhancement of the Enrichment Index towards the end of both cash crop cycles, and increased numbers of soil mesoarthropods. Strip-tilled cover cropping of SH followed by clipping of the living mulch as surface mulch also reduced broadleaf weed populations up to 3 to 4 weeks after cash crop planting. However, SH failed to reduce soil disturbance as indicated by the Structure Index. Marigold suppressed M. incognita efficiently when planted immediately following a M. incognita-susceptible crop, but did not enhance beneficial soil mesofauna including free-living nematodes and soil mesoarthropods. Strip-tilled cover cropping of MG reduced broadleaf weed populations prior to cash crop planting in Season II, but this weed suppression did not last beyond the initial cash crop cycle. PMID:22736847

  2. Efecto de la incorporación de plantas antagónicas sobre la actividad parasítica del nematodo del nudo de la raíz Meloidogyne hapla en un cultivo de zanahoria bajo condiciones de invernadero Effect of the incorporation of antagonistic plants on the parasitic activity of the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne hapla in a greenhouse carrot crop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvarez César G.

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available En el Centro de Investigaciones y Asesorías Agroindustriales (CIAA de la Universidad Jorge Tadeo Lozano, localidad de Chía (Cundinamarca, se llevó a cabo un ensayo bajo condiciones de invernadero para evaluar el efecto de la incorporación de material vegetal fresco proveniente de siete especies de plantas (Tagetes zipaquirensis, T. erecta, Brassica cempestris, Bidens pilosa, Ruta graveolens, Taraxacum officinale y Ricinus communis sobre el rendimiento y calidad comercial de un cultivo de zanahoria (Daucus carota varo Mokum y sobre la densidad poblacional del nemátodo del nudo de la raíz Meloidogyne hapla y la intensidad de la nodulación asociada con su establecimiento sobre plantas de zanahoria. No se encontraron diferencias significativas en cuanto al rendimiento biológico de la zanahoria, pero los tratamientos con R. graveolens y T. officinale mostraron la mayor producción de zanahoria comercial (3070 g.m·2 y 2270 g.m·2 con diferencias significativas respecto al testigo (1090 g.m-2. Las densidades poblacionales finales de juveniles infectivos [J2] de M. hapla fueron significativamente más bajas en los tratamientos con R. communis, T. officinale, B. campestris y T. erecta (65-130 J2/100 g de suelo que en el testigo (435 J2/100g de suelo. En la nodulación se encontraron diferencias significativas entre el testigo (5.0 nudos/ápice de zanahoria y los demás tratamientos (1,9-2,6 nudos/ápice de zanahoria.A trial was conducted at the Centro de Investigaciones y Asesorías Agroindustriales (CIAA of the Universidad Jorge Tadeo Lozano, Chía (Cundinamarca under greenhouse conditions to assess the effect of incorporating fresh above-ground material of seven plant species (Tagetes zipaquirensis, T. erecta, Brassica cempestris. Bidens pilosa, Rufa graveolens, Taraxacum officinale and Ricínus communis on the yield and commercial quality of a carrot (Daucus carota crop var. Mokum, on the population density of Meloidogyne hapla and on the intensity of root-knotting of carrot. No significant differences were detected in the biological yield of carrot plants, but commercial average production obtained from plots.treated with R. graveolens and T. officinale were the highest (3070 g.m·2 and 2270 g.m·2 and significantly different from the control plots (1090 g.m·2. Final average population densities of infective secondstage
    juveniles [J2] of M. hapla were significantly lower in the plots treated with R. communis, T. officinale, B. campes tris and T. erecta (65-130 Jj100 g of soil than in the control plots (435 J2/100 g of soil. Significant differences were detected between rootknotting intensity of control plots (5.0 knots per root tip and the averages of other treaments (1.9-2.6 knots per root tip.

  3. Doenças da vinagreira no Estado do Maranhão

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilson Soares da Silva

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho, são descritas as principais doenças da vinagreira (Hibiscus sabdariffa que ocorrem no Estado do Maranhão. Os patógenos identificados foram Cercospora malayensis, Corynespora cassiicola, Lasiodiplodia theobromae, Meloidogyne incognita, Phytophthora nicotianae e Sclerotium rolfsii.

  4. Doenças da vinagreira no Estado do Maranhão / Diseases of roselle in the state of Maranhão, Brazil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Gilson Soares da, Silva; Adriano Soares, Rêgo; Raycenne Rosa, Leite.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho, são descritas as principais doenças da vinagreira (Hibiscus sabdariffa) que ocorrem no Estado do Maranhão. Os patógenos identificados foram Cercospora malayensis, Corynespora cassiicola, Lasiodiplodia theobromae, Meloidogyne incognita, Phytophthora nicotianae e Sclerotium rolfsii. [...] Abstract in english In this paper, the most common diseases affecting roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa) in the state of Maranhão, Brazil, are described. The identified pathogens were Cercospora malayensis, Corynespora cassiicola, Lasiodiplodia theobromae, Meloidogyne incognita and Sclerotium rolfsdii. [...

  5. Pochonia chlamydosporia (Goddard) Zare y Gams como potencial agente de control biológico de Meloidogyne enterolobii (Yang y Eisenback) en cultivos hortícolas / Pochonia chlamydosporia (Goddard) Zare & Gams as potential biological control agent of Meloidogyne enterolobii (Yang & Eisenback) in vegetable crops

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Jersys, Arévalo; S.D, Silva; Marina D.G, Carneiro; R.B, Lopes; Regina M.D.G, Carneiro; Myrian S, Tigano; L, Hidalgo-Díaz.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Recientemente se informaron aislamientos de Pochonia chlamydosporia (Goddard) Zare y Gams parasitando huevos de Meloidogyne enterolobii Yang y Eisenback (syn. jun. Meloidogyne mayaguensis Rammah y Hirschmann) en plantaciones de guayaba (Psidium guajava L.), al nordeste de Brasil. Teniendo en cuenta [...] el peligro potencial de esta plaga para numerosos cultivos incluyendo las hortalizas, se realizó un experimento en casa de vegetación con dos repeticiones en el tiempo. El objetivo fue evaluar las actividades saprofítica y patogénica de tres cepas brasileñas (CG1003, CG1006 y CG1041) y una cubana (IMI SD 187) de P. chlamydosporia frente a M. enterolobii, en una sucesión de cultivos tomate (Solanum lycopersicum L.)- lechuga (Lactuca sativa L.). Al finalizar el ciclo de los cultivos, 6 meses después de la aplicación, se comprobó que la colonización de P. chlamydosporia se mantuvo en el orden de 10(4) UFC.g-1 de suelo y mayor de 10³ UFC.g-1 en las raíces, excepto para la cepa CG1041 (10² UFC.g-1 de raíz). El porcentaje de colonización de estos hongos sobre las masas de huevos fue superior al 60% en todos los tratamientos, mientras que los porcentajes de parasitismo de huevos estuvieron entre 45 y 55%. Estos resultados validaron la cepa cubana frente a una diana y en condiciones diferentes a las que es originaria y se demostró que las cepas brasileñas son potenciales biocontroladores de M. enterolobii, abriéndose así futuras perspectivas de investigación como agentes de control biológico integrados para el manejo de este nematodo. Abstract in english Recently, Pochonia chlamydosporia (Goddard) Zare y Gams was isolated from parasitized eggs of Meloidogyne enterolobii Yang y Eisenback (syn. jun. Meloidogyne mayaguensis Rammah y Hirschmann) in guava (Psidium guajava L.) plantations, at the northeast of Brazil. Due to the potential danger of this pe [...] st for a large group of crops, including vegetable crops, a greenhouse experiment was conducted with two repetitions in time. The aim was to evaluate the saprophytic and parasitic activities of three brazilian strains (CG1003, CG1006 and CG1041) and the cuban strain (IMI SD 187) of P. chlamydosporia against M. enterolobii in a tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.)- lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) crop sequence. At the end of the cultivation, 6 month after the application, colonization of P. chlamydosporia was in the order of 10(4) CFU.g-1 of soil and 10³ CFU.g-1 of root, with exception of the strain CG1041 (10² CFU.g-1 of root). Egg mass percentage was higher than 60% in all treatments, while parasitized egg percentage was between 45-55%. These results validated the cuban strain against a nematode target under different conditions from those it originally came from; the brazilian strain potential as biocontroler of M. enterolobii was also demonstred. Future investigation perspectives with those fungi are opened for their use as biological control agents for nematode pest management strategies.

  6. Extending our Unbiased Survey for Disks Around White Dwarfs; One Foot in Terra Incognita

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farihi, Jay; Gaensicke, Boris

    2015-10-01

    Eleven cycles of Spitzer studies have firmly linked the presence of atmospheric metals in white dwarfs to closely orbiting circumstellar dust; the result of large planetesimal disruptions in active planetary systems. These evolved stars represent a unique tool to study long term planetary system evolution in the descendants of A-type and similar stars. Yet despite 35 IRAC-detected dust disks at white dwarfs, we are still unable to determine true disk frequency as a function of post-main sequence planetary system age. In Cycle 8 we carried out the first double-blind Spitzer/HST survey of a large white dwarf sample in the cooling age range 25-100 Myr. We found a fraction of 4% have an IRAC excess, while 30% of the sample display atmospheric metals, indicating that many white dwarf dust disks are faint in the infrared, and hinting at an undiscovered disk population. Additionally, these joint observations provided the first quantitative link between circumstellar dust and atmospheric metals in an unbiased sample of stars. Here we propose to extend our work to younger (5-25 Myr) and older (100-300 Myr) cooling ages, using a sample of 106 white dwarfs selected only for temperature and brightness. As with our previous survey, the same sample of 106 stars will be searched for atmospheric metals with HST/COS in approved Cycle 22 and 23 Snapshots. These combined observations will measure true disk frequency over a range of cooling ages for the first time, and thus constrain models of post-main sequence, planetary system dynamical instabilities. Importantly, Spitzer observations are critical to determine the fraction of disks in the cooling age range 5-25 Myr, which has not been explored, and where dynamical instabilities are expected to be relatively frequent.

  7. Antagonistic Effect of Some Species of Pleurotus on the Root-knot Nematode, Meloidogyne javanica in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Heydari

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Antagonistic effect of five species of Pleurotus, including P. ostreatus, P. sajor-caju, P. cornucopiae, P. florida and P. eryngii on second stage juveniles (J2 of Meloidogyne javanica were studied, in vitro. On water agar, all of the species tested produced tiny droplets of toxin. Nematodes touching such droplets showed a sudden response and became colonized by the fungi after 24-48 h. Filtrates of the tested fungi grown in malt extract broth were toxic on the nematodes but this toxicity varied between species. Culture filtrates of P. ostreatus showed the highest nematicidal activity toward M. javanica J2 and the lowest toxic effect was observed in filtrates of P. eryngii. A linear relationship was proved between increasing toxin concentration and the percentage of dead nematodes.

  8. Effects of Irrigation, Nitrogen, and a Nematicide on Pearl Millet

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, A.W.; Hanna, W. W.; Dowler, C. C.

    1995-01-01

    Pearl millet is used mainly as a temporary forage crop in the southern United States. A new pearl millet hybrid has potential as a major grain crop in the United States. The effects of nematodes, irrigation, a nematicide, and nitrogen rates on a new pearl millet grain hybrid, HGM-100, and nematode population changes were determined in a 2-year study. Root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne incognita race 1) entered the roots of pearl millet and caused minimal galling, but produced large numbers of e...

  9. Effects and Carry-Over Benefits of Nematicides in Soil Planted to a Sweet Corn-Squash-Vetch Cropping System

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, A.W.; Leonard, R. A.

    1995-01-01

    The effects of irrigation on the efficacy of nematicides on Meloidogyne incognita race 1 population densities, yield of sweet corn, and the carry-over of nematicidal effect in the squash crop were determined in a sweet corn-squash-vetch cropping system for 3 years. Fenamiphos 15G and aldicarb 15G were applied at 6.7 kg a.i./ha and incorporated 15 cm deep with a tractor-mounted rototiller. Ethylene dibromide (EDB) was injected at 18 kg a.i./ha on each side of the sweet corn rows (total 36 kg a...

  10. Endoparasitic Nematodes in Maize Roots in the Western Transvaal as Related to Soil Texture and Rainfall

    OpenAIRE

    Jordaan, Elizabeth M.; De Waele, D.; van Rooyen, P. J.

    1989-01-01

    Eight endoparasitic nematode species were recovered from 170 maize root samples in western Transvaal, Republic of South Africa. Pratylenchus zeae had the highest average population density (17,454/5 g roots), followed by P. neglectus (5,827/5 g roots), P. penetrans (5,617/5 g roots), P. brachyurus (3,060/5 g roots), Meloidogyne incognita plus M. javanica (301 juveniles/5 g roots), P. crenatus (130/5 g roots), and Rotylenchutus parvus (64/5 g roots). The 17 reasonably homogeneous farming areas...

  11. EFECTO NEMATICIDA DE EXTRACTOS DE Quassia amara Y Brugmansia suaveolens SOBRE Meloidogyne sp. ASOCIADO AL TOMATE EN NICARAGUA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilber Salazar-Ant\\u00F3n

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar extractos de hojas de Quassia amara L. (Simaroubaceae y flores de Brugmansia suaveolens L. (Solanaceae para determinar su efecto nematicida contra Meloidogyne sp. El estudio se realizó en el Campus Agropecuario de la Universidad Nacional Autónoma de Nicaragua-León (UNAN- León en el año 2012. El material vegetal fue deshidratado, pulverizado y sus compuestos fueron extraídos utilizando como solvente metanol. Este estudio se realizó in vitro, se evaluó la mortalidad de los juveniles de Meloidogyne sp. en segundo instar después de 12, 24 y 48 horas de exposición a los extractos. Además, estos se aplicaron a plantas de tomate en maceteras bajo condiciones de invernadero, cuantificándose las poblaciones de nematodos a los 25, 50 y 75 días de exposición al extracto (DEE. En el experimento in vitro Q. amara y B. suaveolens diluidos al 10%, presentaron los más altos porcentajes de mortalidad después de 48 h, alcanzando 89 y 78% de juveniles muertos, respectivamente. En maceteras se evaluó la mortalidad de juveniles, índice de agallamiento (IA y factor de reproducción (FR. Los mejores resultados para Q. amara se obtuvieron a los 25 DEE, con un porcentaje de mortalidad de 80%, un IA de 1 en una escala de 0-5 y FR de 0,20. Con B. suaveolens, a los 25 DEE se alcanzó el mayor porcentaje de mortalidad de 71%, un IA de 1,2 y un FR de 0,29. Estos resultados in vitro y en maceteras evidenciaron que ambos extractos poseen propiedades nematicidas, ya que redujeron significativamente (P?0,05 las poblaciones de nematodos, su reproducción y el nivel de agallamiento de las raíces de tomate.

  12. CHARACTERIZATION OF RESISTANCE TO ROOT-KNOT NEMATODES IN SWEETPOTATO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thirteen sweetpotato (Ipomoea batatas) genotypes were characterized for resistance to Meloidogyne incognita, M. javanica, M. hapla, and M. arenaria races 1 and 2 in greenhouse tests. The following sweetpotato genotypes representing a range of reactions to M. incognita were evaluated: U.S. Plant In...

  13. Development of Pasteuria penetrans in Meloidogyne javanica females as affected by constantly high vs fluctuating temperature in an in-vivo system

    OpenAIRE

    Darban, D.A.; S. R. Gowen; Pembroke, B.; Mahar, A.N.

    2005-01-01

    Growth room and glasshouse experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of constant and fluctuating temperatures on the development of Pasteuria penetrans a hyperparasite of root-knot nematodes. Tomato plants (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill) were inoculated with Meloidogyne javanica second-stage juveniles attached with endospores of P. penetrans and were grown in growth room at 26–29 °C and in glasshouse at 20–32 °C. The tomato plants were sampled from the growth room after 600 degree-day...

  14. Field Evaluation of Pasteuria Isolates for the Control of Root-Knot Nematodes, Meloidogyne javanica on Tomato

    OpenAIRE

    Amer Zareen; Nazir Javed; M. Javed Zaki

    2002-01-01

    In a mirco-plot field experiment four isolates of Pasteuria (one from UK and three local isolates viz., PK 1, PK2 and PK3) and a mixed inoculum of all four isolates (blend) were tested against Meloidogyne javanica on tomato to understand the pathogenic variability of different bacterial isolates. Yield of tomato and plant growth as plant height, fresh shoot and root length was improved significantly by blend inoculum of bacterial antagonists compared to control. Nematode development in...

  15. Interactions between a Root Knot Nematode (Meloidogyne exigua) and Arbuscular Mycorrhizae in Coffee Plant Development (Coffea arabica)

    OpenAIRE

    Raúl Alban; Ricardo Guerrero; Marcia Toro

    2013-01-01

    This paper focuses on parasitic root knot nematodes (Meloidogyne exigua) and how to decrease their pathogenic effect on coffee plants (Coffea arabica), by examining the behaviour of and the interactions between nematodes, coffee plant and arbuscular mycorrhizae (AM). The experiment was carried out at the seedling stage, with six (6) treatments (plants with M. exigua, plants with arbuscular mycorrhizae, plants with both organisms, and the same time, first mycorrhizae plants, then nematodes wer...

  16. Description and SEM Observations of Meloidogyne chitwoodi n. sp. (Meloidogynidae), a Root-knot Nematode on Potato in the Pacific Northwest

    OpenAIRE

    Golden, A. Morgan; O'Bannon, J. H.; Santo, G. S.; Finley, A. M.

    1980-01-01

    Meloidogyne chitwoodi n. sp. is described and illustrated from potato (Solanum tuberosum) originally collected from Quincy, Washington, USA. This new species resembles M. hapla, but its perineal pattern is basically round to oval with distinctive and broken, curled, or twisted striae around and above the anal area. The vulva is in a sunken area devoid of striae. Vesicles or vesicle-like structures are present in the median bulb of females. The larva tail, being short and blunt with a hyaline ...

  17. Suppression of Root-knot Nematode Populations with Selected Rapeseed Cultivars as Green Manure

    OpenAIRE

    Mojtahedi, H.; Santo, G. S.; Hang, A. N.; Wilson, J. H.

    1991-01-01

    Meloidogyne chitwoodi races 1 and 2 and M. hapla reproduced on 12 cultivars of Brassica napus and two cultivars of B. campestris. The mean reproductive factors (Rf), Rf = Pf at 55 days ÷ 5,000, for the three nematodes were 8.3, 2.2, and 14.3, respectively. All three nematodes reproduced more efficiently (P < 0.05) on B. campestris than on B. napus. Amending M. chitwoodi-infested soil in plastic bags with chopped shoots of Jupiter rapeseed reduced the nematode population more (P < 0.05) than a...

  18. Reação de clones de umezeiro (Prunus mume sieb. et zucc. e cultivares de pessegueiro a Meloidogyne javanica (treub, 1885 Chitwood, 1949

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayer Newton Alex

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Um amplo projeto de estudos sobre a utilização do umezeiro como porta-enxerto para pessegueiro está sendo desenvolvido na FCAV/UNESP, Câmpus de Jaboticabal-SP, devido, especialmente, às promissoras características para uso como redutor de vigor da copa e sua boa qualidade de frutos. Alguns trabalhos na literatura citam o umezeiro como resistente ao nematóide das galhas, entretanto dispõe-se de poucas informações. Neste trabalho, teve-se por objetivo estudar a reação de clones de umezeiro e cultivares de pessegueiro a Meloidogyne javanica. O experimento foi conduzido em casa de vegetação, com 6 tratamentos (Clones 05; 10 e 15 de umezeiro e as cultivares Okinawa, Aurora-1 e Dourado-1 de pessegueiro e 9 repetições. As plantas foram mantidas em vasos de cerâmica contendo uma mistura de solo e areia (1:1, v/v, previamente autoclavada a 121ºC e 1kgf.cm-2 por 2 horas. Aos sessenta dias após o plantio, cada planta foi inoculada com 3.000 ovos e juvenis de segundo estádio de Meloidogyne javanica. Aos 100 dias após a inoculação, as plantas foram colhidas para avaliação da massa de matéria fresca do sistema radicular, número de galhas por sistema radicular, número de ovos e juvenis por 10 g de raízes, número de ovos e juvenis por sistema radicular e fator de reprodução. Verificou-se que todos os clones e cultivares de umezeiro e pessegueiro, respectivamente, mostraram-se resistentes a Meloidogyne javanica.

  19. Host suitability of weeds and forage species to root-knot nematode meloidogyne graminicola as a funcion of irrigation management / Hospedabilidade de plantas daninhas e espécies forrageiras ao nematoide das galhas meloidogyne graminicola em função do manejo da irrigação

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    R.R.D., Negretti; R., Manica-Berto; D., Agostinetto; L., Th& #252; rmer; C.B., Gomes.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A produção de arroz irrigado pode ser limitada por vários agentes fitopatogênicos, entre eles os nematoides das galhas (Meloidogyne spp.). Dessa forma, objetivou-se neste estudo avaliar a hospedabilidade de espécies de plantas, encontradas com maior frequência no entrecultivo e durante o período de [...] cultivo do arroz irrigado, ao nematoide das galhas, Meloidogyne graminicola, sob dois manejos da irrigação. Para isso, foram realizados dois experimentos em delineamento completamente casualizado. No primeiro experimento, foram testadas sete espécies vegetais que ocorrem em área de arroz irrigado, em pousio, no período de entrecultivo. Para o segundo experimento, testaram-se, em condições de sequeiro e alagamento, nove espécies de plantas daninhas infestantes da cultura do arroz irrigado. As 16 espécies vegetais, mantidas individualmente em vaso com substrato esterilizado, foram inoculadas com 5.000 ovos e juvenis de segundo estádio (J2) do nematoide. Plantas de arroz BRS IRGA 410 inoculadas com M. graminicola foram utilizadas como testemunhas. Dois meses após a inoculação, o sistema radical de cada planta foi avaliado quanto ao número de galhas e fator de reprodução do nematoide. Verificou-se que as espécies de entrecultivo da cultura do arroz irrigado Sida rhombifolia, Raphanus raphanistrum, Spergula arvensis, Lotus corniculatus e Trifolium repens e, durante o ciclo de cultivo do arroz irrigado, Aeschynomene denticulata e Leersia hexandra são imunes ao nematoide. As espécies vegetais de entrecultivo, Avena strigosa e Lolium multiflorum, e as de cultivo, Alternanthera philoxeroides, arroz-vermelho, Echinochloa crusgalli, Cyperus difformis, Cyperus esculentus, Cyperus iria e Fimbristylis miliacea, comportam-se como hospedeiras de M. graminicola, principalmente em condições de sequeiro. Abstract in english The irrigated rice production can be limited by various phytopathogenic agents, including root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp.). Thus, the aim of this research was to check the host suitability of plant species most often found off-season and during rice cultivation, to root-knot nematode Meloidogy [...] ne graminicola, under two irrigation managements. Two experiments were conducted in a completely randomized design. In the first experiment seven plant species that occur in an area of rice cultivation, in fallow, off-season were evaluated. For the second experiment nine weed species infesting the irrigated rice culture were tested in rainfed and flooding conditions. The sixteen species, kept individually in pots with sterilized substrate, were inoculated with 5,000 eggs and second stage juveniles (J2) of nematode. BRS 410 IRGA rice plants inoculated with M.graminicola were used as control. Two months after inoculation, the root system of each plant was evaluated for number of galls and nematode reproduction factor. It was verified that the species of off-season of rice cultivation Sida rhombifolia, Raphanus raphanistrum, Spergula arvensis, Lotus corniculatus and Trifolium repens, and, during the cycle of rice cultivation, Aeschynomene denticulata, Leersia hexandra, are immune to nematode. The plant species off-season, Avena strigosa and Lolium multiflorum and of cultivation, Alternanthera philoxeroides, red rice, Echinochloa crusgalli, Cyperus difformis, Cyperus esculentus, Cyperus iria and Fimbristylis miliacea would behave as hosts of M.graminicola, mostly under rainfed conditions.

  20. Filtrados de culturas bacterianas endofíticas na motilidade, mortalidade e eclosão de juvenis de segundo estádio de Meloidogyne javanica Filtrates of endophytic bacterium cultures on motility, mortality and hatching of second stage juveniles of Meloidogyne javanica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosemeire L. Naves

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Filtrados das culturas de 40 isolados de bactérias endofíticas, obtidos a partir do sistema radicular de diferentes espécies de plantas foram testados na motilidade, mortalidade e eclosão de juvenis de segundo estádio (J2 de Meloidogyne javanica. As bactérias foram cultivadas em meio líquido "trypic soy broth" por sete dias sob agitação constante a 28 ºC, centrifugadas a 10.000 g por 15 min e o sobrenadante passado em filtro millipore de 0,22 µm de abertura. Cerca de 100 ovos ou 100 J2 foram colocados em contato com cada filtrado bacteriano, para os ensaios de eclosão, motilidade e mortalidade. As avaliações foram feitas após 24 e 48 h para motilidade e mortalidade e após 15 dias para eclosão. Dos isolados testados, sete imobilizaram juvenis em 24 h, não ocorrendo recuperação da mobilidade após serem transferidos para água, provocando, dessa forma, porcentagens de mortalidade semelhantes à induzida pelo nematicida aldicarbe utilizado como controle. Os mesmos isolados também inibiram eficientemente a eclosão dos juvenis. Dois isolados provocaram a morte de mais de 90% dos juvenis após 48 h de exposição. Diferentes diluições dos filtrados dos oito isolados mais eficientes também foram testadas. Maiores índices de mortalidade e redução na eclosão foram provocados pelo filtrado não diluído e pelas diluições em água 1:1 e 1:2 (v/v.To obtaining the filtrates, bacteria were cultivated in liquid trypic soy broth medium for seven days at 28 ºC under constant stirring, centrifugated at 10,000 g for 15 min and the supernatant was filtrated by 0,22 µm Millipore. Nonmotile Meloidogyne javanica and dead ones were counted 24 and 48 h later and hatched J2 were counted 15 days after setting up the experiment. Seven of 40 bacterial isolates tested immobilized the juveniles within 24 h, and they could not recover even in water. This effect was similar to the aldicarb treatment used as control. The filtrates of isolates also inhibited egg hatching. Two isolates killed more than 90% of J2 after 48 h of exposure. Filtrate dilutions of the most efficient isolate in 1:1 and 1:2 (bacterial filtrate: water also showed to have effective action on nematode behaviors.

  1. Filtrados de culturas bacterianas endofíticas na motilidade, mortalidade e eclosão de juvenis de segundo estádio de Meloidogyne javanica / Filtrates of endophytic bacterium cultures on motility, mortality and hatching of second stage juveniles of Meloidogyne javanica

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Rosemeire L., Naves; Vicente P., Campos; Ricardo M., Souza.

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Filtrados das culturas de 40 isolados de bactérias endofíticas, obtidos a partir do sistema radicular de diferentes espécies de plantas foram testados na motilidade, mortalidade e eclosão de juvenis de segundo estádio (J2) de Meloidogyne javanica. As bactérias foram cultivadas em meio líquido "trypi [...] c soy broth" por sete dias sob agitação constante a 28 ºC, centrifugadas a 10.000 g por 15 min e o sobrenadante passado em filtro millipore de 0,22 µm de abertura. Cerca de 100 ovos ou 100 J2 foram colocados em contato com cada filtrado bacteriano, para os ensaios de eclosão, motilidade e mortalidade. As avaliações foram feitas após 24 e 48 h para motilidade e mortalidade e após 15 dias para eclosão. Dos isolados testados, sete imobilizaram juvenis em 24 h, não ocorrendo recuperação da mobilidade após serem transferidos para água, provocando, dessa forma, porcentagens de mortalidade semelhantes à induzida pelo nematicida aldicarbe utilizado como controle. Os mesmos isolados também inibiram eficientemente a eclosão dos juvenis. Dois isolados provocaram a morte de mais de 90% dos juvenis após 48 h de exposição. Diferentes diluições dos filtrados dos oito isolados mais eficientes também foram testadas. Maiores índices de mortalidade e redução na eclosão foram provocados pelo filtrado não diluído e pelas diluições em água 1:1 e 1:2 (v/v). Abstract in english To obtaining the filtrates, bacteria were cultivated in liquid trypic soy broth medium for seven days at 28 ºC under constant stirring, centrifugated at 10,000 g for 15 min and the supernatant was filtrated by 0,22 µm Millipore. Nonmotile Meloidogyne javanica and dead ones were counted 24 and 48 h l [...] ater and hatched J2 were counted 15 days after setting up the experiment. Seven of 40 bacterial isolates tested immobilized the juveniles within 24 h, and they could not recover even in water. This effect was similar to the aldicarb treatment used as control. The filtrates of isolates also inhibited egg hatching. Two isolates killed more than 90% of J2 after 48 h of exposure. Filtrate dilutions of the most efficient isolate in 1:1 and 1:2 (bacterial filtrate: water) also showed to have effective action on nematode behaviors.

  2. Crescimento micelial e parasitismo de Paecilomyces lilacinus sobre ovos de Meloidogyne paranaensis em diferentes temperaturas"in vitro" / "In vitro" mycelial growth and parasitism of Paecilomyces lilacinus on Meloidogyne paranaensis eggs at different temperatures

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Marina Capparelli, Cadioli; Débora Cristina, Santiago; Adriano Thibes, Hoshino; Martin, Homechin.

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Paecilomyces lilacinus é um fungo de solo, parasita facultativo de ovos de nematóides, que pode crescer rapidamente "in vitro". Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o crescimento micelial de P. lilacinus em diferentes temperaturas e selecionar os melhores isolados quanto à capacidade de parasita [...] r ovos de Meloidogyne paranaensis. Foram avaliados isolados de P. lilacinus, obtidos de solos coletados na região de Londrina, PR. Para o isolamento empregou-se a técnica de diluição seriada dos solos e plaqueamento em meio de cultura semi-seletivo. A determinação do crescimento micelial e do parasitismo "in vitro" dos isolados sobre M. paranaensis foi realizada em placas de Petri contendo meio BDA. Os isolados foram incubados em B.O.D. a temperaturas de 20ºC, 22,5ºC, 25ºC, 27,5ºC e 30ºC. A avaliação do crescimento foi interrompida quando em um dos tratamentos a colônia do fungo atingiu a borda da placa de Petri e a determinação do parasitismo foi realizada depois de oito dias de incubação, calculando-se a porcentagem de ovos parasitados. O crescimento micelial dos isolados de P. lilacinus teve grande dependência da temperatura de incubação a que foram submetidos, sendo mais rápido à temperatura de 22,5ºC. Os isolados de P. lilacinus revelaram habilidade para infectar os ovos de M. paranaensis em meio BDA, principalmente na temperatura de 25ºC. Abstract in english Paecilomyces lilacinus is a soil fungus, facultative parasite of nematode eggs, which develops quickly "in vitro". The mycelial growth of P. lilacinus isolates was evaluated at different temperatures and the best isolates, regarding the capacity to parasite Meloidogyne paranaensis eggs, were chosen. [...] P. lilacinus soil isolates from Londrina, Parana state, were evaluated. Isolation was done using serial dilution of the soils and plating it in semi-selective agar medium. The determination of mycelial growth and "in vitro" parasitism of these isolates was done using Petri plates containing potato-dextrose-agar (PDA), placed in chamber at 20ºC, 22.5ºC, 25ºC, 27.5ºC or 30ºC. The evaluation started when in one of the treatments of the fungus colonies reached the edge of the Petri plate. Parasitism was determined after 8 days of incubation, calculating the percentage of parasited eggs. The mycelial growth of P. lilacinus isolates was greatly dependent on the temperature. The fastest growth occurred at 22.5ºC. The isolates of P. lilacinus were able to infect M. paranaensis eggs in PDA medium, mostly at 25ºC.

  3. Linhagens de alface-crespa para o verão resistentes ao Meloidogyne javanica e ao vírus mosaico-da-alface / Lineages of crisp-leaf lettuce for summer cropping resistant to Meloidogyne javanica and to Lettuce mosaic virus

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Renata Rodrigues, Silva; Luiz Antônio Augusto, Gomes; Aline Beraldo, Monteiro; Wilson Roberto, Maluf; José Luiz Sandes de, Carvalho Filho; João Aguilar, Massaroto.

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi selecionar famílias F4 de alface, oriundas do cruzamento entre as cultivares Verônica e Salinas 88, para o cultivo no verão, com relação ao tipo de folha, e à resistência ao Lettuce mosaic virus (LMV) e ao nematóide-das-galhas Meloidogyne javanica. Primeiramente, avalia [...] ram-se a coloração da folha, tipos de borda e limbo foliares, além da tolerância ao calor no campo, em blocos ao acaso compostos pelas 15 famílias F4 previamente selecionadas, pelas cultivares parentais e pela cultivar testemunha Regina 71 (folhas lisas e tolerante ao calor), com cinco repetições e oito plantas por parcela. Na segunda etapa, as famílias foram avaliadas quanto à resistência ao LMV e ao nematóide-das-galhas, em bandejas de 128 células acondicionadas em estufa. As médias das notas atribuídas a cada família foram comparadas às médias de cada cultivar parental pelo teste de Dunnet (5%). A família AFX007B-140-21, homozigota resistente aos nematóides e ao LMV e, também, tolerante ao calor, foi a mais promissora. O cruzamento entre uma cultivar de folhas crespas e soltas com uma de folhas crespas e repolhuda, pode originar linhagens promissoras tanto de folhas crespas quanto de folhas lisas. Abstract in english The aim of this work was to select F4 lettuce families, derived from the cross 'Veronica' x 'Salinas 88 ', for summer cropping, type of leaves, and for resistance to Meloidogyne javanica and to Lettuce mosaic virus (LMV). First, evaluations were made for leaf colour, leaf limb, border type, and heat [...] tolerance in the field, in a complete blocks desing, in 15 F4 families previously selected, parent cultivars and, as control, the cultivar Regina 71 (butterleaf and tolerant to heat). Five replicates and eight plants per plot were used. As second step, the families were evaluated in greenhouse, in 128-cell expanded polystyrene trays, for resistance to LMV and root-knot nematodes. Score means of each family were compared to the means of each parental cultivar by Dunnett test at 5% probability. Family AFX007B-140-21, homozygous for root-knot nematodes, for LMV and heat tolerant, was the most promising. The cross between crisp and butter leaf cultivars can originate promising lineages both with crisp and butter leaves.

  4. Efeito de extratos proteicos de amendoim sobre o desenvolvimento, a capacidade infectiva e atividade de enzimas proteolíticas de Meloidogyne enterolobii / Effect of peanut protein extracts on the development, infective capacity and activity of proteolytic enzymes of Meloidogyne enterolobii

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Juliana Martins, Ribeiro; José Mauro da Cunha e, Castro; Natoniel Franklin de, Melo; Kátia Valevski Sales, Fernandes; Márcio dos Santos Teixeira, Pinto.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available No Brasil, Meloidogyne enterolobii vem causando perdas significativas na produção de goiabeiras e, no submédio do Vale do São Francisco, por exemplo, o impacto negativo decorrente da infecção e morte de goiabeiras tem refletido diretamente na qualidade de vida dos agricultores. Até o momento, não ex [...] istem métodos de controle efetivos: os nematicidas avaliados experimentalmente não têm sido eficientes e não há produtos registrados no Ministério da Agricultura, Pecuária e Abastecimento para aplicação em goiabeiras. Assim, há necessidade de realizar pesquisa básica nesta área. A prospecção de proteínas relacionadas com a resistência em espécies resistentes pode ser uma alternativa para o desenvolvimento de medidas para seu controle. Para isso, foram realizados ensaios biológicos de toxicidade para a análise do efeito de extratos proteicos de amendoim sobre o desenvolvimento, a capacidade infectiva e atividade de enzimas proteolíticas de M. enterolobii visando à identificação de proteínas com potencial para controle desse nematoide. Os resultados obtidos indicaram que o extrato proteico total de amostras de raízes de plantas de amendoim inoculadas não tem efeito sobre as três características supracitadas. Sendo assim, são necessários estudos dessa natureza com outras espécies resistentes ao patógeno visando à identificação de proteínas que apresentem potencial para o seu controle. Abstract in english In several regions of the country, including the São Francisco Valley, Meloidogyne enterolobii has caused significant losses in the production of guava, reflecting negatively on life quality of farmers in the region. To date, there is no effective control method, nematicides have been evaluated expe [...] rimentally and have not been efficient in their control and there are no products registered with the Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock and Supply for use in guava. Therefore, there is a critical need for basic research on this area and the prospection of proteins related to resistance to M. enterolobii in nematode resistant species may be an alternative for the development of control measures. For this purpose, biological assays of toxicity were performed to analyze the effect of peanut protein extracts on the development, infective capacity and activity of proteolytic enzymes of M. enterolobii for the identification of proteins with potential to control this pest. Results showed that total protein extracts from peanut root samples inoculated with M. enterolobii has no effect on the three characteristics evaluated. Thus, similar studies with other species resistant to the pathogen are needed to identify proteins with potential to control M. enterolobii.

  5. Selection of coffee progenies for resistance to nematode Meloidogyne paranaensis in infested area / Seleção de progênies de café para a resistência ao nematoide Meloidogyne paranaensis em área infestada

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Sonia Maria Lima, Salgado; Juliana Costa de, Rezende; José Airton Rodrigues, Nunes.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se neste trabalho selecionar progênies de Coffea arabica para resistência à M. paranaensis em área cafeeira infestada usando a abordagem de modelos mistos de Henderson. Quarenta e um genótipos foram selecionados no Banco Ativo de Germoplasma de Café de Minas Gerais e avaliados individualme [...] nte quanto ao diâmetro de caule, número de ramos plagiotrópicos, caracterização da reação dos genótipos ao nematoide e produção por planta. Houve variabilidade genética entre os genótipos estudados para todas as características avaliadas, e entre as populações estudadas para as características produção e caracterização da reação dos genótipos ao nematoide, indicando possibilidades de obtenção de ganhos genéticos pela seleção nesta população. As correlações genotípicas entre todas as características estudadas foram significativas. Cafeeiros da população de Híbrido de Timor UFV 408-01 e progênies F3 derivadas do cruzamento entre Catuaí Vermelho e Amphillo MR 2161 foram os mais promissores em área infestada por M. paranaensis. Abstract in english The purpose of this study was to select Coffea arabica progenies for resistance to M. paranaensis in an infested coffee growing area using Henderson's mixed model methodology. Forty-one genotypes were selected at the Coffee Active Germplasm Bank of Minas Gerais, and evaluated in regard to stem diame [...] ter, number of plagiotropic branches, reaction to the nematode, and yield per plant. There was genetic variability among the genotypes studied for all the traits evaluated, and among the populations studied for yield and reaction to the nematode, indicating possibilities for obtaining genetic gains through selection in this population. There was high rate of genotypic association between all the traits studied. Coffee plants of Timor Hybrid UFV408-01 population, and F3 progenies derived from crossing Catuaí Vermelho and Amphillo MR 2161 were the most promising in the area infested by M. paranaensis.

  6. Ação nematicida de extratos de alho, mostarda, pimenta malagueta, de óleo de mostarda e de dois produtos à base de capsainóides e alil isotiocianato sobre juvenis de Meloidogyne javanica, (treub Chitwood, 1949, em casa de vegetação

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wânia dos Santos Neves

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Neves, W.S; Freitas, L.G.; Coutinho, M.M.; Giaretta-Dallemole, R.; Fabry, C.F.S.; Dhingra, O.D. & Ferraz, S. Atividade nematicida de extratos botânicos de pimenta malagueta (Capsicum frutescens, mostarda (Brassica campestris e alho (Allium sativum sobre o nematóide das galhas, Meloidogyne javanica, em casa de vegetação. Summa Phytopathologica, v.35, n.4, p.255-261, 2009 O experimento teve como objetivo avaliar a atividade nematicida de extratos botânicos dos frutos de pimenta malagueta (Capsicum frutescens, plantas de mostarda (Brassica campestris, de bulbos de alho (Allium sativum e óleo de mostarda sobre o nematóide das galhas, Meloidogyne javanica, em tomateiro em casa de vegetação e posteriormente comparar os extratos que apresentassem maior redução de número de galhas e de ovos com dois produtos à base de capsaicina, capsainóides e alil isotiocianato. Uma mistura peneirada de solo e areia na proporção 1:1 (v:v foi colocada em vasos de plástico e infestada com 4000 ovos de M. javanica. Quatro dias após 20 mL de cada extrato, na concentração de 1000 ppm, foram espalhados sobre o solo. Apenas água foi derramada sobre o solo infestado no tratamento testemunha. Mudas de tomate com 20 dias de idade foram transplantadas quatro dias após a colocação dos extratos ao solo. Após quarenta e cinco dias avaliou-se o número de ovos e o número de galhas do sistema radicular de cada planta. Os extratos clorofórmico e cetônico de pimenta malagueta e o óleo de mostarda apresentaram melhor controle do nematóide, diferindo estatisticamente da testemunha quanto ao número de galhas. Porém, somente o óleo de mostarda reduziu significativamente o número de ovos quando comparado com a testemunha. Os extratos cetônico e clorofórmico de pimenta e o óleo de mostarda reduziram em 34,5%, 40,4% e 99,9% o número de galhas, respectivamente e o óleo de mostarda reduziu em 99,9% o número de ovos. No experimento seguinte foram avaliados o extrato clorofórmico de pimenta, o óleo de mostarda, o produto comercial Champon® e um produto em desenvolvimento na UFV, chamado DS, a base de capsaicina, capsainóides e alil isotiocianato em diferentes concentrações. Os produtos Champon® e DS e o óleo de mostarda reduziram o número de ovos e galhas quando comparados à testemunha em todas as concentrações testadas. O extrato de pimenta apresentou o melhor resultado na concentração de 400 ppm, reduzindo o número de ovos e galhas em relação à testemunha, porém esse foi bem maior quando comparado com os demais produtos testados.Neves, W.S; Freitas, L.G.; Coutinho, M.M.; Giaretta-Dallemole, R.; Fabry, C.F.S.; Dhingra, O.D. & Ferraz, S. Nematicidal activity of extracts of red hot chili pepper, mustard and garlic on Meloidogyne javanica in green house. Summa Phytopathologica, v.35, n.4, p.255-261, 2009 The experiment had the objectives of evaluate the nematicidal activity of botanical extracts of chili pepper fruits (Capsicum frutescens, mustard (Brassica campestris and garlig (Allium sativum on the root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne javanica in tomato plants in the greenhouse, and in a second step, to compare the best extracts for the reduction of the number of eggs and root galls with two products containing capsaicin, capsainoids and allyl isothiocyanate. A sieved mixture of soil and sand 1:1 (v:v was used to fill plastic pots and infested with 4000 eggs of M. javanica. After 4 days, 20 mL of one of the extracts, in the concentration of 1000ppm, were poured over the soil of each pot. Water was poured in the test treatment. Twenty day-old tomato seedlings were planted, one per pot, four days after the aplication of the extracts. Forty five days after planting, the number of galls and eggs per plant was evaluated. The chloroformic and cetonic extracts of chili pepper and the mustard oil presented the highest effect on the nematode population, differing from the control treatment in respect to the number of galls, but only the mustard oil differed from the control in the number of eggs per plant.

  7. Ação nematicida de extratos de alho, mostarda, pimenta malagueta, de óleo de mostarda e de dois produtos à base de capsainóides e alil isotiocianato sobre juvenis de Meloidogyne javanica, (treub) Chitwood, 1949, em casa de vegetação

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Wânia dos Santos, Neves; Leandro Grassi de, Freitas; Marcelo Magalhães, Coutinho; Rosangela, Dallemole-Giaretta; Cleia de Fátima Silva, Fabry; Onkar Dev, Dhingra; Silamar, Ferraz.

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Neves, W.S; Freitas, L.G.; Coutinho, M.M.; Giaretta-Dallemole, R.; Fabry, C.F.S.; Dhingra, O.D. & Ferraz, S. Atividade nematicida de extratos botânicos de pimenta malagueta (Capsicum frutescens), mostarda (Brassica campestris) e alho (Allium sativum) sobre o nematóide das galhas, Meloidogyne javanic [...] a, em casa de vegetação. Summa Phytopathologica, v.35, n.4, p.255-261, 2009 O experimento teve como objetivo avaliar a atividade nematicida de extratos botânicos dos frutos de pimenta malagueta (Capsicum frutescens), plantas de mostarda (Brassica campestris), de bulbos de alho (Allium sativum) e óleo de mostarda sobre o nematóide das galhas, Meloidogyne javanica, em tomateiro em casa de vegetação e posteriormente comparar os extratos que apresentassem maior redução de número de galhas e de ovos com dois produtos à base de capsaicina, capsainóides e alil isotiocianato. Uma mistura peneirada de solo e areia na proporção 1:1 (v:v) foi colocada em vasos de plástico e infestada com 4000 ovos de M. javanica. Quatro dias após 20 mL de cada extrato, na concentração de 1000 ppm, foram espalhados sobre o solo. Apenas água foi derramada sobre o solo infestado no tratamento testemunha. Mudas de tomate com 20 dias de idade foram transplantadas quatro dias após a colocação dos extratos ao solo. Após quarenta e cinco dias avaliou-se o número de ovos e o número de galhas do sistema radicular de cada planta. Os extratos clorofórmico e cetônico de pimenta malagueta e o óleo de mostarda apresentaram melhor controle do nematóide, diferindo estatisticamente da testemunha quanto ao número de galhas. Porém, somente o óleo de mostarda reduziu significativamente o número de ovos quando comparado com a testemunha. Os extratos cetônico e clorofórmico de pimenta e o óleo de mostarda reduziram em 34,5%, 40,4% e 99,9% o número de galhas, respectivamente e o óleo de mostarda reduziu em 99,9% o número de ovos. No experimento seguinte foram avaliados o extrato clorofórmico de pimenta, o óleo de mostarda, o produto comercial Champon® e um produto em desenvolvimento na UFV, chamado DS, a base de capsaicina, capsainóides e alil isotiocianato em diferentes concentrações. Os produtos Champon® e DS e o óleo de mostarda reduziram o número de ovos e galhas quando comparados à testemunha em todas as concentrações testadas. O extrato de pimenta apresentou o melhor resultado na concentração de 400 ppm, reduzindo o número de ovos e galhas em relação à testemunha, porém esse foi bem maior quando comparado com os demais produtos testados. Abstract in english Neves, W.S; Freitas, L.G.; Coutinho, M.M.; Giaretta-Dallemole, R.; Fabry, C.F.S.; Dhingra, O.D. & Ferraz, S. Nematicidal activity of extracts of red hot chili pepper, mustard and garlic on Meloidogyne javanica in green house. Summa Phytopathologica, v.35, n.4, p.255-261, 2009 The experiment had the [...] objectives of evaluate the nematicidal activity of botanical extracts of chili pepper fruits (Capsicum frutescens), mustard (Brassica campestris) and garlig (Allium sativum) on the root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne javanica in tomato plants in the greenhouse, and in a second step, to compare the best extracts for the reduction of the number of eggs and root galls with two products containing capsaicin, capsainoids and allyl isothiocyanate. A sieved mixture of soil and sand 1:1 (v:v) was used to fill plastic pots and infested with 4000 eggs of M. javanica. After 4 days, 20 mL of one of the extracts, in the concentration of 1000ppm, were poured over the soil of each pot. Water was poured in the test treatment. Twenty day-old tomato seedlings were planted, one per pot, four days after the aplication of the extracts. Forty five days after planting, the number of galls and eggs per plant was evaluated. The chloroformic and cetonic extracts of chili pepper and the mustard oil presented the highest effect on the nematode population, differing from the control treatment in respect to the number of galls, but only the mustard oil differed from

  8. Soil amendment with chopped or ground dry leaves of six species of plants for the control of Meloidogyne javanica in tomato under greenhouse conditions Incorporação ao solo de folhas secas picadas ou moídas de seis espécies de plantas para o controle de Meloidogyne javanica em tomateiro em casa de vegetação

    OpenAIRE

    Everaldo Antônio Lopes; Silamar Ferraz; Paulo Afonso Ferreira; Leandro Grassi De Freitas; Rosangela Dallemole-Giaretta

    2011-01-01

    Greenhouse experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of soil amendment with chopped (1cm²) or ground (1mm sieve) dry leaves of assa-peixe (Vernonia polyanthes), lemon-grass (Cymbopogon citratus), eucalyptus (Eucalyptus citriodora), castor (Ricinus communis), mango (Mangifera indica) or neem (Azadirachta indica) for the control Meloidogyne javanica. Into the soil (Yellow red oxisol) of each pot were added leaves (5g kg-1 of soil) and 5,000 eggs of the nematode. After seven days, one to...

  9. Interação dos fungos micorrízicos arbusculares Glomus etunicatum e Gigaspora margarita e o nematóide das galhas Meloidogyne javanica em tomateiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    COFCEWICZ ELIS T.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available A produtividade do tomateiro pode ser severamente reduzida pelo parasitismo dos nematóides das galhas, amplamente distribuídos nas áreas de produção hortícola. Em condições de casa de vegetação, avaliou-se o efeito da interação entre duas espécies de fungos micorrízicos arbusculares (MA, Glomus etunicatum e Gigaspora margarita e o nematóide das galhas, Meloidogyne javanica, sobre o crescimento e nutrição do tomateiro (Lycopersicon esculentum cv. Floradade. A infecção por M. javanica reduziu a massa de matéria seca da parte aérea das plantas inoculadas. A redução foi menos acentuada em plantas colonizadas com G. etunicatum (12%, comparadas às plantas colonizadas com G. margarita (32% e testemunha (24%. Plantas colonizadas com G. etunicatum apresentaram maior massa de matéria seca e número de frutos comparadas aos demais tratamentos. A produção de frutos foi menos afetada pelo nematóide nas plantas inoculadas com G. etunicatum. A concentração e o conteúdo de P na parte aérea não foram alterados pelo nematóide nas plantas colonizadas por G. etunicatum, mas foram reduzidos nas plantas colonizadas com G. margarita e testemunhas. O número de ovos e juvenis de segundo estádio de M. javanica foi maior nas plantas colonizadas por fungos MA, comparadas às não micorrizadas. A maior tolerância observada nas plantas colonizadas com G. etunicatum ao nematóide das galhas, possivelmente está associada à maior estabilidade na absorção de P.

  10. Pochonia chlamydosporia var. chlamydosporia (Goddard Zare & W. Gams for the management of lettuce infected with Meloidogyne javanica (Treub, 1885

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José R Viggiano

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The application of the nematophagous fungus Pochonia chlamydosporia var. chlamydosporia (Goddard Zare & W. Gams during seedling production of vegetable crops can be an efficient approach to control root-knot nematode. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of treating seedlings and/or soil with bionematicide (wettable powder formulation based on chlamydospores from isolate Pc-10 on the Meloidogyne javanica (Treub, 1885 control in lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.. Isolate Pc-10 was diluted in water and applied when watering the seedlings (0, 4.5, 9.0, 13.5, and 18.0 g L-1 and/or to the potted soil (5000 chlamydospores g-1 used for growing lettuce. The soil in each pot was infested with 3000 M. javanica eggs. The number of M. javanica eggs was reduced in lettuce roots when isolate Pc-10 was applied either to seedlings or soil; there was no interaction between application methods. The decrease in the number of eggs was proportional to the increase of isolate Pc-10 applied to seedlings with maximum reduction of 43.5% at the 18 g L-1 dose. When the fungus was applied to the soil, the number of eggs was reduced by 12.3%. Increasing doses of isolate Pc-10 reduced the number of galls up to 21% with the 18 g L-1 dose. Applying bionematicide based on P. chlamydosporia isolate Pc-10 at 18 g L-1 on seedlings controls M. javanica in lettuce.

  11. The Role of Different Inoculum Levels of Meloidogyne javanica Juveniles on Nematode Reproduction and Host Response of Peanut Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.G. El-Sherif

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A pot experiment was conducted to determine the influence of three of inoculum levels (1000, 2000 and 3000 J2 pot-1 of Meloidogyne javanica on nematode reproduction and host response of peanut plant cv. Giza 4 under greenhouse conditions at at 30±5°C. In general, nematode reproduction and host damage were both affected by the initial inoculum levels. The greater reduction percentage of plant fresh (57.7%, shoot dry (38.82 and pods weights (52.59% and nodules numbers (73.33% were recorded at inoclum level 2000 J2/peanut plant, when rate of nematode build-up reached the maximum value of 1.64. Regression analysis of Pi vs. rate of nematode build-up on peanut plants gave value of R2 amounted to 0.3193. On the other hand, when the initial inoculum level added increased up to 3000 J2/peanut plant, the percentage reduction of whole plant fresh weight (47.07% and other growth parameters as well as nematode build-up (0.8 also obviously decreased.

  12. Characterization and efficacy of bacterial strains for biological control of soil-borne diseases caused by Phytophthora cactorum and Meloidogyne javanica on Rosaceous plants

    OpenAIRE

    Agustí Alcals, Lourdes

    2008-01-01

    S'avaluaren 58 soques de Pseudomonas fluorescens i Pantoea agglomerans per la seva eficàcia en el biocontrol de la malaltia causada per l'oomicet Phytophthora cactorum en maduixera i pel nematode formador de gal·les Meloidogyne javanica en el portaempelt GF-677.Es desenvolupà un mètode ex vivo d'inoculació de fulla amb l'objectiu de seleccionar soques bacterianes com a agents de control biològic de P. cactorum en maduixera. Tres soques de P. fluorescens es seleccionaren com a soques eficaces ...

  13. A multiplex real-time polymerase chain reaction (TaqMan) assay for the simultaneous detection of Meloidogyne chitwoodi and M-fallax

    OpenAIRE

    Zijlstra, C.; Hoof, R.A., van

    2006-01-01

    This study describes a multiplex real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) approach for the simultaneous detection of Meloidogyne chitwoodi and M. fallax in a single assay. The approach uses three fluorogenic minor groove binding (MGB) TaqMan probes: one FAM-labeled to detect M. chitwoodi, one VIC-labeled to detect M. fallax, and one NED-labeled to detect the internal amplification control (IAC) to monitor false negative results. One common primer set is used for the amplification of part of ...

  14. Antagonistic Effect of Some Species of Pleurotus on the Root-knot Nematode, Meloidogyne javanica in vitro

    OpenAIRE

    R. Heydari; Pourjam, E.; Mohammadi Goltapeh, E.

    2006-01-01

    Antagonistic effect of five species of Pleurotus, including P. ostreatus, P. sajor-caju, P. cornucopiae, P. florida and P. eryngii on second stage juveniles (J2) of Meloidogyne javanica were studied, in vitro. On water agar, all of the species tested produced tiny droplets of toxin. Nematodes touching such droplets showed a sudden response and became colonized by the fungi after 24-48 h. Filtrates of the tested fungi grown in malt extract broth were toxic on the nematodes but this toxicity...

  15. GeneTide--Terra Incognita Discovery Endeavor: a new transcriptome focused member of the GeneCards/GeneNote suite of databases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shklar, Maxim; Strichman-Almashanu, Liora; Shmueli, Orit; Shmoish, Michael; Safran, Marilyn; Lancet, Doron

    2005-01-01

    GeneCards is an automatically mined database of human genes that strives to create, along with its auxiliary databases--GeneLoc, GeneNote and GeneAnnot--the most inclusive resource of gene-centered information of the human genome. GeneTide, the Gene Terra Incognita Discovery Endeavor (http://genecards.weizmann.ac.il/genetide/), the newest addition to this family, is a transcriptome-focused database which aims to enhance GeneCards with additional expressed sequence tag (EST)-based genes. This is achieved by comprehensively mapping >85% of the approximately 5.6 million human ESTs currently available at dbEST to known genes by means of data mining and integration of genomic resources including UniGene, DoTS, AceView and in-house resources. GeneTide thus creates comprehensive links between ESTs and GeneCards genes. Furthermore, groups of unassociated transcripts serve as a basis for defining novel EST-based GeneCards Candidates (EGCs). These EGCs, nearly 25,000 of which were defined in version 0.3 of GeneTide, are further annotated with various parameters, including splicing evidence and expression data extracted from the GeneNote database, to determine their validity as possible de novo genes. PMID:15608261

  16. Incorporação ao solo de substrato contendo micélio e conídios de Pochonia chlamydosporia para o manejo de Meloidogyne javanica / Soil amendment with substrate containing mycelium and conidia of Pochonia chlamydosporia for the management of Meloidogyne javanica

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Rosangela, Dallemole-Giaretta; Leandro Grassi de, Freitas; Deborah Magalhães, Xavier; Ronaldo João Falcão, Zooca; Silamar, Ferraz; Everaldo Antônio, Lopes.

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Os clamidósporos são os principais propágulos utilizados como fonte de inóculo de Pochonia chlamydosporia em experimentos envolvendo o biocontrole do nematoide das galhas. O presente trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar o controle de Meloidogyne javanica em tomateiro por meio da aplicação ao solo de g [...] rãos de arroz colonizados pelo fungo contendo apenas micélio e conídio, sem a presença de clamidósporos. O isolado de P. chlamydosporia Pc-10 foi cultivado por 15 dias a 26°C em arroz previamente esterilizado em forno microondas. Dois experimentos foram conduzidos simultaneamente em casa de vegetação. No experimento 1, vasos de 2L de capacidade foram preenchidos com mistura solo:areia (1:1, v:v), contendo 3g kg-1 de solo de grãos de arroz colonizados pelo antagonista. No experimento 2, o fungo foi adicionado ao solo de vasos de 0,5L nas doses de 1, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25 ou 30g kg-1 de solo. Em seguida, o substrato de cada vaso foi infestado com 4.000 ovos de M. javanica e, após 15 dias, uma plântula de tomate foi transplantada. No experimento 1, a aplicação do fungo ao solo reduziu o número de galhas e de ovos do nematoide em 40% e 72,83%, respectivamente. No experimento 2, houve redução do número de ovos a partir de doses de 5g kg 1 de solo e no número de galhas, principalmente, nas doses de 25 e 30g kg-1 de solo. Conclui-se que P. chlamydosporia Pc-10 controlou M. javanica em tomateiro, mesmo quando aplicado ao solo na forma de grãos de arroz colonizados e sem a presença de clamidósporos. Abstract in english Chlamydospores are the main propagules used as source of inoculum of Pochonia chlamydosporia in biocontrol experiments of root-knot nematodes. The objective of this study was to evaluate the control of Meloidogyne javanica on tomato plants by the soil application of rice grains colonized by Pochonia [...] chlamydosporia containing just mycelium and conidia, without chlamydospores. The fungus (isolate Pc-10) was grown for 15 days at 26°C on grains of rice, previously sterilized in microwave oven. Two experiments were simultaneously carried out under greenhouse conditions. In the experiment 1, 2-L pots were filled with a soil:sand mixture (1:1, v:v) containing 3g kg-1 of soil of rice grains colonized by the antagonist. In the experiment 2, the fungus was added into the soil of 0.5L pots at the doses of 5, 10, 15, 20, 25 or 30g kg-1 of soil. The soil of each pot was infested with 4,000 eggs of M. javanica and one tomato seedling was transplanted in each pot after fifteen days. In the experiment 1, the application of the fungus into the soil reduced the number of galls and eggs of the nematode by 40% and 72.83%, respectively. In the experiment 2, it was observed the reduction of the number of eggs from the dose of 5 g kg-1 of soil and of the number of galls, particularly at the doses of 25 and 30g kg-1 of soil. As a conclusion, P. chlamydosporia controlled M. javanica on tomato plants even when applied into the soil as colonized-rice grains and without chlamydospores.

  17. Greenhouse and field assessment of different organic compounds against guava-parasitic Meloidogyne enterolobii / Avaliação em casa de vegetação e em campo de diferentes compostos orgânicos contra Meloidogyne enterolobii

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Alexandre Macedo, Almeida; Ricardo Moreira, Souza; Vicente Martins, Gomes; Guilherme Bessa, Miranda.

    Full Text Available O declínio da goiabeira, uma doença complexa envolvendo Meloidogyne enterolobii e Fusarium solani, tem causado grandes prejuízos diretos para os produtores brasileiros. Apesar de várias estratégias terem sido discutidas para o controle do nematoide, a utilização de matéria orgânica adicionada ao sol [...] o é atualmente a melhor abordagem para conviver com essa doença. Para avaliar a dose adequada de farinha de carne e ossos (FCO) a ser incorporada ao solo, mudas de goiabeira inoculadas com M. enterolobii foram tratadas com 1-5% v/v da FCO. Noventa dias após foram avaliadas variáveis relacionadas à reprodução do nematoide e ao desenvolvimento das plantas, indicando um possível efeito nematicida da FCO a 3%. Outro experimento avaliou variáveis relacionadas ao nematoide e à planta 90 dias após o tratamento das mudas com FCO, quitosana, casca de camarão e torta de nem a 3%, 0,05%, 2% e 0,1% v/v, respectivamente. A FCO reduziu a reprodução do nematoide, destacando-se em relação aos demais tratamentos. Esta dosagem de FCO foi convertida para 25 kg planta-1 e avaliada em três regimes de aplicação (mensal, bimestral ou trimestral), por seis meses, em pomar de goiaba acometido pelo declínio. As variáveis avaliadas foram densidade no solo de unidades formadoras de colônia (UFC) de bactérias e fungos, e a densidade no solo e/ou raiz de M. enterolobii, Helicotylenchus sp., e de diferentes grupos tróficos de nematoides. Em todos os três regimes de aplicação a FCO reduziu todos os nematoides parasitas de plantas no solo e o número de UFC de fungos, e promoveu aumento no número de UFC de bactérias e nematoides bacteriofagos. Abstract in english Guava decline is a complex disease involving Meloidogyne enterolobii and Fusarium solani and it has caused major direct losses to Brazilian growers. Although several strategies have been sought to control the nematode, the use of organic soil amendments is currently the best approach to manage this [...] disease. To assess the best amount of meat and bone meal (MBM) to be incorporated into the soil, guava seedlings inoculated with M. enterolobii were treated with 1-5% v/v of the MBM. Ninety days later variables related to nematode reproduction and plant development were evaluated, which indicated a potential nematicidal effect of the MBM at 3%. Another experiment assessed nematode- and plant-related variables 90 days after treatment of the seedlings with MBM, chitosan, shrimp shell or neem cake at 3%, 0.05%, 2% and 0.1% v/v, respectively. The MBM ranked first, reducing nematode reproduction. This MBM rate was converted to 25 kg/tree and assessed in three application regimes (monthly, bimonthly or trimonthly), for six months, in an orchard affected by guava decline. The variables assessed were soil density of colony forming units (CFU) of bacteria and fungus, and soil and/or root density of M. enterolobii, Helicotylenchus sp., and of different nematode trophic groups. In all three application regimes the MBM reduced all plant-parasitic nematodes in the soil and the fungus CFUs. It also promoted an increase in bacterial CFU and bacterivorous nematodes.

  18. Evaluation of plant aqueous extracts, added into the soil, on Meloidogyne javanica (Treub, 1885 Chitwood, 1949 / Avaliação de extratos aquosos de várias espécies vegetais, aplicados ao solo, sobre Meloidogyne javanica (Treub, 1885 Chitwood, 1949

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Grassi de Freitas

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The use of plant extracts with nematicidal properties to control plant nematodes can be a useful alternative to small farmers, regarding its low cost and non-toxic effects. The effect of the addition into the soil of aqueous extracts of 20 plant species on Meloidogyne javanica in plants of tomato was studied at greenhouse conditions. These were divided into two groups and evaluated in two separate experiments.The soil in the 2.0 L pots was infested with 5,000 eggs and, in the same day, it was applied 20 mL of aqueous extracts of the 20 plant species (Chrysanthemum parthenium, Arctium lappa, Cymbopogon citratus, Bacharis trimera, Equisetum sp., Melia azedarach, Mentha sp., Ricinus communis, Ocimum basilicum, Momordica charantia, Ruta graveolens, Coleus barbatus, Symphitum officinalis, Polygonum acre, Canavalia ensiformis, Foeniculum vulgare, Petiveria alliacea, Ageratum conyzoides, Mucuna pruriens and Azadirachta indica. Distilled water was used as control. Sixty days later, were evaluated for plant height, the fresh weight of shoot and root and the numbers of galls and eggs per root system. The extracts of Mentha sp., Arctium lappa and Ricinus communis reduced the number of galls of M. javanica in 75.6%; 65.7% and 54.4%; and the number of eggs in 81.7%, 75.9% and 56.6%, respectively.O uso de extratos vegetais com propriedades nematicidas no controle de fitonematóides representa mais uma alternativa para os pequenos produtores, com valor prático e econômico, e sem riscos de contaminação do ambiente. A adição ao solo dos extratos aquosos de 20 espécies de plantas foi avaliada sobre a população de Meloidogyne javanica em plantas de tomateiro, em casa de vegetação. Estas foram divididas em dois grupos e avaliadas em dois experimentos separados. No mesmo dia em que se infestou o solo com 5.000 ovos do nematóide, adicionou-se 20 mL dos extratos aquosos obtidos de folhas de artemísia (Chrysanthemum parthenium, bardana (Arctium lappa, capim cidreira (Cymbopogon citratus, carqueja (Bacharis trimera, cavalinha (Equisetum sp., cinamomo (Melia azedarach, hortelã (Mentha sp., mamona (Ricinus communis, manjericão (Ocimum basilicum, melão-de-São-Caetano (Momordica charantia, arruda (Ruta graveolens, falso-boldo (Coleus barbatus, confrei (Symphitum officinalis, erva-de-bicho (Polygonum acre, feijão-de-porco (Canavalia ensiformis, funcho (Foeniculum vulgare, guiné (Petiveria alliacea, mentrasto (Ageratum conyzoides, mucuna-cinza (Mucuna pruriens e nim (Azadirachta indica. Água destilada foi adicionada ao solo como tratamento testemunha. Após 60 dias, avaliou-se a altura das plantas, o peso fresco da parte aérea e da raiz e os números de galhas e de ovos por sistema radicular. Os extratos de hortelã, bardana e mamona reduziram o número de galhas em 75,6%, 65,7% e 54,4%, e o número de ovos em 81,7%, 75,9% e 56,6%, respectivamente.

  19. Resistance of Commercial Pepper Cultivars to Root-knot Nematodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donggeun Kim

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Ninety two pepper (Capsicum annuum L. cultivars were screened for resistance to two common species ofroot-knot nematodes, Meloidogyne incognita and M. arenaria. All 92 pepper cultivars were resistant to M.arenaria (0?3 eggmass/plant but were susceptible to M. incognita (76?678 eggmass/plant. Susceptibility toM. incognita were slightly differed; ‘Geomok’ and ‘Shintaepung’ had relatively less eggmass (300 eggmass/plant.Therefore, pepper is highly recommended as a high-valued rotation crop to only those greenhouses infestedwith M. arenaria, but should restrict for M. incognita.

  20. An Extension of the Mellor-Yamada Model to the Terra Incognita Zone for Dry Convective Mixed Layers in the Free Convection Regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Junshi; Niino, Hiroshi; Nakanishi, Mikio; Moeng, Chin-Hoh

    2015-10-01

    The terra incognita (TI) or grey zone arises in conventional planetary boundary-layer parametrizations when the grid resolution of a numerical model is comparable to the size of the energy-containing turbulent eddies 1 km or less. Here, we investigate a simple, plausible extension of the Mellor-Yamada (MY) level-3 scheme for TI-scale grid size using a large-eddy simulation (LES) as a benchmark. Horizontal filtering of the benchmark simulation data for the dry convective mixed layer in the free convection regime yields subfilter-scale components whose statistics are then retrieved for various filter sizes. This leads to a modified MY level-3 scheme for TI-scale grid sizes. The proposed TI scheme incorporates: (1) modification of various length scales in the conventional MY scheme by an empirical function that depends on the horizontal grid size normalized by the convective boundary-layer height; (2) a new length scale for horizontal turbulent fluxes; and (3) a linear relationship between the local dissipation length and subfilter-scale turbulent kinetic energy. A posteriori tests of the proposed TI scheme show a much improved performance compared with the conventional MY level-3 scheme. The ratio of the grid-scale to the subgrid-scale turbulent intensity is comparable to that obtained from the filtered LES solutions. Sensitivity tests show that the modification of the dissipation length scales has the largest impact, while the new length scale for horizontal fluxes also proves important. A simulation that includes all of the above modifications results in the optimum performance.

  1. Distribution, frequency, and population density of nematodes in west virginia peach orchards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotcon, J B

    1990-10-01

    Nematode population densities were determined in soil and root samples collected from 205 peach (Prunus persica L.) orchard blocks between 25 March and 5 May 1986. Representative specimens from 75 blocks were identified to species; 28 species of plant-parasitic nematodes were identified. Predaceous nematodes (Mononchidae) were observed in 71% of the samples. The most common plant-parasitic genera were Paratylenchus, Helicotylenchus, Pratylenchus, and Xiphinema, occurring in 85, 84, 77, and 74% of the samples, respectively. Population densities of Xiphinema, Pratylenchus, Meloidogyne, Hoplolaimus, and Criconemella were at potentially damaging levels in 74, 19, 13, 10, and 2% of the samples, respectively. Potentially damaging nematode densities were observed in 78% of orchard blocks surveyed, with 35% having two or more nematodes with densities high enough to warrant concern. Nematode densities differed among soil types and tree rootstocks and were correlated with tree mortality rates. PMID:19287785

  2. Nematóides que parasitam a soja na região de Bauru / Nematode parasites of soybean in the Bauru region

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Luiz Gonzaga E., Lordello.

    Full Text Available Entre os sérios fatôres que atuam contra a expansão da cultura da soja no Estado de São Paulo, acha-se o representado por nematóides parasitos. Dêstes, os que mais têm atraído a atenção dos cultivadores e fitopatologistas são as espécies formadoras de galhas no sistema radicular (Meloidogyne spp.). [...] O estudo do material atacado coligido em Bauru revelou que, naquela região, três formas se acham envolvidas, a saber : Pratylenchus sp., Meloidogyne incognita (Kofoid & White, 1919) Chitwood, 1949 e M. javanica bauruensis n. subsp. Neste trabalho é estudada a nova subespécie, sendo também apresentadas algumas observações sobre a população de M. incognita. Abstract in english One of the serious detriments to soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) cultivation in the State of S. Paulo, Brazil, are root-parasitic nematodes. A study of infected material collected at Bauru, where at least two distinct soybean varieties were cultivated, disclosed that three forms were involved: a me [...] adow nematode (Pralylenchus sp.) and two root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne incognita (Kofoid & White, 1919) Chitwood, 1949, and M. javanica bauruensis n. subsp.). Sil