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Susceptibility in crops varieties to a population of Meloidogyne incognita (Nematoda: Meloidogynidae  

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Full Text Available Thirteen varieties belonging to different crops were tested for resistance to one population of Meloido-gyne incognita. Ten of them were highly susceptible, two moderately susceptible and another one was resistant.

Esther Calvo

2012-09-01

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Population Development of Meloidogyne incognita on Soybean Defoliated by Pseudoplusia includens  

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Greenhouse studies examined population densities of Meloidogyne incognita race 4 on soybean (Glycine max 'Davis') defoliated by larvae of soybean looper (Pseudoplusia indudens (Walker)). Plants were defoliated over a 2-week period beginning 5 weeks after seedlings were transplanted. Four groups of plants were infested with nematodes (5,000 eggs/pot) at 2-week intervals to allow harvesting of plants at 0, 2, 4, and 6 weeks postdefoliation (WPD). Plants in each group were harvested 4 weeks afte...

Russin, J. S.; Mcgawley, E. C.; Boethel, D. J.

1993-01-01

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Effect of a Terminated Cover Crop and Aldicarb on Cotton Yield and Meloidogyne incognita Population Density  

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Terminated small grain cover crops are valuable in light textured soils to reduce wind and rain erosion and for protection of young cotton seedlings. A three-year study was conducted to determine the impact of terminated small grain winter cover crops, which are hosts for Meloidogyne incognita, on cotton yield, root galling and nematode midseason population density. The small plot test consisted of the cover treatment as the main plots (winter fallow, oats, rye and wheat) and rate of aldicarb...

Wheeler, T. A.; Leser, J. F.; Keeling, J. W.; Mullinix, B.

2008-01-01

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The Relationship Between Soil Populations of Meloidogyne incognita and Yield Reduction of Soybean in the Coastal Plain  

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In a replicated field plot experiment, the population density of Meloidogyne incognita was monitored biweekly through the overwintering period (December through April) between soybean crops. The population survived as second-stage juveniles whose numbers remained stable through the winter months and did not decline until February. The yields of plots planted with a M. incognita susceptible cultivar were negatively correlated with the numbers of juveniles recovered at all preplanting sampling ...

Kinloch, Robert A.

1982-01-01

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Characterization of resistance breaking Meloidogyne incognita - like populations using lectins, monoclonal antibodies and spores of Pasteuria penetrans  

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Six clones de #Meloidogyne$, provenant de populations récoltées en Côte d'Ivoire et qui possèdent un phénotype estérasique particulier (codé pVI) ainsi que la faculté de briser la résistance conférée par le gène #Mi$, ont été comparés à #M. incognita$ à l'aide de différentes sondes. Le marquage à l'aide de lectines des exsudats amphidiaux de juvéniles de second stade ne permet pas de distinguer ces lignées de #M. incognita$. Des souches de #Pasteuria penetrans$ permettent...

Fargette, Mireille; Davies, K. G.; Robinson, M. P.; Trudgill, D. L.

1994-01-01

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Reaction of Ten Cultivars of Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) to a Puerto Rican population of Meloidogyne incognita  

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Ten cultivars of watermelon were evaluated for their response to a Puerto Rican population of Meloidogyne incognita under greenhouse conditions in a 2-year study (1989 and 1990). Ten-day-old seedlings were planted in steam-sterilized soil in 15-cm-d plastic pots. The nematode inoculum consisted of 10,000 eggs and (or) second-stage juveniles (J2)/plant. The cultivars were Sugar Baby, Charleston Gray, Seedless, Prince Charles, Charleston 76, Jubilee, Florida Giant, Royal Charleston, Royal Sweet...

1994-01-01

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Population Development of Meloidogyne incognita on Soybean Defoliated by Pseudoplusia includens.  

Science.gov (United States)

Greenhouse studies examined population densities of Meloidogyne incognita race 4 on soybean (Glycine max 'Davis') defoliated by larvae of soybean looper (Pseudoplusia indudens (Walker)). Plants were defoliated over a 2-week period beginning 5 weeks after seedlings were transplanted. Four groups of plants were infested with nematodes (5,000 eggs/pot) at 2-week intervals to allow harvesting of plants at 0, 2, 4, and 6 weeks postdefoliation (WPD). Plants in each group were harvested 4 weeks after nematode infestation. Root and nodule weights of defoliated plants were suppressed at 0 WPD, but differences were not detectable at 2, 4, and 6 WPD. Population densities of M. incognita were similar on defoliated and control plants at 0 WPD but were greater on defoliated plants at 4 and 6 WPD. Percentage hatching of eggs produced on the latter plants also was higher. Effects of insect-induced defoliation on development of M. incognita remained detectable even after soybean plant growth apparently returned to normal. PMID:19279741

Russin, J S; McGawley, E C; Boethel, D J

1993-03-01

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Behavior of Tethered Meloidogyne incognita  

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The tethered-nematode technique was adapted for use with second-stage juveniles of Meloidogyne incognita. The data demonstrate that M. incognita exhibits the same patterns of behavior as adults of the free-living nematode, Caenorhabditis elegans. The principal differences are that M. incognita is slower and less regular in its behavior than C. elegans. The frequency of normal waves is about 0.2 Hz; that of reversal waves is about 0.06 Hz. Reversal bouts last about 1 minute. In response to a c...

Goode, Marian; Dusenbery, David B.

1985-01-01

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Characterization of Meloidogyne incognita populations from São Paulo and Minas Gerais state and their pathogenicity on coffee plants Caracterização de populações de Meloidogyne incognita de São Paulo e Minas Gerais e sua patogenicidade em cafeeiro  

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Meloidogyne incognita is one of the most aggressive and harmful plant-parasitic nematodes attacking coffee plantations in Brazil. However, populations from Minas Gerais state (MG) do not incite disease on coffee plants as strongly as populations from São Paulo state (SP). This study aimed to compare the capacity to incite disease on coffee plants from SP and MG-populations based on penetration and post-infective development of second-stage juveniles (J2) stage. Both populations were confirme...

Oliveira, Dagoberto S.; Arc Lima Oliveira, Rosa?ngela D.; Silva, De?bora G.; Silva, Rodrigo V.

2011-01-01

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INTERACCIÓN ENTRE EL ECOMIC® Y UNA POBLACIÓN CUBANA DE Meloidogyne incognita EN TOMATE / INTERACTION BETWEEN ECOMIC® AND A CUBAN POPULATION OF Meloidogyne incognita IN TOMATO  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El estudio de tácticas para el manejo de los nematodos agalleros en la producción protegida de hortalizas en Cuba, se ha incrementado en los últimos años. El objetivo del trabajo fue determinar la interacción entre el ECOMICâ, producto a base de hongos formadores de micorrizas arbusculares, y una po [...] blación cubana de Meloidogyne incognita en el tomate (Lycopersicon esculentum. Mill var. Vyta). El experimento se desarrolló en los aisladores biológicos del CENSA empleando un diseño completamente aleatorio. Se emplearon dos formas de inoculación del ECOMICâ: peletización de la semilla e incorporación al sustrato para semilleros (1.5 g del producto/alveolo de cepellón). La dosis de nematodos fue de 1.5 huevos-J2. g suelo-1. Se evaluó el índice de agallamiento (IA), el número de juveniles infectivos (J2) en suelo y peso del sistema radical. La evaluación de la simbiosis micorrícica comprendió el porcentaje de colonización, densidad visual y peso del endófito. Se demostró que la aplicación de ECOMICâen la rizosfera del tomate favoreció el desarrollo de la raíz aparejado con un alto número de agallas (IA=4). En el control el desarrollo de la raíz fue menor con un IA=5. Se observó una disminución de los J2 en el suelo de las plantas micorrizadas. El establecimiento de la simbiosis micorrícica no se afectó por el desarrollo del nematodo. Abstract in english The study of tactics for the root-knot nematode management in vegetable production under crop protected systems has been increased in Cuba in the last decade. The main goal of this work was to assess the relationship of ECOMIC®, a commercial product containing several mycorrhizal fungi, and a Cuban [...] population of Meloidogyne incognita in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill var. Vyta). The experiment was carried out in a green house at CENSA using a completely randomized design. ECOMICâ was inoculated by seed pelleting or mixed with the seedbed substrate. The nematode dose used was 1.5 egg-J2. g soil-1. Gall index, infective juveniles in soil and root weight were evaluated. The percentage of colonization, the visual density and the mycellial weight were also estimated. ECOMICâ was shown to benefit root development despite the high value of the gall index (GI=4) in the inoculated plants. Root development was lower in the untreated plants with a GI=5. A decreased number of infective juveniles was observed in the soil with mycorrhized plants. The micorrhizal colonization was not affected by nematode establishment.

Gómez, Lucila; Rodríguez, MayraG; de la Noval, Blanca; Ileana, Miranda; Hernández, M.A.

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Effect of a Terminated Cover Crop and Aldicarb on Cotton Yield and Meloidogyne incognita Population Density.  

Science.gov (United States)

Terminated small grain cover crops are valuable in light textured soils to reduce wind and rain erosion and for protection of young cotton seedlings. A three-year study was conducted to determine the impact of terminated small grain winter cover crops, which are hosts for Meloidogyne incognita, on cotton yield, root galling and nematode midseason population density. The small plot test consisted of the cover treatment as the main plots (winter fallow, oats, rye and wheat) and rate of aldicarb applied in-furrow at-plant (0, 0.59 and 0.84 kg a.i./ha) as subplots in a split-plot design with eight replications, arranged in a randomized complete block design. Roots of 10 cotton plants per plot were examined at approximately 35 days after planting. Root galling was affected by aldicarb rate (9.1, 3.8 and 3.4 galls/root system for 0, 0.59 and 0.84 kg aldicarb/ha), but not by cover crop. Soil samples were collected in mid-July and assayed for nematodes. The winter fallow plots had a lower density of M. incognita second-stage juveniles (J2) (transformed to Log(10) (J2 + 1)/500 cm(3) soil) than any of the cover crops (0.88, 1.58, 1.67 and 1.75 Log(10)(J2 + 1)/500 cm(3) soil for winter fallow, oats, rye and wheat, respectively). There were also fewer M. incognita eggs at midseason in the winter fallow (3,512, 7,953, 8,262 and 11,392 eggs/500 cm(3) soil for winter fallow, oats, rye and wheat, respectively). Yield (kg lint per ha) was increased by application of aldicarb (1,544, 1,710 and 1,697 for 0, 0.59 and 0.84 kg aldicarb/ha), but not by any cover crop treatments. These results were consistent over three years. The soil temperature at 15 cm depth, from when soils reached 18 degrees C to termination of the grass cover crop, averaged 9,588, 7,274 and 1,639 centigrade hours (with a minimum threshold of 10 degrees C), in 2005, 2006 and 2007, respectively. Under these conditions, potential reproduction of M. incognita on the cover crop did not result in a yield penalty. PMID:19259531

Wheeler, T A; Leser, J F; Keeling, J W; Mullinix, B

2008-06-01

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Detection and Investigation of Soil Biological Activity against Meloidogyne incognita  

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Greenhouse experiments with two susceptible hosts of Meloidogyne incognita, a dwarf tomato and wheat, led to the identification of a soil in which the root-knot nematode population was reduced 5- to 16-fold compared to identical but pasteurized soil two months after infestation with 280 M. incognita J2/100 cm3 soil. This suppressive soil was subjected to various temperature, fumigation and dilution treatments, planted with tomato, and infested with 1,000 eggs of M. incognita/100 cm3 soil. Eig...

Bent, E.; Loffredo, A.; Mckenry, M. V.; Becker, J. O.; Borneman, J.

2008-01-01

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The multi-year effects of repeatedly growing cotton with moderate resistance to Meloidogyne incognita  

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Meloidogyne incognita causes more damage to cotton in the US than any other pathogen. The objective of this study was to document the cumulative effect of moderate resistance on M. incognita population density, root galling, and yield suppression in the southern United States on a moderately resistant cotton genotype grown continuously for three years. Cotton genotypes were Phytogen PH98-3196 (77% suppression of M. incognita), Acala NemX (85% suppression of M. incognita), and Delta and Pine L...

Davis, Richard F.; Kemerait, Robert C.

2009-01-01

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Influence of 1,3-Dichloropropene, Fenamiphos, and Carbofuran on Meloidogyne incognita Populations and Yield of Chile Peppers  

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Field trials were conducted during 1986, 1988, 1989, and 1991 to compare the effects of 1,3-dichloropropene, fenamiphos, and carbofuran on yield and quality of chile peppers (Capsicum annuum) in soil infested with Meloidogyne incognita. When compared with untreated plots, numbers of M. incognita juveniles recovered from soil 60 and(or) 90 days after chile pepper emergence were reduced (P = 0.05) following 1,3-D treatment every year except 1986. Nematode numbers were also reduced (P = 0.05) by...

Thomas, S. H.

1994-01-01

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First report of Meloidogyne incognita infecting spinach in southern Spain  

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Severe plant yellowing and decline were recently observed in two commercial fields of spinach (Spinacia oleracea cv. Polka) in Encinarejo (Córdoba), southern Spain. Disease surveys revealed severe infections of main and feeder roots and a large soil population of the southern root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita. The nematode population was extracted and quantified from soil and root samples according to Barker (1) and identified by female perineal pattern, phenotype esterases, and host-...

Castillo, Pablo; Jime?nez-di?az, Rafael M.

2003-01-01

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Effects of a wild type strain and a mutant strain of the fungus Verticillium lecanii on Meloidogyne incognita populations in greenhouse studies  

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La capacité d'une souche de #Verticillium lecanii$ et celle d'un mutant induit par les UV à réduire des populations de #Meloidogyne incognita$ sur des plants de tomates ont été testées. Les deux souches ont été incorporées à un mélange de son et d'alginate, et trois taux - 0,0009 %, 0,002 % et 0,02 % de poids sec de champignon par poids de sol - ont été placés à proximité des racines. La souche mutante a été également testée aux taux de 0,002 et 0,006 %. Le nombre d'oeufs ...

Meyer, S. L. F.

1994-01-01

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Competition of Meloidogyne incognita and Rotylenchulus reniformis on Cotton Following Separate and Concomitant Inoculations  

Science.gov (United States)

It has been hypothesized Rotylenchulus reniformis (Rr) has a competitive advantage over Meloidogyne incognita (Mi) in the southeastern cotton production region of the United States. This study examines the reproduction and development of Meloidogyne incognita (Mi) and Rotylenchulus reniformis (Rr) in separate and concomitant infections on cotton. Under greenhouse conditions, cotton seedlings were inoculated simultaneously with juveniles (J2) of M. incognita and vermiform adults of R. reniformis in the following ratios (Mi:Rr): 0:0, 100:0, 75:25, 50:50, 25:75, and 0:100. Soil populations of M. incognita and R. reniformis were recorded at 3, 6, 9, 14, 19, 25, 35, 45, and 60 days after inoculations. At each date, samples were taken to determine the life stage of development, number of egg masses, eggs per egg mass, galls, and giant cells or syncytia produced by the nematodes. Meloidogyne incognita and R. reniformis were capable of initially inhibiting each other when the inoculum ratio of one species was higher than the other. In concomitant infections, M. incognita was susceptible to the antagonistic effect of R. reniformis. Rotylenchulus reniformis affected hatching of M. incognita eggs, delayed secondary infection of M. incognita J2, reduced the number of egg masses produced by M. incognita, and reduced J2 of M. incognita 60 days after inoculations. In contrast, M. incognita reduced R. reniformis soil populations only when its proportion in the inoculum ratio was higher than that of R. reniformis. Meloidogyne incognita reduced egg masses produced by R. reniformis, but not production of eggs and secondary infection.

Diez, Asdrubal; Lawrence, G. W.; Lawrence, K. S.

2003-01-01

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Relationships Between Tolerance and Resistance to Meloidogyne incognita in Cotton  

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The southern root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita, is the most damaging pathogen of cotton in the United States, and both resistance and tolerance to M. incognita could be valuable management approaches. Our objectives were to evaluate advanced cotton breeding lines for resistance and tolerance to M. incognita and to determine if a relationship between resistance and tolerance exists. Reproduction of M. incognita was evaluated on 17 breeding lines, a susceptible control (Delta and Pine L...

Davis, R. F.; May, O. L.

2003-01-01

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Reação de crisântemos a Meloidogyne incognita, Meloidogyne javanica e Meloidogyne enterolobii / Chrysanthemum reaction to Meloidogyne incognita, Meloidogyne javanica and Meloidogyne enterolobii  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a resistência de 14 variedades de crisântemos aos nematoides Meloidogyne incognita, M. javanica e M. enterolobii. O experimento foi conduzido em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, constando de 15 tratamentos e 4 repetições, por espécie de nematoide. Cada [...] parcela foi constituída por uma planta por vaso, mantidas em casa de vegetação e inoculadas com 5.000 ovos e eventuais juvenis de M. incognita, M. javanica e M. enterolobii. Após 60 dias, os índices de massas de ovos, número de nematoides por grama de raiz e o fator de reprodução foram avaliados. As variedades apresentaram imunidade a M. incognita, M. javanica e M. enterolobii, exceto 'Capello Vermelho' e 'White Reagon', que foram respectivamente suscetível e resistente a M. incognita. Abstract in english This study aimed to evaluate the resistance of 14 chrysanthemum varieties to the nematodes Meloidogyne incognita, M. javanica and M. enterolobii. The experiment was conducted in a completely randomized design, consisting of 15 treatments and 4 replicates per nematode species. Each plot was constitut [...] ed of one plant per pot; plants were kept in a greenhouse and inoculated with 5,000 eggs and possible juveniles of M. incognita, M. javanica and M. enterolobii. After 60 days, the rates of egg masses, the number of nematodes per gram of root and the reproduction factor were evaluated. The varieties showed immunity to M. incognita, M. javanica and M. enterolobii, except 'Capello Vermelho' and 'White Reagon', which were susceptible and resistant, respectively, to M. incognita.

Lucivane Aparecida, Gonçalves; Andressa Lima de, Brida; Maria de Fátima Almeida, Silva; Cezar, Bueno Junior; Silvia Renata Siciliano, Wilcken.

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Detection and Investigation of Soil Biological Activity against Meloidogyne incognita.  

Science.gov (United States)

Greenhouse experiments with two susceptible hosts of Meloidogyne incognita, a dwarf tomato and wheat, led to the identification of a soil in which the root-knot nematode population was reduced 5- to 16-fold compared to identical but pasteurized soil two months after infestation with 280 M. incognita J2/100 cm(3) soil. This suppressive soil was subjected to various temperature, fumigation and dilution treatments, planted with tomato, and infested with 1,000 eggs of M. incognita/100 cm(3) soil. Eight weeks after nematode infestation, distinct differences in nematode population densities were observed among the soil treatments, suggesting the suppressiveness had a biological nature. A fungal rRNA gene analysis (OFRG) performed on M. incognita egg masses collected at the end of the greenhouse experiments identified 11 fungal phylotypes, several of which exhibited associations with one or more of the nematode population density measurements (egg masses, eggs or J2). The phylotype containing rRNA genes with high sequence identity to Pochonia chlamydosporia exhibited the strongest negative associations. The negative correlation between the densities of the P. chlamydosporia genes and the nematodes was corroborated by an analysis using a P. chlamydosporia-selective qPCR assay. PMID:19259527

Bent, E; Loffredo, A; McKenry, M V; Becker, J O; Borneman, J

2008-06-01

 
 
 
 
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Dynamics of damage to tomato by Meloidogyne incognita  

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Les dommages causés par #Meloidogyne incognita$ à des tomates cv. Moneymaker poussant dans des pots de grande tailles (3,65 kg de sol sec) ont été mis en relation avec la densité initiale de la population du mématode (Pi). Les dommages sont estimés après 42 et 135 jours de culture ; seule la Pi la plus élevée (20 oeufs viables/g de sol) cause une diminution statistiquement significative de la croissance aux deux dates de récolte. Après 135 jours, la croissance est également signi...

Ehwaeti, M. E.; Phillips, M. S.; Trudgill, D. L.

1998-01-01

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Biomass Partitioning in Tomato Plants Infected with Meloidogyne incognita  

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Tomato plants were inoculated with Meloidogyne incognita at initial populations (Pi) of 0, 1, 10, 50, 100, and 200 (x 1,000) eggs per plant and maintained in a growth chamber for 40 days. Total fresh biomass (roots + shoots) at harvest was unchanged by nematode inoculation with Pi of 1 x 10? eggs or less. Reductions in fresh shoot weight with increasing Pi coincided with increases in root weight. Total fresh biomass declined with Pi above 1 x 10? eggs, whereas total dry biomass declined a...

Fortnum, B. A.; Kasperbauer, M. J.; Hunt, P. G.; Bridges, W. C.

1991-01-01

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Evaluation of Asteraceae Plants for Control of Meloidogyne incognita  

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Of the 56 species and 43 genera of Asteraceae tested, 9 were highly resistant or immune to Meloidogyne incognita and did not form root galls. Twenty-six species and six cultivars had 25% or fewer roots galled and were considered moderately resistant to M. incognita. Pre-planting Cosmos bipinnatus (F190), Gaillardia pulchella, Tagetes erecta, Tithonia diversifolia, or Zinnia elegans (F645) reduced root galling and M. incognita J2 in and around Ipomoea reptans. Amendment of soils with roots, st...

Tsay, T. T.; Wu, S. T.; Lin, Y. Y.

2004-01-01

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Reaction of Prunus Rootstocks to Meloidogyne incognita and M. arenaria in Spain  

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Prunus rootstocks were evaluated for their reaction to Meloidogyne incognita and M. arenaria. Most rootstocks were peach-almond hybrids of Spanish origin. In one experiment three selections of Garfi x Nemared (G x N) and Hansen-5 were highly resistant to M. incognita, but four other rootstocks were susceptible showing high galling indices and population increases. In two experiments with M. arenaria, the hybrid selections G x N nos. 1 and 9 were immune, GF-305 and Hansen-5 were resistant, but...

Marull, J.; Pinochet, J.; Verdejo-lucas, S.; Soler, A.

1991-01-01

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Toxicidade de filtrados fúngicos a meloidogyne incognita / Fungus filtrates toxicity to Meloidogyne incognita  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Visando à obtenção de novas moléculas nematicidas, 18 filtrados de espécies fúngicas e extratos de sete micélios fúngicos foram estudados in vitro quanto aos efeitos sobre a eclosão, motilidade e mortalidade de juvenis do segundo estádio (J2) de Meloidogyne incognita. Filtrados fúngicos foram obtido [...] s de culturas em meio Czapek. Metanol foi usado como solvente para obter extratos dos micélios fúngicos. Filtrados de Paecilomyces lilacinus, Fusarium moniliforme e Fusarium oxysporum reduziram a motilidade e eclosão, e aumentaram a mortalidade (P Abstract in english In the search for new nematicidal molecules, 18 fungal species filtrates and seven fungus mycelium extracts were studied in vitro to see their influence on hatching, mobility and mortality of second stage juveniles (J2) of Meloidogyne incognita. Fungal filtrates were obtained from fifteen day Czapek [...] cultures. Methanol was used as solvent to obtain fungus mycelium extracts. Paecilomyces lilacinus, Fusarium moniliforme and Fusarium oxysporum filtrates reduced J2 motility and hatching, and increased J2 mortality (P

MAURO J.N., COSTA; VICENTE P., CAMPOS; LUDWIG H., PFENNING; DENILSON F., OLIVEIRA.

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Toxicidade de filtrados fúngicos a meloidogyne incognita Fungus filtrates toxicity to Meloidogyne incognita  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Visando à obtenção de novas moléculas nematicidas, 18 filtrados de espécies fúngicas e extratos de sete micélios fúngicos foram estudados in vitro quanto aos efeitos sobre a eclosão, motilidade e mortalidade de juvenis do segundo estádio (J2 de Meloidogyne incognita. Filtrados fúngicos foram obtidos de culturas em meio Czapek. Metanol foi usado como solvente para obter extratos dos micélios fúngicos. Filtrados de Paecilomyces lilacinus, Fusarium moniliforme e Fusarium oxysporum reduziram a motilidade e eclosão, e aumentaram a mortalidade (P In the search for new nematicidal molecules, 18 fungal species filtrates and seven fungus mycelium extracts were studied in vitro to see their influence on hatching, mobility and mortality of second stage juveniles (J2 of Meloidogyne incognita. Fungal filtrates were obtained from fifteen day Czapek cultures. Methanol was used as solvent to obtain fungus mycelium extracts. Paecilomyces lilacinus, Fusarium moniliforme and Fusarium oxysporum filtrates reduced J2 motility and hatching, and increased J2 mortality (P < 0,05 similarly to Aldicarb. Some fungus filtrates reduced J2 mobility without leading to death. Aspergillus flavus, Cylindrocarpon magnusianum, Fusarium solani and Mortierella sp. filtrates reduced (P < 0,05 only J2 hatching. Production of toxic fungus metabolites was not dependent on the amount of mycelium produced. P. lilacinus produced toxic filtrates after one day culturing. Since then, toxicity increased steadily, reaching 100% J2 mortality on the thirteenth day.

MAURO J.N. COSTA

2001-12-01

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Reproduction of Meloidogyne marylandi and M. incognita on several Poaceae  

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The susceptibility of 22 plant species to Meloidogyne marylandi and M. incognita was examined in three greenhouse experiments. Inoculum of M. marylandi was eggs from cultures maintained on Zoysia matrella “Cavalier” or Cynodon dactylon x C. trasvaalensis “Tifdwarf”. Inoculum of M. incognita was eggs from cultures maintained on Solanum lycopersicum ‘Rutgers’. In each host test the inoculum density was 2,000 nematode eggs/pot. None of the three dicot species tested (Gossypium hirsut...

Faske, T. R.; Starr, J. L.

2009-01-01

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Screening of Carnation Cultivars for Resistance to Meloidogyne incognita  

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A total of 33 carnation cultivars cultured in Korea were screened for resistance to the southern root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita. Carnations were tested by either inoculating with 5,000 eggs or by transplanting into a mixture of bedding medium and soil infested with an average of 435 second-stage juveniles/300 cm³ soil. Cultivars, Desio, Castelaro, Kappa, Rara, Izu Pink, Target, and Antalia were highly resistant to M. incognita. Twelve cultivars were moderately resistant, and the r...

Cho, M. R.; Kim, J. Y.; Song, C.; Ko, J. Y.; Na, S. Y.; Yiem, M. S.

1996-01-01

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Reproduction of Meloidogyne marylandi and M. incognita on several Poaceae.  

Science.gov (United States)

The susceptibility of 22 plant species to Meloidogyne marylandi and M. incognita was examined in three greenhouse experiments. Inoculum of M. marylandi was eggs from cultures maintained on Zoysia matrella "Cavalier" or Cynodon dactylon x C. trasvaalensis "Tifdwarf". Inoculum of M. incognita was eggs from cultures maintained on Solanum lycopersicum 'Rutgers'. In each host test the inoculum density was 2,000 nematode eggs/pot. None of the three dicot species tested (Gossypium hirsutum, Arachis hypogaea, and S. lycopersicum) were hosts for M. marylandi but, as expected, M. incognita had high levels of reproduction on G. hirsutum and S. lycopersicum. Meloidogyne marylandi reproduced on all of the 19 grass species (Poaceae) tested but reproduction varied greatly (P = 0.05) among these hosts. The following grasses were identified for the first time as hosts for M. marylandi: Buchloe dactyloides (buffalograss), Echinochloa colona (jungle rice), Eragostis curvula (weeping lovegrass), Paspalum dilatatum (dallisgrass), P. notatum (bahiagrass), Sorghastrum, nutans (indiangrass), Tripsacum dactyloides (eastern gamagrass), and Zoysia matrella (zoysiagrass). No reproduction of M. incognita was observed on B. dactyloides, Cyndon dactylon (common bermudagrass), E. curvula, P. vaginatum (seashore paspalum), S. nutans, T. dactyloides, Z. matrella or Z. japonica. Reproduction of M. incognita was less than reproduction of M. marylandi on the other grass species, except for the Zea mays inbred line B73 on which M. incognita had greater reproduction than did M. marylandi (P = 0.05) and Stenotaphrum secundatum (St. Augustinegrass) on which M. incognita and M. marylandi had similar levels of reproduction. PMID:22661770

Faske, T R; Starr, J L

2009-03-01

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Reação de genótipos de maracujazeiro a Meloidogyne incognita raça 3 e Meloidogyne javanica / Reaction of passion fruit genotypes to Meloidogyne incognita race 3 and Meloidogyne javanica  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar a reação de genótipos de maracujazeiro a Meloidogyne spp.. O experimento foi conduzido em casa de vegetação em DBC, com seis repetições, em esquema fatorial 9x2 (Passiflora giberti, P. nitida, P. setacea, P. mucronata, P. cincinnata, P. ligularis, P.alata, híbrido [...] BRS Sol do Cerrado e seleção M19-UFV x Meloidogyne javanica e M. incognita raça 3). Segundo os critérios de Oostenbrink, e Moura e Régis, o BRS Sol do Cerrado, a seleção M-19-UFV e P. alata comportaram-se como imunes a M. incognita. Além destes, P. cincinnata e P. setacea foram imunes a M. javanica. Passiflora cincinnata e P.giberti comportaram-se como resistentes a M. incognita e M. javanica, respectivamente. Segundo Taylor e Sasser, os genótipos classificados como imunes pelos outros critérios foram classificados como resistentes aos nematoides. Todas as variáveis nematológicas avaliadas em P. giberti, P. ligularis, P. mucronata e P. nitida foram superiores em plantas infectadas por M. incognita. Independentemente do nematoide, P. mucronata apresentou maior número de galhas, massas de ovos, ovos, J2 e FR, em relação aos outros genótipos. O peso de matéria fresca de raiz de P. ligularis e P. mucronata foi menor na presença de M. incognita em relação a M. javanica. Abstract in english The aim of this study was to evaluate the reaction of genotypes of passion fruit to Meloidogyne spp.. The experiment was carried out in a greenhouse in RBD with six replications in 9 x 2 factorial designs (Passiflora giberti, P. nitida, P. setacea, P. mucronata, P. cincinnata, P. ligularis, P. alata [...] , BRS Sol do Cerrado cultivar and selection M19-UFV x Meloidogyne javanica and M. incognita race 3). According to Oostenbrink criteria, and Moura and Régis, the BRS Sol do Cerrado, and selection M-19-UFV and P. alata behaved as immune to M. incognita. In addition to these, P. cincinnata and P. setacea were immune to M. javanica. Passiflora cincinnata and P.giberti behaved as resistant to M. incognita and M. javanica, respectively. According to Taylor and Sasser, the genotypes classified as immune by the other criteria were classified as resistant to nematodes. All the nematological variables evaluated in P. giberti, P. ligularis, P. mucronata and P. nitida were superior in plants infected by M. incognita. Regardless of the nematode, P mucronata presented larger number of root galls, egg masses, eggs, J2 and RF, as compared to the other genotypes. The root fresh matter weight of P. ligularis and P. mucronata was smaller in the presence of M. incognita as compared to M. javanica.

Leandro Souza, Rocha; Regina Cássia Ferreira, Ribeiro; Adelica Aparecida, Xavier; Fabíola de Jesus, Silva; Claudio Horst, Bruckner.

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GENOTYPIC DIVERSITY OF POTATO GERMPLASM AGAINST ROOT KNOT NEMATODE (MELOIDOGYNE INCOGNITA INFECTION IN PAKISTAN  

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Full Text Available Potato (Solanum tuberosum, an important vegetable crop of Pakistan endures significant yield losses due to root knot nematode (Meloidogyne incognita.. Research wok was designed to identify resistant potato germplasm against RKN (Meloidogyne incognita infection. A field trial was conducted in the research area of Department of Plant Pathology, University of Agriculture Faisalabad. Thirty six (36 potato verities/ cultivars relocated five times were sown in four years sick plot containing root knot nematode (Meloidogyne incognita in RCBD layout. Root knot nematode reproduction and host damage was accessed by recording nematode root galls and egg mass indices, root weight, shoot weight, , number of leaves, fruit weight, rate of reproduction and final population of nematodes. Experiment revealed a considerable variation in response against Meloidogyne incognita infection among the genotype tested but none of the single cultivar was immune. FD-8-1 was used as negative control. The cultivar FD-19-2 was highly susceptible followed by SH-692 and SH-5. All other cultivars had less galling index with low fecundity rate indicating their ability to suppress the adult female reproduction. The cultivar FD-1-3 scored least number of galls and egg mass indices followed by FD-49-62, SH-339 and SH-332.

Sajid A. Khan

2012-12-01

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Development of virulence to Meloidogyne incognita on resistant pepper rootstocks  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The root-knot nematode (RKN) Meloidogyne incognita is a major soil parasite of pepper crops in greenhouses in Southeast Spain. Due to the limitations of the use of soil fumigants, grafting plants on resistant rootstocks (R-rootstocks) has become an important alternative to chemical nematicides. The repeated use of R-rootstocks can bring about the selection of virulent populations capable of overcoming resistance. We carried out a six-year investigation on resistant rootstocks in a naturally M. incognita infested greenhouse, and found that two successive years of growing plants grafted on R-rootstocks Atlante (ATL) were sufficient to overcome resistance (galling index 1.5 and 5.6 in the first and second years respectively). A large variability was observed between several R-rootstocks. Two R-rootstocks (C19 and Snooker) behaved like ATL while two others (Terrano and DRO 8801) were not infected by RKN. Laboratory studies with the same R-rootstocks, inoculated with two nematode isolates (avirulent and virulent against ATL) confirmed the greenhouse results, indicating that some rootstocks may be infested by virulent populations and others may not. It suggests that different R-genes, which are differentially overcome by RKN, have been introgressed into the rootstocks. This may have consequences for the management of resistant rootstocks in the field. (Author)

Ros-Ibanez, C.; Robertson, L.; Martinez-Lluch, M. C.; Cano-Garcia, A.; Lacasa-Plasencia, A.

2014-06-01

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Reproduction of Meloidogyne incognita on Winter Cover Crops Used in Cotton Production.  

Science.gov (United States)

Substantial reproduction of Meloidogyne incognita on winter cover crops may lead to damaging populations in a subsequent cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) crop. The amount of population increase during the winter depends on soil temperature and the host status of the cover crop. Our objectives were to quantify M. incognita race 3 reproduction on rye (Secale cereale) and several leguminous cover crops and to determine if these cover crops increase population densities of M. incognita and subsequent damage to cotton. The cover crops tested were 'Bigbee' berseem clover (Trifolium alexandrinum), 'Paradana' balansa clover (T. balansae), 'AU Sunrise' and 'Dixie' crimson clover (T. incarnatum), 'Cherokee' red clover (T. pratense), common and 'AU Early Cover' hairy vetch (Vicia villosa), 'Cahaba White' vetch (V. sativa), and 'Wrens Abruzzi' rye. In the greenhouse tests, egg production was greatest on berseem clover, Dixie crimson clover, AU Early Cover hairy vetch, and common hairy vetch; intermediate on Balansa clover and AU Sunrise crimson clover; and least on rye, Cahaba White vetch, and Cherokee red clover. In both 2002 and 2003 field tests, enough heat units were accumulated between 1 January and 20 May for the nematode to complete two generations. Both AU Early Cover and common hairy vetch led to greater root galling than fallow in the subsequent cotton crop; they also supported high reproduction of M. incognita in the greenhouse. Rye and Cahaba White vetch did not increase root galling on cotton and were relatively poor hosts for M. incognita. Only those legumes that increased populations of M. incognita reduced cotton yield. In the southern US, M. incognita can complete one to two generations on a susceptible winter cover crop, so cover crops that support high nematode reproduction may lead to damage and yield losses in the following cotton crop. Planting rye or Meloidogyne-resistant legumes as winter cover crops will lower the risk of increased nematode populations compared to most vetches and clovers. PMID:19259434

Timper, Patricia; Davis, Richard F; Tillman, P Glynn

2006-03-01

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REPRODUÇÃO DE Meloidogyne incognita RAÇA 2 E DE Meloidogyne javanica EM OITO ESPÉCIES DE PLANTAS MEDICINAIS  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Avaliaram-se as taxas reprodutivas de Meloidogyne incognita raça 2 e de Meloidogyne javanica em oito espécies de plantas consideradas medicinais, em vasos com 500 ml de solo, sob condição de casa de vegetação. Cada planta foi inoculada com 5000 ovos, em média, estabelecendo-se cinco repetições. Realizaram-se as avaliações após 45 a 55 dias das inoculações, com base nos índices de massas de ovos e nos fatores de reprodução dos nematóides. Achillea millefolium (mil-folhas), Ar...

1996-01-01

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Interaction of Uromyces phaseoli and Meloidogyne incognita on Bean  

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Uromyces phaseoli, the causal agent of bean rust, suppressed shoot and root growth of three bean cultivars, reducing root weight more than shoot weight. The greatest suppression of root weight was on the cultivar that appeared most susceptible by visual ratings of shoot symptoms. Meloidogyne incognita suppressed shoot and root growth of all test cultivars; root weight reductions differed among cultivars identical in susceptibility to this pathogen in root-gall rating tests. Infection of plant...

Bookbinder, M. G.; Bloom, J. R.

1980-01-01

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Meloidogyne incognita Inoculum Source Affects Host Suitability and Growth of Yellow Nutsedge and Chile Pepper  

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Meloidogyne incognita (Mi) reproduction and host plant responses in chile pepper (Capsicum annuum) and yellow nutsedge (Cyperus esculentus = YNS) to three sources of inoculum obtained by rearing a single Mi population on chile, YNS, and tomato were evaluated in two factorial greenhouse experiments. The interactive effects of Mi inoculum source and crop-weed competition were determined. In the absence of YNS competition, chile growth was reduced less by Mi inoculum from chile than by inoculum ...

Thomas, S. H.; Schroeder, J.; Kenney, M. J.; Murray, L. W.

1997-01-01

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Effect of Crotalaria juncea Amendment on Squash Infected with Meloidogyne incognita  

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Two greenhouse experiments were conducted to examine the effect of Crotalaria juncea amendment on Meloidogyne incognita population levels and growth of yellow squash (Cucurbita pepo). In the first experiment, four soils with a long history of receiving yard waste compost (YWC+), no-yard-waste compost (YWC-), conventional tillage, or no-tillage treatments were used; in the second experiment, only one recently cultivated soil was used. Half of the amount of each soil received air-dried residues...

2004-01-01

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Reproduction of Virulent Isolates of Meloidogyne incognita on Susceptible and Mi-resistant Tomato  

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The reproductive potential of natural and laboratory-selected Meloidogyne incognita isolates virulent against the tomato Mi resistance gene, all derived from a single egg-mass, were compared when the nematodes were inoculated on susceptible and resistant tomato. Fewer second-stage juveniles (P = 0.01) of the two virulent populations selected under laboratory conditions matured to females on the resistant tomato compared to the susceptible cultivar. In contrast, no differences were found betwe...

Castagnone-sereno, P.; Bongiovanni, M.; Dalmasso, A.

1994-01-01

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Resistance as a Tactic for Management of Meloidogyne incognita on Cotton in North Carolina  

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Selected cotton cultivars were evaluated for resistance to the southern root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita, in greenhouse and field experiments. Cotton cultivars LA 887, Auburn 634, and NemX cotton were highly resistant to three North Carolina populations of root-knot nematode in greenhouse experiments compared to susceptible cultivars. The relative susceptibility of cultivars tested in the greenhouse from most to least susceptible were Deltapine 16 > Deltapine 50 > LA 887 or NemX > Au...

Koenning, S. R.; Barker, K. R.; Bowman, D. T.

2001-01-01

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Patogenicidade de Meloidogyne exigua e M. incognita raça 1 a mudas de cafeeiros Pathogenicity of Meloidogyne exigua and M. incognita race 1 to coffee seedlings  

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Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar os danos causados por Meloidogyne exigua e M. incognita raça 1 a mudas de cafeeiros (Coffea spp. Coffea arabica cv. Mundo Novo (LCP 515-20 e de C. canephora cv. Robusta (C 2258. O ensaio foi desenvolvido em casa de vegetação, em vasos de um litro, contendo uma plântula cada um. Aos vinte dias após o transplante, as plântulas foram inoculadas separadamente com 0, 2.000, 4.000 e 8.000 ovos de cada nemat??ide. As populações dos parasitos nas raízes e alguns parâmetros de crescimento das plantas foram avaliados aos 150 dias da inoculação. Verificou-se que M. incognita raça 1 foi mais patogênica que M. exigua ao cultivar Mundo Novo. O cafeeiro C 2258 comportou-se como hospedeiro não eficiente (FR In order to evaluate the damage caused by Meloidogyne incognita race 1 and M. exigua to C. arabica cv. Mundo Novo and C. canephora cv. Robusta (C 2258 an experiment was established under greenhouse conditions, with 0, 2,000, 4,000, and 8,000 eggs as inicial inoculum, in a completely randomized design with one plant per plot. The plants were inoculated 20 days after transplanting and nematode population and some growth parameters were evaluated 150 days later. M. incognita race 1 showed to be more pathogenic to 'Mundo Novo' than M. exigua. The selection C 2258 was not an efficient host for M. incognita race 1, although reproduction occurred and significant reduction in the shoot dry weight of the inoculated plants was determined; M. exigua did not infect this cultivar.

Wallace Gonçalves

1996-01-01

 
 
 
 
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Competition of Meloidogyne incognita and Rotylenchulus reniformis on Cotton Following Separate and Concomitant Inoculations  

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It has been hypothesized Rotylenchulus reniformis (Rr) has a competitive advantage over Meloidogyne incognita (Mi) in the southeastern cotton production region of the United States. This study examines the reproduction and development of Meloidogyne incognita (Mi) and Rotylenchulus reniformis (Rr) in separate and concomitant infections on cotton. Under greenhouse conditions, cotton seedlings were inoculated simultaneously with juveniles (J2) of M. incognita and vermiform adults of R. reniform...

Diez, Asdrubal; Lawrence, G. W.; Lawrence, K. S.

2003-01-01

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REPRODUÇÃO DE Meloidogyne incognita RAÇA 2 E DE Meloidogyne javanica EM OITO ESPÉCIES DE PLANTAS MEDICINAIS  

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Full Text Available Avaliaram-se as taxas reprodutivas de Meloidogyne incognita raça 2 e de Meloidogyne javanica em oito espécies de plantas consideradas medicinais, em vasos com 500 ml de solo, sob condição de casa de vegetação. Cada planta foi inoculada com 5000 ovos, em média, estabelecendo-se cinco repetições. Realizaram-se as avaliações após 45 a 55 dias das inoculações, com base nos índices de massas de ovos e nos fatores de reprodução dos nematóides. Achillea millefolium (mil-folhas, Arctium lappa (bardana, Bryophyllum calycinum (folha-da-fortuna e Crassula portulacea (bálsamo foram hospedeiras não eficientes ou desfavoráveis a ambas as espécies. Plectranthus barbatus (boldo e Polygonum hidropiperoides (polígono foram eficientes à reprodução das duas espécies. Achyrocline satureoides (macela e Tropaeolum majus (chagas foram eficientes para M. javanica e não para M. incognita.The reproductive rates of the root-knot nematodes Meloidogyne incognita race 2 and M. javanica in the roots of eight medicinal plant species were assessed under greenhouse condition. Each plant, growing in a pot containing 500 ml of sterilized soil, was inoculated with an average number of 5,000 eggs, with five repetitions. Egg mass index and reproduction factor data were used for the evaluation, 45-55 days after plant inoculation. Achillea millefolium, Arctium lappa, Bryophyllum calycinum, and Crassula portulacea were rated as poor or nonefficient hosts, while Plectranthus barbatus and Polygonum hidropiperoides were efficient for both nematode species. Achyrocline satureoides and Tropaeolum majus were efficient for M. javanica, but nonefficient for M. incognita.

S.L. MACIEL

1996-05-01

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Reação de porta-enxertos de pessegueiro à Meloidogyne incognita Reaction of peach rootstocks to Meloidogyne incognita  

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Full Text Available O objetivo foi avaliar a reação de cinco porta-enxertos de pessegueiro ao Meloidogyne incognita (Kofoid e White Chitwood, em condições de casa de vegetação. Foram utilizados os porta-enxertos: 'Seleção UFPel 0402', 'Okinawa', 'Nagano Wild', 'Flordaguard' e 'Seleção NR-0080407'. As plantas foram inoculadas com 10.000 ovos+J2 de Meloidogyne incognita. Cinco plantas de tomateiro cv. Santa Cruz foram inoculadas para comprovação da eficiência do inóculo. O delineamento experimental foi o inteiramente casualizado, com cinco repetições e uma planta por parcela. Seis meses após a inoculação, as raízes foram avaliadas quanto ao índice de galhas e ao Fator de Reprodução (FR. No tomateiro, as avaliações foram feitas aos três meses após a inoculação. Não se verificou a ocorrência de galhas ou multiplicação dos nematoides nos genótipos avaliados, com exceção do porta-enxerto 'Nagano Wild', onde se registraram 36 galhas, porém sem evidência de multiplicação do nematoide. Os genótipos testados foram considerados imunes a esta espécie de nematoide das galhas, uma vez que foram eficazes em suprimir a reprodução de M. incognita, podendo ser usados como porta-enxertos alternativos em áreas de plantio com ocorrência desta praga de solo ou como fonte de resistência ao melhoramento genético de porta-enxertos de pessegueiro.In order to evaluate the reaction of the peach rootstocks 'Okinawa', 'Flordaguard', 'Nagano Wild', and the selection 'UFPel 0402' and 'NR-0080407' to Meloidogyne incognita, the plants were inoculated with 10.000 eggs+J2 of M. incognita. Seedlings of tomato 'Santa Cruz' inoculated in the same way were used as control and to determine the inoculum viability. The experiment was carried out under greenhouse conditions in a completely randomized experimental design with five replications, each one performe by a plant. Six months after inoculation, the plants were pulled out on the roots and evaluated for the number of galls and reproduction factor (RF. Neither gall no nematode reproduction was registered in all rootstock systems, except for 'Nagano Wild' that shown 36 galls, but without evidences of nematode reproduction. All the tested genotypes were considered immune to this root-knot nematode specie, because they were effective in suppressing the M. incognita reproduction, and may be used as alternative rootstocks in new orchards or as resistance source to genetic improvement of peach rootstock.

Luciane Arantes de Paula

2011-06-01

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Resistência de cultivares de batata-doce a Meloidogyne incognita Resistance of sweet potato cultivars to Meloidogyne incognita  

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Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve o objetivo de estudar a resistência em 35 cultivares de batata-doce (Ipomoea batatas a Meloidogyne incognita, bem como documentar alterações anatômicas em tecidos de raízes de cultivares infetadas. As plantas foram inoculadas em vasos com 3.000 ovos e juvenis de segundo estádio do nematóide e avaliadas aos 90 dias após com base no fator de reprodução (FR. Entre as 35 cultivares 15 foram consideradas resistentes. Alterações anatômicas nas raízes de cultivares suscetíveis são ilustradas, observando-se bloqueio de vasos do xilema e supressão de tecidos vasculares.The objectives of this study were to evaluate the resistance of 35 sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas cultivars to Meloidogyne incognita and illustrating anatomical changes in tissue of infected plants. The plants were inoculated with 3,000 eggs and juveniles of M. incognita and evaluated at 90 days after inoculation based on the reproduction factor of the nematode (RF. Among the 35 cultivars tested, 15 of them were considered resistant. Anatomical changes in sweet potato roots are illustrated, showing interruption of xylem vessels and progressive suppression of vascular tissues.

Maria J. A. Wanderley

2004-08-01

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Reaction of Trifolium repens Cultivars and Germplasms to Meloidogyne incognita  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Ten cultivars and 13 germplasms of white clover (Trifolium repens) were evaluated in the greenhouse for resistance to the southern root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita race 4. One hundred plants of each cultivar or germplasm were rated for percentage of the root system galled (PRSG) at 60 days after inoculation with root-knot nematode eggs. Tillman (9%) and SRVR (19%) had the highest percentage of resistant plants (PRSG = 0 or 1 on a scale of 0-5 ) for the cultivars and germplasms, respe...

Windham, G. L.; Pederson, G. A.

1991-01-01

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Reproduction of Meloidogyne incognita on Open-pollinated Maize Varieties  

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Forty-three open-pollinated maize varieties were tested for resistance to the southern root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita race 4, in greenhouse tests. An experiment repeated on five different planting dates assessed nematode reproduction 60 days after inoculation with 3,000 eggs per plant. Tebeau and Old Raccoon showed consistently high levels of resistance in all plantings, with the lowest reproduction factor (RF) values (0.2 and 0.4) and low numbers of eggs per gram of fresh root (22...

Aung, Toe; Windham, G. L.; Williams, W. P.

1990-01-01

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Crop Rotation and Races of Meloidogyne incognita in Cotton Root-knot Management  

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The influence o f various crop rotations and nematode inoculum levels on subsequent population densities of Meloidogyne incognita races 1 and 3 were studied in microplots. Ten different 3-year sequences o f cotton, corn, peanut, or soybean, all with cotton as the 3rd-year crop, were grown in microplots infested with each race. Cotton monoculture, two seasons o f corn, or cotton followed by corn resulted in high race 3 population densities and severe root galling on cotton the 3rd year. Peanut...

Kirkpatrick, T. L.; Sasser, J. N.

1984-01-01

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Purificação de metabólitos fúngicos com efeitos tóxicos sobre Meloidogyne incognita Purification of fungal metabolites with toxic effects on Meloidogyne incognita  

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Full Text Available Objetivando o desenvolvimento de novas metodologias de controle de fitonematóides, este trabalho buscou purificar as substâncias nematicidas produzidas por Cunninghamella elegans, Fusarium sp., Paecilomyces lilacinus eP. variotii. Esses fungos foram cultivados em meio líquido Czapek-Dox durante 15 dias, a 25 ºC, em agitador orbital. Em seguida, filtraram-se as misturas, o que permitiu a obtenção de soluções que foram concentradas sob vácuo e submetidas à purificação direcionada por testes in vitro com Meloidogyne incognita. Observou-se que os filtrados de P. lilacinus e P. variotii perdiam suas atividades nematicidas após a concentração sob vácuo, sugerindo que as substâncias ativas produzidas por esses fungos são consideravelmente voláteis. Para o filtrado de Fusarium sp., observou-se perda total da atividade contra M. incognita após fracionamento em coluna de sílica gel, indicando instabilidade da substância nematicida frente às condições empregadas.Do filtrado de C. elegans isolou-se uma substância que, em solução aquosa na concentração de 250 ppm, imobilizou 94% dos juvenis do segundo estádio de M. incognita expostos a tal solução durante 48 h.In a search for new molecules toxic to plant parasitic nematodes, procedures were set up to purify nematode toxic molecules produced by Cunninghamella elegans, Fusarium sp., Paecilomyces lilacinus and P. variotii. Those fungi were grown in Czapek-Dox liquid medium during 15 days, at 25 ºC, in an orbital shaker. After fungus mycelium removal by filtration, the solutions were concentrated under vacuum and submitted to purification, guided by in vitro assays with Meloidogyne incognita juveniles. As a result, it was observed that P. lilacinus and P.variotii filtrates lost their activity after vacuum concentration, which suggests that the nematocides produced by those fungi are considerably volatile. In the case of Fusarium sp. filtrate, the active substance seems to be unstable, as the activity against M. incognita juveniles completely disappeared after chromatography in a silica gel column. The C. elegans filtrate rendered one isolated substance that immobilized 94% of the M. incognita juveniles exposed during 48 h to an aqueous solution of the substance at 250 ppm.

GERALDO H. SILVA

2002-11-01

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Purificação de metabólitos fúngicos com efeitos tóxicos sobre Meloidogyne incognita / Purification of fungal metabolites with toxic effects on Meloidogyne incognita  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Objetivando o desenvolvimento de novas metodologias de controle de fitonematóides, este trabalho buscou purificar as substâncias nematicidas produzidas por Cunninghamella elegans, Fusarium sp., Paecilomyces lilacinus eP. variotii. Esses fungos foram cultivados em meio líquido Czapek-Dox durante 15 d [...] ias, a 25 ºC, em agitador orbital. Em seguida, filtraram-se as misturas, o que permitiu a obtenção de soluções que foram concentradas sob vácuo e submetidas à purificação direcionada por testes in vitro com Meloidogyne incognita. Observou-se que os filtrados de P. lilacinus e P. variotii perdiam suas atividades nematicidas após a concentração sob vácuo, sugerindo que as substâncias ativas produzidas por esses fungos são consideravelmente voláteis. Para o filtrado de Fusarium sp., observou-se perda total da atividade contra M. incognita após fracionamento em coluna de sílica gel, indicando instabilidade da substância nematicida frente às condições empregadas.Do filtrado de C. elegans isolou-se uma substância que, em solução aquosa na concentração de 250 ppm, imobilizou 94% dos juvenis do segundo estádio de M. incognita expostos a tal solução durante 48 h. Abstract in english In a search for new molecules toxic to plant parasitic nematodes, procedures were set up to purify nematode toxic molecules produced by Cunninghamella elegans, Fusarium sp., Paecilomyces lilacinus and P. variotii. Those fungi were grown in Czapek-Dox liquid medium during 15 days, at 25 ºC, in an orb [...] ital shaker. After fungus mycelium removal by filtration, the solutions were concentrated under vacuum and submitted to purification, guided by in vitro assays with Meloidogyne incognita juveniles. As a result, it was observed that P. lilacinus and P.variotii filtrates lost their activity after vacuum concentration, which suggests that the nematocides produced by those fungi are considerably volatile. In the case of Fusarium sp. filtrate, the active substance seems to be unstable, as the activity against M. incognita juveniles completely disappeared after chromatography in a silica gel column. The C. elegans filtrate rendered one isolated substance that immobilized 94% of the M. incognita juveniles exposed during 48 h to an aqueous solution of the substance at 250 ppm.

SILVA, GERALDO H.; OLIVEIRA, DENILSON F.; CAMPOS, VICENTE P..

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Effect of Mowing Cotton Stalks and Preventing Plant Re-Growth on Post-Harvest Reproduction of Meloidogyne incognita  

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The southern root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne incognita) is a major parasite of cotton in the U.S., and management tactics for this nematode attempt to minimize population levels. We compared three post-harvest practices for their ability to reduce nematode population levels in the field, thereby reducing initial nematode population for the next year's crop. The three practices tested were: 1) chemical defoliation before harvest plus cutting cotton stalks after harvest, 2) chemical defoliation...

Lu, Ping; Davis, Richard F.; Kemerait, Robert C.

2010-01-01

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Chemical-Mediated Toxicity of N-Viro Soil to Heterodera glycines and Meloidogyne incognita  

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N-Viro Soil (NVS) is an alkaline-stabilized municipal biosolid that has been shown to lower population densities and reduce egg hatch of Heterodera glycines and other plant-parasitic nematodes; but the mechanism(s) of nematode suppression of this soil amendment are unknown. This study sought to identify NVS-mediated changes in soil chemical properties and their impact upon H. glycines and Meloidogyne incognita mortality. N-Viro Soil was applied to sand in laboratory assays at 0.5%, 1.0%, 2.0%...

Zasada, I. A.; Tenuta, M.

2004-01-01

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Damage Potential and Reproduction of Meloidogyne incognita Race 3 and M. arenaria Race 1 on Kenaf  

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The effects of Meloidogyne incognita race 3 and M. arenaria race 1 on growth of kenaf cv. Everglades 41 was determined under greenhouse conditions. Seedlings of kenaf were inoculated with initial population densities (Pi) of 0, 625, 1,250, 2,500, 5,000, and 10,000 eggs/plant and placed on greenhouse benches in a randomized complete block design. Plant growth and nematode reproduction were assessed 6 and 12 weeks after inoculation. Growth suppression of kenaf in response to increasing Pi was o...

Zhang, F.; Noe, J. P.

1996-01-01

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Histology of the Interactions of Paecilomyces lilacinus with Meloidogyne incognita on Tomato  

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Excised tomato roots were examined histologically for interactions of the fungus Paecilomyces lilacinus and Meloidogyne incognita race 1. Root galling and giant-cell formation were absent in tomato roots inoculated with nematode eggs infected with P. lilacinus. Few to no galls and no giant-cell formation were found in roots dipped in a spore suspension of P. lilacinus and inoculated with M. incognita. Numerous large galls and giant cells were present in roots inoculated only with M. incognita...

Cabanillas, E.; Barker, K. R.; Daykin, M. E.

1988-01-01

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Nematotoxic phenolic compounds from Melia azedarach against Meloidogyne incognita.  

Science.gov (United States)

In the present study, evaluated was the paralysis activity of whole Italian and Algerian Melia azedarach, commonly known as chinaberry, fruits and parts (seeds, wood, and kernels) against Meloidogyne incognita second stage juveniles (J(2)). The paralysis activity was evaluated in vitro after 1 h and 1 day immersion periods of nematodes in test solutions. Phenolic constituent components of the extracts were identified and quantified by high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, while confirmation was performed by high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array. The water extract of the Italian M. azedarach fruit pulp (IPWE) showed significant nematicidal activity (EC(50/48h) = 955 ?g/mL) and among its active ingredient components were p-coumaric acid and p-hydroxybenzoic acid (EC(50/48h) = 840 and 871 ?g/mL, respectively). This is the first report of the nematicidal activity of M. azedarach pulp water extract and phenolic acids against the root knot nematode M. incognita. PMID:23136941

Aoudia, Hassiba; Ntalli, Nikoletta; Aissani, Nadhem; Yahiaoui-Zaidi, R; Caboni, Pierluigi

2012-11-28

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Effect of Broccoli (Brassica oleracea) Tissue, Incorporated at Different Depths in a Soil Column, on Meloidogyne incognita  

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Brassicas have been used frequently for biofumigation, a pest-management strategy based on the release of biocidal volatiles during decomposition of soil-incorporated tissue. However, the role of such volatiles in control of plant-parasitic nematodes is unclear. The goal of this study was to determine the direct localized and indirect volatile effects of amending soil with broccoli tissue on root-knot nematode populations. Meloidogyne incognita-infested soil in 50-cm-long tubes was amended wi...

Roubtsova, Tatiana; Lo?pez-pe?r?ez, Jose-antonio; Edwards, Scott; Ploeg, Antoon

2007-01-01

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Raphanus sativus, Sinapis alba, and Fagopyrum esculentum as Hosts to Meloidogyne incognita, Meloidogyne javanica, and Plasmodiophora brassicae  

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Cultivars of oilseed radish (Raphanus sativus var. oleifera cv. Adagio, Nemex, Pegletta, Renova, Siletina, Siletta Nova, and Ultimo), white mustard (Sinapis alba cv. Albatross, Emergo, Maxi, Martigena, Metex, and Serval), buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum cv. Prego, Tardo), and phacelia (Phacelia tanacetifolia cv. Angelia) were tested for susceptibility to Meloidogyne incognita race 3 and Meloidogyne javanica. Experiments were conducted in growth chambers at 25 C and 16 hours light for 42 days ...

Gardner, J.; Caswell-chen, E. P.

1994-01-01

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GENOTYPIC DIVERSITY OF POTATO GERMPLASM AGAINST ROOT KNOT NEMATODE (MELOIDOGYNE INCOGNITA) INFECTION IN PAKISTAN
 

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Potato (Solanum tuberosum), an important vegetable crop of Pakistan endures significant yield losses due to root knot nematode (Meloidogyne incognita).. Research wok was designed to identify resistant potato germplasm against RKN (Meloidogyne incognita) infection. A field trial was conducted in the research area of Department of Plant Pathology, University of Agriculture Faisalabad. Thirty six (36) potato verities/ cultiv...

Gondal, Amjad S.; Nazir Javed; Khan, Sajid A.; Sajjad Hyder

2012-01-01

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Effect of supreme 15 CS against Meloidogyne incognita on tomato.  

Science.gov (United States)

Pot and laboratory experiments were conducted to study the efficacy of supreme 15 CS in varying doses for management of root- knot nematode, M. incognita in tomato. The results indicated that supreme 15 CS containing alkali metal N-(n-propyl) Dithiocarbamate proved to be more effective in improving plant growth characters and reducing root-knot index and final nematode population. Among the doses tested, higher dose of 0.5 % (w/w) was more effective than lower doses. PMID:25035599

Singh, Tulika; Ebhad, Deepak; Patel, Ashokbhai D; Patel, Bhagabhai A

2014-09-01

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Comportamiento de Meloidogyne incognita sobre tomate y pimiento resistente en Uruguay  

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[ES] Para evaluar la influencia del sistema de cultivo en la selección de biotipos virulentos de Meloidogyne incognita en Uruguay, se estudió la virulencia de 33 poblaciones de este nematodo procedentes de invernaderos, tanto en monocultivo como en rotación, mediante bioensayos con cultivares de tomate y pimiento resistentes a M. incognita. Se encontraron 36,4% de las poblaciones virulentas a tomate y pimiento resistentes; 33,3% virulentas a tomate resistente, pe...

Piedra Buena, A.; Di?ez-rojo, M. A.; Bello, A.; Robertson, L.; Lo?pez-pe?rez, J. A.; Escuer, M.; Leo?n, L.

2005-01-01

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Resistance induction for Meloidogyne incognita in sugarcane through mineral organic fertilizers  

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The effects of Coda Radimax (CR), Coda Humus-PK (CH) and Coda Vit (CV) on the induction of resistance for Meloidogyne incognita in sugarcane (Saccharum sp.) varieties (RB92579, RB863129, RB867515) through nematode reproduction, plant development and root anatomy analysis, emphasizing the differences of the lignin deposition, and cortex-vascular cylinder proportions were investigated. In 90 days after inoculation with eggs of M. incognita, CR reduced the number of eggs per root system in all t...

Andréa Chaves; Elvira Maria Régis Pedrosa; Rejane Magalhães de Mendonça Pimentel; Rildo Sartori Barbosa Coelho; Lílian Margarete Paes Guimarães; Sandra Roberta Vaz Lira Maranhão

2009-01-01

 
 
 
 
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Reproduction and Development of Meloidogyne incognita and M. javanica on Guardian Peach Rootstock  

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Guardian peach rootstock was evaluated for susceptibility to Meloidogyne incognita race 3 (Georgia-peach isolate) and M. javanica in the greenhouse. Both commercial Guardian seed sources produced plants that were poor hosts of M. incognita and M. javanica. Reproduction as measured by number of egg masses and eggs per plant, eggs per egg mass, and eggs per gram of root were a better measure of host resistance than number of root galls per plant. Penetration, development, and reproduction of M....

Nyczepir, A. P.; Beckman, T. G.; Reighard, G. L.

1999-01-01

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Varietal Response of Tomato to the Interaction of Salinity and Meloidogyne incognita Infection  

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Response of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) cultivars to a range of conductivity levels was tested in the presence and absence of Meloidogyne incognita. The conductivity levels were produced by appropriate adjustment of a 1:1 solution of sodium chloride and calcium chloride. The growth of M. incognita resistant ('Beefmaster' and 'Atkinson') and susceptible ('Hunts 2580' and 'Ronita') tomato plants was inversely related to soil salinity between ECe 0 and 5 mmhos/cm. Nematode inoculation of sa...

Edongali, Ezarug A.; Ferris, Howard

1982-01-01

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Interaction of Vesicular-arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi and Phosphorus with Meloidogyne incognita on Tomato  

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The influence of two vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and phosphorus (P) nutrition on penetration, development, and reproduction by Meloidogyne incognita on Walter tomato was studied in the greenhouse. Inoculation with either Gigaspora margarita or Glomus mosseae 2 wk prior to nematode inoculation did not alter infection by M. incognita compared with nonmycorrhizal plants, regardless of soil P level (either 3 ?g [low P] or 30 ?g [high P] available P/g soil). At a given soil P level, n...

Cason, K. M. Thomson; Hussey, R. S.; Roncadori, R. W.

1983-01-01

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Effect of Temperature on Suppression of Meloidogyne incognita by Tagetes Cultivars  

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The suppression of Meloidogyne incognita by marigolds differed among six marigold cultivars and five soil temperatures. Tagetes signata (syn. T. tenuifolia) cv. Tangerine Gem and the Tagetes hybrid Polynema allowed reproduction and root galling when grown at 30 °C, and should not be used for control of M. incognita at temperatures close to 30 °C. Tagetes patula cultivars Single Gold and Tangerine and T. erecta Flor de Muerto, when grown within a 20-30 °C soil temperature range, significant...

Ploeg, Antoon T.; Maris, Paulus C.

1999-01-01

65

Growth of Isolates of Paecilomyces lilacinus and Their Efficacy in Biocontrol of Meloidogyne incognita on Tomato  

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The potential of 13 Paecilomyces lilacinus isolates from various geographic regions as biocontrol agents against Meloidogyne incognita, the effects of temperature on their growth, and the characterization of the impact of soil temperature on their efficacy for controlling this nematode were investigated. Maximum fungal growth, as determined by dry weight of the mycelium, occurred from 24 to 30 C; least growth was at 12 and 36 C. The best control of M. incognita was provided by an isolate from...

Cabanillas, Enrique; Barker, K. R.; Nelson, L. A.

1989-01-01

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Meloidogyne incognita Survival in Soil Infested with Paecilomyces lilacinus and Verticillium chlamydosporium  

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Meloidogyne incognita-infected tomato seedlings were transplanted into sterilized soil or unsterilized soil collected from 20 California tomato fields to measure suppression caused by Paecilomyces lilacinus, Verticillium chlamydosporium, and other naturally occurring antagonists. Unsterilized soils Q, A, and H contained 35, 39, and 55% fewer M. incognita second-stage juveniles (J2) than did sterilized soil 1 month after infected tomato seedlings were transplanted to these soils and placed in ...

Gaspard, J. T.; Jaffee, B. A.; Ferris, H.

1990-01-01

67

Host Plant Resistance as an Alternative to Methyl Bromide for Managing Meloidogyne incognita in Pepper  

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Pre-plant soil fumigation with methyl bromide and host resistance were compared for managing the southern root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne incognita) in pepper. Three pepper cultivars (Carolina Cayenne, Keystone Resistant Giant, and California Wonder) that differed in resistance to M. incognita were grown in field plots that had been fumigated with methyl bromide (98% CH?Br : 2% CCl?NO? [w/w]) before planting or left untreated. Carolina Cayenne is a well-adapted cayenne-type pepper that ...

Theis, Judy A.; Fery, Richard L.

2002-01-01

68

Nutsedge Counts Predict Meloidogyne incognita Juvenile Counts in an Integrated Management System  

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The southern root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne incognita), yellow nutsedge (Cyperus esculentus) and purple nutsedge (Cyperus rotundus) are important pests in crops grown in the southern US. Management of the individual pests rather than the pest complex is often unsuccessful due to mutually beneficial pest interactions. In an integrated pest management scheme using alfalfa to suppress nutsedges and M. incognita, we evaluated quadratic polynomial regression models for prediction of the number of...

Ou, Zhining; Murray, Leigh; Thomas, Stephen H.; Schroeder, Jill; Libbin, James

2008-01-01

69

Penetration, Post-penetration Development, and Reproduction of Meloidogyne incognita on Cucumis melo var. texanus  

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Cucumis melo var. texanus, a wild melon commonly found in the southern United States and two accessions, Burleson Co. and MX 1230, expressed resistance to Meloidogyne incognita in preliminary experiments. To characterize the mechanism of resistance, we evaluated root penetration, post-penetration development, reproduction, and emigration of M. incognita on these two accessions of C. melo var. texanus. Additionally, we evaluated 22 accessions of C. melo var. texanus for their reaction against ...

Faske, T. R.

2013-01-01

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Meloidogyne incognita and Rotylenchulus reniformis and Associated Soil Textures from Some Cotton Production Areas of Texas  

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The incidence of Meloidogyne incognita and Rotylenchulus reniformis on cotton was determined in 1989-92 from 1,089 soil samples collected from 31 counties that account for nearly 60% of the 2.2 million hectares planted to cotton in Texas. Meloidogyne incognita was commonly found in the Southern High Plains and Brazos River Valley regions of Texas (57% and 34%, respectively, of samples) but was found in less than 8% of samples from the Central Blacklands, Coastal Bend, Low Plains, or the Upper...

Starr, J. L.; Heald, C. M.; Robinson, A. F.; Smith, R. G.; Krausz, J. P.

1993-01-01

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Avaliação da resistência dê cafeeiros às raças dê Meloidogyne incognita Evaluation of coffea resistance to Meloidogyne incognita races  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available No Centro Experimental de Campinas do Instituto Agronômico, de abril de 1984 a agosto de 1985, realizaram-se dois experimentos, em vasos, para avaliar a resistência de mudas de sete linhagens de Coffea arabica ('Mundo Novo': CP388-17, CP379-19, CP501 e MP376-4; 'Catuaí Amarelo' H2077-2-5-62 e 'Catuaí Vermelho' H2077-2-5-81, e 'Caturra Amarelo' e dois de C. canephora (Robusta: 'Guarini' col. 10 e 'Kouillon' col. 67-14 às quatro raças de Meloidogyne incognita. No primeiro experimento, cada muda foi infestada com 8.000 ovos, passados cinco meses do transplante, e a avaliação, efetuada seis meses depois. No segundo experimento, as mudas foram infestadas cerca de um ano do transplante com 7.000 ovos cada uma e a avaliação realizada decorridos dez meses. Todas as plantas foram infestadas pelas raças 1 e 2; entretanto, a reprodução do nematóide foi menor nas plantas mais velhas. As raças 3 e 4 apresentaram baixas infestações e algumas reações de imunidade, principalmente a 4, que tem pouca importância prática pela sua pequena ocorrência. Os cultivares de Catuaí revelaram médias de notas de ootecas menores que as das linhagens de 'Mundo Novo', indicando menor suscetibilidade. Contudo, é importante ressaltar que a menor infestação não significa que as raças 3 e 4 sejam menos danosas ao cafeeiro quando o parasitam em campo.Two experiments were carried out in Campinas, State of São Paulo, Brazil, to evaluate the resistance of young trees of seven lines of Coffea arabica ('Mundo Novo': CP388-17, CP379-19, CP501 and MP376-4; 'Catuaí Yellow' H2077-2-5-62 and 'Catuaí Red' H2077-2-5-81; and 'Caturra Yellow' and two of C. canephora (Robusta: 'Guarini' col, 10 and 'Kouillon' col. 67-14 to the four races of Meloidogyne incognita in pots. In the first experiment, each plant was infested five months after transplanting with 8000 eggs, and evaluated six months later. In the second experiment, the plants were infested near one year after transplanting with 7000 eggs each one, and evaluated ten months later. Races 1 and 2 infested all cultivars, however, nematode reproduction was lower in the older plants. Races 3 and 4 presented low infestation and some imunity reactions (race 4, mainly what does not have any practical importance since they have a low frequence of occurrence. Catuaí cultivars presented lower egg-mass notes than Mundo Novo cultivars indicating some degree of resistance. However, the low levels of infestation observed do not necessarily indicate that these races will not damage coffee plants under field conditions.

Rubens Rodolfo Albuquerque Lordello

1987-01-01

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Resistência de clones de umezeiro e cultivares de pessegueiro a Meloidogyne incognita (nemata: Heteroderidae) / Resistance of mume clones and peach tree cultivars to Meloidogyne incognita (nemata: heteroderidae)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O presente estudo teve por objetivo avaliar a reação dos Clones 05; 10 e 15 de umezeiro (Prunus mume Sieb. et Zucc.) e das cultivares Okinawa, Aurora-1 e Dourado-1 de pessegueiro [Prunus persica (L.) Batsch] a Meloidogyne incognita (Kofoid and White) Chitwood, em condições de casa de vegetação. As p [...] lantas foram mantidas em vasos de cerâmica contendo uma mistura de solo e areia (1:1, v/v), previamente autoclavada a 121ºC e 1kgf.cm-2 por 2 horas. Aos 60 dias após o plantio, cada planta foi inoculada com 2.000 ovos e juvenis de segundo estádio de Meloidogyne incognita. O experimento foi conduzido em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com 6 tratamentos (genótipos) e 9 repetições. Transcorridos 116 dias após a inoculação, as plantas foram colhidas para avaliação do sistema radicular. Foi possível verificar que o número de galhas por sistema radicular, o número de ovos e juvenis por 10g de raízes e por sistema radicular foi nulo ou praticamente nulo em todos os clones e nas cultivares estudadas, de forma que os respectivos fatores de reprodução foram todos inferiores a 1. Conclui-se que os Clones 05; 10 e 15 de umezeiro, assim como as cultivares Okinawa, Aurora-1 e Dourado-1 de pessegueiro são resistentes a Meloidogyne incognita. Abstract in english The present study had for objective to study the reaction of mume Clones 05, 10 and 15 (Prunus mume Sieb. et Zucc.) and 'Okinawa', 'Aurora-1' and 'Dourado-1' peach tree cultivars [Prunus persica (L.) Batsch] to Meloidogyne incognita (Kofoid and White) Chitwood, in greenhouse conditions. The plants w [...] ere maintained in ceramic boxes containing a soil-sand mixture (1:1, v/v), previously autoclaved at 121ºC and 1 kgf.cm-2 for 2 hours. On the sixtieth day after planting, each plant was inoculated with 2,000 eggs in the second stage juvenile of Meloidogyne incognita. The experiment was carried out in randomized design with 6 treatments (genotypes) and 9 repetitions. After 116 days from inoculation, plants were harvested for radicular system evaluation. It was possible to verify that galls number for radicular system, eggs and juvenile number in a 10 g sample, eggs and juvenile number for the whole radicular system were null or practically null in all clones and cultivars studied, so that respective reproduction factors (RF) were all lower than 1. It was verified that mume Clones 05, 10 and 15, such as 'Okinawa', 'Aurora-1' and 'Dourado-1' peach tree cultivars are resistant to Meloidogyne incognita.

Newton Alex, Mayer; Fernando Mendes, Pereira; Jaime Maia dos, Santos.

73

Resistência de clones de umezeiro e cultivares de pessegueiro a Meloidogyne incognita (nemata: Heteroderidae Resistance of mume clones and peach tree cultivars to Meloidogyne incognita (nemata: heteroderidae  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available O presente estudo teve por objetivo avaliar a reação dos Clones 05; 10 e 15 de umezeiro (Prunus mume Sieb. et Zucc. e das cultivares Okinawa, Aurora-1 e Dourado-1 de pessegueiro [Prunus persica (L. Batsch] a Meloidogyne incognita (Kofoid and White Chitwood, em condições de casa de vegetação. As plantas foram mantidas em vasos de cerâmica contendo uma mistura de solo e areia (1:1, v/v, previamente autoclavada a 121ºC e 1kgf.cm-2 por 2 horas. Aos 60 dias após o plantio, cada planta foi inoculada com 2.000 ovos e juvenis de segundo estádio de Meloidogyne incognita. O experimento foi conduzido em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com 6 tratamentos (genótipos e 9 repetições. Transcorridos 116 dias após a inoculação, as plantas foram colhidas para avaliação do sistema radicular. Foi possível verificar que o número de galhas por sistema radicular, o número de ovos e juvenis por 10g de raízes e por sistema radicular foi nulo ou praticamente nulo em todos os clones e nas cultivares estudadas, de forma que os respectivos fatores de reprodução foram todos inferiores a 1. Conclui-se que os Clones 05; 10 e 15 de umezeiro, assim como as cultivares Okinawa, Aurora-1 e Dourado-1 de pessegueiro são resistentes a Meloidogyne incognita.The present study had for objective to study the reaction of mume Clones 05, 10 and 15 (Prunus mume Sieb. et Zucc. and 'Okinawa', 'Aurora-1' and 'Dourado-1' peach tree cultivars [Prunus persica (L. Batsch] to Meloidogyne incognita (Kofoid and White Chitwood, in greenhouse conditions. The plants were maintained in ceramic boxes containing a soil-sand mixture (1:1, v/v, previously autoclaved at 121ºC and 1 kgf.cm-2 for 2 hours. On the sixtieth day after planting, each plant was inoculated with 2,000 eggs in the second stage juvenile of Meloidogyne incognita. The experiment was carried out in randomized design with 6 treatments (genotypes and 9 repetitions. After 116 days from inoculation, plants were harvested for radicular system evaluation. It was possible to verify that galls number for radicular system, eggs and juvenile number in a 10 g sample, eggs and juvenile number for the whole radicular system were null or practically null in all clones and cultivars studied, so that respective reproduction factors (RF were all lower than 1. It was verified that mume Clones 05, 10 and 15, such as 'Okinawa', 'Aurora-1' and 'Dourado-1' peach tree cultivars are resistant to Meloidogyne incognita.

Newton Alex Mayer

2005-08-01

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Efficacy of Fenamiphos Formulations Applied through Irrigation for Control of Meloidogyne incognita on Squash  

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Management ofMeloidogyne incognita by chemigation with fenamiphos was studied in an infested field planted to M. incognita-suscepfible yellow summer squash cv. Dixie Hybrid. Fenamiphos (VL 73.1% a.i. manufacturing concentrate in propylene glycol) was mixed with Unitol DSR-90 or used as fenamiphos 3 SC (spray concentrate). Both formulations, applied with 63.5 kl irrigation water per hectare, decreased numbers of M. incognita second-stage juveniles in the soil and root-gall indices, and increas...

1994-01-01

75

Growth of Isolates of Paecilomyces lilacinus and Their Efficacy in Biocontrol of Meloidogyne incognita on Tomato.  

Science.gov (United States)

The potential of 13 Paecilomyces lilacinus isolates from various geographic regions as biocontrol agents against Meloidogyne incognita, the effects of temperature on their growth, and the characterization of the impact of soil temperature on their efficacy for controlling this nematode were investigated. Maximum fungal growth, as determined by dry weight of the mycelium, occurred from 24 to 30 C; least growth was at 12 and 36 C. The best control of M. incognita was provided by an isolate from Peru or a mixture of isolates of P. lilacinus. As soil temperatures increased from 16 to 28 C, both root-knot damage caused by M. incognita and percentage of egg masses infected by P. lilacinus increased. The greatest residual P. lilacinus activity on M. incognita was attained with a mixture of fungal isolates. These isolates effected lower root-galling and necrosis, egg development, and enhanced shoot growth compared with plants inoculated with M. incognita alone. PMID:19287594

Cabanillas, E; Barker, K R; Nelson, L A

1989-04-01

76

Seed treatment affects Meloidogyne incognita penetration, colonization and reproduction on cotton Tratamento de sementes afeta a penetração, colonização e reprodução de Meloidogyne incognita em algodão  

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The effect of abamectin, applied as seed treatment, on Meloidogyne incognita penetration, colonization, and reproduction on cotton was evaluated in two greenhouse experiments. Second stage juveniles (J2) penetration was evaluated 3, 9 and 15 days after germination (dag), whereas the nematode colonization was evaluated 27dag, by counting the total number of galls and egg masses per root system. Eggs and J2 were extracted from the roots to assess the nematode reproduction at 50 and 100dag. The ...

Rosana Bessi; Fernando Ribeiro Sujimoto; Mário Massayuki Inomoto

2010-01-01

77

Evaluation of repeated bio disinfestation using Brassica carinata pellets to control Meloidogyne incognita in protected pepper crops  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The nematode Meloidogyne incognita is responsible for substantial losses in greenhouse-grown peppers in southeastern Spain. This study evaluates the use of biodisinfestation (BS) (organic amendment + solarisation) as an alternative to using methyl bromide (MB) over three consecutive years to control the nematode in greenhouse conditions. Brassica carinata (BP) pellets or B. carinata (BP) + fresh sheep manure (M) were evaluated in treatments which began on two different dates (August and October) and the results were compared with MB-disinfested and untreated controls. During the third year, the gall index for BP was lower than that obtained for BP +M and in the August treatment than in the October treatment. The commercial crop of pepper fruit obtained with the biodisinfestation treatments begun in August was similar to or higher than that obtained with MB, and higher than that obtained with both October biodisinfestation treatments. The yield of the October biodisinfestation treatments was higher than that of the untreated one. In August of all the years studied, the accumulated exposure times were greater than the thresholds required to kill M. incognita populations at 15 cm depth. The incidence of the nematode did not correspond to the reduction achieved during solarisation, and seemed to increase during the crop cycle. Further studies should look at why high temperatures do not produce a sustained reduction in the populations of Meloidogyne incognita. (Author) 56 refs.

Guerrero-Diaz, M. M.; Lacasa-Martinez, C. M.; Hernandez-Pinera, A.; Martinez-Alarcon, V.; Lacasa Plasencia, A.

2013-06-01

78

Microplot Evaluation of Rootstocks for Control of Meloidogyne incognita on Grafted Tomato, Muskmelon, and Watermelon  

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Microplot experiments were conducted over two years (four growing seasons) to evaluate Meloidogyne incognita resistance in rootstocks used for grafted tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), muskmelon (Cucumis melo), and watermelon (Citrullus lanatus). Three tomato rootstocks; ‘TX301’, ‘Multifort’, and ‘Aloha’, were tested in addition to the nongrafted scion, ‘Florida-47’. Two muskmelon rootstocks; Cucumis metuliferus and ‘Tetsukabuto’ (Cucurbita maxima × Cucurbita moschata) were ...

Kokalis-burelle, Nancy; Rosskopf, Erin N.

2011-01-01

79

Localization of Cuticular Binding Sites of Concanavalin A on Caenorhabditis elegans and Meloidogyne incognita  

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Utilizing a Concanavalin A (Con A)-hemocyanin conjugate, the majority of cuticular Con A binding sites were shown to be localized on the head region of Caenorhabclitis elegans and Meloidogyne incognita. Secretions which apparently emanated from the amphids and inner labial papillae did not label.

Mcclure, Michael A.; Zuckerman, Bert M.

1982-01-01

80

Biological Control of Meloidogyne incognita by Paecilomyces lilacinus and Pasteuria penetrans.  

Science.gov (United States)

The root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita was controlled more effectively and yields of host plants were greater when Paecilomyces lilacinus and Pasteuria penetrans were applied together in field microplots than when either was applied alone. Yields of winter vetch from microplots inoculated with the nematode and with both organisms were not statistically different from yields from uninoculated control plots. PMID:19290133

Dube, B; Smart, G C

1987-04-01

 
 
 
 
81

Biological Control of Meloidogyne incognita by Paecilomyces lilacinus and Pasteuria penetrans  

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The root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita was controlled more effectively and yields of host plants were greater when Paecilomyces lilacinus and Pasteuria penetrans were applied together in field microplots than when either was applied alone. Yields of winter vetch from microplots inoculated with the nematode and with both organisms were not statistically different from yields from uninoculated control plots.

Dube, Benjamin; Smart, Grover C.

1987-01-01

82

Produtos naturais aplicados para manejo de Meloidogyne incognita em tomateiros Natural products applied to the management of Meloidogyne incognita in tomato plants  

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Full Text Available Este trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar o efeito de produtos naturais na expressão da resistência a Meloidogyne incognita em plantas de tomate produzidos organicamente. Os indutores Rocksil, Quitosana, Neemseto e Biopirol foram aplicados 5, 10 e 15 dias, em tratamentos independentes, antes da inoculação do patógeno através da pulverização foliar, utilizando-se duas dosagens para cada indutor. A inoculação do nematoide foi realizada 30 dias após o plantio, usando-se 5000 ovos/ planta. Avaliando-se o número de ovos e o fator de reprodução, 30 dias após a inoculação, observou-se que todos os tratamentos diferiram estatisticamente da testemunha, impedindo o aumento da população inicial do patógeno. Dentre os indutores, o indutor silicatado Rocksil foi o que apresentou os melhores resultados para o controle da meloidoginose em todas as épocas de aplicação e em todas as dosagens. Contudo, plantas tratadas com o produto apresentaram baixos pesos de parte aérea sugerindo que houve um custo adaptativo de resistência. Considerando-se o fator de reprodução não foram observadas diferenças estatísticas quando comparadas a dosagem e época de aplicação entre os indutores, com exceção da Quitosana aplicada aos 5 dias antes da inoculação e do Neemseto aplicado aos 15 dias antes da inoculação do nematóide.This study aimed to evaluate the effect of natural products on the expression of resistance to Meloidogyne incognita in organically produced tomato plants. The inducers Rocksil, Chitosan, Neemseto and Biopirol were applied at 5, 10 and 15 days as independent treatments before the pathogen inoculation by means of leaf spraying, using two levels for each inducer. The nematode inoculation was performed at 30 days after planting, using 5000 eggs/plant. Evaluating the number of eggs and the reproduction factor, at 30 days after inoculation, all treatments statistically differed from the control, preventing an increase in the initial population of the pathogen. Of the natural inducers, Rocksil showed the best results for controlling the root-knot nematode in all application times and at all levels. However, plants treated with the product had low shoot weights, suggesting that there was a fitness cost of resistance. Considering the reproduction factor, there were not statistical differences when the level and the application time were compared among natural inducers, except for Chitosan applied at 5 days before the nematode inoculation and Neemseto applied at 15 days before the nematode inoculation.

Thiago Anchieta de Melo

2012-09-01

83

Nematicidal effects of Leucaena leucocephala and Gliricidia sepium extracts on Meloidogyne incognita infecting okra  

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Full Text Available Two separate but identical greenhouse trials were conducted to investigate the effects of extracts of leaves and roots of Leucaena leucocephala and Gliricidia sepium each at 80,000 mg / kg and 40,000 mg / kg on Meloidogyne incognita on okra. Each potted nine-day old okra seedling was inoculated with 3,000 fresh eggs of M. incognita and 5ml of each of the extracts was added simultaneously around the roots of the seedling. Treatment of okra plant with L. leucocephala and G. sepium extracts resulted in reduced nematode population, reduced galling, reduced nematode reproduction rate and enhanced fruit weight. Chemical analysis revealed that G. sepium leaves contained phenolic compound and carboxylic acid, while the roots showed the presence of aromatic amide, phenolic compound and carboxylic acid. L. leucocephala leaves showed the presence of phenolic compound, aromatic amide and carboxylic acid, while the roots showed the presence of phenolic compound and carboxylic acid. The results of this study suggest that leaf and root extracts of L. leucocephala and G. sepium at the rate of 40,000 mg / kg could be useful in root knot nematode management in vegetable beds.

Adekunle O.K.

2007-01-01

84

Exposure Time to Lethal Temperatures for Meloidogyne incognita Suppression and Its Implication for Soil Solarization.  

Science.gov (United States)

Meloidogyne incognita eggs or J2 were incubated in test tubes containing sand:peat mix and immersed in a water bath heated to 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44 and 45 degrees C for a series of time intervals. Controls were maintained at 22 degrees C. Nematodes surviving or hatching were collected from Baermann trays after three weeks of incubation. Regression analyses between percent survival or egg hatch and hours of heat treatment were performed for each temperature. Complete suppression of egg hatch required 389.8, 164.5, 32.9, 19.7 and 13.1 hours at 38, 39, 40, 41 and 42 degrees C, respectively. Complete killing of J2 required 47.9, 46.2, 17.5 and 13.8 hours at 39, 40, 41 and 42 degrees C, respectively. J2 were not completely killed at 38 degrees C within 40 hours of treatment, but were killed within one hour at 44 and 45 degrees C. Effect of temperature on nematode killing is not determined by heat units. Oscillating temperature between cool and warm did not interfere with the nematode suppressive effect by the heat treatment. Six-week solarization in the field during the summers of 2003 and 2004 in Florida accumulated heat exposure times in the top 15 cm of soil that surpassed levels required to kill M. incognita as determined in the water bath experiments. Although near zero M. incognita were detected right after solarization, the nematode population densities increased after a cycle of a susceptible pepper crop. Therefore, future research should address failure of solarization to kill nematodes in the deeper soil layers. PMID:19259512

Wang, K-H; McSorley, R

2008-03-01

85

Pathogenicity of Macrophomina phaseoli on Jute in the Presence of Meloidogyne incognita and Hoplolaimus indicus  

Science.gov (United States)

Seedlings of Corchorus capsularis (cv. C4444) were inoculated with Meloidogyne incognita, Hoplolaimus indicus, and a fungus pathogen of jute, Macrophomina phaseoli, separately and in all possible combinations. The significant damage of jute plants caused individually by the pathogens was aggravated when the fungus was associated with either of the nematode species. M. incognita alone caused greater damage than either H. indicus or Macrophomina phaseoli alone. Plants inoculated with M. incognita and Macrophomina phaseoli were more severely damaged than plants inoculated with H. indicus and the fungus. Plant growth was minimum and disease symptoms were maximum when all pathogens acted together. In the presence of the fungus, M. incognita produced fewer galls. The reproduction of H. indicus was not influenced by the other organisms.

Haque, M. D. Samsul; Mukhopadhyaya, M. C.

1979-01-01

86

Screenhouse Assessment of Reaction of Fluted Pumpkin, Telfairia Occidentalis Hook F. to Root-Knot Nematode Meloidogyne Incognita  

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Screenhouse studies were carried out between April – June and July – September, 2004 at the vegetable research
unit of National HorticulturalResearch Institute (NIHORT), Ibadan,Nigeria to investigate the reaction of five lines
of Telfairia occidentalis (EN2000-4, EN2000-6, EN2000-10, EN2000-11, EN2000-13) to different population
levels (0, 5000 and 10 000 eggs) of Meloidogyne incognita race 2. Seeds from five different matured pods of
Telfairia ...

2010-01-01

87

HISTOPATHOLOGICAL CHANGES AND ENZYMATIC ACTIVITIES INDUCED BY MELOIDOGYNE INCOGNITA ON RESISTANT AND SUSCEPTIBLE POTATO  

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Full Text Available All potato cultivars are susceptible to root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp. which infest the roots and induce galls on the surface and necrotic spots in the flesh tuber of potato, Solanum tuberosum. Infested tubers are unacceptable for processing and fresh market. Tubers are also putative source of dissemination of the nematode. A French nematode- resistant tetraploid potato genotype gained from ex-S. sparsipilum material hybridized with S. tuberosum in F1 and in their back cross progenies and designated as 02T.155.6 was tested and compared in the present study in Egypt as a suitable different environment. Histopathological changes and chitinase activity induced by M. incognita population, of common occurrence in Egypt, in four French tetraploid materials and two common cultivars known as nematode- resistant and susceptible potato genotypes were investigated. Hypertrophied cells were initiated in both cortical and steler regions of the roots which were then developed to abnormal xylem elements expanding into the cortex in French susceptible genotypes designated as 02T.149.6, 02T.150.54, and 02T.157.16. Nematode within the vascular tissue (stele could induce giant cell development close to nematode heads. The largest number of such induced cells was shown by the cultivars Spunta and Diamant. The clone 02T.155.6 with putative nematode resistance demonstrated none or very little nematode development. Recently dead second stage juveniles could also indicate incompatible plant reaction to the invading nematodes in 02T.155.6. M. incognita, Giza population, resistance was generally more coherent to 02T.155.6 as demonstrated by our histological investigations but less coherent as shown by another Egyptian M. incognita population. Chitinase activity was enhanced in M. incognita (Giza-inoculated with respect to uninoculated roots in all plants. After inoculation, such an activity generally increased more in roots of a potato genotype previously known to have resistance or relatively low numbers of both nematode galls and eggmasses than in the other tested cultivars. Peroxidase and catalase activities of nematode- inoculated with respect to uninoculated potato roots were presented and discussed.

Moawad M. Mohamad

2012-12-01

88

Seed treatment affects Meloidogyne incognita penetration, colonization and reproduction on cotton Tratamento de sementes afeta a penetração, colonização e reprodução de Meloidogyne incognita em algodão  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The effect of abamectin, applied as seed treatment, on Meloidogyne incognita penetration, colonization, and reproduction on cotton was evaluated in two greenhouse experiments. Second stage juveniles (J2 penetration was evaluated 3, 9 and 15 days after germination (dag, whereas the nematode colonization was evaluated 27dag, by counting the total number of galls and egg masses per root system. Eggs and J2 were extracted from the roots to assess the nematode reproduction at 50 and 100dag. The seed treatment caused a decrease in J2 penetration in the roots, resulting in lower colonization and reproduction of M. incognita. These findings are discussed considering the environmental aspects of abamectin in the soil and the current practices for the crop management.O efeito de abamectina em tratamento de sementes na penetração, colonização e reprodução de Meloidogyne incognita, em algodão, foi avaliado em dois experimentos de casa de vegetação. A penetração de juvenis de segundo estádio (J2 foi avaliada aos três, nove e 15 dias após a germinação (dag, enquanto que a colonização 27dag foi avaliada por meio da contagem do número total de galhas e massas de ovos por sistema radicular. Ovos e J2 de M. incognita foram extraídos das raízes para determinar a reprodução do nematoide aos 50 e 100dag. O tratamento de sementes diminuiu a penetração dos J2 nas raízes, resultando em menor colonização e reprodução de M. incognita. Os resultados obtidos são discutidos tendo em vista os aspectos ambientais da presença de abamectina no solo e as práticas agrícolas em uso.

Rosana Bessi

2010-06-01

89

Nematicidal effects of Leucaena leucocephala and Gliricidia sepium extracts on Meloidogyne incognita infecting okra  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Two separate but identical greenhouse trials were conducted to investigate the effects of extracts of leaves and roots of Leucaena leucocephala and Gliricidia sepium each at 80,000 mg / kg and 40,000 mg / kg on Meloidogyne incognita on okra. Each potted nine-day old okra seedling was inoculated with 3,000 fresh eggs of M. incognita and 5ml of each of the extracts was added simultaneously around the roots of the seedling. Treatment of okra plant with L. leucocephala and G. sepium extracts resu...

Adekunle O.K.; Akinlua A.

2007-01-01

90

Response of Trifolium repens Clones to Infection by Meloidogyne incognita and Peanut Stunt Virus  

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The responses of selected clones of white clover (Trifolium repens) to simultaneous infection by the southern root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne incognita) and peanut stunt virus (PSV) were determined. Two white clover clones, which were resistant (NC-R) or sensitive (NC-S) to ozone injury, were evaluated. Plant growth and M. incognita reproduction were measured. Root, stolon, and top growth were reduced by PSV infection, which affected NC-R more than NC-S. Both clones were tolerant of M. incogn...

Mclaughlin, M. R.; Windham, G. L.; Heagle, A. S.

1993-01-01

91

Growth and Energy Demand of Meloidogyne incognita on Susceptible and Resistant Vitis vinifera Cultivars  

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Food (energy) consumption rates ofMeloidogyne incognita were calculated on Vitis vinifera cv. French Colombard (highly susceptible) and cv. Thompson Seedless (moderately resistant). One-month-old grape seedlings in styrofoam cups were inoculated with 2,000 or 8,000 M. incognita second-stage juveniles (J2) and maintained at 17.5 degree days (DD - base 10 C)/day until maximum adult female growth and (or) the end of oviposition. At 70 DD intervals, nematode fresh biomass was calculated on the ba...

Melakeberhan, H.; Ferris, H.

1988-01-01

92

Penetration and Development of Meloidogyne incognita in Roots of Resistant and Susceptible Corn Genotypes  

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Rates of penetration and development ofMeloidogyne incognita race 4 in roots of resistant (inbred Mp307, and S4 lines derived from the open-pollinated varieties Tebeau and Old Raccoon) and susceptible (Pioneer 3110) corn genotypes were determined. Seedlings grown in styrofoam containers were inoculated with 5,000 eggs of M. incognita. Roots were harvested at 3-day intervals starting at 3 days after inoculation (DAI) to 27 DAI and stained with acid fuchsin. Penetration of roots by second-stage...

Windham, G. L.; Williams, W. P.

1994-01-01

93

Studies on the interactive effect of Meloidogyne incognita and Fusarium solani on Lycopersicon esculentum, Mill  

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Full Text Available A disease complex involving Meloidogyne incognita and Fusarium solani was studied on tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum, Mill. under glasshouse conditions. Pot experiments were conducted to determine the pathogenesis of both the pathogens individually, simultaneously and sequentially. Isolates of M. incognita and F. solani singly caused a significant reduction in plant height, fresh weight, dry weight, number of fruits and fruit weight over the un-inoculated one but the reduction was more by M. incognita as compared to F. solani. A significant reduction in different plant growth parameters was observed on simultaneous and sequential inoculation of M. incognita and F. solani. However, the reduction was more prominent on simultaneous inoculation of both the pathogens. Among the sequential inoculations more damages were assessed during inoculation of M. incognita followed by F. solani (N+f10. Nematode multiplication, number of galls and number of females were adversely affected on simultaneous and sequential inoculation of both the pathogens in all the treatments. In the present study it was concluded that both the pathogens viz M. incognita and F. solani are virulent against the tomato c.v pusa ruby and therefore measures to prevent the spread of disease become important.

T.A. Khan

2011-01-01

94

Effects of Meloidogyne incognita and Thielaviopsis basicola on cotton growth and root morphology.  

Science.gov (United States)

Effects of the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita and the fungal pathogen Thielaviopsis basicola on cotton seedling growth and root morphology were evaluated in controlled environmental experiments. Four pathogen treatments, including noninfested soil, soil infested with M. incognita, soil infested with T. basicola, and soil infested with both pathogens were evaluated at soil bulk densities (BDs) of 1.25 and 1.50 g/cm(3). Plant growth and the morphology of the root systems were evaluated 44 days after planting. Infestation with M. incognita and T. basicola together significantly reduced seedling emergence, number of stem nodes, and root system volume compared with either pathogen alone. Either M. incognita or T. basicola reduced plant height, root fresh weight, top dry weight; root parameters total root length, surface area, and links; and root topological parameters magnitude, altitude, and exterior path length. M. incognita infection increased root radius. Root colonization by T. basicola increased with the presence of M. incognita at the lower soil BD. In contrast to previous research with Pythium spp., root topological indices (TIs) were similar with all of the treatments. Root TIs were near 1.92, indicating a herringbone (less branching) root architectural structure. Studying root architecture using a topological model offers an additional approach to evaluating fungi and nematodes and their interactions for soilborne-pathogen systems. PMID:24283540

Ma, Jianbing; Jaraba, Juan; Kirkpatrick, Terrence L; Rothrock, Craig S

2014-05-01

95

Interaction between Meloidogyne incognita and Agrobacterium tumefaciens or Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici on Tomato  

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Agrobacterium tumefaciens stimulated and Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici inhibited development and reproduction of Meloidogyne incognita when applied to the opposite split root of tomato, Lycopersicon esculentum cv. Tropic, plants. The lowest rate of nematode reproduction occurred after 2,000 juveniles were applied and the fungus was present in the opposite split root. The effects of all three pathogens alone on the growth of roots and shoots of tomato plants were evident, but M. incogn...

1991-01-01

96

Identification of the Chromosome Carrying the Factor for Resistance to Meloidogyne incognita in Tobacco  

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To identify the chromosome carrying the factor for resistance to Meloidogyne incognita in tobacco, crosses were made between resistant tobacco 'NC95' as pollen parent and each of the 12 tobacco monosomics (A-L) representative of the Tomentosae half of the Nicotiana tabacum chromosome complement. Of the F? seedlings, 927 plants were grown for observation. From these, 223 plants were selected as possible monosomics on the basis of morphological characteristics. These plants were self-pollinat...

Slana, L. J.; Stavely, J. R.

1981-01-01

97

Evaluation of Dry Ice as a Potential Cryonematicide for Meloidogyne incognita in Soil  

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Solid CO? (dry ice) was added to pots containing soil that was infested either with eggs of the root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita, or with tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum 'Rutgers') root fragments that were infected with various stages of the nematode. Two hours after dry ice was added, thermocouples in the soil recorded temperatures ranging from -15 °C to -59 °C. One day after treatment with the dry ice, the temperature of the soil was allowed to equilibrate with that of the gree...

Wergin, William P.; Yaklich, Robert W.; Chitwood, David J.; Erbe, Eric F.

1999-01-01

98

Meloidogyne incognita and M. arenaria Reproduction on Dwarf Hollies and Lantana  

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Meloidogyne incognita and M. arenaria reproduction and host plant tolerance were assessed in field and greenhouse experiments on seven holly cultivars including Ilex glabra 'Shamrock', I. vomitoria 'Schelling's Dwarf', I. cornuta 'Carissa', red holly hybrid (Ilex Little Red™), and I. crenata 'Compacta', 'Green Luster', and 'Helleri' as well as Japanese boxwood (Buxus microphylla) and two lantana cultivars (Lantana camara 'Miss Huff' and 'New Gold'). Boxwood had the highest M. arenaria and M...

Williams-woodward, J. L.; Davis, R. F.

2001-01-01

99

Effects of Concomitant Development on Reproduction of Meloidogyne incognita and Rotylenchulus reniformis on Sweet Potato  

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The influence of various factors on reproduction of concomitant Meloidogyne incognita (Mi) and Rotylenchulus reniformis (Rr) on sweet potato were studied in the greenhouse. Reproduction of Rr was reduced by Mi at all inoculum levels and experiment durations used, while Mi reproduction was not inhibited. Both species failed to affect each other when inoculated simultaneously onto root systems developed in separate pots from different nodes of the same plant. Reproduction of each species was no...

Thomas, Ronald J.; Clark, Christopher A.

1983-01-01

100

Influence of Maize Rotations on the Yield of Soybean Grown in Meloidogyne incognita Infested Soil  

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A replicated field study was conducted from 1972 to 1980 involving soybeans grown in 2-, 3-, and 4-year rotations with maize in soil infested with Meloidogyne incognita. Monocultured soybeans were maintained as controls. Cropping regimes involved root-knot nematode susceptible and resistant soybean cultivars and soybeans treated and not treated with nematicides. Yields of susceptible cultivars declined with reduced length of rotation. Nematicide treatment significantly increased yields of sus...

Kinloch, Robert A.

1983-01-01

 
 
 
 
101

Effects of Soil Texture on the Interaction Between Rhizoctonia solani and Meloidogyne incognita on Cotton Seedlings  

Science.gov (United States)

Soils containing 60, 75, and 90% coarse particles (sand plus coarse silt) were prepared by dilution of a field soil with 246?m (60-mesh) silica sand. As the coarse-particle content of the soils increased, the synergistic interaction between Meloidogyne incognita and Rhizoctonia solani on cotton seedlings increased. Increasing the coarse-particle content of the soil also increased damage from the nematode alone and slightly increased soreshin damage from R. solani alone.

Carter, W. W.

1975-01-01

102

Effects of Heterodera glycines and Meloidogyne incognita on Early Growth of Soybean  

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Greenhouse and field microplot studies were conducted to compare soybean shoot and root growth responses to root penetration by Heterodera glycines (Hg) and Meloidogyne incognita (Mi) individually and in combination. Soybean cultivars Centennial (resistant to Hg and Mi), Braxton (resistant to Mi, susceptible to Hg), and Coker 237 (susceptible to Hg and Mi) were selected for study. In the greenhouse, pot size and number of plants per pot had no effect on Hg or Mi penetration of Coker 237 roots...

1986-01-01

103

Responses of Meloidogyne arenaria and M. incognita to Green Manures and Supplemental Urea in Glasshouse Culture  

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The recent loss of many effective nematicides has led to renewed interest in alternative methods of nematode management. Greenhouse experiments were conducted to determine the effects of rapeseed and velvetbean green manures, and supplemental urea, on the root-knot nematodes Meloidogyne arenaria and M. incognita. Green manures were incorporated with M. arenaria-infested soil using rates totaling 200,300, and 400 mg N/kg soil. Squash plants grown in this soil were evaluated using a gall index ...

1996-01-01

104

Stage-specific Differences in Lectin Binding to the Surface of Anguina tritici and Meloidogyne incognita  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The occurrence and distribution of several lectin binding sites on the outer surfaces of eggs, preparasitic second-stage juveniles (J2), parasitic second-stage juveniles (PJ2), females, and males of two tylenchid nematodes, Anguina tritici and Meloidogyne incognita race 3, were compared. In both species, a greater variety of lectins bound to the eggs than to other life stages; lectin binding to eggs was also more intense than it was to other life stages. Species-specific differences also occu...

Spiegel, Yitzhak; Mcclure, Michael A.

1991-01-01

105

Chemical Composition and Nematicidal Activity of Essential Oil of Agastache rugosa against Meloidogyne incognita  

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The aim of this research was to determine the chemical composition and nematicidal activity of essential oil of Agastache rugosa flowering aerial parts against the root knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita, and to isolate and identify any nematicidal constituents from the essential oil. The essential oil of A. rugosa aerial parts was obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by GC-FID and GC-MS. A total of 37 components of the essential oil were identified, with the principal compounds being...

He Qin Li; Qi Zhi Liu; Zhi Long Liu; Shu Shan Du; Zhi Wei Deng

2013-01-01

106

Nematicidal activity of plant extracts against the root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Nematicidal activity of extracts from plants was assayed against Meloidogyne incognita. In laboratory assays extracts from tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L), clove (Syzygium aromaticum L), betelvine (Piper betle L), and sweet flag (Acorus calamus L) were most effective in killing the nematode, with an EC50 that was 5-10 times lower than the EC50 of the synthetic pesticides chlorpyrifos, carbosulfan and deltamethrin. The shapes of the dead nematodes differed in a characteristic way, and groups of ...

Wiratno; Taniwiryono, D.; Berg, J. H. J.; Riksen, J. A. G.; Rietjens, I.; Djiwanti, S. R.; Kammenga, J. E.; Murk, A. J.

2009-01-01

107

Efficacy of a Novel Nematicidal Seed Treatment against Meloidogyne incognita on Cotton  

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The efficacy of abamectin as a seed treatment for control of Meloidogyne incognita on cotton was evaluated in greenhouse, microplot, and field trials in 2002 and 2003. Treatments ranging from 0 to 100 g abamectin/100 kg seed were evaluated. In greenhouse tests 35 d after planting (DAP), plants from seed treated with abamectin were taller than plants from nontreated seed, and root galling severity and nematode reproduction were lower where treated seed were used. The number of second stage juv...

Monfort, W. S.; Kirkpatrick, T. L.; Long, D. L.; Rideout, S.

2006-01-01

108

The nematicidal effect of some bacterial biofertilizers on Meloidogyne incognita in sandy soil  

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In a greenhouse experiment, the nematicidal effect of some bacterial biofertilizers including the nitrogen fixing bacteria (NFB) Paenibacillus polymyxa (four strains), the phosphate solubilizing bacteria (PSB) Bacillus megaterium (three strains) and the potassium solubilizing bacteria (KSB) B. circulans (three strains) were evaluated individually on tomato plants infested with the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita in potted sandy soil. Comparing with the uninoculated nematode-infested ...

El-hadad, M. E.; Mustafa, M. I.; Selim, Sh M.; El-tayeb, T. S.; Mahgoob, A. E. A.; Abdel Aziz, Norhan H.

2011-01-01

109

Host Status of Herbaceous Perennials to Meloidogyne incognita and M. arenaria  

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Twenty-two different herbaceous perennials were studied for their reaction to separate inoculations of Meloidogyne arenaria and M. incognita under greenhouse conditions. Perennial taxa that did not develop root-galls following inoculation, and therefore are considered as nonhosts of both nematode species, included species and cultivars of Aethionema, Fragaria, Phlox, and Polygonum. Echinacea, Monarda, and Patrinia developed only a few galls. Root-galls developed on species and cultivars of Ac...

Walker, J. T.; Melin, J. B.

1998-01-01

110

Sensitivity of Bedding Plants to Southern Root-knot Nematode, Meloidogyne incognita Race 3  

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Thirty-two cultivars of 10 commonly-grown bedding plants, representing eight families, were evaluated for their response to infection by the root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita race 3, under greenhouse conditions. Four ageratum cultivars, two marigold, and two salvia cultivars were rated resistant after exposure for 8 weeks. Four begonia, four celosia, one dianthus, one verbena, one vinca, and three pansy cultivars were susceptible. Three salvia, one begonia, one gerber, one verbena, an...

Walker, J. T.; Melin, J. B.; Davis, J.

1994-01-01

111

Susceptibility of Several Common Subtropical Weeds to Meloidogyne arenaria, M. incognita, and M. javanica  

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Experiments were conducted in the greenhouse to assess root galling and egg production of three root-knot nematode species, Meloidogyne arenaria, M. incognita, and M. javanica, on several weeds common to Florida agricultural land. Weeds evaluated were Amaranthus retroflexus (redroot pigweed), Cyperus esculentus (yellow nutsedge), Eleusine indica (goosegrass), Portulaca oleracea (common purslane), and Solanum americanum (American black nightshade). Additionally, although it is recommended as a...

Kokalis-burelle, Nancy; Rosskopf, Erin N.

2012-01-01

112

Plantago lanceolata and Plantago rugelii Extracts are Toxic to Meloidogyne incognita but not to Certain Microbes  

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Extracts from the plants Plantago lanceolata and P. rugelii were evaluated for toxicity to the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita, the beneficial microbes Enterobacter cloacae, Pseudomonas fluorescens and Trichoderma virens, and the plant-pathogenic fungi Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. gladioli, Phytophthora capsici, Pythium ultimum, and Rhizoctonia solani. Wild plants were collected, roots were excised from shoots, and the plant parts were dried and ground to a powder. One set of extracts (...

Meyer, Susan L. F.; Zasada, Inga A.; Roberts, Daniel P.; Vinyard, Bryan T.; Lakshman, Dilip K.; Lee, Jae-kook; Chitwood, David J.; Carta, Lynn K.

2006-01-01

113

Histopathological Response of Lens culinaris Roots Towards Root-knot Nematode, Meloidogyne incognita  

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Full Text Available Lens culinaris (lentil is an important pulse crop. The yield of the crop is reduced if grown in root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne incognita infested field. Meloidogyne incognita caused infection in primary and the secondary roots leading to the anomalies in the affected part of the root. The study revealed that the second stage juveniles (J2 of Meloidogyne incognita entered the growing roots and their branches inter and intracellularly. The immediate response was hypertrophy and hyperplasia in the root tissue near the nematode head. In response to hypertrophy some cells became very large and contained dense and granular cytoplasm. Adjacent to the giant cells, the vascular tissue was found to be disturbed. Shape, size and orientation of the vascular elements was so much altered that it had become difficult to trace the normal course of vascular strands. In various sections vascular strands were found disrupted. The vessel elements had the shapes resembling the shapes of parenchyma cells. Similarly sieve tube elements of the phloem, near the giant cells were shorter and resembled with nearby parenchyma cells. Abnormalities in xylem and phloem favored transport water, minerals and metabolites towards the giant cells. From this study, it might be inferred that alteration in the cells of galled tissue was essential for the sustenance of giant cells and for the survival of the nematode.

Hisamuddin

2013-01-01

114

EFFECT OF ROOT EXUDATES OF TAGETES SP. ON EGG HATCHING BEHAVIOR OF MELOIDOGYNE INCOGNITA  

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Full Text Available The effect root exudates of pre-planted marigold intercropped with tomato in regulating the hatching behavior of root-knot nematode - Meloidogyne incognita eggs were investigated. Marigold cultivars Tagetes patula, T. minuta, T. erecta, T. erecta (var. Orange, T. erecta (var. Yellow significantly reduced the numbers of second-stage juveniles (J2s in subsequent tomato compared to the tomato-tomato control. Four different concentrations (25, 50, 75 and 100 % of water soluble extract from the selected varieties of Marigold cultivars were filtered and added to the petri dish and infested with the eggs of M. incognita. Data indicate that egg hatching was significantly affected by root exudates of Tagetes sp. however, nematicidal activity was species dependent. Root exudates of T. erecta were lethal to J2 of M. incognita and were inhibitory to the hatch of eggs at the concentration of 75 % or higher.

Iruthaya Kalaiselvam

2011-10-01

115

Integrated management of root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita infestation in tomato and grapevine.  

Science.gov (United States)

An integrated approach with the obligate bacterial parasite, Pasteuria penetrans and nematicides was assessed for the management of the root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita infestation in tomato and grapevine. Seedlings of tomato cv. Co3 were transplanted into pots filled with sterilized soil and inoculated with nematodes (5000 juveniles/pot). The root powder of P. penetrans at 10 mg/pot was applied alone and in combination with carbofuran at 6 mg/pot. Application of P. penetrans along with carbofuran recorded lowest nematode infestation (107 nematodes/200 g soil) compared to control (325 nematodes/200 g soil). The rate of parasitization was 83.1% in the carbofuran and P. penetrans combination treatment as against 61.0% in the P. penetrans treatment only. The plant growth was also higher in the combination treatment compared to all other treatments. A field trial was carried out to assess the efficacy of P. penetrans and nematicides viz., carbofuran and phorate in the management of root-knot nematode, M. incognita infestation of grapevine cv. Muscat Hamburg. A nematode and P. penetrans infested grapevine field was selected and treatments either with carbofuran or phorate at 1 g a.i/vine was given. The observations were recorded at monthly interval. The results showed that the soil nematode population was reduced in nematicide treated plots. Suppression of nematodes was higher under phorate (117 nematodes/200 g soil) than under carbofuran (126.7 nematodes/200 g soil) treatment. The number of juveniles parasitized was also influenced by nematicides and spore load carried/juvenile with phorate being superior and the increase being 17.0 and 29.0% respectively over the control. The results of these experiment confirmed the compatibility of P. penetrans with nematicides and its biological control potential against the root-knot nematode. PMID:16628938

Kumari, N Swarna; Sivakumar, C V

2005-01-01

116

The nematicidal effect of some bacterial biofertilizers on Meloidogyne incognita in sandy soil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english In a greenhouse experiment, the nematicidal effect of some bacterial biofertilizers including the nitrogen fixing bacteria (NFB) Paenibacillus polymyxa (four strains), the phosphate solubilizing bacteria (PSB) Bacillus megaterium (three strains) and the potassium solubilizing bacteria (KSB) B. circu [...] lans (three strains) were evaluated individually on tomato plants infested with the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita in potted sandy soil. Comparing with the uninoculated nematode-infested control, the inoculation with P. polymyxa NFB7, B. megaterium PSB2 and B. circulans KSB2, increased the counts of total bacteria and total bacterial spores in plants potted soil from 1.2 to 2.6 folds estimated 60 days post-inoculation. Consequently, the inoculation with P. polymyxa NFB7 increased significantly the shoot length (cm), number of leaves / plant, shoot dry weight (g) / plant and root dry weight (g) / plant by 32.6 %, 30.8 %, 70.3 % and 14.2 %, respectively. Generally, the majority treatments significantly reduced the nematode multiplication which was more obvious after 60 days of inoculation. Among the applied strains, P. polymyxa NFB7, B. megaterium PSB2 and B. circulans KSB2 inoculations resulted in the highest reduction in nematode population comparing with the uninoculated nematode-infested control. They recorded the highest reduction in numbers of hatched juveniles/root by 95.8 %, females/root by 63.75 % and juveniles/1kg soil by 57.8 %. These results indicated that these bacterial biofertilizers are promising double purpose microorganisms for mobilizing of soil nutrients (nitrogen, phosphate and potassium) and for the biological control of M. incognita.

El-Hadad, M.E; Mustafa, M.I; Selim, Sh.M; El-Tayeb, T.S; Mahgoob, A.E.A; Aziz, Norhan H. Abdel.

117

The nematicidal effect of some bacterial biofertilizers on Meloidogyne incognita in sandy soil  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In a greenhouse experiment, the nematicidal effect of some bacterial biofertilizers including the nitrogen fixing bacteria (NFB Paenibacillus polymyxa (four strains, the phosphate solubilizing bacteria (PSB Bacillus megaterium (three strains and the potassium solubilizing bacteria (KSB B. circulans (three strains were evaluated individually on tomato plants infested with the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita in potted sandy soil. Comparing with the uninoculated nematode-infested control, the inoculation with P. polymyxa NFB7, B. megaterium PSB2 and B. circulans KSB2, increased the counts of total bacteria and total bacterial spores in plants potted soil from 1.2 to 2.6 folds estimated 60 days post-inoculation. Consequently, the inoculation with P. polymyxa NFB7 increased significantly the shoot length (cm, number of leaves / plant, shoot dry weight (g / plant and root dry weight (g / plant by 32.6 %, 30.8 %, 70.3 % and 14.2 %, respectively. Generally, the majority treatments significantly reduced the nematode multiplication which was more obvious after 60 days of inoculation. Among the applied strains, P. polymyxa NFB7, B. megaterium PSB2 and B. circulans KSB2 inoculations resulted in the highest reduction in nematode population comparing with the uninoculated nematode-infested control. They recorded the highest reduction in numbers of hatched juveniles/root by 95.8 %, females/root by 63.75 % and juveniles/1kg soil by 57.8 %. These results indicated that these bacterial biofertilizers are promising double purpose microorganisms for mobilizing of soil nutrients (nitrogen, phosphate and potassium and for the biological control of M. incognita.

M.E El-Hadad

2011-03-01

118

Rootstocks resistant to Meloidogyne incognita and compatibility of grafting in net melon / Porta-enxertos resistentes a Meloidogyne incognita e compatibilidade de enxertia de melão rendilhado  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Devido aos poucos estudos realizados com enxertias em melão rendilhado, visando um maior controle de patógenos do solo, este trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar 16 genótipos de cucurbitáceas quanto à resistência a Meloidogyne incognita e a compatibilidade da enxertia do melão rendilhado. Foram avalia [...] dos 16 acessos de cucurbitáceas: Benincasa hispida, Bucha, Abóbora 'Jacarezinho', Abóbora 'Menina Brasileira', Moranga 'Exposição', Moranga 'Coroa', Abóbora 'Canhão Seca', Abóbora 'Squash', Mogango 'Enrrugado Verde', Abóbora 'Mini Paulista', Abóbora 'Goianinha', Melancia 'Charleston Gray', Melão 'Rendondo Gaúcho', Melão 'Redondo Amarelo', Pepino 'Caipira HS' e Pepino 'Caipira Rubi', quanto à resistência ao nematóide M. incognita, com base no fator de reprodução (FR), segundo Oostenbrink (1966). Para avaliação da resistência, as mudas foram transplantadas para vasos de cerâmica e foram aplicados 300 ovos ou juvenis de segundo estádio/mL de M. incognita, num total de 10 mL por vaso. Aos 50 dias após o transplantio, as plantas foram removidas dos vasos e realizou-se a avaliação da resistência. Para a compatibilidade entre os porta-enxertos resistentes e enxerto de melão rendilhado, foram realizadas enxertias do tipo garfagem fenda simples, em híbrido comercial de melão rendilhado de grande aceitação comercial e suscetíveil a M. incognita (Bônus N° 2). Os genótipos Bucha, Abóbora 'Goianinha', Abóbora 'Mini-Paulista', Melão 'Redondo Amarelo', Melancia 'Charleston Gray', foram resistentes ao nematóide M. incognita. As melhores compatibilidades ocorreram com os porta-enxertos Melão 'Amarelo', o qual teve 100% de pegamento, seguido da Abóbora 'Mini-Paulista' com 94%. Já Bucha, Melancia 'Charleston Gray' e Abóbora 'Goianinha', tiveram baixas porcentagens de pegamento: 66%, 62% e 50% respectivamente. Abstract in english Due to the few studies about grafting in net melon, in order to obtain better control of soil pathogens, the aim of the present study was to evaluate 16 genotypes of Cucurbitaceae: Benincasa hispida, Luffa cylindrica, pumpkin 'Jacarezinho', pumpkin 'Menina Brasileira', squash 'Exposição', squash 'Co [...] roa', pumpkin 'Canhão Seca', pumpkin 'Squash', pumpkin 'Enrrugado Verde', pumpkin 'Mini Paulista', pumpkin 'Goianinha', watermelon 'Charleston Gray', melon 'Rendondo Gaucho', melon 'Redondo Amarelo', cucumber 'Caipira HS' and cucumber 'Caipira Rubi', regarding to compatibility of grafting in net melon and resistance to Meloidogyne incognita, based on the reproduction factor (RF), according to Oostenbrink (1966). To assess resistance, the seedlings were transplanted to ceramic pots and inoculated with 300/mL eggs and/or second stage juveniles of M. incognita. At 50 days after transplanting, the plants were removed from the pots and the resistance was evaluated. The compatibility between resistant rootstock and grafts of net melon was determined by performing simple cleft grafting, in a commercial net melon hybrid of great market acceptance and susceptible to M. incognita (Bonus no. 2). The genotypes Luffa cylindrica, pumpkin 'Goianinha', pumpkin 'Mini-Paulista', melon 'Redondo Amarelo', watermelon 'Charleston Gray' are resistant to the nematode M. incognita. The better compatibilities occurred with the rootstocks melon 'Amarelo', which presented 100% of success, followed by pumpkin 'Mini-Paulista' with 94%. On the other hand, Sponge gourd, watermelon 'Charleston Gray' and pumpkin 'Goianinha' showed low graft take percentages of 66%, 62% and 50%, respectively.

Francine de Souza, Galatti; Alexandre Junqueira, Franco; Letícia Akemi, Ito; Hamilton de Oliveira, Charlo; Lucas Aparecido, Gaion; Leila Trevisan, Braz.

119

Potential antagonistic effects of nine natural fatty acids against Meloidogyne incognita.  

Science.gov (United States)

Fatty acids, the essential components of life, were widely present in various seed cakes, gutter oil, and other resources. The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential antagonistic effects of nine fatty acids (FAs) against Meloidogyne incognita (root-knot nematodes). The results showed that butyric, caprylic, capric, lauric, myristic, palmitic, and oleic acids significantly reduced M. incognita reproduction, whereas cucumber (Cucumus sativus) biomass was not adversely affected by the tested FAs and was even significantly increased in several fatty acids treatments. All nine tested fatty acids showed apparent inhibitory effects on egg hatching on day 21, especially capric acid with which the hatching rate was reduced to 15.8% as compared to that using sterile distilled water. Caproic, caprylic, capric, lauric, myristic, and palmitic acids caused significantly higher mortality of the second-stage juvenile of M. incognita than the other three FAs, and both caprylic and capric acids resulted in approximately 50% mortality (2000 ?mol/L) after a 24 h exposure. In conclusion, fatty acids showed the nematicidal effect differently, among which capric acid showed a strong nematicidal effect and might be a powerful active substance for integrated M. incognita management. Given the general nematicidal properties of FAs, farmers might utilize waste resources, such as oil seed cake, gutter oil, etc., containing various FAs or use pure FAs for effective M. incognita management. PMID:23121218

Zhang, Wei-pu; Ruan, Wei-bin; Deng, Yun-ying; Gao, Yu-bao

2012-11-21

120

Synergistic activity between Bacillus thuringiensis Cry6Aa and Cry55Aa toxins against Meloidogyne incognita.  

Science.gov (United States)

Plant-parasitic nematodes are the most destructive group of plant pathogens worldwide and are extremely challenging to control. Some Bacillus thuringiensis crystal proteins are highly toxic to the plant-parasitic nematode Meloidogyne incognita. In this study, the nematicidal crystal proteins Cry6Aa, Cry5Ba and Cry55Aa were tested against M. incognita to select the best toxin combination for its management. The results showed that a combination of Cry6Aa and Cry55Aa showed significant synergistic toxicity against M. incognita, and the highest synergistic effect (five times the expected toxicity of the two toxins calculated from their separate toxicities) was observed when they were combined in a 1:1 ratio. Furthermore, ligand blot analyses of the interaction between total proteins of M. incognita and the three toxins showed many different signal bands, indicating that there is a range of host proteins with which the toxins can interact. One explanation of the observed synergism is that the toxins damage the host in diverse ways, and they may thus act cooperatively and thereby show greater toxicity in combination. Our discovery provides an effective strategy for controlling M. incognita by using a combination of Cry6Aa and Cry55Aa. PMID:21923640

Peng, Donghai; Chai, Lujun; Wang, Fenshan; Zhang, Fengjuan; Ruan, Lifang; Sun, Ming

2011-11-01

 
 
 
 
121

Interactions between arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and Meloidogyne incognita in the ornamental plant Impatiens balsamina  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in english Biocontrol traits of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF), in terms of single and mixed species inoculum, against the root knot nematode Meloidogyne incongita in Impatiens balsamina L., were examined with and without mineral fertilization in a greenhouse pot experiment. At harvest, 60 days after sowin [...] g, general plant growth parameters and plant defense response in terms of antioxidant activity and content of phenolic compounds in roots and leaves were measured. Also AMF root colonization and abundance ofnematode root-knots were determined. Mineral fertilization increased all plant growth parameters measured, which coincided with an increased disease development caused by M. incognita. Inoculation with AMF mitigated the observed plant growth reduction caused by M.incognita, though, higher abundance of M. incognita root knots was found in mycorrhizal plants. Plant defense responses in terms of antioxidant activity and content of phenolic compounds did not seem to be linked to the observed biocontrol traits of AMF against M. incognita. However, roots inoculated with a consortium of AMF, which presented less nematode root knots than roots with the single species inoculum, had the highest level of phenolic compounds. The results from the present study suggest that AMF induce tolerance in I. balsamina against the root knot nematode M. incognita.

J, Banuelos; A, Alarcón; J, Larsen; S, Cruz-Sánchez; D, Trejo.

122

Nematicidal activity of fervenulin isolated from a nematicidal actinomycete, Streptomyces sp. CMU-MH021, on Meloidogyne incognita  

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An isolate of the actinomycete, Streptomyces sp. CMU-MH021 produced secondary metabolites that inhibited egg hatch and increased juvenile mortality of the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita in vitro. 16S rDNA gene sequencing showed that the isolate sequence was 99% identical to Streptomyces roseoverticillatus. The culture filtrates form different culture media were tested for nematocidal activity. The maximal activity against M. incognita was obtained by using modified basal (MB) medium...

Ruanpanun, Pornthip; Laatsch, Hartmut; Tangchitsomkid, Nuchanart; Lumyong, Saisamorn

2011-01-01

123

Potential use of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) endophytic fungi as seed treatment agents against root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita *  

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Seed treatment with endophytic fungi has been regarded as an effective method for plant parasitic nematode control. Endophytic fungi from cucumber seedlings were isolated and screened for their potential to be used as seed treatment agents against Meloidogyne incognita. Among the 294 isolates screened, 23 significantly reduced galls formed by M. incognita in greenhouse test. The 10 most effective isolates were Fusarium (5), Trichoderma (1), Chaetomium (1), Acremonium (1), Paecilomyces (1), an...

Yan, Xiao-ning; Sikora, Richard A.; Zheng, Jing-wu

2011-01-01

124

Uso de agentes microbianos e químico para o controle de Meloidogyne incognita em soja = Use of microbial and chemical agents to control Meloidogyne incognita in soybean  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Nematoides de galhas constituem importante grupo de patógenos da cultura da soja e o manejo integrado é uma das principais medidas de controle que visam à redução de perdas econômicas. Neste trabalho foi avaliada a eficácia dos fungos Paecilomyces lilacinus (Thom. Samsom e Pochonia chlamydosporia (Goddard Zare & Gams (sinonímia Verticillium chlamydosporium, de um produto comercial à base de Bacillus sp. (Nemix e do nematicida químico Aldicarb no controle de Meloidogyne incognita em soja, variedade M-SOY 6101. O experimento foi realizado em casa-de-vegetação no delineamento experimental de blocos casualizados com nove tratamentos (três produtos biológicos usados no tratamento de sementes com ou sem a aplicação em pós-emergência, Aldicarb aplicado apenas em pós-emergência e duastestemunhas e quatro repetições. Aldicarb reduziu o número de ovos e de juvenis do nematoide. P. lilacinus foi o mais atuante dos agentes biológicos, favorecendo a manutenção da quantidade de matéria seca da raiz de soja e reduzindo o número de ovos. O produto Nemix e P. chlamydosporia somente tiveram ação efetiva na redução do número de ovos do nematoide. Com base nos resultados, foi possível concluir que o agente químico e os agentes biológicos avaliados neste trabalho tiveram moderada atividade no controle de M. incognita em soja.Root-knot nematodes are considered significant pathogens of soybean crops. The objective of this work was to evaluate the efficacy of two fungi (Paecilomyces lilacinus (Thom. Samsom and Pochonia chlamydosporia (Goddard Zare & Gams (syn. Verticillium chlamydosporium, a commercial product based on Bacillus sp. and Aldicarb on the control of Meloidogyne incognita on soybean, cultivar M-SOY 6101. The experimental design was set as randomized blocks with four replications. Nine treatments were evaluated: three biological agents used for seed treatment with and without post-emergence application, Aldicarb on post-emergence only, and two controls. All treatments were inoculated with the nematode, except for a blank control where only water was applied. One control-only treated with the nematode was also included. Aldicarb could reduce the number of eggs and juveniles in the roots. P. lilacinus showed the bestperformance among the biological control agents, reducing the number of eggs and increasing dry root weight. Nemix, a Bacillus sp. based commercial product and P. chlamydosporia could only reduce significantly the number of eggs of the nematode. In this work, it was possible to conclude that the chemical and biological agents showed a moderate activity in the control of M. incognita in soybean.

Henrique Teixeira Nunes

2010-07-01

125

Microplot Evaluation of Rootstocks for Control of Meloidogyne incognita on Grafted Tomato, Muskmelon, and Watermelon.  

Science.gov (United States)

Microplot experiments were conducted over two years (four growing seasons) to evaluate Meloidogyne incognita resistance in rootstocks used for grafted tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), muskmelon (Cucumis melo), and watermelon (Citrullus lanatus). Three tomato rootstocks; 'TX301', 'Multifort', and 'Aloha', were tested in addition to the nongrafted scion, 'Florida-47'. Two muskmelon rootstocks; Cucumis metuliferus and 'Tetsukabuto' (Cucurbita maxima × Cucurbita moschata) were evaluated with the nongrafted scion 'Athena'. Two watermelon rootstocks included 'Emphasis', a lagenaria-type, and an interspecific squash hybrid 'StrongTosa', which were grafted to the scion 'TriX Palomar' and planted only in the second year. Microplots were infested with M. incognita eggs in September each year. Tomatoes were planted in September followed by melons in March. In both years of the study, M. incognita juveniles (J2) in soil were similar among all tomato rootstocks, but numbers in roots were higher in the nongrafted Florida 47 than in all grafted rootstocks. In muskmelon only C. metuliferus rootstock reduced galling in nematode infested soil. Tetsukabuto did not reduce numbers of M. incognita J2 in either soil or roots either year. There were no differences in nematode numbers, galling, or plant growth parameters among the watermelon rootstocks tested. The use of resistant rootstocks has great potential for improving nematode control in the absence of soil fumigants. PMID:23431109

Kokalis-Burelle, Nancy; Rosskopf, Erin N

2011-09-01

126

Effect of Some Plant Extracts on the Hatch of Meloidogyne incognita Eggs  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Root-knot nematodes are one of the major limiting factors affecting plant growth and yield. Currently, synthetic pesticides are principle means used to control the nematodes but natural products may provide a safer alternative. Nematicidal compounds have been identified in a wide diversity of plant species. A study was conducted to evaluate potential of aqueous extracts from Azadirachta indica, Carica papaya, Ocimum sanctum, Ricinus communis and Tagetes patula, in controlling the hatch of eggs of the root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita. Five concentrations of water soluble extracts from the five plant species were filtered, added to petri dishes and infested with eggs of M. incognita. The best results were obtained with O. sanctum, with no hatching within 48 h vs. 34.8% in the control.

Anuja Bharadwaj

2007-01-01

127

Effects of Soil Temperatures and Inoculum Levels of Meloidogyne incognita and Rhizoctonia solani on Seedling Disease of Cotton  

Science.gov (United States)

Soreshin of cotton was more severe from combined infections of Rhizoctonia solani and Meloidogyne incognita than from either organism alone, when both critical soil temperature and inoculum concentrations were present. Optimum soil temperatures for disease development from combined infections were 18 and 21 C. Either 2,500 or 5,000 M. incognita larvae per plant, combined with R. solani, increased seedling disease severity over that caused by R. solani alone. When 100 or 500 larvae per plant were added with R. solani, disease severity did not change. Disease severity increased with the highest level of R. solani inoculum either alone or combined with M. incognita.

Carter, W. W.

1975-01-01

128

Effects of a Resistant Corn Hybrid and Fenamiphos on Meloidogyne incognita in a Corn-Squash Rotation  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The efficacy of a double-cross corn (Zea mays) hybrid (Old Raccoon selection X T216) X (Tebeau selection X Mp 307) resistant to Meloidogyne incognita as a rotational crop, and fenamiphos treatment for management of root-knot nematode (M. incognita race 1) in squash (Cucurbita pepo var. melopepo) was evaluated in field tests during 1996 and 1997. Numbers of M. incognita in the soil and root-gall indices were lower on the resistant hybrid than on a commercial cultivar DeKalb DK-683. Treatment m...

1999-01-01

129

Reproduction of Meloidogyne arenaria, M. incognita, and M. javanica on Sesame  

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Reproduction of Meloidogyne arenaria race 1, M. ineognita races 1 and 3, and M. javanica on 10 cultivars of sesame (Sesame indicum) was examined in greenhouse tests. Sesame cultivars were also evaluated in a field infested with M. arenaria. Sesame was a poor host for M. incognita races 1 and 3 as no sesame genotype supported more than 70 eggs/g root. Reproduction of M. arenaria race 1 on sesame varied from 20 eggs/g roots for cultivar Sesaco 7CB to 1,570 eggs/g roots for Sesaco 119 in the gre...

Starr, J. L.; Black, M. C.

1995-01-01

130

Variability in Reproduction of Four Races of Meloidogyne incognita on Two Cultivars of Soybean  

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Variability in the reproduction of the four races ofMeloidogyne incognita on the soybean cuhivars Pickett 71 and Centennial was studied in growth chamber experiments. Analysis of variance in the number of eggs produced by the races 6 weeks after the plants had been inoculated with 5,000 eggs of each race revealed that the nematode race by soybean cultivar interaction was highly significant (P = 0.001). Races 1, 3, and 4 produced from about 5,000 to 15,000 eggs per root system on Pickett 71 an...

1984-01-01

131

Carbon Partitioning in Soybean Infected with Meloidogyne incognita and M. javanica  

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Seven-day-old seedlings of two cultivars (Cristalina and UFV ITM1) of Glycine max were inoculated with 0, 3,000, 9,000, or 27,000 eggs of Meloidogyne incognita race 3 or M. javanica and maintained in a greenhouse. Thirty days later, plants were exposed to ¹?CO? for 4 hours. Twenty hours after ¹?CO? exposure, the root fresh weight, leaf dry weight, nematode eggs per gram of root, total and specific radioactivity of carbohydrates in roots, and root carbohydrate content were evaluated....

Carneiro, R. G.; Mazzafera, P.; Ferraz, L. C. C. B.

1999-01-01

132

Nematicidal activities of natural lignans and derivatives from milky thistle against Meloidogyne incognita  

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The nematicidal activity of varying concentrations of lignans and the various derivatives obtained from Silybum marianum was evaluated against root knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita (Kofoid and White) Chi...

Rakesh Pandey

2011-01-01

133

Evaluation of nematicidal potential in ten indigenous plant species against Meloidogyne incognita  

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In vitro studies on hatching and mortality of second-stage juveniles of Meloidogyne incognita indicated a reduction in hatching and an increase in nematode mortality in treatments with aqueous leaf extracts of seven plant species; Murraya koenigii (curry leaf), Jasminum sambac (Jasmine), C...

Padhi And Gunanidhi Behera, N. N.

2012-01-01

134

Effect of cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus on penetration and reproduction of meloidogyne incognita in cowpea  

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Full Text Available greenhouse studies were conducted to investigate the effects of cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus on penetration and reproduction of Meloidogyne incognita in cowpea and the influence of these pathogens on the yield of cowpea. The interaction of both pathogens resulted in higher population density of the nematode at harvest and correspondingly reduced grain yield in comparison to inoculation of either pathogen alone or un-inoculated control. An almost equal number of nematode juveniles penetrated roots of seedlings of nematode - susceptible Ife Brown and TVU 2657 and nematode - resistant IT81D - 975 cultivars of cowpea, but the nematode did not develop beyond second stage juvenile in the resistant cultivar. Concomitant inoculation of the nematode and the virus resulted in a shortened life cycle of the nematode in comparison to nematode alone inoculation. Interaction of both the nematode and the virus had a limited effect on the nematode resistant cultivar of cowpea.

Adekunle O.K.

2008-01-01

135

Efecto del Vermicompost y Quitina sobre el control de meloidogyne incognita en tomate a nivel de invernadero / Effect of vermicompost and chitin on the control of Meloidogyne incognita in greenhouse tomato  

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Full Text Available SciELO Costa Rica | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Meloidogyne incognita es un nematodo endoparásito sedentario, de penetración total y formador de nódulos radicales; tiene una amplia distribución geográfica y causa pérdidas agrícolas importantes. Recientemente se han utilizado abonos orgánicos y compuestos como la quitina en la supresión de plagas [...] y enfermedades de plantas. El objetivo de esta investigación fue evaluar el efecto de la aplicación de vermicompost de estiércol bovino y su enriquecimiento con quitina, sobre la infección de M. incognita en plantas de tomate var. Hayslip bajo condiciones de invernadero. Para esto se inocularon las plantas con 5000 unidades de inóculo (huevos+juveniles en segundo estado) por maceta y se compararon con controles que fueron sembrados en suelo sin enmienda orgánica o quitina. La evaluación se llevó a cabo 60 días después y se midió el peso fresco aéreo y radical, peso seco aéreo, población total de nematodos en raíz y suelo, índice de nódulos radicales (INR), índice de masas de huevos (IMH), el factor de reproducción del nematodo (FR) y recuento de grupos funcionales (hongos, bacterias y actinomicetes). La adición al suelo de vermicompost provocó un incremento en las variables peso fresco y seco foliar y peso fresco radical: a mayor porcentaje de vermicompost, mayor incremento; así mismo, la aplicación del vermicompost redujo la cantidad del nematodo en raíz y en suelo. La aplicación de quitina acentuó estos resultados, obteniéndose el menor factor de reproducción de M. Incognita, con un valor de 3,76 para la dosis de 50% vermicompost+quitina, mientras que en el testigo este factor fue de 93,20. La aplicación de quitina como enmienda única solo afectó la población de hongos en el suelo, mientras que la de actinomicetes aumentó en los tratamientos enmendados Abstract in english Meloidogyne incognita is a sedentary endoparasitic nematode, with total penetration and gall-forming; it has a wide geographical distribution and causes significant agricultural losses. Recently, organic fertilizers and compounds such as chitin have been used in the suppression of plant pests and di [...] seases. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of applying cattle manure vermicompost, and its enrichment with chitin, on the infection of M. incognita in tomato plants var. Hayslip under greenhouse conditions. For this purpose, plants were inoculated with 5000 units of eggs+second stage juveniles per pot and were compared with controls grown in soil without organic amendment or chitin. The evaluation was carried out 60 days afterwards: the shoot and root fresh weight, shoot dry weight, total population in root and soil nematodes, root knot index (INR), rate of egg masses (IMH), the nematode reproduction factor (FR) and functional-groups numbers (fungi, bacteria and actinomycetes) were measured. The addition of vermicompost to soil caused an increase in the variables of shoot fresh and dry weight and fresh root weight: the higher the percentage of vermicompost, the higher the increase; likewise, the application of vermicompost reduced the number of nematodes both in root and soil. The application of chitin accentuated these results by bringing about the lowest reproduction factor of M. incognita, with a value of 3.76 for the dose of vermicompost+50% chitin, whereas in the control this factor had a value of 93.20. The application of chitin as sole amendment affected only the soil fungi population, while the actinomycetes population nincreased in the amended treatments

Castro, Leida; Flores, Lorena; Uribe, Lidieth.

136

Efeitos da temperatura sobre a atividade de fungos no controle biológico de Meloidogyne javanica E M. incognita raça 3 / Effect of soil warming on the biological control of Meloidogyne javanica and M. incognita race 3  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O efeito de Arthrobotrys conoides, Duddingtonia flagrans, Paecilomyces lilacinus, Paecilomyces variotii, Monacrosporium doedycoides e um isolado de rizobactéria na reprodução e crescimento populacional de Meloidogyne javanica e M. incognita raça 3 em tomateiro Santa Clara, suscetível à Meloidogyne s [...] pp., foi estudado em três ambientes distintos: 1) casa-de-vegetação sem controle de temperatura; 2) sala climatizada com temperatura do ar constante a 24ºC; 3) em banho-maria com temperatura do solo mantida em 29-30ºC, colocado na mesma sala climatizada caracterizada anteriormente. Maior crescimento populacional de M. javanica e de M. incognita raça 3 ocorreu em solo aquecido, comparado com aquela em casa-de-vegetação e sala climatizada, e o número de galhas causado por M. javanica e M. incognita raça 3 foi maior em solo aquecido e em sala climatizada do que em casa-de-vegetação. Em solo aquecido e em sala climatizada, A. conoides e a rizobactéria reduziram (P Abstract in english The effects of Arthrobotrys conoides, Duddingtonia flagrans, Paecilomyces lilacinus, Paecilomyces variotii, Monacrosporium doedycoides and an isolate of rhizobacterium on reproductivity of Meloidogyne javanica and M. incognita race 3 on Santa Clara tomato plants, susceptible to Meloidogyne spp., wer [...] e studied in three different environments: 1) greenhouse without temperature control; 2) room with air temperature controlled at 24ºC; 3) watherbath with soil temperature controlled at 29-30ºC, placed in the room with the temperature controlled at 24ºC. Greatest M. javanica and M. incognita race 3 reproductivity occurred in waterbath warmed soil than in greenhouse and temperature controlled room. Galls number caused by M. javanica and M. incognita race 3 was greater in waterbath warmed soil and temperature controlled room than in greenhouse. In waterbath warmed soil and in temperature controlled room, A. conoides and rhizobacterium reduced (P

Alves, Fábio R.; Campos, Vicente Paulo.

137

Microorganismos Benéficos Asociados a Meloidogyne incognita (Kofoid y White) Chitwood en Guayabo (Psidium guajava L.) de Calvillo, Aguascalientes, México / Beneficent Microorganisms Associated to Meloidogyne incognita (Kofoid & White) Chitwood in Guava (Psidium guajava L.) of Calvillo, Aguascalientes, México  

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Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Se identificó a Meloidogyne incognita como la especie del nematodo agallador que parásita al cultivo del guayabo, en la región de Calvillo (Aguascalientes, México). También se aisló hongos y bacterias benéficos asociados a suelo y raíces colectadas en las localidades de Cerro Blanco, Mesa Grande, La [...] Labor y Malpaso. Veinte muestras distintas de Meloidogyne sp., fueron identificadas tomando en cuenta las características de patrones perineales de las hembras adultas así como por la observación de la región anterior de los machos. La especie Meloidogyne incognita fue identificada en todas las muestras. Los microorganismos benéficos aislados y asociados a la rizósfera del guayabo con uso potencial en control biológico, pertenecen a las especies de Bacillus cereus, B. subtilis B. megaterium y Paecilomyces farinosus. Además los nematodos edáficos Rhabditis y Mononchus fueron identificados en las muestras. Abstract in english The root-knot nematode species Meloidogyne incognita was identified as the one species that parasites guava orchards in the Calvillo region (Aguascalientes, Mexico). Beneficent fungi and bacteria were isolated as well, associated to soil and roots collected from the Cerro Blanco, Mesa Grande, La Lab [...] or and Malpaso locations. Twenty different Meloidogyne sp., samples were identified taking adult female perinea pattern characteristics into account, as well as the male anterior region observation. The Meloidogyne incognita species was identified in all the samples. The isolated beneficent microorganisms and associated to guava rhizosphere with a potential use in biological control, belong to the Bacillus cereus, B. subtilis B. megaterium and Paecilomyces farinosus species. Furthermore, the Rhabditis and Mononchus soil nematodes were identified in the samples.

Gabriel, Gallegos-Morales; Melchor, Cepeda-Siller; Francisco Daniel, Hernández-Castillo; Ana María, Acosta-Zamarripa; Rodolfo, Velásquez-Valle; Ernesto, González-Gaona; Juan Manuel, Sánchez-Yánez.

138

Potential of sucrose and Pennisetum purpureum cv. Cameroon mulch on the management of Meloidogyne javanica and M. incognita  

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Full Text Available The effects of sucrose on motility and infectiveness of juveniles of Meloidogyne javanica were evaluated under laboratory and greenhouse conditions, using brown sugar and crystal sugar. Results showed that crystal and brown sugar solutions reduced motility and promoted morphological alterations of juvenile nematodes in vitro. The increasing dosages of sucrose reduced the number of galls and egg masses in tomato root by reducing the number of infective juveniles. The efficiency of granular sucrose, sucrose solution, with and without elephant-grass mulch, in the reduction of reproduction and final population of M. incognita race 2, were also evaluated. Granular sucrose induced decrease on the numbers of galls and eggs masses per root system as well as on juveniles in the soil. For sucrose solution assay, the best results for reproductive reduction were obtained with 300g of granular sucrose per liter of soil, applied at seven days intervals, associated with elephant-grass mulch.Os efeitos da sacarose sobre a motilidade e a infectividade de juvenis de Meloidogyne javanica foram avaliados em condições de laboratório e casa-de-vegetação, usando açúcar mascavo e açúcar cristal. Os resultados indicaram que as soluções de açúcar mascavo e cristal reduziram a motilidade e promoveram alterações morfológicas em juvenis dos nematóides in vitro. A eficiência da sacarose em grânulos e da sacarose em solução, com e sem a cobertura com matéria vegetal de capim elefante, na redução da reprodução e da população final de M. incognita raça 2 também foi avaliada. A sacarose em grânulos diminuiu os números de galhas e massas de ovos por sistema radicular e também de juvenis no solo. Para o ensaio com sacarose em solução, os melhores resultados para a redução da reprodução foram obtidos com a dose de 300 g de sacarose por litro de solo, aplicada a intervalos de sete dias, juntamente com a cobertura do solo com cobertura de matéria verde de capim-elefante.

Débora Cristina Santiago

2005-11-01

139

Efecto de extractos acuosos de dos meliaceas sobre Meloidogyne incognita (Nematoda, meloidogynidae)  

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Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Se evaluó la bioactividad de seis extractos acuosos al 10% y 30% (P/V), conteniendo terpenoides de Melia azedarach y Trichilia glauca (Meliaceae) en su constitución química, sobre la plaga Meloidogyne incognita (Nematoda, Meloidogynidae). Los resultados muestran que los productos naturales ensayados [...] poseen una buena actividad nematicida, ya que ejercieron efectos letales moderados (mortalidad: 23-46.2%, dependiendo del tratamiento). Estos datos indican que las interesantes propiedades de ambas Meliaceae podrían utilizarse en el manejo de este nematode en huertas, en reemplazo de los nematicidas sintéticos. Abstract in english The bioactivity of six aqueous extracts 10% and 30% (P/V), containing terpenoids from Melia azedarachand Trichilia glauca (Meliaceae) in their chemical constitution, was evaluated against the pest Meloidogyne incognita (Nematoda, Meloidogynidae). Results show that the natural products assayed had a [...] good nematicidal activity, because they had moderate lethal effects (mortality: 23-46.2%, depending upon treatment). These data show that the interesting properties of both Meliaceae could be used in orchard nematode management, in replacement of synthetic nematicides.

Graciela, Mareggiani; Norma, Zamuner; Gisella, Angarola.

140

Effect of Crop Rotation on Meloidogyne spp. and Pratylenchus spp. Populations in Strawberry Fields in Taiwan  

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Changes in population levels of Meloidogyne hapla, M. incognita, Pratylenchus coffeae, and P. penetrans were studied in 12 strawberry fields in the Dahu region of Taiwan. Ten potential rotation crops and two cultural practices were evaluated for their effect on nematode populations and influence on strawberry yield. Rotation with rice or taro and the cultural practice of flooding and bare fallowing for four months were found to reduce nematode soil populations to two or fewer nematodes per 10...

Chen, P.; Tsay, T. T.

2006-01-01

 
 
 
 
141

Nematicidal activity of 2-thiophenecarboxaldehyde and methylisothiocyanate from caper (Capparis spinosa) against Meloidogyne incognita.  

Science.gov (United States)

New pesticides based on plant extracts have recently gained interest in the development of nontoxic crop protection chemicals. Numerous research studies are focused on the isolation and identification of new active compounds derived from plants. In this manuscript we report about the use of the Mediterranean species Capparis spinosa as a potent natural nematicidal agent against the root knot nematodes Meloidogyne incognita. Leaves, stems, and caper buds of Capparis spinosa were used to obtain their methanol extracts (LME, SME, BME) that were successively in vitro tested against second stage nematode juveniles (J2). In terms of paralysis induction, the methanol extract of the stem part (SME) was found more effective against M. incognita and then the caper methanol buds and leaves extracts. The chemical composition analysis of the extracts carried out by GC/MS and LC/MS techniques showed that methylisothiocyanate was the main compound of SME. The EC50 for SME after 3 days of immersion was 215 ± 36 mg/L. The constituent components of SME such as 2-thiophenecarboxaldehyde and methylisothiocyanate were successively in vitro tested for their nematicidal activity against J2. Both compounds induced paralysis on root knot nematodes ranking first (EC50 = 7.9 ± 1.6, and 14.1 ± 1.9 mg/L respectively) for M. incognita. Moreover, 2-thiophenecarboxaldehyde showed a strong fumigant activity. PMID:22769561

Caboni, Pierluigi; Sarais, Giorgia; Aissani, Nadhem; Tocco, Graziella; Sasanelli, Nicola; Liori, Barbara; Carta, Annarosa; Angioni, Alberto

2012-08-01

142

Chemical composition and nematicidal activity of essential oil of Agastache rugosa against Meloidogyne incognita.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this research was to determine the chemical composition and nematicidal activity of essential oil of Agastache rugosa flowering aerial parts against the root knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita, and to isolate and identify any nematicidal constituents from the essential oil. The essential oil of A. rugosa aerial parts was obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by GC-FID and GC-MS. A total of 37 components of the essential oil were identified, with the principal compounds being methyleugenol (50.51%), estragole (8.55%), and eugenol (7.54%), followed by thymol (3.62%), pulegone (2.56%), limonene (2.49%) and caryophyllene (2.38%). Based on bioactivity-guided fractionation, the three active constituents were isolated from the essential oil and identified as methyleugenol, estragole and eugenol. The essential oil of A. rugosa exhibited strong nematicidal activity against M. incognita, with a LC50 value of 47.3 ?g/mL. The components eugenol (LC50 = 66.6 ?g/mL) and methyleugenol (LC50 = 89.4 ?g/mL) exhibited stronger nematicidal activity against M. incognita (LC50 = 185.9 ?g/mL). The results indicate that the essential oil of A. rugosa aerial parts and its constituent compounds have potential for development into natural nematicides for control of the root knot nematode. PMID:23571530

Li, He Qin; Liu, Qi Zhi; Liu, Zhi Long; Du, Shu Shan; Deng, Zhi Wei

2013-01-01

143

Nematicidal activity of chaetoglobosin A poduced by Chaetomium globosum NK102 against Meloidogyne incognita.  

Science.gov (United States)

The nematicidal activity of Chaetomium globosum NK102, culture filtrates, and chaetoglobosin A (ChA) purified by HPLC was evaluated on Meloidogyne incognita . The results showed that C. globosum NK102 significantly repelled second-stage juveniles (J2s). Both filtrates and ChA demonstrated strong adverse effects on J2 mortality with 99.8% at 300 ?g ChA/mL (LC(50) = 77.0 ?g/mL) at 72 h. ChA and filtrates did not affect egg hatch until 72 h of exposure. All filtrate treatments inhibited the J2 penetration even in 12.5% dilution treatment. Similarly, ChA (300 and 30 ?g/mL) showed a significant inhibitory effect on J2 penetration. The number of eggs per plant was significantly reduced in the treatment of 30 mg ChA/kg soil by 63% relative to control plants, indicating the apparent negative effect on reproduction of M. incognita. The study demonstrated the nematicidal activity of ChA and suggested that it could be a potential biocontrol agent for integrated management of M. incognita. PMID:23214998

Hu, Yang; Zhang, Weipu; Zhang, Ping; Ruan, Weibin; Zhu, Xudong

2013-01-01

144

Chemical Composition and Nematicidal Activity of Essential Oil of Agastache rugosa against Meloidogyne incognita  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The aim of this research was to determine the chemical composition and nematicidal activity of essential oil of Agastache rugosa flowering aerial parts against the root knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita, and to isolate and identify any nematicidal constituents from the essential oil. The essential oil of A. rugosa aerial parts was obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by GC-FID and GC-MS. A total of 37 components of the essential oil were identified, with the principal compounds being methyleugenol (50.51%, estragole (8.55%, and eugenol (7.54%, followed by thymol (3.62%, pulegone (2.56%, limonene (2.49% and caryophyllene (2.38%. Based on bioactivity-guided fractionation, the three active constituents were isolated from the essential oil and identified as methyleugenol, estragole and eugenol. The essential oil of A. rugosa exhibited strong nematicidal activity against M. incognita, with a LC50 value of 47.3 ?g/mL. The components eugenol (LC50 = 66.6 ?g/mL and methyleugenol (LC50 = 89.4 ?g/mL exhibited stronger nematicidal activity against M. incognita (LC50 = 185.9 ?g/mL. The results indicate that the essential oil of A. rugosa aerial parts and its constituent compounds have potential for development into natural nematicides for control of the root knot nematode.

Zhi Wei Deng

2013-04-01

145

Plantago lanceolata and Plantago rugelii Extracts are Toxic to Meloidogyne incognita but not to Certain Microbes.  

Science.gov (United States)

Extracts from the plants Plantago lanceolata and P. rugelii were evaluated for toxicity to the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita, the beneficial microbes Enterobacter cloacae, Pseudomonas fluorescens and Trichoderma virens, and the plant-pathogenic fungi Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. gladioli, Phytophthora capsici, Pythium ultimum, and Rhizoctonia solani. Wild plants were collected, roots were excised from shoots, and the plant parts were dried and ground to a powder. One set of extracts (10% w/v) was prepared in water and another in methanol. Treatments included extract concentrations of 25%, 50%, 75% and 100%, and water controls. Meloidogyne incognita egg hatch was recorded after 7-day exposure to the treatments, and second-stage juvenile (J2) activity after 48 hours. All extracts were toxic to eggs and J2, with P. lanceolata shoot extract tending to have the most activity against M. incognita. Numbers of active J2 remained the same or decreased in a 24-hour water rinse following the 48-hour extract treatment, indicating that the extracts were lethal. When data from water- and methanol-extracted roots and shoots of both plant species were combined for analysis, J2 tended to be more sensitive than eggs to the toxic compounds at lower concentrations, while the higher concentrations (75% and 100%) were equally toxic to both life stages. The effective concentrations causing 50% reduction (EC(50)) in egg hatch and in J2 viability were 44.4% and 43.7%, respectively. No extract was toxic to any of the bacteria or fungi in our assays. PMID:19259537

Meyer, Susan L F; Zasada, Inga A; Roberts, Daniel P; Vinyard, Bryan T; Lakshman, Dilip K; Lee, Jae-Kook; Chitwood, David J; Carta, Lynn K

2006-09-01

146

Host suitability of Ixora spp. for the Root-knot Nematodes Meloidogyne incognita Race 1 and M. javanica.  

Science.gov (United States)

Eight commonly cultivated Ixora species or cultivars were tested for their suitability as hosts and their level of tolerance to Meloidogyne incognita race 1 and M. javanica in a greenhouse study. Twenty weeks postinoculation with 5,000 eggs per pot, M. incognita race 1 and M. javanica produced galls and formed egg masses on roots of all eight Ixora species or cultivars tested. However, only M. javanica-infected 'Petite Yellow' and 'Maui' had decreases (P Ixora coccinea was a good host for M. incognita race 1 but less suitable for M. javanica. 'Singapore' and 'Petite Yellow' were poor hosts for M. incognita race 1 but excellent hosts for M. javanica. 'Nora Grant' and I. casei 'Super King' were poor hosts for both species of root-knot nematodes. PMID:19283052

Giblin-Davis, R M; Meerow, A W; Bilz, F G

1992-12-01

147

RNAi of MiASB caused high mortality of Meloidogyne incognita juveniles and inhibited the nematode disease  

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The southern root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita, is one of the most prevalent and damaging plant-parasitic nematodes in the world and causes serious damages to agricultural production. We cloned a mitochondrial ATP synthase b subunit gene fragment of M. incognita

Yonghong Huang; Mei Mei; Baoming Shen; Zhenchuan Mao; Bingyan Xie

2013-01-01

148

Morphological and Molecular Evaluation of a Meloidogyne hapla Population Damaging Coffee (Coffea arabica) in Maui, Hawaii  

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An unusual population of Meloidogyne hapla, earlier thought to be an undescribed species, was found causing large galls, without adventitious roots, and substantial damage to coffee in Maui, Hawaii. Only in Brazil had similar damage to coffee been reported by this species. Unlike M. exigua from South and Central America, this population reproduced well on coffee cv. Mokka and M. incognita-susceptible tomato but poorly on tomato with the Mi resistance gene. Characterization included SEM images...

Handoo, Z. A.; Skantar, A. M.; Carta, L. K.; Schmitt, D. P.

2005-01-01

149

Efeitos da temperatura sobre a atividade de fungos no controle biológico de Meloidogyne javanica E M. incognita raça 3 Effect of soil warming on the biological control of Meloidogyne javanica and M. incognita race 3  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available O efeito de Arthrobotrys conoides, Duddingtonia flagrans, Paecilomyces lilacinus, Paecilomyces variotii, Monacrosporium doedycoides e um isolado de rizobactéria na reprodução e crescimento populacional de Meloidogyne javanica e M. incognita raça 3 em tomateiro Santa Clara, suscetível à Meloidogyne spp., foi estudado em três ambientes distintos: 1 casa-de-vegetação sem controle de temperatura; 2 sala climatizada com temperatura do ar constante a 24ºC; 3 em banho-maria com temperatura do solo mantida em 29-30ºC, colocado na mesma sala climatizada caracterizada anteriormente. Maior crescimento populacional de M. javanica e de M. incognita raça 3 ocorreu em solo aquecido, comparado com aquela em casa-de-vegetação e sala climatizada, e o número de galhas causado por M. javanica e M. incognita raça 3 foi maior em solo aquecido e em sala climatizada do que em casa-de-vegetação. Em solo aquecido e em sala climatizada, A. conoides e a rizobactéria reduziram (PThe effects of Arthrobotrys conoides, Duddingtonia flagrans, Paecilomyces lilacinus, Paecilomyces variotii, Monacrosporium doedycoides and an isolate of rhizobacterium on reproductivity of Meloidogyne javanica and M. incognita race 3 on Santa Clara tomato plants, susceptible to Meloidogyne spp., were studied in three different environments: 1 greenhouse without temperature control; 2 room with air temperature controlled at 24ºC; 3 watherbath with soil temperature controlled at 29-30ºC, placed in the room with the temperature controlled at 24ºC. Greatest M. javanica and M. incognita race 3 reproductivity occurred in waterbath warmed soil than in greenhouse and temperature controlled room. Galls number caused by M. javanica and M. incognita race 3 was greater in waterbath warmed soil and temperature controlled room than in greenhouse. In waterbath warmed soil and in temperature controlled room, A. conoides and rhizobacterium reduced (P< 0,05 the galls number of M. incognita race 3 compared to control. A. conoides also reduced the eggs number of M. incognita race 3 compared to control in waterbath warmed soil. In greenhouse, all antagonistics used reduced the eggs number compared to control.

Fábio R. Alves

2003-02-01

150

Effects of insect cadavers infected by Heterorhabditis bacteriophora and Steinernema diaprepesi on Meloidogyne incognita parasitism in pepper and summer squash plants / Efecto de insectos cadáveres infectados por Heterorhabditis bacteriophora y Steinernema diaprepesi sobre el parasitismo de Meloidogyne incognita en plantas de pimiento y zapallito redondo de tronco  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in spanish E.E. Del Valle, P. Lax, J. Rondán Dueñas y M.E. Doucet. 2013. Efecto de insectos cadáveres infectados por Heterorhabditis bacteriophora y Steinernema diaprepesi sobre el parasitismo de Meloidogyne incognita en plantas de pimiento y zapallito redondo de tronco. Cien. Inv. Agr. 40(1):109-118. El efect [...] o de cadáveres de insectos infectados con tres aislados de Heterorhabditis bacteriophora y un aislado de Steinernema diaprepesi sobre una población de Meloidogyne incognita en plantas de pimiento (Capsicum annuum) y zapallito redondo de tronco (Cucurbita maxima) fue evaluado en experiencias de invernadero conducidas en Santa Fe (Argentina). Los cadáveres de insectos necesarios para la experiencia se obtuvieron infectando larvas de último estadio de Galleria mellonella y Tenebrio monitor con nematodos entomopatógenos. Dos cadáveres de seis días de infección se colocaron debajo de la superficie del suelo de macetas que fueron inoculadas con 100 juveniles de segundo estadio de M. incognita. A los sesenta días se registraron los siguientes parámetros en cada planta: número de hojas, peso seco de la parte aérea, número de agallas, masas de huevos y huevos, y número de agallas, masas de huevos y huevos g-1 de materia fresca radical. En pimiento, la única variable afectada por los cadáveres en relación al testigo fue el número de huevos de M. incognita en el tratamiento de cadáveres de T. molitor infectados con H. bacteriophora aislado Rama Caída. En zapallito redondo de tronco, varios tratamientos provocaron una disminución en el número de agallas y masas de huevos. Sólo la aplicación de cadáveres de G. mellonella infectados con H. bacteriophora aislado Rama Caída demostró ser eficiente en reducir el número de huevos de M. incognita. Nuestros resultados indicaron que la aplicación de cadáveres de insectos infectados con los nematodos entomopatógenos estudiados podría reducir los daños causados por M. incognita en plantas de pimiento y zapallito redondo de tronco. Abstract in english E. E. Del Valle, P. Lax, J. Rondán Dueñas, and M. E. Doucet. 2013. Effects of insect cadavers infected by Heterorhabditis bacteriophora and Steinernema diaprepesi on Meloidogyne incognita parasitism in pepper and summer squash plants. Cien. Inv. Agr. 40(1):109-118. The effects of insect cadavers inf [...] ected with three isolates of Heterorhabditis bacteriophora and one isolate of Steinernema diaprepesi on a population of Meloidogyne incognita in pepper (Capsicum annuum) and summer squash (Cucurbita maxima) were evaluated in greenhouse experiments carried out in Santa Fe (Argentina). Insect cadavers were obtained for the experiments from last instar larvae of Galleria mellonella and Tenebrio molitor that had been infected with entomopathogenic nematodes. Two six-day-old insect cadavers per pot were placed below the soil surface, and the soil was inoculated with 100 second-stage juveniles ofM incognita. Sixty days after inoculation, the following parameters were recorded for each plant: number of leaves; dry weight of aerial parts; numbers of galls, egg masses and eggs; and numbers of galls, egg masses and eggs g-1 of root fresh matter. In pepper, the only variable affected by the infected cadavers with respect to control was the number of eggs in the treatment involving T. molitor cadavers infected with the H. bacteriophora isolate Rama Caída. In summer squash, several treatments using infected cadavers resulted in a decrease in the numbers of galls and egg masses. Only the treatment involving G. mellonella cadavers infected with the H. bacteriophora isolate Rama Caída proved to be efficient in reducing the number of M. incognita eggs. Our results indicated that the application of insect cadavers infected with the entomopathogenic nematodes studied might reduce M. incognita damage in pepper and summer squash plants.

Del Valle, Eleodoro E; Lax, Paola; Rondán Dueñas, Juan; Doucet, Marcelo E.

151

Registro da ocorrência de Meloidogyne incognita no porta-enxerto 'IAC 766-Campinas' no estado de Pernambuco e reação de porta-enxertos e de cultivares copa de videira a Meloidogyne spp. Meloidogyne incognita report on 'IAC 766-Campinas' rootstock in the state of Pernambuco and reaction of grape rootstocks and cultivars to Meloidogyne spp.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Relata-se a ocorrência de Meloidogyne incognita (Est. I2 em pomar de videira na cidade de Petrolina, Pernambuco. Plantas da cultivar Festival enxertadas sobre 'IAC 766-Campinas', atacadas por Meloidogyne incognita, apresentavam sintomas de menor vigor, folhas amarelecidas e folhagem mais esparsa, e raízes com numerosas galhas em meio ao cultivo de feijão-de-porco (Canavalia ensiformis, também atacado pelo nematoide. Com o objetivo de avaliar a resistência de quatro porta-enxertos tropicais, oito de clima temperado, e as cultivares Niágara Rosada e Chardonnay quanto à reação a M. incognita e M. arenaria, em casa de vegetação, realizou-se este trabalho. Mudas das videiras, mantidas em vaso com solo esterilizado, foram inoculadas com 10.000 ovos + J2 de M. incognita ou M. arenaria por planta. Decorridos oito meses da inoculação, cada planta foi avaliada quanto ao número de galhas e número de ovos por planta, determinando-se, a seguir, o fator de reprodução de cada espécie do nematoide (FR=população inicial/população final nos diferentes materiais testados. Entre os porta-enxertos avaliados, 'Harmony', 'Salt Creek', '1103 Paulsen', 'IAC 572-Jales', 'IAC 313-Tropical', 'K5BB Kober' e 'SO4', foram resistentes (FR1,00 ao nematoide. No entanto, ambas as cultivares copa foram suscetíveis às duas espécies de Meloidogyne testadas.The occurrence of root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita (Est. I2 is reported in grapevine in Petrolina municipality, State of Pernambuco. Grape plants of Festival cultivar grafted on the 'IAC 766 - Campinas' rootstock attacked by M. incognita exhibited symptoms of less vigorous growth, yellowing and sparse leaves and multiple galls in the root system in an area cultivated with jack-bean (Canavalia ensiformis also infected by the same nematode. In order to evaluate resistance of four tropical rootstocks, eight temperate and two cultivars Chardonnay and Niagara Rosada in reaction to M. incognita and M. arenaria, this study was carried out. Seedlings of the investigated grapevine genotypes were maintained in pots with sterilized soil and subsequently inoculated with 10,000 eggs + J2 of M. incognita or M. arenaria per plant in a six replicate design. Eight months after nematode inoculation, each plant was evaluated by counting gall and eggs. The final number of eggs (FP of each Meloidogyne specie was calculated and the reproductive factor (RF = FP/IP, determined. Among the tested rootstocks, 'Harmony', 'Salt Creek', '1103 Paulsen', 'IAC 572-Jales', 'IAC 313-Tropical', 'K5BB Kober', 'SO4' , were resistant (RF1.00 to M. arenaria. In contrast, both tested grapevine scion cultivars were susceptible to the investigated Meloidogyne species.

Lúcia Somavilla

2012-09-01

152

Rotations with Coastal Bermudagrass and Fallow for Management of Meloidogyne incognita and Soilborne Fungi on Vegetable Crops  

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The efficacy of fallow and coastal bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon) as a rotation crop for control of root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne incognita race 1) and soilborne fungi in okra (Hibiscus esculentus cv. Emerald), squash (Cucurbita pepo cv. Dixie Hybrid), and sweet corn (Zea mays cv. Merit) was evaluated in a 3-year field trial. Numbers of M. incognita in the soil and root-gall indices were greater on okra and squash than sweet corn and declined over the years on vegetable crops following fal...

1995-01-01

153

Host suitability of Ixora spp. for the Root-knot Nematodes Meloidogyne incognita Race 1 and M. javanica  

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Eight commonly cultivated Ixora species or cultivars were tested for their suitability as hosts and their level of tolerance to Meloidogyne incognita race 1 and M. javanica in a greenhouse study. Twenty weeks postinoculation with 5,000 eggs per pot, M. incognita race 1 and M. javanica produced galls and formed egg masses on roots of all eight Ixora species or cultivars tested. However, only M. javanica-infected 'Petite Yellow' and 'Maui' had decreases (P ? 0.05) in root wet weights, suggest...

Giblin-davis, Robin M.; Meerow, Alan W.; Bilz, Frank G.

1992-01-01

154

Behavior of Ilex paraguariensis St. Hilaire, 1822 to Meloidogyne incognita and M. paranaensis and their influence on development of plantlets  

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The influence of Meloidogyne incognita and M. paranaensis on the development of mate (Ilex paraguariensis ST. Hill) plantlets was assessed in greenhouse and laboratory. The experimental design was randomized. Every plot of each one of the 10 repetitions contained one mate plantlet , inoculated with 5,000 eggs of M. incognita (races 1, 2, 3 and 4) and M. paranaensis. After 120 days it was observed that mate was a reliable hostess to such nematodes and that they could finish their life cycle. P...

Débora Cristina Santiago; Alaíde Aparecida Krzyzanowski; Martin Homechin

2000-01-01

155

Characterization of Anionic Peroxidases in Tomato Isolines Infected by Meloidogyne incognita  

Science.gov (United States)

Changes in peroxidase activity during nematode infection were studied using root extracts of tomato near-isogenic lines differing in resistance to Meloidogyne incognita. Total peroxidase activity increased slightly in crude extracts of four susceptible isolines but doubled in two resistant lines, Monita and Motaci. Nematode infection enhanced levels of both p-phenylenediamine-pyrocatechol oxidase and syringaldazine oxidase 7 days after inoculation, especially in resistant lines. This elevated peroxidase activity in resistant isolines was caused by an increase in anionic peroxidase activity. These enzymes, which likely are involved in lignification, were isolated and purified from tomato isolines by ammonium sulfate precipitation, high performance ion-exchange chromatography, and gel electrophoresis. The purified anionic peroxidase extracts contained an electrophoretic band with Rf 0.51 that was present in extracts of infected but not uninfected roots.

Zacheo, G.; Orlando, C.; Bleve-Zacheo, T.

1993-01-01

156

Isolation of nematicidal triterpenoid saponins from Pulsatilla koreana root and their activities against Meloidogyne incognita.  

Science.gov (United States)

Pulsatilla koreana, a species endemic to Korea, is an important herb used in traditional medicine to treat amoebic dysentery and malaria. In the present study, 23 oleanane-type triterpenoid saponins 1-23 and eight lupane-type triterpenoid saponins 24-31 were isolated from the roots of P. koreana. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic data. The methanol extract and isolated compounds were next assessed for nematicidal activity against the root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne incognita). The methanol extract showed strong nematicidal activity after 48 h, with a LC?? value of 92.8 ?g/mL. Compounds 2, 5, 9, 20, and 21 showed significant effects, with LC?? values ranging from 70.1 to 94.7 ?g/mL after 48 h. These results suggest that triterpenoid saponins from P. koreana should be explored as potential natural nematicides for developing new agents to control root-knot nematode disease. PMID:23698044

Li, Wei; Sun, Ya Nan; Yan, Xi Tao; Yang, Seo Young; Lee, Suk Jun; Byun, Hyo Jeung; Moon, Chang Sup; Han, Byung Soo; Kim, Young Ho

2013-01-01

157

Biocontrol of Meloidogyne incognita in Lycopersicon esculentum with AM Fungi and Oil Cakes  

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Full Text Available Currently chemical pesticides are the major means to control nematode-induced diseases but they are neither economical nor ecofriendly. Alternative methods are being sought to reduce the amount of chemical pesticides required. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi have been reported to reduce the infestation of root-knot nematodes on vegetable crops. Amendment of soil with some oil cakes has been found effective. A study was conducted on exploitation of the combined effect of AM with three different oil cakes Azadirachta indica, Brassica campestris and Ricinus communis oil cakes in controlling the root knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita. Combined use of AMF and cakes resulted in reducing the galling and nematode multiplication thus improving the plant growth and yield. The best results pertaining to AM root infection, nematode reproduction and plant growth and yield were obtained with the combination of AMF and R. communis oil cake.

Anuja Bharadwaj

2006-01-01

158

Management of Meloidogyne incognita with Chemicals and Cultivars in Cotton in a Semi-Arid Environment.  

Science.gov (United States)

Management of Meloidogyne incognita (root-knot nematode) in cotton in the United States was substantially affected by the decision to stop production of aldicarb by its principle manufacturer in 2011. The remaining commercially available tools to manage M. incognita included soil fumigation, nematicide seed treatments, postemergence nematicide application, and cultivars partially resistant to M. incognita. Small plot field studies were conducted on a total of nine sites from 2011-2013 to examine the effects of each of these tools alone or in combinations, on early season galling, late-season nematode density in soil, yield, and value ($/ha = lint value minus chemical costs/ha). The use of a partially resistant cultivar resulted in fewer galls/root system at 35 d after planting in eight of nine tests, lower root-knot nematode density late in the growing season for all test sites, higher lint yield in eight of nine sites, and higher value/ha in six of nine sites. Galls per root were reduced by aldicarb in three of nine sites and by 1,3-dichloropropene (1,3-D) in two of eight sites, relative to the nontreated control (no insecticide or nematicide treatment). Soil fumigation reduced M. incognita density late in the season in three of nine sites. Value/ha was not affected by chemical treatment in four of nine sites, but there was a cultivar × chemical interaction in four of nine sites. When value/ha was affected by chemical treatment, the nontreated control had a similar value to the treatment with the highest value/ha in seven of eight cultivar-site combinations. The next "best" value/ha were associated with seed treatment insecticide (STI) + oxamyl and aldicarb (similar value to the highest value/ha in six of eight cultivar-site combinations). The lowest valued treatment was STI + 1,3-D. In a semi-arid region, where rainfall was low during the spring for all three years, cultivars with partial resistance to M. incognita was the most profitable method of managing root-knot nematode in cotton. PMID:24987161

Wheeler, T A; Siders, K T; Anderson, M G; Russell, S A; Woodward, J E; Mullinix, B G

2014-06-01

159

GAMMA IRRADIATION OF SUGAR BEET SEEDS INDUCED PLANT RESISTANCE TO ROOT-KNOT NEMATODE MELOIDOGYNE INCOGNITA  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The main objective of this study was to investigate the effect of irradiation of sugar beet seeds on the plant resistance to root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita infection in addition to some morphological parameters, biochemical components and root technological characters. Relative to control (non-irradiated seeds), the obtained data showed that, all doses except 10 Gy significantly increased root length of un inoculated plants and the most effective dose was 200 Gy. All doses significantly decreased root diameter except 50 and 100 Gy. The 10 and 400 Gy significantly reduced root fresh weight while 50, 100 and 200 Gy caused non-significant increase. All doses significantly increased root fresh weight/dry weight than control. There was non-significant effect on the morphological parameters of the plants germinated from gamma irradiated seeds and inoculated with Meloidogyne incognita. Total chlorophyll of seed irradiated and un inoculated plants were significantly reduced by all doses except 200 Gy. All doses of gamma radiation caused non-significant decrease in the total chlorophyll of the infected plants. In un inoculated plants, a significant reduction in the total phenol was occurred due to all doses of gamma radiation. In contrast, in inoculated plants, 10 and 25 Gy caused significant reduction in the total phenol while 50 and 400 Gy caused significant increase in the total phenol.Significant increase in sucrose % was observed due to 10 Gy in the un inoculated plants. The 400 Gy caused significant decrease while other doses caused non-significant decrease in the sucrose %. In the inoculated plants, 50, 100 and 400 Gy caused significant increase in sucrose %. All doses significantly increased total soluble salts percent (TSS %) of either inoculated or un inoculated plants. Purity % was increased by all doses in the inoculated plants.The number of galls and egg masses were reduced gradually by increasing gamma doses and 100 Gy caused the highest reduction 89.5 % and 94.7 % for galls and egg masses, respectively

2008-01-01

160

Progênies de Coffea arabica cv. IPR 100 com resistência ao nematóide Meloidogyne incognita raça 1 Progenies of Coffea arabica cv. IPR 100 with resistance to nematode Meloidogyne incognita race 1  

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Objetivou-se, neste trabalho, identificar progênies de Coffea arabica cv. IPR 100 com resistência ao nematóide Meloidogyne incognita raça 1. O experimento foi conduzido em casa de vegetação (Londrina, PR, Brasil) no delineamento em blocos ao acaso com 3 repetições e parcelas com 15 plantas. Foram avaliadas seis progênies da cultivar IPR 100 e a cultivar Mundo Novo IAC 376-4 foi utilizada como padrão suscetível. Foram inoculados 500 ovos por planta, totalizando 7500 ovos por parcela...

2009-01-01

 
 
 
 
161

Development of a bionematicide with Paecilomyces lilacinus to control Meloidogyne incognita.  

Science.gov (United States)

Root-knot disease caused by Meloidogyne incognita is a matter of grave concern because it affects several economically important crop plants. The use of solid-state fermentation (SSF) may help to elaborate efficient formulations with fungi to be employed in the biologic control of nematodes. Attempts were made to select low-cost substrates for spore production of a strain of Paecilomyces lilacinus with known nematicide capacity. Coffee husks, cassava bagasse, and defatted soybean cake were utilized as substrates, and sugarcane bagasse was used as support. Fermentations were carried out in flasks covered with filter paper at 28 degrees C for 10 d. The products obtained by SSF were evaluated for their nematicide activity in pot experiments containing one seedling of the plant Coleus inoculated with the nematode M. incognita. The plants were evaluated 2 mo after inoculation. Fermented products showed a reduction in the number of nematodes. The best results were obtained with defatted soybean cake, which showed almost 100% reduction in the number of nematodes; the reduction with coffee husk was 80% and with cassava bagasse was about 60%. PMID:15304741

Brand, Débora; Roussos, Sevastianos; Pandey, Ashok; Zilioli, Paulo C; Pohl, Jorge; Soccol, Carlos Ricardo

2004-01-01

162

Chitosan-cinnamon beads enhance suppressive activity against Rhizoctonia solani and Meloidogyne incognita in vitro.  

Science.gov (United States)

A novel chitosan-cinnamon bead carrier was prepared in this study. Chitosan was mixed with cinnamon powder (CP) and cinnamon extract (CE) to obtain chitosan-cinnamon powder (CCP) beads and chitosan-cinnamon extracted (CCE) beads, respectively. The potential antifungal and nematicidal activities of CCP and CCE were investigated against Rhizoctonia solani and Meloidogyne incognita in vitro. Relative antifungal activity of the CCP (5% CP) bead-treated R. solani was 30.9 and 23.9% after 1 and 2 day incubations, respectively. Relative antifungal activity of the CCE (0.5% CE) bead-treated R. solani was 4.3, 3.0 and 4.2% after 1, 2 and 3 days of incubation. Inhibition of hatch by CCP beads with CP of 5% was 78.8%. Inhibition of hatch by CCE beads with CE of 0.5% was 82.0%. J2 mortality following the CCP (5% CP) and CCE (0.5% CE) bead treatments was 85.0 and 95.8%, respectively against M. incognita after 48 h incubations. PMID:24417978

Seo, Dong-Jun; Nguyen, Dang-Minh-Chanh; Park, Ro-Dong; Jung, Woo-Jin

2014-01-01

163

Potent nematicidal activity of phthalaldehyde, salicylaldehyde, and cinnamic aldehyde against Meloidogyne incognita.  

Science.gov (United States)

The nematicidal activity of selected aromatic aldehydes was tested against the root knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita. The most active aldehyde was phthalaldehyde (1) with an EC(50) value of 11 ± 6 mg/L followed by salicylaldehyde (2) and cinnamic aldehyde (3) with EC(50) values of 11 ± 1 and 12 ± 5 mg/L, respectively. On the other hand, structurally related aldehydes such as 2-methoxybenzaldehyde (21), 3,4-dimethoxybenzaldehyde, and vanillin (23) were not active at the concentration of 1000 mg/L. By liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry the reactivity of tested aldehydes against a synthetic peptide resembling the nematode cuticle was characterized. At the test concentration of 1 mM, the main adduct formation was observed for 3,4-dihydroxybenzaldehyde (22), 2-methoxybenzaldehyde (21), and 3,4-dimethoxybenzaldehyde. Considering that 2-methoxybenzaldehyde (21) and 3,4-dimethoxybenzaldehyde were not active against M. incognita in in vitro experiments led us to hypothesize a different mechanism of action rather than an effect on the external cuticle modification of nematodes. When the toxicity of the V-ATPase inhibitor pyocyanin (10) was tested against M. incognita J2 nematodes, an EC(50) at 24 h of 72 ± 25 mg/L was found. The redox-active compounds such as phthalaldehyde (1) and salicylaldehyde (2) may share a common mode of action inhibiting nematode V-ATPase enzyme. The results of this investigation reveal that aromatic redox-active aldehydes can be considered as potent nematicides, and further investigation is needed to completely clarify their mode of action. PMID:23379671

Caboni, Pierluigi; Aissani, Nadhem; Cabras, Tiziana; Falqui, Andrea; Marotta, Roberto; Liori, Barbara; Ntalli, Nikoletta; Sarais, Giorgia; Sasanelli, Nicola; Tocco, Graziella

2013-02-27

164

Nematicidal activity of fervenulin isolated from a nematicidal actinomycete, Streptomyces sp. CMU-MH021, on Meloidogyne incognita.  

Science.gov (United States)

An isolate of the actinomycete, Streptomyces sp. CMU-MH021 produced secondary metabolites that inhibited egg hatch and increased juvenile mortality of the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita in vitro. 16S rDNA gene sequencing showed that the isolate sequence was 99% identical to Streptomyces roseoverticillatus. The culture filtrates form different culture media were tested for nematocidal activity. The maximal activity against M. incognita was obtained by using modified basal (MB) medium. The nematicidal assay-directed fractionation of the culture broth delivered fervenulin (1) and isocoumarin (2). Fervenulin, a low molecular weight compound, shows a broad range of biological activities. However, nematicidal activity of fervenulin was not previously reported. The nematicidal activity of fervenulin (1) was assessed using the broth microdilution technique. The lowest minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of the compound against egg hatch of M. incognita was 30 ?g/ml and juvenile mortality of M. incognita increasing was observed at 120 ?g/ml. Moreover, at the concentration of 250 ?g/ml fervenulin (1) showed killing effect on second-stage nematode juveniles of M. incognita up to 100% after incubation for 96 h. Isocoumarin (2), another bioactive compound produced by Streptomyces sp. CMU-MH021, showed weak nematicidal activity with M. incognita. PMID:21841897

Ruanpanun, Pornthip; Laatsch, Hartmut; Tangchitsomkid, Nuchanart; Lumyong, Saisamorn

2011-06-01

165

Progênies de Coffea arabica cv. IPR 100 com resistência ao nematóide Meloidogyne incognita raça 1 Progenies of Coffea arabica cv. IPR 100 with resistance to nematode Meloidogyne incognita race 1  

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Full Text Available Objetivou-se, neste trabalho, identificar progênies de Coffea arabica cv. IPR 100 com resistência ao nematóide Meloidogyne incognita raça 1. O experimento foi conduzido em casa de vegetação (Londrina, PR, Brasil no delineamento em blocos ao acaso com 3 repetições e parcelas com 15 plantas. Foram avaliadas seis progênies da cultivar IPR 100 e a cultivar Mundo Novo IAC 376-4 foi utilizada como padrão suscetível. Foram inoculados 500 ovos por planta, totalizando 7500 ovos por parcela de 150 cm². Foi avaliado o número de galhas e massas de ovos presentes nas raízes. As seis progênies da cultivar IPR 100 foram mais resistentes ao M.incognita raça 1 do que o padrão suscetível.The objective of this study was to identify progenies of Coffea arabica cv. IPR 100 with resistance to nematode Meloidogyne incognita race 1. The experiment was performed in greenhouse (Londrina, PR, Brazil with an experimental design of randomized blocks with 3 replications and 15 plants per plot. Six progenies of cultivar IPR 100 were evaluated, and Mundo Novo IAC 376-4 cultivar was used as susceptible control. Five hundred eggs per plant were inoculated, totalizing 7500 eggs per plot of 150 cm². The number of galls and egg masses in the roots were evaluated. All progenies of cultivar IPR 100 presented more resistance to M.incognita race 1 than the susceptible control.

Fabio Seidi Kanayama

2009-10-01

166

IDENTIFICACIÓN MORFOLÓGICA, MORFOMÉTRICA Y MOLECULAR DE Meloidogyne incognita EN HIGUERA (Ficus carica L. EN COSTA RICA  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available El objetivo de este estudio fue identificar la especie de Meloidogyne asociada a dos plantaciones de higuera en Costa Rica. En marzo de 2012, en el distrito de Pacayas, provincia de Cartago, se detectaron agallas en los sistemas radicales de plantas de higuera (Ficus carica L. de dos fincas. De las raíces agalladas se extrajeron hembras, masas de huevos y juveniles (J2 de Meloidogyne sp. Se examinaron los patrones perineales de las hembras y los segundos estadios infectivos se analizaron morfológica y molecularmente mediante PCR-RFLP. Se amplificó la región intergénica (IGS del genoma mitocondrial, delimitada por el gen de la subunidad II de la citocromo oxidasa (COII y el gen ribosomal 16S. La población de nematodos se identificó como M. incognita. El tamaño de los productos de PCR generados con los imprimadores C2F3 y 1108 fue de 1,7 kb. Al tratar los productos de PCR con enzimas de restricción, se generaron cuatro fragmentos de 850, 450, 250 y 150 pb con la enzima AluI y dos fragmentos de 1300 y 400 pb con la enzima HinfI.

Walter Peraza-Padilla

2013-01-01

167

Estreptomicetos no controle da meloidoginose em mudas de tomateiro Streptomycetes in the control of Meloidogyne incognita in tomato plants  

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Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o efeito de seis isolados de estreptomicetos na mortalidade e eclosão de juvenis de segundo estádio (J2 de Meloidogyne incognita e no controle da meloidoginose em mudas de tomateiro. Foi montado um bioensaio em placas tipo Elisa, sendo adicionados em cada célula, 200 µL de metabólitos dos isolados, com 20 µL de uma suspensão com 25 juvenis de segundo estádio (J2 de M. incognita. Os metabólitos produzidos por Streptomyces griseus subsp. griseus causaram 98,2% de mortalidade dos J2 de M. incognita. Em outro bioensaio, foram adicionados 3 mL dos metabólitos em frascos de vidro, com 100 µL da suspensão contendo 25 ovos de M.incognita. O isolado N0035 de Streptomyces proporcionou 98,8% de inibição na eclosão de J2 de M. incognita. Num terceiro bioensaio, o substrato de produção de mudas foi infestado com suspensão de estreptomicetos e incubado por 30 dias. Quinze dias depois da germinação das sementes do tomateiro, foi realizada a inoculação com 2.000 J2 por planta. Verificou-se a redução de 68% no número de galhas por grama de raiz e de 76,8% na massa de ovos por grama de raiz, nas mudas produzidas no substrato infestado e incubado com Streptomyces griseus subsp. griseus, quando comparado com a testemunha.This work aimed to evaluate the effect of six streptomycete isolates on mortality, hatching, and control of Meloidogyne incognita on tomato seedlings. An assay was conducted in Elisa plates, with the addition of 200 µL of the streptomycete metabolites, along with 20 µL of suspension containing 25 second stage juveniles (J2 of M. incognita. The metabolites produced by Streptomyces griseus subsp. griseus caused mortality of 98.2% on M. incognita. A second assay was conducted with 3 mL of streptomycete metabolites and 25 eggs of M. incognita. The isolate N0035 of Streptomyces caused inhibition of 98.8% on hatching. In a third assay, potting mix was infested with suspension of the streptomycetes isolates and incubated for 30 days. Fifteen days after germination, tomato seedlings were inoculated with a suspension containing 2,000 J2 of M. incognita. Reductions of 68% in the number of galls per gram of roots and of 76.8% in the egg mass per gram of roots were observed on tomato seedlings grown in the potting mix inoculated with Streptomyces griseus subsp. griseus, compared to the control.

Carla da Silva Sousa

2006-12-01

168

Estreptomicetos no controle da meloidoginose em mudas de tomateiro / Streptomycetes in the control of Meloidogyne incognita in tomato plants  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o efeito de seis isolados de estreptomicetos na mortalidade e eclosão de juvenis de segundo estádio (J2) de Meloidogyne incognita e no controle da meloidoginose em mudas de tomateiro. Foi montado um bioensaio em placas tipo Elisa, sendo adicionados em cada cé [...] lula, 200 µL de metabólitos dos isolados, com 20 µL de uma suspensão com 25 juvenis de segundo estádio (J2) de M. incognita. Os metabólitos produzidos por Streptomyces griseus subsp. griseus causaram 98,2% de mortalidade dos J2 de M. incognita. Em outro bioensaio, foram adicionados 3 mL dos metabólitos em frascos de vidro, com 100 µL da suspensão contendo 25 ovos de M.incognita. O isolado N0035 de Streptomyces proporcionou 98,8% de inibição na eclosão de J2 de M. incognita. Num terceiro bioensaio, o substrato de produção de mudas foi infestado com suspensão de estreptomicetos e incubado por 30 dias. Quinze dias depois da germinação das sementes do tomateiro, foi realizada a inoculação com 2.000 J2 por planta. Verificou-se a redução de 68% no número de galhas por grama de raiz e de 76,8% na massa de ovos por grama de raiz, nas mudas produzidas no substrato infestado e incubado com Streptomyces griseus subsp. griseus, quando comparado com a testemunha. Abstract in english This work aimed to evaluate the effect of six streptomycete isolates on mortality, hatching, and control of Meloidogyne incognita on tomato seedlings. An assay was conducted in Elisa plates, with the addition of 200 µL of the streptomycete metabolites, along with 20 µL of suspension containing 25 se [...] cond stage juveniles (J2) of M. incognita. The metabolites produced by Streptomyces griseus subsp. griseus caused mortality of 98.2% on M. incognita. A second assay was conducted with 3 mL of streptomycete metabolites and 25 eggs of M. incognita. The isolate N0035 of Streptomyces caused inhibition of 98.8% on hatching. In a third assay, potting mix was infested with suspension of the streptomycetes isolates and incubated for 30 days. Fifteen days after germination, tomato seedlings were inoculated with a suspension containing 2,000 J2 of M. incognita. Reductions of 68% in the number of galls per gram of roots and of 76.8% in the egg mass per gram of roots were observed on tomato seedlings grown in the potting mix inoculated with Streptomyces griseus subsp. griseus, compared to the control.

Carla da Silva, Sousa; Ana Cristina Fermino, Soares; Marlon da Silva, Garrido; Gabriela Maria Carneiro de Oliveira, Almeida.

169

Studies on the interactions of Meloidogyne incognita, Radopholus similis and Fusarium solani on black pepper (Piper nigrum L.).  

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This study on the interactions between various cultivars of the black pepper plant (Piper nigrum L. ) and three of its pathogens, Meloidogyne Incognita (Kofoid & White) , Radopholus similis (Cobb) , Thorne and Fusarium solani f. sp. piperi Albuquerque was initiated to search for a biological cause of "yellow disease" of black pepper.This disease was described already in 1932 by Van der Vecht as "geelziektel" and its symptoms on the aerial parts of the pepper plants were yellow...

1990-01-01

170

Nematocidal Flavone-C-Glycosides against the Root-Knot Nematode (Meloidogyne incognita) from Arisaema erubescens Tubers  

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A screening of several Chinese medicinal herbs for nematicidal properties showed that Arisaema erubescens (Wall.) Schott tubers possessed significant nematicidal activity against the root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne incognita). From the ethanol extract, two nematicidal flavone-C-glycosides were isolated by bioassay-guided fractionation. The compounds were identified as schaftoside and isoschaftoside on the basis of their phytochemical and spectral data. Schaftoside and isoschaftoside possessed...

Shu Shan Du; Hai Ming Zhang; Chun Qi Bai; Cheng Fang Wang; Qi Zhi Liu; Zhi Long Liu; Yong Yan Wang; Zhi Wei Deng

2011-01-01

171

Low-Temperature Scanning Electron Microscope Observations of the Meloidogyne incognita Egg Mass: The Gelatinous Matrix and Embryo Development  

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The root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita was cultured monoxenically on excised tomato roots. Galls and egg masses were observed daily using a light microscope. Two phases were distinguished in the gelatinous matrix of the egg mass: a translucent, amorphous material on the surface of the egg mass and a denser, layered phase in which nematode eggs were deposited. Egg masses were also cryofixed, fractured, and observed as frozen, hydrated specimens on a cold stage in a scanning electron micr...

Orion, D.; Wergin, W. P.; Chitwood, D. J.; Erbe, E. F.

1994-01-01

172

Evaluation of Several Approaches to Manage Meloidogyne incognita and Cotton Seedling Disease Complexes in the High Plains of Texas  

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Field experiments were conducted for control of the southern root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne incognita) and cotton seedling disease fungi (primarily Thielaviopsis basicola) in one naturally infested field during 1999 and 2000 and in three additional fields in 2000. Treatments included: seed-applied fungicides (triadimenol + mefenoxam + thiram and carboxin + PCNB + mefenoxam), cultivars (Paymaster [PM] 2326 RR and PM 2200 RR), and a nematicide (aldicarb at 0.83 kg a.i/ha). Plant stands were hi...

Fichtner, S. M.; Isakeit, T.; Wheeler, T. A.; Kaufman, H. W.; Gannaway, J. R.

2005-01-01

173

Brassicaceous Seed Meals as Soil Amendments to Suppress the Plant-parasitic Nematodes Pratylenchus penetrans and Meloidogyne incognita1  

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Brassicaceous seed meals are the residual materials remaining after the extraction of oil from seeds; these seed meals contain glucosinolates that potentially degrade to nematotoxic compounds upon incorporation into soil. This study compared the nematode-suppressive ability of four seed meals obtained from Brassica juncea ‘Pacific Gold’, B. napus ‘Dwarf Essex’ and ‘Sunrise’, and Sinapis alba ‘IdaGold’, against mixed stages of Pratylenchus penetrans and Meloidogyne incognita se...

Zasada, I. A.; Meyer, S. L. F.; Morra, M. J.

2009-01-01

174

COMPORTAMIENTO DE MATERIALES GENÉTICOS DE PIÑA (Ananas comosus) AL ATAQUE DE Meloidogyne incognita RAZA 1 / BEHAVIOUR OF THE PINEAPPLE (Ananas comosus) GENETIC MATERIALS TO THE ATTACK OF Meloidogyne incognita RACE 1  

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Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La resistencia de cuatro accesiones de piña (Ananas comosus (L.) Merr.) a Meloidogyne incognita raza 1 procedentes de la región Amazónica Venezolana fue evaluada en invernadero. Las accesiones fueron identificadas como CRF-037, CRF-048, CRF-008 y CRF-040. El diseño experimental fue completamente ale [...] atorizado, con dos tratamientos y cinco repeticiones/accesión/tratamiento. Se utilizaron envases de 1 kg de suelo esterilizado con vapor. Un tratamiento estuvo representado por cinco plantas/accesión de un año de edad, las cuales se inocularon con una población inicial (Pi) de 10000 huevos y/o juveniles en segundo estado (J2). Otras cinco plantas/accesión no se inocularon y se utilizaron como testigos. El peso fresco y seco de la parte aérea y radical, además del Factor de Reproducción del nematodo (FR= Pf /Pi) se determinaron cuatro meses después de la inoculación. Los datos fueron analizados a través de una prueba t de Student para muestras independientes al 1%. Las plantas con FR=1 se consideraron resistentes y tolerantes, si no se afectaban las variables agronómicas. Los resultados demostraron que en las plantas inoculadas de la accesión CRF-008 los pesos frescos y secos de la parte aérea y el peso fresco radical fueron significativamente menores al compararlos con los de las plantas no inoculadas, mientras que en la accesión CRF-040 solo se afectó el peso fresco radical. El FR fue menor a uno en todas las accesiones, por lo que se pueden considerar en esta etapa del estudio como materiales resistentes. Las accesiones CRF-037 y CRF-048, se comportaron como resistentes tolerantes por no haberse afectado las variables agronómicas evaluadas, mientras que la accesión CRF-008 y CRF-040 se pueden catalogar como resistentes no tolerantes debido a que se afectaron tres y una de las variables agronómicas evaluadas, respectivamente. Estos materiales son promisorios en los programas de mejoramiento genético. Abstract in english Resistance to Meloidogyne incognita race 1 of four pineapple (Ananas comosus (L.) Merr.) accessions from the Venezuelan Amazonic region was evaluated under greenhouse conditions. Pineapple accessions were identified as CRF-037, CRF-048, CRF-008 and CRF-040. Pots of 1 kg of soil sterilized with steam [...] were used in a completely randomized design with two treatments and five replications/accession/treatment. One of the treatments was represented by five one-year old plants/accessions, which were inoculated with an initial population (Pi) of 10000 eggs and/or second stage juveniles (J2) of Meloidogyne incognita race 1. In the other treatment used as control, the five plants/accessions were not inoculated with nematodes. Fresh and dry weights of tops and roots and the nematode reproduction factor (RF= Pf /Pi) were recorded four months after inoculation. The data were analyzed by t Student test for independent samples at 1%. Plants with RF

Zoraida, Suárez H; Ligia Carolina, Rosales.

175

INFLUENCIA DE LA PLANTA HOSPEDANTE Y SU INTERACCIÓN CON Meloidogyne incognita SOBRE LA EFECTIVIDAD DE Pochonia chlamydosporia var. catenulata / INFLUENCE OF THE HOST PLANT AND ITS INTERACTION WITH Meloidogyne incognita ON THE EFFECTIVENESS OF Pochonia chlamydosporia var. catenulata  

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Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El efecto de las plantas hospedantes y su interacción con Meloidogyne incognita (Kofoid y White) Chitwood sobre la efectividad de Pochonia chlamydosporia var. catenulata (Kamyscho ex Barron y Onions) Zare y Gams como agente de control biológico de nematodos formadores de agallas se estudió en condic [...] iones de aisladores biológicos. Para el desarrollo de la experiencia se utilizaron diferentes especies de plantas que se cultivan en los sistemas intensivos de producción de hortalizas en Cuba y se evaluó la colonización de la rizosfera, a partir del conteo de UFC del hongo, en plantas sanas e infestadas por M. incognita. Los resultados demostraron que el crecimiento del hongo en la rizosfera varió en dependencia de la especie de planta. Entre los mejores hospedantes de P. chlamydosporia var. catenulata estuvieron la col, coliflor y acelga china, cultivos resistentes a M. incognita. Las plantas infestadas por M. incognita mostraron mayores niveles de colonización del hongo que las plantas sanas y el cultivo de la habichuela resultó ser un buen hospedante, en presencia del nematodo. Se recomienda la utilización de estos cultivos dentro de esquemas de rotación que incluyan la aplicación de P. chlamydosporia var. catenulata como agente de control biológico para el manejo de M. incognita en sistemas intensivos de producción de hortalizas. Abstract in english The effect of the host plants and their interaction with Meloidogyne incognita (Kofoid and White) Chitwood on the effectiveness of Pochonia chlamydosporia var. catenulata (Kamyscho ex Barron and Onions) Zare and Gams as a biological control agent of root-knot nematodes was studied in glasshouse cond [...] itions. Different plant species from the Cuban Intensive Vegetable Production Systems were used to perform the experience. The growth of the fungus in the rhizosphere differed with the host plant. Among the best host plants of P. chlamydosporia var. catenulata were cabbage, salt-wort and cauliflower, resistant crops to M. incognita. The plants infested by M. incognita showed higher levels of fungus colonization than those healthy, and the kidney bean crop was a good host in the presence of the nematode. The use of these crops into rotation systems, with the application of Pochonia chlamydosporia var. catenulata as biological control agent for the management of M. incognita on Intensive Vegetable Production Systems, was recommended.

Ana, Puertas; L, Hidalgo-Díaz.

176

Fenóis, peroxidase e polifenoloxidase na resistência do cafeeiro a Meloidogyne incognita Phenols, peroxidase and polyphenoloxidase in the resistance of coffee to Meloidogyne incognita  

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Full Text Available Plântulas dos cultivares Mundo Novo, de Coffea arabica, suscetível, e Apoatã, de Coffea canephora, resistente, foram inoculadas com ovos de Meloidogyne incognita raça 2, e avaliadas em duas fases do ciclo de desenvolvimento do parasito, isto é, na de penetração de larvas e na de fêmeas com ovos. Não foram observadas diferenças quanto ao desenvolvimento radicular e da parte aérea entre plântulas inoculadas e não inoculadas, nas duas avaliações. Nos dois cultivares, houve aumento no teor de fenóis nas plântulas inoculadas na primeira avaliação, e, na segunda, apesar de os valores terem sido maiores, foram iguais entre plântulas inoculadas e seus respectivos controles. O 'Mundo Novo' apresentou sempre maior conteúdo de fenóis que o 'Apoatã' e somente houve aumento na sua atividade de peroxidase na primeira avaliação. Na segunda, a atividade dessa enzima foi maior do que na primeira, porém igual entre plântulas inoculadas e seus controles. O 'Apoatã' sempre teve maior atividade de peroxidase, e apenas houve aumento da atividade de sua polifenoloxidase na primeira avaliação, sendo que nesse cultivar a atividade dessa enzima sempre foi maior do que no 'Mundo Novo'. Cromatografias em camada delgada de celulose mostraram que em nenhum deles houve variações quantitativas de fenóis entre as plantas inoculadas e não inoculadas. Ambos, 'Mundo Novo' e 'Apoatã', apresentaram 23 compostos fenólicos em comum e, nove e onze não comuns respectivamente.Seedlings of two coffee cultivars were inoculated with the nematode Meloidogyne incognita: cv. Mundo Novo (susceptible of Coffea arabica and cv. Apoatã (resistant of C. canephora. During the larval penetration and adult female phases of the parasite, evaluations were made on phenol content, peroxidase and polyphenoloxidase activities. In the two evaluations, no differences were observed in roots and shoots growth among inoculated and non inoculated seedling. For both cultivars, only in the first phase infected seedlings showed an increase in phenols as compared to their counterparts not inoculated. However, phenol values were higher in the second than in the first phase. The cv. Mundo Novo had always higher phenols content than Apoatã. Only inoculated seedlings of the cv. Mundo Novo showed an increase of peroxidase activities in the first phase; but, both cultivars presented higher peroxidase activities in the second phase as compared to the first. Apoatã seedlings had always higher peroxidase and polyphenoloxidase activities than Mundo Novo. Infected seedlings of the cv. Apoatã showed in the first phase, only, an increase in polyphenoloxidase activity. Thin-layer chromatograms of phenolic extracts did not present any difference among inoculated and non-inoculated seedlings. Twenty three spots on the chromatograms were common to both cultivars, except that Apoatã had a further nine spots not found in Mundo Novo and the later had a further eleven not found in the former.

Paulo Mazzafera

1989-01-01

177

Fenóis, peroxidase e polifenoloxidase na resistência do cafeeiro a Meloidogyne incognita / Phenols, peroxidase and polyphenoloxidase in the resistance of coffee to Meloidogyne incognita  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Plântulas dos cultivares Mundo Novo, de Coffea arabica, suscetível, e Apoatã, de Coffea canephora, resistente, foram inoculadas com ovos de Meloidogyne incognita raça 2, e avaliadas em duas fases do ciclo de desenvolvimento do parasito, isto é, na de penetração de larvas e na de fêmeas com ovos. Não [...] foram observadas diferenças quanto ao desenvolvimento radicular e da parte aérea entre plântulas inoculadas e não inoculadas, nas duas avaliações. Nos dois cultivares, houve aumento no teor de fenóis nas plântulas inoculadas na primeira avaliação, e, na segunda, apesar de os valores terem sido maiores, foram iguais entre plântulas inoculadas e seus respectivos controles. O 'Mundo Novo' apresentou sempre maior conteúdo de fenóis que o 'Apoatã' e somente houve aumento na sua atividade de peroxidase na primeira avaliação. Na segunda, a atividade dessa enzima foi maior do que na primeira, porém igual entre plântulas inoculadas e seus controles. O 'Apoatã' sempre teve maior atividade de peroxidase, e apenas houve aumento da atividade de sua polifenoloxidase na primeira avaliação, sendo que nesse cultivar a atividade dessa enzima sempre foi maior do que no 'Mundo Novo'. Cromatografias em camada delgada de celulose mostraram que em nenhum deles houve variações quantitativas de fenóis entre as plantas inoculadas e não inoculadas. Ambos, 'Mundo Novo' e 'Apoatã', apresentaram 23 compostos fenólicos em comum e, nove e onze não comuns respectivamente. Abstract in english Seedlings of two coffee cultivars were inoculated with the nematode Meloidogyne incognita: cv. Mundo Novo (susceptible) of Coffea arabica and cv. Apoatã (resistant) of C. canephora. During the larval penetration and adult female phases of the parasite, evaluations were made on phenol content, peroxi [...] dase and polyphenoloxidase activities. In the two evaluations, no differences were observed in roots and shoots growth among inoculated and non inoculated seedling. For both cultivars, only in the first phase infected seedlings showed an increase in phenols as compared to their counterparts not inoculated. However, phenol values were higher in the second than in the first phase. The cv. Mundo Novo had always higher phenols content than Apoatã. Only inoculated seedlings of the cv. Mundo Novo showed an increase of peroxidase activities in the first phase; but, both cultivars presented higher peroxidase activities in the second phase as compared to the first. Apoatã seedlings had always higher peroxidase and polyphenoloxidase activities than Mundo Novo. Infected seedlings of the cv. Apoatã showed in the first phase, only, an increase in polyphenoloxidase activity. Thin-layer chromatograms of phenolic extracts did not present any difference among inoculated and non-inoculated seedlings. Twenty three spots on the chromatograms were common to both cultivars, except that Apoatã had a further nine spots not found in Mundo Novo and the later had a further eleven not found in the former.

Mazzafera, Paulo; Gonçalves, Wallace; Fernandes, José Afonso Righetti.

178

Registro da ocorrência de Meloidogyne incognita no porta-enxerto 'IAC 766-Campinas' no estado de Pernambuco e reação de porta-enxertos e de cultivares copa de videira a Meloidogyne spp. / Meloidogyne incognita report on 'IAC 766-Campinas' rootstock in the state of Pernambuco and reaction of grape rootstocks and cultivars to Meloidogyne spp.  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Relata-se a ocorrência de Meloidogyne incognita (Est. I2) em pomar de videira na cidade de Petrolina, Pernambuco. Plantas da cultivar Festival enxertadas sobre 'IAC 766-Campinas', atacadas por Meloidogyne incognita, apresentavam sintomas de menor vigor, folhas amarelecidas e folhagem mais esparsa, e [...] raízes com numerosas galhas em meio ao cultivo de feijão-de-porco (Canavalia ensiformis), também atacado pelo nematoide. Com o objetivo de avaliar a resistência de quatro porta-enxertos tropicais, oito de clima temperado, e as cultivares Niágara Rosada e Chardonnay quanto à reação a M. incognita e M. arenaria, em casa de vegetação, realizou-se este trabalho. Mudas das videiras, mantidas em vaso com solo esterilizado, foram inoculadas com 10.000 ovos + J2 de M. incognita ou M. arenaria por planta. Decorridos oito meses da inoculação, cada planta foi avaliada quanto ao número de galhas e número de ovos por planta, determinando-se, a seguir, o fator de reprodução de cada espécie do nematoide (FR=população inicial/população final) nos diferentes materiais testados. Entre os porta-enxertos avaliados, 'Harmony', 'Salt Creek', '1103 Paulsen', 'IAC 572-Jales', 'IAC 313-Tropical', 'K5BB Kober' e 'SO4', foram resistentes (FR Abstract in english The occurrence of root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita (Est. I2) is reported in grapevine in Petrolina municipality, State of Pernambuco. Grape plants of Festival cultivar grafted on the 'IAC 766 - Campinas' rootstock attacked by M. incognita exhibited symptoms of less vigorous growth, yellowing [...] and sparse leaves and multiple galls in the root system in an area cultivated with jack-bean (Canavalia ensiformis) also infected by the same nematode. In order to evaluate resistance of four tropical rootstocks, eight temperate and two cultivars Chardonnay and Niagara Rosada in reaction to M. incognita and M. arenaria, this study was carried out. Seedlings of the investigated grapevine genotypes were maintained in pots with sterilized soil and subsequently inoculated with 10,000 eggs + J2 of M. incognita or M. arenaria per plant in a six replicate design. Eight months after nematode inoculation, each plant was evaluated by counting gall and eggs. The final number of eggs (FP) of each Meloidogyne specie was calculated and the reproductive factor (RF = FP/IP), determined. Among the tested rootstocks, 'Harmony', 'Salt Creek', '1103 Paulsen', 'IAC 572-Jales', 'IAC 313-Tropical', 'K5BB Kober', 'SO4' , were resistant (RF

Somavilla, Lúcia; Gomes, Cesar Bauer; Quecini, Vera Maria.

179

Potential of sucrose and Pennisetum purpureum cv. Cameroon mulch on the management of Meloidogyne javanica and M. incognita  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Os efeitos da sacarose sobre a motilidade e a infectividade de juvenis de Meloidogyne javanica foram avaliados em condições de laboratório e casa-de-vegetação, usando açúcar mascavo e açúcar cristal. Os resultados indicaram que as soluções de açúcar mascavo e cristal reduziram a motilidade e promove [...] ram alterações morfológicas em juvenis dos nematóides in vitro. A eficiência da sacarose em grânulos e da sacarose em solução, com e sem a cobertura com matéria vegetal de capim elefante, na redução da reprodução e da população final de M. incognita raça 2 também foi avaliada. A sacarose em grânulos diminuiu os números de galhas e massas de ovos por sistema radicular e também de juvenis no solo. Para o ensaio com sacarose em solução, os melhores resultados para a redução da reprodução foram obtidos com a dose de 300 g de sacarose por litro de solo, aplicada a intervalos de sete dias, juntamente com a cobertura do solo com cobertura de matéria verde de capim-elefante. Abstract in english The effects of sucrose on motility and infectiveness of juveniles of Meloidogyne javanica were evaluated under laboratory and greenhouse conditions, using brown sugar and crystal sugar. Results showed that crystal and brown sugar solutions reduced motility and promoted morphological alterations of j [...] uvenile nematodes in vitro. The increasing dosages of sucrose reduced the number of galls and egg masses in tomato root by reducing the number of infective juveniles. The efficiency of granular sucrose, sucrose solution, with and without elephant-grass mulch, in the reduction of reproduction and final population of M. incognita race 2, were also evaluated. Granular sucrose induced decrease on the numbers of galls and eggs masses per root system as well as on juveniles in the soil. For sucrose solution assay, the best results for reproductive reduction were obtained with 300g of granular sucrose per liter of soil, applied at seven days intervals, associated with elephant-grass mulch.

Santiago, Débora Cristina; Homechin, Martin; Montalvan, Ricardo; Krzyzanowski, Alaide Aparecida.

180

Efeito de extratos aquosos de espécies de Asteraceae sobre Meloidogyne incognita Effect of aqueous extracts of Asteraceae species on Meloidogyne incognita  

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Full Text Available Estudou-se, in vitro e in vivo a atividade nematicida dos extratos aquosos de vedélia (Sphagneticola trilobata, erva-de-touro (Tridax procumbens, cravo-de-defunto (Tagetes patula, girassol mexicano (Tithonia diversifolia, botão de ouro (Unxia suffruticosa e zínia (Zinnia peruviana, sobre Meloidogyne incognita. Os extratos foram preparados na proporção de 1,0g do material seco e triturado para 10mL de água destilada e armazenados por 24h, sendo seguidamente utilizados nos experimentos. Nos testes in vitro, foram depositados 4,0mL do extrato bruto e 2,0mL de uma suspensão aquosa contendo 200 ovos do nematóide em placas de Petri de 5cm de diâmetro e, quinze dias após, procedeu-se a contagem do número de juvenis eclodidos e dos ovos remanescentes para o cálculo das porcentagens de eclosão. Nos testes in vivo, os extratos foram aplicados, separadamente, via pulverização foliar, tratamento de raiz e vertido no solo, semanalmente durante 60 dias. Como testemunha utilizou-se apenas água nos dois experimentos. No ensaio in vitro observou-se que todos os extratos foram eficientes na redução da eclosão de juvenis de M. incognita quando comparados à testemunha, as porcentagens de redução foram 89,96%, 91,13%, 92,48%, 92,72%, 93,2% e 97,48% para erva-de-touro, cravo-de-defunto, girassol mexicano, vedélia, botão de ouro e zínia, respectivamente, e no ensaio in vivo, que os tratamentos não exerceram nenhum efeito sobre o peso do sistema radicular dos tomateiros, no entanto, observou-se que os resultados diferiram entre as espécies utilizadas e a forma de aplicação do extrato na avaliação do peso fresco da parte aérea das plantas. Quanto ao fator de reprodução, observou-se que nenhum dos extratos apresentou diferença estatística em relação à testemunha, no entanto, quando se compara as diferentes formas de aplicação dos mesmos, observa-se que houve diferença estatística quando os extratos de erva de touro e girassol mexicano foram aplicados via pulverização foliar e no tratamento de raiz, contudo, não houve diferença quando estes extratos foram aplicados em forma de rega no solo.The nematicide activity of aqueous extracts of Wedelia (Sphagneticola trilobata, tridax daisy (Tridax procumbens, marigold (Tagetes patula, Mexican sunflower (Tithonia diversifolia, "botão de ouro" (Unxia suffruticosa and Peruvian zinnia (Zinnia peruviana was studied in vitro and in vivo on Meloidogyne incognita. The extracts were prepared at a ratio of 1.0 g of dry and crushed material to 10 ml of distilled water, stored for 24 hours, and then used in the experiments. In in vitro tests, 4.0 mL of crude extract and 2.0 ml of an aqueous suspension containing 200 nematode eggs were deposited on Petri plates of 5cm diameter and, fifteen days later, the number of hatched juveniles and the remaining eggs were counted to calculate the percentages of hatching. In in vivo tests, the extracts were separately applied by leaf spraying, root treatment and pouring onto the soil, weekly for 60 days. As control, only water was used in both experiments. The in vitro test showed that all extracts were effective in reducing the hatching of juveniles of M. incognita when compared to the control; the reduction percentages were 89.96%, 91.13%, 92.48%, 92.72%, 93.2% and 97.48% for tridax daisy, marigold, Mexican sunflower, Wedelia, "botão de ouro" and Peruvian zinnia, respectively, while in the in vivo assay, treatments did not have any effect on the root system weight of tomato plants; however, results differed between the used species and the way of application of the extract in the evaluation of the fresh weight of shoots. As to the reproduction rate, none of the extracts showed a statistical difference, compared to control; however, comparing the different ways of application, there was statistical difference when the extracts of tridax daisy and Mexican sunflower were applied through leaf spraying and root treatment, but there was no difference when these extracts were applied as irrigation on the soil.

Isabel Cristina Madeira Ferreira

2013-03-01

 
 
 
 
181

Mitochondrial genomes of Meloidogyne chitwoodi and M. incognita (Nematoda: Tylenchina): comparative analysis, gene order and phylogenetic relationships with other nematodes.  

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Root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp.) are among the most important plant pathogens. In this study, the mitochondrial (mt) genomes of the root-knot nematodes, M. chitwoodi and M. incognita were sequenced. PCR analyses suggest that both mt genomes are circular, with an estimated size of 19.7 and 18.6-19.1kb, respectively. The mt genomes each contain a large non-coding region with tandem repeats and the control region. The mt gene arrangement of M. chitwoodi and M. incognita is unlike that of other nematodes. Sequence alignments of the two Meloidogyne mt genomes showed three translocations; two in transfer RNAs and one in cox2. Compared with other nematode mt genomes, the gene arrangement of M. chitwoodi and M. incognita was most similar to Pratylenchus vulnus. Phylogenetic analyses (Maximum Likelihood and Bayesian inference) were conducted using 78 complete mt genomes of diverse nematode species. Analyses based on nucleotides and amino acids of the 12 protein-coding mt genes showed strong support for the monophyly of class Chromadorea, but only amino acid-based analyses supported the monophyly of class Enoplea. The suborder Spirurina was not monophyletic in any of the phylogenetic analyses, contradicting the Clade III model, which groups Ascaridomorpha, Spiruromorpha and Oxyuridomorpha based on the small subunit ribosomal RNA gene. Importantly, comparisons of mt gene arrangement and tree-based methods placed Meloidogyne as sister taxa of Pratylenchus, a migratory plant endoparasitic nematode, and not with the sedentary endoparasitic Heterodera. Thus, comparative analyses of mt genomes suggest that sedentary endoparasitism in Meloidogyne and Heterodera is based on convergent evolution. PMID:24751670

Humphreys-Pereira, Danny A; Elling, Axel A

2014-01-01

182

Effect of Simultaneous Water Deficit Stress and Meloidogyne incognita Infection on Cotton Yield and Fiber Quality  

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Both water deficit stress and Meloidogyne incognita infection can reduce cotton growth and yield, and drought can affect fiber quality, but the effect of nematodes on fiber quality is not well documented. To determine whether nematode parasitism affects fiber quality and whether the combined effects of nematode and drought stress on yield and quality are additive (independent effects), synergistic, or antagonistic, we conducted a study for 7 yr in a field infested with M. incognita. A split-plot design was used with the main plot factor as one of three irrigation treatments (low [nonirrigated], moderate irrigation, and high irrigation [water-replete]) and the subplot factor as 0 or 56 l/ha 1,3-dichloropropene. We prevented water deficit stress in plots designated as water-replete by supplementing rainfall with irrigation. Plots receiving moderate irrigation received half the water applied to the water-replete treatment. The severity of root galling was greater in nonfumigated plots and in plots receiving the least irrigation, but the amount of irrigation did not influence the effect of fumigation on root galling (no irrigation × fumigation interaction). The weights of lint and seed harvested were reduced in nonfumigated plots and also decreased as the level of irrigation decreased, but fumigation did not influence the effect of irrigation. Nematodes affected fiber quality by increasing micronaire readings but typically had little or no effect on percent lint, fiber length (measured by HVI), uniformity, strength, elongation, length (based on weight or number measured by AFIS), upper quartile length, or short fiber content (based on weight or number). Micronaire also was increased by water deficit stress, but the effects from nematodes and water stress were independent. We conclude that the detrimental effects caused to cotton yield and quality by nematode parasitism and water deficit stress are independent and therefore additive.

Davis, R. F.; Earl, H. J.; Timper, P.

2014-01-01

183

Effect of Simultaneous Water Deficit Stress and Meloidogyne incognita Infection on Cotton Yield and Fiber Quality.  

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Both water deficit stress and Meloidogyne incognita infection can reduce cotton growth and yield, and drought can affect fiber quality, but the effect of nematodes on fiber quality is not well documented. To determine whether nematode parasitism affects fiber quality and whether the combined effects of nematode and drought stress on yield and quality are additive (independent effects), synergistic, or antagonistic, we conducted a study for 7 yr in a field infested with M. incognita. A split-plot design was used with the main plot factor as one of three irrigation treatments (low [nonirrigated], moderate irrigation, and high irrigation [water-replete]) and the subplot factor as 0 or 56 l/ha 1,3-dichloropropene. We prevented water deficit stress in plots designated as water-replete by supplementing rainfall with irrigation. Plots receiving moderate irrigation received half the water applied to the water-replete treatment. The severity of root galling was greater in nonfumigated plots and in plots receiving the least irrigation, but the amount of irrigation did not influence the effect of fumigation on root galling (no irrigation × fumigation interaction). The weights of lint and seed harvested were reduced in nonfumigated plots and also decreased as the level of irrigation decreased, but fumigation did not influence the effect of irrigation. Nematodes affected fiber quality by increasing micronaire readings but typically had little or no effect on percent lint, fiber length (measured by HVI), uniformity, strength, elongation, length (based on weight or number measured by AFIS), upper quartile length, or short fiber content (based on weight or number). Micronaire also was increased by water deficit stress, but the effects from nematodes and water stress were independent. We conclude that the detrimental effects caused to cotton yield and quality by nematode parasitism and water deficit stress are independent and therefore additive. PMID:24987162

Davis, R F; Earl, H J; Timper, P

2014-06-01

184

Inconsistency of the biological control of Meloidogyne incognita race 2 in melon by endophytic bacteria Inconsistência do controle biológico de Meloidogyne incognita raça 2 em meloeiro por bactérias endofíticas  

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Full Text Available We obtained 61 rhizobacterium isolates from rhizosphere soil samples collected in melon commercial fields located in Mossoró, Rio Grande do Norte State, Brazil. These isolates, along with 56 endophytic bacteria from the Collection of Cultures of the Plant Bacteriology Laboratory of the Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco, were tested for controlling Meloidogyne incognita race 2 in melon. To infest the soil with nematodes, 1000 eggs of Meloidogyne incognita race 2 per plant were placed in pots where seedlings of the yellow-type melon, cultivar AF 682, were growing for 10 days. Two days before, 20 mL of bacterial suspension (0.7 OD570nm were poured into each pot. After 60 days, fresh root biomass, gall index, egg mass, and the nematode reproduction factor were assessed. Among the 117 isolates screened, the endophytic Bacillus ENM7, ENM10, and ENM51 were selected because they significantly reduced egg mass and/or gall index. However, when tested again, separately and in mixtures, these isolates nor confirmed their efficiency in vivo, neither affected juvenile emergence in vitro. These results give evidence on the inconsistency of using endophytic-bacteria in the control of M. incognita race 2 in melon.A partir de amostras de solo coletadas em plantios comerciais de meloeiro, situados em Mossoró-RN, foram obtidos 61 isolados de rizobactérias que, juntamente com outros 56 isolados endofíticos pertencentes à Coleção de Culturas do Laboratório de Fitobacteriologia da Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco, foram avaliados para o controle de Meloidogyne incognita raça 2 em melão. Plantas de meloeiro Amarelo, cultivar AF 682, com dez dias de idade tiveram o solo infestado com 1000 ovos de M. incognita raça 2 por planta. Dois dias antes, foram depositados em cada vaso 20 mL da suspensão bacteriana (DO570nm = 0,7. Decorridos 60 dias, foram determinados a biomassa fresca das raízes, os índices de galhas e de massa de ovos e o fator de reprodução do nematóide. Dos 117 isolados avaliados, foram selecionados inicialmente os isolados endofíticos ENM7, ENM10 e ENM51, todos pertencentes ao gênero Bacillus, que reduziram significativamente a massa de ovos e/ou o índice de galhas. Contudo, quando testados novamente, separadamente ou em misturas, esses isolados não mantiveram a eficiência na redução dessas variáveis e, in vitro, não afetaram a eclosão dos juvenis. Os resultados obtidos evidenciam a inconstância da ação das bactérias endofíticas no controle de M. incognita raça 2 em meloeiro.

Jeane E de Medeiros

2009-09-01

185

Tolerancia de 26 colectas de tomates nativos de México al nematodo Meloidogyne incognita (Kofoid y White) Chitwood / Tolerance of 26 native tomato collections from Mexico to nematode Meloidogyne incognita (Kofoid and White) Chitwood  

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Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Se determinó la tolerancia de 26 colectas de tomates nativos de México a Meloidogyne incongnita (Kofoid y White) Chitwood, con el fin de identificar aquellas con potencial para su empleo en el mejoramiento genético o como portainjertos. Para ello, plantas de 30 días de edad fueron establecidas en hi [...] droponia bajo invernadero. Diez días después del trasplante (ddt) fue aplicada al sustrato una solución con 100,000 huevecillos-larva por planta. Se registraron caracteres de la parte aérea de plantas y a los 210 ddt se cuantificó el desarrollo de poblaciones de nematodos en raíces. M. incognita disminuyó el diámetro de frutos y el porte de planta (altura al primer racimo, peso seco de tallo y número de nudos), e incrementó el número de frutos y flores. Además, redujo la longitud de raíces y aumentó el volumen de éstas por la formación de nódulos. Mediante análisis multivariados (agrupamiento y discriminante) se definieron cinco grupos de colectas en función de la cantidad de agallas pequeñas y grandes, así como el total de éstas (82% de variación) y por la cantidad de larvas en raíz y huevecillos en sustrato (13% de variación). Se identificaron tres colectas tolerantes con bajos índices de agallas y menor presencia de huevecillos-larva en raíz y en sustrato. Ocho colectas fueron moderadamente tolerantes; nueve, moderadamente susceptibles, y seis, susceptibles. No se detectaron asociaciones entre orígenes de colectas o forma de fruto con respecto a la tolerancia al nematodo. Abstract in english The tolerance of 26 native tomato collections from Mexico to Meloidogyne incongnita (Kofoid and White) Chitwood was studied to identify those with potential for use in breeding or as rootstock. To do this, 30-day-old plants were established in a hydroponic system under greenhouse conditions. A solut [...] ion with 100,000 eggs-larvae per plant was applied to the substrate 10 days after transplantation (dat). Characters of the above-ground part of the plants were recorded and at 210 dat the development of nematode populations in roots was quantified. Meloidogyne incognita reduced fruit diameter and plant size (first truss height, stem dry weight, and node number), and increased the number of fruits and flowers. Additionally, it reduced root length and increased root volume due to nodule formation. By means of multivariate analysis (cluster and discriminant), five collection groups were defined based on the number of small and large galls, as well as total galls (82 % variation), and by the number of larvae in roots and eggs in the substrate (13 % variation). Three tolerant collections with low gall indices and a lower number of eggs-larvae in the roots and substrate were identified. Eight collections were moderately tolerant, nine moderately susceptible and six susceptible. No associations were detected between collection origins or fruit shape and tolerance to nematode.

Raquel, Cervantes-Moreno; Juan Enrique, Rodríguez-Pérez; Calixto, Carrillo Fonseca; Jaime, Sahagún-Castellanos; Eduardo, Rodríguez-Guzmán.

186

Studies on the interactive effect of Meloidogyne incognita and Fusarium solani on Lycopersicon esculentum, Mill  

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A disease complex involving Meloidogyne incognita and Fusarium solani was studied on tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum, Mill.) under glasshouse conditions. Pot experiments were conducted to determine the pathogenesis of both the pathogens individually, simultaneously and sequentially. Isolates of M. incognita and F. solani singly caused a significant reduction in plant height, fresh weight, dry weight, number of fruits and fruit weight over the un-inoculated o...

2011-01-01

187

Interactions between an arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus (Scutellospora heterogama) and the root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne incognita) on sweet passion fruit (Passiflora alata)  

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The effects of inoculation of sweet passion fruit plants with the arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungus Scutellospora heterogama on the symptoms produced by Meloidogyne incognita race 1 and its reproduction were evaluated in two greenhouse experiments. In the 1st, the M. incognita (5000 eggs/plant) and S. heterogama (200 spores/plant) inoculations were simultaneous; in the 2nd, the nematodes were inoculated 120 days after the fungal inoculation. In both the experiments, 220 days after AM fungal ...

Érika Cristina Teixeira dos Anjos; Uided Maaze Tiburcio Cavalcante; Danielle Maria Correia Gonçalves; Elvira Maria Regis Pedrosa; Venézio Felipe dos Santos; Leonor Costa Maia

2010-01-01

188

Ocorrência de Pratylenchus brachyurus e Meloidogyne incognita na cultura do algodoeiro no Estado do Mato Grosso Occurrence of Pratylenchus brachyurus and Meloidogyne incognita in cotton plantations of Mato Grosso State  

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Full Text Available In a survey carried out in the state of Mato Grosso, Brazil, the lesion nematode, Pratylenchus brachyurus, and the root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita, were found, respectively, in 94% and 3.7% of a total of 623 root and soil samples representing 21,793 ha. No visible aboveground symptoms in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum plants infected by P. brachyurus were observed, except for typical root lesions. In contrast, plants with M. incognita usually exhibited pronounced symptoms of damage. The high frequency (94% of P. brachyurus was unexpected and is of concern considering the fact that soybean (Glycine max and corn (Zea mays, are both susceptible to this nematode and are used in crop rotation programs.

Rosangela A. da Silva

2004-06-01

189

Nematicidal activity of mint aqueous extracts against the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita.  

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The nematicidal activity and chemical characterization of aqueous extracts and essential oils of three mint species, namely, Mentha × piperita , Mentha spicata , and Mentha pulegium , were investigated. The phytochemical analysis of the essential oils was performed by means of GC-MS, whereas the aqueous extracts were analyzed by LC-MS. The most abundant terpenes were isomenthone, menthone, menthol, pulegone, and carvone, and the water extracts yielded mainly chlorogenic acid, salvianolic acid B, luteolin-7-O-rutinoside, and rosmarinic acid. The water extracts exhibited significant nematicidal activity against Meloidogyne incognita , and the EC50/72h values were calculated at 1005, 745, and 300 mg/L for M. × piperita, M. pulegium, and M. spicata, respectively. Only the essential oil from M. spicata showed a nematicidal activity with an EC50/72h of 358 mg/L. Interestingly, menthofuran and carvone showed EC50/48h values of 127 and 730 mg/L, respectively. On the other hand, salicylic acid, isolated in the aqueous extracts, exhibited EC50 values at 24 and 48 h of 298 ± 92 and 288 ± 79 mg/L, respectively. PMID:24050256

Caboni, Pierluigi; Saba, Marco; Tocco, Graziella; Casu, Laura; Murgia, Antonio; Maxia, Andrea; Menkissoglu-Spiroudi, Urania; Ntalli, Nikoletta

2013-10-16

190

Nematicidal activity of allylisothiocyanate from horseradish (Armoracia rusticana) roots against Meloidogyne incognita.  

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In recent years, there has been a great development in the search for new natural pesticides for crop protection aiming a partial or total replacement of currently used chemical nematicides. Glucosinolate breakdown products are volatile and are therefore good candidates for nematodes fumigants. In this article, the methanol-aqueous extract (1:1, w/v) of horseradish (Armoracia rusticana) fresh roots (MAH) was in vitro tested for nematicidal activity against second stage (J2) Meloidogyne incognita. The EC50 of MAH after 3 days of J2 immersion in test solutions was 251 ± 46 mg/L. The chemical composition analysis of the extract carried out by the GC-MS technique showed that allylisothicyanate was the most abundant compound. This pure compound induced J2 paralysis with an EC50 of 52.6 ± 45.6 and 6.6 ± 3.4 mg/L after 1 h and 3 days of incubation. The use of LC-MS/MS showed for the first time that horseradish root is rich in polyphenols. The study of isothiocyanate degradation in soil showed that allylisothiocyanate was the most quickly degradable compound (half-life <10 min), whereas no significant differences in half-life time were noted between degradation in regular and autoclaved soil. PMID:23627288

Aissani, Nadhem; Tedeschi, Paola; Maietti, Annalisa; Brandolini, Vincenzo; Garau, Vincenzo Luigi; Caboni, Pierluigi

2013-05-22

191

Isolation of Nematicidal Triterpenoid Saponins from Pulsatilla koreana Root and Their Activities against Meloidogyne incognita  

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Full Text Available Pulsatilla koreana, a species endemic to Korea, is an important herb used in traditional medicine to treat amoebic dysentery and malaria. In the present study, 23 oleanane-type triterpenoid saponins 1–23 and eight lupane-type triterpenoid saponins 24–31 were isolated from the roots of P. koreana. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic data. The methanol extract and isolated compounds were next assessed for nematicidal activity against the root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne incognita. The methanol extract showed strong nematicidal activity after 48 h, with a LC50 value of 92.8 ?g/mL. Compounds 2, 5, 9, 20, and 21 showed significant effects, with LC50 values ranging from 70.1 to 94.7 ?g/mL after 48 h. These results suggest that triterpenoid saponins from P. koreana should be explored as potential natural nematicides for developing new agents to control root-knot nematode disease

Byung Soo Han

2013-05-01

192

Uptake and translocation of nitrogen, phosphorus and calcium in soybean infected with Meloidogyne incognita and M. javanica Absorção e transporte de nitrogênio, fósforo e cálcio em soja infetada com Meloidogyne incognita e M. javanica  

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Two soybean (Glycine max) cultivars were used in this study, Ocepar 4, rated as moderately resistant to Meloidogyne incognita race 3 but susceptible to M. javanica, and 'BR 16', susceptible to both nematodes. The effect of nematodes infection on the uptake and transport of N, P and Ca to the shoot was studied in plants growing in a split root system. The upper half was inoculated with 0, 3,000, 9,000 or 27,000 eggs/plant while the lower half received 15N, 32P or 45Ca. Infected plants showed a...

Carneiro, Rui G.; PAULO MAZZAFERA; Ferraz, Luiz Carlos C. B.; TAKASHI MURAOKA; Trivelin, Paulo Cesar O.

2002-01-01

193

Nematocidal flavone-C-glycosides against the root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne incognita) from Arisaema erubescens tubers.  

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A screening of several Chinese medicinal herbs for nematicidal properties showed that Arisaema erubescens (Wall.) Schott tubers possessed significant nematicidal activity against the root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne incognita). From the ethanol extract, two nematicidal flavone-C-glycosides were isolated by bioassay-guided fractionation. The compounds were identified as schaftoside and isoschaftoside on the basis of their phytochemical and spectral data. Schaftoside and isoschaftoside possessed strong nematicidal activity against M. incognita (LC(50) = 114.66 ?g/mL and 323.09 ?g/mL, respectively) while the crude extract of A. erubescens exhibited nematicidal activity against the root-knot nematode with a LC(50) value of 258.11 ?g/mL. PMID:21694672

Du, Shu Shan; Zhang, Hai Ming; Bai, Chun Qi; Wang, Cheng Fang; Liu, Qi Zhi; Liu, Zhi Long; Wang, Yong Yan; Deng, Zhi Wei

2011-01-01

194

Nematocidal Flavone-C-Glycosides against the Root-Knot Nematode (Meloidogyne incognita from Arisaema erubescens Tubers  

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Full Text Available A screening of several Chinese medicinal herbs for nematicidal properties showed that Arisaema erubescens (Wall. Schott tubers possessed significant nematicidal activity against the root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne incognita. From the ethanol extract, two nematicidal flavone-C-glycosides were isolated by bioassay-guided fractionation. The compounds were identified as schaftoside and isoschaftoside on the basis of their phytochemical and spectral data. Schaftoside and isoschaftoside possessed strong nematicidal activity against M. incognita (LC50 = 114.66 ?g/mL and 323.09 ?g/mL, respectively while the crude extract of A. erubescens exhibited nematicidal activity against the root-knot nematode with a LC50 value of 258.11 ?g/mL.

Zhi Long Liu

2011-06-01

195

Genome-wide survey and analysis of microsatellites in nematodes, with a focus on the plant-parasitic species Meloidogyne incognita  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Microsatellites are the most popular source of molecular markers for studying population genetic variation in eukaryotes. However, few data are currently available about their genomic distribution and abundance across the phylum Nematoda. The recent completion of the genomes of several nematode species, including Meloidogyne incognita, a major agricultural pest worldwide, now opens the way for a comparative survey and analysis of microsatellites in these organisms. Results Using MsatFinder, the total numbers of 1-6 bp perfect microsatellites detected in the complete genomes of five nematode species (Brugia malayi, Caenorhabditis elegans, M. hapla, M. incognita, Pristionchus pacificus ranged from 2,842 to 61,547, and covered from 0.09 to 1.20% of the nematode genomes. Under our search criteria, the most common repeat motifs for each length class varied according to the different nematode species considered, with no obvious relation to the AT-richness of their genomes. Overall, (ATn, (AGn and (CTn were the three most frequent dinucleotide microsatellite motifs found in the five genomes considered. Except for two motifs in P. pacificus, all the most frequent trinucleotide motifs were AT-rich, with (AATn and (ATTn being the only common to the five nematode species. A particular attention was paid to the microsatellite content of the plant-parasitic species M. incognita. In this species, a repertoire of 4,880 microsatellite loci was identified, from which 2,183 appeared suitable to design markers for population genetic studies. Interestingly, 1,094 microsatellites were identified in 801 predicted protein-coding regions, 99% of them being trinucleotides. When compared against the InterPro domain database, 497 of these CDS were successfully annotated, and further assigned to Gene Ontology terms. Conclusions Contrasted patterns of microsatellite abundance and diversity were characterized in five nematode genomes, even in the case of two closely related Meloidogyne species. 2,245 di- to hexanucleotide loci were identified in the genome of M. incognita, providing adequate material for the future development of a wide range of microsatellite markers in this major plant parasite.

Guillemaud Thomas

2010-10-01

196

Efecto del follaje de Tagetes minuta sobre la nodulación radicular de Meloidogyne incognita en Capsicum annuum, en invernadero / Effect of the foliage of Tagetes minuta on Meloidogyne incognita root-galling on Capsicum annuum in a greenhouse  

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Full Text Available SciELO Peru | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Se investigó el efecto del follaje del "huacatay" Tagetes minuta sobre la nodulación radicular producida por el nematodo Meloidogyne incognita que parasita el "pimiento páprika" Capsicum annuum cultivado en invernadero, con la finalidad de obtener una alternativa de control de este nematodo. Se util [...] izaron tres grupos experimentales y un testigo, con 12 macetas cada uno, las cuales contenían suelo y arena estériles (1:1). A este substrato se adicionó el follaje de T. minuta al 20, 35 y 50% (v/v) según grupo experimental, y el testigo no recibió esta enmienda. En cada maceta se sembró una plántula de C. annuum, y a la semana postsiembra se inoculó 5000 huevos de M. incognita. A las ocho semanas, se evaluaron los nódulos en sus raíces. Todas las plantas presentaron nódulos; aunque, en aquellas de los grupos experimentales el número de éstos fue menor que en las plantas testigo, con diferencia estadística significativa (p 0,05). Se concluye que el follaje de T. minuta adicionado como enmienda orgánica al 20, 35 y 50% al suelo de cultivo de plantas de C. annuum limita la nodulación radicular ocasionada por M. incognita. Lo cual sugiere su uso potencial en el control de este nematodo Abstract in english The effect of the foliage of Tagetes minuta "huacatay" on Meloidogyne incognita root-galling on Capsicum annuum "paprika pepper" cultured in a greenhouse was researched, to obtain a control strategy for this nematode. Three experimental groups and one control with 12 pots each were used, which conta [...] ined sterilized soil and sand (1:1). To this substrate was added cut foliage of T. minuta at 20, 35 and 50% (v/v) according to the experimental group, and the control group remained without this amendment. In each pot a seedling of C. annuum was sown, and one week post-seeding was inoculated with 5000 eggs of M. incognita. Eight weeks later the root galling was evaluated. All the plants had root galling; although the number of galls in plants of the experimental groups was less than those in the control group with statistical significant difference (p 0.05). It is concluded that the foliage of T. minuta added as organic amendment at 20, 35 and 50% to the culture soil for C. annuum plants limits the M. incognita root galling. That suggests its potential use in the control of this nematode

Santos Nélida, Murga-Gutiérrez; Juan Carlos, Alvarado-Ibáñez; Nora Yessenia, Vera-Obando.

197

Influence of Meloidogyne incognita on Fusarium Wilt of Tomato at or below the Minimum Temperature for Wilt Development  

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'Bonny Best' tomato plants were grown at 16, 21, or 24 C for 28 d in soil infested with either of two isolates of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici race 1 and Meloidogyne incognita. Significant levels of fusarium wilt occurred at all temperatures including 16 C, which has not been reported previously. One Fusarium isolate resulted in the highest levels of disease incidence at 21 and 24 C in the presence of root-knot nematodes, and at 24 C when the nematodes were not present. At 16 C there...

1981-01-01

198

Eficiência e atividade enzimática elicitada por metil jasmonato e silicato de potássio em cana-de-açúcar parasitada por Meloidogyne incognita Efficiency and enzymatic activity elicited by methyl jasmonate and potassium silicate on sugarcane under Meloidogyne incognita parasitism  

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Full Text Available O presente estudo teve como objetivo avaliar o efeito de metil jasmonato e silicato de potássio sobre o parasitismo de Meloidogyne incognita na variedade RB863129 de cana-de-açúcar (Saccharum sp. e a atividade enzimática da peroxidase e ?-1,3-glucanase elicitada, em condições de casa de vegetação. Metil jasmonato diminuiu significativamente o número de ovos por grama de raiz, mas não afetou à biomassa da parte aérea da planta. Sete dias após a aplicação, os dois indutores afetaram a atividade de ?-glucanase na plantas parasitadas e, aos 14 e 21 dias, promoveram variações significativas nos níveis de peroxidase e ?-1,3-glucanase, muito embora, ao contrário da peroxidase, a atividade ?-1,3-glucanase não diferiu entre plantas inoculadas e não inoculadas.The present study had as objective to evaluate methyl jasmonate and potassium silicate effect on Meloidogyne incognita parasitism in sugarcane (Saccharum sp. variety RB863129 and peroxidase and ?-1,3-glucanase activity elicited, under greenhouse. The effect of Methyl jasmonate and potassium silicate did not affect shoot biomass. Methyl jasmonate and potassium silicate significantly decreased eggs number per gram of roots. Seven days after application, both inducers affected b-glucanase activity in parasited plants and at 14 and 21 days, inducers promoted significant variations in peroxidase e -1,3-glucanase levels in plants under parasitism, although, inversely to peroxidase, ?-1,3-glucanase activity did not differ between inoculated and non inoculated plants.

Lílian Margarete Paes Guimarães

2010-03-01

199

Nematicidal activity of 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid purified from Terminalia nigrovenulosa bark against Meloidogyne incognita.  

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In this study, the 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid (3,4-DHBA) from Terminalia nigrovenulosa bark (TNB) was purified and its in vitro nematicidal activity was investigated against Meloidogyne incognita. The purification of 3,4-DHBA used a silica gel column and Sephadex LH-20 chromatography combined with thin-layer chromatography and high performance liquid chromatography. Structural identification of the 3,4-DHBA was conducted using (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), (13)C NMR, and liquid chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Nematicidal activity bioassays revealed that 3,4-DHBA treatment resulted in 33.3, 47.5, 72.5 and 94.2% J2 mortality at 0.125, 0.25, 0.5 and 1.0 mg/ml, respectively after 12 h incubation. J2 mortality was increased significantly (P < 0.0001) with increasing incubation time in the range of 54.2-94.2% from 3 to 9 h after incubation with 3,4-DHBA (1.0 mg/ml), but with no significant difference observed where the incubation time was increased from 9 to 12 h. The 3,4-DHBA treatment resulted in 33.3, 65.0, 76.7 and 85.0% hatch inhibition at 0.125, 0.25, 0.5 and 1.0 mg/ml, respectively, 3 days after incubation. Changes in the shape of the eggs were determined after incubation for 1 day with a 3,4-DHBA concentration of 1.0 mg/ml. PMID:23603737

Nguyen, Dang-Minh-Chanh; Seo, Dong-Jun; Kim, Kil-Yong; Park, Ro-Dong; Kim, Dong-Hyun; Han, Yeon-Soo; Kim, Tae-Hwan; Jung, Woo-Jin

2013-01-01

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Effects of ced-9 dsRNA on Caenorhabditis elegans and Meloidogyne incognita  

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Full Text Available Problem Statement: In metazoans Programmed Cell Death (PCD is essential for proper development. Suppression of PCD is needed to guarantee cell survival and in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans the regulation of PCD is accomplished by the function of the ced-9 gene. Approach: In this work the use of double stranded RNA (dsRNA to knock-down ced-9 gene function was tested as means to induce PCD. Results: Our results indicate that dsRNA targeting the cell death protection gene ced-9 is effective at decreasing the fecundity of C. elegans by up to 21%. The decreased fecundity correlated with an increased presence of cell corpses in developing embryos. Endogenous ced-9 transcript levels were reduced in progeny of ced-3 mutant nematodes fed bacteria expressing ced-9 dsRNA. These data suggest that nematode fecundity can be reduced by ingestion and exposure to dsRNAs targeting regulation of the cell death pathway. In an attempt to determine if plant parasitic nematodes are susceptible to the targeting of the PCD regulatory pathway we exposed Meloidogyne incognita, a plant parasitic nematode, to ced-9 dsRNA; here we show that this exposure results in decreased gall formation in the tobacco plants. Conclusion/Recommendations: Our results provide the first steps toward using RNAi technologies to attempt nematode control by targeting cell death pathways. Ongoing research with transgenic plants designed to express dsRNA for ced-9-like sequences will further test the feasibility of generating plants with RNAi-based resistance to parasitic nematodes.

Robert T. Gaeta

2011-01-01

 
 
 
 
201

Management of root knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita in cucumber (Cucumis sativus) using silicon.  

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Silicon (Si) has been reported to effectively manage some pests and diseases of plants. This study was conducted to determine the effect of Si concentration, mode, and frequency of application in managing Meloidogyne incognita in cucumber. A susceptible cultivar of cucumber (cv. Cyclone) was planted in pots containing heat-sterilized soil. Three weeks after planting, the plants were inoculated with 1,000 juveniles/ pot. Uninoculated plants were provided to serve as control. Three concentrations of Si in the form of sodium metasilicate was applied on the leaves and roots alone and also on both the leaves and roots. Application was done once during the growing period and weekly until seven days before harvest. Leaf and root application of Si was found to significantly increase (p = 0.0029) the fresh top weight of inoculated and uninoculated plants. On the other hand, inoculation of root-knot nematode significantly increased the fresh root weight of cucumber which could be due to enlargement of roots or formation of galls. Interestingly, the inoculated plants gave significantly higher marketable yield than uninoculated ones. Application of Si at the rate of 200 ppm significantly increased the marketable yield compared to the higher rate of Si (400 ppm). At 200 ppm, one application of Si both on the leaves and roots significantly reduced the number of galls in inoculated plants. This was comparable to the same concentration applied continuously on the roots and at higher concentration (400 ppm) applied continuously on the leaves and on the roots. On the other hand, single root application of Si at the rate of 400 ppm gave the lowest number of eggmasses, however, it was comparable to the same Si concentration applied singly on the leaves and applied continuously both on the leaves and roots. These treatments, however, were at par with continuous application of the lower rate of Si (200 ppm) on the leaves and both leaves and roots. PMID:21539270

Dugui-Es, C; Pedroche, N; Villanueva, L; Galeng, J; De Waele, D

2010-01-01

202

Development of controlled release formulations of carbofuran and evaluation of their efficacy against Meloidogyne incognita.  

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Controlled release (CR) formulations of the insecti-nematicide carbofuran have been prepared using commercially available rosin, sodium carboxymethylcellulose and sodium carboxymethylcellulose with clay (bentonite, kaolinite, and Fuller's earth). The kinetics of carbofuran release in soil from the different formulations were studied in comparison with that of the commercially available granules (3G). Release from the commercial formulation was faster than with the new CR formulations. Addition of clay in the biodegradable polymer matrix reduced the rate of release. The diffusion exponent (n value) of carbofuran in soil ranged from 0.462 to 0.740 in the tested formulations. The half-release (t1/2) values ranged between 4.79 and 25.11 days, and the period of optimum availability (POA) of carbofuran ranged from 15.10 to 43.97 days. The mean EC50 of the commercial formulation against Meloidogyne incognita was quite high as compared to those of CR formulations. The effective duration (te) of carbofuran from the CR and commercial formulations was predicted by fitting the mean EC50 values of test formulations in the model (M(infinity) - Me)/M(infinity) = Kdte. It was 0.7 day in commercial 3G in comparison with 17.8 days for CMC-bentonite. The bioassay studies revealed that with the rosin-yellow polymer, the dose of carbofuran could be reduced to half of its recommended dose for nematode control. Overall, a comparison of CR formulations with the commercial one showed an earlier degradation of carbofuran in the latter and relatively prolonged activity in the former. PMID:16787021

Choudhary, Gunanand; Kumar, Jitendra; Walia, Suresh; Parsad, Rajender; Parmar, Balraj S

2006-06-28

203

Variability among Populations of Meloidogyne arenaria  

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Variability in reproduction and pathogenicity of 12 populations of Meloidogyne arenaria race 1 was evaluated on Florunner peanut, Centennial soybean, Rutgers tomato, G70, K326, and Mc944 tobacco, and Carolina Cayenne, Mississippi Nemaheart, and Santanka pepper. Differences among M. arenaria populations in rates of egg production 45 days after inoculation were observed for all cultivars except Santanka pepper. Differences among populations in dry top weights or fresh root weights were recorded...

1992-01-01

204

Screenhouse Assessment of Reaction of Fluted Pumpkin, Telfairia Occidentalis Hook F. to Root-Knot Nematode Meloidogyne Incognita  

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Full Text Available Screenhouse studies were carried out between April – June and July – September, 2004 at the vegetable researchunit of National HorticulturalResearch Institute (NIHORT, Ibadan,Nigeria to investigate the reaction of five linesof Telfairia occidentalis (EN2000-4, EN2000-6, EN2000-10, EN2000-11, EN2000-13 to different populationlevels (0, 5000 and 10 000 eggs of Meloidogyne incognita race 2. Seeds from five different matured pods ofTelfairia lines were planted on moist sawdust medium. They were watered every two days until germination andtransplanting. Experimental layout was a completely randomized design and each treatment was replicated fivetimes. Nematode inoculation was done at one week after transplanting. The plants were watered every two daysand observation of vine length, vine girth and number of leaves commenced two weeks after transplanting (WATon bi weekly basis and lasted till the 10th week. From the 4th WAT, roots were assessed for the presence of eggsevery five days in view of determining the generation time in the various lines. Soil nematode population and rootgall indices were determined at the end of the trial.Results showed that there were significant differences between the Telfairia lines in the measured parametersirrespective of the inoculum levels. EN2000-4 performed significantly better than the other lines. EN2000-13which closely followed EN2000-4 with respect to vegetative growth, recorded significantly higher galling indexthan all the other lines. There were significant differences between the inoculum levels. Inoculum levels wereinversely proportional to growth parameters and directly proportional to gall indices in all the lines. Chloroticpatches were also observed on the leaves of plants inoculated with 10 000 eggs. The uninoculated (control plantsgave significantly better vegetative growth than their inoculated counterparts. The disparities in growth and yieldresponses indicate that there is genetic variability among the lines.

N. B. IZUOGU

2010-08-01

205

Inheritance of resistance to Meloidogyne incognita race 2 in the hot pepper cultivar Carolina Cayenne (Capsicum annuum L.).  

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Root-knot nematodes of the genus Meloidogyne are important pathogens affecting vegetable crop production in Brazil and worldwide. The pepper species Capsicum annuum includes both hot and sweet peppers; very little emphasis has been placed on breeding sweet peppers for nematode resistance. We report on the inheritance of resistance to Meloidogyne incognita (Kofoid & White) Chitwood race 2 in the hot pepper cultivar Carolina Cayenne. The hot pepper cv. Carolina Cayenne was used as seed parent and the sweet pepper cv. Agronômico-8 was used as pollen parent to obtain the F(1) and F(2) generations and the backcross generations BC(11) and BC(12). The plants were inoculated with M. incognita race 2 at a rate of 60 eggs/ml of substrate and, after a suitable incubation period, the numbers of root galls and egg masses per root system were evaluated on each plant. Broad- (0.77 and 0.72) and narrow-sense (0.77 and 0.63) heritability estimates were high for both root galls and egg masses, respectively. The mean degree of dominance was estimated as 0.29 and 0.25 for numbers of galls and egg masses, respectively; these estimates were not significantly different from 0, indicating a predominantly additive gene action. The results were consistent with a hypothesis of monogenic resistance in Carolina Cayenne. PMID:14963835

de Souza-Sobrinho, Fausto; Maluf, Wilson Roberto; Gomes, Luiz A A; Campos, Vicente Paulo

2002-01-01

206

Effect of a formulation of Bacillus firmus on root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita infestation and the growth of tomato plants in the greenhouse and nursery.  

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Bacillus firmus, commercial WP formulation (BioNem) was evaluated against the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita in a laboratory, greenhouse and under field conditions on tomato plants. In the laboratory tests, an aqueous suspension of BioNem at 0.5%, 1%, 1.5% and 2% concentration reduced egg hatching from 98% to 100%, 24-days after treatment. Treatment of second-stage juveniles with 2.5% and 3% concentration of BioNem, caused 100% inhibition of mobility, 24 h after treatment. In the green house trials, BioNem applied at 8 g/pot (1200 cc soil) planted with a tomato seedlings reduced gall formation by 91%, final nematode populations by 76% and the number of eggs by 45%. Consequently, plant height and biomass was increased by 71% and 50%, respectively, compared to the untreated control, 50-days after treatment application. Application of BioNem at 16 g/pot was phytotoxic to plants. In the field trails, BioNem applied at 200 and 400 kg ha(-1) was effective in reducing the number of galls (75-84%), and increased shoot height (29-31%) and weight (20-24%) over the untreated control, 45-days after treatment. Our results indicate that B. firmus is a promising microorganism for the biological control of M. incognita in tomato pots. PMID:19041655

Terefe, Metasebia; Tefera, Tadele; Sakhuja, P K

2009-02-01

207

Efficacy evaluation of fungus Syncephalastrum racemosum and nematicide avermectin against the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita on cucumber.  

Science.gov (United States)

The root-knot nematode (RKN) is one of the most damaging agricultural pests.Effective biological control is need for controlling this destructive pathogen in organic farming system. During October 2010 to 2011, the nematicidal effects of the Syncephalastrum racemosum fungus and the nematicide, avermectin, alone or combined were tested against the RKN (Meloidogyne incognita) on cucumber under pot and field condition in China. Under pot conditions, the application of S. racemosum alone or combined with avermectin significantly increased the plant vigor index by 31.4% and 10.9%, respectively compared to the M. incognita-inoculated control. However, treatment with avermectin alone did not significantly affect the plant vigor index. All treatments reduced the number of root galls and juvenile nematodes compared to the untreated control. Under greenhouse conditions, all treatments reduced the disease severity and enhanced fruit yield compared to the untreated control. Fewer nematodes infecting plant roots were observed after treatment with avermectin alone, S. racemosum alone or their combination compared to the M. incognita-inoculated control. Among all the treatments, application of avermectin or S. racemosum combined with avermectin was more effective than the S. racemosum treatment. Our results showed that application of S. racemosum combined with avermectin not only reduced the nematode number and plant disease severity but also enhanced plant vigor and yield. The results indicated that the combination of S. racemosum with avermectin could be an effective biological component in integrated management of RKN on cucumber. PMID:24586982

Huang, Wen-Kun; Sun, Jian-Hua; Cui, Jiang-Kuan; Wang, Gang-Feng; Kong, Ling-An; Peng, Huan; Chen, Shu-Long; Peng, De-Liang

2014-01-01

208

Efeito de manipueira sobre Meloidogyne incognita em ensaios in vitro e em tomateiros em casa de vegetação Effect of manipueira on Meloidogyne incognita through in vitro and in vivo essays on tomatoes in greenhouse  

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Full Text Available Objetivou-se estudar o efeito nematicida de manipueira no controle de Meloidogyne incognita. Testes in vitro foram divididos em dois ensaios inteiramente casualizados: 1. manipueira a 100%, 75%, 50% e 25% em 12 repetições; 2. manipueira a 15%, 10%, 8%, 6%, 4% e 2% em 5 repetições. O ensaio em vasos seguiu o delineamento inteiramente casualisado com manipueira a 10%, 25% e 50% em 5 repetições. Para ambos os ensaios utilizou-se o tratamento somente água como testemunha positiva e Carbofuran (50 mg.L-1 de ingrediente ativo (i.a. ou 2 g de produto comercial/vaso como negativa. Para os ensaios in vitro foram avaliados nematóides vivos e mortos e número de galhas em plantas inoculadas. Para os ensaios em vaso foram avaliadas as variáveis altura de plantas, comprimento de raízes, número de galhas, número de ovos e fator de reprodução (FR. Os resultados in vitro demonstraram que os tratamentos com manipueira até 10% de diluição apresentaram 100% de controle. O ensaio com tomateiros previamente inoculados demonstrou que o tratamento manipueira 50% causou um melhor desenvolvimento da parte aérea das plantas de tomate. Os tratamentos manipueira a 10% e 25% foram mais efetivos no controle de M. incognita em vasos.The aim of this work was to study the nematicidal effect of manipueira on the control of Meloidogyne incognita. In vitro tests were split into two completely randomized assays: 1. manipueira 100%, 75%, 50% and 25% in 12 replications; 2. manipueira 15%, 10%, 8%, 6%, 4% and 2% in 5 replications. The pot assay followed a completely randomized design with the treatments manipueira 10%, 25% and 50% in 5 replications. For both assays the positive control was water and the negative control was the nematicide Carbofuran (50 mg.L-1 of active ingredient (a.i. or 2 g of commercial product/pot. For in vitro assays the variables assessed were live or dead nematodes and number of galls on inoculated plants. For the pot assay the variables evaluated were plant height, root length, number of galls, number of eggs and reproduction factor (RF. The in vitro results indicated that only the manipueira treatments from 100% to 10% dilution showed maximum control. The pot assay demonstrated that the treatment manipueira 50% caused better development of tomato shoots than the others. However, manipueira 10% and 25% were more effective against of M. incognita in pots.

Érica G.C. Nasu

2010-02-01

209

Efeito de manipueira sobre Meloidogyne incognita em ensaios in vitro e em tomateiros em casa de vegetação / Effect of manipueira on Meloidogyne incognita through in vitro and in vivo essays on tomatoes in greenhouse  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Objetivou-se estudar o efeito nematicida de manipueira no controle de Meloidogyne incognita. Testes in vitro foram divididos em dois ensaios inteiramente casualizados: 1. manipueira a 100%, 75%, 50% e 25% em 12 repetições; 2. manipueira a 15%, 10%, 8%, 6%, 4% e 2% em 5 repetições. O ensaio em vasos [...] seguiu o delineamento inteiramente casualisado com manipueira a 10%, 25% e 50% em 5 repetições. Para ambos os ensaios utilizou-se o tratamento somente água como testemunha positiva e Carbofuran (50 mg.L-1 de ingrediente ativo (i.a.) ou 2 g de produto comercial/vaso) como negativa. Para os ensaios in vitro foram avaliados nematóides vivos e mortos e número de galhas em plantas inoculadas. Para os ensaios em vaso foram avaliadas as variáveis altura de plantas, comprimento de raízes, número de galhas, número de ovos e fator de reprodução (FR). Os resultados in vitro demonstraram que os tratamentos com manipueira até 10% de diluição apresentaram 100% de controle. O ensaio com tomateiros previamente inoculados demonstrou que o tratamento manipueira 50% causou um melhor desenvolvimento da parte aérea das plantas de tomate. Os tratamentos manipueira a 10% e 25% foram mais efetivos no controle de M. incognita em vasos. Abstract in english The aim of this work was to study the nematicidal effect of manipueira on the control of Meloidogyne incognita. In vitro tests were split into two completely randomized assays: 1. manipueira 100%, 75%, 50% and 25% in 12 replications; 2. manipueira 15%, 10%, 8%, 6%, 4% and 2% in 5 replications. The p [...] ot assay followed a completely randomized design with the treatments manipueira 10%, 25% and 50% in 5 replications. For both assays the positive control was water and the negative control was the nematicide Carbofuran (50 mg.L-1 of active ingredient (a.i.) or 2 g of commercial product/pot). For in vitro assays the variables assessed were live or dead nematodes and number of galls on inoculated plants. For the pot assay the variables evaluated were plant height, root length, number of galls, number of eggs and reproduction factor (RF). The in vitro results indicated that only the manipueira treatments from 100% to 10% dilution showed maximum control. The pot assay demonstrated that the treatment manipueira 50% caused better development of tomato shoots than the others. However, manipueira 10% and 25% were more effective against of M. incognita in pots.

Érica G.C., Nasu; Ely, Pires; Heloísa M., Formentini; Cleber, Furlanetto.

210

Evaluation of Pochonia chlamydosporia, Paecilomyces lilacinus and Arthrobotrys dactyloide as Biocontrol Agents for Meloidogyne incognita under Green House Condition  

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In this study, evaluation of the nematophagous fungi Pochonia chlamydosporia, Paecilomyces lilacinus and Arthrobotrys dactyloide as biological control agents for Meloidogyne incognita was investigated under greenhouse conditions. Experiments confirmed the effectiveness of these predatory and parasitic fungi that actively reduced the number of infective larvae of M. incognita. The killing effect of these fungi is similar to the synthetic chemical nematicide Furadan ...

El-shanshoury, Abd El-raheem R.; El-sayed, Samir A.; Mahmoud, Yehia A. G.; Khalefa, Doaa M.

2005-01-01

211

Utility of Host Delivered RNAi of Two FMRF Amide Like Peptides, flp-14 and flp-18, for the Management of Root Knot Nematode, Meloidogyne incognita  

Science.gov (United States)

Root knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita, is an obligate sedentary endoparasite that infects a large number of crop species and causes substantial yield losses. Non-chemical based control strategies for these nematodes are gaining importance. In the present study, we have demonstrated the significance of two FMRFamide like peptide genes (flp-14 and flp-18) for infection and development of resistance to M. incognita through host-derived RNAi. The study demonstrated both in vitro and in planta validation of RNAi-induced silencing of the two genes cloned from J2 stage of M. incognita. In vitro silencing of both the genes interfered with nematode migration towards the host roots and subsequent invasion into the roots. Transgenic tobacco lines were developed with RNAi constructs of flp-14 and flp-18 and evaluated against M. incognita. The transformed plants did not show any visible phenotypic variations suggesting the absence of any off-target effects. Bioefficacy studies with deliberate challenging of M. incognita resulted in 50-80% reduction in infection and multiplication confirming the silencing effect. We have provided evidence for in vitro and in planta silencing of the genes by expression analysis using qRT-PCR. Thus the identified genes and the strategy can be used as a potential tool for the control of M. incognita. This is the first ever report that has revealed the utility of host delivered RNAi of flps to control M. incognita. The strategy can also be extended to other crops and nematodes.

Kamaraju, Divya; Banakar, Prakash; Sreevathsa, Rohini; Rao, Uma

2013-01-01

212

Elucidating the molecular bases of epigenetic inheritance in non-model invertebrates: the case of the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita  

Science.gov (United States)

Root-knot nematodes of the genus Meloidogyne are biotrophic plant parasites that exhibit different life cycles and reproduction modes, ranging from classical amphimixis to obligatory mitotic parthenogenesis (apomixis), depending on the species. Meloidogyne incognita, an apomictic species, exhibits a worldwide distribution and a wide host range affecting more than 3000 plant species. Furthermore, evidences suggest that apomixis does not prevent M. incognita from adapting to its environment in contrast to what is expected from mitotic parthenogenesis that should theoretically produce clonal progenies. This raises questions about mechanisms of genome plasticity leading to genetic variation and adaptive evolution in apomictic animals. We reasoned that epigenetic mechanisms might in part be responsible for the generation of phenotypic variants that provide potential for rapid adaptation. We established therefore a pipeline to investigate the principal carriers of epigenetic information, DNA methylation and post-translational histone modifications. Even if M. incognita possesses the epigenetic machinery i.e., chromatin modifying enzymes, 5-methyl-cytosine and 5-hydroxy-methyl-cytosine content is absent or very weak. In contrast, we demonstrated that the canonical histone modifications are present and chromatin shows typical nucleosome structure. This work is the first characterization of carriers of epigenetic information in M. incognita and constitutes a preamble to further investigate if M. incognita development and its adaptation to plant hosts are under epigenetic control. Our pipeline should allow performing similar types of studies in any non-model organism.

Perfus-Barbeoch, Laetitia; Castagnone-Sereno, Philippe; Reichelt, Michael; Fneich, Sara; Roquis, David; Pratx, Loris; Cosseau, Celine; Grunau, Christoph; Abad, Pierre

2014-01-01

213

Elucidating the molecular bases of epigenetic inheritance in non-model invertebrates: the case of the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita.  

Science.gov (United States)

Root-knot nematodes of the genus Meloidogyne are biotrophic plant parasites that exhibit different life cycles and reproduction modes, ranging from classical amphimixis to obligatory mitotic parthenogenesis (apomixis), depending on the species. Meloidogyne incognita, an apomictic species, exhibits a worldwide distribution and a wide host range affecting more than 3000 plant species. Furthermore, evidences suggest that apomixis does not prevent M. incognita from adapting to its environment in contrast to what is expected from mitotic parthenogenesis that should theoretically produce clonal progenies. This raises questions about mechanisms of genome plasticity leading to genetic variation and adaptive evolution in apomictic animals. We reasoned that epigenetic mechanisms might in part be responsible for the generation of phenotypic variants that provide potential for rapid adaptation. We established therefore a pipeline to investigate the principal carriers of epigenetic information, DNA methylation and post-translational histone modifications. Even if M. incognita possesses the epigenetic machinery i.e., chromatin modifying enzymes, 5-methyl-cytosine and 5-hydroxy-methyl-cytosine content is absent or very weak. In contrast, we demonstrated that the canonical histone modifications are present and chromatin shows typical nucleosome structure. This work is the first characterization of carriers of epigenetic information in M. incognita and constitutes a preamble to further investigate if M. incognita development and its adaptation to plant hosts are under epigenetic control. Our pipeline should allow performing similar types of studies in any non-model organism. PMID:24936189

Perfus-Barbeoch, Laetitia; Castagnone-Sereno, Philippe; Reichelt, Michael; Fneich, Sara; Roquis, David; Pratx, Loris; Cosseau, Céline; Grunau, Christoph; Abad, Pierre

2014-01-01

214

Efeito da incorporação de sementes trituradas defeijão de porco ao solo sobre o parasitismo de Meloidogyne incognita em tomateiro / Effect of soil amendment with powdered seeds of pig bean on Meloidogyne incognita in tomato  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Avaliou-se, em condições de casa de vegetação, o efeito da suplementação do solo com sementes trituradas de feijão de porco (Canavalia ensiformis) sobre os índices de galhas e de massas de ovos de Meloidogyne incognita raça 1 em tomateiro (Lycopersicon esculentum). O substrato utilizado foi solo aut [...] oclavado suplementado com 2,5; 5,0; 7,5 e 10,0 g de sementes trituradas/kg de solo. Solo sem a suplementação serviu como testemunha. Para efeito de comparação, o nematicida Carbofuran foi incluído como tratamento adicional. Controle do nematóide foi obtido a partir da incorporação de 5,0 g de sementes trituradas/kg de solo, sendo o efeito proporcional à dosagem. Os índices de galhas e massas de ovos foram reduzidos em 48% e 64%, respectivamente, com a aplicação de 10 g de sementes trituradas/kg de solo. Abstract in english A greenhouse experiment was carried out to study the effect of powdered seeds of pig bean (Canavalia ensiformis) incorporated into the soil, for the control of Meloidogyne incognita race 1 in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) plants. Autoclaved soil was amended with 2.5, 5.0, 7.5 and 10.0 g of powder [...] ed seeds/kg of soil. Soil without amendment served as control. For comparison, the nematicide Carbofuran was included as an additional treatment. Nematode was controlled at rates above 5.0 g. Gall and egg mass indexes were reduced by 48% and 64%, respectively, with the application of 10 g of powdered seeds/kg of soil.

GILSON S., SILVA; ILKA M. R., SOUZA; FLÁVIA A., CUTRIM.

215

Effect of Three Plant Residues and Chicken Manure used as Biofumigants at Three Temperatures on Meloidogyne incognita Infestation of Tomato in Greenhouse Experiments  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Plant residues of broccoli, melon, and tomato with or without addition of chicken manure were used as biofumigants in two pot experiments with Meloidogyne incognita-infested soils. The efficacy of these biofumigants in controlling M. incognita infestation in susceptible tomato bio-assay plants was studied at soil temperatures of 20º, 25º, and 30 ºC. None of the plant residues was effective at 20 ºC, and broccoli was more effective than tomato or melon at 25 ºC. At 30 ºC all three plant ...

Lo?pez-pe?rez, Jose-antonio; Roubtsova, Tatiana; Ploeg, Antoon

2005-01-01

216

Reação de clones de bananeira(Musa spp. ao nematóide Meloidogyne incognita (Kofoid & White, 1919 Chitwood, 1949, Raça 2 Reaction of banana clones (Musa spp. to nematode Meloidogyne incognita (kofoid & White, 1919 chitwood, 1949, race 2  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available O trabalho teve por objetivo estudar em condições de casa de vegetação a reação de clones de bananeira, em relação a Meloidogyne incognita raça 2. Mudas micropropagadas foram inoculadas, utilizando-se da suspensão de M. incognita, formada de ovos e de juvenis do segundo estádio, totalizando 20.000 / muda. A inoculação foi feita após cinco dias do transplante das mudas para sacos de plástico preto de cinco litros de capacidade, contendo solo, areia e esterco, na proporção 3:1:1, esterilizado em caldeira a 100ºC, por duas horas. O delineamento experimental foi o inteiramente casualizado, com quatro repetições. Após 120 dias, os clones foram avaliados. Determinou-se o número de ovos e juvenis contido no sistema radicular, sendo utilizado o clone CPA-34, a cultivar Grande Naine, como padrão de suscetibilidade. Amostras de 200 cm³ de solo foram coletadas para a determinação do número de nematóides no solo. De acordo com os fatores de reprodução (Pf/Pi, verificou-se que o clone CPA-34 apresentou-se suscetível ao nematóide, como era esperado, com o maior fator de reprodução, seguido do clone CPA-49, da cultivar Maçã, com índice superior a um. Os demais clones testados apresentaram fator de reprodução menor que um, indicando certa resistência ao nematóide M. incognita raça 2. Entretanto, nas análises estatísticas, foram verificadas diferenças significativas entre o clone-padrão CPA-34, quando comparado com os clones CPA-58 e CPA-54. Para os resultados de peso de raízes e peso da parte aérea, a diferença foi significativa (1% para todos os clones testados, apresentando os maiores valores para os clones não inoculados.The aim of this work was to study banana clones reaction in relation to Meloidogyne incognita race 2, under greenhouse conditions. The plants were inoculated with a suspension of 20,000 M. incognita which includes the presence of eggs and second stage juveniles. The inoculation occurred five days after the seedlings were transplanted to a plastic bag (5L which contains soil, sand and manure, with 3:1:1 rate, and this was sterilized at 100ºC during two hours. The experimental outline was at random with four replications. The clones were evaluated after 120 days inoculation. The number of eggs and juveniles in the root system were determined. The clone CPA-34 from Grande Naine variety was used as susceptibility standard. Soil samples of 200cm³ were collected to determine the number of nematodes present in the soil. According to reproduction factors (FP/IP, as it was expected, it was shown that the clone CPA-34 is susceptible to the nematode, with the highest reproduction rate followed by the clone CPA-49 from Maçã variety, with FP/IP above one. The other tested clones showed reproduction rate below one, which indicates a certain resistance to M. incognita race 2. However, statistical analysis demonstrate significant differences between the standard clone CPA-34 compared to clones CPA-58 and CPA-54. The results of root weight and aerial part weight, showed a significant difference (1% for all tested clones, with higher rates for the non-inoculated clones.

Lenisa Cezar Vilas Boas

2002-12-01

217

Reação de clones de bananeira(Musa spp.) ao nematóide Meloidogyne incognita (Kofoid & White, 1919) Chitwood, 1949, Raça 2 / Reaction of banana clones (Musa spp.) to nematode Meloidogyne incognita (kofoid & White, 1919) chitwood, 1949, race 2  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O trabalho teve por objetivo estudar em condições de casa de vegetação a reação de clones de bananeira, em relação a Meloidogyne incognita raça 2. Mudas micropropagadas foram inoculadas, utilizando-se da suspensão de M. incognita, formada de ovos e de juvenis do segundo estádio, totalizando 20.000 / [...] muda. A inoculação foi feita após cinco dias do transplante das mudas para sacos de plástico preto de cinco litros de capacidade, contendo solo, areia e esterco, na proporção 3:1:1, esterilizado em caldeira a 100ºC, por duas horas. O delineamento experimental foi o inteiramente casualizado, com quatro repetições. Após 120 dias, os clones foram avaliados. Determinou-se o número de ovos e juvenis contido no sistema radicular, sendo utilizado o clone CPA-34, a cultivar Grande Naine, como padrão de suscetibilidade. Amostras de 200 cm³ de solo foram coletadas para a determinação do número de nematóides no solo. De acordo com os fatores de reprodução (Pf/Pi), verificou-se que o clone CPA-34 apresentou-se suscetível ao nematóide, como era esperado, com o maior fator de reprodução, seguido do clone CPA-49, da cultivar Maçã, com índice superior a um. Os demais clones testados apresentaram fator de reprodução menor que um, indicando certa resistência ao nematóide M. incognita raça 2. Entretanto, nas análises estatísticas, foram verificadas diferenças significativas entre o clone-padrão CPA-34, quando comparado com os clones CPA-58 e CPA-54. Para os resultados de peso de raízes e peso da parte aérea, a diferença foi significativa (1%) para todos os clones testados, apresentando os maiores valores para os clones não inoculados. Abstract in english The aim of this work was to study banana clones reaction in relation to Meloidogyne incognita race 2, under greenhouse conditions. The plants were inoculated with a suspension of 20,000 M. incognita which includes the presence of eggs and second stage juveniles. The inoculation occurred five days af [...] ter the seedlings were transplanted to a plastic bag (5L) which contains soil, sand and manure, with 3:1:1 rate, and this was sterilized at 100ºC during two hours. The experimental outline was at random with four replications. The clones were evaluated after 120 days inoculation. The number of eggs and juveniles in the root system were determined. The clone CPA-34 from Grande Naine variety was used as susceptibility standard. Soil samples of 200cm³ were collected to determine the number of nematodes present in the soil. According to reproduction factors (FP/IP), as it was expected, it was shown that the clone CPA-34 is susceptible to the nematode, with the highest reproduction rate followed by the clone CPA-49 from Maçã variety, with FP/IP above one. The other tested clones showed reproduction rate below one, which indicates a certain resistance to M. incognita race 2. However, statistical analysis demonstrate significant differences between the standard clone CPA-34 compared to clones CPA-58 and CPA-54. The results of root weight and aerial part weight, showed a significant difference (1%) for all tested clones, with higher rates for the non-inoculated clones.

Vilas Boas, Lenisa Cezar; Tenente, Renata Cesar Vilardi; Gonzaga, Vilmar; Silva Neto, Sebastião Pedro da; Rocha, Herminio Souza.

218

Efeito da incorporação de sementes trituradas defeijão de porco ao solo sobre o parasitismo de Meloidogyne incognita em tomateiro  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Avaliou-se, em condições de casa de vegetação, o efeito da suplementação do solo com sementes trituradas de feijão de porco (Canavalia ensiformis sobre os índices de galhas e de massas de ovos de Meloidogyne incognita raça 1 em tomateiro (Lycopersicon esculentum. O substrato utilizado foi solo autoclavado suplementado com 2,5; 5,0; 7,5 e 10,0 g de sementes trituradas/kg de solo. Solo sem a suplementação serviu como testemunha. Para efeito de comparação, o nematicida Carbofuran foi incluído como tratamento adicional. Controle do nematóide foi obtido a partir da incorporação de 5,0 g de sementes trituradas/kg de solo, sendo o efeito proporcional à dosagem. Os índices de galhas e massas de ovos foram reduzidos em 48% e 64%, respectivamente, com a aplicação de 10 g de sementes trituradas/kg de solo.

SILVA GILSON S.

2002-01-01

219

Influence of Meloidogyne incognita on Fusarium Wilt of Tomato at or below the Minimum Temperature for Wilt Development.  

Science.gov (United States)

'Bonny Best' tomato plants were grown at 16, 21, or 24 C for 28 d in soil infested with either of two isolates of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici race 1 and Meloidogyne incognita. Significant levels of fusarium wilt occurred at all temperatures including 16 C, which has not been reported previously. One Fusarium isolate resulted in the highest levels of disease incidence at 21 and 24 C in the presence of root-knot nematodes, and at 24 C when the nematodes were not present. At 16 C there was no significant difference in the number of plants infected by the second Fusarium isolate alone or in combination with root knot nematodes, although the presence of nematodes resulted in a significant increase in the percentage of disease occurrence and vessel infection at 21 C. PMID:19300723

Morrell, J J; Bloom, J R

1981-01-01

220

Efeito de exsudatos de cultura de células de plantas em juvenis de segundo estádio de Meloidogyne incognita / Effect of exudates of plant cell culture on second-stage juveniles of Meloidogyne incognita  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Calus foram obtidos de tomateiro (Lycopersicon esculentum), cafeeiro (Coffea arabica), alfafa (Medicago sativa), orquídea (Dendrobium nobile), mostarda (Brassica rapa), batata doce (Ipomoea batatas), fumo (Nicotiana tabacum), cenoura (Daucus carota) e Crotalaria juncea em meio sólido de Murashige & [...] Skoog (MS) seguido do cultivo em meio líquido MS em temperatura de 25-28 ºC. Após um mês, a suspensão foi passada em membrana Millipore 0,22 µm, obtendo-se, assim, o exsudato da cultura de células de cada planta testada. Ovos ou juvenis de segundo estádio (J2) de Meloidogyne incognita foram incubados nesses exsudatos e avaliadas as percentagens de eclosão, mobilidade e mortalidade dos J2. Com exceção dos ovos incubados em exsudato de orquídea, todos os demais inibiram a eclosão quando comparados com a incubação em água (testemunha). Entretanto, nos exsudatos de L. esculentum, cafeeiro e C. juncea a inibição foi mais drástica, semelhante ao aldicarb, mas significativamente diferente e menor do que em soluções contendo ingredientes do meio MS (1-5). Todos os exsudatos reduziram a mobilidade e aumentaram a mortalidade, com maior intensidade em 24 h de exposição. Porém, maior redução na mobilidade ocorreu nos exsudatos de tomateiro e alfafa, enquanto maior mortalidade no exsudato de tomateiro, seguido pelo de mostarda. Abstract in english Callus of Lycopersicon esculentum, Coffea arabica, Medicago sativa, Dendrobium nobile, Brassica rapa, Ipomoea batatas, Nicotiana tabacum, Daucus carota and Crotalaria juncea were obtained in Murashige & Skoog (MS) solid medium followed by cell cultivation in MS liquid medium at temperature varying f [...] rom 25-28 ºC. After one month, the cell suspension was passed through a 0,22 µm Millipore membrane, and the resulting liquid was the cell exudate from each of the tested plants. Eggs or second-stage juveniles (J2) of Meloidogyne incognita were then incubated in these exudates and hatching, mobility and mortality percentages of the J2 were evaluated. Except for the eggs incubated in the exudate of orchid, all the exudates inhibited J2 hatching when compared with incubation in water (control). However, in L. esculentum, C. arabica and C. juncea exudates the inhibition was greatest, similar to aldicar, but significantly less and different than that found in solution of culture medium ingredients MS (1-5). All exudates reduced mobility and increased mortality of M. incognita J2, although theses were enhanced when exposed for 24 h. The greatest reduction of mobility occurred with the exudates of tomato and M. sativa, while greatest mortality occurred with the exudate of L. esculentum, followed by B. rapa.

Fernando S., Rocha; Vicente P., Campos.

 
 
 
 
221

Reaction of vegetables and aromatic plants to Meloidogyne javanica and M. incognita Reação de hortaliças e plantas aromáticas aos nematoides Meloidogyne javanica e M. incognita  

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Full Text Available For this research we used 15 day-old seedlings which were transplanted to 2 L pots and inoculated with 4,000 nematode eggs plus juveniles (J2. After 60 days, the root systems were removed and the number of galls and eggs evaluated and used to calculate the nematode reproduction factor (RF. The tomato cv. Santa Cruz was used as a susceptible control. The experimental design was completely randomized, with six replications. Averages were compared using the Tukey or Scott-Knott test at 5%. For lettuce, Salad Bowl (Mimosa type, Elizabeth and Elisa (Lisa and Vera cultivars (crisphead, the number of galls and the RF for M. javanica were statistically higher than for the control, whereas, for the other vegetable crops, the highest number of galls and eggs were found in chicory and basil. The highest susceptibility to M. incognita was observed in Mimosa lettuce cv. Salad Bowl, chicory cultivars, parsley cv. Graúda Portuguesa and basil. Marjoram exhibited no M. incognita galls.Para avaliar a reação, mudas com 15 dias de idade foram transplantadas para vasos de 2 L de capacidade e inoculadas com 4.000 ovos e eventuais juvenis (J2 dos nematoides. Decorridos 60 dias, os sistemas radiculares foram retirados e avaliados quanto ao número de galhas e ovos, determinando-se o fator de reprodução (FR dos nematoides nas respectivas plantas. Tomateiro cv. Santa Cruz foi utilizado como testemunha. O experimento foi conduzido em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com seis repetições, e as médias foram comparadas pelo teste Tukey ou Scott-Knott a 5% de probabilidade. Nas alfaces tipo Mimosa cv. Salad Bowl; nas cultivares do tipo Lisa, Elizabeth e Elisa; e na cultivar Vera (tipo crespa, o número de galhas e o FR de M. javanica foi superior ao observado para a testemunha; enquanto para as demais oleráceas, os maiores números de galhas e ovos foram para as cultivares de chicória e para o manjericão. Maior suscetibilidade a M. incognita foi observada para a alface tipo Mimosa cv. Salad Bowl, para as cultivares de chicória, salsa cv. Graúda Portuguesa e manjericão. Apenas manjerona apresentou número de galhas de M. incognita igual a zero.

Cláudia Regina Dias-Arieira

2012-06-01

222

Effects of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and a non-pathogenic Fusarium oxysporum on Meloidogyne incognita infestation of tomato.  

Science.gov (United States)

Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi and non-pathogenic strains of soil-borne pathogens have been shown to control plant parasitic nematodes. As AM fungi and non-pathogenic fungi improve plant health by different mechanisms, combination of two such partners with complementary mechanisms might increase overall control efficacy and, therefore, provide an environmentally safe alternative to nematicide application. Experiments were conducted to study possible interactions between the AM fungus Glomus coronatum and the non-pathogenic Fusarium oxysporum strain Fo162 in the control of Meloidogyne incognita on tomato. Pre-inoculation of tomato plants with G. coronatum or Fo162 stimulated plant growth and reduced M. incognita infestation. Combined application of the AM fungus and Fo162 enhanced mycorrhization of tomato roots but did not increase overall nematode control or plant growth. A higher number of nematodes per gall was found for mycorrhizal than non-mycorrhizal plants. In synergisms between biocontrol agents, differences in their antagonistic mechanisms seem to be less important than their effects on different growth stages of the pathogen. PMID:12938032

Diedhiou, P M; Hallmann, J; Oerke, E-C; Dehne, H-W

2003-08-01

223

Nematicidal activity of the essential oil of Rhododendron anthopogonoides aerial parts and its constituent compounds against Meloidogyne incognita.  

Science.gov (United States)

Hydrodistilled essential oil from Rhododendron anthopogonoides Maxim. (Ericaceae) aerial parts was analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). A total of 42 compounds, accounting for 95.48% of the total oil, were identified. The main constituents of the essential oil were benzyl acetone (34.41%), nerolidol (10.19%), 1,4-cineole (8.41%), beta-caryophyllene (5.63%), gamma-elemene (5.10%), and spathulenol (3.06%). Four constituents were isolated from the essential oil based on fractionation. The essential oil of R. anthopogonoides possessed nematicidal activity against the root knot nematode (Meloidogyne incognita) with an LC50 value of 130.11 microg/ml. The main compound of the essential oil, benzyl acetone, exhibited nematicidal activity against M. incognita with an LC50 value of 74.17 microg/ml while 1,4-cineole, nerolidol, and beta-caryophyllene were not nematicidal at a concentration of 5 mg/ml. The essential oil of R. anthopogonoides and benzyl acetone show potential for their development as possible natural nematicides for the control of the root knot nematode. PMID:24066516

Bai, Peng Hua; Bai, Chun Qi; Liu, Qi Zhi; Du, Shu Shan; Liu, Zhi Long

2013-01-01

224

RNAi of MiASB caused high mortality of Meloidogyne incognita juveniles and inhibited the nematode disease  

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Full Text Available The southern root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita, is one of the most prevalent and damaging plant-parasitic nematodes in the world and causes serious damages to agricultural production. We cloned a mitochondrial ATP synthase b subunit gene fragment of M. incognita (MiASB based on the nematode genomics prediction. By soaking in the MiASB dsRNA solution, the hatching of RNAi treated eggs was reduced by 60% compared to negative control and by 64% compared to untreated control. Mortality of RNAi treated second stage juvenile (J2 was 8.6 times higher than that of negative control and 26 times higher than the untreated control. Inoculating the RNAi treated egg masses and J2 to tomato seedlings showed the pathogencity was significantly reduced. For the RNAi treated egg masses, the amount of root galls on silence treated seedlings was reduced by 92% compared to that on the negative control seedlings, and reduced by 93% compared to that on untreated control seedlings. For the treated J2, the amount of root galls on silence treated seedlings was reduced by 83% and 86% compared to negative and untreated control seedlings, respectively. The study revealed the MiASB silence had a positive effect on prevention and control of root-knot nematode disease, and also showed that the MiASB may be involved in the pathogenesis of nematode, which provided new ideas and ways to the research of nematode pathology and nematode disease control.

Yonghong Huang

2013-08-01

225

EFECTO DEL VERMICOMPOST Y QUITINA SOBRE EL CONTROL DE Meloidogyne incognita EN TOMATE A NIVEL DE INVERNADERO  

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Full Text Available Meloidogyne incognita es un nematodo endoparásito sedentario, de penetración total y formador de nódulos radicales; tiene una amplia distribución geográfica y causa pérdidas agrícolas importantes. Recientemente se han utilizado abonos orgánicos y compuestos como la quitina en la supresión de plagas y enfermedades de plantas. El objetivo de esta investigación fue evaluar el efecto de la aplicación de vermicompost de estiércol bovino y su enriquecimiento con quitina, sobre la infección de M. incognita en plantas de tomate var. Hayslip bajo condiciones de invernadero. Para esto se inocularon las plantas con 5000 unidades de inóculo (huevos+juveniles en segundo estado por maceta y se compararon con controles que fueron sembrados en suelo sin enmienda orgánica o quitina. La evaluación se llevó a cabo 60 días después y se midió el peso fresco aéreo y radical, peso seco aéreo, población total de nematodos en raíz y suelo, índice de nódulos radicales (INR, índice de masas de huevos (IMH, el factor de reproducción del nematodo (FR y recuento de grupos funcionales (hongos, bacterias y actinomicetes. La adición al suelo de vermicompost provocó un incremento en las variables peso fresco y seco foliar y peso fresco radical: a mayor porcentaje de vermicompost, mayor incremento; así mismo, la aplicación del vermicompost redujo la cantidad del nematodo en raíz y en suelo. La aplicación de quitina acentuó estos resultados, obteniéndose el menor factor de reproducción de M. Incognita, con un valor de 3,76 para la dosis de 50% vermicompost+quitina, mientras que en el testigo este factor fue de 93,20. La aplicación de quitina como enmienda única solo afectó la población de hongos en el suelo, mientras que la de actinomicetes aumentó en los tratamientos enmendados.

Leida Castro

2011-01-01

226

Knocking-Down Meloidogyne incognita Proteases by Plant-Delivered dsRNA Has Negative Pleiotropic Effect on Nematode Vigor  

Science.gov (United States)

The root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita causes serious damage and yield losses in numerous important crops worldwide. Analysis of the M. incognita genome revealed a vast number of proteases belonging to five different catalytic classes. Several reports indicate that M. incognita proteases could play important roles in nematode parasitism, besides their function in ordinary digestion of giant cell contents for feeding. The precise roles of these proteins during parasitism however are still unknown, making them interesting targets for gene silencing to address protein function. In this study we have knocked-down an aspartic (Mi-asp-1), a serine (Mi-ser-1) and a cysteine protease (Mi-cpl-1) by RNAi interference to get an insight into the function of these enzymes during a host/nematode interaction. Tobacco lines expressing dsRNA for Mi-ser-1 (dsSER), Mi-cpl-1 (dsCPL) and for the three genes together (dsFusion) were generated. Histological analysis of galls did not show clear differences in giant cell morphology. Interestingly, nematodes that infected plants expressing dsRNA for proteases produced a reduced number of eggs. In addition, nematode progeny matured in dsSER plants had reduced success in egg hatching, while progeny resulting from dsCPL and dsFusion plants were less successful to infect wild-type host plants. Quantitative PCR analysis confirmed a reduction in transcripts for Mi-cpl-1 and Mi-ser-1 proteases. Our results indicate that these proteases are possibly involved in different processes throughout nematode development, like nutrition, reproduction and embryogenesis. A better understanding of nematode proteases and their possible role during a plant-nematode interaction might help to develop new tools for phytonematode control.

Antonino de Souza Junior, Jose Dijair; Ramos Coelho, Roberta; Tristan Lourenco, Isabela; da Rocha Fragoso, Rodrigo; Barbosa Viana, Antonio Americo; Lima Pepino de Macedo, Leonardo; Mattar da Silva, Maria Cristina; Gomes Carneiro, Regina Maria; Engler, Gilbert; de Almeida-Engler, Janice; Grossi-de-Sa, Maria Fatima

2013-01-01

227

Impact of Paecilomyces lilacinus Inoculum Level and Application Time on Control of Meloidogyne incognita on Tomato  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Microplot experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of inoculum level and time of application of Paecilomyces lilacinus on the protection of tomato against MeIoidogyne incognita. The best protection against M. incognita was attained with 10 and 20 g of fungus-infested wheat kernels per microplot which resulted in a threefold and fourfold increase in tomato yield, respectively, compared with tomato plants treated with this nematode alone. Greatest protection against this pathogen was ...

Cabanillas, Enrique; Barker, K. R.

1989-01-01

228

Pathogenicity of Meloidogyne incognita Race 1 on Turmeric (Curcuma longa L.) as Influenced by Inoculum Density and Poultry Manure Amendment  

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A glasshouse experiment was conducted to assess the pathogenicity of Meloidogyne incognita race 1 on turmeric (Curcuma longa L.) at three inoculum densities (0, 2500, 5000 eggs plant-1) and soil amendment with different levels of Poultry Manure (PM) (0, 10, 20, 30 and 40 t ha-1). The results obtained showed that root-galling and egg production decreased in a linear response to increasing PM level at both low and high inoculum densities (r = -0.88 and r = -0...

Udo, Idorenyin A.; Ugwuoke, Kevin I.

2010-01-01

229

Virtual screening and in vitro assay of potential drug like inhibitors from spices against Glutathione-S-Transferase of Meloidogyne incognita  

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Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) enzymes are critical antioxidant and detoxification system responsible for long-term existence of nematodes in host species. Hence, 16 phytochemicals predicted and reported to have potential nematicidal activity have been docked to GST enzyme of Meloidogyne incognita to assess their binding affinity and inhibitory activity. In vitro effects of these phytochemicals from in silico results have been done for validation of docking studies and efficacy in...

Babu, Rosana O.; Moorkoth, Dinsha; Azeez, Shamina; Eapen, Santhosh J.

2012-01-01

230

Nematicidal activity of leaf extracts from Lantana camara L. against Meloidogyne incognita (kofoid and white) chitwood and its use to manage roots infection of Solanum melongena L.  

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Various concentrations of aqueous leaf extract of Lantana camara were assessed in vitro conditions against second stage juveniles (J2) of Meloidogyne incognita. The standard concentration 'S' of leaf extract was found to be highly nematostatic, where nematodes were completely paralyzed after 12 h and after 48 h of exposure, 96% of juveniles were killed at same concentration. However, the mortality of juveniles was 75% in S/2 dilution at 48 h. The degree of effectiveness and dilutions of extra...

Faheem Ahmad; Mohmad Azhar Rather; Mansoor Ahmad Siddiqui

2010-01-01

231

Integrated application of some compatible biocontrol agents along with mustard oil seed cake and furadan on Meloidogyne incognita infecting tomato plants  

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Experiments were carried out to study the effect of two fungal bioagents along with mustard oil cake and furadan against root knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita infecting tomato under greenhouse condition. Bioagents viz., Paecilomyces lilacinus and Trichoderma viride alone or in combination with mustard cake and furadan promoted plant growth, reduced number of galls/plant, egg masses/root system and eggs/egg mass. The fungal bioagents along with mustard cake and nematicide showed least nemat...

Goswami, Bijoy Kumar; Pandey, Rajesh Kumar; Rathour, Kabindra Singh; Bhattacharya, Chaitali; Singh, Lokendra

2006-01-01

232

Evidence of Differences between the Communities of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi Colonizing Galls and Roots of Prunus persica Infected by the Root-Knot Nematode Meloidogyne incognita?  

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Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) play important roles as plant protection agents, reducing or suppressing nematode colonization. However, it has never been investigated whether the galls produced in roots by nematode infection are colonized by AMF. This study tested whether galls produced by Meloidogyne incognita infection in Prunus persica roots are colonized by AMF. We also determined the changes in AMF composition and biodiversity mediated by infection with this root-knot nematode. DNA f...

2011-01-01

233

COMPORTAMIENTO DE MATERIALES DE GUAYABO (Psidium guajava LINNEO) AL PARASITISMO DEL NEMATODO FORMADOR DE AGALLAS [Meloidogyne incognita (KOFOID & WHITE) CHITWOOD Y Meloidogyne javanica (TREUB) CHITWOOD] / BEHAVIOR OF GUAVA MATERIALS (Psidiumguajava LINNEO) ON THE ROOT KNOT NEMATODE [Meloidogyne incognita (KOFOID & WHITE) CHITWOOD AND Meloidogyne javanica (TREUB) CHITWOOD] PARASITISM  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Las raíces del guayabo son parasitadas por el nematodo del nudo radical (Meloidogyne spp.), ocasionando pérdidas de la producción entre 30 y 60%. Debido a esto, el principal objetivo de esta investigación fue evaluar en condiciones de almácigo la reacción de cuatro variedades de guayabo al ataque de [...] l complejo Meloidogyne incognita y M. javanica. En el vivero Jaibaná Frutales, del municipio de Pereira (Risaralda), plántulas de cuatro variedades: Pera y Común (Psidium guajava), Agrio (Psidium friedrichsthalianum) y Peruano (Psidium cattleianum), fueron sembradas en bolsas de plástico que contenían suelo y cascarilla de arroz en proporción 3:1. Veinte días después de sembradas, a 15 plántulas de cada una de las variedades le fueron inoculadas una mezcla de 1.000, 5.000 y 10.000 huevos y juveniles de Meloidogyne, y los respectivos testigos sin inocular. Las plántulas fueron asignadas bajo un diseño experimental completamente aleatorio. Las variedades Peruano con 5,75g y 8,03g de peso seco de raíces y parte aérea, respectivamente, y Agrio con 10,27g y 9,23g de peso seco de raíces y parte aérea, respectivamente, presentaron el menor índice de nudosidad con 0,1 y 1,1, y reproducción de Meloidogyne spp. con valores entre 75 y 4.575 huevos y juveniles/100g de raíces. Estas variedades fueron estadísticamente diferentes a la variedad Pera con 13,96g y 11,33g de peso seco de raíces y parte aérea, respectivamente, y Común con 11,35g y 13,9g de peso seco de raíces y parte aérea, respectivamente, quienes presentaron mayor índice de nudosidad con 5 y reproducción con 149.775 huevos y 72.950 juveniles/100g de raíces. Las variedades Agrio y Peruano fueron resistentes e inmunes, respectivamente, al ataque de Meloidogyne incognita y M. javanica, permitiendo ser utilizadas como portainjertos o patrones; mientras que las variedades Pera y Común fueron altamente susceptibles. Abstract in english Guava roots are parasitized by the root knot nematode (Meloidogyne spp.), which causes production losses between 30 and 60%. Due to this, the main goal of this research was to evaluate the reaction of four varieties of guava under nursery conditions to the attack of Meloidogyne incognita and M. java [...] nica complex. In the Jaibaná Frutales nursery, in the municipality of Pereira (Risaralda), seedlings of four varieties of guava: Guava pear and Common guava (Psidiumguajava), Cas guava (Psidiumfriedrichsthalianum), and Peruvian guava (Psidiumcattleianum), were planted in plastic bags containing soil and rice hull in a 3:1 proportion. Twenty days after planted, 15 seedlings of each variety were inoculated with a mixture of 1,000, 5,000 and 10,000 eggs and Meloidogyne spp juveniles, and their respective controls without inoculation. Seedlings were assigned under a completely randomized design. The Peruvian guava variety with 5.75g and 8.03g roots and aerial parts dry weight respectively, and Cas guava variety with 10.27g and 9.23g roots and aerial parts dry weight, respectively, had the lowest root gall index with 0.1 and 1.1, and Meloidogyne spp. reproduction with values between 75 and 4.575 eggs and juveniles/100g of roots. These varieties were statistically different from the guava Pear variety with 13,96g y 11,33g roots and aerial parts dry weight respectively, and Common guava with 11,35g y 13,9g roots and aerial parts dry weight respectively, which had the highest root gall index with 5 and reproduction with 149.775 eggs and 72.950 juveniles/100g of roots. In conclusion, the Cas and Peruvian varieties were resistant and immune respectively, to Meloidogyne incognita and M. javanica, allowing them to be used as rootstocks or patronages, while guava Pear and Common guava were highly susceptible to both species.

ALEJANDRA, DUQUE ARISTIZÁBAL; ÓSCAR ADRIÁN, GUZMÁN PIEDRAHÍTA.

234

Impact of Paecilomyces lilacinus Inoculum Level and Application Time on Control of Meloidogyne incognita on Tomato.  

Science.gov (United States)

Microplot experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of inoculum level and time of application of Paecilomyces lilacinus on the protection of tomato against MeIoidogyne incognita. The best protection against M. incognita was attained with 10 and 20 g of fungus-infested wheat kernels per microplot which resulted in a threefold and fourfold increase in tomato yield, respectively, compared with tomato plants treated with this nematode alone. Greatest protection against this pathogen was attained when P. lilacinus was delivered into soil 10 days before planting and again at planting. Yield was increased twofold compared with yield in nematode-alone plots and plots with M. incognita plus the fungus. Percentages of P. lilacinus-infected egg masses were greatest in plots treated at midseason or at midseason plus an early application, compared with plots treated with the fungus 10 days before planting and (or) at planting time. PMID:19287585

Cabanillas, E; Barker, K R

1989-01-01

235

Efeito de exsudatos radiculares em endósporos de Pasteuria penetrans e em juvenis do segundo estádio de Meloidogyne incognita / Effect of root exudates on endospores of Pasteuria penetrans and on second-stage juvenile of Meloidogyne incognita  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Juvenis do segundo estádio (J2) de Meloidogyne incognita foram incubados nos exsudatos radiculares de soja (Glycine max), tomateiro (Lycopersicon esculentum), cafeeiro (Coffea arabica), feijoeiro (Phaseolus vulgaris), mostarda (Brassica rapa), Crotalaria juncea e C. spectabilis e em água por 12 h. E [...] m seguida, realizou-se o teste de adesão por centrifugação ou por borbulhamento. Em outro ensaio, endósporos de Pasteuria penetrans foram incubados por quatro dias a 26 ºC nos exsudatos e submetidos à adesão em J2 de M. incognita, sob borbulhamento constante por 24 h em tubos contendo água. Os J2 com endósporos aderidos pelo teste de borbulhamento foram inoculados em mudas de tomateiro. Verificou-se que a incubação dos J2 por 12 h nos exsudatos radiculares testados reduziu o número de endósporos de P. penetrans por J2 independentemente do método de adesão empregado. Os J2 incubados nos exsudatos radiculares testados proporcionaram menor número de fêmeas parasitadas em tomateiro em relação à testemunha (água), bem como menor número de galhas com exceção dos J2 incubados em exsudato do próprio tomateiro. A reprodução dos J2 incubados nos exsudatos radiculares não foi afetada quando comparada à testemunha. A incubação dos endósporos nos exsudatos das plantas testadas reduziu a adesão e a infetividade em J2, em relação à testemunha. Após 28 dias da inoculação, observou-se redução no número de fêmeas parasitadas resultantes da infecção desses J2 com endósporos incubados em exsudatos radiculares comparada com aqueles incubados em água. O parasitismo do J2 com endósporos tratados com exsudatos radiculares e a reprodutividade de fêmeas oriundas da infetividade desses J2 foram semelhantes aos incubados em água. Abstract in english In one assay, second stage juveniles (J2) of Meloidogyne incognita were incubated in root exudates of soybean (Glycine max), tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum), coffee (Coffea arabica), bean (Phaseolus vulgaris), mustard (Brassica rapa), Crotalaria juncea and C. spectabilis and in water for 12 h, foll [...] owed by endospores adhesion by centrifugation or by air bubbling. In another assay, endospores of Pasterius penetrans were incubated for four days at 26 ºC in the exudates and submitted to adhesion on J2 of M. incognita by constant air bubbling for 24 h in tubes containing water. The J2 with endospore adhesion by air bubbling were inoculated in tomato seedlings. The incubation of J2 for 12 h in the root exudates reduced the number of P. penetrans endospore per J2, regardless of the adhesion test used, and resulted in fewer parasitized females when compared with the control, as well as a lower number of galls, except in the J2 incubated in exudate of tomato. The reproduction of incubated J2 in the root exudates was not affected when compared to the control. The endospore incubation in the exudates of the tested plants reduced the adhesion and the infectivity of these endospores to J2 in relation to the control. After 28 days from inoculation, reduction was observed in the number of parasitized females resulting from infection of those J2 with endospore incubated in exudates when compared with those incubated in water. The parasitism of J2 with endospore treated with exudates and the reproduction of infected J2 females were similar to those incubated in water.

Fernando da Silva, Rocha; Vicente P., Campos; Ricardo Magela de, Souza.

236

Efeito de exsudatos radiculares em endósporos de Pasteuria penetrans e em juvenis do segundo estádio de Meloidogyne incognita Effect of root exudates on endospores of Pasteuria penetrans and on second-stage juvenile of Meloidogyne incognita  

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Full Text Available Juvenis do segundo estádio (J2 de Meloidogyne incognita foram incubados nos exsudatos radiculares de soja (Glycine max, tomateiro (Lycopersicon esculentum, cafeeiro (Coffea arabica, feijoeiro (Phaseolus vulgaris, mostarda (Brassica rapa, Crotalaria juncea e C. spectabilis e em água por 12 h. Em seguida, realizou-se o teste de adesão por centrifugação ou por borbulhamento. Em outro ensaio, endósporos de Pasteuria penetrans foram incubados por quatro dias a 26 ºC nos exsudatos e submetidos à adesão em J2 de M. incognita, sob borbulhamento constante por 24 h em tubos contendo água. Os J2 com endósporos aderidos pelo teste de borbulhamento foram inoculados em mudas de tomateiro. Verificou-se que a incubação dos J2 por 12 h nos exsudatos radiculares testados reduziu o número de endósporos de P. penetrans por J2 independentemente do método de adesão empregado. Os J2 incubados nos exsudatos radiculares testados proporcionaram menor número de fêmeas parasitadas em tomateiro em relação à testemunha (água, bem como menor número de galhas com exceção dos J2 incubados em exsudato do próprio tomateiro. A reprodução dos J2 incubados nos exsudatos radiculares não foi afetada quando comparada à testemunha. A incubação dos endósporos nos exsudatos das plantas testadas reduziu a adesão e a infetividade em J2, em relação à testemunha. Após 28 dias da inoculação, observou-se redução no número de fêmeas parasitadas resultantes da infecção desses J2 com endósporos incubados em exsudatos radiculares comparada com aqueles incubados em água. O parasitismo do J2 com endósporos tratados com exsudatos radiculares e a reprodutividade de fêmeas oriundas da infetividade desses J2 foram semelhantes aos incubados em água.In one assay, second stage juveniles (J2 of Meloidogyne incognita were incubated in root exudates of soybean (Glycine max, tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum, coffee (Coffea arabica, bean (Phaseolus vulgaris, mustard (Brassica rapa, Crotalaria juncea and C. spectabilis and in water for 12 h, followed by endospores adhesion by centrifugation or by air bubbling. In another assay, endospores of Pasterius penetrans were incubated for four days at 26 ºC in the exudates and submitted to adhesion on J2 of M. incognita by constant air bubbling for 24 h in tubes containing water. The J2 with endospore adhesion by air bubbling were inoculated in tomato seedlings. The incubation of J2 for 12 h in the root exudates reduced the number of P. penetrans endospore per J2, regardless of the adhesion test used, and resulted in fewer parasitized females when compared with the control, as well as a lower number of galls, except in the J2 incubated in exudate of tomato. The reproduction of incubated J2 in the root exudates was not affected when compared to the control. The endospore incubation in the exudates of the tested plants reduced the adhesion and the infectivity of these endospores to J2 in relation to the control. After 28 days from inoculation, reduction was observed in the number of parasitized females resulting from infection of those J2 with endospore incubated in exudates when compared with those incubated in water. The parasitism of J2 with endospore treated with exudates and the reproduction of infected J2 females were similar to those incubated in water.

Fernando da Silva Rocha

2004-12-01

237

Seleção de genótipos de aceroleira assistida por marcadores isoenzimáticos visando à resistência a Meloidogyne incognita raça 2 / Genotype selection of Barbados cherry using iso-enzymatic markers for resistance to Meloidogyne incognita race 2  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A cultura da aceroleira despertou um grande interesse do mercado consumidor, tendo em vista o alto teor de vitamina C (ácido ascórbico), que varia entre 1.325 a 2.250 mg por 100 mL de suco. Com a expansão da cultura, surgiram problemas fitossanitários, entre os quais a infecção das raízes da acerole [...] ira por nematóides. Os produtos químicos utilizados no controle dos nematóides são agressivos ao meio ambiente, e a seleção de genótipos resistentes e tolerantes constitui-se na melhor alternativa para a solução do problema. O trabalho foi desenvolvido em casa de vegetação com 18 genótipos de aceroleira, com o objetivo de encontrar genótipos resistentes e tolerantes a Meloidogyne incognita raça 2 assistida por marcadores isoenzimáticos, para indicar plantas destinadas a porta-enxerto. A avaliação foi realizada 60 dias após a inoculação mediante análise das variáveis: número de ovos por planta e por grama de raiz, índice de galhas e massa de ovos, biomassa fresca relativa do sistema radicular e biomassa fresca relativa da parte aérea. Os resultados permitiram identificar o genótipo 023-CMF como menos suscetível, e os genótipos 027-CMF e 035-CMF, como mais suscetíveis. Estudos realizados através da eletroforese isoenzimática com os sistemas ? esterase, fosfatase ácida e peroxidase, 20; 40 e 60 dias após a inoculação com ovos de M. incognita raça 2, possibilitaram relacionar a expressão de proteínas com a suscetibilidade. Os genótipos mais próximos geneticamente, com índice de similaridade 0,941, foram 027-CMF e 026-CMF, 046-CMF e 026-CMF, e 041-CMF e 026-CMF. O menor índice de similaridade genética (0,115) foi observado entre os genótipos 002-SPE e 036-CMF. Abstract in english The culture of the Barbados cherry has increased great interest in the consuming market, in view of high levels of vitamin C, each 100ml of juice has contents of 1,325mg / 2,250mg of vitamin C (Ascorbic acid).With the increase of the plantations phytosanitary problems appeared, such as infection of [...] the roots for nematodes. The utilisation of chemical products for controlling nematodes is unsafe for the environment, therefore the election of resistant and tolerant genotypes is the best solution for this problem. The work was developed in greenhouse, with eighteen genotypes of Barbados cherry aiming to find resistant genotypes to Meloidogyne incognita race 2, marked with iso-enzymatic markers, indicating plants destined for rootstock. Sixty days after the inoculation, the evaluation of the variables began: amount of eggs per plant and weight of root, index of galls and eggs mass, fresh biomass relative to the root systems, fresh biomass relative to the aerial part. The results permitted to identify the genotype 023-CMF as the less susceptible and the genotypes 027-CMF and 035-CMF as the most susceptible. Studies carried out through iso-enzymatic electrophoresis with the systems ? -esterase, acid phosphatase and peroxidase. Twenty, forty and sixty days after the inoculation with eggs of M. incognita race2, made it possible to relate the expression of proteins with the susceptibility. The genotypes genetically closer, with index of similarity 0.941 are: 027-CMF and 026-CMF, 046-CMF and 026-CMF and 041-CMF and 026-CMF. The lesser indices of genetic similarity 0.115 are: genotypes 002-SPE and 036-CMF.

Rossiter, Jackeline Gadé de Araujo; Musser, Rosimar dos Santos; Martins, Luiza Suely Semen; Pedrosa, Elvira Maria Regis; Medeiros, Jeane Emilli de.

238

Seleção de genótipos de aceroleira assistida por marcadores isoenzimáticos visando à resistência a Meloidogyne incognita raça 2 Genotype selection of Barbados cherry using iso-enzymatic markers for resistance to Meloidogyne incognita race 2  

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Full Text Available A cultura da aceroleira despertou um grande interesse do mercado consumidor, tendo em vista o alto teor de vitamina C (ácido ascórbico, que varia entre 1.325 a 2.250 mg por 100 mL de suco. Com a expansão da cultura, surgiram problemas fitossanitários, entre os quais a infecção das raízes da aceroleira por nematóides. Os produtos químicos utilizados no controle dos nematóides são agressivos ao meio ambiente, e a seleção de genótipos resistentes e tolerantes constitui-se na melhor alternativa para a solução do problema. O trabalho foi desenvolvido em casa de vegetação com 18 genótipos de aceroleira, com o objetivo de encontrar genótipos resistentes e tolerantes a Meloidogyne incognita raça 2 assistida por marcadores isoenzimáticos, para indicar plantas destinadas a porta-enxerto. A avaliação foi realizada 60 dias após a inoculação mediante análise das variáveis: número de ovos por planta e por grama de raiz, índice de galhas e massa de ovos, biomassa fresca relativa do sistema radicular e biomassa fresca relativa da parte aérea. Os resultados permitiram identificar o genótipo 023-CMF como menos suscetível, e os genótipos 027-CMF e 035-CMF, como mais suscetíveis. Estudos realizados através da eletroforese isoenzimática com os sistemas ? esterase, fosfatase ácida e peroxidase, 20; 40 e 60 dias após a inoculação com ovos de M. incognita raça 2, possibilitaram relacionar a expressão de proteínas com a suscetibilidade. Os genótipos mais próximos geneticamente, com índice de similaridade 0,941, foram 027-CMF e 026-CMF, 046-CMF e 026-CMF, e 041-CMF e 026-CMF. O menor índice de similaridade genética (0,115 foi observado entre os genótipos 002-SPE e 036-CMF.The culture of the Barbados cherry has increased great interest in the consuming market, in view of high levels of vitamin C, each 100ml of juice has contents of 1,325mg / 2,250mg of vitamin C (Ascorbic acid.With the increase of the plantations phytosanitary problems appeared, such as infection of the roots for nematodes. The utilisation of chemical products for controlling nematodes is unsafe for the environment, therefore the election of resistant and tolerant genotypes is the best solution for this problem. The work was developed in greenhouse, with eighteen genotypes of Barbados cherry aiming to find resistant genotypes to Meloidogyne incognita race 2, marked with iso-enzymatic markers, indicating plants destined for rootstock. Sixty days after the inoculation, the evaluation of the variables began: amount of eggs per plant and weight of root, index of galls and eggs mass, fresh biomass relative to the root systems, fresh biomass relative to the aerial part. The results permitted to identify the genotype 023-CMF as the less susceptible and the genotypes 027-CMF and 035-CMF as the most susceptible. Studies carried out through iso-enzymatic electrophoresis with the systems ? -esterase, acid phosphatase and peroxidase. Twenty, forty and sixty days after the inoculation with eggs of M. incognita race2, made it possible to relate the expression of proteins with the susceptibility. The genotypes genetically closer, with index of similarity 0.941 are: 027-CMF and 026-CMF, 046-CMF and 026-CMF and 041-CMF and 026-CMF. The lesser indices of genetic similarity 0.115 are: genotypes 002-SPE and 036-CMF.

Jackeline Gadé de Araujo Rossiter

2008-12-01

239

Enxertia e sua influencia na produção de pepino e reprodução de Meloidogyne javanica e M. incognita Effect of grafting on cucumber production and reproduction of Meloidogyne javanica and M. incognita  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A enxertia em porta-enxertos resistentes é uma técnica frequentemente recomendada para a cultura do pepino em áreas infestadas com nematoides-das-galhas. O presente trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a produção de pepino enxertado em dois porta-enxertos comparado com pé-franco em solo infestado com Meloidogyne incognita raça 2 ou com M. javanica. Foram avaliados nove tratamentos (fatorial 3x3: pepino híbrido Tsuyataro pé-franco, enxertado na abóbora híbrida 'Shelper' e enxertado na abóbora híbrida 'Excitte Ikki' x sem inoculação, inoculação com M. incognita e inoculação com M. javanica, no delineamento em blocos ao acaso, com quatro repetições e seis plantas por parcela. Para as características de produção de frutos (número de frutos totais e comerciais por planta, massa de frutos totais e comerciais por planta não foi obtida interação entre os fatores. Obteve-se maior produção de frutos em plantas enxertadas sobre a abóbora 'Shelper', independente da espécie de nematoide, enquanto que a enxertia sobre 'Excitte Ikki' não diferiu do pé-franco para produção total. Ambas as espécies de nematoide reduziram a produção de frutos, porém este efeito foi mais pronunciado com M. javanica. Tanto o pepino pé-franco como as plantas enxertadas foram suscetíveis, pois permitiram a multiplicação dos nematoides, com fator de reprodução, em avaliação realizada aos 72 dias após a inoculação, variando de 3,57 a 15,04, sendo que para M. javanica este valor foi maior no pepino pé-franco.Grafting on resistant rootstock is a technique often recommended for cucumber crop in root-knot nematodes infested areas. We studied the yield of grafted cucumber on two rootstocks compared with non grafted in soil infested with Meloidogyne javanica or with M. incognita race 2. Nine treatments (factorial 3x3: Japanese cucumber hybrid Tsuyataro without grafting, grafted on squash hybrid Shelper and grafted on squash hybrid Excitte Ikki x without nematode inoculation, inoculated with M. incognita and inoculated with M. javanica were evaluated in a randomized block design, with four replications and six plants per plot. There was no interaction between factors for yield evaluated characteristics (total and marketable fruit number per plant, total and marketable fruit weight per plant. Higher fruit yield was obtained in cucumber grafted on 'Shelper', for both nematode species, while cucumber grafted on 'Excitte Ikki' did not differ from non grafted plants for total fruit weight. Both nematode species reduced fruit yield, which was more evident when M. javanica was inoculated. Grafted and non grafted plants were susceptible, because they enabled the multiplication of nematodes, with a reproduction factor, at 72 days after inoculation, ranging from 3.57 to 15.04, with the highest value in cucumber non grafted inoculated with M. javanica.

Ariane C Salata

2012-12-01

240

Reprodução de Meloidogyne incognita raça 1 e produtividade de cultivares de ervilha sob diferentes lâminas de água Reproduction of Meloidogyne incognita race 1 and yield of pea cultivars under different water depths  

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Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito de seis lâminas de água no fator de reprodução (FR e no índice de galhas (IG de Meloidogyne incognita raça 1 e na produtividade de oito cultivares de ervilha em condições de Cerrado, no Distrito Federal. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos ao acaso com parcelas subdivididas e quatro repetições. Os tratamentos constaram da combinação de oito cultivares (Triofin, Mikado, Marina, Viçosa, Maria, Luiza, Amélia e Kodama e seis lâminas de água (156, 177, 239, 311, 395 e 479 mm. Não houve interação entre cultivares e lâminas de água para fator de repodução e índice de galhas do nematóide, mas houve para produtividade de grãos. As médias de FR e IG por cultivar nas seis lâminas não diferiram entre si, mostrando que as cultivares apresentaram o mesmo grau de suscetibilidade ao nematóide. As médias das oito cultivares por lâmina de água mostraram redução do fator de reprodução em 60% sob lâminas de 156 e 177 mm, indicando que o nematóide não tolerou a condição de déficit hídrico do solo. As produtividades não diferiram nas lâminas de 239 a 395 mm, mas foram reduzidas em 12, 30 e 40%, respectivamente, sob lâminas de 479, 177 e 156 mm. As cultivares de ervilha alcançaram melhores produtividades sob lâminas de água entre 239 e 395 mm.The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of six water depths on the reproduction factor and gall index of Meloidogyne incognita race 1 as well as yield of eight pea cultivars in Cerrado conditions of the Federal District, Brazil. Treatments were replicated four times in a completely randomized block design and combined eight pea cultivars (Triofin, Mikado, Marina, Viçosa, Maria, Luiza, Amélia and Kodama besides six water depths, 479, 395, 311, 239, 177 and 156 mm. There was no interaction between cultivars and water depths for the nematode reproduction factor and gall index, but there was for yield. The means for reproductive factor and gall index per cultivar in the six water depths did not differ, showing that the cultivars presented the same degree of susceptibility. However, the general means of the eight cultivars for each water depth showed that the reproductive factor reduced by 60% in water depths of 156 and 177 mm, indicating that the nematode did not tolerate water deficit. Cultivar yield did not differ, considering water depths of 239 to 395 mm, but it reduced to 12, 30 and 40%, respectively, considering water depths of 479, 177 and 156 mm. Pea cultivars reached the best yield under water depths of 239 to 395 mm.

João Maria Charchar

2005-10-01

 
 
 
 
241

Reprodução de Meloidogyne incognita raça 1 e produtividade de cultivares de ervilha sob diferentes lâminas de água / Reproduction of Meloidogyne incognita race 1 and yield of pea cultivars under different water depths  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito de seis lâminas de água no fator de reprodução (FR) e no índice de galhas (IG) de Meloidogyne incognita raça 1 e na produtividade de oito cultivares de ervilha em condições de Cerrado, no Distrito Federal. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos ao ac [...] aso com parcelas subdivididas e quatro repetições. Os tratamentos constaram da combinação de oito cultivares (Triofin, Mikado, Marina, Viçosa, Maria, Luiza, Amélia e Kodama) e seis lâminas de água (156, 177, 239, 311, 395 e 479 mm). Não houve interação entre cultivares e lâminas de água para fator de repodução e índice de galhas do nematóide, mas houve para produtividade de grãos. As médias de FR e IG por cultivar nas seis lâminas não diferiram entre si, mostrando que as cultivares apresentaram o mesmo grau de suscetibilidade ao nematóide. As médias das oito cultivares por lâmina de água mostraram redução do fator de reprodução em 60% sob lâminas de 156 e 177 mm, indicando que o nematóide não tolerou a condição de déficit hídrico do solo. As produtividades não diferiram nas lâminas de 239 a 395 mm, mas foram reduzidas em 12, 30 e 40%, respectivamente, sob lâminas de 479, 177 e 156 mm. As cultivares de ervilha alcançaram melhores produtividades sob lâminas de água entre 239 e 395 mm. Abstract in english The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of six water depths on the reproduction factor and gall index of Meloidogyne incognita race 1 as well as yield of eight pea cultivars in Cerrado conditions of the Federal District, Brazil. Treatments were replicated four times in a completely ran [...] domized block design and combined eight pea cultivars (Triofin, Mikado, Marina, Viçosa, Maria, Luiza, Amélia and Kodama) besides six water depths, 479, 395, 311, 239, 177 and 156 mm. There was no interaction between cultivars and water depths for the nematode reproduction factor and gall index, but there was for yield. The means for reproductive factor and gall index per cultivar in the six water depths did not differ, showing that the cultivars presented the same degree of susceptibility. However, the general means of the eight cultivars for each water depth showed that the reproductive factor reduced by 60% in water depths of 156 and 177 mm, indicating that the nematode did not tolerate water deficit. Cultivar yield did not differ, considering water depths of 239 to 395 mm, but it reduced to 12, 30 and 40%, respectively, considering water depths of 479, 177 and 156 mm. Pea cultivars reached the best yield under water depths of 239 to 395 mm.

Charchar, João Maria; Marouelli, Waldir Aparecido; Giordano, Leonardo de Britto; Aragão, Fernando Antônio Silva.

242

Grafted eggplant yield, quality and growth in infested soil with Verticillium dahliae and Meloidogyne incognita Produção, qualidade e crescimento de beringela enxertada, em solo infestado com Verticillium dahliae e Meloidogyne incognita  

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Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of grafting (onto Solanum torvum Sw. on plant growth, yield and fruit quality of the Pala and Faselis eggplant (Solanum melongena L. cultivars, grown in a soil infested with Verticillium dahliae Kleb. and Meloidogyne incognita, or in noninfested soil. Soil infestation decreased yield, plant height, final above-ground biomass, and also reduced fruit mean weight and shoot dry weight depending on cultivar or grafting. Grafting decreased fruit oxalic acid and the soluble solid contents, and increased mean fruit weight, depending on cultivar and soil infestation. Grafting also reduced the negative effects of the pathogens on disease index, plant height and shoot dry weight. Cultivar Pala was more vigorous than Faselis, and S. torvum was a vigorous rootstock. The combination of a vigorous rootstock with a weak cultivar (Faselis is more profitable than that of a vigorous rootstock and a vigorous cultivar (Pala. Using S. torvum as a rootstock for cultivar Faselis, grown in soil infested with the pathogens, is most likely to be useful in conventional and low-input sustainable horticulture, since grafting increases protection against the pathogens, and reduces the losses in quality and yield.O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito sobre a altura de planta, a produção e a qualidade de frutos do enxerto das cultivares de beringela (Solanum melongena L. Pala e Faselis em Solanum torvum Sw., quando cultivadas em solo infestado com Verticillium dahliae e Meloidogyne incognita ou em solo não infestado. A infestação do solo reduziu a produção, altura da planta, biomassa da parte aérea, massa média dos frutos, massa de matéria seca da parte aérea, conforme a cultivar utilizada e a enxertia. A enxertia reduziu os conteúdos de ácido oxálico e de sólidos solúveis e aumentou a massa média de frutos, conforme a cultivar ou a presença do patógeno no solo. A enxertia também reduziu o efeito negativo dos patógenos sobre o índice de doença, a altura de planta e a massa de matéria seca da parte aérea. A cultivar Pala foi mais vigorosa que a Faselis, e S. torvum foi um porta-enxerto vigoroso. A combinação de porta-enxerto vigoroso com a cultivar fraca (Faselis foi mais adequada que a de porta-enxerto vigoroso e a cultivar vigorosa (Pala. Ouso de S. torvum como porta-enxerto para a cultivar Faselis, em solo infestado, é provavelmente promissora na horticultura convencional e na horticultura sustentável de baixos insumos, pois a enxertia aumenta a proteção contra os patógenos, e reduz a perda de qualidade dos frutos e da produção.

Sebahattin Çürük

2009-12-01

243

Efeito de extratos aquosos de espécies de Asteraceae sobre Meloidogyne incognita / Effect of aqueous extracts of Asteraceae species on Meloidogyne incognita  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Estudou-se, in vitro e in vivo a atividade nematicida dos extratos aquosos de vedélia (Sphagneticola trilobata), erva-de-touro (Tridax procumbens), cravo-de-defunto (Tagetes patula), girassol mexicano (Tithonia diversifolia), botão de ouro (Unxia suffruticosa) e zínia (Zinnia peruviana), sobre Meloi [...] dogyne incognita. Os extratos foram preparados na proporção de 1,0g do material seco e triturado para 10mL de água destilada e armazenados por 24h, sendo seguidamente utilizados nos experimentos. Nos testes in vitro, foram depositados 4,0mL do extrato bruto e 2,0mL de uma suspensão aquosa contendo 200 ovos do nematóide em placas de Petri de 5cm de diâmetro e, quinze dias após, procedeu-se a contagem do número de juvenis eclodidos e dos ovos remanescentes para o cálculo das porcentagens de eclosão. Nos testes in vivo, os extratos foram aplicados, separadamente, via pulverização foliar, tratamento de raiz e vertido no solo, semanalmente durante 60 dias. Como testemunha utilizou-se apenas água nos dois experimentos. No ensaio in vitro observou-se que todos os extratos foram eficientes na redução da eclosão de juvenis de M. incognita quando comparados à testemunha, as porcentagens de redução foram 89,96%, 91,13%, 92,48%, 92,72%, 93,2% e 97,48% para erva-de-touro, cravo-de-defunto, girassol mexicano, vedélia, botão de ouro e zínia, respectivamente, e no ensaio in vivo, que os tratamentos não exerceram nenhum efeito sobre o peso do sistema radicular dos tomateiros, no entanto, observou-se que os resultados diferiram entre as espécies utilizadas e a forma de aplicação do extrato na avaliação do peso fresco da parte aérea das plantas. Quanto ao fator de reprodução, observou-se que nenhum dos extratos apresentou diferença estatística em relação à testemunha, no entanto, quando se compara as diferentes formas de aplicação dos mesmos, observa-se que houve diferença estatística quando os extratos de erva de touro e girassol mexicano foram aplicados via pulverização foliar e no tratamento de raiz, contudo, não houve diferença quando estes extratos foram aplicados em forma de rega no solo. Abstract in english The nematicide activity of aqueous extracts of Wedelia (Sphagneticola trilobata), tridax daisy (Tridax procumbens), marigold (Tagetes patula), Mexican sunflower (Tithonia diversifolia), "botão de ouro" (Unxia suffruticosa) and Peruvian zinnia (Zinnia peruviana) was studied in vitro and in vivo on Me [...] loidogyne incognita. The extracts were prepared at a ratio of 1.0 g of dry and crushed material to 10 ml of distilled water, stored for 24 hours, and then used in the experiments. In in vitro tests, 4.0 mL of crude extract and 2.0 ml of an aqueous suspension containing 200 nematode eggs were deposited on Petri plates of 5cm diameter and, fifteen days later, the number of hatched juveniles and the remaining eggs were counted to calculate the percentages of hatching. In in vivo tests, the extracts were separately applied by leaf spraying, root treatment and pouring onto the soil, weekly for 60 days. As control, only water was used in both experiments. The in vitro test showed that all extracts were effective in reducing the hatching of juveniles of M. incognita when compared to the control; the reduction percentages were 89.96%, 91.13%, 92.48%, 92.72%, 93.2% and 97.48% for tridax daisy, marigold, Mexican sunflower, Wedelia, "botão de ouro" and Peruvian zinnia, respectively, while in the in vivo assay, treatments did not have any effect on the root system weight of tomato plants; however, results differed between the used species and the way of application of the extract in the evaluation of the fresh weight of shoots. As to the reproduction rate, none of the extracts showed a statistical difference, compared to control; however, comparing the different ways of application, there was statistical difference when the extracts of tridax daisy and Mexican sunflower were applied through leaf spraying and root

Isabel Cristina Madeira, Ferreira; Gilson Soares da, Silva; Fagner Sousa, Nascimento.

244

Brassicaceous seed meals as soil amendments to suppress the plant-parasitic nematodes Pratylenchus penetrans and Meloidogyne incognita.  

Science.gov (United States)

Brassicaceous seed meals are the residual materials remaining after the extraction of oil from seeds; these seed meals contain glucosinolates that potentially degrade to nematotoxic compounds upon incorporation into soil. This study compared the nematode-suppressive ability of four seed meals obtained from Brassica juncea 'Pacific Gold', B. napus 'Dwarf Essex' and 'Sunrise', and Sinapis alba 'IdaGold', against mixed stages of Pratylenchus penetrans and Meloidogyne incognita second-stage juveniles (J2). The brassicaceous seed meals were applied to soil in laboratory assays at rates ranging from 0.5 to 10.0% dry w/w with a nonamended control included. Nematode mortality was assessed after 3 days of exposure and calculated as percentage reduction compared to a nonamended control. Across seed meals, M. incognita J2 were more sensitive to the brassicaceous seed meals compared to mixed stages of P. penetrans. Brassica juncea was the most nematode-suppressive seed meal with rates as low as 0.06% resulting in > 90% suppression of both plant-parasitic nematodes. In general B. napus 'Sunrise' was the least nematode-suppressive seed meal. Intermediate were the seed meals of S. alba and B. napus 'Dwarf Essex'; 90% suppression was achieved at 1.0% and 5.0% S. alba and 0.25% and 2.5% B. napus 'Dwarf Essex', for M. incognita and P. penetrans, respectively. For B. juncea, seed meal glucosinolate-degradation products appeared to be responsible for nematode suppression; deactivated seed meal (wetted and heated at 70 °C for 48 hr) did not result in similar P. penetrans suppression compared to active seed meal. Sinapis alba seed meal particle size also played a role in nematode suppression with ground meal resulting in 93% suppression of P. penetrans compared with 37 to 46% suppression by pelletized S. alba seed meal. This study demonstrates that all seed meals are not equally suppressive to nematodes and that care should be taken when selecting a source of brassicaceous seed meal for plant-parasitic nematode management. PMID:22736818

Zasada, I A; Meyer, S L F; Morra, M J

2009-09-01

245

F4 families of crispleaf lettuce with tolerance to early bolting and homozygous for resistance to Meloidogyne incognita race 1 Famílias F4 de alface de folhas crespas tolerantes ao florescimento precoce e homozigotas para resistência à Meloidogyneincognita Raça 1  

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Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate yield, commercial characteristics, tolerance to early bolting and resistance to the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita race 1 in 25 F4 families of crispleaf lettuce, obtained out of crosses between cultivars Grand Rapids, Regina 71, and Verônica. In the first experiment, we evaluate leaf blade and borders characteristics, aboveground fresh weight, and number of days from sowing to the anthesis of first flower (tolerance to early bolting. In the second experiment, we evaluated the resistance to Meloidogyne incognita race 1 via gall index and number of galls and egg masses per root system. Five families had scores for leaf blade and borders similar to cultivars Verônica and Grand Rapids. Furthermore, 84% of the families were as tolerant to early bolting as cultivar Veronica, while 92% of the families were homozygous for resistance to Meloidogyne incognita race 1.O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar características comerciais, produtividade, tolerância ao florescimento precoce e resistência ao nematóide das galhas Meloidogyne incognita raça 1 em 25 famílias F4 de alface, oriundas de cruzamentos envolvendo as cultivares Grand Rapids, Regina 71 e Verônica. No primeiro experimento, foram avaliadas as características de limbo e borda foliares, massa fresca da parte aérea e número de dias da semeadura até a antese da primeira flor (tolerância ao florescimento precoce. No segundo experimento, avaliou-se a resistência à Meloidogyne incognita raça 1 através do índice de galhas, número de galhas e massa de ovos por sistema radicular. Cinco famílias apresentaram notas para borda e limbo foliares semelhantes às cultivares Verônica e Grand Rapids. Além disso, 84% das famílias demonstraram tolerância ao florescimento precoce semelhante à cultivar Verônica e 92% delas foram consideradas homozigotas para resistência à Meloidogyne incognita raça 1.

José Luiz S de Carvalho Filho

2009-09-01

246

Evaluation of the Effect of Ecologic on Root Knot Nematode, Meloidogyne incognita, and Tomato Plant, Lycopersicon esculenum  

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Full Text Available Nonchemical methods and strategies for nematode management including cultural methods and engineered measures have been recommended as an alternative to methyl bromide (a major soil fumigant, due to its role in the depletion of the ozone layer. Hence, an international agreement has recently been reached calling for its reduced consumption and complete phasing out. This present research evaluates the potential of Ecologic, a biological, marine shell meal chitin material, as a soil amendment management agent for root knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita, control, and its effect on the growth of Floradel tomato plant, Lycopersicon esculentum. To accomplish this goal, studies were conducted during which, experimental pots were set up in greenhouse environments using sterilized soil inoculated with 5,000 root-knot eggs per 1500 g soil. There were 4 treatments and 5 replications. Treatments were: No chitin; 50 g chitin; 100 g chitin; and 200 g chitin. A two-week wait period following Ecologic amendment preceded Floradel tomato planting to allow breakdown of the chitin material into the soil. Fresh and dry weights of shoot and root materials were taken as growth end-points. A statistically significant difference (p ≤ 0.05 was obtained with regard to the growth rate of L. esculentum at 100 g chitin treatment compared to the control with no chitin. Mean fresh weights of Floradel tomato were 78.0 ± 22.3g, 81.0 ± 20.3g, 109.0 ± 25.4g and 102.0 ± 33.3g at 0, 50, 100 and 200g chitin, respectively. The analysis of root knot nematode concentrations indicated a substantial effect on reproduction rate associated with chitin amendment. Study results showed a significant decrease in both root knot nematode eggs and juveniles (J2 at 100g and 200g Ecologic chitin levels, however, an increase in nematode concentrations was recorded at the 50g Ecologic chitin level (p ≤ 0.05. The mean amounts of J2 population, as expressed per 1500cm3 soil, were 49,933 ± 38,819, 86,050 ± 25248, 103 ± 133 and 103 ± 133 for 0, 50, 100 and 200g chitin, respectively. Similarly, the mean numbers of root knot nematode eggs (per 1500cm3 of soil were 40,759 ± 36,712, 66,048 ± 39,730, 9,904 ± 16,591 and 9,257 ± 17,204. Root gall rating was also significantly lower (p ≤ 0.05 at the 100g and 200g chitin levels compared to the control. Percent gall ratings were 3.3 ± 1.0%, 3.2 ± 1.0%, 1.0 ± 0.5%, and 1.0% ± 0.6% for amendment levels of 0, 50, 100, and 200g chitin, respectively.

Gary W. Lawrence

2008-06-01

247

Evaluation of Verticilum Chlamydosporium and Arrthrobotrys for Biological Control of Meloidogyne Incognita in Celery and Tomato  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The ability of nematode trapping fungi and egg-parasitic fungi to colonize and persist in the rhizosphere of crop plants is thought to be an important factor influencing the success of bi logical control of root infecting nematodes. In this study, two strains of an egg parasite fungus Verticillium chlamydosporium (Vc-10 and Vc-2M) and an isolate of the nematode-trapping fungus Arthrobotrys oligospora and persistence in the rhizosphere and tomato plants in a green house pot experiment. The isolates tested differed in their pathogenicity to M. incognita and survival in the rhizosphere. An isolate of Verticillum chlamydosporium (Vc-10) was the most virulent pathogen of the nematode. Root galling was slowest in tomato plants treated with V-10 (2.2); pots treated with this isolate had the lowest final soil population of infective juveniles; there was a 62.2% and 98.5% infections of eggs and egg masses respectively by Vc-10 on tomato plants. The two isolates of Verticillium chlamydosporium (Vc-10 and Vc2M) persisted in the soil and could be re-isolated from the rhizosphere and roots of tomato plants at least 16 weeks after soil application. The final inoculum density was, however higher for Vc-10 (1.35x105 cfu/g soil) than Vc-2M (9.25x104 cfu/g soil). Arthrobotrys oligospora on the other hand did not give any significant control of the nematode on both crops, there was severe galling on the roots of plants treated with this agent. It could not be re-isolated from the plant rhizosphere sixteen weeks after soil infestation. Lack of nematode control on both crops by A.oligo spora was attributed to it's poor on establishment in the plant rhizosphere; low density and roots penetration by infective juveniles before they were ensnared in the trapping devices of this fungal biocontrol agent. The fact that it could not be re-isolated from the rhizosphere may imply that the fungus did not survive in the rhizosphere in quantities enough to enhance nematode control

2002-11-11

248

Efeito de exsudatos de cultura de células de plantas em juvenis de segundo estádio de Meloidogyne incognita  

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Full Text Available Calus foram obtidos de tomateiro (Lycopersicon esculentum, cafeeiro (Coffea arabica, alfafa (Medicago sativa, orquídea (Dendrobium nobile, mostarda (Brassica rapa, batata doce (Ipomoea batatas, fumo (Nicotiana tabacum, cenoura (Daucus carota e Crotalaria juncea em meio sólido de Murashige & Skoog (MS seguido do cultivo em meio líquido MS em temperatura de 25-28 ºC. Após um mês, a suspensão foi passada em membrana Millipore 0,22 µm, obtendo-se, assim, o exsudato da cultura de células de cada planta testada. Ovos ou juvenis de segundo estádio (J2 de Meloidogyne incognita foram incubados nesses exsudatos e avaliadas as percentagens de eclosão, mobilidade e mortalidade dos J2. Com exceção dos ovos incubados em exsudato de orquídea, todos os demais inibiram a eclosão quando comparados com a incubação em água (testemunha. Entretanto, nos exsudatos de L. esculentum, cafeeiro e C. juncea a inibição foi mais drástica, semelhante ao aldicarb, mas significativamente diferente e menor do que em soluções contendo ingredientes do meio MS (1-5. Todos os exsudatos reduziram a mobilidade e aumentaram a mortalidade, com maior intensidade em 24 h de exposição. Porém, maior redução na mobilidade ocorreu nos exsudatos de tomateiro e alfafa, enquanto maior mortalidade no exsudato de tomateiro, seguido pelo de mostarda.

Rocha Fernando S.

2004-01-01

249

Mi-1-Mediated Resistance to Meloidogyne incognita in Tomato May Not Rely on Ethylene but Hormone Perception through ETR3 Participates in Limiting Nematode Infection in a Susceptible Host  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Root-knot nematodes, Meloidogyne spp., are important pests of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) and resistance to the three most prevalent species of this genus, including Meloidogyne incognita, is mediated by the Mi-1 gene. Mi-1 encodes a nucleotide binding (NB) leucine-rich repeat (LRR) resistance (R) protein. Ethylene (ET) is required for the resistance mediated by a subset of NB-LRR proteins and its role in Mi-1-mediated nematode resistance has not been characterized. Infection of tomato root...

Mantelin, Sophie; Bhattarai, Kishor K.; Jhaveri, Teraneh Z.; Kaloshian, Isgouhi

2013-01-01

250

Virtual screening and in vitro assay of potential drug like inhibitors from spices against Glutathione-S-Transferase of Meloidogyne incognita.  

Science.gov (United States)

Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) enzymes are critical antioxidant and detoxification system responsible for long-term existence of nematodes in host species. Hence, 16 phytochemicals predicted and reported to have potential nematicidal activity have been docked to GST enzyme of Meloidogyne incognita to assess their binding affinity and inhibitory activity. In vitro effects of these phytochemicals from in silico results have been done for validation of docking studies and efficacy in GST inhibition of following compounds such as alpha- pinene, alpha- terpineol, beta- caryophyllene, capsaicin, cinnamic acid, citronellol, curcumin, eugenol, geraniol, isoeugenol, linalool, myristicin, neral, NVA (N-vanillylnonanamide), piperine, vanillin have been revealed. Nematode inhibition in vitro bioassay for selected compounds could conclude that maximum mortality was observed with highest concentrations of beta- caryophyllene (78%) followed by eugenol (61.6%), cinnamic acid (55%) and N-vanillylnonanamide (49%). These findings thus suggest that the above phytochemicals could be potentially developed as nematicidal molecules against M. incognita infections. PMID:22553389

Babu, Rosana O; Moorkoth, Dinsha; Azeez, Shamina; Eapen, Santhosh J

2012-01-01

251

Effects of chloroform extract of Dryopteris crassirhizoma on the ultramicroscopic structures of Meloidogyne incognita.  

Science.gov (United States)

In our early experiments, the chloroform extract of D. crassirhizoma was demonstrated to contain the highest concentrations of total phloroglucinols among several extract fractions and possessed the most effective nematicidal activity. This study aimed to ascertain the ultrastructural changes in M. incognita after treatment with a D. crassirhizoma chloroform extract at 1?mg·mL?¹ for 24?h. It was found that the extract exhibited significant destructive effects on the worm's ultrastructure and caused distinctive damage to body surfaces and internal structures. These results will contribute to a deeper understanding of the nematicidal mechanism of D. crassirhizoma, as well as in the design of efficient bionematicides. PMID:24282379

Liu, Ji-quan; Xie, Shu-lian; Feng, Jia; Cai, Jin

2013-01-01

252

Uptake and translocation of nitrogen, phosphorus and calcium in soybean infected with Meloidogyne incognita and M. javanica Absorção e transporte de nitrogênio, fósforo e cálcio em soja infetada com Meloidogyne incognita e M. javanica  

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Full Text Available Two soybean (Glycine max cultivars were used in this study, Ocepar 4, rated as moderately resistant to Meloidogyne incognita race 3 but susceptible to M. javanica, and 'BR 16', susceptible to both nematodes. The effect of nematodes infection on the uptake and transport of N, P and Ca to the shoot was studied in plants growing in a split root system. The upper half was inoculated with 0, 3,000, 9,000 or 27,000 eggs/plant while the lower half received 15N, 32P or 45Ca. Infected plants showed an increase of root but a decrease of shoot mass with increasing inoculum levels. In general, total endogenous nutrients increased in the roots and tended to decrease in the shoots with increasing inoculum levels. When concentrations were calculated, there was an increase in the three nutrients in the roots, and an increase of Ca but no significant variation of N and P was observed in the shoots. The total amount of 15N in the roots increased at the highest inoculum levels but 32P and 45Ca decreased. In the shoots there was a reduction of 32P and 45Ca. The specific concentrations of the labelled nutrients (abundance or radioactivity/tissue mass also showed a decrease of 32P and 45Ca in the shoots and roots of infected plants and an increase of 15N in the shoots. Considering that overall nutrient concentrations reflect cumulative nutrient uptake and the data from labelled elements gave information at a specific moment of the infection, thus nematodes do interfere with nutrient uptake and translocation.Duas cultivares de soja (Glycine max foram usadas neste estudo, Ocepar 4, moderadamente resistente a Meloidogyne incognita raça 3, mas suscetível a M. javanica, e 'BR 16', suscetível a ambos nematóides. O efeito da infecção de nematóides na absorção e transporte de N, P e Ca para a parte aérea foi estudada em plantas crescendo em um sistema da raízes divividas, sendo a parte superior das raízes inoculada com 0, 3.000, 9.000 ou 27.000 ovos/planta, enquanto a inferior recebeu 15N, 32P ou 45Ca. Plantas infetadas mostraram aumento de raízes, mas diminuição da massa da parte aérea com o aumento do inóculo. De modo geral, as quantidades endógenas totais dos elementos estudados aumentaram nas raízes e tenderam a diminuir na parte aérea com o aumento do inóculo. Quando os dados foram expressos em concentração do elemento/massa de tecido, observou-se aumento para os três elementos nas raízes e aumento de Ca na parte aérea. A quantidade total de 15N nas raízes aumentou no maior nível de inóculo, havendo diminuição de 32P e 45Ca. Na parte aérea, houve redução de 32P e 45Ca. As concentrações específicas dos elementos marcados (abundância ou radioatividade/massa de tecido também mostrou diminuição de 32P e 45Ca na parte aérea e raízes de plantas infetadas, e aumento de 15N na parte aérea. Considerando que as quantidades endógenas dos elementos refletem a absorção cumulativa e que os dados de elementos marcados fornecem informação de um momento específico da infecção, nematóides interferem de fato com a absorção e translocação de nutrientes.

RUI G. CARNEIRO

2002-04-01

253

Pathogenicity of Meloidogyne incognita Race 1 on Turmeric (Curcuma longa L. as Influenced by Inoculum Density and Poultry Manure Amendment  

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Full Text Available A glasshouse experiment was conducted to assess the pathogenicity of Meloidogyne incognita race 1 on turmeric (Curcuma longa L. at three inoculum densities (0, 2500, 5000 eggs plant-1 and soil amendment with different levels of Poultry Manure (PM (0, 10, 20, 30 and 40 t ha-1. The results obtained showed that root-galling and egg production decreased in a linear response to increasing PM level at both low and high inoculum densities (r = -0.88 and r = -0.85, respectively; p=0.01. The lowest gall index and egg mass index of 2.0 were recorded in plants amended with 40 and 30 t ha-1 PM, respectively. The high nematode density was more pathogenic (p=0.05 than the low density. Shoot length, fresh shoot and root weights responded in a curvilinear pattern with increasing levels of PM. In general, these growth variables increased with increase in PM level up to 20 t ha-1 and then declined with further increase. At high inoculum density, shoot growth was enhanced by 242 and 58% with 20 and 40 t ha-1 PM relative to unamended soil, respectively. Conversely, fresh root weight was increased by 120% and reduced by 12.8% with 20 and 40 t ha-1 PM, respectively. From this study, it could be inferred that higher levels of PM were highly nematicidal but phytotoxic to turmeric plants; the optimal rate of PM amendment is predicted to be 18-22 t ha-1. However, for this method to be incorporated into Integrated Nematode Management Programme of turmeric, field trials are needed for the optimization of the quantity, time and method of application.

Kevin I. Ugwuoke

2010-01-01

254

Identification of the resistance breaking populations of Meloidogyne on tomatoes in Morocco and their effect on new sources of resistance  

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Vingt-cinq isolats de #Meloidogyne$ collectés dans deux zones maraîchères marocaines ont été identifiés par les profils estérasiques. #M. javanica$ représente 80 à 82% des isolats et #M. incognita$ 18 à 20%. #M. javanica$ a été observé sur plusieurs cultures sous serre plastique et en plein champ, surtout sur tomate, aubergine, melon, bananier et sur plantes adventices. #M. incognita$ a été observé sur poivron et oeillet sous serre et sur tomate de plein champ. Parmi vingt iso...

Eddaoudi, M.; Ammati, M.; Rammah, A.

1997-01-01

255

Nematicidal activity of leaf extracts from Lantana camara L. against Meloidogyne incognita (kofoid and white chitwood and its use to manage roots infection of Solanum melongena L.  

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Full Text Available Various concentrations of aqueous leaf extract of Lantana camara were assessed in vitro conditions against second stage juveniles (J2 of Meloidogyne incognita. The standard concentration 'S' of leaf extract was found to be highly nematostatic, where nematodes were completely paralyzed after 12 h and after 48 h of exposure, 96% of juveniles were killed at same concentration. However, the mortality of juveniles was 75% in S/2 dilution at 48 h. The degree of effectiveness and dilutions of extract were directly proportional. The percentage of paralyzed juveniles was decreased, when J2 transferred in distilled water after 48 h incubation in standard aqueous leaf extract. Addition of freeze-dried aqueous extract to sterile sandy substrate at S/2 dilution significantly decreased the root-knot infection to susceptible eggplants whereas second stage juveniles (J2 that penetrated roots of eggplant were able to complete development in sterile sandy substrate without treatment of freeze-dried aqueous extract.

Faheem Ahmad

2010-06-01

256

Separate and Combined Effects of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. tracheiphilum and Meloidogyne incognita on Growth and Yield of Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp Var. Moussa-Local  

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Full Text Available A study was undertaken to determine the separate and combined affects of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. tracheiphilum and Meloidogyne incognita on growth and yield of cowpea variety Moussa-local. It was observed that growth and yield components of the cowpea were generally reduced in all treatments as compared to that of control. Single infection with only nematode caused more growth and yield reductions than infection with only fungus. Reduction in the growth and yield components were generally higher in simultaneous infection than infection with either of the pathogens. Growth and yield reduction in combined infection did not vary significantly from those caused by successive infection where either of the pathogens was made to precede the other. Infection with both pathogens caused significant increases in the root galls, number of eggs and juveniles when compared with infection with nematode only.

A.O. Ogaraku

2008-01-01

257

Effects of Meloidogyne spp. and Rhizoctonia solani on the Growth of Grapevine Rootings  

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A disease complex involving Meloidogyne incognita and Rhizoctonia solani was associated with stunting of grapevines in a field nursery. Nematode reproduction was occurring on both susceptible and resistant cultivars, and pot experiments were conducted to determine the virulence of this M. incognita population, and of M. javanica and M. hapla populations, to V. vinifera cv. Colombard (susceptible) and to V. champinii cv. Ramsey (regarded locally as highly resistant). The virulence of R. solani...

Walker, G. E.

1997-01-01

258

Potentiality of different isolates of wilt fungus Fusarium oxysporum collected from rhizosphere of tomato against root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita.  

Science.gov (United States)

This investigation was undertaken to determine the effect of culture filtrates of different isolates of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici on mortality of Meloidogyne incognita juveniles and egg hatching. It was observed that different concentrations including standard extract (S.E), 1:10 and 1:100 dilutions of all fungal filtrates inhibited egg hatch when compared with control. Minimum mortality and maximum hatching was observed in BRT (showing least mortality) isolate of F. oxysporum, while maximum mortality and minimum egg hatching was recorded in BGT (showing maximum mortality) isolate. Larval mortality was decreased with a decrease in concentration and the least mortality was observed in 1:100 when compared with SE and 1:10. The potentiality of both the isolates (BRT and BGT) against root-knot nematode M. incognita was confirmed by the pathogenicity test on tomato. These observations confirmed that F. oxysporumisolates possesses variability in pathogenicity ranging from pathogenic to bio-control agent. The plants inoculated with BRT isolate failed to show wilt symptoms while plants inoculated with BGT isolate showed wilt indices. PMID:18941992

Jain, Anju; Mohan, Jitendra; Singh, Mahendra; Goswami, B K

2008-11-01

259

Descripción morfológica de selecciones de Psidium guajava L. tolerantes y Psidium friedrichsthalianum (Berg. Nied resistente a Meloidogyne incognita en el estado Zulia, Venezuela Morphological description of selections of Psidium guajava L. tolerants and Psidium friedrichsthalianum (Berg. Nied resistant to Meloidogyne incognita in Zulia state, Venezuela  

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Full Text Available Con el objetivo de realizar una descripción morfológica se escogieron siete selecciones de P. guajava tolerantes, una susceptible y una de P. friedrichsthalianum "Cas" resistente al nematodo Meloidogyne incognita, ubicadas en el Centro Frutícola del Zulia-CORPOZULIA, municipio Mara, estado Zulia, Venezuela. Se recolectaron hojas, flores y frutos y se evaluó forma, margen, color, longitud del pecíolo, ancho y longitud de las hojas, relación ancho por longitud, número de nervaduras, tamaño de la flor, número de pétalos, longitud del pedicelo, longitud y ancho de los pétalos, forma de los granos de polen, diámetro ecuatorial del fruto, masa fresca, diámetro polar, perímetro, grosor del casco, longitud de la cavidad ocupada por las semillas y color de la pulpa. Los resultados obtenidos indicaron que existen diferencias entre las selecciones en cada uno de las variables analizadas, determinando que por las características del fruto y su tolerancia a Meloidogyne incognita se recomiendan a las selecciones P. guajava "AGROLUZ-43" y "AGROLUZ-21" para ser propagadas asexualmente e incluirlas en programas de mejoramiento genético.A morphological study was performed on seven selections of tolerant P. guajava, one susceptible selection and one selection P. friedrichsthalianum"Cas" resistant to the nematode Meloidogyne incognita. The vegetative materials were recollected in the Centro Frutícola del Zulia-CORPOZULIA in Mara municipality. Leaves, flowers and fruits in all the selections were collected for the study of shape, margin, color, length of the pedicel, width and length of the leaves, the with/length relation , number of veins, number of petals, width and length of the petals, flower diameter, shape of pollen grain; shape, diameter, perimeter, length and side of fruit, thickness of mesocarp, cavity of the seed and color of the mesocarp. The morphological study indicated that there are differences between all the selections studied for all the evaluated characteristics in this study. Considering the fruit characteristics and tolerance to nematode M. incognita, it is recommended that the selections P. guajava "AGROLUZ-43" and "AGROLUZ-21" be asexually propagated.

T Molero

2003-10-01

260

Salicylic acid-induced glutathione status in tomato crop and resistance to root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita (Kofoid & White Chitwood  

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Full Text Available Salicylic acid-(SA is a plant defense stimulator. Exogenous application of SA might influence the status of glutathione-(GSH. GSH activates and SA alters the expression of defense genes to modulate plant resistance against pathogens. The fate of GSH in a crop following SA treatment is largely unknown. The SA-induced profiles of free reduced-, free oxidized-(GSSG and protein bound-(PSSG glutathione in tomato crop following foliar treatment of transplant at 5.0-10.0 ?g mL–1 were measured by liquid chromatography. Resistance to root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita damaging tomato and crop performance were also evaluated. SA treatment at 5.0-10.0 ?g mL–1 to tomato transplants increased GSH, GSSG and PSSG in plant leaf and root, more so in leaf, during crop growth and development. As the fruits ripened, GSH and PSSG increased and GSSG declined. SA reduced the root infection by M. incognita, nematode reproduction and thus, improved the resistance of tomato var. Pusa Ruby, but reduced crop growth and redox status. SA at 5.0 ?g mL–1 improved yield and fruit quality. The study firstly linked SA with activation of glutathione metabolism and provided an additional dimension to the mechanism of induced resistance against obligate nematode pathogen. SA increased glutathione status in tomato crop, imparted resistance against M. incognita, augmented crop yield and functional food quality. SA can be applied at 5.0 ?g mL–1 for metabolic engineering of tomato at transplanting to combine host-plant resistance and health benefits in formulating a strategic nematode management decision.

Ghanendra Singh

2011-05-01

 
 
 
 
261

Eclosão de Meloidogyne incognita, M. javanica e M. mayaguensis em lixiviados de caupi associado a Glomus etunicatum e Bradyrhizobium sp Hatch of Meloidogyne incognita, M. javanica and M. mayaguensis in root leachates from cowpea associated with Glomus etunicatum and Bradyrhizobium sp  

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Full Text Available O objetivo do presente estudo foi avaliar a influência de lixiviados de caupi (Vigna unguiculata cultivar Epace 10 inoculada com Glomus etunicatum e/ou Bradyrhizobium sp. sobre eclosão de Meloidogyne incognita, M. javanica e M. mayaguensis. O solo foi infestado com 200 esporos do fungo micorrízico e/ou 1 ml de suspensão contendo 10(8 UFC/ml das estirpes de Bradyrhizobium NFB 700 e NFB 652, e semeados com caupi, deixando-se plantas não inoculadas como testemunha. As plantas foram mantidas em condições de casa de vegetação, durante 57 dias após infestação, para coleta dos lixiviados. Procederam-se avaliações após 0, 24, 48 e 144 h de imersão de ovos dos nematóides em água ou lixiviados de plantas não inoculadas e inoculadas com fungo e bactéria em conjunto ou isoladamente. O delineamento adotado foi do tipo inteiramente casualizado em arranjo fatorial 3'5'4 (nematóide ' lixiviado ' período de exposição, com quatro repetições. Meloidogyne javanica apresentou maior (PThe objective of the present work was to evaluate the influence of root leachates from cowpea (Vigna unguiculata cultivar Epace 10 inoculated with Glomus etunicatum and/or Bradyrhizobium sp. on the hatching of Meloidogyne incognita, M. javanica and M. mayaguensis juveniles. Soil was infested at planting with 200 spores of the fungus and/or 1 ml of 10(8 UFC/ml suspension of Bradyrhizobium sp. stirps NFB 700 and 652. Non infested soil was used as the control. Plants were allowed to grow under greenhouse conditions for 57 days after soil infestation for leachates collection. Hatch evaluations were done at 0, 24, 48 and 144 h after eggs were immersed in water or leachings of the inoculated and non inoculated 57-day old plants. The experimental design was completely randomized in a 3'5'4 (nematode ' leachate ' exposure time factorial arrangement with four replicates. Meloidogyne javanica presented the highest (P 0.05 percentage of hatching in leachates of plants inoculated with G. etunicatum and Bradyrhizobium sp. simultaneously. Considering the time effect on hatch, M. javanica did not differ from M. mayaguensis but both of them differed (P< 0.05 from M. incognita after 144 hours. Juvenile hatching versus time, in response to each leachate, fit (P< 0.01 the quadractic model.

Kércya M. S. Siqueira

2004-06-01

262

Integrated Management of Meloidogyne incognita Infecting Eggplant by Certain Organic Amendments, Bacillus thuringiensis and Oxamyl with Reference to N P K and Total Chlorophyll Status  

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Greenhouse experiment on the impact of horse manure or sesame-oil-cake or Bacillus thuringiensis singly and/or integrated with oxamyl on Meloidogyne incognita infecting eggplant cv. Black long at 25±5°C, revealed that all tested treatments obviously improved plant growth response and reduced nematode development. Among the tested components, B. thuringiensis applied alone or mixed with oxamyl gave the highest percentage of increase in plant growth parameters i.e., plant...

El-sherif, A. G.; Refaei, A. R.; El-nagar, M. E.; Salem, Hagar M. M.

2007-01-01

263

F4 families of crispleaf lettuce with tolerance to early bolting and homozygous for resistance to Meloidogyne incognita race 1 Famílias F4 de alface de folhas crespas tolerantes ao florescimento precoce e homozigotas para resistência à Meloidogyneincognita Raça 1  

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The objective of this study was to evaluate yield, commercial characteristics, tolerance to early bolting and resistance to the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita race 1 in 25 F4 families of crispleaf lettuce, obtained out of crosses between cultivars Grand Rapids, Regina 71, and Verônica. In the first experiment, we evaluate leaf blade and borders characteristics, aboveground fresh weight, and number of days from sowing to the anthesis of first flower (tolerance to early bolting). In ...

Carvalho Filho, Jose? Luiz S.; Gomes, Luiz Antonio A.; Biguzzi, Felipe A.; Wilson Roberto Maluf; Sindynara Ferreira

2009-01-01

264

Variabilidade fisiológica em populações de Meloidogyne paranaensis Physiological variability of two populations of Meloidogyne paranaensis  

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Full Text Available Comparou-se a capacidade reprodutiva de duas populações de Meloidogyne paranaensis, originárias de plantas de soja (Mp-s e de cafeeiro (Mp-c, em diferentes hospedeiros. A população Mp-s apresentou maior capacidade reprodutiva que a Mp-c, apresentando fator de reprodução superior em tomateiro e em duas cultivares de soja, porém em cafeeiro a Mp-c reproduziu melhor. Em tomateiro 'Santa Clara', ambas reproduziram significativamente mais que nos outros hospedeiros e não houve diferença entre as cultivares de soja 'MS/BR 34' e 'Fepagro RS 10'. Contudo, maior número de populações deverá ser estudado.Two populations of Meloidogyne paranaensis, one from soybean plants (Mp-s and another from coffee plants (Mp-c were studied to compare their ability in reproducing on different hosts. Mp-s was able to reproduce more than Mp-c on tomato plants and on two soybean cultivars, but Mp-c showed a higher reproduction factor on coffee plants. On tomato 'Santa Clara', both populations reproduced significantly more than on other hosts, but no difference was detected between the soybean cultivars 'MS/BR 34' and 'Fepagro RS 10'. However, a larger number of populations should be studied.

Alexandre D. Roese

2007-02-01

265

Variabilidade fisiológica em populações de Meloidogyne paranaensis / Physiological variability of two populations of Meloidogyne paranaensis  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Comparou-se a capacidade reprodutiva de duas populações de Meloidogyne paranaensis, originárias de plantas de soja (Mp-s) e de cafeeiro (Mp-c), em diferentes hospedeiros. A população Mp-s apresentou maior capacidade reprodutiva que a Mp-c, apresentando fator de reprodução superior em tomateiro e em [...] duas cultivares de soja, porém em cafeeiro a Mp-c reproduziu melhor. Em tomateiro 'Santa Clara', ambas reproduziram significativamente mais que nos outros hospedeiros e não houve diferença entre as cultivares de soja 'MS/BR 34' e 'Fepagro RS 10'. Contudo, maior número de populações deverá ser estudado. Abstract in english Two populations of Meloidogyne paranaensis, one from soybean plants (Mp-s) and another from coffee plants (Mp-c) were studied to compare their ability in reproducing on different hosts. Mp-s was able to reproduce more than Mp-c on tomato plants and on two soybean cultivars, but Mp-c showed a higher [...] reproduction factor on coffee plants. On tomato 'Santa Clara', both populations reproduced significantly more than on other hosts, but no difference was detected between the soybean cultivars 'MS/BR 34' and 'Fepagro RS 10'. However, a larger number of populations should be studied.

Alexandre D., Roese; Rosângela D.L., Oliveira; Dagoberto S., Oliveira.

266

In vitro and foliar spray evaluation of Verbena officinalis (L.), Erythrina mulungu (Mart. ex Benth.), Quassia amara (L.), Bidens pilosa (L.) and Plantago lanceolata (L.), extracts on Meloidogyne incognita (Kofoid & White, 1919) Chitwood, 1949 Evaluación in vitro y aplicación foliar de Verbena officinalis (L.), Erythrina mulungu (Mart. ex Benth.), Quassia amara (L.), Bidens pilosa (L.) y Plantago lanceolata (L.), sobre Meloidogyne incognita (Kofoid & White, 1919) Chitwood, 1949  

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This study aimed to evaluate the efficiency of aqueous extracts of five species of medicinal plant, Verbena officinalis (L.), Erythrina mulungu (Mart. ex Benth.), Quassia amara (L.), Bidens pilosa (L.) and Plantago lanceolata (L.) in vitro, and sprayed on tomato plants for the control of Meloidogyne incognita. In vitro experiments were conducted in growth chambers in acrylic ELISA plates. The treatments were doses of 0, 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 g • L-1 of different aqueous extracts. On the...

Ferrari Mateus, Milena A.; Duarte Rios Faria¹, Cacilda M.; Botelho, Renato V.; Rosangela Dallemole-Giaretta; Martins Ferreira, Silvana G.; Zaluski, Welton L.

2013-01-01

267

REAÇÃO DE GENÓTIPOS DE MILHO (Zea mays L. AOS NEMATÓIDES DE GALHAS (Meloidogyne javanica e M. incognita REACTION OF CORN GENOTYPES (Zea mays L. TO ROOT-KNOT NEMATODES (Melodoigyne javanica and M. incognita  

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Full Text Available

Foram conduzidos dois experimentos, sob condições de estufa de produção, com o objetivo de avaliar a reação de oito genótipos de milho em relação aos nematóides formadores de galhas Meloidogyne javanica e M. incognita. Foram testados os híbridos DINA-657, DINA-766, DINA-170, HATÃ-1045, HATÃ-1001, FT-5140, CO-9560 E CO-32. Com relação a M. javanica, observou-se que as cultivares HATÃ-1001, HATÃ-1045, DINA-657 E FT-5140 apresentam os menores fatores de reprodução, destacando-se para uso em programas de rotação de culturas com a soja. Todas as cultivares testadas comportaram-se como boas multiplicadoras de M. incognita, apresentando fatores de reprodução superiores a 3,98. Estas cultivares não devem ser recomendadas para áreas infestadas por esta espécie de nematóide.

PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Resistência; nematóides de galhas; milho.

Two experiments were carried out under greenhouse conditions with the objective of evaluating the reaction of eight corn genotypes to the root-knot nematodes Meloidogyne javanica and M. incognita. Cultivars HATÃ-1001, HATÃ-1045, DINA-657 and FT-5140 presented smaller reproduction factors (RF for M. javanica. Therefore, the use of these cultivars may be indicated in the crop rotation program with soybean. All cultivars were suitable hosts for M. incognita

Hércules Diniz Campos

2007-09-01

268

Isolamento e avaliação da atividade nematicida de constituintes químicos de Mucuna cinerea contra Meloidogyne incognita e Heterodera glycines  

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Full Text Available Phytochemical investigation of the aerial parts and roots of Mucuna cinerea led to the isolation of a mixture of fatty acids, triacylglicerols, beta-sitosterol, stigmasterol, stigmasterol glucoside, daucosterol, asperglaucide (4 and the isoflavonoids prunetin (1, genistein (2, medicarpin (3, daidzein (5, 7-O-alpha-glycopiranosyl daidzein (6. An in vitro bioassay was carried out with compounds 1-4, at the concentration of 50 and 5 mug mL-1 against the phytonematodes M. incognita and H. glycines. Although the four compounds showed some nematocidal property, the most active was (1, causing 70% mortality of M. incognita at the concentration of 50 mug mL-1.

Demuner Antonio Jacinto

2003-01-01

269

Eclosão de Meloidogyne incognita, M. javanica e M. mayaguensis em lixiviados de caupi associado a Glomus etunicatum e Bradyrhizobium sp / Hatch of Meloidogyne incognita, M. javanica and M. mayaguensis in root leachates from cowpea associated with Glomus etunicatum and Bradyrhizobium sp  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O objetivo do presente estudo foi avaliar a influência de lixiviados de caupi (Vigna unguiculata) cultivar Epace 10 inoculada com Glomus etunicatum e/ou Bradyrhizobium sp. sobre eclosão de Meloidogyne incognita, M. javanica e M. mayaguensis. O solo foi infestado com 200 esporos do fungo micorrízico [...] e/ou 1 ml de suspensão contendo 10(8) UFC/ml das estirpes de Bradyrhizobium NFB 700 e NFB 652, e semeados com caupi, deixando-se plantas não inoculadas como testemunha. As plantas foram mantidas em condições de casa de vegetação, durante 57 dias após infestação, para coleta dos lixiviados. Procederam-se avaliações após 0, 24, 48 e 144 h de imersão de ovos dos nematóides em água ou lixiviados de plantas não inoculadas e inoculadas com fungo e bactéria em conjunto ou isoladamente. O delineamento adotado foi do tipo inteiramente casualizado em arranjo fatorial 3'5'4 (nematóide ' lixiviado ' período de exposição), com quatro repetições. Meloidogyne javanica apresentou maior (P Abstract in english The objective of the present work was to evaluate the influence of root leachates from cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) cultivar Epace 10 inoculated with Glomus etunicatum and/or Bradyrhizobium sp. on the hatching of Meloidogyne incognita, M. javanica and M. mayaguensis juveniles. Soil was infested at pla [...] nting with 200 spores of the fungus and/or 1 ml of 10(8) UFC/ml suspension of Bradyrhizobium sp. stirps NFB 700 and 652. Non infested soil was used as the control. Plants were allowed to grow under greenhouse conditions for 57 days after soil infestation for leachates collection. Hatch evaluations were done at 0, 24, 48 and 144 h after eggs were immersed in water or leachings of the inoculated and non inoculated 57-day old plants. The experimental design was completely randomized in a 3'5'4 (nematode ' leachate ' exposure time) factorial arrangement with four replicates. Meloidogyne javanica presented the highest (P 0.05) percentage of hatching in leachates of plants inoculated with G. etunicatum and Bradyrhizobium sp. simultaneously. Considering the time effect on hatch, M. javanica did not differ from M. mayaguensis but both of them differed (P

Siqueira, Kércya M. S.; Torres, Gustavo R. C.; Pedrosa, Elvira M.R.; Moura, Romero M..

270

Effects of glucosinolates and their enzymatic hydrolysis products via myrosinase on the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita (Kofoid et White) Chitw.  

Science.gov (United States)

The root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita (Kofoid et White) Chitw. is responsible for large yield losses in several horticultural crops. Fumigation with chemicals has been efficient in fighting this soil pest, but it clearly shows a negative environmental impact. Thus, it is necessary to find an environmentally friendly alternative to control this nematode and meet the requirements imposed by world regulation to ban some chemical fumigants in the world after 2005. The glucosinolate-myrosinase system, typical of the Brassicaceae family, appears to be an important natural alternative for the control of several soilborne pests and pathogens. The aim of this study was to evaluate, in vitro, the biocidal activity of 11 glucosinolates and their degradation products on second-stage juveniles of the root-knot nematode M. incognita expressed by the nematicidal (LD(50)) and immobilization effects, after 24 and 48 h. None of the intact glucosinolates had any biological effect. After myrosinase addition, their hydrolysis products (essentially isothiocyanates) resulted in highly different biocidal activities. Among the hydrolysis products of the tested glucosinolates, 2-phenylethyl, benzyl, 4-methylthiobutyl, and prop-2-enyl isothiocyanate showed the stronger activity, with an LD(50) at concentrations of 11, 15, 21, and 34 microM, respectively. On the basis of the in vitro test results, new genotypes of Brassicaceae had been selected for high content in the roots of the glucosinolates generating the more active isothiocyanates and their agronomic performances verified in view of a full-field application as catch crop plants. With this aim, the qualitative and quantitative glucosinolate contents in the roots of these potentially nematicidal plants are also reported and discussed. PMID:15506804

Lazzeri, Luca; Curto, Giovanna; Leoni, Onofrio; Dallavalle, Elisabetta

2004-11-01

271

Damage quantification and reaction of bean genotypes (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) to Meloidogyne incognita race 3 and M. javanica Quantificação de danos e reção de genótipos de feijoeiro (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) à Meloidogyne incognita raça 3 e M. javanica  

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The damage and the resistance levels of cultivars and accessions of common beans rescued in the South and mountain regions of Espírito Santo State, Brazil, to M. incognita race 3 and M. javanica parasitism were evaluated under a greenhouse. Four rescued bean genotypes ("FORT-10", "FORT-13", "FORT-16" and "FORT-19") and 2 commercial cultivars: "Pérola", and "Aporé", were tested. The cultivar "Rico-23" was included as standard of susceptibility to nematodes and non-inoculated plants constitu...

Leonardo Nazário Silva dos Santos; Fábio Ramos Alves; Leônidas Leoni Belan; Pablo Diego Silva Cabral; Frederico De Pina Matta; Waldir Cintra de Jesus Junior; Willian Bucker de Moraes

2012-01-01

272

Comparative study of Fusarium oxysporum f sp. lycopersici and Meloidogyne incognita race-2 on plant growth parameters of tomato  

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Full Text Available Many species of soil-inhabiting fungus Fusarium, cause severe yield loss in many crops. Experiments were conducted in net house condition with complete randomized block design to determine the individual effect of different in-oculum levels of root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita, Race-2 and Fusarium oxysporum f sp. lycopersici on plant growth parameters viz., Plant length, fresh and dry weight and number of fruits of tomato var. P21. The experimental results showed that both the pathogens cause significant reduction in plant growth parameters. However, the fungus was not much effective on plant growth parameters in comparison to root-knot nematode. Greatest reduction in plant growth parameters was recorded in plants inoculated with 8000 J2/Kg soil of Meloidogyne in-cognita race 2. The threshold level of root-knot nematode was 1000 J2/kg soil while threshold level of Fusarium was @ 1 g/Kg soil. Inoculum level of Fusarium oxysporum f sp. lycopersici and Meloidogyne in-cognita race-2 was pathogenic and caused significant reduction at and above 1 g/kg soil and 1000 J2/Kg soil respectively.

Safiuddin  

2012-10-01

273

Comparative analysis of two 14-3-3 homologues and their expression pattern in the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita.  

Science.gov (United States)

14-3-3 proteins are highly conserved ubiquitous proteins found in all eukaryotic organisms. They are involved in various cellular processes including signal transduction, cell-cycle control, apoptosis, stress response and cytoskeleton organisation. We report here the cloning of two genes encoding 14-3-3 isoforms from the plant parasitic root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita, together with an analysis of their expression. Both genes were shown to be transcribed in unhatched second stage larvae, infective second stage larvae, adult males and females. The Mi-14-3-3-a gene was shown to be specifically transcribed in the germinal primordium of infective larvae, whereas Mi-14-3-3-b was transcribed in the dorsal oesophageal gland in larvae of this stage. The MI-14-3-3-B protein was identified by mass spectrometry in in vitro-induced stylet secretions from infective larvae. The stability and distribution of MI-14-3-3 proteins in host plant cells was assessed after stable expression of the corresponding genes in tobacco BY2 cells. PMID:15157770

Jaubert, S; Laffaire, J-B; Ledger, T N; Escoubas, P; Amri, E-Z; Abad, P; Rosso, M N

2004-06-01

274

Nematicidal activity of leaf extracts from Lantana camara L. against Meloidogyne incognita (kofoid and white) chitwood and its use to manage roots infection of Solanum melongena L.  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Various concentrations of aqueous leaf extract of Lantana camara were assessed in vitro conditions against second stage juveniles (J2) of Meloidogyne incognita. The standard concentration 'S' of leaf extract was found to be highly nematostatic, where nematodes were completely paralyzed after 12 h an [...] d after 48 h of exposure, 96% of juveniles were killed at same concentration. However, the mortality of juveniles was 75% in S/2 dilution at 48 h. The degree of effectiveness and dilutions of extract were directly proportional. The percentage of paralyzed juveniles was decreased, when J2 transferred in distilled water after 48 h incubation in standard aqueous leaf extract. Addition of freeze-dried aqueous extract to sterile sandy substrate at S/2 dilution significantly decreased the root-knot infection to susceptible eggplants whereas second stage juveniles (J2) that penetrated roots of eggplant were able to complete development in sterile sandy substrate without treatment of freeze-dried aqueous extract.

Faheem, Ahmad; Mohmad Azhar, Rather; Mansoor Ahmad, Siddiqui.

275

influence of some types of Algerian soil on the development of rot-knot nematodes Meloidogyne incognita, M. javanica and M. arenaria (Tylenchida,Meloidogynidae)  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Crops under greenhouses offer the possibility of vegetables production of high added value by focusing on earliness. They help to spread the availability timing of vegetables and fruits in the market throughout the year. However, these crops are subject to numerous attacks entailing heavy losses of yield quantity and quality. The plant parasitic nematodes especially rot-knot nematodes of the genus Meloidogyne are considered dangerous enemies of these cultures. The evolution study of these nematodes in different soil types allows one to compare the migration and movement of these nematodes in sandy soils considered as light soils, in clay soils heavy and intermediate silty clay soils. These soils have also rates of organic matter and a percentage of magnesium and calcium that might provide better conditions to the survival and migration of second stage larvae inoculated at a rate of 650 juveniles per pot of 24 cm in diameter where plants of melon Cucumis melo var. (Charentais) known to be susceptible to Meloidogyne was cultivated. The results for the population development of Meloidogyne, after a growing period of 3 months show an increase in the number of eggs, juvenile stages, inflated, swollen females and males in the 3 types of soil and that independently of clay fraction although clay soil may asphyxiate Meloidogyne. The development of the three species of Meloidogyne studied in these soils, the parameters taken into consideration (index of galls, which were 1.58, 1.75 and 1.5 for the sandy clay and the middle ground soils, vigour index and the evolution of populations of Meloidogyne and roots and soil as well as parameters related to production reveal the adaptation of these root-knot nematodes to the clay and sandy loam soils. At the end of culture, the final populations are important in the soils studied; 2680 for soil S. (sandy), 2272 for soil A (clay) and 2327 for soil I (intermediate) with a multiplication rate almost similar ( 4.12, 3.49 and 3.58 respectively). All these parameters can give one clues about the real possibility of developing root-knot nematodes on all types of soil. These findings may be real on the coastal areas of the southern regions characterized with sandy soils that are most infested, but the infestation potential of interior plains characterized by clay and clay loam are certain if necessary measures are not seriously taken to control them. (author)

2010-01-01

276

Efeito do armazenamento na energia corporal de juvenis do segundo estádio de Meloidogyne incognita infestados por Pasteuria penetrans Effect of storage on body energy of second stage juveniles of Meloidogyne incognita infested by Pasteuria penetrans  

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Full Text Available Neste trabalho, objetivou-se estudar o efeito do período de armazenamento no teor de lipídios de juvenis do segundo estádio (J2 de M. incognita com endósporos de P. penetrans na infectividade e reprodução em tomateiro. Suspensões de M. incognita contendo ou não endósporos de P. penetrans aderidos à cutícula foram armazenadas por 0, 3, 6, 9 e 12 dias, a 28ºC. Após cada período de estocagem, determinou-se a concentração de lipídios neutros corporais por meio da análise de imagem dos J2 coloridos com o corante "Oil Red O". Em seguida, 1.000 J2 foram inoculados em mudas de tomateiros. Após 28 dias, avaliou-se o número de fêmeas parasitadas, número de endósporos/fêmea, número de galhas, massas de ovos e de ovos/g de raiz. O teor de lipídio dos J2 reduziu-se com o aumento do período de estocagem. Porém, maiores perdas ocorreram nos J2 sem endósporos de P. penetrans. A proporção entre as perdas dos J2 com e sem P. penetrans foi pequena e decrescente com o período de estocagem. Entretanto, a desproporção foi grande entre 3 e 6 dias de armazenamento dos J2 com e sem P. penetrans com relação aos parâmetros reprodução e número de galhas, indicando consumo de fontes alternativas ao lipí dio neutro de energia p elo J2 parasitado. Mas o período de armazenamento sempre reduziu a reprodução e número de galhas formadas em tomateiros por J2 com e sem P. penetrans. A perda dessas fontes de energia, ao que tudo indica, leva muitos J2 a morrer antes de chegar ao estádio adulto, pois o número de fêmeas parasitadas reduz-se com o armazenamento, além de propiciar menor produção de endósporos por fêmea. O J2 parasitado por P. penetrans necessita encontrar rapidamente a raiz e não permanecer no solo por mais de 6 dias antes de parasitar a planta.This work aimed to study the effect of storage period on lipid content of second stage juveniles (J2 of M. incognita with endospores of P. penetrans on infectivity and reproduction in tomato. Suspensions of M. incognita containing or not endospores of P. penetrans adhered to cuticle were stored by 0, 3, 6, 9 and 12 days at 28ºC. After each storage period, the concentration of neutral lipids in the body of J2 was determined by image analysis of J2 stained with "Oil Red O". After that, 1.000 J2 were inoculated in tomato seedlings. After 28 days, the number of infected females, number of endospores per females, number of galls, number of egg masses and number of eggs per gram of root were evaluated. The lipid content of J2 reduced with the increase of storage period. However, greater lost occurred on J2 without endospores of P. penetrans. The ratio between J2 lipid losses with and without P. penetrans was small and decreased with storage period. However, the ratio between J2 with and without P. penetrans was greatest between 3 and 6 days of storage in relation to parameters reproduction and number of galls, indicating consumption of alternative energy sources others than neutral lipids by infected J2. But the storage period always reduced the reproduction and number of galls formed in tomatoes by J2 with and without P. penetrans. The loss of those energy sources indicate that many J2 dye before adult stage, because the number of parasitized females reduced with storage, besides of smaller endospores production per female. The J2 infested by P. penetrans needs to find the root quickly and should not stay in the soil for more than 6 days before parasitizing the plant.

Fernando da Silva Rocha

2009-02-01

277

Efeito do armazenamento na energia corporal de juvenis do segundo estádio de Meloidogyne incognita infestados por Pasteuria penetrans / Effect of storage on body energy of second stage juveniles of Meloidogyne incognita infested by Pasteuria penetrans  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Neste trabalho, objetivou-se estudar o efeito do período de armazenamento no teor de lipídios de juvenis do segundo estádio (J2) de M. incognita com endósporos de P. penetrans na infectividade e reprodução em tomateiro. Suspensões de M. incognita contendo ou não endósporos de P. penetrans aderidos à [...] cutícula foram armazenadas por 0, 3, 6, 9 e 12 dias, a 28ºC. Após cada período de estocagem, determinou-se a concentração de lipídios neutros corporais por meio da análise de imagem dos J2 coloridos com o corante "Oil Red O". Em seguida, 1.000 J2 foram inoculados em mudas de tomateiros. Após 28 dias, avaliou-se o número de fêmeas parasitadas, número de endósporos/fêmea, número de galhas, massas de ovos e de ovos/g de raiz. O teor de lipídio dos J2 reduziu-se com o aumento do período de estocagem. Porém, maiores perdas ocorreram nos J2 sem endósporos de P. penetrans. A proporção entre as perdas dos J2 com e sem P. penetrans foi pequena e decrescente com o período de estocagem. Entretanto, a desproporção foi grande entre 3 e 6 dias de armazenamento dos J2 com e sem P. penetrans com relação aos parâmetros reprodução e número de galhas, indicando consumo de fontes alternativas ao lipí dio neutro de energia p elo J2 parasitado. Mas o período de armazenamento sempre reduziu a reprodução e número de galhas formadas em tomateiros por J2 com e sem P. penetrans. A perda dessas fontes de energia, ao que tudo indica, leva muitos J2 a morrer antes de chegar ao estádio adulto, pois o número de fêmeas parasitadas reduz-se com o armazenamento, além de propiciar menor produção de endósporos por fêmea. O J2 parasitado por P. penetrans necessita encontrar rapidamente a raiz e não permanecer no solo por mais de 6 dias antes de parasitar a planta. Abstract in english This work aimed to study the effect of storage period on lipid content of second stage juveniles (J2) of M. incognita with endospores of P. penetrans on infectivity and reproduction in tomato. Suspensions of M. incognita containing or not endospores of P. penetrans adhered to cuticle were stored by [...] 0, 3, 6, 9 and 12 days at 28ºC. After each storage period, the concentration of neutral lipids in the body of J2 was determined by image analysis of J2 stained with "Oil Red O". After that, 1.000 J2 were inoculated in tomato seedlings. After 28 days, the number of infected females, number of endospores per females, number of galls, number of egg masses and number of eggs per gram of root were evaluated. The lipid content of J2 reduced with the increase of storage period. However, greater lost occurred on J2 without endospores of P. penetrans. The ratio between J2 lipid losses with and without P. penetrans was small and decreased with storage period. However, the ratio between J2 with and without P. penetrans was greatest between 3 and 6 days of storage in relation to parameters reproduction and number of galls, indicating consumption of alternative energy sources others than neutral lipids by infected J2. But the storage period always reduced the reproduction and number of galls formed in tomatoes by J2 with and without P. penetrans. The loss of those energy sources indicate that many J2 dye before adult stage, because the number of parasitized females reduced with storage, besides of smaller endospores production per female. The J2 infested by P. penetrans needs to find the root quickly and should not stay in the soil for more than 6 days before parasitizing the plant.

Fernando da Silva, Rocha; Vicente Paulo, Campos; Renata da Silva, Canuto; Ricardo Magela de, Souza.

278

In vitro and foliar spray evaluation of Verbena officinalis (L., Erythrina mulungu (Mart. ex Benth., Quassia amara (L., Bidens pilosa (L. and Plantago lanceolata (L., extracts on Meloidogyne incognita (Kofoid & White, 1919 Chitwood, 1949 Evaluación in vitro y aplicación foliar de Verbena officinalis (L., Erythrina mulungu (Mart. ex Benth., Quassia amara (L., Bidens pilosa (L. y Plantago lanceolata (L., sobre Meloidogyne incognita (Kofoid & White, 1919 Chitwood, 1949  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the efficiency of aqueous extracts of five species of medicinal plant, Verbena officinalis (L., Erythrina mulungu (Mart. ex Benth., Quassia amara (L., Bidens pilosa (L. and Plantago lanceolata (L. in vitro, and sprayed on tomato plants for the control of Meloidogyne incognita. In vitro experiments were conducted in growth chambers in acrylic ELISA plates. The treatments were doses of 0, 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 g • L-1 of different aqueous extracts. On the sixteenth day the number of second stage juveniles (J2 hatched per treatment was evaluated. The results showed that aqueous extracts of V. officinalis, E. mulungu, Q. amara, B. pilosa and P. lanceolata, reduced the hatching of M. incognita, with the aqueous extract of P. lanceolata showing up to 100% reduction in hatching. The in vivo assay was conducted in a greenhouse. For this, four sprays of different extracts were applied to tomato shoots. According to the results of this test, none of the extracts were efficient at controlling M. incognita through foliar spraying. The efficiency of these extracts to control plant parasitic nematodes during in vivo tests should not be disregarded, however, further studies should be conducted to test different methods of application, doses or methods of extracting the active principles.El objetivo del estudio fue evaluar la eficacia de los extractos acuosos de cinco especies de plantas medicinales, Verbena officinalis (L., Erythrina mulungu (Mart. ex Benth., Quassia amara (L., Bidens pilosa (L. y Plantago lanceolata (L. in vitro, y se pulverizaron en las plantas de tomates para el control de Meloidogyne incognita. Los experimentos in vitro fueron realizados en cámaras de crecimiento en placas de ELISA de tipo acrílico. Los tratamientos fueron dosis de 0,10, 20, 30, 40 y 50 g • L-1 de diferentes extractos acuosos. En el día dieciséis se evaluó el número de juveniles segunda etapa (J2nacidos por tratamiento. Los resultados mostraron que los extractos acuosos de V. officinalis, E. mulungu, Q. amara, B. pilosa y P. lanceolata reducen la eclosión de los juveniles de M. incognita, y el extracto acuoso de P. lanceolata mostró hasta 100% de reducción de la tasa de eclosión. El ensayo in vivo se realizó en un invernadero, y para ello, había cuatro pulverizaciones de diferentes extractos en los brotes de tomate. Según los resultados de esta prueba, ninguno de los extractos por pulverización foliar era eficaz en el control de M. incognita. Sin embargo, no se debe descartar la eficiencia de estos extractos en el control de nematodos parásitos de plantas, pero más estudios se llevan a cabo utilizando diferentes métodos de aplicación, las dosis o métodos de extracción de los principios activos de los extractos.

Milena A Ferrari Mateus

2013-04-01

279

Purification and identification of metabolites produced by Bacillus cereus and B. subtilis active against Meloidogyne exigua, and their in silico interaction with a putative phosphoribosyltransferase from M. incognita  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Com o objetivo de contribuir para o desenvolvimento de produtos para o controle de Meloidogyne exigua, as bactérias Bacillus cereus e B. subtilis foram cultivadas em meio líquido de cultura para produzirem metabólitos ativos contra este nematoide parasita de plantas. Os fracionamentos dos extratos e [...] m diclorometano dos meios de cultura produziram uracila, 9H-purina e di-idrouracila. Todos os compostos foram ativos contra M. exigua, sendo o último o mais eficiente. Ele apresentou CL50 de 204 µg/mL contra o nematoide, enquanto uma CL50 de 260 µg/mL foi observada para o nematicida comercial carbofuran. Uma busca por complexos proteína-ligante nos quais o ligante fosse estruturalmente similar à di-idrouracila resultou na seleção de fosforibosiltransferases, cujas sequências foram utilizadas em uma busca in silico no genoma de M. incognita por sequência de aminoácidos semelhante. A sequência resultante foi modelada e di-idrouracila e 9H-purina foram inseridos nos sítios ativos desta provável fosforibosiltransferase, resultando em complexos proteína-ligante que foram submetidos a simulações por dinâmica molecular. Cálculos das energias livres de ligação destes complexos revelaram que a constante de dissociação de di-idrouracila e 9H-purina da enzima é da ordem de 8,3 x 10-7 e 1,6 x 10-6 M, respectivamente. Consequentemente, estas substâncias e a provável fosforibosiltransferase podem ser de grande utilidade para o desenvolvimento de novos produtos para o controle de M. exigua. Abstract in english To contribute to the development of products to control Meloidogyne exigua, the bacteria Bacillus cereus and B. subtilis were cultivated in liquid medium to produce metabolites active against this plant-parasitic nematode. Fractionation of the crude dichloromethane extracts obtained from the culture [...] s afforded uracil, 9H-purine and dihydrouracil. All compounds were active against M. exigua, the latter being the most efficient. This substance presented a LC50 of 204 µg/mL against the nematode, while a LC50 of 260 µg/mL was observed for the commercial nematicide carbofuran. A search for protein-ligand complexes in which the ligands were structurally similar to dihydrouracil resulted in the selection of phosphoribosyltransferases, the sequences of which were used in an in silico search in the genome of M. incognita for a similar sequence of amino acids. The resulting sequence was modelled and dihydrouracil and 9H-purine were inserted in the active site of this putative phosphoribosyltransferase resulting in protein-ligand complexes that underwent molecular dynamics simulations. Calculation of the binding free-energies of these complexes revealed that the dissociation constant of dihydrouracil and 9H-purine to this protein is around 8.3 x 10-7 and 1.6 x 10-6 M, respectively. Consequently, these substances and the putative phosphoribosyltransferase are promising for the development of new products to control M. exigua.

DENILSON F., OLIVEIRA; HELVÉCIO M. DOS, SANTOS JÚNIOR; ALEXANDRO S., NUNES; VICENTE P., CAMPOS; RENATA S.C. DE, PINHO; GIOVANNA C., GAJO.

280

Purification and identification of metabolites produced by Bacillus cereus and B. subtilis active against Meloidogyne exigua, and their in silico interaction with a putative phosphoribosyltransferase from M. incognita  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Com o objetivo de contribuir para o desenvolvimento de produtos para o controle de Meloidogyne exigua, as bactérias Bacillus cereus e B. subtilis foram cultivadas em meio líquido de cultura para produzirem metabólitos ativos contra este nematoide parasita de plantas. Os fracionamentos [...] dos extratos em diclorometano dos meios de cultura produziram uracila, 9H-purina e di-idrouracila. Todos os compostos foram ativos contra M. exigua, sendo o último o mais eficiente. Ele apresentou CL50 de 204 µg/mL contra o nematoide, enquanto uma CL50 de 260 µg/mL foi observada para o nematicida comercial carbofuran. Uma busca por complexos proteína-ligante nos quais o ligante fosse estruturalmente similar à di-idrouracila resultou na seleção de fosforibosiltransferases, cujas sequências foram utilizadas em uma busca in silico no genoma de M. incognita por sequência de aminoácidos semelhante. A sequência resultante foi modelada e di-idrouracila e 9H-purina foram inseridos nos sítios ativos desta provável fosforibosiltransferase, resultando em complexos proteína-ligante que foram submetidos a simulações por dinâmica molecular. Cálculos das energias livres de ligação destes complexos revelaram que a constante de dissociação de di-idrouracila e 9H-purina da enzima é da ordem de 8,3 x 10-7 e 1,6 x 10-6 M, respectivamente. Consequentemente, estas substâncias e a provável fosforibosiltransferase podem ser de grande utilidade para o desenvolvimento de novos produtos para o controle de M. exigua. Abstract in english To contribute to the development of products to control Meloidogyne exigua, the bacteria Bacillus cereus and B. subtilis were cultivated in liquid medium to produce metabolites active against this plant-parasitic nematode. Fractionation of the crude dichloromethane extracts obtained from the culture [...] s afforded uracil, 9H-purine and dihydrouracil. All compounds were active against M. exigua, the latter being the most efficient. This substance presented a LC50 of 204 µg/mL against the nematode, while a LC50 of 260 µg/mL was observed for the commercial nematicide carbofuran. A search for protein-ligand complexes in which the ligands were structurally similar to dihydrouracil resulted in the selection of phosphoribosyltransferases, the sequences of which were used in an in silico search in the genome of M. incognita for a similar sequence of amino acids. The resulting sequence was modelled and dihydrouracil and 9H-purine were inserted in the active site of this putative phosphoribosyltransferase resulting in protein-ligand complexes that underwent molecular dynamics simulations. Calculation of the binding free-energies of these complexes revealed that the dissociation constant of dihydrouracil and 9H-purine to this protein is around 8.3 x 10-7 and 1.6 x 10-6 M, respectively. Consequently, these substances and the putative phosphoribosyltransferase are promising for the development of new products to control M. exigua.

OLIVEIRA, DENILSON F.; SANTOS JÚNIOR, HELVÉCIO M. DOS; NUNES, ALEXANDRO S.; CAMPOS, VICENTE P.; PINHO, RENATA S.C. DE; GAJO, GIOVANNA C..

2014-04-25

 
 
 
 
281

Integrated Management of Meloidogyne incognita Infecting Eggplant by Certain Organic Amendments, Bacillus thuringiensis and Oxamyl with Reference to N P K and Total Chlorophyll Status  

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Full Text Available Greenhouse experiment on the impact of horse manure or sesame-oil-cake or Bacillus thuringiensis singly and/or integrated with oxamyl on Meloidogyne incognita infecting eggplant cv. Black long at 25±5°C, revealed that all tested treatments obviously improved plant growth response and reduced nematode development. Among the tested components, B. thuringiensis applied alone or mixed with oxamyl gave the highest percentage of increase in plant growth parameters i.e., plant fresh weight and shoot dry weight with values of 105.9 and 85.8% and 127.8 and 107.5%, respectively, as well as the lowest percent reduction of nematode developmental criteria. Moreover, in concomitant application of horse manure plus oxamyl appeared to be the best treatment in suppressing nematode development and improving plant growth parameters, followed by sesame oil-cake plus oxamyl, then sesame oil-cake and horse manure alone. Meanwhile, length of shoot and number of leaves were positively affected by the tested materials either when applied singly or integrated with oxamyl as compared to nematode alone. Regarding N, P and K status in shoots of eggplant, their concentrations were remarkably reduced by nematode infection. Moreover, single application of any organic amendment or bacterium or oxamyl achieved the highest concentration of N, P and K, whereas the concomitant application of horse manure plus oxamyl showed the highest concentration of phosphorus with value of 0.56 ppm. In addition, the previous treatments obviously decreased the total chlorophyll content of eggplant shoot, whereas nematode infection alone recorded the highest increase percentage for this plant parameter with value of 51.3%.

A.G. El-Sherif

2007-01-01

282

Effect of Meloidogyne incognita inoculum density and application rate of Paecilomyces lilacinus strain 251 on biocontrol efficacy and colonization of egg masses analyzed by real-time quantitative PCR.  

Science.gov (United States)

The fungal biocontrol agent, Paecilomyces lilacinus strain 251 (PL251), was evaluated for its potential to control the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita on tomato at varying application rates and inoculum densities. Conversely to previous studies, significant dose-response relationships could not be established. However, we demonstrated that a preplanting soil treatment with the lowest dose of commercially formulated PL251 (2 × 10(5) CFU/g soil) was already sufficient to reduce root galling by 45% and number of egg masses by 69% when averaged over inoculum densities of 100 to 1,600 eggs and infective juveniles per 100 cm(3) of soil. To determine the role of colonization of M. incognita egg masses by PL251 for biocontrol efficacy, a real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay with a detection limit of 10 CFU/egg mass was used. Real-time PCR revealed a significant relationship between egg mass colonization by PL251 and the dose of product applied to soil but no correlation was found between fungal density and biocontrol efficacy or nematode inoculum level. These results demonstrate that rhizosphere competence is not the key mode of action for PL251 in controlling M. incognita on tomato. PMID:20822430

Kiewnick, S; Neumann, S; Sikora, R A; Frey, J E

2011-01-01

283

Integrated Management of Meloidogyne incognita Infecting Soybean by Certain Organic Amendments, Bacillus thuringiensis, Trichoderma harzianum and Oxamyl with Reference to NPK and Total Chlorophyll Statuus  

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Full Text Available The integrated control of M. incognita infecting soybean cv. Giza 21 using camel manure, dried leaf powder of marigold, Trichoderma harzianum 100% filtrate, Bacillus thringiensis singly or in combination with oxamyl under greenhouse condition (22±3°C indicated that the concomitant treatments obviously gave better results than single ones did. Moreover, B. thringiensis plus oxamyl at half dose each surpassed all other tested materials in percentage increase of total plant fresh and shoot dry weights (99 and 88 %, respectively, followed by T. harzianum filtrate plus oxamyl (95 and 61% in this respect. On the other hand, pots received T. harzianum filtrate plus oxamyl ranked first in suppressing final nematode population (90%, root galling (65% and eggmass numbers (62.79%, followed by B.t. plus oxamyl, marigold powder +oxamyl and then camel manure + oxamyl, where their reduction percentage values amounted to 88.7, 62.5 and 61%; 88.5, 59.87 and 58.9% and 67, 50.5 and 52.97%, respectively. Of the tested singly applications, T. harzianum filtrate showed the best results in improving plant growth and suppressing nematode development criteria, followed by B.t., whereas, marigold powder and camel manure achieved the lowest values in this respect comparing to nematode alone. Regarding the N, P and K concentrations in leaves of soybean plants inoculated with M. incognita treated with certain organic matters or fungal filtrate or bacterium alone or mixed with oxamyl, they were obviously enhanced by all tested materials whereas the opposite results was recorded for total chlorophyll content comparing to nematode alone.

A.G. El-Sherif

2009-01-01

284

Inheritance of Resistance to Meloidoygne incognita in Primitive Cotton Accessions from Mexico  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Few sources of resistance to root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne incognita) in upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) have been utilized to develop resistant cultivars, making this resistance vulnerable to virulence in the pathogen population. The objectives of this study were to determine the inheritance of resistance in five primitive accessions of G. hirsutum (TX1174, TX1440, TX2076, TX2079, and TX2107) and to determine allelic relations with the genes for resistance in the genotypes Clevewilt-6 ...

Starr, J. L.; Moresco, E. R.; Smith, C. W.; Nichols, R. L.; Roberts, P. A.; Chee, P.

2010-01-01

285

Efecto de la biodesinfección con residuos de nim (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) sobre población de Meloidogyne spp. en suelo / Effect of neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) Waste on Meloidogyne spp. population in soil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Se evaluó el efecto de residuos del proceso industrial de obtención de plaguicidas del nim (Azadirachta indica A. Juss), provenientes de la Fábrica «Rosa E. Simeón», Güines (Mayabeque, Cuba) sobre una población de Meloidogyne spp. El experimento se desarrolló en condiciones semicontroladas, utilizan [...] do suelo no estéril, con nivel inicial de Meloidognye spp. de 0,5 juveniles de segundo estadio (J2)-huevos.g de suelo-1. Se establecieron ocho tratamientos, cuatro de los cuales se inocularon adicionalmente con 5 J2-huevos.g de suelo-1 de Meloidogyne incognita (Kofoid y White) Chitwood y se empleó como hospedante tomate (Solanum lycopersicom L. var. Campbell 28). Se aplicaron tres dosis de residuos 138,47 g.maceta-1, 60,28 g.maceta-1 y 40,19 g.maceta-1 (lo que equivale a aplicar 4, 3 y 2 kg.m2-1 respectivamente). A los 50 días se determinó el Índice de Agallamiento (IA) (0 a 5 grados), longitud del tallo y masa fresca de raíces. Las mayores poblaciones de nematodos se produjeron en el tratamiento testigo (sin nim) (IA =5), exhibiendo diferencias significativas con aquellos donde se aplicaron los residuos, destacándose el tratamiento con 138,47 g.maceta-1 (equivalente a 4 kg.m2-1) que mostró un IA de 2,4. Los resultados mostraron la potencialidad que posee este desecho para el manejo de nematodos y la necesidad de estudiar su efecto sobre las plantas y las propiedades físico, químicas y biota del suelo. Abstract in english The effect of the waste from the industrial production of neem-based pesticides (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) originated in «Rosa Elena Simeón» factory in Güines (Mayabeque, Cuba) on Meloidogyne spp. population was evaluated, The experiment was carried out under semi-controlled conditions, using non [...] sterilized soil with an initial level of Meloidogyne spp. of 0,5 juveniles-eggs.g of soil-1. Eight treatments were set up; four of them were additionally inoculated with 5 juveniles-eggs.g of soil-1 of Meloidogyen incognita (Kofoid and White) Chitwood. Tomato (Solanum lycopersicom L. var. Campbell 28) was used as host. Three doses of the waste (138,47g.pot-1, 60,288 g.pot-1 and 40,19 g.pot¹; -equivalent to 4, 3 and 2 kg.m2-1 respectively) were applied. After fifty days, root knot galling index (GI) (0 to 5 grades), stem length and fresh weight of roots were evaluated. The highest populations appeared in the control treatment (without neem) (GI=5), which differed significantly from the treatments with the waste, where the best behavior was observed with 138,47 g.pot-1 (equivalent to 4 kg.m2-1) with a GI of 2,4. The results showed the potential of this waste for the management of plant parasitic nematodes and the need for studies on the effect upon the plants and the physical-chemical properties and biota of soils.

Mayra G, Rodríguez; Lucila, Gómez; Dainé, Hernández-Ochandía; R, Enrique; Ileana, Miranda; Oriela, Pino; I, Castro-Lizazo; L. Carolina, Rosales; Luisa, Díaz-Viruliche.

286

In vitro and foliar spray evaluation of Verbena officinalis (L.), Erythrina mulungu (Mart. ex Benth.), Quassia amara (L.), Bidens pilosa (L.) and Plantago lanceolata (L.), extracts on Meloidogyne incognita (Kofoid & White, 1919) Chitwood, 1949 / Evaluación in vitro y aplicación foliar de Verbena officinalis (L.), Erythrina mulungu (Mart. ex Benth.), Quassia amara (L.), Bidens pilosa (L.) y Plantago lanceolata (L.), sobre Meloidogyne incognita (Kofoid & White, 1919) Chitwood, 1949  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in spanish El objetivo del estudio fue evaluar la eficacia de los extractos acuosos de cinco especies de plantas medicinales, Verbena officinalis (L.), Erythrina mulungu (Mart. ex Benth.), Quassia amara (L.), Bidens pilosa (L.) y Plantago lanceolata (L.) in vitro, y se pulverizaron en las plantas de tomates pa [...] ra el control de Meloidogyne incognita. Los experimentos in vitro fueron realizados en cámaras de crecimiento en placas de ELISA de tipo acrílico. Los tratamientos fueron dosis de 0,10, 20, 30, 40 y 50 g • L-1 de diferentes extractos acuosos. En el día dieciséis se evaluó el número de juveniles segunda etapa (J2)nacidos por tratamiento. Los resultados mostraron que los extractos acuosos de V. officinalis, E. mulungu, Q. amara, B. pilosa y P. lanceolata reducen la eclosión de los juveniles de M. incognita, y el extracto acuoso de P. lanceolata mostró hasta 100% de reducción de la tasa de eclosión. El ensayo in vivo se realizó en un invernadero, y para ello, había cuatro pulverizaciones de diferentes extractos en los brotes de tomate. Según los resultados de esta prueba, ninguno de los extractos por pulverización foliar era eficaz en el control de M. incognita. Sin embargo, no se debe descartar la eficiencia de estos extractos en el control de nematodos parásitos de plantas, pero más estudios se llevan a cabo utilizando diferentes métodos de aplicación, las dosis o métodos de extracción de los principios activos de los extractos. Abstract in english This study aimed to evaluate the efficiency of aqueous extracts of five species of medicinal plant, Verbena officinalis (L.), Erythrina mulungu (Mart. ex Benth.), Quassia amara (L.), Bidens pilosa (L.) and Plantago lanceolata (L.) in vitro, and sprayed on tomato plants for the control of Meloidogyne [...] incognita. In vitro experiments were conducted in growth chambers in acrylic ELISA plates. The treatments were doses of 0, 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 g • L-1 of different aqueous extracts. On the sixteenth day the number of second stage juveniles (J2) hatched per treatment was evaluated. The results showed that aqueous extracts of V. officinalis, E. mulungu, Q. amara, B. pilosa and P. lanceolata, reduced the hatching of M. incognita, with the aqueous extract of P. lanceolata showing up to 100% reduction in hatching. The in vivo assay was conducted in a greenhouse. For this, four sprays of different extracts were applied to tomato shoots. According to the results of this test, none of the extracts were efficient at controlling M. incognita through foliar spraying. The efficiency of these extracts to control plant parasitic nematodes during in vivo tests should not be disregarded, however, further studies should be conducted to test different methods of application, doses or methods of extracting the active principles.

Milena A, Ferrari Mateus; Cacilda M, Duarte Rios Faria¹; Renato V, Botelho; Rosangela, Dallemole-Giaretta; Silvana G, Martins Ferreira; Welton L, Zaluski.

287

Desempenho de genótipos de algodoeiro na presença ou não de rotação de cultura com Crotalaria spectabilis, em área infestada com Meloidogyne incognita Performance of cotton genotypes in the presence or absence of crop rotation with Crotalaria spectabilis in an area infested with Meloidogyne incognita  

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Full Text Available Em área naturalmente infestada com Meloidogyneincognita raça 3, localizada em Primavera do Leste-MT, foi estudado o desempenho de 21 genótipos de algodoeiro com níveis diversos de tolerância ao nematoide, com a adoção ou não de rotação de cultura com Crotalaria spectabilis. De modo geral a rotação diminuiu a severidade dos sintomas exibidos pelas plantas, devidos ao ataque do parasita, e promoveu aumento na produtividade de algodão. Entretanto, seu efeito não foi suficiente para tornar eficaz o desempenho de genótipos de baixa tolerância ao nematoide, os quais, mesmo na presença da leguminosa, tiveram notas para sintomas 142% maiores e produtividades de algodão 57% menores do que as cultivares mais tolerantes. Alta correlação entre as médias de produção dos genótipos na seqüência ou não da leguminosa e ausência de interação genótipo x rotação, indicaram que, embora em patamar mais elevado de produção, a tendência de desempenho dos genótipos foi a mesma na presença e na ausência da crotalária. De tal modo que, na média, a produção dos três genótipos mais tolerantes, na ausência de rotação, foi, ainda assim, 48% superior à dos genótipos mais intolerantes, na presença da crotalária. As perdas mínimas possíveis na produção, atribuíveis ao uso de genótipos intolerantes, foram estimadas em 37% na ausência da rotação e em 29% com rotação.In an area naturally infested with Meloidogyne incognita race 3, located in Primavera do Leste, Mato Grosso State, Brazil, the performance of 21 cotton genotypes having different levels of tolerance to this parasitic nematode was studied, in the presence or absence of crop rotation with Crotalaria spectabilis. A general trend was observed for crop rotation to reduce the severity of symptoms exibited by plant sowing to nematode incidence, and lead to increased cotton yield. However, its effect was not sufficient to increase the performance of genotypes with low tolerance to the parasite, which, even under the crop rotation schem, had disease sympton rates that were 142% higher and cotton yields that were 57% lower than those obtained for more tolerant genotypes. High correlation between average yield in the presence or absence of crop rotation, and absence of interaction between genotype and crop rotation, indicated that, although at higher yield level being achieved, the tendency of genotype performance remained the same in both systems. The yield of the three more tolerant genotypes in the absence of crop rotation was 48% superior to that of the three least tolerant genotypes under crop rotation. The minimum possible losses, attributable to the use of susceptible genotypes, were estimated at 37% and 29%, respectively, without crop rotation being used or under conditions of crop rotation.

Rafael Galbieri

2011-10-01

288

Effects of Cropping Sequences on Population Densities of Meloidogyne hapla and Carrot Yield in Organic Soil  

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The influence of various cropping sequences on population densities of Meloidogyne hapla and carrot yield was studied in organic soil under microplot-and field conditions. Spinach, radish, barley, oat, and wheat were poor or nonhosts for M. hapla. Population densities of M. hapla were maintained or increased on cabbage, celery, lettuce, leek, marigold, and potato. Marketable percent-age and root weight of carrots were greater following spinach, oat, radish, and fallow-onion than those followi...

Be?lair, Guy

1992-01-01

289

Effects of Meloidogyne spp. and Rhizoctonia solani on the Growth of Grapevine Rootings  

Science.gov (United States)

A disease complex involving Meloidogyne incognita and Rhizoctonia solani was associated with stunting of grapevines in a field nursery. Nematode reproduction was occurring on both susceptible and resistant cultivars, and pot experiments were conducted to determine the virulence of this M. incognita population, and of M. javanica and M. hapla populations, to V. vinifera cv. Colombard (susceptible) and to V. champinii cv. Ramsey (regarded locally as highly resistant). The virulence of R. solani isolates obtained from roots of diseased grapevines also was determined both alone and in combination with M. incognita. Ramsey was susceptible to M. incognita (reproduction ratio 9.8 to 18.4 in a shadehouse and heated glasshouse, respectively) but was resistant to M. javanica and M. hapla. Colombard was susceptible to M. incognita (reproduction ratio 24.3 and 41.3, respectively) and M. javanica. Shoot growth was suppressed (by 35%) by M. incognita and, to a lesser extent, by M. hapla. Colombard roots were more severely galled than Ramsey roots by all three species, and nematode reproduction was higher on Colombard. Isolates of R. solani assigned to putative anastomosis groups 2-1 and 4, and an unidentified isolate, colonized and induced rotting of grapevine roots. Ramsey was more susceptible to root rotting than Colombard. Shoot growth was inhibited by up to 15% by several AG 4 isolates and by 20% by the AG 2-1 isolate. AG 4 isolates varied in their virulence. Root rotting was higher when grapevines were inoculated with both M. incognita and R. solani and was highest when nematode inoculation preceded the fungus. Shoot weights were lower when vines were inoculated with the nematode 13 days before the fungus compared with inoculation with both the nematode and the fungus on the same day. It was concluded that both the M. incognita population and some R. solani isolates were virulent against both Colombard and Ramsey, and that measures to prevent spread in nursery stock were therefore important.

Walker, G. E.

1997-01-01

290

Effects of Tropical Rotation Crops on Meloidogyne arenaria Population Densities and Vegetable Yields in Microplots  

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The effects of 12 summer crop rotation treatments on population densities of Meloidogyne arenaria race 1 and on yields of subsequent spring vegetable crops were determined in microplots. The crop sequence was: (i) rotation crops during summer 1991 ; (ii) cover crop of rye (Secale cereale) during winter 1991-92; (iii) squash (Cucurbita pepo) during spring 1992; (iv) rotation crops during summer 1992; (v) rye during winter 1992-93; (vi) eggplant (Solanum melongena) during spring 1993. The 12 ro...

Mcsorley, R.; Dickson, D. W.; Brito, J. A.; Hewlett, T. E.; Frederick, J. J.

1994-01-01

291

Pathological Reaction of Crested Wheatgrass Cultivars to Four Meloidogyne chitwoodi Populations  

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Meloidogyne chitwoodi populations from Tulelake, California; Ft. Hall, Idaho; Beryl, Utah; and Prosser, Washington, significantly (P < 0.05) reduced dry shoot weights of crested wheatgrass (Agropyron cristatum L., Gaertn. and A. desertorum, Fisch. ex Link, Schult.) cultivars Hycrest, Fairway, and Nordan in experiments conducted in a greenhouse and growth chamber. Shoot growth depression, root galling, and nematode reproduction indices were greatest (P < 0.05) on plants inoculated with 5,000 e...

1989-01-01

292

Potential of Leguminous Cover Crops in Management of a Mixed Population of Root-knot Nematodes (Meloidogyne spp.).  

Science.gov (United States)

Root-knot nematode is an important pest in agricultural production worldwide. Crop rotation is the only management strategy in some production systems, especially for resource poor farmers in developing countries. A series of experiments was conducted in the laboratory with several leguminous cover crops to investigate their potential for managing a mixture of root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne arenaria, M. incognita, M. javanica). The root-knot nematode mixture failed to multiply on Mucuna pruriens and Crotalaria spectabilis but on Dolichos lablab the population increased more than 2- fold when inoculated with 500 and 1,000 nematodes per plant. There was no root-galling on M. pruriens and C. spectabilis but the gall rating was noted on D. lablab. Greater mortality of juvenile root-knot nematodes occurred when exposed to eluants of roots and leaves of leguminous crops than those of tomato; 48.7% of juveniles died after 72 h exposure to root eluant of C. spectabilis. The leaf eluant of D. lablab was toxic to nematodes but the root eluant was not. Thus, different parts of a botanical contain different active ingredients or different concentrations of the same active ingredient. The numbers of root-knot nematode eggs that hatched in root exudates of M. pruriens and C. spectabilis were significantly lower (20% and 26%) than in distilled water, tomato and P. vulgaris root exudates (83%, 72% and 89%) respectively. Tomato lacks nematotoxic compounds found in M. pruriens and C. spectabilis. Three months after inoculating plants with 1,000 root-knot nematode juveniles the populations in pots with M. pruriens, C. spectabilis and C. retusa had been reduced by approximately 79%, 85% and 86% respectively; compared with an increase of 262% nematodes in pots with Phaseolus vulgaris. There was significant reduction of 90% nematodes in fallow pots with no growing plant. The results from this study demonstrate that some leguminous species contain compounds that either kill root-knot nematodes or interfere with hatching and affect their capacity to invade and develop within their roots. M. pruriens, C. spectabilis and C. retusa could be used with effect to decrease a mixed field populations of root-knot nematodes. PMID:22736854

Osei, Kingsley; Gowen, Simon R; Pembroke, Barbara; Brandenburg, Rick L; Jordan, David L

2010-09-01

293

Population Dynamics of Meloidogyne chitwoodi on Russet Burbank Potatoes in Relation to Degree-day Accumulation  

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Population dynamics of Meloidogyne chitwoodi were studied for 2 years in a commercial potato field and microplots. Annual second-stage juvenile (J2) densities peaked at harvest in mid-fall, declined through the winter, and were lowest in early summer. In the field and in one microplot study, population increase displayed trimodal patterns during the 1984 and 1985 seasons. Overwintering nematodes produced egg masses on roots by 600-800 degree-days base 5 C (DD?) after planting. Second-genera...

Pinkerton, J. N.; Santo, G. S.; Mojtahedi, H.

1991-01-01

294

Resistance of Interspecific Arachis Breeding Lines to Meloidogyne javanica and an Undescribed Meloidogyne Species  

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Resistance to a peanut-parasitic population of Meloidogyne javanica and an undescribed Meloidogyne sp. in peanut breeding lines selected for resistance to Meloidogyne javanica was examined in greenhouse tests. The interspecific hybrid TxAG-7 was resistant to reproduction of Meloidogyne javanica, M. javanica, and Meloidogyne sp. An Meloidogyne javanica-resistant selection from the second backcross (BC) of TxAG-7 to the susceptible cultivar Florunner also was resistant to M. javanica but appear...

1998-01-01

295

Reproductive and Damage Potentials of Two Populations of Rotylenchulus reniformis on Sweetpotato and Related Comparisons with Meloidogyne javanica on Tomato  

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Two Rotylenchulus reniformis populations (North Carolina and Georgia) were compared on sweetpotato and tomato. 'Beauregard' sweetpotato and 'Better Boy' and 'Marion' tomato were excellent hosts for both R. reniformis populations. On Beauregard sweetpotato, the two populations did not differ in fecundity; however, on both tomato cultivars, the Georgia population reproduced at a higher rate than the North Carolina population (P ? 0.05). Meloidogyne javanica reproduction was higher (P ? 0.05...

Walters, S. A.; Barker, K. R.

1993-01-01

296

Native-plant hosts of Meloidogyne spp. from Western Paraná, Brazil  

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The present study was focused on the parasitism of Meloidogyne species on the roots of native nursery plants from the Atlantic forest. Native plants were selected from a commercial nursery in Western Paraná, searching for the natural infection of Meloidogyne. Also, the seeds of native plants were cultivated in sterile soil and inoculated with M. incognita. In both the experiments, the number of galls and number of eggs and J2 per root, allied to the reproduction factor of M. incognita on eac...

Antes, Vanessa A.; Comerlato, Anna P.; Adílson Ricken Schuelter; Carneiro, Regina M. D. G.; Cleber Furlanetto

2012-01-01

297

Population Development and Pathogenicity of Meloidogyne javanica on Flue-cured Tobacco as Influenced by Ethoprop and DD  

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Growth of flue-cured tobacco as influenced by Meloidogyne javanica and the effectiveness of DD and ethoprop to manage this nematode were evaluated over two growing seasons. Populations of M. javanica, root galling, plant height, steam crown diameter, whole plant weight, and yield were monitored at approximately 2-week intervals beginning 28 days after transplanting. Treatment influence on nematode population development, root galling, and plant growth generally followed a pattern in descendin...

Rich, J. R.; Hodge, C.; Johnson, J. T.

1984-01-01

298

Reprodução de Meloidogyne spp. em porta-enxertos e híbridos de pepino Reproduction of Meloidogyne spp. in rootstocks and cucumber hybrids  

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Full Text Available A enxertia é uma técnica alternativa frequentemente recomendada para a cultura do pepino em áreas infestadas com nematóides das galhas. O presente trabalho teve como objetivo determinar o fator de reprodução de Meloidogyne javanica e de Meloidogyne incognita raça 2 em seis porta-enxertos para pepino (abóbora 'Menina Brasileira', moranga 'Exposição', 'Shelper', 'Tetsukabuto', 'B8-A Tetsukabuto' e 'Excite Ikki' e quatro híbridos de pepino (Cucumis sativus tipo japonês ('Yoshinari', 'Kouki', 'Taisho' e 'Tsuyataro'. Foram conduzidos dois experimentos em casa-de-vegetação, um com cada espécie do nematóide, sendo cada parcela constituída de uma planta mantida em vaso contendo 2 litros de solo autoclavado. Nove dias após transplante, cada planta foi inoculada com 5.000 ovos e juvenis de segundo estádio (população inicial - Pi de M. javanica ou M. incognita raça 2. Tomateiros 'Rutgers' foram utilizados como padrão de viabilidade do inóculo, em ambos os experimentos. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado com cinco repetições por tratamento. Sessenta dias após a inoculação, cada planta foi avaliada, quanto ao peso fresco da raiz, número total de nematóides presentes no solo e na raiz (população final - Pf, número de nematóides/g de raiz e fator de reprodução de ambas as espécies de Meloidogyne (FR=Pf/Pi. Todos os porta-enxertos e híbridos de pepino testados apresentaram fatores de reprodução superiores a um, proporcionando a multiplicação de M. javanica e de M. incognita raça 2, porém, os valores nos híbridos de pepino foram superiores aos dos porta-enxertos.Grafting is an alternative technique often recommended for the cucumber crop in root-knot nematodes infested areas. This study aimed to determine the reproduction factor of Meloidogyne javanica and M. incognita race 2 on six rootstocks for cucumber (squash 'Menina Brasileira, pumpkim 'Exposição', 'Shelper', 'Tetsukabuto', 'B8-A Tetsukabuto' and 'Excite Ikki' and four cucumber (Cucumis sativus Japanese type hybrids of ('Yoshinari', 'Kouki', 'Taisho' and 'Tsuyataro'. Two experiments were carried out in greenhouse, each one with a nematode specie. Each plot consisted of one plant per pot containing 2 liters of autoclaved soil. Nine days after the seedlings transplantation, each plant was inoculated with 5,000 eggs and second-stage juveniles (initial population - Pi of M. javanica or M. incognita race 2. 'Rutgers' tomatoes were used as a standard for inoculum viability in both experiments. The experimental design was completely randomized with five replicates per treatment. Sixty days after inoculated, each plant was evaluated, when root fresh weight, total number of nematodes in the soil and in the roots (final population - Pf, nematodes number per gram of root and the reproduction factor of both Meloidogyne species (FR=Pf/Pi were determined. All rootstocks and cucumber hybrids allowed the M. javanica and M. incognita race 2 multiplication, but, generally, reproduction factor values were greater in cucumbers than in rootstocks.

Silvia Renata S Wilcken

2010-03-01

299

Effects of Tropical Rotation Crops on Meloidogyne arenaria Population Densities and Vegetable Yields in Microplots.  

Science.gov (United States)

The effects of 12 summer crop rotation treatments on population densities of Meloidogyne arenaria race 1 and on yields of subsequent spring vegetable crops were determined in microplots. The crop sequence was: (i) rotation crops during summer 1991 ; (ii) cover crop of rye (Secale cereale) during winter 1991-92; (iii) squash (Cucurbita pepo) during spring 1992; (iv) rotation crops during summer 1992; (v) rye during winter 1992-93; (vi) eggplant (Solanum melongena) during spring 1993. The 12 rotation treatments were castor (Ricinus communis), cotton (Gossypium hirsutum), velvetbean (Mucuna deeringiana), crotalaria (Crotalaria spectabilis), fallow, hairy indigo (Indigofera hirsuta), American jointvetch (Aeschynomene americana), sorghum-sudangrass (Sorghum bicolor x S. sudanense), soybean (Glycine max), horsebean (Canavalia ensiformis), sesame (Sesamum indicum), and peanut (Arachis hypogaea). Compared to peanut, the first eight rotation treatments resulted in lower (P population densities on a short-term basis to enhance yields in a subsequent susceptible vegetable crop. PMID:19279880

McSorley, R; Dickson, D W; de Brito, J A; Hewlett, T E; Frederick, J J

1994-06-01

300

Respostas de genótipos de Coffea spp. a diferentes populações de Meloidogyne exigua / Responses of different genotypes of Coffea spp. to Meloidogyne exigua populations  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Em Meloidogyne exigua, um dos principais patógenos do cafeeiro no Brasil, já foram observadas variabilidade bioquímica, molecular, morfológica e fisiológica. No entanto, a expressão desta variabilidade quanto à virulência a genótipos de cafeeiro não é bem conhecida. O objetivo deste trabalho foi est [...] udar o efeito de populações de M. exigua, as quais exibiam diferentes fenótipos de esterase e preferências por hospedeiros, em 25 genótipos de cafeeiro, com o propósito de se conhecer melhor a interação de biótipos desse nematóide com o gênero Coffea. Seis mudas de cafeeiro por tratamento foram inoculadas no estádio de 3 a 4 pares de folhas definitivas com 5.000 ovos de cada população de M. exigua por planta. O número de galhas e ovos por sistema radicular e a biomassa da matéria fresca das raízes foram avaliados aos 110 dias após a inoculação. Em função da reação frente às populações de M. exigua, os genótipos de Coffea spp. foram classificados em 14 suscetíveis, 5 imunes e 6 segregantes. Estes últimos segregaram de maneira diferenciada conforme a população do patógeno, evidenciando a existência de variabilidade intraespecífica em relação à virulência ao cafeeiro. Assim, o uso de diferentes populações desse patógeno, que englobem essa variabilidade é fundamental no desenvolvimento de cultivares resistentes. Abstract in english In Brazil, Meloidogyne exigua is one of the most important pathogens that attack coffee plants. Morphological, biochemical, molecular and physiological variabilities have been observed in M. exigua, but the expression of these variabilities in coffee genotypes is not well known. To evaluate the effe [...] ct of M. exigua on 25 Coffea spp. genotypes, populations exhibiting distinct esterase phenotypes and host suitability variations were selected. Thus, coffee seedlings at the stage of 3-4 sets of two leaves were inoculated with 5000 eggs of either population, with each treatment including six replicates. The evaluation occurred 110 days after inoculation, by counting galls and eggs per root system and measuring root fresh weight. According to the genotypes' reaction, three groups of Coffea spp. were detected: fourteen expressed susceptible reaction, six segregated and five were immune to M. exigua populations. The segregating genotypes behaved in a different way in relation to the four populations. Thus, the utilization of different populations showing this variability is fundamental for a breeding program that aims to develop resistant cultivars.

Rodrigo V., Silva; Rosângela D.L., Oliveira; Antonio A., Pereira; Dalila J., Sêni.

 
 
 
 
301

Respostas de genótipos de Coffea spp. a diferentes populações de Meloidogyne exigua Responses of different genotypes of Coffea spp. to Meloidogyne exigua populations  

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Full Text Available Em Meloidogyne exigua, um dos principais patógenos do cafeeiro no Brasil, já foram observadas variabilidade bioquímica, molecular, morfológica e fisiológica. No entanto, a expressão desta variabilidade quanto à virulência a genótipos de cafeeiro não é bem conhecida. O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar o efeito de populações de M. exigua, as quais exibiam diferentes fenótipos de esterase e preferências por hospedeiros, em 25 genótipos de cafeeiro, com o propósito de se conhecer melhor a interação de biótipos desse nematóide com o gênero Coffea. Seis mudas de cafeeiro por tratamento foram inoculadas no estádio de 3 a 4 pares de folhas definitivas com 5.000 ovos de cada população de M. exigua por planta. O número de galhas e ovos por sistema radicular e a biomassa da matéria fresca das raízes foram avaliados aos 110 dias após a inoculação. Em função da reação frente às populações de M. exigua, os genótipos de Coffea spp. foram classificados em 14 suscetíveis, 5 imunes e 6 segregantes. Estes últimos segregaram de maneira diferenciada conforme a população do patógeno, evidenciando a existência de variabilidade intraespecífica em relação à virulência ao cafeeiro. Assim, o uso de diferentes populações desse patógeno, que englobem essa variabilidade é fundamental no desenvolvimento de cultivares resistentes.In Brazil, Meloidogyne exigua is one of the most important pathogens that attack coffee plants. Morphological, biochemical, molecular and physiological variabilities have been observed in M. exigua, but the expression of these variabilities in coffee genotypes is not well known. To evaluate the effect of M. exigua on 25 Coffea spp. genotypes, populations exhibiting distinct esterase phenotypes and host suitability variations were selected. Thus, coffee seedlings at the stage of 3-4 sets of two leaves were inoculated with 5000 eggs of either population, with each treatment including six replicates. The evaluation occurred 110 days after inoculation, by counting galls and eggs per root system and measuring root fresh weight. According to the genotypes' reaction, three groups of Coffea spp. were detected: fourteen expressed susceptible reaction, six segregated and five were immune to M. exigua populations. The segregating genotypes behaved in a different way in relation to the four populations. Thus, the utilization of different populations showing this variability is fundamental for a breeding program that aims to develop resistant cultivars.

Rodrigo V. Silva

2007-06-01

302

Bahiagrass for the Management of Meloidogyne arenaria in Peanut.  

Science.gov (United States)

Bahiagrass (Paspalum notatum) cultivars Argentine, Pensacola, and Tifton-9 were non-hosts for Meloidogyne arenaria, M. incognita, and Heterodera glycines in a greenhouse experiment using field soil infested with these nematodes. The effect of Pensacola bahiagrass in rotation with peanut (Arachis hypogaea) on M. arenaria was studied in 1986 and 1987 in a field at the Wiregrass substation near Headland, Alabama. Each year soil densities of second-stage juveniles of M. arenaria, determined near peanut harvest, were 96-98% lower under bahiagrass than under peanut. In 1987 peanut yields in plots following bahiagrass were 27% higher than in plots under peanut monoculture. Juvenile population densities in bahiagrass-peanut plots were 41% lower than in plots with continuous peanut. Using bahiagrass for reducing population densities of M. arenaria and increasing peanut yield was as effective as using aldicarb at the recommended rates for peanut. PMID:19290315

Rodríguez-Kábana, R; Weaver, C F; Robertson, D G; Ivey, H

1988-10-01

303

Native-plant hosts of Meloidogyne spp. from Western Paraná, Brazil  

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Full Text Available The present study was focused on the parasitism of Meloidogyne species on the roots of native nursery plants from the Atlantic forest. Native plants were selected from a commercial nursery in Western Paraná, searching for the natural infection of Meloidogyne. Also, the seeds of native plants were cultivated in sterile soil and inoculated with M. incognita. In both the experiments, the number of galls and number of eggs and J2 per root, allied to the reproduction factor of M. incognita on each inoculated plant were assessed. Natural infection by M. javanica was found on Cordia ecalyculata, Citharexyllum myrianthum and Aspidosperma subincanum and by M. incognita on Croton urucurana, Lonchocarpus muehlbergianus, Tabebuia impetiginosa and T. serratifolia. Meloidogyne incognita induced galls formation on Genipa americana, Schinus terebinthifolius and Rollinia mucosa after inoculation, which suggested that those plants could host this nematode in natural biomes. Nursery soil should be disinfested before seeding the native forest plants for reforestation purposes

Vanessa A. Antes

2012-04-01

304

Meloidogyne mayaguensis RAMMAH Y HIRSCHMANN, PLAGA EMERGENTE PARA LA AGRICULTURA TROPICAL Y SUBTROPICAL / Meloidogyne mayaguensis RAMMAH Y HIRSCHMANN, EMERGENT PEST FOR TROPICAL AND SUBTROPICAL AGRICULTURE  

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Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Meloidogyne mayaguensis Rammah y Hirschmann, constituye una importante plaga en países de la zona tropical y subtropical, donde parasita de manera natural más de 30 especies de diferentes plantas de cultivo como guayaba (Psidium guajava), cafeto (Coffea spp.), hortalizas, ornamentales y arvenses. Su [...] distribución ha ocurrido relativamente rápido debido a factores antropogénicos y la mayor preocupación con esta especie es su capacidad para parasitar y reproducirse en plantas con resistencia a Meloidogyne spp. Esta especie presenta alta variabilidad en la morfología de su patrón perineal, por lo que es recomendable, para su identificación, el uso de elementos complementarios como los que ofrecen los perfiles de esterasas. Esta especie puede hallarse en poblaciones concomitantes junto a Meloidogyne incognita, Meloidogyne arenaria y Meloidogyne javanica, haciendo más complejo su diagnóstico y manejo. Entre las regulaciones empleadas para mitigar su efecto negativo se encuentran, la implementación de medidas de cuarentena interna y el uso de Cadusafos y Abamectina, con resultados variables. De igual modo, grupos de investigación en África y América han evaluado extractos de Crotalaria spp. y agentes de control biológico (Arthrobotrys spp.), entre otras tácticas. M. mayaguensis se considera una de las especies más peligrosas del género, su detección, correcta identificación y contención en las áreas donde aparece constituyen uno de los retos más importantes de las autoridades sanitarias en los países donde ha sido encontrada, para los cuales la información oportuna y capacitación efectiva de los actores involucrados en esta esfera representa un elemento de vital importancia para el enfrentamiento a esta plaga emergente. Abstract in english Meloidogyne mayaguensis Rammah y Hirschmann, is an important pest in tropical and subtropical countries, because it affects in natural way more than 30 different species like guava (Psidium guajava), coffee (Coffea spp.), vegetables, ornamental plants and weeds. Its distribution has been very fast d [...] ue to anthropogenic factors, and the highest concern about this species is its capacity to infest and reproduce on resistant plants to Meloidogyne spp. This species has a high variability in its perineal pattern morphology; thus the use of complementary elements like the offered by esterase profile is recommended. This specie has been found in mixed population with Meloidogyne incognita, Meloidogyne arenaria and Meloidogyne javanica, making more complex its diagnosis and management. Among the measurements to diminish its negative effect are the implementation of internal quarantine measures and the use of Cadusafos and Abermectine with variable results. In the same way, different research teams from Africa and America have evaluated extracts from Crotalaria spp., biological control agents (Arthrobotrys spp.), among other tactics. M. mayaguensis has been considered one of the most dangerous species of this genus. Its detection, right identification and contention in the areas in which it is found constitute one of the most important challenges for the sanitary authorities in the countries when the species has been reported. The opportune information and the effective training of the staff involved in the phytosanitary area represent a vital element for facing this emergent pest.

Mayra G, Rodríguez; Lucila, Gómez; Belkis, Peteira.

305

Pathogenicity of Meloidogyne spp. (Tylenchida: Meloidogynidae from Brazil and Central America on two genotypes of Coffea arabica Patogenicidade de Meloidogyne spp. (Tylenchida: Meloidogynidae originárias do Brasil e América Central a dois genótipos de Coffea arabica  

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Full Text Available Among the most damaging root-knot nematode species, Meloidogyne exigua, M. paranaensis, M. incognita, M. arabicida, M. izalcoensis and M. mayaguensis are major agronomic constraints in coffee-growing areas in Brazil and other Latin American countries. The resistance reaction to those six species was studied for the H 419-5-4-5-2 progeny, derived from the artificial hybridization between Catuaí Amarelo 'IAC 30' x Timor Hybrid UFV 445-46 selection. The Catuaí Vermelho IAC 144 genotype was used as susceptibility control for Meloidogyne spp. The genotypes were inoculated with 6,000 eggs/plant and the experiment was set up in a completely randomized design, replicated 10 times for each Meloidogyne species and genotype. The evaluation was performed at 240 days after inoculation and the reproduction factor (RF= Final population/6000 was used as the variable to evaluate resistance. M. exigua caused typical rounded galls mostly on new roots, and egg-masses were produced mostly in the cortex under the root epidermis. M. incognita, M. paranaensis and M. arabicida caused swollen roots, peeling and cracking of cortical root tissue. No symptoms were observed for M. mayaguensis. M. izalcoensis induced very small galls, mostly on the extremity of new roots. Egg-masses were produced outside the roots in large quantities. The genotype IAC 144 was susceptible (FR>1.0 to all Meloidogyne spp. studied, except to M. mayaguensis. The nematode isolate used in this experiment seems to be a weak parasite for coffee. The H 419-5-4-5-2 progeny was resistant to M. exigua (FREntre as espécies de nematóides de galhas mais danosas ao cafeeiro, Meloidogyne exigua, M. paranaensis, M. incognita, M. arabicida, M. izalcoensis e M. mayaguensis são as que causam os maiores problemas em áreas de cultivo de café no Brasil e países da América Latina. A reação de resistência a essas seis espécies foi estudada na progênie H 419-5-4-5-2, obtida do cruzamento artificial entre a cultivar Catuaí Amarelo IAC 30 com a seleção de Híbrido de Timor UFV 445-46. As genótipos foram inoculados com 6.000 ovos/planta e o experimento foi conduzido no delineamento inteiramente ao acaso, com 10 repetições para cada espécie de Meloidogyne e cada genótipo de cafeeiro. A avaliação foi realizada 240 dias após a inoculação. O Fator de Reprodução (FR= População Final/6000 foi usado como variável para se avaliar a resistência. M. exigua causou galhas arredondadas típicas, sobretudo nas raízes novas. M. incognita, M. paranaensis e M. arabicida causaram engrossamento nas raízes, descolamento cortical e rachaduras em várias partes do sistema radicular.Nenhum sintoma foi observado para M. mayaguensis. M. izalcoensis causou galhas pequenas, a maioria na extremidade das raízes novas. As massas de ovos foram produzidas externamente e em grande número. O genótipo IAC 144 (testemunha foi suscetível (FR>1.0 a todas espécies de Meloidogyne, exceto a M. mayaguensis. Esse isolado mostrou-se um parasita fraco para o cafeeiro. A progênie H 419-5-4-5-2 foi resistente a M. exigua e M. mayaguensis (FR<1 e suscetível a M. incognita, M. paranaensis, M. arabicida e M. izalcoensis.

Regina M.D.G. Carneiro

2008-08-01

306

Integrated Management of Meloidogyne incognita Infecting Soybean by Certain Organic Amendments, Bacillus thuringiensis, Trichoderma harzianum and Oxamyl with Reference to NPK and Total Chlorophyll Statuus  

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The integrated control of M. incognita infecting soybean cv. Giza 21 using camel manure, dried leaf powder of marigold, Trichoderma harzianum 100% filtrate, Bacillus thringiensis singly or in combination with oxamyl under greenhouse condition (22±3°C) indicated that the concomitant treatments obviously gave better results than single ones did. Moreover, B. thringiensis plus oxamyl at half dose each surpassed all other tested materials in percentage increase...

El-sherif, A. G.; Ismail, Amona F. A.

2009-01-01

307

Root Tissue Response of Two Related Soybean Cultivars to Infection by Lectin-treated Meloidogyne spp.  

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Treatment of second-stage juveniles (J2) of Meloidogyne incognita race 1 and M. javanica with soybean agglutinin, Concanavalin A, wheat germ agglutinin, Lotus tetragonolobus agglutinin, or Limax flavus agglutinin or the corresponding competitive sugars for each of these lectins did not alter normal root tissue response of soybean cultivars Centennial and Pickett 71 to infection by M. incognita race 1 or M. javanica. Giant cells were frequently induced in Centennial and Pickett 71 roots 5 and ...

1989-01-01

308

Host Status of Endophyte-Infected and Noninfected Tall Fescue Grass to Meloidogyne spp.  

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Tall fescue grass cultivars with or without endophytes were evaluated for their susceptibility to Meloidogyne incognita in the greenhouse. Tall fescue cultivars evaluated included, i) wild-type Jesup (E+, ergot-producing endophyte present), ii) endophyte-free Jesup (E-, no endophyte present), iii) Jesup (Max-Q, non-ergot producing endophyte) and iv) Georgia 5 (E+). Peach was included as the control. Peach supported greater (P ? 0.05) reproduction of M. incognita than all tall fescue cultiva...

Nyczepir, A. P.; Meyer, S. L. F.

2010-01-01

309

Identification of Meloidogyne javanica Using Morphological and Morphometerical Characters and Species Specific Primers  

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Full Text Available Root knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp. cause yield loss in all countries, of which, M. javanica, is the most widespread species in Iran. In order to identify M. javanica, 100 infected root and soil samples of root knot nematode were collected from different regions of Kerman province. After purification of populations and identification of M. javanica based on morphological and morphometerical characters of females and second stage juveniles (J2, total DNA was extracted from eggs, J2 and female adults. Specific 670 and 1600 bp bands were amplified in all M. javanica populations using species-specific primer pairs including OPARjav / OPAFjav and Mjavf / Mjavr These specific bands could not be amplified in other species such as M. incognita and M. arenaria. It seems that, application of these species specific primers in comparison with morphological characters would be more applicable, leading to easier identification of M. javanica.

E Mahdikhani

2009-04-01

310

Greenhouse Studies on the Effect of Marigolds (Tagetes spp.) on Four Meloidogyne Species  

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The effects of preplanted marigold on tomato root galling and multiplication of Meloidogyne incognita, M. javanica, M. arenaria, and M. hapla were studied. Marigold cultivars of Tagetes patula, T. erecta, T. signata, and a Tagetes hybrid all reduced galling and numbers of second-stage juveniles in subsequent tomato compared to the tomato-tomato control. All four Meloidogyne spp. reproduced on T. signata 'Tangerine Gem'. Several cultivars of T. patula and T. erecta suppressed galling and repro...

Ploeg, Antoon T.

1999-01-01

311

Effects of Resistance in Phaseolus vulgaris on Development of Meloidogyne Species  

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Use of resistant Phaseolus vulgaris germplasm has a potential role in limiting damaging effects of Meloidogyne spp. on bean production. Effects of two genetic resistance systems in common bean germptasm on penetration and development of Meloidogyne spp. were studied under growth room conditions at 22°C to 25°C. Nemasnap (gene system 1) and G1805 (gene system 2) were inoculated with second-stage juveniles (J2) of M. incognita race 2 and M. arenaria race 1, respectively; Black Valentine was u...

1996-01-01

312

Penetration Rates by Second-stage Juveniles of Meloidogyne spp. and Heterodera glycines into Soybean Roots  

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The rates of soybean root penetration by freshly hatched second-stage juveniles (J2) of Meloidogyne arenaria, M. hapla, M. incognita, M. javanica, and Heterodera glycines races 1 and 5 were examined over a period of 1 to 240 hours. Heterodera glycines entered roots more quickly than Meloidogyne spp. Penetration by most nematodes was accomplished within 48 hours. The increases in penetration after 48 hours were insufficient to warrant further assessments. Penetration of J2 into roots of soybea...

Gourd, T. R.; Schmitt, D. P.; Barker, K. R.

1993-01-01

313

Reproduction of Meloidogyne incognito and M. arenaria on Tropical Corn Hybrids  

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Reproduction ofMeloidogyne incognita and M. arenaria was determined on 25 commercial tropical corn hybrids in greenhouse studies. Soil around corn seedlings was infested with 3,000 eggs/plant. Reproduction was quantified from counts of egg masses on roots stained with phloxine B 60 days after soil infestation. All of the tropical hybrids were susceptible to M. incognita and M. arenaria. Egg mass indices (0-5 scale) ranged from 3.4 to 4.2 and from 3.4 to 4.1 for M. incognita and M. arenaria, r...

Windham, G. L.; Williams, W. P.

1994-01-01

314

Evaluation of Cover Crops with Potential for Use in Anaerobic Soil Disinfestation (ASD) for Susceptibility to Three Species of Meloidogyne.  

Science.gov (United States)

Several cover crops with potential for use in tropical and subtropical regions were assessed for susceptibility to three common species of root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne arenaria, M. incognita, and M. javanica. Crops were selected based on potential use as organic amendments in anaerobic soil disinfestation (ASD) applications. Nematode juvenile (J2) numbers in soil and roots, egg production, and host plant root galling were evaluated on arugula (Eruca sativa, cv. Nemat), cowpea (Vigna unguiculata, cv. Iron & Clay), jack bean (Canavalia ensiformis, cv. Comum), two commercial mixtures of Indian mustard and white mustard (Brassica juncea & Sinapis alba, mixtures Caliente 61 and Caliente 99), pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum, cv. Tifleaf III), sorghum-sudangrass hybrid (Sorghum bicolor × S. bicolor var. sudanense, cv. Sugar Grazer II), and three cultivars of sunflower (Helianthus annuus, cvs. 545A, Nusun 660CL, and Nusun 5672). Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum, cv. Rutgers) was included in all trials as a susceptible host to all three nematode species. The majority of cover crops tested were less susceptible than tomato to M. arenaria, with the exception of jack bean. Sunflower cv. Nusun 5672 had fewer M. arenaria J2 isolated from roots than the other sunflower cultivars, less galling than tomato, and fewer eggs than tomato and sunflower cv. 545A. Several cover crops did not support high populations of M. incognita in roots or exhibit significant galling, although high numbers of M. incognita J2 were isolated from the soil. Arugula, cowpea, and mustard mixture Caliente 99 did not support M. incognita in soil or roots. Jack bean and all three cultivars of sunflower were highly susceptible to M. javanica, and all sunflower cultivars had high numbers of eggs isolated from roots. Sunflower, jack bean, and both mustard mixtures exhibited significant galling in response to M. javanica. Arugula, cowpea, and sorghum-sudangrass consistently had low numbers of all three Meloidogyne species associated with roots and are good selections for use in ASD for root-knot nematode control. The remainder of crops tested had significant levels of galling, J2, and eggs associated with roots, which varied among the Meloidogyne species tested. PMID:24379486

Kokalis-Burelle, Nancy; Butler, David M; Rosskopf, Erin N

2013-12-01

315

Morphological Comparison of Meloidogyne Males by Scanning Electron Microscopy  

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Field plots of Tifton loamy sand were treated with methyl bromide, DD-MENCS, or ethoprop for control of root-knot nematodes, Meloidogyne incognita, in a multiple cropping system of turnips, field corn, and southern peas. Annual applications of methyl bromide and DD-MENCS in November or December suppressed nematode numbers to very low levels through September, but numbers increased in the following October, November, and/or December. No benefit was found from ethoprop applied to DD-MENCS-treat...

Rohde, W. A.; Johnson, A. W.; Dowlet, C. C.; Glaze, N. C.

1980-01-01

316

Crop Rotation Studies with Velvetbean (Mucuna deeringiana) for the Management of Meloidogyne spp.  

Science.gov (United States)

Results from a greenhouse experiment at Cabrils, Spain, with two velvetbean (Mucuna deeringiana) accessions (Florida and Mozambique) growing in sterilized sandy loam and inoculated with Meloidogyne arenaria race 2, M. incognita race 1, and M. javanica revealed that the legume was not a host for these nematodes. In contrast, roots of 'Clemson Spineless' okra (Hibiscus esculentum), 'Summer Crookneck' squash (Cucurbita pepo), and 'Davis' soybean (Glycine max) were galled by all three root-knot nematodes. Greenhouse experiments at Auburn, Alabama, using soils infested with Heterodera glycines (race 14) + M. incognita or with H. glycines + M. arenaria (race 2) showed that, in contrast to Davis soybean, a Mexican and the Florida velvetbean accessions were not hosts for the nematodes. An experiment with 'Florunner' peanut (Arachis hypogaea) and the Florida velvetbean in a field infested with M. arenaria (race 1), near Headland, Alabama, showed that significant juvenile populations of the nematode at peanut harvest time were present only in plots with peanut. A microplot rotation experiment demonstrated that 'Black Beauty' eggplant (Solanum melongena) following the Florida velvetbean had heavier shoots and lower numbers of M. arenaria juveniles in the roots and in the soil than eggplant after Summer Crookneck squash or Davis soybean. PMID:19283043

Rodríguez-Kábana, R; Pinochet, J; Robertson, D G; Wells, L

1992-12-01

317

Efeito de isolados de Paecilomyces lilacinus no desenvolvimento de cafezais e na população de Meloidogyne paranaensis Effect of isolates of Paecilomyces lilacinus on the development of coffee plantations and on the population of Meloidogyne paranaensis  

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Full Text Available Com a finalidade de diminuir as perdas causadas pelos nematóides do gênero Meloidogyne (Goeldi, 1887 na cultura do cafeeiro, dentre as diversas medidas de manejo, o controle biológico com o fungo Paecilomyces lilacinus (Thom., 1910 Samson, 1974 se destaca como uma alternativa de controle vantajosa, quer dos pontos de vista ecológico ou econômico. Assim, neste trabalho, objetivou-se avaliar a eficiência de 10 isolados de Paecilomyces lilacinus no controle de Meloidogyne paranaensis em cafeeiro (Coffea arabica L. cv. Icatú, em casa-de-vegetação. No experimento I, as mudas de cafeeiro foram transplantadas em solo onde foram, anteriormente, cultivados tomateiros para multiplicação de M. paranaensis mais 50 g de arroz colonizado com os 10 isolados. No segundo experimento, mudas de cafeeiro foram transplantadas para substrato solo e areia (1:1 juntamente com 50 g de arroz colonizado com os isolados. Em seguida, as mudas foram inoculadas com ± 5000 ovos de M. paranaensis. Nos dois experimentos, após 15 dias procedeu-se aplicação por cobertura de 50 g dos isolados. O delineamento foi inteiramente casualizado com 12 tratamentos. Após 90 dias, foram feitas as avaliações. Os isolados de P. lilacinus não afetaram o diâmetro do caule de cafeeiro. No experimento I, os isolados Pae 22, 24 e 28 promoveram o crescimento dos cafeeiros; todos os isolados reduziram a população de ovos no sistema radicular; e os isolados Pae 3 e 12 reduziram a população de J2 de M. paranaensis no solo. No experimento II, os isolados Pae 03, 10, 12 e 13 favoreceram o crescimento das plantas, mas reduziram o peso fresco do sistema radicular; todos os isolados reduziram a população de J2 no solo; e os isolados Pae 3, 10, 13, 18, 22 e 24 reduziram as malformações causadas por M. paranaensis nas raízes.In order to reduce the losses caused by nematodes of the genus Meloidogyne (Goeldi, 1887 in coffee plantation, among several management measures, biological control with the fungus Paecilomyces lilacinus (Thom., 1910 Samson, 1974 stands out as an advantageous alternative of control, from the ecological or economy points of view. Thus, the objective of this work was to evaluate ten isolates of Paecilomyces lilacinus in the control of Meloidogyne paranaensis in coffee trees (Coffea arabica L. cv. Icatú, in greenhouse conditions. In the first experiment, the coffee seedlings were transplanted to substrate where tomato plants were previously cultivated, for M. paranaensis multiplication. The soil was mixed with 50 g rice colonized with ten isolates of P. lilacinus. In the second experiment, coffee seedlings were transplanted to substrate (1 sand: 1 dirt with 50 g rice colonized with the isolates of P. lilacinus. Then, the seedlings were inoculated with suspension of ±5000 eggs of M. paranaensis. In the two experiments, a new application was made with 50 g of the isolates after fifteen days. The design was completely randomized with twelve treatments and ten replicates. After 90 they days were evaluated. The isolated of P. lilacinus did not affect the diameter of the coffee stalk. In the first experiment, the isolates Pae 22, 24, and 28 promoted the growth of the seedlings, all of the isolates reduced the population of eggs in the root system, and the isolates Pae 3 and 12 reduced the population of J2 of M. paranaensis in the soil. In the second experiment, the isolates Pae 3, 10, 12, and 13 favored the growth of the plants but reduced the weight of the fresh roots, all of the isolates reduced the population of J2 in the soil, and the isolates Pae 3, 10, 13, 18, 22, and 24 reduced the malformations caused by M. paranaensis roots.

Marina Capparelli Cadioli

2009-06-01

318

Effects of biosolid amendment on populations of Meloidogyne hapla and soils with different textures and pHs.  

Science.gov (United States)

Temperate vegetable and nursery industries face significant challenges in managing Meloidogyne hapla, a plant-parasite for which few resistant cultivars and/or viable alternatives to methyl bromide exist. N-Viro Soil(R) (NVS), an alkaline-stabilized biosolid product, has soil nutrition enrichment capacity and potential for plant-parasitic nematode suppression. In three sets of experiments, we investigated the effects of NVS on M. hapla populations from Rhode Island (RI), Connecticut (CT), New York, Geneva (NYG) and Lyndonville (NYL), and Michigan (MI), and growth of tomato cv 'Rutgers' in five soils commonly used for vegetable and nursery crop production in the Great Lakes Region of the USA. Either 0 (control) or 600 eggs/100 cm(3) of soil per M. hapla population were added in all experiments. In the first set, NVS was applied at rates of 0, 1, 2 and 4 g/100 cm(3) of sandy loam soil (pH 7) and resulted in variable responses on the numbers of nematodes recovered and plant growth at 30 and 90 days (25+/-2 degrees C); however, the 2g NVS treatment consistently increased plant growth. Either 0 or 2 NVS/100 cm(3) were applied to a coarse loamy (pH 4.5) and sandy loam (pH 8, second set of experiments), and muck (pH 5.5), loamy sand (pH 7.1) and sandy loam (pH 7.5, third set of experiments) soils and experiments terminated four weeks after nematode inoculation. Across experiments, the effect of NVS on the M. hapla populations varied. Generally nematode infection decreased plant growth. NVS increased soil pH the most in muck and the least in sandy loam soil. The most consistent interaction effects of NVS*soil, NVS*M. hapla, soil*M. hapla and/or NVS*soil*M. hapla across the experiments indicate that NVS affects M. hapla populations in different ways in different soil types, suggesting that NVS application is likely to be site-specific. These findings further provide basis that may potentially explain reports of variable effects of NVS on nematodes and how future studies may account in furthering our understanding of NVS activities for M. hapla management. PMID:20427181

Mennan, Sevilhan; Melakeberhan, Haddish

2010-09-01

319

Meloidoginose da bananeira (sintomas e susceptibilidade de cultivares) / Behavior of banana cultivars exposed to infestation by M. incognita and M. javanica  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Vinte cultivares de banana (Musa spp.) foram avaliados em condições naturais de infestação em relação aos nematóides formadores de galhas Meloidogyne incognita e M. javanica, espécies estas mais difundidas no País. Verificou-se que todos os cultivares foram susceptíveis a M. incognita e oito a M. ja [...] vanica. Suspeitou-se, no entanto, que caso houvesse infestação uniforme do nematóide javanês, todos os cultivares seriam eventualmente parasitados. Descrevem-se também os sintomas apresentados pelos sistemas radiculares dos cultivares. Do ponto de vista econômico, resta recomendar remoção das raízes das mudas e do solo a elas aderido, e plantio em solos preferencialmente livres de Meloidogyne spp. Abstract in english Twenty banana cultivars (Musa spp.) were exposed in natural conditions to infestation by two root knot nematodes, namely Meloidogyne incognita and M. javanica. It was found that all cultivars were attacked by M. incognita and eight by M. javanica. However, in an uniform infestation by the Javanese n [...] ematode, all cultivars would be eventually attacked by this species. Symptoms shown by the radicular systems are described. Bruning of "seedling" root and cleaning the soil adhering to them, and planting them in soils not infested with Meloidogyne spp. are recommended.

Antonio Carlos, Zem; Luiz Gonzaga E., Lordello.

320

Mentha x piperita, Mentha spicata and Effects of Their Essential Oils on Meloidogyne in Soil  

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Six peppermint (Mentha x piperita) and six spearmint (M. spicata) PI accessions were inoculated with Meloidogyne incognita race 3 and M. arenaria race 2, under greenhouse conditions. No galls formed on roots of any of the plants inoculated with 1,800 eggs/pot. Fewer than two galls per root system formed on three PI accessions of peppermint inoculated with M. incognita at 5,400 eggs/pot. Only one peppermint accession developed galls when inoculated with M. arenaria, whereas none of the spearmi...

Walker, J. T.; Melin, J. B.

1996-01-01

 
 
 
 
321

Crop Rotation Studies with Velvetbean (Mucuna deeringiana) for the Management of Meloidogyne spp.  

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Results from a greenhouse experiment at Cabrils, Spain, with two velvetbean (Mucuna deeringiana) accessions (Florida and Mozambique) growing in sterilized sandy loam and inoculated with Meloidogyne arenaria race 2, M. incognita race 1, and M. javanica revealed that the legume was not a host for these nematodes. In contrast, roots of 'Clemson Spineless' okra (Hibiscus esculentum), 'Summer Crookneck' squash (Cucurbita pepo), and 'Davis' soybean (Glycine max) were galled by all three root-knot n...

Rodri?guez-ka?bana, R.; Pinochet, J.; Robertson, D. G.; Wells, L.

1992-01-01

322

Reproduction of Belonolaimus longicaudatus, Meloidogyne javanica, Paratrichodorus minor, and Pratylenchus brachyurus on Pearl Millet (Pennisetum glaucum)  

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Pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum) has potential as a grain crop for dryland crop production in the southeastern United States. Whether or not pearl millet will be compatible in rotation with cotton (Gossypium hirsutum), corn (Zea mays), and peanut (Arachis hypogaea) will depend, in part, on its host status for important plant-parasitic nematodes of these crops. The pearl millet hybrid 'TifGrain 102' is resistant to both Meloidogyne incognita race 3 and M. arenaria race 1; however, its host st...

2005-01-01

323

Spring or Fall Fumigation for Control of Meloidogyne spp. on Tobacco  

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Tests were conducted in 1987-88 to compare the efficacy of spring or fall fumigant nematicide applications for control ofMeloidogyne arenaria and M. incognita on tobacco. Chloropicrin, 1,3-D, methyl isothiocyanate, and a methyl isothiocyanate-l,3-D mixture were applied as row treatments. Fenamiphos, fenamiphos + fensulfothion, or ethoprop were applied in the spring as nonfumigant nematicide standards. Fumigant nematicides increased yields and reduced galling (P = 0.01) in all four tests. Spri...

Fortnum, B. A.; Gooden, D. T.; Currin, R. E.; Martin, S. B.

1990-01-01

324

Host plants of root-knot nematodes / Algumas plantas hospedeiras de nematóides do gênero Meloidogyne  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Coletaram-se plantas do gênero Coffea e de diversas ervas daninhas, as quais foram examinadas em laboratório visando verificar a ocorrência de nematóides do gênero Meloidogyne Goeldi, 1887. As plantas parasitadas por M. exigua, M. incognita, M. arenaria e por uma espécie não identificada, referida c [...] omo Meloidogyne sp., são. apresentadas. Indicam-se os hospedeiros novos de alguns dos nematóides mencionados e confirma-se o parasitismo de outras plantas, nas condições estudadas. Abstract in english Root-knot nematodes were found attacking Coffea spp. and also roots of a few weed species usually found in the coffee orchards in São Paulo. C. arabica cv. Catuaí, C. arabica cv. Mundo Novo, Timor Hybrid and a few plants of C. racemosa showed to be susceptible to Meloidogyne exigua. Roots of Ageratu [...] m conyzoides, Amaranthus viridis, Bidens pilosa, Coffea arabica cv. Mundo Novo, Coffea racemosa, Commelina virginica, Digitaria sanguinalis, Galinsoga parviflora, Gnaphalium spathulatum, Porophyllum ruderale, Portulaca oleracea, Pterocaulon virgatum and Solanum americanum were disfigured by M. incognita M. arenaria was found attacking roots of Eleusine indica and Gnaphalium spathulatum, and the presence of an unidentified Meloidogyne species was verified in roots of the following species: Vernonia ferruginea, C. arabica x C. canephora, Eupatorium pauciflorum, Coffea canephora cv. Kouillou, Coffea eugenioides, Coffea racemosa, Coffea stenophylla, Euphorbia pilullifera, Solanum americanum, Ageratum conyzoides, Phyllanthus corcovadensis, and Emilia sagittata.

Luiz Gonzaga E., Lordello; Luiz Carlos, Fazuoli; Condorcet, Aranha; Rubens R.A., Lordello.

325

Pathogenicity of Meloidogyne spp. (Tylenchida: Meloidogynidae) from Brazil and Central America on two genotypes of Coffea arabica Patogenicidade de Meloidogyne spp. (Tylenchida: Meloidogynidae) originárias do Brasil e América Central a dois genótipos de Coffea arabica  

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Among the most damaging root-knot nematode species, Meloidogyne exigua, M. paranaensis, M. incognita, M. arabicida, M. izalcoensis and M. mayaguensis are major agronomic constraints in coffee-growing areas in Brazil and other Latin American countries. The resistance reaction to those six species was studied for the H 419-5-4-5-2 progeny, derived from the artificial hybridization between Catuaí Amarelo 'IAC 30' x Timor Hybrid UFV 445-46 selection. The Catuaí Vermelho IAC 144 genotype was use...

Carneiro, Regina M. D. G.; Mesquita, Luiz F. G.; Wallace Gonçalves; Pereira, Anto?nio A.

2008-01-01

326

The interaction between root knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp.) and soft rot Enterobacteriaceae (Pectobacterium spp.) and their host Solanum tuberosum  

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Meloiodgyne incognita, one of the most aggressive plant parasitic nematodes species on potato in South Africa, belongs to a group of plant parasitic nematodes commonly known as root knot nematodes (RKN). This group of nematodes is widely distributed throughout the world. Meloidogyne spp. cause major economic losses to important crops such as potato and therefore decrease their market value in many countries across the world. The second stage juveniles are the only mobile and infective phase o...

Mongae, Aobakwe Oratile

2013-01-01

327

Efecto de diferentes densidades poblacionales de Meloidogyne hapla sobre uchuva (Physalis peruviana L.) en invernadero / Effect of different population densities of Meloidogyne hapla on the cape gooseberry (Physalis peruviana L.) in greenhouse  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Este estudio se realizó en el Centro de Investigaciones y Asesorías Agroindustriales de la Universidad de Bogotá Jorge Tadeo Lozano, Chía (Cundinamarca), bajo condiciones de invernadero, durante diez meses de cultivo. Se evaluó el efecto de diferentes densidades poblacionales de Meloidogyne hapla (0 [...] , 50, 100, 200, 500 y 1.000 larvas J2/100 cc de suelo), sobre parámetros productivos de la uchuva: altura de las plantas, diámetro de tallo, peso fresco, peso seco y biomasa de follaje, peso fresco de raíces, índice de nodulación radicular y peso fresco de frutos. Se hizo análisis de varianza, pruebas de contrastes y prueba de Tukey (?=0,05), en un diseño completamente aleatorio, con seis tratamientos y cinco repeticiones, mediante el programa SAS v.8.0. El tratamiento de 500 larvas J2/100 cc suelo fue el que más afectó la altura de las plantas, el diámetro del tallo, la biomasa de follaje, el peso fresco de raíces y presentó el índice de nodulación radical más alto. No se encontraron diferencias significativas entre los tratamientos inoculados con M. hapla, para peso fresco, peso seco de follaje y peso fresco de frutos, ni para el número de larvas J2 en suelo y masas de huevos. Mediante la ecuación: Y = m + (1-m)Z P-T propuesta por Seinhorst (1965), se estableció un límite de tolerancia de 50 larvas J2 de M. hapla/100 cc suelo, para peso fresco de raíces y un límite de tolerancia de 450 larvas J2 de M. hapla/100 cc suelo, para biomasa de follaje. Abstract in english A trial was conducted at the Center of Investigations and Agroindustrial Accessory of the University Jorge Tadeo Lozano, Chía (Cundinamarca) under greenhouse condition during ten months of cultivation. The effect of different population densities of M. hapla (0, 50, 100, 200, 500 and 1,000 larvae J2 [...] /100 cc soil) on productive parameters of the cape gooseberry, such as plant height, stem diameter, fresh and dry weights of leaves, fresh weight of roots, root nodulation index and weight of fruits in four harvests were evaluated. A variance analysis, contrasts test and Tukey test, within a randomized design with six treatments, and five repetitions was done within SAS v.8.0 program. It was determined that a treatment 500 larvae J2/100 cc soil had the highest effect on the plant height, stem diameter, leaf biomass and fresh weight of roots, besides it showed the highest root nodulation index. There were no significant differences found among the treatments for fresh weight and dry weight of leaves and fruits weight. For J2 larvae’s number in soil and eggs mass, the differences among the treatments inoculated with M. hapla were not found. A tolerance limit of 50 larvas J2/l00 cc soil was derived from fitting the data of root fresh weight and a tolerance limit of 450 larvas J2/l00 cc soil from data of biomass using the equation Y=m+(1-m)Z P-T proposed by Seinhorst (1965).

Niño, Nancy Eunice; Arbeláez, Germán; Navarro, Rafael.

328

Phylogenetic Analyses of Meloidogyne Small Subunit rDNA.  

Science.gov (United States)

Phylogenies were inferred from nearly complete small subunit (SSU) 18S rDNA sequences of 12 species of Meloidogyne and 4 outgroup taxa (Globodera pallida, Nacobbus abberans, Subanguina radicicola, and Zygotylenchus guevarai). Alignments were generated manually from a secondary structure model, and computationally using ClustalX and Treealign. Trees were constructed using distance, parsimony, and likelihood algorithms in PAUP* 4.0b4a. Obtained tree topologies were stable across algorithms and alignments, supporting 3 clades: clade I = [M. incognita (M. javanica, M. arenaria)]; clade II = M. duytsi and M. maritima in an unresolved trichotomy with (M. hapla, M. microtyla); and clade III = (M. exigua (M. graminicola, M. chitwoodi)). Monophyly of [(clade I, clade II) clade III] was given maximal bootstrap support (mbs). M. artiellia was always a sister taxon to this joint clade, while M. ichinohei was consistently placed with mbs as a basal taxon within the genus. Affinities with the outgroup taxa remain unclear, although G. pallida and S. radicicola were never placed as closest relatives of Meloidogyne. Our results show that SSU sequence data are useful in addressing deeper phylogeny within Meloidogyne, and that both M. ichinohei and M. artiellia are credible outgroups for phylogenetic analysis of speciations among the major species. PMID:19265950

De Ley, Irma Tandingan; De Ley, Paul; Vierstraete, Andy; Karssen, Gerrit; Moens, Maurice; Vanfleteren, Jacques

2002-12-01

329

Single pass cDNA sequencing - a powerful tool to analyse gene expression in preparasytic juveniles of the southern root-knot nematode Meliodogyne incognita  

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Expressed sequence tags (EST) have been widely used to assist in gene discovery in various organisms (e.g., Arabidopsis thaliana, Caenorhabditis elegans, Mus musculus, and Homo sapiens). In this paper we describe an EST project, which aims to investigate gene expression in Meloidogyne incognita at the onset of parasitism. Approximately 1000 5?-end sequence tags were produced from a cDNA library made of freshly hatched preparasitic second stage juveniles (J2). The EST were identified in the ...

Dautova, M.; Rosso, M. N.; Abad, P.; Gommers, F. L.; Bakker, J.; Smant, G.

2001-01-01

330

Pathogenic Variability Among Isolates of Meloidogyne javanica on Capsicum annum  

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Meloidogyne javanica isolates were collected from nine districts of Uttar Pradesh. These isolates showed pathogenic variability when inoculated on the pepper cultivars California Wonder and Suryamukhi Green. Meloidogyne javanica that infected Suryamukhi Green but not California Wonder were designated as pepper race 1 and the populations that infected both the cultivars were designated pepper race 2. Race 1 was more frequent than race 2 in Almora, Pauri Garhwal, Basti, Gorakhpur, and Deoria, w...

Khan, B.; Khan, A. A.; Khan, M. R.

2003-01-01

331

Comparison of nematode population densities on six summer crops at seven sites in north Florida.  

Science.gov (United States)

Densities of plant-parasitic nematodes were compared on six crops grown for forage during the summer of 1991 at seven sites in north central Florida. The cropping treatments were 'Howard' soybean (Glycine max), 'Deltapine 105' soybean, velvetbean (Mucuna deeringiana), 'California Blackeye #5' cowpea (Vigna unguiculata), 'Pioneer 3098' tropical corn (Zea mays), and 'Asgrow Chaparral' sorghum (Sorghum bicolor). Highest final densities (Pf) of Meloidogyne incognita and Criconemella spp. were obtained following corn or sorghum at most sites. The lowest Pf of M. incognita occurred after velvetbean at all seven sites, but Pf after cowpea were equivalent to Pf after velvetbean at four of seven sites. Cultivar choice is critical in planning rotations to suppress M. incognita because results obtained here and elsewhere have shown great differences among sorghum and cowpea cultivars. The Pf of Pratylenchus spp. were lowest following velvetbean at four of seven sites. There were no differences in densities of Paratrichodorus minor among crops, but populations increased at a greater rate if initial density (Pi) was low. Multiplication rates (Pf/Pi) of most nematode species on most crops varied inversely with Pi. An accurate impression of nematode multiplication and host status could not be obtained unless a range of Pi was examined. PMID:19283048

McSorley, R; Gallaher, R N

1992-12-01

332

Response of Some Common Annual Bedding Plants to Three Species of Meloidogyne  

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Twelve ornamental bedding plant cultivars were grown in soil infested with isolates of Meloidogyne incognita race 1, M. javanica, or M. arenaria race 1 in a series of tests in containers in a growth room. Root galling (0-5 scale) and eggs/plant were evaluated 8-10 weeks after soil infestation and seedling transplantation. Snapdragon, Antirrhinum majus cv. First Ladies, was extensively galled and highly susceptible (mean gall rating ?4.2 and ?14,500 eggs/plant), and Celosia argentea cv. Ce...

Mcsorley, R.; Frederick, J. J.

1994-01-01

333

Efeito de diferentes lâminas de irrigação sobre a população de meloidogyne javanica e a produtividade de bananeira no norte de minas gerais Effect of different levels of irrigation on population of meloidogyne javanica and banana productivity in north of minas gerais  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar o efeito de diferentes lâminas de irrigação (100; 125; 150 e 175%, determinadas pela evapotranspiração de referência do tanque classe A, sobre a população de Meloidogyne javanica no solo, e sobre a produtividade e número de dias necessários para a floração e a colheita da bananeira Prata-Anã, no norte de Minas Gerais. Verificou-se que o número de juvenis de segundo estádio de M. javanica aumentou com o aumento das lâminas de irrigação com pico máximo em 118% da evapotranspiração do tanque classe A (ETtca e que as lâminas de 125; 150 e 175% da ETtca proporcionaram produtividade da bananeira (kg ha -1 significativamente superior à lâmina de 100 %. No entanto, não afetou o número de dias para a floração e para a colheita da bananeira.The present work aimed to assess in the field the effect of irrigation different levels (100%, 125%, 150% and 175% determined by evapotranspiration from the tank class A (ETtca, on the population of Meloidogyne javanica in the soil, banana productivity and number of days needs for flowering and yield of Prata-Anã cultivar of banana on the North of Minas Gerais state, Brazil. The number of second stage juveniles of M. javanica increased reaching the maximum J2 level at 118% of ETtca. The irrigation levels, 125, 150 and 175% ETtca increased the banana productity in kg/ha-1 significantly as compared to 100% level. However, no effect was observed on the number of days for flowering and for harvesting of Prata-Anã banana.

Regina Cássia Ferreira Ribeiro

2009-03-01

334

Resistência de porta-enxertos para pessegueiro e ameixeira aos nematóides causadores de galhas (Meloidogyne spp. Resistance of rootstock for peach tree and plum to root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp.  

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Full Text Available O trabalho foi realizado com o objetivo de comparar o comportamento de cinco diferentes porta-enxertos para frutas de caroço em frente a duas espécies de nematóides do gênero Meloidogyne (Meloidogyne javanica e Meloidogyne incognita. O cultivar GF 677 foi obtido a partir do cultivo in vitro e os demais porta-enxertos a partir de sementes. Aos dois meses, as plântulas foram repicadas e inoculadas com uma mistura de Meloidogyne javanica e M. incognita aos 30, 60 e 70 dias após o plantio em canteiros incorporando-se 0,2kg de solo altamente infestado com os nematóides ao redor de cada planta. Ao final do experimento, avaliaram-se o desenvolvimento das plantas e o grau de infecção de cada cultivar. O grau de resistência dos cultivares foi estimado a partir do índice de galhas, obtido através de uma escala de grau ou nota, a qual varia de 0 a 5, em função do número de galhas ou ootecas. Os resultados obtidos demonstraram que o cultivar Okinawa não apresentou galhas no sistema radicular e na análise de crescimento foi superior aos demais cultivares. Os cultivares R-15-2 e Aldrighi foram considerados resistentes aos fitonematóides por apresentarem pequeno número de galhas no sistema radicular. Já o cultivar GF 677 apresentou maior número de galhas no sistema radicular, chegando a 126 galhas/g de raiz.The work was carried out with the objective of comparing the response of five different stone fruit rootstocks to two nematode species (Meloidogyne javanica and Meloidogyne incognita. The cultivar GF677, which was obtained from in vitro cultivation and the others rootstocks, were obtained from seedlings. Two month old plants were transplanted and inoculated with a mixture of both nematode species at 30, 60, 70 days after planting, by incorporating 0.2kg of highly infested soil around each cultivar. The development of the roststocks were evaluated at the end of the experiment. Number of galls, ranging from 0 to 5 was used to score the level of resistance of each cultivar. The results showed that cultivar Okinawa did not present any root galls and also had a superior growth than the other cultivars. The cultivars R-15-2 and Aldrighi presented small numbers of galls in the roots, they were considered resistant to nematodes. On the other hand, the cultivar GF677 presented the largest number of galls in the roots, achieving 126 galls/g of root.

José Carlos Fachinello

2000-03-01

335

Chitin in Meloidogyne javanica  

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La gangue gélatineuse extrudée par les femelles vivantes de #Meloidogyne javanica$ et formant avec les oeufs la masse d'oeufs, a été analysée en vue de la présence de chitine. A 22°C, la gelée fraîchement extrudée se dissout rapidement lorsque du KOH à 5 % est ajouté à une lame de perfusion contenant le nématode. La gelée des masses d'oeufs est plus dure mais se dissout en 24h dans la potasse à 5 % portée à 105°C. Les coques des oeufs résistent à ce traitement et produise...

Bird, A. F.; Self, P. G.

1995-01-01

336

Susceptibilidad de genotipos de Solanum spp. al nematodo causante del nudo radical Meloidogyne spp. (chitwood  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available

El cultivo del lulo (Solanum quitoense L. presenta una disminución en su productividad, debido al ataque de patógenos como el nematodo del nudo radical Meloidogyne  spp., en el Departamento  de Nariño (Colombia, se han reportado incidencias cercanas al 79%, y pérdidas del 50%.   En la presente investigación, se colectaron 45 genotipos de (Solanum quitoense  L. en los Departamentos  de Nariño  y Putumayo  y 4 genotipos  silvestres  (S. mammosum, S. hirtum,       S. marginatum  y S. umbellatum buscando fuentes de resistencia al nematodo. Se inocularon 9 plantas de cada genotipo de dos meses de edad con 10000 huevos de Meloidogyne spp., dejando tres testigos por cada material. Las variables evaluadas fueron: altura de planta, severidad, incidencia, peso fresco (tallo y raíz y especies prevalentes de Meloidogyne spp. Se hizo una clasificación de genotipos mediante escala de resistencia y regresión entre la severidad y las demás variables para establecer el efecto de Meloidogyne spp. sobre los genotipos de planta. Los resultados mostraron 100% de incidencia del nematodo en  todos  los  genotipos,  2.04%  genotipos  resistentes,  34.7%  moderadamente  resistentes, 42.8% moderadamente susceptibles, 18.3% susceptibles, y 2.04% altamente susceptibles. El genotipo SQbr05 resistente, no se vio afectado por la severidad, al contrario SQbc04 genotipo susceptible, mostró reducciones significativas en peso fresco de tallo y raIz, (R2 = 0.71 y 0.98,el genotipo silvestre (S. mammosum es altamente susceptible, Meloidogyne incognita presentó 55.31% de presencia. El genotipo SQbr05 es promisorio para ser evaluado en campo.

Gelpud Chaves Cristian

2011-03-01

337

Immunolocalisation of secreted-excreted products of Meloidogyne spp. using polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies Imunolocalização de produtos secretados-excretados de Meloidogyne spp. usando anticorpos policlonais e monoclonais  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Molecules expressed at the surface cuticle (SC of plant parasitic nematodes represent the primary plant-nematode interface, and together with secreted-excreted (S-E products are probably the first signals perceived by the host. These molecules, which are released into plant tissue, probably play important roles in the host-parasite interactions. Characterisation of these antigens will help in the identification of nematode targets useful for novel control strategies, which interfere with the nematode infection of plants. Three monoclonal (MAbs and three polyclonal (PAbs antibodies produced to S-E products of Meloidogyne spp. and Heterodera avenae were used to examine their reactivity towards M. incognita and/or M. arenaria second stage juveniles and adult females. The three PAbs showed cross-reactivity with M. incognita and M. arenaria. Antibody Roth-PC 373 strongly recognised molecules present in the SC, amphids and intestine, antibody Roth-PC 389 recognised the nematode amphids and metacorpus, while antibody Roth-PC 419 bound to molecules present in the subventral glands. Reactivity of the MAbs was only tested against M. arenaria. Monoclonal antibody Roth-MAb T116C1.1 showed intense reactivity with molecules present in the amphidial and phasmidial glands. Monoclonal antibodies Roth-MAb T46.2 and T42D.2 labeled the nematode amphids and molecules present in the nematode oesophagus (metacorpus, respectively.Moléculas expressadas na cutícula dos nematóides parasitas de plantas representam o primeiro contato planta-nematóide e, junto com produtos secretados/excretados (S-E, são, provavelmente, os primeiros sinais percebidos pelo hospedeiro. Essas moléculas, as quais são liberadas dentro do tecido da planta, podem ter papel importante na interação parasita-hospedeiro. A caracterização desses antígenos pode ajudar na identificação de alvos para novas estratégias que interfiram na infecção de plantas por nematóides. Três anticorpos monoclonais e três anticorpos policlonais produzidos para secreções-excreções de Meloidogyne spp. e Heterodera avenae foram usados para examinar a reatividade a juvenis de segundo estádio (J2 e/ou fêmeas de M. incognita e M. arenaria. Os três anticorpos policlonais mostraram reação tanto para M. incognita quanto para M. arenaria. Roth-PC 373 reconheceu fortemente moléculas presentes na cutícula, anfídios e intestino, Roth-PC 389 reconheceu anfidios e metacorpo, enquanto Roth-PC 419 ligou-se a moléculas presentes nas glândulas subventrais. A reatividade dos MAbs foi testada somente com M. Arenaria. Roth-MAb T116C1.1 reagiu intensamente com moléculas presentes nas glândulas anfidial e fasmidial. Roth-MAb T46.2 e T42D.2 marcaram anfídios e moléculas presentes no esôfago (metacorpo do nematóide, respectivamente.

Liziane M. Lima

2005-12-01

338

Avaliação de linhagens, híbridos F1 e cultivares de pimentão quanto à resistência a Meloidogyne spp. / Evaluation of resistance of lines, hybrids F1 and cultivars of sweet pepper to Meloidogyne spp.  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Com o objetivo de avaliar híbridos F1 de pimentão, juntamente com suas linhagens progenitoras e cultivares, quanto à resistência a Meloidogyne incognita (raças 1, 2, 3 e 4) e a M. javanica, foi instalado um experimento em casa de vegetação nas dependências da Pioneer Sementes Ltda, em Ijaci, MG. Foi [...] utilizado o delineamento de blocos casualizados, em esquema de parcela subdividida, com cinco parcelas (compostas pelas quatro raças de M. incognita e mais a espécie M. javanica) e 48 subparcelas (compostas por 47 genótipos de pimentão e mais uma cultivar de tomate (Ângela Gigante I-5100), usada como testemunha padrão). Foram usadas cinco repetições e oito plantas em cada subparcela. A inoculação foi feita na concentração de 60 ovos/mL de substrato à base de vermiculita e casca de Pinus sp. (50%) e casca de arroz carbonizada (50%). Sessenta dias após a inoculação, procedeu-se às avaliações. Todas as cultivares e linhagens-padrão (Linha 004 e Linha 006) mostraram-se suscetíveis às raças 1, 2, 3 e 4 de M. incognita. Todos os genótipos de pimentão foram resistentes a M. javanica. Todas as linhagens experimentais mostraram-se resistentes às quatro raças de M. incognita; o mesmo ocorreu com a maioria dos híbridos F1 experimentais, apesar de o grau de resistência dos híbridos F1, em geral, ter sido inferior ao das respectivas linhagens. Os resultados indicaram que é viável a utilização de híbridos F1 entre linhagens resistentes vs. linhagens suscetíveis para fins de controle dos nematóides M. incognita e M. javanica, via resistência varietal. Abstract in english With the purposes of evaluating F1 hybrids of sweet pepper, together with their parents, for resistance to Meloidogyne incognita (races 1, 2, 3 and 4) and M. javanica nematodes, an experiment was conducted in glasshouse conditions in the facilities of Pioneer Sementes Ltda, in Ijaci, MG, Brazil. A r [...] andomized block in split-plot design was used with five plots, composed of four races of M. incognita and one isolate of M. javanica, and 48 subplots, composed of 47 genotypes of sweet pepper and one cultivar of tomato (Ângela Gigante I-5100) as a standard check. Five replicates and eight plants in each subplot were used. Inoculation was done with 60 eggs/mL of substrate mixture of vermiculite, Pinus sp. bark and carbonized rice husk. After 60 days following inoculation, the evaluations were performed. All the cultivars and standard-lines (line 004 and line 006) were susceptible to the races 1, 2, 3 and 4 of M. incognita. All the genotypes of sweet pepper were resistant to M. javanica. Almost all of the experimental lines were proved to be resistant to all of the four races of M. incognita. The same occurred to most of the experimental hybrids F1, although the degree of resistance of the hybrids in general was lower than that of their respective resistant parents. It is thus proven to be feasible to utilize F1 hybrids by crossing resistant to susceptible sweet pepper lines to control the nematodes M. incognita and M. javanica through varietal resistance.

José Ricardo, Peixoto; Wilson Roberto, Maluf; Vicente Paulo, Campos.

339

Avaliação de linhagens, híbridos F1 e cultivares de pimentão quanto à resistência a Meloidogyne spp. Evaluation of resistance of lines, hybrids F1 and cultivars of sweet pepper to Meloidogyne spp.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Com o objetivo de avaliar híbridos F1 de pimentão, juntamente com suas linhagens progenitoras e cultivares, quanto à resistência a Meloidogyne incognita (raças 1, 2, 3 e 4 e a M. javanica, foi instalado um experimento em casa de vegetação nas dependências da Pioneer Sementes Ltda, em Ijaci, MG. Foi utilizado o delineamento de blocos casualizados, em esquema de parcela subdividida, com cinco parcelas (compostas pelas quatro raças de M. incognita e mais a espécie M. javanica e 48 subparcelas (compostas por 47 genótipos de pimentão e mais uma cultivar de tomate (Ângela Gigante I-5100, usada como testemunha padrão. Foram usadas cinco repetições e oito plantas em cada subparcela. A inoculação foi feita na concentração de 60 ovos/mL de substrato à base de vermiculita e casca de Pinus sp. (50% e casca de arroz carbonizada (50%. Sessenta dias após a inoculação, procedeu-se às avaliações. Todas as cultivares e linhagens-padrão (Linha 004 e Linha 006 mostraram-se suscetíveis às raças 1, 2, 3 e 4 de M. incognita. Todos os genótipos de pimentão foram resistentes a M. javanica. Todas as linhagens experimentais mostraram-se resistentes às quatro raças de M. incognita; o mesmo ocorreu com a maioria dos híbridos F1 experimentais, apesar de o grau de resistência dos híbridos F1, em geral, ter sido inferior ao das respectivas linhagens. Os resultados indicaram que é viável a utilização de híbridos F1 entre linhagens resistentes vs. linhagens suscetíveis para fins de controle dos nematóides M. incognita e M. javanica, via resistência varietal.With the purposes of evaluating F1 hybrids of sweet pepper, together with their parents, for resistance to Meloidogyne incognita (races 1, 2, 3 and 4 and M. javanica nematodes, an experiment was conducted in glasshouse conditions in the facilities of Pioneer Sementes Ltda, in Ijaci, MG, Brazil. A randomized block in split-plot design was used with five plots, composed of four races of M. incognita and one isolate of M. javanica, and 48 subplots, composed of 47 genotypes of sweet pepper and one cultivar of tomato (Ângela Gigante I-5100 as a standard check. Five replicates and eight plants in each subplot were used. Inoculation was done with 60 eggs/mL of substrate mixture of vermiculite, Pinus sp. bark and carbonized rice husk. After 60 days following inoculation, the evaluations were performed. All the cultivars and standard-lines (line 004 and line 006 were susceptible to the races 1, 2, 3 and 4 of M. incognita. All the genotypes of sweet pepper were resistant to M. javanica. Almost all of the experimental lines were proved to be resistant to all of the four races of M. incognita. The same occurred to most of the experimental hybrids F1, although the degree of resistance of the hybrids in general was lower than that of their respective resistant parents. It is thus proven to be feasible to utilize F1 hybrids by crossing resistant to susceptible sweet pepper lines to control the nematodes M. incognita and M. javanica through varietal resistance.

José Ricardo Peixoto

1999-12-01

340

Effect of winter cover crops on nematode population levels in north Florida.  

Science.gov (United States)

Two experiments were conducted in north-central Florida to examine the effects of various winter cover crops on plant-parasitic nematode populations through time. In the first experiment, six winter cover crops were rotated with summer corn (Zea mays), arranged in a randomized complete block design. The cover crops evaluated were wheat (Triticum aestivum), rye (Secale cereale), oat (Avena sativa), lupine (Lupinus angustifolius), hairy vetch (Vicia villosa), and crimson clover (Trifolium incarnatum). At the end of the corn crop in year 1, population densities of Meloidogyne incognita were lowest on corn following rye or oat (P winter cover crops present at the time of sampling. Plots planted to sunn hemp in the fall maintained the lowest M. incognita and H. dihystera numbers. Results suggest that winter cover crops tested did not suppress plant-parasitic nematodes effectively. Planting tropical cover crops such as sunn hemp after corn in a triple-cropping system with winter cover crops may provide more versatile nematode management strategies in northern Florida. PMID:19262833

Wang, K-H; McSorley, R; Gallaher, R N

2004-12-01

 
 
 
 
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Efeito da Incorporação de Folhas de Nim ao Solo sobre o Complexo Fusarium x Meloidogyne em Quiabeiro Effect of amendment of soil with neem leaf on Fusarium x Meloidogyne on okra  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito da incorporação de folhas frescas de nim (Azadirachta indica ao solo, sobre o complexo Fusarium x Meloidogyne em quiabeiro (Abelmoschus esculentum em um experimento realizado em condições de casa de vegetação. Os tratamentos constaram da adição de 25g ou 50g de folhas trituradas/kg de solo previamente autoclavado e inoculado com M. incognita, Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum, juntos e isoladamente, contidos em vasos com capacidade de 2 L. Solo sem folhas de nim serviu como testemunha. O experimento foi realizado seguindo um delineamento inteiramente casualizado com seis repetições, sendo cada repetição representada por um vaso com 5 plantas. As folhas foram incorporadas 30 dias antes do plantio e a avaliação deu-se 90 dias após o plantio, adotando-se a percentagem de plantas mortas como parâmetro para avaliar o efeito dos tratamentos. A incorporação de 50g de folhas frescas de nim foi eficiente para o controle de Meloidogyne e Fusarium isoladamente, bem como na interação desses patógenos. A incorporação de 25g de folhas de nim mostrou-se eficiente apenas para o controle de Meloidogyne isoladamente.The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of soil ammendment with neem (Azadirachta indica leaf on the complex Fusarium x Meloidogyne in okra (Abelmoschus esculentum in greenhouse conditions. The treatments consisted of the addition of 25g or 50g of leaves per kg of soil and infested with M. incognita and Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum, together and separately, contained in pots with capacity of 2 L. Soil without supplement it served as the control. The experimental design was completely randomized with six replications and five plants per pot. The leaves were incorporate 30 days before planting and the evaluation 90 days later. The percentagem of dead plants was used to evaluate the efficiency of neem. The incorporation of 50g of fresh neem leaves was efficient in the control of both Meloidogyne and Fusarium separately as well as in their interaction. The incorporation of 25g of neem leaves was shown efficient just for the control of Meloidogyne separately.

Gilson Soares da Silva

2008-12-01

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