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Sample records for meloidogyne incognita population

  1. Susceptibility in crops varieties to a population of Meloidogyne incognita (Nematoda: Meloidogynidae

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    Esther Calvo

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Thirteen varieties belonging to different crops were tested for resistance to one population of Meloido-gyne incognita. Ten of them were highly susceptible, two moderately susceptible and another one was resistant.

  2. Molecular Comparison of Iranian Populations of Meloidogyne javanica and Meloidogyne incognita with PCR-RFLP

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    M. Mohammadi

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available To carry out this study, total DNA was extracted from eggs and from second stage juveniles of several populations of Meloidogyne javanica and Meloidogyne incognita, using phenol / chloroform method. Following extraction, DNA was electrophoresed on 1% agarose gel to determine its quality and quantity. A specific primer pair (C2F3 / 1108; 23 and 20 nucleotides, respectively was used to discriminate M. javanica from M. incognita populations using polymerase chain reaction (PCR. Primer annealing sites were located in the 3? portion of mitochondrial gene encoding cytochrome oxidase subunit II (COII and in the 16S rRNA gene. Following PCR amplification, electrophoresis of amplified DNA showed 1.7 kb fragment in populations of both species. Digestion of 1.7 kb amplified product with HinfI restriction endonuclease resulted in the generation of two DNA fragments of 0.7 and 1.0 kb in M. javanica and three DNA fragments of 0.3, 0.4 and 1.0 kb in M. incognita. There were no differences in the digestion patterns among various populations of each species examined.

  3. Characteristics of mixed Meloidogyne arenaria and M. incognita populations in flue-cured tobacco

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    Baum, T.J.; Fortnum, B.A.; Lewis, S. A.

    1995-01-01

    Des expériences en champ ont été poursuivies pendant deux ans afin de caractériser l'association de #Meloidogyne arenaria$ race 2 (populations Pelion et Govan) et de #M. incognita$ race 3 sur des plants de tabac résistant à #M. incognita$ races 1 et 3 ainsi que sur des plants de tabac sensible aux deux espèces. A été également étudié l'effet potentiel de l'infestation par #M. arenaria$ sur la résistance de l'hôte à #M. incognita$ races 1 et 3. L'identité spécifique des #Meloidogyne$ a été éta...

  4. Population Dynamics of Meloidogyne incognita on Corn Grown in Soil in Fested with Arthrobotrys conoides

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    Al-Hazmi, A. S.; Schmitt, D.P.; Sasser, J. N.

    1982-01-01

    Microplot and greenhouse experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of soil incorporation of the nematophagous fungus Arthrobotrys conoides and green alfalfa mulch on the population dynamics of Meloidogyne incognita on corn. Reproduction of M. incognita and the incidence of root galling were reduced by the addition of A. conoides and/or green alfalfa in all tests. Numbers of juveniles were reduced by as much as 84%, and eggs were fewest in early to mid-season soil samples from micropl...

  5. INTERACCIÓN ENTRE EL ECOMIC® Y UNA POBLACIÓN CUBANA DE Meloidogyne incognita EN TOMATE / INTERACTION BETWEEN ECOMIC® AND A CUBAN POPULATION OF Meloidogyne incognita IN TOMATO

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    Lucila, Gómez; MayraG, Rodríguez; Blanca, de la Noval; Miranda, Ileana; M.A, Hernández.

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available El estudio de tácticas para el manejo de los nematodos agalleros en la producción protegida de hortalizas en Cuba, se ha incrementado en los últimos años. El objetivo del trabajo fue determinar la interacción entre el ECOMICâ, producto a base de hongos formadores de micorrizas arbusculares, y una po [...] blación cubana de Meloidogyne incognita en el tomate (Lycopersicon esculentum. Mill var. Vyta). El experimento se desarrolló en los aisladores biológicos del CENSA empleando un diseño completamente aleatorio. Se emplearon dos formas de inoculación del ECOMICâ: peletización de la semilla e incorporación al sustrato para semilleros (1.5 g del producto/alveolo de cepellón). La dosis de nematodos fue de 1.5 huevos-J2. g suelo-1. Se evaluó el índice de agallamiento (IA), el número de juveniles infectivos (J2) en suelo y peso del sistema radical. La evaluación de la simbiosis micorrícica comprendió el porcentaje de colonización, densidad visual y peso del endófito. Se demostró que la aplicación de ECOMICâen la rizosfera del tomate favoreció el desarrollo de la raíz aparejado con un alto número de agallas (IA=4). En el control el desarrollo de la raíz fue menor con un IA=5. Se observó una disminución de los J2 en el suelo de las plantas micorrizadas. El establecimiento de la simbiosis micorrícica no se afectó por el desarrollo del nematodo. Abstract in english The study of tactics for the root-knot nematode management in vegetable production under crop protected systems has been increased in Cuba in the last decade. The main goal of this work was to assess the relationship of ECOMIC®, a commercial product containing several mycorrhizal fungi, and a Cuban [...] population of Meloidogyne incognita in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill var. Vyta). The experiment was carried out in a green house at CENSA using a completely randomized design. ECOMICâ was inoculated by seed pelleting or mixed with the seedbed substrate. The nematode dose used was 1.5 egg-J2. g soil-1. Gall index, infective juveniles in soil and root weight were evaluated. The percentage of colonization, the visual density and the mycellial weight were also estimated. ECOMICâ was shown to benefit root development despite the high value of the gall index (GI=4) in the inoculated plants. Root development was lower in the untreated plants with a GI=5. A decreased number of infective juveniles was observed in the soil with mycorrhized plants. The micorrhizal colonization was not affected by nematode establishment.

  6. Mitochondrial DNA length variation in Meloidogyne incognita isolates of established genetic relationships : utility for nematode population studies

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    Whipple, L.E.; Lunt, D H; Hyman, B C

    1998-01-01

    Six isolats de #Meloidogyne incognita$, dont les relations génétiques ont été précédemment établies, sont utilisés pour tester l'utilité d'une "répétition de tandems en nombre variable" (VNTR) d'une valeur de 63 paires de bases mitochondriales comme marqueurs en vue d'étude de populations. La réaction en chaîne de polymérase (PCR) est utilisée pour amplifier ce locus et mesurer le nombre de copies et la fréquence des allèles des VNTR à 63 paires de bases. Les individus du nématode sont typiqu...

  7. Reação de crisântemos a Meloidogyne incognita, Meloidogyne javanica e Meloidogyne enterolobii / Chrysanthemum reaction to Meloidogyne incognita, Meloidogyne javanica and Meloidogyne enterolobii

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Lucivane Aparecida, Gonçalves; Andressa Lima de, Brida; Maria de Fátima Almeida, Silva; Cezar, Bueno Junior; Silvia Renata Siciliano, Wilcken.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a resistência de 14 variedades de crisântemos aos nematoides Meloidogyne incognita, M. javanica e M. enterolobii. O experimento foi conduzido em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, constando de 15 tratamentos e 4 repetições, por espécie de nematoide. Cada [...] parcela foi constituída por uma planta por vaso, mantidas em casa de vegetação e inoculadas com 5.000 ovos e eventuais juvenis de M. incognita, M. javanica e M. enterolobii. Após 60 dias, os índices de massas de ovos, número de nematoides por grama de raiz e o fator de reprodução foram avaliados. As variedades apresentaram imunidade a M. incognita, M. javanica e M. enterolobii, exceto 'Capello Vermelho' e 'White Reagon', que foram respectivamente suscetível e resistente a M. incognita. Abstract in english This study aimed to evaluate the resistance of 14 chrysanthemum varieties to the nematodes Meloidogyne incognita, M. javanica and M. enterolobii. The experiment was conducted in a completely randomized design, consisting of 15 treatments and 4 replicates per nematode species. Each plot was constitut [...] ed of one plant per pot; plants were kept in a greenhouse and inoculated with 5,000 eggs and possible juveniles of M. incognita, M. javanica and M. enterolobii. After 60 days, the rates of egg masses, the number of nematodes per gram of root and the reproduction factor were evaluated. The varieties showed immunity to M. incognita, M. javanica and M. enterolobii, except 'Capello Vermelho' and 'White Reagon', which were susceptible and resistant, respectively, to M. incognita.

  8. Virulence of Meloidogyne incognita to expression of N gene in pepper

    OpenAIRE

    Thies, Judy A.

    2011-01-01

    Four pepper genotypes classified as resistant and four pepper genotypes classified as susceptible to several avirulent populations of M. incognita were compared for their reactions against a population of Meloidogyne incognita (Chitwood) Kofoid and White which had been shown to be virulent to resistant bell pepper (Capsicum annuum) in preliminary tests. The virulent population of M. incognita originated from a commercial bell pepper field in California. The resistant pepper genotypes used in ...

  9. Competition of Meloidogyne incognita and Rotylenchulus reniformis on Cotton Following Separate and Concomitant Inoculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diez, Asdrubal; Lawrence, G. W.; Lawrence, K. S.

    2003-01-01

    It has been hypothesized Rotylenchulus reniformis (Rr) has a competitive advantage over Meloidogyne incognita (Mi) in the southeastern cotton production region of the United States. This study examines the reproduction and development of Meloidogyne incognita (Mi) and Rotylenchulus reniformis (Rr) in separate and concomitant infections on cotton. Under greenhouse conditions, cotton seedlings were inoculated simultaneously with juveniles (J2) of M. incognita and vermiform adults of R. reniformis in the following ratios (Mi:Rr): 0:0, 100:0, 75:25, 50:50, 25:75, and 0:100. Soil populations of M. incognita and R. reniformis were recorded at 3, 6, 9, 14, 19, 25, 35, 45, and 60 days after inoculations. At each date, samples were taken to determine the life stage of development, number of egg masses, eggs per egg mass, galls, and giant cells or syncytia produced by the nematodes. Meloidogyne incognita and R. reniformis were capable of initially inhibiting each other when the inoculum ratio of one species was higher than the other. In concomitant infections, M. incognita was susceptible to the antagonistic effect of R. reniformis. Rotylenchulus reniformis affected hatching of M. incognita eggs, delayed secondary infection of M. incognita J2, reduced the number of egg masses produced by M. incognita, and reduced J2 of M. incognita 60 days after inoculations. In contrast, M. incognita reduced R. reniformis soil populations only when its proportion in the inoculum ratio was higher than that of R. reniformis. Meloidogyne incognita reduced egg masses produced by R. reniformis, but not production of eggs and secondary infection. PMID:19262774

  10. Toxicidade de filtrados fúngicos a meloidogyne incognita

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    COSTA MAURO J.N.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Visando à obtenção de novas moléculas nematicidas, 18 filtrados de espécies fúngicas e extratos de sete micélios fúngicos foram estudados in vitro quanto aos efeitos sobre a eclosão, motilidade e mortalidade de juvenis do segundo estádio (J2 de Meloidogyne incognita. Filtrados fúngicos foram obtidos de culturas em meio Czapek. Metanol foi usado como solvente para obter extratos dos micélios fúngicos. Filtrados de Paecilomyces lilacinus, Fusarium moniliforme e Fusarium oxysporum reduziram a motilidade e eclosão, e aumentaram a mortalidade (P < 0,05 de J2 de M. incognita de forma semelhante à observada com Aldicarbe. Alguns filtrados fúngicos reduziram a motilidade, mas não causaram a morte de J2. Já os filtrados de Aspergillus flavus, Cylindrocarpon magnusianum, Fusarium solani e Mortierella sp. reduziram apenas a eclosão de J2. Não houve correlação entre a produção de metabólitos tóxicos e a quantidade de micélio fúngico produzido. No caso específico de P. lilacinus, observou-se que após o primeiro dia de cultivo o filtrado fúngico correspondente já apresentava toxidez contra M. incognita. Com o aumento do número de dias de cultivo foi elevado o efeito do filtrado sobre o nematóide, sendo que apenas após 13 dias a mortalidade de J2 alcançou o índice de 100%.

  11. Dynamics of damage to tomato by Meloidogyne incognita

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    Ehwaeti, M.E.; Phillips, M. S.; Trudgill, D.L.

    1998-01-01

    Les dommages causés par #Meloidogyne incognita$ à des tomates cv. Moneymaker poussant dans des pots de grande tailles (3,65 kg de sol sec) ont été mis en relation avec la densité initiale de la population du mématode (Pi). Les dommages sont estimés après 42 et 135 jours de culture ; seule la Pi la plus élevée (20 oeufs viables/g de sol) cause une diminution statistiquement significative de la croissance aux deux dates de récolte. Après 135 jours, la croissance est également significativement ...

  12. Evaluation of Asteraceae Plants for Control of Meloidogyne incognita

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    Tsay, T. T.; Wu, S. T.; Lin, Y. Y.

    2004-01-01

    Of the 56 species and 43 genera of Asteraceae tested, 9 were highly resistant or immune to Meloidogyne incognita and did not form root galls. Twenty-six species and six cultivars had 25% or fewer roots galled and were considered moderately resistant to M. incognita. Pre-planting Cosmos bipinnatus (F190), Gaillardia pulchella, Tagetes erecta, Tithonia diversifolia, or Zinnia elegans (F645) reduced root galling and M. incognita J2 in and around Ipomoea reptans. Amendment of soils with roots, st...

  13. Elementos del ciclo de vida de población cubana de Meloidogyne incognita (Kofoid y White) Chitwood en Solanum lycopersicum L. / Life cycle elements of a Cuban population Meloidogyne incognita (Kofoid and White) in Solanum lycopersicum L.

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Dainé, Hernández-Ochandía; Yailén, Arias; Lucila, Gómez; Belkis, Peteira; Ileana, Miranda; Mayra G, Rodríguez.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available El experimento se desarrolló en condiciones semicontroladas, en aisladores biológicos (18-21ºC), con el objetivo de determinar la duración del ciclo de vida de Meloidogyne incognita (Kofoid y White) Chitwood y la producción de huevos por hembras adultas en las primeras 96h en tomate (Solanum lycoper [...] sicum L.). Plantas de unos 15cm de altura se trasplantaron a macetas y una semana después se inocularon 2500±5 J2 de M. incognita raza 2. A las 72 horas se retiraron y plantaron en macetas con suelo estéril. El sistema radical fue extraído seis días post-inoculación para observar los diferentes estadios. La temperatura media en el período del estudio fue de 18-21ºC. Tres plantas fueron extraídas diariamente y se detuvo la extracción 96h después de haberse observado las primeras hembras adultas con huevos en la matriz gelatinosa. Entre 7 y 10 días posteriores a la inoculación, las raíces del tomate mostraron zonas hinchadas, indicativo de la entrada de los juveniles y de su alimentación. El ciclo de vida, desde J2 a hembra con matriz gelatinosa y huevos fue de 24 días. Las hembras en las primeras 24 horas depositaron más de 50 huevos en las matrices y a las 96h, tenían como promedio más de 100 huevos cada una. Abstract in english The experiment was carried out under semi controlled conditions in biological insulators (18-21ºC), with the objective of determining the duration of the life cycle of Meloidogyne incognita (Kofoid & White) Chitwood and the egg production of the adult females on tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) in t [...] he first 96h. Plants with about 15cm of height were transplanted to pots and, a week later, inoculated with 2500 ±5 J2 of M. incognita race 2. At 72 hours, they were removed and planted in pots with sterile soil. The root system was drawn out six days after inoculation to observe the different stages. The average temperature during the study was 18 to 21ºC. Three plants were removed and the daily extraction was stopped 96 h after the first adult females with eggs in the gelatinous matrix were observed. Between 7 and 10 days after inoculation, the roots of tomato showed swollen areas, indicative of the entrance of the juveniles and their feeding. The life cycle from J2 to female eggs with gelatinous matrix was 24 days. In the first 24 hours, the females deposited over 50 eggs in the wombs, and at 96h, each of them had an average of eggs higher than 100.

  14. Effects of a wild type strain and a mutant strain of the fungus Verticillium lecanii on Meloidogyne incognita populations in greenhouse studies

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    Meyer, S. L. F.

    1994-01-01

    La capacité d'une souche de #Verticillium lecanii$ et celle d'un mutant induit par les UV à réduire des populations de #Meloidogyne incognita$ sur des plants de tomates ont été testées. Les deux souches ont été incorporées à un mélange de son et d'alginate, et trois taux - 0,0009 %, 0,002 % et 0,02 % de poids sec de champignon par poids de sol - ont été placés à proximité des racines. La souche mutante a été également testée aux taux de 0,002 et 0,006 %. Le nombre d'oeufs et de juvéniles a ét...

  15. Toxicidade de filtrados fúngicos a meloidogyne incognita / Fungus filtrates toxicity to Meloidogyne incognita

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    MAURO J.N., COSTA; VICENTE P., CAMPOS; LUDWIG H., PFENNING; DENILSON F., OLIVEIRA.

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Visando à obtenção de novas moléculas nematicidas, 18 filtrados de espécies fúngicas e extratos de sete micélios fúngicos foram estudados in vitro quanto aos efeitos sobre a eclosão, motilidade e mortalidade de juvenis do segundo estádio (J2) de Meloidogyne incognita. Filtrados fúngicos foram obtido [...] s de culturas em meio Czapek. Metanol foi usado como solvente para obter extratos dos micélios fúngicos. Filtrados de Paecilomyces lilacinus, Fusarium moniliforme e Fusarium oxysporum reduziram a motilidade e eclosão, e aumentaram a mortalidade (P Abstract in english In the search for new nematicidal molecules, 18 fungal species filtrates and seven fungus mycelium extracts were studied in vitro to see their influence on hatching, mobility and mortality of second stage juveniles (J2) of Meloidogyne incognita. Fungal filtrates were obtained from fifteen day Czapek [...] cultures. Methanol was used as solvent to obtain fungus mycelium extracts. Paecilomyces lilacinus, Fusarium moniliforme and Fusarium oxysporum filtrates reduced J2 motility and hatching, and increased J2 mortality (P

  16. Nutsedge Counts Predict Meloidogyne incognita Juvenile Counts in an Integrated Management System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ou, Zhining; Murray, Leigh; Thomas, Stephen H; Schroeder, Jill; Libbin, James

    2008-06-01

    The southern root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne incognita), yellow nutsedge (Cyperus esculentus) and purple nutsedge (Cyperus rotundus) are important pests in crops grown in the southern US. Management of the individual pests rather than the pest complex is often unsuccessful due to mutually beneficial pest interactions. In an integrated pest management scheme using alfalfa to suppress nutsedges and M. incognita, we evaluated quadratic polynomial regression models for prediction of the number of M. incognita J2 in soil samples as a function of yellow and purple nutsedge plant counts, squares of nutsedge counts and the cross-product between nutsedge counts . In May 2005, purple nutsedge plant count was a significant predictor of M. incognita count. In July and September 2005, counts of both nutsedges and the cross-product were significant predictors. In 2006, the second year of the alfalfa rotation, counts of all three species were reduced. As a likely consequence, the predictive relationship between nutsedges and M. incognita was not significant for May and July. In September 2006, purple nutsedge was a significant predictor of M. incognita. These results lead us to conclude that nutsedge plant counts in a field infested with the M. incognita-nutsedge pest complex can be used as a visual predictor of M. incognita J2 populations, unless the numbers of nutsedge plants and M. incognita are all very low. PMID:19259526

  17. Reação de genótipos de maracujazeiro a Meloidogyne incognita raça 3 e Meloidogyne javanica / Reaction of passion fruit genotypes to Meloidogyne incognita race 3 and Meloidogyne javanica

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Leandro Souza, Rocha; Regina Cássia Ferreira, Ribeiro; Adelica Aparecida, Xavier; Fabíola de Jesus, Silva; Claudio Horst, Bruckner.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar a reação de genótipos de maracujazeiro a Meloidogyne spp.. O experimento foi conduzido em casa de vegetação em DBC, com seis repetições, em esquema fatorial 9x2 (Passiflora giberti, P. nitida, P. setacea, P. mucronata, P. cincinnata, P. ligularis, P.alata, híbrido [...] BRS Sol do Cerrado e seleção M19-UFV x Meloidogyne javanica e M. incognita raça 3). Segundo os critérios de Oostenbrink, e Moura e Régis, o BRS Sol do Cerrado, a seleção M-19-UFV e P. alata comportaram-se como imunes a M. incognita. Além destes, P. cincinnata e P. setacea foram imunes a M. javanica. Passiflora cincinnata e P.giberti comportaram-se como resistentes a M. incognita e M. javanica, respectivamente. Segundo Taylor e Sasser, os genótipos classificados como imunes pelos outros critérios foram classificados como resistentes aos nematoides. Todas as variáveis nematológicas avaliadas em P. giberti, P. ligularis, P. mucronata e P. nitida foram superiores em plantas infectadas por M. incognita. Independentemente do nematoide, P. mucronata apresentou maior número de galhas, massas de ovos, ovos, J2 e FR, em relação aos outros genótipos. O peso de matéria fresca de raiz de P. ligularis e P. mucronata foi menor na presença de M. incognita em relação a M. javanica. Abstract in english The aim of this study was to evaluate the reaction of genotypes of passion fruit to Meloidogyne spp.. The experiment was carried out in a greenhouse in RBD with six replications in 9 x 2 factorial designs (Passiflora giberti, P. nitida, P. setacea, P. mucronata, P. cincinnata, P. ligularis, P. alata [...] , BRS Sol do Cerrado cultivar and selection M19-UFV x Meloidogyne javanica and M. incognita race 3). According to Oostenbrink criteria, and Moura and Régis, the BRS Sol do Cerrado, and selection M-19-UFV and P. alata behaved as immune to M. incognita. In addition to these, P. cincinnata and P. setacea were immune to M. javanica. Passiflora cincinnata and P.giberti behaved as resistant to M. incognita and M. javanica, respectively. According to Taylor and Sasser, the genotypes classified as immune by the other criteria were classified as resistant to nematodes. All the nematological variables evaluated in P. giberti, P. ligularis, P. mucronata and P. nitida were superior in plants infected by M. incognita. Regardless of the nematode, P mucronata presented larger number of root galls, egg masses, eggs, J2 and RF, as compared to the other genotypes. The root fresh matter weight of P. ligularis and P. mucronata was smaller in the presence of M. incognita as compared to M. javanica.

  18. Development of virulence to Meloidogyne incognita on resistant pepper rootstocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ros-Ibanez, C.; Robertson, L.; Martinez-Lluch, M. C.; Cano-Garcia, A.; Lacasa-Plasencia, A.

    2014-06-01

    The root-knot nematode (RKN) Meloidogyne incognita is a major soil parasite of pepper crops in greenhouses in Southeast Spain. Due to the limitations of the use of soil fumigants, grafting plants on resistant rootstocks (R-rootstocks) has become an important alternative to chemical nematicides. The repeated use of R-rootstocks can bring about the selection of virulent populations capable of overcoming resistance. We carried out a six-year investigation on resistant rootstocks in a naturally M. incognita infested greenhouse, and found that two successive years of growing plants grafted on R-rootstocks Atlante (ATL) were sufficient to overcome resistance (galling index 1.5 and 5.6 in the first and second years respectively). A large variability was observed between several R-rootstocks. Two R-rootstocks (C19 and Snooker) behaved like ATL while two others (Terrano and DRO 8801) were not infected by RKN. Laboratory studies with the same R-rootstocks, inoculated with two nematode isolates (avirulent and virulent against ATL) confirmed the greenhouse results, indicating that some rootstocks may be infested by virulent populations and others may not. It suggests that different R-genes, which are differentially overcome by RKN, have been introgressed into the rootstocks. This may have consequences for the management of resistant rootstocks in the field. (Author)

  19. GENOTYPIC DIVERSITY OF POTATO GERMPLASM AGAINST ROOT KNOT NEMATODE (MELOIDOGYNE INCOGNITA INFECTION IN PAKISTAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sajid A. Khan

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Potato (Solanum tuberosum, an important vegetable crop of Pakistan endures significant yield losses due to root knot nematode (Meloidogyne incognita.. Research wok was designed to identify resistant potato germplasm against RKN (Meloidogyne incognita infection. A field trial was conducted in the research area of Department of Plant Pathology, University of Agriculture Faisalabad. Thirty six (36 potato verities/ cultivars relocated five times were sown in four years sick plot containing root knot nematode (Meloidogyne incognita in RCBD layout. Root knot nematode reproduction and host damage was accessed by recording nematode root galls and egg mass indices, root weight, shoot weight, , number of leaves, fruit weight, rate of reproduction and final population of nematodes. Experiment revealed a considerable variation in response against Meloidogyne incognita infection among the genotype tested but none of the single cultivar was immune. FD-8-1 was used as negative control. The cultivar FD-19-2 was highly susceptible followed by SH-692 and SH-5. All other cultivars had less galling index with low fecundity rate indicating their ability to suppress the adult female reproduction. The cultivar FD-1-3 scored least number of galls and egg mass indices followed by FD-49-62, SH-339 and SH-332.

  20. Reaction of Prunus Rootstocks to Meloidogyne incognita and M. arenaria in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marull, J; Pinochet, J; Verdejo-Lucas, S; Soler, A

    1991-10-01

    Prunus rootstocks were evaluated for their reaction to Meloidogyne incognita and M. arenaria. Most rootstocks were peach-almond hybrids of Spanish origin. In one experiment three selections of Garfi x Nemared (G x N) and Hansen-5 were highly resistant to M. incognita, but four other rootstocks were susceptible showing high galling indices and population increases. In two experiments with M. arenaria, the hybrid selections G x N nos. 1 and 9 were immune, GF-305 and Hansen-5 were resistant, but nine other rootstocks expressed various degrees of susceptibility. All Spanish rootstocks were susceptible to both Meloidogyne species except for the three G x N selections. The root-knot nematode resistant peach Nemared used as a male parent with Garfi was found to transmit a high degree of resistance to M. incognita and immunity to M. arenaria. Progenies of P. davidiana (Ga x D no. 3), a known source of resistance to root-knot nematodes, were susceptible. PMID:19283164

  1. Evaluation of Asteraceae Plants for Control of Meloidogyne incognita.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsay, T T; Wu, S T; Lin, Y Y

    2004-03-01

    Of the 56 species and 43 genera of Asteraceae tested, 9 were highly resistant or immune to Meloidogyne incognita and did not form root galls. Twenty-six species and six cultivars had 25% or fewer roots galled and were considered moderately resistant to M. incognita. Pre-planting Cosmos bipinnatus (F190), Gaillardia pulchella, Tagetes erecta, Tithonia diversifolia, or Zinnia elegans (F645) reduced root galling and M. incognita J2 in and around Ipomoea reptans. Amendment of soils with roots, stems, or leaves of G. pulchella was effective in controlling M. incognita on I. reptans. Tissue extracts of G. pulchella were lethal to various plant-parasitic nematodes but were innocuous to free-living nematodes. Root exudates of G. pulchella were lethal to J2 of M. incognita and were inhibitory to the hatch of eggs at the concentration of 250 ppm or higher. Gaillardia pulchella could be used to manage M. incognita as a rotation crop, a co-planted crop, or a soil amendment for control of root-knot nematode. PMID:19262785

  2. Efectividad biológica de extractos de Carya illinoensis, para el control de Meloidogyne incognita / Biological effectiveness of Carya illinoensis extracts for Meloidogyne incognita management

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Fabiola, Garrido Cruz; Melchor, Cepeda Siller; Francisco Daniel, Hernández Castillo; Yisa María, Ochoa Fuentes; Ernesto, Cerna Chávez; Diana Margarita, Morales Adame.

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available El trabajo se desarrolló durante 2012 en el Laboratorio de Nematología de la Universidad Autónoma Agraria Antonio Narro, con el objetivo de evaluar extractos vegetales derivados del nogal Carya illinoinensis (Wangenh) K. Koch, para el control del nematodo agallador Meloidogyne sp. Göldi 1889. Los ne [...] matodos fueron obtenidos a partir de tubérculos de papa (Solanum tuberosum L.) Var. "Alpha", que presentaban sintomatología. Se realizó la identificación de los nematodos y se determinó que correspondían a Meloidogyne incognita. Para el estudio de evaluació de efectividad biológica de los extractos se colocaron los extractos a diferentes concentraciones, (1.0, 1.5 y 2%) utilizando una población de 30 ±5 especímenes de Meloidogyne incognita activos, se estableció un experimento completamente al azar, con once tratamientos incluyendo al testigo y cinco repeticiones. Se observaron al microscopio estereoscópico a las 24, 48 y 72 h de exposición con los extractos, para determinar el porcentaje de mortalidad. De los extractos evaluados, los que presentaron mayor actividad nematicida fueron el FIM8 (ruezno acuoso) con 89.16%, FIM6 (Ruezno etanolítico) con 69.22%, y el FIM7 (Cáscara acuoso) con 60.77%, todos éstos en la concentración al 2% y en la observación a las 72 h de exposición con el extracto. Abstract in english The work was developed in 2012 at the Nematology Laboratory of the Universidad Autonoma Agraria Antonio Narro, with the aim of evaluating plant extracts derived hickory Carya illinoinensis (Wangenh) K. Koch, for the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne sp. Göldi (1889) management. Nematodes were obtained [...] from potato tubers (Solanum tuberosum L.) Var. "Alpha", presenting symptoms. Identification of nematodes was performed and it was determined that corresponded to Meloidogyne incognita. Assessment study for the biological effectiveness of the extracts extracts were placed at different concentrations (1.0, 1.5 and 2%) using a population of 30 ± 5 Meloidogyne incognita specimens of assets, an experiment was completely randomized, with eleven treatments including control and five replications. Stereoscopic microscope at 24, 48 and 72 h of exposure to the extracts were observed to determine the percentage of mortality. Of the extracts tested, those with higher nematicidal activity were FIM8 (aqueous husk) with 89.16%, FIM6 (etanolítico husk) with 69.22%, and FIM7 (aqueous shell) with 60.77%, all these in the concentration of 2% and observation at 72 h of exposure to the extract.

  3. Effect of Crotalaria juncea Amendment on Squash Infected with Meloidogyne incognita

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, K.-H.; McSorley, R.; Gallaher, R. N.

    2004-01-01

    Two greenhouse experiments were conducted to examine the effect of Crotalaria juncea amendment on Meloidogyne incognita population levels and growth of yellow squash (Cucurbita pepo). In the first experiment, four soils with a long history of receiving yard waste compost (YWC+), no-yard-waste compost (YWC-), conventional tillage, or no-tillage treatments were used; in the second experiment, only one recently cultivated soil was used. Half of the amount of each soil received air-dried residues...

  4. Meloidogyne incognita Inoculum Source Affects Host Suitability and Growth of Yellow Nutsedge and Chile Pepper

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas, S. H.; Schroeder, J.; Kenney, M. J.; Murray, L W

    1997-01-01

    Meloidogyne incognita (Mi) reproduction and host plant responses in chile pepper (Capsicum annuum) and yellow nutsedge (Cyperus esculentus = YNS) to three sources of inoculum obtained by rearing a single Mi population on chile, YNS, and tomato were evaluated in two factorial greenhouse experiments. The interactive effects of Mi inoculum source and crop-weed competition were determined. In the absence of YNS competition, chile growth was reduced less by Mi inoculum from chile than by inoculum ...

  5. Competition of Meloidogyne incognita and Rotylenchulus reniformis on Cotton Following Separate and Concomitant Inoculations

    OpenAIRE

    Diez, Asdrubal; Lawrence, G. W.; Lawrence, K. S.

    2003-01-01

    It has been hypothesized Rotylenchulus reniformis (Rr) has a competitive advantage over Meloidogyne incognita (Mi) in the southeastern cotton production region of the United States. This study examines the reproduction and development of Meloidogyne incognita (Mi) and Rotylenchulus reniformis (Rr) in separate and concomitant infections on cotton. Under greenhouse conditions, cotton seedlings were inoculated simultaneously with juveniles (J2) of M. incognita and vermiform adults of R. reniform...

  6. Reação de genótipos de maracujazeiro a Meloidogyne incognita raça 3 e Meloidogyne javanica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Souza Rocha

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar a reação de genótipos de maracujazeiro a Meloidogyne spp.. O experimento foi conduzido em casa de vegetação em DBC, com seis repetições, em esquema fatorial 9x2 (Passiflora giberti, P. nitida, P. setacea, P. mucronata, P. cincinnata, P. ligularis, P.alata, híbrido BRS Sol do Cerrado e seleção M19-UFV x Meloidogyne javanica e M. incognita raça 3. Segundo os critérios de Oostenbrink, e Moura e Régis, o BRS Sol do Cerrado, a seleção M-19-UFV e P. alata comportaram-se como imunes a M. incognita. Além destes, P. cincinnata e P. setacea foram imunes a M. javanica. Passiflora cincinnata e P.giberti comportaram-se como resistentes a M. incognita e M. javanica, respectivamente. Segundo Taylor e Sasser, os genótipos classificados como imunes pelos outros critérios foram classificados como resistentes aos nematoides. Todas as variáveis nematológicas avaliadas em P. giberti, P. ligularis, P. mucronata e P. nitida foram superiores em plantas infectadas por M. incognita. Independentemente do nematoide, P. mucronata apresentou maior número de galhas, massas de ovos, ovos, J2 e FR, em relação aos outros genótipos. O peso de matéria fresca de raiz de P. ligularis e P. mucronata foi menor na presença de M. incognita em relação a M. javanica.

  7. Reação de crisântemos a Meloidogyne incognita, Meloidogyne javanica e Meloidogyne enterolobii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucivane Aparecida Gonçalves

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a resistência de 14 variedades de crisântemos aos nematoides Meloidogyne incognita, M. javanica e M. enterolobii. O experimento foi conduzido em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, constando de 15 tratamentos e 4 repetições, por espécie de nematoide. Cada parcela foi constituída por uma planta por vaso, mantidas em casa de vegetação e inoculadas com 5.000 ovos e eventuais juvenis de M. incognita, M. javanica e M. enterolobii. Após 60 dias, os índices de massas de ovos, número de nematoides por grama de raiz e o fator de reprodução foram avaliados. As variedades apresentaram imunidade a M. incognita, M. javanica e M. enterolobii, exceto 'Capello Vermelho' e 'White Reagon', que foram respectivamente suscetível e resistente a M. incognita.

  8. Response of Tomato Cultigens to Meloidogyne javanica and Races of Meloidogyne incognita

    OpenAIRE

    Khan, Arbrar Ahmad; Khan, M. Wajid

    1991-01-01

    Thirty-six cultigens of tomato were evaluated for resistance against Meloidogyne javanica and four races of M. incognita with standards and parameters adopted by the International Meloidogyne Project. Most cultigens were susceptible to the nematodes, including some that were previously reported to be resistant to these nematodes. Ten accessions, namely Pusa-120, Calmart VFN, Panjab 6.NR-7, EC173898 (72T6), EC173897 (Cal-Mart), EC173896 (Kewalo), CLN363BC?F?-167-1-0, CLN363BC?F?-190-1-0, CLN36...

  9. Resistência de cultivares de batata-doce a Meloidogyne incognita / Resistance of sweet potato cultivars to Meloidogyne incognita

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Maria J. A., Wanderley; Jaime M., Santos.

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve o objetivo de estudar a resistência em 35 cultivares de batata-doce (Ipomoea batatas) a Meloidogyne incognita, bem como documentar alterações anatômicas em tecidos de raízes de cultivares infetadas. As plantas foram inoculadas em vasos com 3.000 ovos e juvenis de segundo est [...] ádio do nematóide e avaliadas aos 90 dias após com base no fator de reprodução (FR). Entre as 35 cultivares 15 foram consideradas resistentes. Alterações anatômicas nas raízes de cultivares suscetíveis são ilustradas, observando-se bloqueio de vasos do xilema e supressão de tecidos vasculares. Abstract in english The objectives of this study were to evaluate the resistance of 35 sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) cultivars to Meloidogyne incognita and illustrating anatomical changes in tissue of infected plants. The plants were inoculated with 3,000 eggs and juveniles of M. incognita and evaluated at 90 days aft [...] er inoculation based on the reproduction factor of the nematode (RF). Among the 35 cultivars tested, 15 of them were considered resistant. Anatomical changes in sweet potato roots are illustrated, showing interruption of xylem vessels and progressive suppression of vascular tissues.

  10. Cyperus Tubers Protect Meloidogyne incognita from 1,3-Dichloropropene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, S H; Schroeder, J; Murray, L W

    2004-06-01

    Meloidogyne incognita-infected and noninfected tubers of yellow nutsedge (Cyperus esculentus) and purple nutsedge (Cyperus rotundus) were treated with 56 L/ha 1,3-dichloropropene (1,3-D) in microplots and subsequently examined for tuber and nematode viability in the greenhouse using a chile pepper (Capsicum annuum) bioassay system. The study was conducted three times. Nutsedge tuber viability and M. incognita harbored in both yellow and purple nutsedge tubers were unaffected by 1,3-D treatment. Nematode reproduction on nutsedges and associated chile pepper plants varied among years, possibly due to differing levels of tuber infection or soil temperature, but was not affected by fumigation. The presence of M. incognita resulted in greater yellow nutsedge tuber germination and reproduction. The efficacy of 1,3-D for management of M. incognita in chile pepper production is likely to be reduced when nutsedges are present in high numbers, reinforcing the importance of managing these weeds and nematodes simultaneously. PMID:19262797

  11. Resistência de cultivares de batata-doce a Meloidogyne incognita

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanderley Maria J. A.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve o objetivo de estudar a resistência em 35 cultivares de batata-doce (Ipomoea batatas a Meloidogyne incognita, bem como documentar alterações anatômicas em tecidos de raízes de cultivares infetadas. As plantas foram inoculadas em vasos com 3.000 ovos e juvenis de segundo estádio do nematóide e avaliadas aos 90 dias após com base no fator de reprodução (FR. Entre as 35 cultivares 15 foram consideradas resistentes. Alterações anatômicas nas raízes de cultivares suscetíveis são ilustradas, observando-se bloqueio de vasos do xilema e supressão de tecidos vasculares.

  12. Impact of Meloidogyne incognita on Physiological Efficiency of Vitis vinifera

    OpenAIRE

    Melakeberhan, H.; Ferris, H.

    1989-01-01

    Four-week-old French Colombard plants rooted from green cuttings were inoculated with 0, 1,000, 2,000, 4,000, or 8,000 Meloidogyne incognita second-stage juveniles and maintained at 25 C night and 30 C day. Leaf area and dry weight and the rates of photosynthesis, stomatal conductance, and internal leaf CO? concentration were measured at intervals up to 59 days after inoculation. Nematode stress dosage, measured as the product of cumulative number of juveniles and females and their total ener...

  13. Identificación morfológica, morfométrica y molecular de meloidogyne incognita en higuera (ficus carica l.) en Costa Rica

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Walter, Peraza-Padilla; Johaner, Rosales-Flores; Alejandro, Esquivel-Hernández; Irena, Hilje-Rodríguez; Ramón, Molina-Bravo; Pablo, Castillo-Castillo.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Identificación morfológica, morfométrica y molecular de Meloidogyne incognita en higuera (Ficus carica L.) en Costa Rica. El objetivo de este estudio fue identificar la especie de Meloidogyne asociada a dos plantaciones de higuera en Costa Rica. En marzo de 2012, en el distrito de Pacayas, provincia [...] de Cartago, se detectaron agallas en los sistemas radicales de plantas de higuera (Ficus carica L.) de dos fincas. De las raíces agalladas se extrajeron hembras, masas de huevos y juveniles (J2) de Meloidogyne sp. Se examinaron los patrones perineales de las hembras y los segundos estadios infectivos se analizaron morfológica y molecularmente mediante PCR-RFLP. Se amplificó la región intergénica (IGS) del genoma mitocondrial, delimitada por el gen de la subunidad II de la citocromo oxidasa (COII) y el gen ribosomal 16S. La población de nematodos se identificó como M. incognita. El tamaño de los productos de PCR generados con los imprimadores C2F3 y 1108 fue de 1,7 kb. Al tratar los productos de PCR con enzimas de restricción, se generaron cuatro fragmentos de 850, 450, 250 y 150 pb con la enzima AluI y dos fragmentos de 1300 y 400 pb con la enzima HinfI. Abstract in english Morphological, morphometrical and molecular identification of Meloidogyne incognita in fig (Ficus carica L.) in Costa Rica. The objective of this study was to identify species of Meloidogyne associated with two fig plantations in Costa Rica. On March 2012 in Pacayas, Cartago province, root-galls wer [...] e found in two fig plantations of Ficus carica L. Females, egg-masses and juveniles (J2) of Meloidogyne sp. were extracted from the galled roots. Female perineal patterns were examined and second infective stages were analyzed morphometrically and molecularly by PCR-RFLP. The mitochondrial intergenic region (IGS) flanked by the cytochrome oxidase subunit II gene (COII) and the 16S ribosomal gene was amplified. The population was identified morphologically, morphometrically and molecularly as M. incognita. The PCR product obtained with primers C2F3 and 1108 were 1.7 kb in size. When PCR products were treated with restriction enzymes they generated four fragments of 850, 450, 250 and 150 bp with AluI and two fragments of 1300 and 400 bp with HinfI.

  14. RESPUESTA DE GENOTIPOS DE SOLANÁCEAS FRENTE A Meloidogyne incognita (KOFOID Y WHITE) CHITWOOD RAZA 2 Y M. arenaria (NEAL) CHITWOOD / RESPONSE OF DIFFERENT GENOTYPES OF SOLANACEAE TO Meloidogyne incognita (KOFOID AND WHITE) CHITWOOD RACE 2 AND M. arenaria (NEAL) CHITWOOD

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Farah María, González; Lucila, Gómez; Mayra G, Rodríguez; Maité, Piñón; A, Casanova; Olimpia, Gómez; Yaritza, Rodríguez.

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Con el objetivo de conocer el grado de resistencia/susceptibilidad de seis genotipos de solanáceas, frente a Meloidogyne incognita raza 2 y de M. arenara, en macetas, se inocularon las plantas con tres niveles de nematodo (0,5, 1,5 y 2,5 huevos - J2.g de suelo-1). Se utilizó como control susceptible [...] la variedad de tomate Campbell-28. Para la categorización de los genotipos se determinó el Índice de Agallamiento (IA), el Factor de Reproducción (FR) y el Índice de Reproducción (IR) de los nematodos, siguiendo la metodología establecida. Los genotipos S. torvum y S. erianthum tuvieron un comportamiento inmune frente M. incognita y altamente resistentes a M. arenaria. S. mammosum fue altamente resistente a ambas especies pero su eficiencia disminuyó cuando se enfrentó al nivel más alto de M. incognita. Los cultivares de tomate Motelle y Rossol fueron altamente resistentes a M. incognita. D. stramoniun no mostró síntomas de agallamiento ni grado de reproducción de los nematodos por lo que se clasificó como inmune para ambas especies. La población de M. arenaria se mostró más virulenta que la de M. incognita raza 2. Se discute la respuesta mostrada por los genotipos y las poblaciones de Meloidogyne, así como los posibles usos de los genotipos como patrones porta injertos. Abstract in english The resistance/susceptibility of six solanaceous genotypes to Meloidogyne incognita race 2 and M. arenaria were assessed, under a range of population densities (0,5, 1,5 and 2,5 eggs - J2.g of soil-1) of both nematodes. The plants were grown in pots in a greenhouse. The tomato variety Campbell-28 wa [...] s used as a susceptible control. The gall index, reproductive index and reproductive factor were the parameter evaluated to assign a resistance/susceptible category of the genotypes according to the established methodology. S. torvum and S. erianthum were immune to M. incognita whereas they were highly resistant to M. arenaria with no significant differences at any inoculum level. S. mammosum responded as highly resistant to both populations but the efficiency was negatively affected by the highest level of M. incognita. The tomato cultivars Motelle and Rossol were also highly resistant to M. incognita. D. stramoniun was classified as immune to both M incognita and M. arenaria populations as no symptoms or reproduction of the nematode were observed on its roots. M. arenaria population appeared to be more virulent than the population of M. incognita race 2. The reaction of the genotypes and nematodes, as well as the possible use of the genotypes as stocks for grafting are discussed.

  15. Purificação de metabólitos fúngicos com efeitos tóxicos sobre Meloidogyne incognita / Purification of fungal metabolites with toxic effects on Meloidogyne incognita

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    GERALDO H., SILVA; DENILSON F., OLIVEIRA; VICENTE P., CAMPOS.

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available Objetivando o desenvolvimento de novas metodologias de controle de fitonematóides, este trabalho buscou purificar as substâncias nematicidas produzidas por Cunninghamella elegans, Fusarium sp., Paecilomyces lilacinus eP. variotii. Esses fungos foram cultivados em meio líquido Czapek-Dox durante 15 d [...] ias, a 25 ºC, em agitador orbital. Em seguida, filtraram-se as misturas, o que permitiu a obtenção de soluções que foram concentradas sob vácuo e submetidas à purificação direcionada por testes in vitro com Meloidogyne incognita. Observou-se que os filtrados de P. lilacinus e P. variotii perdiam suas atividades nematicidas após a concentração sob vácuo, sugerindo que as substâncias ativas produzidas por esses fungos são consideravelmente voláteis. Para o filtrado de Fusarium sp., observou-se perda total da atividade contra M. incognita após fracionamento em coluna de sílica gel, indicando instabilidade da substância nematicida frente às condições empregadas.Do filtrado de C. elegans isolou-se uma substância que, em solução aquosa na concentração de 250 ppm, imobilizou 94% dos juvenis do segundo estádio de M. incognita expostos a tal solução durante 48 h. Abstract in english In a search for new molecules toxic to plant parasitic nematodes, procedures were set up to purify nematode toxic molecules produced by Cunninghamella elegans, Fusarium sp., Paecilomyces lilacinus and P. variotii. Those fungi were grown in Czapek-Dox liquid medium during 15 days, at 25 ºC, in an orb [...] ital shaker. After fungus mycelium removal by filtration, the solutions were concentrated under vacuum and submitted to purification, guided by in vitro assays with Meloidogyne incognita juveniles. As a result, it was observed that P. lilacinus and P.variotii filtrates lost their activity after vacuum concentration, which suggests that the nematocides produced by those fungi are considerably volatile. In the case of Fusarium sp. filtrate, the active substance seems to be unstable, as the activity against M. incognita juveniles completely disappeared after chromatography in a silica gel column. The C. elegans filtrate rendered one isolated substance that immobilized 94% of the M. incognita juveniles exposed during 48 h to an aqueous solution of the substance at 250 ppm.

  16. REPRODUÇÃO DE Meloidogyne incognita RAÇA 2 E DE Meloidogyne javanica EM OITO ESPÉCIES DE PLANTAS MEDICINAIS

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    S.L., MACIEL; L.C.C.B., FERRAZ.

    1996-05-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se as taxas reprodutivas de Meloidogyne incognita raça 2 e de Meloidogyne javanica em oito espécies de plantas consideradas medicinais, em vasos com 500 ml de solo, sob condição de casa de vegetação. Cada planta foi inoculada com 5000 ovos, em média, estabelecendo-se cinco repetições. Real [...] izaram-se as avaliações após 45 a 55 dias das inoculações, com base nos índices de massas de ovos e nos fatores de reprodução dos nematóides. Achillea millefolium (mil-folhas), Arctium lappa (bardana), Bryophyllum calycinum (folha-da-fortuna) e Crassula portulacea (bálsamo) foram hospedeiras não eficientes ou desfavoráveis a ambas as espécies. Plectranthus barbatus (boldo) e Polygonum hidropiperoides (polígono) foram eficientes à reprodução das duas espécies. Achyrocline satureoides (macela) e Tropaeolum majus (chagas) foram eficientes para M. javanica e não para M. incognita. Abstract in english The reproductive rates of the root-knot nematodes Meloidogyne incognita race 2 and M. javanica in the roots of eight medicinal plant species were assessed under greenhouse condition. Each plant, growing in a pot containing 500 ml of sterilized soil, was inoculated with an average number of 5,000 egg [...] s, with five repetitions. Egg mass index and reproduction factor data were used for the evaluation, 45-55 days after plant inoculation. Achillea millefolium, Arctium lappa, Bryophyllum calycinum, and Crassula portulacea were rated as poor or nonefficient hosts, while Plectranthus barbatus and Polygonum hidropiperoides were efficient for both nematode species. Achyrocline satureoides and Tropaeolum majus were efficient for M. javanica, but nonefficient for M. incognita.

  17. Chemical-Mediated Toxicity of N-Viro Soil to Heterodera glycines and Meloidogyne incognita

    OpenAIRE

    Zasada, I. A.; Tenuta, M.

    2004-01-01

    N-Viro Soil (NVS) is an alkaline-stabilized municipal biosolid that has been shown to lower population densities and reduce egg hatch of Heterodera glycines and other plant-parasitic nematodes; but the mechanism(s) of nematode suppression of this soil amendment are unknown. This study sought to identify NVS-mediated changes in soil chemical properties and their impact upon H. glycines and Meloidogyne incognita mortality. N-Viro Soil was applied to sand in laboratory assays at 0.5%, 1.0%, 2.0%...

  18. Damage Potential and Reproduction of Meloidogyne incognita Race 3 and M. arenaria Race 1 on Kenaf

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, F.; Noe, J. P.

    1996-01-01

    The effects of Meloidogyne incognita race 3 and M. arenaria race 1 on growth of kenaf cv. Everglades 41 was determined under greenhouse conditions. Seedlings of kenaf were inoculated with initial population densities (Pi) of 0, 625, 1,250, 2,500, 5,000, and 10,000 eggs/plant and placed on greenhouse benches in a randomized complete block design. Plant growth and nematode reproduction were assessed 6 and 12 weeks after inoculation. Growth suppression of kenaf in response to increasing Pi was o...

  19. Raphanus sativus, Sinapis alba, and Fagopyrum esculentum as Hosts to Meloidogyne incognita, Meloidogyne javanica, and Plasmodiophora brassicae

    OpenAIRE

    Gardner, J.; Caswell-Chen, E.P.

    1994-01-01

    Cultivars of oilseed radish (Raphanus sativus var. oleifera cv. Adagio, Nemex, Pegletta, Renova, Siletina, Siletta Nova, and Ultimo), white mustard (Sinapis alba cv. Albatross, Emergo, Maxi, Martigena, Metex, and Serval), buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum cv. Prego, Tardo), and phacelia (Phacelia tanacetifolia cv. Angelia) were tested for susceptibility to Meloidogyne incognita race 3 and Meloidogyne javanica. Experiments were conducted in growth chambers at 25 C and 16 hours light for 42 days ...

  20. Effects of Meloidogyne arenaria infection on M. incognita resistance in tobacco

    OpenAIRE

    Baum, T.J.; Fortnum, B.A.; Lewis, S. A.

    1995-01-01

    Le système racinaire de plants de tabac résistants à #Meloidogyne incognita$ races 1 et 3 est séparé en deux parties en utilisant trois techniques différentes. Une partie est inoculée avec des oeufs de #M. arenaria$ et l'autre avec des oeufs de #M. incognita$. Les oeufs de #M. arenaria$ ou de #M. incognita$ sont placés sur l'une ou l'autre partie du système racinaire, soit simultanément, soit successivement, mais en décalant l'inoculation de #M. incognita$. Après 45 à 60 jours de croissance e...

  1. Susceptibilidad de genotipos de Solanum lycopersicum L. frente a Meloidogyne incognita Kofoid y White (Chitwood) / Susceptibility of Solanum lycopersicum L. genotypes against Meloidogyne incognita Kofoid & White (Chitwood)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Lucila, Gómez; R, Enrique; Dainé, Hernández-Ochandía; Ileana, Miranda; E, González; Belkis, Peteira; Mayra G, Rodríguez.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó la resistencia/susceptibilidad de los genotipos Aro 8484, HA 3063, Caramba y HA 8476 de Solanum lycopersicum L. frente a Meloidogyne incognita Kofoid y White (Chitwood) raza 2 y se determinó la influencia de este nematodo sobre su crecimiento. Se establecieron dos experimentos en condicion [...] es semi-controladas, en macetas de 1,5L de capacidad. En el primero, cada genotipo, incluyendo el control susceptible tomate cv. Campbell-28, se inoculó con 1,5 J2. g de suelo-1. Para la categorización de los genotipos en resistentes/susceptibles se determinó el índice de agallamiento, el factor de reproducción y el índice de reproducción del nematodo. En el segundo experimento los genotipos se inocularon con 0; 0,5; 1,5 y 2,5 J2. g de suelo-1. Los cuatro genotipos con niveles 0 de nematodos constituyeron los controles. Cada experimento contó con 10 réplicas por tratamiento con una distribución aleatoria en casas de vegetación. Se realizó un análisis de regresión lineal para establecer la relación entre los niveles de nematodos y la altura de las plantas. Todos los genotipos fueron susceptibles a M. incognita. Se demostró que entre el 60 y el 94% de la disminución del tamaño de las plantas está relacionado con el aumento de las poblaciones del nematodo. No se recomienda el uso de estos genotipos en instalaciones de producción protegida de hortalizas con suelos infestados por M. incognita, sin antes establecer medidas de manejo que disminuyan las poblaciones por debajo de 0,5 J2.g de suelo-1. Abstract in english The resistance/susceptibility of Solanum lycopersicum L genotypes Aro 8484, HA 3063, Caramba and HA 8476 against Meloidogyne incognita Kofoid and White (Chitwood) race 2 and the influence of the nematode on the genotype growths were evaluated in two experiments under semi-controlled conditions. In t [...] he first experiment, the genotypes, including a susceptible control tomato Campbell-28, were inoculated with a level of 1,5 J2. g of soil-1. Root gall index, was reproduction factor and reproduction index of the nematode were determined for categorizing resistant/susceptible genotypes. In the second experiment, three levels of nematodes (0,5; 1,5 and 2,5 J2. g of soil-1) were used. Not inoculated genotypes were established as a control. Both experiments had 10 repetitions and were placed in a green house using a randomized distribution design. A lineal regression analysis was used to establish the relation of nematode levels and the plant growths. All genotypes were susceptible to M. incognita. It was demonstrated that the 60 to 94% of plant growth decrease related to the nematode population increase. The use of genotypes is not recommended in soils infected with M. incognita unless management measures are established for keeping nematode population below 0,5 J2.g of soil-1.

  2. Evaluation of Pochonia chlamydosporia, Paecilomyces lilacinus and Arthrobotrys dactyloide as Biocontrol Agents for Meloidogyne incognita under Green House Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abd El-Raheem R. EL-Shanshoury

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, evaluation of the nematophagous fungi Pochonia chlamydosporia, Paecilomyces lilacinus and Arthrobotrys dactyloide as biological control agents for Meloidogyne incognita was investigated under greenhouse conditions. Experiments confirmed the effectiveness of these predatory and parasitic fungi that actively reduced the number of infective larvae of M. incognita. The killing effect of these fungi is similar to the synthetic chemical nematicide Furadan and significantly better than the commercial preparation of bioagent Nameless?. The fungi under consideration have the potentiality to reduce population density of M. incognita along the growing season of faba bean plant to 95.4 to 98.9%. These nematophagous fungi enhanced shoot and root growth of Faba bean.

  3. Comportamiento de Meloidogyne incognita sobre tomate y pimiento resistente en Uruguay

    OpenAIRE

    Piedra Buena, A.; Díez-Rojo, M. A.; Bello Pérez, Antonio; Robertson, Lee; López-Pérez, J. A.; Escuer, M.; León, L.

    2005-01-01

    [ES] Para evaluar la influencia del sistema de cultivo en la selección de biotipos virulentos de Meloidogyne incognita en Uruguay, se estudió la virulencia de 33 poblaciones de este nematodo procedentes de invernaderos, tanto en monocultivo como en rotación, mediante bioensayos con cultivares de tomate y pimiento resistentes a M. incognita. Se encontraron 36,4% de las poblaciones virulentas a tomate y pimiento resistentes; 33,3% virulentas a tomate resistente, pero ...

  4. Meloidogyne incognita Survival in Soil Infested with Paecilomyces lilacinus and Verticillium chlamydosporium

    OpenAIRE

    Gaspard, J.T.; Jaffee, B.A.; Ferris, H.

    1990-01-01

    Meloidogyne incognita-infected tomato seedlings were transplanted into sterilized soil or unsterilized soil collected from 20 California tomato fields to measure suppression caused by Paecilomyces lilacinus, Verticillium chlamydosporium, and other naturally occurring antagonists. Unsterilized soils Q, A, and H contained 35, 39, and 55% fewer M. incognita second-stage juveniles (J2) than did sterilized soil 1 month after infected tomato seedlings were transplanted to these soils and placed in ...

  5. Mustard seed meal mixtures: management of Meloidogyne incognita on pepper and potential phytotoxicity

    OpenAIRE

    Meyer, Susan l. F.; Zasada, Inga A.; Orisajo, Samuel B.; Morra, Matthew J.

    2011-01-01

    Meals produced when oil is extracted from seeds in the Brassicaceae have been shown to suppress weeds and soilborne pathogens. These seed meals are commonly used individually as soil amendments; the goal of this research was to evaluate seed meal mixes of Brassica juncea (Bj) and Sinapis alba (Sa) against Meloidogyne incognita. Seed meals from Bj ‘Pacific Gold’ and Sa ‘IdaGold’ were tested alone and in combinations to determine rates and application times that would suppress M. incognita on p...

  6. Produtos naturais aplicados para manejo de Meloidogyne incognita em tomateiros

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Anchieta de Melo

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar o efeito de produtos naturais na expressão da resistência a Meloidogyne incognita em plantas de tomate produzidos organicamente. Os indutores Rocksil, Quitosana, Neemseto e Biopirol foram aplicados 5, 10 e 15 dias, em tratamentos independentes, antes da inoculação do patógeno através da pulverização foliar, utilizando-se duas dosagens para cada indutor. A inoculação do nematoide foi realizada 30 dias após o plantio, usando-se 5000 ovos/ planta. Avaliando-se o número de ovos e o fator de reprodução, 30 dias após a inoculação, observou-se que todos os tratamentos diferiram estatisticamente da testemunha, impedindo o aumento da população inicial do patógeno. Dentre os indutores, o indutor silicatado Rocksil foi o que apresentou os melhores resultados para o controle da meloidoginose em todas as épocas de aplicação e em todas as dosagens. Contudo, plantas tratadas com o produto apresentaram baixos pesos de parte aérea sugerindo que houve um custo adaptativo de resistência. Considerando-se o fator de reprodução não foram observadas diferenças estatísticas quando comparadas a dosagem e época de aplicação entre os indutores, com exceção da Quitosana aplicada aos 5 dias antes da inoculação e do Neemseto aplicado aos 15 dias antes da inoculação do nematóide.

  7. Interaction between Meloidogyne incognita and Rhizoctonia solani on green beans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Hazmi, A S; Al-Nadary, S N

    2015-09-01

    The interaction between Meloidogyne incognita (race 2) and Rhizoctonia solani (AG 4) in a root rot disease complex of green beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) was examined in a greenhouse pot experiment. Three week-old seedlings (cv. Contender) were inoculated with the nematode and/or the fungus in different combinations and sequences. Two months after last nematode inoculation, the test was terminated and data were recorded. The synchronized inoculation by both pathogens (N + F) increased the index of Rhizoctonia root rot and the number of root galls; and suppressed plant growth, compared to controls. However, the severity of root rot and suppression of plant growth were greater and more evident when inoculation by the nematode preceded the fungus (N ? F) by two weeks. Nematode reproduction (eggs/g root) was adversely affected by the presence of the fungus except by the synchronized inoculation. When inoculation by nematode preceded the fungus, plant growth was severely suppressed and roots were highly damaged and rotted leading to a decrease of root galls and eggs. PMID:26288560

  8. Efficacy of Fenamiphos Formulations Applied through Irrigation for Control of Meloidogyne incognita on Squash

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, A.W.; Young, J. R.

    1994-01-01

    Management ofMeloidogyne incognita by chemigation with fenamiphos was studied in an infested field planted to M. incognita-suscepfible yellow summer squash cv. Dixie Hybrid. Fenamiphos (VL 73.1% a.i. manufacturing concentrate in propylene glycol) was mixed with Unitol DSR-90 or used as fenamiphos 3 SC (spray concentrate). Both formulations, applied with 63.5 kl irrigation water per hectare, decreased numbers of M. incognita second-stage juveniles in the soil and root-gall indices, and increas...

  9. Response of Cowpea Breeding Lines and Cultivars to Meloidogyne incognita and M. arenaria

    OpenAIRE

    Kirkpatrick, T L; Moreflock, T. E.

    1987-01-01

    Twenty-four cowpea breeding lines and four cultivars were tested for resistance to Meloidogyne incognita in the greenhouse. Gall and egg mass ratings indicated a range of responses from susceptible to highly resistant. Five breeding lines - VS84-2, VS84-8, VS84-12, VS84-14, and VS84-22 - and the cultivar Erectset had gall and egg mass ratings comparable to the M. incognita-resistant cultivar Mississippi Silver. All of these were also resistant to M. arenaria. Significantly fewer M. incognita ...

  10. Protease inhibition by Heterodera glycines cyst content: evidence for effects on the Meloidogyne incognita proteasome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proteases from Heterodera glycines and Meloidogyne incognita juveniles were inhibited by heat-stable content of H. glycines female cysts (HglCE), and by the plant polyphenol epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG). General protease activities detected using the nematode peptide KSAYMRFa were inhibited by EG...

  11. Evaluation of repeated bio disinfestation using Brassica carinata pellets to control Meloidogyne incognita in protected pepper crops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guerrero-Diaz, M. M.; Lacasa-Martinez, C. M.; Hernandez-Pinera, A.; Martinez-Alarcon, V.; Lacasa Plasencia, A.

    2013-06-01

    The nematode Meloidogyne incognita is responsible for substantial losses in greenhouse-grown peppers in southeastern Spain. This study evaluates the use of biodisinfestation (BS) (organic amendment + solarisation) as an alternative to using methyl bromide (MB) over three consecutive years to control the nematode in greenhouse conditions. Brassica carinata (BP) pellets or B. carinata (BP) + fresh sheep manure (M) were evaluated in treatments which began on two different dates (August and October) and the results were compared with MB-disinfested and untreated controls. During the third year, the gall index for BP was lower than that obtained for BP +M and in the August treatment than in the October treatment. The commercial crop of pepper fruit obtained with the biodisinfestation treatments begun in August was similar to or higher than that obtained with MB, and higher than that obtained with both October biodisinfestation treatments. The yield of the October biodisinfestation treatments was higher than that of the untreated one. In August of all the years studied, the accumulated exposure times were greater than the thresholds required to kill M. incognita populations at 15 cm depth. The incidence of the nematode did not correspond to the reduction achieved during solarisation, and seemed to increase during the crop cycle. Further studies should look at why high temperatures do not produce a sustained reduction in the populations of Meloidogyne incognita. (Author) 56 refs.

  12. Susceptibility of Several Common Subtropical Weeds to Meloidogyne arenaria, M. incognita, and M. javanica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokalis-Burelle, Nancy; Rosskopf, Erin N

    2012-06-01

    Experiments were conducted in the greenhouse to assess root galling and egg production of three root-knot nematode species, Meloidogyne arenaria, M. incognita, and M. javanica, on several weeds common to Florida agricultural land. Weeds evaluated were Amaranthus retroflexus (redroot pigweed), Cyperus esculentus (yellow nutsedge), Eleusine indica (goosegrass), Portulaca oleracea (common purslane), and Solanum americanum (American black nightshade). Additionally, although it is recommended as a cover crop in southern regions of the U.S., Aeschynomene americana (American jointvetch) was evaluated as a weed following the detection of root galling in a heavy volunteer infestation of an experimental field in southeastern Florida. Weeds were propagated from seed and inoculated with 1000 nematode eggs when plants reached the two true-leaf stage. Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum 'Rutgers') was included as a positive control. Aeschynomene americana and P. oleracea roots supported the highest number of juveniles (J2) and had the highest number of eggs/g of root for all three species of Meloidogyne tested. However, though P. oleracea supported very high root levels of the three nematode species tested, its fleshy roots did not exhibit severe gall symptoms. Low levels of apparent galling, combined with high egg production, increase the potential for P. oleracea to support populations of these three species of root-knot nematodes to a degree that may not be appropriately recognized. This research quantifies the impact of P. oleracea as a host for M. arenaria, M. incognita, and M. javanica compared to several other important weeds commonly found in Florida agricultural production, and the potential for A. americana to serve as an important weed host of the three species of root-knot nematode tested in southern regions of Florida. PMID:23482324

  13. Produtos naturais aplicados para manejo de Meloidogyne incognita em tomateiros / Natural products applied to the management of Meloidogyne incognita in tomato plants

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Thiago Anchieta de, Melo; Ilka Márcia Ribeiro de Sousa, Serra; Gilson Soares da, Silva; Rosa Maria Souto de, Sousa.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar o efeito de produtos naturais na expressão da resistência a Meloidogyne incognita em plantas de tomate produzidos organicamente. Os indutores Rocksil, Quitosana, Neemseto e Biopirol foram aplicados 5, 10 e 15 dias, em tratamentos independentes, antes da inocul [...] ação do patógeno através da pulverização foliar, utilizando-se duas dosagens para cada indutor. A inoculação do nematoide foi realizada 30 dias após o plantio, usando-se 5000 ovos/ planta. Avaliando-se o número de ovos e o fator de reprodução, 30 dias após a inoculação, observou-se que todos os tratamentos diferiram estatisticamente da testemunha, impedindo o aumento da população inicial do patógeno. Dentre os indutores, o indutor silicatado Rocksil foi o que apresentou os melhores resultados para o controle da meloidoginose em todas as épocas de aplicação e em todas as dosagens. Contudo, plantas tratadas com o produto apresentaram baixos pesos de parte aérea sugerindo que houve um custo adaptativo de resistência. Considerando-se o fator de reprodução não foram observadas diferenças estatísticas quando comparadas a dosagem e época de aplicação entre os indutores, com exceção da Quitosana aplicada aos 5 dias antes da inoculação e do Neemseto aplicado aos 15 dias antes da inoculação do nematóide. Abstract in english This study aimed to evaluate the effect of natural products on the expression of resistance to Meloidogyne incognita in organically produced tomato plants. The inducers Rocksil, Chitosan, Neemseto and Biopirol were applied at 5, 10 and 15 days as independent treatments before the pathogen inoculatio [...] n by means of leaf spraying, using two levels for each inducer. The nematode inoculation was performed at 30 days after planting, using 5000 eggs/plant. Evaluating the number of eggs and the reproduction factor, at 30 days after inoculation, all treatments statistically differed from the control, preventing an increase in the initial population of the pathogen. Of the natural inducers, Rocksil showed the best results for controlling the root-knot nematode in all application times and at all levels. However, plants treated with the product had low shoot weights, suggesting that there was a fitness cost of resistance. Considering the reproduction factor, there were not statistical differences when the level and the application time were compared among natural inducers, except for Chitosan applied at 5 days before the nematode inoculation and Neemseto applied at 15 days before the nematode inoculation.

  14. Seed treatment affects Meloidogyne incognita penetration, colonization and reproduction on cotton / Tratamento de sementes afeta a penetração, colonização e reprodução de Meloidogyne incognita em algodão

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Rosana, Bessi; Fernando Ribeiro, Sujimoto; Mário Massayuki, Inomoto.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available O efeito de abamectina em tratamento de sementes na penetração, colonização e reprodução de Meloidogyne incognita, em algodão, foi avaliado em dois experimentos de casa de vegetação. A penetração de juvenis de segundo estádio (J2) foi avaliada aos três, nove e 15 dias após a germinação (dag), enquan [...] to que a colonização 27dag foi avaliada por meio da contagem do número total de galhas e massas de ovos por sistema radicular. Ovos e J2 de M. incognita foram extraídos das raízes para determinar a reprodução do nematoide aos 50 e 100dag. O tratamento de sementes diminuiu a penetração dos J2 nas raízes, resultando em menor colonização e reprodução de M. incognita. Os resultados obtidos são discutidos tendo em vista os aspectos ambientais da presença de abamectina no solo e as práticas agrícolas em uso. Abstract in english The effect of abamectin, applied as seed treatment, on Meloidogyne incognita penetration, colonization, and reproduction on cotton was evaluated in two greenhouse experiments. Second stage juveniles (J2) penetration was evaluated 3, 9 and 15 days after germination (dag), whereas the nematode coloniz [...] ation was evaluated 27dag, by counting the total number of galls and egg masses per root system. Eggs and J2 were extracted from the roots to assess the nematode reproduction at 50 and 100dag. The seed treatment caused a decrease in J2 penetration in the roots, resulting in lower colonization and reproduction of M. incognita. These findings are discussed considering the environmental aspects of abamectin in the soil and the current practices for the crop management.

  15. Seed treatment affects Meloidogyne incognita penetration, colonization and reproduction on cotton Tratamento de sementes afeta a penetração, colonização e reprodução de Meloidogyne incognita em algodão

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosana Bessi

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The effect of abamectin, applied as seed treatment, on Meloidogyne incognita penetration, colonization, and reproduction on cotton was evaluated in two greenhouse experiments. Second stage juveniles (J2 penetration was evaluated 3, 9 and 15 days after germination (dag, whereas the nematode colonization was evaluated 27dag, by counting the total number of galls and egg masses per root system. Eggs and J2 were extracted from the roots to assess the nematode reproduction at 50 and 100dag. The seed treatment caused a decrease in J2 penetration in the roots, resulting in lower colonization and reproduction of M. incognita. These findings are discussed considering the environmental aspects of abamectin in the soil and the current practices for the crop management.O efeito de abamectina em tratamento de sementes na penetração, colonização e reprodução de Meloidogyne incognita, em algodão, foi avaliado em dois experimentos de casa de vegetação. A penetração de juvenis de segundo estádio (J2 foi avaliada aos três, nove e 15 dias após a germinação (dag, enquanto que a colonização 27dag foi avaliada por meio da contagem do número total de galhas e massas de ovos por sistema radicular. Ovos e J2 de M. incognita foram extraídos das raízes para determinar a reprodução do nematoide aos 50 e 100dag. O tratamento de sementes diminuiu a penetração dos J2 nas raízes, resultando em menor colonização e reprodução de M. incognita. Os resultados obtidos são discutidos tendo em vista os aspectos ambientais da presença de abamectina no solo e as práticas agrícolas em uso.

  16. HISTOPATHOLOGICAL CHANGES AND ENZYMATIC ACTIVITIES INDUCED BY MELOIDOGYNE INCOGNITA ON RESISTANT AND SUSCEPTIBLE POTATO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moawad M. Mohamad

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available All potato cultivars are susceptible to root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp. which infest the roots and induce galls on the surface and necrotic spots in the flesh tuber of potato, Solanum tuberosum. Infested tubers are unacceptable for processing and fresh market. Tubers are also putative source of dissemination of the nematode. A French nematode- resistant tetraploid potato genotype gained from ex-S. sparsipilum material hybridized with S. tuberosum in F1 and in their back cross progenies and designated as 02T.155.6 was tested and compared in the present study in Egypt as a suitable different environment. Histopathological changes and chitinase activity induced by M. incognita population, of common occurrence in Egypt, in four French tetraploid materials and two common cultivars known as nematode- resistant and susceptible potato genotypes were investigated. Hypertrophied cells were initiated in both cortical and steler regions of the roots which were then developed to abnormal xylem elements expanding into the cortex in French susceptible genotypes designated as 02T.149.6, 02T.150.54, and 02T.157.16. Nematode within the vascular tissue (stele could induce giant cell development close to nematode heads. The largest number of such induced cells was shown by the cultivars Spunta and Diamant. The clone 02T.155.6 with putative nematode resistance demonstrated none or very little nematode development. Recently dead second stage juveniles could also indicate incompatible plant reaction to the invading nematodes in 02T.155.6. M. incognita, Giza population, resistance was generally more coherent to 02T.155.6 as demonstrated by our histological investigations but less coherent as shown by another Egyptian M. incognita population. Chitinase activity was enhanced in M. incognita (Giza-inoculated with respect to uninoculated roots in all plants. After inoculation, such an activity generally increased more in roots of a potato genotype previously known to have resistance or relatively low numbers of both nematode galls and eggmasses than in the other tested cultivars. Peroxidase and catalase activities of nematode- inoculated with respect to uninoculated potato roots were presented and discussed.

  17. Effects of Soil Compaction and Meloidogyne incognita on Cotton Root Architecture and Plant Growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jianbing; Kirkpatrick, Terrence L; Rothrock, Craig S; Brye, Kristofor

    2013-06-01

    The effects of a soil hardpan and Meloidogyne incognita on cotton root architecture and plant growth were evaluated in microplots in 2010 and 2011. Soil was infested with M. incognita at four different levels with or without a hardpan. The presence of a hardpan resulted in increased plant height, number of main stem nodes, and root fresh weight for cotton seedlings both years. Meloidogyne incognita decreased height and number of nodes for seedlings in 2010. Nematode infestation increased seedling root length and enhanced root magnitude, altitude, and exterior path length in 2010. This was also the case for root length and magnitude in 2011 at lower infestation levels suggesting compensatory growth. A hardpan had no consistent effect on these root parameters but increased root volume in both years. A hardpan hastened crop maturity and increased the number of fruiting branches that were produced, while M. incognita infection delayed crop development and reduced plant height and number of bolls. Both M. incognita infection and a hardpan reduced taproot length and root dry weight below the hardpan in both years. Root topological indices under all the treatments ranged from 1.71 to 1.83 both years indicating that root branching followed a herringbone pattern. The techniques for characterizing root architecture that were used in this study provide a greater understanding of changes that result from disease and soil abiotic parameters affecting root function and crop productivity. PMID:23833326

  18. Response of Trifolium repens Clones to Infection by Meloidogyne incognita and Peanut Stunt Virus

    OpenAIRE

    McLaughlin, M. R.; Windham, G. L.; Heagle, A. S.

    1993-01-01

    The responses of selected clones of white clover (Trifolium repens) to simultaneous infection by the southern root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne incognita) and peanut stunt virus (PSV) were determined. Two white clover clones, which were resistant (NC-R) or sensitive (NC-S) to ozone injury, were evaluated. Plant growth and M. incognita reproduction were measured. Root, stolon, and top growth were reduced by PSV infection, which affected NC-R more than NC-S. Both clones were tolerant of M. incogn...

  19. Evaluation of Nicotiana otophora as a Source of Resistance to Meloidogyne incognita Race 4 for Tobacco

    OpenAIRE

    Reed, S M; Schneider, S.M.

    1992-01-01

    No currently available tobacco cultivar possesses resistance to Meloidogyne incognita race 4, nor has any source of resistance been reported within Nicotiana tabacum. The purpose of this study was to evaluate N. otophora acc. La Quinta as a source of resistance to this pathogen. Plants of tobacco cvs. NC 95 and NC 2326, N. otophora La Quinta and N. repanda were inoculated with second-stage juveniles of M. incognita race 4. Gall indices and egg-mass ratings were assessed at 4 and 8 weeks after...

  20. Immunocytochemical analysis of the stage-specific distribution of collagen in the cuticle of Meloidogyne incognita

    OpenAIRE

    Ray, C; Reddigari, S R; Jansma, P.L.; Allen, R.; Hussey, R.S.

    1996-01-01

    Il a été porduit un antisérum polyclonal dirigé contre la protéine majeure du collagène (76 kDa) extraite de la cuticule de femelles adultes de #Meloidogyne incognita$. La composition en acides aminés de cette protéine est semblable à celle du collagène d'autres nématodes. Parmi les protéines extraites de la cuticule de femelles adultes de #Meloidogyne$ et solubles dans le bêta-mercaptoéthanol, deux protéines du collagène (Mr 76 et 140 kDa) ainsi que plusieurs protéines du collagène de junévi...

  1. Responses of Meloidogyne arenaria and M. incognita to Green Manures and Supplemental Urea in Glasshouse Culture

    OpenAIRE

    Crow, W. T.; Guertal, E. A.; Rodríguez-Kábana, R.

    1996-01-01

    The recent loss of many effective nematicides has led to renewed interest in alternative methods of nematode management. Greenhouse experiments were conducted to determine the effects of rapeseed and velvetbean green manures, and supplemental urea, on the root-knot nematodes Meloidogyne arenaria and M. incognita. Green manures were incorporated with M. arenaria-infested soil using rates totaling 200,300, and 400 mg N/kg soil. Squash plants grown in this soil were evaluated using a gall index ...

  2. Response of Sesamum indicum and S. radiatum Accessions to Root-knot Nematode, Meloidogyne incognita

    OpenAIRE

    Walker, J.T.; Melin, J. B.; Davis, J

    1998-01-01

    Twenty Sesame indicum and four S. radiatum accessions in the USDA Plant Introduction collection were evaluated for reaction to the root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita race 3, at two initial egg densities under greenhouse conditions. All sesame accessions produced considerably fewer root galls than the tomato cultivar Rutgers. Gall numbers varied slightly among accessions at the higher infestation density with even less variation at the lower density. Egg mass indices indicated little re...

  3. Effects of Nematicides and Herbicides Alone or Combined on Meloidogyne incognita Egg Hatch and Development

    OpenAIRE

    Payan, L. A.; Johnson, A.W.; Littrell, R. H.

    1987-01-01

    The effects of nematicides carbofuran (C) and fenamiphos (F) and herbicides metribuzin (M) and trifluralin (T), alone and in combination, on hatching, penetration, development, and reproduction of Meloidogyne incognita race 3 were determined under laboratory conditions. To study hatching, entire egg masses were exposed to nematicides (6 ?g/ml), herbicides (0.5 ?g/ml), and their combinations over a period of 16 days; the hatched juveniles were extracted and counted every 48 hours. Second-stage...

  4. Evidence Against Amplification of Four Genes in Giant Cells Induced by Meloidogyne incognita

    OpenAIRE

    Wiggers, R. J.; Magill, C W; Starr, J L; Price, H. J.

    1991-01-01

    Giant-cell DNA was isolated from pea (Pisum sativum) inoculated with Meloidogyne incognita and used in slot blots to test for selective sequence amplification. Four sequences representing low (ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase and actin), mid-level (histone 3), and highly repetitive (large ribosomal repeat) sequence DNA were used as probes. Known amounts of root-tip DNA and giant-cell DNA were blotted onto hybridization membranes and probed. The signal strength on autoradiographs containi...

  5. Physiological Response of Resistant and Susceptible Vitis vinifiera Cultivars to Meloidogyne incognita

    OpenAIRE

    Melakeberhan, H.; Ferris, H.; Dias, J. M.

    1990-01-01

    The effect of Meloidogyne incognita on growth, general physiological response, and the concentration of reducing and nonreducing sugars at the nematode feeding sites of French Colombard (susceptible) and Thompson Seedless (moderately resistant) Vitis vinifiera cultivars was studied up to 2,100 degree-days (DD-base 10 C). Nematode stress dosage, measured as the product of cumulative number of juveniles and females and their total energy (calories) demand, accounted for up to 15 and 10% of the ...

  6. Susceptibility of Several Common Subtropical Weeds to Meloidogyne arenaria, M. incognita, and M. javanica

    OpenAIRE

    Kokalis-Burelle, Nancy; Rosskopf, Erin N.

    2012-01-01

    Experiments were conducted in the greenhouse to assess root galling and egg production of three root-knot nematode species, Meloidogyne arenaria, M. incognita, and M. javanica, on several weeds common to Florida agricultural land. Weeds evaluated were Amaranthus retroflexus (redroot pigweed), Cyperus esculentus (yellow nutsedge), Eleusine indica (goosegrass), Portulaca oleracea (common purslane), and Solanum americanum (American black nightshade). Additionally, although it is recommended as a...

  7. Host Status of Herbaceous Perennials to Meloidogyne incognita and M. arenaria

    OpenAIRE

    Walker, J.T.; Melin, J. B.

    1998-01-01

    Twenty-two different herbaceous perennials were studied for their reaction to separate inoculations of Meloidogyne arenaria and M. incognita under greenhouse conditions. Perennial taxa that did not develop root-galls following inoculation, and therefore are considered as nonhosts of both nematode species, included species and cultivars of Aethionema, Fragaria, Phlox, and Polygonum. Echinacea, Monarda, and Patrinia developed only a few galls. Root-galls developed on species and cultivars of Ac...

  8. Yield-loss Models for Tobacco Infected with Meloidogyne incognita as Affected by Soil Moisture

    OpenAIRE

    Wheeler, T. A.; Barker, K.R.; Schneider, S.M.

    1991-01-01

    Yield-loss models were developed for tobacco infected with Meloidogyne incognita grown in microplots under various irrigation regimes. The rate of relative yield loss per initial nematode density (Pi), where relative yield is a proportion of the value of the harvested leaves in uninfected plants with the same irrigation treatment, was greater under conditions of water stress or with high irrigation than at an intermediate level of soil moisture. The maximum rate of plant growth per degree-day...

  9. Weed Hosts of Meloidogyne arenaria and M. incognita Common in Tobacco Fields in South Carolina

    OpenAIRE

    Tedford, E. C.; Fortnum, B.A.

    1988-01-01

    Thirty-two weed species common in South Carolina and one cultivar of tobacco were evaluated as hosts of Meloidogyne arenaria race 2 and M. incognita race 3 in the greenhouse. Egg mass production and galling differed (P < 0.05) among weed species. Chenopodium album, Euphorbia maculata, and Vicia villosa were good hosts of M. arenaria. Amaranthus palmeri, Rumex crispus, Amaranthus hybridus, Ambrosia artemisiifolia, lpomoea hederacea var. integriuscula, Setaria lutescens, Sida spinosa, Portulaca...

  10. Intensity and duration of water deficit on the pathosystem sugarcane x Meloidogyne incognita / Intensidade e duração do déficit hídrico no patossistema cana-de-açúcar x Meloidogyne incognita

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Matheus P., Quintela; Elvira M. R., Pedrosa; Lilia, Willadino; Mario M., Rolim; Ênio F. de F. e, Silva; Mariana F. de L., David.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO Neste trabalho objetivou-se estudar a interação entre a intensidade e a duração do déficit hídrico (90, 56 e 22% capacidade de pote [CP] por 30, 60 e 90 dias de estresse contínuo) associado ao parasitismo do nematoide Meloidogyne incognita no crescimento inicial da cana-de-açúcar variedade RB [...] 92579 e à atividade das enzimas catalase e ascorbato peroxidase. O delineamento adotado foi inteiramente casualizado em esquema fatorial 7 (tratamentos hídricos: controle [90% da CP], 56% CP com duração de 30, 60 e 90 dias, 22% CP com duração de 30, 60 e 90 dias) × 2 (densidade de M. incognita: 0 e 20000 ovos por planta), com quatro repetições. O estresse hídrico correspondente a 56% da CP com duração de 30 e 60 dias não afetou o desenvolvimento da variedade RB92579. Os tratamentos hídricos testados aumentaram a atividade da enzima ascorbato peroxidase, porém não afetaram a atividade da enzima catalase. O nematoide não afetou as respostas da RB92579 nas condições estudadas; enfim, o déficit hídrico com maior severidade (22% CP por 90 dias) reduziu a reprodução do M. incognita. Abstract in english ABSTRACT This study aimed to evaluate the interaction between intensity and duration of water deficit (90, 56 and 22% of pot capacity [PC] for 30, 60 and 90 days under continuous stress) associated to the parasitism of the nematode Meloidogyne incognita on the growth of the sugarcane variety RB92579 [...] and the activity of the enzymes catalase and ascorbate peroxidase. The experiment was conducted in completely randomized design in a 7 x 2 factorial scheme (seven water deficit treatments: control [90% PC], 56% PC for 30, 60 and 90 days, 20% PC for 30, 60 and 90 days; and two densities of M. incognita: 0 and 20000 eggs plant-1), with four replicates. The water stress corresponding to 56% PC for 30 or 60 days did not affect RB92579 development. The evaluated water treatments increased ascorbate peroxidase activity, but it did not affect catalase activity. Nematode inoculation did not affect RB92579 responses to drought stress conditions. The higher severity of water deficit (22% PC for 90 days) reduced M. incognita reproduction.

  11. Histopathological Response of Lens culinaris Roots Towards Root-knot Nematode, Meloidogyne incognita

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hisamuddin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Lens culinaris (lentil is an important pulse crop. The yield of the crop is reduced if grown in root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne incognita infested field. Meloidogyne incognita caused infection in primary and the secondary roots leading to the anomalies in the affected part of the root. The study revealed that the second stage juveniles (J2 of Meloidogyne incognita entered the growing roots and their branches inter and intracellularly. The immediate response was hypertrophy and hyperplasia in the root tissue near the nematode head. In response to hypertrophy some cells became very large and contained dense and granular cytoplasm. Adjacent to the giant cells, the vascular tissue was found to be disturbed. Shape, size and orientation of the vascular elements was so much altered that it had become difficult to trace the normal course of vascular strands. In various sections vascular strands were found disrupted. The vessel elements had the shapes resembling the shapes of parenchyma cells. Similarly sieve tube elements of the phloem, near the giant cells were shorter and resembled with nearby parenchyma cells. Abnormalities in xylem and phloem favored transport water, minerals and metabolites towards the giant cells. From this study, it might be inferred that alteration in the cells of galled tissue was essential for the sustenance of giant cells and for the survival of the nematode.

  12. Weed Hosts of Meloidogyne arenaria and M. incognita Common in Tobacco Fields in South Carolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tedford, E C; Fortnum, B A

    1988-10-01

    Thirty-two weed species common in South Carolina and one cultivar of tobacco were evaluated as hosts of Meloidogyne arenaria race 2 and M. incognita race 3 in the greenhouse. Egg mass production and galling differed (P Cyperus esculentus, Cynodon dactyIon, Echinochloa crus-galli, Eleusine indica, Sorghum halepense, Setaria viridis, Digitaria sanguinalis, and Datura stramonium were poor hosts for M. arenaria. Amaranthus palmeri, Amaranthus hybridus, Chenopodium album, Euphorbia maculata, Setaria lutescens, Vicia villosa, Sida spinosa, Rumex crispus, and Portulaca oleracea were moderate hosts and Ipomoea hederacea var. integriuscula, Xanthium strumarium, Cyperus esculentus, Cynodon dactylon, Paspalum notatum, Eleusine indica, Setaria viridis, and Rumex acetosella were poor hosts for M. incognita. None of the above were good hosts for M. incognita. Tobacco 'PD4' supported large numbers of both nematode species. PMID:19290313

  13. EFFECT OF ROOT EXUDATES OF TAGETES SP. ON EGG HATCHING BEHAVIOR OF MELOIDOGYNE INCOGNITA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iruthaya Kalaiselvam

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The effect root exudates of pre-planted marigold intercropped with tomato in regulating the hatching behavior of root-knot nematode - Meloidogyne incognita eggs were investigated. Marigold cultivars Tagetes patula, T. minuta, T. erecta, T. erecta (var. Orange, T. erecta (var. Yellow significantly reduced the numbers of second-stage juveniles (J2s in subsequent tomato compared to the tomato-tomato control. Four different concentrations (25, 50, 75 and 100 % of water soluble extract from the selected varieties of Marigold cultivars were filtered and added to the petri dish and infested with the eggs of M. incognita. Data indicate that egg hatching was significantly affected by root exudates of Tagetes sp. however, nematicidal activity was species dependent. Root exudates of T. erecta were lethal to J2 of M. incognita and were inhibitory to the hatch of eggs at the concentration of 75 % or higher.

  14. Rootstocks resistant to Meloidogyne incognita and compatibility of grafting in net melon / Porta-enxertos resistentes a Meloidogyne incognita e compatibilidade de enxertia de melão rendilhado

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Francine de Souza, Galatti; Alexandre Junqueira, Franco; Letícia Akemi, Ito; Hamilton de Oliveira, Charlo; Lucas Aparecido, Gaion; Leila Trevisan, Braz.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Devido aos poucos estudos realizados com enxertias em melão rendilhado, visando um maior controle de patógenos do solo, este trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar 16 genótipos de cucurbitáceas quanto à resistência a Meloidogyne incognita e a compatibilidade da enxertia do melão rendilhado. Foram avalia [...] dos 16 acessos de cucurbitáceas: Benincasa hispida, Bucha, Abóbora 'Jacarezinho', Abóbora 'Menina Brasileira', Moranga 'Exposição', Moranga 'Coroa', Abóbora 'Canhão Seca', Abóbora 'Squash', Mogango 'Enrrugado Verde', Abóbora 'Mini Paulista', Abóbora 'Goianinha', Melancia 'Charleston Gray', Melão 'Rendondo Gaúcho', Melão 'Redondo Amarelo', Pepino 'Caipira HS' e Pepino 'Caipira Rubi', quanto à resistência ao nematóide M. incognita, com base no fator de reprodução (FR), segundo Oostenbrink (1966). Para avaliação da resistência, as mudas foram transplantadas para vasos de cerâmica e foram aplicados 300 ovos ou juvenis de segundo estádio/mL de M. incognita, num total de 10 mL por vaso. Aos 50 dias após o transplantio, as plantas foram removidas dos vasos e realizou-se a avaliação da resistência. Para a compatibilidade entre os porta-enxertos resistentes e enxerto de melão rendilhado, foram realizadas enxertias do tipo garfagem fenda simples, em híbrido comercial de melão rendilhado de grande aceitação comercial e suscetíveil a M. incognita (Bônus N° 2). Os genótipos Bucha, Abóbora 'Goianinha', Abóbora 'Mini-Paulista', Melão 'Redondo Amarelo', Melancia 'Charleston Gray', foram resistentes ao nematóide M. incognita. As melhores compatibilidades ocorreram com os porta-enxertos Melão 'Amarelo', o qual teve 100% de pegamento, seguido da Abóbora 'Mini-Paulista' com 94%. Já Bucha, Melancia 'Charleston Gray' e Abóbora 'Goianinha', tiveram baixas porcentagens de pegamento: 66%, 62% e 50% respectivamente. Abstract in english Due to the few studies about grafting in net melon, in order to obtain better control of soil pathogens, the aim of the present study was to evaluate 16 genotypes of Cucurbitaceae: Benincasa hispida, Luffa cylindrica, pumpkin 'Jacarezinho', pumpkin 'Menina Brasileira', squash 'Exposição', squash 'Co [...] roa', pumpkin 'Canhão Seca', pumpkin 'Squash', pumpkin 'Enrrugado Verde', pumpkin 'Mini Paulista', pumpkin 'Goianinha', watermelon 'Charleston Gray', melon 'Rendondo Gaucho', melon 'Redondo Amarelo', cucumber 'Caipira HS' and cucumber 'Caipira Rubi', regarding to compatibility of grafting in net melon and resistance to Meloidogyne incognita, based on the reproduction factor (RF), according to Oostenbrink (1966). To assess resistance, the seedlings were transplanted to ceramic pots and inoculated with 300/mL eggs and/or second stage juveniles of M. incognita. At 50 days after transplanting, the plants were removed from the pots and the resistance was evaluated. The compatibility between resistant rootstock and grafts of net melon was determined by performing simple cleft grafting, in a commercial net melon hybrid of great market acceptance and susceptible to M. incognita (Bonus no. 2). The genotypes Luffa cylindrica, pumpkin 'Goianinha', pumpkin 'Mini-Paulista', melon 'Redondo Amarelo', watermelon 'Charleston Gray' are resistant to the nematode M. incognita. The better compatibilities occurred with the rootstocks melon 'Amarelo', which presented 100% of success, followed by pumpkin 'Mini-Paulista' with 94%. On the other hand, Sponge gourd, watermelon 'Charleston Gray' and pumpkin 'Goianinha' showed low graft take percentages of 66%, 62% and 50%, respectively.

  15. Interactions between arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and Meloidogyne incognita in the ornamental plant Impatiens balsamina

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    J, Banuelos; A, Alarcón; J, Larsen; S, Cruz-Sánchez; D, Trejo.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Biocontrol traits of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF), in terms of single and mixed species inoculum, against the root knot nematode Meloidogyne incongita in Impatiens balsamina L., were examined with and without mineral fertilization in a greenhouse pot experiment. At harvest, 60 days after sowin [...] g, general plant growth parameters and plant defense response in terms of antioxidant activity and content of phenolic compounds in roots and leaves were measured. Also AMF root colonization and abundance ofnematode root-knots were determined. Mineral fertilization increased all plant growth parameters measured, which coincided with an increased disease development caused by M. incognita. Inoculation with AMF mitigated the observed plant growth reduction caused by M.incognita, though, higher abundance of M. incognita root knots was found in mycorrhizal plants. Plant defense responses in terms of antioxidant activity and content of phenolic compounds did not seem to be linked to the observed biocontrol traits of AMF against M. incognita. However, roots inoculated with a consortium of AMF, which presented less nematode root knots than roots with the single species inoculum, had the highest level of phenolic compounds. The results from the present study suggest that AMF induce tolerance in I. balsamina against the root knot nematode M. incognita.

  16. Meloidogyne incognita Inoculum Source Affects Host Suitability and Growth of Yellow Nutsedge and Chile Pepper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, S H; Schroeder, J; Kenney, M J; Murray, L W

    1997-09-01

    Meloidogyne incognita (Mi) reproduction and host plant responses in chile pepper (Capsicum annuum) and yellow nutsedge (Cyperus esculentus = YNS) to three sources of inoculum obtained by rearing a single Mi population on chile, YNS, and tomato were evaluated in two factorial greenhouse experiments. The interactive effects of Mi inoculum source and crop-weed competition were determined. In the absence of YNS competition, chile growth was reduced less by Mi inoculum from chile than by inoculum from YNS or tomato. When YNS was present, chile root weight was not affected and shoot weight increased with Mi initial inoculation, regardless of inoculum source. Chile plants inoculated with Mi from tomato exhibited double the nematode reproduction observed with inoculum from chile or YNS. With chile present, Mi reproduction on YNS was nearly three times greater with inoculum from tomato, but reproduction was similar among inoculum sources when chile was absent. Reductions in YNS root mass due to competition from chile failed to reduce the total number of Mi eggs produced on YNS plants. Differences in total Mi reproduction among inoculum sources were not attributable to differences in root growth or plant competition. This study illustrates the influence of Mi-YNS interactions and previous hosts on severity of Mi infection. PMID:19274174

  17. Resistance of sweet potato clones to meloidogyne incognita races 1 and 3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Augusto Assis Gomes

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate sweet potato clones for resistance to root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita races 1 and 3. For each nematode physiological race, a greenhouse experiment was set up in a randomized block experimental design with three replications and six plants per plot. Fifty-eight sweet potato clones from the UFVJM germplasm bank were evaluated, plus five commercial cultivars (Brazlândia Rosada, Brazlândia Branca, Palmas, Princesa and Coquinho, plus the cv. Santa Clara tomato (susceptible to Meloidogyne spp.. Stems were planted in 72-cell expanded polystyrene trays, filled with commercial substrate and inoculated with the pathogen thirty days after planting. Forty-five days after inoculation, the eggs were extracted, counted, and later evaluated. Resistance level classification was performed based on reproduction factor (RF and reproduction index (RI. Among the 63 analyzed clones, a percentage of 78% were classified as resistant to M. incognita race 1.79% to race 3 and 67% showed multiple resistance to both M. incognita races.

  18. Seleção de clones de batata-doce resistentes a Meloidogyne incognita raça 1 / Selection of sweetpotato clones resistant to Meloidogyne incognita race 1

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Aline, Marchese; Wilson Roberto, Maluf; Álvaro Carlos, Gonçalves Neto; Ranoel José de Sousa, Gonçalves; Luiz Antonio Augusto, Gomes.

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi selecionar clones de batata-doce (Ipomoea batatas) resistentes à raça 1 de Meloidogyne incognita e avaliar a eficiência do método de seleção empregado, pela estimação dos coeficientes de variação genética e ambiental e das herdabilidades no sentido amplo. Foram utilizad [...] os 123 genótipos de batata-doce, entre os quais quatro cultivares comerciais - Brazlândia Rosada, Brazlândia Roxa, Brazlândia Branca e Palmas -, e 119 acessos previamente selecionados no programa de melhoramento vegetal da Universidade Federal de Lavras. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o de blocos aumentados, com três tratamentos comuns: as cultivares de batata-doce Brazlândia Branca e Palmas, e a cultivar de tomate Santa Clara, suscetível ao nematoide. A classificação dos níveis de resistência foi realizada de acordo com o fator de reprodução do nematoide e o índice de reprodução relativo à cultivar Santa Clara, de tomateiro. A relação entre os coeficientes de variação genética e ambiental e as herdabilidades no sentido amplo foram altas, tanto para o fator de reprodução quanto para o índice de reprodução dos nematoides, o que demonstra a eficiência do método empregado para a seleção de genótipos resistentes. Foram identificados 57 genótipos promissores de batata-doce, resistentes à raça 1 de M. incognita, e selecionados para continuar no programa de melhoramento. Abstract in english The objective of this work was to select sweetpotato (Ipomoea batatas) resistant clones to Meloidogyne incognita race 1, and to assess the efficiency of the selection method deployed, through the estimation of genetic and environmental coefficients of variation, and broad-sense heritabilities. Genot [...] ypes assessed comprised 123 sweetpotato entries altogether, including four commercial cultivars - Brazlândia Rosada, Brazlândia Roxa, Brazlândia Branca, Palmas - and 119 clones previously selected by the Universidade Federal de Lavras sweetpotato breeding program. The experimental setup was a an augmented block design, using three common treatments: the sweetpotato cultivars Brazlândia branca and Palmas, and the nematode-susceptible tomato cultivar Santa Clara. Nematode resistance levels were defined both by the nematode reproduction factor and by the nematode reproduction index relative to tomato cv. Santa Clara. The ratio between genetic and environmental coefficients of variation and the broad-sense heritability estimates were high, for both nematodes reproduction factor and reproduction index, indicating that the selection method deployed was efficient for the selection of resistant genotypes. Fifty-seven sweetpotato clones were identified as resistant to M. incognita race 1, and selected to continue in the sweetpotato breeding program.

  19. Uso de agentes microbianos e químico para o controle de Meloidogyne incognita em soja / Use of microbial and chemical agents to control Meloidogyne incognita in soybean

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Henrique Teixeira, Nunes; Antonio Carlos, Monteiro; Alan William Vilela, Pomela.

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Nematoides de galhas constituem importante grupo de patógenos da cultura da soja e o manejo integrado é uma das principais medidas de controle que visam à redução de perdas econômicas. Neste trabalho foi avaliada a eficácia dos fungos Paecilomyces lilacinus (Thom.) Samsom e Pochonia chlamydosporia ( [...] Goddard) Zare & Gams (sinonímia Verticillium chlamydosporium), de um produto comercial à base de Bacillus sp. (Nemix) e do nematicida químico Aldicarb no controle de Meloidogyne incognita em soja, variedade M-SOY 6101. O experimento foi realizado em casa-de-vegetação no delineamento experimental de blocos casualizados com nove tratamentos (três produtos biológicos usados no tratamento de sementes com ou sem a aplicação em pós-emergência, Aldicarb aplicado apenas em pós-emergência e duas testemunhas) e quatro repetições. Aldicarb reduziu o número de ovos e de juvenis do nematoide. P. lilacinus foi o mais atuante dos agentes biológicos, favorecendo a manutenção da quantidade de matéria seca da raiz de soja e reduzindo o número de ovos. O produto Nemix e P. chlamydosporia somente tiveram ação efetiva na redução do número de ovos do nematoide. Com base nos resultados, foi possível concluir que o agente químico e os agentes biológicos avaliados neste trabalho tiveram moderada atividade no controle de M. incognita em soja. Abstract in english Root-knot nematodes are considered significant pathogens of soybean crops. The objective of this work was to evaluate the efficacy of two fungi (Paecilomyces lilacinus (Thom.) Samsom and Pochonia chlamydosporia (Goddard) Zare & Gams (syn. Verticillium chlamydosporium), a commercial product based on [...] Bacillus sp. and Aldicarb on the control of Meloidogyne incognita on soybean, cultivar M-SOY 6101. The experimental design was set as randomized blocks with four replications. Nine treatments were evaluated: three biological agents used for seed treatment with and without post-emergence application, Aldicarb on post-emergence only, and two controls. All treatments were inoculated with the nematode, except for a blank control where only water was applied. One control-only treated with the nematode was also included. Aldicarb could reduce the number of eggs and juveniles in the roots. P. lilacinus showed the best performance among the biological control agents, reducing the number of eggs and increasing dry root weight. Nemix, a Bacillus sp. based commercial product and P. chlamydosporia could only reduce significantly the number of eggs of the nematode. In this work, it was possible to conclude that the chemical and biological agents showed a moderate activity in the control of M. incognita in soybean.

  20. COMPORTAMIENTO DE GENOTIPOS DE LA FAMILIA SOLANACEAE FRENTE A Meloidogyne incognita (KOFOID Y WHITE) CHITWOOD1 / BEHAVIOUR OF GENOTYPES FROM SOLANACEA FAMILY IN FRONT TO Meloidogyne incognita (KOFOID Y WHITE) CHITWOOD1

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Mayra G, Rodríguez; Lucila, Gómez; Farah M, González; Yudines, Carrillo; Maite, Piñón; Olimpia, Gómez; A.S, Casanova; Martha, Álvarez; Belkis, Peteira.

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Los nematodos formadores de agallas (Meloidogyne spp.) constituyen factores limitantes de los rendimientos en la producción de hortalizas en campo abierto y casas de cultivo, donde el tomate (Solanum lycopersicum L. (ex Lycopersicon esculentum Mill)) representa un buen hospedante de estos nematodos. [...] Para manejar las poblaciones de estos organismos, entre otras tácticas se hace uso de genotipos resistentes o se acude al injerto herbáceo para obtener resultados productivos favorables, resultando necesaria la evaluación de los genotipos a emplear frente a poblaciones nativas, pues se sabe que la resistencia puede ser quebrada por factores tales como la virulencia de la población de Meloidogyne. El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar el comportamiento de líneas, híbridos y variedades de tomate ante una población nativa de M. incognita raza 2, como elemento básico del programa de injerto herbáceo que se desarrolla en Cuba para contar con alternativas al bromuro de metilo. Se inocularon 10 plantas por genotipo, con 1,5 huevos/juveniles.g de suelo-1 y se evaluaron a los 60 días, determinándose el Índice de Agallamiento (IA), Factor de Reproducción (FR) e índice de reproducción (IR). Los cultivares evaluados fueron Lycopersicon peruvianum acc. B6-140; Physalis ixocarpa acc. B6236; Lycopersicon pimpinelifolium acc. Mex 121-A; las variedades/híbridos de S. lycopersicum var. cerasiforme, Vyta, Mariela, Amalia, HC 3880 y HA 3019; el híbrido inter-específico Lycopersicon hirsutum x L. esculentum, Solanum torvum y los híbridos de tomate T-1x14, T-1x15, T-2x16 y LTM. Resultó inmune L. hirsutum x L. esculentum y muy resistentes S. torvum y L. peruvianum. Por su parte, P. ixocarpa se comportó como moderadamente resistente y el resto de los materiales evaluados fueron susceptibles a la población cubana de M. incognita raza 2. Abstract in english The root knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp.) are limiting factors for yields of vegetables in open areas and crops under shelter conditions, where tomato Solanum lycopersicon L. (ex Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) represents a very good host for these nematodes. For population management of this pest, [...] resistance and graffing are used, among other tactics, to obtain good productive results, but it is necessary to evaluated the resistance of genotypes to native populations, since as it is know resistancemay be broken by factors like virulence of Meloidogyne population. The objective of this study was to determine the behaviour of tomato lines hybrids and varieties to native population of M. incognita race 2, as a basic element for the graffting program being develop in Cuba as an alternative to methyl bromide. Ten plants per genotype were inoculated with 1,5 eggs/juvenils.g of soil-1 and evaluated after 60 days to determined the Root Galling Index (IA), the Reproduction Factor (FR) and the Reproduction Index (IR). The cultivars evaluated were Lycopersicon peruvianum acc. B6-140; Physalis ixocarpa acc. B6236; Lycopersicon pimpinellifolium acc. Mex 121-A; the following varieties/hybrids of Solanum lycopersicum var. ceraciforme, Vyta, Mariela, Amalia, HC 3880 and HA 3019; the interespecific hybrid Lycopersicon hirsutum x L. esculentum, Solanum torvum and the tomato hybrids T-1x14, T-1x15, T-2x16 and LTM. The interespecific hybrid L. hirsutum x L. esculentum was immune, whereas S. torvum and L. peruvianum were very resistant. In other hand, P. ixocarpa behaved as moderately resistant and the rest of genotypes were susceptibles to the Cuban population of M. incognita race 2.

  1. Pepper Rootstock Graft Compatibility and Response to Meloidogyne javanica and M. incognita.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oka, Yuji; Offenbach, Rivka; Pivonia, Shimon

    2004-06-01

    Resistance of pepper species (Capsicum annuum, C. baccatum, C. chinense, C. chacoense, and C. frutescens), cultivars and accessions to the root-knot nematodes Meloidogyne incognita race 2 and M. javanica, and their graft compatibility with commercial pepper varieties as rootstocks were evaluated in growth chamber and greenhouse experiments. Most of the plants tested were highly resistant to M. javanica but susceptible to M. incognita. Capsicum annuum AR-96023 and C. frutescens accessions as rootstocks showed moderate and relatively high resistance to M. incognita, respectively. In M. incognita-infested soil in a greenhouse, AR-96023 supported approximately 6-fold less nematode eggs per gram root and produced about 2-fold greater yield compared to a nongrafted commercial variety. The commercial variety grafted on AR-96023 produced a yield as great as the non-grafted variety in the root-knot nematode-free greenhouse. Some resistant varieties and accessions used as rootstocks produced lower yields (P < 0.01) than that of the non-grafted variety in the noninfested greenhouse. Use of rootstocks with nematode-resistance and graft compatibility may be effective for control of root-knot nematodes on susceptible pepper. PMID:19262798

  2. Host Status of Herbaceous Perennials to Meloidogyne incognita and M. arenaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, J T; Melin, J B

    1998-12-01

    Twenty-two different herbaceous perennials were studied for their reaction to separate inoculations of Meloidogyne arenaria and M. incognita under greenhouse conditions. Perennial taxa that did not develop root-galls following inoculation, and therefore are considered as nonhosts of both nematode species, included species and cultivars of Aethionema, Fragaria, Phlox, and Polygonum. Echinacea, Monarda, and Patrinia developed only a few galls. Root-galls developed on species and cultivars of Achillea, Geranium, Heuchera, Heucherella, Linaria, Nepeta, Nierembergia, Penstemon, and Salvia. There was no difference in the number of root-galls caused by M. arenaria or M. incognita on most plants except for Penstemon cultivars. Plant heights and dry weights varied between species and nematode density. PMID:19274254

  3. Effects of a Resistant Corn Hybrid and Fenamiphos on Meloidogyne incognita in a Corn-Squash Rotation

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, A.W.; Sumner, D.R.; Windham, G. L.; Williams, W. P.

    1999-01-01

    The efficacy of a double-cross corn (Zea mays) hybrid (Old Raccoon selection X T216) X (Tebeau selection X Mp 307) resistant to Meloidogyne incognita as a rotational crop, and fenamiphos treatment for management of root-knot nematode (M. incognita race 1) in squash (Cucurbita pepo var. melopepo) was evaluated in field tests during 1996 and 1997. Numbers of M. incognita in the soil and root-gall indices were lower on the resistant hybrid than on a commercial cultivar DeKalb DK-683. Treatment m...

  4. Resistance of Commercial Tomato Cultivars to Meloidogyne arenaria and M. incognita

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donggeun Kim

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp. are among the main pathogens of greenhouse crops worldwide.Plant resistance is currently the method of choice for controlling these pests. To select resistant tomato againsttwo common species of root-knot nematodes, M. incognita and M. arenaria, 36 commercial tomato(Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. cultivars were screened. Seventeen tomato cultivars were resistant to bothroot-knot nematodes: six in cherry tomato, ‘Tenten’, ‘Cadillac’, ‘Cutti’, ‘Sweet’, ‘Ppotto’, ‘Lycopin-9’, eightin globe tomato, ‘Lovely 240’, ‘Dotaerang Dia’, ‘Cupirang’, ‘Dotaerang Master’, ‘Super Dotaerang’,‘Dotaerang Season’, ‘Miroku’, ‘Hoyong’, and three in root stock, ‘Special’, ‘Fighting’, and ‘Magnet’.

  5. Reproduction of Meloidogyne arenaria, M. incognita, and M. javanica on Sesame

    OpenAIRE

    Starr, J L; Black, M.C.

    1995-01-01

    Reproduction of Meloidogyne arenaria race 1, M. ineognita races 1 and 3, and M. javanica on 10 cultivars of sesame (Sesame indicum) was examined in greenhouse tests. Sesame cultivars were also evaluated in a field infested with M. arenaria. Sesame was a poor host for M. incognita races 1 and 3 as no sesame genotype supported more than 70 eggs/g root. Reproduction of M. arenaria race 1 on sesame varied from 20 eggs/g roots for cultivar Sesaco 7CB to 1,570 eggs/g roots for Sesaco 119 in the gre...

  6. Evaluation of Dry Ice as a Potential Cryonematicide for Meloidogyne incognita in Soil

    OpenAIRE

    Wergin, William P.; Yaklich, Robert W.; Chitwood, David J.; Erbe, Eric F.

    1999-01-01

    Solid CO₂ (dry ice) was added to pots containing soil that was infested either with eggs of the root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita, or with tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum 'Rutgers') root fragments that were infected with various stages of the nematode. Two hours after dry ice was added, thermocouples in the soil recorded temperatures ranging from -15 °C to -59 °C. One day after treatment with the dry ice, the temperature of the soil was allowed to equilibrate with that of the greenhou...

  7. Resistance of Commercial Tomato Cultivars to Meloidogyne arenaria and M. incognita

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donggeun Kim

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp. are among the main pathogens of greenhouse crops worldwide. Plant resistance is currently the method of choice for controlling these pests. To select resistant tomato against two common species of root-knot nematodes, M. incognita and M. arenaria, 36 commercial tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. cultivars were screened. Seventeen tomato cultivars were resistant to both root-knot nematodes: six in cherry tomato, ‘Tenten’, ‘Cadillac’, ‘Cutti’, ‘Sweet’, ‘Ppotto’, ‘Lycopin-9’, eight in globe tomato, ‘Lovely 240’, ‘Dotaerang Dia’, ‘Cupirang’, ‘Dotaerang Master’, ‘Super Dotaerang’, ‘Dotaerang Season’, ‘Miroku’, ‘Hoyong’, and three in root stock, ‘Special’, ‘Fighting’, and ‘Magnet’.

  8. Resistance induction for Meloidogyne incognita in sugarcane through mineral organic fertilizers

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Andréa, Chaves; Elvira Maria Régis, Pedrosa; Rejane Magalhães de Mendonça, Pimentel; Rildo Sartori Barbosa, Coelho; Lílian Margarete Paes, Guimarães; Sandra Roberta Vaz Lira, Maranhão.

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo investigou, em condições de casa de vegetação, os efeitos de três complexos organo-minerais (Coda Radimax, Coda Humus-PK e Coda Vit) na indução de resistência a Meloidogyne incognita em três variedades: RB92579, RB863129, RB867515 de cana-de-açúcar (Saccharum sp.), considerando-se a repr [...] odução do nematóide, desenvolvimento das plantas e anatomia das raízes, com ênfase a diferenças na deposição de lignina e proporções do córtex e cilindro vascular. As avaliações foram efetuadas 90 dias após a inoculação com 5000 ovos de M. incognita por planta. Em relação à testemunha, Coda Radimax reduziu significativamente o número final de ovos por sistema radicular em todas as variedades. Coda Humus-PK e Coda Vit se mostraram eficientes em diminuir a densidade de ovos em RB867515, mas não em RB863129. Todos os compostos testados não afetaram o diâmetro do colmo, peso da biomassa seca da parte aérea e número de perfilho. Coda Radimax aumentou significativamente o número de colmos em RB92579 e a biomassa fresca da parte aérea em RB863129 e RB92579. Coda Humus-PK aumentou significativamente a altura da planta em RB92579 e a biomassa fresca da parte aérea em RB92579 e RB867515, enquanto Coda Vit afetou, significativamente, a biomassa fresca da parte aérea e raízes de RB863129. Fundamentando-se nas sessões transversais obtidas das raízes de cada variedade de cana observada sob microscópio ótico, não ocorreram modificações anatômicas significativas nos tecidos inoculados com M. incognita em relação aos tecidos sadios. Abstract in english The effects of Coda Radimax (CR), Coda Humus-PK (CH) and Coda Vit (CV) on the induction of resistance for Meloidogyne incognita in sugarcane (Saccharum sp.) varieties (RB92579, RB863129, RB867515) through nematode reproduction, plant development and root anatomy analysis, emphasizing the differences [...] of the lignin deposition, and cortex-vascular cylinder proportions were investigated. In 90 days after inoculation with eggs of M. incognita, CR reduced the number of eggs per root system in all the sugarcane varieties; CH and CV reduced eggs density in RB867515; CR increased stalk number in RB92579 and fresh weight of shoots in RB863129 and RB92579; CH increased plant height in RB92579 and fresh weight of shoots in RB92579 and RB867515, CV affected fresh weigh of shoots and roots of RB863129. All the tested compounds did not affect stalk diameter, number and dry weight of shoots. Cross-sections of roots showed no anatomical changes in the M. incognita inoculated tissues.

  9. Efecto del Vermicompost y Quitina sobre el control de meloidogyne incognita en tomate a nivel de invernadero / Effect of vermicompost and chitin on the control of Meloidogyne incognita in greenhouse tomato

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Leida, Castro; Lorena, Flores; Lidieth, Uribe.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Meloidogyne incognita es un nematodo endoparásito sedentario, de penetración total y formador de nódulos radicales; tiene una amplia distribución geográfica y causa pérdidas agrícolas importantes. Recientemente se han utilizado abonos orgánicos y compuestos como la quitina en la supresión de plagas [...] y enfermedades de plantas. El objetivo de esta investigación fue evaluar el efecto de la aplicación de vermicompost de estiércol bovino y su enriquecimiento con quitina, sobre la infección de M. incognita en plantas de tomate var. Hayslip bajo condiciones de invernadero. Para esto se inocularon las plantas con 5000 unidades de inóculo (huevos+juveniles en segundo estado) por maceta y se compararon con controles que fueron sembrados en suelo sin enmienda orgánica o quitina. La evaluación se llevó a cabo 60 días después y se midió el peso fresco aéreo y radical, peso seco aéreo, población total de nematodos en raíz y suelo, índice de nódulos radicales (INR), índice de masas de huevos (IMH), el factor de reproducción del nematodo (FR) y recuento de grupos funcionales (hongos, bacterias y actinomicetes). La adición al suelo de vermicompost provocó un incremento en las variables peso fresco y seco foliar y peso fresco radical: a mayor porcentaje de vermicompost, mayor incremento; así mismo, la aplicación del vermicompost redujo la cantidad del nematodo en raíz y en suelo. La aplicación de quitina acentuó estos resultados, obteniéndose el menor factor de reproducción de M. Incognita, con un valor de 3,76 para la dosis de 50% vermicompost+quitina, mientras que en el testigo este factor fue de 93,20. La aplicación de quitina como enmienda única solo afectó la población de hongos en el suelo, mientras que la de actinomicetes aumentó en los tratamientos enmendados Abstract in english Meloidogyne incognita is a sedentary endoparasitic nematode, with total penetration and gall-forming; it has a wide geographical distribution and causes significant agricultural losses. Recently, organic fertilizers and compounds such as chitin have been used in the suppression of plant pests and di [...] seases. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of applying cattle manure vermicompost, and its enrichment with chitin, on the infection of M. incognita in tomato plants var. Hayslip under greenhouse conditions. For this purpose, plants were inoculated with 5000 units of eggs+second stage juveniles per pot and were compared with controls grown in soil without organic amendment or chitin. The evaluation was carried out 60 days afterwards: the shoot and root fresh weight, shoot dry weight, total population in root and soil nematodes, root knot index (INR), rate of egg masses (IMH), the nematode reproduction factor (FR) and functional-groups numbers (fungi, bacteria and actinomycetes) were measured. The addition of vermicompost to soil caused an increase in the variables of shoot fresh and dry weight and fresh root weight: the higher the percentage of vermicompost, the higher the increase; likewise, the application of vermicompost reduced the number of nematodes both in root and soil. The application of chitin accentuated these results by bringing about the lowest reproduction factor of M. incognita, with a value of 3.76 for the dose of vermicompost+50% chitin, whereas in the control this factor had a value of 93.20. The application of chitin as sole amendment affected only the soil fungi population, while the actinomycetes population nincreased in the amended treatments

  10. Efectividad de hongos nematófagos sobre Meloidogyne incognita (Kofoid y White) Chitwood en tomate en condiciones de campo, Loja, Ecuador / Effectiveness of nematophagous fungi on Meloidogyne incognita (Kofoid and White) Chitwood on tomato in field conditions in Loja, Ecuador

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Tulio F., Solano Castillo; Marcia L., Castillo Ávila; José V., Medina Medina; Elio M., del Pozo Núñez.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del presente trabajo fue determinar el efecto de varios aislamientos autóctonos de los hongos Pochonia chlamydosporia (Goddard) Zare y Gams (Hypocreales: Clavicipitaceae) y Purpureocillium lilacinum Luansa-ard et al. (Hypocreales: Ophiocordycipitaceae) en el control de Meloidogyne incogn [...] ita (Kofoid y White) Chitwood, en tomate, en condiciones de campo. Se utilizaron seis aislamientos fúngicos y un control sin aplicación, distribuidos según un diseño de bloques al azar con cuatro réplicas. Las aplicaciones de los hongos lograron reducir el índice de agallamiento por M. incognita, así como las poblaciones de juveniles infestivos (J2) en el suelo y en las raíces del cultivo, a la vez que se observó un estímulo en las variables agronómicas número de frutos, masa de los frutos y rendimiento agrícola. Estos resultados constituyen una contribución a la solución del problema de los nematodos formadores de agalla, en el cultivo del tomate en las condiciones de Loja, Ecuador, con recursos locales, no agresivos al medio ambiente. Abstract in english This work was aimed to evaluate the effect of isolates of the fungi Pochonia chlamydosporia (Goddard) Zare and Gams (Hypocreales: Clavicipitaceae) and Purpureocillium lilacinum Luansa-ard et al. (Hypocreales: Ophiocordycipitaceae) in the Meloidogyne incognita (Kofoid and White) Chitwood control in t [...] omato in field conditions. The assay comprised six fungic isolates and a control without fungi, in a ramdomized block design. In treated plants the gall index and the nematode population in roots and in the soil were reduced in comparison with the untreated plots. The number of fruits, the weight of fruits and yields were enhanced in the plots treated with the fungi. These results are a contribution to the solution of the root-knot nematode problem in the conditions of Loja, Ecuador, with local resources and no harmful to the environment.

  11. Direct Identification of the Meloidogyne incognita Secretome Reveals Proteins with Host Cell Reprogramming Potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellafiore, Stéphane; Shen, Zhouxin; Rosso, Marie-Noelle; Abad, Pierre; Shih, Patrick; Briggs, Steven P.

    2008-01-01

    The root knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita, is an obligate parasite that causes significant damage to a broad range of host plants. Infection is associated with secretion of proteins surrounded by proliferating cells. Many parasites are known to secrete effectors that interfere with plant innate immunity, enabling infection to occur; they can also release pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs, e.g., flagellin) that trigger basal immunity through the nematode stylet into the plant cell. This leads to suppression of innate immunity and reprogramming of plant cells to form a feeding structure containing multinucleate giant cells. Effectors have generally been discovered using genetics or bioinformatics, but M. incognita is non-sexual and its genome sequence has not yet been reported. To partially overcome these limitations, we have used mass spectrometry to directly identify 486 proteins secreted by M. incognita. These proteins contain at least segmental sequence identity to those found in our 3 reference databases (published nematode proteins; unpublished M. incognita ESTs; published plant proteins). Several secreted proteins are homologous to plant proteins, which they may mimic, and they contain domains that suggest known effector functions (e.g., regulating the plant cell cycle or growth). Others have regulatory domains that could reprogram cells. Using in situ hybridization we observed that most secreted proteins were produced by the subventral glands, but we found that phasmids also secreted proteins. We annotated the functions of the secreted proteins and classified them according to roles they may play in the development of root knot disease. Our results show that parasite secretomes can be partially characterized without cognate genomic DNA sequence. We observed that the M. incognita secretome overlaps the reported secretome of mammalian parasitic nematodes (e.g., Brugia malayi), suggesting a common parasitic behavior and a possible conservation of function between metazoan parasites of plants and animals. PMID:18974830

  12. Physiological effects of Meloidogyne incognita infection on cotton genotypes with differing levels of resistance in the greenhouse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenhouse tests were conducted to evaluate 1) the effect of Meloidogyne incognita infection in cotton on plant growth and physiology including the height-to-node ratio, chlorophyll content, dark adapted quantum yield of photosystem II, and leaf area, and 2) the extent to which moderate or high leve...

  13. Repulsion of Meloidogyne incognita by Alginate Pellets Containing Hyphae of Monacrosporium cionopagum, M. ellipsosporum, or Hirsutella rhossiliensis

    OpenAIRE

    Robinson, A.F.; Jaffee, B.A.

    1996-01-01

    The responses of second-stage juveniles (J2) of Meloidogyne incognita race 3 to calcium alginate pellets containing hyphae of the nematophagous fungi Monacrosporiura cionopagum, M. ellipsosporum, and Hirsutella rhossiliensis were examined using cylinders (38-mm-diam., 40 or 72 mm long) of sand (94%

  14. Microorganismos Benéficos Asociados a Meloidogyne incognita (Kofoid y White) Chitwood en Guayabo (Psidium guajava L.) de Calvillo, Aguascalientes, México / Beneficent Microorganisms Associated to Meloidogyne incognita (Kofoid & White) Chitwood in Guava (Psidium guajava L.) of Calvillo, Aguascalientes, México

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Gabriel, Gallegos-Morales; Melchor, Cepeda-Siller; Francisco Daniel, Hernández-Castillo; Ana María, Acosta-Zamarripa; Rodolfo, Velásquez-Valle; Ernesto, González-Gaona; Juan Manuel, Sánchez-Yánez.

    Full Text Available Se identificó a Meloidogyne incognita como la especie del nematodo agallador que parásita al cultivo del guayabo, en la región de Calvillo (Aguascalientes, México). También se aisló hongos y bacterias benéficos asociados a suelo y raíces colectadas en las localidades de Cerro Blanco, Mesa Grande, La [...] Labor y Malpaso. Veinte muestras distintas de Meloidogyne sp., fueron identificadas tomando en cuenta las características de patrones perineales de las hembras adultas así como por la observación de la región anterior de los machos. La especie Meloidogyne incognita fue identificada en todas las muestras. Los microorganismos benéficos aislados y asociados a la rizósfera del guayabo con uso potencial en control biológico, pertenecen a las especies de Bacillus cereus, B. subtilis B. megaterium y Paecilomyces farinosus. Además los nematodos edáficos Rhabditis y Mononchus fueron identificados en las muestras. Abstract in english The root-knot nematode species Meloidogyne incognita was identified as the one species that parasites guava orchards in the Calvillo region (Aguascalientes, Mexico). Beneficent fungi and bacteria were isolated as well, associated to soil and roots collected from the Cerro Blanco, Mesa Grande, La Lab [...] or and Malpaso locations. Twenty different Meloidogyne sp., samples were identified taking adult female perinea pattern characteristics into account, as well as the male anterior region observation. The Meloidogyne incognita species was identified in all the samples. The isolated beneficent microorganisms and associated to guava rhizosphere with a potential use in biological control, belong to the Bacillus cereus, B. subtilis B. megaterium and Paecilomyces farinosus species. Furthermore, the Rhabditis and Mononchus soil nematodes were identified in the samples.

  15. Potential of sucrose and Pennisetum purpureum cv. Cameroon mulch on the management of Meloidogyne javanica and M. incognita

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Débora Cristina, Santiago; Martin, Homechin; Ricardo, Montalvan; Alaide Aparecida, Krzyzanowski.

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Os efeitos da sacarose sobre a motilidade e a infectividade de juvenis de Meloidogyne javanica foram avaliados em condições de laboratório e casa-de-vegetação, usando açúcar mascavo e açúcar cristal. Os resultados indicaram que as soluções de açúcar mascavo e cristal reduziram a motilidade e promove [...] ram alterações morfológicas em juvenis dos nematóides in vitro. A eficiência da sacarose em grânulos e da sacarose em solução, com e sem a cobertura com matéria vegetal de capim elefante, na redução da reprodução e da população final de M. incognita raça 2 também foi avaliada. A sacarose em grânulos diminuiu os números de galhas e massas de ovos por sistema radicular e também de juvenis no solo. Para o ensaio com sacarose em solução, os melhores resultados para a redução da reprodução foram obtidos com a dose de 300 g de sacarose por litro de solo, aplicada a intervalos de sete dias, juntamente com a cobertura do solo com cobertura de matéria verde de capim-elefante. Abstract in english The effects of sucrose on motility and infectiveness of juveniles of Meloidogyne javanica were evaluated under laboratory and greenhouse conditions, using brown sugar and crystal sugar. Results showed that crystal and brown sugar solutions reduced motility and promoted morphological alterations of j [...] uvenile nematodes in vitro. The increasing dosages of sucrose reduced the number of galls and egg masses in tomato root by reducing the number of infective juveniles. The efficiency of granular sucrose, sucrose solution, with and without elephant-grass mulch, in the reduction of reproduction and final population of M. incognita race 2, were also evaluated. Granular sucrose induced decrease on the numbers of galls and eggs masses per root system as well as on juveniles in the soil. For sucrose solution assay, the best results for reproductive reduction were obtained with 300g of granular sucrose per liter of soil, applied at seven days intervals, associated with elephant-grass mulch.

  16. Screening of cucurbitaceous rootstocks and cucumber scions for root knot nematode resistance (Meloidogyne incognita Kofoid and White

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Punithaveni, V, P. Jansirani and M. Sivakumar

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A study was carried out under glasshouse condition at the Department of Nematology, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore during 2012-2013 to identify resistant rootstocks of cucurbitaceous species for grafting of cucumber against root knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita. Seven wild and cultivated cucurbitaceous rootstocks and two cucumber scions (variety and hybrid were used for screening studies against the root knot nematode. Forty fifth day after inoculation, the plants were evaluated for shoot length, root length, shoot fresh and dry weight as well as root fresh and dry weight, number of galls per 10 gram of root, egg mass and females per gram of root, root knot index, soil nematode population per 200 cc of soil and reproduction factor. The lowest number of galls and egg masses were observed in Citrullus colocynthis followed by Cucumis metuliferus which exhibited resistant reaction with root knot index (RKI of 2. The other rootstocks viz., Cucurbita ficifolia, Cucurbita moschata, C. maxima and Luffa cylindrica were found to be moderately resistant to root knot nematode with root knot index of 3. The two cucumber scions (Green Long variety and NS 408 hybrid were observed to be highly susceptible to M. incognita with RKI of 5.

  17. Dose assessment of HeberNem to control of Meloidogyne incognita Chitwood in greenhouses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Fleitas Díaz

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In the houses of protected crops Agricultural Company República Dominicana, Carlos Manuel de Céspedes municipality, Camagüey, an experiment was developed to evaluate different doses of bionematicide HeberNem in controlling the nematode Meloidogyne incognita Chitwood and his participation in the growth and development of the tomato (Solanum lycopersicum crop, the experimental design was in randomized blocks, the test was composed of 8 treatments replicated twice, evaluating a total of 40 plants for each treatment which were measured: plant height, stem diameter the number of leaflets, the number of clusters per plant, number of flowers per cluster and number of fruits per bunch, they were made weekly. Also at the end of the campaign took root degree determined according to the scale indicated by Zeck, (1971. Data were analyzed using analysis of variance and determined the levels of statistical significance at 5%, by dócima Tukey multiple range. We found an inverse relationship between the parameters of growth and development weighed against the presence of M. incognita Chitwood. At doses of 8 l / ha, 12 l / ha and 16 l / ha were achieved better results in controlling the nematode M. incognita Chitwood.

  18. Evaluation of Nicotiana otophora as a Source of Resistance to Meloidogyne incognita Race 4 for Tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, S M; Schneider, S M

    1992-06-01

    No currently available tobacco cultivar possesses resistance to Meloidogyne incognita race 4, nor has any source of resistance been reported within Nicotiana tabacum. The purpose of this study was to evaluate N. otophora acc. La Quinta as a source of resistance to this pathogen. Plants of tobacco cvs. NC 95 and NC 2326, N. otophora La Quinta and N. repanda were inoculated with second-stage juveniles of M. incognita race 4. Gall indices and egg-mass ratings were assessed at 4 and 8 weeks after inoculation. The two N. tabacum cultivars were heavily galled and had numerous egg masses at both rating periods. Nicotiana repanda was only weakly resistant. The galls on this species were very small and present at a low to moderate level; however, egg-mass ratings approaching those of the tobacco cultivars were observed 8 weeks after inoculation. In contrast, low gall indices and egg-mass ratings were found for N. otophora La Quinta at both the 4- and 8-week rating periods. In addition, little variability was observed within this species for either disease rating. Therefore, it appears that the La Quinta accession of N. otophora is a very promising source of M. incognita race 4 resistance for transfer to N. tabacum. PMID:19282991

  19. Chemical Composition and Nematicidal Activity of Essential Oil of Agastache rugosa against Meloidogyne incognita

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi Wei Deng

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to determine the chemical composition and nematicidal activity of essential oil of Agastache rugosa flowering aerial parts against the root knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita, and to isolate and identify any nematicidal constituents from the essential oil. The essential oil of A. rugosa aerial parts was obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by GC-FID and GC-MS. A total of 37 components of the essential oil were identified, with the principal compounds being methyleugenol (50.51%, estragole (8.55%, and eugenol (7.54%, followed by thymol (3.62%, pulegone (2.56%, limonene (2.49% and caryophyllene (2.38%. Based on bioactivity-guided fractionation, the three active constituents were isolated from the essential oil and identified as methyleugenol, estragole and eugenol. The essential oil of A. rugosa exhibited strong nematicidal activity against M. incognita, with a LC50 value of 47.3 μg/mL. The components eugenol (LC50 = 66.6 μg/mL and methyleugenol (LC50 = 89.4 μg/mL exhibited stronger nematicidal activity against M. incognita (LC50 = 185.9 μg/mL. The results indicate that the essential oil of A. rugosa aerial parts and its constituent compounds have potential for development into natural nematicides for control of the root knot nematode.

  20. Nematicidal activity of 2-thiophenecarboxaldehyde and methylisothiocyanate from caper (Capparis spinosa) against Meloidogyne incognita.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caboni, Pierluigi; Sarais, Giorgia; Aissani, Nadhem; Tocco, Graziella; Sasanelli, Nicola; Liori, Barbara; Carta, Annarosa; Angioni, Alberto

    2012-08-01

    New pesticides based on plant extracts have recently gained interest in the development of nontoxic crop protection chemicals. Numerous research studies are focused on the isolation and identification of new active compounds derived from plants. In this manuscript we report about the use of the Mediterranean species Capparis spinosa as a potent natural nematicidal agent against the root knot nematodes Meloidogyne incognita. Leaves, stems, and caper buds of Capparis spinosa were used to obtain their methanol extracts (LME, SME, BME) that were successively in vitro tested against second stage nematode juveniles (J2). In terms of paralysis induction, the methanol extract of the stem part (SME) was found more effective against M. incognita and then the caper methanol buds and leaves extracts. The chemical composition analysis of the extracts carried out by GC/MS and LC/MS techniques showed that methylisothiocyanate was the main compound of SME. The EC50 for SME after 3 days of immersion was 215 ± 36 mg/L. The constituent components of SME such as 2-thiophenecarboxaldehyde and methylisothiocyanate were successively in vitro tested for their nematicidal activity against J2. Both compounds induced paralysis on root knot nematodes ranking first (EC50 = 7.9 ± 1.6, and 14.1 ± 1.9 mg/L respectively) for M. incognita. Moreover, 2-thiophenecarboxaldehyde showed a strong fumigant activity. PMID:22769561

  1. Influence of infection of cotton by Rotylenchulus Reniformis and Meloidogyne Incognita on the production of enzymes involved in systemic acquired resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Systemic acquired resistance (SAR), which results in enhanced defense mechanisms in plants, can be elicited by virulent and avirulent strains of pathogens including nematodes. Recent studies of nematode reproduction strongly suggest that Meloidogyne incognita and Rotylenchulus reniformis induce SAR ...

  2. Elucidating the molecular bases of epigenetic inheritance in non-model invertebrates: the case of the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita

    OpenAIRE

    LaetitiaPerfus-Barbeoch; MichaelReichelt; ChristophGrunau

    2014-01-01

    Root-knot nematodes of the genus Meloidogyne are biotrophic plant parasites that exhibit different reproduction modes, ranging from classical amphimixis to obligatory mitotic parthenogenesis (apomixis), depending on the species. Meloidogyne incognita, an apomictic species, exhibits a worldwide distribution and a wide host range affecting more than 3,000 plant species. Furthermore, evidences suggest that apomixis does not prevent M. incognita from adapting to its environment in contrast to wha...

  3. Histopathological Studies of Eggplant Roots as Affected by IAA, Agrobacterium tumefaciens and Meloidogyne incognita Alone and in Combinations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed A. Elwakil

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The anatomy of eggplant roots as affected by the application of IAA, Agrobacterium tumefaciens and Meloidogyne incognita alone and in combination was studied. IAA and A. tumefaciens, alone and in combination increased the root diameter, cortex thickness, number of cortex layers, stele diameter, number of xylem vessels but decreased the vessel diameter. Inoculation with M. incognita led to the formation of multinucleated giant cells surrounded by deformed xylem elements, hypertrophy of the cortex and hyperplasia of the pericycle. More giant cells with higher dimensions were formed and more eggs/egg mass were produced in plants where IAA, A. tumefaciens alone or in combination was introduced with M. incognita. On the other hand, the presence of IAA, A. tumefaciens or their combination extended the life-span of giant cells, providing long-lasting feeding sites for the nematode. The auxin-mediated role of A. tumefaciens in development and reproduction of M. incognita was discussed.

  4. Behavior of Ilex paraguariensis St. Hilaire, 1822 to Meloidogyne incognita and M. paranaensis and their influence on development of plantlets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Débora Cristina Santiago

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of Meloidogyne incognita and M. paranaensis on the development of mate (Ilex paraguariensis ST. Hill plantlets was assessed in greenhouse and laboratory. The experimental design was randomized. Every plot of each one of the 10 repetitions contained one mate plantlet , inoculated with 5,000 eggs of M. incognita (races 1, 2, 3 and 4 and M. paranaensis. After 120 days it was observed that mate was a reliable hostess to such nematodes and that they could finish their life cycle. Plant development was significantly modified by M. incognita, races 1 and 2. Dry and green matter weight of shoots changed according to treatment. No changes were observed in fresh root weight. The number of eggs per root was similar for M. incognita, races 1 and 2, and higher for the other treatments. The reproduction factor was above 1 for all treatments, indicating mate plants susceptibility to them.A influência de Meloidogyne incognita e M paranaensis no desenvolvimento de mudas de erva-mate, foi avaliada em casa-de-vegetação e laboratório. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado, com 10 repetições, sendo cada parcela formada de 1 plântula de erva-mate/vaso, inoculada com 5000 ovos de M. incognita raças 1, 2, 3, 4 e M. paranaensis. Aos 120 dias, observou-se que a erva-mate, além de boa hospedeira destes nematóides, permitiu-lhes completar seu ciclo vital. O desenvolvimento das plantas foi significativamente afetado pelas raças 1 e 2 de M. incognita.; os pesos de matéria seca e fresca da parte aérea sofreram alterações conforme o tratamento. Não houve alteração no peso fresco de raízes e o número de ovos por raízes foi semelhante para as raças 1 e 2 de M. incognita, sendo, porém, mais elevado nos demais tratamentos. O fator de reprodução foi superior a 1 em todos os tratamentos, indicando a susceptibilidade da erva-mate a estes agentes.

  5. Effect of Crop Rotation on Meloidogyne spp. and Pratylenchus spp. Populations in Strawberry Fields in Taiwan

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, P.; Tsay, T. T.

    2006-01-01

    Changes in population levels of Meloidogyne hapla, M. incognita, Pratylenchus coffeae, and P. penetrans were studied in 12 strawberry fields in the Dahu region of Taiwan. Ten potential rotation crops and two cultural practices were evaluated for their effect on nematode populations and influence on strawberry yield. Rotation with rice or taro and the cultural practice of flooding and bare fallowing for four months were found to reduce nematode soil populations to two or fewer nematodes per 10...

  6. Registro da ocorrência de Meloidogyne incognita no porta-enxerto 'IAC 766-Campinas' no estado de Pernambuco e reação de porta-enxertos e de cultivares copa de videira a Meloidogyne spp. / Meloidogyne incognita report on 'IAC 766-Campinas' rootstock in the state of Pernambuco and reaction of grape rootstocks and cultivars to Meloidogyne spp.

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Lúcia, Somavilla; Cesar Bauer, Gomes; Vera Maria, Quecini.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Relata-se a ocorrência de Meloidogyne incognita (Est. I2) em pomar de videira na cidade de Petrolina, Pernambuco. Plantas da cultivar Festival enxertadas sobre 'IAC 766-Campinas', atacadas por Meloidogyne incognita, apresentavam sintomas de menor vigor, folhas amarelecidas e folhagem mais esparsa, e [...] raízes com numerosas galhas em meio ao cultivo de feijão-de-porco (Canavalia ensiformis), também atacado pelo nematoide. Com o objetivo de avaliar a resistência de quatro porta-enxertos tropicais, oito de clima temperado, e as cultivares Niágara Rosada e Chardonnay quanto à reação a M. incognita e M. arenaria, em casa de vegetação, realizou-se este trabalho. Mudas das videiras, mantidas em vaso com solo esterilizado, foram inoculadas com 10.000 ovos + J2 de M. incognita ou M. arenaria por planta. Decorridos oito meses da inoculação, cada planta foi avaliada quanto ao número de galhas e número de ovos por planta, determinando-se, a seguir, o fator de reprodução de cada espécie do nematoide (FR=população inicial/população final) nos diferentes materiais testados. Entre os porta-enxertos avaliados, 'Harmony', 'Salt Creek', '1103 Paulsen', 'IAC 572-Jales', 'IAC 313-Tropical', 'K5BB Kober' e 'SO4', foram resistentes (FR1,00) ao nematoide. No entanto, ambas as cultivares copa foram suscetíveis às duas espécies de Meloidogyne testadas. Abstract in english The occurrence of root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita (Est. I2) is reported in grapevine in Petrolina municipality, State of Pernambuco. Grape plants of Festival cultivar grafted on the 'IAC 766 - Campinas' rootstock attacked by M. incognita exhibited symptoms of less vigorous growth, yellowing [...] and sparse leaves and multiple galls in the root system in an area cultivated with jack-bean (Canavalia ensiformis) also infected by the same nematode. In order to evaluate resistance of four tropical rootstocks, eight temperate and two cultivars Chardonnay and Niagara Rosada in reaction to M. incognita and M. arenaria, this study was carried out. Seedlings of the investigated grapevine genotypes were maintained in pots with sterilized soil and subsequently inoculated with 10,000 eggs + J2 of M. incognita or M. arenaria per plant in a six replicate design. Eight months after nematode inoculation, each plant was evaluated by counting gall and eggs. The final number of eggs (FP) of each Meloidogyne specie was calculated and the reproductive factor (RF = FP/IP), determined. Among the tested rootstocks, 'Harmony', 'Salt Creek', '1103 Paulsen', 'IAC 572-Jales', 'IAC 313-Tropical', 'K5BB Kober', 'SO4' , were resistant (RF1.00) to M. arenaria. In contrast, both tested grapevine scion cultivars were susceptible to the investigated Meloidogyne species.

  7. Differential expression of antioxidant enzymes and PR-proteins in compatible and incompatible interactions of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) and the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, J T A; Andrade, N C; Martins-Miranda, A S; Soares, A A; Gondim, D M F; Araújo-Filho, J H; Freire-Filho, F R; Vasconcelos, I M

    2012-02-01

    This study aimed to evaluated the resistance and susceptibility of 10 cowpea cultivars to Meloidogyne incognita in field studies and to analyze the kinetics of the enzymes superoxide dismutase, catalase, peroxidase, chitinase, ?-1,3-glucanases and cystein proteinase inhibitors in the root system of two contrasting cowpea cultivars after inoculation with M. incognita. The cultivars CE-31 and Frade Preto were highly resistant; CE-28, CE-01, CE-315, CE-237, were very resistant; CE-70 and CE-216 were moderately resistant, whereas Vita-3 and CE-109 were slightly resistant. In the roots of the highly resistant cultivar CE-31 the activity of the antioxidant enzyme superoxide dismutase increased and catalase decreased and those of the pathogenesis-related proteins chitinase, ?-1,3-glucanase, peroxidase and cystein proteinase inhibitor increased in comparison with the root system of the slightly resistant CE-109, during the course of M. incognita infestation. Thus the changes in the activities of these enzymes might be related to the smaller final population of M. incognita in CE-31 and may contribute to the high resistance of this cowpea cultivar against infection and colonization by this nematode species. PMID:22153251

  8. Effects of insect cadavers infected by Heterorhabditis bacteriophora and Steinernema diaprepesi on Meloidogyne incognita parasitism in pepper and summer squash plants / Efecto de insectos cadáveres infectados por Heterorhabditis bacteriophora y Steinernema diaprepesi sobre el parasitismo de Meloidogyne incognita en plantas de pimiento y zapallito redondo de tronco

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Eleodoro E, Del Valle; Paola, Lax; Juan, Rondán Dueñas; Marcelo E, Doucet.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available E.E. Del Valle, P. Lax, J. Rondán Dueñas y M.E. Doucet. 2013. Efecto de insectos cadáveres infectados por Heterorhabditis bacteriophora y Steinernema diaprepesi sobre el parasitismo de Meloidogyne incognita en plantas de pimiento y zapallito redondo de tronco. Cien. Inv. Agr. 40(1):109-118. El efect [...] o de cadáveres de insectos infectados con tres aislados de Heterorhabditis bacteriophora y un aislado de Steinernema diaprepesi sobre una población de Meloidogyne incognita en plantas de pimiento (Capsicum annuum) y zapallito redondo de tronco (Cucurbita maxima) fue evaluado en experiencias de invernadero conducidas en Santa Fe (Argentina). Los cadáveres de insectos necesarios para la experiencia se obtuvieron infectando larvas de último estadio de Galleria mellonella y Tenebrio monitor con nematodos entomopatógenos. Dos cadáveres de seis días de infección se colocaron debajo de la superficie del suelo de macetas que fueron inoculadas con 100 juveniles de segundo estadio de M. incognita. A los sesenta días se registraron los siguientes parámetros en cada planta: número de hojas, peso seco de la parte aérea, número de agallas, masas de huevos y huevos, y número de agallas, masas de huevos y huevos g-1 de materia fresca radical. En pimiento, la única variable afectada por los cadáveres en relación al testigo fue el número de huevos de M. incognita en el tratamiento de cadáveres de T. molitor infectados con H. bacteriophora aislado Rama Caída. En zapallito redondo de tronco, varios tratamientos provocaron una disminución en el número de agallas y masas de huevos. Sólo la aplicación de cadáveres de G. mellonella infectados con H. bacteriophora aislado Rama Caída demostró ser eficiente en reducir el número de huevos de M. incognita. Nuestros resultados indicaron que la aplicación de cadáveres de insectos infectados con los nematodos entomopatógenos estudiados podría reducir los daños causados por M. incognita en plantas de pimiento y zapallito redondo de tronco. Abstract in english E. E. Del Valle, P. Lax, J. Rondán Dueñas, and M. E. Doucet. 2013. Effects of insect cadavers infected by Heterorhabditis bacteriophora and Steinernema diaprepesi on Meloidogyne incognita parasitism in pepper and summer squash plants. Cien. Inv. Agr. 40(1):109-118. The effects of insect cadavers inf [...] ected with three isolates of Heterorhabditis bacteriophora and one isolate of Steinernema diaprepesi on a population of Meloidogyne incognita in pepper (Capsicum annuum) and summer squash (Cucurbita maxima) were evaluated in greenhouse experiments carried out in Santa Fe (Argentina). Insect cadavers were obtained for the experiments from last instar larvae of Galleria mellonella and Tenebrio molitor that had been infected with entomopathogenic nematodes. Two six-day-old insect cadavers per pot were placed below the soil surface, and the soil was inoculated with 100 second-stage juveniles ofM incognita. Sixty days after inoculation, the following parameters were recorded for each plant: number of leaves; dry weight of aerial parts; numbers of galls, egg masses and eggs; and numbers of galls, egg masses and eggs g-1 of root fresh matter. In pepper, the only variable affected by the infected cadavers with respect to control was the number of eggs in the treatment involving T. molitor cadavers infected with the H. bacteriophora isolate Rama Caída. In summer squash, several treatments using infected cadavers resulted in a decrease in the numbers of galls and egg masses. Only the treatment involving G. mellonella cadavers infected with the H. bacteriophora isolate Rama Caída proved to be efficient in reducing the number of M. incognita eggs. Our results indicated that the application of insect cadavers infected with the entomopathogenic nematodes studied might reduce M. incognita damage in pepper and summer squash plants.

  9. Extracellular protease of Pseudomonas fluorescens CHA0, a biocontrol factor with activity against the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqui, Imran Ali; Haas, Dieter; Heeb, Stephan

    2005-09-01

    In Pseudomonas fluorescens CHA0, mutation of the GacA-controlled aprA gene (encoding the major extracellular protease) or the gacA regulatory gene resulted in reduced biocontrol activity against the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita during tomato and soybean infection. Culture supernatants of strain CHA0 inhibited egg hatching and induced mortality of M. incognita juveniles more strongly than did supernatants of aprA and gacA mutants, suggesting that AprA protease contributes to biocontrol. PMID:16151170

  10. Rotations with Coastal Bermudagrass and Fallow for Management of Meloidogyne incognita and Soilborne Fungi on Vegetable Crops

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, A.W.; Burton, G W; Wilson, J. P.; Golden, A. M.

    1995-01-01

    The efficacy of fallow and coastal bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon) as a rotation crop for control of root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne incognita race 1) and soilborne fungi in okra (Hibiscus esculentus cv. Emerald), squash (Cucurbita pepo cv. Dixie Hybrid), and sweet corn (Zea mays cv. Merit) was evaluated in a 3-year field trial. Numbers of M. incognita in the soil and root-gall indices were greater on okra and squash than sweet corn and declined over the years on vegetable crops following fal...

  11. Extracellular Protease of Pseudomonas fluorescens CHA0, a Biocontrol Factor with Activity against the Root-Knot Nematode Meloidogyne incognita

    OpenAIRE

    Siddiqui, Imran Ali; Haas, Dieter; Heeb, Stephan

    2005-01-01

    In Pseudomonas fluorescens CHA0, mutation of the GacA-controlled aprA gene (encoding the major extracellular protease) or the gacA regulatory gene resulted in reduced biocontrol activity against the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita during tomato and soybean infection. Culture supernatants of strain CHA0 inhibited egg hatching and induced mortality of M. incognita juveniles more strongly than did supernatants of aprA and gacA mutants, suggesting that AprA protease contributes to biocon...

  12. Biocontrol of Meloidogyne incognita in Lycopersicon esculentum with AM Fungi and Oil Cakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anuja Bharadwaj

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently chemical pesticides are the major means to control nematode-induced diseases but they are neither economical nor ecofriendly. Alternative methods are being sought to reduce the amount of chemical pesticides required. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi have been reported to reduce the infestation of root-knot nematodes on vegetable crops. Amendment of soil with some oil cakes has been found effective. A study was conducted on exploitation of the combined effect of AM with three different oil cakes Azadirachta indica, Brassica campestris and Ricinus communis oil cakes in controlling the root knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita. Combined use of AMF and cakes resulted in reducing the galling and nematode multiplication thus improving the plant growth and yield. The best results pertaining to AM root infection, nematode reproduction and plant growth and yield were obtained with the combination of AMF and R. communis oil cake.

  13. GAMMA IRRADIATION OF SUGAR BEET SEEDS INDUCED PLANT RESISTANCE TO ROOT-KNOT NEMATODE MELOIDOGYNE INCOGNITA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main objective of this study was to investigate the effect of irradiation of sugar beet seeds on the plant resistance to root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita infection in addition to some morphological parameters, biochemical components and root technological characters. Relative to control (non-irradiated seeds), the obtained data showed that, all doses except 10 Gy significantly increased root length of un inoculated plants and the most effective dose was 200 Gy. All doses significantly decreased root diameter except 50 and 100 Gy. The 10 and 400 Gy significantly reduced root fresh weight while 50, 100 and 200 Gy caused non-significant increase. All doses significantly increased root fresh weight/dry weight than control. There was non-significant effect on the morphological parameters of the plants germinated from gamma irradiated seeds and inoculated with Meloidogyne incognita. Total chlorophyll of seed irradiated and un inoculated plants were significantly reduced by all doses except 200 Gy. All doses of gamma radiation caused non-significant decrease in the total chlorophyll of the infected plants. In un inoculated plants, a significant reduction in the total phenol was occurred due to all doses of gamma radiation. In contrast, in inoculated plants, 10 and 25 Gy caused significant reduction in the total phenol while 50 and 400 Gy caused significant increase in the total phenol.Significant increase in sucrose % was observed due to 10 Gy in the un inoculated plants. The 400 Gy caused significant decrease while other doses caused non-significant decrease in the sucrose %. In the inoculated plants, 50, 100 and 400 Gy caused significant increase in sucrose %. All doses significantly increased total soluble salts percent (TSS %) of either inoculated or un inoculated plants. Purity % was increased by all doses in the inoculated plants.The number of galls and egg masses were reduced gradually by increasing gamma doses and 100 Gy caused the highest reduction 89.5 % and 94.7 % for galls and egg masses, respectively

  14. Presencia del marcador mi-23 de resistencia a Meloidogyne incognita como apoyo a la caracterización del germoplasma de tomate en Venezuela / Presence of marker Mi-23 for resistance to Meloidogyne incognita as support to tomato germplasm characterization in Venezuela

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Iris, Pérez-Almeida; Ariadne, Vegas García; Delis, Pérez; Julio, Muñoz; Sergei, Malyshev.

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Especies del género Meloidogyne causan daños económicamente significativos en cultivos como el tomate, induciendo agallas en las raíces y causando amarillamiento en las plantas infestadas. El empleo de cultivares resistentes garantiza una agricultura sostenible y productos de alta calidad. Se plante [...] ó el uso del marcador co-dominante Mi-23 ligado al gen de resistencia Mi-1.2, el cual confiere resistencia a Meloidogyne spp. como apoyo a la caracterización de 39 accesiones de germoplasma de tomate del INIA-CENIAP y Lara, incluyendo tomates silvestres Solanum pimpinellifolium y S. lycopersicum locales (tipo Cherry, Perita y Margariteño), poblaciones avanzadas y variedades e híbridos comerciales. El ADN se extrajo siguiendo la metodología del CTAB y las amplificaciones de PCR se realizaron con los cebadores Mi23F/R. Los materiales genéticos formaron tres grupos de acuerdo al patrón de amplificación: 1) la población 9, del INIA-Lara, con un fragmento de 400 pb, como el ADN testigo (proveniente de Belarús); 2) Cherry-Lobatera, Perita Agrovitas, poblaciones 5 y 10, Cherry-189, híbridos Mariana y Salad-F1, con dos fragmentos de 450 y 400 pb; y 3) los restantes 31 materiales, entre ellos, tomates silvestres, cultivares locales, poblaciones avanzadas o promisorias, y variedades e híbridos comerciales, con un fragmento de 450 pb. Los dos primeros grupos se pueden correlacionar con genotipos resistentes homocigotos y heterocigotos, respectivamente, y el último con genotipos susceptibles. La utilización del marcador SCAR Mi-23, ligado al gen Mi-1.2 permitió discriminar las accesiones de tomate del INIA, e identificar ocho de ellas con patrones asociados a genotipos resistentes al nematodo M. incognita, incluyendo tres poblaciones avanzadas del INIA-Lara y una local del INIA-CENIAP. Abstract in english Meloidogyne species cause economically significant damage to crops such as tomatoes, inducing galls on roots and causing yellowing of infested plants. The use of resistant cultivars ensures sustainable agriculture and high quality products. We proposed the use of co-dominant marker Mi-23, linked to [...] the resistance gene Mi-1.2, which confers resistance to Meloidogyne spp. to support the characterization of 39 accessions of tomato germplasm from INIA-CENIAP and Lara, including wild tomatoes Solanum pimpinellifolium, and S. lycopersicum local types (Cherry, Pera and Margariteño), advanced populations, and commercial hybrids and varieties. DNA was extracted following CTAB methodology, and PCR amplifications using Mi23F/R primers. Genetic materials formed three groups according to the amplification patterns: 1) population 9, from INIA-Lara, with a fragment of 400 bp, as the DNA control from Belarus; 2) Cherry-Lobatera, Perita Agrovitas, populations 5 and 10, Cherry-189, Mariana and Salad-F1 hybrids, with two fragments of 450 and 400 bp; and 3) the remaining 31 materials, among them, wild tomatoes, locals, advanced populations, and commercial varieties and hybrids, with amplification of a single 450 bp fragment. The first two groups can be correlated to homozygous and heterozygous resistance genotypes, respectively, and the last group to susceptible ones. By using the SCAR marker Mi-23, linked to gen Mi-1.2, we were able to discriminate the INIA tomatoes accessions, and identify eight of them associated with the resistance genotypes to nematode M. incognita, including three advanced populations from INIA-Lara and one local from INIA-CENIAP.

  15. Comportamiento de cuatro cultivares de Cucurbita maxima cv. zapallito frente al parasitismo del nematodo de las agallas Meloidogyne incognita

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    E.E, Del Valle; A.M, Guzmán; A.M, Belavi; M, Soressi.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available El nematodo de las agallas, Meloidogyne incognita, es causante de pérdidas productivas en los principales cultivos hortícolas que se realizan en el albardón costero santafesino. El objetivo de la investigación fue determinar la reacción de cuatro cultivares comerciales de zapallito redondo de tronco [...] (Cucurbita maxima cv. zapallito) frente al parasitismo de M. incognita. Las experiencias se condujeron en macetas bajo invernadero y se evaluaron los cultivares Nacional, Premier, Sais superselección y Máximo. Los tratamientos consistieron en inocular plantas de cada cultivar con 100 juveniles de segundo estadio de M. incognita y de sus correspondientes testigos no inoculados. A los 45 días de la inoculación se determinó el número de agallas, Índice de Agallas, número de masas de huevos, Índice de Masas de Huevos, número de huevos y el factor e reproducción. Los cuatro cultivares estudiados demostraron ser susceptibles a M. incognita. Abstract in english The root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita, causes yield losses in many horticultural crops in the coastal área of Santa Fe province. The aim of this research was to determine the reaction of four commercial cultivars of summer squash (Cucurbita maxima cv. zapallito) when parasitized by M. incogn [...] ita. The experiments were conducted in pots under greenhouse conditions and Nacional, Premier, Sais superselection and Máximo cultivars were evaluated. The treatments consisted of plants of each cultivar inoculated with 100 second-stage juveniles of M. incognita and its corresponding control. 45 days after inoculation the number of galls, Gall Index, number of egg masses, Eggs Mass Index, number of eggs and reproduction factor were determined. The four cultivars studied showed susceptibility to M. incognita.

  16. Cowpea-Meloidogyne incognita interaction: Root proteomic analysis during early stages of nematode infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villeth, Gabriela R C; Carmo, Lilian S T; Silva, Luciano P; Fontes, Wagner; Grynberg, Priscila; Saraiva, Mario; Brasileiro, Ana C M; Carneiro, Regina M D; Oliveira, José T A; Grossi-de-Sá, Maria F; Mehta, Angela

    2015-05-01

    Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) is an important legume species well adapted to low fertility soils and prolonged drought periods. One of the main problems that cause severe yield losses in cowpea is the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita. The aim of this work was to analyze the differential expression of proteins in the contrasting cultivars of cowpea CE 31 (highly resistant) and CE 109 (slightly resistant) during early stages of M. incognita infection. Cowpea roots were collected at 3, 6, and 9 days after inoculation and used for protein extraction and 2-DE analysis. From a total of 59 differential spots, 37 proteins were identified, mostly involved in plant defense, such as spermidine synthase, patatin, proteasome component, and nitrile-specifier protein. A follow-up study was performed by quantitative RT-PCR analysis of nine selected proteins and the results revealed a very similar upregulation trend between the protein expression profiles and the corresponding transcripts. This study also identified ACT and GAPDH as a good combination of reference genes for quantitative RT-PCR analysis of the pathosystem cowpea/nematode. Additionally, an interactome analysis showed three major pathways affected by nematode infection: proteasome endopeptidase complex, oxidative phosphorylation, and flavonoid biosynthesis. Taken together, the results obtained by proteome, transcriptome, and interactome approaches suggest that oxidative stress, ubiquitination, and glucosinolate degradation may be part of cowpea CE 31 resistance mechanisms in response to nematode infection. PMID:25736976

  17. Characterization of Streptomyces netropsis Showing a Nematicidal Activity against Meloidogyne incognita

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ja Yeong Jang

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Control of nematode has become difficult owing to the restricted use of effective soil fumigant, methyl bromide, and other non-fumigant nematicides. Therefore, it is urgently necessary to develop microbial nematicide to replace chemical nematicides. In this study, the 50% aqueous methanol extraction solution of fermentation broths of 2,700 actinomycete strains were tested for their nematicidal activity against second stage of juveniles (J2s of Meloidogyne incognita. As the results, only the 50% aqueous methanol extraction solution of AN110065, at 20% equivalent to 10% fermentation broth, showed strong nematicidal activity with 78.9% of mortality 24 h after treatment and 94.1% of mortality at 72 h. The 16S rRNA gene sequencing showed that the strain sequence was 99.78% identical to Streptomyces netropsis. The extract of S. netropsis AN110065 fermentation broth was successively partitioned with ethyl acetate and butanol and then the ethyl acetate, butanol and water layers were investigated for their nematicidal activity against the M. incognita. At 1,000 mg/ml, ethyl acetate layer showed the strongest activity of 83.5% of juvenile mortality 72 h after treatment. The pot experiment using the fermentation broth of AN110065 on tomato plant against M. incognita displayed that it evidently suppressed gall formation at a 10-fold diluent treatment. The tomato plants treated with the fermentation broth of S. netropsis AN110065 did not show any phytotoxicity. The results suggest that S. netropsis AN110065 has a potential to serve as microbial nematicide in organic agriculture.

  18. IDENTIFICACIÓN MORFOLÓGICA, MORFOMÉTRICA Y MOLECULAR DE Meloidogyne incognita EN HIGUERA (Ficus carica L. EN COSTA RICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter Peraza-Padilla

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este estudio fue identificar la especie de Meloidogyne asociada a dos plantaciones de higuera en Costa Rica. En marzo de 2012, en el distrito de Pacayas, provincia de Cartago, se detectaron agallas en los sistemas radicales de plantas de higuera (Ficus carica L. de dos fincas. De las raíces agalladas se extrajeron hembras, masas de huevos y juveniles (J2 de Meloidogyne sp. Se examinaron los patrones perineales de las hembras y los segundos estadios infectivos se analizaron morfológica y molecularmente mediante PCR-RFLP. Se amplificó la región intergénica (IGS del genoma mitocondrial, delimitada por el gen de la subunidad II de la citocromo oxidasa (COII y el gen ribosomal 16S. La población de nematodos se identificó como M. incognita. El tamaño de los productos de PCR generados con los imprimadores C2F3 y 1108 fue de 1,7 kb. Al tratar los productos de PCR con enzimas de restricción, se generaron cuatro fragmentos de 850, 450, 250 y 150 pb con la enzima AluI y dos fragmentos de 1300 y 400 pb con la enzima HinfI.

  19. Nematocidal Flavone-C-Glycosides against the Root-Knot Nematode (Meloidogyne incognita) from Arisaema erubescens Tubers

    OpenAIRE

    Zhi Long Liu; Yong Yan Wang; Zhi Wei Deng; Qi Zhi Liu; Cheng Fang Wang; Chun Qi Bai; Hai Ming Zhang; Shu Shan Du

    2011-01-01

    A screening of several Chinese medicinal herbs for nematicidal properties showed that Arisaema erubescens (Wall.) Schott tubers possessed significant nematicidal activity against the root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne incognita). From the ethanol extract, two nematicidal flavone-C-glycosides were isolated by bioassay-guided fractionation. The compounds were identified as schaftoside and isoschaftoside on the basis of their phytochemical and spectral data. Schaftoside and isoschaftoside possessed...

  20. Effects of Soil Solarization and Organic Amendment Treatments for Controlling Meloidogyne incognita in Tomato Cultivars in Western Anatolia

    OpenAIRE

    KA?KAVALCI, Galip

    2007-01-01

    The efficacy of soil solarization, Dazomet, chicken manure (CM), olive processing waste (OPW), and soil solarization in combination with CM or OPW or half doses of Dazomet against Meloidogyne incognita on tomato cultivars was investigated in greenhouses in western Anatolia, Turkey, between 2002 and 2004. The maximum soil temperature average was increased 47.1 °C by soil solarization alone at the 15 cm soil depth of soil in the first year. Soil solarization alone and in combination with CM inc...

  1. Brassicaceous Seed Meals as Soil Amendments to Suppress the Plant-parasitic Nematodes Pratylenchus penetrans and Meloidogyne incognita1

    OpenAIRE

    Zasada, I. A.; Meyer, S.L.F.; Morra, M. J.

    2009-01-01

    Brassicaceous seed meals are the residual materials remaining after the extraction of oil from seeds; these seed meals contain glucosinolates that potentially degrade to nematotoxic compounds upon incorporation into soil. This study compared the nematode-suppressive ability of four seed meals obtained from Brassica juncea ‘Pacific Gold’, B. napus ‘Dwarf Essex’ and ‘Sunrise’, and Sinapis alba ‘IdaGold’, against mixed stages of Pratylenchus penetrans and Meloidogyne incognita second-stage juven...

  2. INFLUENCIA DE LA PLANTA HOSPEDANTE Y SU INTERACCIÓN CON Meloidogyne incognita SOBRE LA EFECTIVIDAD DE Pochonia chlamydosporia var. catenulata / INFLUENCE OF THE HOST PLANT AND ITS INTERACTION WITH Meloidogyne incognita ON THE EFFECTIVENESS OF Pochonia chlamydosporia var. catenulata

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ana, Puertas; L, Hidalgo-Díaz.

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available El efecto de las plantas hospedantes y su interacción con Meloidogyne incognita (Kofoid y White) Chitwood sobre la efectividad de Pochonia chlamydosporia var. catenulata (Kamyscho ex Barron y Onions) Zare y Gams como agente de control biológico de nematodos formadores de agallas se estudió en condic [...] iones de aisladores biológicos. Para el desarrollo de la experiencia se utilizaron diferentes especies de plantas que se cultivan en los sistemas intensivos de producción de hortalizas en Cuba y se evaluó la colonización de la rizosfera, a partir del conteo de UFC del hongo, en plantas sanas e infestadas por M. incognita. Los resultados demostraron que el crecimiento del hongo en la rizosfera varió en dependencia de la especie de planta. Entre los mejores hospedantes de P. chlamydosporia var. catenulata estuvieron la col, coliflor y acelga china, cultivos resistentes a M. incognita. Las plantas infestadas por M. incognita mostraron mayores niveles de colonización del hongo que las plantas sanas y el cultivo de la habichuela resultó ser un buen hospedante, en presencia del nematodo. Se recomienda la utilización de estos cultivos dentro de esquemas de rotación que incluyan la aplicación de P. chlamydosporia var. catenulata como agente de control biológico para el manejo de M. incognita en sistemas intensivos de producción de hortalizas. Abstract in english The effect of the host plants and their interaction with Meloidogyne incognita (Kofoid and White) Chitwood on the effectiveness of Pochonia chlamydosporia var. catenulata (Kamyscho ex Barron and Onions) Zare and Gams as a biological control agent of root-knot nematodes was studied in glasshouse cond [...] itions. Different plant species from the Cuban Intensive Vegetable Production Systems were used to perform the experience. The growth of the fungus in the rhizosphere differed with the host plant. Among the best host plants of P. chlamydosporia var. catenulata were cabbage, salt-wort and cauliflower, resistant crops to M. incognita. The plants infested by M. incognita showed higher levels of fungus colonization than those healthy, and the kidney bean crop was a good host in the presence of the nematode. The use of these crops into rotation systems, with the application of Pochonia chlamydosporia var. catenulata as biological control agent for the management of M. incognita on Intensive Vegetable Production Systems, was recommended.

  3. Efeito de extratos aquosos de espécies de Asteraceae sobre Meloidogyne incognita Effect of aqueous extracts of Asteraceae species on Meloidogyne incognita

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Cristina Madeira Ferreira

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se, in vitro e in vivo a atividade nematicida dos extratos aquosos de vedélia (Sphagneticola trilobata, erva-de-touro (Tridax procumbens, cravo-de-defunto (Tagetes patula, girassol mexicano (Tithonia diversifolia, botão de ouro (Unxia suffruticosa e zínia (Zinnia peruviana, sobre Meloidogyne incognita. Os extratos foram preparados na proporção de 1,0g do material seco e triturado para 10mL de água destilada e armazenados por 24h, sendo seguidamente utilizados nos experimentos. Nos testes in vitro, foram depositados 4,0mL do extrato bruto e 2,0mL de uma suspensão aquosa contendo 200 ovos do nematóide em placas de Petri de 5cm de diâmetro e, quinze dias após, procedeu-se a contagem do número de juvenis eclodidos e dos ovos remanescentes para o cálculo das porcentagens de eclosão. Nos testes in vivo, os extratos foram aplicados, separadamente, via pulverização foliar, tratamento de raiz e vertido no solo, semanalmente durante 60 dias. Como testemunha utilizou-se apenas água nos dois experimentos. No ensaio in vitro observou-se que todos os extratos foram eficientes na redução da eclosão de juvenis de M. incognita quando comparados à testemunha, as porcentagens de redução foram 89,96%, 91,13%, 92,48%, 92,72%, 93,2% e 97,48% para erva-de-touro, cravo-de-defunto, girassol mexicano, vedélia, botão de ouro e zínia, respectivamente, e no ensaio in vivo, que os tratamentos não exerceram nenhum efeito sobre o peso do sistema radicular dos tomateiros, no entanto, observou-se que os resultados diferiram entre as espécies utilizadas e a forma de aplicação do extrato na avaliação do peso fresco da parte aérea das plantas. Quanto ao fator de reprodução, observou-se que nenhum dos extratos apresentou diferença estatística em relação à testemunha, no entanto, quando se compara as diferentes formas de aplicação dos mesmos, observa-se que houve diferença estatística quando os extratos de erva de touro e girassol mexicano foram aplicados via pulverização foliar e no tratamento de raiz, contudo, não houve diferença quando estes extratos foram aplicados em forma de rega no solo.The nematicide activity of aqueous extracts of Wedelia (Sphagneticola trilobata, tridax daisy (Tridax procumbens, marigold (Tagetes patula, Mexican sunflower (Tithonia diversifolia, "botão de ouro" (Unxia suffruticosa and Peruvian zinnia (Zinnia peruviana was studied in vitro and in vivo on Meloidogyne incognita. The extracts were prepared at a ratio of 1.0 g of dry and crushed material to 10 ml of distilled water, stored for 24 hours, and then used in the experiments. In in vitro tests, 4.0 mL of crude extract and 2.0 ml of an aqueous suspension containing 200 nematode eggs were deposited on Petri plates of 5cm diameter and, fifteen days later, the number of hatched juveniles and the remaining eggs were counted to calculate the percentages of hatching. In in vivo tests, the extracts were separately applied by leaf spraying, root treatment and pouring onto the soil, weekly for 60 days. As control, only water was used in both experiments. The in vitro test showed that all extracts were effective in reducing the hatching of juveniles of M. incognita when compared to the control; the reduction percentages were 89.96%, 91.13%, 92.48%, 92.72%, 93.2% and 97.48% for tridax daisy, marigold, Mexican sunflower, Wedelia, "botão de ouro" and Peruvian zinnia, respectively, while in the in vivo assay, treatments did not have any effect on the root system weight of tomato plants; however, results differed between the used species and the way of application of the extract in the evaluation of the fresh weight of shoots. As to the reproduction rate, none of the extracts showed a statistical difference, compared to control; however, comparing the different ways of application, there was statistical difference when the extracts of tridax daisy and Mexican sunflower were applied through leaf spraying and root treatment, but there was no difference when these extracts were applied as irrigation on the soil.

  4. Histological mechanisms of the resistance conferred by the Ma gene against Meloidogyne incognita in Prunus spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khallouk, Samira; Voisin, Roger; Van Ghelder, Cyril; Engler, Gilbert; Amiri, Saïd; Esmenjaud, Daniel

    2011-08-01

    The Ma gene from Myrobalan plum is a TNL gene that confers a high-level resistance to all root-knot nematodes of major economic importance, including Meloidogyne incognita, M. javanica, M. arenaria, and M. enterolobii. The nematode behavior in the roots and the corresponding histological mechanisms of the Ma resistance to M. incognita in the resistant (R) accessions of the plum 'P.2175' and the interspecific hybrid P.2175×almond-peach '35', carrying the Ma1 allele (Ma1/ma), were characterized in comparison with the susceptible (S) accessions in the plum 'P.2032' and the interspecific hybrid P.2175×almond-peach '253' (ma/ma). Second-stage juveniles (J2s) were inoculated in micropropagated plantlets grown in soil substrate under controlled conditions at 25°C. Nematodes penetrated both R and S plants preferentially along the apical zone or close to the young lateral buds and moved via similar routes. Then they migrated into the cortex downward in the direction of the apex and turned up in the meristematic apical region to colonize the differentiating stele. In R accessions, motile J2s neither swelled nor developed into J3s, and initiation of feeding sites was never observed. This complete absence of gall symptoms is associated with cell necroses and corresponding hypersensitive-like reaction (HLR) phenotypes occurring either in the stele or in the meristematic apical region or in the cortex. Nematode attacks often disorganized the meristematic apical tissues of R accessions, which induced the development of subterminal lateral roots replacing primary terminal apices and, thus, provided an active resistance reaction to HLR damage. PMID:21446787

  5. Inconsistency of the biological control of Meloidogyne incognita race 2 in melon by endophytic bacteria / Inconsistência do controle biológico de Meloidogyne incognita raça 2 em meloeiro por bactérias endofíticas

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Jeane E de, Medeiros; Rosa de LR, Mariano; Elvira MR, Pedrosa; Elineide B da, Silveira.

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available A partir de amostras de solo coletadas em plantios comerciais de meloeiro, situados em Mossoró-RN, foram obtidos 61 isolados de rizobactérias que, juntamente com outros 56 isolados endofíticos pertencentes à Coleção de Culturas do Laboratório de Fitobacteriologia da Universidade Federal Rural de Per [...] nambuco, foram avaliados para o controle de Meloidogyne incognita raça 2 em melão. Plantas de meloeiro Amarelo, cultivar AF 682, com dez dias de idade tiveram o solo infestado com 1000 ovos de M. incognita raça 2 por planta. Dois dias antes, foram depositados em cada vaso 20 mL da suspensão bacteriana (DO570nm = 0,7). Decorridos 60 dias, foram determinados a biomassa fresca das raízes, os índices de galhas e de massa de ovos e o fator de reprodução do nematóide. Dos 117 isolados avaliados, foram selecionados inicialmente os isolados endofíticos ENM7, ENM10 e ENM51, todos pertencentes ao gênero Bacillus, que reduziram significativamente a massa de ovos e/ou o índice de galhas. Contudo, quando testados novamente, separadamente ou em misturas, esses isolados não mantiveram a eficiência na redução dessas variáveis e, in vitro, não afetaram a eclosão dos juvenis. Os resultados obtidos evidenciam a inconstância da ação das bactérias endofíticas no controle de M. incognita raça 2 em meloeiro. Abstract in english We obtained 61 rhizobacterium isolates from rhizosphere soil samples collected in melon commercial fields located in Mossoró, Rio Grande do Norte State, Brazil. These isolates, along with 56 endophytic bacteria from the Collection of Cultures of the Plant Bacteriology Laboratory of the Universidade [...] Federal Rural de Pernambuco, were tested for controlling Meloidogyne incognita race 2 in melon. To infest the soil with nematodes, 1000 eggs of Meloidogyne incognita race 2 per plant were placed in pots where seedlings of the yellow-type melon, cultivar AF 682, were growing for 10 days. Two days before, 20 mL of bacterial suspension (0.7 OD570nm) were poured into each pot. After 60 days, fresh root biomass, gall index, egg mass, and the nematode reproduction factor were assessed. Among the 117 isolates screened, the endophytic Bacillus ENM7, ENM10, and ENM51 were selected because they significantly reduced egg mass and/or gall index. However, when tested again, separately and in mixtures, these isolates nor confirmed their efficiency in vivo, neither affected juvenile emergence in vitro. These results give evidence on the inconsistency of using endophytic-bacteria in the control of M. incognita race 2 in melon.

  6. Inconsistency of the biological control of Meloidogyne incognita race 2 in melon by endophytic bacteria Inconsistência do controle biológico de Meloidogyne incognita raça 2 em meloeiro por bactérias endofíticas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeane E de Medeiros

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available We obtained 61 rhizobacterium isolates from rhizosphere soil samples collected in melon commercial fields located in Mossoró, Rio Grande do Norte State, Brazil. These isolates, along with 56 endophytic bacteria from the Collection of Cultures of the Plant Bacteriology Laboratory of the Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco, were tested for controlling Meloidogyne incognita race 2 in melon. To infest the soil with nematodes, 1000 eggs of Meloidogyne incognita race 2 per plant were placed in pots where seedlings of the yellow-type melon, cultivar AF 682, were growing for 10 days. Two days before, 20 mL of bacterial suspension (0.7 OD570nm were poured into each pot. After 60 days, fresh root biomass, gall index, egg mass, and the nematode reproduction factor were assessed. Among the 117 isolates screened, the endophytic Bacillus ENM7, ENM10, and ENM51 were selected because they significantly reduced egg mass and/or gall index. However, when tested again, separately and in mixtures, these isolates nor confirmed their efficiency in vivo, neither affected juvenile emergence in vitro. These results give evidence on the inconsistency of using endophytic-bacteria in the control of M. incognita race 2 in melon.A partir de amostras de solo coletadas em plantios comerciais de meloeiro, situados em Mossoró-RN, foram obtidos 61 isolados de rizobactérias que, juntamente com outros 56 isolados endofíticos pertencentes à Coleção de Culturas do Laboratório de Fitobacteriologia da Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco, foram avaliados para o controle de Meloidogyne incognita raça 2 em melão. Plantas de meloeiro Amarelo, cultivar AF 682, com dez dias de idade tiveram o solo infestado com 1000 ovos de M. incognita raça 2 por planta. Dois dias antes, foram depositados em cada vaso 20 mL da suspensão bacteriana (DO570nm = 0,7. Decorridos 60 dias, foram determinados a biomassa fresca das raízes, os índices de galhas e de massa de ovos e o fator de reprodução do nematóide. Dos 117 isolados avaliados, foram selecionados inicialmente os isolados endofíticos ENM7, ENM10 e ENM51, todos pertencentes ao gênero Bacillus, que reduziram significativamente a massa de ovos e/ou o índice de galhas. Contudo, quando testados novamente, separadamente ou em misturas, esses isolados não mantiveram a eficiência na redução dessas variáveis e, in vitro, não afetaram a eclosão dos juvenis. Os resultados obtidos evidenciam a inconstância da ação das bactérias endofíticas no controle de M. incognita raça 2 em meloeiro.

  7. COMPORTAMIENTO DE MATERIALES DE LOS GÉNEROS Carica Y Vasconcellea FRENTE A Erwinia papayae, Meloidogyne incognita Y Rotylenchulus reniformis / REACTION OF THE GENERA Carica AND Vasconcellea MATERIALS TO Erwinia papayae, Meloidogyne incognita AND Rotylenchulus reniformis

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Anna, Maselli; Ligia Carolina, Rosales; Yolanda, Guevara; Zoraida, Suárez H.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available La bacteriosis del cancro y el ataque de los nematodos constituyen graves obstáculos en la extensión del cultivo de la papaya (Carica papaya L.). El objetivo principal de este trabajo fue la selección de genotipos tanto comerciales como silvestres resistentes a los patógenos mencionados. Para la eva [...] luación del comportamiento ante la bacteria del cancro causada por Erwinia papayae, se seleccionaron once accesiones de C. papaya, Vasconcellea goudotiana y V. cauliflora y se inocularon 10 plantas de cada genotipo con una suspensión bacteriana de concentración de 10(8) UFC.mL-1. La inoculación se realizó produciendo heridas en los tallos de las plantas sanas. Los testigos se trataron de igual forma con agua destilada estéril. Para la evaluación de la resistencia a nematodos se realizaron dos experimentos; en el primero se utilizaron materiales de C. papaya y V. goudotiana, los cuales se inocularon con una población mixta de Meloidogyne incognita raza 1 y Rotylenchulus reniformis con 2000 huevos+juveniles.1000 cm-3 en suelo-arena estéril. Para el segundo experimento se usaron, además de los materiales mencionados, V. cauliflora, V. cundinamarcensis, V. microcarpa var. microcarpa, V. microcarpa var. pilifera, inoculados sólo con M. incognita raza 1 con 2500 huevos+juveniles.1000 cm-3. A las 12 semanas se calculó la población final y se midieron las siguientes variables: peso aéreo y radical fresco y seco. Los resultados del comportamiento de los genotipos frente a la bacteria determinó que V. goudotiana y V. cauliflora no se enfermaron, no así el género Carica, donde todas las plantas resultaron susceptibles, coincidiendo con la evaluación de nematodos, donde todas las accesiones de C. papaya y V. goudotiana fueron susceptibles y no tolerante al ataque de la población mixta de M. incognita raza 1 y R. reniformis, por afectarse las variables agronómicas evaluadas; mientras que la mayoría de los materiales de V. cundinamarcencis y V. microcarpa resultaron resistentes al ataque de M. incognita raza 1. Estos resultados permiten la obtención de genes de resistencias en los materiales silvestres, los cuales podrían ser incorporados a los genotipos mejorados o comerciales, y permitiría un mejor manejo de los patógenos mencionados, que resultan limitantes severos en el cultivo de papaya en Venezuela. Abstract in english The bacterial canker and the attack of nematodes are serious obstacles to the extension of Carica papaya L. crop. The main objective of this work was the selection of both commercial and wild genotypes resistant to the above mentioned pathogens. To assess the response to the bacterial canker caused [...] by Erwinia papayae, eleven accesions of C. papaya, Vasconcellea goudotiana y V. cauliflora were selected and ten plants of each genotype were inoculated with a bacterial suspension with a concentration of 10(8) CFU.mL-1 . The plants were inoculated by wounds on the stems of the healthy plants. The controls were similarly treated but with sterile distilled water. Two trials were carried out to evaluate the resistance to nematodes. In the first trial, materials of C. papaya and V. goudotiana were inoculated with a mixed population of Meloidogyne incognita race 1 and Rotylenchulus reniformis, with 2000 eggs+juveniles. 1000 cm-3 in sterile soil-sand. In the second trial, V. cauliflora, V. cundinamarcensis, V. microcarpa var. microcarpa and V. microcarpa var. pilifera, in addition to the genotypes previously used, were inoculated only with M. incognita race 1, with 2500 eggs+juvenils.1000 cm-3. After 12 weeks, the final population was calculated and the fresh and dried weights of the aerial parts and roots were determined. The results of the reaction of the genotypes towards the bacterium determined that V. goudotiana and V. cauliflora did not get the disease, what differed from the Carica genus, where all the plants resulted susceptible, a result that was similar to the evaluation to nematodes, where all the genotypes of C. papaya and V. goudotiana were susceptible and

  8. Tolerancia de 26 colectas de tomates nativos de México al nematodo Meloidogyne incognita (Kofoid y White) Chitwood / Tolerance of 26 native tomato collections from Mexico to nematode Meloidogyne incognita (Kofoid and White) Chitwood

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Raquel, Cervantes-Moreno; Juan Enrique, Rodríguez-Pérez; Calixto, Carrillo Fonseca; Jaime, Sahagún-Castellanos; Eduardo, Rodríguez-Guzmán.

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Se determinó la tolerancia de 26 colectas de tomates nativos de México a Meloidogyne incongnita (Kofoid y White) Chitwood, con el fin de identificar aquellas con potencial para su empleo en el mejoramiento genético o como portainjertos. Para ello, plantas de 30 días de edad fueron establecidas en hi [...] droponia bajo invernadero. Diez días después del trasplante (ddt) fue aplicada al sustrato una solución con 100,000 huevecillos-larva por planta. Se registraron caracteres de la parte aérea de plantas y a los 210 ddt se cuantificó el desarrollo de poblaciones de nematodos en raíces. M. incognita disminuyó el diámetro de frutos y el porte de planta (altura al primer racimo, peso seco de tallo y número de nudos), e incrementó el número de frutos y flores. Además, redujo la longitud de raíces y aumentó el volumen de éstas por la formación de nódulos. Mediante análisis multivariados (agrupamiento y discriminante) se definieron cinco grupos de colectas en función de la cantidad de agallas pequeñas y grandes, así como el total de éstas (82% de variación) y por la cantidad de larvas en raíz y huevecillos en sustrato (13% de variación). Se identificaron tres colectas tolerantes con bajos índices de agallas y menor presencia de huevecillos-larva en raíz y en sustrato. Ocho colectas fueron moderadamente tolerantes; nueve, moderadamente susceptibles, y seis, susceptibles. No se detectaron asociaciones entre orígenes de colectas o forma de fruto con respecto a la tolerancia al nematodo. Abstract in english The tolerance of 26 native tomato collections from Mexico to Meloidogyne incongnita (Kofoid and White) Chitwood was studied to identify those with potential for use in breeding or as rootstock. To do this, 30-day-old plants were established in a hydroponic system under greenhouse conditions. A solut [...] ion with 100,000 eggs-larvae per plant was applied to the substrate 10 days after transplantation (dat). Characters of the above-ground part of the plants were recorded and at 210 dat the development of nematode populations in roots was quantified. Meloidogyne incognita reduced fruit diameter and plant size (first truss height, stem dry weight, and node number), and increased the number of fruits and flowers. Additionally, it reduced root length and increased root volume due to nodule formation. By means of multivariate analysis (cluster and discriminant), five collection groups were defined based on the number of small and large galls, as well as total galls (82 % variation), and by the number of larvae in roots and eggs in the substrate (13 % variation). Three tolerant collections with low gall indices and a lower number of eggs-larvae in the roots and substrate were identified. Eight collections were moderately tolerant, nine moderately susceptible and six susceptible. No associations were detected between collection origins or fruit shape and tolerance to nematode.

  9. Nematicidal Activity of the Volatilome of Eruca sativa on Meloidogyne incognita.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aissani, Nadhem; Urgeghe, Pietro Paolo; Oplos, Chrisostomos; Saba, Marco; Tocco, Graziella; Petretto, Giacomo Luigi; Eloh, Kodjo; Menkissoglu-Spiroudi, Urania; Ntalli, Nikoletta; Caboni, Pierluigi

    2015-07-15

    Research on new pesticides based on plant extracts, aimed at the development of nontoxic formulates, has recently gained increased interest. This study investigated the use of the volatilome of rucola (Eruca sativa) as a powerful natural nematicidal agent against the root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita. Analysis of the composition of the volatilome, using GC-MS-SPME, showed that the compound (Z)-3-hexenyl acetate was the most abundant, followed by (Z)-3-hexen-1-ol and erucin, with relative percentages of 22.7 ± 1.6, 15.9 ± 2.3, and 8.6 ± 1.3, respectively. Testing of the nematicidal activity of rucola volatile compounds revealed that erucin, pentyl isothiocyanate, hexyl isothiocyanate, (E)-2-hexenal, 2-ethylfuran, and methyl thiocyanate were the most active with EC50 values of 3.2 ± 1.7, 11.1 ± 5.0, 11.3 ± 2.6, 15.0 ± 3.3, 16.0 ± 5.0, and 18.1 ± 0.6 mg/L, respectively, after 24 h of incubation. Moreover, the nematicidal activity of fresh rucola used as soil amendant in a containerized culture of tomato decreased the nematode infection in a dose-response manner (EC50 = 20.03 mg/g) and plant growth was improved. On the basis of these results, E. sativa can be considered as a promising companion plant in intercropping strategies for tomato growers to control root-knot nematodes. PMID:26082278

  10. Evaluation of Dry Ice as a Potential Cryonematicide for Meloidogyne incognita in Soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wergin, W P; Yaklich, R W; Chitwood, D J; Erbe, E F

    1999-12-01

    Solid CO (dry ice) was added to pots containing soil that was infested either with eggs of the root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita, or with tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum 'Rutgers') root fragments that were infected with various stages of the nematode. Two hours after dry ice was added, thermocouples in the soil recorded temperatures ranging from -15 degrees C to -59 degrees C. One day after treatment with the dry ice, the temperature of the soil was allowed to equilibrate with that of the greenhouse, and susceptible tomato seedlings were planted in pots containing infested soil treated or untreated (controls) with dry ice. After 5 weeks, roots were removed from the pots and nematode eggs were extracted and counted. Plants grown in soil infested with eggs and receiving dry ice treatment had less than 1% of the eggs found in the controls; plants from soil infested with root fragments and receiving dry ice treatment had less than 4% of the eggs found in controls. Dry ice used to lower soil temperature may have potential as a cryonematicide. PMID:19270918

  11. Nematicidal activity of mint aqueous extracts against the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caboni, Pierluigi; Saba, Marco; Tocco, Graziella; Casu, Laura; Murgia, Antonio; Maxia, Andrea; Menkissoglu-Spiroudi, Urania; Ntalli, Nikoletta

    2013-10-16

    The nematicidal activity and chemical characterization of aqueous extracts and essential oils of three mint species, namely, Mentha × piperita , Mentha spicata , and Mentha pulegium , were investigated. The phytochemical analysis of the essential oils was performed by means of GC-MS, whereas the aqueous extracts were analyzed by LC-MS. The most abundant terpenes were isomenthone, menthone, menthol, pulegone, and carvone, and the water extracts yielded mainly chlorogenic acid, salvianolic acid B, luteolin-7-O-rutinoside, and rosmarinic acid. The water extracts exhibited significant nematicidal activity against Meloidogyne incognita , and the EC50/72h values were calculated at 1005, 745, and 300 mg/L for M. × piperita, M. pulegium, and M. spicata, respectively. Only the essential oil from M. spicata showed a nematicidal activity with an EC50/72h of 358 mg/L. Interestingly, menthofuran and carvone showed EC50/48h values of 127 and 730 mg/L, respectively. On the other hand, salicylic acid, isolated in the aqueous extracts, exhibited EC50 values at 24 and 48 h of 298 ± 92 and 288 ± 79 mg/L, respectively. PMID:24050256

  12. Enxertia e sua influencia na produção de pepino e reprodução de Meloidogyne javanica e M. incognita Effect of grafting on cucumber production and reproduction of Meloidogyne javanica and M. incognita

    OpenAIRE

    Ariane C Salata; Erick Vinicius Bertolini; Felipe O Magro; Antonio II Cardoso; Silvia Renata S Wilcken

    2012-01-01

    A enxertia em porta-enxertos resistentes é uma técnica frequentemente recomendada para a cultura do pepino em áreas infestadas com nematoides-das-galhas. O presente trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a produção de pepino enxertado em dois porta-enxertos comparado com pé-franco em solo infestado com Meloidogyne incognita raça 2 ou com M. javanica. Foram avaliados nove tratamentos (fatorial 3x3: pepino híbrido Tsuyataro pé-franco, enxertado na abóbora híbrida 'Shelper' e enxertado na abóbora h...

  13. Nematocidal Flavone-C-Glycosides against the Root-Knot Nematode (Meloidogyne incognita from Arisaema erubescens Tubers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi Long Liu

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available A screening of several Chinese medicinal herbs for nematicidal properties showed that Arisaema erubescens (Wall. Schott tubers possessed significant nematicidal activity against the root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne incognita. From the ethanol extract, two nematicidal flavone-C-glycosides were isolated by bioassay-guided fractionation. The compounds were identified as schaftoside and isoschaftoside on the basis of their phytochemical and spectral data. Schaftoside and isoschaftoside possessed strong nematicidal activity against M. incognita (LC50 = 114.66 ?g/mL and 323.09 ?g/mL, respectively while the crude extract of A. erubescens exhibited nematicidal activity against the root-knot nematode with a LC50 value of 258.11 ?g/mL.

  14. EVALUATION OF MAIZE, SORGHUM AND MILLET GENOTYPES FOR RESISTANCE AGAINST Meloidogyne javanica AND M. incognita RACE 3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FREDOLINO GIACOMINI DOS SANTOS

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available The use of nematode resistant crops in rotations prevents losses in susceptiblecrops. The reproduction of Meloidogyne javanica and M. incognita race 3 in maize, sorghumand millet genotypes in greenhouse conditions where evaluated. The plants were grown ingreenhouse conditions, inoculated with 5.000 nematode eggs and evaluated after 60 days.Tomato plants were used as inoculum’s efficiency check. The egg production of M. incognitawas higher than M. javanica in all maize genotypes. M. javanica presented low reproduction(FR<1 in all genotypes. The maize genotypes CMS 100 02 2, HS 723x724, 97 HT 14 A,BRS 3123, BRS 2114, CMS 14 B, CMS 2000 17 A, CMS 99 14 C, 52 HT03-QPM, HS111764040, and all sorghum and millet genotypes were resistant to M. incognita, resulting in low egg production. The commercial resistant genotypes of corn were indicated to nematodeinfested areas.

  15. Efecto del follaje de Tagetes minuta sobre la nodulación radicular de Meloidogyne incognita en Capsicum annuum, en invernadero / Effect of the foliage of Tagetes minuta on Meloidogyne incognita root-galling on Capsicum annuum in a greenhouse

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Santos Nélida, Murga-Gutiérrez; Juan Carlos, Alvarado-Ibáñez; Nora Yessenia, Vera-Obando.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Se investigó el efecto del follaje del "huacatay" Tagetes minuta sobre la nodulación radicular producida por el nematodo Meloidogyne incognita que parasita el "pimiento páprika" Capsicum annuum cultivado en invernadero, con la finalidad de obtener una alternativa de control de este nematodo. Se util [...] izaron tres grupos experimentales y un testigo, con 12 macetas cada uno, las cuales contenían suelo y arena estériles (1:1). A este substrato se adicionó el follaje de T. minuta al 20, 35 y 50% (v/v) según grupo experimental, y el testigo no recibió esta enmienda. En cada maceta se sembró una plántula de C. annuum, y a la semana postsiembra se inoculó 5000 huevos de M. incognita. A las ocho semanas, se evaluaron los nódulos en sus raíces. Todas las plantas presentaron nódulos; aunque, en aquellas de los grupos experimentales el número de éstos fue menor que en las plantas testigo, con diferencia estadística significativa (p 0,05). Se concluye que el follaje de T. minuta adicionado como enmienda orgánica al 20, 35 y 50% al suelo de cultivo de plantas de C. annuum limita la nodulación radicular ocasionada por M. incognita. Lo cual sugiere su uso potencial en el control de este nematodo Abstract in english The effect of the foliage of Tagetes minuta "huacatay" on Meloidogyne incognita root-galling on Capsicum annuum "paprika pepper" cultured in a greenhouse was researched, to obtain a control strategy for this nematode. Three experimental groups and one control with 12 pots each were used, which conta [...] ined sterilized soil and sand (1:1). To this substrate was added cut foliage of T. minuta at 20, 35 and 50% (v/v) according to the experimental group, and the control group remained without this amendment. In each pot a seedling of C. annuum was sown, and one week post-seeding was inoculated with 5000 eggs of M. incognita. Eight weeks later the root galling was evaluated. All the plants had root galling; although the number of galls in plants of the experimental groups was less than those in the control group with statistical significant difference (p 0.05). It is concluded that the foliage of T. minuta added as organic amendment at 20, 35 and 50% to the culture soil for C. annuum plants limits the M. incognita root galling. That suggests its potential use in the control of this nematode

  16. COMPORTAMIENTO DE GENOTIPOS DE TOMATE (Solanum lycopersicum L.) FRENTE A Meloidogyne incognita (Kofoid y White) CHITWOOD¹ / RESPONCE OF TOMATO GENOTYPES (Solanum lycopersicum L.) TO THE PARASITISM OF of Meloidogyne incognita (Kofoid y White) CHITWOOD¹

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    L, Navarro-Barthelemy; Lucila, Gómez; R, Enrique; Farah M, González; Mayra G, Rodríguez.

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Los nematodos del género Meloidogyne Göldi representan un factor limitante en la producción protegida de hortalizas en Cuba. Los híbridos y variedades de tomate empleados en esta tecnología provienen de firmas extranjeras, cuyo comportamiento ante Meloidogyne incognita (Kofoid y White) Chitwood se d [...] esconoce. El objetivo de este trabajo es evaluar la resistencia/susceptibilidad de los híbridos de tomate FA 572- Katherine y LT-M12 frente a M. incognita. El experimento se estableció en condiciones semi-controladas en macetas con plantas de cada genotipo inoculadas con 1,5 J2 de M. incognita por gramo de suelo. El cultivo susceptible Cucurbita sp. var. RG5 fue utilizado como control de la población de nematodos. Se establecieron diez repeticiones para cada tratamiento. A los 60 días después de la inoculación se determinó el Índice de Agallamiento (IA), el factor de reproducción (FR) y el índice de reproducción(IR) para la categorización de los genotipos en resistentes/susceptibles. Se evidenció que los IA para los dos genotipos fueron bajos (IA= 2 - 3) con respecto al control (IA= 5). Sin embargo, permitieron la reproducción del nematodo y que estos aumentaran su población nueve veces más que la inoculada inicialmente. El índice de reproducción obtenido los sitúa dentro de la categoría de muy susceptibles (MS), ya que la reproducción tuvo un incremento de más del 50 % con respecto al cultivo susceptible utilizado como control. Este trabajo ratifica que el IA no debe ser utilizado como único elemento para determinar la resistencia/susceptibilidad de los genotipos. Abstract in english Root-knot nematodes Meloidogyne spp., represent one of the factors that limit vegetable production under sheltered conditions. The hybrids and varieties of tomato produced under this technology are imported and their responses to Meloidogyne incognita Kofoi y White (Chitwood) under these conditions [...] are unknown. The main objective of this work was to evaluate the resistant/susceptibility of tomato hybrids FA 572- Katherine and LT-M12 to M. incognita. The experiment was set up under semi-controlled conditions using potted plants of each genotype and the susceptible crop Cucurbita sp. var. RG5, used as a control of the experiment. The plants were inoculated with 1,5 egg-juveniles per gram of soil with 10 replications per treatment. At sixty days after nematode inoculation, the gall index (GI), the reproduction factor and the reproduction index were determined to categorize the genotypes as resistant/susceptible. Both genotypes showed a low root gall index (GI=2-3) in comparison with the control (GI=5) although they responded very susceptible to M. incognita as they allowed higher reproduction of the nematode in a 50% than the control. The results of this work confirmed that the gall index can not be used as a unique criterion to determine genotype resistance to M. incognita.

  17. Screening and Histopathological Characterization of Korean Carrot Lines for Resistance to the Root-Knot Nematode Meloidogyne incognita

    OpenAIRE

    Seo, Yunhee; Park, Jiyeong; Kim, Yong Su; Park, Yong; KIM, Young Ho

    2014-01-01

    In total, 170 carrot lines developed in Korea were screened for resistance to Meloidogyne incognita race 1 to select parental genetic resources useful for the development of nematode-resistant carrot cultivars. Using the gall index (GI), gall formation was examined on carrot roots inoculated with approximately 1,000 second-stage juveniles of the nematode 7 weeks after inoculation. Sixty-one carrot lines were resistant (GI ? 1.0), while the other 109 were susceptible (GI > 1.0) with coefficien...

  18. Management of Meloidogyne incognita race 3 and Macrophomina phaseolina by fungus culture filtrates and Bacillus subtilis on chickpea

    OpenAIRE

    Siddiqui, Z.A.; Mahmood, I.

    1995-01-01

    #Bacillus subtilis$ et des filtrats de culture des champignons #Aspergillus niger, Curvularia tuberculata$ et #Penicillium coryophilum$ ont été utilisés, seuls ou en combinaison, comme traitement de semences pour protéger le pois chiche contre une maladie racinaire complexe associant le nématode "Meloidogyne incognita$ race 3 et le champignon #Macrophomina phaseolina$. D'une manière générale, les traitements à l'aide de ces quatre agents, seuls ou en combinaison, accroissent le poids sec et l...

  19. Solarization of soil in piles for the control of Meloidogyne incognita in olive nurseries in southern Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Nico, Andrés I; Jiménez-Díaz, Rafael M.; Castillo, Pablo

    2003-01-01

    The potential of solarization to control Meloidogyne incognita in piles of soil used at olive nurseries in southern Spain was studied in 1999 and 2000. Kaolin and soil infested with free eggs and egg masses of the nematode in nylon bags were buried 20 and 40 cm deep inside conical piles of soil 80 cm high and with a base diameter of 1 m. Soil piles were solarized for 3 weeks in July and August. The effect of various periods of solarization was assessed by egg hatch bioassays in sterile wat...

  20. Reação de clones de batata-doce à Meloidogyne incognita raças 1 e 4 e estimativa de parâmetros genéticos / Reaction of sweet potato clones to Meloidogyne incognita races 1 and 4, and estimation of genetic parameters

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Danielle C, Kalkmann; José R, Peixoto; Daiane da S, Nóbrega.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi selecionar clones de batata-doce resistentes às raças 1 e 4 de Meloidogyne incognita, além de avaliar a eficiência do método de seleção empregado, pela estimativa de parâmetros genéticos. Foram avaliados 21 acessos do jardim clonal da Universidade de Brasília e três cul [...] tivares de batata-doce (Brazlândia Branca, Brazlândia Roxa e Amarela). O experimento foi conduzido em casa de vegetação, com delineamento de blocos casualizados em arranjo simples, com 24 tratamentos, quatro repetições e três plantas por parcela. A inoculação do patógeno foi feita trinta dias após o plantio das ramas e, após noventa dias, foi feita a contagem do número médio de massas de ovos encontradas nas raízes das plantas inoculadas. Foram considerados resistentes os clones que apresentaram em média 0 a 1,9 massas de ovos por sistema radicular, moderadamente resistentes aqueles que apresentaram de 2,0 a 2,9 massas de ovos, moderadamente suscetíveis os que obtiveram número médio de massas de ovos variando entre 3,0 e 3,9, e suscetíveis aqueles com 4,0 a 5,0 massas de ovos por sistema radicular. Dos 24 materiais analisados, nove (37,5%) foram classificados como resistentes à raça 1 de M. incognita e 16 (66,67%) foram classificados como resistentes à M. incognita raça 4. Os clones 1200, 1210, 1199, 1229, 1230, 1202, 1231, 1216 e 1209 apresentaram resistência tanto à raça 1 quanto à raça 4 de M. incognita. A resistência das plantas a essas duas populações de nematoides testadas apresentou alta herdabilidade, e a relação entre os coeficientes de variação genético e ambiental do experimento para resistência à raça 4 de M. incognita apresentou-se mais baixa que aquela encontrada no outro experimento para resistência à raça 1. Abstract in english The objective of this work was to select sweet potato resistant clones to the races 1 and 4 of Meloidogyne incognita, and measure the efficiency of the selection method used, by means of the estimation of genetic and environmental coefficients of variation, and broad-sense heritabilities. We evaluat [...] ed 21 accessions of the clonal garden of the Universidade de Brasilia, and three cultivars of sweet potato (Brazlândia Branca, Brazlândia Roxa and Amarela). The experiment was carried out in a greenhouse with a randomized block design in simple arrangement, with 24 treatments, four replications and three plants per plot. The inoculation of the pathogen was made thirty days after planting the slips and, after ninety days, the counting of the average number of egg masses of the infected plants was completed. Clones were considered resistant when presented a number of egg masses per root system from 0 to 1.9, moderately resistant 2.0 to 2.9, moderately susceptible 3.0 to 3.9, and, susceptible 4.0 to 5.0. From 24 clones analyzed, nine (37.5%) were classified as resistant to the race 1 of M. incognita, and 16 (66.67%) were classified as resistant to the race 4 of M. incognita. The clones 1200, 1210, 1199, 1229, 1230, 1202, 1231, 1216 and 1209 were resistant to the two races tested of M. incognita. The resistance of the plants to these two races of root-knot nematodes presented high heritability, and the relationship between the coefficients of genetic and environmental variation of the experiment to resistance to race 4 of M. incognita was shorter than that one found in the another experiment, that aimed resistance to the race 1.

  1. Avaliação da resistência de genótipos de quiabeiro à infestação por Meloidogyne incognita raça 2 e M. javanica Resistance of okra genotypes to Meloidogyne incognita race 2 and M. javanica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilmar Efrem Martinello

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available Vinte e dois genótipos de quiabeiro (Abelmoschus spp. foram avaliados para resistência à Meloidogyne incognita raça 2 e M. javanica. Estes materiais, mantidos no Banco de Germoplasma da Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense, constam de quatro espécies selvagens Abelmoschus manihot (CGO 8655, A. caillei (CGO 8656, A. tetraphyllus (CGO 8657 e A. ficulneus (CGO 8658; 16 linhas de A. esculentus na sétima geração de autofecundação, resultantes de inter-cruzamentos do genótipo PI-357991 (supostamente resistentes a nematóides com as cultivares Piranema e Santa Cruz 47. Essas cultivares serviram como padrão de suscetibilidade. As plantas foram inoculadas separadamente com 5.000 ovos/segundo estádio juvenil (J2 de M. incognita raça 2 e M. javanica. Não houve diferença significativa com relação à resistência dos materiais a M. javanica. Os genótipos descendentes de 'PI-357991' mostraram-se segregantes para a reação de resistência, sendo que entre estes 'CGO 8180A7' apresentou o maior nível de tolerância à raça 2 de M. incognita. As espécies silvestres também não mostraram alguma fonte de resistência. As altas temperaturas ocorridas no período do experimento, podem ter aumentado a suscetibilidade dos genótipos aos dois patógenos.Twenty two okra genotypes were evaluated for resistance to M. incognita race 2 and M. javanica. The Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense (Brazil maintains okra genotypes in the germplasm collection, consisting of four wild Abelmoschus species and 16 F7 lines obtained from crosses between PI-357991 (considered resistant to root-knot nematodes and the local cvs, Piranema and Santa Cruz 47 (both susceptible to nematodes. No resistance was observed among okra genotypes to infection by M. javanica. The 16 F7 lines segregated for pathogenic reaction, and the CGO 8180A7 presented the highest resistance level to M. incognita race 2. The wild species did not show genetic resistance to both pathogens. High temperature occurring during experimental period could have increased the genotype susceptibility to the pathogens.

  2. Efeito de extratos aquosos de espécies de Asteraceae sobre Meloidogyne incognita

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Cristina Madeira Ferreira

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se, in vitro e in vivo a atividade nematicida dos extratos aquosos de vedélia (Sphagneticola trilobata, erva-de-touro (Tridax procumbens, cravo-de-defunto (Tagetes patula, girassol mexicano (Tithonia diversifolia, botão de ouro (Unxia suffruticosa e zínia (Zinnia peruviana, sobre Meloidogyne incognita. Os extratos foram preparados na proporção de 1,0g do material seco e triturado para 10mL de água destilada e armazenados por 24h, sendo seguidamente utilizados nos experimentos. Nos testes in vitro, foram depositados 4,0mL do extrato bruto e 2,0mL de uma suspensão aquosa contendo 200 ovos do nematóide em placas de Petri de 5cm de diâmetro e, quinze dias após, procedeu-se a contagem do número de juvenis eclodidos e dos ovos remanescentes para o cálculo das porcentagens de eclosão. Nos testes in vivo, os extratos foram aplicados, separadamente, via pulverização foliar, tratamento de raiz e vertido no solo, semanalmente durante 60 dias. Como testemunha utilizou-se apenas água nos dois experimentos. No ensaio in vitro observou-se que todos os extratos foram eficientes na redução da eclosão de juvenis de M. incognita quando comparados à testemunha, as porcentagens de redução foram 89,96%, 91,13%, 92,48%, 92,72%, 93,2% e 97,48% para erva-de-touro, cravo-de-defunto, girassol mexicano, vedélia, botão de ouro e zínia, respectivamente, e no ensaio in vivo, que os tratamentos não exerceram nenhum efeito sobre o peso do sistema radicular dos tomateiros, no entanto, observou-se que os resultados diferiram entre as espécies utilizadas e a forma de aplicação do extrato na avaliação do peso fresco da parte aérea das plantas. Quanto ao fator de reprodução, observou-se que nenhum dos extratos apresentou diferença estatística em relação à testemunha, no entanto, quando se compara as diferentes formas de aplicação dos mesmos, observa-se que houve diferença estatística quando os extratos de erva de touro e girassol mexicano foram aplicados via pulverização foliar e no tratamento de raiz, contudo, não houve diferença quando estes extratos foram aplicados em forma de rega no solo.

  3. Preliminary evaluation of meloidogyne incognita race 3 reproduction on garden pea cultivars in Brazil/ Avaliação preliminar da reprodução de Meloidogyne incognita raça 3 em cultivares de ervilha no Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Carlos Camargo Barbosa Ferraz

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Thirteen garden pea cultivars, were assessed for the reproductive rate of the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita race 3 under greenhouse conditions. Two-week old plants growing were inoculated with 5.000 eggs. The nematode reproduction data was determined 55 days later according to the three adopted evaluation criteria (root-gall and egg-mass indexes, reproduction factor, percentage of reduction of the reproduction factor in relation to the susceptible standard cultivar. The tested cultivars were rated as highly susceptible ('Trolly'. 'Jurema', susceptible ('Luiza'. 'Mini'. 'Asterix', 'Verde Temprana' or moderately susceptible ('Marina', 'Telephone'., 'Dileta'. 'Bolero', 'Flávia'. 'Viçosa', and 'Maria' hosts for the nematode.Avaliaram-se as taxas reprodutivas e caracterizaram-se as reações de 13 cut tiveres de ervilha em relação ao nematóide de galhas Meloidogyne incognita raça 3, em casa-de-vegetação. Plantas com duas semanas de idade, foram inoculadas com 5000 ovos do nematóide. As avaliações foram realizadas após 55 dias com base nos critérios - índices de galhas/índices de massas de ovos, fator de reprodução e porcentagem de redução do fator de reprodução. Duas cultivares foram consideradas hospedeiras altamente suscetíveis (‘Trolly’, ‘Jurema’, cinco suscetíveis ('Luíza', 'Mini', 'Asterix', 'Verde Temprana', 'Telefone' e seis moderadamente suscetíveis ('Marina'. 'Dileta', 'Boiero'. 'Flávia'. 'Viçosa', 'Maria'.

  4. Eficiência e atividade enzimática elicitada por metil jasmonato e silicato de potássio em cana-de-açúcar parasitada por Meloidogyne incognita / Efficiency and enzymatic activity elicited by methyl jasmonate and potassium silicate on sugarcane under Meloidogyne incognita parasitism

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Lílian Margarete Paes, Guimarães; Elvira Maria Régis, Pedrosa; Rildo Sartori Barbosa, Coelho; Erick Farias, Couto; Sandra Roberta Vaz Lira, Maranhão; Andréa, Chaves.

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo teve como objetivo avaliar o efeito de metil jasmonato e silicato de potássio sobre o parasitismo de Meloidogyne incognita na variedade RB863129 de cana-de-açúcar (Saccharum sp.) e a atividade enzimática da peroxidase e ?-1,3-glucanase elicitada, em condições de casa de vegetação. [...] Metil jasmonato diminuiu significativamente o número de ovos por grama de raiz, mas não afetou à biomassa da parte aérea da planta. Sete dias após a aplicação, os dois indutores afetaram a atividade de ?-glucanase na plantas parasitadas e, aos 14 e 21 dias, promoveram variações significativas nos níveis de peroxidase e ?-1,3-glucanase, muito embora, ao contrário da peroxidase, a atividade ?-1,3-glucanase não diferiu entre plantas inoculadas e não inoculadas. Abstract in english The present study had as objective to evaluate methyl jasmonate and potassium silicate effect on Meloidogyne incognita parasitism in sugarcane (Saccharum sp.) variety RB863129 and peroxidase and ?-1,3-glucanase activity elicited, under greenhouse. The effect of Methyl jasmonate and potassium silicat [...] e did not affect shoot biomass. Methyl jasmonate and potassium silicate significantly decreased eggs number per gram of roots. Seven days after application, both inducers affected b-glucanase activity in parasited plants and at 14 and 21 days, inducers promoted significant variations in peroxidase e -1,3-glucanase levels in plants under parasitism, although, inversely to peroxidase, ?-1,3-glucanase activity did not differ between inoculated and non inoculated plants.

  5. Eficiência e atividade enzimática elicitada por metil jasmonato e silicato de potássio em cana-de-açúcar parasitada por Meloidogyne incognita Efficiency and enzymatic activity elicited by methyl jasmonate and potassium silicate on sugarcane under Meloidogyne incognita parasitism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lílian Margarete Paes Guimarães

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo teve como objetivo avaliar o efeito de metil jasmonato e silicato de potássio sobre o parasitismo de Meloidogyne incognita na variedade RB863129 de cana-de-açúcar (Saccharum sp. e a atividade enzimática da peroxidase e ?-1,3-glucanase elicitada, em condições de casa de vegetação. Metil jasmonato diminuiu significativamente o número de ovos por grama de raiz, mas não afetou à biomassa da parte aérea da planta. Sete dias após a aplicação, os dois indutores afetaram a atividade de ?-glucanase na plantas parasitadas e, aos 14 e 21 dias, promoveram variações significativas nos níveis de peroxidase e ?-1,3-glucanase, muito embora, ao contrário da peroxidase, a atividade ?-1,3-glucanase não diferiu entre plantas inoculadas e não inoculadas.The present study had as objective to evaluate methyl jasmonate and potassium silicate effect on Meloidogyne incognita parasitism in sugarcane (Saccharum sp. variety RB863129 and peroxidase and ?-1,3-glucanase activity elicited, under greenhouse. The effect of Methyl jasmonate and potassium silicate did not affect shoot biomass. Methyl jasmonate and potassium silicate significantly decreased eggs number per gram of roots. Seven days after application, both inducers affected b-glucanase activity in parasited plants and at 14 and 21 days, inducers promoted significant variations in peroxidase e -1,3-glucanase levels in plants under parasitism, although, inversely to peroxidase, ?-1,3-glucanase activity did not differ between inoculated and non inoculated plants.

  6. The Feeding Behavior of Adult Root-knot Nematodes (Meloidogyne incognita) in Rose Balsam and Tomato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyashita, Nao; Yabu, Tetsuo; Kurihara, Takayuki; Koga, Hironori

    2014-09-01

    Meloidogyne incognita is a parasitic root-knot nematode that causes considerable yield loss in a wide range of plants. In this study we documented the movement of adult female nematodes for more than 2 hr in micro-slices of infected tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) and rose balsam (Impatiens balsamina) plants using light and video microscopy. Stylet thrusting was followed by short pumping actions of the esophagus, dorsal esophageal gland ampulla, and metacorpal bulb. Regular thrusting was normally accompanied by head turning and always preceded continuous stylet thrusting aimed at a single point (for 20 to 90 sec). Females often held the stylet in a protruded position, while pulsating the metacorpus bulb, for about 30 sec. Subsequently, the stylet was paused in a retracted position for 5 to 40 sec. This sequence of behavior took 290 to 380 sec to complete. The procedure developed in this study provides a useful cytological technique to investigate the interaction between root-knot nematodes and the giant cells formed by infected plants. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that the head of the adult nematode was located in the narrow intercellular spaces among several giant cells. The anterior part of the head of the adult was folded like a concertina, whereas that of the second-stage juvenile was not. The labial disc and medial lips of second-stage juveniles seemed expanded and sturdy, whereas those of the adult were star-shaped, appeared to be contracted, and softer. These morphological differences in the heads of adult and second-stage juveniles are discussed with respect to their movement. PMID:25276004

  7. Comparison between the N and Me3 gene conferring resistance to the root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne incognita) in genetically different pepper lines (Capsicum annuun).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genetic resistance to Meloidogyne incognita in pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) has been well characterized for the N and Me3 resistance genes. However, there are no studies comparing the effects of these two genes directly or are there studies investigating the combined effects when both genes are pres...

  8. Nematicidal activities of 4-quinolone alkaloids isolated from the aerial part of Triumfetta grandidens against Meloidogyne incognita.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Ja Yeong; Dang, Quang Le; Choi, Yong Ho; Choi, Gyung Ja; Jang, Kyoung Soo; Cha, Byeongjin; Luu, Ngoc Hoang; Kim, Jin-Cheol

    2015-01-14

    The methanol extract of the aerial part of Triumfetta grandidens (Tiliaceae) was highly active against Meloidogyne incognita, with second-stage juveniles (J2s) mortality of 100% at 500 ?g/mL at 48 h post-exposure. Two 4-quinolone alkaloids, waltherione E (1), a new alkaloid, and waltherione A (2), were isolated and identified as nematicidal compounds through bioassay-guided fractionation and instrumental analysis. The nematicidal activities of the isolated compounds against M. incognita were evaluated on the basis of mortality and effect on egg hatching. Compounds 1 and 2 exhibited high mortalities against J2s of M. incognita, with EC50 values of 0.09 and 0.27 ?g/mL at 48 h, respectively. Compounds 1 and 2 also exhibited a considerable inhibitory effect on egg hatching, which inhibited 91.9 and 87.4% of egg hatching, respectively, after 7 days of exposure at a concentration of 1.25 ?g/mL. The biological activities of the two 4-quinolone alkaloids were comparable to those of abamectin. In addition, pot experiments using the crude extract of the aerial part of T. grandidens showed that it completely suppressed the formation of gall on roots of plants at a concentration of 1000 ?g/mL. These results suggest that T. grandidens and its bioactive 4-quinolone alkaloids can be used as a potent botanical nematicide in organic agriculture. PMID:25494674

  9. Efeito de manipueira sobre Meloidogyne incognita em ensaios in vitro e em tomateiros em casa de vegetação / Effect of manipueira on Meloidogyne incognita through in vitro and in vivo essays on tomatoes in greenhouse

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Érica G.C., Nasu; Ely, Pires; Heloísa M., Formentini; Cleber, Furlanetto.

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se estudar o efeito nematicida de manipueira no controle de Meloidogyne incognita. Testes in vitro foram divididos em dois ensaios inteiramente casualizados: 1. manipueira a 100%, 75%, 50% e 25% em 12 repetições; 2. manipueira a 15%, 10%, 8%, 6%, 4% e 2% em 5 repetições. O ensaio em vasos [...] seguiu o delineamento inteiramente casualisado com manipueira a 10%, 25% e 50% em 5 repetições. Para ambos os ensaios utilizou-se o tratamento somente água como testemunha positiva e Carbofuran (50 mg.L-1 de ingrediente ativo (i.a.) ou 2 g de produto comercial/vaso) como negativa. Para os ensaios in vitro foram avaliados nematóides vivos e mortos e número de galhas em plantas inoculadas. Para os ensaios em vaso foram avaliadas as variáveis altura de plantas, comprimento de raízes, número de galhas, número de ovos e fator de reprodução (FR). Os resultados in vitro demonstraram que os tratamentos com manipueira até 10% de diluição apresentaram 100% de controle. O ensaio com tomateiros previamente inoculados demonstrou que o tratamento manipueira 50% causou um melhor desenvolvimento da parte aérea das plantas de tomate. Os tratamentos manipueira a 10% e 25% foram mais efetivos no controle de M. incognita em vasos. Abstract in english The aim of this work was to study the nematicidal effect of manipueira on the control of Meloidogyne incognita. In vitro tests were split into two completely randomized assays: 1. manipueira 100%, 75%, 50% and 25% in 12 replications; 2. manipueira 15%, 10%, 8%, 6%, 4% and 2% in 5 replications. The p [...] ot assay followed a completely randomized design with the treatments manipueira 10%, 25% and 50% in 5 replications. For both assays the positive control was water and the negative control was the nematicide Carbofuran (50 mg.L-1 of active ingredient (a.i.) or 2 g of commercial product/pot). For in vitro assays the variables assessed were live or dead nematodes and number of galls on inoculated plants. For the pot assay the variables evaluated were plant height, root length, number of galls, number of eggs and reproduction factor (RF). The in vitro results indicated that only the manipueira treatments from 100% to 10% dilution showed maximum control. The pot assay demonstrated that the treatment manipueira 50% caused better development of tomato shoots than the others. However, manipueira 10% and 25% were more effective against of M. incognita in pots.

  10. Multiplex PCR for the simultaneous identification and detection of Meloidogyne incognita, M. enterolobii, and M. javanica using DNA extracted directly from individual galls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, M X; Zhuo, K; Liao, J L

    2011-11-01

    Meloidogyne incognita, M. enterolobii, and M. javanica are the most widespread species of root-knot nematodes in South China, affecting many economically important crops, ornamental plants, and fruit trees. In this study, one pair of Meloidogyne universal primers was designed and three pairs of species-specific primers were employed successfully to rapidly detect and identify M. incognita, M. enterolobii, and M. javanica by multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using DNA extracted from individual galls. Multiplex PCR from all M. incognita, M. enterolobii, and M. javanica isolates generated two fragments of ≈500 and 1,000, 500 and 200, and 500 and 700 bp, respectively. The 500-bp fragment is the internal positive control fragment of rDNA 28S D2/D3 resulting from the use of the universal primers. Other Meloidogyne spp. included in this study generated only one fragment of ≈500 bp in size. Using this approach, M. incognita, M. enterolobii, and M. javanica were identified and detected using DNA extracted directly from individual galls containing the Meloidogyne spp. at various stages of their life cycle. Moreover, the percentage of positive PCR amplification increased with nematode development and detection was usually easy after the late stage of the second-stage juvenile. The protocol was applied to galls from naturally infested roots and the results were found to be fast, sensitive, robust, and accurate. This present study is the first to provide a definitive diagnostic tool for M. incognita, M. enterolobii, and M. javanica using DNA extracted directly from individual galls using a one-step multiplex PCR technique. PMID:21770774

  11. Registro da ocorrência de Meloidogyne incognita no porta-enxerto 'IAC 766-Campinas' no estado de Pernambuco e reação de porta-enxertos e de cultivares copa de videira a Meloidogyne spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lúcia Somavilla

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Relata-se a ocorrência de Meloidogyne incognita (Est. I2 em pomar de videira na cidade de Petrolina, Pernambuco. Plantas da cultivar Festival enxertadas sobre 'IAC 766-Campinas', atacadas por Meloidogyne incognita, apresentavam sintomas de menor vigor, folhas amarelecidas e folhagem mais esparsa, e raízes com numerosas galhas em meio ao cultivo de feijão-de-porco (Canavalia ensiformis, também atacado pelo nematoide. Com o objetivo de avaliar a resistência de quatro porta-enxertos tropicais, oito de clima temperado, e as cultivares Niágara Rosada e Chardonnay quanto à reação a M. incognita e M. arenaria, em casa de vegetação, realizou-se este trabalho. Mudas das videiras, mantidas em vaso com solo esterilizado, foram inoculadas com 10.000 ovos + J2 de M. incognita ou M. arenaria por planta. Decorridos oito meses da inoculação, cada planta foi avaliada quanto ao número de galhas e número de ovos por planta, determinando-se, a seguir, o fator de reprodução de cada espécie do nematoide (FR=população inicial/população final nos diferentes materiais testados. Entre os porta-enxertos avaliados, 'Harmony', 'Salt Creek', '1103 Paulsen', 'IAC 572-Jales', 'IAC 313-Tropical', 'K5BB Kober' e 'SO4', foram resistentes (FR1,00 ao nematoide. No entanto, ambas as cultivares copa foram suscetíveis às duas espécies de Meloidogyne testadas.

  12. Elucidating the molecular bases of epigenetic inheritance in non-model invertebrates: the case of the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita

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    LaetitiaPerfus-Barbeoch

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Root-knot nematodes of the genus Meloidogyne are biotrophic plant parasites that exhibit different reproduction modes, ranging from classical amphimixis to obligatory mitotic parthenogenesis (apomixis, depending on the species. Meloidogyne incognita, an apomictic species, exhibits a worldwide distribution and a wide host range affecting more than 3,000 plant species. Furthermore, evidences suggest that apomixis does not prevent M. incognita from adapting to its environment in contrast to what is expected from mitotic parthenogenesis that should theoretically produce clonal progenies. This raises questions about mechanisms of genome plasticity leading to genetic variation and adaptive evolution in apomictic animals. We reasoned that epigenetic mechanisms might in part be responsible for the generation of phenotypic variants that provide potential for rapid adaptation. We investigated therefore the principal carriers of epigenetic information, DNA methylation and post-translational histone modifications. Even if M. incognita possesses the epigenetic machinery i.e. chromatin modifying enzymes, 5-methyl-cytosine and 5-hydroxy-methyl-cytosine content is absent or very weak. In contrast, we demonstrated that the canonical histone modifications are present and chromatin shows typical nucleosome structure. This work is the first characterization of carriers of epigenetic information in M. incognita and constitutes a preamble to further investigate whether M. incognita development and its adaptation to plant hosts are under epigenetic control.

  13. Efeito da incorporação de sementes trituradas defeijão de porco ao solo sobre o parasitismo de Meloidogyne incognita em tomateiro / Effect of soil amendment with powdered seeds of pig bean on Meloidogyne incognita in tomato

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    GILSON S., SILVA; ILKA M. R., SOUZA; FLÁVIA A., CUTRIM.

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se, em condições de casa de vegetação, o efeito da suplementação do solo com sementes trituradas de feijão de porco (Canavalia ensiformis) sobre os índices de galhas e de massas de ovos de Meloidogyne incognita raça 1 em tomateiro (Lycopersicon esculentum). O substrato utilizado foi solo aut [...] oclavado suplementado com 2,5; 5,0; 7,5 e 10,0 g de sementes trituradas/kg de solo. Solo sem a suplementação serviu como testemunha. Para efeito de comparação, o nematicida Carbofuran foi incluído como tratamento adicional. Controle do nematóide foi obtido a partir da incorporação de 5,0 g de sementes trituradas/kg de solo, sendo o efeito proporcional à dosagem. Os índices de galhas e massas de ovos foram reduzidos em 48% e 64%, respectivamente, com a aplicação de 10 g de sementes trituradas/kg de solo. Abstract in english A greenhouse experiment was carried out to study the effect of powdered seeds of pig bean (Canavalia ensiformis) incorporated into the soil, for the control of Meloidogyne incognita race 1 in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) plants. Autoclaved soil was amended with 2.5, 5.0, 7.5 and 10.0 g of powder [...] ed seeds/kg of soil. Soil without amendment served as control. For comparison, the nematicide Carbofuran was included as an additional treatment. Nematode was controlled at rates above 5.0 g. Gall and egg mass indexes were reduced by 48% and 64%, respectively, with the application of 10 g of powdered seeds/kg of soil.

  14. Efeito da incorporação de sementes trituradas defeijão de porco ao solo sobre o parasitismo de Meloidogyne incognita em tomateiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SILVA GILSON S.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se, em condições de casa de vegetação, o efeito da suplementação do solo com sementes trituradas de feijão de porco (Canavalia ensiformis sobre os índices de galhas e de massas de ovos de Meloidogyne incognita raça 1 em tomateiro (Lycopersicon esculentum. O substrato utilizado foi solo autoclavado suplementado com 2,5; 5,0; 7,5 e 10,0 g de sementes trituradas/kg de solo. Solo sem a suplementação serviu como testemunha. Para efeito de comparação, o nematicida Carbofuran foi incluído como tratamento adicional. Controle do nematóide foi obtido a partir da incorporação de 5,0 g de sementes trituradas/kg de solo, sendo o efeito proporcional à dosagem. Os índices de galhas e massas de ovos foram reduzidos em 48% e 64%, respectivamente, com a aplicação de 10 g de sementes trituradas/kg de solo.

  15. Identification and analysis of a cuticular collagen-encoding gene from the plant-parasitic nematode Meloidogyne incognita.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van der Eycken, W; de Almeida Engler, J; Van Montagu, M; Gheysen, G

    1994-12-30

    The vast majority of proteins in the nematode cuticle are collagens. Cuticular collagen-encoding genes (col) have been described for the animal parasites Ascaris suum and Haemonchus contortus and for the free-living Caenorhabditis elegans. The proteins encoded by all these genes seem to have the same basic structure, indicating that there is a conserved subfamily of cuticular col in these nematodes. In this paper, we describe the identification and characterization of a cDNA (Lemmi 5) which corresponds to a cuticular col of the plant-parasitic nematode Meloidogyne incognita. The derived protein structure is very similar to the basic structure of the C. elegans cuticular collagens. Using PCR technology, we have shown the presence of Lemmi 5-related sequences in the genome of Ditylenchus destructor. Our data strongly support the existence of a cuticular col subfamily which is highly conserved in the phylum Nemata. PMID:7828882

  16. Reaction of vegetables and aromatic plants to Meloidogyne javanica and M. incognita / Reação de hortaliças e plantas aromáticas aos nematoides Meloidogyne javanica e M. incognita

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Cláudia Regina, Dias-Arieira; Tatiana PL da, Cunha; Fernando Marcelo, Chiamolera; Heriksen H, Puerari; Fabio, Biela; Simone de M, Santana.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Para avaliar a reação, mudas com 15 dias de idade foram transplantadas para vasos de 2 L de capacidade e inoculadas com 4.000 ovos e eventuais juvenis (J2) dos nematoides. Decorridos 60 dias, os sistemas radiculares foram retirados e avaliados quanto ao número de galhas e ovos, determinando-se o fat [...] or de reprodução (FR) dos nematoides nas respectivas plantas. Tomateiro cv. Santa Cruz foi utilizado como testemunha. O experimento foi conduzido em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com seis repetições, e as médias foram comparadas pelo teste Tukey ou Scott-Knott a 5% de probabilidade. Nas alfaces tipo Mimosa cv. Salad Bowl; nas cultivares do tipo Lisa, Elizabeth e Elisa; e na cultivar Vera (tipo crespa), o número de galhas e o FR de M. javanica foi superior ao observado para a testemunha; enquanto para as demais oleráceas, os maiores números de galhas e ovos foram para as cultivares de chicória e para o manjericão. Maior suscetibilidade a M. incognita foi observada para a alface tipo Mimosa cv. Salad Bowl, para as cultivares de chicória, salsa cv. Graúda Portuguesa e manjericão. Apenas manjerona apresentou número de galhas de M. incognita igual a zero. Abstract in english For this research we used 15 day-old seedlings which were transplanted to 2 L pots and inoculated with 4,000 nematode eggs plus juveniles (J2). After 60 days, the root systems were removed and the number of galls and eggs evaluated and used to calculate the nematode reproduction factor (RF). The tom [...] ato cv. Santa Cruz was used as a susceptible control. The experimental design was completely randomized, with six replications. Averages were compared using the Tukey or Scott-Knott test at 5%. For lettuce, Salad Bowl (Mimosa type), Elizabeth and Elisa (Lisa) and Vera cultivars (crisphead), the number of galls and the RF for M. javanica were statistically higher than for the control, whereas, for the other vegetable crops, the highest number of galls and eggs were found in chicory and basil. The highest susceptibility to M. incognita was observed in Mimosa lettuce cv. Salad Bowl, chicory cultivars, parsley cv. Graúda Portuguesa and basil. Marjoram exhibited no M. incognita galls.

  17. Reaction of vegetables and aromatic plants to Meloidogyne javanica and M. incognita Reação de hortaliças e plantas aromáticas aos nematoides Meloidogyne javanica e M. incognita

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudia Regina Dias-Arieira

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available For this research we used 15 day-old seedlings which were transplanted to 2 L pots and inoculated with 4,000 nematode eggs plus juveniles (J2. After 60 days, the root systems were removed and the number of galls and eggs evaluated and used to calculate the nematode reproduction factor (RF. The tomato cv. Santa Cruz was used as a susceptible control. The experimental design was completely randomized, with six replications. Averages were compared using the Tukey or Scott-Knott test at 5%. For lettuce, Salad Bowl (Mimosa type, Elizabeth and Elisa (Lisa and Vera cultivars (crisphead, the number of galls and the RF for M. javanica were statistically higher than for the control, whereas, for the other vegetable crops, the highest number of galls and eggs were found in chicory and basil. The highest susceptibility to M. incognita was observed in Mimosa lettuce cv. Salad Bowl, chicory cultivars, parsley cv. Graúda Portuguesa and basil. Marjoram exhibited no M. incognita galls.Para avaliar a reação, mudas com 15 dias de idade foram transplantadas para vasos de 2 L de capacidade e inoculadas com 4.000 ovos e eventuais juvenis (J2 dos nematoides. Decorridos 60 dias, os sistemas radiculares foram retirados e avaliados quanto ao número de galhas e ovos, determinando-se o fator de reprodução (FR dos nematoides nas respectivas plantas. Tomateiro cv. Santa Cruz foi utilizado como testemunha. O experimento foi conduzido em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com seis repetições, e as médias foram comparadas pelo teste Tukey ou Scott-Knott a 5% de probabilidade. Nas alfaces tipo Mimosa cv. Salad Bowl; nas cultivares do tipo Lisa, Elizabeth e Elisa; e na cultivar Vera (tipo crespa, o número de galhas e o FR de M. javanica foi superior ao observado para a testemunha; enquanto para as demais oleráceas, os maiores números de galhas e ovos foram para as cultivares de chicória e para o manjericão. Maior suscetibilidade a M. incognita foi observada para a alface tipo Mimosa cv. Salad Bowl, para as cultivares de chicória, salsa cv. Graúda Portuguesa e manjericão. Apenas manjerona apresentou número de galhas de M. incognita igual a zero.

  18. Efeito de exsudatos de cultura de células de plantas em juvenis de segundo estádio de Meloidogyne incognita / Effect of exudates of plant cell culture on second-stage juveniles of Meloidogyne incognita

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Fernando S., Rocha; Vicente P., Campos.

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Calus foram obtidos de tomateiro (Lycopersicon esculentum), cafeeiro (Coffea arabica), alfafa (Medicago sativa), orquídea (Dendrobium nobile), mostarda (Brassica rapa), batata doce (Ipomoea batatas), fumo (Nicotiana tabacum), cenoura (Daucus carota) e Crotalaria juncea em meio sólido de Murashige & [...] Skoog (MS) seguido do cultivo em meio líquido MS em temperatura de 25-28 ºC. Após um mês, a suspensão foi passada em membrana Millipore 0,22 µm, obtendo-se, assim, o exsudato da cultura de células de cada planta testada. Ovos ou juvenis de segundo estádio (J2) de Meloidogyne incognita foram incubados nesses exsudatos e avaliadas as percentagens de eclosão, mobilidade e mortalidade dos J2. Com exceção dos ovos incubados em exsudato de orquídea, todos os demais inibiram a eclosão quando comparados com a incubação em água (testemunha). Entretanto, nos exsudatos de L. esculentum, cafeeiro e C. juncea a inibição foi mais drástica, semelhante ao aldicarb, mas significativamente diferente e menor do que em soluções contendo ingredientes do meio MS (1-5). Todos os exsudatos reduziram a mobilidade e aumentaram a mortalidade, com maior intensidade em 24 h de exposição. Porém, maior redução na mobilidade ocorreu nos exsudatos de tomateiro e alfafa, enquanto maior mortalidade no exsudato de tomateiro, seguido pelo de mostarda. Abstract in english Callus of Lycopersicon esculentum, Coffea arabica, Medicago sativa, Dendrobium nobile, Brassica rapa, Ipomoea batatas, Nicotiana tabacum, Daucus carota and Crotalaria juncea were obtained in Murashige & Skoog (MS) solid medium followed by cell cultivation in MS liquid medium at temperature varying f [...] rom 25-28 ºC. After one month, the cell suspension was passed through a 0,22 µm Millipore membrane, and the resulting liquid was the cell exudate from each of the tested plants. Eggs or second-stage juveniles (J2) of Meloidogyne incognita were then incubated in these exudates and hatching, mobility and mortality percentages of the J2 were evaluated. Except for the eggs incubated in the exudate of orchid, all the exudates inhibited J2 hatching when compared with incubation in water (control). However, in L. esculentum, C. arabica and C. juncea exudates the inhibition was greatest, similar to aldicar, but significantly less and different than that found in solution of culture medium ingredients MS (1-5). All exudates reduced mobility and increased mortality of M. incognita J2, although theses were enhanced when exposed for 24 h. The greatest reduction of mobility occurred with the exudates of tomato and M. sativa, while greatest mortality occurred with the exudate of L. esculentum, followed by B. rapa.

  19. Efeito de exsudatos de cultura de células de plantas em juvenis de segundo estádio de Meloidogyne incognita Effect of exudates of plant cell culture on second-stage juveniles of Meloidogyne incognita

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando S. Rocha

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Calus foram obtidos de tomateiro (Lycopersicon esculentum, cafeeiro (Coffea arabica, alfafa (Medicago sativa, orquídea (Dendrobium nobile, mostarda (Brassica rapa, batata doce (Ipomoea batatas, fumo (Nicotiana tabacum, cenoura (Daucus carota e Crotalaria juncea em meio sólido de Murashige & Skoog (MS seguido do cultivo em meio líquido MS em temperatura de 25-28 ºC. Após um mês, a suspensão foi passada em membrana Millipore 0,22 µm, obtendo-se, assim, o exsudato da cultura de células de cada planta testada. Ovos ou juvenis de segundo estádio (J2 de Meloidogyne incognita foram incubados nesses exsudatos e avaliadas as percentagens de eclosão, mobilidade e mortalidade dos J2. Com exceção dos ovos incubados em exsudato de orquídea, todos os demais inibiram a eclosão quando comparados com a incubação em água (testemunha. Entretanto, nos exsudatos de L. esculentum, cafeeiro e C. juncea a inibição foi mais drástica, semelhante ao aldicarb, mas significativamente diferente e menor do que em soluções contendo ingredientes do meio MS (1-5. Todos os exsudatos reduziram a mobilidade e aumentaram a mortalidade, com maior intensidade em 24 h de exposição. Porém, maior redução na mobilidade ocorreu nos exsudatos de tomateiro e alfafa, enquanto maior mortalidade no exsudato de tomateiro, seguido pelo de mostarda.Callus of Lycopersicon esculentum, Coffea arabica, Medicago sativa, Dendrobium nobile, Brassica rapa, Ipomoea batatas, Nicotiana tabacum, Daucus carota and Crotalaria juncea were obtained in Murashige & Skoog (MS solid medium followed by cell cultivation in MS liquid medium at temperature varying from 25-28 ºC. After one month, the cell suspension was passed through a 0,22 µm Millipore membrane, and the resulting liquid was the cell exudate from each of the tested plants. Eggs or second-stage juveniles (J2 of Meloidogyne incognita were then incubated in these exudates and hatching, mobility and mortality percentages of the J2 were evaluated. Except for the eggs incubated in the exudate of orchid, all the exudates inhibited J2 hatching when compared with incubation in water (control. However, in L. esculentum, C. arabica and C. juncea exudates the inhibition was greatest, similar to aldicar, but significantly less and different than that found in solution of culture medium ingredients MS (1-5. All exudates reduced mobility and increased mortality of M. incognita J2, although theses were enhanced when exposed for 24 h. The greatest reduction of mobility occurred with the exudates of tomato and M. sativa, while greatest mortality occurred with the exudate of L. esculentum, followed by B. rapa.

  20. Screening and Histopathological Characterization of Korean Carrot Lines for Resistance to the Root-Knot Nematode Meloidogyne incognita.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Yunhee; Park, Jiyeong; Kim, Yong Su; Park, Yong; Kim, Young Ho

    2014-03-01

    In total, 170 carrot lines developed in Korea were screened for resistance to Meloidogyne incognita race 1 to select parental genetic resources useful for the development of nematode-resistant carrot cultivars. Using the gall index (GI), gall formation was examined on carrot roots inoculated with approximately 1,000 second-stage juveniles of the nematode 7 weeks after inoculation. Sixty-one carrot lines were resistant (GI ? 1.0), while the other 109 were susceptible (GI > 1.0) with coefficient of variance (CV) of GI for total carrot lines 0.68, indicating low-variation of GI within the lines examined. The histopathological responses of two carrot plants from resistant and susceptible lines were examined after nematode infection. In susceptible carrots, giant cells formed with no discernible necrosis around the infecting nematodes. In the resistant carrot line, however, no giant cells formed, although modified cells were observed with extensive formation of necrotic layers through their middle lamella and around the infecting nematodes. This suggested that these structural modifications were related to hypersensitive responses governed by the expression of true resistance genes. Therefore, the Korean carrot lines resistant to the nematode infection are potential genetic resources for the development of quality carrot cultivars resistant to M. incognita race 1. PMID:25288988

  1. EFECTO DEL VERMICOMPOST Y QUITINA SOBRE EL CONTROL DE Meloidogyne incognita EN TOMATE A NIVEL DE INVERNADERO

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    Leida Castro

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Meloidogyne incognita es un nematodo endoparásito sedentario, de penetración total y formador de nódulos radicales; tiene una amplia distribución geográfica y causa pérdidas agrícolas importantes. Recientemente se han utilizado abonos orgánicos y compuestos como la quitina en la supresión de plagas y enfermedades de plantas. El objetivo de esta investigación fue evaluar el efecto de la aplicación de vermicompost de estiércol bovino y su enriquecimiento con quitina, sobre la infección de M. incognita en plantas de tomate var. Hayslip bajo condiciones de invernadero. Para esto se inocularon las plantas con 5000 unidades de inóculo (huevos+juveniles en segundo estado por maceta y se compararon con controles que fueron sembrados en suelo sin enmienda orgánica o quitina. La evaluación se llevó a cabo 60 días después y se midió el peso fresco aéreo y radical, peso seco aéreo, población total de nematodos en raíz y suelo, índice de nódulos radicales (INR, índice de masas de huevos (IMH, el factor de reproducción del nematodo (FR y recuento de grupos funcionales (hongos, bacterias y actinomicetes. La adición al suelo de vermicompost provocó un incremento en las variables peso fresco y seco foliar y peso fresco radical: a mayor porcentaje de vermicompost, mayor incremento; así mismo, la aplicación del vermicompost redujo la cantidad del nematodo en raíz y en suelo. La aplicación de quitina acentuó estos resultados, obteniéndose el menor factor de reproducción de M. Incognita, con un valor de 3,76 para la dosis de 50% vermicompost+quitina, mientras que en el testigo este factor fue de 93,20. La aplicación de quitina como enmienda única solo afectó la población de hongos en el suelo, mientras que la de actinomicetes aumentó en los tratamientos enmendados.

  2. Resistência do Abacaxizeiro 'Turiaçu' a Meloidogyne arenaria, M. enterolobii, M. incognita e M. javanica

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    Gilson Soares da Silva

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho avaliou-se, em condições de casa de vegetação, a reação do abacaxizeiro 'Turiaçu' [Ananas comosus (L. Merril 'Turiaçu'] a Meloidogyne arenaria, M. enterolobii, M. incognita e M. javanica. Mudas tipo filhote foram plantadas em vasos com capacidade de 3L contendo solo autoclavado. Quando as mudas apresentaram raízes desenvolvidas, foram inoculadas com 5000 ovos de cada espécie do nematoide, separadamente. Foi adotado um delineamento inteiramente casualizado com dez repetições. Cento e cinquenta dias após a inoculação, as plantas foram avaliadas quanto ao fator de reprodução do nematoide (FR=população final/população inicial. O abacaxizeiro 'Turiaçu' mostrou-se altamente resistente às quatro espécies de Meloidogyne, com fatores de reprodução variando entre 0,00 a 0,03.

  3. Virtual screening and in vitro assay of potential drug like inhibitors from spices against Glutathione-S-Transferase of Meloidogyne incognita

    OpenAIRE

    Babu, Rosana O; Moorkoth, Dinsha; Azeez, Shamina; Eapen, Santhosh J

    2012-01-01

    Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) enzymes are critical antioxidant and detoxification system responsible for long-term existence of nematodes in host species. Hence, 16 phytochemicals predicted and reported to have potential nematicidal activity have been docked to GST enzyme of Meloidogyne incognita to assess their binding affinity and inhibitory activity. In vitro effects of these phytochemicals from in silico results have been done for validation of docking studies and efficacy in...

  4. Influence of High Dilutions of Cina for the Control of Meloidogyne incognita in Tomato Plants

    OpenAIRE

    Rafael Augusto Swarowsky; José Renato Stangarlin; Odair José Kunh; Rogério Lopes Estevez; Thaísa Muriel Mioranza; Mônica Anghinoni Muller

    2014-01-01

    Considering the importance of the tomato crop and the high costs for controlling Meloidogyne incognita with resistant cultivar or nematicides, it is necessary for the search of new alternatives to manage the root-knot disease. The homeopathy may be an alternative way of control, by inducing plant resistance. This study aimed to evaluate the influence of the homeopathic product Cina at dynamizations 12, 24, 50, 100, 200, and 400 CH (centesimal hahnemanian dilutions) on the number of root ...

  5. Integrated application of some compatible biocontrol agents along with mustard oil seed cake and furadan on Meloidogyne incognita infecting tomato plants

    OpenAIRE

    Goswami, Bijoy Kumar; Pandey, Rajesh Kumar; Rathour, Kabindra Singh; Bhattacharya, Chaitali; Singh, Lokendra

    2006-01-01

    Experiments were carried out to study the effect of two fungal bioagents along with mustard oil cake and furadan against root knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita infecting tomato under greenhouse condition. Bioagents viz., Paecilomyces lilacinus and Trichoderma viride alone or in combination with mustard cake and furadan promoted plant growth, reduced number of galls/plant, egg masses/root system and eggs/egg mass. The fungal bioagents along with mustard cake and nematicide showed least nemat...

  6. COMPORTAMIENTO DE MATERIALES DE GUAYABO (Psidium guajava LINNEO) AL PARASITISMO DEL NEMATODO FORMADOR DE AGALLAS [Meloidogyne incognita (KOFOID & WHITE) CHITWOOD Y Meloidogyne javanica (TREUB) CHITWOOD] / BEHAVIOR OF GUAVA MATERIALS (Psidiumguajava LINNEO) ON THE ROOT KNOT NEMATODE [Meloidogyne incognita (KOFOID & WHITE) CHITWOOD AND Meloidogyne javanica (TREUB) CHITWOOD] PARASITISM

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    ALEJANDRA, DUQUE ARISTIZÁBAL; ÓSCAR ADRIÁN, GUZMÁN PIEDRAHÍTA.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Las raíces del guayabo son parasitadas por el nematodo del nudo radical (Meloidogyne spp.), ocasionando pérdidas de la producción entre 30 y 60%. Debido a esto, el principal objetivo de esta investigación fue evaluar en condiciones de almácigo la reacción de cuatro variedades de guayabo al ataque de [...] l complejo Meloidogyne incognita y M. javanica. En el vivero Jaibaná Frutales, del municipio de Pereira (Risaralda), plántulas de cuatro variedades: Pera y Común (Psidium guajava), Agrio (Psidium friedrichsthalianum) y Peruano (Psidium cattleianum), fueron sembradas en bolsas de plástico que contenían suelo y cascarilla de arroz en proporción 3:1. Veinte días después de sembradas, a 15 plántulas de cada una de las variedades le fueron inoculadas una mezcla de 1.000, 5.000 y 10.000 huevos y juveniles de Meloidogyne, y los respectivos testigos sin inocular. Las plántulas fueron asignadas bajo un diseño experimental completamente aleatorio. Las variedades Peruano con 5,75g y 8,03g de peso seco de raíces y parte aérea, respectivamente, y Agrio con 10,27g y 9,23g de peso seco de raíces y parte aérea, respectivamente, presentaron el menor índice de nudosidad con 0,1 y 1,1, y reproducción de Meloidogyne spp. con valores entre 75 y 4.575 huevos y juveniles/100g de raíces. Estas variedades fueron estadísticamente diferentes a la variedad Pera con 13,96g y 11,33g de peso seco de raíces y parte aérea, respectivamente, y Común con 11,35g y 13,9g de peso seco de raíces y parte aérea, respectivamente, quienes presentaron mayor índice de nudosidad con 5 y reproducción con 149.775 huevos y 72.950 juveniles/100g de raíces. Las variedades Agrio y Peruano fueron resistentes e inmunes, respectivamente, al ataque de Meloidogyne incognita y M. javanica, permitiendo ser utilizadas como portainjertos o patrones; mientras que las variedades Pera y Común fueron altamente susceptibles. Abstract in english Guava roots are parasitized by the root knot nematode (Meloidogyne spp.), which causes production losses between 30 and 60%. Due to this, the main goal of this research was to evaluate the reaction of four varieties of guava under nursery conditions to the attack of Meloidogyne incognita and M. java [...] nica complex. In the Jaibaná Frutales nursery, in the municipality of Pereira (Risaralda), seedlings of four varieties of guava: Guava pear and Common guava (Psidiumguajava), Cas guava (Psidiumfriedrichsthalianum), and Peruvian guava (Psidiumcattleianum), were planted in plastic bags containing soil and rice hull in a 3:1 proportion. Twenty days after planted, 15 seedlings of each variety were inoculated with a mixture of 1,000, 5,000 and 10,000 eggs and Meloidogyne spp juveniles, and their respective controls without inoculation. Seedlings were assigned under a completely randomized design. The Peruvian guava variety with 5.75g and 8.03g roots and aerial parts dry weight respectively, and Cas guava variety with 10.27g and 9.23g roots and aerial parts dry weight, respectively, had the lowest root gall index with 0.1 and 1.1, and Meloidogyne spp. reproduction with values between 75 and 4.575 eggs and juveniles/100g of roots. These varieties were statistically different from the guava Pear variety with 13,96g y 11,33g roots and aerial parts dry weight respectively, and Common guava with 11,35g y 13,9g roots and aerial parts dry weight respectively, which had the highest root gall index with 5 and reproduction with 149.775 eggs and 72.950 juveniles/100g of roots. In conclusion, the Cas and Peruvian varieties were resistant and immune respectively, to Meloidogyne incognita and M. javanica, allowing them to be used as rootstocks or patronages, while guava Pear and Common guava were highly susceptible to both species.

  7. BEHAVIOR OF GUAVA MATERIALS (Psidiumguajava LINNEO ON THE THE ROOT KNOT NEMATODE [Meloidogyne incognita (KOFOID & WHITE CHITWOOD AND Meloidogyne javanica (TREUB CHITWOOD] PARASITISM / COMPORTAMIENTO DE MATERIALES DE GUAYABO (Psidium guajava LINNEO AL PARASITISMO DEL NEMATODO FORMADOR DE AGALLAS [Meloidogyne incognita (KOFOID & WHITE CHITWOOD Y Meloidogyne javanica (TREUB CHITWOOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALEJANDRA DUQUE ARISTIZÁBAL

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Guava roots are parasitized by the root knot nematode (Meloidogyne spp., which causes production losses between 30 and 60%. Due to this, the main goal of this research was to evaluate the reaction of four varieties of guava under nursery conditions to the attack of Meloidogyne incognita and M javanica complex. In the Jaibaná Frutales nursery, in the municipality of Pereira (Risaralda, seedlings of four varieties of guava: Guava pear and Common guava (Psidiumguajava, Cas guava (Psidiumfriedrichsthalianum, and Peruvian guava (Psidiumcattleianum, were planted in plastic bags containing soil and rice hull in a 3:1 proportion. Twenty days after planted, 15 seedlings of each variety were inoculated with a mixture of 1,000, 5,000 and 10,000 eggs and Meloidogyne spp juveniles, and their respective controls without inoculation. Seedlings were assigned under a completely randomized design. The Peruvian guava variety with 5.75g and 8.03g roots and aerial parts dry weight respectively, and Cas guava variety with 10.27g and 9.23g roots and aerial parts dry weight, respectively, had the lowest root gall index with 0.1 and 1.1, and Meloidogyne spp. reproduction with values between 75 and 4.575 eggs and juveniles/100g of roots. These varieties were statistically different from the guava Pear variety with 13,96g y 11,33g roots and aerial parts dry weight respectively, and Common guava with 11,35g y 13,9g roots and aerial parts dry weight respectively, which had the highest root gall index with 5 and reproduction with 149.775 eggs and 72.950 juveniles/100g of roots. In conclusion, the Cas and Peruvian varieties were resistant and immune respectively, to Meloidogyne incognita and M. javanica, allowing them to be used as rootstocks or patronages, while guava Pear and Common guava were highly susceptible to both species. RESUMEN: Las raíces del guayabo son parasitadas por el nematodo del nudo radical (Meloidogyne spp., ocasionando pérdidas de la producción entre 30 y 60%. Debido a esto, el principal objetivo de esta investigación fue evaluar en condiciones de almácigo la reacción de cuatro variedades de guayabo al ataque del complejo Meloidogyne incognita y M. javanica. En el vivero Jaibaná Frutales, del municipio de Pereira (Risaralda, plántulas de cuatro variedades: Pera y Común (Psidium guajava, Agrio (Psidium friedrichsthalianum y Peruano (Psidium cattleianum, fueron sembradas en bolsas de plástico que contenían suelo y cascarilla de arroz en proporción 3:1. Veinte días después de sembradas, a 15 plántulas de cada una de las variedades le fueron inoculadas una mezcla de 1.000, 5.000 y 10.000 huevos y juveniles de Meloidogyne, y los respectivos testigos sin inocular. Las plántulas fueron asignadas bajo un diseño experimental completamente aleatorio. Las variedades Peruano con 5,75g y 8,03g de peso seco de raíces y parte aérea, respectivamente, y Agrio con 10,27g y 9,23g de peso seco de raíces y parte aérea, respectivamente, presentaron el menor índice de nudosidad con 0,1 y 1,1, y reproducción de Meloidogyne spp. con valores entre 75 y 4.575 huevos y juveniles/100g de raíces. Estas variedades fueron estadísticamente diferentes a la variedad Pera con 13,96g y 11,33g de peso seco de raíces y parte aérea, respectivamente, y Común con 11,35g y 13,9g de peso seco de raíces y parte aérea, respectivamente, quienes presentaron mayor índice de nudosidad con 5 y reproducción con 149.775 huevos y 72.950 juveniles/100g de raíces. Las variedades Agrio y Peruano fueron resistentes e inmunes, respectivamente, al ataque de Meloidogyne incognita y M. javanica, permitiendo ser utilizadas como portainjertos o patrones; mientras que las variedades Pera y Común fueron altamente susceptibles.

  8. Enxertia e sua influencia na produção de pepino e reprodução de Meloidogyne javanica e M. incognita / Effect of grafting on cucumber production and reproduction of Meloidogyne javanica and M. incognita

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ariane C, Salata; Erick Vinicius, Bertolini; Felipe O, Magro; Antonio II, Cardoso; Silvia Renata S, Wilcken.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A enxertia em porta-enxertos resistentes é uma técnica frequentemente recomendada para a cultura do pepino em áreas infestadas com nematoides-das-galhas. O presente trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a produção de pepino enxertado em dois porta-enxertos comparado com pé-franco em solo infestado com [...] Meloidogyne incognita raça 2 ou com M. javanica. Foram avaliados nove tratamentos (fatorial 3x3: pepino híbrido Tsuyataro pé-franco, enxertado na abóbora híbrida 'Shelper' e enxertado na abóbora híbrida 'Excitte Ikki' x sem inoculação, inoculação com M. incognita e inoculação com M. javanica), no delineamento em blocos ao acaso, com quatro repetições e seis plantas por parcela. Para as características de produção de frutos (número de frutos totais e comerciais por planta, massa de frutos totais e comerciais por planta) não foi obtida interação entre os fatores. Obteve-se maior produção de frutos em plantas enxertadas sobre a abóbora 'Shelper', independente da espécie de nematoide, enquanto que a enxertia sobre 'Excitte Ikki' não diferiu do pé-franco para produção total. Ambas as espécies de nematoide reduziram a produção de frutos, porém este efeito foi mais pronunciado com M. javanica. Tanto o pepino pé-franco como as plantas enxertadas foram suscetíveis, pois permitiram a multiplicação dos nematoides, com fator de reprodução, em avaliação realizada aos 72 dias após a inoculação, variando de 3,57 a 15,04, sendo que para M. javanica este valor foi maior no pepino pé-franco. Abstract in english Grafting on resistant rootstock is a technique often recommended for cucumber crop in root-knot nematodes infested areas. We studied the yield of grafted cucumber on two rootstocks compared with non grafted in soil infested with Meloidogyne javanica or with M. incognita race 2. Nine treatments (fact [...] orial 3x3: Japanese cucumber hybrid Tsuyataro without grafting, grafted on squash hybrid Shelper and grafted on squash hybrid Excitte Ikki x without nematode inoculation, inoculated with M. incognita and inoculated with M. javanica) were evaluated in a randomized block design, with four replications and six plants per plot. There was no interaction between factors for yield evaluated characteristics (total and marketable fruit number per plant, total and marketable fruit weight per plant). Higher fruit yield was obtained in cucumber grafted on 'Shelper', for both nematode species, while cucumber grafted on 'Excitte Ikki' did not differ from non grafted plants for total fruit weight. Both nematode species reduced fruit yield, which was more evident when M. javanica was inoculated. Grafted and non grafted plants were susceptible, because they enabled the multiplication of nematodes, with a reproduction factor, at 72 days after inoculation, ranging from 3.57 to 15.04, with the highest value in cucumber non grafted inoculated with M. javanica.

  9. Seleção de clones de batata-doce resistentes a Meloidogyne incognita raça 1 Selection of sweetpotato clones resistant to Meloidogyne incognita race 1

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    Aline Marchese

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi selecionar clones de batata-doce (Ipomoea batatas resistentes à raça 1 de Meloidogyne incognita e avaliar a eficiência do método de seleção empregado, pela estimação dos coeficientes de variação genética e ambiental e das herdabilidades no sentido amplo. Foram utilizados 123 genótipos de batata-doce, entre os quais quatro cultivares comerciais - Brazlândia Rosada, Brazlândia Roxa, Brazlândia Branca e Palmas -, e 119 acessos previamente selecionados no programa de melhoramento vegetal da Universidade Federal de Lavras. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o de blocos aumentados, com três tratamentos comuns: as cultivares de batata-doce Brazlândia Branca e Palmas, e a cultivar de tomate Santa Clara, suscetível ao nematoide. A classificação dos níveis de resistência foi realizada de acordo com o fator de reprodução do nematoide e o índice de reprodução relativo à cultivar Santa Clara, de tomateiro. A relação entre os coeficientes de variação genética e ambiental e as herdabilidades no sentido amplo foram altas, tanto para o fator de reprodução quanto para o índice de reprodução dos nematoides, o que demonstra a eficiência do método empregado para a seleção de genótipos resistentes. Foram identificados 57 genótipos promissores de batata-doce, resistentes à raça 1 de M. incognita, e selecionados para continuar no programa de melhoramento.The objective of this work was to select sweetpotato (Ipomoea batatas resistant clones to Meloidogyne incognita race 1, and to assess the efficiency of the selection method deployed, through the estimation of genetic and environmental coefficients of variation, and broad-sense heritabilities. Genotypes assessed comprised 123 sweetpotato entries altogether, including four commercial cultivars - Brazlândia Rosada, Brazlândia Roxa, Brazlândia Branca, Palmas - and 119 clones previously selected by the Universidade Federal de Lavras sweetpotato breeding program. The experimental setup was a an augmented block design, using three common treatments: the sweetpotato cultivars Brazlândia branca and Palmas, and the nematode-susceptible tomato cultivar Santa Clara. Nematode resistance levels were defined both by the nematode reproduction factor and by the nematode reproduction index relative to tomato cv. Santa Clara. The ratio between genetic and environmental coefficients of variation and the broad-sense heritability estimates were high, for both nematodes reproduction factor and reproduction index, indicating that the selection method deployed was efficient for the selection of resistant genotypes. Fifty-seven sweetpotato clones were identified as resistant to M. incognita race 1, and selected to continue in the sweetpotato breeding program.

  10. Efeito de exsudatos radiculares em endósporos de Pasteuria penetrans e em juvenis do segundo estádio de Meloidogyne incognita Effect of root exudates on endospores of Pasteuria penetrans and on second-stage juvenile of Meloidogyne incognita

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    Fernando da Silva Rocha

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Juvenis do segundo estádio (J2 de Meloidogyne incognita foram incubados nos exsudatos radiculares de soja (Glycine max, tomateiro (Lycopersicon esculentum, cafeeiro (Coffea arabica, feijoeiro (Phaseolus vulgaris, mostarda (Brassica rapa, Crotalaria juncea e C. spectabilis e em água por 12 h. Em seguida, realizou-se o teste de adesão por centrifugação ou por borbulhamento. Em outro ensaio, endósporos de Pasteuria penetrans foram incubados por quatro dias a 26 ºC nos exsudatos e submetidos à adesão em J2 de M. incognita, sob borbulhamento constante por 24 h em tubos contendo água. Os J2 com endósporos aderidos pelo teste de borbulhamento foram inoculados em mudas de tomateiro. Verificou-se que a incubação dos J2 por 12 h nos exsudatos radiculares testados reduziu o número de endósporos de P. penetrans por J2 independentemente do método de adesão empregado. Os J2 incubados nos exsudatos radiculares testados proporcionaram menor número de fêmeas parasitadas em tomateiro em relação à testemunha (água, bem como menor número de galhas com exceção dos J2 incubados em exsudato do próprio tomateiro. A reprodução dos J2 incubados nos exsudatos radiculares não foi afetada quando comparada à testemunha. A incubação dos endósporos nos exsudatos das plantas testadas reduziu a adesão e a infetividade em J2, em relação à testemunha. Após 28 dias da inoculação, observou-se redução no número de fêmeas parasitadas resultantes da infecção desses J2 com endósporos incubados em exsudatos radiculares comparada com aqueles incubados em água. O parasitismo do J2 com endósporos tratados com exsudatos radiculares e a reprodutividade de fêmeas oriundas da infetividade desses J2 foram semelhantes aos incubados em água.In one assay, second stage juveniles (J2 of Meloidogyne incognita were incubated in root exudates of soybean (Glycine max, tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum, coffee (Coffea arabica, bean (Phaseolus vulgaris, mustard (Brassica rapa, Crotalaria juncea and C. spectabilis and in water for 12 h, followed by endospores adhesion by centrifugation or by air bubbling. In another assay, endospores of Pasterius penetrans were incubated for four days at 26 ºC in the exudates and submitted to adhesion on J2 of M. incognita by constant air bubbling for 24 h in tubes containing water. The J2 with endospore adhesion by air bubbling were inoculated in tomato seedlings. The incubation of J2 for 12 h in the root exudates reduced the number of P. penetrans endospore per J2, regardless of the adhesion test used, and resulted in fewer parasitized females when compared with the control, as well as a lower number of galls, except in the J2 incubated in exudate of tomato. The reproduction of incubated J2 in the root exudates was not affected when compared to the control. The endospore incubation in the exudates of the tested plants reduced the adhesion and the infectivity of these endospores to J2 in relation to the control. After 28 days from inoculation, reduction was observed in the number of parasitized females resulting from infection of those J2 with endospore incubated in exudates when compared with those incubated in water. The parasitism of J2 with endospore treated with exudates and the reproduction of infected J2 females were similar to those incubated in water.

  11. Grafted eggplant yield, quality and growth in infested soil with Verticillium dahliae and Meloidogyne incognita Produção, qualidade e crescimento de beringela enxertada, em solo infestado com Verticillium dahliae e Meloidogyne incognita

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    Sebahattin Çürük

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of grafting (onto Solanum torvum Sw. on plant growth, yield and fruit quality of the Pala and Faselis eggplant (Solanum melongena L. cultivars, grown in a soil infested with Verticillium dahliae Kleb. and Meloidogyne incognita, or in noninfested soil. Soil infestation decreased yield, plant height, final above-ground biomass, and also reduced fruit mean weight and shoot dry weight depending on cultivar or grafting. Grafting decreased fruit oxalic acid and the soluble solid contents, and increased mean fruit weight, depending on cultivar and soil infestation. Grafting also reduced the negative effects of the pathogens on disease index, plant height and shoot dry weight. Cultivar Pala was more vigorous than Faselis, and S. torvum was a vigorous rootstock. The combination of a vigorous rootstock with a weak cultivar (Faselis is more profitable than that of a vigorous rootstock and a vigorous cultivar (Pala. Using S. torvum as a rootstock for cultivar Faselis, grown in soil infested with the pathogens, is most likely to be useful in conventional and low-input sustainable horticulture, since grafting increases protection against the pathogens, and reduces the losses in quality and yield.O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito sobre a altura de planta, a produção e a qualidade de frutos do enxerto das cultivares de beringela (Solanum melongena L. Pala e Faselis em Solanum torvum Sw., quando cultivadas em solo infestado com Verticillium dahliae e Meloidogyne incognita ou em solo não infestado. A infestação do solo reduziu a produção, altura da planta, biomassa da parte aérea, massa média dos frutos, massa de matéria seca da parte aérea, conforme a cultivar utilizada e a enxertia. A enxertia reduziu os conteúdos de ácido oxálico e de sólidos solúveis e aumentou a massa média de frutos, conforme a cultivar ou a presença do patógeno no solo. A enxertia também reduziu o efeito negativo dos patógenos sobre o índice de doença, a altura de planta e a massa de matéria seca da parte aérea. A cultivar Pala foi mais vigorosa que a Faselis, e S. torvum foi um porta-enxerto vigoroso. A combinação de porta-enxerto vigoroso com a cultivar fraca (Faselis foi mais adequada que a de porta-enxerto vigoroso e a cultivar vigorosa (Pala. Ouso de S. torvum como porta-enxerto para a cultivar Faselis, em solo infestado, é provavelmente promissora na horticultura convencional e na horticultura sustentável de baixos insumos, pois a enxertia aumenta a proteção contra os patógenos, e reduz a perda de qualidade dos frutos e da produção.

  12. Grafted eggplant yield, quality and growth in infested soil with Verticillium dahliae and Meloidogyne incognita / Produção, qualidade e crescimento de beringela enxertada, em solo infestado com Verticillium dahliae e Meloidogyne incognita

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Sebahattin, Çürük; H. Y& #305; ld& #305; z, Dasgan; Sedat, Mansuro& #287; lu; & #350; ener, Kurt; Meltem, Mazmano& #287; lu; Özgür, Antakl& #305; ; Gülcan, Tarla.

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito sobre a altura de planta, a produção e a qualidade de frutos do enxerto das cultivares de beringela (Solanum melongena L.) Pala e Faselis em Solanum torvum Sw., quando cultivadas em solo infestado com Verticillium dahliae e Meloidogyne incognita ou em s [...] olo não infestado. A infestação do solo reduziu a produção, altura da planta, biomassa da parte aérea, massa média dos frutos, massa de matéria seca da parte aérea, conforme a cultivar utilizada e a enxertia. A enxertia reduziu os conteúdos de ácido oxálico e de sólidos solúveis e aumentou a massa média de frutos, conforme a cultivar ou a presença do patógeno no solo. A enxertia também reduziu o efeito negativo dos patógenos sobre o índice de doença, a altura de planta e a massa de matéria seca da parte aérea. A cultivar Pala foi mais vigorosa que a Faselis, e S. torvum foi um porta-enxerto vigoroso. A combinação de porta-enxerto vigoroso com a cultivar fraca (Faselis) foi mais adequada que a de porta-enxerto vigoroso e a cultivar vigorosa (Pala). Ouso de S. torvum como porta-enxerto para a cultivar Faselis, em solo infestado, é provavelmente promissora na horticultura convencional e na horticultura sustentável de baixos insumos, pois a enxertia aumenta a proteção contra os patógenos, e reduz a perda de qualidade dos frutos e da produção. Abstract in english The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of grafting (onto Solanum torvum Sw.) on plant growth, yield and fruit quality of the Pala and Faselis eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) cultivars, grown in a soil infested with Verticillium dahliae Kleb. and Meloidogyne incognita, or in noninfeste [...] d soil. Soil infestation decreased yield, plant height, final above-ground biomass, and also reduced fruit mean weight and shoot dry weight depending on cultivar or grafting. Grafting decreased fruit oxalic acid and the soluble solid contents, and increased mean fruit weight, depending on cultivar and soil infestation. Grafting also reduced the negative effects of the pathogens on disease index, plant height and shoot dry weight. Cultivar Pala was more vigorous than Faselis, and S. torvum was a vigorous rootstock. The combination of a vigorous rootstock with a weak cultivar (Faselis) is more profitable than that of a vigorous rootstock and a vigorous cultivar (Pala). Using S. torvum as a rootstock for cultivar Faselis, grown in soil infested with the pathogens, is most likely to be useful in conventional and low-input sustainable horticulture, since grafting increases protection against the pathogens, and reduces the losses in quality and yield.

  13. Efeito de extratos aquosos de espécies de Asteraceae sobre Meloidogyne incognita / Effect of aqueous extracts of Asteraceae species on Meloidogyne incognita

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Isabel Cristina Madeira, Ferreira; Gilson Soares da, Silva; Fagner Sousa, Nascimento.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se, in vitro e in vivo a atividade nematicida dos extratos aquosos de vedélia (Sphagneticola trilobata), erva-de-touro (Tridax procumbens), cravo-de-defunto (Tagetes patula), girassol mexicano (Tithonia diversifolia), botão de ouro (Unxia suffruticosa) e zínia (Zinnia peruviana), sobre Meloi [...] dogyne incognita. Os extratos foram preparados na proporção de 1,0g do material seco e triturado para 10mL de água destilada e armazenados por 24h, sendo seguidamente utilizados nos experimentos. Nos testes in vitro, foram depositados 4,0mL do extrato bruto e 2,0mL de uma suspensão aquosa contendo 200 ovos do nematóide em placas de Petri de 5cm de diâmetro e, quinze dias após, procedeu-se a contagem do número de juvenis eclodidos e dos ovos remanescentes para o cálculo das porcentagens de eclosão. Nos testes in vivo, os extratos foram aplicados, separadamente, via pulverização foliar, tratamento de raiz e vertido no solo, semanalmente durante 60 dias. Como testemunha utilizou-se apenas água nos dois experimentos. No ensaio in vitro observou-se que todos os extratos foram eficientes na redução da eclosão de juvenis de M. incognita quando comparados à testemunha, as porcentagens de redução foram 89,96%, 91,13%, 92,48%, 92,72%, 93,2% e 97,48% para erva-de-touro, cravo-de-defunto, girassol mexicano, vedélia, botão de ouro e zínia, respectivamente, e no ensaio in vivo, que os tratamentos não exerceram nenhum efeito sobre o peso do sistema radicular dos tomateiros, no entanto, observou-se que os resultados diferiram entre as espécies utilizadas e a forma de aplicação do extrato na avaliação do peso fresco da parte aérea das plantas. Quanto ao fator de reprodução, observou-se que nenhum dos extratos apresentou diferença estatística em relação à testemunha, no entanto, quando se compara as diferentes formas de aplicação dos mesmos, observa-se que houve diferença estatística quando os extratos de erva de touro e girassol mexicano foram aplicados via pulverização foliar e no tratamento de raiz, contudo, não houve diferença quando estes extratos foram aplicados em forma de rega no solo. Abstract in english The nematicide activity of aqueous extracts of Wedelia (Sphagneticola trilobata), tridax daisy (Tridax procumbens), marigold (Tagetes patula), Mexican sunflower (Tithonia diversifolia), "botão de ouro" (Unxia suffruticosa) and Peruvian zinnia (Zinnia peruviana) was studied in vitro and in vivo on Me [...] loidogyne incognita. The extracts were prepared at a ratio of 1.0 g of dry and crushed material to 10 ml of distilled water, stored for 24 hours, and then used in the experiments. In in vitro tests, 4.0 mL of crude extract and 2.0 ml of an aqueous suspension containing 200 nematode eggs were deposited on Petri plates of 5cm diameter and, fifteen days later, the number of hatched juveniles and the remaining eggs were counted to calculate the percentages of hatching. In in vivo tests, the extracts were separately applied by leaf spraying, root treatment and pouring onto the soil, weekly for 60 days. As control, only water was used in both experiments. The in vitro test showed that all extracts were effective in reducing the hatching of juveniles of M. incognita when compared to the control; the reduction percentages were 89.96%, 91.13%, 92.48%, 92.72%, 93.2% and 97.48% for tridax daisy, marigold, Mexican sunflower, Wedelia, "botão de ouro" and Peruvian zinnia, respectively, while in the in vivo assay, treatments did not have any effect on the root system weight of tomato plants; however, results differed between the used species and the way of application of the extract in the evaluation of the fresh weight of shoots. As to the reproduction rate, none of the extracts showed a statistical difference, compared to control; however, comparing the different ways of application, there was statistical difference when the extracts of tridax daisy and Mexican sunflower were applied through leaf spraying and root treatment, but there was no difference when these extracts

  14. Evaluation of Verticilum Chlamydosporium and Arrthrobotrys for Biological Control of Meloidogyne Incognita in Celery and Tomato

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ability of nematode trapping fungi and egg-parasitic fungi to colonize and persist in the rhizosphere of crop plants is thought to be an important factor influencing the success of bi logical control of root infecting nematodes. In this study, two strains of an egg parasite fungus Verticillium chlamydosporium (Vc-10 and Vc-2M) and an isolate of the nematode-trapping fungus Arthrobotrys oligospora and persistence in the rhizosphere and tomato plants in a green house pot experiment. The isolates tested differed in their pathogenicity to M. incognita and survival in the rhizosphere. An isolate of Verticillum chlamydosporium (Vc-10) was the most virulent pathogen of the nematode. Root galling was slowest in tomato plants treated with V-10 (2.2); pots treated with this isolate had the lowest final soil population of infective juveniles; there was a 62.2% and 98.5% infections of eggs and egg masses respectively by Vc-10 on tomato plants. The two isolates of Verticillium chlamydosporium (Vc-10 and Vc2M) persisted in the soil and could be re-isolated from the rhizosphere and roots of tomato plants at least 16 weeks after soil application. The final inoculum density was, however higher for Vc-10 (1.35x105 cfu/g soil) than Vc-2M (9.25x104 cfu/g soil). Arthrobotrys oligospora on the other hand did not give any significant control of the nematode on both crops, there was severe galling on the roots of plants treated with this agent. It could not be re-isolated from the plant rhizosphere sixteen weeks after soil infestation. Lack of nematode control on both crops by A.oligo spora was attributed to it's poor on establishment in the plant rhizosphere; low density and roots penetration by infective juveniles before they were ensnared in the trapping devices of this fungal biocontrol agent. The fact that it could not be re-isolated from the rhizosphere may imply that the fungus did not survive in the rhizosphere in quantities enough to enhance nematode control

  15. Exploitation of microbes for enhancing bacoside content and reduction of Meloidogyne incognita infestation in Bacopa monnieri L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Rupali; Tiwari, Sudeep; Saikia, Shilpi K; Shukla, Virendra; Singh, Rashmi; Singh, S P; Kumar, P V Ajay; Pandey, Rakesh

    2015-01-01

    Despite the vast exploration of rhizospheric microbial wealth for crop yield enhancement, knowledge about the efficacy of microbial agents as biocontrol weapons against root-knot disease is scarce, especially in medicinal plants, viz., Bacopa monnieri. In the present investigation, rhizospheric microbes, viz., Bacillus megaterium, Glomus intraradices, Trichoderma harzianum ThU, and their combinations were evaluated for the management of Meloidogyne incognita (Kofoid and White) Chitwood and bacoside content enhancement in B. monnieri var CIM-Jagriti. A novel validated method Fourier transform near infrared was used for rapid estimation of total bacoside content. A significant reduction (2.75-fold) in root-knot indices was observed in the combined treatment of B. megaterium and T. harzianum ThU in comparison to untreated control plants. The same treatment also showed significant enhancement (1.40-fold) in total bacoside contents (plant active molecule) content using Fourier transform near-infrared (FT-NIR) method that analyses samples rapidly in an hour without solvent usage and provides ample scope for natural product studies. PMID:24841892

  16. Dynamic role of organic matter and bioagent for the management of Meloidogyne incognita–Rhizoctonia solani disease complex on tomato in relation to some growth attributes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rose Rizvi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A disease complex involving Meloidogyne incognita–Rhizoctonia solani was studied on tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum var. Pusa Ruby under glasshouse conditions to determine their concomitant effect on plant growth variables. Biofertilizers Nerium indicum and Trichoderma harzianum were tested against both pathogens individually as well as concomitantly and found its role in minimizing disease severity. Inoculation of M. incognita and R. solani resulted a significant reduction in plant growth variables over control. The plant growth variables reduction was more pronounced by M. incognita as compared to R. solani. However, T. harzianum exhibited their potential against the disease complex but was less effective than N. indicum. A manifold improvement in plant growth parameters was observed when plants were treated with biofertilizers, N. indicum and T. harzianum simultaneously. The present work has revealed that the combined application of N. indicum and T. harzianum may be a better option for the management of disease complex M. incognita–R. solani on tomato. Application of these biofertilizers after field trials may be suitable module of organic farming.

  17. Virtual screening and in vitro assay of potential drug like inhibitors from spices against Glutathione-S-Transferase of Meloidogyne incognita.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babu, Rosana O; Moorkoth, Dinsha; Azeez, Shamina; Eapen, Santhosh J

    2012-01-01

    Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) enzymes are critical antioxidant and detoxification system responsible for long-term existence of nematodes in host species. Hence, 16 phytochemicals predicted and reported to have potential nematicidal activity have been docked to GST enzyme of Meloidogyne incognita to assess their binding affinity and inhibitory activity. In vitro effects of these phytochemicals from in silico results have been done for validation of docking studies and efficacy in GST inhibition of following compounds such as alpha- pinene, alpha- terpineol, beta- caryophyllene, capsaicin, cinnamic acid, citronellol, curcumin, eugenol, geraniol, isoeugenol, linalool, myristicin, neral, NVA (N-vanillylnonanamide), piperine, vanillin have been revealed. Nematode inhibition in vitro bioassay for selected compounds could conclude that maximum mortality was observed with highest concentrations of beta- caryophyllene (78%) followed by eugenol (61.6%), cinnamic acid (55%) and N-vanillylnonanamide (49%). These findings thus suggest that the above phytochemicals could be potentially developed as nematicidal molecules against M. incognita infections. PMID:22553389

  18. Integrated application of some compatible biocontrol agents along with mustard oil seed cake and furadan on Meloidogyne incognita infecting tomato plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goswami, Bijoy Kumar; Pandey, Rajesh Kumar; Rathour, Kabindra Singh; Bhattacharya, Chaitali; Singh, Lokendra

    2006-11-01

    Experiments were carried out to study the effect of two fungal bioagents along with mustard oil cake and furadan against root knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita infecting tomato under greenhouse condition. Bioagents viz., Paecilomyces lilacinus and Trichoderma viride alone or in combination with mustard cake and furadan promoted plant growth, reduced number of galls/plant, egg masses/root system and eggs/egg mass. The fungal bioagents along with mustard cake and nematicide showed least nematodes reproduction factor as compared to untreated infested soil. PMID:17048300

  19. Resistance of Newly Introduced Vegetables to Meloidogyne arenaria and M. incognita in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donggeun Kim

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available To select resistant vegetables against two species of root-knot nematodes, M. incognita and M. arenaria, 39 vegetables belongs to 7 families, 13 genera, 25 species were screened in greenhouse pot test. Susceptible vegetables to both nematodes were amarath and leaf beet in Amaranthaceae, Malabar spinach in Basellaceae, Moroheiya in Tiliaceae, and Water-convolvulus in Convolvulaceae, Pak-choi in Brassica campestris var. chinensis, Tah tasai in B. campestris var. narinosa, B. campestris var. chinensis x narinosa, Leaf mustard, Mustard green in B. juncea, Kyona in B. juncea var. laciniate, Choy sum in B. rapa subsp. arachinenesis, Kairan in B. oleracea var. alboglabra, Arugula in Eruca sativa, Garland chrysanthemum in Chrysanthemum coronarium, Endive in Cichorium endivia, Artichoke in Cynara cardunculus var. scolymus, Lettuce in Lactuca sativa. Resistant to M. arenaria but susceptible to M. incognita were B. oleracea cv. Matjjang kale, B. oleracea var. gongyloides cv. Jeok kohlrabi, and C. intybus cv. Radicchio. Resistant vegetables to both nematodes were C. intybus cv. Sugar loaf, Grumoro, Radichio treviso, B. oleracea cv. Manchu collard, Super matjjang, B. oleracea italica, B. oleracea var. botrytis italiana, and Perilla in Lamiaceae. Vegetables resistant to both species of root-knot nematodes could be used as high-valued rotation crops in greenhouses where root-knot nematodes are problem.

  20. Efecto in vitro de concentraciones del NEMACID® sobre huevos y juveniles de Meloidogyne incognita (Kofoid y White) Chitwood / In vitro effect of different concentrations of NEMACID® on eggs and juveniles of Meloidogyne incognita (Kofoid and White) Chitwood

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Yusmila, Guevara; Eulalia, Gómez; Oriela, Pino; Y, Rodríguez; Ileana, Miranda; R, Enrique; Mayra G, Rodríguez.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Para el manejo de nematodos, se desarrolló en Cuba el producto NEMACID®, que posee como ingrediente activo metabolitos obtenidos a partir de los efluentes de la fermentación líquida de Lecanicillium lecanii (Zare & Gams) formulado con sulfato de amonio. El objetivo de este ensayo fue determinar el e [...] fecto del NEMACID® sobre los huevos y juveniles (J2) de Meloidogyne incognita (Kofoid y White) Chitwood. En el ensayo se utilizaron como controles agua destilada, sulfato de amonio ((NH4)2SO4; 1,69 mg.ml-1) y Dazomet (1g.1000ml-1); y se evaluaron cinco concentraciones de NEMACID® (18,75; 3,75; 1,875; 0, 1875 y 0,01875mg.ml-1). Los valores de LC50 y LC90, se calcularon usando el método Probit. Las evaluaciones se llevaron a cabo a las 24 horas, contabilizándose el número de J2 inmóviles y huevos no eclosionados del total. Los resultados corroboraron la acción nematicida del producto que provocó el colapso del contenido interno de los juveniles y resultó imposible su recuperación posterior. El NEMACID® a la concentración de 18,75 mg.ml-1 produjo mayor efectividad sobre la eclosión de los huevos y mortalidad de los juveniles que el Dazomet (control). El sulfato de amonio, producto que acompaña al hongo en el proceso de fermentación y forma parte de la formulación final del NEMACID®, no produjo afectación a huevos y juveniles. Las concentraciones de NEMACID® de 3,75 mg.ml-1 e inferiores no resultaron satisfactorias en el tratamiento de los huevos, donde el porcentaje de inhibición de la eclosión de los mismos estuvo por debajo del 50. Mientras que en juveniles, la concentración de 3,75 mg.ml-1 del producto ocasionó mortalidad por encima del 70%, sin diferencia significativa con el producto Dazomet. Abstract in english NEMACID® was developed in Cuba for root knot nematode management. This product contains the effluents from liquid fermentation of Lecanicillium lecani (Zare and Gams) as active ingredient, and is formulated with ammonium sulfate. The objective of this test was to determine the effect of NEMACID® on [...] eggs and juveniles (J2) of Meloidogyne incognita (Kofoid and White) Chitwood. In the test, five concentrations of NEMACID® (18,75; 3,75; 1,875; 0,1875 y 0,01875mg.ml-1) were evaluated using distilled water, ammonium sulfate ((NH4)2SO4; 1,69mg.ml-1) and Dazomet (1g.1000ml-1) as controls. The CL50 and CL90 were calculated using Probit analysis. The evaluations were done at 24h, when the total number of non mobile juveniles and non hatched eggs from the total were counted. The result corroborated the nematicide action of the product by producing the collapse of the internal content in juveniles with an impossible recovery. NEMACID® at a concentration of 18,75 mg. ml-1 showed a higher effect on egg hatching and juvenile mortality than Dazomet (control). The ammonium sulfate, a product accompanying the fungus in the fermentation process as part of the final formulation of NEMACID®, did not affect eggs or juveniles. Concentrations of NEMACID® equal to 3,75mg.ml-1 or lower did not affect the eggs, with a percentage of hatching inhibition below 50%. Meanwhile, in juveniles, the concentration of 3.75mg.ml-1 caused a mortality over 70%, without significant differences with Dazomet.

  1. Pathogenicity of Meloidogyne incognita Race 1 on Turmeric (Curcuma longa L. as Influenced by Inoculum Density and Poultry Manure Amendment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin I. Ugwuoke

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A glasshouse experiment was conducted to assess the pathogenicity of Meloidogyne incognita race 1 on turmeric (Curcuma longa L. at three inoculum densities (0, 2500, 5000 eggs plant-1 and soil amendment with different levels of Poultry Manure (PM (0, 10, 20, 30 and 40 t ha-1. The results obtained showed that root-galling and egg production decreased in a linear response to increasing PM level at both low and high inoculum densities (r = -0.88 and r = -0.85, respectively; p=0.01. The lowest gall index and egg mass index of 2.0 were recorded in plants amended with 40 and 30 t ha-1 PM, respectively. The high nematode density was more pathogenic (p=0.05 than the low density. Shoot length, fresh shoot and root weights responded in a curvilinear pattern with increasing levels of PM. In general, these growth variables increased with increase in PM level up to 20 t ha-1 and then declined with further increase. At high inoculum density, shoot growth was enhanced by 242 and 58% with 20 and 40 t ha-1 PM relative to unamended soil, respectively. Conversely, fresh root weight was increased by 120% and reduced by 12.8% with 20 and 40 t ha-1 PM, respectively. From this study, it could be inferred that higher levels of PM were highly nematicidal but phytotoxic to turmeric plants; the optimal rate of PM amendment is predicted to be 18-22 t ha-1. However, for this method to be incorporated into Integrated Nematode Management Programme of turmeric, field trials are needed for the optimization of the quantity, time and method of application.

  2. Analysis of Gene expression in soybean (Glycine max roots in response to the root knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita using microarrays and KEGG pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gamal El-Din Abd El Kader Y

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Root-knot nematodes are sedentary endoparasites that can infect more than 3000 plant species. Root-knot nematodes cause an estimated $100 billion annual loss worldwide. For successful establishment of the root-knot nematode in its host plant, it causes dramatic morphological and physiological changes in plant cells. The expression of some plant genes is altered by the nematode as it establishes its feeding site. Results We examined the expression of soybean (Glycine max genes in galls formed in roots by the root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita, 12 days and 10 weeks after infection to understand the effects of infection of roots by M. incognita. Gene expression was monitored using the Affymetrix Soybean GeneChip containing 37,500 G. max probe sets. Gene expression patterns were integrated with biochemical pathways from the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes using PAICE software. Genes encoding enzymes involved in carbohydrate and cell wall metabolism, cell cycle control and plant defense were altered. Conclusions A number of different soybean genes were identified that were differentially expressed which provided insights into the interaction between M. incognita and soybean and into the formation and maintenance of giant cells. Some of these genes may be candidates for broadening plants resistance to root-knot nematode through over-expression or silencing and require further examination.

  3. Separate and Combined Effects of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. tracheiphilum and Meloidogyne incognita on Growth and Yield of Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp Var. Moussa-Local

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.O. Ogaraku

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A study was undertaken to determine the separate and combined affects of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. tracheiphilum and Meloidogyne incognita on growth and yield of cowpea variety Moussa-local. It was observed that growth and yield components of the cowpea were generally reduced in all treatments as compared to that of control. Single infection with only nematode caused more growth and yield reductions than infection with only fungus. Reduction in the growth and yield components were generally higher in simultaneous infection than infection with either of the pathogens. Growth and yield reduction in combined infection did not vary significantly from those caused by successive infection where either of the pathogens was made to precede the other. Infection with both pathogens caused significant increases in the root galls, number of eggs and juveniles when compared with infection with nematode only.

  4. The role of betaines in alkaline extracts of Ascophyllum nodosum in the reduction of Meloidogyne javanica and M. incognita infestations of tomato plants

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Y.; Jenkins, T.; Blunden, G.; Whapham, C.; Hankins, S.D.

    1997-01-01

    L'application sur les racines de plants de tomates d'un extrait alcalin de l'algue brune #Ascophyllum nodosum$, disponible dans le commerce, produit une réduction significative du nombre de juvéniles de deuxième stade de #Meloidogyne javanica$ et #M. incognita$ pénétrant dans les racines, en comparaison avec des plants de tomates traités uniquement avec de l'eau. Le nombre d'oeufs récupérés sur les plants traités par l'extrait d'algue est également significativement plus faible. Lorsque les t...

  5. Identification of the resistance breaking populations of Meloidogyne on tomatoes in Morocco and their effect on new sources of resistance

    OpenAIRE

    Eddaoudi, M.; Ammati, M.; Rammah, A.

    1997-01-01

    Vingt-cinq isolats de #Meloidogyne$ collectés dans deux zones maraîchères marocaines ont été identifiés par les profils estérasiques. #M. javanica$ représente 80 à 82% des isolats et #M. incognita$ 18 à 20%. #M. javanica$ a été observé sur plusieurs cultures sous serre plastique et en plein champ, surtout sur tomate, aubergine, melon, bananier et sur plantes adventices. #M. incognita$ a été observé sur poivron et oeillet sous serre et sur tomate de plein champ. Parmi vingt isolats de #M. java...

  6. Knocking-Down Meloidogyne incognita Proteases by Plant-Delivered dsRNA Has Negative Pleiotropic Effect on Nematode Vigor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonino de Souza Júnior, José Dijair; Ramos Coelho, Roberta; Tristan Lourenço, Isabela; da Rocha Fragoso, Rodrigo; Barbosa Viana, Antonio Américo; Lima Pepino de Macedo, Leonardo; Mattar da Silva, Maria Cristina; Gomes Carneiro, Regina Maria; Engler, Gilbert; de Almeida-Engler, Janice; Grossi-de-Sa, Maria Fatima

    2013-01-01

    The root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita causes serious damage and yield losses in numerous important crops worldwide. Analysis of the M. incognita genome revealed a vast number of proteases belonging to five different catalytic classes. Several reports indicate that M. incognita proteases could play important roles in nematode parasitism, besides their function in ordinary digestion of giant cell contents for feeding. The precise roles of these proteins during parasitism however are still unknown, making them interesting targets for gene silencing to address protein function. In this study we have knocked-down an aspartic (Mi-asp-1), a serine (Mi-ser-1) and a cysteine protease (Mi-cpl-1) by RNAi interference to get an insight into the function of these enzymes during a host/nematode interaction. Tobacco lines expressing dsRNA for Mi-ser-1 (dsSER), Mi-cpl-1 (dsCPL) and for the three genes together (dsFusion) were generated. Histological analysis of galls did not show clear differences in giant cell morphology. Interestingly, nematodes that infected plants expressing dsRNA for proteases produced a reduced number of eggs. In addition, nematode progeny matured in dsSER plants had reduced success in egg hatching, while progeny resulting from dsCPL and dsFusion plants were less successful to infect wild-type host plants. Quantitative PCR analysis confirmed a reduction in transcripts for Mi-cpl-1 and Mi-ser-1 proteases. Our results indicate that these proteases are possibly involved in different processes throughout nematode development, like nutrition, reproduction and embryogenesis. A better understanding of nematode proteases and their possible role during a plant-nematode interaction might help to develop new tools for phytonematode control. PMID:24392004

  7. Multiyear evaluation of the durability of the resistance conferred by Ma and RMia genes to Meloidogyne incognita in Prunus under controlled conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khallouk, Samira; Voisin, Roger; Portier, Ulysse; Polidori, Joël; Van Ghelder, Cyril; Esmenjaud, Daniel

    2013-08-01

    Root-knot nematodes (RKNs) (Meloidogyne spp.) are highly polyphagous pests that parasitize Prunus crops in Mediterranean climates. Breeding for RKN-resistant Prunus cultivars, as an alternative to the now-banned use of nematicides, is a real challenge, because the perennial nature of these trees increases the risk of resistance breakdown. The Ma plum resistance (R) gene, with a complete spectrum, and the RMia peach R gene, with a more restricted spectrum, both provide total control of Meloidogyne incognita, the model parthenogenetic species of the genus and the most important RKN in terms of economic losses. We investigated the durability of the resistance to this nematode conferred by these genes, comparing the results obtained with those for the tomato Mi-1 reference gene. In multiyear experiments, we applied a high and continuous nematode inoculum pressure by cultivating nematode-infested susceptible tomato plants with either Prunus accessions carrying Ma or RMia R genes, or with resistant tomato plants carrying the Mi-1 gene. Suitable conditions for Prunus development were achieved by carrying out the studies in a glasshouse, in controlled conditions allowing a short winter leaf fall and dormancy. We first assessed the plum accession 'P.2175', which is heterozygous for the Ma gene, in two successive 2-year evaluations, for resistance to two M. incognita isolates. Whatever the isolate used, no nematodes reproducing on P.2175 were detected, whereas galls and nematodes reproducing on tomato plants carrying Mi-1 were observed. In a second experiment with the most aggressive isolate, interspecific full-sib material (P.2175 × ['Garfi' almond × 'Nemared' peach]), carrying either Ma or RMia (from Nemared) or both (in the heterozygous state) or neither of these genes, was evaluated for 4 years. No virulent nematodes developed on Prunus spp. carrying R genes, whereas galling and virulent individuals were observed on Mi-1-resistant tomato plants. Thus, the resistance to M. incognita conferred by Ma in Prunus material in both a pure-plum and an interspecific genetic background, or by RMia in an interspecific background, appears to be durable, highlighting the value of these two genes for the creation of Prunus rootstock material. PMID:23425239

  8. Effects of Meloidogyne spp. and Rhizoctonia solani on the Growth of Grapevine Rootings

    OpenAIRE

    Walker, G. E.

    1997-01-01

    A disease complex involving Meloidogyne incognita and Rhizoctonia solani was associated with stunting of grapevines in a field nursery. Nematode reproduction was occurring on both susceptible and resistant cultivars, and pot experiments were conducted to determine the virulence of this M. incognita population, and of M. javanica and M. hapla populations, to V. vinifera cv. Colombard (susceptible) and to V. champinii cv. Ramsey (regarded locally as highly resistant). The virulence of R. solani...

  9. Cloning of the gene Lecanicillium psalliotae chitinase Lpchi1 and identification of its potential role in the biocontrol of root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Zhongwei; Yang, Jinkui; Tao, Nan; Liang, Lianming; Mi, Qili; Li, Juan; Zhang, Ke-Qin

    2007-10-01

    The nematophagous fungus Lecanicillium psalliotae (syn. Verticillium psalliotae) is a well-known biocontrol agent. In this study, a chitinase gene Lpchi1 was isolated for the first time from L. psalliotae using degenerate primers and DNA-walking technique. The cloned gene Lpchi1 encoding 423 amino acid residues shares a high degree of homology with other pathogenicity-related chitinases from entomopathogenic and mycoparasitic fungi. The complementary DNA sequence of the mature chitinase was amplified via reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and expressed well in Pichia pastoris GS115. Through gel filtration, the recombinant chitinase was purified as a protein of ca. 45 kDa with an optimal activity at pH 7.0 and 37.6 degrees C. The purified chitinase LPCHI1 was found degrading chitinous components of eggs of the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita and significantly influence its development. Moreover, our results also demonstrate that the protease Ver112 and the chitinase LPCHI1 from the same fungus interacted on the egg infection. PMID:17665191

  10. Heterologous expression of taro cystatin protects transgenic tomato against Meloidogyne incognita infection by means of interfering sex determination and suppressing gall formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Yuan-Li; Yang, Ai-Hwa; Chen, Jen-Tzu; Yeh, Kai-Wun; Chan, Ming-Tsair

    2010-03-01

    Plant-parasitic nematodes are a major pest of many plant species and cause global economic loss. A phytocystatin gene, Colocasia esculenta cysteine proteinase inhibitor (CeCPI), isolated from a local taro Kaosiang No. 1, and driven by a CaMV35S promoter was delivered into CLN2468D, a heat-tolerant cultivar of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum). When infected with Meloidogyne incognita, one of root-knot nematode (RKN) species, transgenic T1 lines overexpressing CeCPI suppressed gall formation as evidenced by a pronounced reduction in gall numbers. In comparison with wild-type plants, a much lower proportion of female nematodes without growth retardation was observed in transgenic plants. A decrease of RKN egg mass in transgenic plants indicated seriously impaired fecundity. Overexpression of CeCPI in transgenic tomato has inhibitory functions not only in the early RKN infection stage but also in the production of offspring, which may result from intervention in sex determination. PMID:20054551

  11. influence of some types of Algerian soil on the development of rot-knot nematodes Meloidogyne incognita, M. javanica and M. arenaria (Tylenchida,Meloidogynidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crops under greenhouses offer the possibility of vegetables production of high added value by focusing on earliness. They help to spread the availability timing of vegetables and fruits in the market throughout the year. However, these crops are subject to numerous attacks entailing heavy losses of yield quantity and quality. The plant parasitic nematodes especially rot-knot nematodes of the genus Meloidogyne are considered dangerous enemies of these cultures. The evolution study of these nematodes in different soil types allows one to compare the migration and movement of these nematodes in sandy soils considered as light soils, in clay soils heavy and intermediate silty clay soils. These soils have also rates of organic matter and a percentage of magnesium and calcium that might provide better conditions to the survival and migration of second stage larvae inoculated at a rate of 650 juveniles per pot of 24 cm in diameter where plants of melon Cucumis melo var. (Charentais) known to be susceptible to Meloidogyne was cultivated. The results for the population development of Meloidogyne, after a growing period of 3 months show an increase in the number of eggs, juvenile stages, inflated, swollen females and males in the 3 types of soil and that independently of clay fraction although clay soil may asphyxiate Meloidogyne. The development of the three species of Meloidogyne studied in these soils, the parameters taken into consideration (index of galls, which were 1.58, 1.75 and 1.5 for the sandy clay and the middle ground soils, vigour index and the evolution of populations of Meloidogyne and roots and soil as well as parameters related to production reveal the adaptation of these root-knot nematodes to the clay and sandy loam soils. At the end of culture, the final populations are important in the soils studied; 2680 for soil S. (sandy), 2272 for soil A (clay) and 2327 for soil I (intermediate) with a multiplication rate almost similar ( 4.12, 3.49 and 3.58 respectively). All these parameters can give one clues about the real possibility of developing root-knot nematodes on all types of soil. These findings may be real on the coastal areas of the southern regions characterized with sandy soils that are most infested, but the infestation potential of interior plains characterized by clay and clay loam are certain if necessary measures are not seriously taken to control them. (author)

  12. Potential of sucrose and Pennisetum purpureum cv. Cameroon mulch on the management of Meloidogyne javanica and M. incognita

    OpenAIRE

    Débora Cristina Santiago; Martin Homechin; Ricardo Montalvan; Alaide Aparecida Krzyzanowski

    2005-01-01

    The effects of sucrose on motility and infectiveness of juveniles of Meloidogyne javanica were evaluated under laboratory and greenhouse conditions, using brown sugar and crystal sugar. Results showed that crystal and brown sugar solutions reduced motility and promoted morphological alterations of juvenile nematodes in vitro. The increasing dosages of sucrose reduced the number of galls and egg masses in tomato root by reducing the number of infective juveniles. The efficiency of granular suc...

  13. Efeito do armazenamento na energia corporal de juvenis do segundo estádio de Meloidogyne incognita infestados por Pasteuria penetrans / Effect of storage on body energy of second stage juveniles of Meloidogyne incognita infested by Pasteuria penetrans

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Fernando da Silva, Rocha; Vicente Paulo, Campos; Renata da Silva, Canuto; Ricardo Magela de, Souza.

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho, objetivou-se estudar o efeito do período de armazenamento no teor de lipídios de juvenis do segundo estádio (J2) de M. incognita com endósporos de P. penetrans na infectividade e reprodução em tomateiro. Suspensões de M. incognita contendo ou não endósporos de P. penetrans aderidos à [...] cutícula foram armazenadas por 0, 3, 6, 9 e 12 dias, a 28ºC. Após cada período de estocagem, determinou-se a concentração de lipídios neutros corporais por meio da análise de imagem dos J2 coloridos com o corante "Oil Red O". Em seguida, 1.000 J2 foram inoculados em mudas de tomateiros. Após 28 dias, avaliou-se o número de fêmeas parasitadas, número de endósporos/fêmea, número de galhas, massas de ovos e de ovos/g de raiz. O teor de lipídio dos J2 reduziu-se com o aumento do período de estocagem. Porém, maiores perdas ocorreram nos J2 sem endósporos de P. penetrans. A proporção entre as perdas dos J2 com e sem P. penetrans foi pequena e decrescente com o período de estocagem. Entretanto, a desproporção foi grande entre 3 e 6 dias de armazenamento dos J2 com e sem P. penetrans com relação aos parâmetros reprodução e número de galhas, indicando consumo de fontes alternativas ao lipí dio neutro de energia p elo J2 parasitado. Mas o período de armazenamento sempre reduziu a reprodução e número de galhas formadas em tomateiros por J2 com e sem P. penetrans. A perda dessas fontes de energia, ao que tudo indica, leva muitos J2 a morrer antes de chegar ao estádio adulto, pois o número de fêmeas parasitadas reduz-se com o armazenamento, além de propiciar menor produção de endósporos por fêmea. O J2 parasitado por P. penetrans necessita encontrar rapidamente a raiz e não permanecer no solo por mais de 6 dias antes de parasitar a planta. Abstract in english This work aimed to study the effect of storage period on lipid content of second stage juveniles (J2) of M. incognita with endospores of P. penetrans on infectivity and reproduction in tomato. Suspensions of M. incognita containing or not endospores of P. penetrans adhered to cuticle were stored by [...] 0, 3, 6, 9 and 12 days at 28ºC. After each storage period, the concentration of neutral lipids in the body of J2 was determined by image analysis of J2 stained with "Oil Red O". After that, 1.000 J2 were inoculated in tomato seedlings. After 28 days, the number of infected females, number of endospores per females, number of galls, number of egg masses and number of eggs per gram of root were evaluated. The lipid content of J2 reduced with the increase of storage period. However, greater lost occurred on J2 without endospores of P. penetrans. The ratio between J2 lipid losses with and without P. penetrans was small and decreased with storage period. However, the ratio between J2 with and without P. penetrans was greatest between 3 and 6 days of storage in relation to parameters reproduction and number of galls, indicating consumption of alternative energy sources others than neutral lipids by infected J2. But the storage period always reduced the reproduction and number of galls formed in tomatoes by J2 with and without P. penetrans. The loss of those energy sources indicate that many J2 dye before adult stage, because the number of parasitized females reduced with storage, besides of smaller endospores production per female. The J2 infested by P. penetrans needs to find the root quickly and should not stay in the soil for more than 6 days before parasitizing the plant.

  14. Efeito do armazenamento na energia corporal de juvenis do segundo estádio de Meloidogyne incognita infestados por Pasteuria penetrans Effect of storage on body energy of second stage juveniles of Meloidogyne incognita infested by Pasteuria penetrans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando da Silva Rocha

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho, objetivou-se estudar o efeito do período de armazenamento no teor de lipídios de juvenis do segundo estádio (J2 de M. incognita com endósporos de P. penetrans na infectividade e reprodução em tomateiro. Suspensões de M. incognita contendo ou não endósporos de P. penetrans aderidos à cutícula foram armazenadas por 0, 3, 6, 9 e 12 dias, a 28ºC. Após cada período de estocagem, determinou-se a concentração de lipídios neutros corporais por meio da análise de imagem dos J2 coloridos com o corante "Oil Red O". Em seguida, 1.000 J2 foram inoculados em mudas de tomateiros. Após 28 dias, avaliou-se o número de fêmeas parasitadas, número de endósporos/fêmea, número de galhas, massas de ovos e de ovos/g de raiz. O teor de lipídio dos J2 reduziu-se com o aumento do período de estocagem. Porém, maiores perdas ocorreram nos J2 sem endósporos de P. penetrans. A proporção entre as perdas dos J2 com e sem P. penetrans foi pequena e decrescente com o período de estocagem. Entretanto, a desproporção foi grande entre 3 e 6 dias de armazenamento dos J2 com e sem P. penetrans com relação aos parâmetros reprodução e número de galhas, indicando consumo de fontes alternativas ao lipí dio neutro de energia p elo J2 parasitado. Mas o período de armazenamento sempre reduziu a reprodução e número de galhas formadas em tomateiros por J2 com e sem P. penetrans. A perda dessas fontes de energia, ao que tudo indica, leva muitos J2 a morrer antes de chegar ao estádio adulto, pois o número de fêmeas parasitadas reduz-se com o armazenamento, além de propiciar menor produção de endósporos por fêmea. O J2 parasitado por P. penetrans necessita encontrar rapidamente a raiz e não permanecer no solo por mais de 6 dias antes de parasitar a planta.This work aimed to study the effect of storage period on lipid content of second stage juveniles (J2 of M. incognita with endospores of P. penetrans on infectivity and reproduction in tomato. Suspensions of M. incognita containing or not endospores of P. penetrans adhered to cuticle were stored by 0, 3, 6, 9 and 12 days at 28ºC. After each storage period, the concentration of neutral lipids in the body of J2 was determined by image analysis of J2 stained with "Oil Red O". After that, 1.000 J2 were inoculated in tomato seedlings. After 28 days, the number of infected females, number of endospores per females, number of galls, number of egg masses and number of eggs per gram of root were evaluated. The lipid content of J2 reduced with the increase of storage period. However, greater lost occurred on J2 without endospores of P. penetrans. The ratio between J2 lipid losses with and without P. penetrans was small and decreased with storage period. However, the ratio between J2 with and without P. penetrans was greatest between 3 and 6 days of storage in relation to parameters reproduction and number of galls, indicating consumption of alternative energy sources others than neutral lipids by infected J2. But the storage period always reduced the reproduction and number of galls formed in tomatoes by J2 with and without P. penetrans. The loss of those energy sources indicate that many J2 dye before adult stage, because the number of parasitized females reduced with storage, besides of smaller endospores production per female. The J2 infested by P. penetrans needs to find the root quickly and should not stay in the soil for more than 6 days before parasitizing the plant.

  15. Reaction of coffee genotypes to different populations of Meloidogyne spp.: detection of a naturally virulent M. exigua population / Reação de genótipos de cafeeiro a diferentes populações de Meloidogyne spp.: detecção de uma população de M. exigua naturalmente virulenta

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Maria de Fátima S., Muniz; Vicente P., Campos; Antônio W., Moita; Wallace, Gonçalves; Maria Ritta A., Almeida; Fábio Rodrigues de, Sousa; Regina Maria D. G., Carneiro.

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available A reação de sete genótipos de Coffea arabica a 10 populações de Meloidogyne spp. coletadas principalmente em plantios de café no Brasil e Costa Rica foi avaliada em casa de vegetação. O inóculo consistiu de 10.000 ovos por planta. As avaliações foram realizadas 8 meses após as inoculações consideran [...] do-se a massa da matéria fresca das raízes, índices de galhas e massas de ovos, número de ovos por grama de raiz e fator de reprodução (FR). As cultivares Obatã IAC 1669-20, Sarchimor IAC 4361 e Tupi Amarelo IAC 5111 exibiram suscetibilidade às quatro populações brasileiras de M. exigua. Entretanto, cv. Tupi Vermelho IAC 1669-33 mostrou-se resistente (FR=0,7) a uma população de M. exigua proveniente de Lavras, MG, Brasil. A população de M. exigua oriunda de Bom Jesus de Itabapoana, RJ, Brasil foi altamente virulenta à cv. IAPAR 59 (FR= 165,7), portadora do gene de resistência Mex-1 e ao genótipo Paraíso (H 419-5-4-5-2) (FR=396,2). A população de Meloidogyne sp. do cafeeiro, Garça, SP, Brasil, reproduziu-se em baixos níveis (FR = 0,1 - 3,9) sobre todos os genótipos. Todas as cultivares testadas foram suscetíveis a M. incognita e M. paranaensis. A reprodução de M. mayaguensis obtida de goiabeira, PR, Brasil, foi baixa (FR = 0,0-1,6), em todos os genótipos. Entretanto, outra população obtida do cafeeiro na Costa Rica apresentou valores de FR que variaram de 0,8 a 12,4. Os resultados deste trabalho mostraram, pela primeira vez, a capacidade de uma população de M. exigua obtida em campo de superar a resistência conferida pelo gene Mex-1. Abstract in english The reaction of seven genotypes of Coffea arabica to 10 Meloidogyne spp. populations collected mainly from coffee plantations in Brazil and Costa Rica was evaluated under greenhouse conditions. The inoculum consisted of 10,000 eggs per plant. Evaluations were done 8 months after inoculations conside [...] ring the root fresh weight, gall and egg mass indices, number of eggs per gram of root and reproduction factor (RF). The cultivars Obatã IAC 1669-20, Sarchimor IAC 4361 and Tupi Amarelo IAC 5111 exhibited susceptibility to the four Brazilian M. exigua populations tested. However, cv. Tupi Vermelho IAC 1669-33 revealed resistance (RF value of 0.7) to the M. exigua population from Lavras, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. A population of M. exigua from Bom Jesus de Itabapoana, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil, was highly virulent on cv. IAPAR 59 (RF= 165.7), bearing resistance gene Mex-1, and was also virulent on genotype Paraíso (H 419-5-4-5-2) (RF=396.2). A Meloidogyne sp. population on coffee from Garça, São Paulo State, Brazil, reproduced at low rates (RF ranging from 0.1 to 3.9) on all genotypes. All tested cultivars were susceptible to M. incognita and M. paranaensis. M. mayaguensis of guava from Paraná State, Brazil, reproduced at low rates in all coffee genotypes; however, another population of coffee, from Costa Rica, was more aggressive and showed RF value that ranged from 0.8 to 12.4. Results of this study point for the first time to the ability of a naturally occurring M. exigua population to overcome the resistance conferred by the Mex-1 gene.

  16. Reaction of coffee genotypes to different populations of Meloidogyne spp.: detection of a naturally virulent M. exigua population Reação de genótipos de cafeeiro a diferentes populações de Meloidogyne spp.: detecção de uma população de M. exigua naturalmente virulenta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria de Fátima S. Muniz

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The reaction of seven genotypes of Coffea arabica to 10 Meloidogyne spp. populations collected mainly from coffee plantations in Brazil and Costa Rica was evaluated under greenhouse conditions. The inoculum consisted of 10,000 eggs per plant. Evaluations were done 8 months after inoculations considering the root fresh weight, gall and egg mass indices, number of eggs per gram of root and reproduction factor (RF. The cultivars Obatã IAC 1669-20, Sarchimor IAC 4361 and Tupi Amarelo IAC 5111 exhibited susceptibility to the four Brazilian M. exigua populations tested. However, cv. Tupi Vermelho IAC 1669-33 revealed resistance (RF value of 0.7 to the M. exigua population from Lavras, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. A population of M. exigua from Bom Jesus de Itabapoana, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil, was highly virulent on cv. IAPAR 59 (RF= 165.7, bearing resistance gene Mex-1, and was also virulent on genotype Paraíso (H 419-5-4-5-2 (RF=396.2. A Meloidogyne sp. population on coffee from Garça, São Paulo State, Brazil, reproduced at low rates (RF ranging from 0.1 to 3.9 on all genotypes. All tested cultivars were susceptible to M. incognita and M. paranaensis. M. mayaguensis of guava from Paraná State, Brazil, reproduced at low rates in all coffee genotypes; however, another population of coffee, from Costa Rica, was more aggressive and showed RF value that ranged from 0.8 to 12.4. Results of this study point for the first time to the ability of a naturally occurring M. exigua population to overcome the resistance conferred by the Mex-1 gene.A reação de sete genótipos de Coffea arabica a 10 populações de Meloidogyne spp. coletadas principalmente em plantios de café no Brasil e Costa Rica foi avaliada em casa de vegetação. O inóculo consistiu de 10.000 ovos por planta. As avaliações foram realizadas 8 meses após as inoculações considerando-se a massa da matéria fresca das raízes, índices de galhas e massas de ovos, número de ovos por grama de raiz e fator de reprodução (FR. As cultivares Obatã IAC 1669-20, Sarchimor IAC 4361 e Tupi Amarelo IAC 5111 exibiram suscetibilidade às quatro populações brasileiras de M. exigua. Entretanto, cv. Tupi Vermelho IAC 1669-33 mostrou-se resistente (FR=0,7 a uma população de M. exigua proveniente de Lavras, MG, Brasil. A população de M. exigua oriunda de Bom Jesus de Itabapoana, RJ, Brasil foi altamente virulenta à cv. IAPAR 59 (FR= 165,7, portadora do gene de resistência Mex-1 e ao genótipo Paraíso (H 419-5-4-5-2 (FR=396,2. A população de Meloidogyne sp. do cafeeiro, Garça, SP, Brasil, reproduziu-se em baixos níveis (FR = 0,1 - 3,9 sobre todos os genótipos. Todas as cultivares testadas foram suscetíveis a M. incognita e M. paranaensis. A reprodução de M. mayaguensis obtida de goiabeira, PR, Brasil, foi baixa (FR = 0,0-1,6, em todos os genótipos. Entretanto, outra população obtida do cafeeiro na Costa Rica apresentou valores de FR que variaram de 0,8 a 12,4. Os resultados deste trabalho mostraram, pela primeira vez, a capacidade de uma população de M. exigua obtida em campo de superar a resistência conferida pelo gene Mex-1.

  17. Purification and identification of metabolites produced by Bacillus cereus and B. subtilis active against Meloidogyne exigua, and their in silico interaction with a putative phosphoribosyltransferase from M. incognita

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    DENILSON F., OLIVEIRA; HELVÉCIO M. DOS, SANTOS JÚNIOR; ALEXANDRO S., NUNES; VICENTE P., CAMPOS; RENATA S.C. DE, PINHO; GIOVANNA C., GAJO.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de contribuir para o desenvolvimento de produtos para o controle de Meloidogyne exigua, as bactérias Bacillus cereus e B. subtilis foram cultivadas em meio líquido de cultura para produzirem metabólitos ativos contra este nematoide parasita de plantas. Os fracionamentos dos extratos e [...] m diclorometano dos meios de cultura produziram uracila, 9H-purina e di-idrouracila. Todos os compostos foram ativos contra M. exigua, sendo o último o mais eficiente. Ele apresentou CL50 de 204 µg/mL contra o nematoide, enquanto uma CL50 de 260 µg/mL foi observada para o nematicida comercial carbofuran. Uma busca por complexos proteína-ligante nos quais o ligante fosse estruturalmente similar à di-idrouracila resultou na seleção de fosforibosiltransferases, cujas sequências foram utilizadas em uma busca in silico no genoma de M. incognita por sequência de aminoácidos semelhante. A sequência resultante foi modelada e di-idrouracila e 9H-purina foram inseridos nos sítios ativos desta provável fosforibosiltransferase, resultando em complexos proteína-ligante que foram submetidos a simulações por dinâmica molecular. Cálculos das energias livres de ligação destes complexos revelaram que a constante de dissociação de di-idrouracila e 9H-purina da enzima é da ordem de 8,3 x 10-7 e 1,6 x 10-6 M, respectivamente. Consequentemente, estas substâncias e a provável fosforibosiltransferase podem ser de grande utilidade para o desenvolvimento de novos produtos para o controle de M. exigua. Abstract in english To contribute to the development of products to control Meloidogyne exigua, the bacteria Bacillus cereus and B. subtilis were cultivated in liquid medium to produce metabolites active against this plant-parasitic nematode. Fractionation of the crude dichloromethane extracts obtained from the culture [...] s afforded uracil, 9H-purine and dihydrouracil. All compounds were active against M. exigua, the latter being the most efficient. This substance presented a LC50 of 204 µg/mL against the nematode, while a LC50 of 260 µg/mL was observed for the commercial nematicide carbofuran. A search for protein-ligand complexes in which the ligands were structurally similar to dihydrouracil resulted in the selection of phosphoribosyltransferases, the sequences of which were used in an in silico search in the genome of M. incognita for a similar sequence of amino acids. The resulting sequence was modelled and dihydrouracil and 9H-purine were inserted in the active site of this putative phosphoribosyltransferase resulting in protein-ligand complexes that underwent molecular dynamics simulations. Calculation of the binding free-energies of these complexes revealed that the dissociation constant of dihydrouracil and 9H-purine to this protein is around 8.3 x 10-7 and 1.6 x 10-6 M, respectively. Consequently, these substances and the putative phosphoribosyltransferase are promising for the development of new products to control M. exigua.

  18. Integrated Management of Meloidogyne incognita Infecting Eggplant by Certain Organic Amendments, Bacillus thuringiensis and Oxamyl with Reference to N P K and Total Chlorophyll Status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.G. El-Sherif

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Greenhouse experiment on the impact of horse manure or sesame-oil-cake or Bacillus thuringiensis singly and/or integrated with oxamyl on Meloidogyne incognita infecting eggplant cv. Black long at 25±5°C, revealed that all tested treatments obviously improved plant growth response and reduced nematode development. Among the tested components, B. thuringiensis applied alone or mixed with oxamyl gave the highest percentage of increase in plant growth parameters i.e., plant fresh weight and shoot dry weight with values of 105.9 and 85.8% and 127.8 and 107.5%, respectively, as well as the lowest percent reduction of nematode developmental criteria. Moreover, in concomitant application of horse manure plus oxamyl appeared to be the best treatment in suppressing nematode development and improving plant growth parameters, followed by sesame oil-cake plus oxamyl, then sesame oil-cake and horse manure alone. Meanwhile, length of shoot and number of leaves were positively affected by the tested materials either when applied singly or integrated with oxamyl as compared to nematode alone. Regarding N, P and K status in shoots of eggplant, their concentrations were remarkably reduced by nematode infection. Moreover, single application of any organic amendment or bacterium or oxamyl achieved the highest concentration of N, P and K, whereas the concomitant application of horse manure plus oxamyl showed the highest concentration of phosphorus with value of 0.56 ppm. In addition, the previous treatments obviously decreased the total chlorophyll content of eggplant shoot, whereas nematode infection alone recorded the highest increase percentage for this plant parameter with value of 51.3%.

  19. Microbiological evaluation and pathogenicity of a liquid bioformulation of the fungus Purpureocillium sp. (strain UdeA 0109) on Meloidogyne incognita-javanica stages / Microbiological evaluation and pathogenicity of a liquid bioformulation of the fungus Purpureocillium sp. (strain UdeA 0109) on Meloidogyne incognita-javanica stages

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Nadya, Lorena Cardona; David, Andrés Borrego; Erika, Pamela Fernández; Jessika, Sánchez; Valentina, Cardona; Gabriel, Montoya.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available El Grupo de Biocontrol y Microbiología Ambiental (BIOMA) cuenta con una formulación industrial líquida del hongo Purpureocillium sp. (cepa UdeA 0109), desarrollada de conjunto con la casa comercial Laverlam S.A. (Cali, Colombia). En la presente investigación se evaluaron la viabilidad y la pureza de [...] l producto a diferentes temperaturas de almacenamiento, así como el potencial biocontrolador in vitro y en condiciones de invernadero. Los resultados de viabilidad mostraron cómo las estructuras infectivas no se afectaron por los tiempos de evaluación ni por las temperaturas de almacenamiento. Los estudios también mostraron cómo la pureza del bioformulado bajo las mismas condiciones, se mantuvo por encima del 99 %, y además se corroboró su patogenicidad in vitro con una CL50 de 104 conidias/mL. Las evaluaciones en invernadero demostraron la propiedad de afectación de los huevos del complejo Meloidogyne incognita-javanica así como la disminución de los estadios jóvenes con una concentración de 108 conidias/mL en tres pruebas, con distintas aplicaciones y tiempos de aplicación. Abstract in english The BIOMA research group (Biocontrol and environmental microbiology) has an industrial liquid formulation based on Purpureocillium sp. (UdeA 0109 strain), developed with the collaboration of Laverlam S.A, a Colombian (Cali) commercial house. In the present study the researchers tested the viability [...] and the purity at different storage temperatures as well as its biological potential both in vitro and under greenhouse conditions. The results of viability showed how the infective structures were affected neither by the evaluation time nor by the storage temperatures. Studies also showed that the purity of the bioformulation in the same conditions was over 99 %, and its pathogenicity in vitro with an LC50 of 104 conidia/mL was corroborated. The greenhouse tests showed the ability to produce damages in eggs of the Meloidogyne incognita-javanica complex, and a decreasing of the J2 stages at a concentration of 108 conidia/mL in three tests performed with a different number of applications and at different times each.

  20. Potential of Leguminous Cover Crops in Management of a Mixed Population of Root-knot Nematodes (Meloidogyne spp.)

    OpenAIRE

    Osei, Kingsley; Gowen, Simon R.; Pembroke, Barbara; Brandenburg, Rick L.; David L. Jordan

    2010-01-01

    Root-knot nematode is an important pest in agricultural production worldwide. Crop rotation is the only management strategy in some production systems, especially for resource poor farmers in developing countries. A series of experiments was conducted in the laboratory with several leguminous cover crops to investigate their potential for managing a mixture of root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne arenaria, M. incognita, M. javanica). The root-knot nematode mixture failed to multiply on Mucuna pru...

  1. Efecto del filtrado crudo de Purpureocillium sp. (Cepa UdeA0106), sobre la eclosión de huevos y movilidad de juveniles de Meloidogyne incognita-javanica / Effect of the raw filtrate of Purpureocillium sp. (UdeA0106 strain) on the eclosion of eggs and the motility of Meloidogyne incognitajavanica juveniles

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Nadya Lorena, Cardona Bustos; Harold, Pavas; Erika Pamela, Fernández.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Meloidogyne incognita-javanica representa una limitación de los cultivos agrícolas y es necesario buscar alternativas para su manejo. El presente trabajo tuvo como objetivo evaluar el efecto in vitro del filtrado crudo de Purpureocillium sp. (Cepa UdeA0106) sobre laeclosión de huevos y los estadios [...] juveniles de Meloidogyne spp. Adicionalmente, se evaluaron los medios: caldo extracto de malta (CEM), caldo extracto de levadura (CEL) y caldo papa glucosa (CPG), escogiéndose aquel que no ejerciera daño sobre la morfología de los huevos y permitiera la eclosión de los estadios juveniles. El hongo se multiplicó durante 7 días y fue filtrado. Para establecer su efecto sobre los huevos y estadios J2 de Meloidogyne spp., se probaron concentraciones del filtrado al 100 %, 90 %, 70 %, 50 %, 25 % y 10 %; comparándolas con un control compuesto de estadios J2 en agua destilada estéril (ADE) y CPG. Las variables a evaluar fueron el porcentaje de eclosión e inmovilidad en los J2. La unidad experimental fue la caja de Petri, cada una con 200 huevos/J2, con 5 réplicas de cada tratamiento. Se utilizó un diseño experimental completamente aleatorizado con ANOVA (P = 0,05) y análisis de comparación múltiple de Tukey. Se encontraron diferencias significativas entre todos los tratamientos (P Abstract in english Meloidogyne incognita-javanica represents an important threat to the agricultural crops, and it is necessary to seek alternatives for its control. The aim of this research it was to evaluate a crude filtrate from the strain Purpureocillium sp. UdeA0106 in order to establish the in vitro effect on th [...] e egg hatching and the immobility of juvenile stages of Meloidogyne spp. The mediums evaluated were malt extract broth (MEB), yeast extract broth (YEB), and potato dextrose broth (PDB), after which it was chosen the one that didn't produce any damages on nematode eggs and allowed the emergence of the larval stages. The fungus was multiplied for 7 days, and then it was filtrated. To evaluate its effect on the eggs and the J2 of Meloidogyne spp., filtrate concentrations were made at 100 %, 90 %, 70 %, 50 %, 25 % and 10 %, contrasting them with a control composed of the J2 stages in sterile distilled water and PDB. The variables evaluated were the percentage of altered eggs and the immobility observed in J2 stages. The experimental unit was the Petri dish, each one containing 200 eggs /J2. Each treatment was replicated 5 times. It was used a completely randomized design, and an ANOVA was performed (P = 0,05) as well as a multiple comparison test (Tukey). Significant differences were found between all treatments (P

  2. Integrated Management of Meloidogyne incognita Infecting Soybean by Certain Organic Amendments, Bacillus thuringiensis, Trichoderma harzianum and Oxamyl with Reference to NPK and Total Chlorophyll Statuus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.G. El-Sherif

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The integrated control of M. incognita infecting soybean cv. Giza 21 using camel manure, dried leaf powder of marigold, Trichoderma harzianum 100% filtrate, Bacillus thringiensis singly or in combination with oxamyl under greenhouse condition (22±3°C indicated that the concomitant treatments obviously gave better results than single ones did. Moreover, B. thringiensis plus oxamyl at half dose each surpassed all other tested materials in percentage increase of total plant fresh and shoot dry weights (99 and 88 %, respectively, followed by T. harzianum filtrate plus oxamyl (95 and 61% in this respect. On the other hand, pots received T. harzianum filtrate plus oxamyl ranked first in suppressing final nematode population (90%, root galling (65% and eggmass numbers (62.79%, followed by B.t. plus oxamyl, marigold powder +oxamyl and then camel manure + oxamyl, where their reduction percentage values amounted to 88.7, 62.5 and 61%; 88.5, 59.87 and 58.9% and 67, 50.5 and 52.97%, respectively. Of the tested singly applications, T. harzianum filtrate showed the best results in improving plant growth and suppressing nematode development criteria, followed by B.t., whereas, marigold powder and camel manure achieved the lowest values in this respect comparing to nematode alone. Regarding the N, P and K concentrations in leaves of soybean plants inoculated with M. incognita treated with certain organic matters or fungal filtrate or bacterium alone or mixed with oxamyl, they were obviously enhanced by all tested materials whereas the opposite results was recorded for total chlorophyll content comparing to nematode alone.

  3. In vitro and foliar spray evaluation of Verbena officinalis (L.), Erythrina mulungu (Mart. ex Benth.), Quassia amara (L.), Bidens pilosa (L.) and Plantago lanceolata (L.), extracts on Meloidogyne incognita (Kofoid & White, 1919) Chitwood, 1949 / Evaluación in vitro y aplicación foliar de Verbena officinalis (L.), Erythrina mulungu (Mart. ex Benth.), Quassia amara (L.), Bidens pilosa (L.) y Plantago lanceolata (L.), sobre Meloidogyne incognita (Kofoid & White, 1919) Chitwood, 1949

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Milena A, Ferrari Mateus; Cacilda M, Duarte Rios Faria¹; Renato V, Botelho; Rosangela, Dallemole-Giaretta; Silvana G, Martins Ferreira; Welton L, Zaluski.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del estudio fue evaluar la eficacia de los extractos acuosos de cinco especies de plantas medicinales, Verbena officinalis (L.), Erythrina mulungu (Mart. ex Benth.), Quassia amara (L.), Bidens pilosa (L.) y Plantago lanceolata (L.) in vitro, y se pulverizaron en las plantas de tomates pa [...] ra el control de Meloidogyne incognita. Los experimentos in vitro fueron realizados en cámaras de crecimiento en placas de ELISA de tipo acrílico. Los tratamientos fueron dosis de 0,10, 20, 30, 40 y 50 g • L-1 de diferentes extractos acuosos. En el día dieciséis se evaluó el número de juveniles segunda etapa (J2)nacidos por tratamiento. Los resultados mostraron que los extractos acuosos de V. officinalis, E. mulungu, Q. amara, B. pilosa y P. lanceolata reducen la eclosión de los juveniles de M. incognita, y el extracto acuoso de P. lanceolata mostró hasta 100% de reducción de la tasa de eclosión. El ensayo in vivo se realizó en un invernadero, y para ello, había cuatro pulverizaciones de diferentes extractos en los brotes de tomate. Según los resultados de esta prueba, ninguno de los extractos por pulverización foliar era eficaz en el control de M. incognita. Sin embargo, no se debe descartar la eficiencia de estos extractos en el control de nematodos parásitos de plantas, pero más estudios se llevan a cabo utilizando diferentes métodos de aplicación, las dosis o métodos de extracción de los principios activos de los extractos. Abstract in english This study aimed to evaluate the efficiency of aqueous extracts of five species of medicinal plant, Verbena officinalis (L.), Erythrina mulungu (Mart. ex Benth.), Quassia amara (L.), Bidens pilosa (L.) and Plantago lanceolata (L.) in vitro, and sprayed on tomato plants for the control of Meloidogyne [...] incognita. In vitro experiments were conducted in growth chambers in acrylic ELISA plates. The treatments were doses of 0, 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 g • L-1 of different aqueous extracts. On the sixteenth day the number of second stage juveniles (J2) hatched per treatment was evaluated. The results showed that aqueous extracts of V. officinalis, E. mulungu, Q. amara, B. pilosa and P. lanceolata, reduced the hatching of M. incognita, with the aqueous extract of P. lanceolata showing up to 100% reduction in hatching. The in vivo assay was conducted in a greenhouse. For this, four sprays of different extracts were applied to tomato shoots. According to the results of this test, none of the extracts were efficient at controlling M. incognita through foliar spraying. The efficiency of these extracts to control plant parasitic nematodes during in vivo tests should not be disregarded, however, further studies should be conducted to test different methods of application, doses or methods of extracting the active principles.

  4. Efecto de la biodesinfección con residuos de nim (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) sobre población de Meloidogyne spp. en suelo / Effect of neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) Waste on Meloidogyne spp. population in soil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Mayra G, Rodríguez; Lucila, Gómez; Dainé, Hernández-Ochandía; R, Enrique; Ileana, Miranda; Oriela, Pino; I, Castro-Lizazo; L. Carolina, Rosales; Luisa, Díaz-Viruliche.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó el efecto de residuos del proceso industrial de obtención de plaguicidas del nim (Azadirachta indica A. Juss), provenientes de la Fábrica «Rosa E. Simeón», Güines (Mayabeque, Cuba) sobre una población de Meloidogyne spp. El experimento se desarrolló en condiciones semicontroladas, utilizan [...] do suelo no estéril, con nivel inicial de Meloidognye spp. de 0,5 juveniles de segundo estadio (J2)-huevos.g de suelo-1. Se establecieron ocho tratamientos, cuatro de los cuales se inocularon adicionalmente con 5 J2-huevos.g de suelo-1 de Meloidogyne incognita (Kofoid y White) Chitwood y se empleó como hospedante tomate (Solanum lycopersicom L. var. Campbell 28). Se aplicaron tres dosis de residuos 138,47 g.maceta-1, 60,28 g.maceta-1 y 40,19 g.maceta-1 (lo que equivale a aplicar 4, 3 y 2 kg.m2-1 respectivamente). A los 50 días se determinó el Índice de Agallamiento (IA) (0 a 5 grados), longitud del tallo y masa fresca de raíces. Las mayores poblaciones de nematodos se produjeron en el tratamiento testigo (sin nim) (IA =5), exhibiendo diferencias significativas con aquellos donde se aplicaron los residuos, destacándose el tratamiento con 138,47 g.maceta-1 (equivalente a 4 kg.m2-1) que mostró un IA de 2,4. Los resultados mostraron la potencialidad que posee este desecho para el manejo de nematodos y la necesidad de estudiar su efecto sobre las plantas y las propiedades físico, químicas y biota del suelo. Abstract in english The effect of the waste from the industrial production of neem-based pesticides (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) originated in «Rosa Elena Simeón» factory in Güines (Mayabeque, Cuba) on Meloidogyne spp. population was evaluated, The experiment was carried out under semi-controlled conditions, using non [...] sterilized soil with an initial level of Meloidogyne spp. of 0,5 juveniles-eggs.g of soil-1. Eight treatments were set up; four of them were additionally inoculated with 5 juveniles-eggs.g of soil-1 of Meloidogyen incognita (Kofoid and White) Chitwood. Tomato (Solanum lycopersicom L. var. Campbell 28) was used as host. Three doses of the waste (138,47g.pot-1, 60,288 g.pot-1 and 40,19 g.pot¹; -equivalent to 4, 3 and 2 kg.m2-1 respectively) were applied. After fifty days, root knot galling index (GI) (0 to 5 grades), stem length and fresh weight of roots were evaluated. The highest populations appeared in the control treatment (without neem) (GI=5), which differed significantly from the treatments with the waste, where the best behavior was observed with 138,47 g.pot-1 (equivalent to 4 kg.m2-1) with a GI of 2,4. The results showed the potential of this waste for the management of plant parasitic nematodes and the need for studies on the effect upon the plants and the physical-chemical properties and biota of soils.

  5. Efecto del filtrado crudo de Purpureocillium sp. (Cepa UdeA0106, sobre la eclosión de huevos y movilidad de juveniles de Meloidogyne incognita-javanica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadya Lorena Cardona Bustos; M.Sc., Ph.D.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Meloidogyne incognita-javanica represents an important threat to the agricultural crops, and it is necessary to seek alternatives for its control. The aim of this research it was to evaluate a crude filtrate from the strain Purpureocillium sp. UdeA0106 in order to establish the in vitro effect on the egg hatching and the immobility of juvenile stages of Meloidogyne spp. The mediums evaluated were malt extract broth (MEB, yeast extract broth (YEB, and potato dextrose broth (PDB, after which it was chosen the one that didn’t produce any damages on nematode eggs and allowed the emergence of the larval stages. The fungus was multiplied for 7 days, and then it was filtrated. To evaluate its effect on the eggs and the J2 of Meloidogyne spp., filtrate concentrations were made at 100 %, 90 %, 70 %, 50 %, 25 % and 10 %, contrasting them with a control composed of the J2 stages in sterile distilled water and PDB. The variables evaluated were the percentage of altered eggs and the immobility observed in J2 stages. The experimental unit was the Petri dish, each one containing 200 eggs /J2. Each treatment was replicated 5 times. It was used a completely randomized design, and an ANOVA was performed (P = 0,05 as well as a multiple comparison test (Tukey. Significant differences were found between all treatments (P < 0,05, although the most effective in inhibiting both egg hatching and J2 mobility (96,8 % were the full strength filtering (100 %. The dilutions at 90 % and 70 %, were able to produce effects with high percentages in the immobility.

  6. Colonization by the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus Glomus versiforme induces a defense response against the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita in the grapevine (Vitis amurensis Rupr.), which includes transcriptional activation of the class III chitinase gene VCH3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hai-Yan; Yang, Guo-Dong; Shu, Huai-Rui; Yang, Yu-Tao; Ye, Bao-Xing; Nishida, Ikuo; Zheng, Cheng-Chao

    2006-01-01

    Inoculation of the grapevine (Vitis amurensis Rupr.) with the arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungus Glomus versiforme significantly increased resistance against the root-knot nematode (RKN) Meloidogyne incognita. Studies using relative quantitative reverse transcription-PCR (RQRT-PCR) analysis of grapevine root inoculation with the AM fungus revealed an up-regulation of VCH3 transcripts. This increase was greater than that observed following infection with RKN. However, inoculation of the mycorrhizal grapevine roots with RKN was able to enhance VCH3 transcript expression further. Moreover, the increase in VCH3 transcripts appeared to result in a higher level of resistance against subsequent RKN infection. Constitutive expression of VCH3 cDNA in transgenic tobacco under the control of the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter also conferred resistance against RKN, but had no significant effect on the growth of the AM fungus. We analyzed beta-glucuronidase (GUS) activity directed by a 1,216 bp VCH3 promoter in transgenic tobacco following inoculation with both the AM fungus and RKN. GUS activity was negligible in the root tissues before inoculation, and was more effectively induced after inoculation with the AM fungus than with RKN. Moreover, GUS staining in the mycorrhizal transgenic tobacco roots was enhanced by subsequent RKN infection, and was found ubiquitously throughout the whole root tissue. Together, these results suggest that AM fungus induced a defense response against RKN in the mycorrhizal grapevine roots, which appeared to involve transcriptional control of VCH3 expression throughout the whole root tissue. PMID:16326755

  7. Effects of Meloidogyne spp. and Rhizoctonia solani on the Growth of Grapevine Rootings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, G E

    1997-06-01

    A disease complex involving Meloidogyne incognita and Rhizoctonia solani was associated with stunting of grapevines in a field nursery. Nematode reproduction was occurring on both susceptible and resistant cultivars, and pot experiments were conducted to determine the virulence of this M. incognita population, and of M. javanica and M. hapla populations, to V. vinifera cv. Colombard (susceptible) and to V. champinii cv. Ramsey (regarded locally as highly resistant). The virulence of R. solani isolates obtained from roots of diseased grapevines also was determined both alone and in combination with M. incognita. Ramsey was susceptible to M. incognita (reproduction ratio 9.8 to 18.4 in a shadehouse and heated glasshouse, respectively) but was resistant to M. javanica and M. hapla. Colombard was susceptible to M. incognita (reproduction ratio 24.3 and 41.3, respectively) and M. javanica. Shoot growth was suppressed (by 35%) by M. incognita and, to a lesser extent, by M. hapla. Colombard roots were more severely galled than Ramsey roots by all three species, and nematode reproduction was higher on Colombard. Isolates of R. solani assigned to putative anastomosis groups 2-1 and 4, and an unidentified isolate, colonized and induced rotting of grapevine roots. Ramsey was more susceptible to root rotting than Colombard. Shoot growth was inhibited by up to 15% by several AG 4 isolates and by 20% by the AG 2-1 isolate. AG 4 isolates varied in their virulence. Root rotting was higher when grapevines were inoculated with both M. incognita and R. solani and was highest when nematode inoculation preceded the fungus. Shoot weights were lower when vines were inoculated with the nematode 13 days before the fungus compared with inoculation with both the nematode and the fungus on the same day. It was concluded that both the M. incognita population and some R. solani isolates were virulent against both Colombard and Ramsey, and that measures to prevent spread in nursery stock were therefore important. PMID:19274149

  8. Potential of Leguminous Cover Crops in Management of a Mixed Population of Root-knot Nematodes (Meloidogyne spp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osei, Kingsley; Gowen, Simon R; Pembroke, Barbara; Brandenburg, Rick L; Jordan, David L

    2010-09-01

    Root-knot nematode is an important pest in agricultural production worldwide. Crop rotation is the only management strategy in some production systems, especially for resource poor farmers in developing countries. A series of experiments was conducted in the laboratory with several leguminous cover crops to investigate their potential for managing a mixture of root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne arenaria, M. incognita, M. javanica). The root-knot nematode mixture failed to multiply on Mucuna pruriens and Crotalaria spectabilis but on Dolichos lablab the population increased more than 2- fold when inoculated with 500 and 1,000 nematodes per plant. There was no root-galling on M. pruriens and C. spectabilis but the gall rating was noted on D. lablab. Greater mortality of juvenile root-knot nematodes occurred when exposed to eluants of roots and leaves of leguminous crops than those of tomato; 48.7% of juveniles died after 72 h exposure to root eluant of C. spectabilis. The leaf eluant of D. lablab was toxic to nematodes but the root eluant was not. Thus, different parts of a botanical contain different active ingredients or different concentrations of the same active ingredient. The numbers of root-knot nematode eggs that hatched in root exudates of M. pruriens and C. spectabilis were significantly lower (20% and 26%) than in distilled water, tomato and P. vulgaris root exudates (83%, 72% and 89%) respectively. Tomato lacks nematotoxic compounds found in M. pruriens and C. spectabilis. Three months after inoculating plants with 1,000 root-knot nematode juveniles the populations in pots with M. pruriens, C. spectabilis and C. retusa had been reduced by approximately 79%, 85% and 86% respectively; compared with an increase of 262% nematodes in pots with Phaseolus vulgaris. There was significant reduction of 90% nematodes in fallow pots with no growing plant. The results from this study demonstrate that some leguminous species contain compounds that either kill root-knot nematodes or interfere with hatching and affect their capacity to invade and develop within their roots. M. pruriens, C. spectabilis and C. retusa could be used with effect to decrease a mixed field populations of root-knot nematodes. PMID:22736854

  9. Pathogenicity of Two Populations of Meloidogyne hapla Chitwood on Alfalfa and Sainfoin

    OpenAIRE

    Wofford, D. S.; Gray, F. A.; Eckert, J. W.

    1989-01-01

    The pathogenicity of two populations of the northern root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne hapla Chitwood, population 1 (P1) from alfalfa and population 2 (P2) from sainfoin, was studied on both alfalfa and sainfoin for 25 weeks. Alfalfa and sainfoin plants inoculated with P2 had significantly (P ? 0.05) higher mortality than plants inoculated with P1. Plant stands over all weeks for the uninoculated control, P1, and P2 were 90.5, 78.5, and 64.0% for alfalfa and 84.5, 51.0, and 41.0% for sainfoin, ...

  10. Meloidogyne incognita (Kofoid and White, 1919 Chitwood 1949 y Meloidogyne arenaria (Neal 1889 Chitwood 1949: NEMATODOS DE LAS NUDOSIDADES RADICULARES EN GUAYABA (Psidium guajava L. C.V. MANZANA EN MONTERIA, CORDOBA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan D. Jaraba

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo tubo como objetivo identificar los nematodos agalladores asociados al cultivo de Guayaba ( Psidium guajava L. en Montería, Córdoba. Se tomaron muestras de raíces y suelo rizosférico. Las hembras, machos y juveniles de segundo estadío larval (J2 se obtuvieron mediante los métodos de hipoclorito de sodio-fuscina ácida, tamizado centrifugado y eclosión de masas de huevecillos, respectivamente. Se evaluaron variables morfológicas y morfométricas para determinar la especie. Se encontraron dos tipos de patrones perineales: El primer patrón con arco dorsal alto y cuadrado. El estilete de 14 ?m a 16 ?m, los nódulos anchos y planos. La distancia DGO de 2 ?m a 4 ?m. Los machos presentaron el disco labial redondeado y cóncavo centralmente. El estilete de 22 ?m a 25 ?m; nódulos planos y redondeados. La distancia DGO de 2 ?m a 4.5 ?m. Lo cual es típico de la especie M. incognita . En el segundo tipo de patrón, el arco dorsal es bajo, redondeado. Las estrías se curvan ligeramente hacia las líneas laterales y forman una ondulación, conocida como “hombrera”. El estilete midió de 13 ?m a 17 ?m, los nódulos son anchos y redondeados en su parte posterior. La distancia DGO de 3 ?m a 6 ?m. Estas características coinciden con las descritas para M. arenaria . Los resultados permiten el reporte por primera vez de M. incognita y M. arenaria afectando conjuntamente el cultivo de guayaba en la Costa Caribe Colombiana.

  11. Reproductive and Damage Potentials of Two Populations of Rotylenchulus reniformis on Sweetpotato and Related Comparisons with Meloidogyne javanica on Tomato

    OpenAIRE

    Walters, S. A.; Barker, K.R.

    1993-01-01

    Two Rotylenchulus reniformis populations (North Carolina and Georgia) were compared on sweetpotato and tomato. 'Beauregard' sweetpotato and 'Better Boy' and 'Marion' tomato were excellent hosts for both R. reniformis populations. On Beauregard sweetpotato, the two populations did not differ in fecundity; however, on both tomato cultivars, the Georgia population reproduced at a higher rate than the North Carolina population (P ? 0.05). Meloidogyne javanica reproduction was higher (P ? 0.05) on...

  12. Effects of furfural on nematode populations and galling on tomato and pepper

    Science.gov (United States)

    A commercial formulation of furfural (Multiguard® Protect) was evaluated in greenhouse trials over three seasons for effects on parasitic and beneficial nematode populations in roots and soil, plant growth, and galling on tomato and bell pepper caused by Meloidogyne incognita. ‘Tiny Tim’ tomato (So...

  13. Diversity of Meloidogyne spp. on Musa in Martinique, Guadeloupe, and French Guiana

    OpenAIRE

    Cofcewicz, E. T.; Carneiro, R.M.D.G.; Randig, O.; Chabrier, C.; Quénéhervé, P.

    2005-01-01

    Ninety-six isolates of Meloidogyne species collected from banana fields from Martinique, Guadeloupe, and French Guiana, were examined using esterase (Est) and malate dehydrogenase (Mdh) phenotypes. Adult females identified as M. arenaria, M. incognita, M. javanica, M. cruciani, M. hispanica, and Meloidogyne sp. showed species-specific phenotypes only for the esterase enzymes. Intraspecific variability among isolates of M. arenaria, M. incognita, and M. javanica was detected using Est and Mdh....

  14. Metagenomic insights into communities, functions of endophytes, and their associates with infection by root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita, in tomato roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Bao-Yu; Cao, Yi; Zhang, Ke-Qin

    2015-01-01

    Endophytes are known to play important roles in plant's health and productivity. In this study, we investigated the root microbiome of tomato in association with infection by root knot nematodes. Our objectives were to observe the effects and response of the bacterial endophytes before nematode attacks and to reveal the functional attributes of microbes in plant health and nematode pathogenesis. Community analysis of root-associated microbiomes in healthy and nematode-infected tomatoes indicated that nematode infections were associated with variation and differentiation of the endophyte and rhizosphere bacterial populations in plant roots. The community of the resident endophytes in tomato root was significantly affected by nemato-pathogenesis. Remarkably, some bacterial groups in the nematode feeding structure, the root gall, were specifically enriched, suggesting an association with nematode pathogenesis. Function-based metagenomic analysis indicated that the enriched bacterial populations in root gall harbored abundant genes related to degradation of plant polysaccharides, carbohydrate and protein metabolism, and biological nitrogen fixation. Our data indicated that some of the previously assumed beneficial endophytes or bacterial associates with nematode might be involved in nematode infections of the tomato roots. PMID:26603211

  15. Reprodução de Meloidogyne spp. em porta-enxertos e híbridos de pepino / Reproduction of Meloidogyne spp. in rootstocks and cucumber hybrids

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Silvia Renata S, Wilcken; Juliana MO, Rosa; Andréa RO, Higuti; Maria José de M, Garcia; Antonio Ismael Inácio, Cardoso.

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available A enxertia é uma técnica alternativa frequentemente recomendada para a cultura do pepino em áreas infestadas com nematóides das galhas. O presente trabalho teve como objetivo determinar o fator de reprodução de Meloidogyne javanica e de Meloidogyne incognita raça 2 em seis porta-enxertos para pepino [...] (abóbora 'Menina Brasileira', moranga 'Exposição', 'Shelper', 'Tetsukabuto', 'B8-A Tetsukabuto' e 'Excite Ikki') e quatro híbridos de pepino (Cucumis sativus) tipo japonês ('Yoshinari', 'Kouki', 'Taisho' e 'Tsuyataro'). Foram conduzidos dois experimentos em casa-de-vegetação, um com cada espécie do nematóide, sendo cada parcela constituída de uma planta mantida em vaso contendo 2 litros de solo autoclavado. Nove dias após transplante, cada planta foi inoculada com 5.000 ovos e juvenis de segundo estádio (população inicial - Pi) de M. javanica ou M. incognita raça 2. Tomateiros 'Rutgers' foram utilizados como padrão de viabilidade do inóculo, em ambos os experimentos. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado com cinco repetições por tratamento. Sessenta dias após a inoculação, cada planta foi avaliada, quanto ao peso fresco da raiz, número total de nematóides presentes no solo e na raiz (população final - Pf), número de nematóides/g de raiz e fator de reprodução de ambas as espécies de Meloidogyne (FR=Pf/Pi). Todos os porta-enxertos e híbridos de pepino testados apresentaram fatores de reprodução superiores a um, proporcionando a multiplicação de M. javanica e de M. incognita raça 2, porém, os valores nos híbridos de pepino foram superiores aos dos porta-enxertos. Abstract in english Grafting is an alternative technique often recommended for the cucumber crop in root-knot nematodes infested areas. This study aimed to determine the reproduction factor of Meloidogyne javanica and M. incognita race 2 on six rootstocks for cucumber (squash 'Menina Brasileira, pumpkim 'Exposição', 'S [...] helper', 'Tetsukabuto', 'B8-A Tetsukabuto' and 'Excite Ikki') and four cucumber (Cucumis sativus) Japanese type hybrids of ('Yoshinari', 'Kouki', 'Taisho' and 'Tsuyataro'). Two experiments were carried out in greenhouse, each one with a nematode specie. Each plot consisted of one plant per pot containing 2 liters of autoclaved soil. Nine days after the seedlings transplantation, each plant was inoculated with 5,000 eggs and second-stage juveniles (initial population - Pi) of M. javanica or M. incognita race 2. 'Rutgers' tomatoes were used as a standard for inoculum viability in both experiments. The experimental design was completely randomized with five replicates per treatment. Sixty days after inoculated, each plant was evaluated, when root fresh weight, total number of nematodes in the soil and in the roots (final population - Pf), nematodes number per gram of root and the reproduction factor of both Meloidogyne species (FR=Pf/Pi) were determined. All rootstocks and cucumber hybrids allowed the M. javanica and M. incognita race 2 multiplication, but, generally, reproduction factor values were greater in cucumbers than in rootstocks.

  16. Reprodução de Meloidogyne spp. em porta-enxertos e híbridos de pepino Reproduction of Meloidogyne spp. in rootstocks and cucumber hybrids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Renata S Wilcken

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available A enxertia é uma técnica alternativa frequentemente recomendada para a cultura do pepino em áreas infestadas com nematóides das galhas. O presente trabalho teve como objetivo determinar o fator de reprodução de Meloidogyne javanica e de Meloidogyne incognita raça 2 em seis porta-enxertos para pepino (abóbora 'Menina Brasileira', moranga 'Exposição', 'Shelper', 'Tetsukabuto', 'B8-A Tetsukabuto' e 'Excite Ikki' e quatro híbridos de pepino (Cucumis sativus tipo japonês ('Yoshinari', 'Kouki', 'Taisho' e 'Tsuyataro'. Foram conduzidos dois experimentos em casa-de-vegetação, um com cada espécie do nematóide, sendo cada parcela constituída de uma planta mantida em vaso contendo 2 litros de solo autoclavado. Nove dias após transplante, cada planta foi inoculada com 5.000 ovos e juvenis de segundo estádio (população inicial - Pi de M. javanica ou M. incognita raça 2. Tomateiros 'Rutgers' foram utilizados como padrão de viabilidade do inóculo, em ambos os experimentos. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado com cinco repetições por tratamento. Sessenta dias após a inoculação, cada planta foi avaliada, quanto ao peso fresco da raiz, número total de nematóides presentes no solo e na raiz (população final - Pf, número de nematóides/g de raiz e fator de reprodução de ambas as espécies de Meloidogyne (FR=Pf/Pi. Todos os porta-enxertos e híbridos de pepino testados apresentaram fatores de reprodução superiores a um, proporcionando a multiplicação de M. javanica e de M. incognita raça 2, porém, os valores nos híbridos de pepino foram superiores aos dos porta-enxertos.Grafting is an alternative technique often recommended for the cucumber crop in root-knot nematodes infested areas. This study aimed to determine the reproduction factor of Meloidogyne javanica and M. incognita race 2 on six rootstocks for cucumber (squash 'Menina Brasileira, pumpkim 'Exposição', 'Shelper', 'Tetsukabuto', 'B8-A Tetsukabuto' and 'Excite Ikki' and four cucumber (Cucumis sativus Japanese type hybrids of ('Yoshinari', 'Kouki', 'Taisho' and 'Tsuyataro'. Two experiments were carried out in greenhouse, each one with a nematode specie. Each plot consisted of one plant per pot containing 2 liters of autoclaved soil. Nine days after the seedlings transplantation, each plant was inoculated with 5,000 eggs and second-stage juveniles (initial population - Pi of M. javanica or M. incognita race 2. 'Rutgers' tomatoes were used as a standard for inoculum viability in both experiments. The experimental design was completely randomized with five replicates per treatment. Sixty days after inoculated, each plant was evaluated, when root fresh weight, total number of nematodes in the soil and in the roots (final population - Pf, nematodes number per gram of root and the reproduction factor of both Meloidogyne species (FR=Pf/Pi were determined. All rootstocks and cucumber hybrids allowed the M. javanica and M. incognita race 2 multiplication, but, generally, reproduction factor values were greater in cucumbers than in rootstocks.

  17. Native-plant hosts of Meloidogyne spp. from Western Paraná, Brazil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Vanessa A., Antes; Anna P., Comerlato; Adílson Ricken, Schuelter; Regina M.D.G., Carneiro; Cleber, Furlanetto.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study was focused on the parasitism of Meloidogyne species on the roots of native nursery plants from the Atlantic forest. Native plants were selected from a commercial nursery in Western Paraná, searching for the natural infection of Meloidogyne. Also, the seeds of native plants were cu [...] ltivated in sterile soil and inoculated with M. incognita. In both the experiments, the number of galls and number of eggs and J2 per root, allied to the reproduction factor of M. incognita on each inoculated plant were assessed. Natural infection by M. javanica was found on Cordia ecalyculata, Citharexyllum myrianthum and Aspidosperma subincanum and by M. incognita on Croton urucurana, Lonchocarpus muehlbergianus, Tabebuia impetiginosa and T. serratifolia. Meloidogyne incognita induced galls formation on Genipa americana, Schinus terebinthifolius and Rollinia mucosa after inoculation, which suggested that those plants could host this nematode in natural biomes. Nursery soil should be disinfested before seeding the native forest plants for reforestation purposes

  18. Native-plant hosts of Meloidogyne spp. from Western Paraná, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa A. Antes

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study was focused on the parasitism of Meloidogyne species on the roots of native nursery plants from the Atlantic forest. Native plants were selected from a commercial nursery in Western Paraná, searching for the natural infection of Meloidogyne. Also, the seeds of native plants were cultivated in sterile soil and inoculated with M. incognita. In both the experiments, the number of galls and number of eggs and J2 per root, allied to the reproduction factor of M. incognita on each inoculated plant were assessed. Natural infection by M. javanica was found on Cordia ecalyculata, Citharexyllum myrianthum and Aspidosperma subincanum and by M. incognita on Croton urucurana, Lonchocarpus muehlbergianus, Tabebuia impetiginosa and T. serratifolia. Meloidogyne incognita induced galls formation on Genipa americana, Schinus terebinthifolius and Rollinia mucosa after inoculation, which suggested that those plants could host this nematode in natural biomes. Nursery soil should be disinfested before seeding the native forest plants for reforestation purposes

  19. DNA characterization and relationship of the genomes of some Meloidogyne species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pableo, E.C.

    1987-01-01

    Cesium trifluoroacetate (CsTFA) ultracentrifugation method of DNA isolation proved more satisfactory than phenol extraction. The base composition (%GC) of the DNAs of M. incognita, M. javanica, M. arenaria, and M. hapla, as determined by thermal denaturation tests ranged from 31.0 to 32.6% for all the four species. Similarly, the thermal stability covered a narrow range from 82.97 to 83.63/sup 0/C. The relationship of the genomes of twelve populations representing the four Meloidogyne species was measured by binding hybridized DNA by hydroxyapatite. M. incognita, M. javanica, and M. arenaria were found to be closely related to each other, with 80 to 100% DNA homology to labeled /sup 32/P-DNA probes prepared from M. incognita and M. arenaria. M. hapla showed wide divergence with 24.5 to 33.5% DNA homology to the probes. One half of the populations showed a slightly higher percent DNA homology with the non-repetitive sequences of the probes, whereas, the other half with the repetitive fraction. The thermal stabilities of the reassociated DNAs indicated differences of 0 to 2.5% in nucleotide base pairs between the populations and the probes.

  20. DNA characterization and relationship of the genomes of some Meloidogyne species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cesium trifluoroacetate (CsTFA) ultracentrifugation method of DNA isolation proved more satisfactory than phenol extraction. The base composition (%GC) of the DNAs of M. incognita, M. javanica, M. arenaria, and M. hapla, as determined by thermal denaturation tests ranged from 31.0 to 32.6% for all the four species. Similarly, the thermal stability covered a narrow range from 82.97 to 83.630C. The relationship of the genomes of twelve populations representing the four Meloidogyne species was measured by binding hybridized DNA by hydroxyapatite. M. incognita, M. javanica, and M. arenaria were found to be closely related to each other, with 80 to 100% DNA homology to labeled 32P-DNA probes prepared from M. incognita and M. arenaria. M. hapla showed wide divergence with 24.5 to 33.5% DNA homology to the probes. One half of the populations showed a slightly higher percent DNA homology with the non-repetitive sequences of the probes, whereas, the other half with the repetitive fraction. The thermal stabilities of the reassociated DNAs indicated differences of 0 to 2.5% in nucleotide base pairs between the populations and the probes

  1. Meloidogyne mayaguensis RAMMAH Y HIRSCHMANN, PLAGA EMERGENTE PARA LA AGRICULTURA TROPICAL Y SUBTROPICAL / Meloidogyne mayaguensis RAMMAH Y HIRSCHMANN, EMERGENT PEST FOR TROPICAL AND SUBTROPICAL AGRICULTURE

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Mayra G, Rodríguez; Lucila, Gómez; Belkis, Peteira.

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Meloidogyne mayaguensis Rammah y Hirschmann, constituye una importante plaga en países de la zona tropical y subtropical, donde parasita de manera natural más de 30 especies de diferentes plantas de cultivo como guayaba (Psidium guajava), cafeto (Coffea spp.), hortalizas, ornamentales y arvenses. Su [...] distribución ha ocurrido relativamente rápido debido a factores antropogénicos y la mayor preocupación con esta especie es su capacidad para parasitar y reproducirse en plantas con resistencia a Meloidogyne spp. Esta especie presenta alta variabilidad en la morfología de su patrón perineal, por lo que es recomendable, para su identificación, el uso de elementos complementarios como los que ofrecen los perfiles de esterasas. Esta especie puede hallarse en poblaciones concomitantes junto a Meloidogyne incognita, Meloidogyne arenaria y Meloidogyne javanica, haciendo más complejo su diagnóstico y manejo. Entre las regulaciones empleadas para mitigar su efecto negativo se encuentran, la implementación de medidas de cuarentena interna y el uso de Cadusafos y Abamectina, con resultados variables. De igual modo, grupos de investigación en África y América han evaluado extractos de Crotalaria spp. y agentes de control biológico (Arthrobotrys spp.), entre otras tácticas. M. mayaguensis se considera una de las especies más peligrosas del género, su detección, correcta identificación y contención en las áreas donde aparece constituyen uno de los retos más importantes de las autoridades sanitarias en los países donde ha sido encontrada, para los cuales la información oportuna y capacitación efectiva de los actores involucrados en esta esfera representa un elemento de vital importancia para el enfrentamiento a esta plaga emergente. Abstract in english Meloidogyne mayaguensis Rammah y Hirschmann, is an important pest in tropical and subtropical countries, because it affects in natural way more than 30 different species like guava (Psidium guajava), coffee (Coffea spp.), vegetables, ornamental plants and weeds. Its distribution has been very fast d [...] ue to anthropogenic factors, and the highest concern about this species is its capacity to infest and reproduce on resistant plants to Meloidogyne spp. This species has a high variability in its perineal pattern morphology; thus the use of complementary elements like the offered by esterase profile is recommended. This specie has been found in mixed population with Meloidogyne incognita, Meloidogyne arenaria and Meloidogyne javanica, making more complex its diagnosis and management. Among the measurements to diminish its negative effect are the implementation of internal quarantine measures and the use of Cadusafos and Abermectine with variable results. In the same way, different research teams from Africa and America have evaluated extracts from Crotalaria spp., biological control agents (Arthrobotrys spp.), among other tactics. M. mayaguensis has been considered one of the most dangerous species of this genus. Its detection, right identification and contention in the areas in which it is found constitute one of the most important challenges for the sanitary authorities in the countries when the species has been reported. The opportune information and the effective training of the staff involved in the phytosanitary area represent a vital element for facing this emergent pest.

  2. Pathogenicity of Meloidogyne spp. (Tylenchida: Meloidogynidae from Brazil and Central America on two genotypes of Coffea arabica Patogenicidade de Meloidogyne spp. (Tylenchida: Meloidogynidae originárias do Brasil e América Central a dois genótipos de Coffea arabica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina M.D.G. Carneiro

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Among the most damaging root-knot nematode species, Meloidogyne exigua, M. paranaensis, M. incognita, M. arabicida, M. izalcoensis and M. mayaguensis are major agronomic constraints in coffee-growing areas in Brazil and other Latin American countries. The resistance reaction to those six species was studied for the H 419-5-4-5-2 progeny, derived from the artificial hybridization between Catuaí Amarelo 'IAC 30' x Timor Hybrid UFV 445-46 selection. The Catuaí Vermelho IAC 144 genotype was used as susceptibility control for Meloidogyne spp. The genotypes were inoculated with 6,000 eggs/plant and the experiment was set up in a completely randomized design, replicated 10 times for each Meloidogyne species and genotype. The evaluation was performed at 240 days after inoculation and the reproduction factor (RF= Final population/6000 was used as the variable to evaluate resistance. M. exigua caused typical rounded galls mostly on new roots, and egg-masses were produced mostly in the cortex under the root epidermis. M. incognita, M. paranaensis and M. arabicida caused swollen roots, peeling and cracking of cortical root tissue. No symptoms were observed for M. mayaguensis. M. izalcoensis induced very small galls, mostly on the extremity of new roots. Egg-masses were produced outside the roots in large quantities. The genotype IAC 144 was susceptible (FR>1.0 to all Meloidogyne spp. studied, except to M. mayaguensis. The nematode isolate used in this experiment seems to be a weak parasite for coffee. The H 419-5-4-5-2 progeny was resistant to M. exigua (FREntre as espécies de nematóides de galhas mais danosas ao cafeeiro, Meloidogyne exigua, M. paranaensis, M. incognita, M. arabicida, M. izalcoensis e M. mayaguensis são as que causam os maiores problemas em áreas de cultivo de café no Brasil e países da América Latina. A reação de resistência a essas seis espécies foi estudada na progênie H 419-5-4-5-2, obtida do cruzamento artificial entre a cultivar Catuaí Amarelo IAC 30 com a seleção de Híbrido de Timor UFV 445-46. As genótipos foram inoculados com 6.000 ovos/planta e o experimento foi conduzido no delineamento inteiramente ao acaso, com 10 repetições para cada espécie de Meloidogyne e cada genótipo de cafeeiro. A avaliação foi realizada 240 dias após a inoculação. O Fator de Reprodução (FR= População Final/6000 foi usado como variável para se avaliar a resistência. M. exigua causou galhas arredondadas típicas, sobretudo nas raízes novas. M. incognita, M. paranaensis e M. arabicida causaram engrossamento nas raízes, descolamento cortical e rachaduras em várias partes do sistema radicular.Nenhum sintoma foi observado para M. mayaguensis. M. izalcoensis causou galhas pequenas, a maioria na extremidade das raízes novas. As massas de ovos foram produzidas externamente e em grande número. O genótipo IAC 144 (testemunha foi suscetível (FR>1.0 a todas espécies de Meloidogyne, exceto a M. mayaguensis. Esse isolado mostrou-se um parasita fraco para o cafeeiro. A progênie H 419-5-4-5-2 foi resistente a M. exigua e M. mayaguensis (FR<1 e suscetível a M. incognita, M. paranaensis, M. arabicida e M. izalcoensis.

  3. Host Status of Endophyte-Infected and Noninfected Tall Fescue Grass to Meloidogyne spp.

    OpenAIRE

    Nyczepir, A. P.; Meyer, S.L.F.

    2010-01-01

    Tall fescue grass cultivars with or without endophytes were evaluated for their susceptibility to Meloidogyne incognita in the greenhouse. Tall fescue cultivars evaluated included, i) wild-type Jesup (E+, ergot-producing endophyte present), ii) endophyte-free Jesup (E-, no endophyte present), iii) Jesup (Max-Q, non-ergot producing endophyte) and iv) Georgia 5 (E+). Peach was included as the control. Peach supported greater (P ? 0.05) reproduction of M. incognita than all tall fescue cultivars...

  4. Influence of Meloidogyne hapla on Alfalfa Yield and Host Population Dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Noling, J. W.; Ferris, H.

    1985-01-01

    Self-thinning in alfalfa, a dynamic process involving the progressive elimination of the weakest plants, was enhanced by Meloidogyne hapla. Alfalfa stand densities decreased exponentially with time and were reduced 62% (P = 0.05) in the presence of M. hapla. As stand densities decreased over time, mean plant weights increased at a rate 2.59 times faster in the absence of M. hapla. In a stepwise multiple regression analysis, 65% of the total variation in yield could be explained by changes in ...

  5. Identification of Meloidogyne javanica Using Morphological and Morphometerical Characters and Species Specific Primers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Mahdikhani

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Root knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp. cause yield loss in all countries, of which, M. javanica, is the most widespread species in Iran. In order to identify M. javanica, 100 infected root and soil samples of root knot nematode were collected from different regions of Kerman province. After purification of populations and identification of M. javanica based on morphological and morphometerical characters of females and second stage juveniles (J2, total DNA was extracted from eggs, J2 and female adults. Specific 670 and 1600 bp bands were amplified in all M. javanica populations using species-specific primer pairs including OPARjav / OPAFjav and Mjavf / Mjavr These specific bands could not be amplified in other species such as M. incognita and M. arenaria. It seems that, application of these species specific primers in comparison with morphological characters would be more applicable, leading to easier identification of M. javanica.

  6. Evaluation of Cover Crops with Potential for Use in Anaerobic Soil Disinfestation (ASD) for Susceptibility to Three Species of Meloidogyne.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokalis-Burelle, Nancy; Butler, David M; Rosskopf, Erin N

    2013-12-01

    Several cover crops with potential for use in tropical and subtropical regions were assessed for susceptibility to three common species of root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne arenaria, M. incognita, and M. javanica. Crops were selected based on potential use as organic amendments in anaerobic soil disinfestation (ASD) applications. Nematode juvenile (J2) numbers in soil and roots, egg production, and host plant root galling were evaluated on arugula (Eruca sativa, cv. Nemat), cowpea (Vigna unguiculata, cv. Iron & Clay), jack bean (Canavalia ensiformis, cv. Comum), two commercial mixtures of Indian mustard and white mustard (Brassica juncea & Sinapis alba, mixtures Caliente 61 and Caliente 99), pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum, cv. Tifleaf III), sorghum-sudangrass hybrid (Sorghum bicolor × S. bicolor var. sudanense, cv. Sugar Grazer II), and three cultivars of sunflower (Helianthus annuus, cvs. 545A, Nusun 660CL, and Nusun 5672). Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum, cv. Rutgers) was included in all trials as a susceptible host to all three nematode species. The majority of cover crops tested were less susceptible than tomato to M. arenaria, with the exception of jack bean. Sunflower cv. Nusun 5672 had fewer M. arenaria J2 isolated from roots than the other sunflower cultivars, less galling than tomato, and fewer eggs than tomato and sunflower cv. 545A. Several cover crops did not support high populations of M. incognita in roots or exhibit significant galling, although high numbers of M. incognita J2 were isolated from the soil. Arugula, cowpea, and mustard mixture Caliente 99 did not support M. incognita in soil or roots. Jack bean and all three cultivars of sunflower were highly susceptible to M. javanica, and all sunflower cultivars had high numbers of eggs isolated from roots. Sunflower, jack bean, and both mustard mixtures exhibited significant galling in response to M. javanica. Arugula, cowpea, and sorghum-sudangrass consistently had low numbers of all three Meloidogyne species associated with roots and are good selections for use in ASD for root-knot nematode control. The remainder of crops tested had significant levels of galling, J2, and eggs associated with roots, which varied among the Meloidogyne species tested. PMID:24379486

  7. Diversity and evolution of root-knot nematodes, genus Meloidogyne: new insights from the genomic era.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castagnone-Sereno, Philippe; Danchin, Etienne G J; Perfus-Barbeoch, Laetitia; Abad, Pierre

    2013-01-01

    Root-knot nematodes (RKNs) (Meloidogyne spp.) are obligate endoparasites of major worldwide economic importance. They exhibit a wide continuum of variation in their reproductive strategies, ranging from amphimixis to obligatory mitotic parthenogenesis. Molecular phylogenetic studies have highlighted divergence between mitotic and meiotic parthenogenetic RKN species and probable interspecific hybridization as critical steps in their speciation and diversification process. The recent completion of the genomes of two RKNs, Meloidogyne hapla and Meloidogyne incognita, that exhibit striking differences in their mode of reproduction (with and without sex, respectively), their geographic distribution, and their host range has opened the way for deciphering the evolutionary significance of (a)sexual reproduction in these parasites. Accumulating evidence suggests that whole-genome duplication (in M. incognita) and horizontal gene transfers (HGTs) represent major forces that have shaped the genome of current RKN species and may account for the extreme adaptive capacities and parasitic success of these nematodes. PMID:23682915

  8. Terra Incognita I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The topics discussed in the workshop session 'Terra Incognita I' included a wide range of science. Central to the discussion however was the study of sub-leading neutrino oscillations driven by ?13 and the possibility to observe CP-violation in the leptonic sector. Furthermore, the long-standing problem of sterile neutrinos was addressed, as well as the scenario that UHECR could be produced via so called Z-bursts. To employ neutrinos in the literal meaning of the workshop session title 'Terra Incognita', namely to explore the unknown earth with neutrinos from geo-chemical origin, completed the session

  9. Reprodução de Meloidogyne spp. em porta-enxertos e híbridos de pepino Reproduction of Meloidogyne spp. in rootstocks and cucumber hybrids

    OpenAIRE

    Silvia Renata S Wilcken; Juliana MO Rosa; Andréa RO Higuti; Maria José de M Garcia; Antonio Ismael Inácio Cardoso

    2010-01-01

    A enxertia é uma técnica alternativa frequentemente recomendada para a cultura do pepino em áreas infestadas com nematóides das galhas. O presente trabalho teve como objetivo determinar o fator de reprodução de Meloidogyne javanica e de Meloidogyne incognita raça 2 em seis porta-enxertos para pepino (abóbora 'Menina Brasileira', moranga 'Exposição', 'Shelper', 'Tetsukabuto', 'B8-A Tetsukabuto' e 'Excite Ikki') e quatro híbridos de pepino (Cucumis sativus) tipo japonês ('Yoshinari', 'Kouki', '...

  10. SINTOMATOLOGÍA Y ESPECIES DE Meloidogyne ASOCIADAS A VID (Vitis vinifera L. cv. Aramond) EN GÜIRA DE MELENA, ARTEMISA. (Resultados preliminares) / SYMPTOMATOLOGY AND SPECIES OF Meloidogyne ASSOCIATED WITH GRAPEVINE (Vitis vinifera L. cv. Aramond) IN GÜIRA DE MELENA, Artemisa. (Preliminary results)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Mayra G, Rodríguez; Dainé, Hernández; R, Enrique; Lucila, Gómez; Luisa, Díaz-Viruliche; Belkis, Peteira.

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Un viñedo (Vitis vinifera L. cv. Aramond) de 21 años de plantado mostraba síntomas semejantes a los producidos por la presencia de nematodos formadores de agallas (Meloidogyne spp.), así como mermas en los rendimientos. En visita realizada a la plantación, se constató la existencia de áreas con plan [...] tas cloróticas y con diversos grados de defoliación. Las bases de los tallos mostraban rajaduras longitudinales y ensanchamientos en la región que se encontraba por encima de la superficie del suelo. Al examinar las raíces se encontraron agallas de diversos tamaños y la pérdida de volúmenes importantes de raíces secundarias. En las agallas, se encontraron hembras adultas de Meloidogyne con ootecas desarrolladas, y el estudio de los patrones perineales de estas hembras evidenció la presencia de especímenes de tres especies (Meloidogyne arenaria (Neal) Chitwood, Meloidogyne incognita (Kofoid & White) Chitwood y Meloidogyne javanica (Trueb) Chitwood), mientras otros fueron ubicados en la categoría de Meloidogyne spp., hasta completar los estudios moleculares. Del total de especímenes examinados, M. arenaria mostró ser componente mayoritario de la comunidad con un 53%, seguido de M. incognita (21%) y M. javanica (4%). La presencia de M. arenaria en vid, representa el primer informe de la especie en este cultivo en Cuba y constituye foco de atención para el servicio fitosanitario, por ser una de las plagas más importante para la vid a nivel mundial. Abstract in english A 21 year old vineyard (Vitis vinifera L. cv. Aramond) showed symptoms similar to those caused by the root knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp.) as well as decreases in yield. In a visit to the area, several chlorotic plants with different degree of defoliation were observed. The stem bases above the so [...] il surface were swollen and they showed longitudinal cracks. Galls of different sizes were observed on the roots with significant losses of secondary roots. Adult females of Meloidogyne with well developed egg masses were found inside the galls. The study of the perineal patterns of these females showed the presence of specimens belonging to three species (Meloidogyne arenaria (Neal) Chitwood, Meloidogoyne incognita (Kofoid & White) Chitwood and Meloidogyne javanica (Trueb) Chitwood), as well as others that were grouped as Meloidogyne spp. until completing the molecular studies of all the specimens observed. M. arenaria showed to be the majority component of the community with 53%, followed by M. incognita and M. javanica with 21% and 4% respectively. The presence of M. arenaria in grapevine is the first report of this specie in the crop in Cuba and constitutes a focus of attention for the plant protection service because it is one of the most important pests in grapevine in the world.

  11. Mentha x piperita, Mentha spicata and Effects of Their Essential Oils on Meloidogyne in Soil

    OpenAIRE

    Walker, J.T.; Melin, J. B.

    1996-01-01

    Six peppermint (Mentha x piperita) and six spearmint (M. spicata) PI accessions were inoculated with Meloidogyne incognita race 3 and M. arenaria race 2, under greenhouse conditions. No galls formed on roots of any of the plants inoculated with 1,800 eggs/pot. Fewer than two galls per root system formed on three PI accessions of peppermint inoculated with M. incognita at 5,400 eggs/pot. Only one peppermint accession developed galls when inoculated with M. arenaria, whereas none of the spearmi...

  12. Efeito de isolados de Paecilomyces lilacinus no desenvolvimento de cafezais e na população de Meloidogyne paranaensis Effect of isolates of Paecilomyces lilacinus on the development of coffee plantations and on the population of Meloidogyne paranaensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Capparelli Cadioli

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Com a finalidade de diminuir as perdas causadas pelos nematóides do gênero Meloidogyne (Goeldi, 1887 na cultura do cafeeiro, dentre as diversas medidas de manejo, o controle biológico com o fungo Paecilomyces lilacinus (Thom., 1910 Samson, 1974 se destaca como uma alternativa de controle vantajosa, quer dos pontos de vista ecológico ou econômico. Assim, neste trabalho, objetivou-se avaliar a eficiência de 10 isolados de Paecilomyces lilacinus no controle de Meloidogyne paranaensis em cafeeiro (Coffea arabica L. cv. Icatú, em casa-de-vegetação. No experimento I, as mudas de cafeeiro foram transplantadas em solo onde foram, anteriormente, cultivados tomateiros para multiplicação de M. paranaensis mais 50 g de arroz colonizado com os 10 isolados. No segundo experimento, mudas de cafeeiro foram transplantadas para substrato solo e areia (1:1 juntamente com 50 g de arroz colonizado com os isolados. Em seguida, as mudas foram inoculadas com ± 5000 ovos de M. paranaensis. Nos dois experimentos, após 15 dias procedeu-se aplicação por cobertura de 50 g dos isolados. O delineamento foi inteiramente casualizado com 12 tratamentos. Após 90 dias, foram feitas as avaliações. Os isolados de P. lilacinus não afetaram o diâmetro do caule de cafeeiro. No experimento I, os isolados Pae 22, 24 e 28 promoveram o crescimento dos cafeeiros; todos os isolados reduziram a população de ovos no sistema radicular; e os isolados Pae 3 e 12 reduziram a população de J2 de M. paranaensis no solo. No experimento II, os isolados Pae 03, 10, 12 e 13 favoreceram o crescimento das plantas, mas reduziram o peso fresco do sistema radicular; todos os isolados reduziram a população de J2 no solo; e os isolados Pae 3, 10, 13, 18, 22 e 24 reduziram as malformações causadas por M. paranaensis nas raízes.In order to reduce the losses caused by nematodes of the genus Meloidogyne (Goeldi, 1887 in coffee plantation, among several management measures, biological control with the fungus Paecilomyces lilacinus (Thom., 1910 Samson, 1974 stands out as an advantageous alternative of control, from the ecological or economy points of view. Thus, the objective of this work was to evaluate ten isolates of Paecilomyces lilacinus in the control of Meloidogyne paranaensis in coffee trees (Coffea arabica L. cv. Icatú, in greenhouse conditions. In the first experiment, the coffee seedlings were transplanted to substrate where tomato plants were previously cultivated, for M. paranaensis multiplication. The soil was mixed with 50 g rice colonized with ten isolates of P. lilacinus. In the second experiment, coffee seedlings were transplanted to substrate (1 sand: 1 dirt with 50 g rice colonized with the isolates of P. lilacinus. Then, the seedlings were inoculated with suspension of ±5000 eggs of M. paranaensis. In the two experiments, a new application was made with 50 g of the isolates after fifteen days. The design was completely randomized with twelve treatments and ten replicates. After 90 they days were evaluated. The isolated of P. lilacinus did not affect the diameter of the coffee stalk. In the first experiment, the isolates Pae 22, 24, and 28 promoted the growth of the seedlings, all of the isolates reduced the population of eggs in the root system, and the isolates Pae 3 and 12 reduced the population of J2 of M. paranaensis in the soil. In the second experiment, the isolates Pae 3, 10, 12, and 13 favored the growth of the plants but reduced the weight of the fresh roots, all of the isolates reduced the population of J2 in the soil, and the isolates Pae 3, 10, 13, 18, 22, and 24 reduced the malformations caused by M. paranaensis roots.

  13. First Report of Root-Knot Nematode Meloidogyne enterolobii on Tomato and Cucumber in Switzerland

    OpenAIRE

    Kiewnick, S.; Karssen, G.; Brito, J. A.; Oggenfuss, M.; Frey, J E

    2008-01-01

    Severe stunting and extensive root galling were observed on tomato rootstock (Solanum lycopersicum L. cv. Maxifort) resistant to Meloidogyne incognita (Kofoid & White, 1919) Chitwood, 1949, M. javanica (Treub, 1885), and M. arenaria (Neal, 1889) Chitwood, 1949 and cucumber (Cucumis sativus L. cv. Loustik) from two commercial greenhouses in the cantons Aargau and Lucerne in northern Switzerland. Examination of the roots of infected plants revealed the presence of root-knot nematodes in large n...

  14. Crop Yields and Nematode Population Densities in Triticale-Cotton and Triticale-Soybean Rotations

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, A.W.; Dowler, C.C.; Baker, S H; Handoo, Z.A.

    1998-01-01

    Triticale cv. Beagle 82, cotton cv. McNair 235, and soybean cv. Twiggs were arranged in three cropping sequences to determine the effects of fenamiphos and cropping sequence on nematode population densities and crop yields under conservation tillage for 4 years. The cropping sequences were triticale (T)-cotton (C)-T-C, T-soybean (S)-T-S, and T-C-T-S. Numbers of Meloidogyne incognita second-stage juveniles declined on trificale but increased on cotton and soybean each year. Root-gall indices o...

  15. Host plants of root-knot nematodes / Algumas plantas hospedeiras de nematóides do gênero Meloidogyne

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Luiz Gonzaga E., Lordello; Luiz Carlos, Fazuoli; Condorcet, Aranha; Rubens R.A., Lordello.

    Full Text Available Coletaram-se plantas do gênero Coffea e de diversas ervas daninhas, as quais foram examinadas em laboratório visando verificar a ocorrência de nematóides do gênero Meloidogyne Goeldi, 1887. As plantas parasitadas por M. exigua, M. incognita, M. arenaria e por uma espécie não identificada, referida c [...] omo Meloidogyne sp., são. apresentadas. Indicam-se os hospedeiros novos de alguns dos nematóides mencionados e confirma-se o parasitismo de outras plantas, nas condições estudadas. Abstract in english Root-knot nematodes were found attacking Coffea spp. and also roots of a few weed species usually found in the coffee orchards in São Paulo. C. arabica cv. Catuaí, C. arabica cv. Mundo Novo, Timor Hybrid and a few plants of C. racemosa showed to be susceptible to Meloidogyne exigua. Roots of Ageratu [...] m conyzoides, Amaranthus viridis, Bidens pilosa, Coffea arabica cv. Mundo Novo, Coffea racemosa, Commelina virginica, Digitaria sanguinalis, Galinsoga parviflora, Gnaphalium spathulatum, Porophyllum ruderale, Portulaca oleracea, Pterocaulon virgatum and Solanum americanum were disfigured by M. incognita M. arenaria was found attacking roots of Eleusine indica and Gnaphalium spathulatum, and the presence of an unidentified Meloidogyne species was verified in roots of the following species: Vernonia ferruginea, C. arabica x C. canephora, Eupatorium pauciflorum, Coffea canephora cv. Kouillou, Coffea eugenioides, Coffea racemosa, Coffea stenophylla, Euphorbia pilullifera, Solanum americanum, Ageratum conyzoides, Phyllanthus corcovadensis, and Emilia sagittata.

  16. Efecto de diferentes densidades poblacionales de Meloidogyne hapla sobre uchuva (Physalis peruviana L.) en invernadero / Effect of different population densities of Meloidogyne hapla on the cape gooseberry (Physalis peruviana L.) in greenhouse

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Nancy Eunice, Niño; Germán, Arbeláez; Rafael, Navarro.

    2008-04-30

    Full Text Available Este estudio se realizó en el Centro de Investigaciones y Asesorías Agroindustriales de la Universidad de Bogotá Jorge Tadeo Lozano, Chía (Cundinamarca), bajo condiciones de invernadero, durante diez meses de cultivo. Se evaluó el efecto de diferentes densidades poblacionales de Meloidogyne hapla (0 [...] , 50, 100, 200, 500 y 1.000 larvas J2/100 cc de suelo), sobre parámetros productivos de la uchuva: altura de las plantas, diámetro de tallo, peso fresco, peso seco y biomasa de follaje, peso fresco de raíces, índice de nodulación radicular y peso fresco de frutos. Se hizo análisis de varianza, pruebas de contrastes y prueba de Tukey (?=0,05), en un diseño completamente aleatorio, con seis tratamientos y cinco repeticiones, mediante el programa SAS v.8.0. El tratamiento de 500 larvas J2/100 cc suelo fue el que más afectó la altura de las plantas, el diámetro del tallo, la biomasa de follaje, el peso fresco de raíces y presentó el índice de nodulación radical más alto. No se encontraron diferencias significativas entre los tratamientos inoculados con M. hapla, para peso fresco, peso seco de follaje y peso fresco de frutos, ni para el número de larvas J2 en suelo y masas de huevos. Mediante la ecuación: Y = m + (1-m)Z P-T propuesta por Seinhorst (1965), se estableció un límite de tolerancia de 50 larvas J2 de M. hapla/100 cc suelo, para peso fresco de raíces y un límite de tolerancia de 450 larvas J2 de M. hapla/100 cc suelo, para biomasa de follaje. Abstract in english A trial was conducted at the Center of Investigations and Agroindustrial Accessory of the University Jorge Tadeo Lozano, Chía (Cundinamarca) under greenhouse condition during ten months of cultivation. The effect of different population densities of M. hapla (0, 50, 100, 200, 500 and 1,000 larvae J2 [...] /100 cc soil) on productive parameters of the cape gooseberry, such as plant height, stem diameter, fresh and dry weights of leaves, fresh weight of roots, root nodulation index and weight of fruits in four harvests were evaluated. A variance analysis, contrasts test and Tukey test, within a randomized design with six treatments, and five repetitions was done within SAS v.8.0 program. It was determined that a treatment 500 larvae J2/100 cc soil had the highest effect on the plant height, stem diameter, leaf biomass and fresh weight of roots, besides it showed the highest root nodulation index. There were no significant differences found among the treatments for fresh weight and dry weight of leaves and fruits weight. For J2 larvae’s number in soil and eggs mass, the differences among the treatments inoculated with M. hapla were not found. A tolerance limit of 50 larvas J2/l00 cc soil was derived from fitting the data of root fresh weight and a tolerance limit of 450 larvas J2/l00 cc soil from data of biomass using the equation Y=m+(1-m)Z P-T proposed by Seinhorst (1965).

  17. Pathogenic Variability Among Isolates of Meloidogyne javanica on Capsicum annum

    OpenAIRE

    B. KHAN; A. A. Khan; Khan, M.R.

    2003-01-01

    Meloidogyne javanica isolates were collected from nine districts of Uttar Pradesh. These isolates showed pathogenic variability when inoculated on the pepper cultivars California Wonder and Suryamukhi Green. Meloidogyne javanica that infected Suryamukhi Green but not California Wonder were designated as pepper race 1 and the populations that infected both the cultivars were designated pepper race 2. Race 1 was more frequent than race 2 in Almora, Pauri Garhwal, Basti, Gorakhpur, and Deoria, w...

  18. Enhanced Synthesis of Antioxidant Enzymes, Defense Proteins and Leghemoglobin in Rhizobium-Free Cowpea Roots after Challenging with Meloydogine incognita

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose T. A. Oliveira

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The root knot nematodes (RKN, Meloydogine spp., particularly Meloidogyne incognita and Meloidogyne javanica species, parasitize several plant species and are responsible for large annual yield losses all over the world. Only a few available chemical nematicides are still authorized for RKN control owing to environmental and health reasons. Thus, plant resistance is currently considered the method of choice for controlling RKN, and research performed on the molecular interactions between plants and nematodes to identify genes of interest is of paramount importance. The present work aimed to identify the differential accumulation of root proteins of a resistant cowpea genotype (CE-31 inoculated with M. incognita (Race 3 in comparison with mock-inoculated control, using 2D electrophoresis assay, mass spectrometry identification and gene expression analyses by RT-PCR. The results showed that at least 22 proteins were differentially represented in response to RKN challenge of cowpea roots mainly within 4–6 days after inoculation. Amongst the up-represented proteins were SOD, APX, PR-1, ?-1,3-glucanase, chitinases, cysteine protease, secondary metabolism enzymes, key enzymes involved in ethylene biosynthesis, proteins involved in MAPK pathway signaling and, surprisingly, leghemoglobin in non-rhizobium-bacterized cowpea. These findings show that an important rearrangement in the resistant cowpea root proteome occurred following challenge with M. incognita.

  19. Molecular Characterisation and Diagnosis of Root-Knot Nematodes (Meloidogyne spp.) from Turfgrasses in North Carolina, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Weimin; Zeng, Yongsan; Kerns, James

    2015-01-01

    Root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp.) are the most common and destructive plant-parasitic nematode group worldwide and adversely influence both crop quality and yield. In this study, a total of 51 root-knot nematode populations from turfgrasses were tested, of which 44 were from North Carolina, 6 from South Carolina and 1 from Virginia. Molecular characterisation was performed on these samples by DNA sequencing on the ribosomal DNA 18S, ITS and 28S D2/D3. Species-specific primers were developed to identify turfgrass root-knot nematode through simplex or duplex PCR. Four species were identified, including M. marylandi Jepson & Golden in Jepson, 1987, M. graminis (Sledge & Golden, 1964) Whitehead, 1968, M. incognita (Kofoid & White, 1919) Chitwood, 1949 and M. naasi Franklin, 1965 through a combined analysis of DNA sequencing and PCR by species-specific primers. M. marylandi has been reported from North Carolina and South Carolina for the first time. Molecular diagnosis using PCR by species-specific primers provides a rapid and cheap species identification approach for turfgrass root-knot nematodes. PMID:26599462

  20. Morphological and Molecular Characterization of a New Root-Knot Nematode, Meloidogyne thailandica n. sp. (Nematoda: Meloidogynidae), Parasitizing Ginger (Zingiber sp.)

    OpenAIRE

    Handoo, Z.A.; Skantar, A. M.; Carta, L. K.; Erbe, E F

    2005-01-01

    A root-knot nematode Meloidogyne thailandica n. sp. was discovered on roots of ginger (Zingiber spp.) intercepted from Thailand in October 2002 by the U.S. Department of Agriculture Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service at the port of San Francisco. Comparison by light microscopy (LM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to five other morphologically related species (M. incognita, M. arenaria, M. microcephala, M. megatyla, and M. enterolobii) revealed that the new species differs from ...

  1. Resistência de porta-enxertos para pessegueiro e ameixeira aos nematóides causadores de galhas (Meloidogyne spp. Resistance of rootstock for peach tree and plum to root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Carlos Fachinello

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho foi realizado com o objetivo de comparar o comportamento de cinco diferentes porta-enxertos para frutas de caroço em frente a duas espécies de nematóides do gênero Meloidogyne (Meloidogyne javanica e Meloidogyne incognita. O cultivar GF 677 foi obtido a partir do cultivo in vitro e os demais porta-enxertos a partir de sementes. Aos dois meses, as plântulas foram repicadas e inoculadas com uma mistura de Meloidogyne javanica e M. incognita aos 30, 60 e 70 dias após o plantio em canteiros incorporando-se 0,2kg de solo altamente infestado com os nematóides ao redor de cada planta. Ao final do experimento, avaliaram-se o desenvolvimento das plantas e o grau de infecção de cada cultivar. O grau de resistência dos cultivares foi estimado a partir do índice de galhas, obtido através de uma escala de grau ou nota, a qual varia de 0 a 5, em função do número de galhas ou ootecas. Os resultados obtidos demonstraram que o cultivar Okinawa não apresentou galhas no sistema radicular e na análise de crescimento foi superior aos demais cultivares. Os cultivares R-15-2 e Aldrighi foram considerados resistentes aos fitonematóides por apresentarem pequeno número de galhas no sistema radicular. Já o cultivar GF 677 apresentou maior número de galhas no sistema radicular, chegando a 126 galhas/g de raiz.The work was carried out with the objective of comparing the response of five different stone fruit rootstocks to two nematode species (Meloidogyne javanica and Meloidogyne incognita. The cultivar GF677, which was obtained from in vitro cultivation and the others rootstocks, were obtained from seedlings. Two month old plants were transplanted and inoculated with a mixture of both nematode species at 30, 60, 70 days after planting, by incorporating 0.2kg of highly infested soil around each cultivar. The development of the roststocks were evaluated at the end of the experiment. Number of galls, ranging from 0 to 5 was used to score the level of resistance of each cultivar. The results showed that cultivar Okinawa did not present any root galls and also had a superior growth than the other cultivars. The cultivars R-15-2 and Aldrighi presented small numbers of galls in the roots, they were considered resistant to nematodes. On the other hand, the cultivar GF677 presented the largest number of galls in the roots, achieving 126 galls/g of root.

  2. Reação de porta-enxertos comerciais de tomateiro a Meloidogyne mayaguensis Reaction of commercial tomato rootstocks plant to Meloidogyne mayaguensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Ricardo Cantu

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do presente trabalho foi verificar a resistência ao nematóide Meloidogyne mayaguensis em oito porta-enxertos de tomateiro considerados resistentes à Meloidogyne incognita, M. javanica e M. arenaria, comercializados no Brasil. Os porta-enxertos testados foram: 'Guardião', 'Helper-M', 'Anchor-T', 'Dr. K', 'Kagemuscha', 'TMA 809', 'Magnet' e 'He-Man'. O experimento constou de 9 tratamentos (8 porta-enxertos e a cultivar Rutgers utilizada como padrão de suscetibilidade, com 6 repetições, sendo cada parcela constituída por 1 planta por vaso, mantidas em casa de vegetação. As plantas foram inoculadas com 5.000 ovos e eventuais juvenis infectantes de M. mayaguensis. O experimento seguiu o delineamento inteiramente casualizado. Aos 60 dias da inoculação procederam-se as avaliações, quando foram avaliados os índices de galhas e massas de ovos, número de nematóides no solo e na raiz, peso do sistema radicular e o fator de reprodução. Todos os porta-enxertos estudados demonstraram-se suscetíveis a M. mayaguensis.The objective of this research was to verify the resistance response of eight Brazilian commercial tomato rootstocks to the nematode Meloidogyne mayaguensis. The studied rootstocks were: 'Guardião', 'Helper-M', 'Anchor-T', 'Dr. K', 'Kagemuscha', 'TMA 809', 'Magnet' and 'He-Man'. The experiment consisted of 9 treatments (8 rootstocks and 'Rutgers' used as susceptible control, with 6 replication. Each plot was constituted by 1 plant per pot, maintained in green-house. The plants were inoculated with 5,000 eggs and second stage juvenile of M. mayaguensis. The experimental design was completely randomized. The evaluation was 60 days after inoculation, when the root weight, gall and egg mass index, nematode number in soil and in root and reproduction factor were evaluated. All studied rootstocks were susceptible to M. mayaguensis.

  3. Reação de porta-enxertos comerciais de tomateiro a Meloidogyne mayaguensis / Reaction of commercial tomato rootstocks plant to Meloidogyne mayaguensis

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Rafael Ricardo, Cantu; Silvia Renata Siciliano, Wilcken; Juliana Magrinelli Osório, Rosa; Rumy, Goto.

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do presente trabalho foi verificar a resistência ao nematóide Meloidogyne mayaguensis em oito porta-enxertos de tomateiro considerados resistentes à Meloidogyne incognita, M. javanica e M. arenaria, comercializados no Brasil. Os porta-enxertos testados foram: 'Guardião', 'Helper-M', 'Anch [...] or-T', 'Dr. K', 'Kagemuscha', 'TMA 809', 'Magnet' e 'He-Man'. O experimento constou de 9 tratamentos (8 porta-enxertos e a cultivar Rutgers utilizada como padrão de suscetibilidade), com 6 repetições, sendo cada parcela constituída por 1 planta por vaso, mantidas em casa de vegetação. As plantas foram inoculadas com 5.000 ovos e eventuais juvenis infectantes de M. mayaguensis. O experimento seguiu o delineamento inteiramente casualizado. Aos 60 dias da inoculação procederam-se as avaliações, quando foram avaliados os índices de galhas e massas de ovos, número de nematóides no solo e na raiz, peso do sistema radicular e o fator de reprodução. Todos os porta-enxertos estudados demonstraram-se suscetíveis a M. mayaguensis. Abstract in english The objective of this research was to verify the resistance response of eight Brazilian commercial tomato rootstocks to the nematode Meloidogyne mayaguensis. The studied rootstocks were: 'Guardião', 'Helper-M', 'Anchor-T', 'Dr. K', 'Kagemuscha', 'TMA 809', 'Magnet' and 'He-Man'. The experiment consi [...] sted of 9 treatments (8 rootstocks and 'Rutgers' used as susceptible control), with 6 replication. Each plot was constituted by 1 plant per pot, maintained in green-house. The plants were inoculated with 5,000 eggs and second stage juvenile of M. mayaguensis. The experimental design was completely randomized. The evaluation was 60 days after inoculation, when the root weight, gall and egg mass index, nematode number in soil and in root and reproduction factor were evaluated. All studied rootstocks were susceptible to M. mayaguensis.

  4. Velvetbean and Bahiagrass as Rotation Crops for Management of Meloidogyne spp. and Heterodera glycines in Soybean

    OpenAIRE

    Weaver, D. B.; Rodríguez-Kábana, R.; Carden, E. L.

    1998-01-01

    Soybean (Glycine max) yield often is limited by the phytoparasitic nematodes Meloidogyne spp. and Heterodera glycines in the southeastern United States. We studied the effects of rotation with bahiagrass (Paspalum notatum), velvetbean (Mucuna pruiens), or continuous soybean, aldicarb, and soybean cultivar on yield and population densities in two fields infested with a mixture of Meloidogyne spp. and H. glycines. Velvetbean and bahiagrass reduced population levels of both nematode species to n...

  5. Host Range of Meloidogyne Arenaria (NEAL, 1889) Chitwood, 1949 (Nematoda: Meloidogynidae) in Spain

    OpenAIRE

    López Pérez, J. A.; Escuer, M.; Díez Rojo, M. A.; Robertson, Lee; Piedra Buena, A.; López Cepero, J.; Bello Pérez, Antonio

    2011-01-01

    The distribution of Meloidogyne arenaria in Spain was revised and new samples collected from representative areas. Species and races of the populations were determined by morphometrics, differential host tests and SCAR-PCR. Meloidogyne arenaria was found most often in warm areas, but it can occur in Northern Spain in greenhouses. A total of 125 citations were found, corresponding to 45 different host plants, of which 41 new reports (32.8%) are from this study. The populations stud...

  6. Survey of Meloidogyne spp. in Tomato Production Fields of Baix Llobregat County, Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Sorribas, F.J.; Verdejo-Lucas, S.

    1994-01-01

    A survey was conducted to determine the frequency and abundance of Meloidogyne spp. in tomato production sites located in Baix Llobregat County, Barcelona, Spain. Forty-five sites were sampled before planting and at harvest from February to October, 1991. Meloidogyne spp. occurred in 49% of the sites sampled. Preplant population densities ranged from 10 to 220 (x? = 110)juveniles/ 250 cm³ soil, and final population densities ranged from 20 to 1,530 (x? = 410)juveniles/250 cm³ soil. Final popu...

  7. Immunolocalisation of secreted-excreted products of Meloidogyne spp. using polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies Imunolocalização de produtos secretados-excretados de Meloidogyne spp. usando anticorpos policlonais e monoclonais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liziane M. Lima

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Molecules expressed at the surface cuticle (SC of plant parasitic nematodes represent the primary plant-nematode interface, and together with secreted-excreted (S-E products are probably the first signals perceived by the host. These molecules, which are released into plant tissue, probably play important roles in the host-parasite interactions. Characterisation of these antigens will help in the identification of nematode targets useful for novel control strategies, which interfere with the nematode infection of plants. Three monoclonal (MAbs and three polyclonal (PAbs antibodies produced to S-E products of Meloidogyne spp. and Heterodera avenae were used to examine their reactivity towards M. incognita and/or M. arenaria second stage juveniles and adult females. The three PAbs showed cross-reactivity with M. incognita and M. arenaria. Antibody Roth-PC 373 strongly recognised molecules present in the SC, amphids and intestine, antibody Roth-PC 389 recognised the nematode amphids and metacorpus, while antibody Roth-PC 419 bound to molecules present in the subventral glands. Reactivity of the MAbs was only tested against M. arenaria. Monoclonal antibody Roth-MAb T116C1.1 showed intense reactivity with molecules present in the amphidial and phasmidial glands. Monoclonal antibodies Roth-MAb T46.2 and T42D.2 labeled the nematode amphids and molecules present in the nematode oesophagus (metacorpus, respectively.Moléculas expressadas na cutícula dos nematóides parasitas de plantas representam o primeiro contato planta-nematóide e, junto com produtos secretados/excretados (S-E, são, provavelmente, os primeiros sinais percebidos pelo hospedeiro. Essas moléculas, as quais são liberadas dentro do tecido da planta, podem ter papel importante na interação parasita-hospedeiro. A caracterização desses antígenos pode ajudar na identificação de alvos para novas estratégias que interfiram na infecção de plantas por nematóides. Três anticorpos monoclonais e três anticorpos policlonais produzidos para secreções-excreções de Meloidogyne spp. e Heterodera avenae foram usados para examinar a reatividade a juvenis de segundo estádio (J2 e/ou fêmeas de M. incognita e M. arenaria. Os três anticorpos policlonais mostraram reação tanto para M. incognita quanto para M. arenaria. Roth-PC 373 reconheceu fortemente moléculas presentes na cutícula, anfídios e intestino, Roth-PC 389 reconheceu anfidios e metacorpo, enquanto Roth-PC 419 ligou-se a moléculas presentes nas glândulas subventrais. A reatividade dos MAbs foi testada somente com M. Arenaria. Roth-MAb T116C1.1 reagiu intensamente com moléculas presentes nas glândulas anfidial e fasmidial. Roth-MAb T46.2 e T42D.2 marcaram anfídios e moléculas presentes no esôfago (metacorpo do nematóide, respectivamente.

  8. Effects of management practices on nematode and fungus populations and cucumber yield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, A W; Sumner, D R; Jaworski, C A

    1979-01-01

    Three crops of cucumber were grown in succession in beds by use of trickle irrigation, plastic film mulch, and soil chemical treatments over a 17-month period, including a fallow winter season. Total yield for the three crops was highest (1208 quintals/ha) in film-mulched plots treated with MBR-CP, and next-highest in film-mulched plots treated with DD-MENCS (1094 quintals/ha); total yield was only 456 quintals/ha in film-mulched control (untreated) plots. Yield in untreated film-mulched plots was 256% of that in untreated unmulched plots (178 quintals/ha). Plant growth and yields were greatest when populations of nematodes and soil-borne fungi were suppressed to very low levels. The residual control by soil treatments lasted longest on Meloidogyne incognita and Fusarium solani. PMID:19305534

  9. Efeito da Incorporação de Folhas de Nim ao Solo sobre o Complexo Fusarium x Meloidogyne em Quiabeiro Effect of amendment of soil with neem leaf on Fusarium x Meloidogyne on okra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilson Soares da Silva

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito da incorporação de folhas frescas de nim (Azadirachta indica ao solo, sobre o complexo Fusarium x Meloidogyne em quiabeiro (Abelmoschus esculentum em um experimento realizado em condições de casa de vegetação. Os tratamentos constaram da adição de 25g ou 50g de folhas trituradas/kg de solo previamente autoclavado e inoculado com M. incognita, Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum, juntos e isoladamente, contidos em vasos com capacidade de 2 L. Solo sem folhas de nim serviu como testemunha. O experimento foi realizado seguindo um delineamento inteiramente casualizado com seis repetições, sendo cada repetição representada por um vaso com 5 plantas. As folhas foram incorporadas 30 dias antes do plantio e a avaliação deu-se 90 dias após o plantio, adotando-se a percentagem de plantas mortas como parâmetro para avaliar o efeito dos tratamentos. A incorporação de 50g de folhas frescas de nim foi eficiente para o controle de Meloidogyne e Fusarium isoladamente, bem como na interação desses patógenos. A incorporação de 25g de folhas de nim mostrou-se eficiente apenas para o controle de Meloidogyne isoladamente.The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of soil ammendment with neem (Azadirachta indica leaf on the complex Fusarium x Meloidogyne in okra (Abelmoschus esculentum in greenhouse conditions. The treatments consisted of the addition of 25g or 50g of leaves per kg of soil and infested with M. incognita and Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum, together and separately, contained in pots with capacity of 2 L. Soil without supplement it served as the control. The experimental design was completely randomized with six replications and five plants per pot. The leaves were incorporate 30 days before planting and the evaluation 90 days later. The percentagem of dead plants was used to evaluate the efficiency of neem. The incorporation of 50g of fresh neem leaves was efficient in the control of both Meloidogyne and Fusarium separately as well as in their interaction. The incorporation of 25g of neem leaves was shown efficient just for the control of Meloidogyne separately.

  10. Additive Effects of Meloidogyne arenaria and Sclerotinin rolfsii on Peanut

    OpenAIRE

    Starr, J. L.; Shim, M.-Y.; Lee, T. A.; Simpson, C E

    1996-01-01

    Field observations have suggested that infection of peanut by Meloidogyne arenaria increases the incidence of southern blight caused by Sclerotium rolfsii. Three factorial experiments in microplots were conducted to determine if interactions between M. arenaria and S. rolfsii influenced final nematode population densities, incidence of southern blight, or pod yield. Treatments included four or five initial population densities of M. arenaria and three inoculum rates of S. rolfsii. Final nemat...

  11. Influence of Glomus fasciculatum on Meloidogyne hapla Infecting Allium cepa

    OpenAIRE

    MacGuidwin, A. E.; Bird, G. W.; Safir, G. R.

    1985-01-01

    The impact of Glomus fasciculatum on Meloidogyne hapla associated with Allium cepa was evaluated in two experiments. Nematode density was not different in mycorrhizal and nonmycorrhizal plants 10 weeks after the joint inoculation of M. hapla and G. fasciculatum. Differences in the age structure of M. hapla populations reared on mycorrhizal and nonmycorrhizat plants were noted. G. fasciculatum enhanced leaf and bulb growth of A. cepa in the absence of M. hapla, but did not affect plant weight ...

  12. Effects of management practices on nematode and fungi populations and okra yield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, A W; Sumner, D R; Jaworski, C A; Chalfant, R B

    1977-04-01

    Okra was grown in field plots of Tifton loamy sand naturally infested with the nematodes Meloidogyne incognita and Criconemoides ornalus and the pathogenic fungi Fusarium oxysporum, F. solani, F. roseum, and Pythium spp. Plots were treated with various soil pesticides and left exposed or covered with biodegradable paper film mulch under trickle irrigation. Soil was assayed for nematodes and fungi, and plant roots were examined for root-rot and insect damage. Fewer nematodes and fungi generally were recovered from soil treated with DD-MENCS (with and without film mulch) or methyl bromide-chloropicrin (2:1) (MBC) and film mulch than from nontreated soil. Funfigation with DD-MENCS or MBC suppressed populations of M. incognita, C. ornatus, F. oxysporum, F. solani, F. roseum, and Pythium spp. Ethoprop (alone or combined with other pesticides), sodium azide, and chloroneb were less effective than DD-MENCS and MBC. Plant growth anti yield were greatest when nematodes and pathogenic fungi were controlled. Yield was increased 3-fold by DD-MENCS + film mulch or MBC + film mulch in comparison with the average yield of okra produced in Georgia. The root-knot nematode-Fusarium wilt complex was most severe in nonfuntigated soil. PMID:19305580

  13. Identification of Meloidogyne species associated with upland ornamentals plants in Costa Rica.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefany Solano-González

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to identify nematodes species of the genus Meloidogyne associated with upland ornamental plants. We sampled ten ornamental species in a commercial nursery in San Isidro, Heredia, Costa Rica between 2011-2012. Morphometric measurements of the stylet length, the tail length, and the hyaline region of J2s, as well as perineal patterns of egg-carrying females were used for identification, Genomic DNA was extracted from single J2s and molecular analyses were performed by amplifying the intergenic region between cytochrome oxidase subunit II of the COII and the long subunit of the ARN ribosomal genes by PCR-RFLP. Combining these methods allowed identification of five species of nematodes of the genus Meloidogyne (M. arenaria, M. hapla, M. hispanica, M. incognita and M. javanica, and new restriction enzyme patterns were reported for M. hapla and M. javanica using AluI. Additionally, a preliminary report of M. hispanica was described by sequencing the 28S and 18S regions.

  14. Effects of Anaerobically Digested Slurry on Meloidogyne incognita and Pratylenchus penetrans in Tomato and Radish Production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since effective disposable way of anaerobically digested biogas slurry is expected, ADS was applied to soil to evaluate its effects on nematode damage. Damage index of tomato by root-knot nematode was significantly (P4+ -N kg-1) than that in those with chemical fertilizer and control (no ADS). ADS was applied into radish cultivated fields infested with the root-lesion nematode: a single (100 kg NH4+ -N ha-1) in 2007 and 2008 and multiple applications (25, 50, 25 kg NH4+-N ha-1 soil) in 2009. Damage to radish was 30% and 50% lower in ADS-treated fields than that in the control in 2007 and 2009, respectively, although not in 2008. These results suggest that application of ADS to fields might be feasible for mitigating nematode damage, but the rate and timing should be considered further for the best application way.

  15. Effects of Anaerobically Digested Slurry on Meloidogyne incognita and Pratylenchus penetrans in Tomato and Radish Production

    OpenAIRE

    Atsushi Takada; Erika Sato; Koki Toyota; Yu Yu Min

    2011-01-01

    Since effective disposable way of anaerobically digested biogas slurry is expected, ADS was applied to soil to evaluate its effects on nematode damage. Damage index of tomato by root-knot nematode was significantly ( < . 0 5 ) lower and the growth better in pots applied with ADS (100 and 200 mg N H + 4 -N kg−1) than that in those with chemical fertilizer and control (no ADS). ADS was applied into radish cultivated fields infested with the root-lesion nematode: a single (100 kg N H + 4 -N ha...

  16. Greenhouse evaluation of capsicum rootstocks for management of meloidogyne incognita on grafted bell pepper

    Science.gov (United States)

    The growth, development, and nematode susceptibility of various rootstock genotypes grafted to a commercial bell pepper variety scion were evaluated in a series of greenhouse experiments. Nine rootstocks including ‘Caribbean Red Habanero’, ‘ PA-136’ , ‘Keystone Resistant Giant’, ‘Yolo Wonder’, ‘Car...

  17. Mustard seed meal mixtures: management of Meloidogyne incognita on pepper and potential phytotoxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meals produced when oil is extracted from brassicaceous seeds have been shown to suppress weeds and soilborne pathogens. These seed meals are commonly used individually as soil amendments; the goal of this research was to evaluate seed meal mixes of Brassica juncea Bj and Sinapis alba (Sa) against ...

  18. Effects of metabolites of Gliocladium Roseum on egg hatch and juvenile mortality of Meloidogyne incognita

    Science.gov (United States)

    Root-knot disease caused by root-knot nematode is a serious yield limiting factor for several economically important crops including soybean, vegetables, fruit trees, tea, tobacco, and medicinal plants. Control of nematode is currently mostly limited to application of soil nematicides, which are cos...

  19. Management of Root-Nematode (Meloidogyne SPP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenhouse and field experiments were undertaken to determine the possibility of using soil amendments with different C:N levels or applied at different rates and times in the control of root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp.)in tomato c.v Cal J.A naturally infested field was used while artificial inoculation was done in the greenhouse. Root galling was rated on a scale of 0-10, nematode population was estimated by counting second stage juveniles extracted from 200 cm3 soil and fruit yields were recorded at the end of the season. Nematode population densities and galling indices were significantly (P< or=0.05) lower in amended soils compared to the control. Application of the amendments also resulted in significant (P< or=0.05) increase in yields. Chicken manure, compost manure, neem products and pig manure were were the most effective amendments. Fresh chicken manure had a more suppressive effect on nematode than when the manure was decomposed within or outside a nematode infested field. A general decrease in juvenile populations and galling was observed with increase of organic amendments applied

  20. Immunolocalisation of secreted-excreted products of Meloidogyne spp. using polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies / Imunolocalização de produtos secretados-excretados de Meloidogyne spp. usando anticorpos policlonais e monoclonais

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Liziane M., Lima; Maria F., Grossi-de-Sa; Railene A., Pereira; Rosane H.C., Curtis.

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Moléculas expressadas na cutícula dos nematóides parasitas de plantas representam o primeiro contato planta-nematóide e, junto com produtos secretados/excretados (S-E), são, provavelmente, os primeiros sinais percebidos pelo hospedeiro. Essas moléculas, as quais são liberadas dentro do tecido da pla [...] nta, podem ter papel importante na interação parasita-hospedeiro. A caracterização desses antígenos pode ajudar na identificação de alvos para novas estratégias que interfiram na infecção de plantas por nematóides. Três anticorpos monoclonais e três anticorpos policlonais produzidos para secreções-excreções de Meloidogyne spp. e Heterodera avenae foram usados para examinar a reatividade a juvenis de segundo estádio (J2) e/ou fêmeas de M. incognita e M. arenaria. Os três anticorpos policlonais mostraram reação tanto para M. incognita quanto para M. arenaria. Roth-PC 373 reconheceu fortemente moléculas presentes na cutícula, anfídios e intestino, Roth-PC 389 reconheceu anfidios e metacorpo, enquanto Roth-PC 419 ligou-se a moléculas presentes nas glândulas subventrais. A reatividade dos MAbs foi testada somente com M. Arenaria. Roth-MAb T116C1.1 reagiu intensamente com moléculas presentes nas glândulas anfidial e fasmidial. Roth-MAb T46.2 e T42D.2 marcaram anfídios e moléculas presentes no esôfago (metacorpo) do nematóide, respectivamente. Abstract in english Molecules expressed at the surface cuticle (SC) of plant parasitic nematodes represent the primary plant-nematode interface, and together with secreted-excreted (S-E) products are probably the first signals perceived by the host. These molecules, which are released into plant tissue, probably play i [...] mportant roles in the host-parasite interactions. Characterisation of these antigens will help in the identification of nematode targets useful for novel control strategies, which interfere with the nematode infection of plants. Three monoclonal (MAbs) and three polyclonal (PAbs) antibodies produced to S-E products of Meloidogyne spp. and Heterodera avenae were used to examine their reactivity towards M. incognita and/or M. arenaria second stage juveniles and adult females. The three PAbs showed cross-reactivity with M. incognita and M. arenaria. Antibody Roth-PC 373 strongly recognised molecules present in the SC, amphids and intestine, antibody Roth-PC 389 recognised the nematode amphids and metacorpus, while antibody Roth-PC 419 bound to molecules present in the subventral glands. Reactivity of the MAbs was only tested against M. arenaria. Monoclonal antibody Roth-MAb T116C1.1 showed intense reactivity with molecules present in the amphidial and phasmidial glands. Monoclonal antibodies Roth-MAb T46.2 and T42D.2 labeled the nematode amphids and molecules present in the nematode oesophagus (metacorpus), respectively.

  1. Soybean-Peanut Rotations for the Management of Meloidogyne arenaria

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez-Kábana, R.; Robertson, D. G.; Backman, P A; Ivey, H.

    1988-01-01

    Rotating soybean (Glycine max cv. Kirby) with peanut (Arachis hypogaea cv. Florunner) for managing Meloidogyne arenaria race 1 was studied for 3 years (1985-87) in a field near Headland, Alabama. Each year soybean plots had lower soil numbers of M. arenaria second-stage juveniles (J2) at peanut harvest than did plots in peanut monocnlture. Peanut following either 1 or 2 years of soybean resulted in approximately 50% reduction in J2 soil population densities and a 14% (1-year soybean) or 20% (...

  2. Interaction Between Meloidogyne arenaria and Glomus fascicuqlatus in Grape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atilano, R A; Menge, J A; Gundy, S D

    1981-01-01

    Root zones of grape (Fitis vinifera cv Thompson Seedless) cuttings were infested with chlamydospores of Glomus fasciculatus or eggs of Meloidogyne arenaria or both. Growth of grapevines was greatest in mycorrhizal (G. fasciculatus) plants. Mycorrhizal development and growth of mycorrhizal and nonmycorrhizal plants were reduced in the presence of M. arenaria. At low initial nematode inoculum (PI) levels (approx. 200 eggs/plant), the presence of mycorrhizae enhanced plant growth during 1 yr, but no significant benefit was achieved by mycorrhizae where PI was high (approx. 2,000 eggs/plant). Final nematode populations were highest in mycorrhizal plants. PMID:19300722

  3. Comparison of Nematode Population Densities on Six Summer Crops at Seven Sites in North Florida

    OpenAIRE

    McSorley, R.; Gallaher, R. N.

    1992-01-01

    Densities of plant-parasitic nematodes were compared on six crops grown for forage during the summer of 1991 at seven sites in north central Florida. The cropping treatments were 'Howard' soybean (Glycine max), 'Deltapine 105' soybean, velvetbean (Mucuna deeringiana), 'California Blackeye #5' cowpea (Vigna unguiculata), 'Pioneer 3098' tropical corn (Zea mays), and 'Asgrow Chaparral' sorghum (Sorghum bicolor). Highest final densities (Pf) of Meloidogyne incognita and Criconemella spp. were obt...

  4. Influence of Glomus fasciculatum and Meloidogyne hapla on Allium cepa in Organic Soils

    OpenAIRE

    Kotcon, J. B.; Bird, G. W.; Rose, L.M.; Dimoff, K.

    1985-01-01

    The influence of Meloidogyne hapla and Glomus fasciculatum on Allium cepa (onion) grown in organic soil was evaluated under greenhouse conditions. In the absence of G. fasciculatum, M. hapla significantly retarded the growth of A. cepa cv. Krummery Special and MSU 8155 × 826, but had no detrimental influence on Downing Yellow Globe, Spartan Banner, or Spartan Sleeper. All five cultivars maintained populations of M. hapla, Final root population densities of M. hapla associated with Spartan Ban...

  5. Resistance to Meloidogyne paranaensis in wild Coffea arabica / Avaliação da resistência de cafeeiros silvestres (Coffea arabica) a Meloidogyne paranaensis

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Marc, Boisseau; Jamel, Aribi; Fábio Rodriguez de, Sousa; Regina M.D.G., Carneiro; François, Anthony.

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Foram avaliados quanto à resistência a Meloidogyne paranaensis, nove acessos de cafeeiros silvestres incluindo dois cultivares bem caracterizados como testemunhas de suscetibilidade e resistência. Os experimentos foram realizados sob condições controladas em câmara de crescimento, utilizando uma pop [...] ulação clonal de M. paranaensis (fenótipo de esterase P1), proveniente do Brasil. A resistência e a suscetibilidade ao nematóide foram avaliadas com base no número total de nematóides por planta (ovos + J2) e por grama de raiz e no fator de reprodução (FR). Todos os acessos mostraram resposta à infecção por M. paranaensis similar à da testemunha resistente (FR Abstract in english Nine accessions of wild Coffea arabica from Ethiopia were evaluated for resistance to Meloidogyne paranaensis. Two well-characterized susceptible and resistant cultivars were used as comparative controls. The experiments were conducted in a growth chamber using a clonal population of M. paranaensis [...] (esterase phenotype P1) originating from Brazil. Resistance and susceptibility to the nematode were evaluated using the number of nematodes (eggs and J2) per plant, number of nematodes per gram of root and the reproduction factor (RF). All wild coffee accessions expressed a resistance response to M. paranaensis similar to that of the resistant control Nemaya (RF

  6. Effets de l'iboga (Tabernanthe iboga Baillon sur les nématodes à galles (Meloidogyne sp. parasites de tomate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bayonne, L.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Effects of Iboga (Tabernanthe iboga Baillon on the Root-Knot Nematodes (Meloidogyne sp. in Tomato. The tomato crop in tropical areas arises phytosanitary problems because of many disastrous parasites among which the Meloidogyne genus are in the origin of important damages and the origin of the tomato production decrease in Gabon. How can people manage to control these parasites by using local plants? Out of the chemical control, the works we have done, focused on the usage of Tabernanthe iboga as a biological control agent of crop protection. The results of these experiences show that the iboga decoction seems to be able to reduce considerably the Meloidogyne population, and to protect the crop.

  7. Tinea Incognita in a Patient with Crest Syndrome: Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorgievska-Sukarovska, Biljana; Skerlev, Mihael; Žele-Star?evi?, Lidija

    2015-09-01

    Tinea incognita is a dermatophytic infection that is difficult to diagnose, usually modified by inappropriate topical or systemic corticosteroid therapy. We report an extensive case of tinea incognita caused by the zoophilic dermatophyte Trichophyton mentagrophytes (var. granulosa) in a 49-year-old female patient with CREST (Calcinosis; Raynaud phenomenon; Esophageal involvement; Sclerodactyly; Teleangiectasia) syndrome. Immunocompromised patients, as well as patients with keratinization disorders, seem to be especially susceptible to dermatophytic infections with atypical clinical presentation that is sometimes bizarre and difficult to recognize. Therefore, close monitoring and mycological skin examination is recommended in order to avoid misdiagnosis and to give the patient the best chance of recovery. PMID:26476904

  8. Influence of Rotation Crops on the Strawberry Pathogens Pratylenchus penetrans, Meloidogyne hapla, and Rhizoctonia fragariae

    OpenAIRE

    LaMondia, J.A.

    1999-01-01

    Field microplot, small plot, and greenhouse experiments were conducted to determine the effects of rotation crops on Pratylenchus penetrans, Meloidogyne hapla, and Rhizoctonia fragariae populations. Extraction of P. penetrans from roots and soil in microplots and field plots planted to rotation crops was highest for Garry oat, lowest for Triple S sorgho-sudangrass and Saia oat, and intermediate for strawberry, buckwheat, and canola. Isolation of R. fragariae from bait roots was highest for st...

  9. Interrelations between Meloidogyne javanica, Rotylenchulus reniformis, and Rhizobium Sp. on Vigna sinensis

    OpenAIRE

    Taha, A. H. Y.; Kassab, A.S.

    1980-01-01

    The interactions of Meloidogyne javanica, Rotylenchulus reniformis, and Rhizobium sp. on cowpea seedlings were investigated. Upon simultaneous inoculation with the two nematode species, M. javanica invaded first but did not affect root invasion by R. reniformis. M. javanica populations increased less in competition with R. reniformis than when present alone. Preinvasion by R. renilormis significantly suppressed the number of M. javanica in the roots. Inoculation of M. javanica and/or R. renif...

  10. Interaction between Meloidogyne enterolobii and Helicotylenchus dihysteroides in guava seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicente Martins Gomes

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate the effect of joint infection by Meloidogyne enterolobii and Helicotylenchus dihysteroides on vegetative growth of guava seedlings (Psidium guajava L., as well as to observe symptoms caused by pathogens in host plants, an experiment was conducted in microplots. In these experimental units, suspensions were used containing H. dihysteroides and M. enterolobii. The plants were separately inoculated with H. dihysteroides and jointly inoculated with H. dihysteroides and M. enterolobii, and the blank controls were represented by noninoculated plants. No significant differences were observed between treatments related to morpho-physiological variables of guava seedlings, but joint inoculation resulted in a reduced final population of H. dihysteroides. It was also concluded that neither infection by H. dihysteroides alone nor a joint infection by the two pathogens caused any damage to guava seedlings.

  11. Efecto de las micorrizas arbusculares y Meloidogyne spp. en tomate (Solanum lycopersicum L.) / Effect of arbuscular mycorrhizas and Meloidogyne spp. on tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Alejandro, Alarcón; Tony, Boicet; María, Godefoy; Macario, Bacilio-Jiménez; Wilson, Ceiro; Yurdanys, Bazán.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available El estudio se desarrolló en la Universidad de Granma (Cuba) en el período comprendido de octubre/2007 a enero/2008, para determinar los efectos de las micorrizas arbusculares y Meloidogyne spp., en el cultivo del tomate (Solanum lycopersicum L.) cv. Vyta. Se utilizaron siete tratamientos, consistent [...] es en aplicaciones simples y combinadas de un concentrado de cepas nativas y no nativas de micorrizas (Glomus mosseae (Gerdemann y Trappe) y Glomus sp. (Schenck y Smith), incluyendo un testigo y dos niveles poblacionales de Meloidogyne spp., con 30 repeticiones, los cuales se establecieron sobre un diseño completamente aleatorizado en condiciones semi-controladas, con arreglo factorial. Se utilizaron macetas de 2 kg de capacidad, que contenían un sustrato estéril, compuesto por una mezcla de suelo y estiércol ovino en proporción 3:1 v:v y una población de Meloidogyne spp. procedente de Granma. Se evaluaron las variables: índice de agallamiento e indicadores del crecimiento de las plantas: altura promedio (cm), masa seca promedio (g) y el rendimiento (kg.planta-1) a los 60 días después de la inoculación del nematodo. Los datos fueron procesados mediante un análisis de varianza y comparación de medias por la prueba del rango múltiple de Duncan (p Abstract in english This study was carried out at the University of Granma (Cuba) from October 2007 to January 2008 in order to determine the effect of arbuscular mycorrhizas and Meloidogyne spp. on tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.), var. Vyta. Seven treatments of single or combined applications of native and non-native [...] strains(Glomus mosseae (Gerdemann and Trappe), and Glomus sp. (Schenck and Smith), of arbuscular mycorrhizas and an uninoculated control) and two levels of Meloidogine spp. were included in a completely randomized design set up in a factorial arrangement with thirty replicates under semi-controlled conditions. Two kg plastic pots containing a sterile substrate with a mixture of soil and ovine manure in a 3:1 v:v. ratio, as well as a population of Meloidogyne spp. from Granma were used. The gall index and plant growth parameters such as average height (cm), average dry weight (g) and crop yield (kg.plant-1) were evaluated 60 days after nematode inoculation. The data were analyzed by an analysis of variance and the means compared by Duncan's multiple range test (p

  12. Effects of catechins and low temperature on embryonic development and hatching in Heterodera glycines and Meloidogyne incognita

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mimics of two natural influences, a chemical similar to one present in cyst nematodes and low temperature exposure of nematode eggs, were evaluated for their effects on quantitative and qualitative features of embryonic development and hatching. The polyphenol epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), an ana...

  13. Ovicidal activity of lactic acid produced by Lysobacter capsici YS1215 on eggs of root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yong Seong; Naning, Kyaw Wai; Nguyen, Xuan Hoa; Kim, Sun Bae; Moon, Jae Hak; Kim, Kil Yong

    2014-11-28

    Lysobacter capsici YS1215 isolated from soil previously showed nematicidal potential for biological control of the root-knot nematode. In this study, lactic acid, a nematicidal compound, was isolated from culture filtrate of YS1215, and its ovicidal activity was investigated. Purification and identification of lactic acid were performed by a series of column chromatographies and identified by (1)H and (13)C NMR spectra and GC-MS analysis. Our results showed that bacterial culture filtrate containing lactic acid significantly inhibited egg hatching. The lowest egg hatch rate (5.9%) was found at a high concentration (25 ?l/ml) of lactic acid at 5 days after incubation, followed by 20 (15.2%), 15 (23.7%), 10 (29.8%), and 5 (36.4%) ?l/ml, while egg hatching in the control (sterile distilled water) was 44.5%. This is the first report of lactic acid as an ovicidal compound, and it may be considered as an alternative of chemical pesticide against root-knot nematodes. PMID:25085571

  14. Transgenic tobacco plants constitutively expressing Arabidopsis NPR1 show enhanced resistance to root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita

    OpenAIRE

    Prasad JS; Somasekhar N; Priya D Bhanu; Kirti PB

    2011-01-01

    Abstract In Arabidopsis, non-expressor of pathogenesis related genes-1, NPR1 has been shown to be a positive regulator of the salicylic acid controlled systemic acquired resistance pathway and modulates the cross talk between SA and JA signaling. Transgenic plants expressing AtNPR1 constitutively exhibited resistance against pathogens as well as herbivory. In the present study, tobacco transgenic plants expressing AtNPR1 were studied further for their response to infection by the sedentary en...

  15. Relationship Between Heterodera schachtii, Meloidogyne hapla, and Nacobbus aberrans on Sugarbeet

    OpenAIRE

    Inserra, R. N.; Griffin, G D; Vovlas, N.; J.L. Anderson; Kerr, E D

    1984-01-01

    Heterodera schachtii, Meloidogyne hapla, and Nacobbus aberrans either alone, or in various combinations with each other, can, when inoculated at a concentration of 12 second-stage juveniles/ cm³ of soil, cause a significant (P = 0.01) suppression of growth of sugarbeet (cv. Tasco AH14) seedlings. M. hapla and H. schachtii decreased growth of sugarbeet more than N. aberrans over a 60-day period. The adverse effect of N. aberrans on the final population/initial population (Pf/Pi) ratio for eith...

  16. Host Status of Crotalaria juncea, Sesamum indicum, Dolichos lablab, and Elymus glaucus to Meloidogyne javanica

    OpenAIRE

    Araya, M.; Caswell-Chen, E.P.

    1994-01-01

    Reproduction of Meloidogyne javanica on Crotalaria juncea PI 207657 and cv. Tropic Sun, Sesamum indicum, Dolichos lablab, and Elymus glaucus was assessed using a root-gall index, a reproductive index obtained by dividing the final population of juveniles (J2) in soil by the initial J2 population (Pf/Pi), and the number of J2 per gram of root recovered from roots by mist chamber extraction. Lycopersicon esculentum (cv. UC 204 C) was included as a susceptible host. The root-gall index and soil ...

  17. Meloidogyne paranaensis n. sp. (Nemata: Meloidogynidae), a Root-Knot Nematode Parasitizing Coffee in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carneiro, R M; Carneiro, R G; Abrantes, I M; Santos, M S; Almeida, M R

    1996-06-01

    A root-knot nematode parasitizing coffee in Paran State, Brazil, is described as Meloidogyne paranaensis n. sp. The suggested common name is Paraná coffee root-knot nematode. The perineal pattern is similar to that of M. incognita; the labial disc and medial lips of the female are fused and asymmetric and rectangular; the lateral lips are small, triangular, and fused laterally with the head region. The female stylet is 15.0-17.5 mum long, with broad, distinctly set-off knobs; the distance from the dorsal esophageal gland orifice (DGO) to the stylet base is 4.2-5.5 mum. Males have a high, round head cap continuous with the body contour. The labial disc is fused with the medial lips to form an elongate lip structure. The head region is frequently marked by an incomplete annulation. The stylet is robust, 20-27 mum long, usually with round to transversely elongate knobs, sometimes with one or two projections protruding from the shaft. The stylet length of second-stage juveniles is 13-14 mum, the distance of the DGO to the stylet base is 4.0-4.5 mum, and the tail length is 48-51 mum. Biochemically, the esterase (F) and malate dehydrogenase (N) phenotypes are the most useful characters to differentiate M. paranaensis from other species. However, the esterase phenotype appears similar to that of M. konaensis. Reproduction is by mitotic parthenogenesis, 3n = 50-52. In differential host tests, tobacco, watermelon, and tomato were good hosts, whereas cotton, pepper, and peanut were nonhosts. PMID:19277133

  18. Effect of Aldicarb, Ethoprop, and Carbofuran on Control of Coffee Root-knot Nematode, Meloidogyne exigua.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, S P; Resende, I C; de Souza, D E; Campos, V P

    1983-10-01

    Egg hatch of Meloidogyne exigua was significantly inhibited in 14 days pretreatment with aldicarb, ethoprop, or carbofnran at concentrations higher than 0.1 mug/ml; these eggs were found to delay hatch in 19 days posttreatment in ethoprop. Aldicarb and carbofuran solutions at concentrations greater than 0.1 mug/ml significantly decreased the motility and the life span of the second-stage juveniles; aldicarb was more toxic than carbofuran to the nematode. In a field test, aldicarb (Temik 10G), ethoprop (Mocap 10G), and carbofuran (Furadan 5G and Furadan Liquid 350F) significantly decreased M. exigua populations. PMID:19295839

  19. A mathematic model for the interaction between Meloidogyne spp. and Pasteuria penetrans / Modelo matemático de la interacción entre Meloidogyne spp. y Pasteuria penetrans

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ileana, Miranda; Lucila, Gómez; Hugo L., Benítez; Yoannia, Castillo; Dainé, Hernández-Ochandía; Mayra G., Rodríguez.

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available El estudio de algunos aspectos de la regulación del crecimiento de los nematodos agalleros del género Meloidogyne Goeldi por la acción de la bacteria Pasteuria penetrans, permitió proponer un modelo matemático para predecir la dinámica de ambos organismos. El modelo incluye 11 ecuaciones diferencial [...] es y 31 constantes biológicas que describen las fases de desarrollo del nematodo y su relación con la bacteria. Para simular el comportamiento real de las poblaciones, las constantes, que representan parámetros biológicos, deberán ser evaluadas en condiciones controladas similares a la del microcosmo del suelo. Abstract in english Some aspects of Meloidogyne spp. (root-knot nematode) growth regulation by the gram-negative bacterium Pasteuria penetrans were reviewed. The study allowed the construction of a mathematical model to predict the dynamics of both organisms. The model includes 11 differential equations and 31biologica [...] l constants describing the life-cycle of the nematode and its relationship with the bacterium. To simulate the real behavior of the populations, the constants, which represent biological parameters, have to be evaluated under controlled conditions similar to those of soil microcosm.

  20. The terra incognita of exotic nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atomic nuclei are made of nucleons, protons and neutrons, composed of quarks strongly interacting via gluons. ''How such complex objects as particles and nuclei are built?'', remains a fundamental question. A new ''frontier'' of subatomic physics is the exploration of exotic nuclei, elements and isotopes not stable enough to have survived on Earth. Exotic nuclei populate vast unknown regions of the nuclear chart where many unexpected structures have recently been discovered. Exotic nuclei synthesized in laboratory allow large variation of the neutron and proton chemical composition of nuclear systems needed to uncover the true nature of the subatomic structures and to understand the origin of elements in the Universe. (author)

  1. Efecto de poblaciones de Meloidogyne sp. en el desarrollo y rendimiento del tomate

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Wilber, Salazar-Antón; Tomás de Jesús, Guzmán-Hernández.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Efecto de poblaciones de Meloidogyne sp. en el desarrollo y rendimiento del tomate. El objetivo de este trabajo fue determinar el efecto de la población inicial de Meloidogyne sp. en el cultivo del tomate. El estudio se realizó en León, Nicaragua en el año 2011. Las variables medidas fueron número d [...] e nematodos al trasplante y al momento de la cosecha, altura de la planta al momento de la madurez fisiológica y el rendimiento en kilogramos. La extracción de nematodos se realizó mediante el método de Baermann modificado. En el estudio, la densidad inicial (Pi) presentó una correlación lineal positiva con la densidad final (Pf). Sin embargo, se observó que cuando la Pi era igual a 400 nematodos/100 g de suelo, el factor de reproducción se incrementaba a 3,64; por el contrario, cuando la Pi era igual a 700 nematodos/100 g de suelo, el factor de reproducción se reducía a 2,48. La Pi se correlacionó inversamente con el peso de frutos y altura de las plantas. Plantas con 200 nematodos/100 g de suelo presentaban peso de frutos de 2,19 kg y altura de 153,20 cm en comparación con 0,93 kg y 135,24 cm en plantas con 600 nematodos/100 g de suelo. Existió una correlación positiva entre Pi y Pf de Meloidogyne sp. en el tomate. Las poblaciones de este nematodo, se correlacionaron inversamente con las variables altura y peso de los frutos. Abstract in english Effect of Meloidogyne sp. on growth and yield of tomato. The objective of this work was to determinate the relationship between initial density and final density of Meloidogyne sp in tomato crop. The study was carried out at León, Nicaragua during 2011. The variables measured were number of nematode [...] s at transplant, number of nematodes at harvest time, height at maturity of plants and yield in kilograms. Nematode extraction was performed through the Baermann modified method. In the study, the initial density (Pi) showed a positive linear correlation with the final density (Pf). However, it was observed that when Pi was equal to 400 nematodes/100 g of soil, the reproduction factor was increased to 3.64, on the contrary, when Pi was equal to 700 nematodes/100 g of soil, reproduction factor was reduced to 2.48. Pi was inversely correlated to weight of tomato fruits and height of plants. Plants with 200 nematodes/100 g of soil had fruit weight 2.19 kg and height 153.20 cm compared to 0.93 kg and 135.24 cm in plants with 600 nematodes/100 g of soil. There was a positive correlation between Pi and Pf of Meloidogyne sp. in tomatoes. The populations of this nematode, were inversely correlated with plant height and fruits weight.

  2. Efeito de indutores de resistência sobre Meloidogyne exigua do cafeeiro / Effect of resistance inducers on Meloidogyne exígua of coffee

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Sônia Maria de Lima, Salgado; Mário Lúcio Vilela, Resende; Vicente Paulo, Campos.

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available A possibilidade de manejo de Meloidogyne exigua Goeldi, 1887, pela ativação de mecanismos de defesa no cafeeiro representa uma alternativa potencialmente útil no manejo desse patógeno. Com este trabalho, objetivou-se avaliar a eclosão e mortalidade de juvenis do segundo estádio (J2) de M. exigua na [...] presença de produtos indutores de resistência e avaliar o efeito do acibenzolar-S-metil (ASM, Bion®) na indução de resistência do cafeeiro (Coffea arabica L.) 'Catuaí- 144' contra M. exigua. A eclosão e mortalidade do J2 foram avaliadas no ASM e ácido salicílico (AS) nas dosagens de 0,2; 0,35 e 0,5 g. i. a./L; e no fosfito de potássio (Hortifós® PK) e silicato de potássio (Supa-potássio®) nas dosagens 5,0; 7,5 e 10,0 mL/L, empregando água e aldicarbe como testemunhas. No segundo ensaio o ASM (0,2 g i.a./L) foi aplicado na quantidade de 125 mL por planta de 'Catuaí-144' com um ano de idade, via pulverização foliar e diretamente ao solo aos 7 dias antes da inoculação e aos 2 e 7 dias após a inoculação de aproximadamente 7000 ovos de M. exigua/planta. Foram utilizadas 8 plantas/tratamento/bloco, totalizando 6 tratamentos (3 épocas de aplicação do ASM), testemunhas absoluta e inoculada, em 4 blocos. Aos 90 dias da inoculação, foi feita a avaliação da população final (número de ovos e juvenis de M. exigua), número de galhas, fator de reprodução (população final/população inicial) e peso da matéria fresca da raiz. A dosagem dos produtos não influenciou a eclosão e mortalidade dos J2 de M. exigua. Menor eclosão dos J2 de M. exigua ocorreu igualmente no Supa-potássio® e ácido salicílico, enquanto que a eclosão no ASM e na água foi igual (P Abstract in english The parasitism of coffee roots by Meloidogyne exigua Goeldi, 1887, widespread nematode in the main producing regions, can provoke a series of modifications in the normal development of the plant. The induction of resistance for the activation of existing latent mechanisms of defense in plants repres [...] ents a potentially useful alternative for the management of M. exigua in coffee plantations. In a first assay, the present work aimed at evaluating hatching and mortality of second stage juveniles (J2) of M. exigua in solutions of acibenzolar-S-metil (ASM, Bion®) and salicylic acid (SA) at the dosages of 0.2, 0.35 and 0.5 g. of a. i./L and Supa-potássio® (potassium silicate), Hortifós® PK (potassium phosphite) at the dosages 5.0; 7.5 and 10.0 mL/L, using water and aldicarb as control. The effect of ASM (0.2 g of a.i./L) was also evaluated by foliar and drench applications at 7 days before inoculation and at 2 and 7 days after inoculation of 7000 eggs of M. exigua/plant. The hatching of M. exigua J2 was inhibited in potassium silicate and in salicylic acid solutions independent of the used dosage, while J2 hatching in ASM and water was equal and significantly lower than J2 hatching verified in potassium phosphite. The mortality of J2 in SA was next to 100% and equal to the observed in aldicarb (500 ppm). The remaining products caused the same mortality of J2, however lesser than the observed in water. At ninety days of the inoculation of M. exigua on seedlings, the final population (number of eggs + J2), number of galls, reproduction factor (final population/initial population) and fresh weight of roots of plants treated with ASM did not differed significantly from control (inoculated plants).

  3. Efeito de indutores de resistência sobre Meloidogyne exigua do cafeeiro Effect of resistance inducers on Meloidogyne exígua of coffee

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sônia Maria de Lima Salgado

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available A possibilidade de manejo de Meloidogyne exigua Goeldi, 1887, pela ativação de mecanismos de defesa no cafeeiro representa uma alternativa potencialmente útil no manejo desse patógeno. Com este trabalho, objetivou-se avaliar a eclosão e mortalidade de juvenis do segundo estádio (J2 de M. exigua na presença de produtos indutores de resistência e avaliar o efeito do acibenzolar-S-metil (ASM, Bion® na indução de resistência do cafeeiro (Coffea arabica L. 'Catuaí- 144' contra M. exigua. A eclosão e mortalidade do J2 foram avaliadas no ASM e ácido salicílico (AS nas dosagens de 0,2; 0,35 e 0,5 g. i. a./L; e no fosfito de potássio (Hortifós® PK e silicato de potássio (Supa-potássio® nas dosagens 5,0; 7,5 e 10,0 mL/L, empregando água e aldicarbe como testemunhas. No segundo ensaio o ASM (0,2 g i.a./L foi aplicado na quantidade de 125 mL por planta de 'Catuaí-144' com um ano de idade, via pulverização foliar e diretamente ao solo aos 7 dias antes da inoculação e aos 2 e 7 dias após a inoculação de aproximadamente 7000 ovos de M. exigua/planta. Foram utilizadas 8 plantas/tratamento/bloco, totalizando 6 tratamentos (3 épocas de aplicação do ASM, testemunhas absoluta e inoculada, em 4 blocos. Aos 90 dias da inoculação, foi feita a avaliação da população final (número de ovos e juvenis de M. exigua, número de galhas, fator de reprodução (população final/população inicial e peso da matéria fresca da raiz. A dosagem dos produtos não influenciou a eclosão e mortalidade dos J2 de M. exigua. Menor eclosão dos J2 de M. exigua ocorreu igualmente no Supa-potássio® e ácido salicílico, enquanto que a eclosão no ASM e na água foi igual (P The parasitism of coffee roots by Meloidogyne exigua Goeldi, 1887, widespread nematode in the main producing regions, can provoke a series of modifications in the normal development of the plant. The induction of resistance for the activation of existing latent mechanisms of defense in plants represents a potentially useful alternative for the management of M. exigua in coffee plantations. In a first assay, the present work aimed at evaluating hatching and mortality of second stage juveniles (J2 of M. exigua in solutions of acibenzolar-S-metil (ASM, Bion® and salicylic acid (SA at the dosages of 0.2, 0.35 and 0.5 g. of a. i./L and Supa-potássio® (potassium silicate, Hortifós® PK (potassium phosphite at the dosages 5.0; 7.5 and 10.0 mL/L, using water and aldicarb as control. The effect of ASM (0.2 g of a.i./L was also evaluated by foliar and drench applications at 7 days before inoculation and at 2 and 7 days after inoculation of 7000 eggs of M. exigua/plant. The hatching of M. exigua J2 was inhibited in potassium silicate and in salicylic acid solutions independent of the used dosage, while J2 hatching in ASM and water was equal and significantly lower than J2 hatching verified in potassium phosphite. The mortality of J2 in SA was next to 100% and equal to the observed in aldicarb (500 ppm. The remaining products caused the same mortality of J2, however lesser than the observed in water. At ninety days of the inoculation of M. exigua on seedlings, the final population (number of eggs + J2, number of galls, reproduction factor (final population/initial population and fresh weight of roots of plants treated with ASM did not differed significantly from control (inoculated plants.

  4. Reação de genótipos e híbridos de tomateiro à Meloidogyne enterolobii / Reaction of tomato genotypes and hybrids to Meloidogyne enterolobii

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Juliana Magrinelli Osório, Rosa; Juliana Nogueira, Westerich; Silvia Renata Siciliano, Wilcken.

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available A meloidoginose tem sido considerada uma das mais importantes doenças da cultura do tomate. O uso de tomateiros resistentes ao nematoide das galhas é medida bastante utilizada no controle de diferentes espécies, entretanto, a reação de tomateiros à Meloidogyne enterolobii ainda é pouco conhecida. Po [...] rtanto, objetivou-se a determinação da reprodução de M. enterolobii em dez híbridos de tomate (Absoluto, Cascade, Cordillera, Donatto, Ellen, Fascínio, Laura, Marguerita, Nícolas e Sanni) e dois genótipos experimentais (05 tom0041 e 08 tom00345). Os ensaios foram conduzidos em casa de vegetação e em BOD (25°C), com cinco e três repetições por tratamento, respectivamente. A infestação do substrato foi realizada com 5.000 ovos e eventuais juvenis de segundo estádio de M. enterolobii/vaso, dois dias após o transplante das plântulas. A avaliação do índice de galhas, índice de massa de ovos, população final e fator de reprodução foi realizada 60 dias após a inoculação. Em ambos os ensaios, verificou-se a suscetibilidade de todos os genótipos e híbridos avaliados. Abstract in english The diseases caused by root-knot nematodes on tomato have been considered as the most dangerous for this crop. This research aimed to study the reaction of ten tomato hybrids (Absoluto, Cascade, Cordillera, Donatto, Ellen, Fascínio, Laura, Marguerita, Nícolas and Sanni) and two genotypes (05 tom0041 [...] and 08 tom00345) to M. enterolobii. The experiments were developed out separately in a greenhouse and BOD (25°C). The substrate inoculation was made with 5,000 eggs and second stage juveniles of M. enterolobii. The variables gall and egg mass indexes, final population and the reproduction factor were determined 60 days after inoculation. On both experiments, all the genotypes and hybrids were susceptible to M. enterolobii.

  5. Ocorrência de Meloidogyne ethiopica no Paraná e reação de cultivares de batata ao nematoide das galhas / Meloidogyne ethiopica report in Parana state, Brazil, and reaction of potato cultivars to root-knot nematode

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Israel, L-Medina; Víctor, HC-Coila; Cesar B, Gomes; Arione S, Pereira; Nilceu RX, Nazareno.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Plantas de batata das cultivares Agata e Caesar debilitadas, com sistema radicular repleto de galhas e empipocamento severo nos tubérculos causado pelo nematoide das galhas (Meloidogyne sp.), foram detectadas em Contenda, município produtor tradicional do estado do Paraná. Posteriormente, fêmeas ad [...] ultas do nematoide foram extraídas das raízes e tubérculos e submetidas à eletroforese identificando-se Meloidogyne ethiopica (Est E3) pelo perfil das bandas esterásticas reveladas. Utilizando-se uma população pura de M. ethiopica, plantas de batata de diferentes genótipos, mantidas em casa de vegetação em vasos contendo solo esterilizado, foram inoculadas com 5.000 ovos + juvenis de 2o estádio do nematoide por planta. Decorridos 55 dias da inoculação, cada planta foi avaliada quanto ao número de galhas e número de ovos, determinando-se o fator de reprodução do nematoide (FR) nos diferentes materiais testados. A cultivar Eliza comportou-se como moderadamente resistente a M. ethiopica; 'Ana', 'Bel', 'Agata' e 'Catucha', como moderadamente suscetíveis; 'Clara', 'Asterix', 'Cris' e 'Cota', suscetíveis (FR>4,00); e 'Caesar', como altamente suscetível. Abstract in english Potato plants of cultivars Agata and Caesar attacked by root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne sp.) showing root systems with multiple galls and protuberances in tubers were detected in Contenda, municipality traditionally producer of the Paraná state. Adult female of Meloidogyne sp. extracted from the pot [...] ato roots and tubers and submitted to electrophoresis showed esterastic band profile as Meloidogyne ethiopica (Est E3). Using a pure population of M. ethiopica, potato plants of different cultivars, kept in pots with sterilized soil in greenhouse, were inoculated with 5,000 eggs + second stage juvenile of the nematode. Fifty-five days after the inoculation, each plant was evaluated by counting the number of galls and eggs, and determined the nematode reproduction factor (RF) in the different tested genotypes. The cultivar Eliza behaved as moderately resistant to M. ethiopica; 'Ana', 'Bel', 'Agata', and 'Catucha', as moderately susceptible; 'Clara', 'Asterix', 'Cris', and 'Cota', susceptible; and 'Caesar', as highly susceptible.

  6. Parasitismo de Meloidogyne enterolobii em espécies de myrtaceae / Parasitism of Meloidogyne enterolobii in myrtaceae species

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Luiza Suely Semen, Martins; Rosimar dos Santos, Musser; Aline das Graças, Souza; Luciane Vilela, Resende; Wilson Roberto, Maluf.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available A meloidoginose da goiabeira, causada por M. enterolobii (= M. mayaguensis), é hoje considerado o principal problema fitossanitário desta cultura em todo o País, pois sua incidência resulta em acentuada queda de produtividade e, na maioria das vezes, a morte das plantas em médio prazo. Visando a seu [...] controle, objetivou-se neste trabalho identificar fontes de resistência em goiabeira Psidium guajava L e araçazeiro Psidium sp.. Foram avaliados onze genótipos oriundos do Câmpus da Universidade Federal de Lavras (UFLA) e de regiões próximas ao município de Lavras (MG). As sementes foram coletadas de frutos fisiologicamente maduros e germinadas em piscinas hidropônicas. Ao atingirem 12 cm de altura, foram transferidas para casa de vegetação, em vasos individuais, e mantidas a temperatura entre 18-38°C. Após quinze dias, foram inoculados individualmente com suspensão de 10.000 ovos e juvenis de segundo estádio (J2) de M. enterolobii e avaliadas após 120 dias. As reações dos hospedeiros foram enquadradas nos parâmetros estabelecidos pelo fator de reprodução FR, estimado pelo quociente Pf/Pi, em que Pf representa a população final e Pi a população inicial. O delineamento utilizado foi o inteiramente casualizado, com 11 genótipos, uma espécie de nematoide e seis repetições, sendo duas plantas em cada genótipo adicionadas como controle. Quatro meses depois, foram avaliados os teores foliares de macro e micronutrientes e o grau de infecção de cada genótipo. A produção média de ovos e J2 de M. enterolobii variou de 200 a 428.146,1, e os fatores de reprodução (FR) médios variaram de 0,02(ALU1) a 42,81(A-PASTO). Os genótipos de araçazeiro (Psidium spp.) AUFLA1, AUFLA4, AUFLA5 e APASTO e os genótipos de goiabeira (P. guajava) G-ROXA e G-AMAR foram considerados suscetíveis. Os genótipos de araçazeiro ALU1, ALU2, ALU3, AROXO-C e AROXO-U mostraram-se resistentes, reforçando a necessidade de trabalhos complementares com essas espécies para uso como porta-enxerto em cultivares comerciais de goiabeira. A absorção de macro e micronutrientes é alterada quando os genótipos de Psidium spp. são inoculados com o fitonematoide M. enterolobii. Abstract in english Guava tree root-knot, caused by M. enterolobii (= M. mayaguensis), is today regarded as the main phytosanitary problem of this crop all over the country, for its incidence results into marked yield fall and most of the time, the death of the plant on a medium term. Aiming at its control, it was inte [...] nded in this study to identify resistance sources on guava tree, Psidium guajava L and Surinam cherry tree, Psidium sp. Eleven genotypes coming from the campus of the Federal University of Lavras (UFLA - Universidade Federal de Lavras) and regions close to Lavras (MG) were evaluated. The seeds were collected from physiologically ripe fruits and germinated in hydroponic pools. Reaching 12 cm high, they were transferred to the greenhouse in individual pots and kept at the temperature between 18 to 38°C. After fifteen days, they were inoculated with a suspension of 10,000 eggs and J2 of M. enterolobii and evaluated after 120 days. The hosts' reactions were fitted in the parameters established by the reproduction factor FR, estimated by the Pf/Pi quotient, where Pf stands for the final population and Pi the initial population and by the gall index (IG) and index of egg mass (IMO) through the score scale of the International Meloidogyne Project (IMP). The design utilized was the completely randomized with 11 genotypes, one nematode species and six replicates, that is, two plants in each genotype being added as a control. Four months later, the leaf contents of macro and micronutrients and degree of infection of each genotype were evaluated. The average yield of eggs and J2 of M. enterolobii ranged from 200 to 428,146.1 and the average reproduction factors (FR) varied from 0.02(ALU1) to 42.81(A-PASTO). The genotypes of Surinam cherry (Psidium spp.) AUFLA1, AUFLA4, AUFLA5 and APASTO and the genotypes of guava (P. g

  7. REDUÇÃO DA TAXA DE EXPANSÃO FOLIAR DE TOMATEIROS PARASITADOS POR Meloidogyne javanica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BELAN, Leônidas Leoni

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Among the problems affecting tomato production phytopatogens are the most important.Among these, nematodes of the genus Meloidogyne cause large annual economic yield losses in tomatocultivation around the world. The knowledge of the physiological indices of growth is extremely important in theinterpretation of pathogen-host-environment relationships. This way, the effect of growing populations of M.javanica (Treub on the leaf area expansion rate (LAX during the early development of cherry tomato accesswas evaluated. The negative effects of nematodes were expressed in early development of tomato plants. Therewas linear increase in population (FP of M. javanica in all cherry tomato access as it was increased the initiallevel of nematode, resulting in reduction of linear TEAF. Thus any management practice that reduces thenematode population of soil during the growing season of tomatoes, will may favor the growth and developmentof plants and subsequently the production.Entre os problemas que mais afetam a produção do tomateiro estão os fitopatógenos. Dentreesses, os nematoides do gênero Meloidogyne causam consideráveis perdas econômicas anuais no cultivo detomate em todo o mundo. O conhecimento dos índices fisiológicos de crescimento é extremamente importantena interpretação das relações patógeno-hospedeiro-ambiente. Neste contexto, quantificou-se a influência doparasitismo de populações crescentes de M. javanica (Treub sobre a taxa expansão da área foliar (TEAF nafase de desenvolvimento inicial de acessos de tomateiro tipo cereja. Os efeitos negativos do parasitismo dosnematoides se manifestaram na fase inicial de desenvolvimento das plantas. Verificou-se crescimento linear dapopulação final (PF de M. javanica em todos os acessos de tomateiro cereja avaliados à medida que seaumentou o nível do inóculo inicial do nematoide, ocasionando redução linear da TEAF. Dessa forma, práticasde manejo que reduzam a população de nematoides do solo durante a fase vegetativa dos tomateiros, poderãofavorecer o crescimento e desenvolvimento das plantas e a consequente produção de frutos.

  8. Use of Trichoderma Species in the Control of Meloidogyne javanica Root Knot Nematode in Okra and Mungbean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imran A. Siddiqui

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The efficacy of Trichoderma viride, T. harzianum, T. hamatum, T. koningii and T. pseudokoningii was tested for the control of Meloidogyne javanica, root knot nematode in okra and mungbean. Culture filtrates of Trichoderma spp., significantly reduced egg hatching and showed nematicidal activity by killing second stage juveniles of M. javanica. Soil application with conidial suspension of T. harzianum significantly reduced nematode population densities and root knot development in okra and mungbean. Apart from suppressing root knot nematode, T. harzianum also elevated plant height and fresh shoot weight of both okra and munhbean.

  9. Dicty_cDB: SSB550 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SS (Link to library) SSB550 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U02317-1 SSB550Z (Link to Original ... 74742.1 ra97b02.y1 Meloidogyne incognita egg pAMP1 Bird ... Meloidogyne incognita cDNA 5', mRNA sequence. 44 1 ... .4 1 AW571255 |AW571255.1 ra16b04.y2 Bird -Rao Meloidogyne incognita J2 Meloidogyne incognita ...

  10. Dicty_cDB: VSC358 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available VS (Link to library) VSC358 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U06283-1 VSC358Z (Link to Original ... quence. 44 0.075 6 AW828708 |AW828708.1 ra73a06.y1 Bird -Rao Meloidogyne incognita J2 Meloidogyne incognita ... equence. 46 0.43 1 AW571037 |AW571037.1 ra15d12.y1 Bird -Rao Meloidogyne incognita J2 Meloidogyne incognita ...

  11. Dicty_cDB: SSM635 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SS (Link to library) SSM635 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U02317-1 SSM635Z (Link to Original ... some 11. 46 0.45 1 AW570934 |AW570934.1 ra13a02.y1 Bird -Rao Meloidogyne incognita J2 Meloidogyne incognita ... d pieces. 44 1.8 1 AW571311 |AW571311.1 ra16g10.y2 Bird -Rao Meloidogyne incognita J2 Meloidogyne incognita ...

  12. Interaction of Three Plant-Parasitic Nematodes on Corn and Soybean

    OpenAIRE

    Dickson, D W.; McSorley, R.

    1990-01-01

    Interaction of Belonolaimus longicaudatus, Meloidogyne incognita, and Pratylenchus brachyurus on corn and B. longicaudatus, M. incognita, and Heterodera glycines on soybean was investigated in micropiots during two seasons for corn and one season for soybean. Changes in population densities and effects on plant growth of each nematode on corn or soybean alone and in mixed culture were compared. No interactions occurred on corn in 1987. In 1988, midseason population densities of B. longicaudat...

  13. Ethylene Production by Meloidogyne spp.-Infected Plants

    OpenAIRE

    Glazer, I.; Orion, D; Apelbaum, A.

    1985-01-01

    Gall size and rates of ethylene production by various hosts infected with Meloidogyne javanica and by excised tomato root cultures infected with M. javanica or M. hapla were measured. Infection with M. javanica increased the rate of ethylene production in dicotyledonous plants (cabbage, pea, carrot, cucumber, carnation, and tomato), but not in infected monocotyledonous plants (corn, wheat, and onion). Nematode infection induced large galls on roots of dicotyledonous, but not monocotyledonous,...

  14. Interaction between Meloidogyne enterolobii and Helicotylenchus dihysteroides in guava seedlings

    OpenAIRE

    Vicente Martins Gomes; Ricardo Moreira de Souza; Thiago de Freitas Ferreira; Guilherme B. Miranda; Alexandre Macedo Almeida; Renata Rodrigues Robaina

    2014-01-01

    In order to evaluate the effect of joint infection by Meloidogyne enterolobii and Helicotylenchus dihysteroides on vegetative growth of guava seedlings (Psidium guajava L.), as well as to observe symptoms caused by pathogens in host plants, an experiment was conducted in microplots. In these experimental units, suspensions were used containing H. dihysteroides and M. enterolobii. The plants were separately inoculated with H. dihysteroides and jointly inoculated with H. dihysteroid...

  15. Grafting guava on cattley guava resistant to Meloidogyne enterolobii

    OpenAIRE

    Renata Rodrigues Robaina; Graziella Siqueira Campos; Cláudia Sales Marinho; Ricardo Moreira de Souza; Cíntia Aparecida Bremenkamp

    2015-01-01

    The use of resistant rootstocks could be a promising method to control nematodeMeloidogyne enterolobiiin commercial plantations of guava. The present study aimed to evaluate the success of grafting guava as a scion on accessions of cattley guava as rootstocks resistant to M. enterolobii.The treatments consisted of the rootstocks cattley guava plants (three accessions of Psidium cattleyanum) and common guava (control). In the apical wedge grafting method, scion of Paluma cultivated variety was...

  16. Meloidogyne javanica-Rhizoctonia solani disease complex of peanut

    OpenAIRE

    Abdel-Momen, S. M.; Starr, J L

    1998-01-01

    L'interaction entre #Meloidogyne javanica$ et #Rhizoctonia solani$ a été étudiée sur arachide en serre et en microparcelles au champ. L'action de #R. solani$ sur la reproduction de #M. javanica$ est variable, la Pi du nématode ayant une plus grande influence sur sa reproduction que la présence de #R. solani$. Lors d'expériences en microparcelles ayant une disposition factorielle et comportant quatre niveaux d Pi du nématode et deux (1995) ou trois (1996) niveaux de #R. solani$, la pourriture ...

  17. Interaction Between Meloidogyne arenaria and Glomus fascicuqlatus in Grape

    OpenAIRE

    Atilano, R. A.; Menge, J. A.; Gundy, S. D. Van

    1981-01-01

    Root zones of grape (Fitis vinifera cv Thompson Seedless) cuttings were infested with chlamydospores of Glomus fasciculatus or eggs of Meloidogyne arenaria or both. Growth of grapevines was greatest in mycorrhizal (G. fasciculatus) plants. Mycorrhizal development and growth of mycorrhizal and nonmycorrhizal plants were reduced in the presence of M. arenaria. At low initial nematode inoculum (PI) levels (approx. 200 eggs/plant), the presence of mycorrhizae enhanced plant growth during 1 yr, bu...

  18. Response of Additional Herbaceous Perennial Ornamentals to Meloidogyne hapla

    OpenAIRE

    LaMondia, J.A.

    1996-01-01

    Twenty-nine herbaceous perennial ornamentals were evaluated for root galling after 2 months in soil infested with Meloidogyne hapla u n d e r greenhouse conditions. Plants such as Asclepias, Epimedium, Liriope, Lithospermura, Myosotis, Penstemon, Sidalecea, and Solidago did not have galls or egg masses present on the root system and were rated as resistant. Astrantia, Boltonia, Centranthus, and Miscanthus had more than 100 galls on the roots (similar to 'Rutgers' tomato controls) and were rat...

  19. Control of the Root-Knot Nematode (Meloidogyne spp. on Cucumber by a Liquid Bio-Formulation Containing Chitinolytic Bacteria, Chitin and Their Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woo Jong Ha

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available A liquid bio-formulation containing chitinolytic bacteria, chitin and their products was assessed for its potential biological control against root-knot nematodes on cucumber. The bio-formulation was prepared by cultures of three chitinolytic bacteria, Chromobacterium sp. strain C-61, Lysobacter engymogenes and Serratia plymuthica in minimal medium supplemented with chitin. Under pot conditions, the bio-formulation showed better growth of cucumber plants, and less root galls and population density of Meloidogyne spp. than control media without the bio-formulation. In a greenhouse, 75-fold diluted bio-formulations were treated instead of water around cucumber plants through hoses for drip irrigation six times at 5-day intervals from the transplanting date. After 30 and 60 days, the treatment provided about 7% and 10% enhancement in the plant height and about 78% and 69% reduction in population density of Meloidogyne spp. in the rhizosphere, respectively. In addition, the experiments showed that the control effects occurred only in the soils contacted with the bio-formulation. Undiluted bio-formulations were drenched three times at 10-day intervals around cucumber plants severely infested with Meloidogyne spp. The treatment showed about 37% plant enhancement without dead plants compared with 37% death in the untreated control, and about 82% nematode reduction. These results suggest that the bio-formulation can be practically used to control the root-knot nematode on cucumber.

  20. Preservação da capacidade reprodutiva de Meloidogyne exigua em mudas de pimentão / Maintenance of the reproductive capacity of Meloidogyne exigua on pepper seedlings

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Rodrigo V., Silva; Rosângela D.L., Oliveira; Patrícia S., Ferreira; Dalila J., Sêni; Douglas B., Castro.

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available O cafeeiro é o hospedeiro tipo de Meloidogyne exigua, no qual a produção de inóculo em larga escala demanda tempo prolongado. Objetivou-se comparar a reprodução de populações de M. exigua em plantas de café e pimentão, e avaliar a possível ocorrência de seletividade fisiológica depois de sucessivas [...] gerações em pimentão. A reprodução foi estudada em cinco populações e a seletividade envolveu uma população que foi mantida em plantas de café e pimentão por 30 meses, com as avaliações realizadas a cada 90 dias. O número de galhas e de ovos foi sempre superior em pimentão. A taxa reprodutiva de M. exigua foi cerca de quatro vezes maior em pimentão do que em cafeeiro. Não houve diferença na reprodução de M. exigua em cafeeiro, para as duas fontes de inóculo, cafeeiro e pimentão, durante os 30 meses. Conclui-se que o pimentão é melhor hospedeiro que o cafeeiro para a multiplicação de inóculo de M. exigua, inclusive, para as populações que não se multiplicam em tomateiro, com as vantagens da rapidez e facilidade de condução das plantas em casa de vegetação. Assim, a produção de grande quantidade de inóculo de M. exigua é possível pela utilização do pimentão, uma vez que o nematóide não perde sua habilidade de infectar o cafeeiro. Abstract in english Coffee is the host-type of Meloidogyne exigua and significant inoculum production on this plant takes a long time. The objective of this study was to evaluate the reproduction of five M. exigua populations on coffee comparatively with reproduction on pepper, and the possible occurrence of physiologi [...] cal selectivity after successive generations on pepper. In the selectivity test, one population was maintained on coffee and pepper for 30 months and reproduction was evaluated 10 times, at 90 day intervals. The number of galls and eggs was always higher in pepper roots than in coffee ones. The reproductive rate in pepper was four times higher than in coffee. There was no difference in nematode reproduction in coffee between the two inoculum sources, coffee and pepper, during 30 months. Pepper proved to be a better host than coffee for the rearing of M. exigua, including those populations unable to reproduce in tomato roots, since pepper plants are easy to manage under green-house conditions and nematode reproduction is faster than in coffee. Therefore, pepper should be used to rear M. exigua since the nematode does not lose its ability to infect coffee.

  1. Variation in Virulence Within Meloidogyne chitwoodi, M. fallax, and M. hapla on Solanum spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Beek, J G; Poleij, L M; Zijlstra, C; Janssen, R; Janssen, G J

    1998-07-01

    ABSTRACT The virulence of Meloidogyne hapla, M. chitwoodi, and M. fallax was studied on genotypes of Solanum spp. in a greenhouse. Juveniles of 11 M. hapla race A isolates, 3 M. hapla race B isolates, and 5 mono-female lines of a M. hapla race A isolate were inoculated on S. chacoense, S. hougasii, and S. sparsipilum. Juveniles of eight M. chitwoodi isolates, five M. fallax isolates, and six mono-female lines of a M. chitwoodi isolate were inoculated on S. bulbocastanum, S. chacoense, S. hougasii, S. stoloniferum, and S. tuberosum. Virulence was expressed as nematode reproduction 8 weeks after inoculation. Nematode reproduction was estimated by the number of egg masses and, in one experiment, by the number of hatched second-stage juveniles per inoculated juvenile. Considerable variation in virulence and resistance was observed among M. hapla isolates and plant genotypes, respectively. The M. hapla isolate-plant species interaction was highly significant. The response to M. chitwoodi ranged from susceptible (S. tuberosum and S. chacoense) to highly resistant (S. bulbocastanum and S. hougasii). S. tuberosum was susceptible to M. fallax, whereas all four wild species were resistant. In contrast to M. hapla, no significant isolate-plant genotype interaction was obtained for M. chitwoodi or M. fallax, indicating no or little intraspecific variation in virulence. M. chitwoodi juveniles in species mixtures with M. fallax isolates appeared to be able to break the resistance of S. bulbocastanum and S. hougasii. Significant differences among mono-female lines of M. hapla and M. chitwoodi were observed, indicating heterogeneity of pathogenicity within meiotic parthenogenic Meloidogyne populations. PMID:18944937

  2. EFECTIVIDAD DE LACTUCA SATIVA USADA COMO PLANTA TRAMPA DE Meloidogyne spp. EN LA PRODUCCIÓN PROTEGIDA DE HORTALIZAS / EFFECTIVINESS OF LACTUCA SATIVA USED AS A TRAP CROP OF Meloidogyne spp. IN THE VEGETABLE PRODUCTION UNDER SHELTER CONDITIONS

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Lucila, Gómez; Mayra G, Rodríguez; R, Enrique.

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo es evaluar la efectividad de la lechuga (Lactuca sativa var. Black Seeded Simpson) como planta trampa de Meloidogyne spp., en una instalación de producción protegida de hortalizas. Las plantas de lechuga se trasplantaron a una densidad de siembra de 49 plántulas. m2-1 y s [...] e cosecharon conjuntamente con el sistema radical a los 25-27 días. El nivel de infestación inicial y final se determinó a través de la técnica de bioensayo con el uso de tomate (Solanum lycopersicum var. Campbell-28). Los resultados evidenciaron que con el empleo de esta táctica fue posible reducir el índice de agallamiento de las plantas en 1,5 grados, lo que refleja una disminución en el nivel de la población de los nematodos en el suelo. Abstract in english The aim of this work was to evaluate the effectiveness of lettuce (Lactuca sativa var Black Seeded Simpson) used as a trap crop of Meloidogyne spp. under shelter conditions. Lettuce plants were transplanted at a density of 49 plants per m² and they were harvested by extracting the entire root system [...] from the soil 25-27 days later. Te initial and final nematode infestations were determined by a bioassay technique using tomato (Solanum lycopersicum var. Campbell-28). The results showed a reduction in 1,5 degree of the gall index in tomato roots, which suggested that the population of this nematode was reduced in the soil.

  3. On the species status of the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne ulmi Palmisano & Ambrogioni, 2000 (Nematoda, Meloidogynidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Ahmed

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The root-knot nematode Meloidogyne ulmi is synonymised with Meloidogyne mali based on morphological and morphometric similarities, common hosts, as well as biochemical similarities at both protein and DNA levels. M. mali was first described in Japan on Malus prunifolia Borkh.; and M. ulmi in Italy on Ulmus chenmoui W.C. Cheng. Morphological and morphometric studies of their holo- and paratypes revealed important similarities in the major characters as well as some general variability in a few others. Host test also showed that besides the two species being able to parasitize the type hosts of the other, they share some other common hosts. Our study of the esterase and malate dehydrogenase isozyme phenotypes of some M. ulmi populations gave a perfectly comparable result to that already known for M. mali. Finally, phylogenetic studies of their SSU and LSU rDNA sequence data revealed that the two are not distinguishable at DNA level. All these put together, leave strong evidences to support the fact that M. ulmi is not a valid species, but a junior synonym of M. mali. Brief discussion on the biology and life cycle of M. mali is given. An overview of all known hosts and the possible distribution of M. mali in Europe are also presented.

  4. HERANÇA DA RESISTÊNCIA DE MILHO A MELOIDOGYNE JAVANICA

    OpenAIRE

    SAWAZAKI EDUARDO; LORDELLO ANA INES LUCENA; LORDELLO RUBENS RODOLFO ALBUQUERQUE

    1998-01-01

    Duas linhagens de milho, resistente (IAC Ip 365-4-1) e suscetível (IAC Ip 48-5-3) a Meloidogyne javanica, suas gerações F1, F2 e retrocruzamentos, bem como os cruzamentos recíprocos, foram avaliados em dois ensaios em casa de vegetação, em 1989/90 e 1992, em Campinas, para estudar a herança da resistência a M. javanica. Utilizou-se o delineamento inteiramente casualizado com número de repetição maior nas gerações segregantes, parcelas de uma planta por vaso plástico com 500 cm3 de areia fina,...

  5. Parasitism of Beta vulgaris by Meloidogyne hapla and Heterodera schachtii alone and in combination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jatala, P; Jensen, H J

    1976-07-01

    Interrelationships of Meloidogyne hapla and Heterodera schachtii in combinations of several population levels and different inoculation periods were studied. Results indicated suppression of gall development of M. hapla in any treatment in which inoculations of H. schachtii preceded those of M. hapla by 10 days. This interrelationship was characterized by amensalism with M. hapla serving as an amensat and H. schachtii serving as an inhibitor. Conversely, when inoculations of M. hapla preceded H. schachtii inoculations by 10 days, there were increases in cyst development. This relationship was characterized by commensalism with H. schachtii serving as a commensal. In both interactions, the preinvading parasites acted independently and established populations equal to treatments receiving either parasite alone. When both nematodes were inoculated simultaneously, there were no effects on populations of either. Relationships of this nature were characterized by neutralism. Ratios of total soluble/reducing carbohydrates were lower in treatments when M. hapla inoculations preceded those of H. schachtii. Plants inoculated with both nematodes died earlier than those inoculated with either parasite alone. High concentrations of Al and Fe occurred in treatments wherein M. hapla or H. schachtii inoculations preceded each other by 10 days. Generally, noninoculated control plants exhibited higher concentrations of K, P, Mg, and B than other treatments. PMID:19308223

  6. Effects of some rhizosphere bacteria for the biocontrol of nematodes of the genus Meloidogyne with Arthrobotrys oligospora

    OpenAIRE

    Duponnois, Robin; Ba, A. M.; Mateille, Thierry

    1998-01-01

    A été étudiée l'action d'isolats bactériens au champignon nématophage #Arthrobotrys oligospora$ ORS 18692 S7 isolé au Sénégal sur le développement du champignon (croissance saprophytique et activité prédatrice), la multiplication d'une population de #Meloidogyne mayaguensis$ sur des plants de tomate, et la croissance de la plante hôte. Trois isolats bactériens ont été capables de stimuler in vitro l'activité prédatrice du champignon et de réduire le développement d'une population de #M. mayag...

  7. Triagem de genótipos de hortaliças para resistência a Meloidogyne enterolobii / Screening vegetable crop species for resistance to Meloidogyne enterolobii

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Osvânder David de, Melo; Wilson Roberto, Maluf; Ranoel José de Sousa, Gonçalves; Álvaro Carlos, Gonçalves Neto; Luiz Antonio Augusto, Gomes; Regis de Castro, Carvalho.

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi identificar genótipos de alface, batata-doce, feijão, tomate e Capsicum resistentes ao nematoide Meloidogyne enterolobii (Syn. M. mayaguensis) e classificá-los quanto ao grau de resistência. Foram avaliados: 10 genótipos de alface, 8 de batata-doce, 10 de feijão e feijã [...] o-vagem, 25 de Capsicum e 6 de tomate. Foram calculados o fator de reprodução e o índice de reprodução, e os genótipos foram classificados quanto ao grau de resistência ao nematoide. Foram observados níveis moderados de resistência na cultivar de feijão Aporé e nos acessos de pimenta, BGH-433 e BGH-4285, e de pimentão, PIM-031, PIX-022I-31-07-02 e PIX-022I-31-13-01. Todos os genótipos de tomate são suscetíveis a M. enterolobii. As cultivares de alface Julia, Hortência, Verônica, Grand Rapids e Babá de Verão, e os clones de batata-doce UFLA07-49 e UFLA07-53 são muito resistentes ao nematoide. A resistência a M. enterolobii aparentemente é mediada por genes diferentes dos que conferem resistência a outras espécies e raças de Meloidogyne. Abstract in english The objective of this work was to identify genotypes of lettuce, sweet potato, bean, tomato, and Capsicum resistant to the nematode Meloidogyne enterolobii (Syn. M. mayaguensis), and to classify them according to their resistance degree. The following were evaluated: 10 genotypes of lettuce, 8 of sw [...] eet potato, 10 of bean and snap bean, 25 of Capsicum, and 6 of tomato genotypes. Reproduction factor and reproduction index were determined, and genotypes were classified according to their resistance degree to the nematode. Moderate levels of resistance were observed in the bean cultivar Aporé and in the accessions of pepper BGH-433 and BGH-4285, and of sweet pepper, PIM-031, PIX-022I-31-07-02, and PIX-022I-31-13-01. All tomato genotypes are susceptible to M. enterolobii. Lettuce cultivars Julia, Hortência, Verônica, Grand Rapids and Babá de Verão, and sweetpotato clones UFLA07-49 and UFLA07-53 are very resistant to the nematode. Apparently, the resistance to M. enterolobii is controlled by different genes from the ones which confer resistance to other species and races of Meloidogyne.

  8. Densidad crítica de Meloidogyne Exigua en plantas de Almácigo de café variedad Caturra

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Mainor, Rojas; Luis, Salazar.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del estudio fue evaluar el efecto de densidad creciente de Meloidogyne exigua sobre el desarrollo de plantas de almácigo. Se trasplantaron plántulas de café variedad caturra a bolsas de polietileno con 1335 cm³ de sustrato desinfectado, para establecer un ensa-yo con diseño de bloques co [...] mpletos al azar, con 8 repeticiones. Los tratamientos aplicados consistieron de poblaciones iniciales (Pi) de 0; 0,125; 0,25; 0,5; 1; 2; 4; 8; 16; 32 y 64 huevos+J2/ cm³ de sustrato, aplicadas un mes después del trasplante. El modelo y=m+(1-m) Z P-T aplicado 234 días después del trasplante para la altura, diámetro, número de nudos y peso fresco aéreo, indicó que el límite de tolerancia (T) fue de 0,66; 0,06; 0,13 y 0,88 huevos+J2/cm³, respectivamen-te; la producción mínima relativa (m) fue de 0,79; 0,79; 0,33 y 0,54 respectivamente, a Pi iguales o mayores a 64 huevos+J2/cm³. El índice de agallas alcanzó el máximo a partir de una Pi de 2; el pico máximo de nematodos en el suelo y las raíces se alcanzó con Pi entre 2 y 4; mientras la tasa máxima de reproducción fue de 114 con Pi de 0,125. Se concluyó que la densidad crítica fue cercana a cero huevos/cm3 de sustrato como población inicial, y que el almácigo se debe desarrollar libre de nematodos, ya que aún con Pi bajas se puede alcanzar la máxima población en corto tiempo. Abstract in english Critical density of Meloidogyne exigua in nursery coffee plants, Caturra variety. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of increasing density of Meloidogyne exigua on the development of nursery plants. Coffee plantlets of the Caturra variety were transplanted into polyethylene bags wi [...] th 1335 cm3 of disinfected substrate, to establish a trial with a randomized complete block design, with 8 replicates. The treatments applied included initial populations (Pi) of 0; 0,125; 0,25; 0,5; 1; 2; 4; 8; 16; 32 and 64 eggs + J2/cm ³ substrate applied one month after transplant. The model y=m+(1-m) Z P-T applied 234 days after transplant to the height, diameter, number of nodes and aerial fresh weight, indicated that the tolerance limit (T) was 0,66; 0,06; 0,13 and 0,88 eggs + J2/cm³, respectively; the relative minimum production (m) was 0,79; 0,79; 0,33 and 0,54 respectively, at Pi equal to or higher than 64 eggs + J2/cm³. The gall index reached its maximum from a Pi of 2; the maximum peak of nematodes on the soil and roots was reached with a Pi between 2 and 4 while, the maximum rate of reproduction rate was 114 with a Pi of 0,125. It was concluded that the critical density was close to zero eggs/cm3 of substrate as initial population, and the nursery plants should develop free of nematodes since, even with a low Pi; it could reach the maximum population in a short time.

  9. Morphological and molecular characteristics of a new species of Pasteuria parasitic on Meloidogyne ardenensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, Alistair H; Gowen, Simon R; Pembroke, Barbara; Trotter, James R

    2007-09-01

    A species of the hyper-parasitic bacterium Pasteuria was isolated from the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne ardenensis infecting the roots of ash (Fraxinus excelsior). It is morphologically different from some other Pasteuria pathogens of nematodes in that the spores lack a basal ring on the ventral side of the spore and have a unique clumping nature. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) showed that the clumps of spores are not random aggregates but result from the disintegration of the suicide cells of the thalli. Sporulation within each vegetative mycelium was shown to be asynchronous. In addition to the novel morphological features 16S rRNA sequence analysis showed this to be a new species of Pasteuria which we have called P. hartismeri. Spores of P. hartismeri attach to juveniles of root-knot nematodes infecting a wide range of plants such as mint (Meloidogyne hapla), rye grass (unidentified Meloidogyne sp.) and potato (Meloidogyne fallax). PMID:17399736

  10. Relationship Between Heterodera schachtii, Meloidogyne hapla, and Nacobbus aberrans on Sugarbeet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inserra, R N; Griffin, G D; Vovlas, N; Anderson, J L; Kerr, E D

    1984-04-01

    Heterodera schachtii, Meloidogyne hapla, and Nacobbus aberrans either alone, or in various combinations with each other, can, when inoculated at a concentration of 12 second-stage juveniles/ cm(3) of soil, cause a significant (P = 0.01) suppression of growth of sugarbeet (cv. Tasco AH14) seedlings. M. hapla and H. schachtii decreased growth of sugarbeet more than N. aberrans over a 60-day period. The adverse effect of N. aberrans on the final population/initial population (Pf/Pi) ratio for either M. hapla or H. schachtii was dependent on time, and was more accentuated on that of M. hapla than on that of H. schachtii. Neither M. hapla nor H. schachtii had an adverse effect on the Pf/ Pi ratio of N. aberrans. N. aberrans is considered to be less aggressive on sugarbeet than either H. schachtii or M. hapla. Sections of sugarbeet roots infected simultaneously with H. schachtii and N. aberrans showed scattered vascular elements between the N. aberrans syncytium located in the central part of the root and that of H. schachtii in the peripheral position. PMID:19295890

  11. Trigonella foenum-graecum (fenugreek-mediated suppression of Meloidogyne javanica in mungbean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tayyaba Zia

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Soil amendments with powdered seeds of Trigonella foenum - graecum (fenugreek caused soil suppressiveness against Meloidogyne javanica. Decomposed seeds of fenugreek caused marked reduction in nematode population densities and subsequent root-knot development as compared to the aqueous extract of the seeds indicating that some indirect factors are involved in the suppression of root-knot nematode. Both decomposed seeds and aqueous extracts enhanced plant height and fresh weights of shoot whereas root growth remained uninfluenced. Changes in fungal communities associated with nematode control were studied by comparing population numbers of fungi in the soil and in internal root tissues (endorhiza in non-amended and fenugreekamended soils. Acremonium sp., Chaetomium globosum, Fusarium solani, Macrophomina phaseolina and Rhizoctonia solani were found to colonize inner root tissues of mungbean. Acremonium sp., C. globosum and F.solani were isolated in a relatively higher frequency from roots growing in the amended soils while M. phaseolina and R. solani colonized greatly in roots growing in non-amended soil. Of the fungi isolated from soils, Penicillium brefaldianum caused maximum juvenile mortality of M.javanica whereas F.solani caused greatest inhibition of egg hatch.

  12. Reproduction of Meloidogyne enterolobii in rootstocks and cucumber hybrids / Reprodução de Meloidogyne enterolobii em porta-enxertos e híbridos de pepino

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Silvia Renata S, Wilcken; Juliana MO, Rosa; Juliana N, Westerich; Maria José de M, Garcia; Antonio Ismael Inácio, Cardoso.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo teve como objetivo determinar a resistência de seis porta-enxertos para pepino (abóbora 'Menina Brasileira', moranga 'Exposição', 'Shelper', 'Tetsukabuto Takaiama', 'B8-A Tetsukabuto' e 'Excite Ikki') e quatro híbridos de pepino tipo japonês ('Yoshinari', 'Kouki', 'Taisho' e 'Tsuyataro') [...] a Meloidogyne enterolobii. O experimento foi conduzido em casa de vegetação, cada parcela constou de uma planta por vaso contendo 2 litros de solo autoclavado. Dois dias após o transplantio das mudas, cada planta foi inoculada com 5.000 ovos e juvenis de segundo estádio (população inicial = Pi) de M. enterolobii. Tomateiros 'Rutgers' foram utilizados como padrão de viabilidade do inóculo. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado com cinco repetições por tratamento. Sessenta dias após a inoculação, cada planta foi avaliada quanto ao número total de nematoides nas raízes (população final = Pf) e fator de reprodução (FR = Pf / Pi). Todos os porta-enxertos e híbridos de pepino estudados permitiram a multiplicação de M. enterolobii, entretanto os valores do FR foram menores nos porta-enxertos 'Shelper', 'Excite Ikki KY' e 'Menina Brasileira'. Em um segundo experimento, confirmou-se o baixo valor do FR destes três porta-enxertos, porém, com valor pouco maior para 'Menina Brasileira'. Desta maneira, estes porta-enxertos podem ser recomendados em áreas infestadas com M. enterolobii, desde que em baixa população, por restringirem drasticamente a multiplicação do patógeno. Conclui-se que os porta-enxertos 'Shelper' e 'Excite Ikki KY' foram os que apresentaram os menores FR podendo ser classificados como moderadamente resistentes a este nematoide. Abstract in english This study aimed to determine the resistance of six rootstocks for cucumber (squash 'Menina Brasileira', pumpkin 'Exposição', 'Shelper', 'Tetsukabuto Takaiama', 'B8-A Tetsukabuto' and 'Excite Ikki') and four Japanese cucumber hybrids ('Yoshinari', 'Kouki', 'Taisho' and 'Tsuyataro') to Meloidogyne en [...] terolobii. The experiment was conducted in greenhouse; each plot consisted of one plant per pot containing 2 liters of autoclaved soil. The experimental design was completely randomized, with five replicates per treatment. Two days after transplanting the seedlings, each plant was inoculated with 5,000 eggs and second-stage juveniles (initial population = Pi) of M. enterolobii. Tomato 'Rutgers' was used as indicative of inoculum viability. Sixty days after inoculated, each plant was evaluated for total number of nematodes in the roots (final population = Pf) and reproduction factor (FR=Pf/Pi). All rootstocks and cucumber hybrids allowed M. enterolobii multiplication, but FR values were lower in 'Shelper', 'Excite Ikki KY' and 'Menina Brasileira' rootstocks. In a second experiment, the low FR in these three rootstocks was confirmed, but with higher values in 'Menina Brasileira'. So, these rootstocks can be recommended to M. enterolobii infested areas, but with low populations, because they don't permit great multiplication of the patogen. It is concluded that 'Shelper' and 'Excite Ikki KY' rootstocks had the lowest FR and can be classified as moderate resistant to this nematode.

  13. Nematicidal activity of leaves of common shrub and tree species from Southern Chile against Meloidogyne hapla

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Laura, Böhm; Nolberto, Arismendi; Luigi, Ciampi.

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Buscando alternativas biológicas para el control del nemátodo de las agallas radicales, Meloidogyne hapla, se evaluó la incorporación al sustrato de follaje seco y molido de Buddleja globosa, Drymis winteri, Eucalyptus globulus, Gevuina avellana, Laurelia sempervirens, huma apiculata, Maytenus boari [...] a y Ugni molinae. Se utilizó como control un tratamiento sin follaje. El ensayo se realizó en macetas en las que se trasplantaron plantas de lechuga (cv Reina de Mayo). Todas las macetas se inocularon con 2000 huevos y juveniles de M. hapla y se mantuvieron por 45 días en invernadero. Los resultados indicaron que las plantas de lechuga desarrolladas en sustratos con hojas secas de L. sempervirens, G. avellana, M. boaria, D. winteri y B. globosa redujeron significativamente el agallamiento radical. Mientras que todos los tratamientos afectaron significativamente la formación de huevos y juveniles de M. hapla, destacando el efecto inhibitorio sobre este parámetro el follaje seco de U. molinae, D. winteri y L. sempervirens. En todas las especies, el incremento de la concentración de follaje incorporado al sustrato resultó en un mayor control en la multiplicación de M. hapla. Abstract in english The biological control of the root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne hapla , was evaluated through the addition of organic amendments of dry and chopped leaves of Buddleia globes, Dramas winter, Eucalyptus globules, Genuine aflame, Aurelia sempervirens, huma apiculata, Maytenus boaria and Ugni molinae to t [...] he soil substratum. The assays were carried out in pots seeded with lettuce plants (cv. Reina de Mayo). All pots were inoculated with 2000 eggs and juveniles of M. hapla, and then maintained under greenhouse conditions for 45 days. Control pots without foliage additions were also seeded with lettuce. The results show that the addition of dry leaves of L. sempervirens, G. avellana, M. boaria, D. winteri , and B. globosa significantly reduced root-knot nematode development in soil in which lettuce plants were grown. On the other hand, while all of the treatments significantly affected the development of eggs and juveniles of M hapla, the best inhibitory effect was found with dry leaves of U. molinae, D. winteri and L. sempervirens . For all plant species, an increase in the concentration of dry leaves incorporated into the substratum resulted in better control of nematode population.

  14. INFLUENCE OF COVER CROPS IN ROTATION ON IMPROVING OKRA (ABELMOSCHUS ESCULENTUS L.) YIELD AND SUPPRESSING PARASITIC NEMATODES

    Science.gov (United States)

    The influence of growing and incorporating summer cover crops on subsequent vegetable crop production and on population densities of the root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne incognita) was investigated in field and pot experiments at Homestead, Florida. The cover crops utilized in the field and pot exper...

  15. Mustard seed meal for management of root-knot nematode and weeds in tomato production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustard seed meals of indian mustard [InM (Brassica juncea)] and yellow mustard [YeM (Sinapis alba)], alone and combined, were tested for effects on tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) plants and for suppression of southern root-knot nematode [RKN (Meloidogyne incognita)] and weed populations. In the gree...

  16. Evaluation of the Combined Effects of Paecilomyces lilacinus and Trichoderma harzianum Against Root-knot Disease of Tomato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hafeez Ullah Khan

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The addition of Paecilomyces lilacinus and Trichoderma harzianum as nematophagous fungi separately along with organic substrate to the infested soil, sufficiently retarded the pathogenic activity of Meloidogyne incognita. Addition of Paecilomyces lilacinus and Trichoderma harzianum in combination amended with organic substrate gave the effective control of root-knot nematodes population thus reduced root-knot disease and increased plant vigour.

  17. Influence of Rotation Crops on the Strawberry Pathogens Pratylenchus penetrans, Meloidogyne hapla, and Rhizoctonia fragariae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamondia, J A

    1999-12-01

    Field microplot, small plot, and greenhouse experiments were conducted to determine the effects of rotation crops on Pratylenchus penetrans, Meloidogyne hapla, and Rhizoctonia fragariae populations. Extraction of P. penetrans from roots and soil in microplots and field plots planted to rotation crops was highest for Garry oat, lowest for Triple S sorgho-sudangrass and Saia oat, and intermediate for strawberry, buckwheat, and canola. Isolation of R. fragariae from bait roots was highest for strawberry and canola after 2 years of rotation and lowest for Saia oat. Nematode extraction from roots of rotation crops in field soils was generally higher than from roots in microplots. Grasses were nonhosts of M. hapla. Strawberry, canola, and buckwheat supported root-knot populations over time, but there were no differences in nematode numbers regardless of crop after one season of strawberry growth. Garry oat, canola, and, to a lesser extent, buckwheat supported large populations of P. penetrans without visible root symptoms. Strawberry plants supported fewer nematodes due to root damage. Nematode numbers from soil were less than from roots for all crops. While there were similar trends for pathogen recovery after more than 1 year of strawberry growth following rotation, differences in pathogen density and fruit yield were not significant. In the greenhouse, P. penetrans populations in roots and soil in pots were much higher for Garry oat than for Saia oat. Total P. penetrans adult and juvenile numbers per pot ranged from 40 to 880 (mean = 365.6) for Garry oat and 0 to 40 (mean = 8.7) for Saia oat. Production of Saia oat as a rotation crop may be a means of managing strawberry nematodes and black root rot in Connecticut. PMID:19270931

  18. Effects of silicon on the penetration and reproduction events of Meloidogyne exigua on coffee roots

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Rodrigo Vieira, Silva; Rosângela D& #8217; Arc de Lima, Oliveira; Patrícia da Silva, Ferreira; Douglas Barbosa, Castro; Fabrício Ávila, Rodrigues.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Considering that the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne exigua has caused great yield losses to coffee production in Brazil, this study aimed to determine whether the penetration and the reproduction events of this nematode on the roots of plants from two coffee cultivars with different levels of basal [...] resistance to this nematode could be affected by silicon (Si). Coffee plants from the cultivars Catuaí and IAPAR 59, which are susceptible and resistant, respectively, to M. exigua, were grown in pots containing Si-deficient soil that was amended with either calcium silicate (+Si) or calcium carbonate (–Si). The Si concentration on the root tissue significantly increased by 159 and 97% for the +Si plants from the cultivars Catuaí and IAPAR 59, respectively, compared to the –Si plants of these cultivars. The population of M. exigua, the number of galls and the number of eggs were significantly reduced on the roots of the +Si plants of the cultivars Catuaí and IAPAR 59 compared to the –Si plants of these cultivars. It was concluded that the development and reproduction events of M. exigua were negatively impacted on the roots of coffee plants supplied with Si.

  19. Effects of silicon on the penetration and reproduction events of Meloidogyne exigua on coffee roots

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Rodrigo Vieira, Silva; Rosângela D& #8217; Arc de Lima, Oliveira; Patrícia da Silva, Ferreira; Douglas Barbosa, Castro; Fabrício Ávila, Rodrigues.

    Full Text Available Considering that the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne exigua has caused great yield losses to coffee production in Brazil, this study aimed to determine whether the penetration and the reproduction events of this nematode on the roots of plants from two coffee cultivars with different levels of basal [...] resistance to this nematode could be affected by silicon (Si). Coffee plants from the cultivars Catuaí and IAPAR 59, which are susceptible and resistant, respectively, to M. exigua, were grown in pots containing Si-deficient soil that was amended with either calcium silicate (+Si) or calcium carbonate (–Si). The Si concentration on the root tissue significantly increased by 159 and 97% for the +Si plants from the cultivars Catuaí and IAPAR 59, respectively, compared to the –Si plants of these cultivars. The population of M. exigua, the number of galls and the number of eggs were significantly reduced on the roots of the +Si plants of the cultivars Catuaí and IAPAR 59 compared to the –Si plants of these cultivars. It was concluded that the development and reproduction events of M. exigua were negatively impacted on the roots of coffee plants supplied with Si.

  20. Effects of silicon on the penetration and reproduction events of Meloidogyne exigua on coffee roots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Vieira Silva

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Considering that the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne exigua has caused great yield losses to coffee production in Brazil, this study aimed to determine whether the penetration and the reproduction events of this nematode on the roots of plants from two coffee cultivars with different levels of basal resistance to this nematode could be affected by silicon (Si. Coffee plants from the cultivars Catuaí and IAPAR 59, which are susceptible and resistant, respectively, to M. exigua, were grown in pots containing Si-deficient soil that was amended with either calcium silicate (+Si or calcium carbonate (–Si. The Si concentration on the root tissue significantly increased by 159 and 97% for the +Si plants from the cultivars Catuaí and IAPAR 59, respectively, compared to the –Si plants of these cultivars. The population of M. exigua, the number of galls and the number of eggs were significantly reduced on the roots of the +Si plants of the cultivars Catuaí and IAPAR 59 compared to the –Si plants of these cultivars. It was concluded that the development and reproduction events of M. exigua were negatively impacted on the roots of coffee plants supplied with Si.

  1. Development and Validation of LNA-Based Quantitative Real-Time PCR Assays for Detection and Identification of the Root-Knot Nematode Meloidogyne enterolobii in Complex DNA Backgrounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiewnick, Sebastian; Frey, Jürg E; Braun-Kiewnick, Andrea

    2015-09-01

    Meloidogyne enterolobii is a quarantine root-knot nematode posing a major threat to agricultural production systems worldwide. It attacks many host plants, including important agricultural crops, ornamentals, and trees. M. enterolobii is a highly virulent and pathogenic root-knot nematode species, able to reproduce on plants resistant to other Meloidogyne spp. Significant crop damage has been reported in Asia, South America, Africa, the United States, France, and greenhouses in Switzerland. To identify potential introduction pathways and ensure appropriate phytosanitary measures and management strategies, accurate detection and identification tools are needed. Therefore, two real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays based on the second intergenic spacer region of the ribosomal DNA cistron and the cytochrome oxidase c subunit I (COI) gene using locked nucleic acid probes were developed and validated for fast and reliable detection and identification of M. enterolobii. Analytical specificity was confirmed with 16 M. enterolobii populations, 16 populations of eight closely related Meloidogyne spp., and four species from other nematode genera. Optimizing and testing the assays on two real-time PCR platforms revealed an analytical sensitivity of one juvenile in a background of 1,000 nematodes and the intended limit of detection of one juvenile per 100 ml of soil. Both assays performed equally well, with the COI-based assay showing a slightly better performance concerning detection of M. enterolobii target DNA in complex DNA backgrounds. PMID:25775103

  2. Efecto nematicida de extractos de Quassia amara y Brugmansia suaveolens sobre Meloidogyne sp. asociado al tomate en Nicaragua / Nematicidal effect of plant extracts from Quassia amara and Brugmansia suaveolens against Meloidogyne sp. on tomato plants in Nicaragua

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Wilber, Salazar-Anton; Tomas de Jesús, Guzman-Hernandez.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar extractos de hojas de Quassia amara L. (Simaroubaceae) y flores de Brugmansia suaveolens L. (Solanaceae) para determinar su efecto nematicida contra Meloidogyne sp. El estudio se realizó en el Campus Agropecuario de la Universidad Nacional Autónoma de Nicaragu [...] a-León (UNAN-León) en el año 2012. El material vegetal fue deshidratado, pulverizado y sus compuestos fueron extraídos utilizando como solvente metanol. Este estudio se realizó in vitro, se evaluó la mortalidad de los juveniles de Meloidogyne sp. en segundo instar después de 12, 24 y 48 horas de exposición a los extractos. Además, estos se aplicaron a plantas de tomate en maceteras bajo condiciones de invernadero, cuantificándose las poblaciones de nematodos a los 25, 50 y 75 días de exposición al extracto (DEE). En el experimento in vitro Q. amara y B. suaveolens diluidos al 10%, presentaron los más altos porcentajes de mortalidad después de 48 h, alcanzando 89 y 78% de juveniles muertos, respectivamente. En maceteras se evaluó la mortalidad de juveniles, índice de agallamiento (IA) y factor de reproducción (FR). Los mejores resultados para Q. amara se obtuvieron a los 25 DEE, con un porcentaje de mortalidad de 80%, un IA de 1 en una escala de 0-5 y FR de 0,20. Con B. suaveolens, a los 25 DEE se alcanzó el mayor porcentaje de mortalidad de 71%, un IA de 1,2 y un FR de 0,29. Estos resultados in vitro y en maceteras evidenciaron que ambos extractos poseen propiedades nematicidas, ya que redujeron significativamente (P? 0,05) las poblaciones de nematodos, su reproducción y el nivel de agallamiento de las raíces de tomate. Abstract in english The nematicidal activity of leaves of Quassia amara L. (Simaroubaceae) and flowers of Brugmansia suaveolens L. (Solanaceae) was evaluated against Meloidogyne sp. during a study conducted at the Agricultural Campus of the National Agricultural University in León (UNAN- León). The plant material was d [...] ehydrated, ground and the compounds quassin and scopolamine were extracted using methanol as a solvent. Then a study was conducted in vitro to evaluate mortality in second stage juveniles of Meloidogyne sp. after exposure to extracts (12, 24 and 48 hours). Subsequently, extracts were also evaluated in tomato plants established in pots under greenhouse conditions, and the corresponding nematode population was quantified after exposure to the extract (25, 50 and 75 days of exposure to extract, DEE). In vitro tests with extracts of B. suaveolens and Q. amara diluted at 10% showed that the highest rate of nematode mortality occurs after 48 h of exposure, leaving 89% and 78% of all juveniles dead, respectively. In the test in pots, several aspects were evaluated including juvenile mortality, the plant galling index (GI), and the nematode reproduction factor (RF). The best result for Q. amara was obtained at 25 DEE, with 80% of mortality, a GI of 1 (in a scale from 0-5) and a RF of 0.2. Similarly, the best effect for B. suaveolens, was obtained at 25 DEE with a 71% of mortality, a GI of 1.2, and a RF of 0.29. These results from tests in vitro and in pots results indicate that both extracts have nematicidal activities, as they significantly reduced the nematode population (.? 0.05), the reproductive ability and the incidence of root galling in tomato plants.

  3. Alterações anatômicas induzidas por Meloidogyne enterolobii (=M. mayaguensis) e Meloidogyne javanica em tomateiros resistentes a meloidoginose / Anatomical changes induced by Meloidogyne enterolobii (=M. mayaguensis) and Meloidogyne javanica in tomato plants resistant to the root-knot nematode

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Juliana Nogueira, Westerich; Roberto Antonio, Rodella; Juliana Magrinelli Osório, Rosa; Silvia Renata Siciliano, Wilcken.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available A resistência de tomateiros (Solanum lycopersicum L.) a M. incognita, M. javanica e M. arenaria, conferida pela presença do gene Mi, não contempla a espécie M. enterolobii (=M. mayaguensis). O objetivo da pesquisa foi verificar as alterações anatômicas causadas por M. enterolobii no sistema radicula [...] r de porta-enxertos de tomateiro com o gene de resistência Mi ('Magnet' e Helper M') e compará-las com as causadas por M. javanica. As observações anatômicas das raízes foram feitas com auxílio de microscópio de luz e os aspectos mais relevantes foram fotografados. Com base em contagens e mensurações do tamanho dos sítios de alimentação e das células gigantes, foram efetuadas analises utilizando o método estatístico de Análise de Agrupamento. O aparecimento de células nutridoras incitadas por M. enterolobii foi verificado em ambos os porta-enxertos de tomateiro, entre 10 e 17 dias após a inoculação (DAI). O número e a área de sítios de alimentação e de células gigantes foram menores aos 17 DAI do que aos 24 DAI. Nesta época (24 DAI), foram observados sítios de alimentação constituídos pela presença de várias células nutridoras multinucleadas, com parede celular espessa, citoplasma denso e granuloso. Os tecidos vasculares apresentaram-se comprimidos e desorganizados, foi observada, também, hipertrofia de células do parênquima cortical. As raízes inoculadas com M. javanica não apresentaram alterações anatômicas. Abstract in english The resistance of tomato plants (Solanum Lycopersicum L.) to M. incognita, M. javanica and M. arenaria, provided by the presence of Mi gene, does not include the species M. enterolobii (=M. mayaguensis). The aim of this study was to verify the anatomical changes caused by M. enterolobii in the root [...] system of rootstocks from tomato plants with Mi resistance gene ('Magnet' and 'Helper M') and to compare these changes with those caused by M. javanica. The anatomical observations of roots were done with the aid of a light microscope and the most relevant aspects were photographed. Based on counts and measurements of the size of feeding sites and giant cells, the data were analyzed by using the statistical method of Cluster Analysis. The emergence of nurse cells stimulated by M. enterolobii was observed for both tomato rootstocks between 10 and 17 days after inoculation (DAI). The number and the area of feeding sites and giant cells were smaller at 17 DAI than at 24 DAI. On the latter occasion (24 DAI), there were feeding sites established by the presence of several multinucleate nurse cells with thick cell walls and dense and granular cytoplasm. Vascular tissues were compressed and disorganized; there was also hypertrophy of cortical parenchyma cells. Roots inoculated with M. javanica did not show anatomical changes.

  4. Sisal leaf decortication liquid residue for controlling Meloidogyne javanica in tomato plants / Resíduo líquido do desfibramento de folhas de sisal no controle de Meloidogyne javanica em tomateiro

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Josilda CA, Damasceno; Ana CF, Soares; Fábio N, Jesus; Rosane S, Sant' Ana.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve o objetivo de avaliar o efeito do resíduo líquido (fresco e fermentado) de sisal no controle de Meloidogyne javanica em tomateiro. Foram conduzidos bioensaios in vitro com 100 µL de suspensão aquosa contendo 300 juvenis (J2) de M. javanica e 1000 µL de resíduo líquido. Os tratamen [...] tos consistiram do resíduo líquido fresco e fermentado, nas concentrações de 2,5, 5, 7,5, 10, 12,5, 15, 17,5 e 20%, o controle sem resíduo e o nematicida Carbofuran a 350 mg/L do i.a., com a imersão dos J2 nestes tratamentos, por 24 e 48 horas. Em casa de vegetação, 4000 juvenis de M. javanica foram inoculados em tomateiro e, após uma semana, foram vertidos na base da planta 100 mL do resíduo líquido de sisal nas concentrações de 0, 4, 8, 12, 16 e 20%, além da água destilada e o nematicida Carbofuran a 0,50 g por vaso, como testemunhas. Foram analisados o crescimento vegetativo e os danos nas raízes. Avaliou-se a seletividade do resíduo do sisal sobre micro-organismos benéficos do solo. Todas as concentrações do resíduo apresentaram efeito nematicida nos testes in vitro, após 48 horas de exposição dos nematoides, ocorrendo até 100% de mortalidade dos juvenis de M. javanica na concentração de 20%. O aumento das concentrações do resíduo fresco ou fermentado reduziu o número de galhas e massas de ovos por planta e por grama de raízes e também a população final de M. javanica no solo. Houve crescimento dos micro-organismos benéficos nos tratamentos com resíduo fresco de sisal, para todas as concentrações avaliadas. O resíduo fermentado inibiu o crescimento de micro-organismos benéficos do solo. Estudos futuros serão conduzidos visando comprovar a ação nematicida deste resíduo no controle de M. javanica em tomateiro a campo. Abstract in english The effect of sisal liquid residue (fresh and fermented) was evaluated in controlling the root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne javanica) in tomato plants. Bioassays were conducted in vitro with 100 µL of an aqueous suspension containing 300 juveniles (J2) of M. javanica and 1000 µL of sisal liquid residu [...] e. The treatments consisted of nematode immersion for 24 and 48 hours in sisal liquid residue, fresh or fermented, diluted in water to the final concentrations of 0, 2.5, 5, 7.5, 10, 12.5, 15, 17.5 and 20%, and nematicide Carbofuran at 350 mg of the active ingredient per liter. Under greenhouse conditions, 4000 juveniles of M. javanica were inoculated on tomato plants grown in pots, and after one week, 100 mL of sisal liquid residue at concentrations of 0, 4, 8, 12, 16 and 20%, were added to soil around the tomato plants. Control treatments received either 100 mL of distilled water or 0.5 g of Carbofuran per pot. Forty days after inoculation, plants were harvested and evaluated for plant growth and root damage. In addition, the selective effect of sisal liquid residue on growth of beneficial soil microorganisms was evaluated. All concentrations of sisal liquid residue presented nematicidal effect, after 48 h of nematode exposure. A mortality rate of 100% was obtained for M. javanica juveniles exposed to liquid residue at a concentration of 20%. Application of increasing concentrations of both sisal liquid residues reduced the number of galls and egg masses per plant and per gram of roots, as well as the final population of M. javanica in soil. Growth of beneficial soil microorganisms was observed in soil amended with sisal fresh liquid residue, for all concentrations tested. The fermented residue caused inhibition of soil beneficial microorganisms. Future studies should be conducted to test the nematicidal effect on tomato plants under field conditions.

  5. Crosses prior to parthenogenesis explain the current genetic diversity of tropical plant-parasitic Meloidogyne species (Nematoda: Tylenchida).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fargette, Mireille; Berthier, Karine; Richaud, Myriam; Lollier, Virginie; Franck, Pierre; Hernandez, Adan; Frutos, Roger

    2010-08-01

    The tropical and subtropical parthenogenetic plant-parasitic nematodes Meloidogyne are polyphagous major agricultural pests. Implementing proper pest management approaches requires a good understanding of mechanisms, population structure, evolutionary patterns and species identification. A comparative analysis of the mitochondrial vs nuclear diversity was conducted on a selected set of Meloidogyne lines from various geographic origins. Mitochondrial co2-16S sequences and AFLP markers of total DNA were applied because of their ability to evidence discrete genetic variation between closely related isolates. Several distinct maternal lineages were present, now associated with different genetic backgrounds. Relative discordances were found when comparing mitochondrial and nuclear diversity patterns. These patterns are most likely related to crosses within one ancestral genetic pool, followed by the establishment of parthenogenesis. In this case, they mirror the genetic backgrounds of the original individuals. Another aspect could be that species emergence was recent or on process from this original genetic pool and that the relatively short time elapsed since then and before parthenogenesis settlement did not allow for lineage sorting. This could also be compatible with the hypothesis of hybrids between closely related species. This genetic pool would correspond to a species as defined by the species interbreeding concept, but also including the grey area of species boundaries. This complex process has implications on the way genotypic and phenotypic diversity should be addressed. The phenotype of parthenogenetic lines is at least for part determined by the ancestral amphimictic genetic background. A direct consequence is, therefore, in terms of risk management, the limited confidence one can have on the direct association of an agronomic threat to a simple typing or species delineation. Risk management strategies and tools must thus consider this complexity when designing quarantine implementation, resistance breeding programmes or molecular diagnostic. PMID:19393769

  6. Nematicide Effect of Various Organic Soil Amendments on Meloidogyne ethiopica Whitehead, 1968, on Potted Vine Plants / Efecto Nematicida de Varias Enmiendas Orgánicas Sobre Meloidogyne ethiopica Whitehead, 1968, en Plantas de Vid en Macetas

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Lucia, Rivera; Erwin, Aballay.

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un experimento en macetas con plantas enraizadas de Vitis vinífera L. var. Chardonnay para evaluar el efecto nematicida de diferentes enmiendas orgánicas sobre el nematodo agallador Meloidogyne ethiopica Whitehead, 1968. Se usaron dos composts inmaduros: Compost A, elaborado con residuos [...] de té (Camellia sinensis (L.) Kuntze, guano de pollo seco y orujo de uva; Compost B, elaborado con residuos de té, escobajo y orujo de uva; y separadamente residuos sólidos de té; orujo de uva y guano de pollo seco. Estas enmiendas fueron aplicadas a principio de primavera, tanto en cobertera como incorporadas al suelo, considerando además un testigo químico fenamiphos y un testigo absoluto. Se determinó la población de nematodos de segundo estado juvenil (estado infestivo) de Meloidogyne spp., la cantidad de nódulos, huevos por gramo de raíz y el índice reproductivo, determinando de esta manera la tasa de reproducción de los nematodos. Además se evaluó el peso fresco de la parte aérea y de la masa radical. El testigo químico fue el tratamiento que obtuvo menor población final de Meloidogyne spp., y al evaluar la actividad nematicida de las enmiendas orgánicas, el Compost A incorporado al suelo, orujo de uva en cobertera y residuos sólidos de té en cobertera obtuvieron índices reproductivos bajos, que no fueron estadísticamente diferentes del testigo químico. En el peso fresco de la parte aérea no hubo diferencias significativas. El peso fresco de la masa radical del testigo químico presentó el valor más bajo comparado con los tratamientos de Compost B en cobertera y residuos sólidos de té en cobertera. Abstract in english Five organic soil amendments were evaluated for their nematicide effect on root-knot Meloidogyne ethiopica Whitehead, 1968, on potted Vitis vinifera L. var. Chardonnay plants. The amendments included two immature composts: Compost A made with tea (Camellia sinensis (L.) Kuntze) residues, broiler lit [...] ter and grape pomace; Compost B made with tea residues, rachis and grape pomace; and separately dried tea residues, grape pomace and broiler litter. These amendments were either incorporated or applied as cover to the substrate in 5 L pots at the beginning of spring. A chemical treatment with the nematicide fenamiphos and a control with substrate only were added for comparisons. The assay was composed of 11 treatments with six replicates, with a grape plant as experimental unit. Seven months later, the assessment of the treatments was carried out based on number of second stage juvenile, nodules, eggs per root gram and reproductive index. Fresh aerial and root plant weight were also measured. The chemical treatment presented the lowest final population of M. ethiopica. When evaluating the nematicide action of the organic amendments: compost A soil-incorporated and both grape pomace and solid dry tea residue as covers obtained low reproductive indexes, similar to the chemical treatment and control (P ? 0.05). No differences in aerial fresh weight were determined. However, the chemical treatment showed the smallest root mass as compared to compost B and solid dry tea residues, both as cover.

  7. Nematicide Effect of Various Organic Soil Amendments on Meloidogyne ethiopica Whitehead, 1968, on Potted Vine Plants Efecto Nematicida de Varias Enmiendas Orgánicas Sobre Meloidogyne ethiopica Whitehead, 1968, en Plantas de Vid en Macetas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia Rivera

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Five organic soil amendments were evaluated for their nematicide effect on root-knot Meloidogyne ethiopica Whitehead, 1968, on potted Vitis vinifera L. var. Chardonnay plants. The amendments included two immature composts: Compost A made with tea (Camellia sinensis (L. Kuntze residues, broiler litter and grape pomace; Compost B made with tea residues, rachis and grape pomace; and separately dried tea residues, grape pomace and broiler litter. These amendments were either incorporated or applied as cover to the substrate in 5 L pots at the beginning of spring. A chemical treatment with the nematicide fenamiphos and a control with substrate only were added for comparisons. The assay was composed of 11 treatments with six replicates, with a grape plant as experimental unit. Seven months later, the assessment of the treatments was carried out based on number of second stage juvenile, nodules, eggs per root gram and reproductive index. Fresh aerial and root plant weight were also measured. The chemical treatment presented the lowest final population of M. ethiopica. When evaluating the nematicide action of the organic amendments: compost A soil-incorporated and both grape pomace and solid dry tea residue as covers obtained low reproductive indexes, similar to the chemical treatment and control (P ? 0.05. No differences in aerial fresh weight were determined. However, the chemical treatment showed the smallest root mass as compared to compost B and solid dry tea residues, both as cover.Se realizó un experimento en macetas con plantas enraizadas de Vitis vinífera L. var. Chardonnay para evaluar el efecto nematicida de diferentes enmiendas orgánicas sobre el nematodo agallador Meloidogyne ethiopica Whitehead, 1968. Se usaron dos composts inmaduros: Compost A, elaborado con residuos de té (Camellia sinensis (L. Kuntze, guano de pollo seco y orujo de uva; Compost B, elaborado con residuos de té, escobajo y orujo de uva; y separadamente residuos sólidos de té; orujo de uva y guano de pollo seco. Estas enmiendas fueron aplicadas a principio de primavera, tanto en cobertera como incorporadas al suelo, considerando además un testigo químico fenamiphos y un testigo absoluto. Se determinó la población de nematodos de segundo estado juvenil (estado infestivo de Meloidogyne spp., la cantidad de nódulos, huevos por gramo de raíz y el índice reproductivo, determinando de esta manera la tasa de reproducción de los nematodos. Además se evaluó el peso fresco de la parte aérea y de la masa radical. El testigo químico fue el tratamiento que obtuvo menor población final de Meloidogyne spp., y al evaluar la actividad nematicida de las enmiendas orgánicas, el Compost A incorporado al suelo, orujo de uva en cobertera y residuos sólidos de té en cobertera obtuvieron índices reproductivos bajos, que no fueron estadísticamente diferentes del testigo químico. En el peso fresco de la parte aérea no hubo diferencias significativas. El peso fresco de la masa radical del testigo químico presentó el valor más bajo comparado con los tratamientos de Compost B en cobertera y residuos sólidos de té en cobertera.

  8. Host Status of Crotalaria juncea, Sesamum indicum, Dolichos lablab, and Elymus glaucus to Meloidogyne javanica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araya, M; Caswell-Chen, E P

    1994-12-01

    Reproduction of Meloidogyne javanica on Crotalaria juncea PI 207657 and cv. Tropic Sun, Sesamum indicum, Dolichos lablab, and Elymus glaucus was assessed using a root-gall index, a reproductive index obtained by dividing the final population of juveniles (J2) in soil by the initial J2 population (Pf/Pi), and the number of J2 per gram of root recovered from roots by mist chamber extraction. Lycopersicon esculentum (cv. UC 204 C) was included as a susceptible host. The root-gall index and soil reproductive index were poor indicators of the host status of our test plants as compared with mist chamber extraction of J2 from roots. Lycopersicon esculentum had a mean root-gall index of 7.8. Some plants of S. indicum and E. glaucus had a few galls and other plants had none, with mean root-gall indices of 1.6 and 0.8, respectively. No galls were observed in C. juncea and D. lablab. Lycopersicon esculentum had the highest mean soil Pf/Pi value (mean = 1.93), while in C. juncea and some replicates of S. indicum no soil J2 were found. Even though some replicates had no galls, all replicates supported nematode reproduction. The mean numbers of J2 per gram root after 5 days of mist extraction were 447.7, 223.3, 165.5, 96.9, 42.3, and 41.9 for D. lablab, L. esculentum, E. glaucus, S. indicum, and C. juncea PI 207657 and cv. Tropic Sun, respectively. Accurate assessment of nematode resistance was influenced by sampling time and the nematode extraction technique used. Individual plants of both C. juncea and S. indicum supported nematode reproduction to some extent; however, both C. juncea and S. indicum have potential as cover crops to reduce M. javanica numbers. PMID:19279920

  9. Effect of plant and fungous metabolites on Meloidogyne exigua / Efeito de metabólitos vegetais e fúngicos sobre Meloidogyne exigua

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Daniel Rufino, Amaral; Denilson Ferreira, Oliveira; Vicente Paulo, Campos; José Antônio, Pantaleão; Douglas Antônio de, Carvalho; Alexandro da Silva, Nunes.

    Full Text Available Os nematóides acarretam grandes perdas aos produtores brasileiros de café, sendo necessário o desenvolvimento de métodos eficientes para o seu controle. Em trabalho anterior, Allium cepa L., Cajanus cajan (L.) Mill., Crotalaria juncea L., Ficus elastica Roxb., Ruta graveolens L., Stylosanthes guiane [...] nsis Aubl., Leucaena leucocephala (Lam.) Dewit., Brachiaria decumbens Stapf., Catharanthus roseus G. Don, Tagetes minuta L., Ricinus communis L. e Coffea arabica L. produziram substâncias ativas contra o nematóide Meloidogyne exigua Goeldi, que é amplamente disseminado pelos cafezais brasileiros. Dando continuidade a esse trabalho, extratos aquosos das plantas mencionadas, coletadas em época diferente daquela mencionada no trabalho anterior, bem como metabólitos na forma bruta de Fusarium moniliforme Shelden e Cylindrocarpon magnusianum (Sacc.) Woll., produzidos em meio de cultura líquido, foram submetidos a testes in vitro com juvenis do segundo estádio (J2) de M. exigua. Todas as plantas e fungos produziram substâncias ativas contra J2. Portanto, seus metabólitos foram aplicados em mudas de café de seis meses de idade, inoculadas com M. exigua. Após 90 dias em casa de vegetação, verificou-se que os materiais oriundos de A. cepa, L. leucocephala, R. graveolens e F. moniliforme inibiram a produção de ovos e de galhas por M. exigua, demonstrando potencial para o controle de tal parasita. Abstract in english As nematodes cause great damage to Brazilian coffee production, effective methods to control these parasites are necessary. In a previous work Allium cepa L., Cajanus cajan (L.) Mill., Crotalaria juncea L., Ficus elastica Roxb., Ruta graveolens L., Stylosanthes guianensis Aubl., Leucaena leucocephal [...] a (Lam.) Dewit., Brachiaria decumbens Stapf., Catharanthus roseus G. Don, Tagetes minuta L., Ricinus communis L. and Coffea arabica L. produced active substances against Meloidogyne exigua Goeldi, a nematode widely disseminated through Brazilian coffee fields. Thus, aqueous extracts of such plants, collected in a different season from that of the previous work, as well as crude metabolites produced in liquid medium by Fusarium moniliforme Shelden and Cylindrocarpon magnusianum (Sacc.) Woll., were submitted to in vitro assays with M. exigua second-stage juveniles (J2). All plants and fungi produced active substances against J2. Therefore, their metabolites were applied to six-month-old coffee plants inoculated with M. exigua. After 90 days in a greenhouse, those samples obtained from A. cepa, L. leucocephala, R. graveolens and F. moniliforme inhibited the production of galls and eggs by M. exigua, demonstrating potential to control such parasite.

  10. Grafting guava on cattley guava resistant to Meloidogyne enterolobii / Enxertia da goiabeira sobre araçazeiros resistentes a Meloidogyne enterolobii

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Renata Rodrigues, Robaina; Graziella Siqueira, Campos; Cláudia Sales, Marinho; Ricardo Moreira, Souza; Cíntia Aparecida, Bremenkamp.

    Full Text Available O uso de porta-enxertos resistentes poderá ser um método promissor para o controle do nematoide Meloidogyne enterolobii em plantios comerciais de goiaba, em caso de compatibilidade de enxertia. O presente trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o pegamento via enxertia por garfagem de topo em fenda chei [...] a, entre a goiabeira e acessos de araçazeiros resistentes a M. enterolobii. Os tratamentos foram constituídos pelos porta-enxertos utilizados, araçazeiros (três acessos de Psidium cattleyanum) e a goiabeira. O delineamento estatístico adotado foi em blocos casualizados (DBC), com quatro tratamentos, cinco repetições, e oito plantas por parcela. Após a enxertia, foi avaliada a percentagem de pegamento dos enxertos. As mudas produzidas foram plantadas no campo e avaliadas quanto ao crescimento inicial das diferentes combinações. Constatou-se pegamento de enxertia entre a goiabeira 'Paluma' e os porta-enxertos de goiabeira e araçazeiros dos acessos 115 e 117, ocorrendo uma taxa de pegamento de 63, 32 e 29%, respectivamente. No campo, os araçazeiros utilizados como porta-enxertos induziram menor desenvolvimento de copa e resultaram em morte de plantas. A incompatibilidade entre a goiabeira 'Paluma' e o porta-enxerto P. cattleyanum foi confirmada um ano após plantio no campo. Abstract in english The use of resistant rootstocks could be a promising method to control nematode Meloidogyne enterolobii in commercial plantations of guava. The present study aimed to evaluate the success of grafting guava as a scion on accessions of cattley guava as rootstocks resistant to M. enterolobii. The treat [...] ments consisted of the rootstocks cattley guava plants (three accessions of Psidium cattleyanum) and common guava (control). In the apical wedge grafting method, scion of Paluma cultivated variety was used. The experiment was arranged in a randomized block design with four treatments and five replicates, and eight plants per plot. The saplings produced as described before were planted in the field where the initial growth of the different combinations were evaluated. Graft success was observed for the control (common guava) and for accessions 115 and 117 of cattley guava plants, with success rates of 63, 32 and 29%, respectively. In the field, the cattley guava used as rootstocks hampered Paluma canopy development and caused death of plants. Incompatibility of P. cattleyanum as rootstocks for P. guajava Paluma was confirmed one year after cultivation in field.

  11. HERANÇA DA RESISTÊNCIA DE MILHO A MELOIDOGYNE JAVANICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SAWAZAKI EDUARDO

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Duas linhagens de milho, resistente (IAC Ip 365-4-1 e suscetível (IAC Ip 48-5-3 a Meloidogyne javanica, suas gerações F1, F2 e retrocruzamentos, bem como os cruzamentos recíprocos, foram avaliados em dois ensaios em casa de vegetação, em 1989/90 e 1992, em Campinas, para estudar a herança da resistência a M. javanica. Utilizou-se o delineamento inteiramente casualizado com número de repetição maior nas gerações segregantes, parcelas de uma planta por vaso plástico com 500 cm3 de areia fina, previamente tratada com brometo de metila e adubada com NPK. Cinco dias após a germinação das sementes, cada vaso foi inoculado com 5.000 ovos e larvas de M. javanica. Aos 70 e aos 60 dias após a inoculação, respectivamente, nos experimentos 1 e 2, avaliaram-se o índice de massa de ovos, o número de ovos por grama de raiz e o fator de reprodução. Não foram observadas diferenças entre os cruzamentos recíprocos. O comportamento da média do F1, a distribuição de freqüência da população F2 e a segregação monofatorial indicaram que a resistência a M. javanica da linhagem IAC Ip 365-4-1 se deve a um gene dominante associado a um pequeno efeito de polígenes.

  12. Grafting guava on cattley guava resistant to Meloidogyne enterolobii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Rodrigues Robaina

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The use of resistant rootstocks could be a promising method to control nematodeMeloidogyne enterolobiiin commercial plantations of guava. The present study aimed to evaluate the success of grafting guava as a scion on accessions of cattley guava as rootstocks resistant to M. enterolobii.The treatments consisted of the rootstocks cattley guava plants (three accessions of Psidium cattleyanum and common guava (control. In the apical wedge grafting method, scion of Paluma cultivated variety was used. The experiment was arranged in a randomized block design with four treatments and five replicates, and eight plants per plot. The saplings produced as described before were planted in the field where the initial growth of the different combinations were evaluated. Graft success was observed for the control (common guava and for accessions 115 and 117 of cattley guava plants, with success rates of 63, 32 and 29%, respectively. In the field, the cattley guava used as rootstocks hampered Paluma canopy development and caused death of plants. Incompatibility of P. cattleyanumas rootstocks for P. guajavaPaluma was confirmed one year after cultivation in field.

  13. Nematodos fitoparásitos asociados al cultivo de papaya (Carica papaya L.) en Colima, México / Phytoparasitic nematodes associated with the cultivation of papaya (Carica papaya L.) in Colima, Mexico

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    José Ángel, Martínez Gallardo; Tomás, Díaz Valdés; Raúl, Allende Molar; José Alfonso, Ortiz Meza; Raymundo Saúl, García Estrada; José Armando, Carrillo Fasio.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Este estudio tuvo como objetivo detectar e identificar los géneros de nematodos fitoparásitos asociados al cultivo de papaya (Caricapapaya L.) en los municipios de Tecomán y Colima, Colima. Se seleccionaron diez huertos, de siete ranchos en los que se colectaron muestras de raíces y suelo rizosféric [...] o; en cada muestra se cuantificó e identificaron las poblaciones de los fitonematodos. Para la identificación específica de Meloidogyne, se analizaron cortes perineales de las hembras y se confirmó por reacción en cadena de la polimerasa (PCR). Los géneros de fitonematodos detectados e identificados fueron: Aphelenchus, Ditylenchus, Helicotylenchus, Paratylenchus, Pratylenchus, Rotylenchulus, Rotylenchus, Trophurus, Tylenchorrhynchus, Tylenchus, y Meloidogyne, con la especie M. incognita. Los resultados permiten el reporte por primera vez de M. incognita, asociado al cultivo de papaya en Colima, México. Abstract in english This study aimed to detect and identify phytoparasitic nematodes associated with the cultivation of papaya (Caricapapaya L.) in the municipalities of Tecomán and Colima, Colima. We selected ten orchards, seven ranches in which samples were collected roots and rhizosphere soil, in each sample was qua [...] ntified and identified populations of phytoparasitic nematodes. For specific identification of Meloidogyne, perineal cuts were analyzed and confirmed females by chain reaction (PCR). The genera of phytoparasitic nematodes were detected and identified: Aphelenchus, Ditylenchus, Helicotylenchus, Paratylenchus, Pratylenchus, Rotylenchulus, Rotylenchus, Trophurus, Tylenchorrhynchus, Tylenchus, and Meloidogyne, with the species M. incognita. The results allow the first report of M incognita associated with papaya in Colima, Mexico.

  14. Efeito dos exsudatos radiculares de Solanum Sisymbriifolium na enclosão de Meloidogyne SPP / Hatching effect of root exudates from Solanum Sisymbriifolium on Meloidogyne SPP

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Isabel Luci, Conceição; Ana Margarida Caetano, Dias; Isabel, Abrantes; Maria José Moreno da, Cunha.

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Os nemátodes-das-galhas-radiculares (NGR), Meloidogyne spp., são fitoparasitas com uma grande distribuição e economicamente importantes, causando reduções significativas na quantidade e qualidade da produção agrícola. O seu controlo é difícil e muitos dos métodos utilizados são ineficazes. Algumas p [...] lantas libertam fitoquímicos naturais com propriedades nematodicidas e os exsudatos radiculares podem actuar como estimuladores ou inibidores da eclosão de jovens do segundo estádio (J2). O objectivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito dos exsudatos radiculares de Solanum sisiymbriifolium (cvs Sharp, Pion, Sis 4004 e Domino) na eclosão de J2 de cinco isolados de Meloidogyne (M. arenaria, M. chitwoodi, M. hapla, M. hispanica e M. javanica), contribuindo para o desenvolvimento de estratégias de protecção alternativas à utilização de nematodicidas. Os exsudatos radiculares obtidos através da lixiviação sucessiva do solo foram testados, com contagens diárias, durante o período de 15 dias. O exsudato de tomateiro (S. lycopersicum cv. Easypeel) e a água destilada foram utilizados como testemunhas. Abstract in english Root-knot nematodes (RKN), Meloidogyne spp., are widespread and economically important plant-parasitic nematodes, causing significant reduction on quantity and quality of agricultural production. Its control is difficult and many methods are inefficient. Some plants release natural phytochemicals th [...] at have been identified and proved to have nematicides properties. The root exudates may act as stimulants or inhibitors of second-stage juveniles (J2) hatching. The goal of this research was to evaluate the hatching effect of root exudates from Solanum sisiymbriifolium (cvs Sharp, Pion, Sis 4004 e Domino) on five Meloidogyne isolates (M. arenaria, M. chitwoodi, M. hapla, M. hispanica and M. javanica) and to contribute for the development of an alternative strategy to the use of the nematicides. The root exudates, obtained by successive soil leaching, were tested, with daily counts, for a period of 15 days. The exsudate from tomato (S. lycopersicum cv. Easypeel) and distilled water were used as controls.

  15. Parasitism of Trichoderma on Meloidogyne javanica and role of the gelatinous matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trichoderma (T. asperellum-203, 44 and GH11; T. atroviride-IMI 206040 and T. harzianum-248) parasitism on Meloidogyne javanica life stages was examined in vitro. Conidium attachment and parasitism differed among the various fungi. Egg masses, their derived eggs and second-stage juveniles (J2) were p...

  16. Transcriptome analysis of resistant soybean roots infected by Meloidogyne javanica

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Maria Eugênia Lisei de, Sá; Marcus José Conceição, Lopes; Magnólia de Araújo, Campos; Luciano Vilela, Paiva; Regina Maria Santos de, Amorim; Magda Aparecida, Beneventi; Alexandre Augusto Pereira, Firmino; Maria Fátima Grossi de, Sá.

    Full Text Available Soybean is an important crop for Brazilian agribusiness. However, many factors can limit its production, especially root-knot nematode infection. Studies on the mechanisms employed by the resistant soybean genotypes to prevent infection by these nematodes are of great interest for breeders. For thes [...] e reasons, the aim of this work is to characterize the transcriptome of soybean line PI 595099-Meloidogyne javanica interaction through expression analysis. Two cDNA libraries were obtained using a pool of RNA from PI 595099 uninfected and M. javanica (J2) infected roots, collected at 6, 12, 24, 48, 96, 144 and 192 h after inoculation. Around 800 ESTs (Expressed Sequence Tags) were sequenced and clustered into 195 clusters. In silico subtraction analysis identified eleven differentially expressed genes encoding putative proteins sharing amino acid sequence similarities by using BlastX: metallothionein, SLAH4 (SLAC1 Homologue 4), SLAH1 (SLAC1 Homologue 1), zinc-finger proteins, AN1-type proteins, auxin-repressed proteins, thioredoxin and nuclear transport factor 2 (NTF-2). Other genes were also found exclusively in nematode stressed soybean roots, such as NAC domain-containing proteins, MADS-box proteins, SOC1 (suppressor of overexpression of constans 1) proteins, thioredoxin-like protein 4-Coumarate-CoA ligase and the transcription factor (TF) MYBZ2. Among the genes identified in non-stressed roots only were Ser/Thr protein kinases, wound-induced basic protein, ethylene-responsive family protein, metallothionein-like protein cysteine proteinase inhibitor (cystatin) and Putative Kunitz trypsin protease inhibitor. An understanding of the roles of these differentially expressed genes will provide insights into the resistance mechanisms and candidate genes involved in soybean-M. javanica interaction and contribute to more effective control of this pathogen.

  17. Avaliação em casa de vegetação do uso de sorgo, milheto e crotalária no manejo de Meloidogyne javanica / Greenhouse evaluation of the potential of sorghum, pearl millet and crotalaria in the management of Meloidogyne javanica

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Mário M., Inomoto; Sonia R., Antedomênico; Viviane P., Santos; Rosangela A., Silva; Giovane C., Almeida.

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available A rotação de cultura pode desempenhar um importante papel no manejo de nematóides fitoparasitos, dependendo da disponibilidade de culturas econômicas que lhes sejam não hospedeiras ou más hospedeiras. Como alternativa, culturas de cobertura ou adubos verdes podem ser utilizados em sucessão com as cu [...] lturas econômicas de verão. O objetivo do presente estudo foi avaliar, em casa de vegetação, a reação de híbridos e cultivares comerciais de sorgos (Sorghum bicolor) granífero e silageiro ao nematóide Meloidogyne javanica, e estimar seu efeito na população do nematóide, em comparação ao milheto (Pennisetum glaucum; mau hospedeiro), Crotalaria spectabilis e C. juncea, não hospedeiras. Com base em dois experimentos comparando diversos híbridos e cultivares de sorgo, estabeleceu-se que, como regra geral, o sorgo granífero é mau hospedeiro e o silageiro, bom hospedeiro de M. javanica; porém o sorgo silageiro ‘BRS 601’ foi exceção. Em outros experimentos, o sorgo granífero, o milheto ‘BN 2’, Crotalaria spectabilis ‘Comum’ e C. juncea ‘IAC-KR-1’ reduziram a densidade de M. javanica no solo e os sorgos silageiros aumentaram. Abstract in english Crop rotation can play a valuable role in managing plant parasitic nematodes, depending on the availability of profitable non-host or poor host crops. Alternatively, non-host cover crops or green manures can be used in succession to summer cash crops for this purpose. The aim of the current study wa [...] s to evaluate, under greenhouse conditions, the host status of commercial hybrids and cultivars of grain and silage sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) for Meloidogyne javanica, and to assess the effect of sorghum on nematode population in comparison with pearl millet (poor host for M. javanica), showy crotalaria and sunn hemp (both non-hosts). Based on two experiments, it was stated that, as a rule, grain sorghum is a poor host for M. javanica, but silage sorghum is a good host. Silage sorghum ‘BRS 601’ was an exception. In other experiments, grain sorghum, pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum ‘BN 2’), showy crotalaria (Crotalaria spectabilis ‘Comum’) and sunn hemp (C. juncea ‘IAC-KR-1’) reduced M. javanica population level, while silage sorghum increased the nematode density.

  18. Effets de l'iboga (Tabernanthe iboga Baillon) sur les nématodes à galles (Meloidogyne sp.) parasites de tomate

    OpenAIRE

    Bayonne, L.; Madoungou, P.; Tabula, TK.

    2005-01-01

    Effects of Iboga (Tabernanthe iboga Baillon) on the Root-Knot Nematodes (Meloidogyne sp.) in Tomato. The tomato crop in tropical areas arises phytosanitary problems because of many disastrous parasites among which the Meloidogyne genus are in the origin of important damages and the origin of the tomato production decrease in Gabon. How can people manage to control these parasites by using local plants? Out of the chemical control, the works we have done, focused on the usage of Tabernanthe ib...

  19. USO DE LA BIOFUMIGACIÓN PARA EL MANEJO DE Meloidogyne spp., EN LAPRODUCCIÓN PROTEGIDA DE HORTALIZAS / USE OF BIOFUMIGATION FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF Meloidogyne spp.INVEGETABLE SHELTERED PRODUCTION

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Lucila, Gómez; E, González; R, Enrique; M.A, Hernández; Mayra G, Rodríguez.

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó el efecto de la biofumigación del suelo con estiércol vacuno sobreMeloidogyne spp., en un túnel de cultivo protegido durante dos ciclos sucesivos de tomate y pepino. El estiércol vacuno semi-descompuesto se incorporó al suelo de los canteros (10kg.m de suelo) antes del establecimiento de l [...] os cultivos. Para determinar el efecto de la biofumigación sobre las poblaciones de Meloidogyne spp. en el suelo, se determinó el índice de infestación antes y después de la biofumigación, utilizando el método indirecto de bioensayo por planta indicadora, a partir de muestras colectadas a lo largo de los cinco canteros del túnel. Previo a la conformación de los semilleros, las semillas de cada cultivo se peletizaron con ECOMIC (10% del peso de la semilla) y recibieron la aplicación de FITOMAS (3mL. L de agua). Al término de cada cosecha se extrajeron las raíces en su totalidad y se determinó el grado de agallamiento. También se registraron los rendimientos de cada cultivo, expresados en kg de producto.túnel. El índice de infestación en suelo por Meloidogyne spp., después de la biofumigación disminuyó de 4,8 a 1,8 grados. El grado de agallamiento al final de cada ciclo de los cultivos evaluados se mantuvo por debajo de tres y los rendimientos alcanzados superaron en un 50% el obtenido en cosechas anteriores. En este trabajo se confirma que la biogumigación de suelos es una alternativa práctica para el manejo de Meloidogyne spp. en la producción protegida de hortalizas. Abstract in english The effect of soil biofumigation on Meloidogyne spp. during two crop cycles (tomatocucumber) grown under sheltered conditions was evaluated. Semi-rotted cattle manure, used as the biofumigation material, was incorporated in the soil of the plots at a dose of 10 kg.m of soil. Before and after biofumi [...] gation, the soil infestation index of Meloidogyne spp. was determined in soil samples taken along the five plots of the tunnel using the indirect bioassay method. The seeds of both tomato and cucumber crops were pelleted with ECOMIC(10% of seed weight) and FITOMAS (3 mL.L of water) before the seedbeds were set up. The entire root system of each crop was removed from the soil at the end of the harvest. The gall index in the root system of both crops was evaluated. The yields of each crop were also recorded as kg of product per tunnel. The infestation level of the soil after biofumigation decreased from 4,8 to 1,8 degree. The gall index at the end of each crop cycle was always below three. The yields achieved in both crops were 50% higher than those obtained in these crops before this experiment. The results of this work confirm that soil biofumigation is a practicable alternative for the management of the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne spp. in the vegetable production under sheltered conditions.

  20. Reaction of Cultivar Coffee 'Vitória INCAPER 8142' of Cornillon to Parasitism of Meloidogyne exigua / Reacción del Cultivar de café 'Vitória INCAPER 8142' de Cornillon al parasitismo de Meloidogyne exigua

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Cristiano C, Contarato; Marcelo A, Tomaz; Fábio R, Alves; Fabrício M, Sobreira; Waldir C. de Jesus, Junior; Lilian K.C, Rabello; Maria A.G, Ferrão; Romário G, Ferrão.

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Entre los factores que limitan la productividad de los cultivos de café en Brasil son las enfermedades, especialmente el nematodo Meloidogyne exigua presenta relevancia. El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar la resistencia de 13 clones (1V, 2V, 3V, 4V, 5V, 6V, 7V, 8V, 9V, 10V, 11V, 12V y 13V) que [...] comprenden la variedad clonal de café Conillón "Vitoria INCAPER 8142" (Coffea canephora Pierre), a M. exigua. Clones y un testigo (C. arabica cv. Catuai IAC-44) se inocularon con 7.000 individuos (huevos + juveniles) de M. exigua. Después de 180 días de la inoculación se determinó la población final de nematodos por planta. Para determinar los niveles de resistencia se consideró el factor de la reproducción y el Indice de reproducción. El cultivar "Victoria INCAPER 8142" mostró clones con diferentes niveles de resistencia. Los clones 1V, 4V, 7V, 9V e 12V se comportaron como huésped susceptible y eficiente, y los otros clones fueron anfitriones menos resistentes o ineficientes. Abstract in english Among factors limiting to the yield of the coffee crop are the diseases, deserving prominence the nematode Meloidogyne exigua. The objective of this work was to assess the level of resistance of 13 clones (1V, 2V, 3V, 4V, 5V, 6V, 7V, 8V, 9V, 10V, 11V, 12V and 13V) wich composes the clonal variety 'V [...] itória INCAPER 8142' of conilon coffee (Coffea canephora Pierre), to M. exigua. The 13 clones and more one control (C. arabica, cv. Catuaí IAC-44) were inoculated with 7,000 individuals of M. exigua. After 180 days of inoculation, the final population of nematodes per root system was determined. For determination of the resistance levels, both the reproduction factor and the reduction of the reproduction factor were considered. The variety 'Vitória INCAPER 8142' presented clones with different levels of resistance. Clones 1V, 4V, 7V, 9V and 12V behaved as susceptible or efficient host and the other clones were resistant or non-efficient host.

  1. Dicty_cDB: VFD505 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available VF (Link to library) VFD505 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U01356-1 VFD505P (Link to Original ... 74794.1 ra97g03.y1 Meloidogyne incognita egg pAMP1 Bird ... Meloidogyne incognita cDNA 5' similar to TR:Q9XV04 ... 73715.1 ra85b05.y1 Meloidogyne incognita egg pAMP1 Bird ... Meloidogyne incognita cDNA 5' similar to TR:Q9XV04 ...

  2. Dicty_cDB: VFH250 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available VF (Link to library) VFH250 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U15170-1 VFH250P (Link to Original ... 82482.1 rb02b12.y1 Meloidogyne incognita egg pAMP1 Bird ... Meloidogyne incognita cDNA 5' similar to SW:YR44_C ... 74872.1 ra98f07.y1 Meloidogyne incognita egg pAMP1 Bird ... Meloidogyne incognita cDNA 5' similar to SW:YR44_C ...

  3. Dicty_cDB: VFD705 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available VF (Link to library) VFD705 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U01356-1 VFD705P (Link to Original ... 74794.1 ra97g03.y1 Meloidogyne incognita egg pAMP1 Bird ... Meloidogyne incognita cDNA 5' similar to TR:Q9XV04 ... 73715.1 ra85b05.y1 Meloidogyne incognita egg pAMP1 Bird ... Meloidogyne incognita cDNA 5' similar to TR:Q9XV04 ...

  4. Respuesta de Zamia incognita L. al cultivo in vitro, una alternativa para su conservación / In vitro culture response of Zamia incognita, an alternative for preservation

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Aura, I. Urrea; Sonia, Gomez; Esther J., Naranjo.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Las Zamiaceas son plantas relictuales consideradas fósiles vivientes. En Colombia, el 65% de esta familia se encuentra en alguna categoría de amenaza, por la destrucción del hábitat e intensa recolección. Teniendo en cuenta que entre las ventajas de la propagación in vitro está la conservación ex si [...] tu de germoplasma, el presente trabajo tuvo como objetivo evaluar el potencial de regeneración de plantas de Z. incognita a partir de explantes foliares y embriones cigoticos. Se evaluó el efecto de diferentes combinaciones de Auxinas (2,4-D y ANA) y citoquininas (KIN, BAP y TDZ) sobre la formación de callo y la regeneración de brotes (directa o indirecta), utilizando como medio basal MS (MB1) y medio basal B5 modificado (MB2). La formación de callo se presentó sobre un amplio rango de concentraciones de 2,4-D con KIN y 2,4-D con BAP, independientemente del medio basal, pero no en los explantes tratados con ANA más KIN o TDZ. Para los explantes foliares no hubo respuesta a la formación de embriones somáticos y/o brotes con las combinaciones y concentraciones hormonales evaluadas, no obstante los callos inducidos en MB2 con 2,4-D (0,22 mg/l) y BAP (0, 1, 2, 3 mg/l) fueron diferentes, su aspecto nodular, color crema y apariencia proembriogénica coincidió con una gran cantidad de células meristemáticas potenciales para el proceso de regeneración. A partir de embriones cigoticos inmaduros se logró la formación de embriones somáticos en el medio MB2 exento de reguladores o conteniendo 2,4-D solo (0,22 mg/l) y en combinación con BAP (1 mg/l), sin lograr el proceso de conversión a plántulas. Abstract in english Zamiaceas are relict plants considered living fossils. In Colombia, 65% of this family is under some threat category due to their habitat destruction and their intense collection. Given that the advantages of in vitro propagation is ex situ conservation of germoplasm, this study aimed to evaluate th [...] e regeneration potential of Z incognita plants from leaf explants and zygotic embryos. The effect of different combinations of auxin (2.4-D and NAA) and cytokinins (KIN, BAP and TDZ) was evaluated on the formation of callus and shoot regeneration (direct or indirect), using MS (MB1) basal medium and B5 (MB2) basal modified medium. The callus formation was presented over a wide concentration range of 2.4-D with KIN and 2.4-D with BAP, regardless of the basal medium, but not in explants treated with ANA more TDZ or KIN. For leaf explants there was no response to the formation of somatic embryos or shoots with hormonal combinations and concentrations evaluated; however, MB2 calluses induced with 2.4-D (0.22 mg / l) and BAP (0. 1 , 2. 3 mg / l) were different, their nodular aspect, cream color and pro-embryogenic appearance coincided with a lot of potential meristematic cells for the regeneration process. From immature zygotic embryos, somatic embryo formation in the MB2 medium was achieved without growth regulators or containing 2.4-D alone (0.22 mg /l) or 2.4-D in combination with BAP (1 mg/l) without achieving the conversion process to seedlings.

  5. Induction of Tolerance to Root-Knot Nematode by Oxycom

    OpenAIRE

    Anwar, Safdar A.; McKenry, M.V.; Yang, Kwang-Yeol; Anderson, A. J.

    2003-01-01

    Oxycom applications increased plant growth and population levels of Meloidogyne incognita on susceptible tomato. A single Oxycom drench at 2,500 ppm applied 7 days prior to inoculation with M. incognita provided remediation of plant growth measured 63 days later. This occurred without reducing nematode population levels. Follow-up drenches at 2,500 ppm at 10-day intervals stunted shoots and roots (P = 0.05). The same application rates at 20-day intervals did not reduce plant growth. Plants re...

  6. Efficacy of Bacillus thuringiensis, Paecilomyces marquandii,and Streptomyces costaricanus with and without Organic Amendments against Meloidogyne hapla Infecting Lettuce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, J; Abawi, G S; Zuckerman, B M

    2000-03-01

    Chitin, wheat mash, or brewery compost were incorporated into unfumigated and methyl bromide-fumigated organic soils placed in microplots formed from cylindrical drainage tiles (0.25 m-diam. clay tile). After 3 weeks, Meloidogyne hapla and cell or spore suspensions of Bacillus thuringiensis, Paecilomyces marquandii, and Streptomyces costaricanus were individually added to the soils of designated microplots. A B. thuringiensis + S. costaricanus combination was also tested. Lettuce seedlings, cv. Montello, were transplanted into the soils 3 to 4 days later. All the bacterial and fungal antagonists applied without a soil amendment, except the B. thuringiensis + S. costaricanus treatment, reduced root galling and increased lettuce head weight in the unfumigated organic soil, but not in the fumigated soil. All three amendments were also effective against M. hapla and reduced root galling in fumigated and unfumigated soils. Wheat mash amendment increased lettuce head weight in the unfumigated soil. In general, no antagonist x amendment interaction was detected. Soil populations of B. thuringiensis were maintained at >/=4.0 log10 colony-forming units/g organic soil during the first 14 days after planting. However, viable cells of B. thuringiensis were not detected after 49 days. PMID:19270951

  7. Reproduction of Meloidogyne enterolobii in lettuce cultivars of the American group / Multiplicação de Meloidogyne enterolobii em cultivares de alface do grupo americano

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Érika CSS, Correia; Norberto, Silva; Marylia GS, Costa; Silvia RS, Wilcken.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A alface é a principal hortaliça folhosa cultivada no Brasil, tanto em volume como em valor comercializado. Em áreas de cultivo, a alface tem a sua produtividade comprometida por diversas enfermidades, incluindo as causadas pelos nematoides-das-galhas (Meloidogyne spp). Este trabalho teve como objet [...] ivo avaliar o potencial reprodutivo de Meloidogyne enterolobii em vinte e duas cultivares de alface do tipo americana. As plantas foram inoculadas com 5.000 ovos e eventuais juvenis de segundo estádio de M. enterolobii por vaso, dois dias após o transplante das cultivares. O tomateiro 'Rutgers' foi utilizado como padrão de viabilidade do inóculo de M. enterolobii. Foram avaliados o índice de galhas (IG), índice de massas de ovos (IMO) e fator de reprodução (FR) do nematoide, aos 60 dias após a inoculação. As cultivares Ithaca, Raider Plus, RS-1397, L-104, Challenge, IP-11, Classic, Salinas 88, Vanguard 75, Calona e Desert Queen apresentaram resistência a M. enterolobii, com FR variando de 0,22 a 0,9, e as cultivares Lady, Winterset, Robinson, Sonoma, Raider, Lucy Brown, Bnondaga, Summer Time, Tainá, Sundevil e L-109 foram suscetíveis a esse nematoide, com FR variando de 1,06 a 5,73. Abstract in english Lettuce is the main vegetable cultivated in Brazil, in volume and in marketed value. There are ranges of diseases which may affect lettuce crops, including those caused by root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp.). We evaluated the reproductive potential of Meloidogyne enterolobii in 22 lettuce cultiva [...] rs. The plants were inoculated with 5,000 eggs and eventuals second stage juveniles of nematode per pot, two days after the transplanting. 'Rutgers' tomato was used as standard for inoculum viability of M. enterolobii. We evaluated, 60 days after inoculation, the gall index, egg mass index and reproduction factor (RF). The 'Ithaca', 'Raider Plus', 'RS-1397', 'L-104', 'Challenge', 'IP-11', 'Classic', 'Salinas 88', 'Vanguard 75', 'Calona' and 'Desert Queen' were resistant to M. enterolobii with RF varying from 0.22 to 0.9, and the cultivars Lady Winterset, Robinson, Sonoma, Raider, Lucy Brown, Bnondaga, Summer Time, Taina, Sundevil and L-109 were susceptible to this nematode, with RF ranging from 1.06 to 5.73.

  8. Description and SEM Observations of Meloidogyne sasseri n. sp. (Nematoda: Meloidogynidae), Parasitizing Beachgrasses

    OpenAIRE

    Handoo, Zafar A.; Huettel, Robin N.; Golden, A. Morgan

    1993-01-01

    Meloidogyne sasseri n. sp. is described and illustrated from American beachgrass (Ammophila breviliffulata) originally collected from Henlopen State Park and Fenwick Island near the Maryland state line in Delaware, United States (6). Its relationship to M. graminis, M. spartinae, and M. californiensis is discussed. Primary distinctive characters of the female perineal pattern were a high to rounded arch with shoulders, widely spaced lateral lines interrupting transverse striations, a sunken v...

  9. Efecto de diferentes densidades poblacionales de meloidogyne hapla sobre uchuva (physalis peruviana l.) en invernadero

    OpenAIRE

    Niño, Nancy Eunice; Arbeláez, Germán; Navarro, Rafael

    2010-01-01

    Este estudio se realizó en el Centro de Investigaciones y Asesorías Agroindustriales de la Universidad de Bogotá Jorge Tadeo Lozano, Chía (Cundinamarca), bajo condiciones de invernadero, durante diez meses de cultivo. Se evaluó el efecto de diferentes densidades poblacionales de Meloidogyne hapla (0, 50, 100, 200, 500 y 1.000 larvas J2/100 cc de suelo), sobre parámetros productivos de la uchuva: altura de las plantas, diámetro de tallo, peso fresco, peso seco y biomasa de follaje, pes...

  10. Seleção de isolados de Paecilomyces lilacinus (Thom.) Samson para controle de Meloidogyne paranaensis em tomateiro

    OpenAIRE

    Santiago Débora Cristina; Homechin Martin; Silva João Flávio Veloso; Ribeiro Emerson Rodrigo; Gomes Bruno Caetano; Santoro Patrícia Helena

    2006-01-01

    Paecilomyces lilacinus é uma espécie fúngica utilizada no controle biológico de nematóides, sendo uma das mais estudadas a campo. O trabalho teve como objetivo selecionar isolados de Paecilomyces lilacinus quanto à capacidade de controlar Meloidogyne paranaensis em tomateiro cv. "Santa Clara", em de casa-de-vegetação. Plantas cultivadas em vasos foram inoculadas com M. paranaensis. Após 45 dias da inoculação, efetuou-se a substituição dos tomateiros e foram aplicados 50 gramas de arroz autocl...

  11. Analysis of phenolic and indole acetic acids in Meloidogyne graminicola infected rice plants (Oryza sativa L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Amitabh Singh; Ritesh Kumar Jaiswal; Sudarshan Maurya; Udai Pratap Singh

    2013-01-01

    Meloidogyne spp. incite root-knot disease in the roots of Solanaceous and Cereal crop plants inflicting heavy damage to the crops. M. graminicola, a root-knot nematode is ubiquitous as a rice pathogen wherever rice is grown. High Performance Liquid Chromatographic (HPLC) analysis of phenolic acids in healthy and root-knot infected plant parts of rice indicated that phenolic acid contents were highly variable in both the cases. Upper leaves of healthy plants had seven phenolic acids in which g...

  12. Meloidogyne platani n. sp. (Meloidogynidae), a Root-knot Nematode Parasitizing American Sycamore

    OpenAIRE

    Hirschmann, Hedwig

    1982-01-01

    Meloidogyne platani n. sp. is described and illustrated from specimens obtained from roots of American sycamore, Platanus occidentalis, in Virginia. This new species shows certain similarities with M. arenaria but differs from it by a number of distinctive characters. The perineal pattern of females is rounded with fine, wavy to zig-zag striae and raised, convoluted striae in the inner lateral line regions. The stylet of females is 16.5 ?m long with large, rounded stylet knobs set off from th...

  13. Meloidogyne mayaguensis n. sp. (Meloidogynidae), a Root-knot Nematode from Puerto Rico

    OpenAIRE

    Rammah, Abdallah; Hirschmann, Hedwig

    1988-01-01

    Meloidogyne mayaguensis n. sp. is described and illustrated from specimens obtained from galled roots of eggplant, Solanum melongena L., from Puerto Rico. The perineal pattern of females is round to ovoid with fine, widely spaced striae. It has occasional breaks of striation laterally and a circular tail tip area lacking striae. The stylet, 15.8 ?m long, has reniform knobs that merge gradually with the stylet shaft. Males have a high, rectangular, smooth head region, not set off from the body...

  14. Meloidogyne trifoliophila n. sp. (Nemata: Meloidogynidae), a Parasite of Clover from Tennessee

    OpenAIRE

    Bernard, E. C.; Eisenback, J.D.

    1997-01-01

    Meloidogyne trifoliophila n. sp. is described from white clover collected at Ames Plantation, Fayette County, Tennessee. The perineal pattern is rounded, with long, smooth striae and rounded arch, and without distinct lateral lines or perivulval striae. The female stylet is 12.6-15.5 ?m long, the excretory pore is level with or up to one stylet length posterior to the stylet knobs, and the vulva is subterminal. The posterior terminus is weakly protuberant. The male lateral field is composed o...

  15. Host Range and Distribution of the Clover Root-knot Nematode, Meloidogyne trifoliophila

    OpenAIRE

    Bernard, E. C.; Jennings, P. L.

    1997-01-01

    The ability of Meloidogyne trifoliophila to gall 230 species and cultivars of plants was determined in a greenhouse. All clovers (Trifolium spp.) were severely galled regardless of species or cultivar. Most soybean cultivars were moderately to severely galled. Among other legumes, broad bean, garden pea, Korean lespedeza, sweetclover, and common vetch were good hosts, but alfalfa, bird's-foot trefoil, peanut, and pole bean were poor or nonhosts. Among other plant families, most Apiaceae (Umbe...

  16. Control of Meloidogyne javanica by Formulations of Inula viscosa Leaf Extracts

    OpenAIRE

    Oka, Yuji; Ben-Daniel, Bat-Hen; Cohen, Yigal

    2006-01-01

    Inula viscosa is a perennial plant that is widely distributed in Mediterranean countries. Formulations of I. viscosa extracts were tested for their effectiveness in control of Meloidogyne javanica in laboratory, growth chamber, microplot, and field experiments. Oily pastes were obtained by extraction of dry leaves with a mixture of acetone and n-hexane or n-hexane alone, followed by evaporation of the solvents. Emulsifiable concentrate formulations of the pastes killed M. javanica juveniles i...

  17. Relationship Between Levels of Cyanide in Sudangrass Hybrids Incorporated into Soil and Suppression of Meloidogyne hapla

    OpenAIRE

    Widmer, T. L.; Abawi, G.S.

    2002-01-01

    Sudangrass cv. Trudan 8 has been demonstrated to suppress infection of vegetables by Meloidogyne hapla (Mh). Hydrogen cyanide, released from the degradation of the cyanogenic glucoside (dhurrin) during decomposition of Trudan 8, was the primary factor involved in suppression of Mh on vegetables. The cyanide ion level in leaf tissue of 14 hybrids of sudangrass varied between 0.04 (cv. SX-8) to 1.84 parts per million (cv. 840F). The suppressive activity of the sudangrass hybrids against Mh was ...

  18. Suitable rootstocks for organically grown tomato and cucumber in relation to Meloidogyne SPP.

    OpenAIRE

    Janse, J.; van der Wurff, A. W. G.

    2011-01-01

    In organic greenhouse vegetable production, significant yield loss occurs due to root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp.). Soil steaming is effective; however, it is not preferred, since beneficial soil micro organisms are eliminated. An inclusion of resistant hosts within the crop rotation is complicated by the broad host range of the nematode and the high level of specialization of companies towards production of fruit vegetables. Nearly all species of fruit vegetables are susceptible to a va...

  19. Histopathogenesis of susceptibe and resistant responses of wheat, barley and wild grasses to Meloidogyne naasi

    OpenAIRE

    Balhadère, P.; Evans, A.A.F.

    1995-01-01

    Les réactions des graminées sauvages #Aegilops variabilis$ et #Hordeum chilense$, plantes totalement résistantes au nématode à galles #Meloidogyne naasi$, sont comparées en microscopie optique aux réactions de deux variétés sensibles de céréales, #Triticum aestivum$ cv. Chinese Spring et #Hordeum vulgare$ cv. Doublet, ainsi qu'à la réaction du cv. d'orge partiellement résistant, Morocco. Dans ces deux premiers cas, la résistance totale fait intervenir de façon très précoce des réactions de ty...

  20. Meloidogyne enterolobii n. sp. (Meloidogynidae), a Root-knot Nematode Parasitizing Pacara Earpod Tree in China

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Baojun; Eisenback, J.D.

    1983-01-01

    Meloidogyne enterolobii n. sp. is described and illustrated from roots of pacara earpod tree, Enterolobium contortisiliquum (Vell.) Morong, on Hainan Island in China. The perineal pattern of the female is usually oval shaped, the striae are fine to coarse, the dorsal arch is moderately high to high and usually rounded, and the phasmids are large. The stylet knobs in females are divided longitudinally by a groove so that each knob appears as two. The mean distance of the excretory pore to the ...

  1. Responses of Guava Plants to Inoculation with Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi in Soil Infested with Meloidogyne enterolobii

    OpenAIRE

    Campos, Maryluce Albuquerque da Silva; da Silva, Fábio Sérgio Barbosa; Yano-Melo, Adriana Mayumi; de Melo, Natoniel Franklin; Pedrosa, Elvira Maria Régis; Maia, Leonor Costa

    2013-01-01

    In the Northeast of Brazil, expansion of guava crops has been impaired by Meloidogyne enterolobii that causes root galls, leaf fall and plant death. Considering the fact that arbuscular mycorrhizal Fungi (AMF) improve plant growth giving protection against damages by plant pathogens, this work was carried out to select AMF efficient to increase production of guava seedlings and their tolerance to M. enterolobii. Seedlings of guava were inoculated with 200 spores of Gigaspora albida, Glomus et...

  2. Levantamento de Meloidogyne exigua na cultura da seringueira em São José do Rio Claro, MT, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernardo Eduardo Roberto de Almeida

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi realizado com o objetivo de efetuar um levantamento da ocorrência de Meloidogyne exigua em seringueira em São José do Rio Claro, MT. Foram amostradas 191 propriedades agrícolas, totalizando cerca de 18.000ha. Os nematóides foram identificados no Laboratório de Nematologia do Departamento de Fitossanidade da FCAV/UNESP, em Jaboticabal, SP. Foram encontrados níveis populacionais de M. exigua entre 0 e 61.824 juvenis/5g de raízes.

  3. Penetration of Crotalaria juncea, Dolichos lablab, and Sesamum indicum Roots by Meloidogyne javanica

    OpenAIRE

    Araya, M.; Caswell-Chen, E.P.

    1994-01-01

    Penetration of Crotalaria juncea (PI 207657 and cv. Tropic Sun) Dolichos lablab cv. Highworth, and Sesamum indicum by juveniles (J2) of Meloidogyne javanica was assessed to investigate the mechanism by which these plants may reduce nematode numbers in the field. Growth chamber experiments were conducted at 25 C, with vials containing 90 g sand infested with 450 J2; tomato (UC 204 C) was included as a susceptible host. Fifteen days after inoculation, roots were stained and the nematodes within...

  4. Expression of Tolerance for Meloidogyne graminicola in Rice Cultivars as Affected by Soil Type and Flooding

    OpenAIRE

    Soriano, Imelda R. S.; Prot, Jean-Claude; Matias, Danilo M.

    2000-01-01

    The effects of different water regimes on the pathogenicity of Meloidogyne graminicola on six rice cultivars were determined in two soil types in three greenhouse experiments. Two water regimes, simulating continuous flooding and intermittent flooding, were used with five of the cultivars. All cultivars were susceptible to the nematode, but IR72 and IR74 were more tolerant than IR20 and IR29 under intermittent flooding. All were tolerant under continuous flooding. UPLRi-5 was grown under mult...

  5. Respuesta de Zamia incognita L. al cultivo in vitro, una alternativa para su conservación

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aura I. Urrea

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Título en ingles: In vitro culture response on Zamia incognita,  an alternative for preservation Resumen: Las Zamiaceas son plantas relictuales consideradas fósiles vivientes. En Colombia, el 65% de esta familia se encuentra en alguna categoría de amenaza, por la destrucción del hábitat e intensa recolección. Teniendo en cuenta que entre las ventajas de la propagación in vitro está la conservación ex situ de germoplasma, el presente trabajo tuvo como objetivo evaluar el potencial de regeneración de plantas de Z. incognita a partir de explantes foliares y embriones cigoticos. Se evaluó el efecto de diferentes combinaciones de Auxinas (2,4-D y ANA y citoquininas (KIN, BAP y TDZ sobre la formación de callo  y la regeneración de brotes (directa o indirecta, utilizando como medio basal MS (MB1 y medio basal B5 modificado (MB2. La formación de callo se presentó sobre un amplio rango de concentraciones de 2,4-D con KIN y 2,4-D con BAP, independientemente del medio basal, pero no en los explantes tratados con ANA más KIN o TDZ.  Para los explantes foliares no hubo respuesta  a la formación de embriones somáticos y/o brotes con las combinaciones y concentraciones hormonales evaluadas, no obstante los callos inducidos en MB2 con 2,4-D (0,22 mg/l y BAP (0, 1, 2, 3 mg/l fueron diferentes, su aspecto nodular, color crema y  apariencia proembriogénica coincidió con una gran cantidad de células meristemáticas potenciales para el proceso de regeneración. A partir de embriones cigoticos inmaduros se logró la formación de embriones somáticos en el medio MB2 exento de reguladores o conteniendo 2,4-D solo (0,22 mg/l y en combinación con BAP (1 mg/l, sin lograr el proceso de conversión a plántulas. Palabras clave: micropropagación; hojas jóvenes; reguladores de crecimiento; embriones cigóticos; medio basal. Abstract: Zamiaceas are relict plants considered living fossils. In Colombia, 65% of this family is under some threat category due to their habitat destruction and their intense collection. Given that the advantages of in vitro propagation is ex situ conservation of germoplasm, this study aimed to evaluate the regeneration potential of  Z incognita plants  from leaf explants and zygotic embryos. The effect of different combinations of auxin (2.4-D and NAA and cytokinins (KIN, BAP and TDZ was evaluated on the formation of callus and shoot regeneration (direct or indirect, using MS (MB1 basal medium and B5 (MB2 basal modified medium.  The callus formation was presented over a wide concentration range of 2.4-D with KIN and 2.4-D with BAP, regardless of the basal medium, but not in explants treated with ANA more TDZ or KIN. For leaf explants there was no response to the formation of somatic embryos or shoots with hormonal combinations and concentrations evaluated; however, MB2 calluses induced with 2.4-D (0.22 mg / l and BAP (0. 1 , 2. 3 mg / l were different, their nodular aspect, cream color and pro-embryogenic appearance coincided with a lot of potential meristematic cells for the regeneration process. From immature zygotic embryos, somatic embryo formation in the MB2 medium was achieved without growth regulators or containing 2.4-D alone (0.22 mg /l or 2.4-D in combination with BAP (1 mg/l without achieving the conversion process to seedlings. Key words: microprogation; young leaves; plant growth regulators; zygotic embryos; basal medium.

  6. Detecção de Meloidogyne enterolobii em mudas de amoreira (Morus nigra L.) / Detection of Meloidogyne Enterolobii in mulberry seedlings (Morus nigra L.)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Vanessa dos Santos, Paes-Takahashi; Pedro Luiz Martins, Soares; Franciele Alves, Carneiro; Rivanildo Junior, Ferreira; Eduardo José de, Almeida; Jaime Maia dos, Santos.

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available O comércio de mudas sem certificação contribui para disseminação de pragas e doenças, que podem causar sérios danos às plantas cultivadas. Na região de Itapetininga (SP), foram apreendidas, pela equipe da Defesa Agropecuária, mudas de aceroleira, goiabeira e amoreira, comercializadas em caminhões, q [...] ue apresentavam galhas nas raízes, sintoma típico causado por Meloidogyne spp. A identificação da espécie foi feita através da morfologia da configuração perineal de fêmeas e região labial de machos, bem como através da caracterização do fenótipo enzimático de esterase. Foi constatada a presença de M. enterolobii nas amostras analisadas. Trata-se do primeiro relato do parasitismo de M. enterolobii em mudas de amoreira no mundo. Abstract in english Trade seedlings without certification contributed to spread pests and diseases which can cause a large damage to grown plants. In Itapetininga (SP), was seized by Agricultural Defense staff, seedlings of barbados cherry, guava and mulberry, sold in trucks, all of that had galls on roots, typical sym [...] ptom caused by Meloidogyne spp. Specie identification was made by morphology of female perineal pattern and male head, as well as characterization of esterase enzyme phenotype. It was confirmed the presence of M. enterolobii in the samples analyzed. This is the first report of M. enterolobii in mulberry seedlings in the world.

  7. Eclosão e mortalidade de Meloidogyne exigua em extratos e em produtos naturais / Hatching and mortality of Meloidogyne exigua in extracts and in natural products

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Sônia M. L., Salgado; Vicente P., Campos.

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available A eclosão e mortalidade de juvenis de segundo estádio (J2) de Meloidogyne exigua foram avaliadas em extratos aquosos de urucum-colorau (Bixa orellana), cravo-da-índia (Syzygium aromaticum), canela (Cinnamomum zeylanicum), pimenta-do-reino (Piper nigrum), gengibre (Zingiber officinale), salsa (Petros [...] elium crispum), soro de leite, solução nutritiva hidropônica, solução aquosa de cloreto de sódio (NaCl) e açúcar (sacarose), fermento biológico e probiótico (Controlmix®). O soro de leite e os extratos de canela, fermento biológico e cloreto de sódio causaram 100% de mortalidade (P Abstract in english The hatching and mortality of Meloidogyne exigua second-stage juveniles (J2) were evaluated after 24 h in aqueous extracts of Bixa orellana, Cinnamomum zeylanicum, Petroselium crispum, Piper nigrum, Syzygium aromaticum, Zingiber officinale whey of milk, hidroponic solution, sodium chloride (NaCl) an [...] d saccharose aqueous solution, yeast and probiotic (Controlmix®) solutions. The whey of milk, C. zeylanicum, yeast and sodium chloride (NaCl) solutions caused 100% mortality of J2 (P

  8. Reação de aceroleira (Malpighia emarginata D.C.) à Meloidogyne enterolobii / Reaction in barbados cherry (Malpighia emarginata D.C.) to Meloidogyne enterolobii

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    José Carlos, Cavichioli; Maria José de Marchi, Garcia; Andressa Lima de, Brida; Sílvia Renata Siciliano, Wilcken.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available O Brasil é o maior produtor, consumidor e exportador de acerola (Malpighia emarginata D.C.) do mundo. Por conter altos teores de vitamina C, tornou-se uma fruta altamente requisitada no mercado mundial para o preparo de sucos e no consumo in natura. Nos últimos anos, as lavouras desta fruta vêm apre [...] sentando um decréscimo nas produções em razäo da ocorrência de nematoides de galhas (Meloidogyne spp.), um dos principais problemas que afetam a cultura. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a resistência de genótipos de aceroleira frente à Meloidogyne enterolobii. O experimento foi conduzido em casa de vegetação do Departamento de Proteção Vegetal, da Faculdade de Ciências Agronômicas/UNESP - Câmpus de Botucatu (SP). Foram utilizados cinco clones: Cereja-Brs-236; Fruta Cor- Brs-238; Roxinha-Brs-237; Mirandópolis; Japi, e três variedades: Okinawa; Olivier e Waldy-CATI. Cada planta foi inoculada com 2.500 ovos e eventuais juvenis de segundo estádio (Pi) de M. enterolobii. Após 60 dias, a parte área de cada planta foi descartada, e o sistema radicular lavado, submetido à coloração com floxina-B e examinado para a obtenção dos índices de galhas (IG) e massa de ovos (IMO), e processados pelo método de trituração em liquidificador, peneiramento e centrifugação com sacarose para a obtenção do número total de ovos (Pf), que foi utilizado para o cálculo do fator de reprodução (Pf/Pi). Todos os clones e as variedades foram considerados suscetíveis à Meloidogyne enterolobii apresentando os fatores de reprodução variando de 4,1 a 18,3. Abstract in english Brazil is the biggest producer, consumer and exporter of acerola (Malpighia emarginata D.C.). It has become a highly requested fruit in the world market for preparing juices and consumption in nature because it contains high levels of vitamin C. Nowadays brazilian acerola orchards have shown decreas [...] e in production due to the occurrence of root-knot nematodes, one of the main problem affecting the culture. The aim of this study was to evaluate the resistance of acerola genotypes to Meloidogyne enterolobii. The experiment was conducted in greenhouse of the Department of Plant Protection of Agronomic Science College - FCA/UNESP - Botucatu, SP. Five clones, Cherry-Brs-236; Fruit Color-Brs-238; Roxinha-Brs-237; Mirandópolis; Japi, and three varieties, Okinawa; Olivier and Waldy-CATI, were studied. Each plant was inoculated with 2,500 M. enterolobii eggs and second stage juveniles (Pi). After 60 days the roots of each plant was washed, staining with phloxine-B and examined for obtaining gall and egg mass indices (GI; EMI), and processed by blender, sieving and centrifugation method to obtain the total number of eggs (Pf), which was used to calculate the reproduction factor (Pf / Pi). All acerola clones and varieties were considered susceptible to Meloidogyne enterolobii, with RF ranging from 4.1 to 18.3.

  9. Resistance to Root-knot, Reniform, and Soybean Cyst Nematodes in Selected Soybean Breeding Lines

    OpenAIRE

    Davis, E. L.; Meyers, D. M.; Burton, J W; Barker, K.R.

    1998-01-01

    Soybean breeding lines and reported sources of nematode resistance were evaluated in repeated greenhouse tests for resistance to North Carolina populations of the soybean cyst nematode Heterodera glycines, reniform nematode Rotylenchulus reniformis, and the root-knot nematode species Meloidogyne incognita, M. arenaria, and M. arenaria. Lines from the soybean breeding program in Missouri that had 'Hartwig' soybean as a parent were the most resistant to races 1-4 of the soybean cyst nematode an...

  10. Survey of Nematodes on Coffee in Hawaii

    OpenAIRE

    Schenck, S.; Schmitt, D. P.

    1992-01-01

    Surveys of coffee fields in Hawaii during 1989-1991 indicated the presence of 10 nematode species in 8 genera. After coffee was planted in fields previously in sugarcane, populations of Criconemella sp. and Pratylenchus zeae gradually decreased, while Rotylenchulus reniformis and, in one field, Meloidogyne incognita, increased in numbers. Coffee is a poor host of R. reniformis, but weeds in coffee plantations may support this nematode. At present, nematodes pose no serious threat to Hawaii's ...

  11. Differential Response to Root-Knot Nematodes in Prunus Species and Correlative Genetic Implications

    OpenAIRE

    Esmenjaud, D.; Minot, J.C.; Voisin, R; Pinochet, J.; Simard, M. H.; Salesses, G

    1997-01-01

    Responses of 17 Prunus rootstocks or accessions (11 from the subgenus Amygdalus and 6 from the subgenus Prunophora) were evaluated against 11 isolates of Meloidogyne spp. including one M. arenaria, four M. incognita, four M. javanica, one M. hispanica, and an unclassified population from Florida. Characterization of plant response to root-knot nematodes was based on a gall index rating. Numbers of females and juveniles plus eggs in the roots were determined for 10 of the rootstocks evaluated ...

  12. Effect of the Mi Gene in Tomato on Reproductive Factors of Meloidogyne chitwoodi and M. hapla

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, C. R.; Mojtahedi, H.; Santo, G. S.; Williamson, V.M.

    1997-01-01

    The effect of the Mi gene on the reproductive factor of Meloidogyne chitwoodi and M. hapla, major nematode pests of potato, was measured on nearly isogenic tomato lines differing in presence or absence of the Mi gene. The Mi allele controlled resistance to reproduction of race 1 of M. chitwoodi and to one of two isolates of race 2. No resistance to race 3 of M. chitwoodi or to M. hapla was found. Variability in response to isolates of race 2 may reflect diversity of virulence genotypes hereto...

  13. Host Tests to Differentiate Meloidogyne chitwoodi Races 1 and 2 and M. hapla

    OpenAIRE

    Mojtahedi, H.; Santo, G. S.; Wilson, J. H.

    1988-01-01

    The reproductive factor (R = final egg density at 55 days ÷ 5,000, initial egg density) of Meloidogyne chitwoodi race 2 (alfalfa race) on 46 crop cultivars ranged from 0 to 130. The reproductive efficiency of M. chitwoodi race 1 (non-alfalfa race) and M. chitwoodi race 2 was compared on selected crop cultivars. The basic difference between the two races lay in their differential reproduction on Thor alfalfa and Red Cored Chantenay carrot. M. chitwoodi race 2 reproduced on alfalfa but not on c...

  14. Influence of water management on tolerance of rice cultivars for Meloidogyne graminicola

    OpenAIRE

    Tandingan, I.C.; Prot, Jean-Claude; Davide, R.G.

    1996-01-01

    Parmi quinze cultivars de riz testés pour leur sensibilité à #Meloidogyne graminicola$ en sol inondé IR72 était le plus résistant alors que IR29 était le plus sensible et IR36 et IR74 avaient une sensibilité intermédiaire. La multiplication de #M. graminicola$ sur IR29, IR36, IR72 et IR74 et son effet sur leurs rendements en grains ont été testés lorsque ces cultivars étaient cultivés dans des conditions simulant celles du riz pluvial et en sol inondé. Lorsque ces cultivars étaient cultivés e...

  15. Meloidogyne haplanaria n. sp. (Nematoda: Meloidogynidae), a Root-knot Nematode Parasitizing Peanut in Texas

    OpenAIRE

    Eisenback, J.D.; Bernard, E. C.; Starr, J L; Lee, T. A.; Tomaszewski, E. K.

    2003-01-01

    Meloidogyne haplanaria n. sp. is described and illustrated from specimens parasitizing peanut in Texas. The perineal pattern of the female is rounded to oval with a dorsal arch that is high and rounded except for striae near the vulva, which are low with rounded shoulders. The striae are distinctly forked in the lateral field, and punctations often occur as a small group near the tail tip and singly within the whole perineal pattern. The female stylet is 13-16 µm long and has broad, distinctl...

  16. First report of the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne minor on turfgrass in Belgium

    OpenAIRE

    Viaene, N.; Wiseborn, D.B.; Karssen, G.

    2007-01-01

    The root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne minor, was described during 2004 after it was found on potato roots in a field in the Netherlands and in golf courses in England, Wales, and Ireland (2). Since it is associated with yellow patch disease in turf grass and causes deformation of potato tubers (2), it is important to know whether this organism is already widespread in these and neighboring countries. In addition, it has a relatively wide host range (2,4). A small survey conducted in Belgium was...

  17. Mixtures of Olive Pomace with Different Nitrogen Sources for the Control of Meloidogyne spp. on Tomato

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez-Kábana, R.; Estaún, V; Pinochet, J.; Marfá, O.

    1995-01-01

    The efficacy of mixtures of dry olive (Olea europea) pomace with biuret, guanidine, and melamine for control of root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp.) on tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) was studied in greenhouse experiments. Olive pomace (OP) applied pre-plant at 10 g/kg soil was phytotoxic. Mixtures of OP (10 g/kg soil) with biuret or guanidine at 200-300 mg/kg soil reduced or eliminated the phytotoxic effect, controlled root-knot nematodes, and increased soil esterase activity indicative o...

  18. Greenhouse and field assessment of different organic compounds against guava-parasitic Meloidogyne enterolobii

    OpenAIRE

    Alexandre Macedo Almeida; Ricardo Moreira de Souza; Vicente Martins Gomes; Guilherme Bessa Miranda

    2012-01-01

    Guava decline is a complex disease involving Meloidogyne enterolobii and Fusarium solani and it has caused major direct losses to Brazilian growers. Although several strategies have been sought to control the nematode, the use of organic soil amendments is currently the best approach to manage this disease. To assess the best amount of meat and bone meal (MBM) to be incorporated into the soil, guava seedlings inoculated with M. enterolobii were treated with 1-5% v/v of the MBM. Ninety days la...

  19. Effect of Cutting Age on the Resistance of Prunus cerasifera (Myrobalan Plum) to Meloidogyne arenaria

    OpenAIRE

    Esmenjaud, D.; Minot, J. C.; Voisin, R.; Salesses, G.; BONNET, A

    1995-01-01

    The response of softwood cuttings of Myrobalan plum infested after 50 and 105 days with 3,000 second-stage juveniles (J2) of Meloidogyne arenaria was compared to 15-month-old hardwood cuttings in 13 genotypes ranging from highly resistant to susceptible. Gall index and number of galls were recorded 30 days after infestation. Fifty-day-old cuttings rooted in perlite developed many rootlets, but had only incipient galls after infestation. In sand, rooting of 50-day-old cuttings not treated with...

  20. Analysis of Gene expression in soybean (Glycine max) roots in response to the root knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita using microarrays and KEGG pathways

    OpenAIRE

    Gamal El-Din Abd El Kader Y; Hussein Ebtissam HA; Alkharouf Nadim W; Hosseini Parsa; Ibrahim Heba MM; Aly Mohammed AM; Matthews Benjamin F.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Root-knot nematodes are sedentary endoparasites that can infect more than 3000 plant species. Root-knot nematodes cause an estimated $100 billion annual loss worldwide. For successful establishment of the root-knot nematode in its host plant, it causes dramatic morphological and physiological changes in plant cells. The expression of some plant genes is altered by the nematode as it establishes its feeding site. Results We examined the expression of soybean (Glycine max) g...

  1. Evaluation of soil treatments for control of Meloidogyne Arenaria in caladium tubers (Caladium × Hortulanum) and nematode susceptibility of selected cultivars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field and greenhouse studies were conducted to assess the effectiveness of soil fumigants for control of Meloidogyne arenaria on harvested caladium (Caladium × hortulanum) tubers, to determine the susceptibility of five commonly grown caladium cultivars to M. arenaria, and to evaluate effects of fum...

  2. MORPHOLOGICAL AND MOLECULAR CHARACTERIZATION OF MELOIDOGYNE FLORIDAE N. SP. (NEMATODA: MELOIDOGYNIDAE), A ROOT-KNOT NEMATODE PARASITIZING PEACH IN FLORIDA

    Science.gov (United States)

    A root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne floridae n. sp., is described and photographed from peach (Prunus persica (L.) Batsch) roots from Gainesville, Florida. It is characterized by: having a distinctive perineal pattern with a high to narrowly rounded arch, coarse broken and network like striae in and a...

  3. HOSPEDABILITY OF Malphighia punicifolia L. TO Meloidogyne javanica AND M. arenaria, STRAIN 2 HOSPEDABILIDADE DE ACEROLA (Malpighia punicifolia L. A Meloidogyne javanica E M. arenaria RAÇA 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilson da Cunha Costa

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    The root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne spp. attacks several species causing significant yield losses. Plants of Barbados cherry (Malpighia punicifolia L. infected by root-knot nematodes exhibit yellowish, reduction in leaf size and dwarfism, and this may even result in death. Taking into consideration the importance of Barbados cherry in Brazil and the lack of research on the influence of these parasites on the crop, this study was carried out with the objective of studying the behaviour of selected genotypes of Barbados cherry infected by M. javanica and M. arenaria, strain 2. Two trials were established following a completely randomized experimental design with six replicates. Plants of M. punicifolia L. propagated by cuttings were inoculated with a suspension containing eggs plus second juvenile stage of M. arenaria, strain 2 (15,000 and M. javanica (17,900. Plants were kept in greenhouse for 90 days. Host capacity of the genotypes was evaluated by gall indexes and mass of eggs for each root system and classified as resistant and susceptible. All genotypes behaved as susceptible to the species of root-knot nematodes tested.

    KEY-WORDS: Malpighia punicifolia; root-knot nematodes; host plant resistance.

    O nematóide das galhas (Meloidogyne spp. ataca várias culturas causando elevadas perdas de produção. Plantas de acerola infectadas exibem amarelecimento, redução do tamanho das folhas e nanismo, podendo resultar na morte das mesmas. Devido à grande importância da cultura e à escassez de pesquisas sobre a severidade deste parasito em plantas de acerola no Brasil, este trabalho objetivou estudar o comportamento de alguns genótipos de acerola, a Meloidogyne javanica e M. arenaria raça 2. Foram realizados dois ensaios em delineamento inteiramente casualizado com seis repetições. Mudas de acerola produzidas por estaquia foram inoculadas com uma suspensão de ovos + juvenis de 2° estágio de 15.000 e 17.900 de M. arenaria raça 2 e M. javanica, respectivamente, permanecendo 90 dias em casa de vegetação. Após este período, a hospedabilidade dos genótipos foi caracterizada, com base nos índices de galhas e massas de ovos para cada sistema radicular, como resistente e suscetível. Todos os genótipos comportaram-se como suscetíveis às espécies de nematóides de galhas avaliadas.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Nematóides das galhas; resistência; Malpighia punicifolia.

  4. Reprodução de Meloidogyne javanica em olerícolas e em plantas utilizadas na adubação verde / Meloidogyne javanica reproduction on vegetable crops and plants used as green manure

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Juliana M.O., Rosa; Juliana N., Westerich; Silvia Renata S., Wilcken.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do trabalho foi determinar o fator de reprodução de Meloidogyne javanica nas olerícolas alho poró (Allium porrum), cebolinha (A. schoenoprasum), coentro (Coriandrum sativum), salsa (Petroselinum crispum), beterraba (Beta vulgaris), cenoura (Dacus carota), rabanete (Raphanus sativus), bróc [...] olis, couve flor e repolho (Brassica spp.), alface (Lactuca sativa), pimentão e pimenta (Capsicum spp.), e em plantas de adubação verde Cajanus cajan, Crotalaria breviflora, C. juncea, C. mucronata, C. ochroleuca, C. spectabilis, Dolichos lalab, Helianthus annuus, Lollium multiflorum, M. aterrima, M. cinereum, Mucuna deeringiana, Pennisetum glaucum e Raphanus sativus. Os experimentos foram conduzidos em casa de vegetação durante 60 dias. A infestação do substrato foi realizada com 5.000 ovos e juvenis de segundo estádio de M. javanica. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado com seis repetições por tratamento. As plantas imunes a M. javanica foram: salsa graúda 'Portuguesa', os brócolis 'Bruxelas' e 'Tronchuda Portuguesa', as pimentas 'Dedo de Moça', 'Malagueta', 'Doce Italiana', 'Jalapeño M', 'Amarela Comprida' e 'Cambuci', os pimentões 'Dagmar', 'Casca Dura Ikeda', 'Magna Super' e os porta enxertos para pimentão 'Silver' e 'AF 8253'. As plantas resistentes a M. javanica foram: alface 'Roxa', cebolinhas 'Tokyo' e 'Nebuka', alho 'Poró Gigante', salsa 'Lisa Comum', brócolis 'Brasília', azevém, C. spectabilis, C. juncea, C. breviflora, girassol 'Uruguai', guandu anão, milheto e mucuna preta. Abstract in english The goal of this work was to determinate the Meloidogyne javanica reproduction factor on vegetable crops (Allium porrum, A. schoenoprasum, Beta vulgaris, Brassica spp., Capsicum spp., Coriandrum sativum, Daucus carota, Lactuca sativa, Petroselinum crispum and Raphanus sativus) and on plants used as [...] green manure (Cajanus cajan, Crotalaria breviflora, C. juncea, C. mucronata, C. ochroleuca, C. spectabilis, Dolichos lalab, Helianthus annuus, Lollium multiflorum, M. aterrima, M. cinereum, Mucuna deeringiana, Pennisetum glaucum and Raphanus sativus). The experiments were carried out in a greenhouse during 60 days. The substrate infestation was made with 5,000 eggs and possible second stage juveniles of M. javanica. The immune plants to M. javanica were: P. crispum 'Portuguesa', Brassica spp. 'Bruxelas and 'Tronchuda Portuguesa', Capsicum spp. 'Dedo de Moça', 'Malagueta', 'Doce Italiana', 'Jalapeño M', 'Amarela Comprida', 'Cambuci', 'Dagmar', 'Casca Dura Ikeda', 'Magna Super', 'Silver' and 'AF 8253'. The resistant plants were: L. sativa 'Roxa', A. schoenoprasum 'Tokyo' and 'Nebuka', A. porrum 'Poró Gigante', P. crispum 'Lisa Comum', D. carota 'Brasília', L. multiflorum, C. spectabilis, C. juncea, C. breviflora, H. annuus 'Uruguai', C. cajan 'Iapar 43', P. glaucum and M. aterrima.

  5. Reação de aceroleira (Malpighia emarginata D.C. à Meloidogyne enterolobii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Carlos Cavichioli

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available O Brasil é o maior produtor, consumidor e exportador de acerola (Malpighia emarginata D.C. do mundo. Por conter altos teores de vitamina C, tornou-se uma fruta altamente requisitada no mercado mundial para o preparo de sucos e no consumo in natura. Nos últimos anos, as lavouras desta fruta vêm apresentando um decréscimo nas produções em razäo da ocorrência de nematoides de galhas (Meloidogyne spp., um dos principais problemas que afetam a cultura. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a resistência de genótipos de aceroleira frente à Meloidogyne enterolobii. O experimento foi conduzido em casa de vegetação do Departamento de Proteção Vegetal, da Faculdade de Ciências Agronômicas/UNESP - Câmpus de Botucatu (SP. Foram utilizados cinco clones: Cereja-Brs-236; Fruta Cor- Brs-238; Roxinha-Brs-237; Mirandópolis; Japi, e três variedades: Okinawa; Olivier e Waldy-CATI. Cada planta foi inoculada com 2.500 ovos e eventuais juvenis de segundo estádio (Pi de M. enterolobii. Após 60 dias, a parte área de cada planta foi descartada, e o sistema radicular lavado, submetido à coloração com floxina-B e examinado para a obtenção dos índices de galhas (IG e massa de ovos (IMO, e processados pelo método de trituração em liquidificador, peneiramento e centrifugação com sacarose para a obtenção do número total de ovos (Pf, que foi utilizado para o cálculo do fator de reprodução (Pf/Pi. Todos os clones e as variedades foram considerados suscetíveis à Meloidogyne enterolobii apresentando os fatores de reprodução variando de 4,1 a 18,3.

  6. DANOS CAUSADOS POR Meloidogyne javânica (TREUB 1885 Chitwood, 1949 NA CULTURA DO TOMATE DE ÁRVORE, Cyphomandra betacea (Canavilles Sendtner, 1845 (Solanaceae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SILVA, Pollyanna Tavares da

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The trial was realized in Dr. Francisco Maeda University area, in the city of Ituverava, state ofSão Paulo. The objective of this work was to evaluate the damage of five different densities population of thenematode Meloidogyne javanica in Cyphomandra betacea plants. The tests were realized in pots were inoculated0, 10, 100, 1.000, 10.000 e 100.000 eggs per plant. The trial was conducted in the period o f 01.05.2003 to01.11.2003. During the test was measuring the height of the plants were collected in fresh matter weight ofshoots, fresh weight of roots and applied note of infestation of galls on roots. The experimental delineation used was the complete randon design (CRD, with the averages compared with Tukey test, at 5% of probability. Theresults showed that during the test, the nematodes have taken whole the entire root system of the plant, reducingthe growth capacity of the same. The shoot has virtually no differences between treatments and control.O experimento foi realizado no Campus da Faculdade “Dr. Francisco Maeda”, Município deItuverava, SP. O presente trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar os danos de cinco diferentes densidadespopulacionais de nematóides do gênero Meloidogyne javânica nas plantas de Cyphomandra betacea. Os testesforam realizados em vasos onde foram inoculados 0, 10, 100, 1.000, 10.000 e 100.000 ovos por planta. O ensaiofoi conduzido no período de 01.05.2003 a 01.11.2003. Durante o ensaio foi medida a altura das plantas, foramcoletados peso de matéria fresca da parte aérea, peso de raízes frescas e aplicadas notas de infestação de galhasem raiz. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o Delineamento Inteiramente Casualizado (DIC, com asmédias comparadas com o teste de Tukey, a 5,0% de probabilidade. Os resultados demonstraram que no períododo ensaio, os nematóides tomaram praticamente todo o sistema radicular da planta, reduzindo a capacidade decrescimento da mesma. A parte aérea praticamente não sofreu diferenças entre os tratamentos e testemunha.

  7. Effect of continuous growing of resistant soybean genotypes on Meloidogyne arenaria race 1 reproduction Efeito do plantio contínuo de genótipos resistentes de soja na reprodução de Meloidogyne arenaria raça 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ELVIRA M.R. PEDROSA

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available Even though resistance is the most promising tactic for root-knot nematode management on soybean (Glycine max, virulent biotypes may occur and be selected on specific resistant plant genotypes. In the present study, reproduction rate of Meloidogyne arenaria race 1 increased after four sequences of continuous culture of the parasite on resistant soybean genotypes.Muito embora o uso de cultivares resistentes seja a tática de controle mais promissora para o manejo da meloidoginose em soja (Glycine max, biótipos virulentos podem ocorrer no campo e serem selecionados por genótipos resistentes específicos. No presente estudo, a taxa de reprodução de um isolado de Meloidogyne arenaria raça 1 aumentou após quatro cultivos contínuos em genótipos de soja resistentes.

  8. Effect of continuous growing of resistant soybean genotypes on Meloidogyne arenaria race 1 reproduction / Efeito do plantio contínuo de genótipos resistentes de soja na reprodução de Meloidogyne arenaria raça 1

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    ELVIRA M.R., PEDROSA; ROMERO M., MOURA.

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available Muito embora o uso de cultivares resistentes seja a tática de controle mais promissora para o manejo da meloidoginose em soja (Glycine max), biótipos virulentos podem ocorrer no campo e serem selecionados por genótipos resistentes específicos. No presente estudo, a taxa de reprodução de um isolado d [...] e Meloidogyne arenaria raça 1 aumentou após quatro cultivos contínuos em genótipos de soja resistentes. Abstract in english Even though resistance is the most promising tactic for root-knot nematode management on soybean (Glycine max), virulent biotypes may occur and be selected on specific resistant plant genotypes. In the present study, reproduction rate of Meloidogyne arenaria race 1 increased after four sequences of [...] continuous culture of the parasite on resistant soybean genotypes.

  9. Comportamento de duas cultivares de feijoeiro em relação a Meloidogyne javanica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silva Rogério Theodoro Vieira da

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Devido à escassez de informações sobre fontes de resistência a Meloidogyne no gênero Phaseolus, o presente trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar, em casa-de-vegetação, nos períodos de verão e inverno, o comportamento das cultivares de feijoeiro Pérola e Iapar 81 frente a M. javanica. Os dados de reprodução de M. javanica, independente do período do ano e da época de avaliação, mostraram que ambas as cultivares foram eficientes hospedeiras na multiplicação de M. javanica. Em termos médios, a cultivar Pérola apresentou as maiores taxas de reprodução quando comparada a Iapar 81. Apesar de ambas as cultivares serem suscetíveis nas diferentes concentrações de inóculo, não houve redução no rendimento das mesmas.

  10. The role of seaweed extracts, Ascophyllum nodosum, in the reduction in fecundity of Meloidogyne javanica

    OpenAIRE

    Whapham, C.A.; Jenkins, T.; Blunden, G.; Hankins, S.D.

    1994-01-01

    Les effets d'extraits commerciaux de l'algue marine #Ascophyllum nodosum$ sur la fécondité du nématode #Meloidogyne javanica$, élevé sur tomate (#Lycopersicon esculentum$ cv. Ailsa Craig) sont évalués. Après une génération, le nombre d'oeufs du nématode récupérés sur les plantes traitées diminue considérablement en comparaison avec les plantes témoins, traitées avec de l'eau pure. Un plus faible nombre d'oeufs sont récupérés sur les plantes infestées par des juvéniles ayant incubé dans des e...

  11. Nematicidal effect of volatile organic compounds (VOCs on the plant-parasitic nematode Meloidogyne javanica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauricio Batista Fialho

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have demonstrated that volatile organic compounds (VOCs, produced by the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, were able to inhibit the development of phytopathogenic fungi. In this context, the nematicidal potential of the synthetic mixture of VOCs, constituted of alcohols and esters, was evaluated for the control of the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne javanica, which causes losses to crops of high economic value. The fumigation of substrate containing second-stage juveniles with VOCs exhibited nematicidal effect higher than 30% for the lowest concentration tested (33.3 µL g-1 substrate, whereas at 66.6 and 133.3 µL g-1 substrate, the nematode mortality was 100%. The present results stimulate other studies on VOCs for nematode management.

  12. Detecção de Meloidogyne enterolobii em mudas de amoreira (Morus nigra L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Vanessa dos Santos Paes-Takahashi; Pedro Luiz Martins Soares; Franciele Alves Carneiro; Rivanildo Junior Ferreira; Eduardo José de Almeida; Jaime Maia dos Santos

    2015-01-01

    O comércio de mudas sem certificação contribui para disseminação de pragas e doenças, que podem causar sérios danos às plantas cultivadas. Na região de Itapetininga (SP), foram apreendidas, pela equipe da Defesa Agropecuária, mudas de aceroleira, goiabeira e amoreira, comercializadas em caminhões, que apresentavam galhas nas raízes, sintoma típico causado por Meloidogyne spp. A identificação da espécie foi feita através da morfologia da configuração perineal de fêmeas e região labial de macho...

  13. Mangrove formulations for the management of meloidogyne javanica (treub) chitwood under field conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Six months field experiment were set up from June to November in Department of Botany, University of Karachi to investigate the influence of mangroves (Avicennia marina, Rhizophora mucronata) parts separately or combined parts for the control of Meloidogyne javanica (Treub.) Chitwood. Mangroves parts including leaves, stem, pneumatophore and combined parts were applied to field in form of powder at rate of 60 g/plot, capsules and pellets at 120 g/plot. Results pertaining to seed germination percentage, plant length, plant weight and yield showed outstanding improvement in both okra and mung bean when combined parts pellets of A. marina and R. mucronata were used. All parts of A. marina, R. mucronata pellets and powder were effective in controlling of M. javanica infection but maximum reduction in root knot nematode were obtained by the amendment of mangrove combined parts powder. (author)

  14. Seleção de isolados de Paecilomyces lilacinus (Thom.) Samson para controle de Meloidogyne paranaensis em tomateiro Selection of isolates of Paecilomyces lilacinus (Thom.) Samson to control Meloidogyne paranaensis in tomato

    OpenAIRE

    Débora Cristina Santiago; Martin Homechin; João Flávio Veloso Silva; Emerson Rodrigo Ribeiro; Bruno Caetano Gomes; Patrícia Helena Santoro

    2006-01-01

    Paecilomyces lilacinus é uma espécie fúngica utilizada no controle biológico de nematóides, sendo uma das mais estudadas a campo. O trabalho teve como objetivo selecionar isolados de Paecilomyces lilacinus quanto à capacidade de controlar Meloidogyne paranaensis em tomateiro cv. "Santa Clara", em de casa-de-vegetação. Plantas cultivadas em vasos foram inoculadas com M. paranaensis. Após 45 dias da inoculação, efetuou-se a substituição dos tomateiros e foram aplicados 50 gramas de arroz autocl...

  15. Nematicide Effect of Various Organic Soil Amendments on Meloidogyne ethiopica Whitehead, 1968, on Potted Vine Plants Efecto Nematicida de Varias Enmiendas Orgánicas Sobre Meloidogyne ethiopica Whitehead, 1968, en Plantas de Vid en Macetas

    OpenAIRE

    Lucia Rivera; Erwin Aballay

    2008-01-01

    Five organic soil amendments were evaluated for their nematicide effect on root-knot Meloidogyne ethiopica Whitehead, 1968, on potted Vitis vinifera L. var. Chardonnay plants. The amendments included two immature composts: Compost A made with tea (Camellia sinensis (L.) Kuntze) residues, broiler litter and grape pomace; Compost B made with tea residues, rachis and grape pomace; and separately dried tea residues, grape pomace and broiler litter. These amendments were either incorporated or app...

  16. Long-Term Effect of Crop Rotation on Soybean in a Field Infested with Meloidogyne arenaria and Heterodera glycines

    OpenAIRE

    Weaver, D. B.; Rodríguez-Kábana, R.; Carden, E. L.

    1989-01-01

    Previous cropping sequence (corn-soybean vs. soybean-soybean) and aldicarb effects on soybean yield and nematode numbers at harvest for soybean cultivars with various combinations of nematode resistance were determined in 1988 in a sandy loam soil infested with Meloidogyne arenaria race 2 and Heterodera glycines races 3 and 4 at Elberta, Alabama. Yield and nematode numbers differed among cultivars with 'Leflore' having the highest yield. Aldicarb treatment resulted in increased soybean yield ...

  17. Cytochemical investigation of resistance to root-knot nematode Meloidogyne naasi in cereals and grasses using cryosections of roots

    OpenAIRE

    Balhadère, P.; Evans, A. A. F.

    1995-01-01

    La localisation histologique de certaines enzymes et constituants végétaux généralement mobilisés dans les réactions d'hypersensibilité a été étudiée sur du matériel sain et infesté provenant de deux plantes totalement résistantes à #Meloidogyne naasi$ - les graminées sauvages #Aegilops variabilis$ et #Hordeum chilense$ - ainsi que sur les plantes sensibles - #Triticum aestivum$ cv. Chinese Spring et #Hordeum vulgare$ cv. Doublet. Chez les plantes résistantes, et contrairement aux plantes sen...

  18. Effect of Culture Filtrate of Fungi in the Control of Meloidogyne javacnica, Root Knot Nematodes on Okra and Broad Bean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amer-Zareen

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Fungal cell free filtrates were used in two different doses, enhanced plant growth and root knot nematodes infection was reduced where high doses of filtrate (100% concentration were applied, in all test fungal filtrates. Culture filtrates of Paecilomyces lilacinus and Verticillium chlamydosporium at 100 percent concentration showed significant reduction in Meloidogyne javanica root knot infection on okra and broad bean as compared to Trichoderma harzianum, T. koningii, T. viride, Aspergillus restrictus and Aspergillus sp., which found less effective.

  19. A metabolomic approach to study the rhizodeposition in the tritrophic interaction: tomato, Pochonia chlamydosporia and Meloidogyne javanica

    OpenAIRE

    Escudero Benito, Nuria; Marhuenda Egea, Frutos Carlos; Ibanco-Cañete, Ricardo; Zavala González, E.A.; López Llorca, Luis Vicente

    2014-01-01

    A combined chemometrics-metabolomics approach [excitation–emission matrix (EEM) fluorescence spectroscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and high performance liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry (HPLC–MS)] was used to analyse the rhizodeposition of the tritrophic system: tomato, the plant-parasitic nematode Meloidogyne javanica and the nematode-egg parasitic fungus Pochonia chlamydosporia. Exudates from M. javanica roots were sampled at root penetration (early) and gall development (lat...

  20. Effect of Inhibitors and Stimulators of Ethylene Production on Gall Development in Meloidogyne javanica-Infected Tomato Roots

    OpenAIRE

    Glazer, Itamar; Apelbaum, Akiva; Orion, Daniel

    1985-01-01

    Excised tomato roots infected with Meloidogyne javanica produced ethylene at 3-6 times the rate of noninfected roots. This increase in ethylene production started 5 days after inoculation. Gall growth and ethylene production in infected roots were accelerated by 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC), indole acetic acid (IAA), and ethrel known as ethylene production stimulators. When inhibitors of ethylene production, like aminoethoxyvinylglycine (AVG) or aminoxyacetic acid (AOA), or inh...

  1. Interrelationships between Ethylene Production, Gall Formation, and Root-knot Nematode Development in Tomato Plants Infected with Meloidogyne javanica

    OpenAIRE

    Giazer, I.; Orion, D; Apelbaum, A.

    1983-01-01

    Ethylene production was determined in excised tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) root cultures of Meloidogyne javanica susceptible and resistant cultivars infected with M. javanica. Uninfected cultivars produced very low amounts of ethylene. Relatively high amounts of ethylene were produced by the infected susceptible cultivars. Peak production of 1.6 n moles * g root?¹ * h¹? occurred between 9 and 16 days after inoculation (DAI). The period of high ethylene production coincided with that of ra...

  2. Efficacy of Bacillus thuringiensis, Paecilomyces marquandii,and Streptomyces costaricanus with and without Organic Amendments against Meloidogyne hapla Infecting Lettuce

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, J.; Abawi, G.S.; Zuckerman, B.M.

    2000-01-01

    Chitin, wheat mash, or brewery compost were incorporated into unfumigated and methyl bromide-fumigated organic soils placed in microplots formed from cylindrical drainage tiles (0.25 m-diam. clay tile). After 3 weeks, Meloidogyne hapla and cell or spore suspensions of Bacillus thuringiensis, Paecilomyces marquandii, and Streptomyces costaricanus were individually added to the soils of designated microplots. A B. thuringiensis + S. costaricanus combination was also tested. Lettuce seedlings, c...

  3. Plant Sources of Chinese Herbal Remedies: Laboratory Efficacy, Suppression of Meloidogyne javanica in Soil, and Phytotoxicity Assays

    OpenAIRE

    Zasada, I. A.; Ferris, H.; Zheng, L.

    2002-01-01

    Extracts of Chinese herbal medicines from plants representing 13 families were tested for their ability to suppress plant-parasitic nematodes. Effective concentration (EC50 and EC90) levels for 18 of the extracts were determined in laboratory assays with Meloidogyne javanica juveniles and all stages of Pratylenchus vulnus. Efficacy of 17 extracts was tested against M. javanica in soil. Generally, EC50 and EC90 values determined in the laboratory were useful indicators for application rates in...

  4. Comparison of saline tolerance among genetically similar species of Fusarium and Meloidogyne recovered from marine and terrestrial habitats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmer, W. H.; LaMondia, J. A.

    2014-08-01

    Successful plant pathogens co-evolve and adapt to the environmental constraints placed on host plants. We compared the salt tolerance of two salt marsh pathogens, Fusarium palustre and Meloidogyne spartinae, to genetically related terrestrial species, F. sporotrichioides and Meloidogyne hapla, to assess whether the salt marsh species had acquired selective traits for persisting in saline environments or if salt tolerance was comparable among Fusarium and Meloidogyne species. Comparisons of both species were made in vitro in vessels containing increasing concentration of NaCl. We observed that F. palustre was more tolerant to NaCl than F. sporotrichioides. The radial expansion of F. palustre on NaCl-amended agar plates was unaffected by increasing concentrations up to 0.3 M. F. sporotrichioides showed large reductions in growth at the same concentrations. Survival of M. hapla was greatest at 0 M, and reduced by half in a 0.3 M solution for 4 days. No juveniles survived exposure to 0.3 M NaCl for 12 days. M. spartinae survived at all NaCl concentrations tested, including 1.0 M for at least 12 days. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that marine organisms in the upper tidal zone must osmoregulate to withstand a wide range of salinity and provide evidence that these pathogens evolved in saline conditions and are not recent introductions from terrestrial niches.

  5. Controle de Meloidogyne javanica em mudas de bananeira 'prata-anã' por compostos orgânicos / Control of meloidogyne javanica on 'prata- anã' banana seedlings by organic compounds

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Bruna Hanielle Carneiro dos, Santos; Regina Cássia Ferreira, Ribeiro; Adelica Aparecida, Xavier; José Augusto dos, Santos Neto; Virgílio Jamir Gonçalves, Mota.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o efeito de compostos orgânicos no controle de Meloidogyne javanica, e no desenvolvimento de mudas de bananeiras 'Prata-Anã. O experimento foi conduzido em DIC, com dez repetições, e os tratamentos consistiram em quatro compostos constituídos de diferentes matér [...] ias-primas (restos da cultura da banana, cana-de-açúcar, esterco bovino, cascas de banana, plantas daninhas, capim andropogon), o esterco bovino, a torta de mamona e testemunhas (adubação mineral), carbofuran e testemunha absoluta (sem adição de composto orgânico). Em cada vaso, foram colocados 3 kg de solo autoclavado, incorporado com cada um dos tratamentos avaliados e inoculado com suspensão contendo 4.000 ovos de M. javanica. Após quatro dias, transplantou-se uma muda de bananeira 'Prata-Anã' micropropagada, e aos 60 dias, avaliaram-se: altura das plantas, diâmetro, número de folhas e peso de matéria seca da parte aérea, e número de galhas, massas de ovos, número de ovos e o número de juvenis de segundo estádio (J2), por 100 cm³ de solo. Testou-se in vitro o efeito das frações húmicas dos quatro compostos (que não causaram fitotoxidez) e esterco bovino sobre a mortalidade e motilidade de J2 de M. javanica. O ensaio foi montado em placas de ELISA em DIC, com cinco repetições. Os compostos orgânicos e o esterco bovino aumentaram o desenvolvimento das mudas. A torta de mamona provocou efeito fitotóxico às mudas. Menor número de variáveis nematológicas foi proporcionado pela torta de mamona e pelo carbofuran. O número de J2 também foi menor nas parcelas tratadas com carbofuran e também pelo Composto 3, constituído por plantas daninhas+restos de cana-de-açúcar+ esterco bovino e pelo adubo mineral. Para o teste in vitro, as substâncias húmicas conferiram efeito nematicida e nematostático. Dentre os compostos, o C3 mostrou-se promissor por reduzir o desenvolvimento do nematoides e não apresentar efeito fitotóxico. Abstract in english The study aimed to evaluate the effect of organic compounds in the control of Meloidogyne javanica, and in the development of 'Prata-Anã' banana seedlings. The experiment was carried out in a completely randomized design with ten replicates, and treatments consisted of four compounds made from diffe [...] rent raw materials (remnants of bananas crop, sugar cane, cattle manure, banana skins, weeds, Andropogon grass), the manure, the castor bean cake, and controls (mineral fertilizer; 'carbofuran' and absolute control (no added organic compounds). It was placed in each pot 3 kg of soil, autoclaved, mixed with each one of the treatments and inoculated with a suspension containing 4,000 eggs of M. javanica. After four days one 'Prata-Anã' micropropagated seedling was transplanted and at 60 days it was evaluated: plant height, diameter, number of leaves, dry matter weight of shoots, number of galls, egg masses, number of eggs and the number of second-stage juveniles (J2) per 100 cm³ of soil. It was tested in vitro the effect of humic fractions of the four compounds (which did not cause phytotoxicity) and cattle manure on mortality and motility of J2 of M. javanica. The essay was set on ELISA plates in a completely randomized design with five replications. Organic compounds and manure increased the growth of plantlets. The castor bean cake caused phytotoxic effect on the seedlings. Less number of nematological variables was provided by the castor bean cake and by the 'carbofuran'. The number of J2 was also lower in plots treated with 'carbofuran' and also by the Compound 3 constituted of weed + sugar cane residues + cattle manure and by the mineral fertilizer. For the in vitro test, the humic substances presented nematicide and nematostatic effects. Among the compounds, the C3 showed itself promise for reducing the development of the nematode and for not present phytotoxic effect.

  6. Resistência do cafeeiro a nematóides: I - Testes em progênies e híbridos, para Meloidogyne exigua / Coffee breeding for resistance to Meloidogyne exigua: I - Screening test using arabica progenies and interespecific hybrids

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    L. C., Fazuoli; L. C., Mônaco; A., Carvalho; A. J., Reis.

    Full Text Available Procurou-se identificar fontes de resistência ao nematóide Meloidogyne exígua em cafeeiros derivados de híbridos interespecíficos e em progênies de café arábica oriundas da Etiópia, em experimentos estabelecidos em duas localidades. A infestação foi feita por dois processos usados com freqüência nes [...] se tipo de trabalho. As avaliações do grau de ataque foram feitas quatro e 12 meses após a infestação, em Campinas e Ribeirão Preto, respectivamente, adotando-se escala variando de zero, para ausência de galhas, a cinco pontos para grande intensidade de ataque. Verificou-se que a leitura feita aos quatro meses é tão eficiente quanto aos 12 meses, indicando a possibilidade de abreviar consideravelmente a duração dessas avaliações. Notou-se, no experimento de Ribeirão Preto, uma redução de aproximadamente 8% no crescimento das mudas infestadas e verificou-se, também, uma redução de 11,5% e 12% nos pesos verde e seco das plantas, devido ao ataque do nematóide. De 1.692 plantas examinadas nos dois experimentos, selecionaram-se 106 (6,3%), caracterizadas pela ausência de galhas. As populações derivadas dos híbridos entre Coffea arabica e C. canephora revelaram-se mais promissoras, contribuindo com maior número de plantas resistentes. As plantas do experimento instalado em Campinas foram inoculadas também com a raça II de Hemileia vastatrix para o estudo da resistência conjunta aos dois patógenos. Essas seleções, em número de 38, representam valioso material para o programa de melhoramento do cafeeiro. Abstract in english Two coffee screening tests were undertaken in order to find out sources of resistance to the nematode M. exigua. Arabica progenies from Ethiopia origin and advanced popu-lations derived from interspecific crosses (Coffea arabica x C. canephora and C. arabica x C. dewevrei) were evaluated. A five poi [...] nt scale (0 point to the roots without galls and 5 points to severely attacked roots) was used for determination of the infection degree. The seedlings root system was analysed four months after the nematode infestation in one of the trial and after twelve months at another trial. The observed results were similar indicating the possibility to reduce considerably the time for the screening test. A reduction of 8.0 per cent on the average height and of 11.5 and 12.0 per cent in the green and dry weight of the infested seedlings was observed in one of this test. From the total of 1692 analysed seedlings, 106 were seleeted without nematode galls. It was verified that the number of resistant plants was particularly high among the populations derived from the C. arabica x C. canephora crosses. Seedlings from the trial carried out at Campinas were also inoculated with spores of the race II of Hemileia vastatrix in a tentative of isolation of resistant plants to both pathogens. Among the populations Arabica x Canephora it was possible to selected 38 seedlings with simultaneous resistance to M. exigua and H. vastatrix. The plants were considered useful for the prosecution of the breeding program.

  7. Resistência do cafeeiro a nematóides: I - Testes em progênies e híbridos, para Meloidogyne exigua Coffee breeding for resistance to Meloidogyne exigua: I - Screening test using arabica progenies and interespecific hybrids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. C. Fazuoli

    1977-01-01

    Full Text Available Procurou-se identificar fontes de resistência ao nematóide Meloidogyne exígua em cafeeiros derivados de híbridos interespecíficos e em progênies de café arábica oriundas da Etiópia, em experimentos estabelecidos em duas localidades. A infestação foi feita por dois processos usados com freqüência nesse tipo de trabalho. As avaliações do grau de ataque foram feitas quatro e 12 meses após a infestação, em Campinas e Ribeirão Preto, respectivamente, adotando-se escala variando de zero, para ausência de galhas, a cinco pontos para grande intensidade de ataque. Verificou-se que a leitura feita aos quatro meses é tão eficiente quanto aos 12 meses, indicando a possibilidade de abreviar consideravelmente a duração dessas avaliações. Notou-se, no experimento de Ribeirão Preto, uma redução de aproximadamente 8% no crescimento das mudas infestadas e verificou-se, também, uma redução de 11,5% e 12% nos pesos verde e seco das plantas, devido ao ataque do nematóide. De 1.692 plantas examinadas nos dois experimentos, selecionaram-se 106 (6,3%, caracterizadas pela ausência de galhas. As populações derivadas dos híbridos entre Coffea arabica e C. canephora revelaram-se mais promissoras, contribuindo com maior número de plantas resistentes. As plantas do experimento instalado em Campinas foram inoculadas também com a raça II de Hemileia vastatrix para o estudo da resistência conjunta aos dois patógenos. Essas seleções, em número de 38, representam valioso material para o programa de melhoramento do cafeeiro.Two coffee screening tests were undertaken in order to find out sources of resistance to the nematode M. exigua. Arabica progenies from Ethiopia origin and advanced popu-lations derived from interspecific crosses (Coffea arabica x C. canephora and C. arabica x C. dewevrei were evaluated. A five point scale (0 point to the roots without galls and 5 points to severely attacked roots was used for determination of the infection degree. The seedlings root system was analysed four months after the nematode infestation in one of the trial and after twelve months at another trial. The observed results were similar indicating the possibility to reduce considerably the time for the screening test. A reduction of 8.0 per cent on the average height and of 11.5 and 12.0 per cent in the green and dry weight of the infested seedlings was observed in one of this test. From the total of 1692 analysed seedlings, 106 were seleeted without nematode galls. It was verified that the number of resistant plants was particularly high among the populations derived from the C. arabica x C. canephora crosses. Seedlings from the trial carried out at Campinas were also inoculated with spores of the race II of Hemileia vastatrix in a tentative of isolation of resistant plants to both pathogens. Among the populations Arabica x Canephora it was possible to selected 38 seedlings with simultaneous resistance to M. exigua and H. vastatrix. The plants were considered useful for the prosecution of the breeding program.

  8. First Report of Northern Root-Knot Nematode, Meloidogyne hapla, Parasitic on Oaks, Quercus brantii and Q. infectoria in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohrabi, Effat; Maafi, Zahra Tanha; Panahi, Parisa; Barooti, Shapour

    2015-03-01

    Root-knot nematodes (RKN) are the most serious plant parasitic nematodes having a broad host range exceeding 2,000 plant species. Quercus brantii Lindl. and Q. infectoria Oliv are the most important woody species of Zagros forests in west of Iran where favors sub-Mediterranean climate. National Botanical Garden of Iran (NBGI) is scheduled to be the basic center for research and education of botany in Iran. This garden, located in west of Tehran, was established in 1968 with an area of about 150 ha at altitude of 1,320 m. The Zagros collection has about 3-ha area and it has been designed for showing a small pattern of natural Zagros forests in west of Iran. Brant's oak (Q. brantii) and oak manna tree (Q. infectoria) are the main woody species in Zagros collection, which have been planted in 1989. A nematological survey on Zagros forest collection in NBGI revealed heavily infection of 24-yr-old Q. brantii and Q. infectoria to RKN, Meloidogyne hapla. The roots contained prominent galls along with egg sac on the surface of each gall. The galls were relatively small and in some parts of root several galls were conjugated, and all galls contained large transparent egg masses. The identification of M. hapla was confirmed by morphological and morphometric characters and amplification of D2-D3 expansion segments of 28S rRNA gene. The obtained sequences of large-subunit rRNA gene from M. hapla was submitted to the GenBank database under the accession number KP319025. The sequence was compared with those of M. hapla deposited in GenBank using the BLAST homology search program and showed 99% similarity with those KJ755183, GQ130139, DQ328685, and KJ645428. The second stage juveniles of M. hapla isolated from Brant's oak (Q. Brantii) showed the following morphometric characters: (n = 12), L = 394 ± 39.3 (348 to 450) µm; a = 30.9 ± 4 (24.4 to 37.6); b = 4.6 ± 0.44 (4 to 5.1); b? = 3.3 ± 0.3 (2.7 to 3.7), c = 8.0 ± 1 (6.2 to 10.3), ? = 5.3 ± 0.8 (3.5 to 6.3); Stylet = 12.1 ± 0.8 (11 to 13) µm; Tail = 50 ± 5.6 (42 to 57) µm; Hyaline 15 ± 1.8 (12 to 18) µm. Oak manna, Q. infectoria population of second stage juveniles clearly possessed short body length and consequently other morphometric features were less than those determined for Q. brantii population, and these features were: (n = 12), L = 359.0 ± 17.3 (319 to 372) µm; a = 28.6 ± 3 (22.8 to 31); b = 5.0 ± 0.3 (4.8 to 5.2); b? = 3.3 ± 0.2 (3 to 3.6), c = 8.1 ± 0.5 (7.4 to 8.8), ? = 4.7 ± 0.5 (3.9 to 5.2); Stylet = 11.4 ± 0.7 (10 to 12) µm; Tail = 44 ± 1.8 (42 to 47) µm; Hyaline 12 ± 1.7 (10 to 15) µm. To date two species of Meloidogyne, M. quercianaGolden, 1979 and M. christieiGolden and Kaplan, 1986 have been reported to parasitize oaks (Quercus spp.) from the United States of America. M. querciana was found on pin oak Quercus palustris in Virginia. The oak RKN infected pine oak, red oak, and American chestnut heavily in greenhouse tests (Golden, 1979). The other species M. christiei was described from turkey oak and Q. laevis in Florida, which has monospecific host range (Golden and Kaplan, 1986). Both of these RKN species seem to be restricted to the United States of America and have not been reported from other place. According to our knowledge this is the first report of occurrence of M. hapla on Q. brantii and Q. infectoria in the world. This study includes these two oak species to the host range of RKN, M. hapla for the world and expands the information of RKN, M. hapla host ranges on oaks. PMID:25861121

  9. Alterações anatômicas induzidas por Meloidogyne enterolobii (=M. mayaguensis e Meloidogyne javanica em tomateiros resistentes a meloidoginose

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    Juliana Nogueira Westerich

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available A resistência de tomateiros (Solanum lycopersicum L. a M. incognita, M. javanica e M. arenaria, conferida pela presença do gene Mi, não contempla a espécie M. enterolobii (=M. mayaguensis. O objetivo da pesquisa foi verificar as alterações anatômicas causadas por M. enterolobii no sistema radicular de porta-enxertos de tomateiro com o gene de resistência Mi ('Magnet' e Helper M' e compará-las com as causadas por M. javanica. As observações anatômicas das raízes foram feitas com auxílio de microscópio de luz e os aspectos mais relevantes foram fotografados. Com base em contagens e mensurações do tamanho dos sítios de alimentação e das células gigantes, foram efetuadas analises utilizando o método estatístico de Análise de Agrupamento. O aparecimento de células nutridoras incitadas por M. enterolobii foi verificado em ambos os porta-enxertos de tomateiro, entre 10 e 17 dias após a inoculação (DAI. O número e a área de sítios de alimentação e de células gigantes foram menores aos 17 DAI do que aos 24 DAI. Nesta época (24 DAI, foram observados sítios de alimentação constituídos pela presença de várias células nutridoras multinucleadas, com parede celular espessa, citoplasma denso e granuloso. Os tecidos vasculares apresentaram-se comprimidos e desorganizados, foi observada, também, hipertrofia de células do parênquima cortical. As raízes inoculadas com M. javanica não apresentaram alterações anatômicas.

  10. Molecular dissection of the rDNA array and of the 5S rDNA gene in Meloidogyne artiellia: phylogenetic and diagnostic implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veronico, Pasqua; De Luca, Francesca; De Giorgi, Carla

    2004-06-01

    The sequence of a 13.423 nucleotide genomic fragment has been determined for the plant parasitic nematode Meloidogyne artiellia. It contains an entire rDNA cluster, the bordering intergenic regions and portions of the flanking coding regions. The sequence analysis of the rDNA repeats suggests homogeneity in M. artiellia, thus providing a further indication of the usefulness of these genes for the diagnostic identification of this species. The comparison of the secondary structures of the internal transcribed spacer 2 region in several Meloidogyne species indicates that RNA folding predictions can be used as a tool of potential diagnostic relevance. The other ribosomal gene, 5S rDNA, has been demonstrated to be functional and located near the trans-spliced leader sequences, in the same arrangement found in the distantly related nematode Caenorhabditis elegans but never in other Meloidogyne thus providing species-specific markers for the identification of several Thylenchida parasitic nematodes. PMID:15135452

  11. Efeito do silicato de cálcio e magnésio sobre a reprodução de Meloidogyne javanica e desenvolvimento de mudas de bananeira Prata-Anã / Effect of calcium and magnesium silicate on Meloidogyne javanica reproduction and development of banana Prata-Anã seedlings

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Rodrigo Mendes, Oliveira; Regina Cássia Ferreira, Ribeiro; Adelica Aparecida, Xavier; Lívia, Pimenta; Gaspar Henrique, Korndorfer.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o efeito de diferentes doses de silicato de cálcio e magnésio sobre a reprodução de Meloidogyne javanica e sobre o desenvolvimento de mudas de bananeira Prata-Anã em solo arenoso. O ensaio foi conduzido em casa de vegetação, em blocos (quatro) ao acaso, em esque [...] ma fatorial 5x2, correspondendo a cinco doses de silicato de cálcio e magnésio (0; 0,64; 1,28; 1,92 ou 2,56 g/dm³ de solo) e duas fontes de variação de M. javanica (presença e ausência). As parcelas constaram de três vasos com uma muda de bananeira cada. Nas doses de 1,28 e 2,56 g de silicato de cálcio e magnésio/dm³ de solo, o número de ovos e o fator de reprodução (FR=população final/população inicial) de M. javanica foram significativamente menores em relação ao tratamento-testemunha. Porém estas doses de silicato não afetaram o número de galhas e massa de ovos/raiz e número de juvenis de segundo estádio (J2) de M. javanica/100 cm³ de solo. Na ausência do nematoide, a dose estimada de 1,61 g de silicato de cálcio e magnésio/dm³ proporcionou maior peso de matéria seca do rizoma, porém não afetou a altura de planta, o diâmetro do pseudocaule, o número de folhas e o peso da matéria seca das folhas e da raiz. Maior desenvolvimento das plantas foi obtido naquelas não inoculadas com M. javanica. Conclui-se que as mudas tiveram seu desenvolvimento vegetativo afetado pela presença de M. javanica e, dependendo da dose do silicato aplicada ao solo, a reprodução do nematoide pode ser afetada, bem como pode proporcionar incremento na matéria seca do rizoma. Abstract in english The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of different doses of calcium and magnesium silicate on M. javanica reproduction and the development of banana Prata-Anã seedlings in sandy soil. The assay was carried out in a greenhouse in a randomized block (four) design in factorial 5x2 corr [...] esponding to five levels of silicate (0, 0.64, 1.28, 1.92 or 2.56, g/dm³ of soil) and two sources of variation: presence and absence of M. javanica. Plots consisted of three pots with one seedling per pot. The doses of 1.28 and 2.56 g of calcium and magnesium silicate/dm³ of soil significantly reduced the number of eggs of M. javanica and reproduction factor (RF = final population / initial population) of M. javanica compared to control. However these doses of silicate did not affect the number of galls and egg mass/roots and number of second stage juveniles (J2) of M. javanica/100 cm ³ of soil. In the absence of the nematode, the estimated dose of 1.61 g of calcium and magnesium silicate/dm³ provided higher dry matter of the rhizome, but did not affect plant height, pseudostem diameter, leaf number and weight of the dry matter of leaves and root. Greatest development of the plants was obtained in those ones not inoculated with M. javanica. It was concluded that vegetative development was affected by presence of M. javanica and certain doses of silicate applied to the soil can affect the nematode reproduction and increase the rhizome dry matter.

  12. Etude de trois souches d'Arthrobotrys oligospora : Caractérisation biologique et effets sur Meloidogyne mayaguensis parasite de la tomate au Sénégal

    OpenAIRE

    Gueyei, M.; Duponnois, R; Ibra Sambi, R.; Mateille, T.

    1997-01-01

    Etude de trois souches d'Arthrobotrys oligospora : Caractérisation biologique et effets sur Meloidogyne mayaguensis parasite de la tomate au Sénégal. Three strains (ORS 18690 S2, ORS 18691 S6 and ORS 18693 S5) of the nematophagous fungus Arthrobotrys oligospora have been isolated in Senegal for the first time. In vitro, two strains (ORS 18690 S2 and ORS 18693 S5) of them trapped 100 % and the other (ORS 18691 S5) 80 %> of 7-day-old juvenile Meloidogyne mayaguensis within 48h. Optimal growth o...

  13. How to reduce the number of Meloidogyne paranaensis galls in tomato using earthworms?

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    Jair Alves Dionísio

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present work was to determine the incidence of Meloidogyne paranaensis galls in the roots of Solanum lycopersicum, after inoculation with Amynthas spp. and Pontoscolex corethrurus. The experiment was performed in the greenhouse in a randomised block experimental design was adopted, with four treatments and five repetitions: T1. M. paranaensis; T2. M. paranaensis + Amynthas spp. T3. M. paranaensis +P. corethrurus; T4. M. paranaensis + Amynthas spp. + P. corethrurus. Initially, six adult worms of Amynthas spp. or P. corethrurus, isolated or in the same proportion (3:3, with the previously determined fresh biomass. After one week, tomato seedlings (cultivar “Rutgers” were transplanted to the pots and inoculated with 5 mL of a suspension of M. paranaensis containing 5,000 eggs and/or juveniles per pot. Sixty-five days after inoculation, the number of remaining worms was counted after manual collection; the fresh biomass was determined by direct weighing, and the number of galls on the roots of the tomato was counted directly in a stereomicroscope. The results demonstrated a reduction in the number of galls per plant with treatments involving inoculation with worms, varying between 26,7% and 63,3%, respectively, for Amynthas spp. and P. corethrurus. Meanwhile, the combination of worms lead to a reduction of 50,0% in the incidence of galls. The results demonstrate that the use of worms in the biological control of nematodes, during tomato cultivation, has great potential that requires further investigation.

  14. EFECTO DE POBLACIONES DE Meloidogyne sp. EN EL DESARROLLO Y RENDIMIENTO DEL TOMATE

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    Wilber Salazar-Ant\\u00F3n

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo fue determinar el efecto de la población inicial de Meloidogyne sp. en el cultivo del tomate. El estudio se realizó en León, Nicaragua en el año 2011. Las variables medidas fueron número de nematodos al trasplante y al momento de la cosecha, altura de la planta al momento de la madurez fisiológica y el rendimiento en kilogramos. La extracción de nematodos se realizó mediante el método de Baermann modificado. En el estudio, la densidad inicial (Pi presentó una correlación lineal positiva con la densidad final (Pf. Sin embargo, se observó que cuando la Pi era igual a 400 nematodos/100 g de suelo, el factor de reproducción se incrementaba a 3,64; por el contrario, cuando la Pi era igual a 700 nematodos/100 g de suelo, el factor de reproducción se reducía a 2,48. La Pi se correlacionó inversamente con el peso de frutos y altura de las plantas. Plantas con 200 nematodos/100 g de suelo presentaban peso de frutos de 2,19 kg y altura de 153,20 cm en comparación con 0,93 kg y 135,24 cm en plantas con 600 nematodos/100 g de suelo. Existió una correlación positiva entre Pi y Pf de Meloidogy- ne sp. en el tomate. Las poblaciones de este nematodo, se correlacionaron inversamente con las variables altura y peso de los frutos.

  15. Description of the Kona Coffee Root-knot Nematode, Meloidogyne konaensis n. sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenback, J D; Bernard, E C; Schmitt, D P

    1994-12-01

    Meloidogyne konaensis n. sp. is described from coffee from Kona on the island of Hawaii. The perineal pattern of the female is variable in morphology, the medial lips of the female are divided into distinct lip pairs, and the excretory pore is 2-3 stylet lengths from the base of the stylet. Mean stylet length is 16.0 mum, and the knobs gradually merge with the shaft. The knobs are indented anteriorly and rounded posteriorly and the dorsal esophageal gland orifice (DEGO) is long, 3.5-7 mum. The morphology of the stylet of the male is the most useful diagnostic character, with 6-12 large projections protruding from the shaft. One medial lip may be divided into distinct lip pairs. A large intestinal caecum often extends nearly to the level of the DEGO. Mean juvenile length is 502 mum, mean stylet length is 13.4 mum, and mean tail length is 58 mum. The tail may be distinctly curved ventrally and the phasmids are located in the ventral incisure about one anal body width posterior to the anus. PMID:19279905

  16. Control of Meloidogyne javanica by Formulations of Inula viscosa Leaf Extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oka, Yuji; Ben-Daniel, Bat-Hen; Cohen, Yigal

    2006-03-01

    Inula viscosa is a perennial plant that is widely distributed in Mediterranean countries. Formulations of I. viscosa extracts were tested for their effectiveness in control of Meloidogyne javanica in laboratory, growth chamber, microplot, and field experiments. Oily pastes were obtained by extraction of dry leaves with a mixture of acetone and n-hexane or n-hexane alone, followed by evaporation of the solvents. Emulsifiable concentrate formulations of the pastes killed M. javanica juveniles in sand at a concentration of 0.01% (paste, w/w) or greater and reduced the galling index of cucumber seedlings as well as the galling index and numbers of nematode eggs on tomato plants in growth chamber experiments. In microplot experiments, the hexane-extract formulation at 26 g paste/m(2) reduced nematode infection on tomato plants in one of two experiments. In a field experiment, a reduction of 40% in root galling index by one of two formulations was observed on lettuce plants. The plant extracts have potential as a natural nematicide, although the formulations need improvement. PMID:19259429

  17. Fungi and actinomycetes associated with Meloidogyne spp. eggs and females in China and their biocontrol potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Man-Hong; Gao, Li; Shi, Yan-Xia; Li, Bao-Jü; Liu, Xing-Zhong

    2006-09-01

    A survey was conducted to determine the microflora on eggs and females of Meloidogyne spp. collected from plant roots and infested soil in China. A total of 455 fungal isolates belonging to 24 genera and 52 isolates of actinomycetes were obtained from 28 samples from greenhouses and fields in Hainan, Yunnan, Fujian, Hebei, Shandong, and Beijing. The predominant fungal species were Paecilomyces lilacinus (49.3% of the isolates), Fusarium spp. (7.9%), Pochonia chlamydosporia (6.9%), Penicillium spp. (5.7%), Aspergillus spp. (3.2%), and Acremonium spp. (2.8%). Actinomycetes were frequently encountered (10.3%) as well. A total of 350 isolates of nematophagous fungi and actinomycetes were evaluated for their parasitism of eggs and effects on egg hatch and juvenile mortality in vitro. Pathogenicity varied among isolates, and 29.1% of isolates parasitized over 90% eggs 4 days after inoculation. Results also show that seven isolates of fungi and actinomycetes reduced egg hatch rates to less than 10% contrasted to the control of 65.8%, and three isolates killed all hatched juveniles after 7 days. Seventeen fungal isolates and four actinomycete isolates with high pathogenicity in vitro were selected to test biocontrol efficacy in the greenhouse. They reduced tomato root gall index by 13.4-58.9% compared to the no treatment control. PMID:16737708

  18. Meloidogyne enterolobii n. sp. (Meloidogynidae), a Root-knot Nematode Parasitizing Pacara Earpod Tree in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, B; Eisenback, J D

    1983-07-01

    Meloidogyne enterolobii n. sp. is described and illustrated from roots of pacara earpod tree, Enterolobium contortisiliquum (Vell.) Morong, on Hainan Island in China. The perineal pattern of the female is usually oval shaped, the striae are fine to coarse, the dorsal arch is moderately high to high and usually rounded, and the phasmids are large. The stylet knobs in females are divided longitudinally by a groove so that each knob appears as two. The mean distance of the excretory pore to the anterior end in the female is 62.9 mum. Males have a large, rounded labial disc that fuses with the medial lips to form a dorso-ventrally elongate head cap. The labial disc is slightly elevated, and the medial lips are crescent shaped. The second-stage juvenile mean body length is 436.6 mum. The lateral lips are large and triangular in face view. The tail is 56.4 mum long and narrow with a broad, bluntly rounded tip. M. enterolobii n. sp reproduces well on E. contortisiliquum and causes severe damage. Other good hosts include cotton, resistant tobacco 'NC 95,' pepper, watermelon, and tomato. PMID:19295822

  19. Detecção de Meloidogyne enterolobii em mudas de amoreira (Morus nigra L.

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    Vanessa dos Santos Paes-Takahashi

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available O comércio de mudas sem certificação contribui para disseminação de pragas e doenças, que podem causar sérios danos às plantas cultivadas. Na região de Itapetininga (SP, foram apreendidas, pela equipe da Defesa Agropecuária, mudas de aceroleira, goiabeira e amoreira, comercializadas em caminhões, que apresentavam galhas nas raízes, sintoma típico causado por Meloidogyne spp. A identificação da espécie foi feita através da morfologia da configuração perineal de fêmeas e região labial de machos, bem como através da caracterização do fenótipo enzimático de esterase. Foi constatada a presença de M. enterolobii nas amostras analisadas. Trata-se do primeiro relato do parasitismo de M. enterolobii em mudas de amoreira no mundo.

  20. Greenhouse and field assessment of different organic compounds against guava-parasitic Meloidogyne enterolobii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Macedo Almeida

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Guava decline is a complex disease involving Meloidogyne enterolobii and Fusarium solani and it has caused major direct losses to Brazilian growers. Although several strategies have been sought to control the nematode, the use of organic soil amendments is currently the best approach to manage this disease. To assess the best amount of meat and bone meal (MBM to be incorporated into the soil, guava seedlings inoculated with M. enterolobii were treated with 1-5% v/v of the MBM. Ninety days later variables related to nematode reproduction and plant development were evaluated, which indicated a potential nematicidal effect of the MBM at 3%. Another experiment assessed nematode- and plant-related variables 90 days after treatment of the seedlings with MBM, chitosan, shrimp shell or neem cake at 3%, 0.05%, 2% and 0.1% v/v, respectively. The MBM ranked first, reducing nematode reproduction. This MBM rate was converted to 25 kg/tree and assessed in three application regimes (monthly, bimonthly or trimonthly, for six months, in an orchard affected by guava decline. The variables assessed were soil density of colony forming units (CFU of bacteria and fungus, and soil and/or root density of M. enterolobii, Helicotylenchus sp., and of different nematode trophic groups. In all three application regimes the MBM reduced all plant-parasitic nematodes in the soil and the fungus CFUs. It also promoted an increase in bacterial CFU and bacterivorous nematodes.

  1. Responses of Guava Plants to Inoculation with Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi in Soil Infested with Meloidogyne enterolobii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, Maryluce Albuquerque da Silva; da Silva, Fábio Sérgio Barbosa; Yano-Melo, Adriana Mayumi; de Melo, Natoniel Franklin; Pedrosa, Elvira Maria Régis; Maia, Leonor Costa

    2013-09-01

    In the Northeast of Brazil, expansion of guava crops has been impaired by Meloidogyne enterolobii that causes root galls, leaf fall and plant death. Considering the fact that arbuscular mycorrhizal Fungi (AMF) improve plant growth giving protection against damages by plant pathogens, this work was carried out to select AMF efficient to increase production of guava seedlings and their tolerance to M. enterolobii. Seedlings of guava were inoculated with 200 spores of Gigaspora albida, Glomus etunicatum or Acaulospora longula and 55 days later with 4,000 eggs of M. enterolobii. The interactions between the AMF and M. enterolobii were assessed by measuring leaf number, aerial dry biomass, CO2 evolution and arbuscular and total mycorrhizal colonization. In general, plant growth was improved by the treatments with A. longula or with G. albida. The presence of the nematode decreased arbuscular colonization and increased general enzymatic activity. Higher dehydrogenase activity occurred with the A. longula treatment and CO2 evolution was higher in the control with the nematode. More spores and higher production of glomalin-related soil proteins were observed in the treatment with G. albida. The numbers of galls, egg masses and eggs were reduced in the presence of A. longula. Inoculation with this fungus benefitted plant growth and decreased nematode reproduction. PMID:25288951

  2. Penetration of Crotalaria juncea, Dolichos lablab, and Sesamum indicum Roots by Meloidogyne javanica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araya, M; Caswell-Chen, E P

    1994-06-01

    Penetration of Crotalaria juncea (PI 207657 and cv. Tropic Sun) Dolichos lablab cv. Highworth, and Sesamum indicum by juveniles (J2) of Meloidogyne javanica was assessed to investigate the mechanism by which these plants may reduce nematode numbers in the field. Growth chamber experiments were conducted at 25 C, with vials containing 90 g sand infested with 450 J2; tomato (UC 204 C) was included as a susceptible host. Fifteen days after inoculation, roots were stained and the nematodes within stained roots were counted. Both C. juncea lines were highly resistant to penetration, as they contained significantly fewer nematodes per cm of root and per root system than the other plants. Although containing more nematodes per cm of root than C. juncea, S. indicum and D. lablab had significantly fewer nematodes per root system and per cm of root than tomato. Roots were significantly longer in the plants with the lowest nematode penetration. Although C. juncea, D. lablab, and S. indicum may have potential utility as cover or rotation crops in soil infested with M. javanica, further quantitative information on the reproduction of M. javanica and other nematodes in these plants is needed. PMID:19279887

  3. Effect of Soil Water Potential on Survival of Meloidogyne javanica in Fallow Soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Towson, A J; Apt, W J

    1983-01-01

    A natural infestation of Meloidogyne javanica in an aggregated Oxisol declined at an exponential rate when aliquots of the soil were stored for 72 days in polyethylene bags at various soil water potentials (Psi). Time periods required for reduction in soil infestations by 50% were 2.7, 4.9, 110, 10, and 2.6 days at Psi of -0.16, -0.30, -1.1, -15, and -92 bars, respectively. In the wetter soils, at Psi of -0.16, -0.30, and -1.1 bars, the predominant stage recovered was the second-stage larva. In the drier soils, at Psi of -15 and -92 bars, both eggs and larvae were recovered with neither stage predominating. Incidence of coiled larvae was inversely related to the Psi value of the soil, a greater incidence occurring in the drier soils. After 15-32 days, percentages of coiled larvae were 13, 27, 55, 65, and 88% in soil at Psi of -0.17, -0.60, -1.9, -15, and -82 bars, respectively. PMID:19295774

  4. Volatile organic compounds for the control of Meloidogyne exigua in Coffea arabica

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Willian R. J., Silva; Alan R. T., Machado; Viviane A. C., Campos; Ana C. M., Zeri; Vicente P., Campos; Denilson F., Oliveira.

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Meloidogyne exigua is a plant-parasitic nematode that causes great losses to coffee farmers. Thus, to contribute to the development of new products to control this parasite, the present work studied the effect of volatile organic compounds (VOC) on the nematode and coffee plants (Coffea arabica), si [...] nce these compounds are known to be used in plant defense against other agronomical pests. The number of galls of M. exigua was reduced when the aerial part of coffee plants was sprayed with combinations of methyl jasmonate + jasmone, (Z)-hex-3-en-1-ol + (E)-hex-3-en-1-ol + (Z)-hex-2-en-1-ol + (E)-hex-2-enal, (E)-hex-2-enyl acetate + hexyl acetate, meso-butane-2,3-diol + butane-1,2-diol + butane-1,3-diol + butane-1,4-diol, 3-hydroxybutan-2-one + 4-hydroxybutan-2-one or linalyl acetate + nerolidol. These VOC also caused alterations in the concentrations of substances such as alkaloids, phenols, amino acids and carbohydrates, in the roots of coffee plants. The findings suggest that these VOC may be explored as potential products for the control of M. exigua in coffee plants.

  5. Variabilidade genética de acessos de araçazeiro e goiabeira suscetíveis e resistentes a Meloidogyne enterolobii / Genetic variability of araça and guava accessions susceptible and resistant Meloidogyne enterolobii

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Aline das Graças, Souza; Luciane Vilela, Resende; Isabela Pereira de, Lima; Rosimar Musser dos, Santos; Nilton Nagib Jorge, Chalfun.

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available A goiabeira representa uma importante atividade frutícola no Brasil, com mercado cada vez maior. Porém, desde 1989 vêm sendo relatados severos danos à cultura, causados pelo nematóide Meloidogyne enterolobii. Uma das alternativas para solucionar esse problema é a utilização de porta-enxertos com res [...] istência a este patógeno. Este trabalho teve por objetivo a caracterização molecular, com marcadores RAPD, de acessos de Psidium testados quanto à resistência a M. enterolobii e quanto à compatibilidade como porta-enxertos para as goiabeiras comerciais. Foram testados 30 primers, dos quais 19 forneceram resultados nítidos para a amplificação. Foram gerados 163 fragmentos, dos quais 86 polimórficos (63,0%). Em média, cada iniciador produziu 8,6 fragmentos, dos quais 5,4 apresentaram polimorfismo. A análise de agrupamento foi realizada por espécie, os acessos de Psidium sp apresentaram a formação de dois grupos, um formado pelo acesso A-UFLA e o segundo subdividido em quatro subgrupos, sendo os acessos com maiores distâncias genéticas A-Ufla, resistente a M. enterolobii, A-Ufla4 e A-Ufla5, ambos suscetíveis ao nematoide em questão, todos coletados em Lavras-MG, com similaridade aproximada de 66%. Na análise de agrupamento, dos treze acessos de P.cattleyanum, foi possível constatar a formação de dois grandes grupos. Um formado por três acessos suscetíveis a M. enterolobii (A-20.2, A-10.1 e A-9.2) e outro grupo formado por dez acessos. Os acessos se agruparam, conforme a região de origem, em seis grupos, sendo que o mais divergente é originário da região de Lavras - MG, com 0,65 de similaridade, onde as distâncias genéticas variaram de 0,88 a 0,65. Dos treze acessos de P. guineense, todos suscetíveis a M. enterolobii, sendo 12 oriundos de Recife e um de Pelotas (A-14.1) e agruparam-se em dois grupos com similaridades variando de 0,59 a 0,83. Quanto ao estudo de diversidade entre os acessos de goiabeiras, a maior distância genética foi detectada entre o acesso G-Ufla com 0,71 Lavras-MG. Abstract in english Guava culture stands for an important fruit-growing business in Brazil, with a greater and greater market. But, since 1989 severe damages to the culture caused by the nematode Meloidogyne enterolobii, have been reported. One the alternatives to solve this problem is the use of rootstocks with resist [...] ance to this nematode. This research aimed at the molecular characterization, with RAPD markers, of Psidium accessions susceptible to be utilized as rootstocks for the commercial guava trees. 30 primers were tested, from which 19 supplied distinct results for the amplification. The primers generated 163 polymorphic marks, resulting into a mean of 8,6 polymorphic bands per primer. The cluster analysis was performed per species, the accessions of Psidium sp presented the formation of two groups, one formed by A-UFLA accession and the other subdivided into four subgroups, that is, the accession with increased genetic distances, A-Ufla, resistant to M. enterolobii, A-Ufla4 and A-Ufla5, both susceptible to the nematode in issue, all collected in Lavras-MG with a similarity of about 66%. In the cluster analysis of the thirteen accessions of P.cattleyanum, it was possible to found the formation of two great groups. One made up by three accessions susceptible to M. enterolobii (A-20.2, A-10.1 and A-9.2) and the other group formed by ten accessions. The accessions grouped together according to the region of origin in six groups, the most divergent being that native to region of Lavras - MG, with 0.65 of similarity, where the genetic distances ranged from 0.88 to 0.65. The thirteen accessions of P. guineense, all susceptible to M. enterolobii, namely, 12 coming from Recife and one proceeding from Pelotas (A-14.1), grouped themselves together and two groups with similarity ranging from 0.59 to 0.83. As to the diversity study among the guava tree accessions, the greatest genetic distances were detected between the accessions G.P.S and G-Ufla with 0,71 Lavras-MG.

  6. Reação de genótipos e híbridos de tomateiro à Meloidogyne enterolobii

    OpenAIRE

    Juliana Magrinelli Osório Rosa; Juliana Nogueira Westerich; Silvia Renata Siciliano Wilcken

    2014-01-01

    A meloidoginose tem sido considerada uma das mais importantes doenças da cultura do tomate. O uso de tomateiros resistentes ao nematoide das galhas é medida bastante utilizada no controle de diferentes espécies, entretanto, a reação de tomateiros à Meloidogyne enterolobii ainda é pouco conhecida. Portanto, objetivou-se a determinação da reprodução de M. enterolobii em dez híbridos de tomate (Absoluto, Cascade, Cordillera, Donatto, Ellen, Fascínio, Laura, Marguerita, Nícolas e Sanni) e dois ge...

  7. Nucleotide polymorphisms and an improved PCR-based mtDNA diagnostic for parthenogenetic root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp.)

    OpenAIRE

    Stanton, J.; Hugall, A.; Moritz, C.

    1997-01-01

    L'analyse de séquences de 2212 paires de bases provenant de six ADN mitochondriaux haplotypes très voisins de #Meloidogyne$ (Hugall et al., 1994) a permis de mettre en évidence douze sites nucléotidiens polymorphiques et une délétion. En dépit de cette faible diversité, il existe assez de sites différents d'enzymes de restriction parmi ces séquences pour fournir des tests de diagnostic. En utilisant un choix de ces sites, il a été mis au point un test diagnostique multiplex fondé sur l'amplif...

  8. Nematicidal effect of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) on the plant-parasitic nematode Meloidogyne javanica / Efeito nematicida de compostos orgânicos voláteis (COVs) sobre o nematóide parasita de planta Meloidogyne javanica

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Mauricio Batista, Fialho; Rosana, Bessi; Mário Massayuki, Inomoto; Sérgio Florentino, Pascholati.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Estudos anteriores demonstraram que compostos orgânicos voláteis (COVs), produzidos pela levedura Saccharomyces cerevisiae, são capazes de inibir o desenvolvimento de fungos fitopatogênicos. Neste contexto, foi avaliado o potencial nematicida da mistura sintética de COVs, constituída por alcoóis e é [...] steres, para o controle do nematóide das galhas Meloidogyne javanica, que causa perdas em culturas de alto valor econômico. A fumigação do substrato, contendo juvenis de segundo estádio, com COVs apresentou efeito nematicida superior a 30% na menor dosagem testada (33,3 µL g-1 de substrato), enquanto que nas dosagens de 66,6 e 133,3 µL g-1, a mortalidade atingiu 100%. Os resultados encorajam maiores estudos envolvendo COVs no manejo de nematóides. Abstract in english Previous studies have demonstrated that volatile organic compounds (VOCs), produced by the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, were able to inhibit the development of phytopathogenic fungi. In this context, the nematicidal potential of the synthetic mixture of VOCs, constituted of alcohols and esters, w [...] as evaluated for the control of the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne javanica, which causes losses to crops of high economic value. The fumigation of substrate containing second-stage juveniles with VOCs exhibited nematicidal effect higher than 30% for the lowest concentration tested (33.3 µL g-1 substrate), whereas at 66.6 and 133.3 µL g-1 substrate, the nematode mortality was 100%. The present results stimulate other studies on VOCs for nematode management.

  9. Ocorrência de Meloidogyne enterolobii (sin. M. mayaguensis em pomares de goiabeira no município de Ivinhema, Estado de Mato Grosso do Sul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héber Ferreira dos Reis

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho relata uma ocorrência de Meloidogyne enterolobii (sin. M. mayaguensis no Estado do Mato Grosso do Sul, parasitando goiabeira (Psidium guajava, cv. Novo Milênio. O nematoide foi caracterizado e identificado pelo fenótipo da isoenzima esterase (Est (Est M2, Rm: 0,7 e 0,9.

  10. Controle de Meloidogyne javanica em mudas de bananeira 'prata-anã' por compostos orgânicos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruna Hanielle Carneiro dos Santos

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o efeito de compostos orgânicos no controle de Meloidogyne javanica, e no desenvolvimento de mudas de bananeiras 'Prata-Anã. O experimento foi conduzido em DIC, com dez repetições, e os tratamentos consistiram em quatro compostos constituídos de diferentes matérias-primas (restos da cultura da banana, cana-de-açúcar, esterco bovino, cascas de banana, plantas daninhas, capim andropogon, o esterco bovino, a torta de mamona e testemunhas (adubação mineral, carbofuran e testemunha absoluta (sem adição de composto orgânico. Em cada vaso, foram colocados 3 kg de solo autoclavado, incorporado com cada um dos tratamentos avaliados e inoculado com suspensão contendo 4.000 ovos de M. javanica. Após quatro dias, transplantou-se uma muda de bananeira 'Prata-Anã' micropropagada, e aos 60 dias, avaliaram-se: altura das plantas, diâmetro, número de folhas e peso de matéria seca da parte aérea, e número de galhas, massas de ovos, número de ovos e o número de juvenis de segundo estádio (J2, por 100 cm³ de solo. Testou-se in vitro o efeito das frações húmicas dos quatro compostos (que não causaram fitotoxidez e esterco bovino sobre a mortalidade e motilidade de J2 de M. javanica. O ensaio foi montado em placas de ELISA em DIC, com cinco repetições. Os compostos orgânicos e o esterco bovino aumentaram o desenvolvimento das mudas. A torta de mamona provocou efeito fitotóxico às mudas. Menor número de variáveis nematológicas foi proporcionado pela torta de mamona e pelo carbofuran. O número de J2 também foi menor nas parcelas tratadas com carbofuran e também pelo Composto 3, constituído por plantas daninhas+restos de cana-de-açúcar+ esterco bovino e pelo adubo mineral. Para o teste in vitro, as substâncias húmicas conferiram efeito nematicida e nematostático. Dentre os compostos, o C3 mostrou-se promissor por reduzir o desenvolvimento do nematoides e não apresentar efeito fitotóxico.

  11. Hawksbill turtle terra incognita: conservation genetics of eastern Pacific rookeries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaos, Alexander R; Lewison, Rebecca L; Liles, Michael J; Gadea, Velkiss; Altamirano, Eduardo; Henríquez, Ana V; Torres, Perla; Urteaga, José; Vallejo, Felipe; Baquero, Andres; LeMarie, Carolina; Muñoz, Juan Pablo; Chaves, Jaime A; Hart, Catherine E; Peña de Niz, Alejandro; Chácon, Didiher; Fonseca, Luis; Otterstrom, Sarah; Yañez, Ingrid L; LaCasella, Erin L; Frey, Amy; Jensen, Michael P; Dutton, Peter H

    2016-02-01

    Prior to 2008 and the discovery of several important hawksbill turtle (Eretmochelys imbricata) nesting colonies in the EP (Eastern Pacific), the species was considered virtually absent from the region. Research since that time has yielded new insights into EP hawksbills, salient among them being the use of mangrove estuaries for nesting. These recent revelations have raised interest in the genetic characterization of hawksbills in the EP, studies of which have remained lacking to date. Between 2008 and 2014, we collected tissue samples from 269 nesting hawksbills at nine rookeries across the EP and used mitochondrial DNA sequences (766 bp) to generate the first genetic characterization of rookeries in the region. Our results inform genetic diversity, population differentiation, and phylogeography of the species. Hawksbills in the EP demonstrate low genetic diversity: We identified a total of only seven haplotypes across the region, including five new and two previously identified nesting haplotypes (pooled frequencies of 58.4% and 41.6%, respectively), the former only evident in Central American rookeries. Despite low genetic diversity, we found strong stock structure between the four principal rookeries, suggesting the existence of multiple populations and warranting their recognition as distinct management units. Furthermore, haplotypes EiIP106 and EiIP108 are unique to hawksbills that nest in mangrove estuaries, a behavior found only in hawksbills along Pacific Central America. The detected genetic differentiation supports the existence of a novel mangrove estuary "reproductive ecotype" that may warrant additional conservation attention. From a phylogeographic perspective, our research indicates hawksbills colonized the EP via the Indo-Pacific, and do not represent relict populations isolated from the Atlantic by the rising of the Panama Isthmus. Low overall genetic diversity in the EP is likely the combined result of few rookeries, extremely small reproductive populations and evolutionarily recent colonization events. Additional research with larger sample sizes and variable markers will help further genetic understanding of hawksbill turtles in the EP. PMID:26941950

  12. Strip-tilled cover cropping for managing nematodes, soil mesoarthropods, and weeds in a bitter melon agroecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marahatta, Sharadchandra P; Wang, Koon-Hui; Sipes, Brent S; Hooks, Cerruti R R

    2010-06-01

    A field trial was conducted to examine whether strip-tilled cover cropping followed by living mulch practice could suppress root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne incognita) and enhance beneficial nematodes and other soil mesofauna, while suppressing weeds throughout two vegetable cropping seasons. Sunn hemp (SH), Crotalaria juncea, and French marigold (MG), Tagetes patula, were grown for three months, strip-tilled, and bitter melon (Momordica charantia) seedlings were transplanted into the tilled strips; the experiment was conducted twice (Season I and II). Strip-tilled cover cropping with SH prolonged M. incognita suppression in Season I but not in Season II where suppression was counteracted with enhanced crop growth. Sunn hemp also consistently enhanced bacterivorous and fungivorous nematode population densities prior to cash crop planting, prolonged enhancement of the Enrichment Index towards the end of both cash crop cycles, and increased numbers of soil mesoarthropods. Strip-tilled cover cropping of SH followed by clipping of the living mulch as surface mulch also reduced broadleaf weed populations up to 3 to 4 weeks after cash crop planting. However, SH failed to reduce soil disturbance as indicated by the Structure Index. Marigold suppressed M. incognita efficiently when planted immediately following a M. incognita-susceptible crop, but did not enhance beneficial soil mesofauna including free-living nematodes and soil mesoarthropods. Strip-tilled cover cropping of MG reduced broadleaf weed populations prior to cash crop planting in Season II, but this weed suppression did not last beyond the initial cash crop cycle. PMID:22736847

  13. Efecto de la incorporación de plantas antagónicas sobre la actividad parasítica del nematodo del nudo de la raíz Meloidogyne hapla en un cultivo de zanahoria bajo condiciones de invernadero Effect of the incorporation of antagonistic plants on the parasitic activity of the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne hapla in a greenhouse carrot crop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvarez César G.

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available En el Centro de Investigaciones y Asesorías Agroindustriales (CIAA de la Universidad Jorge Tadeo Lozano, localidad de Chía (Cundinamarca, se llevó a cabo un ensayo bajo condiciones de invernadero para evaluar el efecto de la incorporación de material vegetal fresco proveniente de siete especies de plantas (Tagetes zipaquirensis, T. erecta, Brassica cempestris, Bidens pilosa, Ruta graveolens, Taraxacum officinale y Ricinus communis sobre el rendimiento y calidad comercial de un cultivo de zanahoria (Daucus carota varo Mokum y sobre la densidad poblacional del nemátodo del nudo de la raíz Meloidogyne hapla y la intensidad de la nodulación asociada con su establecimiento sobre plantas de zanahoria. No se encontraron diferencias significativas en cuanto al rendimiento biológico de la zanahoria, pero los tratamientos con R. graveolens y T. officinale mostraron la mayor producción de zanahoria comercial (3070 g.m·2 y 2270 g.m·2 con diferencias significativas respecto al testigo (1090 g.m-2. Las densidades poblacionales finales de juveniles infectivos [J2] de M. hapla fueron significativamente más bajas en los tratamientos con R. communis, T. officinale, B. campestris y T. erecta (65-130 J2/100 g de suelo que en el testigo (435 J2/100g de suelo. En la nodulación se encontraron diferencias significativas entre el testigo (5.0 nudos/ápice de zanahoria y los demás tratamientos (1,9-2,6 nudos/ápice de zanahoria.A trial was conducted at the Centro de Investigaciones y Asesorías Agroindustriales (CIAA of the Universidad Jorge Tadeo Lozano, Chía (Cundinamarca under greenhouse conditions to assess the effect of incorporating fresh above-ground material of seven plant species (Tagetes zipaquirensis, T. erecta, Brassica cempestris. Bidens pilosa, Rufa graveolens, Taraxacum officinale and Ricínus communis on the yield and commercial quality of a carrot (Daucus carota crop var. Mokum, on the population density of Meloidogyne hapla and on the intensity of root-knotting of carrot. No significant differences were detected in the biological yield of carrot plants, but commercial average production obtained from plots.treated with R. graveolens and T. officinale were the highest (3070 g.m·2 and 2270 g.m·2 and significantly different from the control plots (1090 g.m·2. Final average population densities of infective secondstage
    juveniles [J2] of M. hapla were significantly lower in the plots treated with R. communis, T. officinale, B. campes tris and T. erecta (65-130 Jj100 g of soil than in the control plots (435 J2/100 g of soil. Significant differences were detected between rootknotting intensity of control plots (5.0 knots per root tip and the averages of other treaments (1.9-2.6 knots per root tip.

  14. High and low throughput screens with root-knot nematodes Meloidogyne spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atamian, Hagop S; Roberts, Philip A; Kaloshian, Isgouhi

    2012-01-01

    Root-knot nematodes (genus Meloidogyne) are obligate plant parasites. They are extremely polyphagous and considered one of the most economically important plant parasitic nematodes. The microscopic second-stage juvenile (J2), molted once in the egg, is the infective stage. The J2s hatch from the eggs, move freely in the soil within a film of water, and locate root tips of suitable plant species. After penetrating the plant root, they migrate towards the vascular cylinder where they establish a feeding site and initiate feeding using their stylets. The multicellular feeding site is comprised of several enlarged multinuclear cells called 'giant cells' which are formed from cells that underwent karyokinesis (repeated mitosis) without cytokinesis. Neighboring pericycle cells divide and enlarge in size giving rise to a typical gall or root knot, the characteristic symptom of root-knot nematode infection. Once feeding is initiated, J2s become sedentary and undergo three additional molts to become adults. The adult female lays 150-250 eggs in a gelatinous matrix on or below the surface of the root. From the eggs new infective J2s hatch and start a new cycle. The root-knot nematode life cycle is completed in 4-6 weeks at 26-28°C. Here we present the traditional protocol to infect plants, grown in pots, with root-knot nematodes and two methods for high-throughput assays. The first high-throughput method is used for plants with small seeds such as tomato while the second is for plants with large seeds such as cowpea and common bean. Large seeds support extended seedling growth with minimal nutrient supplement. The first high throughput assay utilizes seedlings grown in sand in trays while in the second assay plants are grown in pouches in the absence of soil. The seedling growth pouch is made of a 15.5 x 12.5cm paper wick, folded at the top to form a 2-cm-deep trough in which the seed or seedling is placed. The paper wick is contained inside a transparent plastic pouch. These growth pouches allow direct observation of nematode infection symptoms, galling of roots and egg mass production, under the surface of a transparent pouch. Both methods allow the use of the screened plants, after phenotyping, for crossing or seed production. An additional advantage of the use of growth pouches is the small space requirement because pouches are stored in plastic hanging folders arranged in racks. PMID:22434014

  15. Subenxertia da goiabeira 'Paluma' com araçazeiros resistentes a Meloidogyne enterolobii (sin. M. mayaguensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Rodrigues Robaina

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Estudos anteriores demonstraram resistência ou imunidade ao nematoide Meloidogyne enterolobii em araçazeiros (Psidium cattleyanum Sabine, mas não foi encontrada essa resistência em goiabeiras. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a subenxertia entre a goiabeira 'Paluma' e araçazeiros, como um meio de obter goiabeiras resistentes ao nematoide. Oitenta plântulas da goiabeira 'Paluma', produzidas por estaquia, foram conduzidas em vasos de 5 litros (uma por vaso até que atingissem 8 mm à altura de 10 cm do colo para serem subenxertadas. Os subenxertos (acessos dos araçazeiros 115; 116; 117 e goiabeira foram produzidos por mudas seminíferas. Ao lado de cada muda de goiabeira 'Paluma' (copa, foram transplantadas duas mudas seminíferas de araçazeiros ou de goiabeiras. A subenxertia foi feita por um corte em bisel e introdução do subenxerto de uma das plantas laterais sob a casca da goiabeira 'Paluma'. A outra planta lateral foi despontada na mesma época e utilizada como uma testemunha. Foram efetuadas avaliações a cada 20 dias quanto ao crescimento em diâmetro do caule (da copa, do subenxerto e da testemunha. O pegamento na subenxertia da goiabeira 'Paluma' com os araçazeiros foi inferior ao pegamento observado quando o subenxerto utilizado foi a própria goiabeira. Após o pegamento, em muitos casos, a conexão vascular não foi estabelecida com sucesso e não houve estabelecimento de conexões vasculares funcionais entre alguns subenxertos produzidos com araçazeiros ou com a própria goiabeira, o que foi comprovado pela baixa sobrevivência da copa após o corte de seu sistema radicular. A subenxertia deve ser mais bem investigada para a introdução de um porta-enxerto à goiabeira.

  16. Doenças da vinagreira no Estado do Maranhão / Diseases of roselle in the state of Maranhão, Brazil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Gilson Soares da, Silva; Adriano Soares, Rêgo; Raycenne Rosa, Leite.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho, são descritas as principais doenças da vinagreira (Hibiscus sabdariffa) que ocorrem no Estado do Maranhão. Os patógenos identificados foram Cercospora malayensis, Corynespora cassiicola, Lasiodiplodia theobromae, Meloidogyne incognita, Phytophthora nicotianae e Sclerotium rolfsii. [...] Abstract in english In this paper, the most common diseases affecting roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa) in the state of Maranhão, Brazil, are described. The identified pathogens were Cercospora malayensis, Corynespora cassiicola, Lasiodiplodia theobromae, Meloidogyne incognita and Sclerotium rolfsdii. [...

  17. Pochonia chlamydosporia (Goddard) Zare y Gams como potencial agente de control biológico de Meloidogyne enterolobii (Yang y Eisenback) en cultivos hortícolas / Pochonia chlamydosporia (Goddard) Zare & Gams as potential biological control agent of Meloidogyne enterolobii (Yang & Eisenback) in vegetable crops

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Jersys, Arévalo; S.D, Silva; Marina D.G, Carneiro; R.B, Lopes; Regina M.D.G, Carneiro; Myrian S, Tigano; L, Hidalgo-Díaz.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Recientemente se informaron aislamientos de Pochonia chlamydosporia (Goddard) Zare y Gams parasitando huevos de Meloidogyne enterolobii Yang y Eisenback (syn. jun. Meloidogyne mayaguensis Rammah y Hirschmann) en plantaciones de guayaba (Psidium guajava L.), al nordeste de Brasil. Teniendo en cuenta [...] el peligro potencial de esta plaga para numerosos cultivos incluyendo las hortalizas, se realizó un experimento en casa de vegetación con dos repeticiones en el tiempo. El objetivo fue evaluar las actividades saprofítica y patogénica de tres cepas brasileñas (CG1003, CG1006 y CG1041) y una cubana (IMI SD 187) de P. chlamydosporia frente a M. enterolobii, en una sucesión de cultivos tomate (Solanum lycopersicum L.)- lechuga (Lactuca sativa L.). Al finalizar el ciclo de los cultivos, 6 meses después de la aplicación, se comprobó que la colonización de P. chlamydosporia se mantuvo en el orden de 10(4) UFC.g-1 de suelo y mayor de 10³ UFC.g-1 en las raíces, excepto para la cepa CG1041 (10² UFC.g-1 de raíz). El porcentaje de colonización de estos hongos sobre las masas de huevos fue superior al 60% en todos los tratamientos, mientras que los porcentajes de parasitismo de huevos estuvieron entre 45 y 55%. Estos resultados validaron la cepa cubana frente a una diana y en condiciones diferentes a las que es originaria y se demostró que las cepas brasileñas son potenciales biocontroladores de M. enterolobii, abriéndose así futuras perspectivas de investigación como agentes de control biológico integrados para el manejo de este nematodo. Abstract in english Recently, Pochonia chlamydosporia (Goddard) Zare y Gams was isolated from parasitized eggs of Meloidogyne enterolobii Yang y Eisenback (syn. jun. Meloidogyne mayaguensis Rammah y Hirschmann) in guava (Psidium guajava L.) plantations, at the northeast of Brazil. Due to the potential danger of this pe [...] st for a large group of crops, including vegetable crops, a greenhouse experiment was conducted with two repetitions in time. The aim was to evaluate the saprophytic and parasitic activities of three brazilian strains (CG1003, CG1006 and CG1041) and the cuban strain (IMI SD 187) of P. chlamydosporia against M. enterolobii in a tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.)- lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) crop sequence. At the end of the cultivation, 6 month after the application, colonization of P. chlamydosporia was in the order of 10(4) CFU.g-1 of soil and 10³ CFU.g-1 of root, with exception of the strain CG1041 (10² CFU.g-1 of root). Egg mass percentage was higher than 60% in all treatments, while parasitized egg percentage was between 45-55%. These results validated the cuban strain against a nematode target under different conditions from those it originally came from; the brazilian strain potential as biocontroler of M. enterolobii was also demonstred. Future investigation perspectives with those fungi are opened for their use as biological control agents for nematode pest management strategies.

  18. Extending our Unbiased Survey for Disks Around White Dwarfs; One Foot in Terra Incognita

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farihi, Jay; Gaensicke, Boris

    2015-10-01

    Eleven cycles of Spitzer studies have firmly linked the presence of atmospheric metals in white dwarfs to closely orbiting circumstellar dust; the result of large planetesimal disruptions in active planetary systems. These evolved stars represent a unique tool to study long term planetary system evolution in the descendants of A-type and similar stars. Yet despite 35 IRAC-detected dust disks at white dwarfs, we are still unable to determine true disk frequency as a function of post-main sequence planetary system age. In Cycle 8 we carried out the first double-blind Spitzer/HST survey of a large white dwarf sample in the cooling age range 25-100 Myr. We found a fraction of 4% have an IRAC excess, while 30% of the sample display atmospheric metals, indicating that many white dwarf dust disks are faint in the infrared, and hinting at an undiscovered disk population. Additionally, these joint observations provided the first quantitative link between circumstellar dust and atmospheric metals in an unbiased sample of stars. Here we propose to extend our work to younger (5-25 Myr) and older (100-300 Myr) cooling ages, using a sample of 106 white dwarfs selected only for temperature and brightness. As with our previous survey, the same sample of 106 stars will be searched for atmospheric metals with HST/COS in approved Cycle 22 and 23 Snapshots. These combined observations will measure true disk frequency over a range of cooling ages for the first time, and thus constrain models of post-main sequence, planetary system dynamical instabilities. Importantly, Spitzer observations are critical to determine the fraction of disks in the cooling age range 5-25 Myr, which has not been explored, and where dynamical instabilities are expected to be relatively frequent.

  19. Antagonistic Effect of Some Species of Pleurotus on the Root-knot Nematode, Meloidogyne javanica in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Heydari

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Antagonistic effect of five species of Pleurotus, including P. ostreatus, P. sajor-caju, P. cornucopiae, P. florida and P. eryngii on second stage juveniles (J2 of Meloidogyne javanica were studied, in vitro. On water agar, all of the species tested produced tiny droplets of toxin. Nematodes touching such droplets showed a sudden response and became colonized by the fungi after 24-48 h. Filtrates of the tested fungi grown in malt extract broth were toxic on the nematodes but this toxicity varied between species. Culture filtrates of P. ostreatus showed the highest nematicidal activity toward M. javanica J2 and the lowest toxic effect was observed in filtrates of P. eryngii. A linear relationship was proved between increasing toxin concentration and the percentage of dead nematodes.

  20. Triagem de genótipos de hortaliças para resistência a Meloidogyne enterolobii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osvânder David de Melo

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi identificar genótipos de alface, batata-doce, feijão, tomate e Capsicum resistentes ao nematoide Meloidogyne enterolobii (Syn. M. mayaguensis e classificá-los quanto ao grau de resistência. Foram avaliados: 10 genótipos de alface, 8 de batata-doce, 10 de feijão e feijão-vagem, 25 de Capsicum e 6 de tomate. Foram calculados o fator de reprodução e o índice de reprodução, e os genótipos foram classificados quanto ao grau de resistência ao nematoide. Foram observados níveis moderados de resistência na cultivar de feijão Aporé e nos acessos de pimenta, BGH-433 e BGH-4285, e de pimentão, PIM-031, PIX-022I-31-07-02 e PIX-022I-31-13-01. Todos os genótipos de tomate são suscetíveis a M. enterolobii. As cultivares de alface Julia, Hortência, Verônica, Grand Rapids e Babá de Verão, e os clones de batata-doce UFLA07-49 e UFLA07-53 são muito resistentes ao nematoide. A resistência a M. enterolobii aparentemente é mediada por genes diferentes dos que conferem resistência a outras espécies e raças de Meloidogyne.

  1. Effects and Carry-Over Benefits of Nematicides in Soil Planted to a Sweet Corn-Squash-Vetch Cropping System

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, A.W.; Leonard, R. A.

    1995-01-01

    The effects of irrigation on the efficacy of nematicides on Meloidogyne incognita race 1 population densities, yield of sweet corn, and the carry-over of nematicidal effect in the squash crop were determined in a sweet corn-squash-vetch cropping system for 3 years. Fenamiphos 15G and aldicarb 15G were applied at 6.7 kg a.i./ha and incorporated 15 cm deep with a tractor-mounted rototiller. Ethylene dibromide (EDB) was injected at 18 kg a.i./ha on each side of the sweet corn rows (total 36 kg a...

  2. CHARACTERIZATION OF RESISTANCE TO ROOT-KNOT NEMATODES IN SWEETPOTATO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thirteen sweetpotato (Ipomoea batatas) genotypes were characterized for resistance to Meloidogyne incognita, M. javanica, M. hapla, and M. arenaria races 1 and 2 in greenhouse tests. The following sweetpotato genotypes representing a range of reactions to M. incognita were evaluated: U.S. Plant In...

  3. Description and SEM Observations of Meloidogyne chitwoodi n. sp. (Meloidogynidae), a Root-knot Nematode on Potato in the Pacific Northwest

    OpenAIRE

    Golden, A. Morgan; O'Bannon, J. H.; Santo, G. S.; Finley, A. M.

    1980-01-01

    Meloidogyne chitwoodi n. sp. is described and illustrated from potato (Solanum tuberosum) originally collected from Quincy, Washington, USA. This new species resembles M. hapla, but its perineal pattern is basically round to oval with distinctive and broken, curled, or twisted striae around and above the anal area. The vulva is in a sunken area devoid of striae. Vesicles or vesicle-like structures are present in the median bulb of females. The larva tail, being short and blunt with a hyaline ...

  4. Effects of the Mi-1 and the N root-knot nematode-resistance gene on infection and reproduction of Meloidogyne enterolobii on tomato and pepper cultivars

    OpenAIRE

    Kiewnick, Sebastian; Dessimoz, Mireille; Franck, Lucie

    2009-01-01

    Meloidogyne enterolobii is widely considered to be an aggressive root-knot nematode species that is able to reproduce on root-knot nematode-resistant tomato and pepper cultivars. In greenhouse experiments, M. enterolobii isolates 1 and 2 from Switzerland were able to reproduce on tomato cultivars carrying the Mi-1 resistance gene as well as an N-carrying pepper cultivar. Reproduction factors (Rf) ranged between 12 and 109 depending on the plant cultivar, with M. enterolobii isolate 2 being mo...

  5. Reação de clones de umezeiro (Prunus mume sieb. et zucc. e cultivares de pessegueiro a Meloidogyne javanica (treub, 1885 Chitwood, 1949

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayer Newton Alex

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Um amplo projeto de estudos sobre a utilização do umezeiro como porta-enxerto para pessegueiro está sendo desenvolvido na FCAV/UNESP, Câmpus de Jaboticabal-SP, devido, especialmente, às promissoras características para uso como redutor de vigor da copa e sua boa qualidade de frutos. Alguns trabalhos na literatura citam o umezeiro como resistente ao nematóide das galhas, entretanto dispõe-se de poucas informações. Neste trabalho, teve-se por objetivo estudar a reação de clones de umezeiro e cultivares de pessegueiro a Meloidogyne javanica. O experimento foi conduzido em casa de vegetação, com 6 tratamentos (Clones 05; 10 e 15 de umezeiro e as cultivares Okinawa, Aurora-1 e Dourado-1 de pessegueiro e 9 repetições. As plantas foram mantidas em vasos de cerâmica contendo uma mistura de solo e areia (1:1, v/v, previamente autoclavada a 121ºC e 1kgf.cm-2 por 2 horas. Aos sessenta dias após o plantio, cada planta foi inoculada com 3.000 ovos e juvenis de segundo estádio de Meloidogyne javanica. Aos 100 dias após a inoculação, as plantas foram colhidas para avaliação da massa de matéria fresca do sistema radicular, número de galhas por sistema radicular, número de ovos e juvenis por 10 g de raízes, número de ovos e juvenis por sistema radicular e fator de reprodução. Verificou-se que todos os clones e cultivares de umezeiro e pessegueiro, respectivamente, mostraram-se resistentes a Meloidogyne javanica.

  6. Host suitability of weeds and forage species to root-knot nematode meloidogyne graminicola as a funcion of irrigation management / Hospedabilidade de plantas daninhas e espécies forrageiras ao nematoide das galhas meloidogyne graminicola em função do manejo da irrigação

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    R.R.D., Negretti; R., Manica-Berto; D., Agostinetto; L., Th& #252; rmer; C.B., Gomes.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A produção de arroz irrigado pode ser limitada por vários agentes fitopatogênicos, entre eles os nematoides das galhas (Meloidogyne spp.). Dessa forma, objetivou-se neste estudo avaliar a hospedabilidade de espécies de plantas, encontradas com maior frequência no entrecultivo e durante o período de [...] cultivo do arroz irrigado, ao nematoide das galhas, Meloidogyne graminicola, sob dois manejos da irrigação. Para isso, foram realizados dois experimentos em delineamento completamente casualizado. No primeiro experimento, foram testadas sete espécies vegetais que ocorrem em área de arroz irrigado, em pousio, no período de entrecultivo. Para o segundo experimento, testaram-se, em condições de sequeiro e alagamento, nove espécies de plantas daninhas infestantes da cultura do arroz irrigado. As 16 espécies vegetais, mantidas individualmente em vaso com substrato esterilizado, foram inoculadas com 5.000 ovos e juvenis de segundo estádio (J2) do nematoide. Plantas de arroz BRS IRGA 410 inoculadas com M. graminicola foram utilizadas como testemunhas. Dois meses após a inoculação, o sistema radical de cada planta foi avaliado quanto ao número de galhas e fator de reprodução do nematoide. Verificou-se que as espécies de entrecultivo da cultura do arroz irrigado Sida rhombifolia, Raphanus raphanistrum, Spergula arvensis, Lotus corniculatus e Trifolium repens e, durante o ciclo de cultivo do arroz irrigado, Aeschynomene denticulata e Leersia hexandra são imunes ao nematoide. As espécies vegetais de entrecultivo, Avena strigosa e Lolium multiflorum, e as de cultivo, Alternanthera philoxeroides, arroz-vermelho, Echinochloa crusgalli, Cyperus difformis, Cyperus esculentus, Cyperus iria e Fimbristylis miliacea, comportam-se como hospedeiras de M. graminicola, principalmente em condições de sequeiro. Abstract in english The irrigated rice production can be limited by various phytopathogenic agents, including root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp.). Thus, the aim of this research was to check the host suitability of plant species most often found off-season and during rice cultivation, to root-knot nematode Meloidogy [...] ne graminicola, under two irrigation managements. Two experiments were conducted in a completely randomized design. In the first experiment seven plant species that occur in an area of rice cultivation, in fallow, off-season were evaluated. For the second experiment nine weed species infesting the irrigated rice culture were tested in rainfed and flooding conditions. The sixteen species, kept individually in pots with sterilized substrate, were inoculated with 5,000 eggs and second stage juveniles (J2) of nematode. BRS 410 IRGA rice plants inoculated with M.graminicola were used as control. Two months after inoculation, the root system of each plant was evaluated for number of galls and nematode reproduction factor. It was verified that the species of off-season of rice cultivation Sida rhombifolia, Raphanus raphanistrum, Spergula arvensis, Lotus corniculatus and Trifolium repens, and, during the cycle of rice cultivation, Aeschynomene denticulata, Leersia hexandra, are immune to nematode. The plant species off-season, Avena strigosa and Lolium multiflorum and of cultivation, Alternanthera philoxeroides, red rice, Echinochloa crusgalli, Cyperus difformis, Cyperus esculentus, Cyperus iria and Fimbristylis miliacea would behave as hosts of M.graminicola, mostly under rainfed conditions.

  7. Linhagens de alface-crespa para o verão resistentes ao Meloidogyne javanica e ao vírus mosaico-da-alface / Lineages of crisp-leaf lettuce for summer cropping resistant to Meloidogyne javanica and to Lettuce mosaic virus

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Renata Rodrigues, Silva; Luiz Antônio Augusto, Gomes; Aline Beraldo, Monteiro; Wilson Roberto, Maluf; José Luiz Sandes de, Carvalho Filho; João Aguilar, Massaroto.

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi selecionar famílias F4 de alface, oriundas do cruzamento entre as cultivares Verônica e Salinas 88, para o cultivo no verão, com relação ao tipo de folha, e à resistência ao Lettuce mosaic virus (LMV) e ao nematóide-das-galhas Meloidogyne javanica. Primeiramente, avalia [...] ram-se a coloração da folha, tipos de borda e limbo foliares, além da tolerância ao calor no campo, em blocos ao acaso compostos pelas 15 famílias F4 previamente selecionadas, pelas cultivares parentais e pela cultivar testemunha Regina 71 (folhas lisas e tolerante ao calor), com cinco repetições e oito plantas por parcela. Na segunda etapa, as famílias foram avaliadas quanto à resistência ao LMV e ao nematóide-das-galhas, em bandejas de 128 células acondicionadas em estufa. As médias das notas atribuídas a cada família foram comparadas às médias de cada cultivar parental pelo teste de Dunnet (5%). A família AFX007B-140-21, homozigota resistente aos nematóides e ao LMV e, também, tolerante ao calor, foi a mais promissora. O cruzamento entre uma cultivar de folhas crespas e soltas com uma de folhas crespas e repolhuda, pode originar linhagens promissoras tanto de folhas crespas quanto de folhas lisas. Abstract in english The aim of this work was to select F4 lettuce families, derived from the cross 'Veronica' x 'Salinas 88 ', for summer cropping, type of leaves, and for resistance to Meloidogyne javanica and to Lettuce mosaic virus (LMV). First, evaluations were made for leaf colour, leaf limb, border type, and heat [...] tolerance in the field, in a complete blocks desing, in 15 F4 families previously selected, parent cultivars and, as control, the cultivar Regina 71 (butterleaf and tolerant to heat). Five replicates and eight plants per plot were used. As second step, the families were evaluated in greenhouse, in 128-cell expanded polystyrene trays, for resistance to LMV and root-knot nematodes. Score means of each family were compared to the means of each parental cultivar by Dunnett test at 5% probability. Family AFX007B-140-21, homozygous for root-knot nematodes, for LMV and heat tolerant, was the most promising. The cross between crisp and butter leaf cultivars can originate promising lineages both with crisp and butter leaves.

  8. Crescimento micelial e parasitismo de Paecilomyces lilacinus sobre ovos de Meloidogyne paranaensis em diferentes temperaturas"in vitro" / "In vitro" mycelial growth and parasitism of Paecilomyces lilacinus on Meloidogyne paranaensis eggs at different temperatures

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Marina Capparelli, Cadioli; Débora Cristina, Santiago; Adriano Thibes, Hoshino; Martin, Homechin.

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Paecilomyces lilacinus é um fungo de solo, parasita facultativo de ovos de nematóides, que pode crescer rapidamente "in vitro". Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o crescimento micelial de P. lilacinus em diferentes temperaturas e selecionar os melhores isolados quanto à capacidade de parasita [...] r ovos de Meloidogyne paranaensis. Foram avaliados isolados de P. lilacinus, obtidos de solos coletados na região de Londrina, PR. Para o isolamento empregou-se a técnica de diluição seriada dos solos e plaqueamento em meio de cultura semi-seletivo. A determinação do crescimento micelial e do parasitismo "in vitro" dos isolados sobre M. paranaensis foi realizada em placas de Petri contendo meio BDA. Os isolados foram incubados em B.O.D. a temperaturas de 20ºC, 22,5ºC, 25ºC, 27,5ºC e 30ºC. A avaliação do crescimento foi interrompida quando em um dos tratamentos a colônia do fungo atingiu a borda da placa de Petri e a determinação do parasitismo foi realizada depois de oito dias de incubação, calculando-se a porcentagem de ovos parasitados. O crescimento micelial dos isolados de P. lilacinus teve grande dependência da temperatura de incubação a que foram submetidos, sendo mais rápido à temperatura de 22,5ºC. Os isolados de P. lilacinus revelaram habilidade para infectar os ovos de M. paranaensis em meio BDA, principalmente na temperatura de 25ºC. Abstract in english Paecilomyces lilacinus is a soil fungus, facultative parasite of nematode eggs, which develops quickly "in vitro". The mycelial growth of P. lilacinus isolates was evaluated at different temperatures and the best isolates, regarding the capacity to parasite Meloidogyne paranaensis eggs, were chosen. [...] P. lilacinus soil isolates from Londrina, Parana state, were evaluated. Isolation was done using serial dilution of the soils and plating it in semi-selective agar medium. The determination of mycelial growth and "in vitro" parasitism of these isolates was done using Petri plates containing potato-dextrose-agar (PDA), placed in chamber at 20ºC, 22.5ºC, 25ºC, 27.5ºC or 30ºC. The evaluation started when in one of the treatments of the fungus colonies reached the edge of the Petri plate. Parasitism was determined after 8 days of incubation, calculating the percentage of parasited eggs. The mycelial growth of P. lilacinus isolates was greatly dependent on the temperature. The fastest growth occurred at 22.5ºC. The isolates of P. lilacinus were able to infect M. paranaensis eggs in PDA medium, mostly at 25ºC.

  9. Efeito de extratos proteicos de amendoim sobre o desenvolvimento, a capacidade infectiva e atividade de enzimas proteolíticas de Meloidogyne enterolobii / Effect of peanut protein extracts on the development, infective capacity and activity of proteolytic enzymes of Meloidogyne enterolobii

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Juliana Martins, Ribeiro; José Mauro da Cunha e, Castro; Natoniel Franklin de, Melo; Kátia Valevski Sales, Fernandes; Márcio dos Santos Teixeira, Pinto.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available No Brasil, Meloidogyne enterolobii vem causando perdas significativas na produção de goiabeiras e, no submédio do Vale do São Francisco, por exemplo, o impacto negativo decorrente da infecção e morte de goiabeiras tem refletido diretamente na qualidade de vida dos agricultores. Até o momento, não ex [...] istem métodos de controle efetivos: os nematicidas avaliados experimentalmente não têm sido eficientes e não há produtos registrados no Ministério da Agricultura, Pecuária e Abastecimento para aplicação em goiabeiras. Assim, há necessidade de realizar pesquisa básica nesta área. A prospecção de proteínas relacionadas com a resistência em espécies resistentes pode ser uma alternativa para o desenvolvimento de medidas para seu controle. Para isso, foram realizados ensaios biológicos de toxicidade para a análise do efeito de extratos proteicos de amendoim sobre o desenvolvimento, a capacidade infectiva e atividade de enzimas proteolíticas de M. enterolobii visando à identificação de proteínas com potencial para controle desse nematoide. Os resultados obtidos indicaram que o extrato proteico total de amostras de raízes de plantas de amendoim inoculadas não tem efeito sobre as três características supracitadas. Sendo assim, são necessários estudos dessa natureza com outras espécies resistentes ao patógeno visando à identificação de proteínas que apresentem potencial para o seu controle. Abstract in english In several regions of the country, including the São Francisco Valley, Meloidogyne enterolobii has caused significant losses in the production of guava, reflecting negatively on life quality of farmers in the region. To date, there is no effective control method, nematicides have been evaluated expe [...] rimentally and have not been efficient in their control and there are no products registered with the Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock and Supply for use in guava. Therefore, there is a critical need for basic research on this area and the prospection of proteins related to resistance to M. enterolobii in nematode resistant species may be an alternative for the development of control measures. For this purpose, biological assays of toxicity were performed to analyze the effect of peanut protein extracts on the development, infective capacity and activity of proteolytic enzymes of M. enterolobii for the identification of proteins with potential to control this pest. Results showed that total protein extracts from peanut root samples inoculated with M. enterolobii has no effect on the three characteristics evaluated. Thus, similar studies with other species resistant to the pathogen are needed to identify proteins with potential to control M. enterolobii.

  10. Análise da variabilidade genética de acessos de Psidium spp. (Myrtaceae) avaliados quanto à reação a Meloidogyne enterolobii¹ / Analysis of genetic variability of Psidium spp. (Myrtaceae) access evaluated for resistant to Meloidogyne enterolobii

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Eduardo José, Almeida; Ester, Wickert; Jaime Maia, Santos; Antonio Baldo Geraldo, Martins.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve por objetivo a caracterização molecular de 13 acessos de Psidium spp. (Myrtaceae) identificados previamente quanto à reação ao nematoide da goiabeira. A extração do DNA das amostras foi executada conforme o protocolo de Shillito e Saul (1988). Os marcadores moleculares do tipo fAF [...] LP, foram obtidos utilizando-se do 'fAFLP Regular Plant Genomes Fingerprinting Kit' (Applied Biosystems do Brasil Ltda.) onde foram testadas 24 combinações seletivas de primers, das quais 18 apresentaram amplificação que gerou 272 marcadores polimórficos. Para a análise dos marcadores, foram utilizados os softwares GeneScan (ABI Prism versão 1.0) e Genotyper (ABI Prism versão 1.03), e os dados coletados foram transformados em matriz binária que foi analisada no software PAUP (Phylogenetic Analysis Using Parcimony - versão 3.01). Foram também calculados índices de distância genética intra e interespecífica entre os materiais. Verificou-se que os marcadores AFLP foram eficientes na discriminação dos acessos entre si, bem como apontou similaridade genética entre os acessos identificados como resistentes ao nematoide Meloidogyne enterolobii, característica esta passível de exploração no futuro. Abstract in english This study aimed to characterize molecular of 13 accessions of Psidium spp. (Myrtaceae) that was been identified for the reaction to rootknot guava nematode. The DNA extraction of the samples was carried according to the protocol of Shillito & Saul (1988). The molecular markers type fAFLP, were obta [...] ined from 'fAFLP Regular Plant Genomes Fingerprinting Kit' (Applied Biosystems from Brasil Ltda.) and were tested 24 selectives combinations of primers, of which 18 showed amplification that produced 272 polymorphic markers. To the analysis of the markers were employed the softwares GeneScan (ABI Prism versão 1.0) and Genotyper (ABI Prism version 1.03), and the data collected were transformed into a binary matrix that was analyzed in the software PAUP (Phylogenetic Analysis Using Parcimony - version 3.01). Were calculated genetic distance índex intra and interespecific between the genotipes. It was found that the AFLP markers were efficient in the discrimination between accessions, as well as in showing genetic similarity among accessions identified as resistant to the nematode Meloidogyne enterolobii, which could be discussed in the future.

  11. Selection of coffee progenies for resistance to nematode Meloidogyne paranaensis in infested area / Seleção de progênies de café para a resistência ao nematoide Meloidogyne paranaensis em área infestada

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Sonia Maria Lima, Salgado; Juliana Costa de, Rezende; José Airton Rodrigues, Nunes.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se neste trabalho selecionar progênies de Coffea arabica para resistência à M. paranaensis em área cafeeira infestada usando a abordagem de modelos mistos de Henderson. Quarenta e um genótipos foram selecionados no Banco Ativo de Germoplasma de Café de Minas Gerais e avaliados individualme [...] nte quanto ao diâmetro de caule, número de ramos plagiotrópicos, caracterização da reação dos genótipos ao nematoide e produção por planta. Houve variabilidade genética entre os genótipos estudados para todas as características avaliadas, e entre as populações estudadas para as características produção e caracterização da reação dos genótipos ao nematoide, indicando possibilidades de obtenção de ganhos genéticos pela seleção nesta população. As correlações genotípicas entre todas as características estudadas foram significativas. Cafeeiros da população de Híbrido de Timor UFV 408-01 e progênies F3 derivadas do cruzamento entre Catuaí Vermelho e Amphillo MR 2161 foram os mais promissores em área infestada por M. paranaensis. Abstract in english The purpose of this study was to select Coffea arabica progenies for resistance to M. paranaensis in an infested coffee growing area using Henderson's mixed model methodology. Forty-one genotypes were selected at the Coffee Active Germplasm Bank of Minas Gerais, and evaluated in regard to stem diame [...] ter, number of plagiotropic branches, reaction to the nematode, and yield per plant. There was genetic variability among the genotypes studied for all the traits evaluated, and among the populations studied for yield and reaction to the nematode, indicating possibilities for obtaining genetic gains through selection in this population. There was high rate of genotypic association between all the traits studied. Coffee plants of Timor Hybrid UFV408-01 population, and F3 progenies derived from crossing Catuaí Vermelho and Amphillo MR 2161 were the most promising in the area infested by M. paranaensis.

  12. Ação nematicida de extratos de alho, mostarda, pimenta malagueta, de óleo de mostarda e de dois produtos à base de capsainóides e alil isotiocianato sobre juvenis de Meloidogyne javanica, (treub) Chitwood, 1949, em casa de vegetação

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Wânia dos Santos, Neves; Leandro Grassi de, Freitas; Marcelo Magalhães, Coutinho; Rosangela, Dallemole-Giaretta; Cleia de Fátima Silva, Fabry; Onkar Dev, Dhingra; Silamar, Ferraz.

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Neves, W.S; Freitas, L.G.; Coutinho, M.M.; Giaretta-Dallemole, R.; Fabry, C.F.S.; Dhingra, O.D. & Ferraz, S. Atividade nematicida de extratos botânicos de pimenta malagueta (Capsicum frutescens), mostarda (Brassica campestris) e alho (Allium sativum) sobre o nematóide das galhas, Meloidogyne javanic [...] a, em casa de vegetação. Summa Phytopathologica, v.35, n.4, p.255-261, 2009 O experimento teve como objetivo avaliar a atividade nematicida de extratos botânicos dos frutos de pimenta malagueta (Capsicum frutescens), plantas de mostarda (Brassica campestris), de bulbos de alho (Allium sativum) e óleo de mostarda sobre o nematóide das galhas, Meloidogyne javanica, em tomateiro em casa de vegetação e posteriormente comparar os extratos que apresentassem maior redução de número de galhas e de ovos com dois produtos à base de capsaicina, capsainóides e alil isotiocianato. Uma mistura peneirada de solo e areia na proporção 1:1 (v:v) foi colocada em vasos de plástico e infestada com 4000 ovos de M. javanica. Quatro dias após 20 mL de cada extrato, na concentração de 1000 ppm, foram espalhados sobre o solo. Apenas água foi derramada sobre o solo infestado no tratamento testemunha. Mudas de tomate com 20 dias de idade foram transplantadas quatro dias após a colocação dos extratos ao solo. Após quarenta e cinco dias avaliou-se o número de ovos e o número de galhas do sistema radicular de cada planta. Os extratos clorofórmico e cetônico de pimenta malagueta e o óleo de mostarda apresentaram melhor controle do nematóide, diferindo estatisticamente da testemunha quanto ao número de galhas. Porém, somente o óleo de mostarda reduziu significativamente o número de ovos quando comparado com a testemunha. Os extratos cetônico e clorofórmico de pimenta e o óleo de mostarda reduziram em 34,5%, 40,4% e 99,9% o número de galhas, respectivamente e o óleo de mostarda reduziu em 99,9% o número de ovos. No experimento seguinte foram avaliados o extrato clorofórmico de pimenta, o óleo de mostarda, o