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Sample records for meloidogyne incognita population

  1. Influence of Initial Population Densities of Meloidogyne incognita on Three Chile Cultivars

    Lindsey, D. L.; Clayshulte, Margaret Stefano

    1982-01-01

    The effects of Meloidogyne incognita on the Big Jim, Jalapeno, and New Mexico No. 6 chile (Capsicum annuum) cultivars were investigated in microplots for two growing seasons. All three cultivars were susceptible to M. incognita and reacted similarly to different initial populations of this nematode. Severe stunting and yield suppressions occurred at all initial M. incognita densities tested ranging from 385 to 4,230 eggs and larvae/500 cm³ soil. Regression analysis of the microplot data from ...

  2. Influence of Initial Population Densities of Meloidogyne incognita on Three Chile Cultivars.

    Lindsey, D L; Clayshulte, M S

    1982-07-01

    The effects of Meloidogyne incognita on the Big Jim, Jalapeno, and New Mexico No. 6 chile (Capsicum annuum) cultivars were investigated in microplots for two growing seasons. All three cultivars were susceptible to M. incognita and reacted similarly to different initial populations of this nematode. Severe stunting and yield suppressions occurred at all initial M. incognita densities tested ranging from 385 to 4,230 eggs and larvae/500 cm(3) soil. Regression analysis of the microplot data from a sandy loam soil showed yield losses of 31% for the 1978 season and 25% for the 1979 season for the three cultivars for each 10-fold increase in the initial population of M. incognita. PMID:19295720

  3. Influence of Initial Population Densities of Meloidogyne incognita on Three Chile Cultivars

    Lindsey, D. L.; Clayshulte, Margaret Stefano

    1982-01-01

    The effects of Meloidogyne incognita on the Big Jim, Jalapeno, and New Mexico No. 6 chile (Capsicum annuum) cultivars were investigated in microplots for two growing seasons. All three cultivars were susceptible to M. incognita and reacted similarly to different initial populations of this nematode. Severe stunting and yield suppressions occurred at all initial M. incognita densities tested ranging from 385 to 4,230 eggs and larvae/500 cm³ soil. Regression analysis of the microplot data from a sandy loam soil showed yield losses of 31% for the 1978 season and 25% for the 1979 season for the three cultivars for each 10-fold increase in the initial population of M. incognita. PMID:19295720

  4. Parasitic Variability of Meloidogyne incognita Populations on Susceptible and Resistant Cotton

    Kirkpatrick, T. L.; Sasser, J. N.

    1983-01-01

    Root gall induction and egg production by the four recognized host races and two cytological races of Meloidogyne incognita were compared on cotton Gossypium hirsutum cvs. Deltapine 16 (root-knot susceptible) and Auburn 634 (highly resistant). The 12 nematode populations included in the study were from various parts of the world. No population increases occurred on the highly resistant cultivar. After 45 days, populations of host races 1 and 2 induced slight root galling on both cuhivars with...

  5. Predicting Damage of Meloidogyne incognita on Watermelon

    Xing, Lijuan; Westphal, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    Quantitative growth response of watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) sensitive to Meloidogyne incognita is poorly understood. Determination of soil population densities of second-stage juveniles (J2) of M. incognita with Baermann funnel extraction often is inaccurate at low soil temperatures. In greenhouse experiments, three sandy soils were inoculated with dilution series of population densities of eggs or J2 of M. incognita and planted in small containers to watermelon ‘Royal Sweet’ or subjected ...

  6. Reaction of Ten Cultivars of Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) to a Puerto Rican population of Meloidogyne incognita

    Montalvo, A. E.; Esnard, J.

    1994-01-01

    Ten cultivars of watermelon were evaluated for their response to a Puerto Rican population of Meloidogyne incognita under greenhouse conditions in a 2-year study (1989 and 1990). Ten-day-old seedlings were planted in steam-sterilized soil in 15-cm-d plastic pots. The nematode inoculum consisted of 10,000 eggs and (or) second-stage juveniles (J2)/plant. The cultivars were Sugar Baby, Charleston Gray, Seedless, Prince Charles, Charleston 76, Jubilee, Florida Giant, Royal Charleston, Royal Sweet...

  7. Reaction of Ten Cultivars of Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) to a Puerto Rican population of Meloidogyne incognita.

    Montalvo, A E; Esnard, J

    1994-12-01

    Ten cultivars of watermelon were evaluated for their response to a Puerto Rican population of Meloidogyne incognita under greenhouse conditions in a 2-year study (1989 and 1990). Ten-day-old seedlings were planted in steam-sterilized soil in 15-cm-d plastic pots. The nematode inoculum consisted of 10,000 eggs and (or) second-stage juveniles (J2)/plant. The cultivars were Sugar Baby, Charleston Gray, Seedless, Prince Charles, Charleston 76, Jubilee, Florida Giant, Royal Charleston, Royal Sweet, and Royal Jubilee, with tomato cv. Rutgers included as a susceptible check. A completely randomized design with 10 replications was used. Fifty-five days after soil infestation, root-gall indices, numbers of nematode eggs per root system, and J2 per 250 cm(3) of soil were recorded. All cultivars were susceptible. Sugar Baby had the lowest root-gall index, egg and J2 numbers, and a reproductive factor (Rf) of 2.89. Rf differed (P Seedless, and Florida Giant showed the lowest susceptibility to M. incognita, whereas Charleston 76 and Charleston Gray were the most susceptible. PMID:19279940

  8. Predicting Damage of Meloidogyne incognita on Watermelon.

    Xing, Lijuan; Westphal, Andreas

    2012-06-01

    Quantitative growth response of watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) sensitive to Meloidogyne incognita is poorly understood. Determination of soil population densities of second-stage juveniles (J2) of M. incognita with Baermann funnel extraction often is inaccurate at low soil temperatures. In greenhouse experiments, three sandy soils were inoculated with dilution series of population densities of eggs or J2 of M. incognita and planted in small containers to watermelon 'Royal Sweet' or subjected to Baermann funnel extraction. After five weeks of incubation in the greenhouse bioassay plants in egg-inoculated soils, gall numbers on watermelon roots related more closely to inoculated population densities than J2 counts after Baermann funnel extraction. In April 2004, perpendicularly-inserted tubes (45-cm diameter, 55-cm deep) served as microplots where two methyl bromide-fumigated sandy soils were inoculated with egg suspensions of M. incognita at 0, 100, 1,000 or 10,000 eggs/100 cm(3) of soil in 15-cm depth. At transplanting of 4-week old watermelon seedlings, soils were sampled for the bioassay or for extraction of J2 by Baermann funnel. In the Seinhorst function of harvested biomass in relation to nematode numbers, decline of biomass with increasing population densities of M. incognita was accurately modeled by the inoculated eggs (R(2) = 0.93) and by the counts of galls on the bioassay roots (R(2) = 0.98); but poorly by J2 counts (R(2) = 0.68). Threshold levels of watermelon top dry weight to M. incognita were 122 eggs/100 cm(3) soil, 1.6 galls on bioassay roots, or 3.6 J2/100 cm(3) of soil. Using the bioassay in early spring for predicting risk of nematode damage appeared useful in integrated pest management systems of watermelon. PMID:23482631

  9. Virulence of Meloidogyne incognita to expression of N gene in pepper

    Thies, Judy A.

    2011-01-01

    Four pepper genotypes classified as resistant and four pepper genotypes classified as susceptible to several avirulent populations of M. incognita were compared for their reactions against a population of Meloidogyne incognita (Chitwood) Kofoid and White which had been shown to be virulent to resistant bell pepper (Capsicum annuum) in preliminary tests. The virulent population of M. incognita originated from a commercial bell pepper field in California. The resistant pepper genotypes used in ...

  10. Cyperus Tubers Protect Meloidogyne incognita from 1,3-Dichloropropene

    S.H. Thomas; J. Schroeder; Murray, L W

    2004-01-01

    Meloidogyne incognita-infected and noninfected tubers of yellow nutsedge (Cyperus esculentus) and purple nutsedge (Cyperus rotundus) were treated with 56 L/ha 1,3-dichloropropene (1,3-D) in microplots and subsequently examined for tuber and nematode viability in the greenhouse using a chile pepper (Capsicum annuum) bioassay system. The study was conducted three times. Nutsedge tuber viability and M. incognita harbored in both yellow and purple nutsedge tubers were unaffected by 1,3-D treatmen...

  11. Nutsedge Counts Predict Meloidogyne incognita Juvenile Counts in an Integrated Management System.

    Ou, Zhining; Murray, Leigh; Thomas, Stephen H; Schroeder, Jill; Libbin, James

    2008-06-01

    The southern root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne incognita), yellow nutsedge (Cyperus esculentus) and purple nutsedge (Cyperus rotundus) are important pests in crops grown in the southern US. Management of the individual pests rather than the pest complex is often unsuccessful due to mutually beneficial pest interactions. In an integrated pest management scheme using alfalfa to suppress nutsedges and M. incognita, we evaluated quadratic polynomial regression models for prediction of the number of M. incognita J2 in soil samples as a function of yellow and purple nutsedge plant counts, squares of nutsedge counts and the cross-product between nutsedge counts . In May 2005, purple nutsedge plant count was a significant predictor of M. incognita count. In July and September 2005, counts of both nutsedges and the cross-product were significant predictors. In 2006, the second year of the alfalfa rotation, counts of all three species were reduced. As a likely consequence, the predictive relationship between nutsedges and M. incognita was not significant for May and July. In September 2006, purple nutsedge was a significant predictor of M. incognita. These results lead us to conclude that nutsedge plant counts in a field infested with the M. incognita-nutsedge pest complex can be used as a visual predictor of M. incognita J2 populations, unless the numbers of nutsedge plants and M. incognita are all very low. PMID:19259526

  12. Development of virulence to Meloidogyne incognita on resistant pepper rootstocks

    Ros-Ibanez, C.; Robertson, L.; Martinez-Lluch, M. C.; Cano-Garcia, A.; Lacasa-Plasencia, A.

    2014-06-01

    The root-knot nematode (RKN) Meloidogyne incognita is a major soil parasite of pepper crops in greenhouses in Southeast Spain. Due to the limitations of the use of soil fumigants, grafting plants on resistant rootstocks (R-rootstocks) has become an important alternative to chemical nematicides. The repeated use of R-rootstocks can bring about the selection of virulent populations capable of overcoming resistance. We carried out a six-year investigation on resistant rootstocks in a naturally M. incognita infested greenhouse, and found that two successive years of growing plants grafted on R-rootstocks Atlante (ATL) were sufficient to overcome resistance (galling index 1.5 and 5.6 in the first and second years respectively). A large variability was observed between several R-rootstocks. Two R-rootstocks (C19 and Snooker) behaved like ATL while two others (Terrano and DRO 8801) were not infected by RKN. Laboratory studies with the same R-rootstocks, inoculated with two nematode isolates (avirulent and virulent against ATL) confirmed the greenhouse results, indicating that some rootstocks may be infested by virulent populations and others may not. It suggests that different R-genes, which are differentially overcome by RKN, have been introgressed into the rootstocks. This may have consequences for the management of resistant rootstocks in the field. (Author)

  13. GENOTYPIC DIVERSITY OF POTATO GERMPLASM AGAINST ROOT KNOT NEMATODE (MELOIDOGYNE INCOGNITA INFECTION IN PAKISTAN

    Sajid A. Khan

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Potato (Solanum tuberosum, an important vegetable crop of Pakistan endures significant yield losses due to root knot nematode (Meloidogyne incognita.. Research wok was designed to identify resistant potato germplasm against RKN (Meloidogyne incognita infection. A field trial was conducted in the research area of Department of Plant Pathology, University of Agriculture Faisalabad. Thirty six (36 potato verities/ cultivars relocated five times were sown in four years sick plot containing root knot nematode (Meloidogyne incognita in RCBD layout. Root knot nematode reproduction and host damage was accessed by recording nematode root galls and egg mass indices, root weight, shoot weight, , number of leaves, fruit weight, rate of reproduction and final population of nematodes. Experiment revealed a considerable variation in response against Meloidogyne incognita infection among the genotype tested but none of the single cultivar was immune. FD-8-1 was used as negative control. The cultivar FD-19-2 was highly susceptible followed by SH-692 and SH-5. All other cultivars had less galling index with low fecundity rate indicating their ability to suppress the adult female reproduction. The cultivar FD-1-3 scored least number of galls and egg mass indices followed by FD-49-62, SH-339 and SH-332.

  14. Nematicide and nematostatic potential of Curcuma longa on Meloidogyne incognita

    Thaísa Muriel Mioranza

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The root knot nematodes can reduce yield potential of plants, thus requiring searching control methods that are effective and eco-friendly. The purpose of this study was to analyze the efficiency of turmeric rhizome aqueous extract (Curcuma longa on hatching, immobilization and mortality of juveniles of Meloidogyne incognita. A completely randomized design was used, with concentrations of 1%, 5%, 10% and 15% of turmeric extract and distilled water as a control treatment, with four replications. The juveniles of nematodes were directly exposed to turmeric extract for 24 h, while eggs were exposed during 15 days. The turmeric extract on J2 of Meloidogyne incognita, in vitro tests, promoted from the concentration of 10% total paralysis of nematodes and in the concentration of 15% more than 90% mortality. All tested concentrations caused reduction in juveniles hatching. Thereby, the turmeric aqueous extract has nematicidal potential against M. incognita, encouraging its study in the interaction plant-nematode.

  15. Reproduction of Meloidogyne incognita on Winter Cover Crops Used in Cotton Production.

    Timper, Patricia; Davis, Richard F; Tillman, P Glynn

    2006-03-01

    Substantial reproduction of Meloidogyne incognita on winter cover crops may lead to damaging populations in a subsequent cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) crop. The amount of population increase during the winter depends on soil temperature and the host status of the cover crop. Our objectives were to quantify M. incognita race 3 reproduction on rye (Secale cereale) and several leguminous cover crops and to determine if these cover crops increase population densities of M. incognita and subsequent damage to cotton. The cover crops tested were 'Bigbee' berseem clover (Trifolium alexandrinum), 'Paradana' balansa clover (T. balansae), 'AU Sunrise' and 'Dixie' crimson clover (T. incarnatum), 'Cherokee' red clover (T. pratense), common and 'AU Early Cover' hairy vetch (Vicia villosa), 'Cahaba White' vetch (V. sativa), and 'Wrens Abruzzi' rye. In the greenhouse tests, egg production was greatest on berseem clover, Dixie crimson clover, AU Early Cover hairy vetch, and common hairy vetch; intermediate on Balansa clover and AU Sunrise crimson clover; and least on rye, Cahaba White vetch, and Cherokee red clover. In both 2002 and 2003 field tests, enough heat units were accumulated between 1 January and 20 May for the nematode to complete two generations. Both AU Early Cover and common hairy vetch led to greater root galling than fallow in the subsequent cotton crop; they also supported high reproduction of M. incognita in the greenhouse. Rye and Cahaba White vetch did not increase root galling on cotton and were relatively poor hosts for M. incognita. Only those legumes that increased populations of M. incognita reduced cotton yield. In the southern US, M. incognita can complete one to two generations on a susceptible winter cover crop, so cover crops that support high nematode reproduction may lead to damage and yield losses in the following cotton crop. Planting rye or Meloidogyne-resistant legumes as winter cover crops will lower the risk of increased nematode populations

  16. Meloidogyne incognita nematode resistance QTL in carrot

    Root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp.) are major pests attacking carrots (Daucus carota) worldwide, causing galling and forking of the storage roots, rendering them unacceptable for market. Genetic resistance could significantly reduce the need for broad-spectrum soil fumigants in carrot production....

  17. Pasteuria penetrans for Control of Meloidogyne incognita on Tomato and Cucumber, and M. arenaria on Snapdragon.

    Kokalis-Burelle, Nancy

    2015-09-01

    Meloidogyne incognita and Meloidogyne arenaria are important parasitic nematodes of vegetable and ornamental crops. Microplot and greenhouse experiments were conducted to test commercial formulations of the biocontrol agent Pasteuria penetrans for control of M. incognita on tomato and cucumber and M. arenaria on snapdragon. Three methods of application for P. penetrans were assessed including seed, transplant, and post-plant treatments. Efficacy in controlling galling and reproduction of the two root-knot nematode species was evaluated. Seed treatment application was assessed only for M. incognita on cucumber. Pasteuria treatment rates of a granular transplant formulation ranged from 1.5 × 10(5) endospores/cm(3) to 3 × 10(5) endospores/cm(3) of transplant mix applied at seeding. Additional applications of 1.5 × 10(5) endospores/cm(3) of soil were applied as a liquid formulation to soil post-transplant for both greenhouse and microplot trials. In greenhouse cucumber trials, all Pasteuria treatments were equivalent to steamed soil for reducing M. incognita populations in roots and soil, and reducing nematode reproduction and galling. In cucumber microplot trials there were no differences among treatments for M. incognita populations in roots or soil, eggs/g root, or root condition ratings. Nematode reproduction on cucumber was low with Telone II and with the seed treatment plus post-plant application of Pasteuria, which had the lowest nematode reproduction. However, galling for all Pasteuria treatments was higher than galling with Telone II. Root-knot nematode control with Pasteuria in greenhouse and microplot trials varied on tomato and snapdragon. Positive results were achieved for control of M. incognita with the seed treatment application on cucumber. PMID:26527842

  18. Effects of Tomato Root Exudates on Meloidogyne incognita.

    Yang, Guodong; Zhou, Baoli; Zhang, Xinyu; Zhang, Zijun; Wu, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Yiming; Lü, Shuwen; Zou, Qingdao; Gao, Yuan; Teng, Long

    2016-01-01

    Plant root exudates affect root-knot nematodes egg hatch. Chemicals in root exudates can attract nematodes to the roots or result in repellence, motility inhibition or even death. However, until recently little was known about the relationship between tomato root exudates chemicals and root-knot nematodes. In this study, root exudates were extracted from three tomato rootstocks with varying levels of nematode resistance: Baliya (highly resistant, HR), RS2 (moderately resistant, MR) and L-402 (highly susceptible, T). The effects of the root exudates on Meloidogyne incognita (M. incognita) egg hatch, survival and chemotaxis of second-stage juveniles (J2) were explored. The composition of the root exudates was analysed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) prior to and following M. incognita inoculation. Four compounds in root exudates were selected for further analysis and their allopathic effect on M. incognita were investigated. Root exudates from each tomato rootstocks (HR, MR and T strains) suppressed M. incognita egg hatch and increased J2 mortality, with the highest rate being observed in the exudates from the HR plants. Exudate from HR variety also repelled M. incognita J2 while that of the susceptible plant, T, was demonstrated to be attractive. The relative amount of esters and phenol compounds in root exudates from HR and MR tomato rootstocks increased notably after inoculation. Four compounds, 2,6-Di-tert-butyl-p-cresol, L-ascorbyl 2,6-dipalmitate, dibutyl phthalate and dimethyl phthalate increased significantly after inoculation. The egg hatch of M. incognita was suppressed by each of the compound. L-ascorbyl 2,6-dipalmitate showed the most notable effect in a concentration-dependent manner. All four compounds were associated with increased J2 mortality. The greatest effect was observed with dimethyl phthalate at 2 mmol·L-1. Dibutyl phthalate was the only compound observed to repel M. incognita J2 with no effect being detected in the other

  19. Effects of Tomato Root Exudates on Meloidogyne incognita.

    Guodong Yang

    Full Text Available Plant root exudates affect root-knot nematodes egg hatch. Chemicals in root exudates can attract nematodes to the roots or result in repellence, motility inhibition or even death. However, until recently little was known about the relationship between tomato root exudates chemicals and root-knot nematodes. In this study, root exudates were extracted from three tomato rootstocks with varying levels of nematode resistance: Baliya (highly resistant, HR, RS2 (moderately resistant, MR and L-402 (highly susceptible, T. The effects of the root exudates on Meloidogyne incognita (M. incognita egg hatch, survival and chemotaxis of second-stage juveniles (J2 were explored. The composition of the root exudates was analysed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS prior to and following M. incognita inoculation. Four compounds in root exudates were selected for further analysis and their allopathic effect on M. incognita were investigated. Root exudates from each tomato rootstocks (HR, MR and T strains suppressed M. incognita egg hatch and increased J2 mortality, with the highest rate being observed in the exudates from the HR plants. Exudate from HR variety also repelled M. incognita J2 while that of the susceptible plant, T, was demonstrated to be attractive. The relative amount of esters and phenol compounds in root exudates from HR and MR tomato rootstocks increased notably after inoculation. Four compounds, 2,6-Di-tert-butyl-p-cresol, L-ascorbyl 2,6-dipalmitate, dibutyl phthalate and dimethyl phthalate increased significantly after inoculation. The egg hatch of M. incognita was suppressed by each of the compound. L-ascorbyl 2,6-dipalmitate showed the most notable effect in a concentration-dependent manner. All four compounds were associated with increased J2 mortality. The greatest effect was observed with dimethyl phthalate at 2 mmol·L-1. Dibutyl phthalate was the only compound observed to repel M. incognita J2 with no effect being detected in

  20. Control of Meloidogyne incognita Using Mixtures of Organic Acids

    Seo, Yunhee; Kim, Young Ho

    2014-01-01

    This study sought to control the root-knot nematode (RKN) Meloidogyne incognita using benign organo-chemicals. Second-stage juveniles (J2) of RKN were exposed to dilutions (1.0%, 0.5%, 0.2%, and 0.1%) of acetic acid (AA), lactic acid (LA), and their mixtures (MX). The nematode bodies were disrupted severely and moderately by vacuolations in 0.5% of MX and single organic acids, respectively, suggesting toxicity of MX may be higher than AA and LA. The mortality of J2 was 100% at all concentrati...

  1. Crop Rotation and Races of Meloidogyne incognita in Cotton Root-knot Management

    Kirkpatrick, T. L.; Sasser, J. N.

    1984-01-01

    The influence o f various crop rotations and nematode inoculum levels on subsequent population densities of Meloidogyne incognita races 1 and 3 were studied in microplots. Ten different 3-year sequences o f cotton, corn, peanut, or soybean, all with cotton as the 3rd-year crop, were grown in microplots infested with each race. Cotton monoculture, two seasons o f corn, or cotton followed by corn resulted in high race 3 population densities and severe root galling on cotton the 3rd year. Peanut...

  2. Host status of progenies of yellow passion fruit to Meloidogyne incognita race 2

    Roxana Stefane Mendes Nascimento

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The host status of eighteen progenies (CRP 01-12 to CRP 16-12, CRP 19-12 and CRP 20-12 and two cultivars (FB 200 Yellow Master and FB 300 Araguari of yellow passion fruit to Meloidogyne incognita race 2 was evaluated in a greenhouse experiment. The height and the biomass of the plants, besides the numbers of galls, eggs and second-stage juveniles in roots and soil were assessed after 70 days of cultivation of the genotypes and tomato (control in plastic pots with 2 kg of soil infested with 5,000 eggs of the nematode. The reproduction factor of the pathogen (RF = Final population/Initial population was calculated for classifying the genotypes as immune (RF = 0, resistant (RF < 1 or susceptible (RF ≥ 1. The cultivar FB 200 is resistant to M. incognita race 2 and can be cultivated in areas infested with this nematode.

  3. Pasteuria penetrans for Control of Meloidogyne incognita on Tomato and Cucumber, and M. arenaria on Snapdragon

    Kokalis-Burelle, Nancy

    2015-01-01

    Meloidogyne incognita and Meloidogyne arenaria are important parasitic nematodes of vegetable and ornamental crops. Microplot and greenhouse experiments were conducted to test commercial formulations of the biocontrol agent Pasteuria penetrans for control of M. incognita on tomato and cucumber and M. arenaria on snapdragon. Three methods of application for P. penetrans were assessed including seed, transplant, and post-plant treatments. Efficacy in controlling galling and reproduction of the ...

  4. Reducing Meloidogyne incognita Injury to Cucumber in a Tomato-Cucumber Double-Cropping System

    Colyer, P. D.; Kirkpatrick, T. L.; Vernon, P. R.; Barham, J. D.; Bateman, R.J.

    1998-01-01

    The effects of a root-knot nematode-resistant tomato cultivar and application of the nematicide ethoprop on root-knot nematode injury to cucumber were compared in a tomato-cucumber double-cropping system. A root-knot nematode-resistant tomato cultivar, Celebrity, and a susceptible cultivar, Heatwave, were grown in rotation with cucumber in 1995 and 1996. Celebrity suppressed populations of Meloidogyne incognita in the soil and resulted in a low root-gall rating on the subsequent cucumber crop...

  5. Interactions of Meloidogyne incognita, Xanthomonas campestris, and Rhizobium sp. in the disease complex of chickpea

    SIDDIQUI, Zaki Anwar; FATIMA, Munavvar; ALAM, Subha

    2013-01-01

    The effects of Meloidogyne incognita, Xanthomonas campestris, and Rhizobium sp., alone or in combination, on the disease complex in chickpea were examined. Individual inoculation with M. incognita and X. campestris caused significant reductions in plant growth, while inoculation with Rhizobium sp. resulted in a significant increase in plant growth. Inoculation with M. incognita and X. campestris together caused a greater reduction in plant growth than the damage caused by each of them alone. ...

  6. Toxicidade de filtrados fúngicos a meloidogyne incognita

    COSTA MAURO J.N.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Visando à obtenção de novas moléculas nematicidas, 18 filtrados de espécies fúngicas e extratos de sete micélios fúngicos foram estudados in vitro quanto aos efeitos sobre a eclosão, motilidade e mortalidade de juvenis do segundo estádio (J2 de Meloidogyne incognita. Filtrados fúngicos foram obtidos de culturas em meio Czapek. Metanol foi usado como solvente para obter extratos dos micélios fúngicos. Filtrados de Paecilomyces lilacinus, Fusarium moniliforme e Fusarium oxysporum reduziram a motilidade e eclosão, e aumentaram a mortalidade (P < 0,05 de J2 de M. incognita de forma semelhante à observada com Aldicarbe. Alguns filtrados fúngicos reduziram a motilidade, mas não causaram a morte de J2. Já os filtrados de Aspergillus flavus, Cylindrocarpon magnusianum, Fusarium solani e Mortierella sp. reduziram apenas a eclosão de J2. Não houve correlação entre a produção de metabólitos tóxicos e a quantidade de micélio fúngico produzido. No caso específico de P. lilacinus, observou-se que após o primeiro dia de cultivo o filtrado fúngico correspondente já apresentava toxidez contra M. incognita. Com o aumento do número de dias de cultivo foi elevado o efeito do filtrado sobre o nematóide, sendo que apenas após 13 dias a mortalidade de J2 alcançou o índice de 100%.

  7. Raphanus sativus, Sinapis alba, and Fagopyrum esculentum as Hosts to Meloidogyne incognita, Meloidogyne javanica, and Plasmodiophora brassicae

    Gardner, J; Caswell-Chen, E.P.

    1994-01-01

    Cultivars of oilseed radish (Raphanus sativus var. oleifera cv. Adagio, Nemex, Pegletta, Renova, Siletina, Siletta Nova, and Ultimo), white mustard (Sinapis alba cv. Albatross, Emergo, Maxi, Martigena, Metex, and Serval), buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum cv. Prego, Tardo), and phacelia (Phacelia tanacetifolia cv. Angelia) were tested for susceptibility to Meloidogyne incognita race 3 and Meloidogyne javanica. Experiments were conducted in growth chambers at 25 C and 16 hours light for 42 days ...

  8. Interaction between Meloidogyne incognita and Rhizoctonia solani on green beans.

    Al-Hazmi, A S; Al-Nadary, S N

    2015-09-01

    The interaction between Meloidogyne incognita (race 2) and Rhizoctonia solani (AG 4) in a root rot disease complex of green beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) was examined in a greenhouse pot experiment. Three week-old seedlings (cv. Contender) were inoculated with the nematode and/or the fungus in different combinations and sequences. Two months after last nematode inoculation, the test was terminated and data were recorded. The synchronized inoculation by both pathogens (N + F) increased the index of Rhizoctonia root rot and the number of root galls; and suppressed plant growth, compared to controls. However, the severity of root rot and suppression of plant growth were greater and more evident when inoculation by the nematode preceded the fungus (N → F) by two weeks. Nematode reproduction (eggs/g root) was adversely affected by the presence of the fungus except by the synchronized inoculation. When inoculation by nematode preceded the fungus, plant growth was severely suppressed and roots were highly damaged and rotted leading to a decrease of root galls and eggs. PMID:26288560

  9. Resistance in Selected Corn Hybrids to Meloidogyne arenaria and M. incognita

    Davis, R. F.; Timper, P.

    2000-01-01

    A total of 33 corn hybrids were evaluated in a series of greenhouse and field trials to determine if they differed in resistance to either Meloidogyne incognita race 3 or M. arenaria race 1. Reproduction of M. incognita race 3 and M. arenaria race 1 on the hybrids was also compared. Reproduction of M. arenaria differed among corn hybrids after 58 to 65 days in greenhouse experiments; however, reproduction was similar among hybrids in the field experiment. No hybrids were consistently resistan...

  10. In vitro toxicity and control of Meloidogyne incognita in soybean by rosemary extract

    Mônica Anghinoni Müller; Thaísa Muriel Mioranza; José Renato Stangarlin; Odair José Kuhn; Andre Gustavo Battistus; Ademar Novais Istchuk; Felipe Fuchs

    2016-01-01

    The control of nematodes in plants can be challenging, and there is a need for alternative, environmentally conscious methods for their management. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of rosemary extract (Rosmarinus officinalis) on the in vitro toxicity and control of Meloidogyne incognita in CD 206 and CD 215 soybean cultivars. Using an in vitro assay, 500 M. incognita eggs per plate were observed for 15 days after incubation with rosemary extract at concentrations of 1%, 5%...

  11. Pepper Rootstock Graft Compatibility and Response to Meloidogyne javanica and M. incognita

    OKA, Yuji; Offenbach, Rivka; Pivonia, Shimon

    2004-01-01

    Resistance of pepper species (Capsicum annuum, C. baccatum, C. chinense, C. chacoense, and C. frutescens), cultivars and accessions to the root-knot nematodes Meloidogyne incognita race 2 and M. javanica, and their graft compatibility with commercial pepper varieties as rootstocks were evaluated in growth chamber and greenhouse experiments. Most of the plants tested were highly resistant to M. javanica but susceptible to M. incognita. Capsicum annuum AR-96023 and C. frutescens accessions as r...

  12. Genome sequence of the metazoan plant-parasitic nematode Meloidogyne incognita

    Abad, P.; Gouzy, J.; Aury, J.M.; Tytgat, T.O.G.; Smant, G.

    2008-01-01

    Plant-parasitic nematodes are major agricultural pests worldwide and novel approaches to control them are sorely needed. We report the draft genome sequence of the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita, a biotrophic parasite of many crops, including tomato, cotton and coffee. Most of the assemble

  13. Development of Multi-Component Transplant Mixes for Suppression of Meloidogyne incognita on Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum)

    Kokalis-Burelle, N.; Martinez-Ochoa, N; Rodríguez-Kábana, R.; Kloepper, J. W.

    2002-01-01

    The effects of combinations of organic amendments, phytochemicals, and plant-growth promoting rhizobacteria on tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) germination, transplant growth, and infectivity of Meloidogyne incognita were evaluated. Two phytochemicals (citral and benzaldehyde), three organic amendments (pine bark, chitin, and hemicellulose), and three bacteria (Serratia marcescens, Brevibacterium iodinum, and Pseudomonas fluorescens) were assessed. Increasing rates of benzaldehyde and citral ...

  14. Protease inhibition by Heterodera glycines cyst content: evidence for effects on the Meloidogyne incognita proteasome

    Proteases from Heterodera glycines and Meloidogyne incognita juveniles were inhibited by heat-stable content of H. glycines female cysts (HglCE), and by the plant polyphenol epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG). General protease activities detected using the nematode peptide KSAYMRFa were inhibited by EG...

  15. Evaluation of repeated bio disinfestation using Brassica carinata pellets to control Meloidogyne incognita in protected pepper crops

    Guerrero-Diaz, M. M.; Lacasa-Martinez, C. M.; Hernandez-Pinera, A.; Martinez-Alarcon, V.; Lacasa Plasencia, A.

    2013-06-01

    The nematode Meloidogyne incognita is responsible for substantial losses in greenhouse-grown peppers in southeastern Spain. This study evaluates the use of biodisinfestation (BS) (organic amendment + solarisation) as an alternative to using methyl bromide (MB) over three consecutive years to control the nematode in greenhouse conditions. Brassica carinata (BP) pellets or B. carinata (BP) + fresh sheep manure (M) were evaluated in treatments which began on two different dates (August and October) and the results were compared with MB-disinfested and untreated controls. During the third year, the gall index for BP was lower than that obtained for BP +M and in the August treatment than in the October treatment. The commercial crop of pepper fruit obtained with the biodisinfestation treatments begun in August was similar to or higher than that obtained with MB, and higher than that obtained with both October biodisinfestation treatments. The yield of the October biodisinfestation treatments was higher than that of the untreated one. In August of all the years studied, the accumulated exposure times were greater than the thresholds required to kill M. incognita populations at 15 cm depth. The incidence of the nematode did not correspond to the reduction achieved during solarisation, and seemed to increase during the crop cycle. Further studies should look at why high temperatures do not produce a sustained reduction in the populations of Meloidogyne incognita. (Author) 56 refs.

  16. Susceptibility of Several Common Subtropical Weeds to Meloidogyne arenaria, M. incognita, and M. javanica.

    Kokalis-Burelle, Nancy; Rosskopf, Erin N

    2012-06-01

    Experiments were conducted in the greenhouse to assess root galling and egg production of three root-knot nematode species, Meloidogyne arenaria, M. incognita, and M. javanica, on several weeds common to Florida agricultural land. Weeds evaluated were Amaranthus retroflexus (redroot pigweed), Cyperus esculentus (yellow nutsedge), Eleusine indica (goosegrass), Portulaca oleracea (common purslane), and Solanum americanum (American black nightshade). Additionally, although it is recommended as a cover crop in southern regions of the U.S., Aeschynomene americana (American jointvetch) was evaluated as a weed following the detection of root galling in a heavy volunteer infestation of an experimental field in southeastern Florida. Weeds were propagated from seed and inoculated with 1000 nematode eggs when plants reached the two true-leaf stage. Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum 'Rutgers') was included as a positive control. Aeschynomene americana and P. oleracea roots supported the highest number of juveniles (J2) and had the highest number of eggs/g of root for all three species of Meloidogyne tested. However, though P. oleracea supported very high root levels of the three nematode species tested, its fleshy roots did not exhibit severe gall symptoms. Low levels of apparent galling, combined with high egg production, increase the potential for P. oleracea to support populations of these three species of root-knot nematodes to a degree that may not be appropriately recognized. This research quantifies the impact of P. oleracea as a host for M. arenaria, M. incognita, and M. javanica compared to several other important weeds commonly found in Florida agricultural production, and the potential for A. americana to serve as an important weed host of the three species of root-knot nematode tested in southern regions of Florida. PMID:23482324

  17. Evaluation of roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa) leaf and pomegranate (Punica granatum) fruit rind for activity against Meloidogyne incognita

    Pomegranate (Punica granatum) fruit and roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa) leaves have been used in traditional medicine, including as anthelmintics. Methanolic extracts from these plants were investigated for activity against the southern root-knot nematode (RKN) Meloidogyne incognita. Dried, ground p...

  18. HISTOPATHOLOGICAL CHANGES AND ENZYMATIC ACTIVITIES INDUCED BY MELOIDOGYNE INCOGNITA ON RESISTANT AND SUSCEPTIBLE POTATO

    Moawad M. Mohamad

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available All potato cultivars are susceptible to root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp. which infest the roots and induce galls on the surface and necrotic spots in the flesh tuber of potato, Solanum tuberosum. Infested tubers are unacceptable for processing and fresh market. Tubers are also putative source of dissemination of the nematode. A French nematode- resistant tetraploid potato genotype gained from ex-S. sparsipilum material hybridized with S. tuberosum in F1 and in their back cross progenies and designated as 02T.155.6 was tested and compared in the present study in Egypt as a suitable different environment. Histopathological changes and chitinase activity induced by M. incognita population, of common occurrence in Egypt, in four French tetraploid materials and two common cultivars known as nematode- resistant and susceptible potato genotypes were investigated. Hypertrophied cells were initiated in both cortical and steler regions of the roots which were then developed to abnormal xylem elements expanding into the cortex in French susceptible genotypes designated as 02T.149.6, 02T.150.54, and 02T.157.16. Nematode within the vascular tissue (stele could induce giant cell development close to nematode heads. The largest number of such induced cells was shown by the cultivars Spunta and Diamant. The clone 02T.155.6 with putative nematode resistance demonstrated none or very little nematode development. Recently dead second stage juveniles could also indicate incompatible plant reaction to the invading nematodes in 02T.155.6. M. incognita, Giza population, resistance was generally more coherent to 02T.155.6 as demonstrated by our histological investigations but less coherent as shown by another Egyptian M. incognita population. Chitinase activity was enhanced in M. incognita (Giza-inoculated with respect to uninoculated roots in all plants. After inoculation, such an activity generally increased more in roots of a potato genotype previously known to

  19. Influence of low temperature on development of Meloidogyne incognita and M. hapla eggs in egg masses.

    Vrain, T C; Barker, K R

    1978-10-01

    Egg masses of Meloidogyne incognita and M. hapla were placed in soil at 10, 12, 16, and 20 C. At regular intervals, eggs from samples of egg masses were released from the gelatinous matrices and their developmental stages recorded. The number of days necessary to complete each stage from gastrulation to hatch is given for each temperature. The minimal temperature threshold for the development of eggs was computed by linear regression to be 8.26 C for M. incognita and 6.74 C for M. hapla. PMID:19305859

  20. Yield-loss Models for Tobacco Infected with Meloidogyne incognita as Affected by Soil Moisture

    Wheeler, T. A.; Barker, K. R.; Schneider, S.M.

    1991-01-01

    Yield-loss models were developed for tobacco infected with Meloidogyne incognita grown in microplots under various irrigation regimes. The rate of relative yield loss per initial nematode density (Pi), where relative yield is a proportion of the value of the harvested leaves in uninfected plants with the same irrigation treatment, was greater under conditions of water stress or with high irrigation than at an intermediate level of soil moisture. The maximum rate of plant growth per degree-day...

  1. Overestimation of Yield Loss of Tobacco Caused by the Aggregated Spatial Pattern of Meloidogyne incognita

    Noe, J. P.; Barker, K. R.

    1985-01-01

    Overestimation of yield loss caused by Meloidogyne incognita on tobacco was calculated as a function of the statistical frequency distribution of sample counts. Sampling frequency distributions were described by a negative binomial model, with parameter k, and the resulting probability generating function was used to calculate discrete damage probabilities. Negative binomial damage predictions were compared to mean-density estimates of damage. Predictions based on mean density alone overestim...

  2. Weed Hosts of Meloidogyne arenaria and M. incognita Common in Tobacco Fields in South Carolina

    Tedford, E. C.; Fortnum, B. A.

    1988-01-01

    Thirty-two weed species common in South Carolina and one cultivar of tobacco were evaluated as hosts of Meloidogyne arenaria race 2 and M. incognita race 3 in the greenhouse. Egg mass production and galling differed (P < 0.05) among weed species. Chenopodium album, Euphorbia maculata, and Vicia villosa were good hosts of M. arenaria. Amaranthus palmeri, Rumex crispus, Amaranthus hybridus, Ambrosia artemisiifolia, lpomoea hederacea var. integriuscula, Setaria lutescens, Sida spinosa, Portulaca...

  3. EFFECT OF ROOT EXUDATES OF TAGETES SP. ON EGG HATCHING BEHAVIOR OF MELOIDOGYNE INCOGNITA

    Iruthaya Kalaiselvam

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The effect root exudates of pre-planted marigold intercropped with tomato in regulating the hatching behavior of root-knot nematode - Meloidogyne incognita eggs were investigated. Marigold cultivars Tagetes patula, T. minuta, T. erecta, T. erecta (var. Orange, T. erecta (var. Yellow significantly reduced the numbers of second-stage juveniles (J2s in subsequent tomato compared to the tomato-tomato control. Four different concentrations (25, 50, 75 and 100 % of water soluble extract from the selected varieties of Marigold cultivars were filtered and added to the petri dish and infested with the eggs of M. incognita. Data indicate that egg hatching was significantly affected by root exudates of Tagetes sp. however, nematicidal activity was species dependent. Root exudates of T. erecta were lethal to J2 of M. incognita and were inhibitory to the hatch of eggs at the concentration of 75 % or higher.

  4. The nematicidal effect of some bacterial biofertilizers on Meloidogyne incognita in sandy soil

    M.E El-Hadad

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available In a greenhouse experiment, the nematicidal effect of some bacterial biofertilizers including the nitrogen fixing bacteria (NFB Paenibacillus polymyxa (four strains, the phosphate solubilizing bacteria (PSB Bacillus megaterium (three strains and the potassium solubilizing bacteria (KSB B. circulans (three strains were evaluated individually on tomato plants infested with the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita in potted sandy soil. Comparing with the uninoculated nematode-infested control, the inoculation with P. polymyxa NFB7, B. megaterium PSB2 and B. circulans KSB2, increased the counts of total bacteria and total bacterial spores in plants potted soil from 1.2 to 2.6 folds estimated 60 days post-inoculation. Consequently, the inoculation with P. polymyxa NFB7 increased significantly the shoot length (cm, number of leaves / plant, shoot dry weight (g / plant and root dry weight (g / plant by 32.6 %, 30.8 %, 70.3 % and 14.2 %, respectively. Generally, the majority treatments significantly reduced the nematode multiplication which was more obvious after 60 days of inoculation. Among the applied strains, P. polymyxa NFB7, B. megaterium PSB2 and B. circulans KSB2 inoculations resulted in the highest reduction in nematode population comparing with the uninoculated nematode-infested control. They recorded the highest reduction in numbers of hatched juveniles/root by 95.8 %, females/root by 63.75 % and juveniles/1kg soil by 57.8 %. These results indicated that these bacterial biofertilizers are promising double purpose microorganisms for mobilizing of soil nutrients (nitrogen, phosphate and potassium and for the biological control of M. incognita.

  5. In vitro toxicity and control of Meloidogyne incognita in soybean by rosemary extract

    Mônica Anghinoni Müller

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The control of nematodes in plants can be challenging, and there is a need for alternative, environmentally conscious methods for their management. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of rosemary extract (Rosmarinus officinalis on the in vitro toxicity and control of Meloidogyne incognita in CD 206 and CD 215 soybean cultivars. Using an in vitro assay, 500 M. incognita eggs per plate were observed for 15 days after incubation with rosemary extract at concentrations of 1%, 5%, and 10%. Soybean plants were studied under greenhouse conditions, and starting at V3 stage, were sprayed weekly with the same concentration of rosemary extract for 64 days. Three days after the first treatment, each soybean plant was inoculated with 1800 eggs and 400 second-stage juveniles (J2. At the end of this essay, number of eggs and J2 in the roots and soil, number of galls, and the reproduction factor (RF were evaluated. Our results showed that in the in vitro assay, rosemary extract reduced the number of M. incognita eggs that hatched. Under greenhouse conditions, the CD 206 cultivar showed a 48% reduction in the number of galls, as well as fewer eggs in the soil and a lower RF. Similarly, in the CD 215 cultivar, the number of eggs was reduced and the RF was lower. These results indicate the potential for rosemary extract to control M. incognita in soybean crops.

  6. Pepper Rootstock Graft Compatibility and Response to Meloidogyne javanica and M. incognita.

    Oka, Yuji; Offenbach, Rivka; Pivonia, Shimon

    2004-06-01

    Resistance of pepper species (Capsicum annuum, C. baccatum, C. chinense, C. chacoense, and C. frutescens), cultivars and accessions to the root-knot nematodes Meloidogyne incognita race 2 and M. javanica, and their graft compatibility with commercial pepper varieties as rootstocks were evaluated in growth chamber and greenhouse experiments. Most of the plants tested were highly resistant to M. javanica but susceptible to M. incognita. Capsicum annuum AR-96023 and C. frutescens accessions as rootstocks showed moderate and relatively high resistance to M. incognita, respectively. In M. incognita-infested soil in a greenhouse, AR-96023 supported approximately 6-fold less nematode eggs per gram root and produced about 2-fold greater yield compared to a nongrafted commercial variety. The commercial variety grafted on AR-96023 produced a yield as great as the non-grafted variety in the root-knot nematode-free greenhouse. Some resistant varieties and accessions used as rootstocks produced lower yields (P < 0.01) than that of the non-grafted variety in the noninfested greenhouse. Use of rootstocks with nematode-resistance and graft compatibility may be effective for control of root-knot nematodes on susceptible pepper. PMID:19262798

  7. Influence of low temperature on rate of development of Meloidogyne incognita and M. hapla larvae.

    Vrain, T C; Barker, K R; Holtzman, G I

    1978-04-01

    Development of Meloidogyne incognita and M. hapla larvae in clover roots was studied at 20, 16, 12, and 8 C in growth chambers and in the field from fall through spring, in North Carolina. Larvae of both species invaded roots and developed at 20, 16, and 12 C, but not at 8 C. The time necessary to complete the larval stages at each temperature was determined. The minimal temperature for development of M. incognita larvae was 10.08 C and 8.8 C for M. hapla larvae. In the field, soil temperature at 10 cm deep was favorable for development of larvae until the end of November, and again from February on. All stages of the nematodes survived freezing temperatures in the roots. Reproduction of both species was evident in March or Apri1 after inoculation and accumulation of 8,500 to 11,250 degree-hours. PMID:19305832

  8. Effects of a Resistant Corn Hybrid and Fenamiphos on Meloidogyne incognita in a Corn-Squash Rotation

    Johnson, A. W.; Sumner, D. R.; Windham, G. L.; Williams, W. P.

    1999-01-01

    The efficacy of a double-cross corn (Zea mays) hybrid (Old Raccoon selection X T216) X (Tebeau selection X Mp 307) resistant to Meloidogyne incognita as a rotational crop, and fenamiphos treatment for management of root-knot nematode (M. incognita race 1) in squash (Cucurbita pepo var. melopepo) was evaluated in field tests during 1996 and 1997. Numbers of M. incognita in the soil and root-gall indices were lower on the resistant hybrid than on a commercial cultivar DeKalb DK-683. Treatment m...

  9. Evaluation of Animal Dungs and Organomineral Fertilizer for the Control of Meloidogyne incognita on Sweet Potato

    Oluremi Solomon Osunlola; Bamidele Fawole

    2015-01-01

    Root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita, is an important animate pathogen causing major damage and severe reductions in the growth, yield, and quality of sweet potato. Nematicides are expensive and their application also causes environmental pollution. A field experiment was therefore conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of poultry dung (10 or 20 t/ha), cow dung (10 or 20 t/ha), horse dung (10 or 20 t/ha), goat dung (10 or 20 t/ha), organomineral fertilizer (2 or 4 t/ha), and carbofuran ...

  10. COMPATIBILIDAD DEL HONGO Pochonia chlamydosporia Y EXTRACTOS VEGETALES PARA EL MANEJO INTEGRADO DE Meloidogyne incognita EN FRIJOL.

    Vilchis Martínez, Kathia

    2015-01-01

    El objetivo del presente trabajo fue evaluar la posibilidad de combinar la aplicación del hongo Pochonia chlamydosporia y extractos vegetales para el manejo integrado del Meloidogyne sp. en el cultivo de frijol. La población de Meloidogyne utilizada fue identificada como Meloidogyne incognita (Kofoid & White) Chitwood. Se seleccionaron, identificaron y colectaron 22 plantas con propiedades contra nematodos de fácil acceso en la región de estudio, las cuales se secaron a la sombra y finalmente...

  11. Effect of cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus on penetration and reproduction of meloidogyne incognita in cowpea

    Adekunle O.K.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available greenhouse studies were conducted to investigate the effects of cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus on penetration and reproduction of Meloidogyne incognita in cowpea and the influence of these pathogens on the yield of cowpea. The interaction of both pathogens resulted in higher population density of the nematode at harvest and correspondingly reduced grain yield in comparison to inoculation of either pathogen alone or un-inoculated control. An almost equal number of nematode juveniles penetrated roots of seedlings of nematode - susceptible Ife Brown and TVU 2657 and nematode - resistant IT81D - 975 cultivars of cowpea, but the nematode did not develop beyond second stage juvenile in the resistant cultivar. Concomitant inoculation of the nematode and the virus resulted in a shortened life cycle of the nematode in comparison to nematode alone inoculation. Interaction of both the nematode and the virus had a limited effect on the nematode resistant cultivar of cowpea.

  12. Direct identification of the Meloidogyne incognita secretome reveals proteins with host cell reprogramming potential.

    Stéphane Bellafiore

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The root knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita, is an obligate parasite that causes significant damage to a broad range of host plants. Infection is associated with secretion of proteins surrounded by proliferating cells. Many parasites are known to secrete effectors that interfere with plant innate immunity, enabling infection to occur; they can also release pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs, e.g., flagellin that trigger basal immunity through the nematode stylet into the plant cell. This leads to suppression of innate immunity and reprogramming of plant cells to form a feeding structure containing multinucleate giant cells. Effectors have generally been discovered using genetics or bioinformatics, but M. incognita is non-sexual and its genome sequence has not yet been reported. To partially overcome these limitations, we have used mass spectrometry to directly identify 486 proteins secreted by M. incognita. These proteins contain at least segmental sequence identity to those found in our 3 reference databases (published nematode proteins; unpublished M. incognita ESTs; published plant proteins. Several secreted proteins are homologous to plant proteins, which they may mimic, and they contain domains that suggest known effector functions (e.g., regulating the plant cell cycle or growth. Others have regulatory domains that could reprogram cells. Using in situ hybridization we observed that most secreted proteins were produced by the subventral glands, but we found that phasmids also secreted proteins. We annotated the functions of the secreted proteins and classified them according to roles they may play in the development of root knot disease. Our results show that parasite secretomes can be partially characterized without cognate genomic DNA sequence. We observed that the M. incognita secretome overlaps the reported secretome of mammalian parasitic nematodes (e.g., Brugia malayi, suggesting a common parasitic behavior and a possible

  13. Dose-response effects of clove oil from Syzygium aromaticum on the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita

    BACKGROUND: Clove oil, derived from the plant Syzygium aromaticum (L.) Merr. & Perry, is active against various organisms, and was prepared in a soy lecithin/detergent formulation to determine concentrations active against the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita (Kofoid and White) Chitwood. RE...

  14. Repulsion of Meloidogyne incognita by Alginate Pellets Containing Hyphae of Monacrosporium cionopagum, M. ellipsosporum, or Hirsutella rhossiliensis

    Robinson, A. F.; Jaffee, B. A.

    1996-01-01

    The responses of second-stage juveniles (J2) of Meloidogyne incognita race 3 to calcium alginate pellets containing hyphae of the nematophagous fungi Monacrosporiura cionopagum, M. ellipsosporum, and Hirsutella rhossiliensis were examined using cylinders (38-mm-diam., 40 or 72 mm long) of sand (94%

  15. Studies on the interactions of Meloidogyne incognita, Radopholus similis and Fusarium solani on black pepper (Piper nigrum L.).

    Mustika, I.

    1990-01-01

    This study on the interactions between various cultivars of the black pepper plant (Piper nigrum L. ) and three of its pathogens, Meloidogyne Incognita (Kofoid & White) , Radopholus similis (Cobb) , Thorne and Fusarium solani f. sp. piperi Albuquerque was initiated to search for a biological cause o

  16. Dose assessment of HeberNem to control of Meloidogyne incognita Chitwood in greenhouses

    Mario Fleitas Díaz

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In the houses of protected crops Agricultural Company República Dominicana, Carlos Manuel de Céspedes municipality, Camagüey, an experiment was developed to evaluate different doses of bionematicide HeberNem in controlling the nematode Meloidogyne incognita Chitwood and his participation in the growth and development of the tomato (Solanum lycopersicum crop, the experimental design was in randomized blocks, the test was composed of 8 treatments replicated twice, evaluating a total of 40 plants for each treatment which were measured: plant height, stem diameter the number of leaflets, the number of clusters per plant, number of flowers per cluster and number of fruits per bunch, they were made weekly. Also at the end of the campaign took root degree determined according to the scale indicated by Zeck, (1971. Data were analyzed using analysis of variance and determined the levels of statistical significance at 5%, by dócima Tukey multiple range. We found an inverse relationship between the parameters of growth and development weighed against the presence of M. incognita Chitwood. At doses of 8 l / ha, 12 l / ha and 16 l / ha were achieved better results in controlling the nematode M. incognita Chitwood.

  17. Chemical Composition and Nematicidal Activity of Essential Oil of Agastache rugosa against Meloidogyne incognita

    Zhi Wei Deng

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to determine the chemical composition and nematicidal activity of essential oil of Agastache rugosa flowering aerial parts against the root knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita, and to isolate and identify any nematicidal constituents from the essential oil. The essential oil of A. rugosa aerial parts was obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by GC-FID and GC-MS. A total of 37 components of the essential oil were identified, with the principal compounds being methyleugenol (50.51%, estragole (8.55%, and eugenol (7.54%, followed by thymol (3.62%, pulegone (2.56%, limonene (2.49% and caryophyllene (2.38%. Based on bioactivity-guided fractionation, the three active constituents were isolated from the essential oil and identified as methyleugenol, estragole and eugenol. The essential oil of A. rugosa exhibited strong nematicidal activity against M. incognita, with a LC50 value of 47.3 μg/mL. The components eugenol (LC50 = 66.6 μg/mL and methyleugenol (LC50 = 89.4 μg/mL exhibited stronger nematicidal activity against M. incognita (LC50 = 185.9 μg/mL. The results indicate that the essential oil of A. rugosa aerial parts and its constituent compounds have potential for development into natural nematicides for control of the root knot nematode.

  18. Screening of cucurbitaceous rootstocks and cucumber scions for root knot nematode resistance (Meloidogyne incognita Kofoid and White

    Punithaveni, V, P. Jansirani and M. Sivakumar

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A study was carried out under glasshouse condition at the Department of Nematology, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore during 2012-2013 to identify resistant rootstocks of cucurbitaceous species for grafting of cucumber against root knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita. Seven wild and cultivated cucurbitaceous rootstocks and two cucumber scions (variety and hybrid were used for screening studies against the root knot nematode. Forty fifth day after inoculation, the plants were evaluated for shoot length, root length, shoot fresh and dry weight as well as root fresh and dry weight, number of galls per 10 gram of root, egg mass and females per gram of root, root knot index, soil nematode population per 200 cc of soil and reproduction factor. The lowest number of galls and egg masses were observed in Citrullus colocynthis followed by Cucumis metuliferus which exhibited resistant reaction with root knot index (RKI of 2. The other rootstocks viz., Cucurbita ficifolia, Cucurbita moschata, C. maxima and Luffa cylindrica were found to be moderately resistant to root knot nematode with root knot index of 3. The two cucumber scions (Green Long variety and NS 408 hybrid were observed to be highly susceptible to M. incognita with RKI of 5.

  19. Rotations with Coastal Bermudagrass and Fallow for Management of Meloidogyne incognita and Soilborne Fungi on Vegetable Crops

    Johnson, A. W.; Burton, G W; Wilson, J.P.; Golden, A. M.

    1995-01-01

    The efficacy of fallow and coastal bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon) as a rotation crop for control of root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne incognita race 1) and soilborne fungi in okra (Hibiscus esculentus cv. Emerald), squash (Cucurbita pepo cv. Dixie Hybrid), and sweet corn (Zea mays cv. Merit) was evaluated in a 3-year field trial. Numbers of M. incognita in the soil and root-gall indices were greater on okra and squash than sweet corn and declined over the years on vegetable crops following fal...

  20. Contenido de fenoles libres en chile (Capsicum annum L.) CM-334 inoculado con Nacobbus aberrans y Meloidogyne incognita

    Hernández Navarro, Angélica

    2012-01-01

    Con la finalidad de contribuir al entendimiento del fenómeno de rompimiento de resistencia por nemátodos fitoparásitos, en el presente estudio se comparó el contenido de ácidos fenólicos libres en plantas inoculadas y no inoculadas con Nacobbus aberrans o Meloidogyne incognita. Plantas de chile CM-334 resistentes a Phytophtora capsici y M. incognita, pero susceptible a N. aberrans, y plantas de la var J. E. Parker, susceptibles a los tres patógenos, fueron o no inoculadas con 10,000 J2 de ...

  1. [Eupolyphaga frass and its extracts protected tomato from Meloidogyne incognita infestation].

    Wang, Xiao-yun; Wang, Xiu-feng; Wei, Min; Shi, Qing-hua; Yang, Feng-juan

    2015-08-01

    The control effects of Eupolyphaga (Eupolyphaga sinensis Walker) frass and its extracts on Meloidogyne incognita were studied through laboratory assays and pot experiments, and the organic volatile compounds and oligochitosan contents in the frass were analyzed. The results indicated that the nematode immobility and mortality was significantly increased with increasing the extract concentration and treatment time. Compared with the control, egg hatching was significantly inhibited when the extract concentration was beyond 20%. Pot experiment indicated that root galling of tomato seedlings was reduced and the relative control effect was significantly improved with the increasing frass application. Meanwhile, plant height, stem diameter and leaf number of tomato increased with the increasing dosage of eupolyphaga frass. The ingredients analysis showed that the content of oligochitosan was about 4.35% and there were 9 categories and 110 kinds of volatile compounds in the frass. PMID:26685616

  2. Yield-loss Models for Tobacco Infected with Meloidogyne incognita as Affected by Soil Moisture.

    Wheeler, T A; Barker, K R; Schneider, S M

    1991-10-01

    Yield-loss models were developed for tobacco infected with Meloidogyne incognita grown in microplots under various irrigation regimes. The rate of relative yield loss per initial nematode density (Pi), where relative yield is a proportion of the value of the harvested leaves in uninfected plants with the same irrigation treatment, was greater under conditions of water stress or with high irrigation than at an intermediate level of soil moisture. The maximum rate of plant growth per degree-day (base 10 C) was reduced as nematode Pi increased when plots contained adequate water. When plants were under water stress, increasing Pi did not luther reduce the maximum rate of plant growth (water stress was the limiting factor). Cumulative soil matric potential values were calculated to describe the relationship between available water in the soil (matric potential) due to the irrigation treatments and subsequent plant growth. PMID:19283140

  3. GAMMA IRRADIATION OF SUGAR BEET SEEDS INDUCED PLANT RESISTANCE TO ROOT-KNOT NEMATODE MELOIDOGYNE INCOGNITA

    The main objective of this study was to investigate the effect of irradiation of sugar beet seeds on the plant resistance to root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita infection in addition to some morphological parameters, biochemical components and root technological characters. Relative to control (non-irradiated seeds), the obtained data showed that, all doses except 10 Gy significantly increased root length of un inoculated plants and the most effective dose was 200 Gy. All doses significantly decreased root diameter except 50 and 100 Gy. The 10 and 400 Gy significantly reduced root fresh weight while 50, 100 and 200 Gy caused non-significant increase. All doses significantly increased root fresh weight/dry weight than control. There was non-significant effect on the morphological parameters of the plants germinated from gamma irradiated seeds and inoculated with Meloidogyne incognita. Total chlorophyll of seed irradiated and un inoculated plants were significantly reduced by all doses except 200 Gy. All doses of gamma radiation caused non-significant decrease in the total chlorophyll of the infected plants. In un inoculated plants, a significant reduction in the total phenol was occurred due to all doses of gamma radiation. In contrast, in inoculated plants, 10 and 25 Gy caused significant reduction in the total phenol while 50 and 400 Gy caused significant increase in the total phenol.Significant increase in sucrose % was observed due to 10 Gy in the un inoculated plants. The 400 Gy caused significant decrease while other doses caused non-significant decrease in the sucrose %. In the inoculated plants, 50, 100 and 400 Gy caused significant increase in sucrose %. All doses significantly increased total soluble salts percent (TSS %) of either inoculated or un inoculated plants. Purity % was increased by all doses in the inoculated plants.The number of galls and egg masses were reduced gradually by increasing gamma doses and 100 Gy caused the highest reduction 89

  4. Evaluation of Animal Dungs and Organomineral Fertilizer for the Control of Meloidogyne incognita on Sweet Potato

    Oluremi Solomon Osunlola

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita, is an important animate pathogen causing major damage and severe reductions in the growth, yield, and quality of sweet potato. Nematicides are expensive and their application also causes environmental pollution. A field experiment was therefore conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of poultry dung (10 or 20 t/ha, cow dung (10 or 20 t/ha, horse dung (10 or 20 t/ha, goat dung (10 or 20 t/ha, organomineral fertilizer (2 or 4 t/ha, and carbofuran (3 kg a.i/ha in the management of M. incognita on sweet potato using a randomized complete block design. The unamended plots served as control. Data were analysed using ANOVA (p≤0.05. All organic materials and carbofuran significantly (p≤0.05 reduced nematode reproduction and root damage compared with control. Poultry dung (10 and 20 t/ha and carbofuran were, however, more efficient in nematode control than other organic materials. Sweet potato plants that were grown on soil treated with organomineral fertilizer had the highest mean number of vines and fresh shoot weight, while poultry dung improved sweet potato quality and yield. It is therefore recommended that the use of poultry dung be employed in combination with other nematode control strategies to achieve sustainable, economic, and environment-friendly nematode management.

  5. Influence of chilling and freezing temperatures on infectivity of Meloidogyne incognita and M. hapla.

    Vrain, T C

    1978-04-01

    Egg masses and second-stage larvae of Meloidogyne incognita and M. hapla in soil were exposed to temperatures ranging from 20 to -8 C. Temperature was lowered in 2-day intervals to 16, 12, 8, 4, 0, -4, and -8 C, and the nematodes remained at 4, 0, -4, or -8 C for 18, 14, 10, or 6 days, respectively. Unhatched larvae of both species were more resistant to low temperatures than were embryonic stages. Within the eggs of M. incognita, 7.5% of embryos and 48% of larval stages survived 14 days at 0 C, whereas 9% of embryos and 90% of larval stages in the eggs of M. hapla survived 10 days at -4 C. Second-stage larvae of both species remained infective in sol.1 at 4 or 0 C, but were injured at -4 and -8 C. Infectivily of these larvae was lower in saturated soil than in soil at 51 cm moisture tension at all temperatures. PMID:19305834

  6. Cowpea-Meloidogyne incognita interaction: Root proteomic analysis during early stages of nematode infection.

    Villeth, Gabriela R C; Carmo, Lilian S T; Silva, Luciano P; Fontes, Wagner; Grynberg, Priscila; Saraiva, Mario; Brasileiro, Ana C M; Carneiro, Regina M D; Oliveira, José T A; Grossi-de-Sá, Maria F; Mehta, Angela

    2015-05-01

    Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) is an important legume species well adapted to low fertility soils and prolonged drought periods. One of the main problems that cause severe yield losses in cowpea is the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita. The aim of this work was to analyze the differential expression of proteins in the contrasting cultivars of cowpea CE 31 (highly resistant) and CE 109 (slightly resistant) during early stages of M. incognita infection. Cowpea roots were collected at 3, 6, and 9 days after inoculation and used for protein extraction and 2-DE analysis. From a total of 59 differential spots, 37 proteins were identified, mostly involved in plant defense, such as spermidine synthase, patatin, proteasome component, and nitrile-specifier protein. A follow-up study was performed by quantitative RT-PCR analysis of nine selected proteins and the results revealed a very similar upregulation trend between the protein expression profiles and the corresponding transcripts. This study also identified ACT and GAPDH as a good combination of reference genes for quantitative RT-PCR analysis of the pathosystem cowpea/nematode. Additionally, an interactome analysis showed three major pathways affected by nematode infection: proteasome endopeptidase complex, oxidative phosphorylation, and flavonoid biosynthesis. Taken together, the results obtained by proteome, transcriptome, and interactome approaches suggest that oxidative stress, ubiquitination, and glucosinolate degradation may be part of cowpea CE 31 resistance mechanisms in response to nematode infection. PMID:25736976

  7. Studies on the interactions of Meloidogyne incognita, Radopholus similis and Fusarium solani on black pepper (Piper nigrum L.).

    Mustika, I.

    1990-01-01

    This study on the interactions between various cultivars of the black pepper plant (Piper nigrum L. ) and three of its pathogens, Meloidogyne Incognita (Kofoid & White) , Radopholus similis (Cobb) , Thorne and Fusarium solani f. sp. piperi Albuquerque was initiated to search for a biological cause of "yellow disease" of black pepper.This disease was described already in 1932 by Van der Vecht as "geelziektel" and its symptoms on the aerial parts of the pepper plants were yellowing of the leave...

  8. In-vitro Assays of Meloidogyne incognita and Heterodera glycines for Detection of Nematode-antagonistic Fungal Compounds

    Nitao, James K.; Meyer, Susan L. F.; Chitwood, David J.

    1999-01-01

    In-vitro methods were developed to test fungi for production of metabolites affecting nematode egg hatch and mobility of second-stage juveniles. Separate assays were developed for two nematodes: root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne incognita) and soybean cyst nematode (Heterodera glycines). For egg hatch to be successfully assayed, eggs must first be surface-disinfested to avoid the confounding effects of incidental microbial growth facilitated by the fungal culture medium. Sodium hypochlorite was...

  9. Effects of Some Indigenous Plant Extracts as Inhibitors of Egg Hatch in Root-Knot Nematode (Meloidogyne incognita race 2)

    Adegbite, Ayodele Adesina

    2011-01-01

    Studies on the effectiveness of some indigenous plant extracts as inhibitors of egg-hatch in rootknot nematode (Meloidogyne incognita race 2) were carried out in the Plant Protection Laboratory of Institute of Agricultural Research & Training, Obafemi Awolowo University, Moor Plantation, Ibadan. Azadirachta indica (Neem); Chromolaena odorata (Siam weed); Nicotiana tabacum (Tobacco); Carica papaya (Pawpaw); Cannabis sativa (Hemp); Cassia alata (Asunwon) and Vernonia amygdalina (Bitter leaf...

  10. A Novel Meloidogyne incognita Effector Misp12 Suppresses Plant Defense Response at Latter Stages of Nematode Parasitism.

    Xie, Jialian; Li, Shaojun; Mo, Chenmi; Wang, Gaofeng; Xiao, Xueqiong; Xiao, Yannong

    2016-01-01

    Secreted effectors in plant root-knot nematodes (RKNs, or Meloidogyne spp.) play key roles in their parasite processes. Currently identified effectors mainly focus on the early stage of the nematode parasitism. There are only a few reports describing effectors that function in the latter stage. In this study, we identified a potential RKN effector gene, Misp12, that functioned during the latter stage of parasitism. Misp12 was unique in the Meloidogyne spp., and highly conserved in Meloidogyne incognita. It encoded a secretory protein that specifically expressed in the dorsal esophageal gland, and highly up-regulated during the female stages. Transient expression of Misp12-GUS-GFP in onion epidermal cell showed that Misp12 was localized in cytoplast. In addition, in planta RNA interference targeting Misp12 suppressed the expression of Misp12 in nematodes and attenuated parasitic ability of M. incognita. Furthermore, up-regulation of jasmonic acid (JA) and salicylic acid (SA) pathway defense-related genes in the virus-induced silencing of Misp12 plants, and down-regulation of SA pathway defense-related genes in Misp12-expressing plants indicated the gene might be associated with the suppression of the plant defense response. These results demonstrated that the novel nematode effector Misp12 played a critical role at latter parasitism of M. incognita. PMID:27446188

  11. Efeito de extratos aquosos de espécies de Asteraceae sobre Meloidogyne incognita Effect of aqueous extracts of Asteraceae species on Meloidogyne incognita

    Isabel Cristina Madeira Ferreira

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se, in vitro e in vivo a atividade nematicida dos extratos aquosos de vedélia (Sphagneticola trilobata, erva-de-touro (Tridax procumbens, cravo-de-defunto (Tagetes patula, girassol mexicano (Tithonia diversifolia, botão de ouro (Unxia suffruticosa e zínia (Zinnia peruviana, sobre Meloidogyne incognita. Os extratos foram preparados na proporção de 1,0g do material seco e triturado para 10mL de água destilada e armazenados por 24h, sendo seguidamente utilizados nos experimentos. Nos testes in vitro, foram depositados 4,0mL do extrato bruto e 2,0mL de uma suspensão aquosa contendo 200 ovos do nematóide em placas de Petri de 5cm de diâmetro e, quinze dias após, procedeu-se a contagem do número de juvenis eclodidos e dos ovos remanescentes para o cálculo das porcentagens de eclosão. Nos testes in vivo, os extratos foram aplicados, separadamente, via pulverização foliar, tratamento de raiz e vertido no solo, semanalmente durante 60 dias. Como testemunha utilizou-se apenas água nos dois experimentos. No ensaio in vitro observou-se que todos os extratos foram eficientes na redução da eclosão de juvenis de M. incognita quando comparados à testemunha, as porcentagens de redução foram 89,96%, 91,13%, 92,48%, 92,72%, 93,2% e 97,48% para erva-de-touro, cravo-de-defunto, girassol mexicano, vedélia, botão de ouro e zínia, respectivamente, e no ensaio in vivo, que os tratamentos não exerceram nenhum efeito sobre o peso do sistema radicular dos tomateiros, no entanto, observou-se que os resultados diferiram entre as espécies utilizadas e a forma de aplicação do extrato na avaliação do peso fresco da parte aérea das plantas. Quanto ao fator de reprodução, observou-se que nenhum dos extratos apresentou diferença estatística em relação à testemunha, no entanto, quando se compara as diferentes formas de aplicação dos mesmos, observa-se que houve diferença estatística quando os extratos de erva de touro e girassol

  12. [Efficiency of Trichoderma longibrachiatum T6 in the control of Meloidogyne incognita and its rhizosphere colonization in cucumber].

    Zhang, Shu-wu; Xu, Bing-liang; Xue, Ying-yu; Liang, Qiao-lan; Liu, Jia

    2016-01-01

    Efficiency of different concentrations of Trichoderma longibrachiatum T6 against Meloidogyne incognita and its rhizosphere colonization in cucumber were determined in greenhouse experiments. The results of rhizosphere colonization experiments showed that the number of colonies in cucumber soil and root increased significantly ten weeks after inoculation with the second stage juveniles of M. incognita and different concentrations of T. longibrachiatum T6, and there was significant difference in different concentrations of T. longibrachiatum T6, e.g., the maximum numbers of colonies in soil and root were 7.8 x 10⁷ and 6.3 x 10⁵ CFU · mL⁻¹ respectively after treated with the spore suspension of 1.5 x 10⁷ CFU · mL⁻¹. Greenhouse experiments results showed that different concentrations of T. longibrachiatum T6 had significant control effect on different life stages of M. incognita, and the control effect increased with the concentration of T. longibrachiatum T6. T. longibrachiatum T6 significantly increased plant height, root length, above-ground and root fresh mass o cucumber inoculated by M. incognita. T. longibrachiatum T6 could colonize in cucumber rhizosphere, had control effect on M. incognita, and significantly improved the growth of cucumber. PMID:27228616

  13. Histological mechanisms of the resistance conferred by the Ma gene against Meloidogyne incognita in Prunus spp.

    Khallouk, Samira; Voisin, Roger; Van Ghelder, Cyril; Engler, Gilbert; Amiri, Saïd; Esmenjaud, Daniel

    2011-08-01

    The Ma gene from Myrobalan plum is a TNL gene that confers a high-level resistance to all root-knot nematodes of major economic importance, including Meloidogyne incognita, M. javanica, M. arenaria, and M. enterolobii. The nematode behavior in the roots and the corresponding histological mechanisms of the Ma resistance to M. incognita in the resistant (R) accessions of the plum 'P.2175' and the interspecific hybrid P.2175×almond-peach '35', carrying the Ma1 allele (Ma1/ma), were characterized in comparison with the susceptible (S) accessions in the plum 'P.2032' and the interspecific hybrid P.2175×almond-peach '253' (ma/ma). Second-stage juveniles (J2s) were inoculated in micropropagated plantlets grown in soil substrate under controlled conditions at 25°C. Nematodes penetrated both R and S plants preferentially along the apical zone or close to the young lateral buds and moved via similar routes. Then they migrated into the cortex downward in the direction of the apex and turned up in the meristematic apical region to colonize the differentiating stele. In R accessions, motile J2s neither swelled nor developed into J3s, and initiation of feeding sites was never observed. This complete absence of gall symptoms is associated with cell necroses and corresponding hypersensitive-like reaction (HLR) phenotypes occurring either in the stele or in the meristematic apical region or in the cortex. Nematode attacks often disorganized the meristematic apical tissues of R accessions, which induced the development of subterminal lateral roots replacing primary terminal apices and, thus, provided an active resistance reaction to HLR damage. PMID:21446787

  14. Effect of Simultaneous Water Deficit Stress and Meloidogyne incognita Infection on Cotton Yield and Fiber Quality.

    Davis, R F; Earl, H J; Timper, P

    2014-06-01

    Both water deficit stress and Meloidogyne incognita infection can reduce cotton growth and yield, and drought can affect fiber quality, but the effect of nematodes on fiber quality is not well documented. To determine whether nematode parasitism affects fiber quality and whether the combined effects of nematode and drought stress on yield and quality are additive (independent effects), synergistic, or antagonistic, we conducted a study for 7 yr in a field infested with M. incognita. A split-plot design was used with the main plot factor as one of three irrigation treatments (low [nonirrigated], moderate irrigation, and high irrigation [water-replete]) and the subplot factor as 0 or 56 l/ha 1,3-dichloropropene. We prevented water deficit stress in plots designated as water-replete by supplementing rainfall with irrigation. Plots receiving moderate irrigation received half the water applied to the water-replete treatment. The severity of root galling was greater in nonfumigated plots and in plots receiving the least irrigation, but the amount of irrigation did not influence the effect of fumigation on root galling (no irrigation × fumigation interaction). The weights of lint and seed harvested were reduced in nonfumigated plots and also decreased as the level of irrigation decreased, but fumigation did not influence the effect of irrigation. Nematodes affected fiber quality by increasing micronaire readings but typically had little or no effect on percent lint, fiber length (measured by HVI), uniformity, strength, elongation, length (based on weight or number measured by AFIS), upper quartile length, or short fiber content (based on weight or number). Micronaire also was increased by water deficit stress, but the effects from nematodes and water stress were independent. We conclude that the detrimental effects caused to cotton yield and quality by nematode parasitism and water deficit stress are independent and therefore additive. PMID:24987162

  15. Biological Control of Meloidogyne incognita by Aspergillus niger F22 Producing Oxalic Acid.

    Ja Yeong Jang

    Full Text Available Restricted usage of chemical nematicides has led to development of environmentally safe alternatives. A culture filtrate of Aspergillus niger F22 was highly active against Meloidogyne incognita with marked mortality of second-stage juveniles (J2s and inhibition of egg hatching. The nematicidal component was identified as oxalic acid by organic acid analysis and gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS. Exposure to 2 mmol/L oxalic acid resulted in 100% juvenile mortality at 1 day after treatment and suppressed egg hatching by 95.6% at 7 days after treatment. Oxalic acid showed similar nematicidal activity against M. hapla, but was not highly toxic to Bursaphelenchus xylophilus. The fungus was incubated on solid medium and dried culture was used for preparation of a wettable powder-type (WP formulation as an active ingredient. Two WP formulations, F22-WP10 (ai 10% and oxalic acid-WP8 (ai 8%, were prepared using F22 solid culture and oxalic acid. In a field naturally infested with M. incognita, application of a mixture of F22-WP10 + oxalic acid-WP8 at 1,000- and 500-fold dilutions significantly reduced gall formation on the roots of watermelon plants by 58.8 and 70.7%, respectively, compared to the non-treated control. The disease control efficacy of the mixture of F22-WP10 + oxalic acid-WP8 was significantly higher than that of a chemical nematicide, Sunchungtan (ai 30% fosthiazate. These results suggest that A. niger F22 can be used as a microbial nematicide for the control of root-knot nematode disease.

  16. REPRODUÇÃO DE Meloidogyne incognita RAÇA 2 E DE Meloidogyne javanica EM OITO ESPÉCIES DE PLANTAS MEDICINAIS

    S.L. MACIEL; L.C.C.B. Ferraz

    1996-01-01

    Avaliaram-se as taxas reprodutivas de Meloidogyne incognita raça 2 e de Meloidogyne javanica em oito espécies de plantas consideradas medicinais, em vasos com 500 ml de solo, sob condição de casa de vegetação. Cada planta foi inoculada com 5000 ovos, em média, estabelecendo-se cinco repetições. Realizaram-se as avaliações após 45 a 55 dias das inoculações, com base nos índices de massas de ovos e nos fatores de reprodução dos nematóides. Achillea millefolium (mil-folhas), Arctium lappa (barda...

  17. Nematicidal activity of mint aqueous extracts against the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita.

    Caboni, Pierluigi; Saba, Marco; Tocco, Graziella; Casu, Laura; Murgia, Antonio; Maxia, Andrea; Menkissoglu-Spiroudi, Urania; Ntalli, Nikoletta

    2013-10-16

    The nematicidal activity and chemical characterization of aqueous extracts and essential oils of three mint species, namely, Mentha × piperita , Mentha spicata , and Mentha pulegium , were investigated. The phytochemical analysis of the essential oils was performed by means of GC-MS, whereas the aqueous extracts were analyzed by LC-MS. The most abundant terpenes were isomenthone, menthone, menthol, pulegone, and carvone, and the water extracts yielded mainly chlorogenic acid, salvianolic acid B, luteolin-7-O-rutinoside, and rosmarinic acid. The water extracts exhibited significant nematicidal activity against Meloidogyne incognita , and the EC50/72h values were calculated at 1005, 745, and 300 mg/L for M. × piperita, M. pulegium, and M. spicata, respectively. Only the essential oil from M. spicata showed a nematicidal activity with an EC50/72h of 358 mg/L. Interestingly, menthofuran and carvone showed EC50/48h values of 127 and 730 mg/L, respectively. On the other hand, salicylic acid, isolated in the aqueous extracts, exhibited EC50 values at 24 and 48 h of 298 ± 92 and 288 ± 79 mg/L, respectively. PMID:24050256

  18. Impact of direct and indirect application of rising furfural concentrations on viability, infectivity and reproduction of the root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita in Pisum sativum.

    Abdelnabby, Hazem; Wang, Yunhe; Xiao, Xueqiong; Wang, Gaofeng; Yang, Fan; Xiao, Yannong

    2016-07-01

    The gradual withdraw of several broadly used nematicides from market has enhanced the need to develop sustainable and eco-friendly alternatives with nematicidal properties. Furfural is one of the promising alternatives to fill this need. Baseline information about the impact of furfural on egg hatch, penetration potential and ultrastructure of nematode is lacking. In this study, the reagent-grade (purity ≥ 99.0%) of furfural was applied against Meloidogyne incognita. In vitro tests showed gradual reduction in either the rate of egg hatch or second stage juvenile (J2) viability of M. incognita when immersed in concentrations ranging from 0 to 10.0 μl/ml furfural. The mean EC50 for J2 and egg hatch was 0.37 and 0.27 μl/ml furfural, respectively. Furfural, even at low concentrations, resulted in a considerable suppression in egg hatch. Hatch was soil. Significant reduction in galling, egg production and population density of M. incognita observed when furfural was applied at rates >0.2 ml/kg soil. No adverse effect was detected on plants or free-living nematodes as a result of furfural application. Liquid furfural proved to have superior juvenile-suppressive effect whereas its vapor has such superiority against eggs. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) study showed irregular appearance of the body surface accompanied with some cuticle disfigurement of furfural-treated juveniles. These results indicated that furfural can adversely affect egg hatch, juvenile viability, penetration potential and ultrastructure of M. incognita. Furfural may therefore be of a considerable potential as an appropriate alternative for class I nematicides. PMID:27133267

  19. REPRODUÇÃO DE Meloidogyne incognita RAÇA 2 E DE Meloidogyne javanica EM OITO ESPÉCIES DE PLANTAS MEDICINAIS

    MACIEL S.L.

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se as taxas reprodutivas de Meloidogyne incognita raça 2 e de Meloidogyne javanica em oito espécies de plantas consideradas medicinais, em vasos com 500 ml de solo, sob condição de casa de vegetação. Cada planta foi inoculada com 5000 ovos, em média, estabelecendo-se cinco repetições. Realizaram-se as avaliações após 45 a 55 dias das inoculações, com base nos índices de massas de ovos e nos fatores de reprodução dos nematóides. Achillea millefolium (mil-folhas, Arctium lappa (bardana, Bryophyllum calycinum (folha-da-fortuna e Crassula portulacea (bálsamo foram hospedeiras não eficientes ou desfavoráveis a ambas as espécies. Plectranthus barbatus (boldo e Polygonum hidropiperoides (polígono foram eficientes à reprodução das duas espécies. Achyrocline satureoides (macela e Tropaeolum majus (chagas foram eficientes para M. javanica e não para M. incognita.

  20. Screening and Histopathological Characterization of Korean Carrot Lines for Resistance to the Root-Knot Nematode Meloidogyne incognita

    Seo, Yunhee; Park, Jiyeong; Kim, Yong Su; Park, Yong; Kim, Young Ho

    2014-01-01

    In total, 170 carrot lines developed in Korea were screened for resistance to Meloidogyne incognita race 1 to select parental genetic resources useful for the development of nematode-resistant carrot cultivars. Using the gall index (GI), gall formation was examined on carrot roots inoculated with approximately 1,000 second-stage juveniles of the nematode 7 weeks after inoculation. Sixty-one carrot lines were resistant (GI ≤ 1.0), while the other 109 were susceptible (GI > 1.0) with coefficien...

  1. Genome-wide survey and analysis of microsatellites in nematodes, with a focus on the plant-parasitic species Meloidogyne incognita

    Guillemaud Thomas

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Microsatellites are the most popular source of molecular markers for studying population genetic variation in eukaryotes. However, few data are currently available about their genomic distribution and abundance across the phylum Nematoda. The recent completion of the genomes of several nematode species, including Meloidogyne incognita, a major agricultural pest worldwide, now opens the way for a comparative survey and analysis of microsatellites in these organisms. Results Using MsatFinder, the total numbers of 1-6 bp perfect microsatellites detected in the complete genomes of five nematode species (Brugia malayi, Caenorhabditis elegans, M. hapla, M. incognita, Pristionchus pacificus ranged from 2,842 to 61,547, and covered from 0.09 to 1.20% of the nematode genomes. Under our search criteria, the most common repeat motifs for each length class varied according to the different nematode species considered, with no obvious relation to the AT-richness of their genomes. Overall, (ATn, (AGn and (CTn were the three most frequent dinucleotide microsatellite motifs found in the five genomes considered. Except for two motifs in P. pacificus, all the most frequent trinucleotide motifs were AT-rich, with (AATn and (ATTn being the only common to the five nematode species. A particular attention was paid to the microsatellite content of the plant-parasitic species M. incognita. In this species, a repertoire of 4,880 microsatellite loci was identified, from which 2,183 appeared suitable to design markers for population genetic studies. Interestingly, 1,094 microsatellites were identified in 801 predicted protein-coding regions, 99% of them being trinucleotides. When compared against the InterPro domain database, 497 of these CDS were successfully annotated, and further assigned to Gene Ontology terms. Conclusions Contrasted patterns of microsatellite abundance and diversity were characterized in five nematode genomes, even in the case of

  2. Sampling techniques and detection methods for developing risk assessments for root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne incognita) on lima bean (Phaseolus lunatus) in the Mid-Atlantic region

    Lima bean, Phaseolus lunatus, is a cornerstone crop in the Mid-Atlantic region and Meloidogyne incognita, the southern root knot nematode (RKN), causes significant yield loss. The RKN has become more pervasive as toxic nematicides have been removed from the market, and risk evaluation research is ne...

  3. Preliminary evaluation of meloidogyne incognita race 3 reproduction on garden pea cultivars in Brazil/ Avaliação preliminar da reprodução de Meloidogyne incognita raça 3 em cultivares de ervilha no Brasil

    Luiz Carlos Camargo Barbosa Ferraz

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Thirteen garden pea cultivars, were assessed for the reproductive rate of the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita race 3 under greenhouse conditions. Two-week old plants growing were inoculated with 5.000 eggs. The nematode reproduction data was determined 55 days later according to the three adopted evaluation criteria (root-gall and egg-mass indexes, reproduction factor, percentage of reduction of the reproduction factor in relation to the susceptible standard cultivar. The tested cultivars were rated as highly susceptible ('Trolly'. 'Jurema', susceptible ('Luiza'. 'Mini'. 'Asterix', 'Verde Temprana' or moderately susceptible ('Marina', 'Telephone'., 'Dileta'. 'Bolero', 'Flávia'. 'Viçosa', and 'Maria' hosts for the nematode.Avaliaram-se as taxas reprodutivas e caracterizaram-se as reações de 13 cut tiveres de ervilha em relação ao nematóide de galhas Meloidogyne incognita raça 3, em casa-de-vegetação. Plantas com duas semanas de idade, foram inoculadas com 5000 ovos do nematóide. As avaliações foram realizadas após 55 dias com base nos critérios - índices de galhas/índices de massas de ovos, fator de reprodução e porcentagem de redução do fator de reprodução. Duas cultivares foram consideradas hospedeiras altamente suscetíveis (‘Trolly’, ‘Jurema’, cinco suscetíveis ('Luíza', 'Mini', 'Asterix', 'Verde Temprana', 'Telefone' e seis moderadamente suscetíveis ('Marina'. 'Dileta', 'Boiero'. 'Flávia'. 'Viçosa', 'Maria'.

  4. Screening and Histopathological Characterization of Korean Carrot Lines for Resistance to the Root-Knot Nematode Meloidogyne incognita

    Yunhee Seo

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In total, 170 carrot lines developed in Korea were screened for resistance to Meloidogyne incognita race 1 to select parental genetic resources useful for the development of nematode-resistant carrot cultivars. Using the gall index (GI, gall formation was examined on carrot roots inoculated with approximately 1,000 second-stage juveniles of the nematode 7 weeks after inoculation. Sixty-one carrot lines were resistant (GI ≤ 1.0, while the other 109 were susceptible (GI > 1.0 with coefficient of variance (CV of GI for total carrot lines 0.68, indicating low-variation of GI within the lines examined. The histopathological responses of two carrot plants from resistant and susceptible lines were examined after nematode infection. In susceptible carrots, giant cells formed with no discernible necrosis around the infecting nematodes. In the resistant carrot line, however, no giant cells formed, although modified cells were observed with extensive formation of necrotic layers through their middle lamella and around the infecting nematodes. This suggested that these structural modifications were related to hypersensitive responses governed by the expression of true resistance genes. Therefore, the Korean carrot lines resistant to the nematode infection are potential genetic resources for the development of quality carrot cultivars resistant to M. incognita race 1.

  5. Knocking-down Meloidogyne incognita proteases by plant-delivered dsRNA has negative pleiotropic effect on nematode vigor.

    José Dijair Antonino de Souza Júnior

    Full Text Available The root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita causes serious damage and yield losses in numerous important crops worldwide. Analysis of the M. incognita genome revealed a vast number of proteases belonging to five different catalytic classes. Several reports indicate that M. incognita proteases could play important roles in nematode parasitism, besides their function in ordinary digestion of giant cell contents for feeding. The precise roles of these proteins during parasitism however are still unknown, making them interesting targets for gene silencing to address protein function. In this study we have knocked-down an aspartic (Mi-asp-1, a serine (Mi-ser-1 and a cysteine protease (Mi-cpl-1 by RNAi interference to get an insight into the function of these enzymes during a host/nematode interaction. Tobacco lines expressing dsRNA for Mi-ser-1 (dsSER, Mi-cpl-1 (dsCPL and for the three genes together (dsFusion were generated. Histological analysis of galls did not show clear differences in giant cell morphology. Interestingly, nematodes that infected plants expressing dsRNA for proteases produced a reduced number of eggs. In addition, nematode progeny matured in dsSER plants had reduced success in egg hatching, while progeny resulting from dsCPL and dsFusion plants were less successful to infect wild-type host plants. Quantitative PCR analysis confirmed a reduction in transcripts for Mi-cpl-1 and Mi-ser-1 proteases. Our results indicate that these proteases are possibly involved in different processes throughout nematode development, like nutrition, reproduction and embryogenesis. A better understanding of nematode proteases and their possible role during a plant-nematode interaction might help to develop new tools for phytonematode control.

  6. Integrated application of some compatible biocontrol agents along with mustard oil seed cake and furadan on Meloidogyne incognita infecting tomato plants

    Goswami, Bijoy Kumar; Pandey, Rajesh Kumar; Rathour, Kabindra Singh; Bhattacharya, Chaitali; SINGH, LOKENDRA

    2006-01-01

    Experiments were carried out to study the effect of two fungal bioagents along with mustard oil cake and furadan against root knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita infecting tomato under greenhouse condition. Bioagents viz., Paecilomyces lilacinus and Trichoderma viride alone or in combination with mustard cake and furadan promoted plant growth, reduced number of galls/plant, egg masses/root system and eggs/egg mass. The fungal bioagents along with mustard cake and nematicide showed least nemat...

  7. Seleção de clones de batata-doce resistentes a Meloidogyne incognita raça 1 Selection of sweetpotato clones resistant to Meloidogyne incognita race 1

    Aline Marchese

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi selecionar clones de batata-doce (Ipomoea batatas resistentes à raça 1 de Meloidogyne incognita e avaliar a eficiência do método de seleção empregado, pela estimação dos coeficientes de variação genética e ambiental e das herdabilidades no sentido amplo. Foram utilizados 123 genótipos de batata-doce, entre os quais quatro cultivares comerciais - Brazlândia Rosada, Brazlândia Roxa, Brazlândia Branca e Palmas -, e 119 acessos previamente selecionados no programa de melhoramento vegetal da Universidade Federal de Lavras. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o de blocos aumentados, com três tratamentos comuns: as cultivares de batata-doce Brazlândia Branca e Palmas, e a cultivar de tomate Santa Clara, suscetível ao nematoide. A classificação dos níveis de resistência foi realizada de acordo com o fator de reprodução do nematoide e o índice de reprodução relativo à cultivar Santa Clara, de tomateiro. A relação entre os coeficientes de variação genética e ambiental e as herdabilidades no sentido amplo foram altas, tanto para o fator de reprodução quanto para o índice de reprodução dos nematoides, o que demonstra a eficiência do método empregado para a seleção de genótipos resistentes. Foram identificados 57 genótipos promissores de batata-doce, resistentes à raça 1 de M. incognita, e selecionados para continuar no programa de melhoramento.The objective of this work was to select sweetpotato (Ipomoea batatas resistant clones to Meloidogyne incognita race 1, and to assess the efficiency of the selection method deployed, through the estimation of genetic and environmental coefficients of variation, and broad-sense heritabilities. Genotypes assessed comprised 123 sweetpotato entries altogether, including four commercial cultivars - Brazlândia Rosada, Brazlândia Roxa, Brazlândia Branca, Palmas - and 119 clones previously selected by the Universidade Federal de Lavras

  8. Interactions between an arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus (Scutellospora heterogama and the root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne incognita on sweet passion fruit (Passiflora alata

    Érika Cristina Teixeira dos Anjos

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The effects of inoculation of sweet passion fruit plants with the arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM fungus Scutellospora heterogama on the symptoms produced by Meloidogyne incognita race 1 and its reproduction were evaluated in two greenhouse experiments. In the 1st, the M. incognita (5000 eggs/plant and S. heterogama (200 spores/plant inoculations were simultaneous; in the 2nd, the nematodes were inoculated 120 days after the fungal inoculation. In both the experiments, 220 days after AM fungal inoculation, plant growth was stimulated by the fungus. In disinfested soil, control seedlings (without S. heterogama were intolerant to parasitism of M. incognita, while the growth of mycorrhized seedlings was not affected. Sporulation of S. heterogama was negatively affected by the nematodes that did not impair the colonization. M. incognita did not affect mycorrhizal seedling growth. The establishment of mycorrhiza prior to the nematode infection contributed for the reduction of symptoms severity and reproduction of M. incognita in disinfested soil.O efeito da inoculação com Scutellospora heterogama (200 esporos/planta em relação aos sintomas e reprodução de Meloidogyne incognita raça 1 (5000 ovos/planta foi avaliado em plantas de maracujazeiro doce em dois experimentos em casa de vegetação. No primeiro experimento, inoculações com nematóide e FMA foram simultâneas; no segundo, nematóides foram inoculados 120 dias após o estabelecimento da simbiose micorrízica. Após o 220º dia da inoculação do FMA o fungo estimulou o crescimento da planta nos dois experimentos. No solo desinfestado as mudas não inoculadas com S. heterogama mostraram intolerância ao parasitismo de M. incognita. A esporulação de S. heterogama foi negativamente afetada pela presença do nematóide. M. incognita não afetou o crescimento das mudas micorrizadas ou o desenvolvimento do FMA. O estabelecimento da micorriza antes do nematóide contribui para a redução da

  9. Efeitos da temperatura sobre a atividade de fungos no controle biológico de Meloidogyne javanica E M. incognita raça 3 Effect of soil warming on the biological control of Meloidogyne javanica and M. incognita race 3

    Fábio R. Alves

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available O efeito de Arthrobotrys conoides, Duddingtonia flagrans, Paecilomyces lilacinus, Paecilomyces variotii, Monacrosporium doedycoides e um isolado de rizobactéria na reprodução e crescimento populacional de Meloidogyne javanica e M. incognita raça 3 em tomateiro Santa Clara, suscetível à Meloidogyne spp., foi estudado em três ambientes distintos: 1 casa-de-vegetação sem controle de temperatura; 2 sala climatizada com temperatura do ar constante a 24ºC; 3 em banho-maria com temperatura do solo mantida em 29-30ºC, colocado na mesma sala climatizada caracterizada anteriormente. Maior crescimento populacional de M. javanica e de M. incognita raça 3 ocorreu em solo aquecido, comparado com aquela em casa-de-vegetação e sala climatizada, e o número de galhas causado por M. javanica e M. incognita raça 3 foi maior em solo aquecido e em sala climatizada do que em casa-de-vegetação. Em solo aquecido e em sala climatizada, A. conoides e a rizobactéria reduziram (PThe effects of Arthrobotrys conoides, Duddingtonia flagrans, Paecilomyces lilacinus, Paecilomyces variotii, Monacrosporium doedycoides and an isolate of rhizobacterium on reproductivity of Meloidogyne javanica and M. incognita race 3 on Santa Clara tomato plants, susceptible to Meloidogyne spp., were studied in three different environments: 1 greenhouse without temperature control; 2 room with air temperature controlled at 24ºC; 3 watherbath with soil temperature controlled at 29-30ºC, placed in the room with the temperature controlled at 24ºC. Greatest M. javanica and M. incognita race 3 reproductivity occurred in waterbath warmed soil than in greenhouse and temperature controlled room. Galls number caused by M. javanica and M. incognita race 3 was greater in waterbath warmed soil and temperature controlled room than in greenhouse. In waterbath warmed soil and in temperature controlled room, A. conoides and rhizobacterium reduced (P< 0,05 the galls number of M. incognita race

  10. Meloidogyne Incognita Host Suitability and Benzoxazinoid Content of Rye (secale cereale) Cultivars

    This research was conducted to investigate factors which may aid in the selection of a rye cultivar for plant-parasitic nematode management. Six geographically diverse cultivars of rye (Secale cereale) wheat (Triticum aestivum) and hairy vetch (Vicia villosa), were screened for Meloidogyne incognit...

  11. Evaluation of Verticilum Chlamydosporium and Arrthrobotrys for Biological Control of Meloidogyne Incognita in Celery and Tomato

    The ability of nematode trapping fungi and egg-parasitic fungi to colonize and persist in the rhizosphere of crop plants is thought to be an important factor influencing the success of bi logical control of root infecting nematodes. In this study, two strains of an egg parasite fungus Verticillium chlamydosporium (Vc-10 and Vc-2M) and an isolate of the nematode-trapping fungus Arthrobotrys oligospora and persistence in the rhizosphere and tomato plants in a green house pot experiment. The isolates tested differed in their pathogenicity to M. incognita and survival in the rhizosphere. An isolate of Verticillum chlamydosporium (Vc-10) was the most virulent pathogen of the nematode. Root galling was slowest in tomato plants treated with V-10 (2.2); pots treated with this isolate had the lowest final soil population of infective juveniles; there was a 62.2% and 98.5% infections of eggs and egg masses respectively by Vc-10 on tomato plants. The two isolates of Verticillium chlamydosporium (Vc-10 and Vc2M) persisted in the soil and could be re-isolated from the rhizosphere and roots of tomato plants at least 16 weeks after soil application. The final inoculum density was, however higher for Vc-10 (1.35x105 cfu/g soil) than Vc-2M (9.25x104 cfu/g soil). Arthrobotrys oligospora on the other hand did not give any significant control of the nematode on both crops, there was severe galling on the roots of plants treated with this agent. It could not be re-isolated from the plant rhizosphere sixteen weeks after soil infestation. Lack of nematode control on both crops by A.oligo spora was attributed to it's poor on establishment in the plant rhizosphere; low density and roots penetration by infective juveniles before they were ensnared in the trapping devices of this fungal biocontrol agent. The fact that it could not be re-isolated from the rhizosphere may imply that the fungus did not survive in the rhizosphere in quantities enough to enhance nematode control

  12. Isolation of Nematicidal Triterpenoid Saponins from Pulsatilla koreana Root and Their Activities against Meloidogyne incognita

    Byung Soo Han; Chang Sup Moon; Hyo Jeung Byun; Suk Jun Lee; Seo Young Yang; Xi Tao Yan; Ya Nan Sun; Wei Li; Young Ho Kim

    2013-01-01

    Pulsatilla koreana, a species endemic to Korea, is an important herb used in traditional medicine to treat amoebic dysentery and malaria. In the present study, 23 oleanane-type triterpenoid saponins 1–23 and eight lupane-type triterpenoid saponins 24–31 were isolated from the roots of P. koreana. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic data. The methanol extract and isolated compounds were next assessed for nematicidal activity against the root-knot nematode (Meloidogyn...

  13. Integrated application of some compatible biocontrol agents along with mustard oil seed cake and furadan on Meloidogyne incognita infecting tomato plants

    GOSWAMI Bijoy Kumar; PANDEY Rajesh Kumar; RATHOUR Kabindra Singh; BHATTACHARYA Chaitali; SINGH Lokendra

    2006-01-01

    Experiments were carried out to study the effect of two fungal bioagents along with mustard oil cake and furadan against root knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita infecting tomato under greenhouse condition. Bioagents viz., Paecilomyces lilacinus and Trichoderma viride alone or in combination with mustard cake and furadan promoted plant growth, reduced number of galls/plant, egg masses/root system and eggs/egg mass. The fungal bioagents along with mustard cake and nematicide showed least nematodes reproduction factor as compared to untreated infested soil.

  14. Avaliação da resistência dê cafeeiros às raças dê Meloidogyne incognita Evaluation of coffea resistance to Meloidogyne incognita races

    Rubens Rodolfo Albuquerque Lordello

    1987-01-01

    Full Text Available No Centro Experimental de Campinas do Instituto Agronômico, de abril de 1984 a agosto de 1985, realizaram-se dois experimentos, em vasos, para avaliar a resistência de mudas de sete linhagens de Coffea arabica ('Mundo Novo': CP388-17, CP379-19, CP501 e MP376-4; 'Catuaí Amarelo' H2077-2-5-62 e 'Catuaí Vermelho' H2077-2-5-81, e 'Caturra Amarelo' e dois de C. canephora (Robusta: 'Guarini' col. 10 e 'Kouillon' col. 67-14 às quatro raças de Meloidogyne incognita. No primeiro experimento, cada muda foi infestada com 8.000 ovos, passados cinco meses do transplante, e a avaliação, efetuada seis meses depois. No segundo experimento, as mudas foram infestadas cerca de um ano do transplante com 7.000 ovos cada uma e a avaliação realizada decorridos dez meses. Todas as plantas foram infestadas pelas raças 1 e 2; entretanto, a reprodução do nematóide foi menor nas plantas mais velhas. As raças 3 e 4 apresentaram baixas infestações e algumas reações de imunidade, principalmente a 4, que tem pouca importância prática pela sua pequena ocorrência. Os cultivares de Catuaí revelaram médias de notas de ootecas menores que as das linhagens de 'Mundo Novo', indicando menor suscetibilidade. Contudo, é importante ressaltar que a menor infestação não significa que as raças 3 e 4 sejam menos danosas ao cafeeiro quando o parasitam em campo.Two experiments were carried out in Campinas, State of São Paulo, Brazil, to evaluate the resistance of young trees of seven lines of Coffea arabica ('Mundo Novo': CP388-17, CP379-19, CP501 and MP376-4; 'Catuaí Yellow' H2077-2-5-62 and 'Catuaí Red' H2077-2-5-81; and 'Caturra Yellow' and two of C. canephora (Robusta: 'Guarini' col, 10 and 'Kouillon' col. 67-14 to the four races of Meloidogyne incognita in pots. In the first experiment, each plant was infested five months after transplanting with 8000 eggs, and evaluated six months later. In the second experiment, the plants were infested near one year

  15. Repulsion of Meloidogyne incognita by Alginate Pellets Containing Hyphae of Monacrosporium cionopagum, M. ellipsosporum, or Hirsutella rhossiliensis.

    Robinson, A F; Jaffee, B A

    1996-06-01

    The responses of second-stage juveniles (J2) of Meloidogyne incognita race 3 to calcium alginate pellets containing hyphae of the nematophagous fungi Monacrosporiura cionopagum, M. ellipsosporum, and Hirsutella rhossiliensis were examined using cylinders (38-mm-diam., 40 or 72 mm long) of sand (94% <250-mum particle size). Sand was wetted with a synthetic soil solution (10% moisture, 0.06 bar water potential). A layer of 10 or 20 pellets was placed 4 or 20 mm from one end of the cylinder. After 3, 5, or 13 days, J2 were put on both ends, on one end, or in the center; J2 were extracted from 8-ram-thick sections 1 or 2 days later. All three fungal pellets were repellent; pellets without fungi were not. Aqueous extracts of all pellets and of sand in which fungal pellets had been incubated were repellent, but acetone extracts redissolved in water were not. Injection of CO (20 mul/minute) into the pellet layer attracted J2 and increased fungal-induced mortality. In vials containing four randomly positioned pellets and 17 cm(3) of sand or loamy sand, the three fungi suppressed the invasion of cabbage roots by M. javanica J2. Counts of healthy and parasitized nematodes observed in roots or extracted from soil indicated that, in the vial assay, the failure of J2 to penetrate roots resulted primarily from parasitism rather than repulsion. Data were similar whether fungal inoculum consisted of pelletized hyphae or fungal-colonized Steinernema glaseri. Thus, the results indicate that nematode attractants and repellents can have major or negligible effects on the biological control efficacy of pelletized nematophagous fungi. Factors that might influence the importance of substances released by the pellets include the strength, geometry, and duration of gradients; pellet degradation by soil microflora; the nematode species involved; and attractants released by roots. PMID:19277129

  16. Assessment of DAPG-producing Pseudomonas fluorescens for Management of Meloidogyne incognita and Fusarium oxysporum on Watermelon

    Meyer, Susan L. F.; Everts, Kathryne L.; Gardener, Brian McSpadden; Masler, Edward P.; Abdelnabby, Hazem M. E.; Skantar, Andrea M.

    2016-01-01

    Pseudomonas fluorescens isolates Clinto 1R, Wayne 1R, and Wood 1R, which produce the antibiotic 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol (DAPG), can suppress soilborne diseases and promote plant growth. Consequently, these beneficial bacterial isolates were tested on watermelon plants for suppression of Meloidogyne incognita (root-knot nematode: RKN) and Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum (Fon). In a greenhouse trial, Wayne 1R root dip suppressed numbers of RKN eggs per gram root on ‘Charleston Gray’ watermelon by 28.9%. However, in studies focused on ‘Sugar Baby’ watermelon, which is commercially grown in Maryland, a Wayne 1R root dip did not inhibit RKN reproduction or plant death caused by Fon. When all three isolates were applied as seed coats, plant stand in the greenhouse was reduced up to 60% in treatments that included Fon ± P. fluorescens, and eggs per gram root did not differ among treatments. In a microplot trial with Clinto 1R and Wayne 1R root dips, inoculation with P. fluorescens and/or Fon resulted in shorter vine lengths than treatment with either P. fluorescens isolate plus RKN. Root weights, galling indices, eggs per gram root, and second-stage juvenile (J2) numbers in soil were similar among all RKN-inoculated treatments, and fruit production was not affected by treatment. Plant death was high in all treatments. These studies demonstrated that the tested P. fluorescens isolates resulted in some inhibition of vine growth in the field, and were not effective for enhancing plant vigor or suppressing RKN or Fon on watermelon. PMID:27168652

  17. Assessment of DAPG-producing Pseudomonas fluorescens for Management of Meloidogyne incognita and Fusarium oxysporum on Watermelon.

    Meyer, Susan L F; Everts, Kathryne L; Gardener, Brian McSpadden; Masler, Edward P; Abdelnabby, Hazem M E; Skantar, Andrea M

    2016-03-01

    Pseudomonas fluorescens isolates Clinto 1R, Wayne 1R, and Wood 1R, which produce the antibiotic 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol (DAPG), can suppress soilborne diseases and promote plant growth. Consequently, these beneficial bacterial isolates were tested on watermelon plants for suppression of Meloidogyne incognita (root-knot nematode: RKN) and Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum (Fon). In a greenhouse trial, Wayne 1R root dip suppressed numbers of RKN eggs per gram root on 'Charleston Gray' watermelon by 28.9%. However, in studies focused on 'Sugar Baby' watermelon, which is commercially grown in Maryland, a Wayne 1R root dip did not inhibit RKN reproduction or plant death caused by Fon. When all three isolates were applied as seed coats, plant stand in the greenhouse was reduced up to 60% in treatments that included Fon ± P. fluorescens, and eggs per gram root did not differ among treatments. In a microplot trial with Clinto 1R and Wayne 1R root dips, inoculation with P. fluorescens and/or Fon resulted in shorter vine lengths than treatment with either P. fluorescens isolate plus RKN. Root weights, galling indices, eggs per gram root, and second-stage juvenile (J2) numbers in soil were similar among all RKN-inoculated treatments, and fruit production was not affected by treatment. Plant death was high in all treatments. These studies demonstrated that the tested P. fluorescens isolates resulted in some inhibition of vine growth in the field, and were not effective for enhancing plant vigor or suppressing RKN or Fon on watermelon. PMID:27168652

  18. Damage quantification and reaction of bean genotypes (Phaseolus vulgaris L. to Meloidogyne incognita race 3 and M. javanica

    Leonardo Nazário Silva dos Santos

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The damage and the resistance levels of cultivars and accessions of common beans rescued in the South and mountain regions of Espírito Santo State, Brazil, to M. incognita race 3 and M. javanica parasitism were evaluated under a greenhouse. Four rescued bean genotypes ("FORT-10", "FORT-13", "FORT-16" and "FORT-19" and 2 commercial cultivars: "Pérola", and "Aporé", were tested. The cultivar "Rico-23" was included as standard of susceptibility to nematodes and non-inoculated plants constituted the control. Thus, the experiment was carried out in a completely randomized design in 3 (treatments considering nematodes x 7 (genotypes and bean cultivars factorial arrangement, with 7 replicates. Data were measured at 50 days after plant inoculation. For damage quantification, the following variables were evaluated: plant height (PHE, number of nodes (NNO, number of trifoliate leaves (NRT, fresh matter weight (FWE and dry matter weight (DWE of shoots, root weight (RWE, number of root nodules (NRO and final population (FPO of nematodes per root system. There were no significant differences between the effects caused by M. incognita and M. javanica, but both species showed inferior values of PHE, NNO, NRT, RWE, FWE and DWE compared to controls. Concerning the levels of resistance of bean plants to M. incognita, the genotypes "FORT-10", "FORT-13", "Aporé" and "FORT-16" behaved as moderately resistant, the cultivars "Rico 23" and "Pérola" low resistant, and the genotype "FORT-19" as highly susceptible. When parasitized by M. javanica, the beans "FORT-19", "Rico-23", "FORT-16" and "FORT-13" were low resistant, "Pérola" and "Aporé" susceptible and "FORT-10" highly susceptible.

  19. Field Evaluation of Yield and Resistances of Local and Improved Sweet Potato (Ipomoeabatatas (L Lam Accessions to Cylas puncticollis and Meloidogyne incognita inSoutheastern Nigeria

    Emmanuel E. Bassey

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the study was to evaluate local and improved accessions of sweet potato for resistances to Cylas puncticollis and Meloidogyne incognita and identify suitable ones for incorporation in breeding programmes for the production of genetically resistant and high yielding varieties. The experiment was conducted at the University of Uyo, Teaching and Research Farm located at Use Offot-Uyo, Southeastern Nigeria and laid out in a randomized complete block design, with three replications. Eighteen sweet potato accessions were studied, comprising 13 local accessions, namely: E5, B6, E3, B26, B2, E11, E6, E17, B21, E14, E7, B23, E10 and five IITA improved and recommended varieties (TIS 87/0087, TIS 8441, TIS 8164, TIS 2532 and TIS 86/0356 for southeastern Nigeria. Three of the IITA improved and recommended varieties (TIS 86/0356, TIS 8164 and TIS 87/0087 had higher number of root tubers per plot and higher root tuber yield per hectare than the local accessions, while eight of the local accessions indicated high resistances to Cylas puncticollis, namely: B6, B2, E17, B21, E14, E7, B23 and E10 and Meloidogyne incognita, namely: B6, E3, B26, B21, E14, E7, B23 and E10. The local accessions with high root tuber yields and very high resistances to C. puncticollis and M. incognita (B6, B21 and E10 could be incorporated in breeding programmes involving TIS 87/0087, TIS 8164, TIS 2532 and TIS 86/0356 for the production of hybrid varieties with higher yields and resistances to the pests in southeastern Nigeria.

  20. Analysis of Gene expression in soybean (Glycine max roots in response to the root knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita using microarrays and KEGG pathways

    Gamal El-Din Abd El Kader Y

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Root-knot nematodes are sedentary endoparasites that can infect more than 3000 plant species. Root-knot nematodes cause an estimated $100 billion annual loss worldwide. For successful establishment of the root-knot nematode in its host plant, it causes dramatic morphological and physiological changes in plant cells. The expression of some plant genes is altered by the nematode as it establishes its feeding site. Results We examined the expression of soybean (Glycine max genes in galls formed in roots by the root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita, 12 days and 10 weeks after infection to understand the effects of infection of roots by M. incognita. Gene expression was monitored using the Affymetrix Soybean GeneChip containing 37,500 G. max probe sets. Gene expression patterns were integrated with biochemical pathways from the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes using PAICE software. Genes encoding enzymes involved in carbohydrate and cell wall metabolism, cell cycle control and plant defense were altered. Conclusions A number of different soybean genes were identified that were differentially expressed which provided insights into the interaction between M. incognita and soybean and into the formation and maintenance of giant cells. Some of these genes may be candidates for broadening plants resistance to root-knot nematode through over-expression or silencing and require further examination.

  1. Optimization of In Vitro Techniques for Distinguishing between Live and Dead Second Stage Juveniles of Heterodera glycines and Meloidogyne incognita

    2016-01-01

    Heterodera glycines (Soybean Cyst nematode, or SCN) and Meloidogyne incognita (Root-Knot nematode, or RKN) are two damaging plant-parasitic nematodes on important field crops. Developing a quick method to distinguish between live and dead SCN and RKN second stage juveniles (J2) is vital for high throughput screening of pesticides or biological compounds against SCN and RKN. The in vitro assays were conducted in 96-well plates to determine the optimum chemical stimulus to distinguish between live and dead SCN and RKN J2. Sodium carbonate (Na2CO3), sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3), and sodium hydroxide (NaOH) were evaluated for the nematode response to see if these compounds can help distinguish between viable from the dead J2. Results indicated that live SCN J2 responded equally (P ≤ 0.05) to 1 μl Na2CO3 and 10 μl NaHCO3 in 100 μl of water at pH = 10. Live SCN J2 responded by twisting their bodies in a curling shape and increasing rate of movements within 2 minutes of exposure. The twisting activity continued for up to 30 minutes. Live RKN J2 responded by increasing activity with the application of 1 μl NaOH in 100 μl of water at pH = 10 also in the 2 minutes to 30 minutes time frame. Furthermore, in growth chamber tests to confirm the infectivity of live SCN. The live SCN as determined by exposure to 1 μl of Na2CO3 indicated 60.5% of the SCN J2 were alive and of those, 29.5% were infective and entered the soybean roots. The 1 μl of NaOH stimulus revealed that 75.2% RKN J2 were alive and of those, 14.9% were infective and entered soybean roots. These results confirmed that 1 μl of Na2CO3 added to 100 μl suspension of SCN J2 and 1 μl of NaOH added to 100 μl suspension of RKN J2 are the effective stimuli for rapidly distinguishing between live and dead SCN and RKN J2 in vitro. SCN and RKN J2 responded differently to different compounds. PMID:27144277

  2. Studies on the management of root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita-wilt fungus, Fusarium oxysporum disease complex of green gram, Vigna radiata cv ML-1108

    HASEEB Akhtar; SHARMA Anita; SHUKLA Prabhat Kumar

    2005-01-01

    Studies were conducted under pot conditions to determine the comparative efficacy of carbofuran at 1 mg a.i./kg soil,bavistin at 1 mg a.i./kg soil, neem (Azadirachta indica) seed powder at 50 mg/kg soil, green mould (Trichoderma harzianum) at 50.0 ml/kg soil, rhizobacteria (Pseudomonas fluorescens) at 50.0 ml/kg soil against root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita-wilt fungus, Fusarium oxysporum disease complex on green gram, Vigna radiata cv ML-1108. All the treatments significantly improved the growth of the plants as compared to untreated inoculated plants. Analysis of data showed that carbofuran and A. indica seed powder increased plant growth and yield significantly more in comparison to bavistin and P.fluorescens. Carbofuran was highly effective against nematode, bavistin against fungus, A. indica seed powder against both the pathogens and both the bioagents were moderately effective against both the pathogens.

  3. Salicylic acid-induced glutathione status in tomato crop and resistance to root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita (Kofoid & White Chitwood

    Hari C. Meher

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Salicylic acid-(SA is a plant defense stimulator. Exogenous application of SA might influence the status of glutathione-(GSH. GSH activates and SA alters the expression of defense genes to modulate plant resistance against pathogens. The fate of GSH in a crop following SA treatment is largely unknown. The SA-induced profiles of free reduced-, free oxidized-(GSSG and protein bound-(PSSG glutathione in tomato crop following foliar treatment of transplant at 5.0-10.0 μg mL–1 were measured by liquid chromatography. Resistance to root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita damaging tomato and crop performance were also evaluated. SA treatment at 5.0-10.0 μg mL–1 to tomato transplants increased GSH, GSSG and PSSG in plant leaf and root, more so in leaf, during crop growth and development. As the fruits ripened, GSH and PSSG increased and GSSG declined. SA reduced the root infection by M. incognita, nematode reproduction and thus, improved the resistance of tomato var. Pusa Ruby, but reduced crop growth and redox status. SA at 5.0 μg mL–1 improved yield and fruit quality. The study firstly linked SA with activation of glutathione metabolism and provided an additional dimension to the mechanism of induced resistance against obligate nematode pathogen. SA increased glutathione status in tomato crop, imparted resistance against M. incognita, augmented crop yield and functional food quality. SA can be applied at 5.0 μg mL–1 for metabolic engineering of tomato at transplanting to combine host-plant resistance and health benefits in formulating a strategic nematode management decision.

  4. Multiyear evaluation of the durability of the resistance conferred by Ma and RMia genes to Meloidogyne incognita in Prunus under controlled conditions.

    Khallouk, Samira; Voisin, Roger; Portier, Ulysse; Polidori, Joël; Van Ghelder, Cyril; Esmenjaud, Daniel

    2013-08-01

    Root-knot nematodes (RKNs) (Meloidogyne spp.) are highly polyphagous pests that parasitize Prunus crops in Mediterranean climates. Breeding for RKN-resistant Prunus cultivars, as an alternative to the now-banned use of nematicides, is a real challenge, because the perennial nature of these trees increases the risk of resistance breakdown. The Ma plum resistance (R) gene, with a complete spectrum, and the RMia peach R gene, with a more restricted spectrum, both provide total control of Meloidogyne incognita, the model parthenogenetic species of the genus and the most important RKN in terms of economic losses. We investigated the durability of the resistance to this nematode conferred by these genes, comparing the results obtained with those for the tomato Mi-1 reference gene. In multiyear experiments, we applied a high and continuous nematode inoculum pressure by cultivating nematode-infested susceptible tomato plants with either Prunus accessions carrying Ma or RMia R genes, or with resistant tomato plants carrying the Mi-1 gene. Suitable conditions for Prunus development were achieved by carrying out the studies in a glasshouse, in controlled conditions allowing a short winter leaf fall and dormancy. We first assessed the plum accession 'P.2175', which is heterozygous for the Ma gene, in two successive 2-year evaluations, for resistance to two M. incognita isolates. Whatever the isolate used, no nematodes reproducing on P.2175 were detected, whereas galls and nematodes reproducing on tomato plants carrying Mi-1 were observed. In a second experiment with the most aggressive isolate, interspecific full-sib material (P.2175 × ['Garfi' almond × 'Nemared' peach]), carrying either Ma or RMia (from Nemared) or both (in the heterozygous state) or neither of these genes, was evaluated for 4 years. No virulent nematodes developed on Prunus spp. carrying R genes, whereas galling and virulent individuals were observed on Mi-1-resistant tomato plants. Thus, the resistance to

  5. Inconsistency of the biological control of Meloidogyne incognita race 2 in melon by endophytic bacteria Inconsistência do controle biológico de Meloidogyne incognita raça 2 em meloeiro por bactérias endofíticas

    Jeane E de Medeiros

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available We obtained 61 rhizobacterium isolates from rhizosphere soil samples collected in melon commercial fields located in Mossoró, Rio Grande do Norte State, Brazil. These isolates, along with 56 endophytic bacteria from the Collection of Cultures of the Plant Bacteriology Laboratory of the Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco, were tested for controlling Meloidogyne incognita race 2 in melon. To infest the soil with nematodes, 1000 eggs of Meloidogyne incognita race 2 per plant were placed in pots where seedlings of the yellow-type melon, cultivar AF 682, were growing for 10 days. Two days before, 20 mL of bacterial suspension (0.7 OD570nm were poured into each pot. After 60 days, fresh root biomass, gall index, egg mass, and the nematode reproduction factor were assessed. Among the 117 isolates screened, the endophytic Bacillus ENM7, ENM10, and ENM51 were selected because they significantly reduced egg mass and/or gall index. However, when tested again, separately and in mixtures, these isolates nor confirmed their efficiency in vivo, neither affected juvenile emergence in vitro. These results give evidence on the inconsistency of using endophytic-bacteria in the control of M. incognita race 2 in melon.A partir de amostras de solo coletadas em plantios comerciais de meloeiro, situados em Mossoró-RN, foram obtidos 61 isolados de rizobactérias que, juntamente com outros 56 isolados endofíticos pertencentes à Coleção de Culturas do Laboratório de Fitobacteriologia da Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco, foram avaliados para o controle de Meloidogyne incognita raça 2 em melão. Plantas de meloeiro Amarelo, cultivar AF 682, com dez dias de idade tiveram o solo infestado com 1000 ovos de M. incognita raça 2 por planta. Dois dias antes, foram depositados em cada vaso 20 mL da suspensão bacteriana (DO570nm = 0,7. Decorridos 60 dias, foram determinados a biomassa fresca das raízes, os índices de galhas e de massa de ovos e o fator de

  6. Avaliação da resistência de genótipos de quiabeiro à infestação por Meloidogyne incognita raça 2 e M. javanica Resistance of okra genotypes to Meloidogyne incognita race 2 and M. javanica

    Gilmar Efrem Martinello

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available Vinte e dois genótipos de quiabeiro (Abelmoschus spp. foram avaliados para resistência à Meloidogyne incognita raça 2 e M. javanica. Estes materiais, mantidos no Banco de Germoplasma da Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense, constam de quatro espécies selvagens Abelmoschus manihot (CGO 8655, A. caillei (CGO 8656, A. tetraphyllus (CGO 8657 e A. ficulneus (CGO 8658; 16 linhas de A. esculentus na sétima geração de autofecundação, resultantes de inter-cruzamentos do genótipo PI-357991 (supostamente resistentes a nematóides com as cultivares Piranema e Santa Cruz 47. Essas cultivares serviram como padrão de suscetibilidade. As plantas foram inoculadas separadamente com 5.000 ovos/segundo estádio juvenil (J2 de M. incognita raça 2 e M. javanica. Não houve diferença significativa com relação à resistência dos materiais a M. javanica. Os genótipos descendentes de 'PI-357991' mostraram-se segregantes para a reação de resistência, sendo que entre estes 'CGO 8180A7' apresentou o maior nível de tolerância à raça 2 de M. incognita. As espécies silvestres também não mostraram alguma fonte de resistência. As altas temperaturas ocorridas no período do experimento, podem ter aumentado a suscetibilidade dos genótipos aos dois patógenos.Twenty two okra genotypes were evaluated for resistance to M. incognita race 2 and M. javanica. The Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense (Brazil maintains okra genotypes in the germplasm collection, consisting of four wild Abelmoschus species and 16 F7 lines obtained from crosses between PI-357991 (considered resistant to root-knot nematodes and the local cvs, Piranema and Santa Cruz 47 (both susceptible to nematodes. No resistance was observed among okra genotypes to infection by M. javanica. The 16 F7 lines segregated for pathogenic reaction, and the CGO 8180A7 presented the highest resistance level to M. incognita race 2. The wild species did not show genetic resistance to both

  7. Description of Meloidogyne incognita from Yantai,Shandong Province of China%采自烟台市的南方根结线虫的描述

    赵洪海; 梁晨; 刘维志; 段玉玺; 刘晔

    2000-01-01

    在烟台市西沙旺苗圃内的剑麻Agave rigida上发现一种根结线虫,经鉴定为南方根结线虫Meloidogyne incognita.该种根结线虫的主要鉴定特征为雌虫口针的基部球横向宽,背食道腺开口到口针基部球的距离近,会阴花纹多数呈六边形,背弓中等到高,多为方形,背线平滑或稍有波浪,侧线不明显.雄虫头冠前缘稍有凹陷,口针基球横向宽,前缘平或向后斜,与基杆界限明显,背食道腺开口距口针基球的距离很短.二龄幼虫直肠有的膨大明显,但在大多数标本中看不到膨大,尾透明末端界限明显或不太明显,指状,末端钝圆.与南方根结线虫的典型群体相比,该群体的雌虫和雄虫的口针都偏小.

  8. Efeito da incorporação de sementes trituradas defeijão de porco ao solo sobre o parasitismo de Meloidogyne incognita em tomateiro

    SILVA GILSON S.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se, em condições de casa de vegetação, o efeito da suplementação do solo com sementes trituradas de feijão de porco (Canavalia ensiformis sobre os índices de galhas e de massas de ovos de Meloidogyne incognita raça 1 em tomateiro (Lycopersicon esculentum. O substrato utilizado foi solo autoclavado suplementado com 2,5; 5,0; 7,5 e 10,0 g de sementes trituradas/kg de solo. Solo sem a suplementação serviu como testemunha. Para efeito de comparação, o nematicida Carbofuran foi incluído como tratamento adicional. Controle do nematóide foi obtido a partir da incorporação de 5,0 g de sementes trituradas/kg de solo, sendo o efeito proporcional à dosagem. Os índices de galhas e massas de ovos foram reduzidos em 48% e 64%, respectivamente, com a aplicação de 10 g de sementes trituradas/kg de solo.

  9. Biocontrol activity of rhizobacteria to Meloidogyne incognita%根际细菌对南方根结线虫的生防活性

    杨敬辉; 陈宏州; 朱桂梅; 吴琴燕; 潘以楼

    2010-01-01

    离体和盆栽试验测定了9株根际细菌对番茄根结线虫(Meloidogyne incognita)的活性.结果表明,供试细菌中菌株Paenibacillus sp.TX-4、Bacillus cereus 1Re107和Pseudomonas fluorescens 2R37对根结线虫二龄幼虫(J2)致死率分别达82.02%、76.52%和70.06%,对卵的孵化抑制率分别为84.46%、82.70%和77.58%.温室盆栽试验结果表明,菌株Paenibacillus sp.TX-4,B.cereus 1Re107和P.fluorescens 2R37能显著(P<0.01)减少番茄根瘤指数;9个供试菌株对番茄生长有显著(P<0.01)的促生作用.

  10. Reaction of vegetables and aromatic plants to Meloidogyne javanica and M. incognita Reação de hortaliças e plantas aromáticas aos nematoides Meloidogyne javanica e M. incognita

    Cláudia Regina Dias-Arieira

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available For this research we used 15 day-old seedlings which were transplanted to 2 L pots and inoculated with 4,000 nematode eggs plus juveniles (J2. After 60 days, the root systems were removed and the number of galls and eggs evaluated and used to calculate the nematode reproduction factor (RF. The tomato cv. Santa Cruz was used as a susceptible control. The experimental design was completely randomized, with six replications. Averages were compared using the Tukey or Scott-Knott test at 5%. For lettuce, Salad Bowl (Mimosa type, Elizabeth and Elisa (Lisa and Vera cultivars (crisphead, the number of galls and the RF for M. javanica were statistically higher than for the control, whereas, for the other vegetable crops, the highest number of galls and eggs were found in chicory and basil. The highest susceptibility to M. incognita was observed in Mimosa lettuce cv. Salad Bowl, chicory cultivars, parsley cv. Graúda Portuguesa and basil. Marjoram exhibited no M. incognita galls.Para avaliar a reação, mudas com 15 dias de idade foram transplantadas para vasos de 2 L de capacidade e inoculadas com 4.000 ovos e eventuais juvenis (J2 dos nematoides. Decorridos 60 dias, os sistemas radiculares foram retirados e avaliados quanto ao número de galhas e ovos, determinando-se o fator de reprodução (FR dos nematoides nas respectivas plantas. Tomateiro cv. Santa Cruz foi utilizado como testemunha. O experimento foi conduzido em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com seis repetições, e as médias foram comparadas pelo teste Tukey ou Scott-Knott a 5% de probabilidade. Nas alfaces tipo Mimosa cv. Salad Bowl; nas cultivares do tipo Lisa, Elizabeth e Elisa; e na cultivar Vera (tipo crespa, o número de galhas e o FR de M. javanica foi superior ao observado para a testemunha; enquanto para as demais oleráceas, os maiores números de galhas e ovos foram para as cultivares de chicória e para o manjericão. Maior suscetibilidade a M. incognita foi observada para

  11. Volatile Substances Produced by Fusarium oxysporum from Coffee Rhizosphere and Other Microbes affect Meloidogyne incognita and Arthrobotrys conoides

    E. S. Freire; Campos, V. P.; Pinho, R. S. C.; Oliveira, D.F.; Faria, M. R.; Pohlit, A. M.; Noberto, N. P.; Rezende, E.L.; L.H. Pfenning; Silva, J. R. C.

    2012-01-01

    Microorganisms produce volatile organic compounds (VOCs) which mediate interactions with other organisms and may be the basis for the development of new methods to control plant-parasitic nematodes that damage coffee plants. In the present work, 35 fungal isolates were isolated from coffee plant rhizosphere, Meloidogyne exigua eggs and egg masses. Most of the fungal isolates belonged to the genus Fusarium and presented in vitro antagonism classified as mutual exclusion and parasitism against ...

  12. influence of some types of Algerian soil on the development of rot-knot nematodes Meloidogyne incognita, M. javanica and M. arenaria (Tylenchida,Meloidogynidae)

    Crops under greenhouses offer the possibility of vegetables production of high added value by focusing on earliness. They help to spread the availability timing of vegetables and fruits in the market throughout the year. However, these crops are subject to numerous attacks entailing heavy losses of yield quantity and quality. The plant parasitic nematodes especially rot-knot nematodes of the genus Meloidogyne are considered dangerous enemies of these cultures. The evolution study of these nematodes in different soil types allows one to compare the migration and movement of these nematodes in sandy soils considered as light soils, in clay soils heavy and intermediate silty clay soils. These soils have also rates of organic matter and a percentage of magnesium and calcium that might provide better conditions to the survival and migration of second stage larvae inoculated at a rate of 650 juveniles per pot of 24 cm in diameter where plants of melon Cucumis melo var. (Charentais) known to be susceptible to Meloidogyne was cultivated. The results for the population development of Meloidogyne, after a growing period of 3 months show an increase in the number of eggs, juvenile stages, inflated, swollen females and males in the 3 types of soil and that independently of clay fraction although clay soil may asphyxiate Meloidogyne. The development of the three species of Meloidogyne studied in these soils, the parameters taken into consideration (index of galls, which were 1.58, 1.75 and 1.5 for the sandy clay and the middle ground soils, vigour index and the evolution of populations of Meloidogyne and roots and soil as well as parameters related to production reveal the adaptation of these root-knot nematodes to the clay and sandy loam soils. At the end of culture, the final populations are important in the soils studied; 2680 for soil S. (sandy), 2272 for soil A (clay) and 2327 for soil I (intermediate) with a multiplication rate almost similar ( 4.12, 3.49 and 3

  13. Efecto de quitina y quitosano sobre huevos y juveniles de nemátodos formadores de nódulos radiculares, Nacobbus aberrans y Meloidogyne incognita bajo condiciones de in vitro e in vivo

    Sánchez Portillo, Juan Fernando

    2010-01-01

    El nematodo agallador Meloidogyne incognita Kofoid y White, 1919, Chitwood, 1949, distribuido en 23 de los 32 estados del país y Nacobbus aberrans Thorne 1935, Thorne and Allen, 1944, distribuido en 10 de 32 estados de la República Mexicana, su combate para ambas especies, casi siempre se hace aplicando diferentes agroquímicos, los cuales algunos ya tienen problemas de registro. Se necesita evaluar nuevos productos que sean otra alternativa a su manejo y mas amigables al ambiente. En el prese...

  14. Efeito do armazenamento na energia corporal de juvenis do segundo estádio de Meloidogyne incognita infestados por Pasteuria penetrans Effect of storage on body energy of second stage juveniles of Meloidogyne incognita infested by Pasteuria penetrans

    Fernando da Silva Rocha

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho, objetivou-se estudar o efeito do período de armazenamento no teor de lipídios de juvenis do segundo estádio (J2 de M. incognita com endósporos de P. penetrans na infectividade e reprodução em tomateiro. Suspensões de M. incognita contendo ou não endósporos de P. penetrans aderidos à cutícula foram armazenadas por 0, 3, 6, 9 e 12 dias, a 28ºC. Após cada período de estocagem, determinou-se a concentração de lipídios neutros corporais por meio da análise de imagem dos J2 coloridos com o corante "Oil Red O". Em seguida, 1.000 J2 foram inoculados em mudas de tomateiros. Após 28 dias, avaliou-se o número de fêmeas parasitadas, número de endósporos/fêmea, número de galhas, massas de ovos e de ovos/g de raiz. O teor de lipídio dos J2 reduziu-se com o aumento do período de estocagem. Porém, maiores perdas ocorreram nos J2 sem endósporos de P. penetrans. A proporção entre as perdas dos J2 com e sem P. penetrans foi pequena e decrescente com o período de estocagem. Entretanto, a desproporção foi grande entre 3 e 6 dias de armazenamento dos J2 com e sem P. penetrans com relação aos parâmetros reprodução e número de galhas, indicando consumo de fontes alternativas ao lipí dio neutro de energia p elo J2 parasitado. Mas o período de armazenamento sempre reduziu a reprodução e número de galhas formadas em tomateiros por J2 com e sem P. penetrans. A perda dessas fontes de energia, ao que tudo indica, leva muitos J2 a morrer antes de chegar ao estádio adulto, pois o número de fêmeas parasitadas reduz-se com o armazenamento, além de propiciar menor produção de endósporos por fêmea. O J2 parasitado por P. penetrans necessita encontrar rapidamente a raiz e não permanecer no solo por mais de 6 dias antes de parasitar a planta.This work aimed to study the effect of storage period on lipid content of second stage juveniles (J2 of M. incognita with endospores of P. penetrans on infectivity and

  15. Efeito de exsudatos radiculares em endósporos de Pasteuria penetrans e em juvenis do segundo estádio de Meloidogyne incognita Effect of root exudates on endospores of Pasteuria penetrans and on second-stage juvenile of Meloidogyne incognita

    Fernando da Silva Rocha

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Juvenis do segundo estádio (J2 de Meloidogyne incognita foram incubados nos exsudatos radiculares de soja (Glycine max, tomateiro (Lycopersicon esculentum, cafeeiro (Coffea arabica, feijoeiro (Phaseolus vulgaris, mostarda (Brassica rapa, Crotalaria juncea e C. spectabilis e em água por 12 h. Em seguida, realizou-se o teste de adesão por centrifugação ou por borbulhamento. Em outro ensaio, endósporos de Pasteuria penetrans foram incubados por quatro dias a 26 ºC nos exsudatos e submetidos à adesão em J2 de M. incognita, sob borbulhamento constante por 24 h em tubos contendo água. Os J2 com endósporos aderidos pelo teste de borbulhamento foram inoculados em mudas de tomateiro. Verificou-se que a incubação dos J2 por 12 h nos exsudatos radiculares testados reduziu o número de endósporos de P. penetrans por J2 independentemente do método de adesão empregado. Os J2 incubados nos exsudatos radiculares testados proporcionaram menor número de fêmeas parasitadas em tomateiro em relação à testemunha (água, bem como menor número de galhas com exceção dos J2 incubados em exsudato do próprio tomateiro. A reprodução dos J2 incubados nos exsudatos radiculares não foi afetada quando comparada à testemunha. A incubação dos endósporos nos exsudatos das plantas testadas reduziu a adesão e a infetividade em J2, em relação à testemunha. Após 28 dias da inoculação, observou-se redução no número de fêmeas parasitadas resultantes da infecção desses J2 com endósporos incubados em exsudatos radiculares comparada com aqueles incubados em água. O parasitismo do J2 com endósporos tratados com exsudatos radiculares e a reprodutividade de fêmeas oriundas da infetividade desses J2 foram semelhantes aos incubados em água.In one assay, second stage juveniles (J2 of Meloidogyne incognita were incubated in root exudates of soybean (Glycine max, tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum, coffee (Coffea arabica, bean (Phaseolus vulgaris

  16. Efecto del filtrado crudo de Purpureocillium sp. (Cepa UdeA0106, sobre la eclosión de huevos y movilidad de juveniles de Meloidogyne incognita-javanica

    Nadya Lorena Cardona Bustos; M.Sc., Ph.D.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Meloidogyne incognita-javanica represents an important threat to the agricultural crops, and it is necessary to seek alternatives for its control. The aim of this research it was to evaluate a crude filtrate from the strain Purpureocillium sp. UdeA0106 in order to establish the in vitro effect on the egg hatching and the immobility of juvenile stages of Meloidogyne spp. The mediums evaluated were malt extract broth (MEB, yeast extract broth (YEB, and potato dextrose broth (PDB, after which it was chosen the one that didn’t produce any damages on nematode eggs and allowed the emergence of the larval stages. The fungus was multiplied for 7 days, and then it was filtrated. To evaluate its effect on the eggs and the J2 of Meloidogyne spp., filtrate concentrations were made at 100 %, 90 %, 70 %, 50 %, 25 % and 10 %, contrasting them with a control composed of the J2 stages in sterile distilled water and PDB. The variables evaluated were the percentage of altered eggs and the immobility observed in J2 stages. The experimental unit was the Petri dish, each one containing 200 eggs /J2. Each treatment was replicated 5 times. It was used a completely randomized design, and an ANOVA was performed (P = 0,05 as well as a multiple comparison test (Tukey. Significant differences were found between all treatments (P < 0,05, although the most effective in inhibiting both egg hatching and J2 mobility (96,8 % were the full strength filtering (100 %. The dilutions at 90 % and 70 %, were able to produce effects with high percentages in the immobility.

  17. Development of Four Populations of Meloidogyne hapla on Two Cultivars, of Cucumber at Different Temperatures

    Stephan, Z. A.; Trudgill, D. L.

    1982-01-01

    The infectivity and development of four populations of Meloidogyne hapla were compared, at three temperatures, on tomato and two varieties of cucumber. A population from Canada produced few root-galls on cucumber and, except at 24 C, no larvae developed into adult females and produced egg masses. In contrast, a population with 45 chromosomes from America produced many galls on cucumber and small proportions of larvae became females and produced egg masses at 20 and 24 C. At 18 C this populati...

  18. Effects of Cropping Sequences on Population Densities of Meloidogyne hapla and Carrot Yield in Organic Soil

    Bélair, Guy

    1992-01-01

    The influence of various cropping sequences on population densities of Meloidogyne hapla and carrot yield was studied in organic soil under microplot-and field conditions. Spinach, radish, barley, oat, and wheat were poor or nonhosts for M. hapla. Population densities of M. hapla were maintained or increased on cabbage, celery, lettuce, leek, marigold, and potato. Marketable percent-age and root weight of carrots were greater following spinach, oat, radish, and fallow-onion than those followi...

  19. Reação de clones de bananeira(Musa spp. ao nematóide Meloidogyne incognita (Kofoid & White, 1919 Chitwood, 1949, Raça 2

    Vilas Boas Lenisa Cezar

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho teve por objetivo estudar em condições de casa de vegetação a reação de clones de bananeira, em relação a Meloidogyne incognita raça 2. Mudas micropropagadas foram inoculadas, utilizando-se da suspensão de M. incognita, formada de ovos e de juvenis do segundo estádio, totalizando 20.000 / muda. A inoculação foi feita após cinco dias do transplante das mudas para sacos de plástico preto de cinco litros de capacidade, contendo solo, areia e esterco, na proporção 3:1:1, esterilizado em caldeira a 100ºC, por duas horas. O delineamento experimental foi o inteiramente casualizado, com quatro repetições. Após 120 dias, os clones foram avaliados. Determinou-se o número de ovos e juvenis contido no sistema radicular, sendo utilizado o clone CPA-34, a cultivar Grande Naine, como padrão de suscetibilidade. Amostras de 200 cm³ de solo foram coletadas para a determinação do número de nematóides no solo. De acordo com os fatores de reprodução (Pf/Pi, verificou-se que o clone CPA-34 apresentou-se suscetível ao nematóide, como era esperado, com o maior fator de reprodução, seguido do clone CPA-49, da cultivar Maçã, com índice superior a um. Os demais clones testados apresentaram fator de reprodução menor que um, indicando certa resistência ao nematóide M. incognita raça 2. Entretanto, nas análises estatísticas, foram verificadas diferenças significativas entre o clone-padrão CPA-34, quando comparado com os clones CPA-58 e CPA-54. Para os resultados de peso de raízes e peso da parte aérea, a diferença foi significativa (1% para todos os clones testados, apresentando os maiores valores para os clones não inoculados.

  20. Application of Mitochondrial DNA Polymorphism to Meloidogyne Molecular Population Biology

    Hyman, B. C.; Whipple, L.E.

    1996-01-01

    Recent advances in molecular biology have enabled the genotyping of individual nematodes, facilitating the analysis of genetic variability within and among plant-pathogenic nematode isolates. This review first describes representative examples of how RFLP, RAPD, AFLP, and DNA sequence analysis have been employed to describe populations of several phytonematodes, including the pinewood, burrowing, root-knot, and cyst nematodes. The second portion of this paper evaluates the utility of a size-v...

  1. REAÇÃO DE GENÓTIPOS DE MILHO (Zea mays L. AOS NEMATÓIDES DE GALHAS (Meloidogyne javanica e M. incognita REACTION OF CORN GENOTYPES (Zea mays L. TO ROOT-KNOT NEMATODES (Melodoigyne javanica and M. incognita

    Hércules Diniz Campos

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Foram conduzidos dois experimentos, sob condições de estufa de produção, com o objetivo de avaliar a reação de oito genótipos de milho em relação aos nematóides formadores de galhas Meloidogyne javanica e M. incognita. Foram testados os híbridos DINA-657, DINA-766, DINA-170, HATÃ-1045, HATÃ-1001, FT-5140, CO-9560 E CO-32. Com relação a M. javanica, observou-se que as cultivares HATÃ-1001, HATÃ-1045, DINA-657 E FT-5140 apresentam os menores fatores de reprodução, destacando-se para uso em programas de rotação de culturas com a soja. Todas as cultivares testadas comportaram-se como boas multiplicadoras de M. incognita, apresentando fatores de reprodução superiores a 3,98. Estas cultivares não devem ser recomendadas para áreas infestadas por esta espécie de nematóide.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Resistência; nematóides de galhas; milho.

  2. Effects of furfural on nematode populations and galling on tomato and pepper

    A commercial formulation of furfural (Multiguard® Protect) was evaluated in greenhouse trials over three seasons for effects on parasitic and beneficial nematode populations in roots and soil, plant growth, and galling on tomato and bell pepper caused by Meloidogyne incognita. ‘Tiny Tim’ tomato (So...

  3. 南方根结线虫诱发新疆野生樱桃李形成的根结形态和发育%Morphology and development of root knot in Xinjiang wild Myrobalan plum infected by Meloidogyne incognita

    刘青; 乔峰; 朱翔; 卢崇烈; 李天忠; 胡建芳

    2013-01-01

    The resistance of Xinjiang wild Myrobalan plum to Meloidogyne incognita was studied through the artificial inoculation. The effects of nematode infection on the activities of the related enzymes were investigated and compared between the nematode-resistant and susceptible plants. The morphological development of root knot formed by Meloidogyne incognita was studied. Resistance segregation was observed between the wild Myrobalan plum plants. Most of them were susceptible while 28% were resistant to Meloidogyne incognita .The phenotype was related to the gene psoRPM1. The activities of CAT and POD were rather higher in the resistant variety than susceptible ones, which might imply that they possibly played roles in the resistant process. Compared to susceptible plants, the activities of PPO and PAL in resistant variety were higher than 7-14 DAI (days after inoculation) ,then maintained at a same level. The root-knot nematode migrated through the cortex to the stele. Microscopic analysis of samples at 10 DAI showed that some giant cells exsited in the infected roots. As the development of giant cells,root knots were observed 22 DAI. Some giant cells in plants were devoid of any cytoplasm in 30 DAI.%以新疆野生樱桃李(Prunus sogdiana Vassilcz.)扦插苗为试材,通过人工接种南方根结线虫(Meloidogyne incognita)鉴定其抗性,同时对抗病与感病单株在接种后的酶活性变化以及根结的形成发育过程进行了研究.结果表明:新疆野生樱桃李对根结线虫抗性发生分离,大部分单株表现为感病,只有28%单株表现为抗病,并且其抗性与本试验室之前克隆得到的抗根结线虫相关基因psoRPM1的表达存在着相关关系.接种根结线虫后CAT、POD酶在抗病植株中的活性高于感病植株,说明它们可能参与了抗根结线虫的生理过程,而PPO和PAL活性则在接种后7~14日抗病植株高于感病植株,之后在两者之间差异不大.接种根结线虫后线

  4. Metagenomic insights into communities, functions of endophytes, and their associates with infection by root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita, in tomato roots.

    Tian, Bao-Yu; Cao, Yi; Zhang, Ke-Qin

    2015-01-01

    Endophytes are known to play important roles in plant's health and productivity. In this study, we investigated the root microbiome of tomato in association with infection by root knot nematodes. Our objectives were to observe the effects and response of the bacterial endophytes before nematode attacks and to reveal the functional attributes of microbes in plant health and nematode pathogenesis. Community analysis of root-associated microbiomes in healthy and nematode-infected tomatoes indicated that nematode infections were associated with variation and differentiation of the endophyte and rhizosphere bacterial populations in plant roots. The community of the resident endophytes in tomato root was significantly affected by nemato-pathogenesis. Remarkably, some bacterial groups in the nematode feeding structure, the root gall, were specifically enriched, suggesting an association with nematode pathogenesis. Function-based metagenomic analysis indicated that the enriched bacterial populations in root gall harbored abundant genes related to degradation of plant polysaccharides, carbohydrate and protein metabolism, and biological nitrogen fixation. Our data indicated that some of the previously assumed beneficial endophytes or bacterial associates with nematode might be involved in nematode infections of the tomato roots. PMID:26603211

  5. Reprodução de Meloidogyne spp. em porta-enxertos e híbridos de pepino Reproduction of Meloidogyne spp. in rootstocks and cucumber hybrids

    Silvia Renata S Wilcken

    2010-03-01

    Tetsukabuto' and 'Excite Ikki' and four cucumber (Cucumis sativus Japanese type hybrids of ('Yoshinari', 'Kouki', 'Taisho' and 'Tsuyataro'. Two experiments were carried out in greenhouse, each one with a nematode specie. Each plot consisted of one plant per pot containing 2 liters of autoclaved soil. Nine days after the seedlings transplantation, each plant was inoculated with 5,000 eggs and second-stage juveniles (initial population - Pi of M. javanica or M. incognita race 2. 'Rutgers' tomatoes were used as a standard for inoculum viability in both experiments. The experimental design was completely randomized with five replicates per treatment. Sixty days after inoculated, each plant was evaluated, when root fresh weight, total number of nematodes in the soil and in the roots (final population - Pf, nematodes number per gram of root and the reproduction factor of both Meloidogyne species (FR=Pf/Pi were determined. All rootstocks and cucumber hybrids allowed the M. javanica and M. incognita race 2 multiplication, but, generally, reproduction factor values were greater in cucumbers than in rootstocks.

  6. Native-plant hosts of Meloidogyne spp. from Western Paraná, Brazil

    Vanessa A. Antes

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study was focused on the parasitism of Meloidogyne species on the roots of native nursery plants from the Atlantic forest. Native plants were selected from a commercial nursery in Western Paraná, searching for the natural infection of Meloidogyne. Also, the seeds of native plants were cultivated in sterile soil and inoculated with M. incognita. In both the experiments, the number of galls and number of eggs and J2 per root, allied to the reproduction factor of M. incognita on each inoculated plant were assessed. Natural infection by M. javanica was found on Cordia ecalyculata, Citharexyllum myrianthum and Aspidosperma subincanum and by M. incognita on Croton urucurana, Lonchocarpus muehlbergianus, Tabebuia impetiginosa and T. serratifolia. Meloidogyne incognita induced galls formation on Genipa americana, Schinus terebinthifolius and Rollinia mucosa after inoculation, which suggested that those plants could host this nematode in natural biomes. Nursery soil should be disinfested before seeding the native forest plants for reforestation purposes

  7. DNA characterization and relationship of the genomes of some Meloidogyne species

    Cesium trifluoroacetate (CsTFA) ultracentrifugation method of DNA isolation proved more satisfactory than phenol extraction. The base composition (%GC) of the DNAs of M. incognita, M. javanica, M. arenaria, and M. hapla, as determined by thermal denaturation tests ranged from 31.0 to 32.6% for all the four species. Similarly, the thermal stability covered a narrow range from 82.97 to 83.630C. The relationship of the genomes of twelve populations representing the four Meloidogyne species was measured by binding hybridized DNA by hydroxyapatite. M. incognita, M. javanica, and M. arenaria were found to be closely related to each other, with 80 to 100% DNA homology to labeled 32P-DNA probes prepared from M. incognita and M. arenaria. M. hapla showed wide divergence with 24.5 to 33.5% DNA homology to the probes. One half of the populations showed a slightly higher percent DNA homology with the non-repetitive sequences of the probes, whereas, the other half with the repetitive fraction. The thermal stabilities of the reassociated DNAs indicated differences of 0 to 2.5% in nucleotide base pairs between the populations and the probes

  8. 根结线虫侵染对番茄叶片保护酶活性及膜脂过氧化的影响%Effects of Meloidogyne Incognita on the Activities of Protective Enzymes and Superoxidation of Membrane Lipid in Solanum Lycopersicum

    李媛媛; 鲁丽鑫; 王冰林

    2011-01-01

    以番茄品种雄风158为试材,研究了根结线虫侵染对其保护酶活性和膜脂过氧化的影响。结果显示,线虫侵染后,番茄叶片的过氧化物酶(POD)、过氧化氢酶(CAT)活性和丙二醛(MDA)含量均远高于未接种番茄。POD活性在接种后1—15d呈上升趋势,然后开始下降,15d时出现峰值;CAT活性在接种后5—15d呈下降趋势,5d时出现峰值;MDA含量持续上升至20d时为最大值;超氧化物歧化酶(SOD)的活性接种1—15d高于未接种番茄,15—20d略低于未接种番茄,10d时出现峰值。研究结果表明,MDA含量可以作为早期判断番茄是否感染根结线虫的一项生理指标。%Under the infection by Meloidogyne incognita, continuous changes of several physiological and chemical indexes in tomato were studied. Results showed that after Meloidogyne incognita infecting, the activities of peroxidase (POD)and eatalase (CAT)and the content of MDA were much higher than non--inoculated. POD activity of plants inoculated by nematode rose in the 1--15d and then declined, and the peak appeared in the 15d. CAT activity of plants inoculated by nematode declined in the 5-- 15d after inoculation and the peak appeared in the 5d. MDA content was the highest in the 20d. SOD activity of plants inoculated by nematode was higher than the non--inoculated in the 1-15d after inoculated, while it was slightly lower than the non--inoculated in the 15--20d. These results suggested that the content of MDA may be as an early physiological index indicating whether the tomato infected by nematode.

  9. Nematode Population Densities and Yield of Sweet Potato and Onion as Affected by Nematicides and Time of Application

    Hall, M.R.; Johnson, A. W.; Smittle, D. A.

    1988-01-01

    Nematode population densities and yield of sweet potato and onion as affected by nematicides and time of application were determined in a 3-year test. Population densities of Meloidogyne incognita race 1 in untreated plots of sweet potato increased each year, but Helicotylenchus dihystera and Criconemella ornata did not. Ethoprop (6.8 kg a.i./ha) incorporated broadcast in the top 15-cm soil layer each spring before planting sweet potato reduced population densities of nematodes in the soil an...

  10. Native-plant hosts of Meloidogyne spp. from Western Paraná, Brazil

    Vanessa A. Antes; Anna P. Comerlato; Adílson Ricken Schuelter; Regina M.D.G. Carneiro; Cleber Furlanetto

    2012-01-01

    The present study was focused on the parasitism of Meloidogyne species on the roots of native nursery plants from the Atlantic forest. Native plants were selected from a commercial nursery in Western Paraná, searching for the natural infection of Meloidogyne. Also, the seeds of native plants were cultivated in sterile soil and inoculated with M. incognita. In both the experiments, the number of galls and number of eggs and J2 per root, allied to the reproduction factor of M. incognita on each...

  11. Effects of Meloidogyne incognita on scavenging system of reactive oxygen species in tomato seedlings grafted with different rootstocks%南方根结线虫对不同砧木嫁接番茄苗活性氧清除系统的影响

    梁朋; 陈振德; 罗庆熙

    2012-01-01

    Root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp. ) have a worldwide distribution and are important endoparasitic pathogens of many plant species. In China, they are becoming one of the most serious diseases with the increase of greenhouse vegetable production. Root-knot nematode disease could inhibit growth and development, and decrease yield and quality of vegetables. The major species of root-knot nematode include M. Incognita, M. Hapla, M. Arenaria and M. Javanica. M. Incognita is widely spread in Shandong province and causes a serious damage to vegetable production. Although physical and chemical approaches have been used to control the disease, they are not always effective and add the cost to tomato production. In addition, the use of chemicals causes severe environmental pollution and the residue in vegetable products may be harmful to human health. Recently, grafting cultivation using resistant rootstock could effectively prevent tomato from this disease. The effect of four resistant rootstocks on root-knot nematode disease, changes of antioxidant enzyme activities and level of reactive oxygen species ( ROS) were investigated in grafted tomato seedlings, using 401, Dahong FA-2160, Fenhe518 and Bulusite as rootstocks, oumeiyuan as scion. The tomato seedlings were planted in pots and inoculated with 3000 of 2nd instars of larval M. Incognita. The results showed that tomato seedlings grafted with rootstocks were highly resistant and self-rooted grafted seedlings were sensitive to M. Incognita. The activities of antioxidant enzymes, such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), catalase (CAT) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) inleaves of scion grafted with different rootstocks were significantly increased, and the production rate of superoxide anion radical (O2~), the contents of malonaldehyde (MDA) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) were reduced comparied with own-rooted grafted seedling, which suggested that the infection aggravated the extent of membrane lipid

  12. Host Suitability of Twelve Leguminosae Species to Populations of Meloidogyne hapla and M. chitwoodi

    Griffin, G. D.; Rumbaugh, M D

    1996-01-01

    Legumes of the genera Astragalus (milkvetch), Coronilla (crownvetch), Lathyrus (pea vine), Lotus (birdsfoot trefoil), Medicago (alfalfa), Melilotus (clover), Trifolium (clover), and Vicia (common vetch) were inoculated with a population of Melaidogyne chitwoodi from Utah or with one of three M. hapla populations from California, Utah, and Wyoming.Thirty-nine percent to 86% of alfalfa (M. scutellata) and 10% to 55% of red clover (T. pratense) plants survived inoculation with the nematode popul...

  13. Inheritance and mapping of Mj-2, a new source of root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne javanica) resistance in carrot

    Root-knot nematodes limit carrot production around the world by inducing taproot forking and galling deformities that render carrots unmarketable. In warmer climates, Meloidogyne javanica and M. incognita are most prevalent. In F2 and F3 progeny from the cross between an Asian carrot resistant to M....

  14. Mentha x piperita, Mentha spicata and Effects of Their Essential Oils on Meloidogyne in Soil

    Walker, J. T.; Melin, J. B.

    1996-01-01

    Six peppermint (Mentha x piperita) and six spearmint (M. spicata) PI accessions were inoculated with Meloidogyne incognita race 3 and M. arenaria race 2, under greenhouse conditions. No galls formed on roots of any of the plants inoculated with 1,800 eggs/pot. Fewer than two galls per root system formed on three PI accessions of peppermint inoculated with M. incognita at 5,400 eggs/pot. Only one peppermint accession developed galls when inoculated with M. arenaria, whereas none of the spearmi...

  15. Efeito de isolados de Paecilomyces lilacinus no desenvolvimento de cafezais e na população de Meloidogyne paranaensis Effect of isolates of Paecilomyces lilacinus on the development of coffee plantations and on the population of Meloidogyne paranaensis

    Marina Capparelli Cadioli

    2009-06-01

    control with the fungus Paecilomyces lilacinus (Thom., 1910 Samson, 1974 stands out as an advantageous alternative of control, from the ecological or economy points of view. Thus, the objective of this work was to evaluate ten isolates of Paecilomyces lilacinus in the control of Meloidogyne paranaensis in coffee trees (Coffea arabica L. cv. Icatú, in greenhouse conditions. In the first experiment, the coffee seedlings were transplanted to substrate where tomato plants were previously cultivated, for M. paranaensis multiplication. The soil was mixed with 50 g rice colonized with ten isolates of P. lilacinus. In the second experiment, coffee seedlings were transplanted to substrate (1 sand: 1 dirt with 50 g rice colonized with the isolates of P. lilacinus. Then, the seedlings were inoculated with suspension of ±5000 eggs of M. paranaensis. In the two experiments, a new application was made with 50 g of the isolates after fifteen days. The design was completely randomized with twelve treatments and ten replicates. After 90 they days were evaluated. The isolated of P. lilacinus did not affect the diameter of the coffee stalk. In the first experiment, the isolates Pae 22, 24, and 28 promoted the growth of the seedlings, all of the isolates reduced the population of eggs in the root system, and the isolates Pae 3 and 12 reduced the population of J2 of M. paranaensis in the soil. In the second experiment, the isolates Pae 3, 10, 12, and 13 favored the growth of the plants but reduced the weight of the fresh roots, all of the isolates reduced the population of J2 in the soil, and the isolates Pae 3, 10, 13, 18, 22, and 24 reduced the malformations caused by M. paranaensis roots.

  16. Effect of Carbamate, Organophosphate, and Avermectin Nematicides on Oxygen Consumption by Three Meloidogyne spp.

    Nordmeyer, D.; Dickson, D.W.

    1989-01-01

    Second-stage juveniles (I2) of Meloidogyne arenaria consumed more oxygen (P ≤ 0.05) than M. incognita J2, which in turn consumed more than M. javanica J2 (4,820, 4,530, and 3,970 μl per hour per g nematode dryweight, respectively). Decrease in oxygen consumption depended on the nematicide used. Except for aldicarb, there was no differential sensitivity among the three nematode species. Meloidogyne javanica had a greater percentage decrease (P ≤ 0.05) in oxygen uptake when treated with aldicar...

  17. Monoclonal Antibodies to Secretory Granules in Esophageal Glands of Meloidogyne Species

    Hussey, R. S.

    1989-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies to secretory granules in the dorsal or subventral esophageal glands were generated by injecting BALB/c mice with immunogens from preparasitic second-stage juveniles (J2) of Meloidogyne incognita. Antibodies specific for secretory granules in the J2 subventral esophageal glands or the dorsal gland were identified by indirect immunofluorescence microscopy. Only antibodies that reacted with granules in the J2 dorsal gland reacted with the esophageal gland lobe ofM. incognit...

  18. Meloidogyne species in cucurbit crops : characterization and quantification of the host-parasite relationship

    López Gómez, Manuel Francisco

    2015-01-01

    The infection process of Meloidogyne arenaria, M. incognita and M. javanica was compared on zucchini squash, cucumber, melon, pumpkin and watermelon in a growth chamber. All cucurbits were susceptible to the three isolates although M. javanica showed higher invasion rates, faster development and egg production than M. arenaria. Differences among cucurbits were primarily due to root invasion rates and formation of egg masses. Cucumber and melon were better hosts for nematode invasion and repro...

  19. Morphological, molecular, and differential-host characterization of Meloidogyne floridensis n. sp (Nematoda : Meloidogynidae), a root-knot nematode parasitizing peach in Florida

    Handoo, Z.A.; Nyczepir, A.P.; Esmenjaud, D.; Beek, van J.G.; Castagnone-Sereno, P.; Carta, L.K.; Skantar, A.M.; Higgins, J.A.

    2004-01-01

    A root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne floridensis n. sp., is described and illustrated from peach originally collected from Gainesville, Florida. This new species resembles M. incognita, M. christiei, M. graminicola, and M. hispanica, but with LM and SEM observations it differs from these species either

  20. Influence of Six Vegetable Cultivars on Reproduction of Meloidogyne javanica

    Bafokuzara, N. D.

    1983-01-01

    Replicated field and greenhouse experiments were used to evaluate the effect of tomato, cabbage, cucumber, carrot, Amaranthus hybridus, and pepper on growth and fecundity of Meloidogyne spp., particularly M. javanica. In the field tests, tomato, cucumber, and carrot favored population increases of Meloidogyne spp., while Amaranthus, pepper, and cabbage limited them. Some cropping sequences that included crops from the latter group had a suppressive effect on population growth. Thus, of the 36...

  1. Descriptions of Meloidogyne camelliae n.sp. and M. querciana n.sp (Nematoda:Meloidogynidae), with SEM and Host-Range Observations.

    Golden, A M

    1979-04-01

    Meloidogyne camelliae n.sp. on camellia (Camellia japonica) from Japan and M. querciana n.sp. on pin oak (Quercus palustris) from Virginia, USA, are described and illustrated. M. camelliae n.sp. is distingnishable from other species of the genus especially by its striking perineal pattern having heavy ropelike striae forming a squarish to rectangular outline with shoulders or projections, appearing sometimes ahnost starlike. M. querciana differs from other species by its characteristic perineal pattern round to oval in outline, sometimes with a low arch, and sunken vulva surrounded by a prominent obovate area devoid of striae. M. querciana shows some relationship to M. ovalis, but differs further fxom the latter by longer larvae, absence of annules on head of larvae, and rarity of males. Examination of specimens of M. camelliae n.sp. and M. querciana n.sp. with the scanning electron microscope confirmed observations made by optical microscopy and revealed diagnostic and other structures in greater detail. In greenhouse host tests, M. camelliae infected camellia heavily, showed moderate infection on oxalis, only a trace infection on tomato, and no infection on five other plants tested; and M. querciana attacked pin oak, red oak, and American chestnut heavily, but did not infect nine other test plants. In another test, pin oak seedlings did not become infected when heavily inoculated with and grown in the presence of two populations of M. incognita incognita and one of M. incognita acrita. The common names "camellia root-knot nematode" and "oak root-knot nematode" are respectively proposed for M. camelliae and M. querciana. PMID:19305554

  2. Evaluation of Cover Crops with Potential for Use in Anaerobic Soil Disinfestation (ASD) for Susceptibility to Three Species of Meloidogyne

    Kokalis-Burelle, Nancy; Butler, David M.; Rosskopf, Erin N.

    2013-01-01

    Several cover crops with potential for use in tropical and subtropical regions were assessed for susceptibility to three common species of root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne arenaria, M. incognita, and M. javanica. Crops were selected based on potential use as organic amendments in anaerobic soil disinfestation (ASD) applications. Nematode juvenile (J2) numbers in soil and roots, egg production, and host plant root galling were evaluated on arugula (Eruca sativa, cv. Nemat), cowpea (Vigna unguic...

  3. Pathogenic Variability Among Isolates of Meloidogyne javanica on Capsicum annum

    Khan, B. (Bilal); Khan, A.A.; Khan, M. R.

    2003-01-01

    Meloidogyne javanica isolates were collected from nine districts of Uttar Pradesh. These isolates showed pathogenic variability when inoculated on the pepper cultivars California Wonder and Suryamukhi Green. Meloidogyne javanica that infected Suryamukhi Green but not California Wonder were designated as pepper race 1 and the populations that infected both the cultivars were designated pepper race 2. Race 1 was more frequent than race 2 in Almora, Pauri Garhwal, Basti, Gorakhpur, and Deoria, w...

  4. Enhanced Synthesis of Antioxidant Enzymes, Defense Proteins and Leghemoglobin in Rhizobium-Free Cowpea Roots after Challenging with Meloydogine incognita

    Jose T. A. Oliveira

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The root knot nematodes (RKN, Meloydogine spp., particularly Meloidogyne incognita and Meloidogyne javanica species, parasitize several plant species and are responsible for large annual yield losses all over the world. Only a few available chemical nematicides are still authorized for RKN control owing to environmental and health reasons. Thus, plant resistance is currently considered the method of choice for controlling RKN, and research performed on the molecular interactions between plants and nematodes to identify genes of interest is of paramount importance. The present work aimed to identify the differential accumulation of root proteins of a resistant cowpea genotype (CE-31 inoculated with M. incognita (Race 3 in comparison with mock-inoculated control, using 2D electrophoresis assay, mass spectrometry identification and gene expression analyses by RT-PCR. The results showed that at least 22 proteins were differentially represented in response to RKN challenge of cowpea roots mainly within 4–6 days after inoculation. Amongst the up-represented proteins were SOD, APX, PR-1, β-1,3-glucanase, chitinases, cysteine protease, secondary metabolism enzymes, key enzymes involved in ethylene biosynthesis, proteins involved in MAPK pathway signaling and, surprisingly, leghemoglobin in non-rhizobium-bacterized cowpea. These findings show that an important rearrangement in the resistant cowpea root proteome occurred following challenge with M. incognita.

  5. Reproduction of Meloidogyne chitwoodi on Popcorn Cultivars

    Cardwell, D. M.; Ingham, R. E.

    1997-01-01

    Popcorn cultivars were evaluated in field and greenhouse tests for resistance to the Columbia root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne chitwoodi, as potential resistant crops in potato rotations. A nematode reproductive factor (Rf) was calculated for each cultivar. Reproductive factor values also were compared on a relative basis as percentages of the Rf on a susceptible field corn standard, Pioneer 3578. Popcorn cultivars W206 and Robust 33-77 consistently supported low population densities of M. chi...

  6. Eficàcia d'extractes i components vegetals sobre Meloideogyne incognita en cultius hortícoles.

    Martínez Ortiz, Magdalena

    2014-01-01

    During the last decades, in traditional agriculture the control of nematodes has been based on the use of chemical nematicides. These products have a strong impact on the soil and the environment. Other alternatives based on natural products have been sought. In this way, two tests were carried out in order to determine i) the effect of 1:10 and 1:50 solutions of oxalic acid (OA) (10 mg oxalic acid / ml water) on the infective and reproductive capability of Meloidogyne incognita on tomato cv....

  7. Efeito da Incorporação de Folhas de Nim ao Solo sobre o Complexo Fusarium x Meloidogyne em Quiabeiro Effect of amendment of soil with neem leaf on Fusarium x Meloidogyne on okra

    Gilson Soares da Silva; Aurenice Lucena Pereira

    2008-01-01

    O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito da incorporação de folhas frescas de nim (Azadirachta indica) ao solo, sobre o complexo Fusarium x Meloidogyne em quiabeiro (Abelmoschus esculentum) em um experimento realizado em condições de casa de vegetação. Os tratamentos constaram da adição de 25g ou 50g de folhas trituradas/kg de solo previamente autoclavado e inoculado com M. incognita, Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum, juntos e isoladamente, contidos em vasos com capacidade de 2 L. ...

  8. Biochemical studies of M. incognita and M. javanica towards their identification.

    Sharma, Charul; Singh, Sohini

    2016-06-01

    Biochemical analysis is a reliable, quick, yet effective way for profiling any organism. The same tools when employed in taxonomic queries, they aid substantially and support the process. Taxonomic queries have been since beginning presenting numerable challenges towards the studies of different plant parasitic nematodes. In the present study various biochemical tests have been employed to assess the differentiation among the two dominant sps. of Meloidogyne i.e., M. incognita and M. javanica. Some of the biochemical parameters considered were the specific concentrations of carbohydrates and cholesterol and were monitored in the juvenile and the female of the respective species. Results have been discussed in details along with its employability towards the taxonomical studies especially with reference to plant parasitic nematodes. PMID:27413284

  9. Tourism Incognita: Experiencing the Liminal Edge of Destination Places

    Lew, Alan A.

    2013-01-01

    In the age of European exploration, terra incognita referred to lands that were largely unknown to Europeans. In the world of contemporary tourism, tourism incognita refers to the lands and experiences that are largely unknown to the global mass tourism industry (tourism cognita). Tourism incognita includes specialty niche tourisms that operate on the edge and beyond of mass tourism, as well as the entire world of non-tourism places. Examples of tourism cognita and tourism incognita that are ...

  10. Efeito da Incorporação de Folhas de Nim ao Solo sobre o Complexo Fusarium x Meloidogyne em Quiabeiro Effect of amendment of soil with neem leaf on Fusarium x Meloidogyne on okra

    Gilson Soares da Silva

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito da incorporação de folhas frescas de nim (Azadirachta indica ao solo, sobre o complexo Fusarium x Meloidogyne em quiabeiro (Abelmoschus esculentum em um experimento realizado em condições de casa de vegetação. Os tratamentos constaram da adição de 25g ou 50g de folhas trituradas/kg de solo previamente autoclavado e inoculado com M. incognita, Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum, juntos e isoladamente, contidos em vasos com capacidade de 2 L. Solo sem folhas de nim serviu como testemunha. O experimento foi realizado seguindo um delineamento inteiramente casualizado com seis repetições, sendo cada repetição representada por um vaso com 5 plantas. As folhas foram incorporadas 30 dias antes do plantio e a avaliação deu-se 90 dias após o plantio, adotando-se a percentagem de plantas mortas como parâmetro para avaliar o efeito dos tratamentos. A incorporação de 50g de folhas frescas de nim foi eficiente para o controle de Meloidogyne e Fusarium isoladamente, bem como na interação desses patógenos. A incorporação de 25g de folhas de nim mostrou-se eficiente apenas para o controle de Meloidogyne isoladamente.The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of soil ammendment with neem (Azadirachta indica leaf on the complex Fusarium x Meloidogyne in okra (Abelmoschus esculentum in greenhouse conditions. The treatments consisted of the addition of 25g or 50g of leaves per kg of soil and infested with M. incognita and Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum, together and separately, contained in pots with capacity of 2 L. Soil without supplement it served as the control. The experimental design was completely randomized with six replications and five plants per pot. The leaves were incorporate 30 days before planting and the evaluation 90 days later. The percentagem of dead plants was used to evaluate the efficiency of neem. The incorporation of 50g of fresh neem leaves was

  11. Meloidogyne minor: een nieuw beschreven Meloidogyne-soort

    Lammers, W.; Karssen, G.; Hendriks, H.

    2007-01-01

    De nieuwe nematode soort Meloidogyne minor veroorzaakte in 2000 wortelknobbelsymptomen bij aardappelen op een perceel in Drenthe. Deze soort blijkt ook yellow patch disease te verookzaken in Engeland en Ierland. De plantenziektekundige dienst besloten hierom in samenwerking met de diensten in Engela

  12. Identification of Meloidogyne species associated with upland ornamentals plants in Costa Rica.

    Stefany Solano-González

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to identify nematodes species of the genus Meloidogyne associated with upland ornamental plants. We sampled ten ornamental species in a commercial nursery in San Isidro, Heredia, Costa Rica between 2011-2012. Morphometric measurements of the stylet length, the tail length, and the hyaline region of J2s, as well as perineal patterns of egg-carrying females were used for identification, Genomic DNA was extracted from single J2s and molecular analyses were performed by amplifying the intergenic region between cytochrome oxidase subunit II of the COII and the long subunit of the ARN ribosomal genes by PCR-RFLP. Combining these methods allowed identification of five species of nematodes of the genus Meloidogyne (M. arenaria, M. hapla, M. hispanica, M. incognita and M. javanica, and new restriction enzyme patterns were reported for M. hapla and M. javanica using AluI. Additionally, a preliminary report of M. hispanica was described by sequencing the 28S and 18S regions.

  13. Effects of Anaerobically Digested Slurry on Meloidogyne incognita and Pratylenchus penetrans in Tomato and Radish Production

    Since effective disposable way of anaerobically digested biogas slurry is expected, ADS was applied to soil to evaluate its effects on nematode damage. Damage index of tomato by root-knot nematode was significantly (P4+ -N kg-1) than that in those with chemical fertilizer and control (no ADS). ADS was applied into radish cultivated fields infested with the root-lesion nematode: a single (100 kg NH4+ -N ha-1) in 2007 and 2008 and multiple applications (25, 50, 25 kg NH4+-N ha-1 soil) in 2009. Damage to radish was 30% and 50% lower in ADS-treated fields than that in the control in 2007 and 2009, respectively, although not in 2008. These results suggest that application of ADS to fields might be feasible for mitigating nematode damage, but the rate and timing should be considered further for the best application way.

  14. Greenhouse evaluation of capsicum rootstocks for management of meloidogyne incognita on grafted bell pepper

    The growth, development, and nematode susceptibility of various rootstock genotypes grafted to a commercial bell pepper variety scion were evaluated in a series of greenhouse experiments. Nine rootstocks including ‘Caribbean Red Habanero’, ‘ PA-136’ , ‘Keystone Resistant Giant’, ‘Yolo Wonder’, ‘Car...

  15. Expression of a Cystatin Transgene in Eggplant Provides Resistance to Root-knot Nematode, Meloidogyne incognita

    Papolu, Pradeep K.; Dutta, Tushar K.; Tyagi, Nidhi; Urwin, Peter E.; Lilley, Catherine J.; Rao, Uma

    2016-01-01

    Root-knot nematodes (RKN) cause substantial yield decline in eggplant and sustainable management options to minimize crop damage due to nematodes are still limited. A number of genetic engineering strategies have been developed to disrupt the successful plant–nematode interactions. Among them, delivery of proteinase inhibitors from the plant to perturb nematode development and reproduction is arguably the most effective strategy. In the present study, transgenic eggplant expressing a modified rice cystatin (OC-IΔD86) gene under the control of the root-specific promoter, TUB-1, was generated to evaluate the genetically modified nematode resistance. Five putative transformants were selected through PCR and genomic Southern blot analysis. Expression of the cystatin transgene was confirmed in all the events using western blotting, ELISA and qPCR assay. Upon challenge inoculation, all the transgenic events exhibited a detrimental effect on RKN development and reproduction. The best transgenic line (a single copy event) showed 78.3% inhibition in reproductive success of RKN. Our results suggest that cystatins can play an important role for improving nematode resistance in eggplant and their deployment in gene pyramiding strategies with other proteinase inhibitors could ultimately enhance crop yield. PMID:27516765

  16. Effects of Anaerobically Digested Slurry on Meloidogyne incognita and Pratylenchus penetrans in Tomato and Radish Production

    Yu Yu Min

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Since effective disposable way of anaerobically digested biogas slurry is expected, ADS was applied to soil to evaluate its effects on nematode damage. Damage index of tomato by root-knot nematode was significantly (<.05 lower and the growth better in pots applied with ADS (100 and 200 mg NH+4-N kg−1 than that in those with chemical fertilizer and control (no ADS. ADS was applied into radish cultivated fields infested with the root-lesion nematode: a single (100 kg NH+4-N ha−1 in 2007 and 2008 and multiple applications (25, 50, 25 kg NH+4-N ha−1 soil in 2009. Damage to radish was 30% and 50% lower in ADS-treated fields than that in the control in 2007 and 2009, respectively, although not in 2008. These results suggest that application of ADS to fields might be feasible for mitigating nematode damage, but the rate and timing should be considered further for the best application way.

  17. Resistência de porta-enxertos para pessegueiro e ameixeira aos nematóides causadores de galhas (Meloidogyne spp. Resistance of rootstock for peach tree and plum to root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp.

    José Carlos Fachinello

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho foi realizado com o objetivo de comparar o comportamento de cinco diferentes porta-enxertos para frutas de caroço em frente a duas espécies de nematóides do gênero Meloidogyne (Meloidogyne javanica e Meloidogyne incognita. O cultivar GF 677 foi obtido a partir do cultivo in vitro e os demais porta-enxertos a partir de sementes. Aos dois meses, as plântulas foram repicadas e inoculadas com uma mistura de Meloidogyne javanica e M. incognita aos 30, 60 e 70 dias após o plantio em canteiros incorporando-se 0,2kg de solo altamente infestado com os nematóides ao redor de cada planta. Ao final do experimento, avaliaram-se o desenvolvimento das plantas e o grau de infecção de cada cultivar. O grau de resistência dos cultivares foi estimado a partir do índice de galhas, obtido através de uma escala de grau ou nota, a qual varia de 0 a 5, em função do número de galhas ou ootecas. Os resultados obtidos demonstraram que o cultivar Okinawa não apresentou galhas no sistema radicular e na análise de crescimento foi superior aos demais cultivares. Os cultivares R-15-2 e Aldrighi foram considerados resistentes aos fitonematóides por apresentarem pequeno número de galhas no sistema radicular. Já o cultivar GF 677 apresentou maior número de galhas no sistema radicular, chegando a 126 galhas/g de raiz.The work was carried out with the objective of comparing the response of five different stone fruit rootstocks to two nematode species (Meloidogyne javanica and Meloidogyne incognita. The cultivar GF677, which was obtained from in vitro cultivation and the others rootstocks, were obtained from seedlings. Two month old plants were transplanted and inoculated with a mixture of both nematode species at 30, 60, 70 days after planting, by incorporating 0.2kg of highly infested soil around each cultivar. The development of the roststocks were evaluated at the end of the experiment. Number of galls, ranging from 0 to 5 was used to score the

  18. Management of Root-Nematode (Meloidogyne SPP)

    Greenhouse and field experiments were undertaken to determine the possibility of using soil amendments with different C:N levels or applied at different rates and times in the control of root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp.)in tomato c.v Cal J.A naturally infested field was used while artificial inoculation was done in the greenhouse. Root galling was rated on a scale of 0-10, nematode population was estimated by counting second stage juveniles extracted from 200 cm3 soil and fruit yields were recorded at the end of the season. Nematode population densities and galling indices were significantly (P< or=0.05) lower in amended soils compared to the control. Application of the amendments also resulted in significant (P< or=0.05) increase in yields. Chicken manure, compost manure, neem products and pig manure were were the most effective amendments. Fresh chicken manure had a more suppressive effect on nematode than when the manure was decomposed within or outside a nematode infested field. A general decrease in juvenile populations and galling was observed with increase of organic amendments applied

  19. Identification, host range and infection process of Meloidogyne marylandi from turf grass in Israel

    Oka, Y.; Karssen, G.; Mor, M.

    2003-01-01

    A population of a root-knot nematode species was isolated from Zoysia japonica in a turf nursery in Israel. Measurements and morphology of the second-stage juveniles and adult females, including perineal pattern, indicated this nematode to be Meloidogyne marylandi. In addition, esterase (Est) and ma

  20. Reproduction of Meloidogyne javanica on Corn Hybrids and Inbreds

    Windham, G. L.; Williams, W. P.

    1988-01-01

    The reproductive potential of a Meloidogyne javanica population on 64 commercial corn hybrids and 33 corn inbred lines was determined in greenhouse experiments. Reproduction was measured by determining RF values (final egg number per initial egg number) and number of eggs per gram of fresh root. All corn hybrids supported reproduction greater than RF = 1.0. RF values for the hybrids ranged from 1.1 for 'Pioneer 3147' to 15.5 for 'Coker 8575'. Three inbreds -- MpT03, NC246, and Mp307 -- mainta...

  1. Identificación de genes candidatos de patogenicidad en la interacción de la cepa cenicafe 9501 con el nemátodo del nudo radical meloidogyne spp.

    Cardona Bustos, Nadya Lorena; Betancur Pérez, Jhon Fredy; Rivera Serna, Luis Fernando; Gaitán Bustamante, Alvaro

    2012-01-01

    Resumen. En 1997 se registró por primera vez el aislamiento de un hongo Hyphomycete de suelos de Chinchiná (Caldas, Colombia) atacando huevos y otros estadios biológicos de las especies de nematodos fitoparásitos Meloidogyne incognita y M. javanica provenientes de lotes comerciales con café. Debido a la imposibilidad de clasificarlo taxonómicamente en los géneros actuales, este aislamiento se ha denominado temporalmente como CENICAFE 9501. Dado su potencial como biocontrolador, se propuso ide...

  2. Importance of Temperature in the Pathology of Meloidogyne hapla and M. chitwoodi on Legumes

    Griffin, G. D.; Jensen, K B

    1997-01-01

    Effects of temperatures on the host-parasite relationships were studied for three legume species and four populations of root-knot nematodes from the western United States. The nematode populations were Meloidogyne hapla from California (MHCA), Utah (MHUT), and Wyoming (MHWY), and a population of M. chitwoodi from Utah (MCUT). The legumes were milkvetch (Astragalus cicer), alfalfa (Medicago sativa), and yellow sweet clover (Melilotus officinalis). All milkvetch plants survived inoculation wit...

  3. Influence of Six Vegetable Cultivars on Reproduction of Meloidogyne javanica.

    Bafokuzara, N D

    1983-10-01

    Replicated field and greenhouse experiments were used to evaluate the effect of tomato, cabbage, cucumber, carrot, Amaranthus hybridus, and pepper on growth and fecundity of Meloidogyne spp., particularly M. javanica. In the field tests, tomato, cucumber, and carrot favored population increases of Meloidogyne spp., while Amaranthus, pepper, and cabbage limited them. Some cropping sequences that included crops from the latter group had a suppressive effect on population growth. Thus, of the 36 cropping sequences that were investigated, the following kept the pests in check: tomato-pepper; tomato-Amaranthus; cabbage-pepper; Amaranthus-pepper; carrot-cabbage; pepper-pepper; pepper-Amaranthus; and Amaranthus-pepper. In the greenhouse tests, tomato, cucumber, and carrot had a high number of galls per 50 cm of root, large, conspicuous galls and egg masses, and a high number of larvae per egg mass. Thus, they were highly susceptible. Cabbage and Amaranthus were unsuitable hosts as reflected in the absence of galls or a low number per 50 cm of root. small size of galls and egg masses, and few progeny on the subsequent crop of pepper. The length of time required for eggs to hatch on different hosts varied considerably and is thought to be a significant factor in infection of hosts. PMID:19295847

  4. Tinea Incognita following the Use of an Antipsoriatic Gel

    Starace, Michela; Alessandrini, Aurora; Piraccini, Bianca Maria

    2015-01-01

    Tinea incognita is a dermatophyte infection of the skin whose clinical presentation has been modified by the misuse of steroids or, as has been described recently, calcineurin inhibitors. We report a case of pustular psoriasis treated with an antipsoriatic cream, composed of topical steroids and a vitamin D3 derivative, which gave rise to a tinea incognita. Our case underlines that clinical features of fungal infection can be modified by the increasing use of self-prescribed topical therapies...

  5. Influence of Rotation Crops on the Strawberry Pathogens Pratylenchus penetrans, Meloidogyne hapla, and Rhizoctonia fragariae

    LaMondia, J. A.

    1999-01-01

    Field microplot, small plot, and greenhouse experiments were conducted to determine the effects of rotation crops on Pratylenchus penetrans, Meloidogyne hapla, and Rhizoctonia fragariae populations. Extraction of P. penetrans from roots and soil in microplots and field plots planted to rotation crops was highest for Garry oat, lowest for Triple S sorgho-sudangrass and Saia oat, and intermediate for strawberry, buckwheat, and canola. Isolation of R. fragariae from bait roots was highest for st...

  6. Resistance verification in Prunus selections to a mixture of thirteen Meloidogyne isolates and resistance mechanisms of a peach-almond hybrid to M. javanica

    Marull, J.; Pinochet, J.; Felipe, A.; Cenis, J. L.

    1994-01-01

    Treize isolats de #Meloidogyne$ originaires d'Espagne comprenant #M. incognita$ (six), #M. arenaria$ (six) et #M. javanica$ (trois) ont été utilisés pour vérifier le niveau de résistance de douze porte-greffe de #Prunus$. La majorité de ces porte-greffe était constituée d'hybrides pêcher-amandier en cours de sélection. Lors d'un premier essai, les hybrides G X N Nos 3, 7, 14, 16 et Cachirulo, l'amandier D-3-5 et le pêcher Nemared ont montré différents niveaux de résistance à un mélange de dou...

  7. Tinea Incognita in a Patient with Crest Syndrome: Case Report.

    Gorgievska-Sukarovska, Biljana; Skerlev, Mihael; Žele-Starčević, Lidija

    2015-01-01

    Tinea incognita is a dermatophytic infection that is difficult to diagnose, usually modified by inappropriate topical or systemic corticosteroid therapy. We report an extensive case of tinea incognita caused by the zoophilic dermatophyte Trichophyton mentagrophytes (var. granulosa) in a 49-year-old female patient with CREST (Calcinosis; Raynaud phenomenon; Esophageal involvement; Sclerodactyly; Teleangiectasia) syndrome. Immunocompromised patients, as well as patients with keratinization disorders, seem to be especially susceptible to dermatophytic infections with atypical clinical presentation that is sometimes bizarre and difficult to recognize. Therefore, close monitoring and mycological skin examination is recommended in order to avoid misdiagnosis and to give the patient the best chance of recovery. PMID:26476904

  8. Dynamic role of organic matter and bioagent for the management of Meloidogyne incognita–Rhizoctonia solani disease complex on tomato in relation to some growth attributes

    Rose Rizvi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A disease complex involving Meloidogyne incognita–Rhizoctonia solani was studied on tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum var. Pusa Ruby under glasshouse conditions to determine their concomitant effect on plant growth variables. Biofertilizers Nerium indicum and Trichoderma harzianum were tested against both pathogens individually as well as concomitantly and found its role in minimizing disease severity. Inoculation of M. incognita and R. solani resulted a significant reduction in plant growth variables over control. The plant growth variables reduction was more pronounced by M. incognita as compared to R. solani. However, T. harzianum exhibited their potential against the disease complex but was less effective than N. indicum. A manifold improvement in plant growth parameters was observed when plants were treated with biofertilizers, N. indicum and T. harzianum simultaneously. The present work has revealed that the combined application of N. indicum and T. harzianum may be a better option for the management of disease complex M. incognita–R. solani on tomato. Application of these biofertilizers after field trials may be suitable module of organic farming.

  9. Tinea Incognita following the Use of an Antipsoriatic Gel.

    Starace, Michela; Alessandrini, Aurora; Piraccini, Bianca Maria

    2016-02-01

    Tinea incognita is a dermatophyte infection of the skin whose clinical presentation has been modified by the misuse of steroids or, as has been described recently, calcineurin inhibitors. We report a case of pustular psoriasis treated with an antipsoriatic cream, composed of topical steroids and a vitamin D3 derivative, which gave rise to a tinea incognita. Our case underlines that clinical features of fungal infection can be modified by the increasing use of self-prescribed topical therapies, usually applied to treat incorrectly 'self-diagnosed' diseases. Moreover, we suggest that a mycological examination should be performed in every atypical presentation of skin lesion, and to rule out tinea pedis, in any disease of the feet that requires topical application of steroids. PMID:27171394

  10. Biological Control of Meloidogyne hapla Using an Antagonistic Bacterium

    Jiyeong Park

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available We examined the efficacy of a bacterium for biocontrol of the root-knot nematode (RKN Meloidogyne hapla in carrot (Daucus carota subsp. sativus and tomato (Solanum lycopersicum. Among 542 bacterial isolates from various soils and plants, the highest nematode mortality was observed for treatments with isolate C1-7, which was identified as Bacillus cereus based on cultural and morphological characteristics, the Biolog program, and 16S rRNA sequencing analyses. The population density and the nematicidal activity of B. cereus C1-7 remained high until the end of culture in brain heart infusion broth, suggesting that it may have sustainable biocontrol potential. In pot experiments, the biocontrol efficacy of B. cereus C1-7 was high, showing complete inhibition of root gall or egg mass formation by RKN in carrot and tomato plants, and subsequently reducing RKN damage and suppressing nematode population growth, respectively. Light microscopy of RKN-infected carrot root tissues treated with C1-7 showed reduced formation of gall cells and fully developed giant cells, while extensive gall cells and fully mature giant cells with prominent cell wall ingrowths formed in the untreated control plants infected with RKNs. These histopathological characteristics may be the result of residual or systemic biocontrol activity of the bacterium, which may coincide with the biocontrol efficacies of nematodes in pots. These results suggest that B. cereus C1-7 can be used as a biocontrol agent for M. hapla.

  11. The map-1 gene family in root-knot nematodes, Meloidogyne spp.: a set of taxonomically restricted genes specific to clonal species.

    Iva Tomalova

    Full Text Available Taxonomically restricted genes (TRGs, i.e., genes that are restricted to a limited subset of phylogenetically related organisms, may be important in adaptation. In parasitic organisms, TRG-encoded proteins are possible determinants of the specificity of host-parasite interactions. In the root-knot nematode (RKN Meloidogyne incognita, the map-1 gene family encodes expansin-like proteins that are secreted into plant tissues during parasitism, thought to act as effectors to promote successful root infection. MAP-1 proteins exhibit a modular architecture, with variable number and arrangement of 58 and 13-aa domains in their central part. Here, we address the evolutionary origins of this gene family using a combination of bioinformatics and molecular biology approaches. Map-1 genes were solely identified in one single member of the phylum Nematoda, i.e., the genus Meloidogyne, and not detected in any other nematode, thus indicating that the map-1 gene family is indeed a TRG family. A phylogenetic analysis of the distribution of map-1 genes in RKNs further showed that these genes are specifically present in species that reproduce by mitotic parthenogenesis, with the exception of M. floridensis, and could not be detected in RKNs reproducing by either meiotic parthenogenesis or amphimixis. These results highlight the divergence between mitotic and meiotic RKN species as a critical transition in the evolutionary history of these parasites. Analysis of the sequence conservation and organization of repeated domains in map-1 genes suggests that gene duplication(s together with domain loss/duplication have contributed to the evolution of the map-1 family, and that some strong selection mechanism may be acting upon these genes to maintain their functional role(s in the specificity of the plant-RKN interactions.

  12. Plant Nutrient Partitioning in Coffee Infected with Meloidogyne konaensis.

    Hurchanik, Denise; Schmitt, D P; Hue, N V; Sipes, B S

    2004-03-01

    Two experiments were conducted to assess nutrient partitioning in coffee (Coffea arabica cv. Typica land race Guatemala) infected with Meloidogyne konaensis. Nutrient levels were quantified from soil, roots, and leaves. In the first experiment, 500-cm3 aliquants of a Kealakekua Andisol were infested with four initial population densities of M. konaensis ranging from 0 to 1,500 freshly hatched second-stage juveniles. Coffee plants (~3 months old) were transplanted into the soil and grown for 25 weeks. Plants responded to nematode infection with decreases (P < 0.05) in concentrations of Ca, Mg, P, and B and increases (P < 0.05) in concentrations of Mn, Cu, Zn, and Ca/B in the roots. Mn and Cu uptake by roots was decreased (P < 0.05) by nematode infection even though concentrations of Mn and Cu increased (P < 0.05) in the roots. Concentrations of Ca and Mg also decreased (P < 0.05) in the leaves, whereas the concentration of Zn increased (P < 0.05). In the second experiment, the soil was amended with Zn at 0 or 5 mg/kg soil and infested with M. konaensis at 0, 100, 1,000 or 10,000 eggs/1,200 cm(3) soil. Three-month-old coffee seedlings of similar height were weighed and transplanted into pots and then placed in a greenhouse and grown under 50% shade for 23 weeks. Concentrations of P, K, Ca, Mg, Mn, B, and Zn increased in roots of nematode-free plants growing in Zn-amended soil. The beneficial effects due to the Zn amendment were not apparent in nematode-infected plants. Mn, B, and Zn uptake by coffee roots and P and B concentrations in coffee leaves responded similarly. Management of M. konaensis is necessary to achieve optimal nutrient management in coffee. PMID:19262790

  13. Plant Nutrient Partitioning in Coffee Infected with Meloidogyne konaensis

    Hurchanik, Denise; Schmitt, D. P.; Hue, N. V.; Sipes, B. S.

    2004-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to assess nutrient partitioning in coffee (Coffea arabica cv. Typica land race Guatemala) infected with Meloidogyne konaensis. Nutrient levels were quantified from soil, roots, and leaves. In the first experiment, 500-cm3 aliquants of a Kealakekua Andisol were infested with four initial population densities of M. konaensis ranging from 0 to 1,500 freshly hatched second-stage juveniles. Coffee plants (~3 months old) were transplanted into the soil and grown for 25 weeks. Plants responded to nematode infection with decreases (P < 0.05) in concentrations of Ca, Mg, P, and B and increases (P < 0.05) in concentrations of Mn, Cu, Zn, and Ca/B in the roots. Mn and Cu uptake by roots was decreased (P < 0.05) by nematode infection even though concentrations of Mn and Cu increased (P < 0.05) in the roots. Concentrations of Ca and Mg also decreased (P < 0.05) in the leaves, whereas the concentration of Zn increased (P < 0.05). In the second experiment, the soil was amended with Zn at 0 or 5 mg/kg soil and infested with M. konaensis at 0, 100, 1,000 or 10,000 eggs/1,200 cm3 soil. Three-month-old coffee seedlings of similar height were weighed and transplanted into pots and then placed in a greenhouse and grown under 50% shade for 23 weeks. Concentrations of P, K, Ca, Mg, Mn, B, and Zn increased in roots of nematode-free plants growing in Zn-amended soil. The beneficial effects due to the Zn amendment were not apparent in nematode-infected plants. Mn, B, and Zn uptake by coffee roots and P and B concentrations in coffee leaves responded similarly. Management of M. konaensis is necessary to achieve optimal nutrient management in coffee. PMID:19262790

  14. Identification of microsatellite markers in coffee associated with resistance to Meloidogyne exigua.

    Pereira, T B; Setotaw, T A; Santos, D N; Mendes, A N G; Salgado, S M L; Carvalho, G R; Rezende, R M

    2016-01-01

    Meloidogyne species are destructive phytonematodes that result in reduced yields of coffee. The classic test for resistance to Meloidogyne exigua in coffee progenies is both expensive and time-consuming. The use of molecular marker techniques can assist the selection process when it is difficult to measure the phenotype, such as in cases of resistance to nematode infestation. The objective of this study was to identify microsatellite markers associated with resistance to M. exigua in F5 progenies of coffee derived from a cross between Híbrido de Timor 440-10 and Catuaí Amarelo IAC 86. Of the 44 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers evaluated, 11 showed a polymorphic pattern with a mean number of 4.5 alleles per marker. Clustering analysis classified 82 progenies into three groups related to the response to nematodes and parental genotypes allocated to different groups (resistant and susceptible). SSRCafé 40 allele 2, SSRCafé 15 allele 3, SSRCafé 20 allele 3, and SSRCafé 13 allele 1 were negatively correlated with reproduction factor. In addition, SSRCafé 13 allele 2, SSRCafé 19 allele 3, SSRCafé 40 allele 2, SSRCafé 15 allele 3, and SSRCafé 20 allele 3 were correlated with the root gall index of M. exigua. These SSR markers, which have been validated in this population, represent a potential method to select progenies resistant to nematodes in coffee-breeding programs. PMID:27525876

  15. A real-time PCR assay to identify Meloidogyne minor

    Weerdt, de M.; Kox, L.; Wayenberge, L.; Viaene, N.; Zijlstra, C.

    2011-01-01

    Meloidogyne minor is a small root-knot nematode that causes yellow patch disease in golf courses and severe quality damage in potatoes. It was described in 2004 and has been detected in The Netherlands, England, Wales, Northern Ireland, Ireland and Belgium. The nematode often appears together with M

  16. IDENTIFICACIÓN DE GENES CANDIDATOS DE PATOGENICIDAD EN LA INTERACCIÓN DE LA CEPA CENICAFE 9501 CON EL NEMÁTODO DEL NUDO RADICAL Meloidogyne spp. IDENTIFICATION OF PATHOGENIC CANDIDATES GENES IN THE INTERACTION OF THE CENICAFE 9501 STRAIN WITH THE ROOT KNOT NEMATODE Meloidogyne spp.

    Nadya Lorena Cardona Bustos

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available En 1997 se registró por primera vez el aislamiento de un hongo Hyphomycete de suelos de Chinchiná (Caldas, Colombia atacando huevos y otros estadios biológicos de las especies de nematodos fitoparásitos Meloidogyne incognita y M. javanica provenientes de lotes comerciales con café. Debido a la imposibilidad de clasificarlo taxonómicamente en los géneros actuales, este aislamiento se ha denominado temporalmente como CENICAFE 9501. Dado su potencial como biocontrolador, se propuso identificar genes candidatos involucrados en el proceso de patogenicidad de huevos de Meloidogyne. Con este fin se construyeron librerías diferenciales mediante el método de hibridación sustractiva. La secuenciación de 188 clones obtenidos permitió identificar 80 unigenes, de los cuales el mayor porcentaje correspondió a secuencias sin homología (32%, seguidas por genes candidatos a funciones de patogénesis (22%, transporte celular (17%, síntesis de proteínas (11% y en menor proporción aquellos involucrados con transcripción y metabolismo primario (18%. Dentro de aquellos genes que contienen marcos de lectura con homología a proteínas que intervienen en la patogenicidad se encuentran una peptidasa, un receptor para sitios de ubiquitinación, una deubiquinasa, una ubiquinona oxidoreductasa, proteína relacionada con la degradación de pared celular, glicosil hidrolasa e hidroxilasa de ácidos grasos, asi como una serin proteasa. Se hace necesaria la validación de las funciones putativas de estos genes candidatos con el fin de incrementar el conocimiento básico de la fisiología de este hongo con potencial biorregulador.In 1997 it was reported for the first time from soil isolation of a Hyphomycete fungus from Chinchiná ( Caldas, Colombia , attacking eggs and other biological stages of the plant parasite nematodes Meloidogyne incognita and M. javanica, from commercial coffee plots. Due to the impossibility to classify it taxonomically under current

  17. Grafting guava on cattley guava resistant to Meloidogyne enterolobii

    Renata Rodrigues Robaina; Graziella Siqueira Campos; Cláudia Sales Marinho; Ricardo Moreira de Souza; Cíntia Aparecida Bremenkamp

    2015-01-01

    The use of resistant rootstocks could be a promising method to control nematodeMeloidogyne enterolobiiin commercial plantations of guava. The present study aimed to evaluate the success of grafting guava as a scion on accessions of cattley guava as rootstocks resistant to M. enterolobii.The treatments consisted of the rootstocks cattley guava plants (three accessions of Psidium cattleyanum) and common guava (control). In the apical wedge grafting method, scion of Paluma cultivated variety was...

  18. ULBP3: a marker for alopecia areata incognita.

    Moftah, Nayera H; El-Barbary, Rasha A H; Rashed, Laila; Said, Marwa

    2016-08-01

    Alopecia areata incognita (AAI) is a type of diffuse hair fall with no confirmatory diagnostic test. The UL16 binding protein-3 (ULBP3) is ligands for natural-killer group 2, member D (NKG2D) receptor. It is a key regulator of both innate and adaptive immune responses. In the normal hair follicle, ULBP3 is turned off. However, different studies reported its high level in alopecia areata (AA). Therefore, this study was done to evaluate ULBP3 in AAI in comparison with telogen effluvium (TE), female pattern hair loss (FPHL), and normal hair. Biopsy specimens from 36 females suffering from AAI, 15 with FPHL, nine with TE, and ten healthy female controls were subjected to the immunogenetic detection of ULBP3 levels by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). A high statistically significant increase in ULBP3 level in AAI patient group compared with FPHL, TE, and normal hair was detected. ULBP3 levels were positively correlated with the age and duration of the disease. Accordingly, ULBP3 may act as a confirmatory test for AAI. ULBP3 may be implicated in the disease pathogenesis, progression, and chronicity, and AAI may be a subtype of AA. PMID:27142445

  19. Interaction of Three Plant-Parasitic Nematodes on Corn and Soybean

    Dickson, D. W.; McSorley, R.

    1990-01-01

    Interaction of Belonolaimus longicaudatus, Meloidogyne incognita, and Pratylenchus brachyurus on corn and B. longicaudatus, M. incognita, and Heterodera glycines on soybean was investigated in micropiots during two seasons for corn and one season for soybean. Changes in population densities and effects on plant growth of each nematode on corn or soybean alone and in mixed culture were compared. No interactions occurred on corn in 1987. In 1988, midseason population densities of B. longicaudat...

  20. CONTROLE DE MELOIDOGYNE JAVANICA COM PASTEURIA PENETRANS CONTROL OF MELOIDOGYNE JAVANICA BY PASTEURIA PENETRANS

    RAVI DATT SHARMA

    1999-11-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se, com esse trabalho, avaliar a eficiência de Pasteuria penetrans no controle de Meloidogyne javanica em condições de casa de vegetação. Os tratamentos eram compostos de quatro níveis de inóculo de P. penetrans, 0, 10x10(5, 50x10(5 e 100x10(5 endósporos/kg de solo autoclavado. Imediatamente após a inoculação da bactéria P. penetrans no solo autoclavado, 1.000 juvenis de segundo estádio de M. javanica foram inoculados em cada vaso. Quarenta e oito horas após a inoculação do nematóide, uma plântula de soja cv. FT-Cristalina, com três dias de idade, foi transplantada para cada vaso. O experimento foi avaliado em duas etapas: a primeira, 89 dias após o transplantio da soja, e a segunda, 90 dias após um segundo(plantio de soja, em seqüência a um pousio de 30 dias. Na primeira avaliação, o maior peso da matéria fresca da planta foi obtido no tratamento com 100x10(5 endósporos/kg de solo, o que diferiu significativamente (PIn a greenhouse experiment, the efficiency of Pasteuria penetrans against Meloidogyne javanica was evaluated on soybean cv. FT-Cristalina using four inoculum levels of P. penetrans viz: 0, 10x10(5, 50x10(5 and 100x10(5 endospores/kg of soil. Immediately after inoculating the autoclaved soil with P. penetrans, 1,000 second-stage juveniles were inoculated in each pot. After 48 hours of nematode inoculation, a 3-day old soybean seedling was transplanted in each pot. The experiment was evaluated in two steps of which the first evaluation was made after 89 days of transplanting the seedlings; and the second after 90 days of soybean sowing in sequence with a following period of 30 days. In the first evaluation, the highest fresh plant weight was observed in treatment with 100x10(5 endospores/kg of soil which differed significantly (P<0.05 from other treatments except the untreated control. The maximum increase in fresh pod weight of treatment with 100x10(5 endospores/kg of soil differed significantly

  1. Tomato rootstocks for the control of Meloidogyne spp.

    Cortada González, Laura

    2010-01-01

    Se determinó la respuesta de resistencia de 10 patrones de tomate a una población avirulenta de Meloidogyne javanica en maceta. Los ensayos se realizaron en primavera, cuando las temperaturas permitían la expresión fenotípica de la resistencia del gen Mi-1 (28˚C), en verano sometidos a altas temperaturas y en campo, exponiéndolos a altas densidades poblacionales del nematodo. A temperaturas inferiores a 28˚C los patrones mostraron gran variabilidad en la respuesta de resistencia que...

  2. Meloidogyne javanica-Rhizoctonia solani disease complex of peanut

    Abdel-Momen, S.M.; Starr, J.L.

    1998-01-01

    L'interaction entre #Meloidogyne javanica$ et #Rhizoctonia solani$ a été étudiée sur arachide en serre et en microparcelles au champ. L'action de #R. solani$ sur la reproduction de #M. javanica$ est variable, la Pi du nématode ayant une plus grande influence sur sa reproduction que la présence de #R. solani$. Lors d'expériences en microparcelles ayant une disposition factorielle et comportant quatre niveaux d Pi du nématode et deux (1995) ou trois (1996) niveaux de #R. solani$, la pourriture ...

  3. Metagenomic insights into communities, functions of endophytes, and their associates with infection by root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita, in tomato roots

    Bao-Yu Tian; Yi Cao; Ke-Qin Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Endophytes are known to play important roles in plant’s health and productivity. In this study, we investigated the root microbiome of tomato in association with infection by root knot nematodes. Our objectives were to observe the effects and response of the bacterial endophytes before nematode attacks and to reveal the functional attributes of microbes in plant health and nematode pathogenesis. Community analysis of root-associated microbiomes in healthy and nematode-infected tomatoes indica...

  4. Heterodera glycines cysts contain an extensive array of endoproteases as well as inhibitors of proteases in H. glycines and Meloidogyne incognita infective juvenile stages

    Heterodera glycines cysts contain proteases, and inhibitors of protease activities in various nematode species. In this investigation, proteases in H. glycines cysts were identified using a commercially available FRET-peptide library comprising 512 peptide pools qualified to detect up to 4 endoprot...

  5. Efeito do Meloidogyne javanica no crescimento da ervilha

    Sharma Ravi Datt

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available O nematóide-das-galhas radiculares, Meloidogyne javanica, comumente causa redução em produtividade de ervilha, Pisum sativum L., no Distrito Federal. O efeito de Meloidogyne javanica no crescimento da ervilha cv. Triofin foi avaliado em cinco níveis de inóculos: 0, 10, 100, 1.000 e 10.000 ovos/kg de solo, em casa de vegetação. Houve redução progressiva no crescimento da planta com o aumento do inóculos. O fator de multiplicação foi negativamente proporcional ao inóculo inicial. A nodulação bacteriana também foi seriamente afetada em todos os níveis de inóculo, exceto no de 10 ovos/kg do solo, que apresentou 61,63% de aumento no de número de nódulos/planta.

  6. Trigonella foenum-graecum (fenugreek-mediated suppression of Meloidogyne javanica in mungbean

    Tayyaba Zia

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Soil amendments with powdered seeds of Trigonella foenum - graecum (fenugreek caused soil suppressiveness against Meloidogyne javanica. Decomposed seeds of fenugreek caused marked reduction in nematode population densities and subsequent root-knot development as compared to the aqueous extract of the seeds indicating that some indirect factors are involved in the suppression of root-knot nematode. Both decomposed seeds and aqueous extracts enhanced plant height and fresh weights of shoot whereas root growth remained uninfluenced. Changes in fungal communities associated with nematode control were studied by comparing population numbers of fungi in the soil and in internal root tissues (endorhiza in non-amended and fenugreekamended soils. Acremonium sp., Chaetomium globosum, Fusarium solani, Macrophomina phaseolina and Rhizoctonia solani were found to colonize inner root tissues of mungbean. Acremonium sp., C. globosum and F.solani were isolated in a relatively higher frequency from roots growing in the amended soils while M. phaseolina and R. solani colonized greatly in roots growing in non-amended soil. Of the fungi isolated from soils, Penicillium brefaldianum caused maximum juvenile mortality of M.javanica whereas F.solani caused greatest inhibition of egg hatch.

  7. Influence of Rotation Crops on the Strawberry Pathogens Pratylenchus penetrans, Meloidogyne hapla, and Rhizoctonia fragariae.

    Lamondia, J A

    1999-12-01

    Field microplot, small plot, and greenhouse experiments were conducted to determine the effects of rotation crops on Pratylenchus penetrans, Meloidogyne hapla, and Rhizoctonia fragariae populations. Extraction of P. penetrans from roots and soil in microplots and field plots planted to rotation crops was highest for Garry oat, lowest for Triple S sorgho-sudangrass and Saia oat, and intermediate for strawberry, buckwheat, and canola. Isolation of R. fragariae from bait roots was highest for strawberry and canola after 2 years of rotation and lowest for Saia oat. Nematode extraction from roots of rotation crops in field soils was generally higher than from roots in microplots. Grasses were nonhosts of M. hapla. Strawberry, canola, and buckwheat supported root-knot populations over time, but there were no differences in nematode numbers regardless of crop after one season of strawberry growth. Garry oat, canola, and, to a lesser extent, buckwheat supported large populations of P. penetrans without visible root symptoms. Strawberry plants supported fewer nematodes due to root damage. Nematode numbers from soil were less than from roots for all crops. While there were similar trends for pathogen recovery after more than 1 year of strawberry growth following rotation, differences in pathogen density and fruit yield were not significant. In the greenhouse, P. penetrans populations in roots and soil in pots were much higher for Garry oat than for Saia oat. Total P. penetrans adult and juvenile numbers per pot ranged from 40 to 880 (mean = 365.6) for Garry oat and 0 to 40 (mean = 8.7) for Saia oat. Production of Saia oat as a rotation crop may be a means of managing strawberry nematodes and black root rot in Connecticut. PMID:19270931

  8. Effects of silicon on the penetration and reproduction events of Meloidogyne exigua on coffee roots

    Rodrigo Vieira Silva

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Considering that the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne exigua has caused great yield losses to coffee production in Brazil, this study aimed to determine whether the penetration and the reproduction events of this nematode on the roots of plants from two coffee cultivars with different levels of basal resistance to this nematode could be affected by silicon (Si. Coffee plants from the cultivars Catuaí and IAPAR 59, which are susceptible and resistant, respectively, to M. exigua, were grown in pots containing Si-deficient soil that was amended with either calcium silicate (+Si or calcium carbonate (–Si. The Si concentration on the root tissue significantly increased by 159 and 97% for the +Si plants from the cultivars Catuaí and IAPAR 59, respectively, compared to the –Si plants of these cultivars. The population of M. exigua, the number of galls and the number of eggs were significantly reduced on the roots of the +Si plants of the cultivars Catuaí and IAPAR 59 compared to the –Si plants of these cultivars. It was concluded that the development and reproduction events of M. exigua were negatively impacted on the roots of coffee plants supplied with Si.

  9. Development and Validation of LNA-Based Quantitative Real-Time PCR Assays for Detection and Identification of the Root-Knot Nematode Meloidogyne enterolobii in Complex DNA Backgrounds.

    Kiewnick, Sebastian; Frey, Jürg E; Braun-Kiewnick, Andrea

    2015-09-01

    Meloidogyne enterolobii is a quarantine root-knot nematode posing a major threat to agricultural production systems worldwide. It attacks many host plants, including important agricultural crops, ornamentals, and trees. M. enterolobii is a highly virulent and pathogenic root-knot nematode species, able to reproduce on plants resistant to other Meloidogyne spp. Significant crop damage has been reported in Asia, South America, Africa, the United States, France, and greenhouses in Switzerland. To identify potential introduction pathways and ensure appropriate phytosanitary measures and management strategies, accurate detection and identification tools are needed. Therefore, two real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays based on the second intergenic spacer region of the ribosomal DNA cistron and the cytochrome oxidase c subunit I (COI) gene using locked nucleic acid probes were developed and validated for fast and reliable detection and identification of M. enterolobii. Analytical specificity was confirmed with 16 M. enterolobii populations, 16 populations of eight closely related Meloidogyne spp., and four species from other nematode genera. Optimizing and testing the assays on two real-time PCR platforms revealed an analytical sensitivity of one juvenile in a background of 1,000 nematodes and the intended limit of detection of one juvenile per 100 ml of soil. Both assays performed equally well, with the COI-based assay showing a slightly better performance concerning detection of M. enterolobii target DNA in complex DNA backgrounds. PMID:25775103

  10. Grafting guava on cattley guava resistant to Meloidogyne enterolobii

    Renata Rodrigues Robaina

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The use of resistant rootstocks could be a promising method to control nematodeMeloidogyne enterolobiiin commercial plantations of guava. The present study aimed to evaluate the success of grafting guava as a scion on accessions of cattley guava as rootstocks resistant to M. enterolobii.The treatments consisted of the rootstocks cattley guava plants (three accessions of Psidium cattleyanum and common guava (control. In the apical wedge grafting method, scion of Paluma cultivated variety was used. The experiment was arranged in a randomized block design with four treatments and five replicates, and eight plants per plot. The saplings produced as described before were planted in the field where the initial growth of the different combinations were evaluated. Graft success was observed for the control (common guava and for accessions 115 and 117 of cattley guava plants, with success rates of 63, 32 and 29%, respectively. In the field, the cattley guava used as rootstocks hampered Paluma canopy development and caused death of plants. Incompatibility of P. cattleyanumas rootstocks for P. guajavaPaluma was confirmed one year after cultivation in field.

  11. Struktura populací Meloidogyne hapla na území ČR

    Spáčilová, Eliška

    2014-01-01

    Root knot nematodes of the genus Meloidogyne are endo-parasites of plants. The occurrence of these species has been recorded in many parts of the world, where they cause considerable yield losses. Some species M. hapla , M. chitwoodi and M. fallax living in field conditions of Western and Central Europe. Meloidogyne hapla occurs in the Czech Republic in the Polabí area, causing the most severe damage mainly in crops of carrots. The aim of this work was to monitor the occurrence of Meloido...

  12. Diversity of meloidogyne spp. parasitizing plants in Martinique island, French West Indies

    Quénéhervé, Patrick; Godefroid, Martin; Mège, P.; Marie-Luce, S.

    2011-01-01

    To assess the presence of root-knot nematodes, Meloidogyne spp, 96 root and soil samples were collected in 24 locations in Martinique. This study followed a previous survey that primarily focused on assessing the sanitary risk linked to the presence of root-knot nematodes on dessert bananas. The aim of the present study was to extend the Meloidogyne species survey to a wider range of crops and associated weeds as a first step in introducing efficient integrated control of root-knot nematodes ...

  13. First report of the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne minor on turfgrass in Belgium

    Viaene, N.; Wiseborn, D.B.; Karssen, G.

    2007-01-01

    The root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne minor, was described during 2004 after it was found on potato roots in a field in the Netherlands and in golf courses in England, Wales, and Ireland (2). Since it is associated with yellow patch disease in turf grass and causes deformation of potato tubers (2), it

  14. Morphological and physiological variability of species of meloidogyne in West Africa and implications of their control

    Netscher, C.

    1978-01-01

    The extreme morphological and physiological variability of certain rootknot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp.) and its implication on the development of control methods of these parasites, based upon crop rotations and the use of resistant varieties of otherwise susceptible crops are discussed.In a review

  15. Parasitism of Trichoderma on Meloidogyne javanica and role of the gelatinous matrix

    Trichoderma (T. asperellum-203, 44 and GH11; T. atroviride-IMI 206040 and T. harzianum-248) parasitism on Meloidogyne javanica life stages was examined in vitro. Conidium attachment and parasitism differed among the various fungi. Egg masses, their derived eggs and second-stage juveniles (J2) were p...

  16. Efeito de indutores de resistência sobre Meloidogyne exigua do cafeeiro Effect of resistance inducers on Meloidogyne exígua of coffee

    Sônia Maria de Lima Salgado

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available A possibilidade de manejo de Meloidogyne exigua Goeldi, 1887, pela ativação de mecanismos de defesa no cafeeiro representa uma alternativa potencialmente útil no manejo desse patógeno. Com este trabalho, objetivou-se avaliar a eclosão e mortalidade de juvenis do segundo estádio (J2 de M. exigua na presença de produtos indutores de resistência e avaliar o efeito do acibenzolar-S-metil (ASM, Bion® na indução de resistência do cafeeiro (Coffea arabica L. 'Catuaí- 144' contra M. exigua. A eclosão e mortalidade do J2 foram avaliadas no ASM e ácido salicílico (AS nas dosagens de 0,2; 0,35 e 0,5 g. i. a./L; e no fosfito de potássio (Hortifós® PK e silicato de potássio (Supa-potássio® nas dosagens 5,0; 7,5 e 10,0 mL/L, empregando água e aldicarbe como testemunhas. No segundo ensaio o ASM (0,2 g i.a./L foi aplicado na quantidade de 125 mL por planta de 'Catuaí-144' com um ano de idade, via pulverização foliar e diretamente ao solo aos 7 dias antes da inoculação e aos 2 e 7 dias após a inoculação de aproximadamente 7000 ovos de M. exigua/planta. Foram utilizadas 8 plantas/tratamento/bloco, totalizando 6 tratamentos (3 épocas de aplicação do ASM, testemunhas absoluta e inoculada, em 4 blocos. Aos 90 dias da inoculação, foi feita a avaliação da população final (número de ovos e juvenis de M. exigua, número de galhas, fator de reprodução (população final/população inicial e peso da matéria fresca da raiz. A dosagem dos produtos não influenciou a eclosão e mortalidade dos J2 de M. exigua. Menor eclosão dos J2 de M. exigua ocorreu igualmente no Supa-potássio® e ácido salicílico, enquanto que a eclosão no ASM e na água foi igual (P The parasitism of coffee roots by Meloidogyne exigua Goeldi, 1887, widespread nematode in the main producing regions, can provoke a series of modifications in the normal development of the plant. The induction of resistance for the activation of existing latent mechanisms of

  17. Populism

    Abts, Koenraad; van Kessel, Stijn

    2015-01-01

    Populism is a concept applied to a wide range of political movements and actors across the globe. There is, at the same time, considerable confusion about the attributes and manifestation of populism, as well as its impact on democracy. This contribution identifies the defining elements of the populist ideology and discusses the varieties in which populism manifests itself, for instance as a component of certain party families. We finally discuss various normative interpretations of populism,...

  18. Spatial and temporal dynamics of Meloidogyne minor on creeping bentgrass in golf greens

    Morris, K.; Horgan, F.G.; Griffin, C.T.

    2013-01-01

    Meloidogyne minor, first reported on potatoes in the Netherlands in 2004, is an emerging nematode pest in Europe. It damages turfgrass, particularly creeping bentgrass (Agrostis stolonifera) grown on sandy soils such as those of golf greens. However, little is known of the nematode’s life history and pathology. In this study, the spatial and temporal distribution of M. minor on a creeping bentgrass green in Ireland was determined over a 15 month period. Cores were taken on transec...

  19. Effect of some plant extracts on Meloidogyne arenaria Neal, 1889 (Tylenchida: Meloidogynidae) and tomato

    Aydinli, Gökhan; MENNAN, Sevilhan

    2014-01-01

    Some plant extracts that have toxic effects to nematodes might be used as an alternative control method of plant parasitic nematodes. For this purpose; two different preparation types (cold and hot) of extracts of Viscum album, Rosmarinus officinalis, Circium arvense, Myrtus communis, Ocimum basilicum, Capsella bursa-pastoris, Melisa officinalis, Taraxacum officinale, Matricaria chamomilla, Chelidonium majus, Humulus lupulus, Mentha pulegium were searched the effects on Meloidogyne arenaria N...

  20. Management of Root-Knot Nematodes (Meloidogyne spp.) in Greenhouse Cucumbers Using Microbial Products

    YANKOVA, Vinelina; Markova, Dima; NAIDENOV, Mladen; ARNAOUDOV, Boyan

    2014-01-01

    The environmental pollution is one of the major problems in the world. The decrease of agrochemicals like chemical pesticides and fertilizers is important to protect human health and the environment. The use of biocontrol agents against some root-knot nematodes Meloidogyne spp. is an alternative option to reduce environmental pollution. Paecilomyces lilacinus and Trichoderma viride are biocontrol fungi with a potential range of activity to control plant parasitic nematodes. Greenhouse experim...

  1. OCCURRENCE AND PATHOGENICITY OF Meloidogyne javanica ON TEAK (Tectona grandis Linn. F.) PLANTS

    Anmyna Soraia de Oliveira; Rosangela Aparecida da Silva

    2013-01-01

    http://dx.doi.org/10.5902/1980509812340Teak (Tectona grandis) is originated from Asia, and was introduced in the state of Mato Grosso, Brazil, inthe decade of 1970. The analysis of roots collected from Nova Maringá, Mato Grosso state, revealed thepresence of the nematode Meloidogyne javanica,that was confirmed by morphometric perineal features offemales. The females were extracted from egg masses of teak roots and the nematode was maintained intomato plants. Because no information is availabl...

  2. Optimum Concentrations of Trichoderma longibrachiatum and Cadusafos for Controlling Meloidogyne javanica on Zucchini Plants

    Sokhandani, Zahra; Moosavi, Mohammad Reza; Basirnia, Tahereh

    2016-01-01

    A factorial experiment was established in a completely randomized design to verify the effect of different inoculum levels of an Iranian isolate of Trichoderma longibrachiatum separately and in combination with various concentrations of cadusafos against Meloidogyne javanica in the greenhouse. Zucchini seeds were soaked for 12 hr in five densities (0, 105, 106, 107, and 108 spores/ml suspension) of the fungus prior to planting in pots containing four concentrations of cadusafos (0, 0.5, 1, an...

  3. Host-parasite Relationship of Carrot Cultivars and Meloidogyne chitwoodi Races and M. hapla

    Santo, G. S.; Mojtahedi, H.; Wilson, J. H.

    1988-01-01

    Most of the 15 carrot cultivars tested were moderate to good hosts to Meloidogyne chitwoodi race 1, whereas all except Orlando Gold were nonhosts or poor hosts for M. chitwoodi race 2. All carrot cultivars were good hosts for M. hapla. The plant weights of the carrot cultivars Red Cored Chantenay and Orlando Gold infected with either race of M. chitwoodi were significantly less than uninoculated checks in pots. Under field microplot conditions, however, detrimental effects on quality were rar...

  4. Effects of silicon on the penetration and reproduction events of Meloidogyne exigua on coffee roots

    Rodrigo Vieira Silva; Rosângela D’Arc de Lima Oliveira; Patrícia da Silva Ferreira; Douglas Barbosa Castro; Fabrício de Ávila Rodrigues

    2015-01-01

    Considering that the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne exigua has caused great yield losses to coffee production in Brazil, this study aimed to determine whether the penetration and the reproduction events of this nematode on the roots of plants from two coffee cultivars with different levels of basal resistance to this nematode could be affected by silicon (Si). Coffee plants from the cultivars Catuaí and IAPAR 59, which are susceptible and resistant, respectively, to M. exigua, were grown in p...

  5. Relationship Between Levels of Cyanide in Sudangrass Hybrids Incorporated into Soil and Suppression of Meloidogyne hapla

    Widmer, T. L.; Abawi, G. S.

    2002-01-01

    Sudangrass cv. Trudan 8 has been demonstrated to suppress infection of vegetables by Meloidogyne hapla (Mh). Hydrogen cyanide, released from the degradation of the cyanogenic glucoside (dhurrin) during decomposition of Trudan 8, was the primary factor involved in suppression of Mh on vegetables. The cyanide ion level in leaf tissue of 14 hybrids of sudangrass varied between 0.04 (cv. SX-8) to 1.84 parts per million (cv. 840F). The suppressive activity of the sudangrass hybrids against Mh was ...

  6. Description and SEM Observations of Meloidogyne sasseri n. sp. (Nematoda: Meloidogynidae), Parasitizing Beachgrasses

    HANDOO, Zafar A.; Huettel, Robin N.; Golden, A. Morgan

    1993-01-01

    Meloidogyne sasseri n. sp. is described and illustrated from American beachgrass (Ammophila breviliffulata) originally collected from Henlopen State Park and Fenwick Island near the Maryland state line in Delaware, United States (6). Its relationship to M. graminis, M. spartinae, and M. californiensis is discussed. Primary distinctive characters of the female perineal pattern were a high to rounded arch with shoulders, widely spaced lateral lines interrupting transverse striations, a sunken v...

  7. Use of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in the control od root-knot disease complex in tomato: the effects of different inoculum levels of Meloidogyne javanica and Rhizoctonia solani

    I. A. Siddiqui

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The potential impact of Pseudomons aeruginosa strain IE-6 as a biological control agent against Meloidogyne javanica at four inoculum densities (0, 250, 500 and 1000 eggs/plant and Rhizoctonia solani at three inoeulum levels (0, 1 and 3 ml culture suspension/kg of soil was examined on tomato in the greenhouse experiments. The biocontrol bacterium suppressed root infection caused by R. solani and M. javanica on tomato in both sterilized and non-sterilized soils. Root-rot infection increased with the increase in pathogen(s concentration. P. aeruginosa showed better biocontrol effects at low population levels of M.javanica and R. solani than at higher population densities of the pathogen(s. Root-rot disease severity was more pronounced in sterilized soil compared to the non-sterilized one. Soil infested with high population densities ofR. solani (3 ml /kg of soil and M. javanica (2000 eggs/pot resulted in complete mortality of tomato seedlings in sterilized soil, whereas some plants were found to survive in non-stenlized soil. There seems to be a correlation between population density of M. javanica and root colonization by R. solani. Root colonization by other three root-infecting fungi including Macrophomina phaseolina, Fusarium oxysporum and Fusarium solani was also lower in the presence of P. aeruginosa in non-sterilized soil. P. aeruginosa enhanced plant growth in both types of soil.

  8. Management of Plant-parasitic Nematodes with a Chitin-Urea Soil Amendment and Other Materials

    Westerdahl, B. B.; Carlson, H. L.; Grant, J; Radewald, J. D.; Welch, N.; Anderson, C A; Darso, J.; Kirby, D.; Shibuya, F.

    1992-01-01

    Field trials were conducted with a chitin-urea soil amendment and several other nematicides on four crop-nematode combinations: tomato-Meloidogyne incognita; potato-Meloidogyne chitwoodi; walnut-Pratylenchus vulnus; and brussels sprouts-Heterodera schachtii. Significant (P ≤ 0.10) nematode population reductions were obtained with the chitin-urea soil amendment in the trims on potato and walnut. In the trials on brussels sprouts and on tomato, phytotoxicity occurred at rates of 1,868 and 1,093...

  9. Effect of the Mi Gene in Tomato on Reproductive Factors of Meloidogyne chitwoodi and M. hapla

    Brown, C. R.; Mojtahedi, H.; Santo, G. S.; Williamson, V M

    1997-01-01

    The effect of the Mi gene on the reproductive factor of Meloidogyne chitwoodi and M. hapla, major nematode pests of potato, was measured on nearly isogenic tomato lines differing in presence or absence of the Mi gene. The Mi allele controlled resistance to reproduction of race 1 of M. chitwoodi and to one of two isolates of race 2. No resistance to race 3 of M. chitwoodi or to M. hapla was found. Variability in response to isolates of race 2 may reflect diversity of virulence genotypes hereto...

  10. Evaluation and verification of resistance in selected vegetable crops for sustainable root-knot nematode management in developing agriculture / Tshiamo Shilla Mothata

    Mothata, Tshiamo Shilla

    2006-01-01

    Root-knot nematodes, (Meloidogyne species) are a major constraint in vegetable production systems. These parasites cause high yield losses, particularly in subsistence farming systems. This study was conducted to establish i) whether monospecific populations of M. incognita race 2 and M. javanica were used in these trials by means of molecular identification, ii) determine whether root-knot nematode-resistance is present in commercially available tomato, green bean, pumpkin and...

  11. Survey of Nematodes on Coffee in Hawaii

    Schenck, S; Schmitt, D. P.

    1992-01-01

    Surveys of coffee fields in Hawaii during 1989-1991 indicated the presence of 10 nematode species in 8 genera. After coffee was planted in fields previously in sugarcane, populations of Criconemella sp. and Pratylenchus zeae gradually decreased, while Rotylenchulus reniformis and, in one field, Meloidogyne incognita, increased in numbers. Coffee is a poor host of R. reniformis, but weeds in coffee plantations may support this nematode. At present, nematodes pose no serious threat to Hawaii's ...

  12. Inhibitory effects of salicylic acid on Meloidogyne javanica reproduction in tomato plants

    Seddigheh Fatemy

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp., play a major role in loss of agricultural production. Natural substances, such as salicylic acid (SA could possibly be involved in inducing host plant resistance against nematodes. The present study is concerned with exploring the effects of varying concentrations of SA as seed priming and soil drench on tomato growth parameters and the reproduction of the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne javanica. SA at 50 μM concentration caused only 2% of juvenile mortality under in vitro conditions. SA applied as 50 μM seed treatment caused 95% and, as a soil drench, 78% reduction in the number of egg masses that formed on tomato plants. The numbers of galls were reduced to a lesser extent. Final nematode density per gram of soil was reduced to less than 1 by the 50 μM SA seed treatment, and in other treatments decreased by between 70 and 88% compared with control plants. Our results indicate SA has potential to lower root knot nematode reproduction in tomato, and seed priming is a fairly easy method to work with.

  13. Effect of plant and fungous metabolites on Meloidogyne exigua Efeito de metabólitos vegetais e fúngicos sobre Meloidogyne exigua

    Daniel Rufino Amaral

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available As nematodes cause great damage to Brazilian coffee production, effective methods to control these parasites are necessary. In a previous work Allium cepa L., Cajanus cajan (L. Mill., Crotalaria juncea L., Ficus elastica Roxb., Ruta graveolens L., Stylosanthes guianensis Aubl., Leucaena leucocephala (Lam. Dewit., Brachiaria decumbens Stapf., Catharanthus roseus G. Don, Tagetes minuta L., Ricinus communis L. and Coffea arabica L. produced active substances against Meloidogyne exigua Goeldi, a nematode widely disseminated through Brazilian coffee fields. Thus, aqueous extracts of such plants, collected in a different season from that of the previous work, as well as crude metabolites produced in liquid medium by Fusarium moniliforme Shelden and Cylindrocarpon magnusianum (Sacc. Woll., were submitted to in vitro assays with M. exigua second-stage juveniles (J2. All plants and fungi produced active substances against J2. Therefore, their metabolites were applied to six-month-old coffee plants inoculated with M. exigua. After 90 days in a greenhouse, those samples obtained from A. cepa, L. leucocephala, R. graveolens and F. moniliforme inhibited the production of galls and eggs by M. exigua, demonstrating potential to control such parasite.Os nematóides acarretam grandes perdas aos produtores brasileiros de café, sendo necessário o desenvolvimento de métodos eficientes para o seu controle. Em trabalho anterior, Allium cepa L., Cajanus cajan (L. Mill., Crotalaria juncea L., Ficus elastica Roxb., Ruta graveolens L., Stylosanthes guianensis Aubl., Leucaena leucocephala (Lam. Dewit., Brachiaria decumbens Stapf., Catharanthus roseus G. Don, Tagetes minuta L., Ricinus communis L. e Coffea arabica L. produziram substâncias ativas contra o nematóide Meloidogyne exigua Goeldi, que é amplamente disseminado pelos cafezais brasileiros. Dando continuidade a esse trabalho, extratos aquosos das plantas mencionadas, coletadas em época diferente daquela

  14. Mangrove formulations for the management of meloidogyne javanica (treub) chitwood under field conditions

    Six months field experiment were set up from June to November in Department of Botany, University of Karachi to investigate the influence of mangroves (Avicennia marina, Rhizophora mucronata) parts separately or combined parts for the control of Meloidogyne javanica (Treub.) Chitwood. Mangroves parts including leaves, stem, pneumatophore and combined parts were applied to field in form of powder at rate of 60 g/plot, capsules and pellets at 120 g/plot. Results pertaining to seed germination percentage, plant length, plant weight and yield showed outstanding improvement in both okra and mung bean when combined parts pellets of A. marina and R. mucronata were used. All parts of A. marina, R. mucronata pellets and powder were effective in controlling of M. javanica infection but maximum reduction in root knot nematode were obtained by the amendment of mangrove combined parts powder. (author)

  15. Resistance to root knot nematode, Meloidogyne naasi (Franklin) transferred from Aegilops variabilis Eig to bread wheat

    Yu, M.Q.; Person-Dedryver, Françoise; Jahier, Joseph

    1990-01-01

    Jusqu’à présent, on ne connaissait aucune lignée ou variété de blé tendre résistante à Meloidogyne naasi, nématode à galle des céréales. Par contre, des espèces voisines du blé dont Aegilops variabilis présentent une résistance totale. Dans la descendance en rétrocroisement de l’hybride interspécifique (Triticum aestivum L cv Chinese Spring x Aegilops variabilis n° 1), des lignées de blé à 2n = 42 chromosomes possédant une résistance totale comme le parent Aegilops ont été sélectionnées (...

  16. Identification and Comparision of Root-knot Nematodes from Four Hosts in Anhui%安徽省4种寄主南方根结线虫鉴定

    姚洁; 陈良宏; 吴慧平; 王龙平; 崔强

    2013-01-01

      为了鉴定安徽省栝楼(Trichosanthes kirilowii)、桔梗(Platycodon grandiflorum)、木耳菜(Basella rubra)和小叶黄杨(Buxus sinica)上的根结线虫(Meloidogyne spp.)种类,并比较不同RKN种群间形态差异,运用形态学和酯酶同工酶凝胶电泳特征条带分析方法对安徽省4种寄主南方根结线虫进行种类鉴定。形态学观察和酯酶同工酶凝胶电泳特征条带分析结果均表明:栝楼、桔梗和木耳菜上的RKN均为南方根结线虫(Meloidogyne incognita);形态学观察结果表明:小叶黄杨上的根结线虫肥西种群为南方根结线虫(M. incognita)疑似种,酯酶同工酶凝胶电泳特征条带分析结果将其确定为南方根结线虫(M. incognita),木耳菜和小叶黄杨上发生的南方根结线虫为安徽省新种。该研究结果为本地根结线虫防治、南方根结线虫生理分化研究、种群和寄主间关系研究提供依据。%To identify root-knot nematodes (RKN) isolated from Trichosanthes kirilowii, Platycodon grandiflorum, Basella rubra, Buxus sinica in Anhui Province, compared morphological differences among RKN population, and applied morphological method and esterase isozymes characteristic striped analysis method to identify RKN populations. The results of morphological observation and esterase isozymes characteristic striped analysis showed RKN on T. kirilowii, P. grandiflorum, B. rubra were Meloidogyne incognita. The morphological observation showed RKN on B. sinica was M. incognita suspected kinds, this result was confirmed by esterase isozymes characteristic striped analysis. M. incognita on B. rubra and M. incognita on B. sinica were new species in Anhui Province. The results of the study were basis for RKN disease control in the local area, the research of physiological differentiation of M. incognita and the relationship between the population and host.

  17. Plant Sources of Chinese Herbal Remedies: Laboratory Efficacy, Suppression of Meloidogyne javanica in Soil, and Phytotoxicity Assays

    Zasada, I. A.; Ferris, H.; Zheng, L

    2002-01-01

    Extracts of Chinese herbal medicines from plants representing 13 families were tested for their ability to suppress plant-parasitic nematodes. Effective concentration (EC50 and EC90) levels for 18 of the extracts were determined in laboratory assays with Meloidogyne javanica juveniles and all stages of Pratylenchus vulnus. Efficacy of 17 extracts was tested against M. javanica in soil. Generally, EC50 and EC90 values determined in the laboratory were useful indicators for application rates in...

  18. Effects of Incorporation Method of Ethoprop and Addition of Aldicarb on Potato Tuber Infection by Meloidogyne hapla

    Ingham, Russell E.; Morris, Mark; Newcomb, Gene B.

    1991-01-01

    The efficacy of controlling Meloidogyne hapla on potato with water incorporation of ethoprop was compared to physical incorporation before planting. The standard practice of aldicarb application for insect control was also evaluated for M. hapla suppression with and without ethoprop. Physical incorporation before planting by rototilling or discing reduced (P ≤ 0.05) tuber infection. Postplant water incorporation of ethoprop was not as effective as physical incorporation of ethoprop or postpla...

  19. Effect of Culture Filtrate of Fungi in the Control of Meloidogyne javacnica, Root Knot Nematodes on Okra and Broad Bean

    Amer-Zareen

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Fungal cell free filtrates were used in two different doses, enhanced plant growth and root knot nematodes infection was reduced where high doses of filtrate (100% concentration were applied, in all test fungal filtrates. Culture filtrates of Paecilomyces lilacinus and Verticillium chlamydosporium at 100 percent concentration showed significant reduction in Meloidogyne javanica root knot infection on okra and broad bean as compared to Trichoderma harzianum, T. koningii, T. viride, Aspergillus restrictus and Aspergillus sp., which found less effective.

  20. Fitonematóides associados à rizosfera e raízes da mandioca cultivada em rotação com inhame cultivar da Costa Nematodes associated with rhizosphere and roots of cassava planted in rotation with yam crops

    Marlon da Silva Garrido

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho teve o objetivo de avaliar as populações de fitonematóides associados à cultura da mandioca, plantada em sucessão à cultura do inhame, em 22 propriedades rurais do Recôncavo da Bahia. Adicionalmente, foram feitos testes de hospedabilidade com as variedades de mandioca 'Cigana' e 'Talo Roxo', ao nematóide Scutellonema bradys. Foram constatadas as presenças dos seguintes nematóides: Pratylenchus brachyurus, Scutellonema bradys, Meloidogyne incognita e Rotylenchulus reniformis, nas raízes e amostras de solo. Além dos nematóides, Tylenchus sp., Aphelenchus sp., Meloidogyne incognita, Mesocriconema sp., Aphelenchoides sp., Helicotylenchus presente apenas nas amostras de solos. O teste de hospedabilidade demostrou que as variedades de mandioca estudadas não são hospedeiras de Scutellonema bradys.The work had the objective of evaluating the population of plant parasitic nematodes associated with the cassava crop planted in succession to the yam crop was evaluated in 22 farming in the Recôncavo region of Bahia. Additionally, the hospitability of two cassava varieties 'Cigana' and 'Talo Roxo' to Scutellonema bradys. The following nematodes were found in cassava roots and soils: Pratylenchus brachyurus, Scutellonema bradys, Meloidogyne incognita, and Rotylenchulus reniformis, Tylenchus sp., Aphelenchus sp., Mesocriconema sp., Aphelenchoides sp., Helicotylenchus. Host status test show that the studied varieties are not hostesses of nematode Scutellonema bradys.

  1. Comparison of saline tolerance among genetically similar species of Fusarium and Meloidogyne recovered from marine and terrestrial habitats

    Elmer, W. H.; LaMondia, J. A.

    2014-08-01

    Successful plant pathogens co-evolve and adapt to the environmental constraints placed on host plants. We compared the salt tolerance of two salt marsh pathogens, Fusarium palustre and Meloidogyne spartinae, to genetically related terrestrial species, F. sporotrichioides and Meloidogyne hapla, to assess whether the salt marsh species had acquired selective traits for persisting in saline environments or if salt tolerance was comparable among Fusarium and Meloidogyne species. Comparisons of both species were made in vitro in vessels containing increasing concentration of NaCl. We observed that F. palustre was more tolerant to NaCl than F. sporotrichioides. The radial expansion of F. palustre on NaCl-amended agar plates was unaffected by increasing concentrations up to 0.3 M. F. sporotrichioides showed large reductions in growth at the same concentrations. Survival of M. hapla was greatest at 0 M, and reduced by half in a 0.3 M solution for 4 days. No juveniles survived exposure to 0.3 M NaCl for 12 days. M. spartinae survived at all NaCl concentrations tested, including 1.0 M for at least 12 days. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that marine organisms in the upper tidal zone must osmoregulate to withstand a wide range of salinity and provide evidence that these pathogens evolved in saline conditions and are not recent introductions from terrestrial niches.

  2. Population Trends and Vertical Distribution of Plant-Parasitic Nematodes Associated with Vitis labrusca L. in Michigan

    Bird, G W; Ransdell, D. C.

    1985-01-01

    Nematode population trends and vertical distribution were monitored in a southwest Michigan vineyard (Vitis labrusca cv. Concord) from 1976 through 1983. Shallow (20 cm) and deep (90 cm) applications of 1,3-dichloropropene applied at 281 (shallow) plus 658 or 1,122 (deep) liters/ ha provided excellent control of Xiphinema americanum, Criconemella xenoplax, and Meloidogyne hapla. Populations of X. americanum remained below detectable levels for the entire 8-year experimental period where the f...

  3. First Report of Northern Root-Knot Nematode, Meloidogyne hapla, Parasitic on Oaks, Quercus brantii and Q. infectoria in Iran.

    Sohrabi, Effat; Maafi, Zahra Tanha; Panahi, Parisa; Barooti, Shapour

    2015-03-01

    .1 ± 0.8 (11 to 13) µm; Tail = 50 ± 5.6 (42 to 57) µm; Hyaline 15 ± 1.8 (12 to 18) µm. Oak manna, Q. infectoria population of second stage juveniles clearly possessed short body length and consequently other morphometric features were less than those determined for Q. brantii population, and these features were: (n = 12), L = 359.0 ± 17.3 (319 to 372) µm; a = 28.6 ± 3 (22.8 to 31); b = 5.0 ± 0.3 (4.8 to 5.2); b΄ = 3.3 ± 0.2 (3 to 3.6), c = 8.1 ± 0.5 (7.4 to 8.8), ć = 4.7 ± 0.5 (3.9 to 5.2); Stylet = 11.4 ± 0.7 (10 to 12) µm; Tail = 44 ± 1.8 (42 to 47) µm; Hyaline 12 ± 1.7 (10 to 15) µm. To date two species of Meloidogyne, M. quercianaGolden, 1979 and M. christieiGolden and Kaplan, 1986 have been reported to parasitize oaks (Quercus spp.) from the United States of America. M. querciana was found on pin oak Quercus palustris in Virginia. The oak RKN infected pine oak, red oak, and American chestnut heavily in greenhouse tests (Golden, 1979). The other species M. christiei was described from turkey oak and Q. laevis in Florida, which has monospecific host range (Golden and Kaplan, 1986). Both of these RKN species seem to be restricted to the United States of America and have not been reported from other place. According to our knowledge this is the first report of occurrence of M. hapla on Q. brantii and Q. infectoria in the world. This study includes these two oak species to the host range of RKN, M. hapla for the world and expands the information of RKN, M. hapla host ranges on oaks. PMID:25861121

  4. Alterações anatômicas induzidas por Meloidogyne enterolobii (=M. mayaguensis e Meloidogyne javanica em tomateiros resistentes a meloidoginose

    Juliana Nogueira Westerich

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available A resistência de tomateiros (Solanum lycopersicum L. a M. incognita, M. javanica e M. arenaria, conferida pela presença do gene Mi, não contempla a espécie M. enterolobii (=M. mayaguensis. O objetivo da pesquisa foi verificar as alterações anatômicas causadas por M. enterolobii no sistema radicular de porta-enxertos de tomateiro com o gene de resistência Mi ('Magnet' e Helper M' e compará-las com as causadas por M. javanica. As observações anatômicas das raízes foram feitas com auxílio de microscópio de luz e os aspectos mais relevantes foram fotografados. Com base em contagens e mensurações do tamanho dos sítios de alimentação e das células gigantes, foram efetuadas analises utilizando o método estatístico de Análise de Agrupamento. O aparecimento de células nutridoras incitadas por M. enterolobii foi verificado em ambos os porta-enxertos de tomateiro, entre 10 e 17 dias após a inoculação (DAI. O número e a área de sítios de alimentação e de células gigantes foram menores aos 17 DAI do que aos 24 DAI. Nesta época (24 DAI, foram observados sítios de alimentação constituídos pela presença de várias células nutridoras multinucleadas, com parede celular espessa, citoplasma denso e granuloso. Os tecidos vasculares apresentaram-se comprimidos e desorganizados, foi observada, também, hipertrofia de células do parênquima cortical. As raízes inoculadas com M. javanica não apresentaram alterações anatômicas.

  5. Potential of crops uncommon to alabama for management of root-knot and soybean cyst nematodes.

    Rodríguez-Kábana, R; King, P S; Robertson, D G; Weaver, C F

    1988-10-01

    Vigna unguiculata, Cassia fasiculata, and Sesamum indicum did not support Meloidogyne arenaria, M. incognita, or Heterodera glycines race 4 in greenhouse studies with soils from peanut and soybean fields. Fagopyron eseulentum, Cyamopsis tetragonoloba, and Cucurbita pepo were hosts to the two Meloidogyne spp. but were nonhosts to H. glycines. Meloidogyne arenaria and M. incognita galled but reproduced poorly in the roots of three types of Amaranthus cruentus, and low densities of these two Meloidogyne spp. (< 10 second-stage juveniles/100 cm(3) soil) occurred in soil cultivated with this crop. In a field study no juveniles of M. arenaria determined at peanut harvest were recovered from plots with Ricinus communis, Gossypium hirsutum, Aeschynomene americana, C. fasiculata, or S. indicum. Peanut plots averaged 120 juveniles/100 cm(3) soil. Application of aldicarb (12 kg a.i./ha broadcast) in peanut resulted in an average of 27 juveniles/100 cm(3) soil. Several crops were as effective as aldicarb treatment for reducing soil juvenile population densities of M. arenaria. PMID:19290317

  6. Molecular dissection of the rDNA array and of the 5S rDNA gene in Meloidogyne artiellia: phylogenetic and diagnostic implications.

    Veronico, Pasqua; De Luca, Francesca; De Giorgi, Carla

    2004-06-01

    The sequence of a 13.423 nucleotide genomic fragment has been determined for the plant parasitic nematode Meloidogyne artiellia. It contains an entire rDNA cluster, the bordering intergenic regions and portions of the flanking coding regions. The sequence analysis of the rDNA repeats suggests homogeneity in M. artiellia, thus providing a further indication of the usefulness of these genes for the diagnostic identification of this species. The comparison of the secondary structures of the internal transcribed spacer 2 region in several Meloidogyne species indicates that RNA folding predictions can be used as a tool of potential diagnostic relevance. The other ribosomal gene, 5S rDNA, has been demonstrated to be functional and located near the trans-spliced leader sequences, in the same arrangement found in the distantly related nematode Caenorhabditis elegans but never in other Meloidogyne thus providing species-specific markers for the identification of several Thylenchida parasitic nematodes. PMID:15135452

  7. Resistance to root-knot nematodes Meloidogyne spp. in woody plants.

    Saucet, Simon Bernard; Van Ghelder, Cyril; Abad, Pierre; Duval, Henri; Esmenjaud, Daniel

    2016-07-01

    I. 42 II. 43 III. 44 IV. 47 V. 49 VI. 50 VII. 50 VIII. 50 IX. 52 52 References 52 SUMMARY: Root-knot nematodes (RKNs) Meloidogyne spp. cause major damage to cultivated woody plants. Among them, Prunus, grapevine and coffee are the crops most infested by worldwide polyphagous species and species with a more limited distribution and/or narrower host range. The identification and characterization of natural sources of resistance are important steps to develop RKN control strategies. In woody crops, resistant rootstocks genetically different from the scion of agronomical interest may be engineered. We describe herein the interactions between RKNs and different woody crops, and highlight the plant species in which resistance and corresponding resistance (R) genes have been discovered. Even though grapevine and, to a lesser extent, coffee have a history of rootstock selection for RKN resistance, few cases of resistance have been documented. By contrast, in Prunus, R genes with different spectra have been mapped in plums, peach and almond and can be pyramided for durable resistance in interspecific rootstocks. We particularly discuss here the Ma Toll/interleukin-1 receptor-like-nucleotide binding-leucine-rich repeat gene from Myrobalan plum, one of the longest plant R genes cloned to date, due to its unique biological and structural properties. RKN R genes in Prunus will enable us to carry out molecular studies aimed at improving our knowledge of plant immunity in woody plants. PMID:27128375

  8. Detecção de Meloidogyne enterolobii em mudas de amoreira (Morus nigra L.

    Vanessa dos Santos Paes-Takahashi

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available O comércio de mudas sem certificação contribui para disseminação de pragas e doenças, que podem causar sérios danos às plantas cultivadas. Na região de Itapetininga (SP, foram apreendidas, pela equipe da Defesa Agropecuária, mudas de aceroleira, goiabeira e amoreira, comercializadas em caminhões, que apresentavam galhas nas raízes, sintoma típico causado por Meloidogyne spp. A identificação da espécie foi feita através da morfologia da configuração perineal de fêmeas e região labial de machos, bem como através da caracterização do fenótipo enzimático de esterase. Foi constatada a presença de M. enterolobii nas amostras analisadas. Trata-se do primeiro relato do parasitismo de M. enterolobii em mudas de amoreira no mundo.

  9. Optimum Concentrations of Trichoderma longibrachiatum and Cadusafos for Controlling Meloidogyne javanica on Zucchini Plants.

    Sokhandani, Zahra; Moosavi, Mohammad Reza; Basirnia, Tahereh

    2016-03-01

    A factorial experiment was established in a completely randomized design to verify the effect of different inoculum levels of an Iranian isolate of Trichoderma longibrachiatum separately and in combination with various concentrations of cadusafos against Meloidogyne javanica in the greenhouse. Zucchini seeds were soaked for 12 hr in five densities (0, 10(5), 10(6), 10(7), and 10(8) spores/ml suspension) of the fungus prior to planting in pots containing four concentrations of cadusafos (0, 0.5, 1, and 2 mg a.i./kg soil). The data were analyzed using a custom response surface regression model and the response surface curve and contour plots were drawn. Reliability of the model was examined by comparing the result of new experimental treatments with the predicted results. The optimal levels of these two variables also were calculated. The interactive effects of concentrations of Trichoderma and cadusafos were insignificant for several responses such as the total number of eggs per gram soil, the number of intact eggs per gram soil, nematode reproduction factor, and control percent. Closeness of experimental mean values with the expected values proved the validity of the model. The optimal levels of the cadusafos concentration and Trichoderma concentration that caused the best plant growth and lowest nematode reproduction were 1.7 mg a.i./kg soil and 10(8) conidia/ml suspension, respectively. PMID:27168653

  10. Optimum Concentrations of Trichoderma longibrachiatum and Cadusafos for Controlling Meloidogyne javanica on Zucchini Plants

    Sokhandani, Zahra; Moosavi, Mohammad Reza; Basirnia, Tahereh

    2016-01-01

    A factorial experiment was established in a completely randomized design to verify the effect of different inoculum levels of an Iranian isolate of Trichoderma longibrachiatum separately and in combination with various concentrations of cadusafos against Meloidogyne javanica in the greenhouse. Zucchini seeds were soaked for 12 hr in five densities (0, 105, 106, 107, and 108 spores/ml suspension) of the fungus prior to planting in pots containing four concentrations of cadusafos (0, 0.5, 1, and 2 mg a.i./kg soil). The data were analyzed using a custom response surface regression model and the response surface curve and contour plots were drawn. Reliability of the model was examined by comparing the result of new experimental treatments with the predicted results. The optimal levels of these two variables also were calculated. The interactive effects of concentrations of Trichoderma and cadusafos were insignificant for several responses such as the total number of eggs per gram soil, the number of intact eggs per gram soil, nematode reproduction factor, and control percent. Closeness of experimental mean values with the expected values proved the validity of the model. The optimal levels of the cadusafos concentration and Trichoderma concentration that caused the best plant growth and lowest nematode reproduction were 1.7 mg a.i./kg soil and 108 conidia/ml suspension, respectively. PMID:27168653

  11. Chitosan enhances parasitism of Meloidogyne javanica eggs by the nematophagous fungus Pochonia chlamydosporia.

    Escudero, Nuria; Ferreira, Sebastião R; Lopez-Moya, Federico; Naranjo-Ortiz, Miguel A; Marin-Ortiz, Ana I; Thornton, Christopher R; Lopez-Llorca, Luis V

    2016-04-01

    Pochonia chlamydosporia (Pc), a nematophagous fungus and root endophyte, uses appressoria and extracellular enzymes, principally proteases, to infect the eggs of plant parasitic nematodes (PPN). Unlike other fungi, Pc is resistant to chitosan, a deacetylated form of chitin, used in agriculture as a biopesticide to control plant pathogens. In the present work, we show that chitosan increases Meloidogyne javanica egg parasitism by P. chlamydosporia. Using antibodies specific to the Pc enzymes VCP1 (a subtilisin), and SCP1 (a serine carboxypeptidase), we demonstrate chitosan elicitation of the fungal proteases during the parasitic process. Chitosan increases VCP1 immuno-labelling in the cell wall of Pc conidia, hyphal tips of germinating spores, and in appressoria on infected M. javanica eggs. These results support the role of proteases in egg parasitism by the fungus and their activation by chitosan. Phylogenetic analysis of the Pc genome reveals a large diversity of subtilisins (S8) and serine carboxypeptidases (S10). The VCP1 group in the S8 tree shows evidence of gene duplication indicating recent adaptations to nutrient sources. Our results demonstrate that chitosan enhances Pc infectivity of nematode eggs through increased proteolytic activities and appressoria formation and might be used to improve the efficacy of M. javanica biocontrol. PMID:27020158

  12. Relationship Between Meloidogyne hapla Density and Damage to Carrots in Organic Soils.

    Vrain, T C

    1982-01-01

    Field and growth chamber experiments were conducted to determine the effect of five initial densities (Pi - 20 - 240/100 cm(3) soil) of Meloidogyne hapla on carrot development and yield of storage roots at maturity. Carrots growing in infested and noninfested organic soil were harvested after 15, 29, 44, 59, and 106 days of growth in controlled environment chambers and after l l 0 days in field plots. Nematodes affected weight of roots and foliage, weight and length of the storage portion of tap roots, and induced malformations (forking), galling, and hairiness of tap roots. In most cases the data could not be represented satisfactorily by the exponential model of Seinhorst: y = m + (l-m) Z(P-t). In growth chambers the weight of mature storage roots was not correlated to initial nematode density, but there was a significant negative correlation between weight of storage roots and initial nematode density in field plots. Tolerance levels were calculated as points where the regression lines reached the growth level on noninoculated plants. The tolerance levels of foliage were higher than those of roots, and increased with age of plants. The tolerance level of marketable weight in field plots, average crop value, and a hypothetical control cost function are used to discuss the possibility of optimizing chemical control of root-knot nematode in organic soils. PMID:19295674

  13. Greenhouse and field assessment of different organic compounds against guava-parasitic Meloidogyne enterolobii

    Alexandre Macedo Almeida

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Guava decline is a complex disease involving Meloidogyne enterolobii and Fusarium solani and it has caused major direct losses to Brazilian growers. Although several strategies have been sought to control the nematode, the use of organic soil amendments is currently the best approach to manage this disease. To assess the best amount of meat and bone meal (MBM to be incorporated into the soil, guava seedlings inoculated with M. enterolobii were treated with 1-5% v/v of the MBM. Ninety days later variables related to nematode reproduction and plant development were evaluated, which indicated a potential nematicidal effect of the MBM at 3%. Another experiment assessed nematode- and plant-related variables 90 days after treatment of the seedlings with MBM, chitosan, shrimp shell or neem cake at 3%, 0.05%, 2% and 0.1% v/v, respectively. The MBM ranked first, reducing nematode reproduction. This MBM rate was converted to 25 kg/tree and assessed in three application regimes (monthly, bimonthly or trimonthly, for six months, in an orchard affected by guava decline. The variables assessed were soil density of colony forming units (CFU of bacteria and fungus, and soil and/or root density of M. enterolobii, Helicotylenchus sp., and of different nematode trophic groups. In all three application regimes the MBM reduced all plant-parasitic nematodes in the soil and the fungus CFUs. It also promoted an increase in bacterial CFU and bacterivorous nematodes.

  14. Fast assembly of the mitochondrial genome of a plant parasitic nematode (Meloidogyne graminicola) using next generation sequencing

    Besnard, G.; Juhling, F.; Chapuis, Elodie; Zedane, L.; Lhuillier, E.; Mateille, Thierry; Bellafiore, Stéphane

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about the variations of nematode mitogenomes (mtDNA). Sequencing a complete mtDNA using a PCR approach remains a challenge due to frequent genome reorganizations and low sequence similarities between divergent nematode lineages. Here, a genome skimming approach based on HiSeq sequencing (shotgun) was used to assemble de novo the first complete mtDNA sequence of a root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne graminicola). An AT-rich genome (84.3%) of 20,030 bp was obtained with a mean seque...

  15. Levantamento de Meloidogyne exigua na cultura da seringueira em São José do Rio Claro, MT, Brasil

    Bernardo Eduardo Roberto de Almeida

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi realizado com o objetivo de efetuar um levantamento da ocorrência de Meloidogyne exigua em seringueira em São José do Rio Claro, MT. Foram amostradas 191 propriedades agrícolas, totalizando cerca de 18.000ha. Os nematóides foram identificados no Laboratório de Nematologia do Departamento de Fitossanidade da FCAV/UNESP, em Jaboticabal, SP. Foram encontrados níveis populacionais de M. exigua entre 0 e 61.824 juvenis/5g de raízes.

  16. Description of Meloidogyne minor n.sp. (Nematoda: Meloidogynidae), a root-knot nematode associated with yellow patch disease in golf courses

    Karssen, G.; Bolk, R.J.; Aelst, van A.C.; Beld, van den I.; Kox, L.F.F.; Korthals, G.W.; Molendijk, L.P.G.; Zijlstra, C.; Hoof, van R.A.; Cook, R.

    2004-01-01

    A relatively small root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne minor n. sp., is described and illustrated from tomato from the Netherlands. This new species is characterised by the following features: female with dorsally curved stylet, 14 Pm long, with transversely ovoid knobs slightly sloping backwards from t

  17. EFECTO DE POBLACIONES DE Meloidogyne sp. EN EL DESARROLLO Y RENDIMIENTO DEL TOMATE

    Wilber Salazar-Ant\\u00F3n

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo fue determinar el efecto de la población inicial de Meloidogyne sp. en el cultivo del tomate. El estudio se realizó en León, Nicaragua en el año 2011. Las variables medidas fueron número de nematodos al trasplante y al momento de la cosecha, altura de la planta al momento de la madurez fisiológica y el rendimiento en kilogramos. La extracción de nematodos se realizó mediante el método de Baermann modificado. En el estudio, la densidad inicial (Pi presentó una correlación lineal positiva con la densidad final (Pf. Sin embargo, se observó que cuando la Pi era igual a 400 nematodos/100 g de suelo, el factor de reproducción se incrementaba a 3,64; por el contrario, cuando la Pi era igual a 700 nematodos/100 g de suelo, el factor de reproducción se reducía a 2,48. La Pi se correlacionó inversamente con el peso de frutos y altura de las plantas. Plantas con 200 nematodos/100 g de suelo presentaban peso de frutos de 2,19 kg y altura de 153,20 cm en comparación con 0,93 kg y 135,24 cm en plantas con 600 nematodos/100 g de suelo. Existió una correlación positiva entre Pi y Pf de Meloidogy- ne sp. en el tomate. Las poblaciones de este nematodo, se correlacionaron inversamente con las variables altura y peso de los frutos.

  18. Nematodos Agalladores Afectando Hortalizas y otros Cultivos en el Norte Centro de México

    Rodolfo Velásquez Valle

    2001-01-01

    Se reporta la diseminación de los nematodos Nacobbus aberrans en frijol, Meloidogyne incognita y Meloidogyne spp. en cultivos de frijol, chile, calabaza, cebolla, girasol, alfalfa y durazno, así como una maleza (Amaranthus graecizans) en áreas irrigadas y de temporal de los Estados de Aguascalientes, San Luis Potosí y Zacatecas durante 1998-2000. Abstract. This is a report of the spread of nematodes Nacobbus aberrans on beans, Meloidogyne incognita and Meloidogyne spp. on bean, pepper, zuchi...

  19. Wirkungen des Rhizobakteriums Bacillus subtilis auf den Befall von Tomatenpflanzen durch Wurzelgallen- (Meloidogyne spp.) und Wurzelläsions-Nematoden (Pratylenchus spp.)

    Ahmed Seid, Eshetu

    1999-01-01

    Untersuchungen wurden durchgeführt, um die Wirkung von B. subtilis und deren Metaboliten auf den Meloidogyne- und Pratylenchus-Befall und ihre Vermehrung festzustellen sowie um die möglichen Wirkmechanismen zu studieren. Substratbehandlungen mit B. subtilis FZB 24® führten zu einem höherenMeloidogyne-Befall und einer verstärkten Nematodenvermehrung. Trotz verstärktem Befall wurde das Pflanzenwachstum verbessert (induzierte Toleranz). Weiterhin wurden durch "antibiotikafreie" Kulturfiltrat...

  20. EFEITOS DE PRODUTOS QUÍMICOS NO CONTROLE DE Meloidogyne sp SOBRE QUIABEIRO (Hibiscus sculentum L. EFFECTS OF CHEMICAL CONTROL OF Meloidogyne sp. IN Hibiscus sculentum L. IN OKRA

    Lincoln Fonseca Zica

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Testou-se o poder nematicida de Shell-DD, Vapan, Nemagon granulado, brometo de metila e Neantina solúvel em solos com infestacão natural de Meloidogyne sp., usando-se o quiabeiro (Hibiscus escullentum L. como referência para medir a intensidade de infestação após o tratamento. O Shell-DD (40 ml/m² exerceu notável efeito nematicida, mas o Vapan (60 ml/m², o Nemagon granulado (40 g/m² e a Neantina solúvel (solução a 0,3% - 10 l/m² deram resultados estatisticamente iguais à testemunha. As parcelas tratadas com Brometo de metila (40 ml/m² foram perdidas em consequência do efeito fitotóxico do produto sobre as sementes e plântulas do quiabeiro.

    The nematicide power of Shell-DD, vapan, granulated nemagon, methyl bromide and soluble neantina, were tested by applying them to soil affected by Meloidogyne sp. The okra plant (Hibiscus esculentum L. was used as the hosting agent, to measure the amount of worms af-ter treatment. The results showed that Shell-DD (40 ml/m² controlled the worms well, but that vapan, granulated nemagon and the soluble neantina were statistically equal to the control plot. The plots treated with methyl bromide were not included in the results because of the toxic effect of the product on the plants.

  1. Ultrastructural Changes Caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici in Meloidogyne javanica Induced Giant Cells in Fusarium Resistant and Susceptible Tomato Cultivars

    Fattah, F.; Webster, J. M.

    1983-01-01

    Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) seedlings, susceptible (cv. Pearson A-I Improved) and resistant (cv. Pearson Improved) to race 1 Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici (Sacc.) Snyd &Hans., were inoculated with Meloidogyne javanica (Trueb) Chitwood second-stage juveniles and 3 weeks later with race 1 F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici spores. One week after fungal inoculation, no fungus was visible in root tissue of the tomato cultivars and the giant cells were normal. Two weeks after funga...

  2. Effects and Carry-Over Benefits of Nematicides in Soil Planted to a Sweet Corn-Squash-Vetch Cropping System

    Johnson, A. W.; Leonard, R A

    1995-01-01

    The effects of irrigation on the efficacy of nematicides on Meloidogyne incognita race 1 population densities, yield of sweet corn, and the carry-over of nematicidal effect in the squash crop were determined in a sweet corn-squash-vetch cropping system for 3 years. Fenamiphos 15G and aldicarb 15G were applied at 6.7 kg a.i./ha and incorporated 15 cm deep with a tractor-mounted rototiller. Ethylene dibromide (EDB) was injected at 18 kg a.i./ha on each side of the sweet corn rows (total 36 kg a...

  3. Nematode Numbers and Crop Yield in a Fenamiphos-Treated Sweet Corn-Sweet Potato-Vetch Cropping System

    Johnson, A. W.; Dowler, C. C.; Glaze, N. C.; Chalfant, R.B.; Golden, A. M.

    1992-01-01

    Nematode population densities and yield of sweet corn and sweet potato as affected by the nematicide fenamiphos, in a sweet corn-sweet potato-vetch cropping system, were determined in a 5-year test (1981-85). Sweet potato was the best host of Meloidogyne incognita of these three crops. Fenamiphos 15G (6.7 kg a.i./ha) incorporated broadcast in the top 15 cm of the soil layer before planting of each crop increased (P ≤ 0.05) yields of sweet corn in 1981 and 1982 and sweet potato number 1 grade ...

  4. Effects of Tagetes patula on Active and Inactive Stages of Root-Knot Nematodes

    Marahatta, Sharadchandra P.; Wang, Koon-Hui; Sipes, Brent S.; Hooks, Cerruti R. R.

    2012-01-01

    Although marigold (Tagetes patula) is known to produce allelopathic compounds toxic to plant-parasitic nematodes, suppression of Meloidogyne incognita can be inconsistent. Two greenhouse experiments were conducted to test whether marigold is more effective in suppressing Meloidogyne spp. when it is active rather than dormant. Soils infested with Meloidogyne spp. were collected and conditioned in the greenhouse either by 1) keeping the soil dry (DRY), 2) irrigating with water (IRR), or 3) dren...

  5. Pochonia chlamydosporia var. chlamydosporia (Goddard Zare & W. Gams for the management of lettuce infected with Meloidogyne javanica (Treub, 1885

    José R Viggiano

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The application of the nematophagous fungus Pochonia chlamydosporia var. chlamydosporia (Goddard Zare & W. Gams during seedling production of vegetable crops can be an efficient approach to control root-knot nematode. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of treating seedlings and/or soil with bionematicide (wettable powder formulation based on chlamydospores from isolate Pc-10 on the Meloidogyne javanica (Treub, 1885 control in lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.. Isolate Pc-10 was diluted in water and applied when watering the seedlings (0, 4.5, 9.0, 13.5, and 18.0 g L-1 and/or to the potted soil (5000 chlamydospores g-1 used for growing lettuce. The soil in each pot was infested with 3000 M. javanica eggs. The number of M. javanica eggs was reduced in lettuce roots when isolate Pc-10 was applied either to seedlings or soil; there was no interaction between application methods. The decrease in the number of eggs was proportional to the increase of isolate Pc-10 applied to seedlings with maximum reduction of 43.5% at the 18 g L-1 dose. When the fungus was applied to the soil, the number of eggs was reduced by 12.3%. Increasing doses of isolate Pc-10 reduced the number of galls up to 21% with the 18 g L-1 dose. Applying bionematicide based on P. chlamydosporia isolate Pc-10 at 18 g L-1 on seedlings controls M. javanica in lettuce.

  6. Reação de clones de umezeiro (Prunus mume sieb. et zucc. e cultivares de pessegueiro a Meloidogyne javanica (treub, 1885 Chitwood, 1949

    Mayer Newton Alex

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Um amplo projeto de estudos sobre a utilização do umezeiro como porta-enxerto para pessegueiro está sendo desenvolvido na FCAV/UNESP, Câmpus de Jaboticabal-SP, devido, especialmente, às promissoras características para uso como redutor de vigor da copa e sua boa qualidade de frutos. Alguns trabalhos na literatura citam o umezeiro como resistente ao nematóide das galhas, entretanto dispõe-se de poucas informações. Neste trabalho, teve-se por objetivo estudar a reação de clones de umezeiro e cultivares de pessegueiro a Meloidogyne javanica. O experimento foi conduzido em casa de vegetação, com 6 tratamentos (Clones 05; 10 e 15 de umezeiro e as cultivares Okinawa, Aurora-1 e Dourado-1 de pessegueiro e 9 repetições. As plantas foram mantidas em vasos de cerâmica contendo uma mistura de solo e areia (1:1, v/v, previamente autoclavada a 121ºC e 1kgf.cm-2 por 2 horas. Aos sessenta dias após o plantio, cada planta foi inoculada com 3.000 ovos e juvenis de segundo estádio de Meloidogyne javanica. Aos 100 dias após a inoculação, as plantas foram colhidas para avaliação da massa de matéria fresca do sistema radicular, número de galhas por sistema radicular, número de ovos e juvenis por 10 g de raízes, número de ovos e juvenis por sistema radicular e fator de reprodução. Verificou-se que todos os clones e cultivares de umezeiro e pessegueiro, respectivamente, mostraram-se resistentes a Meloidogyne javanica.

  7. Management of the Root Knot Nematode (Meloidogyne Javanica. Treub) and Sore Shin (Rhizoctonia Solani. Kuhn) Using A Nematicide and Poor Host Crops in Rotations

    U. Mazarura; C. Chisango; M. Goss

    2012-01-01

    In a long term study the effects of a nematicide and six rotations: root-knot-susceptible tobacco, Nicotiana tabacum L. cv.‘KM10’ grown continuously (ContKM10), root-knot-resistant tobacco cv. ‘RK8’ grown continuously (ContRK8), grass-grass-grass-KM10 (G-G-G-KM10), grass-grass-grass-RK8 (G-G-G-RK8), KM10-Crotalaria juncea (KM10-Cr) and RK8-Crotalaria juncea (RK8-Cr), on root knot nematode, Meloidogyne javanica and sore shin, Rhizoctonia solani infection were studied. The nematicide used was ...

  8. Identification of Root knot nematode (Meloidogyne chitwoodi Golden, O'Bannon, Santo et Finley, 1980) in potato in Bitlis Province, Turkey

    ÖZARSLANDAN, Adem; İMREN, Mustafa; ÖCAL, Atilla; ELEKCİOĞLU, İ. Halil

    2013-01-01

    The root knot nematode (Meloidogyne chitwoodi Golden, O’Bannon, Santo et Finley, 1980) is an important pest of potatoes throughout the world. It is in international quarantine list of many countries. This species was first reported in Niğde and Nevşehir in 2009 Turkey. The objective of the study was to identify the species of root-knot nematodes collected from potato fields in the province of Bitlis where potatoes are grown extensively in 2010. 16 potato tubers were found infected with the ro...

  9. Characterization and efficacy of bacterial strains for biological control of soil-borne diseases caused by Phytophthora cactorum and Meloidogyne javanica on Rosaceous plants

    Agustí Alcals, Lourdes

    2008-01-01

    S'avaluaren 58 soques de Pseudomonas fluorescens i Pantoea agglomerans per la seva eficàcia en el biocontrol de la malaltia causada per l'oomicet Phytophthora cactorum en maduixera i pel nematode formador de gal·les Meloidogyne javanica en el portaempelt GF-677.Es desenvolupà un mètode ex vivo d'inoculació de fulla amb l'objectiu de seleccionar soques bacterianes com a agents de control biològic de P. cactorum en maduixera. Tres soques de P. fluorescens es seleccionaren com a soques eficaces ...

  10. SELEÇÃO DE GENÓTIPOS DE ABACAXI PARA RESISTÊNCIA A Meloidogyne javanica E Pratylenchus brachyurus RESISTANCE OF PINEAPPLE GENOTYPES TO Meloidogyne javanica AND Pratylenchus brachyurus

    Carlos Humberto Calfa

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Dez genótipos de abacaxi foram avaliados para resistência às espécies de nematóides, Meloidogyne javanica e Pratylenchus brachyurus, em dois experimentos conduzidos em casa de vegetação, seguindo o delineamento inteiramente casualizado com seis repetições, empregando o cv. Smooth Cayenne como padrão de suscetibilidade. Cada parcela foi constituída de uma planta/vaso, contendo solo esterilizado com brometo de metila. Após dois meses do plantio das mudas, as plantas foram inoculadas com 1.000 juvenis (J2 de M. javanica no primeiro experimento e 1.000 indivíduos de P. brachyurus no segundo experimento. Após 90 dias da inoculação foram avaliados os seguintes parâmetros: peso do sistema radicular, número de ovos e de nematóides por planta e fatores de reprodução. A seleção para resistência foi baseada na percentagem de redução do fator de reprodução. Em relação a M. javanica, os genótipos FRF-632 e H-3607 foram pouco resistentes (PR e os de LBB-1385, Primavera, FRF-609 e LBB-1396 comportaram-se como moderadamente resistentes (MR. Para P. brachyurus foram selecionados como pouco resistentes (PR os genótipos de H-3607, LBB-396, Perolera, FRF-609 e Primavera.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVES: Ananas comosus; resistência; nematóide das galhas; nematóide das lesões radiculares.

    The resistance of ten genotypes of pineapple to two nematodes species, Meloidogyne javanica and Pratylenchus brachyurus, was evaluated in two experiments at greenhouse. Each one of them was completely randomized with six replications. The cultivar Smooth Cayenne was used as a susceptible control. Each plot was represented by one plant/pot. Each pot held 4 l of soil

  11. Crescimento micelial e parasitismo de Paecilomyces lilacinus sobre ovos de Meloidogyne paranaensis em diferentes temperaturas"in vitro" "In vitro" mycelial growth and parasitism of Paecilomyces lilacinus on Meloidogyne paranaensis eggs at different temperatures

    Marina Capparelli Cadioli

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Paecilomyces lilacinus é um fungo de solo, parasita facultativo de ovos de nematóides, que pode crescer rapidamente "in vitro". Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o crescimento micelial de P. lilacinus em diferentes temperaturas e selecionar os melhores isolados quanto à capacidade de parasitar ovos de Meloidogyne paranaensis. Foram avaliados isolados de P. lilacinus, obtidos de solos coletados na região de Londrina, PR. Para o isolamento empregou-se a técnica de diluição seriada dos solos e plaqueamento em meio de cultura semi-seletivo. A determinação do crescimento micelial e do parasitismo "in vitro" dos isolados sobre M. paranaensis foi realizada em placas de Petri contendo meio BDA. Os isolados foram incubados em B.O.D. a temperaturas de 20ºC, 22,5ºC, 25ºC, 27,5ºC e 30ºC. A avaliação do crescimento foi interrompida quando em um dos tratamentos a colônia do fungo atingiu a borda da placa de Petri e a determinação do parasitismo foi realizada depois de oito dias de incubação, calculando-se a porcentagem de ovos parasitados. O crescimento micelial dos isolados de P. lilacinus teve grande dependência da temperatura de incubação a que foram submetidos, sendo mais rápido à temperatura de 22,5ºC. Os isolados de P. lilacinus revelaram habilidade para infectar os ovos de M. paranaensis em meio BDA, principalmente na temperatura de 25ºC.Paecilomyces lilacinus is a soil fungus, facultative parasite of nematode eggs, which develops quickly "in vitro". The mycelial growth of P. lilacinus isolates was evaluated at different temperatures and the best isolates, regarding the capacity to parasite Meloidogyne paranaensis eggs, were chosen. P. lilacinus soil isolates from Londrina, Parana state, were evaluated. Isolation was done using serial dilution of the soils and plating it in semi-selective agar medium. The determination of mycelial growth and "in vitro" parasitism of these isolates was done using Petri plates

  12. Control of Meloidogyne enterolobii in guava seedlings with mycorrhizal fungi isolated from Bahia Savanna = Controle de Meloidogyne enterolobii em mudas de goiabeira com fungos micorrízicos isolados do Cerrado baiano.

    Aracy Camilla Tardin Pinheiro

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The nematode Meloidogyne enterolobii causes severe damage to guava tree, being a limiting factor to production. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF can impair the development of some species of plant parasitic nematodes by reducing oviposition and the number of galls in the roots of infected plants. The present research aimed to evaluate the potential of AMF, isolated from soils of native savanna, in reducing the infectivity of M. enterolobii in guava tree seedlings. For this purpose, an experiment was conducted in a greenhouse in randomized block design with eight replications, in which we evaluated the percentage of mycorrhizal colonization, the number of galls and eggs of the mentioned nematode per gram of root, in the presence of eight different fungal isolates, and the control without the presence of the fungus, in the guava tree. All AMF isolates from the savanna were effective on root colonization, reduced the number of nematode’s galls and affected their reproduction; however, the degree of root colonization by mycorrhizal fungi, alone, is not indicative of infectivity control of this pathogen, since some isolates showing increased colonization were less effective in reducing it, so that the evaluated AMF isolates differed regarding the efficiency in reducing the reproduction of M. enterolobii in guava tree seedlings. = O nematoide Meloidogyne enterolobii causa severos danos à goiabeira, sendo um fator limitante à produção. Os fungos micorrízicos arbusculares (FMA podem prejudicar o desenvolvimento de algumas espécies de nematoides fitoparasitos, reduzindo a ovoposição e o número de galhas no sistema radicular de plantas infectadas. Com o presente trabalho, objetivouse avaliar o potencial de FMA, isolados de solos de cerrado nativo, em reduzir a infectividade de M. enterolobii em mudas de goiabeira. Para tanto, foi conduzido um experimento em casa de vegetação, em blocos casualizados com oito repetições, no qual se avaliou a

  13. A study of interaction between Verticillium wilt Verticillium dahliae and root-knot nematode Meloidogyne javanica in olive cultivars.

    Saeedizadeh, Ayatollah; Kheiri, Ahmad; Zad, Javad; Etebarian, Hasan Reza; Bandani, Ali Reza; Nasiri, Mohammad Bagher

    2009-01-01

    Second stage juvenile (J2) of root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne javanica, and microsclerotia of verticillium wilt, Verticillium dahliae, were used as the source of inoculum for nematode and fungus respectively. One-year-old seedlings of olive cultivars, Zard, Roghani, Koroneiki and Manzanilla, were transplanted to pots containing 2000g of sterilized sandy loam soil. Experiment was conducted in completely randomized design with 32 treatments and five replications. Treatments were as follows: control, nematode alone, fungus alone and fungus + nematode. Pots were inoculated with (0, 2000, 3000, 4000) J2 of nematode and/or (10 no/g soil) microsclerotia of fungus according to the treatments. Experiment was terminated after 10 months and fallowing parameters were determined i.e., fresh weight of root and stem, number of galls and egg masses per root system, and percentage of incidence of symptom on aerial parts, browning of vascular tissue, decrease of seedling height and stem/root tissue colonization by fungus. Results showed that presence of nematode caused reduction on colonization of the fungus in the root and stem and vice versa i.e. presence of fungus caused reduction on number of galls and egg masses produced by the nematode. Severe fungus wilt on aerial parts of Manzanilla cultivar was observed when both pathogens were inoculated and mild fungus wilt was observed in fungus alone treatments of Koroneiki cultivar. Galling and egg mass production in root system were reduced in cvs Manzanilla, Zard, Roghani and Koroneiki, respectively (p Manzanilla, respectively (p < or = 0/05). PMID:20222619

  14. Dual RNA-seq reveals Meloidogyne graminicola transcriptome and candidate effectors during the interaction with rice plants.

    Petitot, Anne-Sophie; Dereeper, Alexis; Agbessi, Mawusse; Da Silva, Corinne; Guy, Julie; Ardisson, Morgane; Fernandez, Diana

    2016-08-01

    Root-knot nematodes secrete proteinaceous effectors into plant tissues to facilitate infection by suppressing host defences and reprogramming the host metabolism to their benefit. Meloidogyne graminicola is a major pest of rice (Oryza sativa) in Asia and Latin America, causing important crop losses. The goal of this study was to identify M. graminicola pathogenicity genes expressed during the plant-nematode interaction. Using the dual RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq) strategy, we generated transcriptomic data of M. graminicola samples covering the pre-parasitic J2 stage and five parasitic stages in rice plants, from the parasitic J2 to the adult female. In the absence of a reference genome, a de novo M. graminicola transcriptome of 66 396 contigs was obtained from those reads that were not mapped on the rice genome. Gene expression profiling across the M. graminicola life cycle revealed key genes involved in nematode development and provided insights into the genes putatively associated with parasitism. The development of a 'secreted protein prediction' pipeline revealed a typical set of proteins secreted by nematodes, as well as a large number of cysteine-rich proteins and putative nuclear proteins. Combined with expression data, this pipeline enabled the identification of 15 putative effector genes, including two homologues of well-characterized effectors from cyst nematodes (CLE-like and VAP1) and a metallothionein. The localization of gene expression was assessed by in situ hybridization for a subset of candidates. All of these data represent important molecular resources for the elucidation of M. graminicola biology and for the selection of potential targets for the development of novel control strategies for this nematode species. PMID:26610268

  15. Study on rDNA -ITS-PCR of root-knot nematode in grape in the Chinese Yellow River east region%黄河故道地区葡萄根结线虫rDNA—ITS—PCR研究

    刘三军; 于巧丽; 李洪连

    2011-01-01

    用PCR方法扩增来自黄河故道地区不同区域葡萄根结线虫群体的ITS片段,并进行克隆和序列分析。结果表明,来自6个不同采集点的供试线虫属于同一种群,获得的ITS序列长度为766 bp,与已知南方根结线虫ITS区编码序列一致性达到99.74%;聚类结果显示,与南方根结线虫亲缘关系最近。结合形态鉴定结果,初步确定黄河古道地区葡萄根结线虫病病原为南方根结线虫(Meloidogyne incognita)。%The amplification, cloning and sequencing of the rDNA-ITS region of 6 different populations of root-knot nematodes from trail of the Yellow River east region were conducted. The sequence analysis results showed that six populations of root-knot nematodes on grape from Luoyang, Zhengzhou, Kaifeng, Shangqiu in Henan Province and Dangshan, Xiaoxian in Anhui Province belong to Meloidogyne incognita. The length of ITS was 766 bp. The results of the sequence analysis and the form identifications showed that this pathogen was Meloidogyne incognita.

  16. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U06080-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Full Text Available 1 ) RecName: Full=Probable small nuclear ribonucleoprotein ... 61 1e-08 AC008153_16( AC008153 |pid:none) Arabidopsis thaliana ch...osome... 44 0.002 CP001140_1291( CP001140 |pid:none) Desulfurococcus kamchatkensi...ia... 40 7e-04 2 ( CF980609 ) re07a03.y1 Meloidogyne incognita female SL1 pGEM ... 40 7e-04 2 ( BQ125350 ) rc67a11.y1 Meloidogyne ha... TOPO v1 Melo... 42 7e-04 2 ( CF803329 ) rg70b03.y1 Meloidogyne hapla female SL1 pGEM Melo... 42 7e-04 2 ( B...Q472967 ) rc81c12.y1 Meloidogyne hapla egg SL1 TOPO v1 Melo... 42 7e-04 2 ( CF980878 ) re10a05.y1 Meloidogyne incognita female

  17. Soil amendment with chopped or ground dry leaves of six species of plants for the control of Meloidogyne javanica in tomato under greenhouse conditions Incorporação ao solo de folhas secas picadas ou moídas de seis espécies de plantas para o controle de Meloidogyne javanica em tomateiro em casa de vegetação

    Everaldo Antônio Lopes; Silamar Ferraz; Paulo Afonso Ferreira; Leandro Grassi de Freitas; Rosangela Dallemole-Giaretta

    2011-01-01

    Greenhouse experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of soil amendment with chopped (1cm²) or ground (1mm sieve) dry leaves of assa-peixe (Vernonia polyanthes), lemon-grass (Cymbopogon citratus), eucalyptus (Eucalyptus citriodora), castor (Ricinus communis), mango (Mangifera indica) or neem (Azadirachta indica) for the control Meloidogyne javanica. Into the soil (Yellow red oxisol) of each pot were added leaves (5g kg-1 of soil) and 5,000 eggs of the nematode. After seven days, one to...

  18. Evaluation of plant aqueous extracts, added into the soil, on Meloidogyne javanica (Treub, 1885) Chitwood, 1949 /
    Avaliação de extratos aquosos de várias espécies vegetais, aplicados ao solo, sobre Meloidogyne javanica (Treub, 1885) Chitwood, 1949

    Leandro Grassi de Freitas; Deisy Xavier Amora; Paulo Afonso Ferreira; Everaldo Antônio Lopes; Silamar Ferraz; Cristiane Gonçalves Gardiano

    2009-01-01

    The use of plant extracts with nematicidal properties to control plant nematodes can be a useful alternative to small farmers, regarding its low cost and non-toxic effects. The effect of the addition into the soil of aqueous extracts of 20 plant species on Meloidogyne javanica in plants of tomato was studied at greenhouse conditions. These were divided into two groups and evaluated in two separate experiments.The soil in the 2.0 L pots was infested with 5,000 eggs and, in the same day, it was...

  19. Suppression of Meloidogyne javanica by antagonistic and plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria

    LI Bin; XIE Guan-lin; SOAD A.; COOSEMANS J.

    2005-01-01

    Four rhizobacteria selected out of over 500 isolates from rhizosphere of the vegetables in China were further studied for suppression of the root-knot nematode and soil-borne fungal pathogens in laboratory and greenhouse in Belgium. They were identified as Brevibacillus brevis or Bacillus subtilis by Biolog test and partial 16s rDNA sequence comparison. They not only inhibited the radial growth of the root-infecting fungi Rhizoctonia solani SX-6, Pythium aphanidermatum ZJP-1 and Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cucumerinum ZJF-2 in vitro, but also exhibited strong nematicidal activity by killing the second stage larvae of Meloidogynejavanica to varying degrees in the greenhouse. The toxic principles of bacterium B7 that showed the highest juvenile mortality were partially characterized. The active factors were heat stability and resistance to extreme pH values. B7 used either as seed dressing or soil drench significantly reduced the nematode populations in the rhizosphere and enhanced the growth of mungbean plants over the controls in the presence or absence ofR. solani.

  20. 高尔夫果岭草坪草上禾本科根结线虫的鉴定%Identification of Meloidogyne graminis on golf greens

    卓侃; 胡茂秀; 王宏洪; 唐照磊; 邵晓勇; 廖金铃

    2011-01-01

    2009年,广东省阳江和珠海的2个高尔夫球场果岭草坪出现大面积的斑块状枯死,调查发现这些果岭草的根部具有根结,同时从土壤当中分离到大量的根结线虫2龄幼虫.运用线虫比较形态学,结合同工酶及分子生物学技术对采自这2个高尔夫球场的根结线虫进行鉴定,确定该根结线虫为禾本科根结线虫(Meloidogyne graminis),禾本科根结线虫病是美国高尔夫球场的一个重要草坪草病害,在我国则是首次发现.%In 2009, yellow patches emerged on golf greens of two golf courses in Yangjiang and Zhuhai of Guangdong Province. Root knots were observed in turfgrass roots of the golf greens, and numerous juvenile second stage (J2) worms belong to the genus Meloidogyne were isolated from soils around turf grass roots.The root knot nematodes were identified by using morphology, isozyme and mtDNA-PCR-sequence. The results indicated the root knot nematode was M. graminis. M. graminis are known to be an important pathogen of golf course greens turf in USA, however the nematode is found firstly on golf course in China.

  1. Selective nematocidal effects of essential oils from two cultivated Artemisia absinthium populations.

    García-Rodríguez, Juan José; Andrés, María-Fé; Ibañez-Escribano, Alexandra; Julio, Luis F; Burillo, Jesús; Bolás-Fernández, Francisco; González-Coloma, Azucena

    2015-09-01

    Essential oils (EOs) obtained from two crops and populations of thujone-free cultivated Artemisia absinthium were tested against two nematode models, the mammalian parasite Trichinella spiralis, and the plant parasitic root knot nematode Meloidogyne javanica. The EOs were characterized by the presence of (Z)-epoxyocimene and chrysanthenol as major components and showed time and population dependent quantitative and qualitative variations in composition. The EOs showed a strong ex vivo activity against the L1 larvae of the nematode Trichinella spiralis with a reduction of infectivity between 72 and 100% at a dose range of 0.5-1 mg/ml in absence of cytotoxicity against mammalian cells. Moreover, the in vivo activity of the EO against T. spiralis showed a 66% reduction of intestinal adults. However, these oils were not effective against M. javanica. PMID:26444350

  2. Species of Root-knot Nematodes and Fungal Egg Parasites Recovered from Vegetables in Almería and Barcelona, Spain

    Verdejo Lucas, Soledad; Ornat Longarón, Cèsar; Sorribas Royo, Francisco Javier; Stchigel, Alberto Miguel

    2002-01-01

    Intensive vegetable production areas were surveyed in the provinces of Almería (35 sites) and Barcelona (22 sites), Spain, to determine the incidence and identity of Meloidogyne spp. and of fungal parasites of nematode eggs. Two species of Meloidogyne were found in Almería—M. javanica (63% of the samples) and M. incognita (31%). Three species were found in Barcelona, including M. incognita (50%), M. javanica (36%), and M. arenaria (14%). Solanaceous crops supported larger (P < 0.05) nematode ...

  3. Ação nematicida de extratos de alho, mostarda, pimenta malagueta, de óleo de mostarda e de dois produtos à base de capsainóides e alil isotiocianato sobre juvenis de Meloidogyne javanica, (treub Chitwood, 1949, em casa de vegetação

    Wânia dos Santos Neves

    2009-12-01

    o extrato clorofórmico de pimenta, o óleo de mostarda, o produto comercial Champon® e um produto em desenvolvimento na UFV, chamado DS, a base de capsaicina, capsainóides e alil isotiocianato em diferentes concentrações. Os produtos Champon® e DS e o óleo de mostarda reduziram o número de ovos e galhas quando comparados à testemunha em todas as concentrações testadas. O extrato de pimenta apresentou o melhor resultado na concentração de 400 ppm, reduzindo o número de ovos e galhas em relação à testemunha, porém esse foi bem maior quando comparado com os demais produtos testados.Neves, W.S; Freitas, L.G.; Coutinho, M.M.; Giaretta-Dallemole, R.; Fabry, C.F.S.; Dhingra, O.D. & Ferraz, S. Nematicidal activity of extracts of red hot chili pepper, mustard and garlic on Meloidogyne javanica in green house. Summa Phytopathologica, v.35, n.4, p.255-261, 2009 The experiment had the objectives of evaluate the nematicidal activity of botanical extracts of chili pepper fruits (Capsicum frutescens, mustard (Brassica campestris and garlig (Allium sativum on the root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne javanica in tomato plants in the greenhouse, and in a second step, to compare the best extracts for the reduction of the number of eggs and root galls with two products containing capsaicin, capsainoids and allyl isothiocyanate. A sieved mixture of soil and sand 1:1 (v:v was used to fill plastic pots and infested with 4000 eggs of M. javanica. After 4 days, 20 mL of one of the extracts, in the concentration of 1000ppm, were poured over the soil of each pot. Water was poured in the test treatment. Twenty day-old tomato seedlings were planted, one per pot, four days after the aplication of the extracts. Forty five days after planting, the number of galls and eggs per plant was evaluated. The chloroformic and cetonic extracts of chili pepper and the mustard oil presented the highest effect on the nematode population, differing from the control treatment in respect to the

  4. Study on the Inheritance of Resistance to the Root-Knot Nematode Meloidogyn e hapla in Rose%月季对根结线虫病抗性遗传研究

    王新荣; JacobY; 等

    2001-01-01

    针对月季栽培过程中出现的最严重的根结线虫病防治问题,开展了月季对根结线虫抗性遗传研究。研究结果如下:①对常用的4种月季砧木R. multiflora K1,K2,CE63及R. indica对4种常见根结线虫即南方根结线虫(Meloidogyne incognita)、爪哇根结线虫(M. javanica)、花生根结线虫(M. arenaria)及北方根结线虫(M. hapla)的抗性进行了测定,得出只有北方根结线虫能侵染月季,其余3种不能侵染。②根结指数与对数转化后的每克根中雌虫数、雄虫数、3~4龄幼虫数之和、2龄幼虫数、卵数、成虫及3~4龄幼虫数之总和、2龄幼虫与卵数之总和均呈线性相关关系,因此根结指数是进行抗性评价的可靠、简单及实用的指标。抗性划分标准如下:根结指数 0.0~1.0 ,抗病;1.0~2.0,中等抗病;2.0~3.0,感病;3.0~4.0,比较感病;4.0~5.0,高度感病。③以根结指数为指标,通过对杂交所得74个子代的抗性评价试验表明:在2抗性亲本所得12个子代中,各子代抗性水平存在抗性分化,说明抗病基因不是由单一显性基因控制;在所有的62个抗性亲本与感病亲本的杂交子代中,59个子代均比抗病亲本感病,表明抗病基因由隐性基因控制。因此,提出了月季对根结线虫的抗性遗传可能由2个基因决定。%Firstly, the host suitability of four rose rootstock s from the INRA collection in Fréjus( France) ranging into three R. multiflor a (designated as ‘K1’, ‘K2’ and ‘CE63’) and one R. indica designated as ‘Maroc’ wa s evaluated under greenhouse conditions using one population of each of the root -knot nematodes (RKN) Meloidogyne arenaria,M. incognita, M. javanica and M. ha pla. All the rootstocks expressed a high resistance to the first three RKN spe cies and expressed different host suitability to M. hapla.   Then resistance evaluation was performed

  5. Resistance to Root-knot Nematodes in Cucumber and Horned Cucumber

    Wehner, Todd C.; Walters, S. Alan; Barker, Kenneth R.

    1991-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted in the greenhouse. In one experiment, cucumber (Cucumis sativus) and horned cucumber (C. metuliferus) cultigens were evaluated for resistance to four root-knot nematode species (Meloidogyne arenaria, M. hapla, M. incognita, and M. javanica), and, in a second experiment, a standard (12-week) test was compared with a rapid (6-week) test. In the first experiment, horned cucumber cultigens varied in response to the Meloidogyne species. 'Sumter' cucumber was more sus...

  6. In vitro uptake of 140 kDa Bacillus thuringiensis nematicidal crystal proteins by the second stage juvenile of Meloidogyne hapla.

    Fengjuan Zhang

    Full Text Available Plant-parasitic nematodes (PPNs are piercing/sucking pests, which cause severe damage to crops worldwide, and are difficult to control. The cyst and root-knot nematodes (RKN are sedentary endoparasites that develop specialized multinucleate feeding structures from the plant cells called syncytia or giant cells respectively. Within these structures the nematodes produce feeding tubes, which act as molecular sieves with exclusion limits. For example, Heterodera schachtii is reportedly unable to ingest proteins larger than 28 kDa. However, it is unknown yet what is the molecular exclusion limit of the Meloidogyne hapla. Several types of Bacillus thuringiensis crystal proteins showed toxicity to M. hapla. To monitor the entry pathway of crystal proteins into M. hapla, second-stage juveniles (J2 were treated with NHS-rhodamine labeled nematicidal crystal proteins (Cry55Aa, Cry6Aa, and Cry5Ba. Confocal microscopic observation showed that these crystal proteins were initially detected in the stylet and esophageal lumen, and subsequently in the gut. Western blot analysis revealed that these crystal proteins were modified to different molecular sizes after being ingested. The uptake efficiency of the crystal proteins by the M. hapla J2 decreased with increasing of protein molecular mass, based on enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay analysis. Our discovery revealed 140 kDa nematicidal crystal proteins entered M. hapla J2 via the stylet, and it has important implications in designing a transgenic resistance approach to control RKN.

  7. Synthesis and Bioevaluation of 3-(substitutedphenyl-1-(4-hydroxyphenyl-2-propen-1-ones and their Carbamate Derivatives against Root – Knot Nematode (Meloidogyne javanica

    Sumona Kumari

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Synthesis of 3-(4-chloro/methyl/nitro/methoxy/3,4,5-trimethoxy/2,4-dichloro/ 4-bromo/ 3, 4-dimethoxy/ 2, 4-dimethoxy/ 3-bromo/ 2-chloro/ 2-methoxy phenyl-1-(4-hydroxyphenyl-2-propen-1-one (14-25 has been carried out from substituted benzaldehyde (1-12 and 4-hydroxy acetophenone (13. The condensation of synthesized 2-propen-1-ones (14-25 with phenyl isocyanate (26 gave 4-[3-(4-chloro/ methyl/nitro/methoxy/3, 4, 5-trimethoxy/2, 4-dichloro/4-bromo/3, 4-dimethoxy/2, 4-dimethoxy/3-bromo phenyl prop-2-enoyl] phenyl phenylcarbamate (27-36. The synthesized compounds were characterized on the basis of analytical and spectral data. All the compounds were evaluated for their nematicidal activity in- vitro against second stage juveniles (J2 of root - knot nematode (Meloidogyne javanica. Incorporation of carbamoyloxy moiety in 2-propen-1-ones enhanced the activity. Irrespective of the concentration, compounds 3-(4-methoxyphenyl-1-(4-hydroxyphenyl-2-propen-1-one (17 and 4-[3-(4-methoxyphenyl prop-2-enoyl] phenyl phenyl carbamate (30 have shown maximum nematode mortality i.e. 30% and 51.8%.

  8. Nematofauna associada à cultura do quiabo na região leste de Minas Gerais The influence of parasitic nematodes on okra crop in eastern Minas Gerais State, Brazil

    Rosângela D'Arc de Lima Oliveira

    2007-03-01

    of these nematodes attacking okra have already been reported in Brazil, and some of them can cause plant death. The correct identification of Meloidogyne species and, or races infecting okra roots is mandatory for choosing appropriate control measures. To determine the occurrence and distribution of Meloidogyne spp. and other nematodes in the area of the East of MG, 70 soil and root samples coming from 14 municipalities were appraised for morphological and isoenzymatic characteristics. Among the populations of Meloidogyne spp., M. incognita (Esterase phenotypes I1 and I2 prevailed and were followed by M. javanica (phenotypes J2 and J3 and M. arenaria (phenotypes A2. The species M. mayaguensis was confirmed by the phenotypes: esterase (M2, malate dehydrogenase (N3, superoxide dismutase (N2 and glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (N3. This is the first report of the M. mayaguensis occurrence in MG. Other nematodes associated with the okra plants were Aphelenchus sp., Criconemella sp., Helicotylenchus spp., Pratylenchus brachyurus and P. coffeae, Rotylenchulus reniformis, Rotylenchus sp., Tylenchus sp. and Tylenchorhynchus sp.

  9. Linhagens de alface-crespa para o verão resistentes ao Meloidogyne javanica e ao vírus mosaico-da-alface Lineages of crisp-leaf lettuce for summer cropping resistant to Meloidogyne javanica and to Lettuce mosaic virus

    Renata Rodrigues Silva

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi selecionar famílias F4 de alface, oriundas do cruzamento entre as cultivares Verônica e Salinas 88, para o cultivo no verão, com relação ao tipo de folha, e à resistência ao Lettuce mosaic virus (LMV e ao nematóide-das-galhas Meloidogyne javanica. Primeiramente, avaliaram-se a coloração da folha, tipos de borda e limbo foliares, além da tolerância ao calor no campo, em blocos ao acaso compostos pelas 15 famílias F4 previamente selecionadas, pelas cultivares parentais e pela cultivar testemunha Regina 71 (folhas lisas e tolerante ao calor, com cinco repetições e oito plantas por parcela. Na segunda etapa, as famílias foram avaliadas quanto à resistência ao LMV e ao nematóide-das-galhas, em bandejas de 128 células acondicionadas em estufa. As médias das notas atribuídas a cada família foram comparadas às médias de cada cultivar parental pelo teste de Dunnet (5%. A família AFX007B-140-21, homozigota resistente aos nematóides e ao LMV e, também, tolerante ao calor, foi a mais promissora. O cruzamento entre uma cultivar de folhas crespas e soltas com uma de folhas crespas e repolhuda, pode originar linhagens promissoras tanto de folhas crespas quanto de folhas lisas.The aim of this work was to select F4 lettuce families, derived from the cross 'Veronica' x 'Salinas 88 ', for summer cropping, type of leaves, and for resistance to Meloidogyne javanica and to Lettuce mosaic virus (LMV. First, evaluations were made for leaf colour, leaf limb, border type, and heat tolerance in the field, in a complete blocks desing, in 15 F4 families previously selected, parent cultivars and, as control, the cultivar Regina 71 (butterleaf and tolerant to heat. Five replicates and eight plants per plot were used. As second step, the families were evaluated in greenhouse, in 128-cell expanded polystyrene trays, for resistance to LMV and root-knot nematodes. Score means of each family were compared to the means of

  10. Screening edible ginger and turmeric cultivars for resistance to root-knot nematodes

    Twenty-two edible ginger and turmeric cultivars were screened for resistance or tolerance to Meloidogyne incognita. Plants were raised in 66 L grow bags in greenhouses in Hawaii according to established practices for producing bacterial wilt-free ginger. Three months after planting, each grow bag ...

  11. Maintenance of genetic variation in automictic root-knot nematodes

    Van Der Beek, J. G. ( Hans); Punacker, Laas P.

    2008-01-01

    Differences in amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLP) between isolates and between mono-female lines of facultative automictic Meloidogyne hapla race A and obligate apomictic M incognita were determined to test the hypothesis that inverted meiosis occurs. DNA of the parthenogenetic nematode

  12. Phytotoxicity of Clove Oil to Vegetable Crop Seedlings and Nematotoxicity to Root-knot Nematodes

    Clove oil derived from the plant Syzygium aromaticum is active against various soilborne plant pathogens, and therefore has potential for use as a biobased pesticide. A clove oil formulation previously found to be toxic to the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita in laboratory assays was invest...

  13. Clove oil and fungus compounds: Can nematode suppression be achieved without phytotoxicity?

    Natural products from a plant (Syzygium aromaticum) and a fungus (Aspergillus sp.) were examined for the presence of compounds with potential for application as novel nematicides. The plant-derived material, clove oil, was tested in the greenhouse against the nematode Meloidogyne incognita on cucum...

  14. ACTIVITY OF FUNGAL CULTURE FILTRATES AGAINST SOYBEAN CYST NEMATODE AND ROOT-KNOT NEMATODE EGG HATCH AND JUVENILE MOTILITY

    Fungi were isolated from soybean cyst nematode (Heterodera glycines) eggs collected in China, and 253 isolates were assayed for production of compounds active against H. glycines and root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne incognita). Fungal isolates were grown for 3 and 7 days in potato dextrose broth (PD...

  15. Reactions of Regional and Standard Sweetpotato Breeding Lines to Southern Root-knot Nematode race 3, 2008

    Sweetpotato breeding lines and cultivars from the 2008 National Sweetpotato Collaborator’s Trial were evaluated for resistance to southern root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita race 3, in a greenhouse test. The experimental design was a randomized complete block with four replicates of five ste...

  16. Differential behavioral responses of two plant-parasitic nematodes to biogenic amines

    Hatching and infective juvenile (J2) behavior in two species of plant-parasitic nematodes, Heterodera glycines and Meloidogyne incognita, were affected by in vitro treatment with the biogenic amines dopamine, octopamine, and serotonin. While the overall responses of each species to amine exposures w...

  17. A Transgressive Segregation Factor (RKN2) in Gossypium barbadense for Nematode Resistance Clusters with Gene rkn1 in G. hirsutum.

    Host plant resistance is an important strategy for managing root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne incognita) in cotton (Gossypium L.). Here we report evidence for enhanced resistance in interspecific crosses resulting from transgressive segregation of clustered gene loci. Recently, a major gene, rkn1, on ...

  18. Doenças da vinagreira no Estado do Maranhão

    Gilson Soares da Silva

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho, são descritas as principais doenças da vinagreira (Hibiscus sabdariffa que ocorrem no Estado do Maranhão. Os patógenos identificados foram Cercospora malayensis, Corynespora cassiicola, Lasiodiplodia theobromae, Meloidogyne incognita, Phytophthora nicotianae e Sclerotium rolfsii.

  19. Doenças da vinagreira no Estado do Maranhão

    Gilson Soares da Silva; Adriano Soares Rêgo; Raycenne Rosa Leite

    2014-01-01

    Neste trabalho, são descritas as principais doenças da vinagreira (Hibiscus sabdariffa) que ocorrem no Estado do Maranhão. Os patógenos identificados foram Cercospora malayensis, Corynespora cassiicola, Lasiodiplodia theobromae, Meloidogyne incognita, Phytophthora nicotianae e Sclerotium rolfsii.

  20. Resistance of Wild Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus var. citroides) Rootstocks to Southern Root-Knot Nematode

    Seedless watermelon (Citrullus lanatus var. lanatus) ‘Tri-X 313’ scions were grafted on ten different cucurbit rootstocks and evaluated in a field infested with southern root-knot nematode (RKN), Meloidogyne incognita, in Charleston, SC in 2009. The rootstocks evaluated included five wild watermelo...

  1. Dicty_cDB: SFG806 [Dicty_cDB

    Full Text Available _D11_F NXCI (Nsf Xylem Compression wood Inclined) Pinus taeda cDNA clone NXCI_150_D11 5', mRNA sequence. 34 ...993 5' similar to unknown Meloidogyne incognita cDNA, mRNA sequence. 48 0.15 1 CD017930 |CD017930.1 NXCI_150

  2. Promoting Population

    2011-01-01

    THE world's population reached 5 billion in 1987,then 6 billion in 1999;now,in 2011,it is 7 billion.For a country with a set birth control policy,the way in which Chinese people and the media view this number has greatly changed.People are increasingly reflecting on the concept of population from a more scientific and rational perspective.This shift is a change from how people perceived population in the past.

  3. Management of the Root Knot Nematode (Meloidogyne Javanica. Treub and Sore Shin (Rhizoctonia Solani. Kuhn Using A Nematicide and Poor Host Crops in Rotations

    U. Mazarura

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In a long term study the effects of a nematicide and six rotations: root-knot-susceptible tobacco, Nicotiana tabacum L. cv.‘KM10’ grown continuously (ContKM10, root-knot-resistant tobacco cv. ‘RK8’ grown continuously (ContRK8, grass-grass-grass-KM10 (G-G-G-KM10, grass-grass-grass-RK8 (G-G-G-RK8, KM10-Crotalaria juncea (KM10-Cr and RK8-Crotalaria juncea (RK8-Cr, on root knot nematode, Meloidogyne javanica and sore shin, Rhizoctonia solani infection were studied. The nematicide used was ethylene dibromide (EDB and was applied to each tobacco crop, as is standard practice. Chloris gayana cv. ‘Rhodes Katambora’, presumably a poor host of nematodes, was the grass used in all the grass-grass-grass-Tobacco rotations. The treatments were arranged in a randomized complete block design. ContKM10, KM10-Cr, G-G-G-RK8, ContiRK8 and RK8-Cr reduced root knot galling while G-G-G-KM10 increased galling. Sore shin increased with every year of rotation regardless of rotation, except in the case of G-G-G-KM10 and G-G-G-RK8 which reduced infection relative to other rotations. With the exception of G-G-G-RK8, all rotations that included RK8 suppressed root knot infection but did not suppress sore shin infection. The rotations including KM10 suppressed nematodes only with EDB treatment yearly and did not suppress sore shin except the rotation G-G-G-KM10. The role of Crotolaria juncea was masked by either RK8 or EDB. Host plant resistance in the form of RK8 was effective in controlling nematodes but did not reduce sore shin except mildly when rotated with the grass. This work recommends the use of resistant cultivars with broad-spectrum resistances.

  4. Incorporação ao solo de substrato contendo micélio e conídios de Pochonia chlamydosporia para o manejo de Meloidogyne javanica

    Rosangela Dallemole-Giaretta

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Os clamidósporos são os principais propágulos utilizados como fonte de inóculo de Pochonia chlamydosporia em experimentos envolvendo o biocontrole do nematoide das galhas. O presente trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar o controle de Meloidogyne javanica em tomateiro por meio da aplicação ao solo de grãos de arroz colonizados pelo fungo contendo apenas micélio e conídio, sem a presença de clamidósporos. O isolado de P. chlamydosporia Pc-10 foi cultivado por 15 dias a 26°C em arroz previamente esterilizado em forno microondas. Dois experimentos foram conduzidos simultaneamente em casa de vegetação. No experimento 1, vasos de 2L de capacidade foram preenchidos com mistura solo:areia (1:1, v:v, contendo 3g kg-1 de solo de grãos de arroz colonizados pelo antagonista. No experimento 2, o fungo foi adicionado ao solo de vasos de 0,5L nas doses de 1, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25 ou 30g kg-1 de solo. Em seguida, o substrato de cada vaso foi infestado com 4.000 ovos de M. javanica e, após 15 dias, uma plântula de tomate foi transplantada. No experimento 1, a aplicação do fungo ao solo reduziu o número de galhas e de ovos do nematoide em 40% e 72,83%, respectivamente. No experimento 2, houve redução do número de ovos a partir de doses de 5g kg 1 de solo e no número de galhas, principalmente, nas doses de 25 e 30g kg-1 de solo. Conclui-se que P. chlamydosporia Pc-10 controlou M. javanica em tomateiro, mesmo quando aplicado ao solo na forma de grãos de arroz colonizados e sem a presença de clamidósporos.

  5. Population Blocks.

    Smith, Martin H.

    1992-01-01

    Describes an educational game called "Population Blocks" that is designed to illustrate the concept of exponential growth of the human population and some potential effects of overpopulation. The game material consists of wooden blocks; 18 blocks are painted green (representing land), 7 are painted blue (representing water); and the remaining…

  6. Peanut-cotton-rye rotations and soil chemical treatment for managing nematodes and thrips.

    Johnson, A W; Minton, N A; Brenneman, T B; Todd, J W; Herzog, G A; Gascho, G J; Baker, S H; Bondari, Y

    1998-06-01

    In the southeastern United States, a cotton-peanut rotation is attractive because of the high value and extensive planting of both crops in the region. The objective of this experiment was to determine the effects of cotton-peanut rotations, rye, and soil chemical treatments on management of plant-parasitic nematodes, thrips, and soilborne fungal diseases and on crop yield. Peanut-cotton-rye rotations were conducted from 1988 to 1994 on Tifton loamy sand (Plinthic Kandiudult) infested primarily with Meloidogyne incognita race 3, Belonolaimus longicaudatus, Sclerotium rolfsii, Rhizoctonia solani, and Fusarium oxysporum. Continuous peanut, continuous cotton, cotton-peanut rotation, or peanut-cotton rotation were used as main plots; winter rye or fallow as sub-plots; and cotton with and without aldicarb (3.36 kg a.i./ha), or peanut with and without aldicarb (3.36 kg a.i./ha) plus flutolanil (1.12 kg a.i./ha), as sub-sub-plots. Population densities of M. incognita and B. longicaudatus declined rapidly after the first crop in continuous peanut and remained low thereafter. Neither rye nor soil chemical treatment affected M. incognita or B. longicaudatus population density on peanut or cotton. Cotton and peanut yields from the cotton-peanut rotation were 26% and 10% greater, respectively, than those from monoculmre over the 7-year study. Cotton and peanut yields were improved 9% and 4%, respectively, following rye vs. fallow. Soil chemical treatments increased yields of cotton 23% and peanut 32% over those of untreated plots. Our data demonstrate the sustainable benefits of using cotton-peanut rotations, winter rye, and soil chemical treatments to manage plant-parasitic nematodes and other pests and pathogens and improve yield of both cotton and peanut. PMID:19274213

  7. Population crises and population cycles.

    Russell, C; Russell, W M

    2000-01-01

    To prevent a population irretrievably depleting its resources, mammals have evolved a behavioural and physiological response to population crisis. When a mammalian population becomes dangerously dense, there is a reversal of behaviour. Co-operation and parental behaviour are replaced by competition, dominance and aggressive violence, leading to high mortality, especially of females and young, and a reduced population. The stress of overpopulation and the resulting violence impairs both the immune and the reproductive systems. Hence epidemics complete the crash of the population, and reproduction is slowed for three or four generations, giving the resources ample time to recover. In some mammal species, crisis and crisis response recur regularly, leading to cycles of population growth and relapse, oscillating about a fixed mean. Population crisis response and population cycles have been equally prominent in the history of human societies. But in man successive advances in food production have made possible growing populations, though with every such advance population soon outgrew resources again. Hence human cycles have been superimposed on a rising curve, producing a saw-tooth graph. Because advances in food production amounted to sudden disturbances in the relations between human populations and their environments, the crisis response in man has failed to avert famine and resource damage. In the large human societies evolved since the coming of settled agriculture and cities, the basic effects of violence, epidemics, famine and resource damage have been mediated by such specifically human disasters as inflation, unemployment, and political tyranny. An account of past crises, periods of relative relief from population pressure, and resulting cycles, is given for a number of regions: China, North Africa and Western Asia, the northern Mediterranean, and north-western Europe. The paper ends with an account of the present world-wide population crisis, and the solution

  8. Imaginary populations

    A. Martínez–Abraín

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A few years ago, Camus & Lima (2002 wrote an essay to stimulate ecologists to think about how we define and use a fundamental concept in ecology: the population. They concluded, concurring with Berryman (2002, that a population is "a group of individuals of the same species that live together in an area of sufficient size to permit normal dispersal and/or migration behaviour and in which population changes are largely the results of birth and death processes". They pointed out that ecologists often forget "to acknowledge that many study units are neither natural nor even units in terms of constituting a population system", and hence claimed that we "require much more accuracy than in past decades in order to be more effective to characterize populations and predict their behaviour". They stated that this is especially necessary "in disciplines such as conservation biology or resource pest management, to avoid reaching wrong conclusions or making inappropriate decisions". As a population ecologist and conservation biologist I totally agree with these authors and, like them, I be¬lieve that greater precision and care is needed in the use and definition of ecological terms. The point I wish to stress here is that we ecologists tend to forget that when we use statistical tools to infer results from our sample to a population we work with what statisticians term "imaginary", "hypothetical" or "potential" popula¬tions. As Zar (1999 states, if our sample data consist of 40 measurements of growth rate in guinea pigs "the population about which conclusions might be drawn is the growth rates of all the guinea pigs that conceivably might have been administered the same food supplement under identical conditions". Such a population does not really exist, and hence it is considered a hypothetical or imaginary population. Compare that definition with the population concept that would be in our minds when performing such measurements. We would probably

  9. Soil amendment with chopped or ground dry leaves of six species of plants for the control of Meloidogyne javanica in tomato under greenhouse conditions Incorporação ao solo de folhas secas picadas ou moídas de seis espécies de plantas para o controle de Meloidogyne javanica em tomateiro em casa de vegetação

    Everaldo Antônio Lopes

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Greenhouse experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of soil amendment with chopped (1cm² or ground (1mm sieve dry leaves of assa-peixe (Vernonia polyanthes, lemon-grass (Cymbopogon citratus, eucalyptus (Eucalyptus citriodora, castor (Ricinus communis, mango (Mangifera indica or neem (Azadirachta indica for the control Meloidogyne javanica. Into the soil (Yellow red oxisol of each pot were added leaves (5g kg-1 of soil and 5,000 eggs of the nematode. After seven days, one tomato seedling "Santa Cruz Kada" was transplanted to each pot. The tomato root weight, galls and eggs/root system were determined 60 days after transplant. None of the soil amendments reduced gall or eggs, when applied as leaf pieces. However, all tested plant species reduced the gall number, when they were incorporated into the soil as powder, and maximum nematode suppression occurred in soil amended with neem leaves (61%. The amendment with ground leaves of castor, neem, eucalyptus and lemon-grass reduced the number of eggs, with maximum reduction occurring in soil amended with ground castor leaves (69%, evidencing that these organic amendments can be an alternative for M. javanica control in tomato. Further studies are required under field conditions to confirm the potential of these organic amendments on the control of M. javanica.Experimentos em casa de vegetação foram conduzidos com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito da adição ao solo de folhas secas picadas (1cm² ou trituradas (peneira de 1mm de assa-peixe (Vernonia polyanthes, capim-limão (Cymbopogon citratus, eucalipto (Eucalyptus citriodora, mamona (Ricinus communis, manga (Mangifera indica ou nim (Azadirachta indica para o controle de Meloidogyne javanica. Ao solo de cada vaso (latossolo vermelho-amarelo, foram adicionadas folhas (5g kg-1 de solo e 5.000 ovos do nematoide. Após sete dias, uma muda de tomateiro "Santa Cruz Kada" foi transplantada em cada vaso. O peso das raízes e os números de galhas e

  10. Evaluation of plant aqueous extracts, added into the soil, on Meloidogyne javanica (Treub, 1885 Chitwood, 1949 / Avaliação de extratos aquosos de várias espécies vegetais, aplicados ao solo, sobre Meloidogyne javanica (Treub, 1885 Chitwood, 1949

    Leandro Grassi de Freitas

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The use of plant extracts with nematicidal properties to control plant nematodes can be a useful alternative to small farmers, regarding its low cost and non-toxic effects. The effect of the addition into the soil of aqueous extracts of 20 plant species on Meloidogyne javanica in plants of tomato was studied at greenhouse conditions. These were divided into two groups and evaluated in two separate experiments.The soil in the 2.0 L pots was infested with 5,000 eggs and, in the same day, it was applied 20 mL of aqueous extracts of the 20 plant species (Chrysanthemum parthenium, Arctium lappa, Cymbopogon citratus, Bacharis trimera, Equisetum sp., Melia azedarach, Mentha sp., Ricinus communis, Ocimum basilicum, Momordica charantia, Ruta graveolens, Coleus barbatus, Symphitum officinalis, Polygonum acre, Canavalia ensiformis, Foeniculum vulgare, Petiveria alliacea, Ageratum conyzoides, Mucuna pruriens and Azadirachta indica. Distilled water was used as control. Sixty days later, were evaluated for plant height, the fresh weight of shoot and root and the numbers of galls and eggs per root system. The extracts of Mentha sp., Arctium lappa and Ricinus communis reduced the number of galls of M. javanica in 75.6%; 65.7% and 54.4%; and the number of eggs in 81.7%, 75.9% and 56.6%, respectively.O uso de extratos vegetais com propriedades nematicidas no controle de fitonematóides representa mais uma alternativa para os pequenos produtores, com valor prático e econômico, e sem riscos de contaminação do ambiente. A adição ao solo dos extratos aquosos de 20 espécies de plantas foi avaliada sobre a população de Meloidogyne javanica em plantas de tomateiro, em casa de vegetação. Estas foram divididas em dois grupos e avaliadas em dois experimentos separados. No mesmo dia em que se infestou o solo com 5.000 ovos do nematóide, adicionou-se 20 mL dos extratos aquosos obtidos de folhas de artemísia (Chrysanthemum parthenium, bardana (Arctium lappa

  11. Population policy.

    1987-03-01

    Participants in the Seminar on Population Policies for Top-level Policy Makers and Program Managers, meeting in Thailand during January 1987, examined the challenges now facing them regarding the implementation of fertility regulation programs in their respective countries -- Bangladesh, China, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Nepal, Pakistan, the Philippines, the Republic of Korea, and Thailand. This Seminar was organized to coincide with the completion of an Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP) study investigating the impact and efficiency of family planning programs in the region. Country studies were reviewed at the Seminar along with policy issues about the status of women, incentive and disincentive programs, and socioeconomic factors affecting fertility. In Bangladesh the government recognizes population growth as its top priority problem related to the socioeconomic development of the country and is working to promote a reorientation strategy from the previous clinic-oriented to a multidimensional family welfare program. China's family planning program seeks to postpone marraige, space the births of children between 3-5 years, and promote the 1-child family. Its goal is to reduce the rate of natural increase from 12/1000 in 1978 to 5/1000 by 1985 and 0 by 2000. India's 7th Five-Year-Plan (1986-90) calls for establishing a 2-child family norm by 2000. In Indonesia the government's population policy includes reducing the rate of population growth, achieving a redistribution of the population, adjusting economic factors, and creating prosperous families. The government of Indonesia reversed its policy to reduce the population growth rate in 1984 and announced its goal of achieving a population of 70 million by 2100 in order to support mass consumption industries. It has created an income tax deduction system favoring large families and maternity benefits for women who have up to 5 children as incentives. Nepal's official policy is to

  12. Coastal bermudagrass rotation and fallow for management of nematodes and soilborne fungi on vegetable crops.

    Johnson, A W; Burton, G W; Sumner, D R; Handoo, Z

    1997-12-01

    The efficacy of clean fallow, bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon) as a rotational crop, and fenamiphos for control of root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne incognita race 1) and soilborne fungi in okra (Hibiscus esculentus), snapbean (Phaseolus vulgaris), and pepper (Capsicum annuum) production was evaluated in field tests from 1993 to 1995. Numbers of M. incognita in the soil and root-gall indices were greater on okra than on snapbean or pepper. Application of fenamiphos at 6.7 kg a.i./ha did not suppress numbers of nematodes on any sampling date when compared with untreated plots. The lack of efficacy could be the result of microbial degradation of the nematicide. Application of fenamiphos suppressed root-gall development on okra following fallow and 1-year sod in 1993, but not thereafter. A few galls were observed on roots of snapbean following 2- and 3-year fallow but none following 1-, 2-, and 3-year bermudagrass sod. Population densities of Pythium aphanidermatum, P. myriotylum, and Rhizoctonia solani in soil after planting vegetables were suppressed by 2- or 3-year sod compared with fallow but were not affected by fenamiphos. Yields of snapbean, pepper, and okra did not differ between fallow and 1-year sod. In the final year of the study, yields of all crops were greater following 3-year sod than following fallow. Application of fenamiphos prior to planting each crop following fallow or sod did not affect yields. PMID:19274273

  13. 植物源农药防治根结线虫研究进展%Research Progresses on the Prevention and Control of Meloidogyne spp.by Botanical Nematocides

    刘计权; 韩晓静; 谢树莲

    2011-01-01

    Studies on the prevention and control of Meloidogyne spp. are the hotspots in the field of nematode research at present and it has been widely concerned preventing and controlling Meloidogyne spp. by botanical nematocides at home and abroad. More than 300 plant species with nematicidal activity have been reported concerning the application of botanical extracts and powders. The active ingredients include alkaloids, bioflavonoids, terpenes and other compounds. The mechanisms may influence the nutrient contents and the activity of antioxidant enzymes, damaging the nervous system excitatory transmission and injuring nematode body wall and digestive tract and so on. In addition, the present problems were proposed and the future developments were prospected.%根结线虫的防治是目前线虫研究领域的热点.近年来植物源农药防治根结线虫已引起了国内外学者的广泛关注,已报道的具有杀线活性的植物约有300多种.作用方式有利用植物源提取液和植物源材料粉末处理土壤.有效化学成分包括生物碱类、生物类黄酮、萜烯类和其他化合物.作用机制包括影响线虫体内营养物质含量,影响抗氧化酶系活性,影响神经系统兴奋传导和损伤线虫体壁、消化道等.提出了目前存在的问题及对未来发展前景的展望.

  14. Stellar Populations

    Peletier, Reynier F.

    2013-10-01

    This is a summary of my lectures during the 2011 Canary Islands Winter School in Puerto de la Cruz. I give an introduction to the field of stellar populations in galaxies, and highlight some new results. Since the title of the Winter School is Secular Evolution in Galaxies I mostly concentrate on nearby galaxies, which are best suited to study this theme. Of course, the understanding of stellar populations is intimately connected to understanding the formation and evolution of galaxies, one of the great outstanding problems of astronomy. We are currently in a situation where very large observational advances have been made in recent years. Galaxies have been detected up to a redshift of ten. A huge effort has to be made so that stellar population theory can catch up with observations. Since most galaxies are far away, information about them has to come from stellar population synthesis of integrated light. Here I will discuss how stellar evolution theory, together with observations in our Milky Way and Local Group, are used as building blocks to analyse these integrated stellar populations.

  15. Variabilidade genética de acessos de araçazeiro e goiabeira suscetíveis e resistentes a Meloidogyne enterolobii

    Aline das Graças Souza

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available A goiabeira representa uma importante atividade frutícola no Brasil, com mercado cada vez maior. Porém, desde 1989 vêm sendo relatados severos danos à cultura, causados pelo nematóide Meloidogyne enterolobii. Uma das alternativas para solucionar esse problema é a utilização de porta-enxertos com resistência a este patógeno. Este trabalho teve por objetivo a caracterização molecular, com marcadores RAPD, de acessos de Psidium testados quanto à resistência a M. enterolobii e quanto à compatibilidade como porta-enxertos para as goiabeiras comerciais. Foram testados 30 primers, dos quais 19 forneceram resultados nítidos para a amplificação. Foram gerados 163 fragmentos, dos quais 86 polimórficos (63,0%. Em média, cada iniciador produziu 8,6 fragmentos, dos quais 5,4 apresentaram polimorfismo. A análise de agrupamento foi realizada por espécie, os acessos de Psidium sp apresentaram a formação de dois grupos, um formado pelo acesso A-UFLA e o segundo subdividido em quatro subgrupos, sendo os acessos com maiores distâncias genéticas A-Ufla, resistente a M. enterolobii, A-Ufla4 e A-Ufla5, ambos suscetíveis ao nematoide em questão, todos coletados em Lavras-MG, com similaridade aproximada de 66%. Na análise de agrupamento, dos treze acessos de P.cattleyanum, foi possível constatar a formação de dois grandes grupos. Um formado por três acessos suscetíveis a M. enterolobii (A-20.2, A-10.1 e A-9.2 e outro grupo formado por dez acessos. Os acessos se agruparam, conforme a região de origem, em seis grupos, sendo que o mais divergente é originário da região de Lavras - MG, com 0,65 de similaridade, onde as distâncias genéticas variaram de 0,88 a 0,65. Dos treze acessos de P. guineense, todos suscetíveis a M. enterolobii, sendo 12 oriundos de Recife e um de Pelotas (A-14.1 e agruparam-se em dois grupos com similaridades variando de 0,59 a 0,83. Quanto ao estudo de diversidade entre os acessos de goiabeiras, a maior dist

  16. Population dynamics

    Cooch, E. G.

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Increases or decreases in the size of populations over space and time are, arguably, the motivation for much of pure and applied ecological research. The fundamental model for the dynamics of any population is straightforward: the net change over time in the abundance of some population is the simple difference between the number of additions (individuals entering the population minus the number of subtractions (individuals leaving the population. Of course, the precise nature of the pattern and process of these additions and subtractions is often complex, and population biology is often replete with fairly dense mathematical representations of both processes. While there is no doubt that analysis of such abstract descriptions of populations has been of considerable value in advancing our, there has often existed a palpable discomfort when the ‘beautiful math’ is faced with the often ‘ugly realities’ of empirical data. In some cases, this attempted merger is abandoned altogether, because of the paucity of ‘good empirical data’ with which the theoretician can modify and evaluate more conceptually–based models. In some cases, the lack of ‘data’ is more accurately represented as a lack of robust estimates of one or more parameters. It is in this arena that methods developed to analyze multiple encounter data from individually marked organisms has seen perhaps the greatest advances. These methods have rapidly evolved to facilitate not only estimation of one or more vital rates, critical to population modeling and analysis, but also to allow for direct estimation of both the dynamics of populations (e.g., Pradel, 1996, and factors influencing those dynamics (e.g., Nichols et al., 2000. The interconnections between the various vital rates, their estimation, and incorporation into models, was the general subject of our plenary presentation by Hal Caswell (Caswell & Fujiwara, 2004. Caswell notes that although interest has traditionally

  17. Stellar Populations

    Peletier, Reynier F.

    2013-01-01

    This is a summary of my lectures during the 2011 Canary Islands Winter School in Puerto de la Cruz. I give an introduction to the field of stellar populations in galaxies, and highlight some new results. Since the title of the Winter School is Secular Evolution in Galaxies I mostly concentrate on ne

  18. Populations games

    Křivan, Vlastimil

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 2, č. 1 (2015), s. 14-19. ISSN 2367-5233. [Featuring International Conferences Biomath 2015. Blagoevgrad, 14.06.2015-19.06.2015] R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.30.0032 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : populations dynamics

  19. Stellar Populations

    Peletier, Reynier

    2012-01-01

    This is a summary of my lectures during the 2011 IAC Winter School in Puerto de la Cruz. I give an introduction to the field of stellar populations in galaxies, and highlight some new results. Since the title of the Winter School was {\\it Secular Evolution of Galaxies} I mostly concentrate on nearby galaxies, which are best suited to study this theme. Of course, the understanding of stellar populations is intimately connected to understanding the formation and evolution of galaxies, one of the great outstanding problems of astronomy. We are currently in a situation where very large observational advances have been made in recent years. Galaxies have been detected up to a redshift of 10. A huge effort has to be made so that stellar population theory can catch up with observations. Since most galaxies are far away, information about them has to come from stellar population synthesis of integrated light. Here I will discuss how stellar evolution theory, together with observations in our Milky Way and Local Group...

  20. Population success.

    1982-01-01

    "The commitment to population programs is now widespread," says Rafael Salas, Executive Director of the UNFPA, in its report "State of World Population." About 80% of the total population of the developing world live in countries which consider their fertility levels too high and would like them reduced. An important impetus came from the World Conference of 1974. The Plan of Action from the conference projected population growth rates in developing countries of 2.0% by 1985. Today it looks as though this projection will be realized. While in 1969, for example, only 26 developing countries had programs aimed at lowering or maintaining fertility levels, by 1980 there were 59. The International Population Conference, recently announced by the UN for 1984, will, it is hoped, help sustain that momentum. Cuba is the country which has shown the greatest decline in birth rate so far. The birth rate fell 47% between 1965-1970 and 1975-1980. Next came China with a 34% decline in the same period. After these came a group of countries--each with populations of over 10 million--with declines of between 15 and 25%: Chile, Colombia, India, Indonesia, the Republic of Korea, Malaysia and Thailand. Though birth rates have been dropping significantly the decline in mortality rates over recent years has been less than was hoped for. The 1974 conference set 74 years as the target for the world's average expectation of life, to be reached by the year 2000. But the UN now predicts that the developing countries will have only reached 63 or 64 years by then. High infant and child mortality rates, particularly in Africa, are among the major causes. The report identifies the status of women as an important determinant of family size. Evidence from the UNFPA-sponsored World Fertility Survey shows that in general the fertility of women decreases as their income increases. It also indicates that women who have been educated and who work outside the home are likely to have smaller families

  1. Population Aging

    Weil, David N.

    2006-01-01

    Population aging is primarily the result of past declines in fertility, which produced a decades long period in which the ratio of dependents to working age adults was reduced. Rising old-age dependency in many countries represents the inevitable passing of this %u201Cdemographic dividend.%u201D Societies use three methods to transfer resources to people in dependent age groups: government, family, and personal saving. In developed countries, families are predominant in supporting children, w...

  2. Indian populations

    Spahni,J

    1974-01-01

    Le Prof. J.C. Spahni qui a parcouru les Andes, Vénezuela etc. parle de ses expériences et connaissances qu'il a vécu au cours des 14 ans parmi les populations indiennes de la Cordillière des Andes. Il a ramené des objets artisanals indiens lesquels l'auditoire peut acquérir. L'introduction-conférence est suivi d'un film, commenté par lui-même; après l'entracte il y un débat-dialogue avec le public.

  3. Population geography.

    Nash, A

    1994-03-01

    Population geographers are involved in contemporary policy issues, the production of quality work, and successful communication of research findings. This article reviewed some contributions population geographers have made to the understanding of the geographic impact of aging and the consequences of migration. Geographers have come late to the study of aging and have focused primarily on four main policy issues: 1) fertility decline, 2) housing demography, 3) aged patterns of housing and migration, and 4) government policy. Fertility decline research has highlighted information diffusion theories for fertility decline by researchers such as Zelinsky, Skeldon, and Noin. Changes in attitudes and the removal on constraints has been examined by Woods. Residential mobility studies have been the focus of researchers such as Gober, Moore, and Clark, and Myers. Regional labor markets and the movement of the "baby boom" through the life course have been examined by Miron, Plane and Rogerson, and Clout, who studied the empty nesters and the movement out of suburbia. Private residential housing has increased for the elderly in England and Wales (Hamnett and Mullings), and seasonal migration of Minnesotans results in lost sales revenues and high health and social costs for those too ill to travel (Craig). Geographers have not accomplished a significant thrust into the literature on demographic aging. Contributions to the transnational and international literature have resulted in internal migration studies by Clout on "counterurbanization" in northwestern industrial Europe, while Fielding, Baltensperger, Marchand and Scott, and Jones have examined the continuing rural-urban migration. The loss of urban population has been associated with inner city problems, the impact of labor supply and market demand, and the revenue and health care consequences in the work of Champion, Gibson, and Champion and Illeris, and Craig. Impacts are felt differently by geographic location, and

  4. Population Genetics with Fluctuating Population Sizes

    Chotibut, Thiparat

    2016-01-01

    Standard neutral population genetics theory with a strictly fixed population size has important limitations. An alternative model that allows independently fluctuating population sizes and reproduces the standard neutral evolution is reviewed. We then study a situation such that the competing species are neutral at the equilibrium population size but population size fluctuations nevertheless favor fixation of one species over the other. In this case, a separation of timescales emerges naturally and allows adiabatic elimination of a fast population size variable to deduce the fluctuations-induced selection dynamics near the equilibrium population size. The results highlight the incompleteness of the standard population genetics with a strictly fixed population size.

  5. Soil properties influencing phytoparasitic nematode population on Chilean vineyards Propiedades del suelo que influyen en la población de nematodos fitoparásitos en viñedos de Chile

    Mario Fajardo P

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Lifecycle of phytoparasitic nematode takes place in the rhizosphere, therefore their breeding, parasitism and mobility dynamics are inevitably influenced by the soil-root interaction, A study was performed to evaluate the influence of Vitis rootstocks to some plant parasitic nematodes under different soil conditions. Nematode populations were assessed in Vitis vinifera L. var ‘Chardonnay’ plants grafted on two rootstocks (K5BB, SO4 and ungrafted ‘Chardonnay’ as a control in three diferent alluvial soils in the central zone of Chile. Soils were two Inceptisols of the Casablanca Valley (Valparaíso Region, the first one without soil structure and with a densification zone in depth (S1 and the second one with sandy textural class (S3. A third soil was a Mollisol (S2 more structured than the others, situated on a locality of Melipilla (Metropolitan Region. The soils were characterized physically and morphologically and nematode genera were identified and counted using a dissecting microscope. ‘Chardonnay’ presented the highest population of Meloidogyne spp. on the three soil conditions but only significant in S2 soil. The population of Xiphinema spp. and Mesocriconema xenoplax were not representative enough to relate them with either soil or the different rootstocks. The amount of Meloidogyne spp. was inversely related with the sand content but positively related with the more structured soil. The stepwise regressions resulted useful when relating nematode populations with multiple soil factors.El ciclo de vida de los nematodos fitoparásitos ocurre en la rizósfera, por lo tanto, sus dinámicas de alimentación, parasitismo y movilidad están inevitablemente influenciadas por la interacción suelo-raíz. Se llevó a cabo un estudio para evaluar la respuesta de diferentes portainjertos de Vitis frente a algunas poblaciones de nematodos fitoparásitos en diferentes tipos de suelos. Se determinaron las poblaciones de nematodos fitopar

  6. Coastal Bermudagrass Rotation and Fallow for Management of Nematodes and Soilborne Fungi on Vegetable Crops

    Johnson, A. W.; Burton, G W; Sumner, D. R.; Handoo, Z.

    1997-01-01

    The efficacy of clean fallow, bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon) as a rotational crop, and fenamiphos for control of root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne incognita race 1) and soilborne fungi in okra (Hibiscus esculentus), snapbean (Phaseolus vulgaris), and pepper (Capsicum annuum) production was evaluated in field tests from 1993 to 1995. Numbers of M. incognita in the soil and root-gall indices were greater on okra than on snapbean or pepper. Application of fenamiphos at 6.7 kg a.i./ha did not supp...

  7. Effects of Rapeseed and Vetch as Green Manure Crops and Fallow on Nematodes and Soil-borne Pathogens

    Johnson, A. W.; Golden, A. M.; Auld, D. L.; Sumner, D. R.

    1992-01-01

    In a rapeseed-squash cropping system, Meloidogyne incognita race 1 and M. javanica did not enter, feed, or reproduce in roots of seven rapeseed cultivars. Both nematode species reproduced at low levels on roots of the third crop of rapeseed. Reproduction of M. incognita and M. javanica was high on squash following rapeseed, hairy vetch, and fallow. The application of fenamiphos suppressed (P = 0.05) root-gall indices on squash following rapeseed, hairy vetch, and fallow; and on Dwarf Essex an...

  8. Population, Population Density, and Technological Change

    Klasen, Stephan; Nestmann, Thorsten

    2004-01-01

    In a model on population and endogenous technological change, Kremer combines a short-run Malthusian scenario where income determines the population that can be sustained, with the Boserupian insight that greater population spurs technological change and can therefore lift a country out of its Malthusian trap. We show that a more realistic version of the model, which combines population and population density, allows deeper insights into these processes. The incorporation of population densit...

  9. Management of Plant-parasitic Nematodes with a Chitin-Urea Soil Amendment and Other Materials.

    Westerdahl, B B; Carlson, H L; Grant, J; Radewald, J D; Welch, N; Anderson, C A; Darso, J; Kirby, D; Shibuya, F

    1992-12-01

    Field trials were conducted with a chitin-urea soil amendment and several other nematicides on four crop-nematode combinations: tomato-Meloidogyne incognita; potato-Meloidogyne chitwoodi; walnut-Pratylenchus vulnus; and brussels sprouts-Heterodera schachtii. Significant (P soil amendment in the trims on potato and walnut. In the trials on brussels sprouts and on tomato, phytotoxicity occurred at rates of 1,868 and 1,093 kg/ha, respectively. Significant (P Yucca extract on tomato; and dazomet granules on brussels sprouts. PMID:19283044

  10. Ação nematicida de extratos de alho, mostarda, pimenta malagueta, de óleo de mostarda e de dois produtos à base de capsainóides e alil isotiocianato sobre juvenis de Meloidogyne javanica, (treub) Chitwood, 1949, em casa de vegetação

    Wânia dos Santos Neves; Leandro Grassi de Freitas; Marcelo Magalhães Coutinho; Rosangela Dallemole-Giaretta; Cleia de Fátima Silva Fabry; Onkar Dev Dhingra; Silamar Ferraz

    2009-01-01

    Neves, W.S; Freitas, L.G.; Coutinho, M.M.; Giaretta-Dallemole, R.; Fabry, C.F.S.; Dhingra, O.D. & Ferraz, S. Atividade nematicida de extratos botânicos de pimenta malagueta (Capsicum frutescens), mostarda (Brassica campestris) e alho (Allium sativum) sobre o nematóide das galhas, Meloidogyne javanica, em casa de vegetação. Summa Phytopathologica, v.35, n.4, p.255-261, 2009 O experimento teve como objetivo avaliar a atividade nematicida de extratos botânicos dos frutos de pimenta malagueta (Ca...

  11. Terra Incognita. Globalisering, ecologie en rechtvaardige duurzaamheid

    Jones, Peter Tom; Jacobs, Roger

    2006-01-01

    Despite all attempts by many governments in the world to ascribe to the Holy Grail of ‘sustainable development’, Ecosystem Earth is confronted with a gargantuan sustainability crisis. The West has seduced the rest of the world to copy its highly attractive, albeit unsustainable development paradigm. In a finite world the eco-impact of the global consumer class cannot be extrapolated to all human beings. The ecological crisis and the global justice issue are linked to each other as Siamese twi...

  12. Control of Nematode Disease of Eggplant (Solanum aethiopicum L. Using Manure

    Stephen Adekunle Abolusoro

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Pot experiment was conducted in the year 2010 and repeated in 2011 to examine the effects of organic manure (poultry, cow dung, domestic waste and inorganic manure (NPK 15:15:15 on the yield, soil and root population of Meloidogyne incognita that infected Ethiopian eggplant Solanum aethiopicum in a greenhouse at Kabba College of Agriculture, Ahmadu Bello University, Kabba, Nigeria. Each of the organic manure was applied as soil amendment at the rate of 5 t/ha and the inorganic fertilizer (NPK was applied at the rate of 200 kg/ha while there was an untreated control that acted as standard check. The experimental design was a completely randomized design comprising of five treatments including control and each of the treatments was replicated four times. The results of the experiment showed that all the organic manures considered and NPK fertilizer were effective in suppressing nematode negative effects on the plant as manifested in improved yield, reduced soil and root population as well as in reduced gall index of the organic and inorganic manure treated plants compared with the control. The mean fruit yield of the manure treated plant was 18+1, of NPK fertilizer treated ones was 17, while the average fruit number in untreated control was 6.5. The organic and inorganic manures treated plants had bigger fruit size compared with control and were significantly different from the control. The soil and root population as well as root gall index were reduced in all the manure treatments compared with the control and they were significantly different from the control. The results of this experiment confirmed that organic manure can be utilized to manage root-knot nematode (M. incognita in soil.

  13. Interação dos fungos micorrízicos arbusculares Glomus etunicatum e Gigaspora margarita e o nematóide das galhas Meloidogyne javanica em tomateiro

    COFCEWICZ ELIS T.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available A produtividade do tomateiro pode ser severamente reduzida pelo parasitismo dos nematóides das galhas, amplamente distribuídos nas áreas de produção hortícola. Em condições de casa de vegetação, avaliou-se o efeito da interação entre duas espécies de fungos micorrízicos arbusculares (MA, Glomus etunicatum e Gigaspora margarita e o nematóide das galhas, Meloidogyne javanica, sobre o crescimento e nutrição do tomateiro (Lycopersicon esculentum cv. Floradade. A infecção por M. javanica reduziu a massa de matéria seca da parte aérea das plantas inoculadas. A redução foi menos acentuada em plantas colonizadas com G. etunicatum (12%, comparadas às plantas colonizadas com G. margarita (32% e testemunha (24%. Plantas colonizadas com G. etunicatum apresentaram maior massa de matéria seca e número de frutos comparadas aos demais tratamentos. A produção de frutos foi menos afetada pelo nematóide nas plantas inoculadas com G. etunicatum. A concentração e o conteúdo de P na parte aérea não foram alterados pelo nematóide nas plantas colonizadas por G. etunicatum, mas foram reduzidos nas plantas colonizadas com G. margarita e testemunhas. O número de ovos e juvenis de segundo estádio de M. javanica foi maior nas plantas colonizadas por fungos MA, comparadas às não micorrizadas. A maior tolerância observada nas plantas colonizadas com G. etunicatum ao nematóide das galhas, possivelmente está associada à maior estabilidade na absorção de P.

  14. Nematóides que parasitam a soja na região de Bauru Nematode parasites of soybean in the Bauru region

    Luiz Gonzaga E. Lordello

    1956-01-01

    Full Text Available Entre os sérios fatôres que atuam contra a expansão da cultura da soja no Estado de São Paulo, acha-se o representado por nematóides parasitos. Dêstes, os que mais têm atraído a atenção dos cultivadores e fitopatologistas são as espécies formadoras de galhas no sistema radicular (Meloidogyne spp.. O estudo do material atacado coligido em Bauru revelou que, naquela região, três formas se acham envolvidas, a saber : Pratylenchus sp., Meloidogyne incognita (Kofoid & White, 1919 Chitwood, 1949 e M. javanica bauruensis n. subsp. Neste trabalho é estudada a nova subespécie, sendo também apresentadas algumas observações sobre a população de M. incognita.One of the serious detriments to soybean (Glycine max (L. Merr. cultivation in the State of S. Paulo, Brazil, are root-parasitic nematodes. A study of infected material collected at Bauru, where at least two distinct soybean varieties were cultivated, disclosed that three forms were involved: a meadow nematode (Pralylenchus sp. and two root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne incognita (Kofoid & White, 1919 Chitwood, 1949, and M. javanica bauruensis n. subsp.. Silva, Lordello & Miyasaka (3 published some observations about the resistance of several soybean varieties to the attacks by root-knot nematodes in Campinas. A detailed study of the nematodes involved in those experiments, which were considered as related do M. incognita, has not yet been made. One of the varieties tested, La 41-1219, proved to be resistant, thereby providing promising material for further studies and breeding. Unfortunately, such a variety when planted in Bauru, was severely attacked by a root-knot species, which is identified as M. incognita. Attacks by M. javanica bauruensis was not noted in that variety but was noted in another variety (Abura growing adjacent in the same field. The host preference of those two nematodes was specific and very marked. M. incognita attacked only var. La 41-1219 and M. javanica

  15. Efeitos de diferentes níveis de matéria orgânica no solo e de inóculo sobre a interação planta-Meloidogyne spp. e a produção massal de Pasteuria penetrans Effects of cow manure levels in the soil and inoculum concentration on the plant-Meloidogyne spp. interaction and on the mass production of Pasteuria penetrans

    Fábio Ramos Alves

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Foram estudados os efeitos de quatro proporções de esterco de curral no solo, 0, 20, 33 e 50% (V:V, e três níveis de inóculo de Meloidogyne spp. (3.000, 6.000 e 9.000 J2 por planta na concentração de fenóis em raízes de tomateiro, no desenvolvimento das fêmeas, nas células gigantes induzidas por esses patógenos e na infecção e reprodução de Pasteuria penetrans. O experimento foi conduzido em casa-de-vegetação, em delineamento inteiramente ao acaso com doze repetições, sendo avaliado 50 dias após a inoculação das plantas. O tamanho médio das fêmeas do nematóide foi maior quando as plantas foram inoculadas com 3.000 J2. Maior percentual de fêmeas infectadas por P. penetrans foi observado quando não se utilizou esterco no substrato ou quando as plantas foram inoculadas com 3.000 J2. As plantas inoculadas com 9.000 J2 e cultivadas no substrato com 20% de esterco foram as que produziram mais endósporos. A concentração de fenóis nas raízes aumentou à medida que se acrescentou esterco de curral ao substrato. As células gigantes de plantas cultivadas no substrato com 33 e 50% de esterco apresentaram menores número, tamanho e quantidade de núcleos. O aumento da proporção de esterco de curral ao substrato causou aumento nas concentrações de fenóis nas raízes, fato que foi deletério às células gigantes, prejudicial ao desenvolvimento do nematóide e à reprodução de P. penetrans.The effects of four different proportions of cow manure, 0, 20, 33 and 50% (V:V and three Meloidogyne spp. inoculum levels (3,000; 6,000 and 9,000 J2 per plant on the phenol concentration in the tomato roots, in the nematode female development, the giant cells induced by the nematode and on the reproduction of Pasteuria penetrans were investigated. The experiment was carried out in greenhouse, in a completely randomized design with twelve replicates, and evaluated 50 days after inoculation. The size of nematode females was higher when

  16. A Soil-free System for Assaying Nematicidal Activity of Chemicals

    Preiser, F. A.; Babu, J. R.; Haidri, A. A.

    1981-01-01

    A biological assay system for studying the nematicidal activity of chemicals has been devised using a model consisting of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L. cv. Long Marketer) seedlings growing in the diSPo® growth-pouch apparatus. Meloidogyne incognita was used as the test organism. The response was quantified in terms of the numbers of galls produced. Statistical procedures were applied to estimate the ED50 values of currently available nematicides. This system permits accurate quantification of ...

  17. Involvement of nitric oxide in the jasmonate-dependent basal defense against root-knot nematode in tomato plants

    Zhou, Jie; Jia, Feifei; Shao, Shujun; Zhang, Huan; Guiping LI; Xia, Xiaojian; Zhou, Yanhong; Yu, Jingquan; Shi, Kai

    2015-01-01

    Jasmonic acid (JA) and nitric oxide (NO) are well-characterized signaling molecules in plant defense responses. However, their roles in plant defense against root-knot nematode (RKN, Meloidogyne incognita) infection are largely unknown. In this study, we found that the transcript levels of the JA- and NO-related biosynthetic and signaling component genes were induced after RKN infection. Application of exogenous JA and sodium nitroprusside (SNP; a NO donor) significantly decreased the number ...

  18. Comparisons of Pathological Responses in Carrot to Root-knot Nematodes

    Seo, Yunhee; Kim, Yong Su; Park, Yong; Kim, Young Ho

    2015-01-01

    Carrot (Dacus carota var. sativus) is one of the top-ten most economically important vegetable crops produced worldwide, and the root-knot nematodes, Meloidogyne spp., are one of the most important pests in the carrot. In Korea, M. hapla and M. incognita are presumed to be the major root-knot nematodes distributing mostly in open carrot fields and greenhouses, respectively. In our study, currently-developed and commercial carrot cultivars and the parental lines were examined for their patholo...

  19. Root-Knot Nematode Management in Double-Cropped Plasticulture Vegetables

    Desaeger, J. A.; Csinos, A. S.

    2006-01-01

    Combination treatments of chisel-injected fumigants (methyl bromide, 1,3-D, metam sodium, and chloropicrin) on a first crop, followed by drip-applied fumigants (metam sodium and 1,3-D ± chloropicrin) on a second crop, with and without oxamyl drip applications were evaluated for control of Meloidogyne incognita in three different tests (2002 to 2004) in Tifton, GA. First crops were eggplant or tomato, and second crops were cantaloupe, squash, or jalapeno pepper. Double-cropped vegetables suffe...

  20. Nematicidal Constituents from the Essential Oil of Chenopodium Ambrosioides Aerial Parts

    Chuan Qi Bai; Zhi Long Liu; Qi Zhi Liu

    2011-01-01

    Essential oil of Chinese medicinal herb, Chenopodium ambrosioides aerial parts was found to possess nematicidal activity against the root-knot nematodes, Meloidogyne incognita. The essential oil of C. ambrosioides was obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). A total of 27 components of the essential oil were identified. The principal compounds in C. ambrosioides essential oil were (Z)-ascaridole (27.27%), ρ-cymene (19.05%), isoascaridole (14....

  1. Education Vital Signs: Population.

    Zakariya, Sally Banks

    1985-01-01

    Population changes and demographics shape the future of public schools. Includes statistics on ethnic makeup of student population, the projected baby boomlet, children of working mothers, households without children, and the aging population. (MD)

  2. Populous: A tool for populating ontology templates

    Jupp, Simon; Iannone, Luigi; Klein, Julie; Owen, Stuart; Schanstra, Joost; Stevens, Robert; Wolstencroft, Katy

    2010-01-01

    We present Populous, a tool for gathering content with which to populate an ontology. Domain experts need to add content, that is often repetitive in its form, but without having to tackle the underlying ontological representation. Populous presents users with a table based form in which columns are constrained to take values from particular ontologies; the user can select a concept from an ontology via its meaningful label to give a value for a given entity attribute. Populated tables are mapped to patterns that can then be used to automatically generate the ontology's content. Populous's contribution is in the knowledge gathering stage of ontology development. It separates knowledge gathering from the conceptualisation and also separates the user from the standard ontology authoring environments. As a result, Populous can allow knowledge to be gathered in a straight-forward manner that can then be used to do mass production of ontology content.

  3. Estimating Population Dynamics without Population Data

    Robert Chambers; Vangelis Tzouvelekas

    2012-01-01

    We develop a biologically correct cost system for production systems facing invasive pests that allows the estimation of population dynamics without a priori knowledge of their true values. We apply that model to a data set for olive producers in Crete and derive from it predictions about the underlying populations dynamics. Those dynamics are compared to information on population dynamics obtained from pest sampling with extremely favorable results.

  4. Human Population Problems

    Emmel, Thomas C.; Sligh, Michael M.

    1970-01-01

    Asserts that overpopulation is the most pressing world problem. Topics discussed include population control in primitive societies, population growth and control in modern societies, methods of motivational population control, consequences of no population control, and mass famines during the 1970's in underdeveloped countries. Cities 33…

  5. Understanding Rural Population Loss.

    McGranahan, David A.; Beale, Calvin L.

    2002-01-01

    A quarter of nonmetro counties lost population in the 1990s, but population loss was not related to poverty rate or low educational levels, perhaps because low-skill workers can no longer expect better wages in urban areas. Population loss was related to low population density and remoteness (which decrease access to services), lack of natural…

  6. Solarização do solo e biofumigação no cultivo protegido de tomate The effect of solarization and biofumigation on tomatoes under protected cultivation

    Mírian Josefina Baptista

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Foi avaliado o efeito da fumigação com brometo de metila, biofumigação e da solarização sobre a população do fitonematóide Meloidogyne sp., a incidência de plantas daninhas e características químicas do solo em ambiente protegido para o plantio de tomate. Foram testados os tratamentos: resíduos de couve-flor e de brócolos (2% v/v, cama de aves (2% v/v, fumigação com brometo de metila e solo não tratado, todos com e sem solarização. O período de solarização foi de dois meses e, em seguida, foi feito o plantio dos híbridos de tomate Alambra, resistente a Meloidogyne incognita (gene Mi, e Duradoro (suscetível. O banco de sementes de plantas daninhas no solo foi avaliado em amostras retiradas do perfil de 0 a 20 cm de profundidade, com amostragem das plantas daninhas emergidas aos 30 dias após o transplante do tomate. Para as análises químicas foram retiradas amostras de solo após a solarização e biofumigação. A solarização do solo, uso de cama de aves e fumigação com brometo de metila reduziram a população de nematóides no solo e o número de massas de ovos nas raízes dos dois híbridos avaliados. O híbrido Alambra, no entanto, apresentou massa seca e fresca da parte aérea, altura e peso de frutos, na primeira colheita, maiores nos solos solarizados, respondendo melhor à solarização que o 'Duradoro'. A fumigação com brometo de metila e a solarização reduziram a viabilidade das sementes e a sobrevivência de plantas daninhas. A solarização aumentou os teores de fósforo e de cobre e reduziu os teores de zinco no solo.A greenhouse experiment was carried out to test the effects of solarization and biofumigation on the population of the plant parasitic nematode Meloidogyne sp., on the incidence of weeds and on soil chemical properties in protected areas for the cultivation of tomatoes. Brassica residues (broccoli and cauliflower and chicken litter amendments (2% v/v, methyl bromide and no amendment

  7. 低钾逆境下根结线虫感染所诱导的番茄根巨型细胞的组织病理学反应%Histopathological Response of Giant Cell Induced by Root-knot Nematode, Meloidogyne javanica, in Tomato Roots under Potassium Stress

    袁林; 方文珍; 罗大民

    2008-01-01

    Comparison of histopathological response and quantitative measurement of giant cell(GC)induced by Meloidogyne javanica in tomato root were studied under potassium-deficient(0.2 mmol/L K+)and replete conditions(control,6.0 mmol/L K+).K+-deficient stress did not impede the formation and maintenance of GC.The mean number of GC per feeding site as well as the meall diameter of GC did not differ between the treatments.However,the thickness of cell wall including components resulted from the accumulated polysaccharide and the length of cell-wall ingrowth increased 5-25 d after inoculation in K+-deficient as compared with K+-replete conditions.An increase of cell-wall ingrowth suggested a kind of compensational response to the potassium stress.

  8. Glaucoma in Asian Populations

    ... Us Donate In This Section Glaucoma In Asian Populations email Send this article to a friend by ... an even more serious problem as the world population and longevity increases. The other major glaucoma type ...

  9. Estimating Ancestral Population Parameters

    Wakeley, J.; Hey, J.

    1997-01-01

    The expected numbers of different categories of polymorphic sites are derived for two related models of population history: the isolation model, in which an ancestral population splits into two descendents, and the size-change model, in which a single population undergoes an instantaneous change in size. For the isolation model, the observed numbers of shared, fixed, and exclusive polymorphic sites are used to estimate the relative sizes of the three populations, ancestral plus two descendent...

  10. Modeling Exponential Population Growth

    McCormick, Bonnie

    2009-01-01

    The concept of population growth patterns is a key component of understanding evolution by natural selection and population dynamics in ecosystems. The National Science Education Standards (NSES) include standards related to population growth in sections on biological evolution, interdependence of organisms, and science in personal and social…

  11. Teaching Population Geography.

    Carey, George W.; Schwartzberg, Julie

    Written under the sponsorship of the Population Council, with the financial support of the Population Instructional Materials Project, this work is intended to provide the thoughtful teacher of the social sciences with some suggestions and techniques for introducing population study to students in terms of concrete case studies which explore the…

  12. Controlling Population with Pollution

    Browne, Joseph

    2010-01-01

    Population models are often discussed in algebra, calculus, and differential equations courses. In this article we will use the human population of the world as our application. After quick looks at two common models we'll investigate more deeply a model which incorporates the negative effect that accumulated pollution may have on population.

  13. [Population policies and population trends in China].

    Pressat, R

    1983-04-01

    Although relatively little has been known about the Chinese population in recent centuries, figures are available for more remote times. In the year 2 the Chinese population was recorded at 60 million. In 1928, when the last pre-Revolution census was conducted, China had a population of 475 million. The population was not believed to have grown very much due to internal disorders, war, and foreigh invasion, but the 1953 census counted 582 million to which were added 18 million to include Taiwan and overseas Chinese. The figure of 600 million appears to mark the beginning of concern over demographic problems. The crude birth rate was estimated at 37/1000 and the death rate at 17/1000. The 1953 census was conducted with Soviet aid and was given some publicity. The period 1953-58 was marked by a mortality decline and a steady fertility rate, but the population is believed to have declined from 647 million in 1958 to 643 million in 1962, the end of the Great Leap Forward. A census suppressed until recently gave a total of 694 million for 1964. Population growth was considerable from 1961-66. In the 1st part of the Cultural Revolution from 1966-70, no effort was made to control population growth; in 1971, the crude birth rate was estimated at 30-35/1000, the mortality rate was 8/1000, and the growth rate was 2.6%. 1971-79 marked the 1st phase of birth limitation, which became more pressing with time. The population was counted at 1 billion 8 million in 1982, with a birth rate of 21/1000, a death rate of 6/1000, and a growth rate of 1.5%. Because of China's comprehensive system of population registration, the results of the 1982 census were not completely unexpected. Wide differences in growth rates were noted between provinces, and the minorities grew at a faster rate than the Han majority. Immediately after the Revolution, population was relatively neglected in China in favor of greater attention to economic growth. The 1st warnings about the consequences of overly

  14. Population information resources.

    Pasquariella, S K

    1984-12-01

    This article describes print and computerized services that are dedicated to bibliographic coverage of 1 or more areas of population studies. Major printed bibliographic information resources for population material include: ADOPT, DOCPAL Resumenes sobre Poblacion en America Latina, PIDSA Abstracts, Population Index and Review of Population Reviews. ADOPT is an annotated computer-aided current-awareness bibliographic journal which has been published monthly since January 1975 by the Regional Population Information Center of the Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP). DOCPAL Resumenes is a computer-produced biannual collection of abstracts containing indexes and between 600 and 700 summaries of both published and unpublished population documents. PIDSA is intended to make available documentary information about population matters in sub-Saharan Africa. Population Index, 1 of the oldest and most definitive bibliographies in the demography field, is international in scope and is arranged as a classified and annotated bibliography of monographs, journal articles and 2ndary source material relevant to all aspects of demography. Review of Population Reviews, published 4 times a year, are annotated bibliographies containing summaries of articles that have been published in 83 periodicals in 37 countries. Cited articles are assigned subject-heading descriptors from the Population Multilingual Thesaurus. Major computerized information resources are: DOCPAL, DOCPOP, EBIS/POPFILE, MANPINS, POPLINE and POPULATION BIBLIOGRAPHY. DOCPAL was established to assist Latin Ameran countries in the collection, storage, processing and retrieval of population documents about Latin America. DOCPAL contains over 19,000 bibliographic citations. DOCPOP was established as the 1st Latin American national computerized population documentation system for Brazilian material. POPLINE is a computerized retrieval service cooperatively produced in the US which covers the

  15. Understanding Population Health Terminology

    Kindig, David A.

    2007-01-01

    Population health is a relatively new term, with no agreement about whether it refers to a concept of health or a field of study of health determinants. There is debate, sometimes heated, about whether population health and public health are identical or different. Discussions of population health involve many terms, such as outcomes, disparities, determinants, and risk factors, which may be used imprecisely, particularly across different disciplines, such as medicine, epidemiology, economics...

  16. Clustering of population pyramids

    Kejžar, Nataša; Korenjak-Černe, Simona; Batagelj, Vladimir

    2015-01-01

    Population pyramid is a very popular presentation of the age-sex distribution of the human population of a particular region. The shape of the pyramid shows many demographic, social, and political characteristics of the time and the region. In the paper results of hierarchical clustering of the world countries based on population pyramids are presented. Special attention is given to the shapes of the pyramids. The changes of the pyramids' shapes, and also changes of the countries inside main ...

  17. Clustering of population pyramids:

    Batagelj, Vladimir; Kejžar, Nataša; Korenjak-Černe, Simona

    2008-01-01

    Population pyramid is a very popular presentation of the age-sex distribution of the human population of a particular region. The shape of the pyramid shows many demographic, social, and political characteristics of the time and the region. In the paper results of hierarchical clustering of the world countries based on population pyramids are presented. Special attention is given to the shapes of the pyramids. The changes of the pyramids' shapes, and also changes of the countries inside main ...

  18. Measurably evolving populations

    Drummond, Alexei James; Pybus, Oliver George; Rambaut, Andrew;

    2003-01-01

    processes through time. Populations for which such studies are possible � measurably evolving populations (MEPs) � are characterized by sufficiently long or numerous sampled sequences and a fast mutation rate relative to the available range of sequence sampling times. The impact of sequences sampled through...... time has been most apparent in the disciplines of RNA viral evolution and ancient DNA, where they enable us to estimate divergence times without paleontological calibrations, and to analyze temporal changes in population size, population structure and substitution rates. Thus, MEPs could increase our...

  19. Population and development.

    Okita, S

    1989-03-01

    This speech on the life and work of Rafael Salas, who had been the first executive director of the UN Population Fund (UNFPA) and who contributed immensely to global awareness of population as a vital issue, inaugurated the Rafael M. Salas Lecture Series at the UN. Salas was concerned with individual rights and socioeconomic development while maintaining a balance between population and the environment. He built a large multinational assistance program for population activities and increased funding from $2.5 million in 1969 to $175 million to support 2500 projects in 130 developing countries. He organized both the 1974 World Population Conference and the 1984 International Conference on Population. In developing countries malnutrition and poverty are intertwined, lowering productivity and making people prone to diseases. Infant and child mortality rises with the malnutrition of mothers, therefore campaigns modelled after the postwar Japanese efforts are needed to improve nutrition, to train dietitians, and to introduce school lunch programs. Population stabilization could also be achieved in developing countries by raising income levels, although in Latin American countries birth rates have stayed the same despite increasing income. Direct measures are effective in reducing the birth rate: primary school education, increased income, improved nutrition, decline in infant mortality, higher status of women, and decisive governmental population policy. The Club of Rome report The Limits to Growth predicted that sometime in the 21st century a sudden decline in both population and industrial capacity will be reached at the present growth trends. PMID:12282132

  20. Impact of castor meal on root-knot and free-living nematodes

    Cecilia Helena Silvino Prata Ritzinger

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Soil amendment may enhance soil quality as well as reduce plant-parasitic nematode. Despite the many applications already undertaken using castor meal, its efficiency in controlling root-knot nematodes (RKN, Meloidogyne incognita when applied to melon (Cucumis melo is still not clear. Three different amounts of castor meal (Ricinus communis applied were evaluated in microplots planted with melon either with or without RKN. The impact of castor meal on soil free-living nematode communities was also determined. Total nematode genera richness was estimated as 37 for the entire set of microplots sampled across both sampling dates. Rarefaction analysis resulted in 12 collector's curves out of the total of 30 that reached the horizontal asymptote. Univariate ANOVA with two factors yielded differences (p < 0.05 only with regard to the time factor. Simpson, Shannon, Evenness and Equitability indices showed a trend toward moderate increases by the end of the experiment, while the other indices were higher for tomato in pre-transplant sampling compared to harvest. Nematode community and diversity changed during the course of the experiment, although there was substantial confounding heterogeneity within and between the factorial combinations from the beginning. Root knot population was not reduced by the castor meal but increased throughout the period, regardless of treatment. RKN reduced melon yield, number and weight of melon.

  1. The Population Activist's Handbook.

    Population Inst., Washington, DC.

    This handbook is a guide to effective action strategies on dealing with overpopulation. Divided into five sections, the book outlines programs, suggests references, and lists resources that are helpful for thinking and for planning action on population issues. Section one focuses on strategies to change the current population policy choices made…

  2. Population dynamics of reindeer

    L. M. Baskin

    1990-09-01

    Full Text Available Five types of reindeer populations are distinguished in terms of population dynamics, population density, social structure and migration distance. Differences in the biological rhythms of the populations result in calving occuring 20 days before snow melting in all populations as well as maximal utilization by the deer of young green vegetation in summer. The growth of antlers may serve as a regulatior of biological rhytms. Populations differ in the level of social motivation. Formation of groups of not less than 30-35 animals ensures cooperative protection from insects and management of the group by man. The fidelity to the calving sites, summer ranges and constant migration routes is based on the common orientation reactions of the animals and social attraction. The direction and migration routes are detemined by obligate learning. The dynamics of populations depends on the fertility of 2 and 3 year old females which is determined by feeding conditions in summer and the activity of males during the rut. Migration plays an important role in the population dynamics.

  3. Negative Drift in Populations

    Lehre, Per Kristian

    2011-01-01

    An important step in gaining a better understanding of the stochastic dynamics of evolving populations, is the development of appropriate analytical tools. We present a new drift theorem for populations that allows properties of their long-term behaviour, e.g. the runtime of evolutionary algorithms...

  4. Befolkningsudviklingen (Population Development)

    Nørgaard, Jørgen

    2010-01-01

    The article takes the 1972 report, The Limits to Growth as its starting point, briefly explaining the Systam Dynamics model used for the report's analyses. Focus is on the important role of population. The simple model of I = PxAxT, where I is the environmental Impact, P population, A is the...

  5. POPULATION TURNING POINT

    2011-01-01

    Latest census shows structural imbalance of population has replaced explosive growth to become China’s top challenge China’s population grew by less than 1 percent annually in the last decade,but it still remains the world’s largest at 1.37 billion people,according to results

  6. Evolutionary Population Synthesis for Single Stellar Populations

    张奉辉; 韩占文; 李立芳; Jarrod R.Hurley

    2002-01-01

    Using the evolutionary population synthesis technique, we present the latest integrated colours for instantaneous burst single stellar populations (SSPs) of different metallicities and we investigate their colour evolution. Unlike previous research, we adopt the stellar evolutionary models that employ, amongst other things, recent opacities and a revised equation of state (EOS), and include evolutionary processes such as convective overshooting, thermal pulses and dredge-up. The models are used in the convenient form of analytical fitting functions. In addition, we use the BaSeL model for the library of stellar spectra. This model provides an extensive low-resolution theoretical flux distribution and UB VRIJHKLM colours, which have been calibrated empirically or semi-empirically, for a wide range of stellar parameters.

  7. Quantifying Health Across Populations.

    Kershnar, Stephen

    2016-07-01

    In this article, I argue that as a theoretical matter, a population's health-level is best quantified via averagism. Averagism asserts that the health of a population is the average of members' health-levels. This model is better because it does not fall prey to a number of objections, including the repugnant conclusion, and because it is not arbitrary. I also argue that as a practical matter, population health-levels are best quantified via totalism. Totalism asserts that the health of a population is the sum of members' health-levels. Totalism is better here because it fits better with cost-benefit analysis and such an analysis is the best practical way to value healthcare outcomes. The two results are compatible because the theoretical and practical need not always align, whether in general or in the context of population health. PMID:26766584

  8. Shifts that divide population

    Muneepeerakul, Rachata; Qubbaj, Murad; Aggarwal, Rimjhim; Anderies, John M.; Janssen, Marco

    2014-05-01

    How does a population of organisms in an ecosystem or of people in a society respond to rapid shifts in the environment? Answers to this question are critical to our ability to anticipate and cope with a changing ecohydrological system. We have developed a generic model of adaptation mechanisms, based on replicator dynamics, in which we derive a simple and insightful threshold condition that separates two important types of responses: 'cohesive transition' in which the whole population changes gradually together, and 'population-dividing transition' in which the population splits into two groups with one eventually dominating the other. The threshold depends on the magnitude of the shift and the shape of the fitness landscape. Division in populations can fundamentally alter the functioning of and induce subsequent feedbacks within the system; knowing the condition that gives rise to such division is thus fundamentally important.

  9. Global population growth.

    Langmore, J

    1992-07-01

    The global population passed 5 billion in 1987. In the year 2000 the world's population will be more than 6 billion, increasing by 90-100 million each year. About 95% of future demographic growth will take place in developing countries. The number of school age children is projected to increase from 940 million in 1980 to 1280 million by the year 2000. Under current labor force growth projections in developing countries, around 1.6 billion new jobs will have to be created between 1980 and 2025, with nearly 1 billion of them in Asia. Population often increases at a more rapid rate than agricultural growth. Food production per capita has declined in 70 developing countries. Much of the projected population increase will take place in environmentally fragile regions of the developing world. Population pressures contribute to deforestation, desertification, and scarcity of clean water. The United Nations Population Fund has estimated that in Asia over 43% of women not using family planning would like to postpone, space, or limit their childbearing. Over half of the world's couples of reproductive age are now using contraception. Family planning to postpone the first birth and to eliminate late child bearing would reduce both child loss and maternal illness and death. Both infant and maternal mortality are greater with higher order births. Reducing average family size is an effective way of reducing infant and maternal mortality. The World Bank has given high priority to population assistance, with large programs in Bangladesh, Egypt, India, Indonesia, the Philippines, and Thailand. Population assistance provided by the Australian International Development Assistance Bureau totaled about $4.5 million during 1989-90 and is expected to be about $8 million during 1991-92. Australia should increase the proportion of its development assistance budget devoted to population, and family planning programs should increase to around $26 million in line with other major donors

  10. Population dose calculation technique

    An original method is suggested for calculating the population doses from gas and aerosol radioactive releases. The method is based on the assumption of uniform population and arable land distribution. The validity of this assumption has been proved for a rather large condition range. Though, some modified formulae are given to take into account the non-uniformity of population distribution, connected with large cities, on the one hand, and with woods, shores, regional borders, on the other hand. Employment of the suggested method results in an apriciable calculation accuracy rise for the long-living slowly precipitating radionuclides as compared with the existing methods

  11. Predation and caribou populations

    Dale R. Seip

    1991-10-01

    Full Text Available Predation, especially wolf (Canis lupus predation, limits many North American caribou (Rangifer tarandus populations below the density that food resources could sustain. The impact of predation depends on the parameters for the functional and numerical response of the wolves, relative to the potential annual increment of the caribou population. Differences in predator-avoidance strategies largely explain the major differences in caribou densities that occur naturally in North America. Caribou migrations that spatially separate caribou from wolves allow relatively high densities of caribou to survive. Non-migratory caribou that live in areas where wolf populations are sustained by alternate prey can be eliminated by wolf predation.

  12. Constructing populations in biobanking

    Tupasela, Aaro; Snell, Karoliina; Cañada, Jose a.

    2015-01-01

    This article poses the question of whether biobanking practices and standards are giving rise to the construction of populations from which various biobanking initiatives increasingly draw on for legitimacy? We argue that although recent biobanking policies encourage various forms of engagement...... construction of populations, whereby specific nationalities, communities, societies, patient groups and political systems become imbued or bio-objectified with particular characteristics, such as compliant, distant, positive, commercialized or authoritarian. This bio-objectification process is problematic in...... relation to policy aspirations ascribed to biobanking engagement since it gives rise to reified notions of different populations....

  13. Bridged Race Population Estimates

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Population estimates from "bridging" the 31 race categories used in Census 2000, as specified in the 1997 Office of Management and Budget (OMB) race and ethnicity...

  14. Modeling Honey Bee Populations.

    David J Torres

    Full Text Available Eusocial honey bee populations (Apis mellifera employ an age stratification organization of egg, larvae, pupae, hive bees and foraging bees. Understanding the recent decline in honey bee colonies hinges on understanding the factors that impact each of these different age castes. We first perform an analysis of steady state bee populations given mortality rates within each bee caste and find that the honey bee colony is highly susceptible to hive and pupae mortality rates. Subsequently, we study transient bee population dynamics by building upon the modeling foundation established by Schmickl and Crailsheim and Khoury et al. Our transient model based on differential equations accounts for the effects of pheromones in slowing the maturation of hive bees to foraging bees, the increased mortality of larvae in the absence of sufficient hive bees, and the effects of food scarcity. We also conduct sensitivity studies and show the effects of parameter variations on the colony population.

  15. Populated Places of Iowa

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — This coverage contains points that represent populated places, ie. cities, towns, villages or any other named place where people live. The coverage was developed...

  16. Market Squid Population Dynamics

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset contains population dynamics data on paralarvae, juvenile and adult market squid collected off California and the US Pacific Northwest. These data were...

  17. Parallel grid population

    Wald, Ingo; Ize, Santiago

    2015-07-28

    Parallel population of a grid with a plurality of objects using a plurality of processors. One example embodiment is a method for parallel population of a grid with a plurality of objects using a plurality of processors. The method includes a first act of dividing a grid into n distinct grid portions, where n is the number of processors available for populating the grid. The method also includes acts of dividing a plurality of objects into n distinct sets of objects, assigning a distinct set of objects to each processor such that each processor determines by which distinct grid portion(s) each object in its distinct set of objects is at least partially bounded, and assigning a distinct grid portion to each processor such that each processor populates its distinct grid portion with any objects that were previously determined to be at least partially bounded by its distinct grid portion.

  18. The politics of population.

    Wolfson, M

    1986-03-01

    This article suggests some of the principal factors behind the decisions by an increasing number of countries deciding that the achievement of their national objectives required a policy for population, and the way that they are likely to work out. By 1983, 35 developing countries had an official policy to reduce their population growth rate, and in 34 others, the government supported family planning activities--usually for reasons of health or as a human right. The number is remarkable given the many compelling reasons that governments have for not attempting anything so difficult as to modify demographic trends. The future results of population programs, in social and economic terms, are very difficult to quantify, thus defying cost-benefit analysis of the desirability of investing resources in this area, rather than in something else. There are also powerful political reasons why a government might well hesitate before embarking on a policy to reduce the nation's fertility. At the very least, it implies government interference in the most private and personal of human relations, an invasion of human rights, and a disturbance of the traditional patterns of society and behavior. For many countries that are pursuing a policy to limit population growth, the decision has been taken only after the grievous consequences of not having such a policy have already become manifest. The critical question is how soon a government will make the connection among political disobedience, economic and social distress, and the population explosion, and adopt a population policy. Although the number of developing countries that have officially proclaimed a strongly pro-natalist population policy is relatively small, many have Marxist governments. Overall, governments have several strategies at their disposal: 1) improving the accessability and the quality of the service; 2) promoting population education and family planning motivation (with the assistance of the media, folk art, and

  19. Extinction of oscillating populations.

    Smith, Naftali R; Meerson, Baruch

    2016-03-01

    Established populations often exhibit oscillations in their sizes that, in the deterministic theory, correspond to a limit cycle in the space of population sizes. If a population is isolated, the intrinsic stochasticity of elemental processes can ultimately bring it to extinction. Here we study extinction of oscillating populations in a stochastic version of the Rosenzweig-MacArthur predator-prey model. To this end we develop a WKB (Wentzel, Kramers and Brillouin) approximation to the master equation, employing the characteristic population size as the large parameter. Similar WKB theories have been developed previously in the context of population extinction from an attracting multipopulation fixed point. We evaluate the extinction rates and find the most probable paths to extinction from the limit cycle by applying Floquet theory to the dynamics of an effective four-dimensional WKB Hamiltonian. We show that the entropic barriers to extinction change in a nonanalytic way as the system passes through the Hopf bifurcation. We also study the subleading pre-exponential factors of the WKB approximation. PMID:27078294

  20. Extinction of oscillating populations

    Smith, Naftali R.; Meerson, Baruch

    2016-03-01

    Established populations often exhibit oscillations in their sizes that, in the deterministic theory, correspond to a limit cycle in the space of population sizes. If a population is isolated, the intrinsic stochasticity of elemental processes can ultimately bring it to extinction. Here we study extinction of oscillating populations in a stochastic version of the Rosenzweig-MacArthur predator-prey model. To this end we develop a WKB (Wentzel, Kramers and Brillouin) approximation to the master equation, employing the characteristic population size as the large parameter. Similar WKB theories have been developed previously in the context of population extinction from an attracting multipopulation fixed point. We evaluate the extinction rates and find the most probable paths to extinction from the limit cycle by applying Floquet theory to the dynamics of an effective four-dimensional WKB Hamiltonian. We show that the entropic barriers to extinction change in a nonanalytic way as the system passes through the Hopf bifurcation. We also study the subleading pre-exponential factors of the WKB approximation.

  1. Population and human health.

    Hefnawi, F I; Ahmed, W

    1982-01-01

    The nature, proportions, causes, effects and cures of the Egyptian population crisis are analyzed. If the world population growth rate of 2% continues by the year 2000 a population of 6.5 billion can be expected. By 2115 the world population will have doubled. The greatest increase in population is made by developing countries, e.g. Egypt's population will double in 25 years, Turkey's in 26 years, and Algeria's in 21 years. National health goals become increasingly difficult to achieve under these conditions. For overpopulated countries the options of migration, resource transfer, and fertility control have both positive and negative effects. For Egypt, migration of medical manpower is a major factor responsible for low health standards. Technology transferred from developed countries to assist overpopulated developing countries to increase production of all resources is a slow procedure. Fertility control will slow population growth, reduce maternal morbidity, create smaller families which may result in better psychological family health and therefore better level of job performance. It will also permit women to participate in the work force more easily and earn independent incomes. The effects of health improvement have also been positive and negative in Egypt. The Egyptian population is still growing at a rate .3% higher than the world rate. This situation has resulted from a decline in the death rate rather than in an increase in fertility. The death rate dropped from 32.9 in 1937 to 26.8 in 1947 to 15.8 in 1967. Fertility is close to 5.5 which is no higher than the world average. The drop in death rattes is due to better sanitation, extension of medical services, immunization campaigns, expansiion of health education and greater availability of foo. Reduction of morbidity coupled with health improvement is hoped to foster increased acceptance of fertility control, increased population attention to and acceptance of fertility counseling and increased funding

  2. The Population Multilingual Thesaurus.

    1982-04-01

    The idea of a multilingual thesaurus to facilitate indexing and retrieval of population information came about when the UN Population Commission expressed interest, in 1973, in computerizing demographic information along the lines developed by UNESCO in the social sciences; it was recommended that the Population Division of the UN Secretariat collaborate with the Committee for International Cooperation in National Research in Demography, with financial support from UNFPA. Work was begun in 1975 by a group of experts with a diversity of interests encompassing demography, population studies, and family planning. The Institut National d'Etudes Demographiques (INED) made its computer equipment available to the project. The resulting Population Multilingual Thesaurus (PMT) was published in August 1979 in English, Spanish, and French. The PMT is an important tool for documentation units and essential for the effective operation of the Population Information Network. Efforts were made to include all terminology pertinent to analysis of demographic and socioeconomic information, and relevant to problems and characteristics of differing geographical areas. Attention was given to compatability with other relevant vocabularies, in particular the Macrothesaurus for Information Processing in the Field of Economic and Social Development published by OECD. Recommendations and guidelines from a POPIN Working Group on the Management of the PMT which met in March 1982 are presented under the following headings: harmonization (PMT and Macrothesaurus; PMT and specifically population oriented thesauri); geographic names; possible expansion; reporting additional terms; deletion of unnecessary terms; priorities in thesaurus related activities (maintenance of PMT given priority over development of micro thesauri). The role of INED in the maintenance of the PMT through electronic data processing is described, including the modules used for online management. PMID:12312008

  3. Distance Learning for Special Populations

    Bates, Rodger A.

    2012-01-01

    Distance education strategies for remotely deployed, highly mobile, or institutionalized populations are reviewed and critiqued. Specifically, asynchronous, offline responses for special military units, Native Americans on remote reservations, prison populations and other geographically, temporally or technologically isolated niche populations are…

  4. Population and Climate Change

    O'Neill, Brian C.; Landis MacKellar, F.; Lutz, Wolfgang

    2000-11-01

    Population and Climate Change provides the first systematic in-depth treatment of links between two major themes of the 21st century: population growth (and associated demographic trends such as aging) and climate change. It is written by a multidisciplinary team of authors from the International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis who integrate both natural science and social science perspectives in a way that is comprehensible to members of both communities. The book will be of primary interest to researchers in the fields of climate change, demography, and economics. It will also be useful to policy-makers and NGOs dealing with issues of population dynamics and climate change, and to teachers and students in courses such as environmental studies, demography, climatology, economics, earth systems science, and international relations.

  5. Constructing populations in biobanking.

    Tupasela, Aaro; Snell, Karoliina; Cañada, Jose A

    2015-01-01

    This article poses the question of whether biobanking practices and standards are giving rise to the construction of populations from which various biobanking initiatives increasingly draw on for legitimacy? We argue that although recent biobanking policies encourage various forms of engagement with publics to ensure legitimacy, different biobanks conceptualize their engagement strategies very differently. We suggest that biobanks undertake a broad range of different strategies with regard to engagement. We argue that these different approaches to engagement strategies are contributing to the construction of populations, whereby specific nationalities, communities, societies, patient groups and political systems become imbued or bio-objectified with particular characteristics, such as compliant, distant, positive, commercialized or authoritarian. This bio-objectification process is problematic in relation to policy aspirations ascribed to biobanking engagement since it gives rise to reified notions of different populations. PMID:26194269

  6. Quenched effective population size

    Sagitov, Serik; Vatutin, Vladimir

    2010-01-01

    We study the genealogy of a geographically - or otherwise - structured version of the Wright-Fisher population model with fast migration. The new feature is that migration probabilities may change in a random fashion. Applying Takahashi's results on Markov chains with random transition matrices, we establish convergence to the Kingman coalescent, as the population size goes to infinity. This brings a novel formula for the coalescent effective population size (EPS). We call it a quenched EPS to emphasize the key feature of our model - random environment. The quenched EPS is compared with an annealed (mean-field) EPS which describes the case of constant migration probabilities obtained by averaging the random migration probabilities over possible environments.

  7. [Population problem, comprehension problem].

    Tallon, F

    1993-08-01

    Overpopulation of developing countries in general, and Rwanda in particular, is not just their problem but a problem for developed countries as well. Rapid population growth is a key factor in the increase of poverty in sub-Saharan Africa. Population growth outstrips food production. Africa receives more and more foreign food, economic, and family planning aid each year. The Government of Rwanda encourages reduced population growth. Some people criticize it, but this criticism results in mortality and suffering. One must combat this ignorance, but attitudes change slowly. Some of these same people find the government's acceptance of family planning an invasion of their privacy. Others complain that rich countries do not have campaigns to reduce births, so why should Rwanda do so? The rate of schooling does not increase in Africa, even though the number of children in school increases, because of rapid population growth. Education is key to improvements in Africa's socioeconomic growth. Thus, Africa, is underpopulated in terms of potentiality but overpopulated in terms of reality, current conditions, and possibilities of overexploitation. Africa needs to invest in human resources. Families need to save, and to so, they must refrain from having many children. Africa should resist the temptation to waste, as rich countries do, and denounce it. Africa needs to become more independent of these countries, but structural adjustment plans, growing debt, and rapid population growth limit national independence. Food aid is a means for developed countries to dominate developing countries. Modernization through foreign aid has had some positive effects on developing countries (e.g., improved hygiene, mortality reduction), but these also sparked rapid population growth. Rwandan society is no longer traditional, but it is also not yet modern. A change in mentality to fewer births, better quality of life for living infants, better education, and less burden for women must occur

  8. Population and development.

    Pavlik, Z

    1995-01-01

    During the Paleolithic period, 10,000-100,000 people lived on the earth; their number exceeded 1 million at the beginning of the Neolithic period, reached 10 million during the Bronze Age, 100 million at the beginning of the Iron Age, 1 billion at the beginning of the 19th century, and 5.7 billion in 1995. The estimated global population will be 10 billion by the middle of the 21st century and is expected to stabilize at around 10-12 billion subsequently. Increased agricultural production helped bring about greater numbers of humanity and the advancement of society with a developing social hierarchy, although life expectancy was low at 22-28 years. In Europe, the Renaissance gradually evolved into the Industrial Revolution, and a demographic revolution accompanied this process. In some countries, population size increased more than five times. Eventually, mortality and fertility levels decreased and life expectancy increased. In Western civilization, increased individualism, secularization, compulsory school attendance, decreased agricultural population, emancipation of women, increased costs of raising children, and social and economic progress ensued. All this was preceded by 18th century conditions, when, in England, capital accumulation led to wealth on the one side and destitution on the other, giving rise to Malthus's famous theory. However, during the 19th century these social inequalities gradually evened out. After World War II, the question arose of whether the populations of other civilizations (Confucian, Japanese, Islamic, Hindu, Slavic-Orthodox, Latin American, and African) would also undergo a demographic transition and how soon. At any rate, developed country population size, as a percentage of global population, will drop from 22% to 13%, and that of Africa will increase from 12% to 26%, during the 21st century. PMID:12292830

  9. Having quality population.

    Ramos, F V

    1993-06-01

    This speech was delivered during Population and Development Week in the Philippines. Attention was drawn to population statistics: an annual growth rate of 2.3%, density of 202 persons/sq km, and an expected population of 75 million by the year 2000. Coupled with rapid population growth is the uneven distribution of wealth: the top 20% have over 50% of the total income and the lowest 20% have only 5% of the income. In such a social situation, it is women and children who are the most vulnerable. In cities, unemployment is high due to population growth and the migration of the rural poor. The rural poor living in areas of declining resources also move onto marginal uplands, which adds pressure to the already fragile ecology. Everyone must accept that the nation's problems are due to overpopulation. The government's development plans aim for sustainable growth, poverty alleviation, reduction in equality, generation of job opportunities, and achievement of social justice. People in government are determined to lead the Philippines toward a higher standard comparable with other dynamic Asian neighbors. The strategy is empowerment of the people. THe value is in the welfare of individuals and their families and the welfare of the nation. Couples have the right to manage their family size voluntarily and responsibly. The government's role is to provide adequate information on family planning in accordance with individual's religious convictions. Policies will also be directed to improved access to quality education, child survival, and maternal health, employment opportunities, and access and control over resources for people. There must be fuller participation of women in development. Support for the government's population program is sought from government officials, the private sector, and nongovernmental organizations. All provincial governors, city and municipal mayors, and all local executives will be directed to formulate population plans and to provide family

  10. Establish a Bioassay to Assess Nematicidal Effect of Bacillus thuringiensis Crystal Protein against Meloidogyne hapla%苏云金芽孢杆菌晶体蛋白对北方根结线虫生物测定方法的建立和杀虫效果评价

    余子全; 刘斌; 邹雪; 喻子牛; 孙明

    2008-01-01

    A bioassay procedure was developed to assess the toxicity of Bacillus thuringiensis crystal protein against Meloidogyne hapla, a root-knot nematode, under laboratory conditions. Reproducibility and precision of the bioassay results were optimal when forty 2nd stage juveniles were incubated in the dissolved crystal pro- tein solution at 25℃, pH9.0 for 7 days. The juveniles were stained with 1% KMnO4 for 2 hours or methylene blue solution for 1 hour to distinguish riving and dead ones. By the bioassay procedure, the LC50 value of strain YBT-1532 crystal protein against M. Hapla was determined as 0.304±0.086 mg/mL ( LC50±1.96SE). Moreover, the strain YBT-1532 showed toxicity to Caenorhabditis elegans, a free-living nematode. All results indicated that YBT-1532 is a toxic strain to plant-parasitic nematode, and has the potential to control plant- parasitic nematode.

  11. Population and Development Issues.

    Cohen, Sharon; Garran, Christopher

    1998-01-01

    Describes a unit on demographics for a high school world-history course that addresses questions of uneven population growth and the "problem of global overpopulation." Provides a detailed outline of the two-day unit including unit and daily goals and objectives, daily activities and questions, and ideas for further student research. (DSK)

  12. Charting Population Shifts

    LI LI

    2010-01-01

    @@ China is updating its demographic information through its once-in-adecade population census.The latest database will be used as an important reference for the country to draft its development plan for the next five years and deal with social problems,such as an aging society and imbalanced gender ratio,according to experts.

  13. [Population census, 1980].

    Suharto, S

    1980-12-01

    The author describes the types of data collected in the 1980 population census of Indonesia, considers the differences between the 1971 and 1980 censuses, and discusses which data and tables are scheduled to be published. A copy of the census questionnaire and an explanation of the concepts and definitions used are also included. PMID:12338729

  14. Population, food and knowledge

    Strulik, Holger; Weisdorf, Jacob Louis

    2008-01-01

    population. London, printed for J. Johnson, 1798) so-called preventive check hypothesis-that fertility rates vary inversely with the price of food-the current study offers a new and straightforward explanation for the demographic transition and the break with the Malthusian era. Employing a two...

  15. China Population and Developmenl

    2004-01-01

    The Cairo International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) paid great attention to the sexual and reproductive health of adolescents. One of the top priorities of the ICPD Programme of Action is to provide adolescents with necessary sexual and reproductive health information and services, ensure their right to reproductive health education and services, and help them develop risk-free behaviours and healthy lifestyles.

  16. Geostatistical modeling of the spatial variability and risk areas of southern root-knot nematodes in relation to soil properties.

    Ortiz, B V; Perry, C; Goovaerts, P; Vellidis, G; Sullivan, D

    2010-05-01

    Identifying the spatial variability and risk areas for southern root-knot nematode [Meloidogyne incognita (Kofoid & White) Chitwood] (RKN) is key for site-specific management (SSM) of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) fields. The objectives of this study were to: (i) determine the soil properties that influence RKN occurrence at different scales; and (ii) delineate risk areas of RKN by indicator kriging. The study site was a cotton field located in the southeastern coastal plain region of the USA. Nested semivariograms indicated that RKN samples, collected from a 50×50 m grid, exhibited a local and regional scale of variation describing small and large clusters of RKN population density. Factorial kriging decomposed RKN and soil properties variability into different spatial components. Scale dependent correlations between RKN data showed that the areas with high RKN population remained stable though the growing season. RKN data were strongly correlated with slope (SL) at local scale and with apparent soil electrical conductivity deep (EC(a-d)) at both local and regional scales, which illustrate the potential of these soil physical properties as surrogate data for RKN population. The correlation between RKN data and soil chemical properties was soil texture mediated. Indicator kriging (IK) maps developed using either RKN, the relation between RKN and soil electrical conductivity or a combination of both, depicted the probability for RKN population to exceed the threshold of 100 second stage juveniles/100 cm(3) of soil. Incorporating EC(a-d) as soft data improved predictions favoring the reduction of the number of RKN observations required to map areas at risk for high RKN population. PMID:20717481

  17. [The Marxist outlook on population].

    Qin, R

    1984-09-29

    Marxist population theory and world population are discussed. From his study of capitalist population theory Marx concluded, "In capitalist reproduction, poverty produces population," thus rejecting Malthusian population determinism theory and developing economic determinism. According to UN statistics, world population has stabilized since the middle of this century after having doubled every hundred years for the last 300; population in the developed countries showed a positive decrease and average net population growth of the developing countries also decreased. The premise of this paper is that population grows according to social economy development. During the last several hundred years, world wealth increased much faster than population; in the last 200 years alone, the population has increased fivefold, but wealth fortyfold. In addition, world population analysis reveals an inverse relationship between wealth and population in the developed and developing countries: the poorer the country, the greater the population. From this perspective, the study of population must begin with surplus labor. Accumulation of surplus production is the foundation of continuous social development and the basis for population growth. The major difference in methods between capitalist countries and China is that the capitalist-planned fertility affects the individual family while Chinese-planned fertility has the whole nation in mind. Human fertility is determined by the economic system. Private ownership determines the private nature of fertility and public ownership determines the public nature of fertility. Thus population development is determined by the accumulation of social wealth. PMID:12159280

  18. Comparisons of Pathological Responses in Carrot to Root-knot Nematodes.

    Seo, Yunhee; Kim, Yong Su; Park, Yong; Kim, Young Ho

    2015-12-01

    Carrot (Dacus carota var. sativus) is one of the top-ten most economically important vegetable crops produced worldwide, and the root-knot nematodes, Meloidogyne spp., are one of the most important pests in the carrot. In Korea, M. hapla and M. incognita are presumed to be the major root-knot nematodes distributing mostly in open carrot fields and greenhouses, respectively. In our study, currently-developed and commercial carrot cultivars and the parental lines were examined for their pathological responses to M. incognita and M. hapla 7 weeks after inoculation with about 1,000 second-stage juveniles (J2) of the nematodes. All the carrot cultivars and lines showed susceptible responses to both nematodes with the gall index (GI) of 2.4-4.4, which were always higher on the carrot plants infected with M. incognita than M. hapla. Gall sizes were remarkably larger with more serious reduction of the root growths in the plants infected with M. incognita than M. hapla, suggesting the carrot lines examined in our study were more susceptible to the former than the latter. In the infection sites of the root tissues, giant cells were more extensively formed, occupying larger stellar regions with the prominent destruction of adjacent xylem vessels by M. incognita than M. hapla. All of these results suggest M. incognita affect more seriously on the carrot plants that are grown in greenhouses, compared to M. hapla that has a major distribution in open carrot fields, which would be used for determining cropping systems based on target nematode species, their damage and pathological characteristics. PMID:26675114

  19. On optimal population paths

    Lane, John S

    1977-01-01

    The overall purpose of this monograph is to integrate and critically evaluate the existing literature in the area of optimal joint savings population programs. The existing diverse presentations are all seen to be discussions within a unified framework. The central problem is to compare the desirability of alternative inter-temporal sequences of total savings and population sizes. Of critical importance is whether one regards persons as the fundamental moral entities or whether one takes Sidgwick's viewpoint that something good being the result of one's action is the baSic reason for dOing anything. The latter viewpoint is consistent with defining a complete social preference ordering over these alternative sequences. Since part of one's interest is to evaluate the consequences of various ethical beliefs a com­ parative study of several such orderings is presented; in particular the Mill-Wolfe average utilitarian, and Sidgwick-Meade classical utilitarian) formulations. A possible problem with the social pref...

  20. Population attribute compression

    White, James M.; Faber, Vance; Saltzman, Jeffrey S.

    1995-01-01

    An image population having a large number of attributes is processed to form a display population with a predetermined smaller number of attributes that represent the larger number of attributes. In a particular application, the color values in an image are compressed for storage in a discrete look-up table (LUT). Color space containing the LUT color values is successively subdivided into smaller volumes until a plurality of volumes are formed, each having no more than a preselected maximum number of color values. Image pixel color values can then be rapidly placed in a volume with only a relatively few LUT values from which a nearest neighbor is selected. Image color values are assigned 8 bit pointers to their closest LUT value whereby data processing requires only the 8 bit pointer value to provide 24 bit color values from the LUT.

  1. Population and Health Policies

    Schultz, T. Paul

    2009-01-01

    The program evaluation literature for population and health policies is in flux, with many disciplines documenting biological and behavioral linkages from fetal development to late life mortality, chronic disease, and disability, though their implications for policy remain uncertain. Both macro- and microeconomics seek to understand and incorporate connections between economic development and the demographic transition. The focus here is on research methods, findings, and questions that econo...

  2. Population, environment and development.

    Karkal, M

    1994-06-01

    Western development models label subsistence economies, which do not participate in the market economy on a grand scale and do not consume commodities produced for and distributed through the market, to be poor. Yet, subsistence does not always indicate a low quality of life. The Western development process has destroyed wholesome and sustainable lifestyles. In India, the Green Revolution caused many small farmers to lose their land. In comparison to traditional economies, industrial economies have longer technological chains dependent on higher energy and resource inputs and exclude large numbers of people without power to buy goods. Further, they generate new and artificial needs, necessitating increased production of industrial goods and services. They erode resource bases for survival. This erosion is marginalizing people who were traditionally in nature's economy. Developed countries did not deliver 0.15% of their GNP to development projects in developing countries as promised. The US made population growth in these countries its cause. The UN and other multinational agencies during 1962-1972, at the US's request, began to support population and family planning programs in developing countries. These countries opposed the 1st draft at the 1974 Bucharest Population Conference, but by the conference in Mexico City, most supported the need for family planning. Yet, the US politicized this conference and had a greater say in the recommendations than did developing countries. Structural adjustments and external debt repayments required of developing countries in the 1980s set them back. In fact, the number of developing countries increased from 31 to 42. The UN recognizes the right to development, but social inequalities are barriers to this right. If environmental degradation continues, poverty will only increase. Women's groups are playing a great role in preparations for the International Conference on Population and Development in Cairo in September 1994. PMID

  3. [Population, ethics and equity].

    Berlinguer, G

    1997-01-01

    "Demography is, explicitly and not, imbued with an [ethical] content.... As demography involves both public policies and individual choices, the [ethical] slant should be [examined]. Thus, what we have on the one hand is an [ethical] state, which dictates its citizens' personal behaviour and, on the other, a state based on liberty, backed up by three shared values: human rights, pluralism and equality. This article looks at how today these may be reinterpreted when making decisions regarding the population." (EXCERPT) PMID:12293335

  4. An optimum world population.

    Willey, D

    2000-01-01

    The optimum population of the world is the one that is most likely to make the option of a good quality of life available to everyone everywhere, both now and in the future. Establishing a consensus about the size of such a population would be an important step towards achieving it. Estimates of an optimum involve three main steps. First, estimate the maximum (carrying capacity) assuming a specified lifestyle. The main criteria are the maintenance of biodiversity, the availability of freshwater, and the availability of land--for agriculture, forestry and artificial systems but above all for the conversion of energy. (In applying the criteria, there are always two questions to ask: 'What is the maximum amount of consumption that the biosphere can stand?' and 'What is an adequate share of such consumption per person?') Second, convert the maximum (two to three billion) into an optimum by applying a far wider range of criteria, including personal liberty, mobility, recreation and political representation. Third, consider just two criteria (economies of scale and technological innovation) in order to ensure that the optimum (one to two billion) has not fallen below the minimum (half to one billion). The estimates are so low because of the need for a huge increase in median per capita consumption if everyone is to have the option of an adequate material standard of living. Opinion-formers are likely not to take much notice of such estimates, but it is probable that minds will be concentrated by an energy shock some time during the next decade. Achieving an optimum world population will not solve the world's major problems, but it would make them solvable. PMID:10824524

  5. India's population in transition.

    Visaria, L; Visaria, P

    1995-10-01

    This demographic profile of India addresses fertility, family planning, and economic issues. India is described as a country shifting from economic policies of self-reliance to active involvement in international trade. Wealth has increased, particularly at higher educational levels, yet 25% still live below the official poverty line and almost 66% of Indian women are illiterate. The government program in family planning, which was instituted during the early 1950s, did not change the rate of natural increase, which remained stable at 2.2% over the past 30 years. 1993 marked the first time the growth rate decline to under 2%. The growth rate in 1995 was 1.9%. The total population is expected double in 36 years. Only Nigeria, Pakistan, and Bangladesh had a higher growth rate and higher fertility in 1995. India is geographically diverse (with the northern Himalayan mountain zone, the central alluvial plains, the western desert region, and the southern peninsula with forest, mountains, and plains). There are regional differences in the fertility rates, which range from replacement level in Kerala and Goa to 5.5 children in Uttar Pradesh. Fertility is expected to decline throughout India due to the slower pace of childbearing among women over the age of 35 years, the increase in contraceptive use, and increases in marriage age. Increased educational levels in India and its state variations are related to lower fertility. Literacy campaigns are considered to be effective means of increasing the educational levels of women. Urbanization is not expected to markedly affect fertility levels. Urban population, which is concentrated in a few large cities, remains a small proportion of total population. Greater shifts are evident in the transition from agriculture to other wage labor. Fertility is expected to decline as women's share of labor force activity increases. The major determinant of fertility decline in India is use of family planning, which has improved in access

  6. Playing With Population Protocols

    Xavier Koegler

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Population protocols have been introduced as a model of sensor networks consisting of very limited mobile agents with no control over their own movement: A collection of anonymous agents, modeled by finite automata, interact in pairs according to some rules. Predicates on the initial configurations that can be computed by such protocols have been characterized under several hypotheses. We discuss here whether and when the rules of interactions between agents can be seen as a game from game theory. We do so by discussing several basic protocols.

  7. Diabetes in Population Isolates

    Grarup, Niels; Moltke, Ida; Albrechtsen, Anders;

    2016-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is an increasing health problem worldwide with particularly high occurrence in specific subpopulations and ancestry groups. The high prevalence of T2D is caused both by changes in lifestyle and genetic predisposition. A large number of studies have sought to identify...... on glucose-stimulated plasma glucose, serum insulin levels, and T2D. The variant defines a specific subtype of non-autoimmune diabetes characterized by decreased post-prandial glucose uptake and muscular insulin resistance. These and other recent findings in population isolates illustrate the value...

  8. OZ, POPULISM, AND INTENT

    Ranjit S. Dighe

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Following the lead of influential articles by Henry Littlefield (1964 and Hugh Rockoff (1990, teachers of economic history often relate the Populist movement of the 1890s to L. Frank Baum’s The Wonderful Wizard of Oz. This paper reexamines the inevitable question of whether Baum intended his story as a parable on Populism. From other, more overtly political writing sof Baum’s, and from biographical information about Baum himself, the evidence suggests that Oz was not a Populist parable. We can still profitably read it as one, but we need to separate that interpretation from Baum’s intention.

  9. Neoplasms in irradiated populations

    The paper describes the results of three prospective studies which have been ongoing for 25 years. The study populations include: (1) persons treated with x rays in infancy for alleged enlargement of the thymus gland; (2) persons treated in childhood with x rays and/or radium for lymphoid hyperplasia of the nasopharynx; and (3) women treated with x rays for acute postpartum mastitis. The studies have resulted in the quantification of risk for radiogenic thyroid and breast cancer for periods up to 40 years post irradiation

  10. Density Estimation in Several Populations With Uncertain Population Membership

    Ma, Yanyuan

    2011-09-01

    We devise methods to estimate probability density functions of several populations using observations with uncertain population membership, meaning from which population an observation comes is unknown. The probability of an observation being sampled from any given population can be calculated. We develop general estimation procedures and bandwidth selection methods for our setting. We establish large-sample properties and study finite-sample performance using simulation studies. We illustrate our methods with data from a nutrition study.

  11. POPULATION III HYPERNOVAE

    Smidt, Joseph; Whalen, Daniel J. [T-2, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Wiggins, Brandon K. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Brigham Young University, Provo, UT 84602 (United States); Even, Wesley; Fryer, Chris L. [CCS-2, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Johnson, Jarrett L., E-mail: dwhalen1999@gmail.com [XTD-PRI, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States)

    2014-12-20

    Population III supernovae have been of growing interest of late for their potential to directly probe the properties of the first stars, particularly the most energetic events that are visible near the edge of the observable universe. Until now, hypernovae, the unusually energetic Type Ib/c supernovae that are sometimes associated with gamma-ray bursts, have been overlooked as cosmic beacons at the highest redshifts. In this, the latest of a series of studies on Population III supernovae, we present numerical simulations of 25-50 M {sub ☉} hypernovae and their light curves done with the Los Alamos RAGE and SPECTRUM codes. We find that they will be visible at z = 10-15 to the James Webb Space Telescope and z = 4-5 to the Wide-Field Infrared Survey Telescope, tracing star formation rates in the first galaxies and at the end of cosmological reionization. If, however, the hypernova crashes into a dense shell ejected by its progenitor, it is expected that a superluminous event will occur that may be seen at z ∼ 20 in the first generation of stars.

  12. The Resonant Transneptunian Populations

    Gladman, B; Petit, J-M; Kavelaars, J; Jones, R L; Parker, J Wm; Van Laerhoven, C; Nicholson, P; Rousselot, P; Bieryla, A; Ashby, M L N

    2012-01-01

    The transneptunian objects (TNOs) trapped in mean-motion resonances with Neptune were likely emplaced there during planet migration late in the giant-planet formation process. We perform detailed modelling of the resonant objects detected in the Canada-France Ecliptic Plane Survey (CFEPS) in order to provide population estimates and, for some resonances, constrain the complex internal orbital element distribution. Detection biases play a critical role because phase relationships with Neptune make object discovery more likely at certain longitudes. This paper discusses the 3:2, 5:2, 2:1, 3:1, 5:1, 4:3, 5:3, 7:3, 5:4, and 7:4 mean-motion resonances, all of which had CFEPS detections, along with our upper limit on 1:1 Neptune Trojans (which is consistent with their small population estimated elsewhere). For the plutinos (TNOs in the 3:2 resonance) we refine the orbital element distribution given in Kavelaars et al. (2009) and show that steep H-magnitude distributions (N(H) proportional to 10aH, with a=0.8-0.9) a...

  13. Population's political clout.

    Schima, M E; Viel, B; Chen, P C; Gille, H; Epstein, S G

    1980-03-01

    China's birth planning program has its own separate administrative hierarchy. The political commitment to population planning which originates with the top leadership extends to peer pressure exerted on couples at the brigade and neighborhood level. While family planning services are primarily delivered in health structures, responsibility for the population program falls to the Leading Group on Birth Planning. Not only health officials but also officials responsible for economic planning, political propaganda, scientific research, trade unions, women's affairs, and all those whose participation is considered necessary to the program's success attend meeting. The Leading Group on Birth Planning is chaired by a Vice-Premier. At each administrative level, provincial to work brigade, the same pattern is repeated: centralized responsibility combined with broad representation and high-level potitical leadership. With a tight, working structure, China has been able to enact its birth control program with remarkable speed and effectiveness. Each production brigade has its own planned birth leading group headed by the captain of the brigade or the captain of the women's team. The leading group supervises the barefoot doctors, midwives, and team level health aides who deliver contraceptives to households or accompany people to the community health center to obtain surgical services. PMID:12261795

  14. Nematode and Grape Rootstock Interactions Including an Improved Understanding of Tolerance

    McKenry, M. V.; Anwar, Safdar A.

    2006-01-01

    Sixteen cultivars of grape were screened over a two-year period in the presence or absence of 10 different nematode populations. Populations of Meloidogyne spp., Xiphinema index, and Mesocriconema xenoplax developed more rapidly and caused greater damage than populations of X. americanum and Tylenchulus semipenetrans. Populations of mixed Meloidogyne spp. having a history of feeding on grape were among the fastest developing populations. Tolerance to nematode parasitism appeared to be based o...

  15. CDC WONDER: Population (from Census)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Population online databases contain data from the US Census Bureau. The Census Estimates online database contains contains county-level population counts for...

  16. CDC WONDER: Population (from Census)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Population online databases contain data from the US Census Bureau. The Census Estimates online database contains county-level population counts for years 1970...

  17. INCASOY-35: PRIMERA VARIEDAD DE SOYA OBTENIDA EN CUBA A PARTIR DEL EMPLEO DE TÉCNICAS DE IRRADIACIÓN DE RAYOS GAMMA DE 60Co

    Ortiz, R.; C. de la Fé; M. Ponce

    2005-01-01

    La variedad INCASoy-35 fue obtenida a partir de la irradiación de semillas de la variedad INCASoy-15 con dosis de 240 Gy de rayos gamma 60Co; esta variedad se adapta a siembras de primavera, verano e invierno y puede alcanzar rendimientos de 3 t.ha-1 de granos. Tolera las principales plagas y enfermedades y, en especial, resiste el ataque de nemátodos Meloidogyne incognita. En la época adversa de primavera, las semillas han mostrado tolerancia al deterioro. Tiene capacidad de garantizar altas...

  18. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U10133-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Full Text Available g words threshold: 12 Window for multiple hits: 40 X1: 16 ( 7.3 bits) ... melitensis ATCC 23457 ... 307 5e-82 CP000680_2363( CP000680 |pid:none) Pseudomonas mendocin...p 3879572... 32 0.11 13 ( CT501373 ) A BAC library has been constructed from cultivar ... 34 0.11 3 ( AP006628 ) Onion yellows...na savignyi cDNA, clone:cslv004m05, 5'end, sin... 48 0.15 2 ( CK984487 ) re38a11.y1 Meloidogyne incognita J3...plete... 278 2e-73 CU468135_2913( CU468135 |pid:none) Erwinia tasmaniensis strain

  19. Reação de Brachiaria spp. e Panicum maximum a Pratylenchus brachyurus Host status of Brachiaria spp. and Panicum maximum to Pratylenchus brachyurus

    Mário M Inomoto; Andressa C. Z. Machado; Sonia R. Antedomênico

    2007-01-01

    O sistema plantio direto é utilizado em extensas áreas agrícolas do Brasil, condição que pode propiciar o aumento dos danos causados pelos fitonematóides na cultura principal, na dependência da reação das plantas utilizadas como coberturas vegetais. O capim-colonião (Panicum maximum) e as braquiárias (Brachiaria spp.) podem ser utilizadas em áreas infestadas por Meloidogyne incognita e M. javanica, pois não são hospedeiras dessas espécies, mas sua resposta ao nematóide Pratylenchus brachyurus...

  20. INCASoy-36: soybean variety obtained in Cuba after the induction of mutations with 60Co gamma rays

    INCASoy-36 variety was obtained after irradiating seeds from INCASoy-15 at doses of 240 Gy 60Co gamma rays. This variety is adapted to summer and winter seedings; however, it can also be used in spring. Besides, its yields can reach up to 3,5-4,0 t.ha-1 grains in summer and spring seedings. It is tolerant to the main pests and diseases; it is especially resistant to Meloidogyne incognita attacks. During the adverse spring season, seeds have been damage tolerant. It can assure high productions with low inputs; therefore, it is feasible to Cuban agriculture. (Author)

  1. Nematóides das galhas dificultam a produção de mudas de jaborandi Root-knot nematodes restrains the seedling production of jaborandi

    Rubens R. A. Lordello

    1986-01-01

    Full Text Available The jaborandi (Pilocarpus microphyllus Starf. is a medical plant found in Maranhão State, Brazil, which is the natural source of the drug pilocarpine used to treat glaucoma, a disease that frequently causes blindness. The leaves used for extraction of pilocarpine are presently collected from plants that grow naturally. Instead of pure extractive exploitation it has been tried the cultivation of this plant in order to improve and increase the production. Nevertheless, 90% of 160,000 young seedlings were lost due to the infestation of Meloidogyne incognita race 1. Research showed the soil as the source of infestation.

  2. Biosolarización de invernaderos para cultivos de pimiento: manejo de patógenos y fatiga del suelo

    Guerrero Díaz, María del Mar

    2012-01-01

    [SPA] El cultivo de pimiento supone una parte importante de la economía agrícola de la Región de Murcia, en particular en la comarca del Campo de Cartagena donde ha llegado a ocupar unas 2000 ha de invernaderos. Las prácticas agrícolas de monocultivo han provocado una fuerte especificidad de importantes patógenos como Phytophthora spp., productora de la “tristeza del pimiento” y Meloidogyne incognita, que llegan a ser factores limitantes para este cultivo, por la importancia de las pérdidas q...

  3. Estudio de lixiviación de nitratos en suelos de invernaderos de pimiento biosolarizados

    Fernández Molina, Pedro; Pascual Valero, José Antonio; Lacasa Plasencia, Alfredo

    2014-01-01

    La biosolarización del suelo en invernaderos de pimiento (Capsicum annuum L.) supone una estrategia de control de enfermedades telúricas (Phytophthora capsici y/o parasítica y Meloidogyne incognita), de vegetación adventicia y de fenómenos de fatiga muy adecuada para mantener buenos niveles productivos en sistemas de monocultivo prolongado. Este trabajo pretende evaluar las repercusiones de la aplicación de cantidades importantes de materia orgánica, hasta 100 t/ha, en estos ...

  4. Learning, evolution and population dynamics

    JÜRGEN JOST; WEI LI

    2010-01-01

    We study a complementarity game as a systematic tool for the investigation of the interplay between individual optimization and population effects and for the comparison of different strategy and learning schemes. The game randomly pairs players from opposite populations. The game is symmetric at the individual level, but has many equilibria that are more or less favorable to the members of the two populations. Which of these equilibria then is attained is decided by the dynamics at the popul...

  5. Lithuanian Population Aging Factors Analysis

    Agnė Garlauskaitė; Rasa Zabarauskaitė

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this article is to identify the factors that determine aging of Lithuania’s population and to assess the influence of these factors. The article shows Lithuanian population aging factors analysis, which consists of two main parts: the first describes the aging of the population and its characteristics in theoretical terms. Second part is dedicated to the assessment of trends that influence the aging population and demographic factors and also to analyse the determinants of the agin...

  6. Population genetics without intraspecific data

    Thorne, Jeffrey L; Choi, Sang Chul; Yu, Jiaye;

    2007-01-01

    populations, and parameters of interspecific models should have population genetic interpretations. We show, with two examples, how population genetic interpretations can be assigned to evolutionary models. The first example considers the impact of RNA secondary structure on sequence change, and the second...... genetic interpretation. Udgivelsesdato: 2007-Aug...

  7. A Population of Assessment Tasks

    Daro, Phil; Burkhardt, Hugh

    2012-01-01

    We propose the development of a "population" of high-quality assessment tasks that cover the performance goals set out in the "Common Core State Standards for Mathematics." The population will be published. Tests are drawn from this population as a structured random sample guided by a "balancing algorithm."

  8. The politics of population.

    1994-09-01

    Whatever succeeds or fails to materialize at the UN Conference on Population and Development in Cairo, most of the peoples of the Earth are represented in one room where their common future is being charted. That is a staggering achievement after the chaotic and fragmented history of the human race up to this point. It is less a development willed by foresighted leaders than an inevitable response to the shrinkage of the planet due to population growth and resource depletion--plus the advent of instantaneous worldwide communication. Some of the alliances, disputes and side issues are momentous. There are governments dedicated to policies of controlling population, such as Egypt and the Philippines, in conflict with their own religious authorities. The Catholic Church finds itself in lock-step with the Islamic theologians opposing birth control and condemning abortion, raising the possibility of a previously unthinkable ecumenical breakthrough to add to the Vatican's dialogues with Protestant Christians and with Jews. There is President Hosni Mubarak of Egypt who wanted to host the conference to show off the stability of his country and regime, only to demonstrate the opposite as extremists threatened the same terror against delegates they have inflicted on tourists. Some Islamic regimes stayed away. There is the ultimate Western feminism and environmentalism expressed by Prime Minister Gro Harlem Brundtland of Norway. And an astounding expression of women's rights to control such matters as childbearing, expressed by Prime Minister Benazir Bhutto of Pakistan, braving the wrath of clerics in her own country to attend, combined with a forceful denunciation of abortion startling to many of her Western admirers. The seriousness of the US effort, led by Vice President Al Gore, to pass a meaningful document that will frame policy for world organizations, contrasts with the previous indifference of the predecessor Reagan and Bush administrations to the issue. The effort

  9. Brazil Nut Effect and CONCRETE: Entering Terra Incognita

    Stroeven, P.; He, H.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents some evidence of the impact of the Brazil nut effect (BNE) on concrete’s particulate structure on meso-level (aggregate) as well as on micro-level (cement paste). BNE is associated with long-range size segregation in particle mixtures due to vibration in slurry state of concrete,

  10. Terra Incognita: Explanation and Reductionism in Earth Science

    Kleinhans, M.G.

    2005-01-01

    The present paper presents a philosophical analysis of earth science, a discipline that has received relatively little attention from philosophers of science. We focus on the question of whether earth science can be reduced to allegedly more fundamental sciences, such as chemistry or physics. In order to answer this question, we investigate the aims and methods of earth science, the laws and theories used by earth scientists, and the nature of earth-scientific explanation. Our analysis leads ...

  11. Chemical proteomics: terra incognita for novel drug target profiling

    Ce Bian

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The growing demand for new therapeutic strategies in the medical and pharmaceutic fields has resulted in a pressing need for novel druggable targets. Paradoxically, however, the targets of certain drugs that are already widely used in clinical practice have largely not been annotated. Because the pharmacologic effects of a drug can only be appreciated when its interactions with cellular components are clearly delineated, an integrated deconvolution of drug-target interactions for each drug is necessary. The emerging field of chemical proteomics represents a powerful mass spectrometry (MS-based affinity chromatography approach for identifying proteome-wide small molecule-protein interactions and mapping these interactions to signaling and metabolic pathways. This technique could comprehensively characterize drug targets, profile the toxicity of known drugs, and identify possible off-target activities. With the use of this technique, candidate drug molecules could be optimized, and predictable side effects might consequently be avoided. Herein, we provide a holistic overview of the major chemical proteomic approaches and highlight recent advances in this area as well as its potential applications in drug discovery.

  12. Stochastic population theories

    Ludwig, Donald

    1974-01-01

    These notes serve as an introduction to stochastic theories which are useful in population biology; they are based on a course given at the Courant Institute, New York, in the Spring of 1974. In order to make the material. accessible to a wide audience, it is assumed that the reader has only a slight acquaintance with probability theory and differential equations. The more sophisticated topics, such as the qualitative behavior of nonlinear models, are approached through a succession of simpler problems. Emphasis is placed upon intuitive interpretations, rather than upon formal proofs. In most cases, the reader is referred elsewhere for a rigorous development. On the other hand, an attempt has been made to treat simple, useful models in some detail. Thus these notes complement the existing mathematical literature, and there appears to be little duplication of existing works. The authors are indebted to Miss Jeanette Figueroa for her beautiful and speedy typing of this work. The research was supported by the Na...

  13. Population of the Galaxy

    A new theory of the population of the Galaxy, based on the hypothesis of explosive: simultaneous and one-time-origination of life in the universe at a certain moment of its evolutionary development, is discussed in the report. According to the proposed theory, civilizations began to arise around the present moment of the history of the universe. Their possible number is limited even when their lifetime is unlimited. The age and number of simultaneously existing civilizations when their lifetime is unlimited is determined by the duration and dispersion of the time of evolution of life on different planets from the cell level to civilization. The proposed theory explains better than Drake's theory the negative results of the search for evidence of the existence of superpowerful extraterrestrial civilizations and the noncolonization of the earth

  14. Population and the World Bank.

    Sankaran, S

    1973-12-01

    The World Bank Group regards excessive population growth as the single greatest obstacle to economic and social advance in the underdeveloped world. Since 1969 the Bank and the International Development Agency have provided countries with technical assistance through education, fact-finding, and analysis and given 65.7 million dollars for population projects. These projects, in India, Indonesia, Iran, Jamaica, and Malaysia provide training centers, population education, research, and evaluation as well as actual construction of clinics and mobile units. Because population planning touches sensitive areas of religion, caste, race, morality, and politics, the involved nation's political commitment to plan population growth is critical to the success of any program. PMID:12257161

  15. Discreteness effects in population dynamics

    Guevara Hidalgo, Esteban; Lecomte, Vivien

    2016-05-01

    We analyse numerically the effects of small population size in the initial transient regime of a simple example population dynamics. These effects play an important role for the numerical determination of large deviation functions of additive observables for stochastic processes. A method commonly used in order to determine such functions is the so-called cloning algorithm which in its non-constant population version essentially reduces to the determination of the growth rate of a population, averaged over many realizations of the dynamics. However, the averaging of populations is highly dependent not only on the number of realizations of the population dynamics, and on the initial population size but also on the cut-off time (or population) considered to stop their numerical evolution. This may result in an over-influence of discreteness effects at initial times, caused by small population size. We overcome these effects by introducing a (realization-dependent) time delay in the evolution of populations, additional to the discarding of the initial transient regime of the population growth where these discreteness effects are strong. We show that the improvement in the estimation of the large deviation function comes precisely from these two main contributions.

  16. Stellar populations in star clusters

    Li, Chengyuan; Deng, Licai

    2016-01-01

    Stellar populations contain the most important information about star clus- ter formation and evolution. Until several decades ago, star clusters were believed to be ideal laboratories for studies of simple stellar populations (SSPs). However, discoveries of multiple stellar populations in Galactic globular clusters have expanded our view on stellar populations in star clusters. They have simultaneously generated a number of controversies, particularly as to whether young star clusters may have the same origin as old globular clusters. In addition, extensive studies have revealed that the SSP scenario does not seem to hold for some intermediate-age and young star clusters either, thus making the origin of multiple stellar populations in star clusters even more complicated. Stellar population anomalies in numerous star clusters are well-documented, implying that the notion of star clusters as true SSPs faces serious challenges. In this review, we focus on stellar populations in massive clusters with different ...

  17. Anaerobic fungal populations

    The development of molecular techniques has greatly broadened our view of microbial diversity and enabled a more complete detection and description of microbial communities. The application of these techniques provides a simple means of following community changes, for example, Ishii et al. described transient and more stable inhabitants in another dynamic microbial system, compost. Our present knowledge of anaerobic gut fungal population diversity within the gastrointestinal tract is based upon isolation, cultivation and observations in vivo. It is likely that there are many species yet to be described, some of which may be non-culturable. We have observed a distinct difference in the ease of cultivation between the different genera, for example, Caecomyes isolates are especially difficult to isolate and maintain in vitro, a feature that is likely to result in the under representation of this genera in culture-based enumerations. The anaerobic gut fungi are the only known obligately anaerobic fungi. For the majority of their life cycles, they are found tightly associated with solid digesta in the rumen and/or hindgut. They produce potent fibrolytic enzymes and grow invasively on and into the plant material they are digesting making them important contributors to fibre digestion. This close association with intestinal digesta has made it difficult to accurately determine the amount of fungal biomass present in the rumen, with Orpin suggesting 8% contribution to the total microbial biomass, whereas Rezaeian et al. more recently gave a value of approximately 20%. It is clear that the rumen microbial complement is affected by dietary changes, and that the fungi are more important in digestion in the rumens of animals fed with high-fibre diets. It seems likely that the gut fungi play an important role within the rumen as primary colonizers of plant fibre, and so we are particularly interested in being able to measure the appearance and diversity of fungi on the plant

  18. Climate and waterfowl populations

    Climate affects waterfowl populations through a variety of pathways, categorized as direct impacts (physiological effects on the bird itself), and indirect, acting through the bird's habitats and changes in land use practices. Graphs are presented of wetland use by Prairie ducks, duck use by pothole size and class, duck use by wetland type, wetland use by grebes, numbers of nongame birds, wetland use by shorebirds and wetland use by blackbirds. Wetlands are classified according to the following scheme: ephemeral and temporary, which are shallow and are first to thaw in the spring; seasonal, which become available later in the year and last longer; semipermanent wetlands, which hold water well into late summer; permanent wetlands, which are relatively less productive than other types, and which are mainly used as staging habitat for fall migration; and alkali wetlands, which are relatively little used. The types of wetland available to waterfowl and other migratory birds are as important as numbers and total area. In general, smaller wetlands are more important than larger, more permanent water bodies. Small, impermanent wetlands are more vulnerable to climatic warming and drying, and species such as waterfowl and migratory birds in general are at great risk from further drying of the hydrological regime of the Prairies and Great Plains. 12 refs., 9 figs

  19. A population genetics model of linkage disequilibrium in admixed populations

    2001-01-01

    Understanding linkage disequilibrium (LD) created in admixed population and the rate of decay in the disequilibrium over evolution is an important subject in population genetics theory and in disease gene mapping in human populations. The present study represents the theoretical investigation of effects of gene frequencies, levels of LD and admixture proportions of donor populations on the evolutionary dynamics of the LD of the admixed population. We examined the conditions under which the admixed population reached linkage equilibrium or the peak level of the LD. The study reveals the inappropriateness in approximating the dynamics of the LD generated by population admixture by the commonly used formula in literature. An appropriate equation for the dynamics is proposed. The distinct feature of the newly suggested formula is that the value of the nonlinear component of the LD remains constant in the first generation of the population evolution. Comparison between the predicted disequilibrium dynamics shows that the error will be caused by using the old formula, and thus resulting in a misguidance in using the evolutionary information of the admixed population in gene mapping.

  20. 尖镰孢菌非致病菌株对南方根结线虫数量的控制%The effect of the non-pathogenic Fusarium oxysporum strain

    林茂松; 张治宇

    2001-01-01

    温室盆钵实验证实尖镰孢菌(Fusarium oxysporum)非致病菌株(S162)可有效控制南方根结线虫(Meloidogyne incognita)的群体数量。在F.oxy sporum+M.incognita和Bacillus cereus(蜡状芽孢杆菌)+F.oxysporum+M.incognit a处理中,每克根卵囊仅为对照K-M(接种M.incognita)的1/3和1/5。该菌株处理的番茄幼苗的地上鲜重、根重和根长均高于对照,且处理5周后在番茄根上没有分离到该菌。盆钵实验中,F.oxysporum菌液对根结线虫和大豆胞囊线虫的侵染抑制率分别为46.4 %和53.6%。该菌株的培养滤液能抑制根结线虫和大豆胞囊线虫卵的孵化。经琼脂平板测定,其抑制率分别为18.4%和14.2%。%The objectives of the paper were to explore the effect of non-pathogenic Fusarium oxysporum strain on Meloidogyne incognita and physiological activities of metabolic product of n on-pathogenic Fusarium oxysporum.The egg sacper gram of root in treatments with F.oxysporum+M.incognita and Bacillus cereus+F.oxysporum+M.incogni ta was only one-third and one-fifth as many as the control.In pot experiment,the fresh shoot weight,the fresh root weight and root length of the treated tomato were all better than that of the control.The fungus could not be reisolated from the treated tomato in 5 weeks.The spores,and metabolic activities of F.ox ysporium could control juveniles infection of M.incognita and Heterodera glycines and the controlling rate were 46.4% and 53.6% in pot test,respecti vely.The metabolic activities produced by F.oxysporum could affect eggs hatch of M.incognita and H.glycines in agar plate,the controlling rate we re 18.4% and 14.2%,respectively.

  1. Population Analysis: Communicating in Context

    Rajulu, Sudhakar; Thaxton, Sherry

    2008-01-01

    Providing accommodation to a widely varying user population presents a challenge to engineers and designers. It is often even difficult to quantify who is accommodated and who is not accommodated by designs, especially for equipment with multiple critical anthropometric dimensions. An approach to communicating levels of accommodation referred to as population analysis applies existing human factors techniques in novel ways. This paper discusses the definition of population analysis as well as major applications and case studies. The major applications of population analysis consist of providing accommodation information for multivariate problems and enhancing the value of feedback from human-in-the-loop testing. The results of these analyses range from the provision of specific accommodation percentages of the user population to recommendations of design specifications based on quantitative data. Such feedback is invaluable to designers and results in the design of products that accommodate the intended user population.

  2. Wildlife Tunnel Enhances Population Viability

    Michael McCarthy

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Roads and traffic are pervasive components of landscapes throughout the world: they cause wildlife mortality, disrupt animal movements, and increase the risk of extinction. Expensive engineering solutions, such as overpasses and tunnels, are increasingly being adopted to mitigate these effects. Although some species readily use such structures, their success in preventing population extinction remains unknown. Here, we use population viability modeling to assess the effectiveness of tunnels for the endangered Mountain Pygmy-possum (Burramys parvus in Australia. The underpasses reduced, but did not completely remove, the negative effects of a road. The expected minimum population size of a “reconnected” population remained 15% lower than that of a comparable “undivided” population. We propose that the extent to which the risk of extinction decreases should be adopted as a measure of effectiveness of mitigation measures and that the use of population modeling become routine in these evaluations.

  3. population in Slovakia

    Dravecký Miroslav

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available V rokoch 2011 – 2014 sa realizoval monitoring hniezdnej populácie orla krikľavého (Aquila pomarina v ôsmich chránených vtáčích územiach na Slovensku. U 149 hniezdnych párov z celkových 272 úspešných hniezdení počas 4 hniezdnych sezón vyletelo 277 mláďat. Priemerná reprodukčná úspešnosť predstavovala 0,51 juv./prítomný pár, 0,69 juv./hniezdiaci pár a 1,37 juv./100 km2. V uvedenom období bolo okolo hniezd orlov krikľavých ustanovených celkom 151 ochranných zón, ktoré zabezpečili ochranu 119 hniezdnych teritórií, čo predstavuje cca 17 % hniezdnej populácie orla krikľavého na Slovensku. Testovaním účinnosti ochranných zón sa zistilo, že v hniezdach s vyhlásenou ochrannou zónou je vyššia pravdepodobnosť úspešného odchovania mláďat v porovnaní s hniezdami bez takejto zóny. Pravdepodobnosť, že hniezdenie bude úspešné v hniezdach hniezdiacich párov bez ochrannej zóny bola 48.1% (95% confidence intervals (CIs: 37.4–59.0%, v hniezdach s ochrannou zónou 64.8% (95% CIs: 59.8–69.6%. Medzi 5 najčastejšie využívaných hniezdnych stromov na hniezdenie A. pomarina na Slovensku patrí Picea abies 61× (28,4%, Pinus sylvestris 45× (20,9%, Quercus sp. 36× (16,7%, Fagus sylvatica 25× (11,6% a Abies alba 18× (8,4%. Medzi zriedkavejšie druhy hniezdnych stromov patrí Larix decidua 12× (5,6% a Alnus glutinosa 3× (1,4%, ďalších 11 druhov hniezdnych stromov nedosiahli 1 %. Najvyšší počet hniezdnych stromov (n = 215, tj. 34 hniezd (15,8% sa nachádzal v intervale nadmorskej výšky 401 – 450 m a 29 hniezd (13,5% v intervale 351 – 400 m n. m. Ostatné výškové pásma boli pod hranicou 10%. 54% zistených hniezd (116 hniezd sa nachádza vo výškovom pásme 301 – 600 m n. m., 71 hniezd (33% v pásme 600 – 900 m n. m. Najnižšie situované hniezdo bolo v nadmorskej výške 150 m a najvyššie 950 m, priemer bol 595,01 m. Najvyšší počet hniezd (n = 209 bol na strome

  4. Seleção para resistência de genótipos de cenoura aos nematóides-das-galhas Selection for carrot genotypes resistance to root-knot nematodes in field and greenhouse

    Giovani O da Silva

    2011-09-01

    identify for which ones it is possible to differentiate among genotypes and to verify the possibility of evaluation only in one environment or the elimination of characters with high correlation. Thirty eight and thirty one families from the carrot populations '0812518' and '0812519', and the cultivars Brasília and Kuronan as tolerant and susceptible standards, respectively, were evaluated. In a field whose soil was naturally infected by a mix of Meloidogyne incognita race 1 and Meloidogyne javanica, the selection to resistance to root-knot nematode was based on lower percentage of infection in the root, of the major genotypes of carrot production in t/ha and reproduction factor; and in greenhouse, to each one of the same nematode species and too for a mix of both, was evaluated the index of gall and index of egg mass. There is no possibility of selection in only one condition or the elimination of some characters, indicating that, to obtain more yielding and more tolerant cultivars, the combined selection in the various characters and environments are necessary. In the field experiment, it was only possible to differentiate the genotypes for root yield. In the greenhouse, it was possible to identify superior genotypes for all characters tested. However, the average population was not better than the 'Brasilia' standard that originated these populations. This result confirms the necessity to search for more efficient methods of selection.

  5. Effective Sizes for Subdivided Populations

    Chesser, R. K.; Rhodes-Jr., O. E.; Sugg, D. W.; Schnabel, A.(Physikalisch Technische Bundesanstalt, Berlin, D-10587, Germany)

    1993-01-01

    Many derivations of effective population sizes have been suggested in the literature; however, few account for the breeding structure and none can readily be expanded to subdivided populations. Breeding structures influence gene correlations through their effects on the number of breeding individuals of each sex, the mean number of progeny per female, and the variance in the number of progeny produced by males and females. Additionally, hierarchical structuring in a population is determined b...

  6. Regulation of wolf spider populations

    Rickers, Silke

    2005-01-01

    Aim of this study was to identify major regulatory mechanisms for wolf spider populations. Field and laboratory experiments focussed on the importance of prey availability (autochthonous & allochthonous), food quality and habitat heterogeneity on performance of individual wolf spiders or whole populations and on intra- (cannibalism) and interspecific (intraguild predation) relationships in wolf spiders. Wolf spider populations on xeric grasslands near Darmstadt (Germany) are increased on graz...

  7. Fishermen, markets, and population diversity

    Jardine, SL; Sanchirico, JN

    2015-01-01

    © 2015 Elsevier Inc. Fishing impacts biodiversity on multiple levels, potentially resulting in unintended feedbacks to the economic performance of the fishery over time. For example, targeting observable traits within a population can impact genetic diversity and targeting valuable species can impact biodiversity at the ecosystem level. The bioeconomic literature, however, has given little attention to the effect of fishing on population diversity, even though population diversity contributes...

  8. Population in the classic economics

    Adnan Doğruyol

    2013-01-01

    Growth subject in economics is an important factor of development. Classic economics ecole indicates the population as main variable which tender of growth. On the other hand T. R. Malthus is known as economist who regards population as a problem and brings up it among the classical economists. However, Adam Smith is an intellectual who discussed population problem earlier on the classic economics theory. According to Adam Smith one of the main factors that realise the growth is labour. In ad...

  9. Population Dynamics of Bacterial Persistence

    Patra, Pintu; Klumpp, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    Persistence is a prime example of phenotypic heterogeneity, where a microbial population splits into two distinct subpopulations with different growth and survival properties as a result of reversible phenotype switching. Specifically, persister cells grow more slowly than normal cells under unstressed growth conditions, but survive longer under stress conditions such as the treatment with bactericidal antibiotics. We analyze the population dynamics of such a population for several typical ex...

  10. [Population control and environment protection].

    Qu, G

    1982-01-29

    Although many factors cause environmental pollution and damage, the most important and basic factor is a rapidly increasing population. Therefore, a balanced development of population and environment is essential. The pressure a rapidly increasing populaton exerts on the environment has many aspects. The pressure of population on land resources results in increased land use and increased insecticide use due to increased insect tolerance leading to decreased productivity of cultivated land, increased desert formation, and decreased food supply. Population pressure on forest resources leads to land erosion; one of the major causes of the 1981 flood in Sichuan was attributed to excessive logging activities. Demand for fuels (firewood, straws, animal manures) by an increasing population leads to decrease in natural fertilizers, decreased food production, and energy shortage in rural areas. Population pressure on cities leads to air, water, noise and other environmental pollution as well as decrease in housing facilities and in green vegetation. Problems resulting from population pressures on industrial development include industrial and environmental pollution and unemployment. Population increases and accompanying industrial activities affect the weather which in turn affects the quality of agriculture, forests, and lakes. Thus, if unchecked, atmospheric carbon dioxide level would double by the middle of the next century, which would lead to increase in atmospheric temperature with disastrous consequences. Therefore, a well planned program for population control is essential for achieving decent quality of life. PMID:12338285

  11. Detection, Diversity, and Population Dynamics of Waterborne Phytophthora ramorum Populations.

    Eyre, C A; Garbelotto, M

    2015-01-01

    Sudden oak death, the tree disease caused by Phytophthora ramorum, has significant environmental and economic impacts on natural forests on the U.S. west coast, plantations in the United Kingdom, and in the worldwide nursery trade. Stream baiting is vital for monitoring and early detection of the pathogen in high-risk areas and is performed routinely; however, little is known about the nature of water-borne P. ramorum populations. Two drainages in an infested California forest were monitored intensively using stream-baiting for 2 years between 2009 and 2011. Pathogen presence was determined both by isolation and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) from symptomatic bait leaves. Isolates were analyzed using simple sequence repeats to study population dynamics and genetic structure through time. Isolation was successful primarily only during spring conditions, while PCR extended the period of pathogen detection to most of the year. Water populations were extremely diverse, and changed between seasons and years. A few abundant genotypes dominated the water during conditions considered optimal for aerial populations, and matched those dominant in aerial populations. Temporal patterns of genotypic diversification and evenness were identical among aerial, soil, and water populations, indicating that all three substrates are part of the same epidemiological cycle, strongly influenced by rainfall and sporulation on leaves. However, there was structuring between substrates, likely arising due to reduced selection pressure in the water. Additionally, water populations showed wholesale mixing of genotypes without the evident spatial autocorrelation present in leaf and soil populations. PMID:25026455

  12. Matrix population models from 20 studies of perennial plant populations

    Ellis, Martha M.; Williams, Jennifer L.; Lesica, Peter; Bell, Timothy J.; Bierzychudek, Paulette; Bowles, Marlin; Crone, Elizabeth E.; Doak, Daniel F.; Ehrlen, Johan; Ellis-Adam, Albertine; McEachern, Kathryn; Ganesan, Rengaian; Latham, Penelope; Luijten, Sheila; Kaye, Thomas N.; Knight, Tiffany M.; Menges, Eric S.; Morris, William F.; den Nijs, Hans; Oostermeijer, Gerard; Quintana-Ascencio, Pedro F.; Shelly, J. Stephen; Stanley, Amanda; Thorpe, Andrea; Tamara, Ticktin; Valverde, Teresa; Weekley, Carl W.

    2012-01-01

    Demographic transition matrices are one of the most commonly applied population models for both basic and applied ecological research. The relatively simple framework of these models and simple, easily interpretable summary statistics they produce have prompted the wide use of these models across an exceptionally broad range of taxa. Here, we provide annual transition matrices and observed stage structures/population sizes for 20 perennial plant species which have been the focal species for long-term demographic monitoring. These data were assembled as part of the "Testing Matrix Models" working group through the National Center for Ecological Analysis and Synthesis (NCEAS). In sum, these data represent 82 populations with >460 total population-years of data. It is our hope that making these data available will help promote and improve our ability to monitor and understand plant population dynamics.

  13. Stochastic delocalization of finite populations

    The localization of populations of replicating bacteria, viruses or autocatalytic chemicals arises in various contexts, such as ecology, evolution, medicine or chemistry. Several deterministic mathematical models have been used to characterize the conditions under which localized states can form, and how they break down due to convective driving forces. It has been repeatedly found that populations remain localized unless the bias exceeds a critical threshold value, and that close to the transition the population is characterized by a diverging length scale. These results, however, have been obtained upon ignoring number fluctuations (‘genetic drift’), which are inevitable given the discreteness of the replicating entities. Here, we study the localization/delocalization of a finite population in the presence of genetic drift. The population is modeled by a linear chain of subpopulations, or demes, which exchange migrants at a constant rate. Individuals in one particular deme, called ‘oasis’, receive a growth rate benefit, and the total population is regulated to have constant size N. In this ecological setting, we find that any finite population delocalizes on sufficiently long time scales. Depending on parameters, however, populations may remain localized for a very long time. The typical waiting time to delocalization increases exponentially with both population size and distance to the critical wind speed of the deterministic approximation. We augment these simulation results by a mathematical analysis that treats the reproduction and migration of individuals as branching random walks subject to global constraints. For a particular constraint, different from a fixed population size constraint, this model yields a solvable first moment equation. We find that this solvable model approximates very well the fixed population size model for large populations, but starts to deviate as population sizes are small. Nevertheless, the qualitative behavior of the

  14. [Population policy: speeches and actions].

    Soto Lopez, A

    1991-06-01

    Mexico's population policy was created almost 20 years ago in response to the need to regulate the country's population growth. Currently the policy stresses more balanced distribution of the population in accordance with realistic development possibilities. By 1986 it was recognized that population policy in Mexico had gone beyond mere control of fertility to encompass direct government intervention in more complex global problems. It was concluded that the possibility of achieving rational population distribution depended on balanced regional development. A strong family planning policy, efforts to integrate demographic programs into general development plans, employment policies, and measures to encourage harmonious spatial distribution were viewed as necessary, but it was also felt that greater speed was required and that the population policy should play a larger role in the development strategy. The National Population Program for 1989-94 has the objectives of promoting the integration of demographic objectives into economic and social planning and promoting a decline in the rate of population growth from 1.8% in 1995 to 1.5% in 2000 through fertility decline. It seeks a more rational population distribution in which the weight of large metropolitan zones would be reduced and growth of intermediate and small cities promoted. It seeks to encourage greater participation by women in the nation's life, and to contribute to integrated development and elevation in the living standards of indigenous groups. In presentation of the National Population Program it was noted that the economic crisis of the 1980s had reversed some previous demographic achievements. greater efforts are necessary to involve the rural and indigenous groups. In presentation of the National Population Program it was noted that the economic crisis of the 1980s had reversed some previous demographic achievements. Greater efforts are necessary to involve the rural and indigenous populations

  15. Perfect Simulation From Nonneutral Population Genetic Models: Variable Population Size and Population Subdivision.

    Fearnhead, Paul

    2006-01-01

    We show how the idea of monotone coupling from the past can produce simple algorithms for simulating samples at a nonneutral locus under a range of demographic models. We specifically consider a biallelic locus and either a general variable population size mode or a general migration model for population subdivision. We investigate the effect of demography on the efficacy of selection and the effect of selection on genetic divergence between populations.

  16. Estimated population near uranium tailings

    Population studies, which took place during the months of April, May, and June 1983, were performed for 27 active and 25 inactive mill sites. For each mill site, a table showing population by radius (1/2, 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 km) in 16 compass directions was generated. 22 references, 6 tables

  17. Perturbation Theory for Population Dynamics

    Fernandez, Francisco M

    2007-01-01

    We prove that a recently proposed homotopy perturbation method for the treatment of population dynamics is just the Taylor expansion of the population variables about initial time. Our results show that this perturbation method fails to provide the global features of the ecosystem dynamics.

  18. Estimated population near uranium tailings

    Bloomster, C.H.; Brown, D.R.; Bruno, G.A.; Craig, S.N.; Dirks, J.A.; Griffin, E.A.; Reis, J.W.; Young, J.K.

    1984-01-01

    Population studies, which took place during the months of April, May, and June 1983, were performed for 27 active and 25 inactive mill sites. For each mill site, a table showing population by radius (1/2, 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 km) in 16 compass directions was generated. 22 references, 6 tables.

  19. Ten Charming Delusions About Population

    Hardin, Garrett

    1975-01-01

    Presents an open ended list of delusions about population which are based on expansionist economics and contends that dispelling these delusions, and others, will allow us to come to grip with the population problem. Some of the delusions presented concern birth control, sharing the wealth, and energy shortages. (BR)

  20. Population Ageing and Technological Change

    Wright, Robert E.; Jouko Kinnunen; Katerina Lisenkova; Marcel Merette

    2014-01-01

    To model the economics impacts of population ageing in high-income countrie by estimating the scale of required technological change. Presentation of a over-lapping generations computable general equilibrium model. Population ageing is associated with low growth and large welfare losses. The scale of technological change needed to compensate for this is very large in historical terms.

  1. Kingman and mathematical population genetics

    Ewens, Warren J.; Watterson, Geoffrey A.

    2010-01-01

    Mathematical population genetics is only one of Kingman's many research interests. Nevertheless, his contribution to this field has been crucial, and moved it in several important new directions. Here we outline some aspects of his work which have had a major influence on population genetics theory.

  2. Ageing populations: the challenges ahead

    Christensen, Kaare; Doblhammer, Gabriele; Rau, Roland;

    2009-01-01

    birthdays. Although trends differ between countries, populations of nearly all such countries are ageing as a result of low fertility, low immigration, and long lives. A key question is: are increases in life expectancy accompanied by a concurrent postponement of functional limitations and disability? The...... populations....

  3. Population and policy in Finland.

    Hulkko, J

    1989-03-01

    Finland, with a population of 4.9 million, currently has an overall fertility rate of 1.6. There is a small population growth, but this is due to a large reproductive age group, return migration of Finns from Sweden, and a decrease in mortality that has increased the proportion of old people in the population. The state has no official population policy. A recommendation of the Finnish Committee on the World Population Year 1974 that the government establish an agency for population policy has not been adopted. The coalition government now in power has a program, however, aimed at influencing population growth. The program includes proposals to reduce work hours for parents with small children, increase the age limit for participation in the child allowance system, and increase the number of municipal day care facilities. Concerning regional policy, the government wants a balanced development of the country's different regions. Subsidiary industries of agriculture and forestry are being encouraged to preserve population levels in sparse areas. Finland also supports a health policy emphasizing preventive and non-institutional aspects of health care, with targets of life expectancy set at 82 years for women and 75 years for men by the year 2000. PMID:12222205

  4. Capital, population and urban patterns.

    Zhang, W

    1994-04-01

    The author develops an approach to urban dynamics with endogenous capital and population growth, synthesizing the Alonso location model, the two-sector neoclassical growth model, and endogenous population theory. A dynamic model for an isolated island economy with endogenous capital, population, and residential structure is developed on the basis of Alonso's residential model and the two-sector neoclassical growth model. The model describes the interdependence between residential structure, economic growth, population growth, and economic structure over time and space. It has a unique long-run equilibrium, which may be either stable or unstable, depending upon the population dynamics. Applying the Hopf theorem, the author also shows that when the system is unstable, the economic geography exhibits permanent endogenous oscillations. PMID:12346957

  5. Population in the classic economics

    Adnan Doğruyol

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Growth subject in economics is an important factor of development. Classic economics ecole indicates the population as main variable which tender of growth. On the other hand T. R. Malthus is known as economist who regards population as a problem and brings up it among the classical economists. However, Adam Smith is an intellectual who discussed population problem earlier on the classic economics theory. According to Adam Smith one of the main factors that realise the growth is labour. In addition to population made it established. The aim of this study is analyzing the mental relationship between Malthus whose name has been identified with relation between population-growth and Smith who discussed this subject first time but put it off on process of theorisation.

  6. Population control in symbiotic corals

    Falkowski, P.G. (Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)); Dubinsky, Z. (Bar Ilan Univ., Ramat Gan (Israel)); Muscatine, L. (Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States)); McCloskey, L. (Walla Walla College, College Place, WA (United States))

    1993-10-01

    Stability in symbiotic association requires control of population growth between symbionts. The population density of zooxanthellae per unit surface area of most symbiotic corals is remarkably consistant. How is the population density of zooxanthellae maintained and what happens to the symbiotic association if the balance between algae and host is perturbed. The answers to these question, examined in this paper, provide a framework for understanding how the size of the component populations is controlled in symbiotic associations. The topic areas covered include the following: carbon economy in a symbiotic coral; effects of nutrient enrichment; the chemostat model of population control; the effects of exposure to ammonium levels. Ammonium ions and organic materials are the factors which maintain the density of zooxanthellae. 32 refs., 5 figs.

  7. Structure of African elephant populations

    Siegismund, H R; Arctander, P

    1996-01-01

    The structure of elephant populations from east and south Africa has been analyzed by Georgiadis et al. (1994) on the basis of restriction site variation of mitochondrial DNA. They used F statistics based on identity by descent in tests for subdivision and reached the conclusion that there was a...... significant differentiation at the continental level, but that "populations were not significantly subdivided at the regional levels." The data were reanalyzed by Monte-Carlo permutation tests where population subdivision was tested by using F statistics based on partitioning the total haplotype diversity...... among populations. This resulted in identical conclusions at the continental level, but revealed in addition a significant subdivision at the regional level indicating haplotype frequency differences among the populations....

  8. Population problems and population research in a market economy.

    Tian, X

    1994-01-01

    A market driven economy has many effects on population growth. The laws of social production were explicated by Marx and Engels, and Comrade Deng Xiaoping presents his views on China's socialist market economy and population problems in this article. Modern market economies have changed greatly over time. Before the 1960s, the focus of the interaction between population and economic change was in macro control. Since the 1960s, the focus shifted to micro control. Theories on maximum growth and neomodern population theory provide only a few useful elements. Cost-benefit analysis of child production functions, despite limitations, has universal appeal. Western theories with sound scientific evidence and Marxist theories should be examined and integrated within the Chinese experience. Two areas of concern in China are the spatial imbalance between population and economic development and an appropriate time period for any research activity. Scientific research in China will be advanced by careful integration of theory and practice, careful study of the Chinese experience, in-depth analysis, and bold, practical approaches which incorporate existing research results from the West. There are three dominant views of economic reforms. 1) Economic development plans should include a market economy. 2) Chinese population control would depend upon administrative means rather than market forces. 3) There are indirect ways in which the market affects population production. The last position is favored. The conclusions are made that family planning has been and continues to be a driving force in declining birth rates and that a focus on government population control does not discount the importance of the influence of economic factors on changes in the birth rate. Market forces are beginning to show their impact on people's choice in reproduction, and the impact is increasing. Reforms must be made appropriate to both the position and the negative influence of the market economy on

  9. BIRTH AND DEATH RATES, NATIONAL POPULATION FORECAST AND POPULATION POLICIES

    K Merat

    1971-07-01

    Full Text Available This study is analyses of national population estimates and aims for the next 20 to 50 years. Calculations are based on the population of 32 million in 1973 with the relative growth rate of 32 in 1000 and death rate of 16 in 1000.Considering various aims, reduction in the growth rate, birth rate and populations in the future years have been calculated. The results showed the need for extensive efforts in reduction of fertility in order to reach zero growth rate in 50 years (2023.

  10. Tibet's population: past and present.

    Tu, D

    1997-08-01

    This article describes trends in population growth in Tibet during the Yuan Dynasty (1260-1287), the Qing Dynasty (1734-36), and during decennial periods after 1952, until 1994. Tibet was conquered by the Mongols who founded the Yuan Dynasty in the 13th century. During 1260-87, 3 enumerations revealed a total population of about 559,962 Tibetans, of whom 70,000 were lamas. Enumeration during 1734-36, revealed a total population of 941,151 Tibetans and 138,617 households. Tibet's population increased to about 1 million in 1951, an addition of 60,000 persons over 210 years. During 1952-59, the rate of population growth was fairly low at 0.94%. The total increase was 78,000 persons, or 11,000/year. Population increased from 1.15 million to about 1.23 million during 1952-59. The Dalai Lama went into exile with about 74,000 Tibetans in March 1959. Population during 1960-69 increased from 1.23 million to 1.48 million. The annual growth rate was 1.89%. Population increased by 252,500 persons, or 25.300/year. Reforms were carried out during this period. The region shifted from feudalism to socialism. Tibetans obtained free medical care and access to land. The birth rate was 25/1000, and the death rate was 10/1000. During 1970-79, both economic and population growth increased. Population increased from 1.48 million to 1.83 million, or a rate of annual growth of 2.14%. Population during this period increased by 348,500 persons, or 34,900/year. This was the fastest period of population growth. During 1980-89, the total fertility rate was maintained at around 4 children/woman, and family planning was implemented in urban areas. The annual rate of growth was 1.85%. Population increased by 367,000 persons, or 36,700/year. During 1990-94, the annual growth rate was 1.76 with a total increase of 159,000 persons, or 39,800/year. PMID:12321528

  11. Population pharmacogenetics of Ibero-Latinoamerican populations (MESTIFAR 2014).

    Sosa-Macias, Martha; Moya, Graciela E; LLerena, Adrián; Ramírez, Ronald; Terán, Enrique; Peñas-LLedó, Eva M; Tarazona-Santos, Eduardo; Galaviz-Hernández, Carlos; Céspedes-Garro, Carolina; Acosta, Hildaura

    2015-01-01

    MESTIFAR 2014 28-30 November 2014, Panama City, Panama The CEIBA consortium was created within the Ibero-American network of Pharmacogenetics (RIBEF) to study population pharmacogenetics. The current status of these initiatives and results of the MESTIFAR project were analyzed in Panama, 28-30 November 2014. The MESTIFAR project focused on studying CYPs genetic polymorphisms in populations of different ethnic origin. So far, more than 6000 healthy volunteers have been evaluated, making this one of the largest population pharmacogenomic studies worldwide. Three symposia were organized, 'Pharmacogenetics of indigenous and mestizos populations and its clinical implications', 'Methodological innovation in pharmacogenetics and its application in health', and 'General discussion and concluding remarks', about mechanisms and proposals for training, diffusion of pharmacogenetics for Spanish- and Portuguese-speaking health professionals, and 'bench to bedside' pilot projects. PMID:25929854

  12. Drug abuse in slum population.

    Ghulam, Ram; Verma, Kamal; Sharma, Pankaj; Razdan, Monica; Razdan, Rahul Anand

    2016-01-01

    Substance abuse is an important health problem throughout the world including India, but prevalence and pattern of abuse varies from country to country and in different types of population. Slums have their own social and economic problems so that substance abuse may be different in this population and might be related with these problems. The aim of the present study was to study the prevalence and pattern substances in slum population. Prakash Chandra Sethi Nagar slum area of Indore district was selected for the purpose of this study. In first phase of the study, first a camp was organized to sensitize local leaders, key persons, and local inhabitants about drug abuse at Chandra Prakash Sethi Nagar. After that basic information was gathered with the key persons in Chandra Prakash Sethi Nagar. In second phase by house-to-house survey, all members of the family were interviewed in detail and information was recorded on semi-structured proforma. We observed prevalence rate of 560/1000 populations, 78.2% were males, 28.2% were females, and two-third abusers were laborers (72%). In order of frequency, tobacco was the most common substance abused in 53.9% population followed by gutka (nontobacco pan masala). Other drugs in order of frequency were alcohol 46.5%, cannabis 8.9%, opiates 4.9%, sedative and hypnotic 2.0%, solvents 1.0%, and cocaine in 0.1%. Slum population has higher prevalence rates than general population. PMID:26985110

  13. Soviet Marxism and population policy.

    Vonfrank, A

    1984-01-01

    American demographers have maintained that Marxism, notably Soviet Marxism, is consistently pronatalist. The Soviet view is said to be that population growth is not a problem and that birth control policies in either developed or developing societies are to be rejected; the "correct" (i.e., socialist) socioeconomic structure is the true solution to alleged population problems. Such representations of Soviet thought greatly oversimplify the Soviet position as well as fail to discern the changes in Soviet thought that have been occurring. Since the 1960s Soviet writers have increasingly acknowledged that population growth is, to a considerable degree, independent of the economic base of society and that conscious population policies may be needed to either increase or decrease the rate of population growth. Even socialist societies can have population problems. And where population growth is too rapid, as in the developing countries, policies to slow such growth are needed because of the threat to economic development. However, the Soviets continue to stress that birth control policies must go hand-in-hand with social and economic development policies if they are to be effective. PMID:12339937

  14. Modern population trends in Bangladesh.

    Abul-basher, M M

    1985-01-01

    Population growth trends in Bangladesh in the 1871-1981 period were analyzed, with emphasis on fertility and mortality differentials, to provide a basis for population planning. Following proclamation of British Imperial Rule in 1857, mortality rates in Bangladesh began to decline as a result of preventive measures against natural disasters such as draught and famine, but the fertility rate remained unaltered. The demographic pattern was unstable over time, reflecting the impact of the influenza epidemic of 1918-19, war, migration, and economic development. Population growth accelerated greatly during the 1961-74 period, when industrialization emerged and job opportunities were created in the urban centers. Economic hardship, food shortages, and the introduction of family planning curbed urban growth drastically and total growth to some extent in 1974-81. On the average, growth has been higher in the Dhaka and Chittagong Divisions of Bangladesh than in the Khulna and Rajshahi Divisions. Differences in population growth among the regions are attributable largely to internal and external migration. The regression polynomial model best fits past population trends in Bangladesh and can reproduce the observed population by 99.60%. This polynomial is most suitable for graduation and prediction of population trends. PMID:12280834

  15. Can human populations be stabilized?

    Warren, Stephen G.

    2015-02-01

    Historical examples of demographic change, in China, Italy, Nigeria, Utah, Easter Island, and elsewhere, together with simple mathematics and biological principles, show that stabilizing world population before it is limited by food supply will be more difficult than is generally appreciated. United Nations population projections are wrong because they assume, in spite of the absence of necessary feedbacks, that all nations will converge rapidly to replacement-level fertility and thereafter remain at that level. Education of women and provision of contraceptives have caused dramatic reductions in fertility, but many groups, including some that are well-educated, maintain high fertility. Small groups with persistent high fertility can grow to supplant low-fertility groups, resulting in continued growth of the total population. The global average fertility rate could rise even if each country's fertility rate is falling. In some low-fertility European countries where deaths exceed births, the population continues to grow because of immigration. Producing more than two offspring is normal for all animal species with stable populations because their populations are limited by resources or predation rather than birth control. It may therefore be appropriate to view the growth of human population as the result not of excess fertility but rather of excess food.

  16. Population and Sustainability: Understanding Population, Environment, and Development Linkages

    Clay, Daniel C.; Reardon, Thomas

    1998-01-01

    The triple challenge of rapid population growth, declining agricultural productivity, and natural resource degradation are not isolated from one another; they are intimately related. However, strategic planning and development programming tend to focus on individual sectors such as the environment, agriculture, and population; they do not explicitly take into account the compatibilities and inconsistencies among them. Farm households and their livelihood strategies are at the core of the inte...

  17. Simulation of population growth and structure of the population

    Maksymowicz, A. Z.

    2002-08-01

    A computer study of population growth and biological ageing in the Penna model is presented. The stress is put on the analysis of the age structure and the distribution of 'bad' mutations m in the population. Results of computer simulation are compared with the simplest logistic model approach which ignores genetic contribution to the life game and accounts only for death due to limited environmental capacity, the Verhulst factor. The Penna model accounts also for genetic load and results of the simulation show that the final population essentially consists of the fittest individuals, as is expected. A more detailed analysis of the genome structure Δ( m) discloses significant marks of the history. The main conclusions are: (a) there is a clear correlation between population n, age a and the number m of bad mutations and (b) there is no correlation between particular configurations Δ( m) of genomes of the same m and the fraction of the population of this characteristics Δ( m). A typical run takes a couple of hours on an HP EXEMPLAR machine, and for a population of about n=10 6.

  18. Population demographics of two local South Carolina mourning dove populations

    McGowan, D.P., Jr.; Otis, D.L.

    1998-01-01

    The mourning dove (Zenaida macroura) call-count index had a significant (P 2,300 doves and examined >6,000 individuals during harvest bag checks. An age-specific band recovery model with time- and area-specific recovery rates, and constant survival rates, was chosen for estimation via Akaike's Information Criterion (AIC), likelihood ratio, and goodness-of-fit criteria. After-hatching-year (AHY) annual survival rate was 0.359 (SE = 0.056), and hatching-year (HY) annual survival rate was 0.118 (SE = 0.042). Average estimated recruitment per adult female into the prehunting season population was 3.40 (SE = 1.25) and 2.32 (SE = 0.46) for the 2 study areas. Our movement data support earlier hypotheses of nonmigratory breeding and harvested populations in South Carolina. Low survival rates and estimated population growth rate in the study areas may be representative only of small-scale areas that are heavily managed for dove hunting. Source-sink theory was used to develop a model of region-wide populations that is composed of source areas with positive growth rates and sink areas of declining growth. We suggest management of mourning doves in the Southeast might benefit from improved understanding of local population dynamics, as opposed to regional-scale population demographics.

  19. Plant Genetic Background Increasing the Efficiency and Durability of Major Resistance Genes to Root-knot Nematodes Can Be Resolved into a Few Resistance QTLs.

    Barbary, Arnaud; Djian-Caporalino, Caroline; Marteu, Nathalie; Fazari, Ariane; Caromel, Bernard; Castagnone-Sereno, Philippe; Palloix, Alain

    2016-01-01

    With the banning of most chemical nematicides, the control of root-knot nematodes (RKNs) in vegetable crops is now based essentially on the deployment of single, major resistance genes (R-genes). However, these genes are rare and their efficacy is threatened by the capacity of RKNs to adapt. In pepper, several dominant R-genes are effective against RKNs, and their efficacy and durability have been shown to be greater in a partially resistant genetic background. However, the genetic determinants of this partial resistance were unknown. Here, a quantitative trait loci (QTL) analysis was performed on the F2:3 population from the cross between Yolo Wonder, an accession considered partially resistant or resistant, depending on the RKN species, and Doux Long des Landes, a susceptible cultivar. A genetic linkage map was constructed from 130 F2 individuals, and the 130 F3 families were tested for resistance to the three main RKN species, Meloidogyne incognita, M. arenaria, and M. javanica. For the first time in the pepper-RKN pathosystem, four major QTLs were identified and mapped to two clusters. The cluster on chromosome P1 includes three tightly linked QTLs with specific effects against individual RKN species. The fourth QTL, providing specific resistance to M. javanica, mapped to pepper chromosome P9, which is known to carry multiple NBS-LRR repeats, together with major R-genes for resistance to nematodes and other pathogens. The newly discovered cluster on chromosome P1 has a broad spectrum of action with major additive effects on resistance. These data highlight the role of host QTLs involved in plant-RKN interactions and provide innovative potential for the breeding of new pepper cultivars or rootstocks combining quantitative resistance and major R-genes, to increase both the efficacy and durability of RKN control by resistance genes. PMID:27242835

  20. Population Issues. Resources in Technology.

    Technology Teacher, 1991

    1991-01-01

    Presents information about the problems caused by increasing population. Discusses the environmental impact and the ways that technology can be used to solve problems of overpopulation. Includes possible student outcomes and a student quiz. (JOW)

  1. Punctuated evolution of population genomics

    Reuveni, Eli

    2012-01-01

    In this thesis I apply population genetics methods and genotype-phenotype mapping to show that evolution has more discrete rather than linear pace and that this finding may reconcile between two evolution theories (punctuated equilibrium and phyletic gradualism)

  2. Radiation protection for human population

    Are given the results of researches carried out in Belarus in 1996 on the following directions: study of features of formation of the population irradiation doze; definition of collective irradiation dozes of the population of Belarus for 10 years after the Chernobyl accident and forecast of risk of radiation induced diseases; study of influence of the radioactive contamination on agricultural ecosystems; development of technologies of manufacture on the contaminated soils of plant and cattle-breeding production and food products with the permissible contents of radionuclides in according to the requirements of radiation protection; development and perfection of complex technologies, ways and means of decontamination, processing and burial of radioactive wastes; development and substantiation of actions for increase of radiation security of the population of Belarus; development of combined system of an estimation on problems of radiation protection of the population living on contaminated territories

  3. Anomalous Growth of Aging Populations

    Grebenkov, Denis S.

    2016-04-01

    We consider a discrete-time population dynamics with age-dependent structure. At every time step, one of the alive individuals from the population is chosen randomly and removed with probability q_k depending on its age, whereas a new individual of age 1 is born with probability r. The model can also describe a single queue in which the service order is random while the service efficiency depends on a customer's "age" in the queue. We propose a mean field approximation to investigate the long-time asymptotic behavior of the mean population size. The age dependence is shown to lead to anomalous power-law growth of the population at the critical regime. The scaling exponent is determined by the asymptotic behavior of the probabilities q_k at large k. The mean field approximation is validated by Monte Carlo simulations.

  4. National workshop on population education.

    Haq, M

    1979-01-01

    The First National Workshop on Population Education was held from 16 to 18 November 1978, involving principals and instructors in extension education of all the eight agricultural extension training institutes, regional directors of agriculture, some district extension officers and representatives from voluntary agencies involved in population education. The object of the Workshop was to discuss and modify the materials prepared for the introduction of the concept of population education in agricultural training institutes. Some materials were also adopted for training purposes of village extension agents. The World Bank project of the Ministry of Agriculture is responsible for introducing in Bangladesh the concept of population education to pre-service, village-level extension workers in the various agricultural extension institutes, and the first project to recruit female extension workers for service in rural areas. PMID:12309487

  5. The Veteran Population Projection 2014

    Department of Veterans Affairs — VetPop2014 is an actuarial projection model developed by the Office of the Actuary (OACT) for Veteran population projection from Fiscal Year FY2014 to FY2043. Using...

  6. Epidemiology Characteristics of Constipation for General Population, Pediatric Population, and Elderly Population in China

    Huikuan Chu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To acquire more data about the epidemiologic characteristics of constipation in different kinds of populations in China. Methods. Using “constipation” and “China” as search terms; relevant papers were searched from January 1995 to April 2014. Data on prevalence, gender, diagnostic criteria, geographical area, educational class, age, race, and physician visit results were extracted and analyzed. Results. 36 trials were included. Prevalence rates of constipation in elderly population (18.1% and pediatric population (18.8% were significantly higher than that in general population (8.2%. Prevalence of constipation defined by non-Rome criteria was higher than that by Rome criteria in general population. Prevalence rates of constipation were different for different geographical area. People with less education were predisposed to constipation. In pediatric population, prevalence of constipation was the lowest in children aged 2–6 years. Prevalence of constipation in ethnic minorities was higher than that in Han people. People with constipation were predisposed to FD, haemorrhoid, and GERD. Only 22.2% patients seek medical advice in general population. Conclusions. In China, prevalence of constipation was lower compared with most of other countries. The factors including female gender, diagnostic criteria, geographical area, age, educational class, and race seemed to have major effects on prevalence of constipation.

  7. Effective sizes for subdivided populations.

    Chesser, R K; Rhodes, O E; Sugg, D W; Schnabel, A

    1993-12-01

    Many derivations of effective population sizes have been suggested in the literature; however, few account for the breeding structure and none can readily be expanded to subdivided populations. Breeding structures influence gene correlations through their effects on the number of breeding individuals of each sex, the mean number of progeny per female, and the variance in the number of progeny produced by males and females. Additionally, hierarchical structuring in a population is determined by the number of breeding groups and the migration rates of males and females among such groups. This study derives analytical solutions for effective sizes that can be applied to subdivided populations. Parameters that encapsulate breeding structure and subdivision are utilized to derive the traditional inbreeding and variance effective sizes. Also, it is shown that effective sizes can be determined for any hierarchical level of population structure for which gene correlations can accrue. Derivations of effective sizes for the accumulation of gene correlations within breeding groups (coancestral effective size) and among breeding groups (intergroup effective size) are given. The results converge to traditional, single population measures when similar assumptions are applied. In particular, inbreeding and intergroup effective sizes are shown to be special cases of the coancestral effective size, and intergroup and variance effective sizes will be equal if the population census remains constant. Instantaneous solutions for effective sizes, at any time after gene correlation begins to accrue, are given in terms of traditional F statistics or transition equations. All effective sizes are shown to converge upon a common asymptotic value when breeding tactics and migration rates are constant. The asymptotic effective size can be expressed in terms of the fixation indices and the number of breeding groups; however, the rate of approach to the asymptote is dependent upon dispersal

  8. Population distribution and telecommunication costs

    Peter Cribbett

    2001-01-01

    This paper examines the impact of population distribution on the costs of providing local telephone service. The study was undertaken to examine the extent to which price differences in international comparisons of telecommunications costs can be attributed to differences in the distribution of population, therefore providing insights into the importance of other factors such as industry and regulatory performance. The key points in the paper are: „h The average cost of providing local teleph...

  9. Introduction. Population and the environment.

    Clarke, J; Zaba, B

    1992-01-01

    The complexity of the interrelationships between population growth and environmental concerns is often obscured when the global picture is presented. The variety and complexity of population-environment associations varies with spatial aggregation; analysis is needed at all levels. Of the many organizations involved in researching and discussing these associations, the International Social Science Council established a working committee on population and the environment, which held a symposium in January 1991. 9 papers were the topic of discussions and are summarized in this article. Attention was focused on pollution emissions and population growth by the environmental scientist Paul Harrison. The increased demand for water was discussed as it related to rapid urbanization and changes in agricultural production and industrial development policies. David Noin's paper was on the increased occurrence of natural disasters and mortality, i.e., cyclones and floods. The population densities surrounding areas of natural disasters excluding droughts have increased and contributed to greater impacts. Alina Potrykowska and Roger Bivend provided information on the trends and spatial patterns of mortality in Poland. Mortality increases have appeared during the course of industrialization. Data for Poland on environmental variables such as dust and gas emissions, volume of untreated waste, and hazardous waste are available for 49 voivodships. The most polluted areas show a statistically significant relationships with high morality. Ken Wilson presented his views on the contradiction that African famines did not cause population decline. The possible interpretations are misinterpretation of data, inappropriate scales of measurement, and a misspecification that social, economic, and political changes will improve the population environment links. Matthew Lockwood presented his findings on northern Nigeria that migration is an important cause of high density population, and that

  10. Population size and environmental quality

    Till Requate; Mark B. Cronshaw

    1997-01-01

    This paper presents a simple general equilibrium analysis of first best allocations in an economy where a consumption good is produced using labor. Production results in pollution, which is a public bad. Pollution abatement can be achieved either by restricting production or by using additional labor. We consider how the first best allocation and Pigouvian tax vary with population size. Consumers are unambiguously worse off when the population is larger, but not necessarily due to increased p...

  11. Eel population and solution model

    Chen, Liangming; Chen, Xinyu; Chen, Yu; Fang, Ping; Huang, Yuyu; Li, Haiyan; Liu, Mingyan; Wang, Cong

    2006-01-01

    Almost two decades before, eel population had not waved quite hugely, but in this twenty years, it is changed. Eel population decreases very obviously on account of five main reasons—pollution, barriers, the change of ocean currents, overfishing, diseases. Base on this phenomena, though our research, we would like to suggest two solution for changing the decline. In short-term, aquaculture should be utilized widely; on the other hand, re-stocking is a quiet nice method for long-term.

  12. Complicated grief in Aboriginal populations

    Spiwak, Rae; Sareen, Jitender; Elias, Brenda; Martens, Patricia; Munro, Garry; Bolton, James

    2012-01-01

    To date there have been no studies examining complicated grief (CG) in Aboriginal populations. Although this research gap exists, it can be hypothesized that Aboriginal populations may be at increased risk for CG, given a variety of factors, including increased rates of all-cause mortality and death by suicide. Aboriginal people also have a past history of multiple stressors resulting from the effects of colonization and forced assimilation, a significant example being residential school plac...

  13. Genetic Structure of Chimpanzee Populations

    Celine Becquet; Nick Patterson; Anne C Stone; Molly Przeworski; David Reich

    2007-01-01

    Author Summary Common chimpanzees have been traditionally classified into three populations: western, central, and eastern. While the morphological or behavioral differences are very small, genetic studies of mitochondrial DNA and the Y chromosome have supported the geography-based designations. To obtain a crisp picture of chimpanzee population structure, we gather far more data than previously available: 310 microsatellite markers genotyped in 78 common chimpanzees and six bonobos, allowing...

  14. Regional Population Projections for China

    Toth, F.L.; Cao, G.-Y.; Hizsnyik, E.

    2003-01-01

    Considering the size and the regional diversity of China, a prudent analysis of many economic and policy issues needs to consider the regional differences in climate, soil, water, and other natural resource endowments, population density, and social and economic development. Future-oriented multi-regional assessments require regionally detailed scenarios. A key component of such scenarios is the evolution of the population in different regions. For studies of land-use change and agriculture, ...

  15. Population and Employment in China

    Keyfitz, N.

    1982-01-01

    China's effectiveness in population control can be credited to the direct line of command through party and administrative cadres that extends from the leadership in Beijing down to the production team in a distant rural commune. The reason that the administrative machine has devoted so much attention to population control is twofold: the perceived limits of the natural environment, as indicated by slowness of growth of food supplies, and the difficulty of arranging productive employment for ...

  16. Population Aging and Inventive Activity

    Irmen, Andreas; Litina, Anastasia

    2016-01-01

    This research empirically establishes and theoretically motivates the hypothesis that population aging has a hump-shaped effect on inventive activity. We estimate this hump-shaped relationship in a panel of 33 OECD countries over the period 1960-2012. The increasing part of the hump captures the awareness that population aging requires inventive activity to guarantee current and future standards of living. The decreasing part reflects the tendency of aging societies to lose dynamism and the w...

  17. Wildlife Tunnel Enhances Population Viability

    Michael McCarthy; Dean Heinze; Rodney van der Ree; Ian Mansergh

    2009-01-01

    Roads and traffic are pervasive components of landscapes throughout the world: they cause wildlife mortality, disrupt animal movements, and increase the risk of extinction. Expensive engineering solutions, such as overpasses and tunnels, are increasingly being adopted to mitigate these effects. Although some species readily use such structures, their success in preventing population extinction remains unknown. Here, we use population viability modeling to assess the effectiveness of tunnels f...

  18. Inheritance of resistance to root-knot nematode in diploid Ipomoea trifida, a wild relative of sweet potato

    The objective of this study was to determine the inheritance of resistance to root-knot nematode (RKN, Meloidogyne incognita) in diploid Ipomoea trifida (H.B.K.) Don., a wild, allogamous species related to sweet potato. Four resistant and two susceptible clones were used in this experiment. The RKN response of the four resistant clones was characterized by the striking hypersensitive reaction to penetrating nematode larvae. F1 progenies from the crosses of resistant and susceptible clones and progenies from backcrosses and sib crosses of resistant F1 plants were generated, and their segregations for RKN reaction indicated that resistance was controlled by two independent, dominant genes, designated Rmi1 and Rmi2. Only the double homozygous recessive is susceptible. The observed segregations in progenies from the intercrosses of resistant and susceptible F1 plants supported the two-locus model. These studies indicate the potential usefulness of diploid trifida accessions as new gene sources for resistance to Meloidogyne incognita nematode. (author). 25 refs, 7 tabs

  19. 海南岛葫芦科蔬菜根结线虫种类鉴定%Species identification of the root-knot nematode on Cucurbitaceae vegetables in Hainan Is land

    黄伟明; 陈绵才; 肖彤斌; 王会芳

    2011-01-01

    The root knot nematodes on Cucurbitaceae vegetables collected from 4 cities in Hainan Island were identified by using morphological characters, isozymes and mtDNA-PCR.Meloidogyne enterolobii were found in 5 samples, and it was a new record species on Lagenaria siceraria (Molina) Standl and Luffa cylindrica Roem.Its distribution in Wenchang and Lingshui was also reported.Miscegenation of M.enterolobii and M.incognita was observed on two samples.%运用比较形态学、同工酶和mtDNA-PCR对采自海南岛4个市县的葫芦科蔬菜根结线虫进行鉴定,结果发现5个种群均存在象耳豆根结线虫(Meloidogyne enterolobii).该种线虫是葫芦[Lagenaria siceraria(Molina)Standl]和丝瓜[Luffa cylindrica(Linn)Roem]上的新记录种,文昌和陵水属其首次被报道的分布地区.有2个样本表现为象耳豆根结线虫和南方根结线虫(M.incognita)的混合种群.

  20. Epidemiology Characteristics of Constipation for General Population, Pediatric Population, and Elderly Population in China

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To acquire more data about the epidemiologic characteristics of constipation in different kinds of populations in China. Methods. Using “constipation” and “China” as search terms; relevant papers were searched from January 1995 to April 2014. Data on prevalence, gender, diagnostic criteria, geographical area, educational class, age, race, and physician visit results were extracted and analyzed. Results. 36 trials were included. Prevalence rates of constipation in elderly population...

  1. Population in Advanced Placement Human Geography.

    Sharma, Martha B.

    2000-01-01

    Addresses the population section of the Advanced Placement course outline for human geography, focusing on four themes: (1) geographical analysis of population; (2) population distribution and composition; (3) population growth and decline over time and space; and (4) population movement. Identifies strategies for instructional activities.…

  2. Population dynamics of Virginia's hunted black bear (Ursus americanus) population.

    Klenzendorf, Sybille A.

    2002-01-01

    The Cooperative Alleghany Bear Study (CABS) was initiated in 1994 by the Virginia Department of Game and Inland Fisheries (VDGIF) and the Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University (VPI&SU) to investigate population dynamics on Virginiaâ s hunted bear population. CABS personnel handled 746 different bears (1.5M:1F) 1,368 times on its northern study area during June 1994 to September 2000. The sex ratio for summer captures was 1.5M:1F, which differed from 1:1 (n = 1,008, Z = 6.17,...

  3. Population growth and economic growth.

    Narayana, D L

    1984-01-01

    This discussion of the issues relating to the problem posed by population explosion in the developing countries and economic growth in the contemporary world covers the following: predictions of economic and social trends; the Malthusian theory of population; the classical or stationary theory of population; the medical triage model; ecological disaster; the Global 2000 study; the limits to growth; critiques of the Limits to Growth model; nonrenewable resources; food and agriculture; population explosion and stabilization; space and ocean colonization; and the limits perspective. The Limits to Growth model, a general equilibrium anti-growth model, is the gloomiest economic model ever constructed. None of the doomsday models, the Malthusian theory, the classical stationary state, the neo-Malthusian medical triage model, the Global 2000 study, are so far reaching in their consequences. The course of events that followed the publication of the "Limits to Growth" in 1972 in the form of 2 oil shocks, food shock, pollution shock, and price shock seemed to bear out formally the gloomy predictions of the thesis with a remarkable speed. The 12 years of economic experience and the knowledge of resource trends postulate that even if the economic pressures visualized by the model are at work they are neither far reaching nor so drastic. Appropriate action can solve them. There are several limitations to the Limits to Growth model. The central theme of the model, which is overshoot and collapse, is unlikely to be the course of events. The model is too aggregative to be realistic. It exaggerates the ecological disaster arising out of the exponential growth of population and industry. The gross underestimation of renewable resources is a basic flaw of the model. The most critical weakness of the model is its gross underestimation of the historical trend of technological progress and the technological possiblities within industry and agriculture. The model does correctly emphasize

  4. Impact of the population implosion

    Kilpatrick, J.J.

    1978-03-01

    Mr. Kilpatrick evaluates Paul R. Ehrlich's thesis that mankind will breed itself into oblivion. Mr. Ehrlich in his book, ''The Population Bomb,'' sees population control as the only answer to mass starvation in such countries as India, Africa, Central America, and China. Mr. Kilpatrick says the U.S. has drifted toward the goal of zero population growth, where the total births per woman have dropped to 1.8. In Denmark, Finland, Sweden, Belgium, West Germany, Great Britain, and Austria, the births per woman have dropped even lower than in the U.S. The decline in births is attributed to women joining the workforce, advancement of birth control measures, and high costs of medical care, housing, and education. Women marrying later and fashion are also factors. Zero population growth will have gross implications on the financial markets in the U.S. Pension systems will be directly affected. The author cites the dilemma of the Social Security system when a smaller proportion of young people are contributing to it. Household savings trends will alter; new construction, new plant and equipment investment, and consumer loans will have to be reconsidered. If the trend toward implosion continues and social services demand an increasing share of the Federal budget, other interests will have to yield and the author cites the budget for national defense as declining. Some prophets feel the population decline is nothing of concern, the author concludes. (MCW)

  5. Population policy: major party positions.

    Betts, K

    1998-01-01

    This article identifies the major political party positions on population policy (PP) in Australia. Australia has the Governing Coalition, comprised of the Liberal and National Parties, and the Australian Labor Party (ALP), the main opposition party. The ALP adopted a PP at its national conference in 1998. The Government Minister for Immigration and Multicultural Affairs (DIMA) does not view a PP as a need. The ALP policy identifies the need to decide on a long term sustainable population size as determined within a PP framework. The visa classification system needs to reflect national priorities. Labor will support a fair refugee and humanitarian program. Skilled labor migration must be linked with labor market needs. Business migration is a means of transferring resources and technology to Australia. The DIMA Minister announced the target intake of 80,000 visa immigrants in 1998- 99, which would produce a peak population of about 23 million in 2050. Settler arrivals from New Zealand would increase population size. A group of scientists and scholars published their recommendations about development of a PP. The Minister of DIMA's defense of the lack of a PP is included in this publication. Labor in several publications indicates support for a larger immigration intake, or an adjustment of the intake within the existing numbers. The Prime Minister, who supports the concept of multiculturalism, argues that people must accept immigration policy. Politics today are more divided over the origin and future of the nation than population size issues. PMID:12294231

  6. Population dynamics in variable environments

    Tuljapurkar, Shripad

    1990-01-01

    Demography relates observable facts about individuals to the dynamics of populations. If the dynamics are linear and do not change over time, the classical theory of Lotka (1907) and Leslie (1945) is the central tool of demography. This book addresses the situation when the assumption of constancy is dropped. In many practical situations, a population will display unpredictable variation over time in its vital rates, which must then be described in statistical terms. Most of this book is concerned with the theory of populations which are subject to random temporal changes in their vital rates, although other kinds of variation (e. g. , cyclical) are also dealt with. The central questions are: how does temporal variation work its way into a population's future, and how does it affect our interpretation of a population's past. The results here are directed at demographers of humans and at popula­ tion biologists. The uneven mathematical level is dictated by the material, but the book should be accessible to re...

  7. Laplacian eigenfunctions learn population structure.

    Jun Zhang

    Full Text Available Principal components analysis has been used for decades to summarize genetic variation across geographic regions and to infer population migration history. More recently, with the advent of genome-wide association studies of complex traits, it has become a commonly-used tool for detection and correction of confounding due to population structure. However, principal components are generally sensitive to outliers. Recently there has also been concern about its interpretation. Motivated from geometric learning, we describe a method based on spectral graph theory. Regarding each study subject as a node with suitably defined weights for its edges to close neighbors, one can form a weighted graph. We suggest using the spectrum of the associated graph Laplacian operator, namely, Laplacian eigenfunctions, to infer population structure. In simulations and real data on a ring species of birds, Laplacian eigenfunctions reveal more meaningful and less noisy structure of the underlying population, compared with principal components. The proposed approach is simple and computationally fast. It is expected to become a promising and basic method for population genetics and disease association studies.

  8. The Why and How of Population Education

    Seffrin, John R.

    1975-01-01

    Discusses the importance of instructional programs concerning population education and describes population growth in the United States, the biological reasons for the overpopulation problem, and the role of the health educator in population education. (BD)

  9. Future directions in population health.

    Hancock, T

    1999-01-01

    The long-term health of the population will be influenced by a number of major forces in the next century. In this brief review, particular emphasis is placed on environmental and economic forces. Major global environmental changes include climate change and global warming, resource depletion, ecotoxicity and reduced biodiversity. We do not yet know the impact on longevity of lifetime exposure to a mix of persistent toxic chemicals in our environment, since it has only been widespread in the past 40-50 years. The health impacts of global warming are only just beginning to be understood and could be profound. But perhaps the most profound threat to population health is economic growth, to the extent that it undermines environmental and social sustainability. We need a new form of capitalism, one that simultaneously increases environmental, social, economic and human capital, if population health is to be maintained in the 21st century. PMID:10686767

  10. Population dynamics of bacterial persistence.

    Pintu Patra

    Full Text Available Persistence is a prime example of phenotypic heterogeneity, where a microbial population splits into two distinct subpopulations with different growth and survival properties as a result of reversible phenotype switching. Specifically, persister cells grow more slowly than normal cells under unstressed growth conditions, but survive longer under stress conditions such as the treatment with bactericidal antibiotics. We analyze the population dynamics of such a population for several typical experimental scenarios, namely a constant environment, shifts between growth and stress conditions, and periodically switching environments. We use an approximation scheme that allows us to map the dynamics to a logistic equation for the subpopulation ratio and derive explicit analytical expressions for observable quantities that can be used to extract underlying dynamic parameters from experimental data. Our results provide a theoretical underpinning for the study of phenotypic switching, in particular for organisms where detailed mechanistic knowledge is scarce.

  11. Rapid population increase in an introduced muskox population, West Greenland

    Carsten Riis Olesen

    1993-10-01

    Full Text Available In 1962 and 1965, 27 (13 and 14 muskox yearlings were translocated from East Greenland (71°N to the Angujaartorfiup Nunaa range in West Greenland (67°N. Angujaartorfiup Nunaa is a 6600 km2 icefree, continental area where caribou are indigenous. The climate is strictly continental with a minimum of precipitation but with abundant vegetation. Aerial surveys in 1990 documented that the muskox population has increased to 2600 heads despite quota-based harvesting since 1988. The annual quota was 200, 300 and 400 for 1988, 1989 and 1990, respectively. Distribution of muskoxen shows a significant preference for low altitude habitats southeast of Kangerlussuaq Airport and around Arnangarnup Qoorua (Paradise valley. Annual population increment averages 30% and the calf crop is around 24% of the population. Yearling recruitment in the population reveals that calf mortality during winter is very limited. About half of the 1-year-old females are served and they eventually give birth to their first calf when they turn 2 years old. With half of the 2-year-old females reproducing, the calf/cow ration ranges between 0.9 and 1.0.

  12. Population education for social betterment.

    Mukhi, S

    1983-01-26

    In India primary education has increased 3 times in the last 30 years. Over this same period middle school education has increased 4 times, higher secondary education 5 times, and university level education over 6 times. The number of universities alone increased from 19 in 1950 to 118 by 1981. The inconsistencies brought about by rapid population growth may be judged by the fact that while the number of institutions and the enrollment of students has expanded beyond measure, the number of illiterate persons has risen from 386 million in 1971 to 446 million in 1981. Clearly, education is vital for human resource development. In political terms, human resource development prepares a population for adult participation in political processes. From social and cultural perspectives, the development of human resources helps people to lead fuller and richer lives. Population means people, and people need food, clothing, homes, education, transportation, health services, and jobs. As long as a country's resources can satisfy the essential needs of its population, there is no population problem. If the population grows faster than the rate at which the basic needs of each individual can be met, the buildup of such a situation produces a crisis of gigantic dimensions. To meet basic requirements, India needs to provide annually an additional 12 million tons of foodgrains, 188 million meters of cloth, 2.5 million houses, along with schools, teachers, and jobs over and above what is currently available. Another need is for fresh air, pure water, and space to live in. The question is how is this need to be met when the earth is a finite sphere. What will happen when the world's 3.5 billion people double into a staggering 7 billion by the end of the 20th century. It is because of this concern for family well being and the betterment of human resources that the Family Planning Association of India has since 1969 undertaken innovative pilot programs in popultion education for the

  13. Managing Salmonella in equine populations.

    Burgess, Brandy A; Morley, Paul S

    2014-12-01

    Infection control is achieved through all efforts used to prevent the introduction and limit the spread of contagious pathogens within a facility or population, with the goal of eliminating sources of potentially pathogenic microorganisms and to disrupt infectious disease transmission. Congregating animals from multiple sources, as occurs at veterinary hospitals, racetracks, equestrian events, and boarding and training facilities, increases the risk for transmission of infectious diseases such as salmonella. There is a recognizable standard of practice for infection control and due effort must be given to control and prevention of infectious disease transmission within animal populations and facilities. PMID:25282320

  14. Synthetic population system user guide

    Roberts, D.J.

    1998-03-01

    The Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) TRansportation Analysis SIMulatiuon System (TRANSIMS) synthetic population system (SYN) is designed to produce populations (family households, non-family households, and group quarters) that are statistically equivalent to actual populations when compared at the level of block group or higher. The methodology used by this system is described in a report entitled Creating Synthetic Baseline Populations. The inputs to the system are US Census Bureau data (STF3A and PUMS) and MABLE/GEOCORR data. Census Bureau STF3A and PUMS data formats are commonly used and are available on CD-ROM from the Census Bureau. These data inputs will not be described in any detail in this guide. The primary function of MABLE/GEOCORR data is to cross-reference STF3 block group data to PUMS areas. The outputs of the system are files that contain family household, non-family household, and group quarters data in the form of household and person records. SYN will run on a variety of Unix platforms.

  15. Flood trends and population dynamics

    Di Baldassarre, G.

    2012-04-01

    Since the earliest recorded civilizations, such as those in Mesopotamia and Egypt that developed in the fertile floodplains of the Tigris and Euphrates and Nile rivers, humans tend to settle in flood prone areas as they offer favorable conditions for economic development. However, floodplains are also exposed to flood disasters that might cause severe socio-economic and environmental damages not to mention losses of human lives. A flood event turns to be a disaster when it coincides with a vulnerable environment exceeding society's capacity to manage the adverse consequences. This presentation discusses the link between hydrological risk and population change by referring to the outcomes of scientific works recently carried out in Africa and Europe. More specifically, it is shown that the severity of flood disasters, currently affecting more than 100 million people a year, might be seriously exacerbated because of population change. In fact, flood exposure and/or vulnerability might increase because of rapid population growth (and its spatial and temporal dynamics, e.g. urbanization) in the African continent and because of population ageing in many European countries. Lastly, timely and economically sustainable actions to mitigate this increasing hydrological risk are critically evaluated.

  16. Genetic structure of forensic populations.

    Morton, N. E.

    1992-01-01

    DNA-based identification depends on the probability that two different individuals have the same phenotype, which is given by kinship theory. Together with the large and consistent body of evidence on human population structure, kinship theory provides a sound basis for forensic use of DNA markers.

  17. Genebanking seeds from natural populations

    Conventional storage protocols have been developed to preserve genetic diversity of seeds of crops in genebanks. These same principles have been applied to preserve seeds from wild populations. While most principles for conventional storage protocols are applicable to a broad range of wild species...

  18. Population research potentials in Africa.

    Hyden, G

    1980-01-01

    There is a need in Africa to test prevailing theories and concepts in population studies to see how they apply to this culture. Most of the prevailing perspective on population issues can be influenced by development strategies and policies affecting demographic variables. So research designed to determine the longterm consequences of rural settlement policies on subsequent access to family planning or family planning policies are also needed, as are studies which zero in on the work and results of specific population projects. The following issues are considered worth special consideration in Africa, where the vast majority of women live in rural areas where family planning services will not reach for some time. The areas of investigation which seem most pertinent in sub-saharan Africa are: side effect of contraceptive devices and agents; infertility assessments, social and medical consequences of adolescent pregnancies, the means of offering effective population education in rural African areas, the possible effects of fertility control programs on demographic transition, and potential funding sources. PMID:12336771

  19. Populism and Education in Norway.

    Lauglo, Jon

    1995-01-01

    Examines the influence of Norwegian populism, with its emphasis on rural roots and community values, on the development of Norwegian education. Discusses populist traits in Norwegian society and populist educational features: strong common school, weak academic tradition, use of New Norse vernacular, importance of informal learning at home,…

  20. Populism in High School Textbooks

    Peiser, Andrew C.

    1973-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether one area of United States history--Populism and Populists--is accurately presented in nine widely used current American history high school textbooks. Another objective was to devise a system that could be used to make such a determination for any history text. (Author)