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Identification of msp1 Gene Variants in Populations of Meloidogyne incognita Using PCR-DGGE.  

Science.gov (United States)

Effectors of root-knot nematodes are essential for parasitism and prone to recognition by adapted variants of the host plants. This selective pressure initiates hypervariability of effector genes. Diversity of the gene variants within nematode populations might correlate with host preferences. In this study we developed a method to compare the distribution of variants of the effector gene msp1 among populations of Meloidogyne incognita. Primers were designed to amplify a 234-bp fragment of msp1. Sequencing of cloned PCR products revealed five msp1 variants from seven populations that were distinguishable in their reproduction on five host plants. A protocol for denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) was developed to separate these msp1 variants. DGGE for replicated pools of juveniles from the seven populations revealed ten variants of msp1. A correlation between the presence of a particular gene variant and the reproductive potential on particular hosts was not evident. Especially race 3 showed substantial variation within the population. DGGE fingerprints of msp1 tended to cluster the populations according to their reproduction rate on pepper. The developed method could be useful for analyzing population heterogeneity and epidemiology of M. incognita. PMID:25276001

Adam, Mohamed; Hallmann, Johannes; Heuer, Holger

2014-09-01

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Identification of msp1 Gene Variants in Populations of Meloidogyne incognita Using PCR-DGGE  

Science.gov (United States)

Effectors of root-knot nematodes are essential for parasitism and prone to recognition by adapted variants of the host plants. This selective pressure initiates hypervariability of effector genes. Diversity of the gene variants within nematode populations might correlate with host preferences. In this study we developed a method to compare the distribution of variants of the effector gene msp1 among populations of Meloidogyne incognita. Primers were designed to amplify a 234-bp fragment of msp1. Sequencing of cloned PCR products revealed five msp1 variants from seven populations that were distinguishable in their reproduction on five host plants. A protocol for denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) was developed to separate these msp1 variants. DGGE for replicated pools of juveniles from the seven populations revealed ten variants of msp1. A correlation between the presence of a particular gene variant and the reproductive potential on particular hosts was not evident. Especially race 3 showed substantial variation within the population. DGGE fingerprints of msp1 tended to cluster the populations according to their reproduction rate on pepper. The developed method could be useful for analyzing population heterogeneity and epidemiology of M. incognita.

Adam, Mohamed; Hallmann, Johannes; Heuer, Holger

2014-01-01

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INTERACCIÓN ENTRE EL ECOMIC® Y UNA POBLACIÓN CUBANA DE Meloidogyne incognita EN TOMATE / INTERACTION BETWEEN ECOMIC® AND A CUBAN POPULATION OF Meloidogyne incognita IN TOMATO  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El estudio de tácticas para el manejo de los nematodos agalleros en la producción protegida de hortalizas en Cuba, se ha incrementado en los últimos años. El objetivo del trabajo fue determinar la interacción entre el ECOMICâ, producto a base de hongos formadores de micorrizas arbusculares, y una po [...] blación cubana de Meloidogyne incognita en el tomate (Lycopersicon esculentum. Mill var. Vyta). El experimento se desarrolló en los aisladores biológicos del CENSA empleando un diseño completamente aleatorio. Se emplearon dos formas de inoculación del ECOMICâ: peletización de la semilla e incorporación al sustrato para semilleros (1.5 g del producto/alveolo de cepellón). La dosis de nematodos fue de 1.5 huevos-J2. g suelo-1. Se evaluó el índice de agallamiento (IA), el número de juveniles infectivos (J2) en suelo y peso del sistema radical. La evaluación de la simbiosis micorrícica comprendió el porcentaje de colonización, densidad visual y peso del endófito. Se demostró que la aplicación de ECOMICâen la rizosfera del tomate favoreció el desarrollo de la raíz aparejado con un alto número de agallas (IA=4). En el control el desarrollo de la raíz fue menor con un IA=5. Se observó una disminución de los J2 en el suelo de las plantas micorrizadas. El establecimiento de la simbiosis micorrícica no se afectó por el desarrollo del nematodo. Abstract in english The study of tactics for the root-knot nematode management in vegetable production under crop protected systems has been increased in Cuba in the last decade. The main goal of this work was to assess the relationship of ECOMIC®, a commercial product containing several mycorrhizal fungi, and a Cuban [...] population of Meloidogyne incognita in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill var. Vyta). The experiment was carried out in a green house at CENSA using a completely randomized design. ECOMICâ was inoculated by seed pelleting or mixed with the seedbed substrate. The nematode dose used was 1.5 egg-J2. g soil-1. Gall index, infective juveniles in soil and root weight were evaluated. The percentage of colonization, the visual density and the mycellial weight were also estimated. ECOMICâ was shown to benefit root development despite the high value of the gall index (GI=4) in the inoculated plants. Root development was lower in the untreated plants with a GI=5. A decreased number of infective juveniles was observed in the soil with mycorrhized plants. The micorrhizal colonization was not affected by nematode establishment.

Lucila, Gómez; MayraG, Rodríguez; Blanca, de la Noval; Miranda, Ileana; M.A, Hernández.

2008-08-01

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INTERACCIÓN ENTRE EL ECOMIC® Y UNA POBLACIÓN CUBANA DE Meloidogyne incognita EN TOMATE / INTERACTION BETWEEN ECOMIC® AND A CUBAN POPULATION OF Meloidogyne incognita IN TOMATO  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El estudio de tácticas para el manejo de los nematodos agalleros en la producción protegida de hortalizas en Cuba, se ha incrementado en los últimos años. El objetivo del trabajo fue determinar la interacción entre el ECOMICâ, producto a base de hongos formadores de micorrizas arbusculares, y una po [...] blación cubana de Meloidogyne incognita en el tomate (Lycopersicon esculentum. Mill var. Vyta). El experimento se desarrolló en los aisladores biológicos del CENSA empleando un diseño completamente aleatorio. Se emplearon dos formas de inoculación del ECOMICâ: peletización de la semilla e incorporación al sustrato para semilleros (1.5 g del producto/alveolo de cepellón). La dosis de nematodos fue de 1.5 huevos-J2. g suelo-1. Se evaluó el índice de agallamiento (IA), el número de juveniles infectivos (J2) en suelo y peso del sistema radical. La evaluación de la simbiosis micorrícica comprendió el porcentaje de colonización, densidad visual y peso del endófito. Se demostró que la aplicación de ECOMICâen la rizosfera del tomate favoreció el desarrollo de la raíz aparejado con un alto número de agallas (IA=4). En el control el desarrollo de la raíz fue menor con un IA=5. Se observó una disminución de los J2 en el suelo de las plantas micorrizadas. El establecimiento de la simbiosis micorrícica no se afectó por el desarrollo del nematodo. Abstract in english The study of tactics for the root-knot nematode management in vegetable production under crop protected systems has been increased in Cuba in the last decade. The main goal of this work was to assess the relationship of ECOMIC®, a commercial product containing several mycorrhizal fungi, and a Cuban [...] population of Meloidogyne incognita in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill var. Vyta). The experiment was carried out in a green house at CENSA using a completely randomized design. ECOMICâ was inoculated by seed pelleting or mixed with the seedbed substrate. The nematode dose used was 1.5 egg-J2. g soil-1. Gall index, infective juveniles in soil and root weight were evaluated. The percentage of colonization, the visual density and the mycellial weight were also estimated. ECOMICâ was shown to benefit root development despite the high value of the gall index (GI=4) in the inoculated plants. Root development was lower in the untreated plants with a GI=5. A decreased number of infective juveniles was observed in the soil with mycorrhized plants. The micorrhizal colonization was not affected by nematode establishment.

Lucila, Gómez; MayraG, Rodríguez; Blanca, de la Noval; Miranda, Ileana; M.A, Hernández.

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Effect of a Terminated Cover Crop and Aldicarb on Cotton Yield and Meloidogyne incognita Population Density.  

Science.gov (United States)

Terminated small grain cover crops are valuable in light textured soils to reduce wind and rain erosion and for protection of young cotton seedlings. A three-year study was conducted to determine the impact of terminated small grain winter cover crops, which are hosts for Meloidogyne incognita, on cotton yield, root galling and nematode midseason population density. The small plot test consisted of the cover treatment as the main plots (winter fallow, oats, rye and wheat) and rate of aldicarb applied in-furrow at-plant (0, 0.59 and 0.84 kg a.i./ha) as subplots in a split-plot design with eight replications, arranged in a randomized complete block design. Roots of 10 cotton plants per plot were examined at approximately 35 days after planting. Root galling was affected by aldicarb rate (9.1, 3.8 and 3.4 galls/root system for 0, 0.59 and 0.84 kg aldicarb/ha), but not by cover crop. Soil samples were collected in mid-July and assayed for nematodes. The winter fallow plots had a lower density of M. incognita second-stage juveniles (J2) (transformed to Log(10) (J2 + 1)/500 cm(3) soil) than any of the cover crops (0.88, 1.58, 1.67 and 1.75 Log(10)(J2 + 1)/500 cm(3) soil for winter fallow, oats, rye and wheat, respectively). There were also fewer M. incognita eggs at midseason in the winter fallow (3,512, 7,953, 8,262 and 11,392 eggs/500 cm(3) soil for winter fallow, oats, rye and wheat, respectively). Yield (kg lint per ha) was increased by application of aldicarb (1,544, 1,710 and 1,697 for 0, 0.59 and 0.84 kg aldicarb/ha), but not by any cover crop treatments. These results were consistent over three years. The soil temperature at 15 cm depth, from when soils reached 18 degrees C to termination of the grass cover crop, averaged 9,588, 7,274 and 1,639 centigrade hours (with a minimum threshold of 10 degrees C), in 2005, 2006 and 2007, respectively. Under these conditions, potential reproduction of M. incognita on the cover crop did not result in a yield penalty. PMID:19259531

Wheeler, T A; Leser, J F; Keeling, J W; Mullinix, B

2008-06-01

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Effects of Soil Temperature and Planting Date of Wheat on Meloidogyne incognita Reproduction, Soil Populations, and Grain Yield  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Wheat cultivars Anza and Produra grown in winter in California were planted in Meloidogyne incognita infested and noninfested sandy loam plots in October (soil temperature 21 C) and November (soil temperature 16 C) of 1979. Meloidogyne incognita penetrated roots of mid-October planted Ataza (427 juveniles/g root), developed into adult females by January, and produced 75 eggs/g root by harvest in April. Penetration and development did not occur in late plantings. Anza seedlings grown in infest...

Roberts, P. A.; Gundy, S. D.; Mckinney, H. E.

1981-01-01

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Predicting Damage of Meloidogyne incognita on Watermelon.  

Science.gov (United States)

Quantitative growth response of watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) sensitive to Meloidogyne incognita is poorly understood. Determination of soil population densities of second-stage juveniles (J2) of M. incognita with Baermann funnel extraction often is inaccurate at low soil temperatures. In greenhouse experiments, three sandy soils were inoculated with dilution series of population densities of eggs or J2 of M. incognita and planted in small containers to watermelon 'Royal Sweet' or subjected to Baermann funnel extraction. After five weeks of incubation in the greenhouse bioassay plants in egg-inoculated soils, gall numbers on watermelon roots related more closely to inoculated population densities than J2 counts after Baermann funnel extraction. In April 2004, perpendicularly-inserted tubes (45-cm diameter, 55-cm deep) served as microplots where two methyl bromide-fumigated sandy soils were inoculated with egg suspensions of M. incognita at 0, 100, 1,000 or 10,000 eggs/100 cm(3) of soil in 15-cm depth. At transplanting of 4-week old watermelon seedlings, soils were sampled for the bioassay or for extraction of J2 by Baermann funnel. In the Seinhorst function of harvested biomass in relation to nematode numbers, decline of biomass with increasing population densities of M. incognita was accurately modeled by the inoculated eggs (R(2) = 0.93) and by the counts of galls on the bioassay roots (R(2) = 0.98); but poorly by J2 counts (R(2) = 0.68). Threshold levels of watermelon top dry weight to M. incognita were 122 eggs/100 cm(3) soil, 1.6 galls on bioassay roots, or 3.6 J2/100 cm(3) of soil. Using the bioassay in early spring for predicting risk of nematode damage appeared useful in integrated pest management systems of watermelon. PMID:23482631

Xing, Lijuan; Westphal, Andreas

2012-06-01

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Relationships between initial population densities of Meloidogyne incognita race 2 and nematode population development in terms of variable soybean resistance.  

Science.gov (United States)

The effect of increasing initial population density levels (Pi) of Meloidogyne incognita race 2 on nematode population development and yield of a susceptible (Prima2000) and resistant (LS5995) soybean cultivar was investigated. Two experiments, one in a hail net cage and one in microplots, were conducted one each during two consecutive growing seasons at Potchefstroom in the North West Province of South Africa. Nematode reproduction was assessed by determining the number of eggs and second-stage juveniles (J2) in the rhizosphere and roots, egg masses, egg-laying females (ELF) and reproduction factor (Rf) values per root system at harvesting 110 days after planting. Percentage yield reduction in the two cultivars was also calculated. Strong non-linear relationships existed between all nematode variables as well as between Pi and percentage yield loss in both cultivars for both experiments in this study. Significantly higher numbers of eggs and J2, egg masses and ELF were maintained in the roots of the nematode-susceptible Prima2000 than in the resistant LS5995 from Pi = 100 and higher in both experiments. Rf values were inversely related to Pi for both cultivars and were lowest on LS5995, with Prima2000 maintaining significantly higher Rf values in both experiments. Yield loss in LS5995 was at least six times higher than that of Prima2000. The difference in monetary terms is demonstrated, although it is suggested that host plant resistance to plant-parasitic nematodes may not be sufficient as the only management tool in highly infested soils or in rotation systems including nematode susceptible crops. PMID:22736837

Fourie, Hendrika; Mc Donald, Alexander H; De Waele, Dirk

2010-03-01

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Reação de crisântemos a Meloidogyne incognita, Meloidogyne javanica e Meloidogyne enterolobii / Chrysanthemum reaction to Meloidogyne incognita, Meloidogyne javanica and Meloidogyne enterolobii  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a resistência de 14 variedades de crisântemos aos nematoides Meloidogyne incognita, M. javanica e M. enterolobii. O experimento foi conduzido em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, constando de 15 tratamentos e 4 repetições, por espécie de nematoide. Cada [...] parcela foi constituída por uma planta por vaso, mantidas em casa de vegetação e inoculadas com 5.000 ovos e eventuais juvenis de M. incognita, M. javanica e M. enterolobii. Após 60 dias, os índices de massas de ovos, número de nematoides por grama de raiz e o fator de reprodução foram avaliados. As variedades apresentaram imunidade a M. incognita, M. javanica e M. enterolobii, exceto 'Capello Vermelho' e 'White Reagon', que foram respectivamente suscetível e resistente a M. incognita. Abstract in english This study aimed to evaluate the resistance of 14 chrysanthemum varieties to the nematodes Meloidogyne incognita, M. javanica and M. enterolobii. The experiment was conducted in a completely randomized design, consisting of 15 treatments and 4 replicates per nematode species. Each plot was constitut [...] ed of one plant per pot; plants were kept in a greenhouse and inoculated with 5,000 eggs and possible juveniles of M. incognita, M. javanica and M. enterolobii. After 60 days, the rates of egg masses, the number of nematodes per gram of root and the reproduction factor were evaluated. The varieties showed immunity to M. incognita, M. javanica and M. enterolobii, except 'Capello Vermelho' and 'White Reagon', which were susceptible and resistant, respectively, to M. incognita.

Lucivane Aparecida, Gonçalves; Andressa Lima de, Brida; Maria de Fátima Almeida, Silva; Cezar, Bueno Junior; Silvia Renata Siciliano, Wilcken.

2014-03-01

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Reação de crisântemos a Meloidogyne incognita, Meloidogyne javanica e Meloidogyne enterolobii / Chrysanthemum reaction to Meloidogyne incognita, Meloidogyne javanica and Meloidogyne enterolobii  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a resistência de 14 variedades de crisântemos aos nematoides Meloidogyne incognita, M. javanica e M. enterolobii. O experimento foi conduzido em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, constando de 15 tratamentos e 4 repetições, por espécie de nematoide. Cada [...] parcela foi constituída por uma planta por vaso, mantidas em casa de vegetação e inoculadas com 5.000 ovos e eventuais juvenis de M. incognita, M. javanica e M. enterolobii. Após 60 dias, os índices de massas de ovos, número de nematoides por grama de raiz e o fator de reprodução foram avaliados. As variedades apresentaram imunidade a M. incognita, M. javanica e M. enterolobii, exceto 'Capello Vermelho' e 'White Reagon', que foram respectivamente suscetível e resistente a M. incognita. Abstract in english This study aimed to evaluate the resistance of 14 chrysanthemum varieties to the nematodes Meloidogyne incognita, M. javanica and M. enterolobii. The experiment was conducted in a completely randomized design, consisting of 15 treatments and 4 replicates per nematode species. Each plot was constitut [...] ed of one plant per pot; plants were kept in a greenhouse and inoculated with 5,000 eggs and possible juveniles of M. incognita, M. javanica and M. enterolobii. After 60 days, the rates of egg masses, the number of nematodes per gram of root and the reproduction factor were evaluated. The varieties showed immunity to M. incognita, M. javanica and M. enterolobii, except 'Capello Vermelho' and 'White Reagon', which were susceptible and resistant, respectively, to M. incognita.

Lucivane Aparecida, Gonçalves; Andressa Lima de, Brida; Maria de Fátima Almeida, Silva; Cezar, Bueno Junior; Silvia Renata Siciliano, Wilcken.

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Elementos del ciclo de vida de población cubana de Meloidogyne incognita (Kofoid y White) Chitwood en Solanum lycopersicum L. / Life cycle elements of a Cuban population Meloidogyne incognita (Kofoid and White) in Solanum lycopersicum L.  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El experimento se desarrolló en condiciones semicontroladas, en aisladores biológicos (18-21ºC), con el objetivo de determinar la duración del ciclo de vida de Meloidogyne incognita (Kofoid y White) Chitwood y la producción de huevos por hembras adultas en las primeras 96h en tomate (Solanum lycoper [...] sicum L.). Plantas de unos 15cm de altura se trasplantaron a macetas y una semana después se inocularon 2500±5 J2 de M. incognita raza 2. A las 72 horas se retiraron y plantaron en macetas con suelo estéril. El sistema radical fue extraído seis días post-inoculación para observar los diferentes estadios. La temperatura media en el período del estudio fue de 18-21ºC. Tres plantas fueron extraídas diariamente y se detuvo la extracción 96h después de haberse observado las primeras hembras adultas con huevos en la matriz gelatinosa. Entre 7 y 10 días posteriores a la inoculación, las raíces del tomate mostraron zonas hinchadas, indicativo de la entrada de los juveniles y de su alimentación. El ciclo de vida, desde J2 a hembra con matriz gelatinosa y huevos fue de 24 días. Las hembras en las primeras 24 horas depositaron más de 50 huevos en las matrices y a las 96h, tenían como promedio más de 100 huevos cada una. Abstract in english The experiment was carried out under semi controlled conditions in biological insulators (18-21ºC), with the objective of determining the duration of the life cycle of Meloidogyne incognita (Kofoid & White) Chitwood and the egg production of the adult females on tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) in t [...] he first 96h. Plants with about 15cm of height were transplanted to pots and, a week later, inoculated with 2500 ±5 J2 of M. incognita race 2. At 72 hours, they were removed and planted in pots with sterile soil. The root system was drawn out six days after inoculation to observe the different stages. The average temperature during the study was 18 to 21ºC. Three plants were removed and the daily extraction was stopped 96 h after the first adult females with eggs in the gelatinous matrix were observed. Between 7 and 10 days after inoculation, the roots of tomato showed swollen areas, indicative of the entrance of the juveniles and their feeding. The life cycle from J2 to female eggs with gelatinous matrix was 24 days. In the first 24 hours, the females deposited over 50 eggs in the wombs, and at 96h, each of them had an average of eggs higher than 100.

Dainé, Hernández-Ochandía; Yailén, Arias; Lucila, Gómez; Belkis, Peteira; Ileana, Miranda; Mayra G, Rodríguez.

2012-12-01

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Elementos del ciclo de vida de población cubana de Meloidogyne incognita (Kofoid y White) Chitwood en Solanum lycopersicum L. / Life cycle elements of a Cuban population Meloidogyne incognita (Kofoid and White) in Solanum lycopersicum L.  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El experimento se desarrolló en condiciones semicontroladas, en aisladores biológicos (18-21ºC), con el objetivo de determinar la duración del ciclo de vida de Meloidogyne incognita (Kofoid y White) Chitwood y la producción de huevos por hembras adultas en las primeras 96h en tomate (Solanum lycoper [...] sicum L.). Plantas de unos 15cm de altura se trasplantaron a macetas y una semana después se inocularon 2500±5 J2 de M. incognita raza 2. A las 72 horas se retiraron y plantaron en macetas con suelo estéril. El sistema radical fue extraído seis días post-inoculación para observar los diferentes estadios. La temperatura media en el período del estudio fue de 18-21ºC. Tres plantas fueron extraídas diariamente y se detuvo la extracción 96h después de haberse observado las primeras hembras adultas con huevos en la matriz gelatinosa. Entre 7 y 10 días posteriores a la inoculación, las raíces del tomate mostraron zonas hinchadas, indicativo de la entrada de los juveniles y de su alimentación. El ciclo de vida, desde J2 a hembra con matriz gelatinosa y huevos fue de 24 días. Las hembras en las primeras 24 horas depositaron más de 50 huevos en las matrices y a las 96h, tenían como promedio más de 100 huevos cada una. Abstract in english The experiment was carried out under semi controlled conditions in biological insulators (18-21ºC), with the objective of determining the duration of the life cycle of Meloidogyne incognita (Kofoid & White) Chitwood and the egg production of the adult females on tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) in t [...] he first 96h. Plants with about 15cm of height were transplanted to pots and, a week later, inoculated with 2500 ±5 J2 of M. incognita race 2. At 72 hours, they were removed and planted in pots with sterile soil. The root system was drawn out six days after inoculation to observe the different stages. The average temperature during the study was 18 to 21ºC. Three plants were removed and the daily extraction was stopped 96 h after the first adult females with eggs in the gelatinous matrix were observed. Between 7 and 10 days after inoculation, the roots of tomato showed swollen areas, indicative of the entrance of the juveniles and their feeding. The life cycle from J2 to female eggs with gelatinous matrix was 24 days. In the first 24 hours, the females deposited over 50 eggs in the wombs, and at 96h, each of them had an average of eggs higher than 100.

Dainé, Hernández-Ochandía; Yailén, Arias; Lucila, Gómez; Belkis, Peteira; Ileana, Miranda; Mayra G, Rodríguez.

13

Toxicidade de filtrados fúngicos a meloidogyne incognita / Fungus filtrates toxicity to Meloidogyne incognita  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Visando à obtenção de novas moléculas nematicidas, 18 filtrados de espécies fúngicas e extratos de sete micélios fúngicos foram estudados in vitro quanto aos efeitos sobre a eclosão, motilidade e mortalidade de juvenis do segundo estádio (J2) de Meloidogyne incognita. Filtrados fúngicos foram obtido [...] s de culturas em meio Czapek. Metanol foi usado como solvente para obter extratos dos micélios fúngicos. Filtrados de Paecilomyces lilacinus, Fusarium moniliforme e Fusarium oxysporum reduziram a motilidade e eclosão, e aumentaram a mortalidade (P Abstract in english In the search for new nematicidal molecules, 18 fungal species filtrates and seven fungus mycelium extracts were studied in vitro to see their influence on hatching, mobility and mortality of second stage juveniles (J2) of Meloidogyne incognita. Fungal filtrates were obtained from fifteen day Czapek [...] cultures. Methanol was used as solvent to obtain fungus mycelium extracts. Paecilomyces lilacinus, Fusarium moniliforme and Fusarium oxysporum filtrates reduced J2 motility and hatching, and increased J2 mortality (P

MAURO J.N., COSTA; VICENTE P., CAMPOS; LUDWIG H., PFENNING; DENILSON F., OLIVEIRA.

2001-12-01

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Toxicidade de filtrados fúngicos a meloidogyne incognita Fungus filtrates toxicity to Meloidogyne incognita  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Visando à obtenção de novas moléculas nematicidas, 18 filtrados de espécies fúngicas e extratos de sete micélios fúngicos foram estudados in vitro quanto aos efeitos sobre a eclosão, motilidade e mortalidade de juvenis do segundo estádio (J2 de Meloidogyne incognita. Filtrados fúngicos foram obtidos de culturas em meio Czapek. Metanol foi usado como solvente para obter extratos dos micélios fúngicos. Filtrados de Paecilomyces lilacinus, Fusarium moniliforme e Fusarium oxysporum reduziram a motilidade e eclosão, e aumentaram a mortalidade (P In the search for new nematicidal molecules, 18 fungal species filtrates and seven fungus mycelium extracts were studied in vitro to see their influence on hatching, mobility and mortality of second stage juveniles (J2 of Meloidogyne incognita. Fungal filtrates were obtained from fifteen day Czapek cultures. Methanol was used as solvent to obtain fungus mycelium extracts. Paecilomyces lilacinus, Fusarium moniliforme and Fusarium oxysporum filtrates reduced J2 motility and hatching, and increased J2 mortality (P < 0,05 similarly to Aldicarb. Some fungus filtrates reduced J2 mobility without leading to death. Aspergillus flavus, Cylindrocarpon magnusianum, Fusarium solani and Mortierella sp. filtrates reduced (P < 0,05 only J2 hatching. Production of toxic fungus metabolites was not dependent on the amount of mycelium produced. P. lilacinus produced toxic filtrates after one day culturing. Since then, toxicity increased steadily, reaching 100% J2 mortality on the thirteenth day.

MAURO J.N. COSTA

2001-12-01

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Toxicidade de filtrados fúngicos a meloidogyne incognita / Fungus filtrates toxicity to Meloidogyne incognita  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Visando à obtenção de novas moléculas nematicidas, 18 filtrados de espécies fúngicas e extratos de sete micélios fúngicos foram estudados in vitro quanto aos efeitos sobre a eclosão, motilidade e mortalidade de juvenis do segundo estádio (J2) de Meloidogyne incognita. Filtrados fúngicos foram obtido [...] s de culturas em meio Czapek. Metanol foi usado como solvente para obter extratos dos micélios fúngicos. Filtrados de Paecilomyces lilacinus, Fusarium moniliforme e Fusarium oxysporum reduziram a motilidade e eclosão, e aumentaram a mortalidade (P Abstract in english In the search for new nematicidal molecules, 18 fungal species filtrates and seven fungus mycelium extracts were studied in vitro to see their influence on hatching, mobility and mortality of second stage juveniles (J2) of Meloidogyne incognita. Fungal filtrates were obtained from fifteen day Czapek [...] cultures. Methanol was used as solvent to obtain fungus mycelium extracts. Paecilomyces lilacinus, Fusarium moniliforme and Fusarium oxysporum filtrates reduced J2 motility and hatching, and increased J2 mortality (P

MAURO J.N., COSTA; VICENTE P., CAMPOS; LUDWIG H., PFENNING; DENILSON F., OLIVEIRA.

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Reação de genótipos de maracujazeiro a Meloidogyne incognita raça 3 e Meloidogyne javanica / Reaction of passion fruit genotypes to Meloidogyne incognita race 3 and Meloidogyne javanica  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar a reação de genótipos de maracujazeiro a Meloidogyne spp.. O experimento foi conduzido em casa de vegetação em DBC, com seis repetições, em esquema fatorial 9x2 (Passiflora giberti, P. nitida, P. setacea, P. mucronata, P. cincinnata, P. ligularis, P.alata, híbrido [...] BRS Sol do Cerrado e seleção M19-UFV x Meloidogyne javanica e M. incognita raça 3). Segundo os critérios de Oostenbrink, e Moura e Régis, o BRS Sol do Cerrado, a seleção M-19-UFV e P. alata comportaram-se como imunes a M. incognita. Além destes, P. cincinnata e P. setacea foram imunes a M. javanica. Passiflora cincinnata e P.giberti comportaram-se como resistentes a M. incognita e M. javanica, respectivamente. Segundo Taylor e Sasser, os genótipos classificados como imunes pelos outros critérios foram classificados como resistentes aos nematoides. Todas as variáveis nematológicas avaliadas em P. giberti, P. ligularis, P. mucronata e P. nitida foram superiores em plantas infectadas por M. incognita. Independentemente do nematoide, P. mucronata apresentou maior número de galhas, massas de ovos, ovos, J2 e FR, em relação aos outros genótipos. O peso de matéria fresca de raiz de P. ligularis e P. mucronata foi menor na presença de M. incognita em relação a M. javanica. Abstract in english The aim of this study was to evaluate the reaction of genotypes of passion fruit to Meloidogyne spp.. The experiment was carried out in a greenhouse in RBD with six replications in 9 x 2 factorial designs (Passiflora giberti, P. nitida, P. setacea, P. mucronata, P. cincinnata, P. ligularis, P. alata [...] , BRS Sol do Cerrado cultivar and selection M19-UFV x Meloidogyne javanica and M. incognita race 3). According to Oostenbrink criteria, and Moura and Régis, the BRS Sol do Cerrado, and selection M-19-UFV and P. alata behaved as immune to M. incognita. In addition to these, P. cincinnata and P. setacea were immune to M. javanica. Passiflora cincinnata and P.giberti behaved as resistant to M. incognita and M. javanica, respectively. According to Taylor and Sasser, the genotypes classified as immune by the other criteria were classified as resistant to nematodes. All the nematological variables evaluated in P. giberti, P. ligularis, P. mucronata and P. nitida were superior in plants infected by M. incognita. Regardless of the nematode, P mucronata presented larger number of root galls, egg masses, eggs, J2 and RF, as compared to the other genotypes. The root fresh matter weight of P. ligularis and P. mucronata was smaller in the presence of M. incognita as compared to M. javanica.

Leandro Souza, Rocha; Regina Cássia Ferreira, Ribeiro; Adelica Aparecida, Xavier; Fabíola de Jesus, Silva; Claudio Horst, Bruckner.

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Reação de genótipos de maracujazeiro a Meloidogyne incognita raça 3 e Meloidogyne javanica / Reaction of passion fruit genotypes to Meloidogyne incognita race 3 and Meloidogyne javanica  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar a reação de genótipos de maracujazeiro a Meloidogyne spp.. O experimento foi conduzido em casa de vegetação em DBC, com seis repetições, em esquema fatorial 9x2 (Passiflora giberti, P. nitida, P. setacea, P. mucronata, P. cincinnata, P. ligularis, P.alata, híbrido [...] BRS Sol do Cerrado e seleção M19-UFV x Meloidogyne javanica e M. incognita raça 3). Segundo os critérios de Oostenbrink, e Moura e Régis, o BRS Sol do Cerrado, a seleção M-19-UFV e P. alata comportaram-se como imunes a M. incognita. Além destes, P. cincinnata e P. setacea foram imunes a M. javanica. Passiflora cincinnata e P.giberti comportaram-se como resistentes a M. incognita e M. javanica, respectivamente. Segundo Taylor e Sasser, os genótipos classificados como imunes pelos outros critérios foram classificados como resistentes aos nematoides. Todas as variáveis nematológicas avaliadas em P. giberti, P. ligularis, P. mucronata e P. nitida foram superiores em plantas infectadas por M. incognita. Independentemente do nematoide, P. mucronata apresentou maior número de galhas, massas de ovos, ovos, J2 e FR, em relação aos outros genótipos. O peso de matéria fresca de raiz de P. ligularis e P. mucronata foi menor na presença de M. incognita em relação a M. javanica. Abstract in english The aim of this study was to evaluate the reaction of genotypes of passion fruit to Meloidogyne spp.. The experiment was carried out in a greenhouse in RBD with six replications in 9 x 2 factorial designs (Passiflora giberti, P. nitida, P. setacea, P. mucronata, P. cincinnata, P. ligularis, P. alata [...] , BRS Sol do Cerrado cultivar and selection M19-UFV x Meloidogyne javanica and M. incognita race 3). According to Oostenbrink criteria, and Moura and Régis, the BRS Sol do Cerrado, and selection M-19-UFV and P. alata behaved as immune to M. incognita. In addition to these, P. cincinnata and P. setacea were immune to M. javanica. Passiflora cincinnata and P.giberti behaved as resistant to M. incognita and M. javanica, respectively. According to Taylor and Sasser, the genotypes classified as immune by the other criteria were classified as resistant to nematodes. All the nematological variables evaluated in P. giberti, P. ligularis, P. mucronata and P. nitida were superior in plants infected by M. incognita. Regardless of the nematode, P mucronata presented larger number of root galls, egg masses, eggs, J2 and RF, as compared to the other genotypes. The root fresh matter weight of P. ligularis and P. mucronata was smaller in the presence of M. incognita as compared to M. javanica.

Leandro Souza, Rocha; Regina Cássia Ferreira, Ribeiro; Adelica Aparecida, Xavier; Fabíola de Jesus, Silva; Claudio Horst, Bruckner.

1017-10-01

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Development of virulence to Meloidogyne incognita on resistant pepper rootstocks  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The root-knot nematode (RKN) Meloidogyne incognita is a major soil parasite of pepper crops in greenhouses in Southeast Spain. Due to the limitations of the use of soil fumigants, grafting plants on resistant rootstocks (R-rootstocks) has become an important alternative to chemical nematicides. The repeated use of R-rootstocks can bring about the selection of virulent populations capable of overcoming resistance. We carried out a six-year investigation on resistant rootstocks in a naturally M. incognita infested greenhouse, and found that two successive years of growing plants grafted on R-rootstocks Atlante (ATL) were sufficient to overcome resistance (galling index 1.5 and 5.6 in the first and second years respectively). A large variability was observed between several R-rootstocks. Two R-rootstocks (C19 and Snooker) behaved like ATL while two others (Terrano and DRO 8801) were not infected by RKN. Laboratory studies with the same R-rootstocks, inoculated with two nematode isolates (avirulent and virulent against ATL) confirmed the greenhouse results, indicating that some rootstocks may be infested by virulent populations and others may not. It suggests that different R-genes, which are differentially overcome by RKN, have been introgressed into the rootstocks. This may have consequences for the management of resistant rootstocks in the field. (Author)

Ros-Ibanez, C.; Robertson, L.; Martinez-Lluch, M. C.; Cano-Garcia, A.; Lacasa-Plasencia, A.

2014-06-01

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Reação de genótipos de Avena spp. a Meloidogyne incognita raça 4 / Host suitability of Avena spp. genotypes to Meloidogyne incognita race 4  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese As aveias preta (Avena strigosa), branca (A. sativa) e amarela (A. byzantina) são muito utilizadas como culturas de cobertura, em sucessão a soja, algodão, feijão, batata e cenoura, que são culturas que sofrem elevadas perdas provocadas por Meloidogyne incognita. O manejo de M. incognita pode ter co [...] mo um dos componentes o uso de genótipos de aveia que reduzam a densidade populacional do nematóide. Foram conduzidos três experimentos em casa de vegetação com o objetivo de avaliar cinco genótipos de aveia preta ('CPAO 0010', 'Comum', 'Embrapa 29', 'Embrapa 140' e 'IPFA 99006'), um de aveia branca ('UFRGS 17') e um de aveia amarela ('São Carlos'), em relação a sua resposta a três isolados da raça 4 de M. incognita (BA, SP e MT). As aveias pretas aumentaram a densidade populacional do nematóide. As aveias branca e amarela reduziram ou causaram pequeno aumento da densidade populacional de M. incognita, não se diferenciando de Crotalaria spectabilis. Portanto, a aveia branca 'UFRGS 17' e a amarela 'São Carlos' devem ser preferidas em relação às aveias pretas como culturas de cobertura, em áreas infestadas com M. incognita raça 4. Abstract in english The black oat (Avena strigosa), the white oat (A. sativa) and the Algerian oat (A. byzantina) have been widely used as cover crops under succession with soybean, cotton, bean, potato and carrot, which are crops highly damaged by Meloidogyne incognita. The management of M. incognita may have as a com [...] ponent the use of oat genotypes that reduce the nematode population density. Three greenhouse experiments were carried out in order to evaluate the host suitability of five genotypes of black oat ('CPAO 0010', 'Common', 'Embrapa 29', 'Embrapa 140' and 'IPFA 99006'), one of white oat ('UFRGS 17') and one of Algerian oat ('São Carlos') to three isolates of M. incognita race 4 (BA, SP and MT). The black oats increased the population density of the nematode. The oats 'UFRGS 17' and 'São Carlos' reduced or caused a small increase in the population of M. incognita race 4, and neither differentiated from Crotalaria spectabilis. Therefore, the white oat 'UFRGS 17' and the Algerian oat 'São Carlos' should be used in preference to black oats as cover crops in areas infested with M. incognita race 4.

Dárcio C., Borges; Sonia R., Antedomênico; Viviane P., Santos; Mário M., Inomoto.

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Reação de genótipos de Avena spp. a Meloidogyne incognita raça 4 Host suitability of Avena spp. genotypes to Meloidogyne incognita race 4  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available As aveias preta (Avena strigosa, branca (A. sativa e amarela (A. byzantina são muito utilizadas como culturas de cobertura, em sucessão a soja, algodão, feijão, batata e cenoura, que são culturas que sofrem elevadas perdas provocadas por Meloidogyne incognita. O manejo de M. incognita pode ter como um dos componentes o uso de genótipos de aveia que reduzam a densidade populacional do nematóide. Foram conduzidos três experimentos em casa de vegetação com o objetivo de avaliar cinco genótipos de aveia preta ('CPAO 0010', 'Comum', 'Embrapa 29', 'Embrapa 140' e 'IPFA 99006', um de aveia branca ('UFRGS 17' e um de aveia amarela ('São Carlos', em relação a sua resposta a três isolados da raça 4 de M. incognita (BA, SP e MT. As aveias pretas aumentaram a densidade populacional do nematóide. As aveias branca e amarela reduziram ou causaram pequeno aumento da densidade populacional de M. incognita, não se diferenciando de Crotalaria spectabilis. Portanto, a aveia branca 'UFRGS 17' e a amarela 'São Carlos' devem ser preferidas em relação às aveias pretas como culturas de cobertura, em áreas infestadas com M. incognita raça 4.The black oat (Avena strigosa, the white oat (A. sativa and the Algerian oat (A. byzantina have been widely used as cover crops under succession with soybean, cotton, bean, potato and carrot, which are crops highly damaged by Meloidogyne incognita. The management of M. incognita may have as a component the use of oat genotypes that reduce the nematode population density. Three greenhouse experiments were carried out in order to evaluate the host suitability of five genotypes of black oat ('CPAO 0010', 'Common', 'Embrapa 29', 'Embrapa 140' and 'IPFA 99006', one of white oat ('UFRGS 17' and one of Algerian oat ('São Carlos' to three isolates of M. incognita race 4 (BA, SP and MT. The black oats increased the population density of the nematode. The oats 'UFRGS 17' and 'São Carlos' reduced or caused a small increase in the population of M. incognita race 4, and neither differentiated from Crotalaria spectabilis. Therefore, the white oat 'UFRGS 17' and the Algerian oat 'São Carlos' should be used in preference to black oats as cover crops in areas infested with M. incognita race 4.

Dárcio C. Borges

2009-02-01

 
 
 
 
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Pathogenicity of Pratylenchus penetrans, Heterodera glycines, and Meloidogyne incognita on Soybean Genotypes.  

Science.gov (United States)

The pathogenicity of Heterodera glycines, Meloidogyne incognita, and Pratylenchus penetrans on H. glycines-resistant 'Bryan,' tolerant-susceptible 'G88-20092,' and intolerant-susceptible 'Tracy M' soybean cultivars was tested using plants grown in 800 cm(3) of soil in 15-cm-diam. clay pots in three greenhouse experiments. Plants were inoculated with 0, 1,000, 3,000, or 9,000 H. glycines race 3 or M. incognita eggs, or vermiform stages of P. penetrans/pot. Forty days after inoculation, nmnbers of all three nematodes, except H. glycines on Bryan, generally increased with increasing inoculum levels in Experiment I. Heterodera glycines and M. incognita significantly decreased growth only of Tracy M. At 45 and 57 days after inoculation with 6,000 individuals/pot in experiments II and III, respectively, significantly more P. penetrans and M. incognita than H. glycines were found on Bryan. However, H. glycines and M. incognita population densities were greater than P. penetrans on G88-20092 and Tracy M. Growth of Tracy M infected by H. glycines and M. incognita and growth of G88-20092 infected by M. incognita decreased in Experiment III. Pratylenchus penetrans did not affect plant growth. Reduction in plant growth differed according to the particular nematode species and cultivar, indicating that nematodes other than the species for which resistance is targeted can have different effects on cultivars of the same crop species. PMID:19274203

Melakeberhan, H

1998-03-01

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Evaluation of Asteraceae Plants for Control of Meloidogyne incognita.  

Science.gov (United States)

Of the 56 species and 43 genera of Asteraceae tested, 9 were highly resistant or immune to Meloidogyne incognita and did not form root galls. Twenty-six species and six cultivars had 25% or fewer roots galled and were considered moderately resistant to M. incognita. Pre-planting Cosmos bipinnatus (F190), Gaillardia pulchella, Tagetes erecta, Tithonia diversifolia, or Zinnia elegans (F645) reduced root galling and M. incognita J2 in and around Ipomoea reptans. Amendment of soils with roots, stems, or leaves of G. pulchella was effective in controlling M. incognita on I. reptans. Tissue extracts of G. pulchella were lethal to various plant-parasitic nematodes but were innocuous to free-living nematodes. Root exudates of G. pulchella were lethal to J2 of M. incognita and were inhibitory to the hatch of eggs at the concentration of 250 ppm or higher. Gaillardia pulchella could be used to manage M. incognita as a rotation crop, a co-planted crop, or a soil amendment for control of root-knot nematode. PMID:19262785

Tsay, T T; Wu, S T; Lin, Y Y

2004-03-01

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Origin of a Meloidogyne incognita Surface Coat Antigen  

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The surface coat (SC) of plant nematodes is thought to originate either from the living hypodermis or from secretory glands associated with the excretory system or nervous system. In this study, we investigated the origin of the SC of Meloidogyne incognita by immunolocalization with a monoclonal antibody raised against the surface coat of the preparasitic juveniles (J2). Under the electron microscope, strong labeling was found on the cuticular surface and in the rectal dilation of the J2, whi...

Hu, G. G.; Mcclure, M. A.; Schimitt, M. E.

2000-01-01

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Pathogenicity of Pratylenchus coffeae, Scutellonema bradys, Meloidogyne incognita, and Rotylenchus reniformis on Dioscorea rotundata.  

Science.gov (United States)

Low populations (200 specimens per plant) of Pratylenchus cofl'eae, Scutellonema bradys, Meloidogyne incognita, and Rotylenchulus reniformis stimulated the development of tops, roots, and tubers of Dioscorea rotundata "Guinea" yam. We demonstrated experimentally that P. coffeae was responsible for the deterioration in quality of the yam tuber in Puerto Rico, a condition known as a dry rot of yam. Initial populations of 600 P. coffeae, S. bradys, or M. incognita, and populations of 1,000 P. coffeae or S. bradys per plant were high enough to induce dry rot of the yam tubers. P. coffeae and S. bradys were pathogenic to yam cultivar Guinea, but M. incognita and R. reniformis did not cause necrosis or cracking of the tuber cortex in our experiments. PMID:19308127

Acosta, N; Ayala, A

1975-01-01

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Meloidogyne incognita Inoculum Source Affects Host Suitability and Growth of Yellow Nutsedge and Chile Pepper  

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Meloidogyne incognita (Mi) reproduction and host plant responses in chile pepper (Capsicum annuum) and yellow nutsedge (Cyperus esculentus = YNS) to three sources of inoculum obtained by rearing a single Mi population on chile, YNS, and tomato were evaluated in two factorial greenhouse experiments. The interactive effects of Mi inoculum source and crop-weed competition were determined. In the absence of YNS competition, chile growth was reduced less by Mi inoculum from chile than by inoculum ...

Thomas, S. H.; Schroeder, J.; Kenney, M. J.; Murray, L. W.

1997-01-01

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Oogenesis and the Chromosomes of the Parthenogenic Root-knot Nematode Meloidogyne incognita  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

220 populations of Meloidogyne incognita and related forms from 46 countries reproduced by mitotic parthenogenesis (apomixis). Determination of somatic chromosome numbers from oogonia and oocytes revealed the existence of a predominant, possibly triploid race A with 3n = 40 to 46 and a rare, diploid race B with 2n = 32 to 36 chromosomes. There is no correlation between cytological races and the four recognized host races of this species. The characteristic behavior of prophase I chromosomes o...

Triantaphyllou, A. C.

1981-01-01

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Reaction of common bean genotypes to Meloidogyne incognita Race 1 / Reação do plantas de feijoeiro a Meloidogyne incognita Raça 1  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in portuguese RESUMO Objetivou-se com esse trabalho estudar a reação de 33 genótipos de Phaseolus vulgaris L. ao parasitismo de Meloidogyne incognita raça 1 em casa de vegetação. Desses genótipos seis são cultivados comercialmente ("IAPAR­- 81" , "EL- 22" , "Carioca", "Serrano", "BATT- 477" e "Uirapuru"), um é su [...] scetível ("Rico- 23" ), dois são resistentes ("Aporé" e "Pérola") e os demais foram resgatados em propriedades localizadas no Sul do Espírito Santo. O experimento foi conduzido em casa de vegetação em delineamento inteiramente casualisado com 7 repetições. As plantas foram inoculadas com 4.000 ovos + juvenis de segundo estádio (J2) do nematóide. Após 50 dias da inoculação, foram avaliados a população final de nematóides (PF), fator de reprodução (FR) e o percentual de redução do fator de reprodução (% RFR). Os genótipos foram classificados como altamente susceptível (AS), susceptível (SU), pouco resistente (PR), moderadamente resistente (MR), resistente (RE), altamente resistente (AR) ou imune (IM). Apenas o genótipo "Preto Meia Lua" comportou-se como AR. Os genótipos "Terrinha- 2" e "Mulatinho" foram classificados como RE, os genótipos "EL- 22", "BATT- 477", "Vermelho", "Bate Estrada" e "Paina" como SU e os genótipos "Rico- 23" e "Morgado" como AS. Abstract in english ABSTRACT The objective was to determine the reaction of 33 Phaseolus vulgaris L. genotypes to parasitism by Meloidogyne incognita race 1. The genotypes used in this study six included commercially exploited ("IAPAR­- 81", "EL- 22", "Carioca", "Serrano", "BATT- 477" and "Uirapuru") varieties, one sus [...] ceptible ("Rico- 23") and two resistant ("Aporé" and "Pérola") varieties; the others were provided by farmers of the South of Espírito Santo State. The experiment was carried out in a greenhouse in a completely randomized design with 7 replicates. The plants were inoculated with 4,000 eggs + second-stage juveniles (J2) of nematodes. After 50 days, the final population of nematodes (FP), reproduction factor (RF) and percentage reproduction rate (%RR) were evaluated. The resistance selection was based on the %RR, i.e., 0-25% = highly susceptible (HS); 26-50% = susceptible (SU); 51-75% = little resistant (LR); 76-95% = moderately resistant (MR); 96-99% = resistant (RE); 100% = highly resistant (HR) or immune (IM). Only the genotype "Preto Meia Lua" was highly resistant. The genotypes "Terrinha- 2" and "Mulatinho" were classified as resistant, "EL- 22", "BATT- 477", "Vermelho", "Bate Estrada" and "Paina" as (susceptible) and genotypes "Rico 23" and "Morgado" as highly susceptible.

Fábio R, Alves; Leonardo N. S, dos Santos; Willian B, Moraes; Fernando C, Cosmi; Pablo D. S, Cabral; Sebastião Martins, Filho; Frederico De Pina, Matta; Waldir C. Jesus, Júnior.

2011-08-01

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Reaction of common bean genotypes to Meloidogyne incognita Race 1 / Reação do plantas de feijoeiro a Meloidogyne incognita Raça 1  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in portuguese RESUMO Objetivou-se com esse trabalho estudar a reação de 33 genótipos de Phaseolus vulgaris L. ao parasitismo de Meloidogyne incognita raça 1 em casa de vegetação. Desses genótipos seis são cultivados comercialmente ("IAPAR­- 81" , "EL- 22" , "Carioca", "Serrano", "BATT- 477" e "Uirapuru"), um é su [...] scetível ("Rico- 23" ), dois são resistentes ("Aporé" e "Pérola") e os demais foram resgatados em propriedades localizadas no Sul do Espírito Santo. O experimento foi conduzido em casa de vegetação em delineamento inteiramente casualisado com 7 repetições. As plantas foram inoculadas com 4.000 ovos + juvenis de segundo estádio (J2) do nematóide. Após 50 dias da inoculação, foram avaliados a população final de nematóides (PF), fator de reprodução (FR) e o percentual de redução do fator de reprodução (% RFR). Os genótipos foram classificados como altamente susceptível (AS), susceptível (SU), pouco resistente (PR), moderadamente resistente (MR), resistente (RE), altamente resistente (AR) ou imune (IM). Apenas o genótipo "Preto Meia Lua" comportou-se como AR. Os genótipos "Terrinha- 2" e "Mulatinho" foram classificados como RE, os genótipos "EL- 22", "BATT- 477", "Vermelho", "Bate Estrada" e "Paina" como SU e os genótipos "Rico- 23" e "Morgado" como AS. Abstract in english ABSTRACT The objective was to determine the reaction of 33 Phaseolus vulgaris L. genotypes to parasitism by Meloidogyne incognita race 1. The genotypes used in this study six included commercially exploited ("IAPAR­- 81", "EL- 22", "Carioca", "Serrano", "BATT- 477" and "Uirapuru") varieties, one sus [...] ceptible ("Rico- 23") and two resistant ("Aporé" and "Pérola") varieties; the others were provided by farmers of the South of Espírito Santo State. The experiment was carried out in a greenhouse in a completely randomized design with 7 replicates. The plants were inoculated with 4,000 eggs + second-stage juveniles (J2) of nematodes. After 50 days, the final population of nematodes (FP), reproduction factor (RF) and percentage reproduction rate (%RR) were evaluated. The resistance selection was based on the %RR, i.e., 0-25% = highly susceptible (HS); 26-50% = susceptible (SU); 51-75% = little resistant (LR); 76-95% = moderately resistant (MR); 96-99% = resistant (RE); 100% = highly resistant (HR) or immune (IM). Only the genotype "Preto Meia Lua" was highly resistant. The genotypes "Terrinha- 2" and "Mulatinho" were classified as resistant, "EL- 22", "BATT- 477", "Vermelho", "Bate Estrada" and "Paina" as (susceptible) and genotypes "Rico 23" and "Morgado" as highly susceptible.

Fábio R, Alves; Leonardo N. S, dos Santos; Willian B, Moraes; Fernando C, Cosmi; Pablo D. S, Cabral; Sebastião Martins, Filho; Frederico De Pina, Matta; Waldir C. Jesus, Júnior.

29

[Control effects of Ricinus communis extracts on Meloidogyne incognita].  

Science.gov (United States)

Toxicity test and pot experiment were conducted to study the nematocidal activity and control effects of Ricinus communis extracts on Meloidogyne incognita. The results showed that both the ricinine and the R. communis water extracts had high nematocidal activity. The ricinine at concentration 2 g x L(-1) and treated for 48 hours had the strongest nematocidal activity, leading to 91.5% of corrected mortality of M. incognita and with the LC50 being 0.6 g x L(-1), whereas the R. communis water extracts at concentration 100 g x L(-1) and treated for 48 hours had the strongest nematocidal activity, which led to 83.5% of corrected mortality of M. incognita, and the LC50 was 18.3 g x L(-1). With the inoculation of M. incognita treated with ricinine, R. communis water extracts, and R. communis leaf powder, respectively, on tomato seedlings, the mean number of plant root-knots was 17.6 +/- 1.7, 20.6 +/- 1.5 and 22.8 +/- 3.7, respectively, being significantly lower than the control (37.4 +/- 2.3), and the root length increased by 46.8%, 34.5% and 33.8%, and the plant height increased by 33.5%, 22.6% and 15.8%, and the fresh mass increased by 41.4%, 18.9% and 10.1%, respectively, compared with the control. All the results suggested that R. communis extracts could mitigate the harm of M. incognita, and had obvious effects on potted tomato against M. incognita. PMID:22303684

Gao, Qian-Yuan; Hu, Fei-Long; Zhu, Hong-Hong; Liu, Man-Qiang; Li, Hui-Xin; Hu, Feng

2011-11-01

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Reação de porta-enxertos de pessegueiro à Meloidogyne incognita / Reaction of peach rootstocks to Meloidogyne incognita  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O objetivo foi avaliar a reação de cinco porta-enxertos de pessegueiro ao Meloidogyne incognita (Kofoid e White) Chitwood, em condições de casa de vegetação. Foram utilizados os porta-enxertos: 'Seleção UFPel 0402', 'Okinawa', 'Nagano Wild', 'Flordaguard' e 'Seleção NR-0080407'. As plantas foram ino [...] culadas com 10.000 ovos+J2 de Meloidogyne incognita. Cinco plantas de tomateiro cv. Santa Cruz foram inoculadas para comprovação da eficiência do inóculo. O delineamento experimental foi o inteiramente casualizado, com cinco repetições e uma planta por parcela. Seis meses após a inoculação, as raízes foram avaliadas quanto ao índice de galhas e ao Fator de Reprodução (FR). No tomateiro, as avaliações foram feitas aos três meses após a inoculação. Não se verificou a ocorrência de galhas ou multiplicação dos nematoides nos genótipos avaliados, com exceção do porta-enxerto 'Nagano Wild', onde se registraram 36 galhas, porém sem evidência de multiplicação do nematoide. Os genótipos testados foram considerados imunes a esta espécie de nematoide das galhas, uma vez que foram eficazes em suprimir a reprodução de M. incognita, podendo ser usados como porta-enxertos alternativos em áreas de plantio com ocorrência desta praga de solo ou como fonte de resistência ao melhoramento genético de porta-enxertos de pessegueiro. Abstract in english In order to evaluate the reaction of the peach rootstocks 'Okinawa', 'Flordaguard', 'Nagano Wild', and the selection 'UFPel 0402' and 'NR-0080407' to Meloidogyne incognita, the plants were inoculated with 10.000 eggs+J2 of M. incognita. Seedlings of tomato 'Santa Cruz' inoculated in the same way wer [...] e used as control and to determine the inoculum viability. The experiment was carried out under greenhouse conditions in a completely randomized experimental design with five replications, each one performe by a plant. Six months after inoculation, the plants were pulled out on the roots and evaluated for the number of galls and reproduction factor (RF). Neither gall no nematode reproduction was registered in all rootstock systems, except for 'Nagano Wild' that shown 36 galls, but without evidences of nematode reproduction. All the tested genotypes were considered immune to this root-knot nematode specie, because they were effective in suppressing the M. incognita reproduction, and may be used as alternative rootstocks in new orchards or as resistance source to genetic improvement of peach rootstock.

Luciane Arantes de, Paula; Valmor João, Bianchi; César Bauer, Gomes; José Carlos, Fachinello.

31

Reação de porta-enxertos de pessegueiro à Meloidogyne incognita / Reaction of peach rootstocks to Meloidogyne incognita  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O objetivo foi avaliar a reação de cinco porta-enxertos de pessegueiro ao Meloidogyne incognita (Kofoid e White) Chitwood, em condições de casa de vegetação. Foram utilizados os porta-enxertos: 'Seleção UFPel 0402', 'Okinawa', 'Nagano Wild', 'Flordaguard' e 'Seleção NR-0080407'. As plantas foram ino [...] culadas com 10.000 ovos+J2 de Meloidogyne incognita. Cinco plantas de tomateiro cv. Santa Cruz foram inoculadas para comprovação da eficiência do inóculo. O delineamento experimental foi o inteiramente casualizado, com cinco repetições e uma planta por parcela. Seis meses após a inoculação, as raízes foram avaliadas quanto ao índice de galhas e ao Fator de Reprodução (FR). No tomateiro, as avaliações foram feitas aos três meses após a inoculação. Não se verificou a ocorrência de galhas ou multiplicação dos nematoides nos genótipos avaliados, com exceção do porta-enxerto 'Nagano Wild', onde se registraram 36 galhas, porém sem evidência de multiplicação do nematoide. Os genótipos testados foram considerados imunes a esta espécie de nematoide das galhas, uma vez que foram eficazes em suprimir a reprodução de M. incognita, podendo ser usados como porta-enxertos alternativos em áreas de plantio com ocorrência desta praga de solo ou como fonte de resistência ao melhoramento genético de porta-enxertos de pessegueiro. Abstract in english In order to evaluate the reaction of the peach rootstocks 'Okinawa', 'Flordaguard', 'Nagano Wild', and the selection 'UFPel 0402' and 'NR-0080407' to Meloidogyne incognita, the plants were inoculated with 10.000 eggs+J2 of M. incognita. Seedlings of tomato 'Santa Cruz' inoculated in the same way wer [...] e used as control and to determine the inoculum viability. The experiment was carried out under greenhouse conditions in a completely randomized experimental design with five replications, each one performe by a plant. Six months after inoculation, the plants were pulled out on the roots and evaluated for the number of galls and reproduction factor (RF). Neither gall no nematode reproduction was registered in all rootstock systems, except for 'Nagano Wild' that shown 36 galls, but without evidences of nematode reproduction. All the tested genotypes were considered immune to this root-knot nematode specie, because they were effective in suppressing the M. incognita reproduction, and may be used as alternative rootstocks in new orchards or as resistance source to genetic improvement of peach rootstock.

Luciane Arantes de, Paula; Valmor João, Bianchi; César Bauer, Gomes; José Carlos, Fachinello.

2011-06-01

32

REPRODUÇÃO DE Meloidogyne incognita RAÇA 2 E DE Meloidogyne javanica EM OITO ESPÉCIES DE PLANTAS MEDICINAIS  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Avaliaram-se as taxas reprodutivas de Meloidogyne incognita raça 2 e de Meloidogyne javanica em oito espécies de plantas consideradas medicinais, em vasos com 500 ml de solo, sob condição de casa de vegetação. Cada planta foi inoculada com 5000 ovos, em média, estabelecendo-se cinco repetições. Realizaram-se as avaliações após 45 a 55 dias das inoculações, com base nos índices de massas de ovos e nos fatores de reprodução dos nematóides. Achillea millefolium (mil-folhas, Arctium lappa (bardana, Bryophyllum calycinum (folha-da-fortuna e Crassula portulacea (bálsamo foram hospedeiras não eficientes ou desfavoráveis a ambas as espécies. Plectranthus barbatus (boldo e Polygonum hidropiperoides (polígono foram eficientes à reprodução das duas espécies. Achyrocline satureoides (macela e Tropaeolum majus (chagas foram eficientes para M. javanica e não para M. incognita.

MACIEL S.L.

1996-01-01

33

Impact of Meloidogyne incognita on Physiological Efficiency of Vitis vinifera  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Four-week-old French Colombard plants rooted from green cuttings were inoculated with 0, 1,000, 2,000, 4,000, or 8,000 Meloidogyne incognita second-stage juveniles and maintained at 25 C night and 30 C day. Leaf area and dry weight and the rates of photosynthesis, stomatal conductance, and internal leaf CO? concentration were measured at intervals up to 59 days after inoculation. Nematode stress dosage, measured as the product of cumulative number of juveniles and females and their total en...

Melakeberhan, H.; Ferris, H.

1989-01-01

34

Identificación morfológica, morfométrica y molecular de meloidogyne incognita en higuera (ficus carica l.) en Costa Rica  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Costa Rica | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Identificación morfológica, morfométrica y molecular de Meloidogyne incognita en higuera (Ficus carica L.) en Costa Rica. El objetivo de este estudio fue identificar la especie de Meloidogyne asociada a dos plantaciones de higuera en Costa Rica. En marzo de 2012, en el distrito de Pacayas, provincia [...] de Cartago, se detectaron agallas en los sistemas radicales de plantas de higuera (Ficus carica L.) de dos fincas. De las raíces agalladas se extrajeron hembras, masas de huevos y juveniles (J2) de Meloidogyne sp. Se examinaron los patrones perineales de las hembras y los segundos estadios infectivos se analizaron morfológica y molecularmente mediante PCR-RFLP. Se amplificó la región intergénica (IGS) del genoma mitocondrial, delimitada por el gen de la subunidad II de la citocromo oxidasa (COII) y el gen ribosomal 16S. La población de nematodos se identificó como M. incognita. El tamaño de los productos de PCR generados con los imprimadores C2F3 y 1108 fue de 1,7 kb. Al tratar los productos de PCR con enzimas de restricción, se generaron cuatro fragmentos de 850, 450, 250 y 150 pb con la enzima AluI y dos fragmentos de 1300 y 400 pb con la enzima HinfI. Abstract in english Morphological, morphometrical and molecular identification of Meloidogyne incognita in fig (Ficus carica L.) in Costa Rica. The objective of this study was to identify species of Meloidogyne associated with two fig plantations in Costa Rica. On March 2012 in Pacayas, Cartago province, root-galls wer [...] e found in two fig plantations of Ficus carica L. Females, egg-masses and juveniles (J2) of Meloidogyne sp. were extracted from the galled roots. Female perineal patterns were examined and second infective stages were analyzed morphometrically and molecularly by PCR-RFLP. The mitochondrial intergenic region (IGS) flanked by the cytochrome oxidase subunit II gene (COII) and the 16S ribosomal gene was amplified. The population was identified morphologically, morphometrically and molecularly as M. incognita. The PCR product obtained with primers C2F3 and 1108 were 1.7 kb in size. When PCR products were treated with restriction enzymes they generated four fragments of 850, 450, 250 and 150 bp with AluI and two fragments of 1300 and 400 bp with HinfI.

Walter, Peraza-Padilla; Johaner, Rosales-Flores; Alejandro, Esquivel-Hernández; Irena, Hilje-Rodríguez; Ramón, Molina-Bravo; Pablo, Castillo-Castillo.

35

Identificación morfológica, morfométrica y molecular de meloidogyne incognita en higuera (ficus carica l.) en Costa Rica  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Costa Rica | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Identificación morfológica, morfométrica y molecular de Meloidogyne incognita en higuera (Ficus carica L.) en Costa Rica. El objetivo de este estudio fue identificar la especie de Meloidogyne asociada a dos plantaciones de higuera en Costa Rica. En marzo de 2012, en el distrito de Pacayas, provincia [...] de Cartago, se detectaron agallas en los sistemas radicales de plantas de higuera (Ficus carica L.) de dos fincas. De las raíces agalladas se extrajeron hembras, masas de huevos y juveniles (J2) de Meloidogyne sp. Se examinaron los patrones perineales de las hembras y los segundos estadios infectivos se analizaron morfológica y molecularmente mediante PCR-RFLP. Se amplificó la región intergénica (IGS) del genoma mitocondrial, delimitada por el gen de la subunidad II de la citocromo oxidasa (COII) y el gen ribosomal 16S. La población de nematodos se identificó como M. incognita. El tamaño de los productos de PCR generados con los imprimadores C2F3 y 1108 fue de 1,7 kb. Al tratar los productos de PCR con enzimas de restricción, se generaron cuatro fragmentos de 850, 450, 250 y 150 pb con la enzima AluI y dos fragmentos de 1300 y 400 pb con la enzima HinfI. Abstract in english Morphological, morphometrical and molecular identification of Meloidogyne incognita in fig (Ficus carica L.) in Costa Rica. The objective of this study was to identify species of Meloidogyne associated with two fig plantations in Costa Rica. On March 2012 in Pacayas, Cartago province, root-galls wer [...] e found in two fig plantations of Ficus carica L. Females, egg-masses and juveniles (J2) of Meloidogyne sp. were extracted from the galled roots. Female perineal patterns were examined and second infective stages were analyzed morphometrically and molecularly by PCR-RFLP. The mitochondrial intergenic region (IGS) flanked by the cytochrome oxidase subunit II gene (COII) and the 16S ribosomal gene was amplified. The population was identified morphologically, morphometrically and molecularly as M. incognita. The PCR product obtained with primers C2F3 and 1108 were 1.7 kb in size. When PCR products were treated with restriction enzymes they generated four fragments of 850, 450, 250 and 150 bp with AluI and two fragments of 1300 and 400 bp with HinfI.

Walter, Peraza-Padilla; Johaner, Rosales-Flores; Alejandro, Esquivel-Hernández; Irena, Hilje-Rodríguez; Ramón, Molina-Bravo; Pablo, Castillo-Castillo.

2013-12-01

36

RESPUESTA DE GENOTIPOS DE SOLANÁCEAS FRENTE A Meloidogyne incognita (KOFOID Y WHITE) CHITWOOD RAZA 2 Y M. arenaria (NEAL) CHITWOOD / RESPONSE OF DIFFERENT GENOTYPES OF SOLANACEAE TO Meloidogyne incognita (KOFOID AND WHITE) CHITWOOD RACE 2 AND M. arenaria (NEAL) CHITWOOD  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Con el objetivo de conocer el grado de resistencia/susceptibilidad de seis genotipos de solanáceas, frente a Meloidogyne incognita raza 2 y de M. arenara, en macetas, se inocularon las plantas con tres niveles de nematodo (0,5, 1,5 y 2,5 huevos - J2.g de suelo-1). Se utilizó como control susceptible [...] la variedad de tomate Campbell-28. Para la categorización de los genotipos se determinó el Índice de Agallamiento (IA), el Factor de Reproducción (FR) y el Índice de Reproducción (IR) de los nematodos, siguiendo la metodología establecida. Los genotipos S. torvum y S. erianthum tuvieron un comportamiento inmune frente M. incognita y altamente resistentes a M. arenaria. S. mammosum fue altamente resistente a ambas especies pero su eficiencia disminuyó cuando se enfrentó al nivel más alto de M. incognita. Los cultivares de tomate Motelle y Rossol fueron altamente resistentes a M. incognita. D. stramoniun no mostró síntomas de agallamiento ni grado de reproducción de los nematodos por lo que se clasificó como inmune para ambas especies. La población de M. arenaria se mostró más virulenta que la de M. incognita raza 2. Se discute la respuesta mostrada por los genotipos y las poblaciones de Meloidogyne, así como los posibles usos de los genotipos como patrones porta injertos. Abstract in english The resistance/susceptibility of six solanaceous genotypes to Meloidogyne incognita race 2 and M. arenaria were assessed, under a range of population densities (0,5, 1,5 and 2,5 eggs - J2.g of soil-1) of both nematodes. The plants were grown in pots in a greenhouse. The tomato variety Campbell-28 wa [...] s used as a susceptible control. The gall index, reproductive index and reproductive factor were the parameter evaluated to assign a resistance/susceptible category of the genotypes according to the established methodology. S. torvum and S. erianthum were immune to M. incognita whereas they were highly resistant to M. arenaria with no significant differences at any inoculum level. S. mammosum responded as highly resistant to both populations but the efficiency was negatively affected by the highest level of M. incognita. The tomato cultivars Motelle and Rossol were also highly resistant to M. incognita. D. stramoniun was classified as immune to both M incognita and M. arenaria populations as no symptoms or reproduction of the nematode were observed on its roots. M. arenaria population appeared to be more virulent than the population of M. incognita race 2. The reaction of the genotypes and nematodes, as well as the possible use of the genotypes as stocks for grafting are discussed.

Farah María, González; Lucila, Gómez; Mayra G, Rodríguez; Maité, Piñón; A, Casanova; Olimpia, Gómez; Yaritza, Rodríguez.

37

Purificação de metabólitos fúngicos com efeitos tóxicos sobre Meloidogyne incognita / Purification of fungal metabolites with toxic effects on Meloidogyne incognita  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Objetivando o desenvolvimento de novas metodologias de controle de fitonematóides, este trabalho buscou purificar as substâncias nematicidas produzidas por Cunninghamella elegans, Fusarium sp., Paecilomyces lilacinus eP. variotii. Esses fungos foram cultivados em meio líquido Czapek-Dox durante 15 d [...] ias, a 25 ºC, em agitador orbital. Em seguida, filtraram-se as misturas, o que permitiu a obtenção de soluções que foram concentradas sob vácuo e submetidas à purificação direcionada por testes in vitro com Meloidogyne incognita. Observou-se que os filtrados de P. lilacinus e P. variotii perdiam suas atividades nematicidas após a concentração sob vácuo, sugerindo que as substâncias ativas produzidas por esses fungos são consideravelmente voláteis. Para o filtrado de Fusarium sp., observou-se perda total da atividade contra M. incognita após fracionamento em coluna de sílica gel, indicando instabilidade da substância nematicida frente às condições empregadas.Do filtrado de C. elegans isolou-se uma substância que, em solução aquosa na concentração de 250 ppm, imobilizou 94% dos juvenis do segundo estádio de M. incognita expostos a tal solução durante 48 h. Abstract in english In a search for new molecules toxic to plant parasitic nematodes, procedures were set up to purify nematode toxic molecules produced by Cunninghamella elegans, Fusarium sp., Paecilomyces lilacinus and P. variotii. Those fungi were grown in Czapek-Dox liquid medium during 15 days, at 25 ºC, in an orb [...] ital shaker. After fungus mycelium removal by filtration, the solutions were concentrated under vacuum and submitted to purification, guided by in vitro assays with Meloidogyne incognita juveniles. As a result, it was observed that P. lilacinus and P.variotii filtrates lost their activity after vacuum concentration, which suggests that the nematocides produced by those fungi are considerably volatile. In the case of Fusarium sp. filtrate, the active substance seems to be unstable, as the activity against M. incognita juveniles completely disappeared after chromatography in a silica gel column. The C. elegans filtrate rendered one isolated substance that immobilized 94% of the M. incognita juveniles exposed during 48 h to an aqueous solution of the substance at 250 ppm.

GERALDO H., SILVA; DENILSON F., OLIVEIRA; VICENTE P., CAMPOS.

38

Purificação de metabólitos fúngicos com efeitos tóxicos sobre Meloidogyne incognita / Purification of fungal metabolites with toxic effects on Meloidogyne incognita  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Objetivando o desenvolvimento de novas metodologias de controle de fitonematóides, este trabalho buscou purificar as substâncias nematicidas produzidas por Cunninghamella elegans, Fusarium sp., Paecilomyces lilacinus eP. variotii. Esses fungos foram cultivados em meio líquido Czapek-Dox durante 15 d [...] ias, a 25 ºC, em agitador orbital. Em seguida, filtraram-se as misturas, o que permitiu a obtenção de soluções que foram concentradas sob vácuo e submetidas à purificação direcionada por testes in vitro com Meloidogyne incognita. Observou-se que os filtrados de P. lilacinus e P. variotii perdiam suas atividades nematicidas após a concentração sob vácuo, sugerindo que as substâncias ativas produzidas por esses fungos são consideravelmente voláteis. Para o filtrado de Fusarium sp., observou-se perda total da atividade contra M. incognita após fracionamento em coluna de sílica gel, indicando instabilidade da substância nematicida frente às condições empregadas.Do filtrado de C. elegans isolou-se uma substância que, em solução aquosa na concentração de 250 ppm, imobilizou 94% dos juvenis do segundo estádio de M. incognita expostos a tal solução durante 48 h. Abstract in english In a search for new molecules toxic to plant parasitic nematodes, procedures were set up to purify nematode toxic molecules produced by Cunninghamella elegans, Fusarium sp., Paecilomyces lilacinus and P. variotii. Those fungi were grown in Czapek-Dox liquid medium during 15 days, at 25 ºC, in an orb [...] ital shaker. After fungus mycelium removal by filtration, the solutions were concentrated under vacuum and submitted to purification, guided by in vitro assays with Meloidogyne incognita juveniles. As a result, it was observed that P. lilacinus and P.variotii filtrates lost their activity after vacuum concentration, which suggests that the nematocides produced by those fungi are considerably volatile. In the case of Fusarium sp. filtrate, the active substance seems to be unstable, as the activity against M. incognita juveniles completely disappeared after chromatography in a silica gel column. The C. elegans filtrate rendered one isolated substance that immobilized 94% of the M. incognita juveniles exposed during 48 h to an aqueous solution of the substance at 250 ppm.

GERALDO H., SILVA; DENILSON F., OLIVEIRA; VICENTE P., CAMPOS.

2002-11-01

39

REPRODUÇÃO DE Meloidogyne incognita RAÇA 2 E DE Meloidogyne javanica EM OITO ESPÉCIES DE PLANTAS MEDICINAIS  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Avaliaram-se as taxas reprodutivas de Meloidogyne incognita raça 2 e de Meloidogyne javanica em oito espécies de plantas consideradas medicinais, em vasos com 500 ml de solo, sob condição de casa de vegetação. Cada planta foi inoculada com 5000 ovos, em média, estabelecendo-se cinco repetições. Real [...] izaram-se as avaliações após 45 a 55 dias das inoculações, com base nos índices de massas de ovos e nos fatores de reprodução dos nematóides. Achillea millefolium (mil-folhas), Arctium lappa (bardana), Bryophyllum calycinum (folha-da-fortuna) e Crassula portulacea (bálsamo) foram hospedeiras não eficientes ou desfavoráveis a ambas as espécies. Plectranthus barbatus (boldo) e Polygonum hidropiperoides (polígono) foram eficientes à reprodução das duas espécies. Achyrocline satureoides (macela) e Tropaeolum majus (chagas) foram eficientes para M. javanica e não para M. incognita. Abstract in english The reproductive rates of the root-knot nematodes Meloidogyne incognita race 2 and M. javanica in the roots of eight medicinal plant species were assessed under greenhouse condition. Each plant, growing in a pot containing 500 ml of sterilized soil, was inoculated with an average number of 5,000 egg [...] s, with five repetitions. Egg mass index and reproduction factor data were used for the evaluation, 45-55 days after plant inoculation. Achillea millefolium, Arctium lappa, Bryophyllum calycinum, and Crassula portulacea were rated as poor or nonefficient hosts, while Plectranthus barbatus and Polygonum hidropiperoides were efficient for both nematode species. Achyrocline satureoides and Tropaeolum majus were efficient for M. javanica, but nonefficient for M. incognita.

S.L., MACIEL; L.C.C.B., FERRAZ.

40

Effects of temperature and nitrogen source on tomato genotypes response to Meloidogyne incognita infection  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A été testée la réaction de cultivars de tomate sensible ("Rutgers") et résistant ("VFN-8") à des populations de #Meloidogyne incognita$ agressives ou non, à 24 ou 28°C, cultivars alimentés avec une solution de Hoagland (HS) sans azote, ou additionnée, comme source d'azote, de NO3, NH4, NH4NO3, ou avec de l'eau (témoin). Pour chaque expérience, et pour chaque cultivar, il a été utilisé 40 plants agés d'une semaine ayant poussé dans des pots en polystyrène expansé contenant ...

Melakeberhan, H.

1998-01-01

 
 
 
 
41

Heat Stability of Resistance to Meloidogyne incognita in Scotch Bonnet Peppers ( Capsicum chinense Jacq.)  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Stability of resistance to Meloidogyne incognita (Kofoid &White) Chitwood was determined in pepper (Capsicum chinense Jacq. and C. annuum L.) at 24, 28, and 32 °C. Reactions of the C. annuum cultivars Charleston Belle and Keystone Resistant Giant and the C. chinense cultigens PA-426 and PA-350 to M. incognita were compared. Charleston Belle is homozygous for the N gene that confers resistance to M. incognita in C. annuum, and Keystone Resistant Giant is the susceptible recurrent parent of Ch...

Thies, Judy A.; Fery, Richard L.

2000-01-01

42

Screening of pepper Cuarentino (Capsicum annuum L.) for resistance to Meloidogyne incognita  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Se estudió la respuesta del pimiento Cuarentino ( Capsicum annuum ) frente a 66 aislamientos de Meloidogyne incognita , 52 de España y 14 de Uruguay, con el objetivo de evaluar su potencial para ser incluido en programas de mejoramiento genético como fuente de genes de resistencia a M. incognita . Se aplicó un bioensayo para determinar las razas y biotipos de M. incognita , así como para caracterizar la resistencia del pimiento Cuarentino. El pimiento Cua...

Piedra Buena, A.; Lo?pez-pe?rez, J. A.; Bello, A.; Di?ez-rojo, M. A.; Robertson, L.; Escuer, M.; Leo?n, L.

2006-01-01

43

Weed Hosts of Meloidogyne arenaria and M. incognita Common in Tobacco Fields in South Carolina.  

Science.gov (United States)

Thirty-two weed species common in South Carolina and one cultivar of tobacco were evaluated as hosts of Meloidogyne arenaria race 2 and M. incognita race 3 in the greenhouse. Egg mass production and galling differed (P Xanthium strumarium, Cyperus esculentus, Cynodon dactylon, Paspalum notatum, Eleusine indica, Setaria viridis, and Rumex acetosella were poor hosts for M. incognita. None of the above were good hosts for M. incognita. Tobacco 'PD4' supported large numbers of both nematode species. PMID:19290313

Tedford, E C; Fortnum, B A

1988-10-01

44

ASPECTOS GENERALES DE LA INTERACCIÓN TOMATE (Solanum lycopersicon L.) _ Meloidogyne incognita / General aspects of the interaction tomato (Solanum lycopersicon L.) _ Meloidogyne incognita  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish En el presente trabajo se abordan aspectos generales de la interacción tomate-Meloidogyne incognita. Se tienen en cuenta especificidades morfológicas y fisiológicas propias de los nematodos como organismos causantes de enfermedades, mecanismos desarrollados por este grupo en el momento de la penetra [...] ción e infección y los mecanismos de defensa que desarrolla la planta. Abstract in english In this paper, general aspects of the interaction tomato-Meloidogyne incognita are summarized. The morphological and physiological specifications of nematodes as organisms causing diseases, the mechanisms developed by this group during penetration and infectation and the plant defense mechanisms are [...] analized.

Yailén, Arias; Ivonne, González; Mayra, Rodríguez; Carolina, Rosales; Zoraida, Suárez; Belkis, Peteira.

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Histological Responses of Four Leguminous Crops Infected with Meloidogyne incognita.  

Science.gov (United States)

Histological responses to Meloidogyne incognita infection in Rhizobium nodules of clover, horsebean, lupine, and pea were investigated. The formation of giant cells in vascular bundles of nodules and roots, and the basal connection of the nodule, were usually associated with abnormal xylem and/or deformed xylem strands. However, giant cells did not disturb or prevent the development of nodular tissues. Areas in which galls formed, wall thickness of giant cells, and number of giant cells around the nematode head varied with plant species. Ranking by gall size and giant-cell wall thickness was horsebean > lupine and pea > clover. The multinucleate condition in giant cells resulted from repeated mitoses without subsequent cytokinesis. The resulting nuclei agglomerated in irregularly shaped masses in some giant cells. PMID:19300661

Yousif, G M

1979-10-01

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Nematotoxic phenolic compounds from Melia azedarach against Meloidogyne incognita.  

Science.gov (United States)

In the present study, evaluated was the paralysis activity of whole Italian and Algerian Melia azedarach, commonly known as chinaberry, fruits and parts (seeds, wood, and kernels) against Meloidogyne incognita second stage juveniles (J(2)). The paralysis activity was evaluated in vitro after 1 h and 1 day immersion periods of nematodes in test solutions. Phenolic constituent components of the extracts were identified and quantified by high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, while confirmation was performed by high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array. The water extract of the Italian M. azedarach fruit pulp (IPWE) showed significant nematicidal activity (EC(50/48h) = 955 ?g/mL) and among its active ingredient components were p-coumaric acid and p-hydroxybenzoic acid (EC(50/48h) = 840 and 871 ?g/mL, respectively). This is the first report of the nematicidal activity of M. azedarach pulp water extract and phenolic acids against the root knot nematode M. incognita. PMID:23136941

Aoudia, Hassiba; Ntalli, Nikoletta; Aissani, Nadhem; Yahiaoui-Zaidi, R; Caboni, Pierluigi

2012-11-28

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Impact of Meloidogyne incognita on Physiological Efficiency of Vitis vinifera.  

Science.gov (United States)

Four-week-old French Colombard plants rooted from green cuttings were inoculated with 0, 1,000, 2,000, 4,000, or 8,000 Meloidogyne incognita second-stage juveniles and maintained at 25 C night and 30 C day. Leaf area and dry weight and the rates of photosynthesis, stomatal conductance, and internal leaf CO concentration were measured at intervals up to 59 days after inoculation. Nematode stress dosage, measured as the product of cumulative number of juveniles and females and their total energy (calories) demand, was up to 3.4 kcal and accounted for up to 15% of the energy assimilated by the plants. There was a decline in the rate of leaf area expansion and leaf, stem, shoot, root (excluding nematode weight), and total plant dry weight with increasing nematode stress. Root weight including nematodes was not affected. Total respiration, plant photosynthesis, energy assimilated into plant tissue and respiration, and gross production efficiency decreased significantly with nematode stress. Photosynthetic rate, transpiration rate, stomatal conductance, and internal CO concentration were not affected. This study demonstrates that the energy demand for growth and reproduction of M. incognita accounts for a significant portion of the total energy entering the plant system. As a result, less energy is partitioned into leaf area expansion which, in turn, affects the energy entering the system and results in decreased productivity of nematode-infected grape vines. PMID:19287578

Melakeberhan, H; Ferris, H

1989-01-01

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Raphanus sativus, Sinapis alba, and Fagopyrum esculentum as Hosts to Meloidogyne incognita, Meloidogyne javanica, and Plasmodiophora brassicae  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Cultivars of oilseed radish (Raphanus sativus var. oleifera cv. Adagio, Nemex, Pegletta, Renova, Siletina, Siletta Nova, and Ultimo), white mustard (Sinapis alba cv. Albatross, Emergo, Maxi, Martigena, Metex, and Serval), buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum cv. Prego, Tardo), and phacelia (Phacelia tanacetifolia cv. Angelia) were tested for susceptibility to Meloidogyne incognita race 3 and Meloidogyne javanica. Experiments were conducted in growth chambers at 25 C and 16 hours light for 42 days ...

Gardner, J.; Caswell-chen, E. P.

1994-01-01

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Effect of cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus on penetration and reproduction of meloidogyne incognita in cowpea  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

greenhouse studies were conducted to investigate the effects of cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus on penetration and reproduction of Meloidogyne incognita in cowpea and the influence of these pathogens on the yield of cowpea. The interaction of both pathogens resulted in higher population density of the nematode at harvest and correspondingly reduced grain yield in comparison to inoculation of either pathogen alone or un-inoculated control. An almost equal number of nematode juveniles penetrate...

Adekunle O.K.; Owa T.E.

2008-01-01

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GENOTYPIC DIVERSITY OF POTATO GERMPLASM AGAINST ROOT KNOT NEMATODE (MELOIDOGYNE INCOGNITA) INFECTION IN PAKISTAN
 

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Potato (Solanum tuberosum), an important vegetable crop of Pakistan endures significant yield losses due to root knot nematode (Meloidogyne incognita).. Research wok was designed to identify resistant potato germplasm against RKN (Meloidogyne incognita) infection. A field trial was conducted in the research area of Department of Plant Pathology, University of Agriculture Faisalabad. Thirty six (36) potato verities/ cultiv...

Khan, Sajid A.; Sajjad Hyder; Nazir Javed; Gondal, Amjad S.

2012-01-01

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Susceptibilidad de genotipos de Solanum lycopersicum L. frente a Meloidogyne incognita Kofoid y White (Chitwood) / Susceptibility of Solanum lycopersicum L. genotypes against Meloidogyne incognita Kofoid & White (Chitwood)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Se evaluó la resistencia/susceptibilidad de los genotipos Aro 8484, HA 3063, Caramba y HA 8476 de Solanum lycopersicum L. frente a Meloidogyne incognita Kofoid y White (Chitwood) raza 2 y se determinó la influencia de este nematodo sobre su crecimiento. Se establecieron dos experimentos en condicion [...] es semi-controladas, en macetas de 1,5L de capacidad. En el primero, cada genotipo, incluyendo el control susceptible tomate cv. Campbell-28, se inoculó con 1,5 J2. g de suelo-1. Para la categorización de los genotipos en resistentes/susceptibles se determinó el índice de agallamiento, el factor de reproducción y el índice de reproducción del nematodo. En el segundo experimento los genotipos se inocularon con 0; 0,5; 1,5 y 2,5 J2. g de suelo-1. Los cuatro genotipos con niveles 0 de nematodos constituyeron los controles. Cada experimento contó con 10 réplicas por tratamiento con una distribución aleatoria en casas de vegetación. Se realizó un análisis de regresión lineal para establecer la relación entre los niveles de nematodos y la altura de las plantas. Todos los genotipos fueron susceptibles a M. incognita. Se demostró que entre el 60 y el 94% de la disminución del tamaño de las plantas está relacionado con el aumento de las poblaciones del nematodo. No se recomienda el uso de estos genotipos en instalaciones de producción protegida de hortalizas con suelos infestados por M. incognita, sin antes establecer medidas de manejo que disminuyan las poblaciones por debajo de 0,5 J2.g de suelo-1. Abstract in english The resistance/susceptibility of Solanum lycopersicum L genotypes Aro 8484, HA 3063, Caramba and HA 8476 against Meloidogyne incognita Kofoid and White (Chitwood) race 2 and the influence of the nematode on the genotype growths were evaluated in two experiments under semi-controlled conditions. In t [...] he first experiment, the genotypes, including a susceptible control tomato Campbell-28, were inoculated with a level of 1,5 J2. g of soil-1. Root gall index, was reproduction factor and reproduction index of the nematode were determined for categorizing resistant/susceptible genotypes. In the second experiment, three levels of nematodes (0,5; 1,5 and 2,5 J2. g of soil-1) were used. Not inoculated genotypes were established as a control. Both experiments had 10 repetitions and were placed in a green house using a randomized distribution design. A lineal regression analysis was used to establish the relation of nematode levels and the plant growths. All genotypes were susceptible to M. incognita. It was demonstrated that the 60 to 94% of plant growth decrease related to the nematode population increase. The use of genotypes is not recommended in soils infected with M. incognita unless management measures are established for keeping nematode population below 0,5 J2.g of soil-1.

Lucila, Gómez; R, Enrique; Dainé, Hernández-Ochandía; Ileana, Miranda; E, González; Belkis, Peteira; Mayra G, Rodríguez.

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Effect of supreme 15 CS against Meloidogyne incognita on tomato.  

Science.gov (United States)

Pot and laboratory experiments were conducted to study the efficacy of supreme 15 CS in varying doses for management of root- knot nematode, M. incognita in tomato. The results indicated that supreme 15 CS containing alkali metal N-(n-propyl) Dithiocarbamate proved to be more effective in improving plant growth characters and reducing root-knot index and final nematode population. Among the doses tested, higher dose of 0.5 % (w/w) was more effective than lower doses. PMID:25035599

Singh, Tulika; Ebhad, Deepak; Patel, Ashokbhai D; Patel, Bhagabhai A

2014-09-01

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Evaluation of Pochonia chlamydosporia, Paecilomyces lilacinus and Arthrobotrys dactyloide as Biocontrol Agents for Meloidogyne incognita under Green House Condition  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this study, evaluation of the nematophagous fungi Pochonia chlamydosporia, Paecilomyces lilacinus and Arthrobotrys dactyloide as biological control agents for Meloidogyne incognita was investigated under greenhouse conditions. Experiments confirmed the effectiveness of these predatory and parasitic fungi that actively reduced the number of infective larvae of M. incognita. The killing effect of these fungi is similar to the synthetic chemical nematicide Furadan and significantly better than the commercial preparation of bioagent Nameless?. The fungi under consideration have the potentiality to reduce population density of M. incognita along the growing season of faba bean plant to 95.4 to 98.9%. These nematophagous fungi enhanced shoot and root growth of Faba bean.

Abd El-Raheem R. EL-Shanshoury

2005-01-01

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The multi-year effects of repeatedly growing cotton with moderate resistance to Meloidogyne incognita.  

Science.gov (United States)

Meloidogyne incognita causes more damage to cotton in the US than any other pathogen. The objective of this study was to document the cumulative effect of moderate resistance on M. incognita population density, root galling, and yield suppression in the southern United States on a moderately resistant cotton genotype grown continuously for three years. Cotton genotypes were Phytogen PH98-3196 (77% suppression of M. incognita), Acala NemX (85% suppression of M. incognita), and Delta and Pine Land DP458 B/R (susceptible standard, 0% suppression). Cotton was grown in fumigated and non-fumigated plots to measure yield loss. Each genotype and nematicide combination was planted in the same place for three years at two sites to document cumulative effects. In 2006, following three years of the different genotypes, all plots at one site were planted with susceptible cotton to document residual effects of planting resistant genotypes. Root galling and nematode population densities in the soil were significantly lower, and percentage yield suppression was numerically lower, when moderately resistant cotton was grown compared to the susceptible standard in both fields in all three years. Differences between susceptible and moderately resistant genotypes are established quickly (after only one season) and then either maintained at similar levels or slightly increased in subsequent years depending on initial nematode levels. However, when susceptible cotton was grown following three years of the moderately resistant genotypes, the nematode suppression provided by moderate resistance was undetectable by the end of the first season. Moderately resistant cotton genotypes are more beneficial than previously reported and should be pursued for nematode management. Rotation of moderately resistant and susceptible cotton could be used along with nematicides to manage root-knot nematodes in a continuous cotton cropping system and reduce selection pressure on the nematodes. PMID:22661787

Davis, Richard F; Kemerait, Robert C

2009-06-01

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Interaction of Meloidogyne incognita and Water Stress in Two Cotton Cultivars  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A series of controlled-environment experiments were conducted to elucidate the effects of Meloidogyne incognita on host physiology and plant-water relations of two cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) cultivars that differed in their susceptibility to nematode infection. Inoculation of M. incognita-resistant cultivar Auburn 634 did not affect growth, stomatal resistance, or components of plant-water potential relative to uninoculated controls. However, nematode infection of the susceptible cultivar St...

Kirkpatrick, T. L.; Oosterhuis, D. M.; Wullschleger, S. D.

1991-01-01

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Resistência de clones de umezeiro e cultivares de pessegueiro a Meloidogyne incognita (nemata: Heteroderidae) / Resistance of mume clones and peach tree cultivars to Meloidogyne incognita (nemata: heteroderidae)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O presente estudo teve por objetivo avaliar a reação dos Clones 05; 10 e 15 de umezeiro (Prunus mume Sieb. et Zucc.) e das cultivares Okinawa, Aurora-1 e Dourado-1 de pessegueiro [Prunus persica (L.) Batsch] a Meloidogyne incognita (Kofoid and White) Chitwood, em condições de casa de vegetação. As p [...] lantas foram mantidas em vasos de cerâmica contendo uma mistura de solo e areia (1:1, v/v), previamente autoclavada a 121ºC e 1kgf.cm-2 por 2 horas. Aos 60 dias após o plantio, cada planta foi inoculada com 2.000 ovos e juvenis de segundo estádio de Meloidogyne incognita. O experimento foi conduzido em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com 6 tratamentos (genótipos) e 9 repetições. Transcorridos 116 dias após a inoculação, as plantas foram colhidas para avaliação do sistema radicular. Foi possível verificar que o número de galhas por sistema radicular, o número de ovos e juvenis por 10g de raízes e por sistema radicular foi nulo ou praticamente nulo em todos os clones e nas cultivares estudadas, de forma que os respectivos fatores de reprodução foram todos inferiores a 1. Conclui-se que os Clones 05; 10 e 15 de umezeiro, assim como as cultivares Okinawa, Aurora-1 e Dourado-1 de pessegueiro são resistentes a Meloidogyne incognita. Abstract in english The present study had for objective to study the reaction of mume Clones 05, 10 and 15 (Prunus mume Sieb. et Zucc.) and 'Okinawa', 'Aurora-1' and 'Dourado-1' peach tree cultivars [Prunus persica (L.) Batsch] to Meloidogyne incognita (Kofoid and White) Chitwood, in greenhouse conditions. The plants w [...] ere maintained in ceramic boxes containing a soil-sand mixture (1:1, v/v), previously autoclaved at 121ºC and 1 kgf.cm-2 for 2 hours. On the sixtieth day after planting, each plant was inoculated with 2,000 eggs in the second stage juvenile of Meloidogyne incognita. The experiment was carried out in randomized design with 6 treatments (genotypes) and 9 repetitions. After 116 days from inoculation, plants were harvested for radicular system evaluation. It was possible to verify that galls number for radicular system, eggs and juvenile number in a 10 g sample, eggs and juvenile number for the whole radicular system were null or practically null in all clones and cultivars studied, so that respective reproduction factors (RF) were all lower than 1. It was verified that mume Clones 05, 10 and 15, such as 'Okinawa', 'Aurora-1' and 'Dourado-1' peach tree cultivars are resistant to Meloidogyne incognita.

Newton Alex, Mayer; Fernando Mendes, Pereira; Jaime Maia dos, Santos.

57

Resistência de clones de umezeiro e cultivares de pessegueiro a Meloidogyne incognita (nemata: Heteroderidae Resistance of mume clones and peach tree cultivars to Meloidogyne incognita (nemata: heteroderidae  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available O presente estudo teve por objetivo avaliar a reação dos Clones 05; 10 e 15 de umezeiro (Prunus mume Sieb. et Zucc. e das cultivares Okinawa, Aurora-1 e Dourado-1 de pessegueiro [Prunus persica (L. Batsch] a Meloidogyne incognita (Kofoid and White Chitwood, em condições de casa de vegetação. As plantas foram mantidas em vasos de cerâmica contendo uma mistura de solo e areia (1:1, v/v, previamente autoclavada a 121ºC e 1kgf.cm-2 por 2 horas. Aos 60 dias após o plantio, cada planta foi inoculada com 2.000 ovos e juvenis de segundo estádio de Meloidogyne incognita. O experimento foi conduzido em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com 6 tratamentos (genótipos e 9 repetições. Transcorridos 116 dias após a inoculação, as plantas foram colhidas para avaliação do sistema radicular. Foi possível verificar que o número de galhas por sistema radicular, o número de ovos e juvenis por 10g de raízes e por sistema radicular foi nulo ou praticamente nulo em todos os clones e nas cultivares estudadas, de forma que os respectivos fatores de reprodução foram todos inferiores a 1. Conclui-se que os Clones 05; 10 e 15 de umezeiro, assim como as cultivares Okinawa, Aurora-1 e Dourado-1 de pessegueiro são resistentes a Meloidogyne incognita.The present study had for objective to study the reaction of mume Clones 05, 10 and 15 (Prunus mume Sieb. et Zucc. and 'Okinawa', 'Aurora-1' and 'Dourado-1' peach tree cultivars [Prunus persica (L. Batsch] to Meloidogyne incognita (Kofoid and White Chitwood, in greenhouse conditions. The plants were maintained in ceramic boxes containing a soil-sand mixture (1:1, v/v, previously autoclaved at 121ºC and 1 kgf.cm-2 for 2 hours. On the sixtieth day after planting, each plant was inoculated with 2,000 eggs in the second stage juvenile of Meloidogyne incognita. The experiment was carried out in randomized design with 6 treatments (genotypes and 9 repetitions. After 116 days from inoculation, plants were harvested for radicular system evaluation. It was possible to verify that galls number for radicular system, eggs and juvenile number in a 10 g sample, eggs and juvenile number for the whole radicular system were null or practically null in all clones and cultivars studied, so that respective reproduction factors (RF were all lower than 1. It was verified that mume Clones 05, 10 and 15, such as 'Okinawa', 'Aurora-1' and 'Dourado-1' peach tree cultivars are resistant to Meloidogyne incognita.

Newton Alex Mayer

2005-08-01

58

Resistência de clones de umezeiro e cultivares de pessegueiro a Meloidogyne incognita (nemata: Heteroderidae) / Resistance of mume clones and peach tree cultivars to Meloidogyne incognita (nemata: heteroderidae)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O presente estudo teve por objetivo avaliar a reação dos Clones 05; 10 e 15 de umezeiro (Prunus mume Sieb. et Zucc.) e das cultivares Okinawa, Aurora-1 e Dourado-1 de pessegueiro [Prunus persica (L.) Batsch] a Meloidogyne incognita (Kofoid and White) Chitwood, em condições de casa de vegetação. As p [...] lantas foram mantidas em vasos de cerâmica contendo uma mistura de solo e areia (1:1, v/v), previamente autoclavada a 121ºC e 1kgf.cm-2 por 2 horas. Aos 60 dias após o plantio, cada planta foi inoculada com 2.000 ovos e juvenis de segundo estádio de Meloidogyne incognita. O experimento foi conduzido em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com 6 tratamentos (genótipos) e 9 repetições. Transcorridos 116 dias após a inoculação, as plantas foram colhidas para avaliação do sistema radicular. Foi possível verificar que o número de galhas por sistema radicular, o número de ovos e juvenis por 10g de raízes e por sistema radicular foi nulo ou praticamente nulo em todos os clones e nas cultivares estudadas, de forma que os respectivos fatores de reprodução foram todos inferiores a 1. Conclui-se que os Clones 05; 10 e 15 de umezeiro, assim como as cultivares Okinawa, Aurora-1 e Dourado-1 de pessegueiro são resistentes a Meloidogyne incognita. Abstract in english The present study had for objective to study the reaction of mume Clones 05, 10 and 15 (Prunus mume Sieb. et Zucc.) and 'Okinawa', 'Aurora-1' and 'Dourado-1' peach tree cultivars [Prunus persica (L.) Batsch] to Meloidogyne incognita (Kofoid and White) Chitwood, in greenhouse conditions. The plants w [...] ere maintained in ceramic boxes containing a soil-sand mixture (1:1, v/v), previously autoclaved at 121ºC and 1 kgf.cm-2 for 2 hours. On the sixtieth day after planting, each plant was inoculated with 2,000 eggs in the second stage juvenile of Meloidogyne incognita. The experiment was carried out in randomized design with 6 treatments (genotypes) and 9 repetitions. After 116 days from inoculation, plants were harvested for radicular system evaluation. It was possible to verify that galls number for radicular system, eggs and juvenile number in a 10 g sample, eggs and juvenile number for the whole radicular system were null or practically null in all clones and cultivars studied, so that respective reproduction factors (RF) were all lower than 1. It was verified that mume Clones 05, 10 and 15, such as 'Okinawa', 'Aurora-1' and 'Dourado-1' peach tree cultivars are resistant to Meloidogyne incognita.

Newton Alex, Mayer; Fernando Mendes, Pereira; Jaime Maia dos, Santos.

2005-08-01

59

Sensitivity of Bedding Plants to Southern Root-knot Nematode, Meloidogyne incognita Race 3.  

Science.gov (United States)

Thirty-two cultivars of 10 commonly-grown bedding plants, representing eight families, were evaluated for their response to infection by the root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita race 3, under greenhouse conditions. Four ageratum cultivars, two marigold, and two salvia cultivars were rated resistant after exposure for 8 weeks. Four begonia, four celosia, one dianthus, one verbena, one vinca, and three pansy cultivars were susceptible. Three salvia, one begonia, one gerber, one verbena, and three vinca cultivars were slightly susceptible with an average of population densities, affected the dry weights of only a few cultivars. The diversity of annual bedding plant germplasm available may provide adequate sources of resistance to this race of root-knot nematode. PMID:19279964

Walker, J T; Melin, J B; Davis, J

1994-12-01

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Evaluation of repeated bio disinfestation using Brassica carinata pellets to control Meloidogyne incognita in protected pepper crops  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The nematode Meloidogyne incognita is responsible for substantial losses in greenhouse-grown peppers in southeastern Spain. This study evaluates the use of biodisinfestation (BS) (organic amendment + solarisation) as an alternative to using methyl bromide (MB) over three consecutive years to control the nematode in greenhouse conditions. Brassica carinata (BP) pellets or B. carinata (BP) + fresh sheep manure (M) were evaluated in treatments which began on two different dates (August and October) and the results were compared with MB-disinfested and untreated controls. During the third year, the gall index for BP was lower than that obtained for BP +M and in the August treatment than in the October treatment. The commercial crop of pepper fruit obtained with the biodisinfestation treatments begun in August was similar to or higher than that obtained with MB, and higher than that obtained with both October biodisinfestation treatments. The yield of the October biodisinfestation treatments was higher than that of the untreated one. In August of all the years studied, the accumulated exposure times were greater than the thresholds required to kill M. incognita populations at 15 cm depth. The incidence of the nematode did not correspond to the reduction achieved during solarisation, and seemed to increase during the crop cycle. Further studies should look at why high temperatures do not produce a sustained reduction in the populations of Meloidogyne incognita. (Author) 56 refs.

Guerrero-Diaz, M. M.; Lacasa-Martinez, C. M.; Hernandez-Pinera, A.; Martinez-Alarcon, V.; Lacasa Plasencia, A.

2013-06-01

 
 
 
 
61

Susceptibility of Several Common Subtropical Weeds to Meloidogyne arenaria, M. incognita, and M. javanica.  

Science.gov (United States)

Experiments were conducted in the greenhouse to assess root galling and egg production of three root-knot nematode species, Meloidogyne arenaria, M. incognita, and M. javanica, on several weeds common to Florida agricultural land. Weeds evaluated were Amaranthus retroflexus (redroot pigweed), Cyperus esculentus (yellow nutsedge), Eleusine indica (goosegrass), Portulaca oleracea (common purslane), and Solanum americanum (American black nightshade). Additionally, although it is recommended as a cover crop in southern regions of the U.S., Aeschynomene americana (American jointvetch) was evaluated as a weed following the detection of root galling in a heavy volunteer infestation of an experimental field in southeastern Florida. Weeds were propagated from seed and inoculated with 1000 nematode eggs when plants reached the two true-leaf stage. Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum 'Rutgers') was included as a positive control. Aeschynomene americana and P. oleracea roots supported the highest number of juveniles (J2) and had the highest number of eggs/g of root for all three species of Meloidogyne tested. However, though P. oleracea supported very high root levels of the three nematode species tested, its fleshy roots did not exhibit severe gall symptoms. Low levels of apparent galling, combined with high egg production, increase the potential for P. oleracea to support populations of these three species of root-knot nematodes to a degree that may not be appropriately recognized. This research quantifies the impact of P. oleracea as a host for M. arenaria, M. incognita, and M. javanica compared to several other important weeds commonly found in Florida agricultural production, and the potential for A. americana to serve as an important weed host of the three species of root-knot nematode tested in southern regions of Florida. PMID:23482324

Kokalis-Burelle, Nancy; Rosskopf, Erin N

2012-06-01

62

Produtos naturais aplicados para manejo de Meloidogyne incognita em tomateiros / Natural products applied to the management of Meloidogyne incognita in tomato plants  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Este trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar o efeito de produtos naturais na expressão da resistência a Meloidogyne incognita em plantas de tomate produzidos organicamente. Os indutores Rocksil, Quitosana, Neemseto e Biopirol foram aplicados 5, 10 e 15 dias, em tratamentos independentes, antes da inocul [...] ação do patógeno através da pulverização foliar, utilizando-se duas dosagens para cada indutor. A inoculação do nematoide foi realizada 30 dias após o plantio, usando-se 5000 ovos/ planta. Avaliando-se o número de ovos e o fator de reprodução, 30 dias após a inoculação, observou-se que todos os tratamentos diferiram estatisticamente da testemunha, impedindo o aumento da população inicial do patógeno. Dentre os indutores, o indutor silicatado Rocksil foi o que apresentou os melhores resultados para o controle da meloidoginose em todas as épocas de aplicação e em todas as dosagens. Contudo, plantas tratadas com o produto apresentaram baixos pesos de parte aérea sugerindo que houve um custo adaptativo de resistência. Considerando-se o fator de reprodução não foram observadas diferenças estatísticas quando comparadas a dosagem e época de aplicação entre os indutores, com exceção da Quitosana aplicada aos 5 dias antes da inoculação e do Neemseto aplicado aos 15 dias antes da inoculação do nematóide. Abstract in english This study aimed to evaluate the effect of natural products on the expression of resistance to Meloidogyne incognita in organically produced tomato plants. The inducers Rocksil, Chitosan, Neemseto and Biopirol were applied at 5, 10 and 15 days as independent treatments before the pathogen inoculatio [...] n by means of leaf spraying, using two levels for each inducer. The nematode inoculation was performed at 30 days after planting, using 5000 eggs/plant. Evaluating the number of eggs and the reproduction factor, at 30 days after inoculation, all treatments statistically differed from the control, preventing an increase in the initial population of the pathogen. Of the natural inducers, Rocksil showed the best results for controlling the root-knot nematode in all application times and at all levels. However, plants treated with the product had low shoot weights, suggesting that there was a fitness cost of resistance. Considering the reproduction factor, there were not statistical differences when the level and the application time were compared among natural inducers, except for Chitosan applied at 5 days before the nematode inoculation and Neemseto applied at 15 days before the nematode inoculation.

Thiago Anchieta de, Melo; Ilka Márcia Ribeiro de Sousa, Serra; Gilson Soares da, Silva; Rosa Maria Souto de, Sousa.

2012-09-01

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Nematicidal effects of Leucaena leucocephala and Gliricidia sepium extracts on Meloidogyne incognita infecting okra  

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Full Text Available Two separate but identical greenhouse trials were conducted to investigate the effects of extracts of leaves and roots of Leucaena leucocephala and Gliricidia sepium each at 80,000 mg / kg and 40,000 mg / kg on Meloidogyne incognita on okra. Each potted nine-day old okra seedling was inoculated with 3,000 fresh eggs of M. incognita and 5ml of each of the extracts was added simultaneously around the roots of the seedling. Treatment of okra plant with L. leucocephala and G. sepium extracts resulted in reduced nematode population, reduced galling, reduced nematode reproduction rate and enhanced fruit weight. Chemical analysis revealed that G. sepium leaves contained phenolic compound and carboxylic acid, while the roots showed the presence of aromatic amide, phenolic compound and carboxylic acid. L. leucocephala leaves showed the presence of phenolic compound, aromatic amide and carboxylic acid, while the roots showed the presence of phenolic compound and carboxylic acid. The results of this study suggest that leaf and root extracts of L. leucocephala and G. sepium at the rate of 40,000 mg / kg could be useful in root knot nematode management in vegetable beds.

Adekunle O.K.

2007-01-01

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Exposure Time to Lethal Temperatures for Meloidogyne incognita Suppression and Its Implication for Soil Solarization.  

Science.gov (United States)

Meloidogyne incognita eggs or J2 were incubated in test tubes containing sand:peat mix and immersed in a water bath heated to 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44 and 45 degrees C for a series of time intervals. Controls were maintained at 22 degrees C. Nematodes surviving or hatching were collected from Baermann trays after three weeks of incubation. Regression analyses between percent survival or egg hatch and hours of heat treatment were performed for each temperature. Complete suppression of egg hatch required 389.8, 164.5, 32.9, 19.7 and 13.1 hours at 38, 39, 40, 41 and 42 degrees C, respectively. Complete killing of J2 required 47.9, 46.2, 17.5 and 13.8 hours at 39, 40, 41 and 42 degrees C, respectively. J2 were not completely killed at 38 degrees C within 40 hours of treatment, but were killed within one hour at 44 and 45 degrees C. Effect of temperature on nematode killing is not determined by heat units. Oscillating temperature between cool and warm did not interfere with the nematode suppressive effect by the heat treatment. Six-week solarization in the field during the summers of 2003 and 2004 in Florida accumulated heat exposure times in the top 15 cm of soil that surpassed levels required to kill M. incognita as determined in the water bath experiments. Although near zero M. incognita were detected right after solarization, the nematode population densities increased after a cycle of a susceptible pepper crop. Therefore, future research should address failure of solarization to kill nematodes in the deeper soil layers. PMID:19259512

Wang, K-H; McSorley, R

2008-03-01

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Effect of Temperature on Suppression of Meloidogyne incognita by Tagetes Cultivars.  

Science.gov (United States)

The suppression of Meloidogyne incognita by marigolds differed among six marigold cultivars and five soil temperatures. Tagetes signata (syn. T. tenuifolia) cv. Tangerine Gem and the Tagetes hybrid Polynema allowed reproduction and root galling when grown at 30 degrees C, and should not be used for control of M. incognita at temperatures close to 30 degrees C. Tagetes patula cultivars Single Gold and Tangerine and T. erecta Flor de Muerto, when grown within a 20-30 degrees C soil temperature range, significantly reduced root galling and nematode infestation of subsequent tomato compared to tomato following fallow. When grown at 10 degrees C or 15 degrees C, only one of the tested marigold cultivars (T. erecta CrackerJack at 15 degrees C) reduced M. incognita infection of subsequent tomato compared to tomato after fallow. Marigolds should be grown at soil temperatures above 15 degrees C to suppress M. incognita infection of a subsequent crop. PMID:19270940

Ploeg, A T; Maris, P C

1999-12-01

66

Mustard seed meal mixtures: management of Meloidogyne incognita on pepper and potential phytotoxicity.  

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Meals produced when oil is extracted from seeds in the Brassicaceae have been shown to suppress weeds and soilborne pathogens. These seed meals are commonly used individually as soil amendments; the goal of this research was to evaluate seed meal mixes of Brassica juncea (Bj) and Sinapis alba (Sa) against Meloidogyne incognita. Seed meals from Bj 'Pacific Gold' and Sa 'IdaGold' were tested alone and in combinations to determine rates and application times that would suppress M. incognita on pepper (Capsicum annuum) without phytotoxicity. Rates of soil application (% w/w) for the phytotoxicity study were: 0.5 Sa, 0.2 Bj, 0.25 Sa + 0.25 Bj, 0.375 Sa + 0.125 Bj, 0.125 Sa + 0.375 Bj, and 0, applied 0 - 5 weeks before transplant. Overall, 0.2% Bj was the least toxic meal to pepper seedlings. By comparison, 0.5% S. alba seed meal did not reduce lettuce (Lactuca sativa) seed germination at week 0, but all seed meal treatments containing B. juncea prevented or significantly reduced germination at week 0. The seed meals did not affect lettuce seed germination at weeks 1-5, but hypocotyl growth was reduced by all except 0.2% Bj at weeks 1, 4 and 5. Brassica juncea and Sa meals were tested for M. incognita suppression at 0.2, 0.15, 0.1 and 0.05%; mixtures were 0.1% Sa + 0.1% Bj, 0.15% Sa + 0.05% Bj, and 0.05% Sa + 0.15% Bj. All treatments were applied 2 weeks before transplant. The 0.2% Bj and 0.05% Sa + 0.15% Bj treatments overall had the longest shoots and highest fresh weights. Eggs per g root were lowest with 0.1 - 0.2% Bj amendments and the seed meal mixtures. The results indicate that Bj and some Bj + Sa mixtures can be applied close to transplant to suppress M. incognita populations on pepper; consequently, a seed meal mixture could be selected to provide activity against more than one pest or pathogen. For pepper, care should be taken in formulating mixtures so that Sa rates are low compared to Bj. PMID:22791910

Meyer, Susan L F; Zasada, Inga A; Orisajo, Samuel B; Morra, Matthew J

2011-03-01

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INDUCCIÓN DE ENZIMAS EXTRACELULARES CON HUEVOS DE Meloidogyne incognita Y DE Globodera pallida / INDUCTION OF EXTRACELLULAR ENZYMES WITH Meloidogyne incognita AND Globodera pallida EGGS  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La cepa cubana IMI SD 187 del hongo nematofago Pochonia chlamydosporia var. catenulata es un agente de control biológico potencial de nematodos formadores de agallas. Existen informes sobre la acción controladora de los hongos de la especie Pochonia chlamydosporia sobre nematodos de quistes. Sin emb [...] argo también se conoce de la especificidad de los aislamientos según su hospedante original. El objetivo de este trabajo fue estudiar el comportamiento de diferentes sistemas enzimáticos en la cepa IMI SD 187, frente a huevos de Meloidogyne incognita y Globodera pallida. Se realizaron los ensayos de inducción con huevos de ambos nematodos en medio líquido y se determinaron los contenidos de proteínas totales y niveles de actividad enzimática de proteasas, quitinasas, lipasas y VCP 1. La dinámica de la inducción de los sistemas enzimáticos estuvo relacionada con las fases del proceso de infección de los huevos de M. incognita en la cepa IMI SD 187. Esta cepa de P. chlamydosporia var. catenulata procedente de nematodos formadores de agallas es capaz de infectar huevos de nematodos de quistes. Abstract in english The Cuban strain IMI SD 187 of the nematophagous fungus Pochonia chlamydosporia var. catenulata is a potential biological control agent for the root knot nematodes. There are reports about the controlling action of these fungi on cyst nematodes. However, isolate specificity according to the original [...] host is also known. The aim of this work was to study the enzymatic performance induced by Meloidogyne incognita and Globodera pallida eggs. The induction assays were carried out in liquid media. The total protein content and the enzymatic activity levels for proteases, chitinases, lipases and VCP 1 were determined. The time course experiment for enzymatic activity induction was related to the infection process of M. incognita eggs by the strain IMI SD 187. The strain IMI SD 187 of P. chlamydosporia var. catenulata isolated from root knot nematodes is able to infect eggs from cyst nematodes.

Belkis, Peteira; Ivania, Estévez; S, Atkins; L, Hidalgo-Díaz; B, Kerry.

2009-08-01

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INDUCCIÓN DE ENZIMAS EXTRACELULARES CON HUEVOS DE Meloidogyne incognita Y DE Globodera pallida / INDUCTION OF EXTRACELLULAR ENZYMES WITH Meloidogyne incognita AND Globodera pallida EGGS  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La cepa cubana IMI SD 187 del hongo nematofago Pochonia chlamydosporia var. catenulata es un agente de control biológico potencial de nematodos formadores de agallas. Existen informes sobre la acción controladora de los hongos de la especie Pochonia chlamydosporia sobre nematodos de quistes. Sin emb [...] argo también se conoce de la especificidad de los aislamientos según su hospedante original. El objetivo de este trabajo fue estudiar el comportamiento de diferentes sistemas enzimáticos en la cepa IMI SD 187, frente a huevos de Meloidogyne incognita y Globodera pallida. Se realizaron los ensayos de inducción con huevos de ambos nematodos en medio líquido y se determinaron los contenidos de proteínas totales y niveles de actividad enzimática de proteasas, quitinasas, lipasas y VCP 1. La dinámica de la inducción de los sistemas enzimáticos estuvo relacionada con las fases del proceso de infección de los huevos de M. incognita en la cepa IMI SD 187. Esta cepa de P. chlamydosporia var. catenulata procedente de nematodos formadores de agallas es capaz de infectar huevos de nematodos de quistes. Abstract in english The Cuban strain IMI SD 187 of the nematophagous fungus Pochonia chlamydosporia var. catenulata is a potential biological control agent for the root knot nematodes. There are reports about the controlling action of these fungi on cyst nematodes. However, isolate specificity according to the original [...] host is also known. The aim of this work was to study the enzymatic performance induced by Meloidogyne incognita and Globodera pallida eggs. The induction assays were carried out in liquid media. The total protein content and the enzymatic activity levels for proteases, chitinases, lipases and VCP 1 were determined. The time course experiment for enzymatic activity induction was related to the infection process of M. incognita eggs by the strain IMI SD 187. The strain IMI SD 187 of P. chlamydosporia var. catenulata isolated from root knot nematodes is able to infect eggs from cyst nematodes.

Belkis, Peteira; Ivania, Estévez; S, Atkins; L, Hidalgo-Díaz; B, Kerry.

69

Effects of Meloidogyne incognita and Thielaviopsis basicola on cotton growth and root morphology.  

Science.gov (United States)

Effects of the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita and the fungal pathogen Thielaviopsis basicola on cotton seedling growth and root morphology were evaluated in controlled environmental experiments. Four pathogen treatments, including noninfested soil, soil infested with M. incognita, soil infested with T. basicola, and soil infested with both pathogens were evaluated at soil bulk densities (BDs) of 1.25 and 1.50 g/cm(3). Plant growth and the morphology of the root systems were evaluated 44 days after planting. Infestation with M. incognita and T. basicola together significantly reduced seedling emergence, number of stem nodes, and root system volume compared with either pathogen alone. Either M. incognita or T. basicola reduced plant height, root fresh weight, top dry weight; root parameters total root length, surface area, and links; and root topological parameters magnitude, altitude, and exterior path length. M. incognita infection increased root radius. Root colonization by T. basicola increased with the presence of M. incognita at the lower soil BD. In contrast to previous research with Pythium spp., root topological indices (TIs) were similar with all of the treatments. Root TIs were near 1.92, indicating a herringbone (less branching) root architectural structure. Studying root architecture using a topological model offers an additional approach to evaluating fungi and nematodes and their interactions for soilborne-pathogen systems. PMID:24283540

Ma, Jianbing; Jaraba, Juan; Kirkpatrick, Terrence L; Rothrock, Craig S

2014-05-01

70

Studies on the interactive effect of Meloidogyne incognita and Fusarium solani on Lycopersicon esculentum, Mill  

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Full Text Available A disease complex involving Meloidogyne incognita and Fusarium solani was studied on tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum, Mill. under glasshouse conditions. Pot experiments were conducted to determine the pathogenesis of both the pathogens individually, simultaneously and sequentially. Isolates of M. incognita and F. solani singly caused a significant reduction in plant height, fresh weight, dry weight, number of fruits and fruit weight over the un-inoculated one but the reduction was more by M. incognita as compared to F. solani. A significant reduction in different plant growth parameters was observed on simultaneous and sequential inoculation of M. incognita and F. solani. However, the reduction was more prominent on simultaneous inoculation of both the pathogens. Among the sequential inoculations more damages were assessed during inoculation of M. incognita followed by F. solani (N+f10. Nematode multiplication, number of galls and number of females were adversely affected on simultaneous and sequential inoculation of both the pathogens in all the treatments. In the present study it was concluded that both the pathogens viz M. incognita and F. solani are virulent against the tomato c.v pusa ruby and therefore measures to prevent the spread of disease become important.

T.A. Khan

2011-01-01

71

Plantago lanceolata and Plantago rugelii Extracts are Toxic to Meloidogyne incognita but not to Certain Microbes  

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Extracts from the plants Plantago lanceolata and P. rugelii were evaluated for toxicity to the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita, the beneficial microbes Enterobacter cloacae, Pseudomonas fluorescens and Trichoderma virens, and the plant-pathogenic fungi Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. gladioli, Phytophthora capsici, Pythium ultimum, and Rhizoctonia solani. Wild plants were collected, roots were excised from shoots, and the plant parts were dried and ground to a powder. One set of extracts (...

Meyer, Susan L. F.; Zasada, Inga A.; Roberts, Daniel P.; Vinyard, Bryan T.; Lakshman, Dilip K.; Lee, Jae-kook; Chitwood, David J.; Carta, Lynn K.

2006-01-01

72

Screening for Nematicidal Activities of Bacillus Species Against Root Knot Nematode (Meloidogyne incognita)  

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Aims: The aim of this study is to screen for nematicidal activities of Bacillus species against root knot nematode (Meloidogyne incognita). Study Design: Randomized complete block design was used for this study Place and Duration of Study: This work was done in Research and Development Division, Malaysian Pepper Board in January 2011 to December 2012. Methodology: In this study, bacteria were isolated from pepper farm, the use of these strains was evaluated to control root knot nematode in...

Ann, Yap Chin

2013-01-01

73

Sensitivity of Bedding Plants to Southern Root-knot Nematode, Meloidogyne incognita Race 3  

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Thirty-two cultivars of 10 commonly-grown bedding plants, representing eight families, were evaluated for their response to infection by the root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita race 3, under greenhouse conditions. Four ageratum cultivars, two marigold, and two salvia cultivars were rated resistant after exposure for 8 weeks. Four begonia, four celosia, one dianthus, one verbena, one vinca, and three pansy cultivars were susceptible. Three salvia, one begonia, one gerber, one verbena, an...

Walker, J. T.; Melin, J. B.; Davis, J.

1994-01-01

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Yield-loss Models for Tobacco Infected with Meloidogyne incognita as Affected by Soil Moisture  

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Yield-loss models were developed for tobacco infected with Meloidogyne incognita grown in microplots under various irrigation regimes. The rate of relative yield loss per initial nematode density (Pi), where relative yield is a proportion of the value of the harvested leaves in uninfected plants with the same irrigation treatment, was greater under conditions of water stress or with high irrigation than at an intermediate level of soil moisture. The maximum rate of plant growth per degree-day...

Wheeler, T. A.; Barker, K. R.; Schneider, S. M.

1991-01-01

75

EFFECT OF ROOT EXUDATES OF TAGETES SP. ON EGG HATCHING BEHAVIOR OF MELOIDOGYNE INCOGNITA  

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The effect root exudates of pre-planted marigold intercropped with tomato in regulating the hatching behavior of root-knot nematode - Meloidogyne incognita eggs were investigated. Marigold cultivars Tagetes patula, T. minuta, T. erecta, T. erecta (var. Orange), T. erecta (var. Yellow) significantly reduced the numbers of second-stage juveniles (J2s) in subsequent tomato compared to the tomato-tomato control. Four different concentrations (25, 50, 75 and 100 %) of water soluble extract from th...

Iruthaya Kalaiselvam; Aruna Devaraj

2011-01-01

76

Histopathological Response of Lens culinaris Roots Towards Root-knot Nematode, Meloidogyne incognita  

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Full Text Available Lens culinaris (lentil is an important pulse crop. The yield of the crop is reduced if grown in root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne incognita infested field. Meloidogyne incognita caused infection in primary and the secondary roots leading to the anomalies in the affected part of the root. The study revealed that the second stage juveniles (J2 of Meloidogyne incognita entered the growing roots and their branches inter and intracellularly. The immediate response was hypertrophy and hyperplasia in the root tissue near the nematode head. In response to hypertrophy some cells became very large and contained dense and granular cytoplasm. Adjacent to the giant cells, the vascular tissue was found to be disturbed. Shape, size and orientation of the vascular elements was so much altered that it had become difficult to trace the normal course of vascular strands. In various sections vascular strands were found disrupted. The vessel elements had the shapes resembling the shapes of parenchyma cells. Similarly sieve tube elements of the phloem, near the giant cells were shorter and resembled with nearby parenchyma cells. Abnormalities in xylem and phloem favored transport water, minerals and metabolites towards the giant cells. From this study, it might be inferred that alteration in the cells of galled tissue was essential for the sustenance of giant cells and for the survival of the nematode.

Hisamuddin

2013-01-01

77

EFFECT OF ROOT EXUDATES OF TAGETES SP. ON EGG HATCHING BEHAVIOR OF MELOIDOGYNE INCOGNITA  

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Full Text Available The effect root exudates of pre-planted marigold intercropped with tomato in regulating the hatching behavior of root-knot nematode - Meloidogyne incognita eggs were investigated. Marigold cultivars Tagetes patula, T. minuta, T. erecta, T. erecta (var. Orange, T. erecta (var. Yellow significantly reduced the numbers of second-stage juveniles (J2s in subsequent tomato compared to the tomato-tomato control. Four different concentrations (25, 50, 75 and 100 % of water soluble extract from the selected varieties of Marigold cultivars were filtered and added to the petri dish and infested with the eggs of M. incognita. Data indicate that egg hatching was significantly affected by root exudates of Tagetes sp. however, nematicidal activity was species dependent. Root exudates of T. erecta were lethal to J2 of M. incognita and were inhibitory to the hatch of eggs at the concentration of 75 % or higher.

Iruthaya Kalaiselvam

2011-10-01

78

Interaction between Meloidogyne incognita and Agrobacterium tumefaciens or Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici on Tomato.  

Science.gov (United States)

Agrobacterium tumefaciens stimulated and Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici inhibited development and reproduction of Meloidogyne incognita when applied to the opposite split root of tomato, Lycopersicon esculentum cv. Tropic, plants. The lowest rate of nematode reproduction occurred after 2,000 juveniles were applied and the fungus was present in the opposite split root. The effects of all three pathogens alone on the growth of roots and shoots of tomato plants were evident, but M. incognita had a greater effect alone than did either of the other pathogens. The length of split roots was reduced by the infection of M. incognita and A. tumefaciens or F. oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici. The number of galls induced by nematodes on roots was higher where the bacterium was applied and lower where the fungus was applied to the opposite split root. PMID:19283119

El-Sherif, A G; Elwakil, M A

1991-04-01

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The nematicidal effect of some bacterial biofertilizers on Meloidogyne incognita in sandy soil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english In a greenhouse experiment, the nematicidal effect of some bacterial biofertilizers including the nitrogen fixing bacteria (NFB) Paenibacillus polymyxa (four strains), the phosphate solubilizing bacteria (PSB) Bacillus megaterium (three strains) and the potassium solubilizing bacteria (KSB) B. circu [...] lans (three strains) were evaluated individually on tomato plants infested with the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita in potted sandy soil. Comparing with the uninoculated nematode-infested control, the inoculation with P. polymyxa NFB7, B. megaterium PSB2 and B. circulans KSB2, increased the counts of total bacteria and total bacterial spores in plants potted soil from 1.2 to 2.6 folds estimated 60 days post-inoculation. Consequently, the inoculation with P. polymyxa NFB7 increased significantly the shoot length (cm), number of leaves / plant, shoot dry weight (g) / plant and root dry weight (g) / plant by 32.6 %, 30.8 %, 70.3 % and 14.2 %, respectively. Generally, the majority treatments significantly reduced the nematode multiplication which was more obvious after 60 days of inoculation. Among the applied strains, P. polymyxa NFB7, B. megaterium PSB2 and B. circulans KSB2 inoculations resulted in the highest reduction in nematode population comparing with the uninoculated nematode-infested control. They recorded the highest reduction in numbers of hatched juveniles/root by 95.8 %, females/root by 63.75 % and juveniles/1kg soil by 57.8 %. These results indicated that these bacterial biofertilizers are promising double purpose microorganisms for mobilizing of soil nutrients (nitrogen, phosphate and potassium) and for the biological control of M. incognita.

M.E, El-Hadad; M.I, Mustafa; Sh.M, Selim; T.S, El-Tayeb; A.E.A, Mahgoob; Norhan H. Abdel, Aziz.

2011-03-01

80

The nematicidal effect of some bacterial biofertilizers on Meloidogyne incognita in sandy soil  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In a greenhouse experiment, the nematicidal effect of some bacterial biofertilizers including the nitrogen fixing bacteria (NFB Paenibacillus polymyxa (four strains, the phosphate solubilizing bacteria (PSB Bacillus megaterium (three strains and the potassium solubilizing bacteria (KSB B. circulans (three strains were evaluated individually on tomato plants infested with the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita in potted sandy soil. Comparing with the uninoculated nematode-infested control, the inoculation with P. polymyxa NFB7, B. megaterium PSB2 and B. circulans KSB2, increased the counts of total bacteria and total bacterial spores in plants potted soil from 1.2 to 2.6 folds estimated 60 days post-inoculation. Consequently, the inoculation with P. polymyxa NFB7 increased significantly the shoot length (cm, number of leaves / plant, shoot dry weight (g / plant and root dry weight (g / plant by 32.6 %, 30.8 %, 70.3 % and 14.2 %, respectively. Generally, the majority treatments significantly reduced the nematode multiplication which was more obvious after 60 days of inoculation. Among the applied strains, P. polymyxa NFB7, B. megaterium PSB2 and B. circulans KSB2 inoculations resulted in the highest reduction in nematode population comparing with the uninoculated nematode-infested control. They recorded the highest reduction in numbers of hatched juveniles/root by 95.8 %, females/root by 63.75 % and juveniles/1kg soil by 57.8 %. These results indicated that these bacterial biofertilizers are promising double purpose microorganisms for mobilizing of soil nutrients (nitrogen, phosphate and potassium and for the biological control of M. incognita.

M.E El-Hadad

2011-03-01

 
 
 
 
81

Rootstocks resistant to Meloidogyne incognita and compatibility of grafting in net melon / Porta-enxertos resistentes a Meloidogyne incognita e compatibilidade de enxertia de melão rendilhado  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Devido aos poucos estudos realizados com enxertias em melão rendilhado, visando um maior controle de patógenos do solo, este trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar 16 genótipos de cucurbitáceas quanto à resistência a Meloidogyne incognita e a compatibilidade da enxertia do melão rendilhado. Foram avalia [...] dos 16 acessos de cucurbitáceas: Benincasa hispida, Bucha, Abóbora 'Jacarezinho', Abóbora 'Menina Brasileira', Moranga 'Exposição', Moranga 'Coroa', Abóbora 'Canhão Seca', Abóbora 'Squash', Mogango 'Enrrugado Verde', Abóbora 'Mini Paulista', Abóbora 'Goianinha', Melancia 'Charleston Gray', Melão 'Rendondo Gaúcho', Melão 'Redondo Amarelo', Pepino 'Caipira HS' e Pepino 'Caipira Rubi', quanto à resistência ao nematóide M. incognita, com base no fator de reprodução (FR), segundo Oostenbrink (1966). Para avaliação da resistência, as mudas foram transplantadas para vasos de cerâmica e foram aplicados 300 ovos ou juvenis de segundo estádio/mL de M. incognita, num total de 10 mL por vaso. Aos 50 dias após o transplantio, as plantas foram removidas dos vasos e realizou-se a avaliação da resistência. Para a compatibilidade entre os porta-enxertos resistentes e enxerto de melão rendilhado, foram realizadas enxertias do tipo garfagem fenda simples, em híbrido comercial de melão rendilhado de grande aceitação comercial e suscetíveil a M. incognita (Bônus N° 2). Os genótipos Bucha, Abóbora 'Goianinha', Abóbora 'Mini-Paulista', Melão 'Redondo Amarelo', Melancia 'Charleston Gray', foram resistentes ao nematóide M. incognita. As melhores compatibilidades ocorreram com os porta-enxertos Melão 'Amarelo', o qual teve 100% de pegamento, seguido da Abóbora 'Mini-Paulista' com 94%. Já Bucha, Melancia 'Charleston Gray' e Abóbora 'Goianinha', tiveram baixas porcentagens de pegamento: 66%, 62% e 50% respectivamente. Abstract in english Due to the few studies about grafting in net melon, in order to obtain better control of soil pathogens, the aim of the present study was to evaluate 16 genotypes of Cucurbitaceae: Benincasa hispida, Luffa cylindrica, pumpkin 'Jacarezinho', pumpkin 'Menina Brasileira', squash 'Exposição', squash 'Co [...] roa', pumpkin 'Canhão Seca', pumpkin 'Squash', pumpkin 'Enrrugado Verde', pumpkin 'Mini Paulista', pumpkin 'Goianinha', watermelon 'Charleston Gray', melon 'Rendondo Gaucho', melon 'Redondo Amarelo', cucumber 'Caipira HS' and cucumber 'Caipira Rubi', regarding to compatibility of grafting in net melon and resistance to Meloidogyne incognita, based on the reproduction factor (RF), according to Oostenbrink (1966). To assess resistance, the seedlings were transplanted to ceramic pots and inoculated with 300/mL eggs and/or second stage juveniles of M. incognita. At 50 days after transplanting, the plants were removed from the pots and the resistance was evaluated. The compatibility between resistant rootstock and grafts of net melon was determined by performing simple cleft grafting, in a commercial net melon hybrid of great market acceptance and susceptible to M. incognita (Bonus no. 2). The genotypes Luffa cylindrica, pumpkin 'Goianinha', pumpkin 'Mini-Paulista', melon 'Redondo Amarelo', watermelon 'Charleston Gray' are resistant to the nematode M. incognita. The better compatibilities occurred with the rootstocks melon 'Amarelo', which presented 100% of success, followed by pumpkin 'Mini-Paulista' with 94%. On the other hand, Sponge gourd, watermelon 'Charleston Gray' and pumpkin 'Goianinha' showed low graft take percentages of 66%, 62% and 50%, respectively.

Francine de Souza, Galatti; Alexandre Junqueira, Franco; Letícia Akemi, Ito; Hamilton de Oliveira, Charlo; Lucas Aparecido, Gaion; Leila Trevisan, Braz.

82

Rootstocks resistant to Meloidogyne incognita and compatibility of grafting in net melon / Porta-enxertos resistentes a Meloidogyne incognita e compatibilidade de enxertia de melão rendilhado  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Devido aos poucos estudos realizados com enxertias em melão rendilhado, visando um maior controle de patógenos do solo, este trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar 16 genótipos de cucurbitáceas quanto à resistência a Meloidogyne incognita e a compatibilidade da enxertia do melão rendilhado. Foram avalia [...] dos 16 acessos de cucurbitáceas: Benincasa hispida, Bucha, Abóbora 'Jacarezinho', Abóbora 'Menina Brasileira', Moranga 'Exposição', Moranga 'Coroa', Abóbora 'Canhão Seca', Abóbora 'Squash', Mogango 'Enrrugado Verde', Abóbora 'Mini Paulista', Abóbora 'Goianinha', Melancia 'Charleston Gray', Melão 'Rendondo Gaúcho', Melão 'Redondo Amarelo', Pepino 'Caipira HS' e Pepino 'Caipira Rubi', quanto à resistência ao nematóide M. incognita, com base no fator de reprodução (FR), segundo Oostenbrink (1966). Para avaliação da resistência, as mudas foram transplantadas para vasos de cerâmica e foram aplicados 300 ovos ou juvenis de segundo estádio/mL de M. incognita, num total de 10 mL por vaso. Aos 50 dias após o transplantio, as plantas foram removidas dos vasos e realizou-se a avaliação da resistência. Para a compatibilidade entre os porta-enxertos resistentes e enxerto de melão rendilhado, foram realizadas enxertias do tipo garfagem fenda simples, em híbrido comercial de melão rendilhado de grande aceitação comercial e suscetíveil a M. incognita (Bônus N° 2). Os genótipos Bucha, Abóbora 'Goianinha', Abóbora 'Mini-Paulista', Melão 'Redondo Amarelo', Melancia 'Charleston Gray', foram resistentes ao nematóide M. incognita. As melhores compatibilidades ocorreram com os porta-enxertos Melão 'Amarelo', o qual teve 100% de pegamento, seguido da Abóbora 'Mini-Paulista' com 94%. Já Bucha, Melancia 'Charleston Gray' e Abóbora 'Goianinha', tiveram baixas porcentagens de pegamento: 66%, 62% e 50% respectivamente. Abstract in english Due to the few studies about grafting in net melon, in order to obtain better control of soil pathogens, the aim of the present study was to evaluate 16 genotypes of Cucurbitaceae: Benincasa hispida, Luffa cylindrica, pumpkin 'Jacarezinho', pumpkin 'Menina Brasileira', squash 'Exposição', squash 'Co [...] roa', pumpkin 'Canhão Seca', pumpkin 'Squash', pumpkin 'Enrrugado Verde', pumpkin 'Mini Paulista', pumpkin 'Goianinha', watermelon 'Charleston Gray', melon 'Rendondo Gaucho', melon 'Redondo Amarelo', cucumber 'Caipira HS' and cucumber 'Caipira Rubi', regarding to compatibility of grafting in net melon and resistance to Meloidogyne incognita, based on the reproduction factor (RF), according to Oostenbrink (1966). To assess resistance, the seedlings were transplanted to ceramic pots and inoculated with 300/mL eggs and/or second stage juveniles of M. incognita. At 50 days after transplanting, the plants were removed from the pots and the resistance was evaluated. The compatibility between resistant rootstock and grafts of net melon was determined by performing simple cleft grafting, in a commercial net melon hybrid of great market acceptance and susceptible to M. incognita (Bonus no. 2). The genotypes Luffa cylindrica, pumpkin 'Goianinha', pumpkin 'Mini-Paulista', melon 'Redondo Amarelo', watermelon 'Charleston Gray' are resistant to the nematode M. incognita. The better compatibilities occurred with the rootstocks melon 'Amarelo', which presented 100% of success, followed by pumpkin 'Mini-Paulista' with 94%. On the other hand, Sponge gourd, watermelon 'Charleston Gray' and pumpkin 'Goianinha' showed low graft take percentages of 66%, 62% and 50%, respectively.

Francine de Souza, Galatti; Alexandre Junqueira, Franco; Letícia Akemi, Ito; Hamilton de Oliveira, Charlo; Lucas Aparecido, Gaion; Leila Trevisan, Braz.

2013-06-01

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Potential antagonistic effects of nine natural fatty acids against Meloidogyne incognita.  

Science.gov (United States)

Fatty acids, the essential components of life, were widely present in various seed cakes, gutter oil, and other resources. The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential antagonistic effects of nine fatty acids (FAs) against Meloidogyne incognita (root-knot nematodes). The results showed that butyric, caprylic, capric, lauric, myristic, palmitic, and oleic acids significantly reduced M. incognita reproduction, whereas cucumber (Cucumus sativus) biomass was not adversely affected by the tested FAs and was even significantly increased in several fatty acids treatments. All nine tested fatty acids showed apparent inhibitory effects on egg hatching on day 21, especially capric acid with which the hatching rate was reduced to 15.8% as compared to that using sterile distilled water. Caproic, caprylic, capric, lauric, myristic, and palmitic acids caused significantly higher mortality of the second-stage juvenile of M. incognita than the other three FAs, and both caprylic and capric acids resulted in approximately 50% mortality (2000 ?mol/L) after a 24 h exposure. In conclusion, fatty acids showed the nematicidal effect differently, among which capric acid showed a strong nematicidal effect and might be a powerful active substance for integrated M. incognita management. Given the general nematicidal properties of FAs, farmers might utilize waste resources, such as oil seed cake, gutter oil, etc., containing various FAs or use pure FAs for effective M. incognita management. PMID:23121218

Zhang, Wei-pu; Ruan, Wei-bin; Deng, Yun-ying; Gao, Yu-bao

2012-11-21

84

Synergistic activity between Bacillus thuringiensis Cry6Aa and Cry55Aa toxins against Meloidogyne incognita.  

Science.gov (United States)

Plant-parasitic nematodes are the most destructive group of plant pathogens worldwide and are extremely challenging to control. Some Bacillus thuringiensis crystal proteins are highly toxic to the plant-parasitic nematode Meloidogyne incognita. In this study, the nematicidal crystal proteins Cry6Aa, Cry5Ba and Cry55Aa were tested against M. incognita to select the best toxin combination for its management. The results showed that a combination of Cry6Aa and Cry55Aa showed significant synergistic toxicity against M. incognita, and the highest synergistic effect (five times the expected toxicity of the two toxins calculated from their separate toxicities) was observed when they were combined in a 1:1 ratio. Furthermore, ligand blot analyses of the interaction between total proteins of M. incognita and the three toxins showed many different signal bands, indicating that there is a range of host proteins with which the toxins can interact. One explanation of the observed synergism is that the toxins damage the host in diverse ways, and they may thus act cooperatively and thereby show greater toxicity in combination. Our discovery provides an effective strategy for controlling M. incognita by using a combination of Cry6Aa and Cry55Aa. PMID:21923640

Peng, Donghai; Chai, Lujun; Wang, Fenshan; Zhang, Fengjuan; Ruan, Lifang; Sun, Ming

2011-11-01

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Interactions between arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and Meloidogyne incognita in the ornamental plant Impatiens balsamina  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in english Biocontrol traits of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF), in terms of single and mixed species inoculum, against the root knot nematode Meloidogyne incongita in Impatiens balsamina L., were examined with and without mineral fertilization in a greenhouse pot experiment. At harvest, 60 days after sowin [...] g, general plant growth parameters and plant defense response in terms of antioxidant activity and content of phenolic compounds in roots and leaves were measured. Also AMF root colonization and abundance ofnematode root-knots were determined. Mineral fertilization increased all plant growth parameters measured, which coincided with an increased disease development caused by M. incognita. Inoculation with AMF mitigated the observed plant growth reduction caused by M.incognita, though, higher abundance of M. incognita root knots was found in mycorrhizal plants. Plant defense responses in terms of antioxidant activity and content of phenolic compounds did not seem to be linked to the observed biocontrol traits of AMF against M. incognita. However, roots inoculated with a consortium of AMF, which presented less nematode root knots than roots with the single species inoculum, had the highest level of phenolic compounds. The results from the present study suggest that AMF induce tolerance in I. balsamina against the root knot nematode M. incognita.

J, Banuelos; A, Alarcón; J, Larsen; S, Cruz-Sánchez; D, Trejo.

2014-03-01

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Meloidogyne incognita Inoculum Source Affects Host Suitability and Growth of Yellow Nutsedge and Chile Pepper.  

Science.gov (United States)

Meloidogyne incognita (Mi) reproduction and host plant responses in chile pepper (Capsicum annuum) and yellow nutsedge (Cyperus esculentus = YNS) to three sources of inoculum obtained by rearing a single Mi population on chile, YNS, and tomato were evaluated in two factorial greenhouse experiments. The interactive effects of Mi inoculum source and crop-weed competition were determined. In the absence of YNS competition, chile growth was reduced less by Mi inoculum from chile than by inoculum from YNS or tomato. When YNS was present, chile root weight was not affected and shoot weight increased with Mi initial inoculation, regardless of inoculum source. Chile plants inoculated with Mi from tomato exhibited double the nematode reproduction observed with inoculum from chile or YNS. With chile present, Mi reproduction on YNS was nearly three times greater with inoculum from tomato, but reproduction was similar among inoculum sources when chile was absent. Reductions in YNS root mass due to competition from chile failed to reduce the total number of Mi eggs produced on YNS plants. Differences in total Mi reproduction among inoculum sources were not attributable to differences in root growth or plant competition. This study illustrates the influence of Mi-YNS interactions and previous hosts on severity of Mi infection. PMID:19274174

Thomas, S H; Schroeder, J; Kenney, M J; Murray, L W

1997-09-01

87

Nematicidal activity of fervenulin isolated from a nematicidal actinomycete, Streptomyces sp. CMU-MH021, on Meloidogyne incognita  

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An isolate of the actinomycete, Streptomyces sp. CMU-MH021 produced secondary metabolites that inhibited egg hatch and increased juvenile mortality of the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita in vitro. 16S rDNA gene sequencing showed that the isolate sequence was 99% identical to Streptomyces roseoverticillatus. The culture filtrates form different culture media were tested for nematocidal activity. The maximal activity against M. incognita was obtained by using modified basal (MB) medium...

Ruanpanun, Pornthip; Laatsch, Hartmut; Tangchitsomkid, Nuchanart; Lumyong, Saisamorn

2011-01-01

88

Uso de agentes microbianos e químico para o controle de Meloidogyne incognita em soja / Use of microbial and chemical agents to control Meloidogyne incognita in soybean  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Nematoides de galhas constituem importante grupo de patógenos da cultura da soja e o manejo integrado é uma das principais medidas de controle que visam à redução de perdas econômicas. Neste trabalho foi avaliada a eficácia dos fungos Paecilomyces lilacinus (Thom.) Samsom e Pochonia chlamydosporia ( [...] Goddard) Zare & Gams (sinonímia Verticillium chlamydosporium), de um produto comercial à base de Bacillus sp. (Nemix) e do nematicida químico Aldicarb no controle de Meloidogyne incognita em soja, variedade M-SOY 6101. O experimento foi realizado em casa-de-vegetação no delineamento experimental de blocos casualizados com nove tratamentos (três produtos biológicos usados no tratamento de sementes com ou sem a aplicação em pós-emergência, Aldicarb aplicado apenas em pós-emergência e duas testemunhas) e quatro repetições. Aldicarb reduziu o número de ovos e de juvenis do nematoide. P. lilacinus foi o mais atuante dos agentes biológicos, favorecendo a manutenção da quantidade de matéria seca da raiz de soja e reduzindo o número de ovos. O produto Nemix e P. chlamydosporia somente tiveram ação efetiva na redução do número de ovos do nematoide. Com base nos resultados, foi possível concluir que o agente químico e os agentes biológicos avaliados neste trabalho tiveram moderada atividade no controle de M. incognita em soja. Abstract in english Root-knot nematodes are considered significant pathogens of soybean crops. The objective of this work was to evaluate the efficacy of two fungi (Paecilomyces lilacinus (Thom.) Samsom and Pochonia chlamydosporia (Goddard) Zare & Gams (syn. Verticillium chlamydosporium), a commercial product based on [...] Bacillus sp. and Aldicarb on the control of Meloidogyne incognita on soybean, cultivar M-SOY 6101. The experimental design was set as randomized blocks with four replications. Nine treatments were evaluated: three biological agents used for seed treatment with and without post-emergence application, Aldicarb on post-emergence only, and two controls. All treatments were inoculated with the nematode, except for a blank control where only water was applied. One control-only treated with the nematode was also included. Aldicarb could reduce the number of eggs and juveniles in the roots. P. lilacinus showed the best performance among the biological control agents, reducing the number of eggs and increasing dry root weight. Nemix, a Bacillus sp. based commercial product and P. chlamydosporia could only reduce significantly the number of eggs of the nematode. In this work, it was possible to conclude that the chemical and biological agents showed a moderate activity in the control of M. incognita in soybean.

Henrique Teixeira, Nunes; Antonio Carlos, Monteiro; Alan William Vilela, Pomela.

2010-09-01

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Heat Stability of Resistance to Meloidogyne incognita in Scotch Bonnet Peppers ( Capsicum chinense Jacq.).  

Science.gov (United States)

Stability of resistance to Meloidogyne incognita (Kofoid &White) Chitwood was determined in pepper (Capsicum chinense Jacq. and C. annuum L.) at 24, 28, and 32 degrees C. Reactions of the C. annuum cultivars Charleston Belle and Keystone Resistant Giant and the C. chinense cultigens PA-426 and PA-350 to M. incognita were compared. Charleston Belle is homozygous for the N gene that confers resistance to M. incognita in C. annuum, and Keystone Resistant Giant is the susceptible recurrent parent of Charleston Belle. PA-426 is homozygous for a single dominant resistance gene that is allelic to the N gene, and PA-350 is susceptible. Root galling, egg-mass production, numbers of eggs per g fresh root, and reproductive factor of M. incognita increased for all pepper genotypes as temperature increased. Severity of root galling and nematode reproduction were less for PA-426 and Charleston Belle compared to PA-350 and Keystone Resistant Giant at all temperatures. However, both PA-426 and Charleston Belle exhibited a partial loss of resistance at the higher temperatures. For example, at 32 degrees C, the numbers of M. incognita eggs per g fresh root and the reproductive index for PA-426 and Charleston Belle were in the susceptible range. Nevertheless, the gall index for both cultivars was still within the resistant range. Both PA-350 and Keystone Resistant Giant exhibited highly susceptible reactions at 28 and 32 degrees C. Although the resistances of PA-426 and Charleston Belle were somewhat compromised at high temperatures, cultivars possessing these resistances will still be useful for managing M. incognita under high soil temperatures. PMID:19270989

Thies, J A; Fery, R L

2000-12-01

90

COMPORTAMIENTO DE GENOTIPOS DE LA FAMILIA SOLANACEAE FRENTE A Meloidogyne incognita (KOFOID Y WHITE) CHITWOOD1 / BEHAVIOUR OF GENOTYPES FROM SOLANACEA FAMILY IN FRONT TO Meloidogyne incognita (KOFOID Y WHITE) CHITWOOD1  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Los nematodos formadores de agallas (Meloidogyne spp.) constituyen factores limitantes de los rendimientos en la producción de hortalizas en campo abierto y casas de cultivo, donde el tomate (Solanum lycopersicum L. (ex Lycopersicon esculentum Mill)) representa un buen hospedante de estos nematodos. [...] Para manejar las poblaciones de estos organismos, entre otras tácticas se hace uso de genotipos resistentes o se acude al injerto herbáceo para obtener resultados productivos favorables, resultando necesaria la evaluación de los genotipos a emplear frente a poblaciones nativas, pues se sabe que la resistencia puede ser quebrada por factores tales como la virulencia de la población de Meloidogyne. El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar el comportamiento de líneas, híbridos y variedades de tomate ante una población nativa de M. incognita raza 2, como elemento básico del programa de injerto herbáceo que se desarrolla en Cuba para contar con alternativas al bromuro de metilo. Se inocularon 10 plantas por genotipo, con 1,5 huevos/juveniles.g de suelo-1 y se evaluaron a los 60 días, determinándose el Índice de Agallamiento (IA), Factor de Reproducción (FR) e índice de reproducción (IR). Los cultivares evaluados fueron Lycopersicon peruvianum acc. B6-140; Physalis ixocarpa acc. B6236; Lycopersicon pimpinelifolium acc. Mex 121-A; las variedades/híbridos de S. lycopersicum var. cerasiforme, Vyta, Mariela, Amalia, HC 3880 y HA 3019; el híbrido inter-específico Lycopersicon hirsutum x L. esculentum, Solanum torvum y los híbridos de tomate T-1x14, T-1x15, T-2x16 y LTM. Resultó inmune L. hirsutum x L. esculentum y muy resistentes S. torvum y L. peruvianum. Por su parte, P. ixocarpa se comportó como moderadamente resistente y el resto de los materiales evaluados fueron susceptibles a la población cubana de M. incognita raza 2. Abstract in english The root knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp.) are limiting factors for yields of vegetables in open areas and crops under shelter conditions, where tomato Solanum lycopersicon L. (ex Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) represents a very good host for these nematodes. For population management of this pest, [...] resistance and graffing are used, among other tactics, to obtain good productive results, but it is necessary to evaluated the resistance of genotypes to native populations, since as it is know resistancemay be broken by factors like virulence of Meloidogyne population. The objective of this study was to determine the behaviour of tomato lines hybrids and varieties to native population of M. incognita race 2, as a basic element for the graffting program being develop in Cuba as an alternative to methyl bromide. Ten plants per genotype were inoculated with 1,5 eggs/juvenils.g of soil-1 and evaluated after 60 days to determined the Root Galling Index (IA), the Reproduction Factor (FR) and the Reproduction Index (IR). The cultivars evaluated were Lycopersicon peruvianum acc. B6-140; Physalis ixocarpa acc. B6236; Lycopersicon pimpinellifolium acc. Mex 121-A; the following varieties/hybrids of Solanum lycopersicum var. ceraciforme, Vyta, Mariela, Amalia, HC 3880 and HA 3019; the interespecific hybrid Lycopersicon hirsutum x L. esculentum, Solanum torvum and the tomato hybrids T-1x14, T-1x15, T-2x16 and LTM. The interespecific hybrid L. hirsutum x L. esculentum was immune, whereas S. torvum and L. peruvianum were very resistant. In other hand, P. ixocarpa behaved as moderately resistant and the rest of genotypes were susceptibles to the Cuban population of M. incognita race 2.

Mayra G, Rodríguez; Lucila, Gómez; Farah M, González; Yudines, Carrillo; Maite, Piñón; Olimpia, Gómez; A.S, Casanova; Martha, Álvarez; Belkis, Peteira.

2009-12-01

91

Microplot Evaluation of Rootstocks for Control of Meloidogyne incognita on Grafted Tomato, Muskmelon, and Watermelon.  

Science.gov (United States)

Microplot experiments were conducted over two years (four growing seasons) to evaluate Meloidogyne incognita resistance in rootstocks used for grafted tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), muskmelon (Cucumis melo), and watermelon (Citrullus lanatus). Three tomato rootstocks; 'TX301', 'Multifort', and 'Aloha', were tested in addition to the nongrafted scion, 'Florida-47'. Two muskmelon rootstocks; Cucumis metuliferus and 'Tetsukabuto' (Cucurbita maxima × Cucurbita moschata) were evaluated with the nongrafted scion 'Athena'. Two watermelon rootstocks included 'Emphasis', a lagenaria-type, and an interspecific squash hybrid 'StrongTosa', which were grafted to the scion 'TriX Palomar' and planted only in the second year. Microplots were infested with M. incognita eggs in September each year. Tomatoes were planted in September followed by melons in March. In both years of the study, M. incognita juveniles (J2) in soil were similar among all tomato rootstocks, but numbers in roots were higher in the nongrafted Florida 47 than in all grafted rootstocks. In muskmelon only C. metuliferus rootstock reduced galling in nematode infested soil. Tetsukabuto did not reduce numbers of M. incognita J2 in either soil or roots either year. There were no differences in nematode numbers, galling, or plant growth parameters among the watermelon rootstocks tested. The use of resistant rootstocks has great potential for improving nematode control in the absence of soil fumigants. PMID:23431109

Kokalis-Burelle, Nancy; Rosskopf, Erin N

2011-09-01

92

Effect of Some Plant Extracts on the Hatch of Meloidogyne incognita Eggs  

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Full Text Available Root-knot nematodes are one of the major limiting factors affecting plant growth and yield. Currently, synthetic pesticides are principle means used to control the nematodes but natural products may provide a safer alternative. Nematicidal compounds have been identified in a wide diversity of plant species. A study was conducted to evaluate potential of aqueous extracts from Azadirachta indica, Carica papaya, Ocimum sanctum, Ricinus communis and Tagetes patula, in controlling the hatch of eggs of the root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita. Five concentrations of water soluble extracts from the five plant species were filtered, added to petri dishes and infested with eggs of M. incognita. The best results were obtained with O. sanctum, with no hatching within 48 h vs. 34.8% in the control.

Anuja Bharadwaj

2007-01-01

93

Ocorrência de Pratylenchus brachyurus e Meloidogyne incognita na cultura do algodoeiro no Estado do Mato Grosso  

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Full Text Available In a survey carried out in the state of Mato Grosso, Brazil, the lesion nematode, Pratylenchus brachyurus, and the root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita, were found, respectively, in 94% and 3.7% of a total of 623 root and soil samples representing 21,793 ha. No visible aboveground symptoms in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum plants infected by P. brachyurus were observed, except for typical root lesions. In contrast, plants with M. incognita usually exhibited pronounced symptoms of damage. The high frequency (94% of P. brachyurus was unexpected and is of concern considering the fact that soybean (Glycine max and corn (Zea mays, are both susceptible to this nematode and are used in crop rotation programs.

Silva Rosangela A. da

2004-01-01

94

Effects of Planting Date, Small Grain Crop Destruction, Fallow, and Soil Temperature on the Management of Meloidogyne incognita  

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The effects of planting date, rye (Secale cereale cv. Wren Abruzzi) and wheat (Triticura aestivum cv. Coker 797), crop destruction, fallow, and soil temperature on managing Meloidogyne incognita race 1 were determined in a 2-year study. More M. incognita juveniles (J2) and egg-producing adults were found in roots of rye planted 1 October than in roots of rye planted 1 November and wheat planted 1 November and 1 December. Numbers of M. incognita adults with and without egg masses were near or ...

Johnson, A. W.; Motsinger, R. E.

1990-01-01

95

Exposure Time to Lethal Temperatures for Meloidogyne incognita Suppression and Its Implication for Soil Solarization  

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Meloidogyne incognita eggs or J2 were incubated in test tubes containing sand:peat mix and immersed in a water bath heated to 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44 and 45°C for a series of time intervals. Controls were maintained at 22°C. Nematodes surviving or hatching were collected from Baermann trays after three weeks of incubation. Regression analyses between percent survival or egg hatch and hours of heat treatment were performed for each temperature. Complete suppression of egg hatch required 3...

Wang, K. -h; Mcsorley, R.

2008-01-01

96

Effect of cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus on penetration and reproduction of meloidogyne incognita in cowpea  

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Full Text Available greenhouse studies were conducted to investigate the effects of cowpea aphid-borne mosaic virus on penetration and reproduction of Meloidogyne incognita in cowpea and the influence of these pathogens on the yield of cowpea. The interaction of both pathogens resulted in higher population density of the nematode at harvest and correspondingly reduced grain yield in comparison to inoculation of either pathogen alone or un-inoculated control. An almost equal number of nematode juveniles penetrated roots of seedlings of nematode - susceptible Ife Brown and TVU 2657 and nematode - resistant IT81D - 975 cultivars of cowpea, but the nematode did not develop beyond second stage juvenile in the resistant cultivar. Concomitant inoculation of the nematode and the virus resulted in a shortened life cycle of the nematode in comparison to nematode alone inoculation. Interaction of both the nematode and the virus had a limited effect on the nematode resistant cultivar of cowpea.

Adekunle O.K.

2008-01-01

97

Resistance induction for Meloidogyne incognita in sugarcane through mineral organic fertilizers  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Este estudo investigou, em condições de casa de vegetação, os efeitos de três complexos organo-minerais (Coda Radimax, Coda Humus-PK e Coda Vit) na indução de resistência a Meloidogyne incognita em três variedades: RB92579, RB863129, RB867515 de cana-de-açúcar (Saccharum sp.), considerando-se a repr [...] odução do nematóide, desenvolvimento das plantas e anatomia das raízes, com ênfase a diferenças na deposição de lignina e proporções do córtex e cilindro vascular. As avaliações foram efetuadas 90 dias após a inoculação com 5000 ovos de M. incognita por planta. Em relação à testemunha, Coda Radimax reduziu significativamente o número final de ovos por sistema radicular em todas as variedades. Coda Humus-PK e Coda Vit se mostraram eficientes em diminuir a densidade de ovos em RB867515, mas não em RB863129. Todos os compostos testados não afetaram o diâmetro do colmo, peso da biomassa seca da parte aérea e número de perfilho. Coda Radimax aumentou significativamente o número de colmos em RB92579 e a biomassa fresca da parte aérea em RB863129 e RB92579. Coda Humus-PK aumentou significativamente a altura da planta em RB92579 e a biomassa fresca da parte aérea em RB92579 e RB867515, enquanto Coda Vit afetou, significativamente, a biomassa fresca da parte aérea e raízes de RB863129. Fundamentando-se nas sessões transversais obtidas das raízes de cada variedade de cana observada sob microscópio ótico, não ocorreram modificações anatômicas significativas nos tecidos inoculados com M. incognita em relação aos tecidos sadios. Abstract in english The effects of Coda Radimax (CR), Coda Humus-PK (CH) and Coda Vit (CV) on the induction of resistance for Meloidogyne incognita in sugarcane (Saccharum sp.) varieties (RB92579, RB863129, RB867515) through nematode reproduction, plant development and root anatomy analysis, emphasizing the differences [...] of the lignin deposition, and cortex-vascular cylinder proportions were investigated. In 90 days after inoculation with eggs of M. incognita, CR reduced the number of eggs per root system in all the sugarcane varieties; CH and CV reduced eggs density in RB867515; CR increased stalk number in RB92579 and fresh weight of shoots in RB863129 and RB92579; CH increased plant height in RB92579 and fresh weight of shoots in RB92579 and RB867515, CV affected fresh weigh of shoots and roots of RB863129. All the tested compounds did not affect stalk diameter, number and dry weight of shoots. Cross-sections of roots showed no anatomical changes in the M. incognita inoculated tissues.

Andréa, Chaves; Elvira Maria Régis, Pedrosa; Rejane Magalhães de Mendonça, Pimentel; Rildo Sartori Barbosa, Coelho; Lílian Margarete Paes, Guimarães; Sandra Roberta Vaz Lira, Maranhão.

1393-14-01

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Efecto del Vermicompost y Quitina sobre el control de meloidogyne incognita en tomate a nivel de invernadero / Effect of vermicompost and chitin on the control of Meloidogyne incognita in greenhouse tomato  

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Full Text Available SciELO Costa Rica | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Meloidogyne incognita es un nematodo endoparásito sedentario, de penetración total y formador de nódulos radicales; tiene una amplia distribución geográfica y causa pérdidas agrícolas importantes. Recientemente se han utilizado abonos orgánicos y compuestos como la quitina en la supresión de plagas [...] y enfermedades de plantas. El objetivo de esta investigación fue evaluar el efecto de la aplicación de vermicompost de estiércol bovino y su enriquecimiento con quitina, sobre la infección de M. incognita en plantas de tomate var. Hayslip bajo condiciones de invernadero. Para esto se inocularon las plantas con 5000 unidades de inóculo (huevos+juveniles en segundo estado) por maceta y se compararon con controles que fueron sembrados en suelo sin enmienda orgánica o quitina. La evaluación se llevó a cabo 60 días después y se midió el peso fresco aéreo y radical, peso seco aéreo, población total de nematodos en raíz y suelo, índice de nódulos radicales (INR), índice de masas de huevos (IMH), el factor de reproducción del nematodo (FR) y recuento de grupos funcionales (hongos, bacterias y actinomicetes). La adición al suelo de vermicompost provocó un incremento en las variables peso fresco y seco foliar y peso fresco radical: a mayor porcentaje de vermicompost, mayor incremento; así mismo, la aplicación del vermicompost redujo la cantidad del nematodo en raíz y en suelo. La aplicación de quitina acentuó estos resultados, obteniéndose el menor factor de reproducción de M. Incognita, con un valor de 3,76 para la dosis de 50% vermicompost+quitina, mientras que en el testigo este factor fue de 93,20. La aplicación de quitina como enmienda única solo afectó la población de hongos en el suelo, mientras que la de actinomicetes aumentó en los tratamientos enmendados Abstract in english Meloidogyne incognita is a sedentary endoparasitic nematode, with total penetration and gall-forming; it has a wide geographical distribution and causes significant agricultural losses. Recently, organic fertilizers and compounds such as chitin have been used in the suppression of plant pests and di [...] seases. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of applying cattle manure vermicompost, and its enrichment with chitin, on the infection of M. incognita in tomato plants var. Hayslip under greenhouse conditions. For this purpose, plants were inoculated with 5000 units of eggs+second stage juveniles per pot and were compared with controls grown in soil without organic amendment or chitin. The evaluation was carried out 60 days afterwards: the shoot and root fresh weight, shoot dry weight, total population in root and soil nematodes, root knot index (INR), rate of egg masses (IMH), the nematode reproduction factor (FR) and functional-groups numbers (fungi, bacteria and actinomycetes) were measured. The addition of vermicompost to soil caused an increase in the variables of shoot fresh and dry weight and fresh root weight: the higher the percentage of vermicompost, the higher the increase; likewise, the application of vermicompost reduced the number of nematodes both in root and soil. The application of chitin accentuated these results by bringing about the lowest reproduction factor of M. incognita, with a value of 3.76 for the dose of vermicompost+50% chitin, whereas in the control this factor had a value of 93.20. The application of chitin as sole amendment affected only the soil fungi population, while the actinomycetes population nincreased in the amended treatments

Leida, Castro; Lorena, Flores; Lidieth, Uribe.

2011-12-01

99

Mining novel effector proteins from the esophageal gland cells of Meloidogyne incognita.  

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Meloidogyne incognita is one of the most economically damaging plant pathogens in agriculture and horticulture. Identifying and characterizing the effector proteins which M. incognita secretes into its host plants during infection is an important step toward finding new ways to manage this pest. In this study, we have identified the cDNAs for 18 putative effectors (i.e., proteins that have the potential to facilitate M. incognita parasitism of host plants). These putative effectors are secretory proteins that do not contain transmembrane domains and whose genes are specifically expressed in the secretory gland cells of the nematode, indicating that they are likely secreted from the nematode through its stylet. We have determined that, in the plant cells, these putative effectors are likely to localize to the cytoplasm. Furthermore, the transcripts of many of these novel effectors are specifically upregulated during different stages of the nematode's life cycle, indicating that they function at specific stages during M. incognita parasitism. The predicted proteins showed little to no homology to known proteins from free-living nematode species, suggesting that they evolved recently to support the parasitic lifestyle. On the other hand, several of the effectors are part of gene families within the M. incognita genome as well as that of M. hapla, which points to an important role that these putative effectors are playing in both parasites. With the discovery of these putative effectors, we have increased our knowledge of the effector repertoire utilized by root-knot nematodes to infect, feed on, and reproduce on their host plants. Future studies investigating the roles that these proteins play in planta will help mitigate the effects of this damaging pest. PMID:24875667

Rutter, William B; Hewezi, Tarek; Abubucker, Sahar; Maier, Tom R; Huang, Guozhong; Mitreva, Makedonka; Hussey, Richard S; Baum, Thomas J

2014-09-01

100

Efeitos da temperatura sobre a atividade de fungos no controle biológico de Meloidogyne javanica E M. incognita raça 3 / Effect of soil warming on the biological control of Meloidogyne javanica and M. incognita race 3  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O efeito de Arthrobotrys conoides, Duddingtonia flagrans, Paecilomyces lilacinus, Paecilomyces variotii, Monacrosporium doedycoides e um isolado de rizobactéria na reprodução e crescimento populacional de Meloidogyne javanica e M. incognita raça 3 em tomateiro Santa Clara, suscetível à Meloidogyne s [...] pp., foi estudado em três ambientes distintos: 1) casa-de-vegetação sem controle de temperatura; 2) sala climatizada com temperatura do ar constante a 24ºC; 3) em banho-maria com temperatura do solo mantida em 29-30ºC, colocado na mesma sala climatizada caracterizada anteriormente. Maior crescimento populacional de M. javanica e de M. incognita raça 3 ocorreu em solo aquecido, comparado com aquela em casa-de-vegetação e sala climatizada, e o número de galhas causado por M. javanica e M. incognita raça 3 foi maior em solo aquecido e em sala climatizada do que em casa-de-vegetação. Em solo aquecido e em sala climatizada, A. conoides e a rizobactéria reduziram (P Abstract in english The effects of Arthrobotrys conoides, Duddingtonia flagrans, Paecilomyces lilacinus, Paecilomyces variotii, Monacrosporium doedycoides and an isolate of rhizobacterium on reproductivity of Meloidogyne javanica and M. incognita race 3 on Santa Clara tomato plants, susceptible to Meloidogyne spp., wer [...] e studied in three different environments: 1) greenhouse without temperature control; 2) room with air temperature controlled at 24ºC; 3) watherbath with soil temperature controlled at 29-30ºC, placed in the room with the temperature controlled at 24ºC. Greatest M. javanica and M. incognita race 3 reproductivity occurred in waterbath warmed soil than in greenhouse and temperature controlled room. Galls number caused by M. javanica and M. incognita race 3 was greater in waterbath warmed soil and temperature controlled room than in greenhouse. In waterbath warmed soil and in temperature controlled room, A. conoides and rhizobacterium reduced (P

Fábio R., Alves; Vicente Paulo, Campos.

 
 
 
 
101

Efecto de extractos acuosos de dos meliaceas sobre Meloidogyne incognita (Nematoda, meloidogynidae)  

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Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Se evaluó la bioactividad de seis extractos acuosos al 10% y 30% (P/V), conteniendo terpenoides de Melia azedarach y Trichilia glauca (Meliaceae) en su constitución química, sobre la plaga Meloidogyne incognita (Nematoda, Meloidogynidae). Los resultados muestran que los productos naturales ensayados [...] poseen una buena actividad nematicida, ya que ejercieron efectos letales moderados (mortalidad: 23-46.2%, dependiendo del tratamiento). Estos datos indican que las interesantes propiedades de ambas Meliaceae podrían utilizarse en el manejo de este nematode en huertas, en reemplazo de los nematicidas sintéticos. Abstract in english The bioactivity of six aqueous extracts 10% and 30% (P/V), containing terpenoids from Melia azedarachand Trichilia glauca (Meliaceae) in their chemical constitution, was evaluated against the pest Meloidogyne incognita (Nematoda, Meloidogynidae). Results show that the natural products assayed had a [...] good nematicidal activity, because they had moderate lethal effects (mortality: 23-46.2%, depending upon treatment). These data show that the interesting properties of both Meliaceae could be used in orchard nematode management, in replacement of synthetic nematicides.

Graciela, Mareggiani; Norma, Zamuner; Gisella, Angarola.

2010-04-01

102

Efecto de extractos acuosos de dos meliaceas sobre Meloidogyne incognita (Nematoda, meloidogynidae)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Se evaluó la bioactividad de seis extractos acuosos al 10% y 30% (P/V), conteniendo terpenoides de Melia azedarach y Trichilia glauca (Meliaceae) en su constitución química, sobre la plaga Meloidogyne incognita (Nematoda, Meloidogynidae). Los resultados muestran que los productos naturales ensayados [...] poseen una buena actividad nematicida, ya que ejercieron efectos letales moderados (mortalidad: 23-46.2%, dependiendo del tratamiento). Estos datos indican que las interesantes propiedades de ambas Meliaceae podrían utilizarse en el manejo de este nematode en huertas, en reemplazo de los nematicidas sintéticos. Abstract in english The bioactivity of six aqueous extracts 10% and 30% (P/V), containing terpenoids from Melia azedarachand Trichilia glauca (Meliaceae) in their chemical constitution, was evaluated against the pest Meloidogyne incognita (Nematoda, Meloidogynidae). Results show that the natural products assayed had a [...] good nematicidal activity, because they had moderate lethal effects (mortality: 23-46.2%, depending upon treatment). These data show that the interesting properties of both Meliaceae could be used in orchard nematode management, in replacement of synthetic nematicides.

Graciela, Mareggiani; Norma, Zamuner; Gisella, Angarola.

103

Microorganismos Benéficos Asociados a Meloidogyne incognita (Kofoid y White) Chitwood en Guayabo (Psidium guajava L.) de Calvillo, Aguascalientes, México / Beneficent Microorganisms Associated to Meloidogyne incognita (Kofoid & White) Chitwood in Guava (Psidium guajava L.) of Calvillo, Aguascalientes, México  

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Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Se identificó a Meloidogyne incognita como la especie del nematodo agallador que parásita al cultivo del guayabo, en la región de Calvillo (Aguascalientes, México). También se aisló hongos y bacterias benéficos asociados a suelo y raíces colectadas en las localidades de Cerro Blanco, Mesa Grande, La [...] Labor y Malpaso. Veinte muestras distintas de Meloidogyne sp., fueron identificadas tomando en cuenta las características de patrones perineales de las hembras adultas así como por la observación de la región anterior de los machos. La especie Meloidogyne incognita fue identificada en todas las muestras. Los microorganismos benéficos aislados y asociados a la rizósfera del guayabo con uso potencial en control biológico, pertenecen a las especies de Bacillus cereus, B. subtilis B. megaterium y Paecilomyces farinosus. Además los nematodos edáficos Rhabditis y Mononchus fueron identificados en las muestras. Abstract in english The root-knot nematode species Meloidogyne incognita was identified as the one species that parasites guava orchards in the Calvillo region (Aguascalientes, Mexico). Beneficent fungi and bacteria were isolated as well, associated to soil and roots collected from the Cerro Blanco, Mesa Grande, La Lab [...] or and Malpaso locations. Twenty different Meloidogyne sp., samples were identified taking adult female perinea pattern characteristics into account, as well as the male anterior region observation. The Meloidogyne incognita species was identified in all the samples. The isolated beneficent microorganisms and associated to guava rhizosphere with a potential use in biological control, belong to the Bacillus cereus, B. subtilis B. megaterium and Paecilomyces farinosus species. Furthermore, the Rhabditis and Mononchus soil nematodes were identified in the samples.

Gabriel, Gallegos-Morales; Melchor, Cepeda-Siller; Francisco Daniel, Hernández-Castillo; Ana María, Acosta-Zamarripa; Rodolfo, Velásquez-Valle; Ernesto, González-Gaona; Juan Manuel, Sánchez-Yánez.

104

Potential of sucrose and Pennisetum purpureum cv. Cameroon mulch on the management of Meloidogyne javanica and M. incognita  

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Full Text Available The effects of sucrose on motility and infectiveness of juveniles of Meloidogyne javanica were evaluated under laboratory and greenhouse conditions, using brown sugar and crystal sugar. Results showed that crystal and brown sugar solutions reduced motility and promoted morphological alterations of juvenile nematodes in vitro. The increasing dosages of sucrose reduced the number of galls and egg masses in tomato root by reducing the number of infective juveniles. The efficiency of granular sucrose, sucrose solution, with and without elephant-grass mulch, in the reduction of reproduction and final population of M. incognita race 2, were also evaluated. Granular sucrose induced decrease on the numbers of galls and eggs masses per root system as well as on juveniles in the soil. For sucrose solution assay, the best results for reproductive reduction were obtained with 300g of granular sucrose per liter of soil, applied at seven days intervals, associated with elephant-grass mulch.Os efeitos da sacarose sobre a motilidade e a infectividade de juvenis de Meloidogyne javanica foram avaliados em condições de laboratório e casa-de-vegetação, usando açúcar mascavo e açúcar cristal. Os resultados indicaram que as soluções de açúcar mascavo e cristal reduziram a motilidade e promoveram alterações morfológicas em juvenis dos nematóides in vitro. A eficiência da sacarose em grânulos e da sacarose em solução, com e sem a cobertura com matéria vegetal de capim elefante, na redução da reprodução e da população final de M. incognita raça 2 também foi avaliada. A sacarose em grânulos diminuiu os números de galhas e massas de ovos por sistema radicular e também de juvenis no solo. Para o ensaio com sacarose em solução, os melhores resultados para a redução da reprodução foram obtidos com a dose de 300 g de sacarose por litro de solo, aplicada a intervalos de sete dias, juntamente com a cobertura do solo com cobertura de matéria verde de capim-elefante.

Débora Cristina Santiago

2005-11-01

105

Chemical Composition and Nematicidal Activity of Essential Oil of Agastache rugosa against Meloidogyne incognita  

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Full Text Available The aim of this research was to determine the chemical composition and nematicidal activity of essential oil of Agastache rugosa flowering aerial parts against the root knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita, and to isolate and identify any nematicidal constituents from the essential oil. The essential oil of A. rugosa aerial parts was obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by GC-FID and GC-MS. A total of 37 components of the essential oil were identified, with the principal compounds being methyleugenol (50.51%, estragole (8.55%, and eugenol (7.54%, followed by thymol (3.62%, pulegone (2.56%, limonene (2.49% and caryophyllene (2.38%. Based on bioactivity-guided fractionation, the three active constituents were isolated from the essential oil and identified as methyleugenol, estragole and eugenol. The essential oil of A. rugosa exhibited strong nematicidal activity against M. incognita, with a LC50 value of 47.3 ?g/mL. The components eugenol (LC50 = 66.6 ?g/mL and methyleugenol (LC50 = 89.4 ?g/mL exhibited stronger nematicidal activity against M. incognita (LC50 = 185.9 ?g/mL. The results indicate that the essential oil of A. rugosa aerial parts and its constituent compounds have potential for development into natural nematicides for control of the root knot nematode.

Zhi Wei Deng

2013-04-01

106

Nematicidal activity of 2-thiophenecarboxaldehyde and methylisothiocyanate from caper (Capparis spinosa) against Meloidogyne incognita.  

Science.gov (United States)

New pesticides based on plant extracts have recently gained interest in the development of nontoxic crop protection chemicals. Numerous research studies are focused on the isolation and identification of new active compounds derived from plants. In this manuscript we report about the use of the Mediterranean species Capparis spinosa as a potent natural nematicidal agent against the root knot nematodes Meloidogyne incognita. Leaves, stems, and caper buds of Capparis spinosa were used to obtain their methanol extracts (LME, SME, BME) that were successively in vitro tested against second stage nematode juveniles (J2). In terms of paralysis induction, the methanol extract of the stem part (SME) was found more effective against M. incognita and then the caper methanol buds and leaves extracts. The chemical composition analysis of the extracts carried out by GC/MS and LC/MS techniques showed that methylisothiocyanate was the main compound of SME. The EC50 for SME after 3 days of immersion was 215 ± 36 mg/L. The constituent components of SME such as 2-thiophenecarboxaldehyde and methylisothiocyanate were successively in vitro tested for their nematicidal activity against J2. Both compounds induced paralysis on root knot nematodes ranking first (EC50 = 7.9 ± 1.6, and 14.1 ± 1.9 mg/L respectively) for M. incognita. Moreover, 2-thiophenecarboxaldehyde showed a strong fumigant activity. PMID:22769561

Caboni, Pierluigi; Sarais, Giorgia; Aissani, Nadhem; Tocco, Graziella; Sasanelli, Nicola; Liori, Barbara; Carta, Annarosa; Angioni, Alberto

2012-08-01

107

Nematicidal activity of chaetoglobosin A poduced by Chaetomium globosum NK102 against Meloidogyne incognita.  

Science.gov (United States)

The nematicidal activity of Chaetomium globosum NK102, culture filtrates, and chaetoglobosin A (ChA) purified by HPLC was evaluated on Meloidogyne incognita . The results showed that C. globosum NK102 significantly repelled second-stage juveniles (J2s). Both filtrates and ChA demonstrated strong adverse effects on J2 mortality with 99.8% at 300 ?g ChA/mL (LC(50) = 77.0 ?g/mL) at 72 h. ChA and filtrates did not affect egg hatch until 72 h of exposure. All filtrate treatments inhibited the J2 penetration even in 12.5% dilution treatment. Similarly, ChA (300 and 30 ?g/mL) showed a significant inhibitory effect on J2 penetration. The number of eggs per plant was significantly reduced in the treatment of 30 mg ChA/kg soil by 63% relative to control plants, indicating the apparent negative effect on reproduction of M. incognita. The study demonstrated the nematicidal activity of ChA and suggested that it could be a potential biocontrol agent for integrated management of M. incognita. PMID:23214998

Hu, Yang; Zhang, Weipu; Zhang, Ping; Ruan, Weibin; Zhu, Xudong

2013-01-01

108

Chemical composition and nematicidal activity of essential oil of Agastache rugosa against Meloidogyne incognita.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this research was to determine the chemical composition and nematicidal activity of essential oil of Agastache rugosa flowering aerial parts against the root knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita, and to isolate and identify any nematicidal constituents from the essential oil. The essential oil of A. rugosa aerial parts was obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by GC-FID and GC-MS. A total of 37 components of the essential oil were identified, with the principal compounds being methyleugenol (50.51%), estragole (8.55%), and eugenol (7.54%), followed by thymol (3.62%), pulegone (2.56%), limonene (2.49%) and caryophyllene (2.38%). Based on bioactivity-guided fractionation, the three active constituents were isolated from the essential oil and identified as methyleugenol, estragole and eugenol. The essential oil of A. rugosa exhibited strong nematicidal activity against M. incognita, with a LC50 value of 47.3 ?g/mL. The components eugenol (LC50 = 66.6 ?g/mL) and methyleugenol (LC50 = 89.4 ?g/mL) exhibited stronger nematicidal activity against M. incognita (LC50 = 185.9 ?g/mL). The results indicate that the essential oil of A. rugosa aerial parts and its constituent compounds have potential for development into natural nematicides for control of the root knot nematode. PMID:23571530

Li, He Qin; Liu, Qi Zhi; Liu, Zhi Long; Du, Shu Shan; Deng, Zhi Wei

2013-01-01

109

Plantago lanceolata and Plantago rugelii Extracts are Toxic to Meloidogyne incognita but not to Certain Microbes.  

Science.gov (United States)

Extracts from the plants Plantago lanceolata and P. rugelii were evaluated for toxicity to the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita, the beneficial microbes Enterobacter cloacae, Pseudomonas fluorescens and Trichoderma virens, and the plant-pathogenic fungi Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. gladioli, Phytophthora capsici, Pythium ultimum, and Rhizoctonia solani. Wild plants were collected, roots were excised from shoots, and the plant parts were dried and ground to a powder. One set of extracts (10% w/v) was prepared in water and another in methanol. Treatments included extract concentrations of 25%, 50%, 75% and 100%, and water controls. Meloidogyne incognita egg hatch was recorded after 7-day exposure to the treatments, and second-stage juvenile (J2) activity after 48 hours. All extracts were toxic to eggs and J2, with P. lanceolata shoot extract tending to have the most activity against M. incognita. Numbers of active J2 remained the same or decreased in a 24-hour water rinse following the 48-hour extract treatment, indicating that the extracts were lethal. When data from water- and methanol-extracted roots and shoots of both plant species were combined for analysis, J2 tended to be more sensitive than eggs to the toxic compounds at lower concentrations, while the higher concentrations (75% and 100%) were equally toxic to both life stages. The effective concentrations causing 50% reduction (EC(50)) in egg hatch and in J2 viability were 44.4% and 43.7%, respectively. No extract was toxic to any of the bacteria or fungi in our assays. PMID:19259537

Meyer, Susan L F; Zasada, Inga A; Roberts, Daniel P; Vinyard, Bryan T; Lakshman, Dilip K; Lee, Jae-Kook; Chitwood, David J; Carta, Lynn K

2006-09-01

110

Management of Meloidogyne incognita on tomato by root-dip treatment in culture filtrate of the blue-green alga, Microcoleus vaginatus.  

Science.gov (United States)

The nematicidal potential of culture filtrates of the blue-green alga, Microcoleus vaginatus (Cyanobacterium) was tested against Meloidogyne incognita on tomato in pots under greenhouse conditions. Prior to the transplantation of tomato seedling, roots were dipped in different concentrations (0.2%, 0.5%, 1%, 2%, 10%, 50% and 100%) of culture filtrate of M. vaginatus for 30 min. Root-dip treatment reduced the root galling and final population of M. incognita and increased vegetative growth of plants and root-mass production compared with the control. The beneficial effect of root-dip treatment increased with the increase in the concentration of culture filtrate. Root galling and final nematode populations were reduced by 65.9% and 97.5%, respectively when treated at the highest concentration. PMID:15792580

Khan, Z; Park, S D; Shin, S Y; Bae, S G; Yeon, I K; Seo, Y J

2005-08-01

111

Histopathological Studies of Eggplant Roots as Affected by IAA, Agrobacterium tumefaciens and Meloidogyne incognita Alone and in Combinations  

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Full Text Available The anatomy of eggplant roots as affected by the application of IAA, Agrobacterium tumefaciens and Meloidogyne incognita alone and in combination was studied. IAA and A. tumefaciens, alone and in combination increased the root diameter, cortex thickness, number of cortex layers, stele diameter, number of xylem vessels but decreased the vessel diameter. Inoculation with M. incognita led to the formation of multinucleated giant cells surrounded by deformed xylem elements, hypertrophy of the cortex and hyperplasia of the pericycle. More giant cells with higher dimensions were formed and more eggs/egg mass were produced in plants where IAA, A. tumefaciens alone or in combination was introduced with M. incognita. On the other hand, the presence of IAA, A. tumefaciens or their combination extended the life-span of giant cells, providing long-lasting feeding sites for the nematode. The auxin-mediated role of A. tumefaciens in development and reproduction of M. incognita was discussed.

Mohamed A. Elwakil

2003-01-01

112

Behavior of Ilex paraguariensis St. Hilaire, 1822 to Meloidogyne incognita and M. paranaensis and their influence on development of plantlets  

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Full Text Available The influence of Meloidogyne incognita and M. paranaensis on the development of mate (Ilex paraguariensis ST. Hill plantlets was assessed in greenhouse and laboratory. The experimental design was randomized. Every plot of each one of the 10 repetitions contained one mate plantlet , inoculated with 5,000 eggs of M. incognita (races 1, 2, 3 and 4 and M. paranaensis. After 120 days it was observed that mate was a reliable hostess to such nematodes and that they could finish their life cycle. Plant development was significantly modified by M. incognita, races 1 and 2. Dry and green matter weight of shoots changed according to treatment. No changes were observed in fresh root weight. The number of eggs per root was similar for M. incognita, races 1 and 2, and higher for the other treatments. The reproduction factor was above 1 for all treatments, indicating mate plants susceptibility to them.A influência de Meloidogyne incognita e M paranaensis no desenvolvimento de mudas de erva-mate, foi avaliada em casa-de-vegetação e laboratório. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado, com 10 repetições, sendo cada parcela formada de 1 plântula de erva-mate/vaso, inoculada com 5000 ovos de M. incognita raças 1, 2, 3, 4 e M. paranaensis. Aos 120 dias, observou-se que a erva-mate, além de boa hospedeira destes nematóides, permitiu-lhes completar seu ciclo vital. O desenvolvimento das plantas foi significativamente afetado pelas raças 1 e 2 de M. incognita.; os pesos de matéria seca e fresca da parte aérea sofreram alterações conforme o tratamento. Não houve alteração no peso fresco de raízes e o número de ovos por raízes foi semelhante para as raças 1 e 2 de M. incognita, sendo, porém, mais elevado nos demais tratamentos. O fator de reprodução foi superior a 1 em todos os tratamentos, indicando a susceptibilidade da erva-mate a estes agentes.

Débora Cristina Santiago

2000-01-01

113

Efeitos da temperatura sobre a atividade de fungos no controle biológico de Meloidogyne javanica E M. incognita raça 3 Effect of soil warming on the biological control of Meloidogyne javanica and M. incognita race 3  

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Full Text Available O efeito de Arthrobotrys conoides, Duddingtonia flagrans, Paecilomyces lilacinus, Paecilomyces variotii, Monacrosporium doedycoides e um isolado de rizobactéria na reprodução e crescimento populacional de Meloidogyne javanica e M. incognita raça 3 em tomateiro Santa Clara, suscetível à Meloidogyne spp., foi estudado em três ambientes distintos: 1 casa-de-vegetação sem controle de temperatura; 2 sala climatizada com temperatura do ar constante a 24ºC; 3 em banho-maria com temperatura do solo mantida em 29-30ºC, colocado na mesma sala climatizada caracterizada anteriormente. Maior crescimento populacional de M. javanica e de M. incognita raça 3 ocorreu em solo aquecido, comparado com aquela em casa-de-vegetação e sala climatizada, e o número de galhas causado por M. javanica e M. incognita raça 3 foi maior em solo aquecido e em sala climatizada do que em casa-de-vegetação. Em solo aquecido e em sala climatizada, A. conoides e a rizobactéria reduziram (PThe effects of Arthrobotrys conoides, Duddingtonia flagrans, Paecilomyces lilacinus, Paecilomyces variotii, Monacrosporium doedycoides and an isolate of rhizobacterium on reproductivity of Meloidogyne javanica and M. incognita race 3 on Santa Clara tomato plants, susceptible to Meloidogyne spp., were studied in three different environments: 1 greenhouse without temperature control; 2 room with air temperature controlled at 24ºC; 3 watherbath with soil temperature controlled at 29-30ºC, placed in the room with the temperature controlled at 24ºC. Greatest M. javanica and M. incognita race 3 reproductivity occurred in waterbath warmed soil than in greenhouse and temperature controlled room. Galls number caused by M. javanica and M. incognita race 3 was greater in waterbath warmed soil and temperature controlled room than in greenhouse. In waterbath warmed soil and in temperature controlled room, A. conoides and rhizobacterium reduced (P< 0,05 the galls number of M. incognita race 3 compared to control. A. conoides also reduced the eggs number of M. incognita race 3 compared to control in waterbath warmed soil. In greenhouse, all antagonistics used reduced the eggs number compared to control.

Fábio R. Alves

2003-02-01

114

Reação de genótipos de milho ao parasitismo de Meloidogyne incognita raça 1 e a M. paranaensis / Reaction of corn genotypes to parasitism from Meloidogyne incognita breed 1and M. paranaensis  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O uso de híbridos e genótipos de milho resistentes aos nematóides formadores de galhas em sistemas de rotação de culturas mantém sua população em níveis baixos, diminuindo as perdas e possibilitando, posteriormente, o uso de genótipos mais suscetíveis. No presente trabalho, foi avaliada a resistênci [...] a de 18 genótipos de milho ao parasitismo de M. paranaensis e a M. incognita raça 1 em casa-de-vegetação. As plantas foram inoculadas com 5.000 ovos e eventuais juvenis dos respectivos nematóides. O delineamento utilizado foi inteiramente ao acaso, com dez repetições para cada tratamento com os nematóides e cinco repetições para a testemunha sem inoculação. Também foi realizada a técnica de coloração das raízes com fucsina ácida, pelo método de Byrd et al. (1972). Sessenta dias após a inoculação, os sistemas radiculares foram coletados, lavados e avaliados quanto à penetração, produção de ovos e estimativa do Fator de Reprodução (FR). Os resultados mostraram que, para M. paranaensis, o FR variou de 0,01 a 0,08; para M. incognita, a variação foi de 0,01 a 0,03, mostrando que todos os genótipos se comportaram como resistentes, apresentando FR Abstract in english The use of corn hybrids and genotypes resistant to root-knot nematodes in crop rotation systems reduce the population of nematodes, preventing losses and allowing for the use of more susceptible genotypes. In this study, the resistance of eighteen hybrids of corn to parasitism of Meloidogyne paranae [...] nsis and M. incognita breed 1 were evaluated in a greenhouse. The plants were inoculated with 5,000 eggs and possible juveniles of each nematode in a completely randomized design, using ten replicates for each treatment with nematodes, and five replicates for the treatment without inoculation (control). The root staining technique using acid fuchsin was also applied, according to Byrd et al. (1972). Sixty days after the inoculation, the roots systems were collected, washed and evaluated for penetration, egg production and estimated reproduction factor (RF). The results showed that, for M. paranaensis, the RF varied from 0.01 to 0.08, while for M. incognita the variation was from 0.01 to 0.03, showing that all corn genotypes were resistant, presenting a RF

Ricardo Michael, Levy; Martin, Homechin; Débora Cristina, Santiago; Marina Capparelli, Cadioli; Fernando César, Baida.

2009-12-01

115

Effects of insect cadavers infected by Heterorhabditis bacteriophora and Steinernema diaprepesi on Meloidogyne incognita parasitism in pepper and summer squash plants / Efecto de insectos cadáveres infectados por Heterorhabditis bacteriophora y Steinernema diaprepesi sobre el parasitismo de Meloidogyne incognita en plantas de pimiento y zapallito redondo de tronco  

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Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in spanish E.E. Del Valle, P. Lax, J. Rondán Dueñas y M.E. Doucet. 2013. Efecto de insectos cadáveres infectados por Heterorhabditis bacteriophora y Steinernema diaprepesi sobre el parasitismo de Meloidogyne incognita en plantas de pimiento y zapallito redondo de tronco. Cien. Inv. Agr. 40(1):109-118. El efect [...] o de cadáveres de insectos infectados con tres aislados de Heterorhabditis bacteriophora y un aislado de Steinernema diaprepesi sobre una población de Meloidogyne incognita en plantas de pimiento (Capsicum annuum) y zapallito redondo de tronco (Cucurbita maxima) fue evaluado en experiencias de invernadero conducidas en Santa Fe (Argentina). Los cadáveres de insectos necesarios para la experiencia se obtuvieron infectando larvas de último estadio de Galleria mellonella y Tenebrio monitor con nematodos entomopatógenos. Dos cadáveres de seis días de infección se colocaron debajo de la superficie del suelo de macetas que fueron inoculadas con 100 juveniles de segundo estadio de M. incognita. A los sesenta días se registraron los siguientes parámetros en cada planta: número de hojas, peso seco de la parte aérea, número de agallas, masas de huevos y huevos, y número de agallas, masas de huevos y huevos g-1 de materia fresca radical. En pimiento, la única variable afectada por los cadáveres en relación al testigo fue el número de huevos de M. incognita en el tratamiento de cadáveres de T. molitor infectados con H. bacteriophora aislado Rama Caída. En zapallito redondo de tronco, varios tratamientos provocaron una disminución en el número de agallas y masas de huevos. Sólo la aplicación de cadáveres de G. mellonella infectados con H. bacteriophora aislado Rama Caída demostró ser eficiente en reducir el número de huevos de M. incognita. Nuestros resultados indicaron que la aplicación de cadáveres de insectos infectados con los nematodos entomopatógenos estudiados podría reducir los daños causados por M. incognita en plantas de pimiento y zapallito redondo de tronco. Abstract in english E. E. Del Valle, P. Lax, J. Rondán Dueñas, and M. E. Doucet. 2013. Effects of insect cadavers infected by Heterorhabditis bacteriophora and Steinernema diaprepesi on Meloidogyne incognita parasitism in pepper and summer squash plants. Cien. Inv. Agr. 40(1):109-118. The effects of insect cadavers inf [...] ected with three isolates of Heterorhabditis bacteriophora and one isolate of Steinernema diaprepesi on a population of Meloidogyne incognita in pepper (Capsicum annuum) and summer squash (Cucurbita maxima) were evaluated in greenhouse experiments carried out in Santa Fe (Argentina). Insect cadavers were obtained for the experiments from last instar larvae of Galleria mellonella and Tenebrio molitor that had been infected with entomopathogenic nematodes. Two six-day-old insect cadavers per pot were placed below the soil surface, and the soil was inoculated with 100 second-stage juveniles ofM incognita. Sixty days after inoculation, the following parameters were recorded for each plant: number of leaves; dry weight of aerial parts; numbers of galls, egg masses and eggs; and numbers of galls, egg masses and eggs g-1 of root fresh matter. In pepper, the only variable affected by the infected cadavers with respect to control was the number of eggs in the treatment involving T. molitor cadavers infected with the H. bacteriophora isolate Rama Caída. In summer squash, several treatments using infected cadavers resulted in a decrease in the numbers of galls and egg masses. Only the treatment involving G. mellonella cadavers infected with the H. bacteriophora isolate Rama Caída proved to be efficient in reducing the number of M. incognita eggs. Our results indicated that the application of insect cadavers infected with the entomopathogenic nematodes studied might reduce M. incognita damage in pepper and summer squash plants.

Eleodoro E, Del Valle; Paola, Lax; Juan, Rondán Dueñas; Marcelo E, Doucet.

116

Effects of insect cadavers infected by Heterorhabditis bacteriophora and Steinernema diaprepesi on Meloidogyne incognita parasitism in pepper and summer squash plants / Efecto de insectos cadáveres infectados por Heterorhabditis bacteriophora y Steinernema diaprepesi sobre el parasitismo de Meloidogyne incognita en plantas de pimiento y zapallito redondo de tronco  

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Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in spanish E.E. Del Valle, P. Lax, J. Rondán Dueñas y M.E. Doucet. 2013. Efecto de insectos cadáveres infectados por Heterorhabditis bacteriophora y Steinernema diaprepesi sobre el parasitismo de Meloidogyne incognita en plantas de pimiento y zapallito redondo de tronco. Cien. Inv. Agr. 40(1):109-118. El efect [...] o de cadáveres de insectos infectados con tres aislados de Heterorhabditis bacteriophora y un aislado de Steinernema diaprepesi sobre una población de Meloidogyne incognita en plantas de pimiento (Capsicum annuum) y zapallito redondo de tronco (Cucurbita maxima) fue evaluado en experiencias de invernadero conducidas en Santa Fe (Argentina). Los cadáveres de insectos necesarios para la experiencia se obtuvieron infectando larvas de último estadio de Galleria mellonella y Tenebrio monitor con nematodos entomopatógenos. Dos cadáveres de seis días de infección se colocaron debajo de la superficie del suelo de macetas que fueron inoculadas con 100 juveniles de segundo estadio de M. incognita. A los sesenta días se registraron los siguientes parámetros en cada planta: número de hojas, peso seco de la parte aérea, número de agallas, masas de huevos y huevos, y número de agallas, masas de huevos y huevos g-1 de materia fresca radical. En pimiento, la única variable afectada por los cadáveres en relación al testigo fue el número de huevos de M. incognita en el tratamiento de cadáveres de T. molitor infectados con H. bacteriophora aislado Rama Caída. En zapallito redondo de tronco, varios tratamientos provocaron una disminución en el número de agallas y masas de huevos. Sólo la aplicación de cadáveres de G. mellonella infectados con H. bacteriophora aislado Rama Caída demostró ser eficiente en reducir el número de huevos de M. incognita. Nuestros resultados indicaron que la aplicación de cadáveres de insectos infectados con los nematodos entomopatógenos estudiados podría reducir los daños causados por M. incognita en plantas de pimiento y zapallito redondo de tronco. Abstract in english E. E. Del Valle, P. Lax, J. Rondán Dueñas, and M. E. Doucet. 2013. Effects of insect cadavers infected by Heterorhabditis bacteriophora and Steinernema diaprepesi on Meloidogyne incognita parasitism in pepper and summer squash plants. Cien. Inv. Agr. 40(1):109-118. The effects of insect cadavers inf [...] ected with three isolates of Heterorhabditis bacteriophora and one isolate of Steinernema diaprepesi on a population of Meloidogyne incognita in pepper (Capsicum annuum) and summer squash (Cucurbita maxima) were evaluated in greenhouse experiments carried out in Santa Fe (Argentina). Insect cadavers were obtained for the experiments from last instar larvae of Galleria mellonella and Tenebrio molitor that had been infected with entomopathogenic nematodes. Two six-day-old insect cadavers per pot were placed below the soil surface, and the soil was inoculated with 100 second-stage juveniles ofM incognita. Sixty days after inoculation, the following parameters were recorded for each plant: number of leaves; dry weight of aerial parts; numbers of galls, egg masses and eggs; and numbers of galls, egg masses and eggs g-1 of root fresh matter. In pepper, the only variable affected by the infected cadavers with respect to control was the number of eggs in the treatment involving T. molitor cadavers infected with the H. bacteriophora isolate Rama Caída. In summer squash, several treatments using infected cadavers resulted in a decrease in the numbers of galls and egg masses. Only the treatment involving G. mellonella cadavers infected with the H. bacteriophora isolate Rama Caída proved to be efficient in reducing the number of M. incognita eggs. Our results indicated that the application of insect cadavers infected with the entomopathogenic nematodes studied might reduce M. incognita damage in pepper and summer squash plants.

Eleodoro E, Del Valle; Paola, Lax; Juan, Rondán Dueñas; Marcelo E, Doucet.

2013-04-01

117

Registro da ocorrência de Meloidogyne incognita no porta-enxerto 'IAC 766-Campinas' no estado de Pernambuco e reação de porta-enxertos e de cultivares copa de videira a Meloidogyne spp. / Meloidogyne incognita report on 'IAC 766-Campinas' rootstock in the state of Pernambuco and reaction of grape rootstocks and cultivars to Meloidogyne spp.  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Relata-se a ocorrência de Meloidogyne incognita (Est. I2) em pomar de videira na cidade de Petrolina, Pernambuco. Plantas da cultivar Festival enxertadas sobre 'IAC 766-Campinas', atacadas por Meloidogyne incognita, apresentavam sintomas de menor vigor, folhas amarelecidas e folhagem mais esparsa, e [...] raízes com numerosas galhas em meio ao cultivo de feijão-de-porco (Canavalia ensiformis), também atacado pelo nematoide. Com o objetivo de avaliar a resistência de quatro porta-enxertos tropicais, oito de clima temperado, e as cultivares Niágara Rosada e Chardonnay quanto à reação a M. incognita e M. arenaria, em casa de vegetação, realizou-se este trabalho. Mudas das videiras, mantidas em vaso com solo esterilizado, foram inoculadas com 10.000 ovos + J2 de M. incognita ou M. arenaria por planta. Decorridos oito meses da inoculação, cada planta foi avaliada quanto ao número de galhas e número de ovos por planta, determinando-se, a seguir, o fator de reprodução de cada espécie do nematoide (FR=população inicial/população final) nos diferentes materiais testados. Entre os porta-enxertos avaliados, 'Harmony', 'Salt Creek', '1103 Paulsen', 'IAC 572-Jales', 'IAC 313-Tropical', 'K5BB Kober' e 'SO4', foram resistentes (FR1,00) ao nematoide. No entanto, ambas as cultivares copa foram suscetíveis às duas espécies de Meloidogyne testadas. Abstract in english The occurrence of root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita (Est. I2) is reported in grapevine in Petrolina municipality, State of Pernambuco. Grape plants of Festival cultivar grafted on the 'IAC 766 - Campinas' rootstock attacked by M. incognita exhibited symptoms of less vigorous growth, yellowing [...] and sparse leaves and multiple galls in the root system in an area cultivated with jack-bean (Canavalia ensiformis) also infected by the same nematode. In order to evaluate resistance of four tropical rootstocks, eight temperate and two cultivars Chardonnay and Niagara Rosada in reaction to M. incognita and M. arenaria, this study was carried out. Seedlings of the investigated grapevine genotypes were maintained in pots with sterilized soil and subsequently inoculated with 10,000 eggs + J2 of M. incognita or M. arenaria per plant in a six replicate design. Eight months after nematode inoculation, each plant was evaluated by counting gall and eggs. The final number of eggs (FP) of each Meloidogyne specie was calculated and the reproductive factor (RF = FP/IP), determined. Among the tested rootstocks, 'Harmony', 'Salt Creek', '1103 Paulsen', 'IAC 572-Jales', 'IAC 313-Tropical', 'K5BB Kober', 'SO4' , were resistant (RF1.00) to M. arenaria. In contrast, both tested grapevine scion cultivars were susceptible to the investigated Meloidogyne species.

Lúcia, Somavilla; Cesar Bauer, Gomes; Vera Maria, Quecini.

2012-09-01

118

Isolation of nematicidal triterpenoid saponins from Pulsatilla koreana root and their activities against Meloidogyne incognita.  

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Pulsatilla koreana, a species endemic to Korea, is an important herb used in traditional medicine to treat amoebic dysentery and malaria. In the present study, 23 oleanane-type triterpenoid saponins 1-23 and eight lupane-type triterpenoid saponins 24-31 were isolated from the roots of P. koreana. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic data. The methanol extract and isolated compounds were next assessed for nematicidal activity against the root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne incognita). The methanol extract showed strong nematicidal activity after 48 h, with a LC?? value of 92.8 ?g/mL. Compounds 2, 5, 9, 20, and 21 showed significant effects, with LC?? values ranging from 70.1 to 94.7 ?g/mL after 48 h. These results suggest that triterpenoid saponins from P. koreana should be explored as potential natural nematicides for developing new agents to control root-knot nematode disease. PMID:23698044

Li, Wei; Sun, Ya Nan; Yan, Xi Tao; Yang, Seo Young; Lee, Suk Jun; Byun, Hyo Jeung; Moon, Chang Sup; Han, Byung Soo; Kim, Young Ho

2013-01-01

119

Post-Infection Development and Histopathology of Meloidogyne incognita in Resistant Cotton.  

Science.gov (United States)

The numbers of Meloidogyne incognita larvae which migrated from cotton roots declined over a 16-day period, but the difference in numbers migrating from resistant and susceptible cultivars was not significant. Larvae penetrated susceptible roots, matured, and reproduced within 14 days following inoculation, whereas nematode development in the resistant roots was greatly retarded. Three types of histological responses were observed in infected, resistant roots, and these correlated with the degree of nematode development. Some galls were examined which contained only fragments of nematodes; others contained no detectable traces of developing larvae. Formation of druses in galls, but not in healthy tissue, was noted in both cultivars 20 days after inoculation. Massive invasion of roots resulted in deep longitudinal fissures of root cortex. PMID:19319359

McClure, M A; Ellis, K C; Nigh, E L

1974-01-01

120

Biocontrol of Meloidogyne incognita in Lycopersicon esculentum with AM Fungi and Oil Cakes  

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Full Text Available Currently chemical pesticides are the major means to control nematode-induced diseases but they are neither economical nor ecofriendly. Alternative methods are being sought to reduce the amount of chemical pesticides required. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi have been reported to reduce the infestation of root-knot nematodes on vegetable crops. Amendment of soil with some oil cakes has been found effective. A study was conducted on exploitation of the combined effect of AM with three different oil cakes Azadirachta indica, Brassica campestris and Ricinus communis oil cakes in controlling the root knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita. Combined use of AMF and cakes resulted in reducing the galling and nematode multiplication thus improving the plant growth and yield. The best results pertaining to AM root infection, nematode reproduction and plant growth and yield were obtained with the combination of AMF and R. communis oil cake.

Anuja Bharadwaj

2006-01-01

 
 
 
 
121

Management of Meloidogyne incognita with Chemicals and Cultivars in Cotton in a Semi-Arid Environment  

Science.gov (United States)

Management of Meloidogyne incognita (root-knot nematode) in cotton in the United States was substantially affected by the decision to stop production of aldicarb by its principle manufacturer in 2011. The remaining commercially available tools to manage M. incognita included soil fumigation, nematicide seed treatments, postemergence nematicide application, and cultivars partially resistant to M. incognita. Small plot field studies were conducted on a total of nine sites from 2011–2013 to examine the effects of each of these tools alone or in combinations, on early season galling, late-season nematode density in soil, yield, and value ($/ha = lint value minus chemical costs/ha). The use of a partially resistant cultivar resulted in fewer galls/root system at 35 d after planting in eight of nine tests, lower root-knot nematode density late in the growing season for all test sites, higher lint yield in eight of nine sites, and higher value/ha in six of nine sites. Galls per root were reduced by aldicarb in three of nine sites and by 1,3-dichloropropene (1,3-D) in two of eight sites, relative to the nontreated control (no insecticide or nematicide treatment). Soil fumigation reduced M. incognita density late in the season in three of nine sites. Value/ha was not affected by chemical treatment in four of nine sites, but there was a cultivar × chemical interaction in four of nine sites. When value/ha was affected by chemical treatment, the nontreated control had a similar value to the treatment with the highest value/ha in seven of eight cultivar-site combinations. The next “best” value/ha were associated with seed treatment insecticide (STI) + oxamyl and aldicarb (similar value to the highest value/ha in six of eight cultivar-site combinations). The lowest valued treatment was STI + 1,3-D. In a semi-arid region, where rainfall was low during the spring for all three years, cultivars with partial resistance to M. incognita was the most profitable method of managing root-knot nematode in cotton. PMID:24987161

Wheeler, T. A.; Siders, K. T.; Anderson, M. G.; Russell, S. A.; Woodward, J. E.; Mullinix, B. G.

2014-01-01

122

Chitosan-cinnamon beads enhance suppressive activity against Rhizoctonia solani and Meloidogyne incognita in vitro.  

Science.gov (United States)

A novel chitosan-cinnamon bead carrier was prepared in this study. Chitosan was mixed with cinnamon powder (CP) and cinnamon extract (CE) to obtain chitosan-cinnamon powder (CCP) beads and chitosan-cinnamon extracted (CCE) beads, respectively. The potential antifungal and nematicidal activities of CCP and CCE were investigated against Rhizoctonia solani and Meloidogyne incognita in vitro. Relative antifungal activity of the CCP (5% CP) bead-treated R. solani was 30.9 and 23.9% after 1 and 2 day incubations, respectively. Relative antifungal activity of the CCE (0.5% CE) bead-treated R. solani was 4.3, 3.0 and 4.2% after 1, 2 and 3 days of incubation. Inhibition of hatch by CCP beads with CP of 5% was 78.8%. Inhibition of hatch by CCE beads with CE of 0.5% was 82.0%. J2 mortality following the CCP (5% CP) and CCE (0.5% CE) bead treatments was 85.0 and 95.8%, respectively against M. incognita after 48 h incubations. PMID:24417978

Seo, Dong-Jun; Nguyen, Dang-Minh-Chanh; Park, Ro-Dong; Jung, Woo-Jin

2014-01-01

123

Potent nematicidal activity of phthalaldehyde, salicylaldehyde, and cinnamic aldehyde against Meloidogyne incognita.  

Science.gov (United States)

The nematicidal activity of selected aromatic aldehydes was tested against the root knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita. The most active aldehyde was phthalaldehyde (1) with an EC(50) value of 11 ± 6 mg/L followed by salicylaldehyde (2) and cinnamic aldehyde (3) with EC(50) values of 11 ± 1 and 12 ± 5 mg/L, respectively. On the other hand, structurally related aldehydes such as 2-methoxybenzaldehyde (21), 3,4-dimethoxybenzaldehyde, and vanillin (23) were not active at the concentration of 1000 mg/L. By liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry the reactivity of tested aldehydes against a synthetic peptide resembling the nematode cuticle was characterized. At the test concentration of 1 mM, the main adduct formation was observed for 3,4-dihydroxybenzaldehyde (22), 2-methoxybenzaldehyde (21), and 3,4-dimethoxybenzaldehyde. Considering that 2-methoxybenzaldehyde (21) and 3,4-dimethoxybenzaldehyde were not active against M. incognita in in vitro experiments led us to hypothesize a different mechanism of action rather than an effect on the external cuticle modification of nematodes. When the toxicity of the V-ATPase inhibitor pyocyanin (10) was tested against M. incognita J2 nematodes, an EC(50) at 24 h of 72 ± 25 mg/L was found. The redox-active compounds such as phthalaldehyde (1) and salicylaldehyde (2) may share a common mode of action inhibiting nematode V-ATPase enzyme. The results of this investigation reveal that aromatic redox-active aldehydes can be considered as potent nematicides, and further investigation is needed to completely clarify their mode of action. PMID:23379671

Caboni, Pierluigi; Aissani, Nadhem; Cabras, Tiziana; Falqui, Andrea; Marotta, Roberto; Liori, Barbara; Ntalli, Nikoletta; Sarais, Giorgia; Sasanelli, Nicola; Tocco, Graziella

2013-02-27

124

Expression of Resistance to Meloidogyne incognita in Kenaf Cultivars (Hibiscus cannibinus under Field Conditions  

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Full Text Available Field studies were conducted in 2003 and 2004 to investigate the reaction of 10 varieties of kenaf to natural infestation of Meloidogyne incognita. Ten weeks after planting, ten randomly selected plants per variety were assessed for root galling. Plants were carefully uprooted soil adhering to roots was washed off under a gentle stream of tap water and roots then were observed using a stereo microscope. Eggs were extracted from the roots with sodium hypochlorite. The reproduction factor (Pf / Pi was calculated. Data were collected on plant height, stem girth, days to maturity, number of seeds and seed yield and the final figures of these parameters were analyzed by of variance and mean separation by Duncan's Multiple Range Test. Gall index and nematode reproduction factor varied significantly among the kenaf varieties. AU 64 recorded the tallest height of 2.2 m followed by Ex-Funtua, Ifeken 100 and G 45 whereas the lowest height was recorded for Ifeken 400 and Cuba 108. Days to maturity ranged from 120 to 135 days. Based on gall index ratings, AU64, Ex-Shika, Ex-Giwa, G 45 and the local variety were susceptible to M. incognita. Tianung 1 and Cuba 108 were very susceptible, whereas Ifeken 100 and 400 were resistant. Based on reproduction factor, AU 64, Ex-Shika, Ex-Giwa, G 45, Ex-Funtua and the local variety supported greater nematode reproduction, were good host to root-knot nematode, Tianung 1 and Cuba 108 were very susceptible while Ifeken 100 and Ifeken 400 were poor host to M. incognita.

A.A. Adegbite

2005-11-01

125

Competition between Heterodera glycines and Meloidogyne incognita or Pratylenchus penetrans: Independent Infection Rate Measurements.  

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Competition on soybean between Heterodera glycines (race 3) and Meloidogyne incognita or H. glycines and Pratylenchus penetrans were investigated in greenhouse experiments. Each pair of nematode species was mixed in 3-ml suspensions at ratios of 1,000:0, 750:250, 500:500, 250:750, and 0:1,000 second-stage juveniles or mixed stages for P. penetrans. Nematodes from a whole root system were counted and infection rates standardized per 1,000 nematodes (per replication) prior to testing the null hypothesis through a lack-of-fit F-test. Although the effect of increasing H. glycines proportions on the infection rate of M. incognita was generally adverse, the rate deviated significantly from a trend of linear decline at the 75% H. glycines level in one of two experiments. All lack-of-fit F-tests for the H. glycines and P. penetrans mix were significant, indicating that infection rates for both nematodes varied considerably across inocula. The infection rate of H. glycines decreased with increasing P. penetrans proportions. The rate of P. penetrans infection increased with increasing H. glycines proportions up to the 50% level, but declined at the 75% level. Competition had no effect on nematode development. The general adverse relationships between M. incognita and H. glycines and those between P. penetrans and H. glycines showed a linear trend. The relationship between H. glycines and P. penetrans indicates that the former may be competitive when present at higher proportions than the latter. In this study we have evaluated nematode competition under controlled conditions and provide results that can form a basis for understanding the physical and physiological trends of multiple nematode interactions. Methods critical to data analyses also are outlined. PMID:19265967

Melakeberhan, Haddish; Dey, Jyotirmoy

2003-03-01

126

IDENTIFICACIÓN MORFOLÓGICA, MORFOMÉTRICA Y MOLECULAR DE Meloidogyne incognita EN HIGUERA (Ficus carica L. EN COSTA RICA  

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Full Text Available El objetivo de este estudio fue identificar la especie de Meloidogyne asociada a dos plantaciones de higuera en Costa Rica. En marzo de 2012, en el distrito de Pacayas, provincia de Cartago, se detectaron agallas en los sistemas radicales de plantas de higuera (Ficus carica L. de dos fincas. De las raíces agalladas se extrajeron hembras, masas de huevos y juveniles (J2 de Meloidogyne sp. Se examinaron los patrones perineales de las hembras y los segundos estadios infectivos se analizaron morfológica y molecularmente mediante PCR-RFLP. Se amplificó la región intergénica (IGS del genoma mitocondrial, delimitada por el gen de la subunidad II de la citocromo oxidasa (COII y el gen ribosomal 16S. La población de nematodos se identificó como M. incognita. El tamaño de los productos de PCR generados con los imprimadores C2F3 y 1108 fue de 1,7 kb. Al tratar los productos de PCR con enzimas de restricción, se generaron cuatro fragmentos de 850, 450, 250 y 150 pb con la enzima AluI y dos fragmentos de 1300 y 400 pb con la enzima HinfI.

Walter Peraza-Padilla

2013-01-01

127

Development of enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the detection of root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita.  

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Root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne incognita) are obligate, sedentary plant endoparasites that are extremely polyphagous in nature and cause severe economic losses in agriculture. Hence, it is essential to control the parasite at an early stage. For any control strategy to be effective, an early and accurate diagnosis is of paramount importance. Immunoassays have the inherent advantages of sensitivity and specificity; have the potential to identify and quantify these plant-parasitic nematodes. Hence, in the present studies, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) has been developed for the detection of M.incognita antigens. First an indirect ELISA was developed for detection and titration of anti-M.incognita antibodies. Results indicated as high as 320 K titre of the antisera. Finally competitive inhibition ELISA was developed employing these anti-M.incognita antibodies for detection of M.incognita antigens. Sensitivity of ELISA was 10 fg. Competitive inhibition ELISA developed in the present studies has the potential of being used as an easy, rapid, specific and sensitive diagnostic tool for the detection of M.incognita infection. PMID:25035590

Kapur-Ghai, J; Kaur, M; Goel, P

2014-09-01

128

Nematicidal activity of fervenulin isolated from a nematicidal actinomycete, Streptomyces sp. CMU-MH021, on Meloidogyne incognita.  

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An isolate of the actinomycete, Streptomyces sp. CMU-MH021 produced secondary metabolites that inhibited egg hatch and increased juvenile mortality of the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita in vitro. 16S rDNA gene sequencing showed that the isolate sequence was 99% identical to Streptomyces roseoverticillatus. The culture filtrates form different culture media were tested for nematocidal activity. The maximal activity against M. incognita was obtained by using modified basal (MB) medium. The nematicidal assay-directed fractionation of the culture broth delivered fervenulin (1) and isocoumarin (2). Fervenulin, a low molecular weight compound, shows a broad range of biological activities. However, nematicidal activity of fervenulin was not previously reported. The nematicidal activity of fervenulin (1) was assessed using the broth microdilution technique. The lowest minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of the compound against egg hatch of M. incognita was 30 ?g/ml and juvenile mortality of M. incognita increasing was observed at 120 ?g/ml. Moreover, at the concentration of 250 ?g/ml fervenulin (1) showed killing effect on second-stage nematode juveniles of M. incognita up to 100% after incubation for 96 h. Isocoumarin (2), another bioactive compound produced by Streptomyces sp. CMU-MH021, showed weak nematicidal activity with M. incognita. PMID:21841897

Ruanpanun, Pornthip; Laatsch, Hartmut; Tangchitsomkid, Nuchanart; Lumyong, Saisamorn

2011-06-01

129

EFECTO DEL VERMICOMPOST Y QUITINA SOBRE EL CONTROL DE Meloidogyne incognita EN TOMATE A NIVEL DE INVERNADERO  

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Meloidogyne incognita es un nematodo endoparásito sedentario, de penetración total y formador de nódulos radicales; tiene una amplia distribución geográfica y causa pérdidas agrícolas importantes. Recientemente se han utilizado abonos orgánicos y compuestos como la quitina en la supresión de plagas y enfermedades de plantas. El objetivo de esta investigación fue evaluar el efecto de la aplicación de vermicompost de estiércol bovino y su enriquecimiento con quitina, sobre la infecc...

Leida Castro; Lorena Flores; Lidieth Uribe

2011-01-01

130

Effects of Some Indigenous Plant Extracts as Inhibitors of Egg Hatch in Root-Knot Nematode (Meloidogyne incognita race 2)  

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Studies on the effectiveness of some indigenous plant extracts as inhibitors of egg-hatch in rootknot nematode (Meloidogyne incognita race 2) were carried out in the Plant Protection Laboratory of Institute of Agricultural Research & Training, Obafemi Awolowo University, Moor Plantation, Ibadan. Azadirachta indica (Neem); Chromolaena odorata (Siam weed); Nicotiana tabacum (Tobacco); Carica papaya (Pawpaw); Cannabis sativa (Hemp); Cassia alata (Asunwon) and Vernonia amygdalina (Bitter l...

Adegbite, Ayodele Adesina

2011-01-01

131

In-vitro Assays of Meloidogyne incognita and Heterodera glycines for Detection of Nematode-antagonistic Fungal Compounds  

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In-vitro methods were developed to test fungi for production of metabolites affecting nematode egg hatch and mobility of second-stage juveniles. Separate assays were developed for two nematodes: root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne incognita) and soybean cyst nematode (Heterodera glycines). For egg hatch to be successfully assayed, eggs must first be surface-disinfested to avoid the confounding effects of incidental microbial growth facilitated by the fungal culture medium. Sodium hypochlorite was...

Nitao, James K.; Meyer, Susan L. F.; Chitwood, David J.

1999-01-01

132

INFLUENCIA DE LA PLANTA HOSPEDANTE Y SU INTERACCIÓN CON Meloidogyne incognita SOBRE LA EFECTIVIDAD DE Pochonia chlamydosporia var. catenulata / INFLUENCE OF THE HOST PLANT AND ITS INTERACTION WITH Meloidogyne incognita ON THE EFFECTIVENESS OF Pochonia chlamydosporia var. catenulata  

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Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El efecto de las plantas hospedantes y su interacción con Meloidogyne incognita (Kofoid y White) Chitwood sobre la efectividad de Pochonia chlamydosporia var. catenulata (Kamyscho ex Barron y Onions) Zare y Gams como agente de control biológico de nematodos formadores de agallas se estudió en condic [...] iones de aisladores biológicos. Para el desarrollo de la experiencia se utilizaron diferentes especies de plantas que se cultivan en los sistemas intensivos de producción de hortalizas en Cuba y se evaluó la colonización de la rizosfera, a partir del conteo de UFC del hongo, en plantas sanas e infestadas por M. incognita. Los resultados demostraron que el crecimiento del hongo en la rizosfera varió en dependencia de la especie de planta. Entre los mejores hospedantes de P. chlamydosporia var. catenulata estuvieron la col, coliflor y acelga china, cultivos resistentes a M. incognita. Las plantas infestadas por M. incognita mostraron mayores niveles de colonización del hongo que las plantas sanas y el cultivo de la habichuela resultó ser un buen hospedante, en presencia del nematodo. Se recomienda la utilización de estos cultivos dentro de esquemas de rotación que incluyan la aplicación de P. chlamydosporia var. catenulata como agente de control biológico para el manejo de M. incognita en sistemas intensivos de producción de hortalizas. Abstract in english The effect of the host plants and their interaction with Meloidogyne incognita (Kofoid and White) Chitwood on the effectiveness of Pochonia chlamydosporia var. catenulata (Kamyscho ex Barron and Onions) Zare and Gams as a biological control agent of root-knot nematodes was studied in glasshouse cond [...] itions. Different plant species from the Cuban Intensive Vegetable Production Systems were used to perform the experience. The growth of the fungus in the rhizosphere differed with the host plant. Among the best host plants of P. chlamydosporia var. catenulata were cabbage, salt-wort and cauliflower, resistant crops to M. incognita. The plants infested by M. incognita showed higher levels of fungus colonization than those healthy, and the kidney bean crop was a good host in the presence of the nematode. The use of these crops into rotation systems, with the application of Pochonia chlamydosporia var. catenulata as biological control agent for the management of M. incognita on Intensive Vegetable Production Systems, was recommended.

Ana, Puertas; L, Hidalgo-Díaz.

2007-08-01

133

INFLUENCIA DE LA PLANTA HOSPEDANTE Y SU INTERACCIÓN CON Meloidogyne incognita SOBRE LA EFECTIVIDAD DE Pochonia chlamydosporia var. catenulata / INFLUENCE OF THE HOST PLANT AND ITS INTERACTION WITH Meloidogyne incognita ON THE EFFECTIVENESS OF Pochonia chlamydosporia var. catenulata  

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Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El efecto de las plantas hospedantes y su interacción con Meloidogyne incognita (Kofoid y White) Chitwood sobre la efectividad de Pochonia chlamydosporia var. catenulata (Kamyscho ex Barron y Onions) Zare y Gams como agente de control biológico de nematodos formadores de agallas se estudió en condic [...] iones de aisladores biológicos. Para el desarrollo de la experiencia se utilizaron diferentes especies de plantas que se cultivan en los sistemas intensivos de producción de hortalizas en Cuba y se evaluó la colonización de la rizosfera, a partir del conteo de UFC del hongo, en plantas sanas e infestadas por M. incognita. Los resultados demostraron que el crecimiento del hongo en la rizosfera varió en dependencia de la especie de planta. Entre los mejores hospedantes de P. chlamydosporia var. catenulata estuvieron la col, coliflor y acelga china, cultivos resistentes a M. incognita. Las plantas infestadas por M. incognita mostraron mayores niveles de colonización del hongo que las plantas sanas y el cultivo de la habichuela resultó ser un buen hospedante, en presencia del nematodo. Se recomienda la utilización de estos cultivos dentro de esquemas de rotación que incluyan la aplicación de P. chlamydosporia var. catenulata como agente de control biológico para el manejo de M. incognita en sistemas intensivos de producción de hortalizas. Abstract in english The effect of the host plants and their interaction with Meloidogyne incognita (Kofoid and White) Chitwood on the effectiveness of Pochonia chlamydosporia var. catenulata (Kamyscho ex Barron and Onions) Zare and Gams as a biological control agent of root-knot nematodes was studied in glasshouse cond [...] itions. Different plant species from the Cuban Intensive Vegetable Production Systems were used to perform the experience. The growth of the fungus in the rhizosphere differed with the host plant. Among the best host plants of P. chlamydosporia var. catenulata were cabbage, salt-wort and cauliflower, resistant crops to M. incognita. The plants infested by M. incognita showed higher levels of fungus colonization than those healthy, and the kidney bean crop was a good host in the presence of the nematode. The use of these crops into rotation systems, with the application of Pochonia chlamydosporia var. catenulata as biological control agent for the management of M. incognita on Intensive Vegetable Production Systems, was recommended.

Ana, Puertas; L, Hidalgo-Díaz.

134

Efeitos do nível de inóculo de Meloidogyne incognita em algodoeiro / Effects of low inoculum level of Meloidogyne incognita on cotton plants  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Pesquisas acerca da fisiologia de plantas em resposta ao ataque de nematóides normalmente são feitas com doses altas de inóculo, quer sejam ovos ou juvenis de segundo estágio. Diferentemente, as avaliações da resistência de plantas a nematóides em programas de melhoramento são realizadas com doses b [...] astante inferiores. Neste estudo acompanhou-se a variação de alguns parâmetros fisiológicos em algodão, em resposta à aplicação de baixas doses de inóculo de Meloidogyne incognita raça 3. Duas cultivares foram utilizadas, Acala e IAC-20, respectivamente suscetível e moderadamente resistente. Plântulas com duas folhas receberam 500 ou 5.000 ovos e, 90 dias depois, foram comparadas a plantas que não receberam o inóculo, quanto à massa da parte aérea e raízes, fotossíntese, atividade da enzima redutase do nitrato e teores de clorofila e açúcares solúveis. Aos 90 dias algumas plantas também foram submetidas à deficiência hídrica e o potencial da água determinado nas folhas. O maior nível de inóculo levou à redução da parte aérea (massa de folhas) em 'Acala'. Com 500 ovos parece ter ocorrido um estímulo em ambas as cultivares, uma vez que houve tendência de maior crescimento da parte aérea. Em 'Acala' houve maior crescimento de raiz com o aumento do inóculo, provavelmente devido à emissão de raízes secundárias nos pontos de penetração do nematóide e também pela formação de galhas. Houve aumento dos teores de clorofila e de açúcares solúveis, bem como da fotossíntese, com o aumento do inóculo. Discute-se se tal ocorrência deve-se à maior demanda de fotoassimilados para suportar o crescimento de raízes, em 'Acala'. Em IAC-20 esse fato estaria ligado aos mecanismos de defesa induzidos pelo ataque do nematóide. Após o estresse hídrico o potencial da água diminuiu em 'IAC-20' e aumentou na 'Acala', com o aumento do inóculo. A elevação do potencial da água, nesta última cultivar, poderia estar ligada ao crescimento das raízes e, principalmente, à emissão de novas raízes secundárias, ao passo que a resposta em 'IAC-20' seria a previsível, ou seja, de deficiência hídrica. Abstract in english Investigations on physiological responses of plants to nematode are usually carried out with plants inoculated with high number of eggs or second-stage juveniles. On the other hand, resistance against nematodes in plant breeding programs is evaluated with low number of inoculum. The aim of this rese [...] arch was to study some physiological responses of cotton plants inoculated with low inoculum levels of Meloidogyne incognita race 3. Two cultivars were used, Acala and IAC-20, susceptible and moderately resistant hosts respectively. Seedlings with 500 or 5,000 eggs were compared with control plants at 90 days post inoculation. The following aspects were assessed: shoot and root masses, photosynthesis, activity of the enzyme nitrate reductase, and chlorophyll and soluble sugar contents. At 90 days a water stress was imposed to some plants and the leaf water potentials determined. At 5,000 eggs, 'Acala' had a shoot reduction (leafmass). With 500 eggs, there was an estimulation of shoot growth in both cultivars, as revealed by a shootmass increase There was a clear increase on root growth of 'Acala' which was directly related to the inoculum levels. This response was probably caused by emission of new secondary roots and nematode galls formation. Chlorophyll and sugar content, and photosynthesis increased with the increase of inoculum levels, suggesting a response to support root growth in 'Acala'. In 'IAC-20' these higher values would be related with the energy demanded by defense mechanisms against the nematode. The imposed water stress caused a decrease on leaf water potential in 'IAC-20', but an increase in 'Acala' with increasing inoculum levels. The observed increase in the later cultivar might be related with the root growth, mainly due to emission of new secondary roots, while 'IAC

MARLUCI MUNDIN, ABRÃO; PAULO, MAZZAFERA.

135

Fenóis, peroxidase e polifenoloxidase na resistência do cafeeiro a Meloidogyne incognita Phenols, peroxidase and polyphenoloxidase in the resistance of coffee to Meloidogyne incognita  

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Full Text Available Plântulas dos cultivares Mundo Novo, de Coffea arabica, suscetível, e Apoatã, de Coffea canephora, resistente, foram inoculadas com ovos de Meloidogyne incognita raça 2, e avaliadas em duas fases do ciclo de desenvolvimento do parasito, isto é, na de penetração de larvas e na de fêmeas com ovos. Não foram observadas diferenças quanto ao desenvolvimento radicular e da parte aérea entre plântulas inoculadas e não inoculadas, nas duas avaliações. Nos dois cultivares, houve aumento no teor de fenóis nas plântulas inoculadas na primeira avaliação, e, na segunda, apesar de os valores terem sido maiores, foram iguais entre plântulas inoculadas e seus respectivos controles. O 'Mundo Novo' apresentou sempre maior conteúdo de fenóis que o 'Apoatã' e somente houve aumento na sua atividade de peroxidase na primeira avaliação. Na segunda, a atividade dessa enzima foi maior do que na primeira, porém igual entre plântulas inoculadas e seus controles. O 'Apoatã' sempre teve maior atividade de peroxidase, e apenas houve aumento da atividade de sua polifenoloxidase na primeira avaliação, sendo que nesse cultivar a atividade dessa enzima sempre foi maior do que no 'Mundo Novo'. Cromatografias em camada delgada de celulose mostraram que em nenhum deles houve variações quantitativas de fenóis entre as plantas inoculadas e não inoculadas. Ambos, 'Mundo Novo' e 'Apoatã', apresentaram 23 compostos fenólicos em comum e, nove e onze não comuns respectivamente.Seedlings of two coffee cultivars were inoculated with the nematode Meloidogyne incognita: cv. Mundo Novo (susceptible of Coffea arabica and cv. Apoatã (resistant of C. canephora. During the larval penetration and adult female phases of the parasite, evaluations were made on phenol content, peroxidase and polyphenoloxidase activities. In the two evaluations, no differences were observed in roots and shoots growth among inoculated and non inoculated seedling. For both cultivars, only in the first phase infected seedlings showed an increase in phenols as compared to their counterparts not inoculated. However, phenol values were higher in the second than in the first phase. The cv. Mundo Novo had always higher phenols content than Apoatã. Only inoculated seedlings of the cv. Mundo Novo showed an increase of peroxidase activities in the first phase; but, both cultivars presented higher peroxidase activities in the second phase as compared to the first. Apoatã seedlings had always higher peroxidase and polyphenoloxidase activities than Mundo Novo. Infected seedlings of the cv. Apoatã showed in the first phase, only, an increase in polyphenoloxidase activity. Thin-layer chromatograms of phenolic extracts did not present any difference among inoculated and non-inoculated seedlings. Twenty three spots on the chromatograms were common to both cultivars, except that Apoatã had a further nine spots not found in Mundo Novo and the later had a further eleven not found in the former.

Paulo Mazzafera

1989-01-01

136

Efeito de extratos aquosos de espécies de Asteraceae sobre Meloidogyne incognita Effect of aqueous extracts of Asteraceae species on Meloidogyne incognita  

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Full Text Available Estudou-se, in vitro e in vivo a atividade nematicida dos extratos aquosos de vedélia (Sphagneticola trilobata, erva-de-touro (Tridax procumbens, cravo-de-defunto (Tagetes patula, girassol mexicano (Tithonia diversifolia, botão de ouro (Unxia suffruticosa e zínia (Zinnia peruviana, sobre Meloidogyne incognita. Os extratos foram preparados na proporção de 1,0g do material seco e triturado para 10mL de água destilada e armazenados por 24h, sendo seguidamente utilizados nos experimentos. Nos testes in vitro, foram depositados 4,0mL do extrato bruto e 2,0mL de uma suspensão aquosa contendo 200 ovos do nematóide em placas de Petri de 5cm de diâmetro e, quinze dias após, procedeu-se a contagem do número de juvenis eclodidos e dos ovos remanescentes para o cálculo das porcentagens de eclosão. Nos testes in vivo, os extratos foram aplicados, separadamente, via pulverização foliar, tratamento de raiz e vertido no solo, semanalmente durante 60 dias. Como testemunha utilizou-se apenas água nos dois experimentos. No ensaio in vitro observou-se que todos os extratos foram eficientes na redução da eclosão de juvenis de M. incognita quando comparados à testemunha, as porcentagens de redução foram 89,96%, 91,13%, 92,48%, 92,72%, 93,2% e 97,48% para erva-de-touro, cravo-de-defunto, girassol mexicano, vedélia, botão de ouro e zínia, respectivamente, e no ensaio in vivo, que os tratamentos não exerceram nenhum efeito sobre o peso do sistema radicular dos tomateiros, no entanto, observou-se que os resultados diferiram entre as espécies utilizadas e a forma de aplicação do extrato na avaliação do peso fresco da parte aérea das plantas. Quanto ao fator de reprodução, observou-se que nenhum dos extratos apresentou diferença estatística em relação à testemunha, no entanto, quando se compara as diferentes formas de aplicação dos mesmos, observa-se que houve diferença estatística quando os extratos de erva de touro e girassol mexicano foram aplicados via pulverização foliar e no tratamento de raiz, contudo, não houve diferença quando estes extratos foram aplicados em forma de rega no solo.The nematicide activity of aqueous extracts of Wedelia (Sphagneticola trilobata, tridax daisy (Tridax procumbens, marigold (Tagetes patula, Mexican sunflower (Tithonia diversifolia, "botão de ouro" (Unxia suffruticosa and Peruvian zinnia (Zinnia peruviana was studied in vitro and in vivo on Meloidogyne incognita. The extracts were prepared at a ratio of 1.0 g of dry and crushed material to 10 ml of distilled water, stored for 24 hours, and then used in the experiments. In in vitro tests, 4.0 mL of crude extract and 2.0 ml of an aqueous suspension containing 200 nematode eggs were deposited on Petri plates of 5cm diameter and, fifteen days later, the number of hatched juveniles and the remaining eggs were counted to calculate the percentages of hatching. In in vivo tests, the extracts were separately applied by leaf spraying, root treatment and pouring onto the soil, weekly for 60 days. As control, only water was used in both experiments. The in vitro test showed that all extracts were effective in reducing the hatching of juveniles of M. incognita when compared to the control; the reduction percentages were 89.96%, 91.13%, 92.48%, 92.72%, 93.2% and 97.48% for tridax daisy, marigold, Mexican sunflower, Wedelia, "botão de ouro" and Peruvian zinnia, respectively, while in the in vivo assay, treatments did not have any effect on the root system weight of tomato plants; however, results differed between the used species and the way of application of the extract in the evaluation of the fresh weight of shoots. As to the reproduction rate, none of the extracts showed a statistical difference, compared to control; however, comparing the different ways of application, there was statistical difference when the extracts of tridax daisy and Mexican sunflower were applied through leaf spraying and root treatment, but there was no difference when these extracts were applied as irrigation on the soil.

Isabel Cristina Madeira Ferreira

2013-03-01

137

Potential of sucrose and Pennisetum purpureum cv. Cameroon mulch on the management of Meloidogyne javanica and M. incognita  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Os efeitos da sacarose sobre a motilidade e a infectividade de juvenis de Meloidogyne javanica foram avaliados em condições de laboratório e casa-de-vegetação, usando açúcar mascavo e açúcar cristal. Os resultados indicaram que as soluções de açúcar mascavo e cristal reduziram a motilidade e promove [...] ram alterações morfológicas em juvenis dos nematóides in vitro. A eficiência da sacarose em grânulos e da sacarose em solução, com e sem a cobertura com matéria vegetal de capim elefante, na redução da reprodução e da população final de M. incognita raça 2 também foi avaliada. A sacarose em grânulos diminuiu os números de galhas e massas de ovos por sistema radicular e também de juvenis no solo. Para o ensaio com sacarose em solução, os melhores resultados para a redução da reprodução foram obtidos com a dose de 300 g de sacarose por litro de solo, aplicada a intervalos de sete dias, juntamente com a cobertura do solo com cobertura de matéria verde de capim-elefante. Abstract in english The effects of sucrose on motility and infectiveness of juveniles of Meloidogyne javanica were evaluated under laboratory and greenhouse conditions, using brown sugar and crystal sugar. Results showed that crystal and brown sugar solutions reduced motility and promoted morphological alterations of j [...] uvenile nematodes in vitro. The increasing dosages of sucrose reduced the number of galls and egg masses in tomato root by reducing the number of infective juveniles. The efficiency of granular sucrose, sucrose solution, with and without elephant-grass mulch, in the reduction of reproduction and final population of M. incognita race 2, were also evaluated. Granular sucrose induced decrease on the numbers of galls and eggs masses per root system as well as on juveniles in the soil. For sucrose solution assay, the best results for reproductive reduction were obtained with 300g of granular sucrose per liter of soil, applied at seven days intervals, associated with elephant-grass mulch.

Débora Cristina, Santiago; Martin, Homechin; Ricardo, Montalvan; Alaide Aparecida, Krzyzanowski.

138

Effect of Simultaneous Water Deficit Stress and Meloidogyne incognita Infection on Cotton Yield and Fiber Quality  

Science.gov (United States)

Both water deficit stress and Meloidogyne incognita infection can reduce cotton growth and yield, and drought can affect fiber quality, but the effect of nematodes on fiber quality is not well documented. To determine whether nematode parasitism affects fiber quality and whether the combined effects of nematode and drought stress on yield and quality are additive (independent effects), synergistic, or antagonistic, we conducted a study for 7 yr in a field infested with M. incognita. A split-plot design was used with the main plot factor as one of three irrigation treatments (low [nonirrigated], moderate irrigation, and high irrigation [water-replete]) and the subplot factor as 0 or 56 l/ha 1,3-dichloropropene. We prevented water deficit stress in plots designated as water-replete by supplementing rainfall with irrigation. Plots receiving moderate irrigation received half the water applied to the water-replete treatment. The severity of root galling was greater in nonfumigated plots and in plots receiving the least irrigation, but the amount of irrigation did not influence the effect of fumigation on root galling (no irrigation × fumigation interaction). The weights of lint and seed harvested were reduced in nonfumigated plots and also decreased as the level of irrigation decreased, but fumigation did not influence the effect of irrigation. Nematodes affected fiber quality by increasing micronaire readings but typically had little or no effect on percent lint, fiber length (measured by HVI), uniformity, strength, elongation, length (based on weight or number measured by AFIS), upper quartile length, or short fiber content (based on weight or number). Micronaire also was increased by water deficit stress, but the effects from nematodes and water stress were independent. We conclude that the detrimental effects caused to cotton yield and quality by nematode parasitism and water deficit stress are independent and therefore additive. PMID:24987162

Davis, R. F.; Earl, H. J.; Timper, P.

2014-01-01

139

Mitochondrial genomes of Meloidogyne chitwoodi and M. incognita (Nematoda: Tylenchina): comparative analysis, gene order and phylogenetic relationships with other nematodes.  

Science.gov (United States)

Root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp.) are among the most important plant pathogens. In this study, the mitochondrial (mt) genomes of the root-knot nematodes, M. chitwoodi and M. incognita were sequenced. PCR analyses suggest that both mt genomes are circular, with an estimated size of 19.7 and 18.6-19.1kb, respectively. The mt genomes each contain a large non-coding region with tandem repeats and the control region. The mt gene arrangement of M. chitwoodi and M. incognita is unlike that of other nematodes. Sequence alignments of the two Meloidogyne mt genomes showed three translocations; two in transfer RNAs and one in cox2. Compared with other nematode mt genomes, the gene arrangement of M. chitwoodi and M. incognita was most similar to Pratylenchus vulnus. Phylogenetic analyses (Maximum Likelihood and Bayesian inference) were conducted using 78 complete mt genomes of diverse nematode species. Analyses based on nucleotides and amino acids of the 12 protein-coding mt genes showed strong support for the monophyly of class Chromadorea, but only amino acid-based analyses supported the monophyly of class Enoplea. The suborder Spirurina was not monophyletic in any of the phylogenetic analyses, contradicting the Clade III model, which groups Ascaridomorpha, Spiruromorpha and Oxyuridomorpha based on the small subunit ribosomal RNA gene. Importantly, comparisons of mt gene arrangement and tree-based methods placed Meloidogyne as sister taxa of Pratylenchus, a migratory plant endoparasitic nematode, and not with the sedentary endoparasitic Heterodera. Thus, comparative analyses of mt genomes suggest that sedentary endoparasitism in Meloidogyne and Heterodera is based on convergent evolution. PMID:24751670

Humphreys-Pereira, Danny A; Elling, Axel A

2014-01-01

140

GAMMA IRRADIATION OF SUGAR BEET SEEDS INDUCED PLANT RESISTANCE TO ROOT-KNOT NEMATODE MELOIDOGYNE INCOGNITA  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The main objective of this study was to investigate the effect of irradiation of sugar beet seeds on the plant resistance to root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita infection in addition to some morphological parameters, biochemical components and root technological characters. Relative to control (non-irradiated seeds), the obtained data showed that, all doses except 10 Gy significantly increased root length of un inoculated plants and the most effective dose was 200 Gy. All doses significantly decreased root diameter except 50 and 100 Gy. The 10 and 400 Gy significantly reduced root fresh weight while 50, 100 and 200 Gy caused non-significant increase. All doses significantly increased root fresh weight/dry weight than control. There was non-significant effect on the morphological parameters of the plants germinated from gamma irradiated seeds and inoculated with Meloidogyne incognita. Total chlorophyll of seed irradiated and un inoculated plants were significantly reduced by all doses except 200 Gy. All doses of gamma radiation caused non-significant decrease in the total chlorophyll of the infected plants. In un inoculated plants, a significant reduction in the total phenol was occurred due to all doses of gamma radiation. In contrast, in inoculated plants, 10 and 25 Gy caused significant reduction in the total phenol while 50 and 400 Gy caused significant increase in the total phenol.Significant increase in sucrose % was observed due to 10 Gy in the un inoculate observed due to 10 Gy in the un inoculated plants. The 400 Gy caused significant decrease while other doses caused non-significant decrease in the sucrose %. In the inoculated plants, 50, 100 and 400 Gy caused significant increase in sucrose %. All doses significantly increased total soluble salts percent (TSS %) of either inoculated or un inoculated plants. Purity % was increased by all doses in the inoculated plants.The number of galls and egg masses were reduced gradually by increasing gamma doses and 100 Gy caused the highest reduction 89.5 % and 94.7 % for galls and egg masses, respectively

 
 
 
 
141

Inconsistency of the biological control of Meloidogyne incognita race 2 in melon by endophytic bacteria Inconsistência do controle biológico de Meloidogyne incognita raça 2 em meloeiro por bactérias endofíticas  

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Full Text Available We obtained 61 rhizobacterium isolates from rhizosphere soil samples collected in melon commercial fields located in Mossoró, Rio Grande do Norte State, Brazil. These isolates, along with 56 endophytic bacteria from the Collection of Cultures of the Plant Bacteriology Laboratory of the Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco, were tested for controlling Meloidogyne incognita race 2 in melon. To infest the soil with nematodes, 1000 eggs of Meloidogyne incognita race 2 per plant were placed in pots where seedlings of the yellow-type melon, cultivar AF 682, were growing for 10 days. Two days before, 20 mL of bacterial suspension (0.7 OD570nm were poured into each pot. After 60 days, fresh root biomass, gall index, egg mass, and the nematode reproduction factor were assessed. Among the 117 isolates screened, the endophytic Bacillus ENM7, ENM10, and ENM51 were selected because they significantly reduced egg mass and/or gall index. However, when tested again, separately and in mixtures, these isolates nor confirmed their efficiency in vivo, neither affected juvenile emergence in vitro. These results give evidence on the inconsistency of using endophytic-bacteria in the control of M. incognita race 2 in melon.A partir de amostras de solo coletadas em plantios comerciais de meloeiro, situados em Mossoró-RN, foram obtidos 61 isolados de rizobactérias que, juntamente com outros 56 isolados endofíticos pertencentes à Coleção de Culturas do Laboratório de Fitobacteriologia da Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco, foram avaliados para o controle de Meloidogyne incognita raça 2 em melão. Plantas de meloeiro Amarelo, cultivar AF 682, com dez dias de idade tiveram o solo infestado com 1000 ovos de M. incognita raça 2 por planta. Dois dias antes, foram depositados em cada vaso 20 mL da suspensão bacteriana (DO570nm = 0,7. Decorridos 60 dias, foram determinados a biomassa fresca das raízes, os índices de galhas e de massa de ovos e o fator de reprodução do nematóide. Dos 117 isolados avaliados, foram selecionados inicialmente os isolados endofíticos ENM7, ENM10 e ENM51, todos pertencentes ao gênero Bacillus, que reduziram significativamente a massa de ovos e/ou o índice de galhas. Contudo, quando testados novamente, separadamente ou em misturas, esses isolados não mantiveram a eficiência na redução dessas variáveis e, in vitro, não afetaram a eclosão dos juvenis. Os resultados obtidos evidenciam a inconstância da ação das bactérias endofíticas no controle de M. incognita raça 2 em meloeiro.

Jeane E de Medeiros

2009-09-01

142

Inconsistency of the biological control of Meloidogyne incognita race 2 in melon by endophytic bacteria / Inconsistência do controle biológico de Meloidogyne incognita raça 2 em meloeiro por bactérias endofíticas  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese A partir de amostras de solo coletadas em plantios comerciais de meloeiro, situados em Mossoró-RN, foram obtidos 61 isolados de rizobactérias que, juntamente com outros 56 isolados endofíticos pertencentes à Coleção de Culturas do Laboratório de Fitobacteriologia da Universidade Federal Rural de Per [...] nambuco, foram avaliados para o controle de Meloidogyne incognita raça 2 em melão. Plantas de meloeiro Amarelo, cultivar AF 682, com dez dias de idade tiveram o solo infestado com 1000 ovos de M. incognita raça 2 por planta. Dois dias antes, foram depositados em cada vaso 20 mL da suspensão bacteriana (DO570nm = 0,7). Decorridos 60 dias, foram determinados a biomassa fresca das raízes, os índices de galhas e de massa de ovos e o fator de reprodução do nematóide. Dos 117 isolados avaliados, foram selecionados inicialmente os isolados endofíticos ENM7, ENM10 e ENM51, todos pertencentes ao gênero Bacillus, que reduziram significativamente a massa de ovos e/ou o índice de galhas. Contudo, quando testados novamente, separadamente ou em misturas, esses isolados não mantiveram a eficiência na redução dessas variáveis e, in vitro, não afetaram a eclosão dos juvenis. Os resultados obtidos evidenciam a inconstância da ação das bactérias endofíticas no controle de M. incognita raça 2 em meloeiro. Abstract in english We obtained 61 rhizobacterium isolates from rhizosphere soil samples collected in melon commercial fields located in Mossoró, Rio Grande do Norte State, Brazil. These isolates, along with 56 endophytic bacteria from the Collection of Cultures of the Plant Bacteriology Laboratory of the Universidade [...] Federal Rural de Pernambuco, were tested for controlling Meloidogyne incognita race 2 in melon. To infest the soil with nematodes, 1000 eggs of Meloidogyne incognita race 2 per plant were placed in pots where seedlings of the yellow-type melon, cultivar AF 682, were growing for 10 days. Two days before, 20 mL of bacterial suspension (0.7 OD570nm) were poured into each pot. After 60 days, fresh root biomass, gall index, egg mass, and the nematode reproduction factor were assessed. Among the 117 isolates screened, the endophytic Bacillus ENM7, ENM10, and ENM51 were selected because they significantly reduced egg mass and/or gall index. However, when tested again, separately and in mixtures, these isolates nor confirmed their efficiency in vivo, neither affected juvenile emergence in vitro. These results give evidence on the inconsistency of using endophytic-bacteria in the control of M. incognita race 2 in melon.

Jeane E de, Medeiros; Rosa de LR, Mariano; Elvira MR, Pedrosa; Elineide B da, Silveira.

143

Behavior of Ilex paraguariensis St. Hilaire, 1822 to Meloidogyne incognita and M. paranaensis and their influence on development of plantlets  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese A influência de Meloidogyne incognita e M paranaensis no desenvolvimento de mudas de erva-mate, foi avaliada em casa-de-vegetação e laboratório. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado, com 10 repetições, sendo cada parcela formada de 1 plântula de erva-mate/vaso, inoculada com 5000 [...] ovos de M. incognita raças 1, 2, 3, 4 e M. paranaensis. Aos 120 dias, observou-se que a erva-mate, além de boa hospedeira destes nematóides, permitiu-lhes completar seu ciclo vital. O desenvolvimento das plantas foi significativamente afetado pelas raças 1 e 2 de M. incognita.; os pesos de matéria seca e fresca da parte aérea sofreram alterações conforme o tratamento. Não houve alteração no peso fresco de raízes e o número de ovos por raízes foi semelhante para as raças 1 e 2 de M. incognita, sendo, porém, mais elevado nos demais tratamentos. O fator de reprodução foi superior a 1 em todos os tratamentos, indicando a susceptibilidade da erva-mate a estes agentes. Abstract in english The influence of Meloidogyne incognita and M. paranaensis on the development of mate (Ilex paraguariensis ST. Hill) plantlets was assessed in greenhouse and laboratory. The experimental design was randomized. Every plot of each one of the 10 repetitions contained one mate plantlet , inoculated with [...] 5,000 eggs of M. incognita (races 1, 2, 3 and 4) and M. paranaensis. After 120 days it was observed that mate was a reliable hostess to such nematodes and that they could finish their life cycle. Plant development was significantly modified by M. incognita, races 1 and 2. Dry and green matter weight of shoots changed according to treatment. No changes were observed in fresh root weight. The number of eggs per root was similar for M. incognita, races 1 and 2, and higher for the other treatments. The reproduction factor was above 1 for all treatments, indicating mate plants susceptibility to them.

Débora Cristina, Santiago; Alaíde Aparecida, Krzyzanowski; Martin, Homechin.

144

COMPORTAMIENTO DE MATERIALES DE LOS GÉNEROS Carica Y Vasconcellea FRENTE A Erwinia papayae, Meloidogyne incognita Y Rotylenchulus reniformis / REACTION OF THE GENERA Carica AND Vasconcellea MATERIALS TO Erwinia papayae, Meloidogyne incognita AND Rotylenchulus reniformis  

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Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La bacteriosis del cancro y el ataque de los nematodos constituyen graves obstáculos en la extensión del cultivo de la papaya (Carica papaya L.). El objetivo principal de este trabajo fue la selección de genotipos tanto comerciales como silvestres resistentes a los patógenos mencionados. Para la eva [...] luación del comportamiento ante la bacteria del cancro causada por Erwinia papayae, se seleccionaron once accesiones de C. papaya, Vasconcellea goudotiana y V. cauliflora y se inocularon 10 plantas de cada genotipo con una suspensión bacteriana de concentración de 10(8) UFC.mL-1. La inoculación se realizó produciendo heridas en los tallos de las plantas sanas. Los testigos se trataron de igual forma con agua destilada estéril. Para la evaluación de la resistencia a nematodos se realizaron dos experimentos; en el primero se utilizaron materiales de C. papaya y V. goudotiana, los cuales se inocularon con una población mixta de Meloidogyne incognita raza 1 y Rotylenchulus reniformis con 2000 huevos+juveniles.1000 cm-3 en suelo-arena estéril. Para el segundo experimento se usaron, además de los materiales mencionados, V. cauliflora, V. cundinamarcensis, V. microcarpa var. microcarpa, V. microcarpa var. pilifera, inoculados sólo con M. incognita raza 1 con 2500 huevos+juveniles.1000 cm-3. A las 12 semanas se calculó la población final y se midieron las siguientes variables: peso aéreo y radical fresco y seco. Los resultados del comportamiento de los genotipos frente a la bacteria determinó que V. goudotiana y V. cauliflora no se enfermaron, no así el género Carica, donde todas las plantas resultaron susceptibles, coincidiendo con la evaluación de nematodos, donde todas las accesiones de C. papaya y V. goudotiana fueron susceptibles y no tolerante al ataque de la población mixta de M. incognita raza 1 y R. reniformis, por afectarse las variables agronómicas evaluadas; mientras que la mayoría de los materiales de V. cundinamarcencis y V. microcarpa resultaron resistentes al ataque de M. incognita raza 1. Estos resultados permiten la obtención de genes de resistencias en los materiales silvestres, los cuales podrían ser incorporados a los genotipos mejorados o comerciales, y permitiría un mejor manejo de los patógenos mencionados, que resultan limitantes severos en el cultivo de papaya en Venezuela. Abstract in english The bacterial canker and the attack of nematodes are serious obstacles to the extension of Carica papaya L. crop. The main objective of this work was the selection of both commercial and wild genotypes resistant to the above mentioned pathogens. To assess the response to the bacterial canker caused [...] by Erwinia papayae, eleven accesions of C. papaya, Vasconcellea goudotiana y V. cauliflora were selected and ten plants of each genotype were inoculated with a bacterial suspension with a concentration of 10(8) CFU.mL-1 . The plants were inoculated by wounds on the stems of the healthy plants. The controls were similarly treated but with sterile distilled water. Two trials were carried out to evaluate the resistance to nematodes. In the first trial, materials of C. papaya and V. goudotiana were inoculated with a mixed population of Meloidogyne incognita race 1 and Rotylenchulus reniformis, with 2000 eggs+juveniles. 1000 cm-3 in sterile soil-sand. In the second trial, V. cauliflora, V. cundinamarcensis, V. microcarpa var. microcarpa and V. microcarpa var. pilifera, in addition to the genotypes previously used, were inoculated only with M. incognita race 1, with 2500 eggs+juvenils.1000 cm-3. After 12 weeks, the final population was calculated and the fresh and dried weights of the aerial parts and roots were determined. The results of the reaction of the genotypes towards the bacterium determined that V. goudotiana and V. cauliflora did not get the disease, what differed from the Carica genus, where all the plants resulted susceptible, a result that was similar to the evaluation to nematodes, where all the genotypes

Anna, Maselli; Ligia Carolina, Rosales; Yolanda, Guevara; Zoraida, Suárez H.

2010-12-01

145

COMPORTAMIENTO DE MATERIALES DE LOS GÉNEROS Carica Y Vasconcellea FRENTE A Erwinia papayae, Meloidogyne incognita Y Rotylenchulus reniformis / REACTION OF THE GENERA Carica AND Vasconcellea MATERIALS TO Erwinia papayae, Meloidogyne incognita AND Rotylenchulus reniformis  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La bacteriosis del cancro y el ataque de los nematodos constituyen graves obstáculos en la extensión del cultivo de la papaya (Carica papaya L.). El objetivo principal de este trabajo fue la selección de genotipos tanto comerciales como silvestres resistentes a los patógenos mencionados. Para la eva [...] luación del comportamiento ante la bacteria del cancro causada por Erwinia papayae, se seleccionaron once accesiones de C. papaya, Vasconcellea goudotiana y V. cauliflora y se inocularon 10 plantas de cada genotipo con una suspensión bacteriana de concentración de 10(8) UFC.mL-1. La inoculación se realizó produciendo heridas en los tallos de las plantas sanas. Los testigos se trataron de igual forma con agua destilada estéril. Para la evaluación de la resistencia a nematodos se realizaron dos experimentos; en el primero se utilizaron materiales de C. papaya y V. goudotiana, los cuales se inocularon con una población mixta de Meloidogyne incognita raza 1 y Rotylenchulus reniformis con 2000 huevos+juveniles.1000 cm-3 en suelo-arena estéril. Para el segundo experimento se usaron, además de los materiales mencionados, V. cauliflora, V. cundinamarcensis, V. microcarpa var. microcarpa, V. microcarpa var. pilifera, inoculados sólo con M. incognita raza 1 con 2500 huevos+juveniles.1000 cm-3. A las 12 semanas se calculó la población final y se midieron las siguientes variables: peso aéreo y radical fresco y seco. Los resultados del comportamiento de los genotipos frente a la bacteria determinó que V. goudotiana y V. cauliflora no se enfermaron, no así el género Carica, donde todas las plantas resultaron susceptibles, coincidiendo con la evaluación de nematodos, donde todas las accesiones de C. papaya y V. goudotiana fueron susceptibles y no tolerante al ataque de la población mixta de M. incognita raza 1 y R. reniformis, por afectarse las variables agronómicas evaluadas; mientras que la mayoría de los materiales de V. cundinamarcencis y V. microcarpa resultaron resistentes al ataque de M. incognita raza 1. Estos resultados permiten la obtención de genes de resistencias en los materiales silvestres, los cuales podrían ser incorporados a los genotipos mejorados o comerciales, y permitiría un mejor manejo de los patógenos mencionados, que resultan limitantes severos en el cultivo de papaya en Venezuela. Abstract in english The bacterial canker and the attack of nematodes are serious obstacles to the extension of Carica papaya L. crop. The main objective of this work was the selection of both commercial and wild genotypes resistant to the above mentioned pathogens. To assess the response to the bacterial canker caused [...] by Erwinia papayae, eleven accesions of C. papaya, Vasconcellea goudotiana y V. cauliflora were selected and ten plants of each genotype were inoculated with a bacterial suspension with a concentration of 10(8) CFU.mL-1 . The plants were inoculated by wounds on the stems of the healthy plants. The controls were similarly treated but with sterile distilled water. Two trials were carried out to evaluate the resistance to nematodes. In the first trial, materials of C. papaya and V. goudotiana were inoculated with a mixed population of Meloidogyne incognita race 1 and Rotylenchulus reniformis, with 2000 eggs+juveniles. 1000 cm-3 in sterile soil-sand. In the second trial, V. cauliflora, V. cundinamarcensis, V. microcarpa var. microcarpa and V. microcarpa var. pilifera, in addition to the genotypes previously used, were inoculated only with M. incognita race 1, with 2500 eggs+juvenils.1000 cm-3. After 12 weeks, the final population was calculated and the fresh and dried weights of the aerial parts and roots were determined. The results of the reaction of the genotypes towards the bacterium determined that V. goudotiana and V. cauliflora did not get the disease, what differed from the Carica genus, where all the plants resulted susceptible, a result that was similar to the evaluation to nematodes, where all the genotypes

Anna, Maselli; Ligia Carolina, Rosales; Yolanda, Guevara; Zoraida, Suárez H.

146

Tolerancia de 26 colectas de tomates nativos de México al nematodo Meloidogyne incognita (Kofoid y White) Chitwood / Tolerance of 26 native tomato collections from Mexico to nematode Meloidogyne incognita (Kofoid and White) Chitwood  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Mexico | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Se determinó la tolerancia de 26 colectas de tomates nativos de México a Meloidogyne incongnita (Kofoid y White) Chitwood, con el fin de identificar aquellas con potencial para su empleo en el mejoramiento genético o como portainjertos. Para ello, plantas de 30 días de edad fueron establecidas en hi [...] droponia bajo invernadero. Diez días después del trasplante (ddt) fue aplicada al sustrato una solución con 100,000 huevecillos-larva por planta. Se registraron caracteres de la parte aérea de plantas y a los 210 ddt se cuantificó el desarrollo de poblaciones de nematodos en raíces. M. incognita disminuyó el diámetro de frutos y el porte de planta (altura al primer racimo, peso seco de tallo y número de nudos), e incrementó el número de frutos y flores. Además, redujo la longitud de raíces y aumentó el volumen de éstas por la formación de nódulos. Mediante análisis multivariados (agrupamiento y discriminante) se definieron cinco grupos de colectas en función de la cantidad de agallas pequeñas y grandes, así como el total de éstas (82% de variación) y por la cantidad de larvas en raíz y huevecillos en sustrato (13% de variación). Se identificaron tres colectas tolerantes con bajos índices de agallas y menor presencia de huevecillos-larva en raíz y en sustrato. Ocho colectas fueron moderadamente tolerantes; nueve, moderadamente susceptibles, y seis, susceptibles. No se detectaron asociaciones entre orígenes de colectas o forma de fruto con respecto a la tolerancia al nematodo. Abstract in english The tolerance of 26 native tomato collections from Mexico to Meloidogyne incongnita (Kofoid and White) Chitwood was studied to identify those with potential for use in breeding or as rootstock. To do this, 30-day-old plants were established in a hydroponic system under greenhouse conditions. A solut [...] ion with 100,000 eggs-larvae per plant was applied to the substrate 10 days after transplantation (dat). Characters of the above-ground part of the plants were recorded and at 210 dat the development of nematode populations in roots was quantified. Meloidogyne incognita reduced fruit diameter and plant size (first truss height, stem dry weight, and node number), and increased the number of fruits and flowers. Additionally, it reduced root length and increased root volume due to nodule formation. By means of multivariate analysis (cluster and discriminant), five collection groups were defined based on the number of small and large galls, as well as total galls (82 % variation), and by the number of larvae in roots and eggs in the substrate (13 % variation). Three tolerant collections with low gall indices and a lower number of eggs-larvae in the roots and substrate were identified. Eight collections were moderately tolerant, nine moderately susceptible and six susceptible. No associations were detected between collection origins or fruit shape and tolerance to nematode.

Raquel, Cervantes-Moreno; Juan Enrique, Rodríguez-Pérez; Calixto, Carrillo Fonseca; Jaime, Sahagún-Castellanos; Eduardo, Rodríguez-Guzmán.

2014-04-01

147

Isolation of Nematicidal Triterpenoid Saponins from Pulsatilla koreana Root and Their Activities against Meloidogyne incognita  

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Full Text Available Pulsatilla koreana, a species endemic to Korea, is an important herb used in traditional medicine to treat amoebic dysentery and malaria. In the present study, 23 oleanane-type triterpenoid saponins 1–23 and eight lupane-type triterpenoid saponins 24–31 were isolated from the roots of P. koreana. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic data. The methanol extract and isolated compounds were next assessed for nematicidal activity against the root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne incognita. The methanol extract showed strong nematicidal activity after 48 h, with a LC50 value of 92.8 ?g/mL. Compounds 2, 5, 9, 20, and 21 showed significant effects, with LC50 values ranging from 70.1 to 94.7 ?g/mL after 48 h. These results suggest that triterpenoid saponins from P. koreana should be explored as potential natural nematicides for developing new agents to control root-knot nematode disease

Byung Soo Han

2013-05-01

148

Nematicidal activity of allylisothiocyanate from horseradish (Armoracia rusticana) roots against Meloidogyne incognita.  

Science.gov (United States)

In recent years, there has been a great development in the search for new natural pesticides for crop protection aiming a partial or total replacement of currently used chemical nematicides. Glucosinolate breakdown products are volatile and are therefore good candidates for nematodes fumigants. In this article, the methanol-aqueous extract (1:1, w/v) of horseradish (Armoracia rusticana) fresh roots (MAH) was in vitro tested for nematicidal activity against second stage (J2) Meloidogyne incognita. The EC50 of MAH after 3 days of J2 immersion in test solutions was 251 ± 46 mg/L. The chemical composition analysis of the extract carried out by the GC-MS technique showed that allylisothicyanate was the most abundant compound. This pure compound induced J2 paralysis with an EC50 of 52.6 ± 45.6 and 6.6 ± 3.4 mg/L after 1 h and 3 days of incubation. The use of LC-MS/MS showed for the first time that horseradish root is rich in polyphenols. The study of isothiocyanate degradation in soil showed that allylisothiocyanate was the most quickly degradable compound (half-life <10 min), whereas no significant differences in half-life time were noted between degradation in regular and autoclaved soil. PMID:23627288

Aissani, Nadhem; Tedeschi, Paola; Maietti, Annalisa; Brandolini, Vincenzo; Garau, Vincenzo Luigi; Caboni, Pierluigi

2013-05-22

149

Nematicidal activity of mint aqueous extracts against the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita.  

Science.gov (United States)

The nematicidal activity and chemical characterization of aqueous extracts and essential oils of three mint species, namely, Mentha × piperita , Mentha spicata , and Mentha pulegium , were investigated. The phytochemical analysis of the essential oils was performed by means of GC-MS, whereas the aqueous extracts were analyzed by LC-MS. The most abundant terpenes were isomenthone, menthone, menthol, pulegone, and carvone, and the water extracts yielded mainly chlorogenic acid, salvianolic acid B, luteolin-7-O-rutinoside, and rosmarinic acid. The water extracts exhibited significant nematicidal activity against Meloidogyne incognita , and the EC50/72h values were calculated at 1005, 745, and 300 mg/L for M. × piperita, M. pulegium, and M. spicata, respectively. Only the essential oil from M. spicata showed a nematicidal activity with an EC50/72h of 358 mg/L. Interestingly, menthofuran and carvone showed EC50/48h values of 127 and 730 mg/L, respectively. On the other hand, salicylic acid, isolated in the aqueous extracts, exhibited EC50 values at 24 and 48 h of 298 ± 92 and 288 ± 79 mg/L, respectively. PMID:24050256

Caboni, Pierluigi; Saba, Marco; Tocco, Graziella; Casu, Laura; Murgia, Antonio; Maxia, Andrea; Menkissoglu-Spiroudi, Urania; Ntalli, Nikoletta

2013-10-16

150

Ocorrência de Pratylenchus brachyurus e Meloidogyne incognita na cultura do algodoeiro no Estado do Mato Grosso / Occurrence of Pratylenchus brachyurus and Meloidogyne incognita in cotton plantations of Mato Grosso State  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese [...] Abstract in english In a survey carried out in the state of Mato Grosso, Brazil, the lesion nematode, Pratylenchus brachyurus, and the root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita, were found, respectively, in 94% and 3.7% of a total of 623 root and soil samples representing 21,793 ha. No visible aboveground symptoms in c [...] otton (Gossypium hirsutum) plants infected by P. brachyurus were observed, except for typical root lesions. In contrast, plants with M. incognita usually exhibited pronounced symptoms of damage. The high frequency (94%) of P. brachyurus was unexpected and is of concern considering the fact that soybean (Glycine max) and corn (Zea mays), are both susceptible to this nematode and are used in crop rotation programs.

Rosangela A. da, Silva; Mirian A. S., Serrano; Antônio C., Gomes; Dárcio C., Borges; Anderson A. de, Souza; Guilherme L., Asmus; Mário M., Inomoto.

2004-06-01

151

Nematocidal Flavone-C-Glycosides against the Root-Knot Nematode (Meloidogyne incognita from Arisaema erubescens Tubers  

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Full Text Available A screening of several Chinese medicinal herbs for nematicidal properties showed that Arisaema erubescens (Wall. Schott tubers possessed significant nematicidal activity against the root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne incognita. From the ethanol extract, two nematicidal flavone-C-glycosides were isolated by bioassay-guided fractionation. The compounds were identified as schaftoside and isoschaftoside on the basis of their phytochemical and spectral data. Schaftoside and isoschaftoside possessed strong nematicidal activity against M. incognita (LC50 = 114.66 ?g/mL and 323.09 ?g/mL, respectively while the crude extract of A. erubescens exhibited nematicidal activity against the root-knot nematode with a LC50 value of 258.11 ?g/mL.

Zhi Long Liu

2011-06-01

152

Genome-wide survey and analysis of microsatellites in nematodes, with a focus on the plant-parasitic species Meloidogyne incognita  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Microsatellites are the most popular source of molecular markers for studying population genetic variation in eukaryotes. However, few data are currently available about their genomic distribution and abundance across the phylum Nematoda. The recent completion of the genomes of several nematode species, including Meloidogyne incognita, a major agricultural pest worldwide, now opens the way for a comparative survey and analysis of microsatellites in these organisms. Results Using MsatFinder, the total numbers of 1-6 bp perfect microsatellites detected in the complete genomes of five nematode species (Brugia malayi, Caenorhabditis elegans, M. hapla, M. incognita, Pristionchus pacificus ranged from 2,842 to 61,547, and covered from 0.09 to 1.20% of the nematode genomes. Under our search criteria, the most common repeat motifs for each length class varied according to the different nematode species considered, with no obvious relation to the AT-richness of their genomes. Overall, (ATn, (AGn and (CTn were the three most frequent dinucleotide microsatellite motifs found in the five genomes considered. Except for two motifs in P. pacificus, all the most frequent trinucleotide motifs were AT-rich, with (AATn and (ATTn being the only common to the five nematode species. A particular attention was paid to the microsatellite content of the plant-parasitic species M. incognita. In this species, a repertoire of 4,880 microsatellite loci was identified, from which 2,183 appeared suitable to design markers for population genetic studies. Interestingly, 1,094 microsatellites were identified in 801 predicted protein-coding regions, 99% of them being trinucleotides. When compared against the InterPro domain database, 497 of these CDS were successfully annotated, and further assigned to Gene Ontology terms. Conclusions Contrasted patterns of microsatellite abundance and diversity were characterized in five nematode genomes, even in the case of two closely related Meloidogyne species. 2,245 di- to hexanucleotide loci were identified in the genome of M. incognita, providing adequate material for the future development of a wide range of microsatellite markers in this major plant parasite.

Guillemaud Thomas

2010-10-01

153

Efecto del follaje de Tagetes minuta sobre la nodulación radicular de Meloidogyne incognita en Capsicum annuum, en invernadero / Effect of the foliage of Tagetes minuta on Meloidogyne incognita root-galling on Capsicum annuum in a greenhouse  

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Full Text Available SciELO Peru | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Se investigó el efecto del follaje del "huacatay" Tagetes minuta sobre la nodulación radicular producida por el nematodo Meloidogyne incognita que parasita el "pimiento páprika" Capsicum annuum cultivado en invernadero, con la finalidad de obtener una alternativa de control de este nematodo. Se util [...] izaron tres grupos experimentales y un testigo, con 12 macetas cada uno, las cuales contenían suelo y arena estériles (1:1). A este substrato se adicionó el follaje de T. minuta al 20, 35 y 50% (v/v) según grupo experimental, y el testigo no recibió esta enmienda. En cada maceta se sembró una plántula de C. annuum, y a la semana postsiembra se inoculó 5000 huevos de M. incognita. A las ocho semanas, se evaluaron los nódulos en sus raíces. Todas las plantas presentaron nódulos; aunque, en aquellas de los grupos experimentales el número de éstos fue menor que en las plantas testigo, con diferencia estadística significativa (p 0,05). Se concluye que el follaje de T. minuta adicionado como enmienda orgánica al 20, 35 y 50% al suelo de cultivo de plantas de C. annuum limita la nodulación radicular ocasionada por M. incognita. Lo cual sugiere su uso potencial en el control de este nematodo Abstract in english The effect of the foliage of Tagetes minuta "huacatay" on Meloidogyne incognita root-galling on Capsicum annuum "paprika pepper" cultured in a greenhouse was researched, to obtain a control strategy for this nematode. Three experimental groups and one control with 12 pots each were used, which conta [...] ined sterilized soil and sand (1:1). To this substrate was added cut foliage of T. minuta at 20, 35 and 50% (v/v) according to the experimental group, and the control group remained without this amendment. In each pot a seedling of C. annuum was sown, and one week post-seeding was inoculated with 5000 eggs of M. incognita. Eight weeks later the root galling was evaluated. All the plants had root galling; although the number of galls in plants of the experimental groups was less than those in the control group with statistical significant difference (p 0.05). It is concluded that the foliage of T. minuta added as organic amendment at 20, 35 and 50% to the culture soil for C. annuum plants limits the M. incognita root galling. That suggests its potential use in the control of this nematode

Santos Nélida, Murga-Gutiérrez; Juan Carlos, Alvarado-Ibáñez; Nora Yessenia, Vera-Obando.

2012-12-01

154

COMPORTAMIENTO DE GENOTIPOS DE TOMATE (Solanum lycopersicum L.) FRENTE A Meloidogyne incognita (Kofoid y White) CHITWOOD¹ / RESPONCE OF TOMATO GENOTYPES (Solanum lycopersicum L.) TO THE PARASITISM OF of Meloidogyne incognita (Kofoid y White) CHITWOOD¹  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Los nematodos del género Meloidogyne Göldi representan un factor limitante en la producción protegida de hortalizas en Cuba. Los híbridos y variedades de tomate empleados en esta tecnología provienen de firmas extranjeras, cuyo comportamiento ante Meloidogyne incognita (Kofoid y White) Chitwood se d [...] esconoce. El objetivo de este trabajo es evaluar la resistencia/susceptibilidad de los híbridos de tomate FA 572- Katherine y LT-M12 frente a M. incognita. El experimento se estableció en condiciones semi-controladas en macetas con plantas de cada genotipo inoculadas con 1,5 J2 de M. incognita por gramo de suelo. El cultivo susceptible Cucurbita sp. var. RG5 fue utilizado como control de la población de nematodos. Se establecieron diez repeticiones para cada tratamiento. A los 60 días después de la inoculación se determinó el Índice de Agallamiento (IA), el factor de reproducción (FR) y el índice de reproducción(IR) para la categorización de los genotipos en resistentes/susceptibles. Se evidenció que los IA para los dos genotipos fueron bajos (IA= 2 - 3) con respecto al control (IA= 5). Sin embargo, permitieron la reproducción del nematodo y que estos aumentaran su población nueve veces más que la inoculada inicialmente. El índice de reproducción obtenido los sitúa dentro de la categoría de muy susceptibles (MS), ya que la reproducción tuvo un incremento de más del 50 % con respecto al cultivo susceptible utilizado como control. Este trabajo ratifica que el IA no debe ser utilizado como único elemento para determinar la resistencia/susceptibilidad de los genotipos. Abstract in english Root-knot nematodes Meloidogyne spp., represent one of the factors that limit vegetable production under sheltered conditions. The hybrids and varieties of tomato produced under this technology are imported and their responses to Meloidogyne incognita Kofoi y White (Chitwood) under these conditions [...] are unknown. The main objective of this work was to evaluate the resistant/susceptibility of tomato hybrids FA 572- Katherine and LT-M12 to M. incognita. The experiment was set up under semi-controlled conditions using potted plants of each genotype and the susceptible crop Cucurbita sp. var. RG5, used as a control of the experiment. The plants were inoculated with 1,5 egg-juveniles per gram of soil with 10 replications per treatment. At sixty days after nematode inoculation, the gall index (GI), the reproduction factor and the reproduction index were determined to categorize the genotypes as resistant/susceptible. Both genotypes showed a low root gall index (GI=2-3) in comparison with the control (GI=5) although they responded very susceptible to M. incognita as they allowed higher reproduction of the nematode in a 50% than the control. The results of this work confirmed that the gall index can not be used as a unique criterion to determine genotype resistance to M. incognita.

L, Navarro-Barthelemy; Lucila, Gómez; R, Enrique; Farah M, González; Mayra G, Rodríguez.

155

COMPORTAMIENTO DE GENOTIPOS DE TOMATE (Solanum lycopersicum L.) FRENTE A Meloidogyne incognita (Kofoid y White) CHITWOOD¹ / RESPONCE OF TOMATO GENOTYPES (Solanum lycopersicum L.) TO THE PARASITISM OF of Meloidogyne incognita (Kofoid y White) CHITWOOD¹  

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Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Los nematodos del género Meloidogyne Göldi representan un factor limitante en la producción protegida de hortalizas en Cuba. Los híbridos y variedades de tomate empleados en esta tecnología provienen de firmas extranjeras, cuyo comportamiento ante Meloidogyne incognita (Kofoid y White) Chitwood se d [...] esconoce. El objetivo de este trabajo es evaluar la resistencia/susceptibilidad de los híbridos de tomate FA 572- Katherine y LT-M12 frente a M. incognita. El experimento se estableció en condiciones semi-controladas en macetas con plantas de cada genotipo inoculadas con 1,5 J2 de M. incognita por gramo de suelo. El cultivo susceptible Cucurbita sp. var. RG5 fue utilizado como control de la población de nematodos. Se establecieron diez repeticiones para cada tratamiento. A los 60 días después de la inoculación se determinó el Índice de Agallamiento (IA), el factor de reproducción (FR) y el índice de reproducción(IR) para la categorización de los genotipos en resistentes/susceptibles. Se evidenció que los IA para los dos genotipos fueron bajos (IA= 2 - 3) con respecto al control (IA= 5). Sin embargo, permitieron la reproducción del nematodo y que estos aumentaran su población nueve veces más que la inoculada inicialmente. El índice de reproducción obtenido los sitúa dentro de la categoría de muy susceptibles (MS), ya que la reproducción tuvo un incremento de más del 50 % con respecto al cultivo susceptible utilizado como control. Este trabajo ratifica que el IA no debe ser utilizado como único elemento para determinar la resistencia/susceptibilidad de los genotipos. Abstract in english Root-knot nematodes Meloidogyne spp., represent one of the factors that limit vegetable production under sheltered conditions. The hybrids and varieties of tomato produced under this technology are imported and their responses to Meloidogyne incognita Kofoi y White (Chitwood) under these conditions [...] are unknown. The main objective of this work was to evaluate the resistant/susceptibility of tomato hybrids FA 572- Katherine and LT-M12 to M. incognita. The experiment was set up under semi-controlled conditions using potted plants of each genotype and the susceptible crop Cucurbita sp. var. RG5, used as a control of the experiment. The plants were inoculated with 1,5 egg-juveniles per gram of soil with 10 replications per treatment. At sixty days after nematode inoculation, the gall index (GI), the reproduction factor and the reproduction index were determined to categorize the genotypes as resistant/susceptible. Both genotypes showed a low root gall index (GI=2-3) in comparison with the control (GI=5) although they responded very susceptible to M. incognita as they allowed higher reproduction of the nematode in a 50% than the control. The results of this work confirmed that the gall index can not be used as a unique criterion to determine genotype resistance to M. incognita.

L, Navarro-Barthelemy; Lucila, Gómez; R, Enrique; Farah M, González; Mayra G, Rodríguez.

2009-04-01

156

Meloidogyne incognita and Tomato Response to Thiamine, Ascorbic Acid, L-arginine, and L-glutamic Acid  

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The influence of solutions of ascorbic acid, thiamine, L-arginine, and L-gtutamic acid on egg hatch, juvenile survival, and development and reproduction of Meloidogyne incognita in susceptible and resistant tomatoes was studied. Maximum inhibition of egg hatch occurred at 2,000, 4,000, and 2,000 ppm for ascorbic acid, L-arginine, and L-glutamic acid, respectively. Larval survival was significantly reduced by concentrations of 2,000 ppm ascorbic acid and 1,000 ppm of L-arginine. Maximum inhibi...

Al-sayed, A. A.; Thomason, I. J.

1988-01-01

157

Effect of Ammonium Ions on Egg Hatching and Second-Stage Juveniles of Meloidogyne incognita in Axenic Tomato Root Culture  

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Eggs, either dispersed or in masses, and second-stage juveniles (J2) of Meloidogyne incognita were exposed to different concentrations of ammonium ions in a nutrient agar medium upon which excised tomato roots were growing. Egg hatch and J2 penetration of the roots was slowed or inhibited at high (54 and 324 mg/liter) but not at low (1.5 and 9 mg/liter) concentrations of ammonium nitrate. The effect of ammonium on J2 appeared to be temporary and reversible. High potassium nitrate concentratio...

Sudirman; Webster, J. M.

1995-01-01

158

Solarization of soil in piles for the control of Meloidogyne incognita in olive nurseries in southern Spain  

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The potential of solarization to control Meloidogyne incognita in piles of soil used at olive nurseries in southern Spain was studied in 1999 and 2000. Kaolin and soil infested with free eggs and egg masses of the nematode in nylon bags were buried 20 and 40 cm deep inside conical piles of soil 80 cm high and with a base diameter of 1 m. Soil piles were solarized for 3 weeks in July and August. The effect of various periods of solarization was assessed by egg hatch bioassays in sterile wat...

Nico, Andre?s I.; Jime?nez-di?az, Rafael M.; Castillo, Pablo

2003-01-01

159

Reação de clones de batata-doce à Meloidogyne incognita raças 1 e 4 e estimativa de parâmetros genéticos / Reaction of sweet potato clones to Meloidogyne incognita races 1 and 4, and estimation of genetic parameters  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O objetivo deste trabalho foi selecionar clones de batata-doce resistentes às raças 1 e 4 de Meloidogyne incognita, além de avaliar a eficiência do método de seleção empregado, pela estimativa de parâmetros genéticos. Foram avaliados 21 acessos do jardim clonal da Universidade de Brasília e três cul [...] tivares de batata-doce (Brazlândia Branca, Brazlândia Roxa e Amarela). O experimento foi conduzido em casa de vegetação, com delineamento de blocos casualizados em arranjo simples, com 24 tratamentos, quatro repetições e três plantas por parcela. A inoculação do patógeno foi feita trinta dias após o plantio das ramas e, após noventa dias, foi feita a contagem do número médio de massas de ovos encontradas nas raízes das plantas inoculadas. Foram considerados resistentes os clones que apresentaram em média 0 a 1,9 massas de ovos por sistema radicular, moderadamente resistentes aqueles que apresentaram de 2,0 a 2,9 massas de ovos, moderadamente suscetíveis os que obtiveram número médio de massas de ovos variando entre 3,0 e 3,9, e suscetíveis aqueles com 4,0 a 5,0 massas de ovos por sistema radicular. Dos 24 materiais analisados, nove (37,5%) foram classificados como resistentes à raça 1 de M. incognita e 16 (66,67%) foram classificados como resistentes à M. incognita raça 4. Os clones 1200, 1210, 1199, 1229, 1230, 1202, 1231, 1216 e 1209 apresentaram resistência tanto à raça 1 quanto à raça 4 de M. incognita. A resistência das plantas a essas duas populações de nematoides testadas apresentou alta herdabilidade, e a relação entre os coeficientes de variação genético e ambiental do experimento para resistência à raça 4 de M. incognita apresentou-se mais baixa que aquela encontrada no outro experimento para resistência à raça 1. Abstract in english The objective of this work was to select sweet potato resistant clones to the races 1 and 4 of Meloidogyne incognita, and measure the efficiency of the selection method used, by means of the estimation of genetic and environmental coefficients of variation, and broad-sense heritabilities. We evaluat [...] ed 21 accessions of the clonal garden of the Universidade de Brasilia, and three cultivars of sweet potato (Brazlândia Branca, Brazlândia Roxa and Amarela). The experiment was carried out in a greenhouse with a randomized block design in simple arrangement, with 24 treatments, four replications and three plants per plot. The inoculation of the pathogen was made thirty days after planting the slips and, after ninety days, the counting of the average number of egg masses of the infected plants was completed. Clones were considered resistant when presented a number of egg masses per root system from 0 to 1.9, moderately resistant 2.0 to 2.9, moderately susceptible 3.0 to 3.9, and, susceptible 4.0 to 5.0. From 24 clones analyzed, nine (37.5%) were classified as resistant to the race 1 of M. incognita, and 16 (66.67%) were classified as resistant to the race 4 of M. incognita. The clones 1200, 1210, 1199, 1229, 1230, 1202, 1231, 1216 and 1209 were resistant to the two races tested of M. incognita. The resistance of the plants to these two races of root-knot nematodes presented high heritability, and the relationship between the coefficients of genetic and environmental variation of the experiment to resistance to race 4 of M. incognita was shorter than that one found in the another experiment, that aimed resistance to the race 1.

Danielle C, Kalkmann; José R, Peixoto; Daiane da S, Nóbrega.

2013-06-01

160

Preliminary evaluation of meloidogyne incognita race 3 reproduction on garden pea cultivars in Brazil/ Avaliação preliminar da reprodução de Meloidogyne incognita raça 3 em cultivares de ervilha no Brasil  

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Full Text Available Thirteen garden pea cultivars, were assessed for the reproductive rate of the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita race 3 under greenhouse conditions. Two-week old plants growing were inoculated with 5.000 eggs. The nematode reproduction data was determined 55 days later according to the three adopted evaluation criteria (root-gall and egg-mass indexes, reproduction factor, percentage of reduction of the reproduction factor in relation to the susceptible standard cultivar. The tested cultivars were rated as highly susceptible ('Trolly'. 'Jurema', susceptible ('Luiza'. 'Mini'. 'Asterix', 'Verde Temprana' or moderately susceptible ('Marina', 'Telephone'., 'Dileta'. 'Bolero', 'Flávia'. 'Viçosa', and 'Maria' hosts for the nematode.Avaliaram-se as taxas reprodutivas e caracterizaram-se as reações de 13 cut tiveres de ervilha em relação ao nematóide de galhas Meloidogyne incognita raça 3, em casa-de-vegetação. Plantas com duas semanas de idade, foram inoculadas com 5000 ovos do nematóide. As avaliações foram realizadas após 55 dias com base nos critérios - índices de galhas/índices de massas de ovos, fator de reprodução e porcentagem de redução do fator de reprodução. Duas cultivares foram consideradas hospedeiras altamente suscetíveis (‘Trolly’, ‘Jurema’, cinco suscetíveis ('Luíza', 'Mini', 'Asterix', 'Verde Temprana', 'Telefone' e seis moderadamente suscetíveis ('Marina'. 'Dileta', 'Boiero'. 'Flávia'. 'Viçosa', 'Maria'.

Luiz Carlos Camargo Barbosa Ferraz

2000-01-01

 
 
 
 
161

Manejo do solo e da irrigação como nova tática de controle de Meloidogyne incognita em feijoeiro  

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Full Text Available A população de Meloidogyne incognita e sua infetividade foram estudadas em parcelas amostradas a zero, dois e 14 dias após o revolvimento do solo com ou sem irrigação, irrigadas sem revolvimento e testemunha. Na amostragem aos dois dias após a instalação do ensaio, ocorreu maior redução (P<0,01 de juvenis do segundo estádio ( J2 no solo apenas revolvido seguido pelo revolvido e irrigado. A infetividade do inóculo do solo, contudo, foi menor (P<0,01 quando se revolveu e irrigou o solo comparado com aquele apenas revolvido. Aos 14 dias, a menor (P<0,01 população de J2 foi observada no solo revolvido e irrigado, seguido do revolvido, e elevada naquele apenas irrigado e na testemunha. A infetividade do inóculo do solo aos 14 dias continuou mais baixa no solo revolvido e irrigado. Aos 45 dias após a semeadura, a população de J2 continuou mais baixa (P<0,01 onde o solo foi revolvido e irrigado. O número de ovos por feijoeiro (Phaseolus vulgaris no campo aos 90 dias também foi mais baixo (P<0,01 no solo revolvido e irrigado. Maior (P<0,01 peso das raízes e da parte aérea dos feijoeiros no campo foi observado em plantas crescidas em solo apenas revolvido, e no revolvido e irrigado A produção de feijão no solo revolvido e irrigado posteriormente foi quatro vezes maior que a testemunha, porém todos os tratamentos diferiram-se entre si. A irrigação como prática agrícola para aumentar a eficácia do alqueive no controle de fitonematóides tem sido postulada por alguns pesquisadores, mas nunca provada experimentalmente, o que agora foi realizada.

Dutra Marcos Roberto

2003-01-01

162

Nematicidal activity of 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid purified from Terminalia nigrovenulosa bark against Meloidogyne incognita.  

Science.gov (United States)

In this study, the 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid (3,4-DHBA) from Terminalia nigrovenulosa bark (TNB) was purified and its in vitro nematicidal activity was investigated against Meloidogyne incognita. The purification of 3,4-DHBA used a silica gel column and Sephadex LH-20 chromatography combined with thin-layer chromatography and high performance liquid chromatography. Structural identification of the 3,4-DHBA was conducted using (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), (13)C NMR, and liquid chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Nematicidal activity bioassays revealed that 3,4-DHBA treatment resulted in 33.3, 47.5, 72.5 and 94.2% J2 mortality at 0.125, 0.25, 0.5 and 1.0 mg/ml, respectively after 12 h incubation. J2 mortality was increased significantly (P < 0.0001) with increasing incubation time in the range of 54.2-94.2% from 3 to 9 h after incubation with 3,4-DHBA (1.0 mg/ml), but with no significant difference observed where the incubation time was increased from 9 to 12 h. The 3,4-DHBA treatment resulted in 33.3, 65.0, 76.7 and 85.0% hatch inhibition at 0.125, 0.25, 0.5 and 1.0 mg/ml, respectively, 3 days after incubation. Changes in the shape of the eggs were determined after incubation for 1 day with a 3,4-DHBA concentration of 1.0 mg/ml. PMID:23603737

Nguyen, Dang-Minh-Chanh; Seo, Dong-Jun; Kim, Kil-Yong; Park, Ro-Dong; Kim, Dong-Hyun; Han, Yeon-Soo; Kim, Tae-Hwan; Jung, Woo-Jin

2013-01-01

163

The Feeding Behavior of Adult Root-knot Nematodes (Meloidogyne incognita) in Rose Balsam and Tomato.  

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Meloidogyne incognita is a parasitic root-knot nematode that causes considerable yield loss in a wide range of plants. In this study we documented the movement of adult female nematodes for more than 2 hr in micro-slices of infected tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) and rose balsam (Impatiens balsamina) plants using light and video microscopy. Stylet thrusting was followed by short pumping actions of the esophagus, dorsal esophageal gland ampulla, and metacorpal bulb. Regular thrusting was normally accompanied by head turning and always preceded continuous stylet thrusting aimed at a single point (for 20 to 90 sec). Females often held the stylet in a protruded position, while pulsating the metacorpus bulb, for about 30 sec. Subsequently, the stylet was paused in a retracted position for 5 to 40 sec. This sequence of behavior took 290 to 380 sec to complete. The procedure developed in this study provides a useful cytological technique to investigate the interaction between root-knot nematodes and the giant cells formed by infected plants. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that the head of the adult nematode was located in the narrow intercellular spaces among several giant cells. The anterior part of the head of the adult was folded like a concertina, whereas that of the second-stage juvenile was not. The labial disc and medial lips of second-stage juveniles seemed expanded and sturdy, whereas those of the adult were star-shaped, appeared to be contracted, and softer. These morphological differences in the heads of adult and second-stage juveniles are discussed with respect to their movement. PMID:25276004

Miyashita, Nao; Yabu, Tetsuo; Kurihara, Takayuki; Koga, Hironori

2014-09-01

164

Effects of ced-9 dsRNA on Caenorhabditis elegans and Meloidogyne incognita  

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Full Text Available Problem Statement: In metazoans Programmed Cell Death (PCD is essential for proper development. Suppression of PCD is needed to guarantee cell survival and in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans the regulation of PCD is accomplished by the function of the ced-9 gene. Approach: In this work the use of double stranded RNA (dsRNA to knock-down ced-9 gene function was tested as means to induce PCD. Results: Our results indicate that dsRNA targeting the cell death protection gene ced-9 is effective at decreasing the fecundity of C. elegans by up to 21%. The decreased fecundity correlated with an increased presence of cell corpses in developing embryos. Endogenous ced-9 transcript levels were reduced in progeny of ced-3 mutant nematodes fed bacteria expressing ced-9 dsRNA. These data suggest that nematode fecundity can be reduced by ingestion and exposure to dsRNAs targeting regulation of the cell death pathway. In an attempt to determine if plant parasitic nematodes are susceptible to the targeting of the PCD regulatory pathway we exposed Meloidogyne incognita, a plant parasitic nematode, to ced-9 dsRNA; here we show that this exposure results in decreased gall formation in the tobacco plants. Conclusion/Recommendations: Our results provide the first steps toward using RNAi technologies to attempt nematode control by targeting cell death pathways. Ongoing research with transgenic plants designed to express dsRNA for ced-9-like sequences will further test the feasibility of generating plants with RNAi-based resistance to parasitic nematodes.

Robert T. Gaeta

2011-01-01

165

Screenhouse Assessment of Reaction of Fluted Pumpkin, Telfairia Occidentalis Hook F. to Root-Knot Nematode Meloidogyne Incognita  

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Full Text Available Screenhouse studies were carried out between April – June and July – September, 2004 at the vegetable researchunit of National HorticulturalResearch Institute (NIHORT, Ibadan,Nigeria to investigate the reaction of five linesof Telfairia occidentalis (EN2000-4, EN2000-6, EN2000-10, EN2000-11, EN2000-13 to different populationlevels (0, 5000 and 10 000 eggs of Meloidogyne incognita race 2. Seeds from five different matured pods ofTelfairia lines were planted on moist sawdust medium. They were watered every two days until germination andtransplanting. Experimental layout was a completely randomized design and each treatment was replicated fivetimes. Nematode inoculation was done at one week after transplanting. The plants were watered every two daysand observation of vine length, vine girth and number of leaves commenced two weeks after transplanting (WATon bi weekly basis and lasted till the 10th week. From the 4th WAT, roots were assessed for the presence of eggsevery five days in view of determining the generation time in the various lines. Soil nematode population and rootgall indices were determined at the end of the trial.Results showed that there were significant differences between the Telfairia lines in the measured parametersirrespective of the inoculum levels. EN2000-4 performed significantly better than the other lines. EN2000-13which closely followed EN2000-4 with respect to vegetative growth, recorded significantly higher galling indexthan all the other lines. There were significant differences between the inoculum levels. Inoculum levels wereinversely proportional to growth parameters and directly proportional to gall indices in all the lines. Chloroticpatches were also observed on the leaves of plants inoculated with 10 000 eggs. The uninoculated (control plantsgave significantly better vegetative growth than their inoculated counterparts. The disparities in growth and yieldresponses indicate that there is genetic variability among the lines.

N. B. IZUOGU

2010-08-01

166

Inheritance of resistance to Meloidogyne incognita race 2 in the hot pepper cultivar Carolina Cayenne (Capsicum annuum L.).  

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Root-knot nematodes of the genus Meloidogyne are important pathogens affecting vegetable crop production in Brazil and worldwide. The pepper species Capsicum annuum includes both hot and sweet peppers; very little emphasis has been placed on breeding sweet peppers for nematode resistance. We report on the inheritance of resistance to Meloidogyne incognita (Kofoid & White) Chitwood race 2 in the hot pepper cultivar Carolina Cayenne. The hot pepper cv. Carolina Cayenne was used as seed parent and the sweet pepper cv. Agronômico-8 was used as pollen parent to obtain the F(1) and F(2) generations and the backcross generations BC(11) and BC(12). The plants were inoculated with M. incognita race 2 at a rate of 60 eggs/ml of substrate and, after a suitable incubation period, the numbers of root galls and egg masses per root system were evaluated on each plant. Broad- (0.77 and 0.72) and narrow-sense (0.77 and 0.63) heritability estimates were high for both root galls and egg masses, respectively. The mean degree of dominance was estimated as 0.29 and 0.25 for numbers of galls and egg masses, respectively; these estimates were not significantly different from 0, indicating a predominantly additive gene action. The results were consistent with a hypothesis of monogenic resistance in Carolina Cayenne. PMID:14963835

de Souza-Sobrinho, Fausto; Maluf, Wilson Roberto; Gomes, Luiz A A; Campos, Vicente Paulo

2002-01-01

167

Velvetbean (Mucuna pruriens) extracts: impact on Meloidogyne incognita survival and on Lycopersicon esculentum and Lactuca sativa germination and growth.  

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Velvetbean (Mucuna spp.) is a summer annual that has been used as a cover crop to reduce erosion, fix nitrogen and suppress weeds and plant-parasitic nematodes. Crude aqueous extracts (1:15 dry weight plant/volume water) were made from velvetbean plant parts, and various concentrations of the extracts were evaluated in vitro for toxicities to different stages of Meloidogyne incognita (Kofoid and White) Chitwood and for suppression of hypocotyl and root growth and inhibition of germination of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum L.) and lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.). Germination was only affected by the full-strength extract from leaf blades. Lettuce root growth was the most sensitive indicator of allelopathic activity of the plant part extracts. Lettuce and tomato root growth was more sensitive to the extract from main roots than to extracts of other plant parts, with lethal concentration (LC50) values of 1.2 and 1.1% respectively. Meloidogyne incognita egg hatch was less sensitive to extracts from velvetbean than the juvenile (J2) stage. There was no difference among LC50 values of the extracts from different plant parts against the egg stage. Based on LC50 values, the extract from fine roots was the least toxic to J2 (LC50 39.9%), and the extract from vines the most toxic (LC50 7.8%). The effects of the extracts were nematicidal because LC50 values did not change when the extracts were removed and replaced with water. PMID:16953489

Zasada, Inga A; Klassen, Waldemar; Meyer, Susan L F; Codallo, Maharanie; Abdul-Baki, Aref A

2006-11-01

168

Interactions between an arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus (Scutellospora heterogama) and the root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne incognita) on sweet passion fruit (Passiflora alata)  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese O efeito da inoculação com Scutellospora heterogama (200 esporos/planta) em relação aos sintomas e reprodução de Meloidogyne incognita raça 1 (5000 ovos/planta) foi avaliado em plantas de maracujazeiro doce em dois experimentos em casa de vegetação. No primeiro experimento, inoculações com nematóide [...] e FMA foram simultâneas; no segundo, nematóides foram inoculados 120 dias após o estabelecimento da simbiose micorrízica. Após o 220º dia da inoculação do FMA o fungo estimulou o crescimento da planta nos dois experimentos. No solo desinfestado as mudas não inoculadas com S. heterogama mostraram intolerância ao parasitismo de M. incognita. A esporulação de S. heterogama foi negativamente afetada pela presença do nematóide. M. incognita não afetou o crescimento das mudas micorrizadas ou o desenvolvimento do FMA. O estabelecimento da micorriza antes do nematóide contribui para a redução da severidade dos sintomas e reprodução de M. incognita em solo desinfestado. Abstract in english The effects of inoculation of sweet passion fruit plants with the arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungus Scutellospora heterogama on the symptoms produced by Meloidogyne incognita race 1 and its reproduction were evaluated in two greenhouse experiments. In the 1st, the M. incognita (5000 eggs/plant) and [...] S. heterogama (200 spores/plant) inoculations were simultaneous; in the 2nd, the nematodes were inoculated 120 days after the fungal inoculation. In both the experiments, 220 days after AM fungal inoculation, plant growth was stimulated by the fungus. In disinfested soil, control seedlings (without S. heterogama) were intolerant to parasitism of M. incognita, while the growth of mycorrhized seedlings was not affected. Sporulation of S. heterogama was negatively affected by the nematodes that did not impair the colonization. M. incognita did not affect mycorrhizal seedling growth. The establishment of mycorrhiza prior to the nematode infection contributed for the reduction of symptoms severity and reproduction of M. incognita in disinfested soil.

Érika Cristina Teixeira dos, Anjos; Uided Maaze Tiburcio, Cavalcante; Danielle Maria Correia, Gonçalves; Elvira Maria Regis, Pedrosa; Venézio Felipe dos, Santos; Leonor Costa, Maia.

2010-08-01

169

Efficacy evaluation of fungus Syncephalastrum racemosum and nematicide avermectin against the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita on cucumber.  

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The root-knot nematode (RKN) is one of the most damaging agricultural pests.Effective biological control is need for controlling this destructive pathogen in organic farming system. During October 2010 to 2011, the nematicidal effects of the Syncephalastrum racemosum fungus and the nematicide, avermectin, alone or combined were tested against the RKN (Meloidogyne incognita) on cucumber under pot and field condition in China. Under pot conditions, the application of S. racemosum alone or combined with avermectin significantly increased the plant vigor index by 31.4% and 10.9%, respectively compared to the M. incognita-inoculated control. However, treatment with avermectin alone did not significantly affect the plant vigor index. All treatments reduced the number of root galls and juvenile nematodes compared to the untreated control. Under greenhouse conditions, all treatments reduced the disease severity and enhanced fruit yield compared to the untreated control. Fewer nematodes infecting plant roots were observed after treatment with avermectin alone, S. racemosum alone or their combination compared to the M. incognita-inoculated control. Among all the treatments, application of avermectin or S. racemosum combined with avermectin was more effective than the S. racemosum treatment. Our results showed that application of S. racemosum combined with avermectin not only reduced the nematode number and plant disease severity but also enhanced plant vigor and yield. The results indicated that the combination of S. racemosum with avermectin could be an effective biological component in integrated management of RKN on cucumber. PMID:24586982

Huang, Wen-Kun; Sun, Jian-Hua; Cui, Jiang-Kuan; Wang, Gang-Feng; Kong, Ling-An; Peng, Huan; Chen, Shu-Long; Peng, De-Liang

2014-01-01

170

EFECTO DEL MOMENTO DE APLICACIÓN DE Pochonia chlamydosporia var. CATENULATA SOBRE SU EFICACIA EN EL CONTROL DE MELOIDOGYNE INCOGNITA / EFFECTS OF Pochonia chlamydosporia var. CATENULATE APPLICATION MOMENTS OVER ITS EFFICACY IN CONTROLLING MELOIDOGYNE INCOGNITA  

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Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Se estudió el efecto del momento de aplicación de la cepa IMI SD 187 de Pochonia chlamydosporia var. catenulata sobre su abundancia en el suelo y la rizosfera, así como su capacidad para colonizar las masas de huevos y el parasitismo de los huevos de Meloidogyne incognita en el cultivo del tomate (S [...] olanum lycopersicum L.), con el objetivo de perfeccionar el uso práctico de este agente de control biológico. Los resultados demostraron que la colonización del sustrato y raíces, así como la capacidad parasítica de P. chlamydosporia var. catenulata fueron superiores con la aplicación del hongo al sustrato en el transplante. No obstante, la aplicación al sustrato del cepellón permitió que los niveles de colonización alcanzados en las raíces del cultivo del tomate por P. chlamydosporia var. catenulata proporcionaran un 60% de parasitismo de huevos, aspecto a tener en cuenta cuando los niveles de infestación por M. incognita sean bajos o se deseen realizar aplicaciones preventivas. Abstract in english To improve the biological control agent practical use, the effect of the application moment of the strain IMI SD 187 of Pochonia chlamydosporia var. catenulata on its abundance in soil and rhizosphere, as well as its capability of egg mass colonization and egg parasitism of M. incognita on tomato (S [...] olanum lycopersicum L.) crop was studied. The results provided that the substrate and root colonization and the parasitic capability of P. chlamydosporia var. catenulata were higher with the fungus application in the substrate at transplanting. Nevertheless, the application on the tray substrate at sowing allowed the levels of root colonization reached by P. chlamydosporia var. catenulata to provide a 60% of egg parasitism which is a percentage to be taken into account at low infestation levels by M. incognita or at preventive applications.

Ana, Puertas; L, Hidalgo-Díaz.

171

EFECTO DEL MOMENTO DE APLICACIÓN DE Pochonia chlamydosporia var. CATENULATA SOBRE SU EFICACIA EN EL CONTROL DE MELOIDOGYNE INCOGNITA / EFFECTS OF Pochonia chlamydosporia var. CATENULATE APPLICATION MOMENTS OVER ITS EFFICACY IN CONTROLLING MELOIDOGYNE INCOGNITA  

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Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Se estudió el efecto del momento de aplicación de la cepa IMI SD 187 de Pochonia chlamydosporia var. catenulata sobre su abundancia en el suelo y la rizosfera, así como su capacidad para colonizar las masas de huevos y el parasitismo de los huevos de Meloidogyne incognita en el cultivo del tomate (S [...] olanum lycopersicum L.), con el objetivo de perfeccionar el uso práctico de este agente de control biológico. Los resultados demostraron que la colonización del sustrato y raíces, así como la capacidad parasítica de P. chlamydosporia var. catenulata fueron superiores con la aplicación del hongo al sustrato en el transplante. No obstante, la aplicación al sustrato del cepellón permitió que los niveles de colonización alcanzados en las raíces del cultivo del tomate por P. chlamydosporia var. catenulata proporcionaran un 60% de parasitismo de huevos, aspecto a tener en cuenta cuando los niveles de infestación por M. incognita sean bajos o se deseen realizar aplicaciones preventivas. Abstract in english To improve the biological control agent practical use, the effect of the application moment of the strain IMI SD 187 of Pochonia chlamydosporia var. catenulata on its abundance in soil and rhizosphere, as well as its capability of egg mass colonization and egg parasitism of M. incognita on tomato (S [...] olanum lycopersicum L.) crop was studied. The results provided that the substrate and root colonization and the parasitic capability of P. chlamydosporia var. catenulata were higher with the fungus application in the substrate at transplanting. Nevertheless, the application on the tray substrate at sowing allowed the levels of root colonization reached by P. chlamydosporia var. catenulata to provide a 60% of egg parasitism which is a percentage to be taken into account at low infestation levels by M. incognita or at preventive applications.

Ana, Puertas; L, Hidalgo-Díaz.

2009-12-01

172

Efeito de manipueira sobre Meloidogyne incognita em ensaios in vitro e em tomateiros em casa de vegetação / Effect of manipueira on Meloidogyne incognita through in vitro and in vivo essays on tomatoes in greenhouse  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Objetivou-se estudar o efeito nematicida de manipueira no controle de Meloidogyne incognita. Testes in vitro foram divididos em dois ensaios inteiramente casualizados: 1. manipueira a 100%, 75%, 50% e 25% em 12 repetições; 2. manipueira a 15%, 10%, 8%, 6%, 4% e 2% em 5 repetições. O ensaio em vasos [...] seguiu o delineamento inteiramente casualisado com manipueira a 10%, 25% e 50% em 5 repetições. Para ambos os ensaios utilizou-se o tratamento somente água como testemunha positiva e Carbofuran (50 mg.L-1 de ingrediente ativo (i.a.) ou 2 g de produto comercial/vaso) como negativa. Para os ensaios in vitro foram avaliados nematóides vivos e mortos e número de galhas em plantas inoculadas. Para os ensaios em vaso foram avaliadas as variáveis altura de plantas, comprimento de raízes, número de galhas, número de ovos e fator de reprodução (FR). Os resultados in vitro demonstraram que os tratamentos com manipueira até 10% de diluição apresentaram 100% de controle. O ensaio com tomateiros previamente inoculados demonstrou que o tratamento manipueira 50% causou um melhor desenvolvimento da parte aérea das plantas de tomate. Os tratamentos manipueira a 10% e 25% foram mais efetivos no controle de M. incognita em vasos. Abstract in english The aim of this work was to study the nematicidal effect of manipueira on the control of Meloidogyne incognita. In vitro tests were split into two completely randomized assays: 1. manipueira 100%, 75%, 50% and 25% in 12 replications; 2. manipueira 15%, 10%, 8%, 6%, 4% and 2% in 5 replications. The p [...] ot assay followed a completely randomized design with the treatments manipueira 10%, 25% and 50% in 5 replications. For both assays the positive control was water and the negative control was the nematicide Carbofuran (50 mg.L-1 of active ingredient (a.i.) or 2 g of commercial product/pot). For in vitro assays the variables assessed were live or dead nematodes and number of galls on inoculated plants. For the pot assay the variables evaluated were plant height, root length, number of galls, number of eggs and reproduction factor (RF). The in vitro results indicated that only the manipueira treatments from 100% to 10% dilution showed maximum control. The pot assay demonstrated that the treatment manipueira 50% caused better development of tomato shoots than the others. However, manipueira 10% and 25% were more effective against of M. incognita in pots.

Érica G.C., Nasu; Ely, Pires; Heloísa M., Formentini; Cleber, Furlanetto.

2010-02-01

173

Efeito de manipueira sobre Meloidogyne incognita em ensaios in vitro e em tomateiros em casa de vegetação Effect of manipueira on Meloidogyne incognita through in vitro and in vivo essays on tomatoes in greenhouse  

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Full Text Available Objetivou-se estudar o efeito nematicida de manipueira no controle de Meloidogyne incognita. Testes in vitro foram divididos em dois ensaios inteiramente casualizados: 1. manipueira a 100%, 75%, 50% e 25% em 12 repetições; 2. manipueira a 15%, 10%, 8%, 6%, 4% e 2% em 5 repetições. O ensaio em vasos seguiu o delineamento inteiramente casualisado com manipueira a 10%, 25% e 50% em 5 repetições. Para ambos os ensaios utilizou-se o tratamento somente água como testemunha positiva e Carbofuran (50 mg.L-1 de ingrediente ativo (i.a. ou 2 g de produto comercial/vaso como negativa. Para os ensaios in vitro foram avaliados nematóides vivos e mortos e número de galhas em plantas inoculadas. Para os ensaios em vaso foram avaliadas as variáveis altura de plantas, comprimento de raízes, número de galhas, número de ovos e fator de reprodução (FR. Os resultados in vitro demonstraram que os tratamentos com manipueira até 10% de diluição apresentaram 100% de controle. O ensaio com tomateiros previamente inoculados demonstrou que o tratamento manipueira 50% causou um melhor desenvolvimento da parte aérea das plantas de tomate. Os tratamentos manipueira a 10% e 25% foram mais efetivos no controle de M. incognita em vasos.The aim of this work was to study the nematicidal effect of manipueira on the control of Meloidogyne incognita. In vitro tests were split into two completely randomized assays: 1. manipueira 100%, 75%, 50% and 25% in 12 replications; 2. manipueira 15%, 10%, 8%, 6%, 4% and 2% in 5 replications. The pot assay followed a completely randomized design with the treatments manipueira 10%, 25% and 50% in 5 replications. For both assays the positive control was water and the negative control was the nematicide Carbofuran (50 mg.L-1 of active ingredient (a.i. or 2 g of commercial product/pot. For in vitro assays the variables assessed were live or dead nematodes and number of galls on inoculated plants. For the pot assay the variables evaluated were plant height, root length, number of galls, number of eggs and reproduction factor (RF. The in vitro results indicated that only the manipueira treatments from 100% to 10% dilution showed maximum control. The pot assay demonstrated that the treatment manipueira 50% caused better development of tomato shoots than the others. However, manipueira 10% and 25% were more effective against of M. incognita in pots.

Érica G.C. Nasu

2010-02-01

174

Short interfering RNA-mediated gene silencing in Globodera pallida and Meloidogyne incognita infective stage juveniles.  

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The analysis of gene function through RNA interference (RNAi)-based reverse genetics in plant parasitic nematodes (PPNs) remains inexplicably reliant on the use of long double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) silencing triggers; a practice inherently disadvantageous due to the introduction of superfluous dsRNA sequence, increasing chances of aberrant or off-target gene silencing through interactions between nascent short interfering RNAs (siRNAs) and non-cognate mRNA targets. Recently, we have shown that non-nematode, long dsRNAs have a propensity to elicit profound impacts on the phenotype and migrational abilities of both root knot and cyst nematodes. This study presents, to our knowledge for the first time, gene-specific knockdown of FMRFamide-like peptide (flp) transcripts, using discrete 21bp siRNAs in potato cyst nematode Globodera pallida, and root knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita infective (J2) stage juveniles. Both knockdown at the transcript level through quantitative (q)PCR analysis and functional data derived from migration assay, indicate that siRNAs targeting certain areas of the FMRFamide-like peptide (FLP) transcripts are potent and specific in the silencing of gene function. In addition, we present a method of manipulating siRNA activity through the management of strand thermodynamics. Initial evaluation of strand thermodynamics as a determinant of RNA-Induced Silencing Complex (RISC) strand selection (inferred from knockdown efficacy) in the siRNAs presented here suggested that the purported influence of 5' stand stability on guide incorporation may be somewhat promiscuous. However, we have found that on strategically incorporating base mismatches in the sense strand of a G. pallida-specific siRNA, we could specifically increase or decrease the knockdown of its target (specific to the antisense strand), presumably through creating more favourable thermodynamic profiles for incorporation of either the sense (non-target-specific) or antisense (target-specific) strand into a cleavage-competent RISC. Whilst the efficacy of similar approaches to siRNA modification has been demonstrated in the context of Drosophila whole-cell lysate preparations and in mammalian cell cultures, it remained to be seen how these sense strand mismatches may impact on gene silencing in vivo, in relation to different targets and in different sequence contexts. This work presents the first application of such an approach in a whole organism; initial results show promise. PMID:19651131

Dalzell, Johnathan J; McMaster, Steven; Fleming, Colin C; Maule, Aaron G

2010-01-01

175

Utility of host delivered RNAi of two FMRF amide like peptides, flp-14 and flp-18, for the management of root knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita.  

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Root knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita, is an obligate sedentary endoparasite that infects a large number of crop species and causes substantial yield losses. Non-chemical based control strategies for these nematodes are gaining importance. In the present study, we have demonstrated the significance of two FMRFamide like peptide genes (flp-14 and flp-18) for infection and development of resistance to M. incognita through host-derived RNAi. The study demonstrated both in vitro and in planta validation of RNAi-induced silencing of the two genes cloned from J2 stage of M. incognita. In vitro silencing of both the genes interfered with nematode migration towards the host roots and subsequent invasion into the roots. Transgenic tobacco lines were developed with RNAi constructs of flp-14 and flp-18 and evaluated against M. incognita. The transformed plants did not show any visible phenotypic variations suggesting the absence of any off-target effects. Bioefficacy studies with deliberate challenging of M. incognita resulted in 50-80% reduction in infection and multiplication confirming the silencing effect. We have provided evidence for in vitro and in planta silencing of the genes by expression analysis using qRT-PCR. Thus the identified genes and the strategy can be used as a potential tool for the control of M. incognita. This is the first ever report that has revealed the utility of host delivered RNAi of flps to control M. incognita. The strategy can also be extended to other crops and nematodes. PMID:24223228

Papolu, Pradeep Kumar; Gantasala, Nagavara Prasad; Kamaraju, Divya; Banakar, Prakash; Sreevathsa, Rohini; Rao, Uma

2013-01-01

176

Elucidating the molecular bases of epigenetic inheritance in non-model invertebrates: the case of the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita.  

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Root-knot nematodes of the genus Meloidogyne are biotrophic plant parasites that exhibit different life cycles and reproduction modes, ranging from classical amphimixis to obligatory mitotic parthenogenesis (apomixis), depending on the species. Meloidogyne incognita, an apomictic species, exhibits a worldwide distribution and a wide host range affecting more than 3000 plant species. Furthermore, evidences suggest that apomixis does not prevent M. incognita from adapting to its environment in contrast to what is expected from mitotic parthenogenesis that should theoretically produce clonal progenies. This raises questions about mechanisms of genome plasticity leading to genetic variation and adaptive evolution in apomictic animals. We reasoned that epigenetic mechanisms might in part be responsible for the generation of phenotypic variants that provide potential for rapid adaptation. We established therefore a pipeline to investigate the principal carriers of epigenetic information, DNA methylation and post-translational histone modifications. Even if M. incognita possesses the epigenetic machinery i.e., chromatin modifying enzymes, 5-methyl-cytosine and 5-hydroxy-methyl-cytosine content is absent or very weak. In contrast, we demonstrated that the canonical histone modifications are present and chromatin shows typical nucleosome structure. This work is the first characterization of carriers of epigenetic information in M. incognita and constitutes a preamble to further investigate if M. incognita development and its adaptation to plant hosts are under epigenetic control. Our pipeline should allow performing similar types of studies in any non-model organism. PMID:24936189

Perfus-Barbeoch, Laetitia; Castagnone-Sereno, Philippe; Reichelt, Michael; Fneich, Sara; Roquis, David; Pratx, Loris; Cosseau, Céline; Grunau, Christoph; Abad, Pierre

2014-01-01

177

Elucidating the molecular bases of epigenetic inheritance in non-model invertebrates: the case of the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita  

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Full Text Available Root-knot nematodes of the genus Meloidogyne are biotrophic plant parasites that exhibit different reproduction modes, ranging from classical amphimixis to obligatory mitotic parthenogenesis (apomixis, depending on the species. Meloidogyne incognita, an apomictic species, exhibits a worldwide distribution and a wide host range affecting more than 3,000 plant species. Furthermore, evidences suggest that apomixis does not prevent M. incognita from adapting to its environment in contrast to what is expected from mitotic parthenogenesis that should theoretically produce clonal progenies. This raises questions about mechanisms of genome plasticity leading to genetic variation and adaptive evolution in apomictic animals. We reasoned that epigenetic mechanisms might in part be responsible for the generation of phenotypic variants that provide potential for rapid adaptation. We investigated therefore the principal carriers of epigenetic information, DNA methylation and post-translational histone modifications. Even if M. incognita possesses the epigenetic machinery i.e. chromatin modifying enzymes, 5-methyl-cytosine and 5-hydroxy-methyl-cytosine content is absent or very weak. In contrast, we demonstrated that the canonical histone modifications are present and chromatin shows typical nucleosome structure. This work is the first characterization of carriers of epigenetic information in M. incognita and constitutes a preamble to further investigate whether M. incognita development and its adaptation to plant hosts are under epigenetic control.

LaetitiaPerfus-Barbeoch

2014-06-01

178

Elucidating the molecular bases of epigenetic inheritance in non-model invertebrates: the case of the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita  

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Root-knot nematodes of the genus Meloidogyne are biotrophic plant parasites that exhibit different life cycles and reproduction modes, ranging from classical amphimixis to obligatory mitotic parthenogenesis (apomixis), depending on the species. Meloidogyne incognita, an apomictic species, exhibits a worldwide distribution and a wide host range affecting more than 3000 plant species. Furthermore, evidences suggest that apomixis does not prevent M. incognita from adapting to its environment in contrast to what is expected from mitotic parthenogenesis that should theoretically produce clonal progenies. This raises questions about mechanisms of genome plasticity leading to genetic variation and adaptive evolution in apomictic animals. We reasoned that epigenetic mechanisms might in part be responsible for the generation of phenotypic variants that provide potential for rapid adaptation. We established therefore a pipeline to investigate the principal carriers of epigenetic information, DNA methylation and post-translational histone modifications. Even if M. incognita possesses the epigenetic machinery i.e., chromatin modifying enzymes, 5-methyl-cytosine and 5-hydroxy-methyl-cytosine content is absent or very weak. In contrast, we demonstrated that the canonical histone modifications are present and chromatin shows typical nucleosome structure. This work is the first characterization of carriers of epigenetic information in M. incognita and constitutes a preamble to further investigate if M. incognita development and its adaptation to plant hosts are under epigenetic control. Our pipeline should allow performing similar types of studies in any non-model organism. PMID:24936189

Perfus-Barbeoch, Laetitia; Castagnone-Sereno, Philippe; Reichelt, Michael; Fneich, Sara; Roquis, David; Pratx, Loris; Cosseau, Celine; Grunau, Christoph; Abad, Pierre

2014-01-01

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Avaliação da resistência de genótipos de quiabeiro à infestação por Meloidogyne incognita raça 2 e M. javanica / Resistance of okra genotypes to Meloidogyne incognita race 2 and M. javanica  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Vinte e dois genótipos de quiabeiro (Abelmoschus spp.) foram avaliados para resistência à Meloidogyne incognita raça 2 e M. javanica. Estes materiais, mantidos no Banco de Germoplasma da Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense, constam de quatro espécies selvagens Abelmoschus manihot (CGO 8655), A [...] . caillei (CGO 8656), A. tetraphyllus (CGO 8657) e A. ficulneus (CGO 8658); 16 linhas de A. esculentus na sétima geração de autofecundação, resultantes de inter-cruzamentos do genótipo PI-357991 (supostamente resistentes a nematóides) com as cultivares Piranema e Santa Cruz 47. Essas cultivares serviram como padrão de suscetibilidade. As plantas foram inoculadas separadamente com 5.000 ovos/segundo estádio juvenil (J2) de M. incognita raça 2 e M. javanica. Não houve diferença significativa com relação à resistência dos materiais a M. javanica. Os genótipos descendentes de 'PI-357991' mostraram-se segregantes para a reação de resistência, sendo que entre estes 'CGO 8180A7' apresentou o maior nível de tolerância à raça 2 de M. incognita. As espécies silvestres também não mostraram alguma fonte de resistência. As altas temperaturas ocorridas no período do experimento, podem ter aumentado a suscetibilidade dos genótipos aos dois patógenos. Abstract in english Twenty two okra genotypes were evaluated for resistance to M. incognita race 2 and M. javanica. The Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense (Brazil) maintains okra genotypes in the germplasm collection, consisting of four wild Abelmoschus species and 16 F7 lines obtained from crosses between PI-35 [...] 7991 (considered resistant to root-knot nematodes) and the local cvs, Piranema and Santa Cruz 47 (both susceptible to nematodes). No resistance was observed among okra genotypes to infection by M. javanica. The 16 F7 lines segregated for pathogenic reaction, and the CGO 8180A7 presented the highest resistance level to M. incognita race 2. The wild species did not show genetic resistance to both pathogens. High temperature occurring during experimental period could have increased the genotype susceptibility to the pathogens.

Gilmar Efrem, Martinello; Nilton R., Leal; João Carlos, Pimentel.

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Reaction of vegetables and aromatic plants to Meloidogyne javanica and M. incognita / Reação de hortaliças e plantas aromáticas aos nematoides Meloidogyne javanica e M. incognita  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Para avaliar a reação, mudas com 15 dias de idade foram transplantadas para vasos de 2 L de capacidade e inoculadas com 4.000 ovos e eventuais juvenis (J2) dos nematoides. Decorridos 60 dias, os sistemas radiculares foram retirados e avaliados quanto ao número de galhas e ovos, determinando-se o fat [...] or de reprodução (FR) dos nematoides nas respectivas plantas. Tomateiro cv. Santa Cruz foi utilizado como testemunha. O experimento foi conduzido em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com seis repetições, e as médias foram comparadas pelo teste Tukey ou Scott-Knott a 5% de probabilidade. Nas alfaces tipo Mimosa cv. Salad Bowl; nas cultivares do tipo Lisa, Elizabeth e Elisa; e na cultivar Vera (tipo crespa), o número de galhas e o FR de M. javanica foi superior ao observado para a testemunha; enquanto para as demais oleráceas, os maiores números de galhas e ovos foram para as cultivares de chicória e para o manjericão. Maior suscetibilidade a M. incognita foi observada para a alface tipo Mimosa cv. Salad Bowl, para as cultivares de chicória, salsa cv. Graúda Portuguesa e manjericão. Apenas manjerona apresentou número de galhas de M. incognita igual a zero. Abstract in english For this research we used 15 day-old seedlings which were transplanted to 2 L pots and inoculated with 4,000 nematode eggs plus juveniles (J2). After 60 days, the root systems were removed and the number of galls and eggs evaluated and used to calculate the nematode reproduction factor (RF). The tom [...] ato cv. Santa Cruz was used as a susceptible control. The experimental design was completely randomized, with six replications. Averages were compared using the Tukey or Scott-Knott test at 5%. For lettuce, Salad Bowl (Mimosa type), Elizabeth and Elisa (Lisa) and Vera cultivars (crisphead), the number of galls and the RF for M. javanica were statistically higher than for the control, whereas, for the other vegetable crops, the highest number of galls and eggs were found in chicory and basil. The highest susceptibility to M. incognita was observed in Mimosa lettuce cv. Salad Bowl, chicory cultivars, parsley cv. Graúda Portuguesa and basil. Marjoram exhibited no M. incognita galls.

Cláudia Regina, Dias-Arieira; Tatiana PL da, Cunha; Fernando Marcelo, Chiamolera; Heriksen H, Puerari; Fabio, Biela; Simone de M, Santana.

2012-06-01

 
 
 
 
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Nematicidal activity of the essential oil of Rhododendron anthopogonoides aerial parts and its constituent compounds against Meloidogyne incognita.  

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Hydrodistilled essential oil from Rhododendron anthopogonoides Maxim. (Ericaceae) aerial parts was analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). A total of 42 compounds, accounting for 95.48% of the total oil, were identified. The main constituents of the essential oil were benzyl acetone (34.41%), nerolidol (10.19%), 1,4-cineole (8.41%), beta-caryophyllene (5.63%), gamma-elemene (5.10%), and spathulenol (3.06%). Four constituents were isolated from the essential oil based on fractionation. The essential oil of R. anthopogonoides possessed nematicidal activity against the root knot nematode (Meloidogyne incognita) with an LC50 value of 130.11 microg/ml. The main compound of the essential oil, benzyl acetone, exhibited nematicidal activity against M. incognita with an LC50 value of 74.17 microg/ml while 1,4-cineole, nerolidol, and beta-caryophyllene were not nematicidal at a concentration of 5 mg/ml. The essential oil of R. anthopogonoides and benzyl acetone show potential for their development as possible natural nematicides for the control of the root knot nematode. PMID:24066516

Bai, Peng Hua; Bai, Chun Qi; Liu, Qi Zhi; Du, Shu Shan; Liu, Zhi Long

2013-01-01

182

Screening and Histopathological Characterization of Korean Carrot Lines for Resistance to the Root-Knot Nematode Meloidogyne incognita.  

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In total, 170 carrot lines developed in Korea were screened for resistance to Meloidogyne incognita race 1 to select parental genetic resources useful for the development of nematode-resistant carrot cultivars. Using the gall index (GI), gall formation was examined on carrot roots inoculated with approximately 1,000 second-stage juveniles of the nematode 7 weeks after inoculation. Sixty-one carrot lines were resistant (GI ? 1.0), while the other 109 were susceptible (GI > 1.0) with coefficient of variance (CV) of GI for total carrot lines 0.68, indicating low-variation of GI within the lines examined. The histopathological responses of two carrot plants from resistant and susceptible lines were examined after nematode infection. In susceptible carrots, giant cells formed with no discernible necrosis around the infecting nematodes. In the resistant carrot line, however, no giant cells formed, although modified cells were observed with extensive formation of necrotic layers through their middle lamella and around the infecting nematodes. This suggested that these structural modifications were related to hypersensitive responses governed by the expression of true resistance genes. Therefore, the Korean carrot lines resistant to the nematode infection are potential genetic resources for the development of quality carrot cultivars resistant to M. incognita race 1. PMID:25288988

Seo, Yunhee; Park, Jiyeong; Kim, Yong Su; Park, Yong; Kim, Young Ho

2014-03-01

183

Screening and Histopathological Characterization of Korean Carrot Lines for Resistance to the Root-Knot Nematode Meloidogyne incognita  

Science.gov (United States)

In total, 170 carrot lines developed in Korea were screened for resistance to Meloidogyne incognita race 1 to select parental genetic resources useful for the development of nematode-resistant carrot cultivars. Using the gall index (GI), gall formation was examined on carrot roots inoculated with approximately 1,000 second-stage juveniles of the nematode 7 weeks after inoculation. Sixty-one carrot lines were resistant (GI ? 1.0), while the other 109 were susceptible (GI > 1.0) with coefficient of variance (CV) of GI for total carrot lines 0.68, indicating low-variation of GI within the lines examined. The histopathological responses of two carrot plants from resistant and susceptible lines were examined after nematode infection. In susceptible carrots, giant cells formed with no discernible necrosis around the infecting nematodes. In the resistant carrot line, however, no giant cells formed, although modified cells were observed with extensive formation of necrotic layers through their middle lamella and around the infecting nematodes. This suggested that these structural modifications were related to hypersensitive responses governed by the expression of true resistance genes. Therefore, the Korean carrot lines resistant to the nematode infection are potential genetic resources for the development of quality carrot cultivars resistant to M. incognita race 1.

Seo, Yunhee; Park, Jiyeong; Kim, Yong Su; Park, Yong; Kim, Young Ho

2014-01-01

184

RNAi of MiASB caused high mortality of Meloidogyne incognita juveniles and inhibited the nematode disease  

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Full Text Available The southern root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita, is one of the most prevalent and damaging plant-parasitic nematodes in the world and causes serious damages to agricultural production. We cloned a mitochondrial ATP synthase b subunit gene fragment of M. incognita (MiASB based on the nematode genomics prediction. By soaking in the MiASB dsRNA solution, the hatching of RNAi treated eggs was reduced by 60% compared to negative control and by 64% compared to untreated control. Mortality of RNAi treated second stage juvenile (J2 was 8.6 times higher than that of negative control and 26 times higher than the untreated control. Inoculating the RNAi treated egg masses and J2 to tomato seedlings showed the pathogencity was significantly reduced. For the RNAi treated egg masses, the amount of root galls on silence treated seedlings was reduced by 92% compared to that on the negative control seedlings, and reduced by 93% compared to that on untreated control seedlings. For the treated J2, the amount of root galls on silence treated seedlings was reduced by 83% and 86% compared to negative and untreated control seedlings, respectively. The study revealed the MiASB silence had a positive effect on prevention and control of root-knot nematode disease, and also showed that the MiASB may be involved in the pathogenesis of nematode, which provided new ideas and ways to the research of nematode pathology and nematode disease control.

Yonghong Huang

2013-08-01

185

EFECTO DEL VERMICOMPOST Y QUITINA SOBRE EL CONTROL DE Meloidogyne incognita EN TOMATE A NIVEL DE INVERNADERO  

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Full Text Available Meloidogyne incognita es un nematodo endoparásito sedentario, de penetración total y formador de nódulos radicales; tiene una amplia distribución geográfica y causa pérdidas agrícolas importantes. Recientemente se han utilizado abonos orgánicos y compuestos como la quitina en la supresión de plagas y enfermedades de plantas. El objetivo de esta investigación fue evaluar el efecto de la aplicación de vermicompost de estiércol bovino y su enriquecimiento con quitina, sobre la infección de M. incognita en plantas de tomate var. Hayslip bajo condiciones de invernadero. Para esto se inocularon las plantas con 5000 unidades de inóculo (huevos+juveniles en segundo estado por maceta y se compararon con controles que fueron sembrados en suelo sin enmienda orgánica o quitina. La evaluación se llevó a cabo 60 días después y se midió el peso fresco aéreo y radical, peso seco aéreo, población total de nematodos en raíz y suelo, índice de nódulos radicales (INR, índice de masas de huevos (IMH, el factor de reproducción del nematodo (FR y recuento de grupos funcionales (hongos, bacterias y actinomicetes. La adición al suelo de vermicompost provocó un incremento en las variables peso fresco y seco foliar y peso fresco radical: a mayor porcentaje de vermicompost, mayor incremento; así mismo, la aplicación del vermicompost redujo la cantidad del nematodo en raíz y en suelo. La aplicación de quitina acentuó estos resultados, obteniéndose el menor factor de reproducción de M. Incognita, con un valor de 3,76 para la dosis de 50% vermicompost+quitina, mientras que en el testigo este factor fue de 93,20. La aplicación de quitina como enmienda única solo afectó la población de hongos en el suelo, mientras que la de actinomicetes aumentó en los tratamientos enmendados.

Leida Castro

2011-01-01

186

Evidence of Differences between the Communities of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi Colonizing Galls and Roots of Prunus persica Infected by the Root-Knot Nematode Meloidogyne incognita?  

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Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) play important roles as plant protection agents, reducing or suppressing nematode colonization. However, it has never been investigated whether the galls produced in roots by nematode infection are colonized by AMF. This study tested whether galls produced by Meloidogyne incognita infection in Prunus persica roots are colonized by AMF. We also determined the changes in AMF composition and biodiversity mediated by infection with this root-knot nematode. DNA f...

Alguacil, Maria Del Mar; Torrecillas, Emma; Lozano, Zenaida; Rolda?n, Antonio

2011-01-01

187

Non-nematode-derived double-stranded RNAs induce profound phenotypic changes in Meloidogyne incognita and Globodera pallida infective juveniles.  

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Nine non-nematode-derived double-stranded RNAs (dsRNAs), designed for use as controls in RNA interference (RNAi) screens of neuropeptide targets, were found to induce aberrant phenotypes and an unexpected inhibitory effect on motility of root knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita J2s following 24h soaks in 0.1 mg/ml dsRNA; a simple soaking procedure which we have found to elicit profound knockdown of neuronal targets in Globodera pallida J2s. We have established that this inhibitory phenomenon is both time- and concentration-dependent, as shorter 4h soaks in 0.1 mg/ml dsRNA had no negative impact on M. incognita J2 stage worms, yet a 10-fold increase in concentration to 1 mg/ml for the same 4h time period had an even greater qualitative and quantitative impact on worm phenotype and motility. Further, a 10-fold increase of J2s soaked in 0.1 mg/ml dsRNA did not significantly alter the observed phenotypic aberration, which suggests that dsRNA uptake of the soaked J2s is not saturated under these conditions. This phenomenon was not initially observed in potato cyst nematode G. pallida J2s, which displayed no aberrant phenotype, or diminution of migratory activity in response to the same 0.1 mg/ml dsRNA 24h soaks. However, a 10-fold increase in dsRNA to 1mg/ml was found to elicit comparable irregularity of phenotype and inhibition of motility in G. pallida, to that initially observed in M. incognita following a 24h soak in 0.1 mg/ml dsRNA. Again, a 10-fold increase in the number of G. pallida J2s soaked in the same volume of 1 mg/ml dsRNA preparation did not significantly affect the observed phenotypic deviation. We do not observe any global impact on transcript abundance in either M. incognita or G. pallida J2s following 0.1 mg/ml dsRNA soaks, as revealed by reverse transcriptase-PCR and quantitative PCR data. This study aims to raise awareness of a phenomenon which we observe consistently and which we believe signifies a more expansive deficiency in our knowledge and understanding of the variables inherent to RNAi-based investigation. PMID:19482028

Dalzell, Johnathan J; McMaster, Steven; Johnston, Michael J; Kerr, Rachel; Fleming, Colin C; Maule, Aaron G

2009-11-01

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COMPORTAMIENTO DE MATERIALES DE GUAYABO (Psidium guajava LINNEO) AL PARASITISMO DEL NEMATODO FORMADOR DE AGALLAS [Meloidogyne incognita (KOFOID & WHITE) CHITWOOD Y Meloidogyne javanica (TREUB) CHITWOOD] / BEHAVIOR OF GUAVA MATERIALS (Psidiumguajava LINNEO) ON THE ROOT KNOT NEMATODE [Meloidogyne incognita (KOFOID & WHITE) CHITWOOD AND Meloidogyne javanica (TREUB) CHITWOOD] PARASITISM  

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Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Las raíces del guayabo son parasitadas por el nematodo del nudo radical (Meloidogyne spp.), ocasionando pérdidas de la producción entre 30 y 60%. Debido a esto, el principal objetivo de esta investigación fue evaluar en condiciones de almácigo la reacción de cuatro variedades de guayabo al ataque de [...] l complejo Meloidogyne incognita y M. javanica. En el vivero Jaibaná Frutales, del municipio de Pereira (Risaralda), plántulas de cuatro variedades: Pera y Común (Psidium guajava), Agrio (Psidium friedrichsthalianum) y Peruano (Psidium cattleianum), fueron sembradas en bolsas de plástico que contenían suelo y cascarilla de arroz en proporción 3:1. Veinte días después de sembradas, a 15 plántulas de cada una de las variedades le fueron inoculadas una mezcla de 1.000, 5.000 y 10.000 huevos y juveniles de Meloidogyne, y los respectivos testigos sin inocular. Las plántulas fueron asignadas bajo un diseño experimental completamente aleatorio. Las variedades Peruano con 5,75g y 8,03g de peso seco de raíces y parte aérea, respectivamente, y Agrio con 10,27g y 9,23g de peso seco de raíces y parte aérea, respectivamente, presentaron el menor índice de nudosidad con 0,1 y 1,1, y reproducción de Meloidogyne spp. con valores entre 75 y 4.575 huevos y juveniles/100g de raíces. Estas variedades fueron estadísticamente diferentes a la variedad Pera con 13,96g y 11,33g de peso seco de raíces y parte aérea, respectivamente, y Común con 11,35g y 13,9g de peso seco de raíces y parte aérea, respectivamente, quienes presentaron mayor índice de nudosidad con 5 y reproducción con 149.775 huevos y 72.950 juveniles/100g de raíces. Las variedades Agrio y Peruano fueron resistentes e inmunes, respectivamente, al ataque de Meloidogyne incognita y M. javanica, permitiendo ser utilizadas como portainjertos o patrones; mientras que las variedades Pera y Común fueron altamente susceptibles. Abstract in english Guava roots are parasitized by the root knot nematode (Meloidogyne spp.), which causes production losses between 30 and 60%. Due to this, the main goal of this research was to evaluate the reaction of four varieties of guava under nursery conditions to the attack of Meloidogyne incognita and M. java [...] nica complex. In the Jaibaná Frutales nursery, in the municipality of Pereira (Risaralda), seedlings of four varieties of guava: Guava pear and Common guava (Psidiumguajava), Cas guava (Psidiumfriedrichsthalianum), and Peruvian guava (Psidiumcattleianum), were planted in plastic bags containing soil and rice hull in a 3:1 proportion. Twenty days after planted, 15 seedlings of each variety were inoculated with a mixture of 1,000, 5,000 and 10,000 eggs and Meloidogyne spp juveniles, and their respective controls without inoculation. Seedlings were assigned under a completely randomized design. The Peruvian guava variety with 5.75g and 8.03g roots and aerial parts dry weight respectively, and Cas guava variety with 10.27g and 9.23g roots and aerial parts dry weight, respectively, had the lowest root gall index with 0.1 and 1.1, and Meloidogyne spp. reproduction with values between 75 and 4.575 eggs and juveniles/100g of roots. These varieties were statistically different from the guava Pear variety with 13,96g y 11,33g roots and aerial parts dry weight respectively, and Common guava with 11,35g y 13,9g roots and aerial parts dry weight respectively, which had the highest root gall index with 5 and reproduction with 149.775 eggs and 72.950 juveniles/100g of roots. In conclusion, the Cas and Peruvian varieties were resistant and immune respectively, to Meloidogyne incognita and M. javanica, allowing them to be used as rootstocks or patronages, while guava Pear and Common guava were highly susceptible to both species.

ALEJANDRA, DUQUE ARISTIZÁBAL; ÓSCAR ADRIÁN, GUZMÁN PIEDRAHÍTA.

2013-12-01

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Efeito de exsudatos radiculares em endósporos de Pasteuria penetrans e em juvenis do segundo estádio de Meloidogyne incognita / Effect of root exudates on endospores of Pasteuria penetrans and on second-stage juvenile of Meloidogyne incognita  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Juvenis do segundo estádio (J2) de Meloidogyne incognita foram incubados nos exsudatos radiculares de soja (Glycine max), tomateiro (Lycopersicon esculentum), cafeeiro (Coffea arabica), feijoeiro (Phaseolus vulgaris), mostarda (Brassica rapa), Crotalaria juncea e C. spectabilis e em água por 12 h. E [...] m seguida, realizou-se o teste de adesão por centrifugação ou por borbulhamento. Em outro ensaio, endósporos de Pasteuria penetrans foram incubados por quatro dias a 26 ºC nos exsudatos e submetidos à adesão em J2 de M. incognita, sob borbulhamento constante por 24 h em tubos contendo água. Os J2 com endósporos aderidos pelo teste de borbulhamento foram inoculados em mudas de tomateiro. Verificou-se que a incubação dos J2 por 12 h nos exsudatos radiculares testados reduziu o número de endósporos de P. penetrans por J2 independentemente do método de adesão empregado. Os J2 incubados nos exsudatos radiculares testados proporcionaram menor número de fêmeas parasitadas em tomateiro em relação à testemunha (água), bem como menor número de galhas com exceção dos J2 incubados em exsudato do próprio tomateiro. A reprodução dos J2 incubados nos exsudatos radiculares não foi afetada quando comparada à testemunha. A incubação dos endósporos nos exsudatos das plantas testadas reduziu a adesão e a infetividade em J2, em relação à testemunha. Após 28 dias da inoculação, observou-se redução no número de fêmeas parasitadas resultantes da infecção desses J2 com endósporos incubados em exsudatos radiculares comparada com aqueles incubados em água. O parasitismo do J2 com endósporos tratados com exsudatos radiculares e a reprodutividade de fêmeas oriundas da infetividade desses J2 foram semelhantes aos incubados em água. Abstract in english In one assay, second stage juveniles (J2) of Meloidogyne incognita were incubated in root exudates of soybean (Glycine max), tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum), coffee (Coffea arabica), bean (Phaseolus vulgaris), mustard (Brassica rapa), Crotalaria juncea and C. spectabilis and in water for 12 h, foll [...] owed by endospores adhesion by centrifugation or by air bubbling. In another assay, endospores of Pasterius penetrans were incubated for four days at 26 ºC in the exudates and submitted to adhesion on J2 of M. incognita by constant air bubbling for 24 h in tubes containing water. The J2 with endospore adhesion by air bubbling were inoculated in tomato seedlings. The incubation of J2 for 12 h in the root exudates reduced the number of P. penetrans endospore per J2, regardless of the adhesion test used, and resulted in fewer parasitized females when compared with the control, as well as a lower number of galls, except in the J2 incubated in exudate of tomato. The reproduction of incubated J2 in the root exudates was not affected when compared to the control. The endospore incubation in the exudates of the tested plants reduced the adhesion and the infectivity of these endospores to J2 in relation to the control. After 28 days from inoculation, reduction was observed in the number of parasitized females resulting from infection of those J2 with endospore incubated in exudates when compared with those incubated in water. The parasitism of J2 with endospore treated with exudates and the reproduction of infected J2 females were similar to those incubated in water.

Fernando da Silva, Rocha; Vicente P., Campos; Ricardo Magela de, Souza.

190

Enxertia e sua influencia na produção de pepino e reprodução de Meloidogyne javanica e M. incognita / Effect of grafting on cucumber production and reproduction of Meloidogyne javanica and M. incognita  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A enxertia em porta-enxertos resistentes é uma técnica frequentemente recomendada para a cultura do pepino em áreas infestadas com nematoides-das-galhas. O presente trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a produção de pepino enxertado em dois porta-enxertos comparado com pé-franco em solo infestado com [...] Meloidogyne incognita raça 2 ou com M. javanica. Foram avaliados nove tratamentos (fatorial 3x3: pepino híbrido Tsuyataro pé-franco, enxertado na abóbora híbrida 'Shelper' e enxertado na abóbora híbrida 'Excitte Ikki' x sem inoculação, inoculação com M. incognita e inoculação com M. javanica), no delineamento em blocos ao acaso, com quatro repetições e seis plantas por parcela. Para as características de produção de frutos (número de frutos totais e comerciais por planta, massa de frutos totais e comerciais por planta) não foi obtida interação entre os fatores. Obteve-se maior produção de frutos em plantas enxertadas sobre a abóbora 'Shelper', independente da espécie de nematoide, enquanto que a enxertia sobre 'Excitte Ikki' não diferiu do pé-franco para produção total. Ambas as espécies de nematoide reduziram a produção de frutos, porém este efeito foi mais pronunciado com M. javanica. Tanto o pepino pé-franco como as plantas enxertadas foram suscetíveis, pois permitiram a multiplicação dos nematoides, com fator de reprodução, em avaliação realizada aos 72 dias após a inoculação, variando de 3,57 a 15,04, sendo que para M. javanica este valor foi maior no pepino pé-franco. Abstract in english Grafting on resistant rootstock is a technique often recommended for cucumber crop in root-knot nematodes infested areas. We studied the yield of grafted cucumber on two rootstocks compared with non grafted in soil infested with Meloidogyne javanica or with M. incognita race 2. Nine treatments (fact [...] orial 3x3: Japanese cucumber hybrid Tsuyataro without grafting, grafted on squash hybrid Shelper and grafted on squash hybrid Excitte Ikki x without nematode inoculation, inoculated with M. incognita and inoculated with M. javanica) were evaluated in a randomized block design, with four replications and six plants per plot. There was no interaction between factors for yield evaluated characteristics (total and marketable fruit number per plant, total and marketable fruit weight per plant). Higher fruit yield was obtained in cucumber grafted on 'Shelper', for both nematode species, while cucumber grafted on 'Excitte Ikki' did not differ from non grafted plants for total fruit weight. Both nematode species reduced fruit yield, which was more evident when M. javanica was inoculated. Grafted and non grafted plants were susceptible, because they enabled the multiplication of nematodes, with a reproduction factor, at 72 days after inoculation, ranging from 3.57 to 15.04, with the highest value in cucumber non grafted inoculated with M. javanica.

Ariane C, Salata; Erick Vinicius, Bertolini; Felipe O, Magro; Antonio II, Cardoso; Silvia Renata S, Wilcken.

191

Enxertia e sua influencia na produção de pepino e reprodução de Meloidogyne javanica e M. incognita / Effect of grafting on cucumber production and reproduction of Meloidogyne javanica and M. incognita  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A enxertia em porta-enxertos resistentes é uma técnica frequentemente recomendada para a cultura do pepino em áreas infestadas com nematoides-das-galhas. O presente trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a produção de pepino enxertado em dois porta-enxertos comparado com pé-franco em solo infestado com [...] Meloidogyne incognita raça 2 ou com M. javanica. Foram avaliados nove tratamentos (fatorial 3x3: pepino híbrido Tsuyataro pé-franco, enxertado na abóbora híbrida 'Shelper' e enxertado na abóbora híbrida 'Excitte Ikki' x sem inoculação, inoculação com M. incognita e inoculação com M. javanica), no delineamento em blocos ao acaso, com quatro repetições e seis plantas por parcela. Para as características de produção de frutos (número de frutos totais e comerciais por planta, massa de frutos totais e comerciais por planta) não foi obtida interação entre os fatores. Obteve-se maior produção de frutos em plantas enxertadas sobre a abóbora 'Shelper', independente da espécie de nematoide, enquanto que a enxertia sobre 'Excitte Ikki' não diferiu do pé-franco para produção total. Ambas as espécies de nematoide reduziram a produção de frutos, porém este efeito foi mais pronunciado com M. javanica. Tanto o pepino pé-franco como as plantas enxertadas foram suscetíveis, pois permitiram a multiplicação dos nematoides, com fator de reprodução, em avaliação realizada aos 72 dias após a inoculação, variando de 3,57 a 15,04, sendo que para M. javanica este valor foi maior no pepino pé-franco. Abstract in english Grafting on resistant rootstock is a technique often recommended for cucumber crop in root-knot nematodes infested areas. We studied the yield of grafted cucumber on two rootstocks compared with non grafted in soil infested with Meloidogyne javanica or with M. incognita race 2. Nine treatments (fact [...] orial 3x3: Japanese cucumber hybrid Tsuyataro without grafting, grafted on squash hybrid Shelper and grafted on squash hybrid Excitte Ikki x without nematode inoculation, inoculated with M. incognita and inoculated with M. javanica) were evaluated in a randomized block design, with four replications and six plants per plot. There was no interaction between factors for yield evaluated characteristics (total and marketable fruit number per plant, total and marketable fruit weight per plant). Higher fruit yield was obtained in cucumber grafted on 'Shelper', for both nematode species, while cucumber grafted on 'Excitte Ikki' did not differ from non grafted plants for total fruit weight. Both nematode species reduced fruit yield, which was more evident when M. javanica was inoculated. Grafted and non grafted plants were susceptible, because they enabled the multiplication of nematodes, with a reproduction factor, at 72 days after inoculation, ranging from 3.57 to 15.04, with the highest value in cucumber non grafted inoculated with M. javanica.

Ariane C, Salata; Erick Vinicius, Bertolini; Felipe O, Magro; Antonio II, Cardoso; Silvia Renata S, Wilcken.

2012-12-01

192

Grafted eggplant yield, quality and growth in infested soil with Verticillium dahliae and Meloidogyne incognita / Produção, qualidade e crescimento de beringela enxertada, em solo infestado com Verticillium dahliae e Meloidogyne incognita  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito sobre a altura de planta, a produção e a qualidade de frutos do enxerto das cultivares de beringela (Solanum melongena L.) Pala e Faselis em Solanum torvum Sw., quando cultivadas em solo infestado com Verticillium dahliae e Meloidogyne incognita ou em s [...] olo não infestado. A infestação do solo reduziu a produção, altura da planta, biomassa da parte aérea, massa média dos frutos, massa de matéria seca da parte aérea, conforme a cultivar utilizada e a enxertia. A enxertia reduziu os conteúdos de ácido oxálico e de sólidos solúveis e aumentou a massa média de frutos, conforme a cultivar ou a presença do patógeno no solo. A enxertia também reduziu o efeito negativo dos patógenos sobre o índice de doença, a altura de planta e a massa de matéria seca da parte aérea. A cultivar Pala foi mais vigorosa que a Faselis, e S. torvum foi um porta-enxerto vigoroso. A combinação de porta-enxerto vigoroso com a cultivar fraca (Faselis) foi mais adequada que a de porta-enxerto vigoroso e a cultivar vigorosa (Pala). Ouso de S. torvum como porta-enxerto para a cultivar Faselis, em solo infestado, é provavelmente promissora na horticultura convencional e na horticultura sustentável de baixos insumos, pois a enxertia aumenta a proteção contra os patógenos, e reduz a perda de qualidade dos frutos e da produção. Abstract in english The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of grafting (onto Solanum torvum Sw.) on plant growth, yield and fruit quality of the Pala and Faselis eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) cultivars, grown in a soil infested with Verticillium dahliae Kleb. and Meloidogyne incognita, or in noninfeste [...] d soil. Soil infestation decreased yield, plant height, final above-ground biomass, and also reduced fruit mean weight and shoot dry weight depending on cultivar or grafting. Grafting decreased fruit oxalic acid and the soluble solid contents, and increased mean fruit weight, depending on cultivar and soil infestation. Grafting also reduced the negative effects of the pathogens on disease index, plant height and shoot dry weight. Cultivar Pala was more vigorous than Faselis, and S. torvum was a vigorous rootstock. The combination of a vigorous rootstock with a weak cultivar (Faselis) is more profitable than that of a vigorous rootstock and a vigorous cultivar (Pala). Using S. torvum as a rootstock for cultivar Faselis, grown in soil infested with the pathogens, is most likely to be useful in conventional and low-input sustainable horticulture, since grafting increases protection against the pathogens, and reduces the losses in quality and yield.

Sebahattin, Çürük; H. Y& #305; ld& #305; z, Dasgan; Sedat, Mansuro& #287; lu; & #350; ener, Kurt; Meltem, Mazmano& #287; lu; Özgür, Antakl& #305; ; Gülcan, Tarla.

193

Grafted eggplant yield, quality and growth in infested soil with Verticillium dahliae and Meloidogyne incognita / Produção, qualidade e crescimento de beringela enxertada, em solo infestado com Verticillium dahliae e Meloidogyne incognita  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito sobre a altura de planta, a produção e a qualidade de frutos do enxerto das cultivares de beringela (Solanum melongena L.) Pala e Faselis em Solanum torvum Sw., quando cultivadas em solo infestado com Verticillium dahliae e Meloidogyne incognita ou em s [...] olo não infestado. A infestação do solo reduziu a produção, altura da planta, biomassa da parte aérea, massa média dos frutos, massa de matéria seca da parte aérea, conforme a cultivar utilizada e a enxertia. A enxertia reduziu os conteúdos de ácido oxálico e de sólidos solúveis e aumentou a massa média de frutos, conforme a cultivar ou a presença do patógeno no solo. A enxertia também reduziu o efeito negativo dos patógenos sobre o índice de doença, a altura de planta e a massa de matéria seca da parte aérea. A cultivar Pala foi mais vigorosa que a Faselis, e S. torvum foi um porta-enxerto vigoroso. A combinação de porta-enxerto vigoroso com a cultivar fraca (Faselis) foi mais adequada que a de porta-enxerto vigoroso e a cultivar vigorosa (Pala). Ouso de S. torvum como porta-enxerto para a cultivar Faselis, em solo infestado, é provavelmente promissora na horticultura convencional e na horticultura sustentável de baixos insumos, pois a enxertia aumenta a proteção contra os patógenos, e reduz a perda de qualidade dos frutos e da produção. Abstract in english The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of grafting (onto Solanum torvum Sw.) on plant growth, yield and fruit quality of the Pala and Faselis eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) cultivars, grown in a soil infested with Verticillium dahliae Kleb. and Meloidogyne incognita, or in noninfeste [...] d soil. Soil infestation decreased yield, plant height, final above-ground biomass, and also reduced fruit mean weight and shoot dry weight depending on cultivar or grafting. Grafting decreased fruit oxalic acid and the soluble solid contents, and increased mean fruit weight, depending on cultivar and soil infestation. Grafting also reduced the negative effects of the pathogens on disease index, plant height and shoot dry weight. Cultivar Pala was more vigorous than Faselis, and S. torvum was a vigorous rootstock. The combination of a vigorous rootstock with a weak cultivar (Faselis) is more profitable than that of a vigorous rootstock and a vigorous cultivar (Pala). Using S. torvum as a rootstock for cultivar Faselis, grown in soil infested with the pathogens, is most likely to be useful in conventional and low-input sustainable horticulture, since grafting increases protection against the pathogens, and reduces the losses in quality and yield.

Sebahattin, Çürük; H. Y& #305; ld& #305; z, Dasgan; Sedat, Mansuro& #287; lu; & #350; ener, Kurt; Meltem, Mazmano& #287; lu; Özgür, Antakl& #305; ; Gülcan, Tarla.

1673-16-01

194

Grafted eggplant yield, quality and growth in infested soil with Verticillium dahliae and Meloidogyne incognita Produção, qualidade e crescimento de beringela enxertada, em solo infestado com Verticillium dahliae e Meloidogyne incognita  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of grafting (onto Solanum torvum Sw. on plant growth, yield and fruit quality of the Pala and Faselis eggplant (Solanum melongena L. cultivars, grown in a soil infested with Verticillium dahliae Kleb. and Meloidogyne incognita, or in noninfested soil. Soil infestation decreased yield, plant height, final above-ground biomass, and also reduced fruit mean weight and shoot dry weight depending on cultivar or grafting. Grafting decreased fruit oxalic acid and the soluble solid contents, and increased mean fruit weight, depending on cultivar and soil infestation. Grafting also reduced the negative effects of the pathogens on disease index, plant height and shoot dry weight. Cultivar Pala was more vigorous than Faselis, and S. torvum was a vigorous rootstock. The combination of a vigorous rootstock with a weak cultivar (Faselis is more profitable than that of a vigorous rootstock and a vigorous cultivar (Pala. Using S. torvum as a rootstock for cultivar Faselis, grown in soil infested with the pathogens, is most likely to be useful in conventional and low-input sustainable horticulture, since grafting increases protection against the pathogens, and reduces the losses in quality and yield.O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito sobre a altura de planta, a produção e a qualidade de frutos do enxerto das cultivares de beringela (Solanum melongena L. Pala e Faselis em Solanum torvum Sw., quando cultivadas em solo infestado com Verticillium dahliae e Meloidogyne incognita ou em solo não infestado. A infestação do solo reduziu a produção, altura da planta, biomassa da parte aérea, massa média dos frutos, massa de matéria seca da parte aérea, conforme a cultivar utilizada e a enxertia. A enxertia reduziu os conteúdos de ácido oxálico e de sólidos solúveis e aumentou a massa média de frutos, conforme a cultivar ou a presença do patógeno no solo. A enxertia também reduziu o efeito negativo dos patógenos sobre o índice de doença, a altura de planta e a massa de matéria seca da parte aérea. A cultivar Pala foi mais vigorosa que a Faselis, e S. torvum foi um porta-enxerto vigoroso. A combinação de porta-enxerto vigoroso com a cultivar fraca (Faselis foi mais adequada que a de porta-enxerto vigoroso e a cultivar vigorosa (Pala. Ouso de S. torvum como porta-enxerto para a cultivar Faselis, em solo infestado, é provavelmente promissora na horticultura convencional e na horticultura sustentável de baixos insumos, pois a enxertia aumenta a proteção contra os patógenos, e reduz a perda de qualidade dos frutos e da produção.

Sebahattin Çürük

2009-12-01

195

Efeito de extratos aquosos de espécies de Asteraceae sobre Meloidogyne incognita / Effect of aqueous extracts of Asteraceae species on Meloidogyne incognita  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Estudou-se, in vitro e in vivo a atividade nematicida dos extratos aquosos de vedélia (Sphagneticola trilobata), erva-de-touro (Tridax procumbens), cravo-de-defunto (Tagetes patula), girassol mexicano (Tithonia diversifolia), botão de ouro (Unxia suffruticosa) e zínia (Zinnia peruviana), sobre Meloi [...] dogyne incognita. Os extratos foram preparados na proporção de 1,0g do material seco e triturado para 10mL de água destilada e armazenados por 24h, sendo seguidamente utilizados nos experimentos. Nos testes in vitro, foram depositados 4,0mL do extrato bruto e 2,0mL de uma suspensão aquosa contendo 200 ovos do nematóide em placas de Petri de 5cm de diâmetro e, quinze dias após, procedeu-se a contagem do número de juvenis eclodidos e dos ovos remanescentes para o cálculo das porcentagens de eclosão. Nos testes in vivo, os extratos foram aplicados, separadamente, via pulverização foliar, tratamento de raiz e vertido no solo, semanalmente durante 60 dias. Como testemunha utilizou-se apenas água nos dois experimentos. No ensaio in vitro observou-se que todos os extratos foram eficientes na redução da eclosão de juvenis de M. incognita quando comparados à testemunha, as porcentagens de redução foram 89,96%, 91,13%, 92,48%, 92,72%, 93,2% e 97,48% para erva-de-touro, cravo-de-defunto, girassol mexicano, vedélia, botão de ouro e zínia, respectivamente, e no ensaio in vivo, que os tratamentos não exerceram nenhum efeito sobre o peso do sistema radicular dos tomateiros, no entanto, observou-se que os resultados diferiram entre as espécies utilizadas e a forma de aplicação do extrato na avaliação do peso fresco da parte aérea das plantas. Quanto ao fator de reprodução, observou-se que nenhum dos extratos apresentou diferença estatística em relação à testemunha, no entanto, quando se compara as diferentes formas de aplicação dos mesmos, observa-se que houve diferença estatística quando os extratos de erva de touro e girassol mexicano foram aplicados via pulverização foliar e no tratamento de raiz, contudo, não houve diferença quando estes extratos foram aplicados em forma de rega no solo. Abstract in english The nematicide activity of aqueous extracts of Wedelia (Sphagneticola trilobata), tridax daisy (Tridax procumbens), marigold (Tagetes patula), Mexican sunflower (Tithonia diversifolia), "botão de ouro" (Unxia suffruticosa) and Peruvian zinnia (Zinnia peruviana) was studied in vitro and in vivo on Me [...] loidogyne incognita. The extracts were prepared at a ratio of 1.0 g of dry and crushed material to 10 ml of distilled water, stored for 24 hours, and then used in the experiments. In in vitro tests, 4.0 mL of crude extract and 2.0 ml of an aqueous suspension containing 200 nematode eggs were deposited on Petri plates of 5cm diameter and, fifteen days later, the number of hatched juveniles and the remaining eggs were counted to calculate the percentages of hatching. In in vivo tests, the extracts were separately applied by leaf spraying, root treatment and pouring onto the soil, weekly for 60 days. As control, only water was used in both experiments. The in vitro test showed that all extracts were effective in reducing the hatching of juveniles of M. incognita when compared to the control; the reduction percentages were 89.96%, 91.13%, 92.48%, 92.72%, 93.2% and 97.48% for tridax daisy, marigold, Mexican sunflower, Wedelia, "botão de ouro" and Peruvian zinnia, respectively, while in the in vivo assay, treatments did not have any effect on the root system weight of tomato plants; however, results differed between the used species and the way of application of the extract in the evaluation of the fresh weight of shoots. As to the reproduction rate, none of the extracts showed a statistical difference, compared to control; however, comparing the different ways of application, there was statistical difference when the extracts of tridax daisy and Mexican sunflower were applied through leaf spraying and root

Isabel Cristina Madeira, Ferreira; Gilson Soares da, Silva; Fagner Sousa, Nascimento.

196

Efeito de extratos aquosos de espécies de Asteraceae sobre Meloidogyne incognita / Effect of aqueous extracts of Asteraceae species on Meloidogyne incognita  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Estudou-se, in vitro e in vivo a atividade nematicida dos extratos aquosos de vedélia (Sphagneticola trilobata), erva-de-touro (Tridax procumbens), cravo-de-defunto (Tagetes patula), girassol mexicano (Tithonia diversifolia), botão de ouro (Unxia suffruticosa) e zínia (Zinnia peruviana), sobre Meloi [...] dogyne incognita. Os extratos foram preparados na proporção de 1,0g do material seco e triturado para 10mL de água destilada e armazenados por 24h, sendo seguidamente utilizados nos experimentos. Nos testes in vitro, foram depositados 4,0mL do extrato bruto e 2,0mL de uma suspensão aquosa contendo 200 ovos do nematóide em placas de Petri de 5cm de diâmetro e, quinze dias após, procedeu-se a contagem do número de juvenis eclodidos e dos ovos remanescentes para o cálculo das porcentagens de eclosão. Nos testes in vivo, os extratos foram aplicados, separadamente, via pulverização foliar, tratamento de raiz e vertido no solo, semanalmente durante 60 dias. Como testemunha utilizou-se apenas água nos dois experimentos. No ensaio in vitro observou-se que todos os extratos foram eficientes na redução da eclosão de juvenis de M. incognita quando comparados à testemunha, as porcentagens de redução foram 89,96%, 91,13%, 92,48%, 92,72%, 93,2% e 97,48% para erva-de-touro, cravo-de-defunto, girassol mexicano, vedélia, botão de ouro e zínia, respectivamente, e no ensaio in vivo, que os tratamentos não exerceram nenhum efeito sobre o peso do sistema radicular dos tomateiros, no entanto, observou-se que os resultados diferiram entre as espécies utilizadas e a forma de aplicação do extrato na avaliação do peso fresco da parte aérea das plantas. Quanto ao fator de reprodução, observou-se que nenhum dos extratos apresentou diferença estatística em relação à testemunha, no entanto, quando se compara as diferentes formas de aplicação dos mesmos, observa-se que houve diferença estatística quando os extratos de erva de touro e girassol mexicano foram aplicados via pulverização foliar e no tratamento de raiz, contudo, não houve diferença quando estes extratos foram aplicados em forma de rega no solo. Abstract in english The nematicide activity of aqueous extracts of Wedelia (Sphagneticola trilobata), tridax daisy (Tridax procumbens), marigold (Tagetes patula), Mexican sunflower (Tithonia diversifolia), "botão de ouro" (Unxia suffruticosa) and Peruvian zinnia (Zinnia peruviana) was studied in vitro and in vivo on Me [...] loidogyne incognita. The extracts were prepared at a ratio of 1.0 g of dry and crushed material to 10 ml of distilled water, stored for 24 hours, and then used in the experiments. In in vitro tests, 4.0 mL of crude extract and 2.0 ml of an aqueous suspension containing 200 nematode eggs were deposited on Petri plates of 5cm diameter and, fifteen days later, the number of hatched juveniles and the remaining eggs were counted to calculate the percentages of hatching. In in vivo tests, the extracts were separately applied by leaf spraying, root treatment and pouring onto the soil, weekly for 60 days. As control, only water was used in both experiments. The in vitro test showed that all extracts were effective in reducing the hatching of juveniles of M. incognita when compared to the control; the reduction percentages were 89.96%, 91.13%, 92.48%, 92.72%, 93.2% and 97.48% for tridax daisy, marigold, Mexican sunflower, Wedelia, "botão de ouro" and Peruvian zinnia, respectively, while in the in vivo assay, treatments did not have any effect on the root system weight of tomato plants; however, results differed between the used species and the way of application of the extract in the evaluation of the fresh weight of shoots. As to the reproduction rate, none of the extracts showed a statistical difference, compared to control; however, comparing the different ways of application, there was statistical difference when the extracts of tridax daisy and Mexican sunflower were applied through leaf spraying and root

Isabel Cristina Madeira, Ferreira; Gilson Soares da, Silva; Fagner Sousa, Nascimento.

2013-03-01

197

A comparison of the FMRFamide-like peptide proteolytic activities of preparations from two plant-parasitic nematodes (Heterodera glycines and Meloidogyne incognita): possible targets for novel control.  

Science.gov (United States)

Proteolytic activities in extracts from the plant-parasitic nematodes Heterodera glycines and Meloidogyne incognita were examined for their abilities to digest three FRET-modified peptide substrates representing members of the large FMRFamide-like peptide (FLP) family in nematodes. Included were sequences distributed across all nematode species (KSAYMRFa and KHEYLRFa) and a sequence confined to a narrow range of plant-parasitic nematodes (KHEFVRFa). Species variations were observed among substrate affinities, reaction rates and effect of protease inhibitors. K m values for KHEYLRFa (1.48 ± 0.34 ?m) and KSAYMRFa (2.13 ± 0.24 ?m) in H. glycines were each lower (P< 0.05) than those for the same substrates in M. incognita (5.26 ± 1.30 ?m and 3.90 ± 0.61 ?m, respectively). The K m of KHEFVRFa was lower (P< 0.05) in M. incognita (5.83 ± 0.36 ?m) than in H. glycines (11.01 ± 1.26 ?m). Reaction rates (V max/min/?g) for KHEYLRFa were the same for both species, but KSAYMRFa and KHEFVRFa digestion rates were each nearly twofold higher (P< 0.05) in M. incognita than in H. glycines. Digestion of KSAYMRFa was strongly inhibited in both species by 4-(2-aminoethyl)-benzenesulfonyl-fluoride-HCl (AEBSF) and EDTA, but M. incognita was more sensitive (P< 0.05) to inhibition. AEBSF and EDTA (both at 1 mm) inhibited M. incognita activity 62.3% and 36.6% more, respectively, than H. glycines activity. Serine protease inhibition differed significantly (P< 0.05) between the two species. Maximum inhibition of M. incognita (76%) occurred at 1.85 mm AEBSF while maximum inhibition of H. glycines was 40% at 1.19 mm AEBSF. PMID:22310027

Masler, E P

2013-03-01

198

Brassicaceous Seed Meals as Soil Amendments to Suppress the Plant-parasitic Nematodes Pratylenchus penetrans and Meloidogyne incognita1  

Science.gov (United States)

Brassicaceous seed meals are the residual materials remaining after the extraction of oil from seeds; these seed meals contain glucosinolates that potentially degrade to nematotoxic compounds upon incorporation into soil. This study compared the nematode-suppressive ability of four seed meals obtained from Brassica juncea ‘Pacific Gold’, B. napus ‘Dwarf Essex’ and ‘Sunrise’, and Sinapis alba ‘IdaGold’, against mixed stages of Pratylenchus penetrans and Meloidogyne incognita second-stage juveniles (J2). The brassicaceous seed meals were applied to soil in laboratory assays at rates ranging from 0.5 to 10.0% dry w/w with a nonamended control included. Nematode mortality was assessed after 3 days of exposure and calculated as percentage reduction compared to a nonamended control. Across seed meals, M. incognita J2 were more sensitive to the brassicaceous seed meals compared to mixed stages of P. penetrans. Brassica juncea was the most nematode-suppressive seed meal with rates as low as 0.06% resulting in > 90% suppression of both plant-parasitic nematodes. In general B. napus ‘Sunrise’ was the least nematode-suppressive seed meal. Intermediate were the seed meals of S. alba and B. napus ‘Dwarf Essex’; 90% suppression was achieved at 1.0% and 5.0% S. alba and 0.25% and 2.5% B. napus ‘Dwarf Essex’, for M. incognita and P. penetrans, respectively. For B. juncea, seed meal glucosinolate-degradation products appeared to be responsible for nematode suppression; deactivated seed meal (wetted and heated at 70 °C for 48 hr) did not result in similar P. penetrans suppression compared to active seed meal. Sinapis alba seed meal particle size also played a role in nematode suppression with ground meal resulting in 93% suppression of P. penetrans compared with 37 to 46% suppression by pelletized S. alba seed meal. This study demonstrates that all seed meals are not equally suppressive to nematodes and that care should be taken when selecting a source of brassicaceous seed meal for plant-parasitic nematode management. PMID:22736818

Meyer, S. L. F.; Morra, M. J.

2009-01-01

199

Brassicaceous seed meals as soil amendments to suppress the plant-parasitic nematodes Pratylenchus penetrans and Meloidogyne incognita.  

Science.gov (United States)

Brassicaceous seed meals are the residual materials remaining after the extraction of oil from seeds; these seed meals contain glucosinolates that potentially degrade to nematotoxic compounds upon incorporation into soil. This study compared the nematode-suppressive ability of four seed meals obtained from Brassica juncea 'Pacific Gold', B. napus 'Dwarf Essex' and 'Sunrise', and Sinapis alba 'IdaGold', against mixed stages of Pratylenchus penetrans and Meloidogyne incognita second-stage juveniles (J2). The brassicaceous seed meals were applied to soil in laboratory assays at rates ranging from 0.5 to 10.0% dry w/w with a nonamended control included. Nematode mortality was assessed after 3 days of exposure and calculated as percentage reduction compared to a nonamended control. Across seed meals, M. incognita J2 were more sensitive to the brassicaceous seed meals compared to mixed stages of P. penetrans. Brassica juncea was the most nematode-suppressive seed meal with rates as low as 0.06% resulting in > 90% suppression of both plant-parasitic nematodes. In general B. napus 'Sunrise' was the least nematode-suppressive seed meal. Intermediate were the seed meals of S. alba and B. napus 'Dwarf Essex'; 90% suppression was achieved at 1.0% and 5.0% S. alba and 0.25% and 2.5% B. napus 'Dwarf Essex', for M. incognita and P. penetrans, respectively. For B. juncea, seed meal glucosinolate-degradation products appeared to be responsible for nematode suppression; deactivated seed meal (wetted and heated at 70 °C for 48 hr) did not result in similar P. penetrans suppression compared to active seed meal. Sinapis alba seed meal particle size also played a role in nematode suppression with ground meal resulting in 93% suppression of P. penetrans compared with 37 to 46% suppression by pelletized S. alba seed meal. This study demonstrates that all seed meals are not equally suppressive to nematodes and that care should be taken when selecting a source of brassicaceous seed meal for plant-parasitic nematode management. PMID:22736818

Zasada, I A; Meyer, S L F; Morra, M J

2009-09-01

200

Evaluation of Verticilum Chlamydosporium and Arrthrobotrys for Biological Control of Meloidogyne Incognita in Celery and Tomato  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The ability of nematode trapping fungi and egg-parasitic fungi to colonize and persist in the rhizosphere of crop plants is thought to be an important factor influencing the success of bi logical control of root infecting nematodes. In this study, two strains of an egg parasite fungus Verticillium chlamydosporium (Vc-10 and Vc-2M) and an isolate of the nematode-trapping fungus Arthrobotrys oligospora and persistence in the rhizosphere and tomato plants in a green house pot experiment. The isolates tested differed in their pathogenicity to M. incognita and survival in the rhizosphere. An isolate of Verticillum chlamydosporium (Vc-10) was the most virulent pathogen of the nematode. Root galling was slowest in tomato plants treated with V-10 (2.2); pots treated with this isolate had the lowest final soil population of infective juveniles; there was a 62.2% and 98.5% infections of eggs and egg masses respectively by Vc-10 on tomato plants. The two isolates of Verticillium chlamydosporium (Vc-10 and Vc2M) persisted in the soil and could be re-isolated from the rhizosphere and roots of tomato plants at least 16 weeks after soil application. The final inoculum density was, however higher for Vc-10 (1.35x105 cfu/g soil) than Vc-2M (9.25x104 cfu/g soil). Arthrobotrys oligospora on the other hand did not give any significant control of the nematode on both crops, there was severe galling on the roots of plants treated with this agent. It could not be re-isted with this agent. It could not be re-isolated from the plant rhizosphere sixteen weeks after soil infestation. Lack of nematode control on both crops by A.oligo spora was attributed to it's poor on establishment in the plant rhizosphere; low density and roots penetration by infective juveniles before they were ensnared in the trapping devices of this fungal biocontrol agent. The fact that it could not be re-isolated from the rhizosphere may imply that the fungus did not survive in the rhizosphere in quantities enough to enhance nematode control

 
 
 
 
201

Evaluation of the Effect of Ecologic on Root Knot Nematode, Meloidogyne incognita, and Tomato Plant, Lycopersicon esculenum  

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Full Text Available Nonchemical methods and strategies for nematode management including cultural methods and engineered measures have been recommended as an alternative to methyl bromide (a major soil fumigant, due to its role in the depletion of the ozone layer. Hence, an international agreement has recently been reached calling for its reduced consumption and complete phasing out. This present research evaluates the potential of Ecologic, a biological, marine shell meal chitin material, as a soil amendment management agent for root knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita, control, and its effect on the growth of Floradel tomato plant, Lycopersicon esculentum. To accomplish this goal, studies were conducted during which, experimental pots were set up in greenhouse environments using sterilized soil inoculated with 5,000 root-knot eggs per 1500 g soil. There were 4 treatments and 5 replications. Treatments were: No chitin; 50 g chitin; 100 g chitin; and 200 g chitin. A two-week wait period following Ecologic amendment preceded Floradel tomato planting to allow breakdown of the chitin material into the soil. Fresh and dry weights of shoot and root materials were taken as growth end-points. A statistically significant difference (p ≤ 0.05 was obtained with regard to the growth rate of L. esculentum at 100 g chitin treatment compared to the control with no chitin. Mean fresh weights of Floradel tomato were 78.0 ± 22.3g, 81.0 ± 20.3g, 109.0 ± 25.4g and 102.0 ± 33.3g at 0, 50, 100 and 200g chitin, respectively. The analysis of root knot nematode concentrations indicated a substantial effect on reproduction rate associated with chitin amendment. Study results showed a significant decrease in both root knot nematode eggs and juveniles (J2 at 100g and 200g Ecologic chitin levels, however, an increase in nematode concentrations was recorded at the 50g Ecologic chitin level (p ≤ 0.05. The mean amounts of J2 population, as expressed per 1500cm3 soil, were 49,933 ± 38,819, 86,050 ± 25248, 103 ± 133 and 103 ± 133 for 0, 50, 100 and 200g chitin, respectively. Similarly, the mean numbers of root knot nematode eggs (per 1500cm3 of soil were 40,759 ± 36,712, 66,048 ± 39,730, 9,904 ± 16,591 and 9,257 ± 17,204. Root gall rating was also significantly lower (p ≤ 0.05 at the 100g and 200g chitin levels compared to the control. Percent gall ratings were 3.3 ± 1.0%, 3.2 ± 1.0%, 1.0 ± 0.5%, and 1.0% ± 0.6% for amendment levels of 0, 50, 100, and 200g chitin, respectively.

Gary W. Lawrence

2008-06-01

202

F4 families of crispleaf lettuce with tolerance to early bolting and homozygous for resistance to Meloidogyne incognita race 1 Famílias F4 de alface de folhas crespas tolerantes ao florescimento precoce e homozigotas para resistência à Meloidogyneincognita Raça 1  

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Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate yield, commercial characteristics, tolerance to early bolting and resistance to the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita race 1 in 25 F4 families of crispleaf lettuce, obtained out of crosses between cultivars Grand Rapids, Regina 71, and Verônica. In the first experiment, we evaluate leaf blade and borders characteristics, aboveground fresh weight, and number of days from sowing to the anthesis of first flower (tolerance to early bolting. In the second experiment, we evaluated the resistance to Meloidogyne incognita race 1 via gall index and number of galls and egg masses per root system. Five families had scores for leaf blade and borders similar to cultivars Verônica and Grand Rapids. Furthermore, 84% of the families were as tolerant to early bolting as cultivar Veronica, while 92% of the families were homozygous for resistance to Meloidogyne incognita race 1.O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar características comerciais, produtividade, tolerância ao florescimento precoce e resistência ao nematóide das galhas Meloidogyne incognita raça 1 em 25 famílias F4 de alface, oriundas de cruzamentos envolvendo as cultivares Grand Rapids, Regina 71 e Verônica. No primeiro experimento, foram avaliadas as características de limbo e borda foliares, massa fresca da parte aérea e número de dias da semeadura até a antese da primeira flor (tolerância ao florescimento precoce. No segundo experimento, avaliou-se a resistência à Meloidogyne incognita raça 1 através do índice de galhas, número de galhas e massa de ovos por sistema radicular. Cinco famílias apresentaram notas para borda e limbo foliares semelhantes às cultivares Verônica e Grand Rapids. Além disso, 84% das famílias demonstraram tolerância ao florescimento precoce semelhante à cultivar Verônica e 92% delas foram consideradas homozigotas para resistência à Meloidogyne incognita raça 1.

José Luiz S de Carvalho Filho

2009-09-01

203

F4 families of crispleaf lettuce with tolerance to early bolting and homozygous for resistance to Meloidogyne incognita race 1 / Famílias F4 de alface de folhas crespas tolerantes ao florescimento precoce e homozigotas para resistência à Meloidogyneincognita Raça 1  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar características comerciais, produtividade, tolerância ao florescimento precoce e resistência ao nematóide das galhas Meloidogyne incognita raça 1 em 25 famílias F4 de alface, oriundas de cruzamentos envolvendo as cultivares Grand Rapids, Regina 71 e Verônica. No [...] primeiro experimento, foram avaliadas as características de limbo e borda foliares, massa fresca da parte aérea e número de dias da semeadura até a antese da primeira flor (tolerância ao florescimento precoce). No segundo experimento, avaliou-se a resistência à Meloidogyne incognita raça 1 através do índice de galhas, número de galhas e massa de ovos por sistema radicular. Cinco famílias apresentaram notas para borda e limbo foliares semelhantes às cultivares Verônica e Grand Rapids. Além disso, 84% das famílias demonstraram tolerância ao florescimento precoce semelhante à cultivar Verônica e 92% delas foram consideradas homozigotas para resistência à Meloidogyne incognita raça 1. Abstract in english The objective of this study was to evaluate yield, commercial characteristics, tolerance to early bolting and resistance to the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita race 1 in 25 F4 families of crispleaf lettuce, obtained out of crosses between cultivars Grand Rapids, Regina 71, and Verônica. In [...] the first experiment, we evaluate leaf blade and borders characteristics, aboveground fresh weight, and number of days from sowing to the anthesis of first flower (tolerance to early bolting). In the second experiment, we evaluated the resistance to Meloidogyne incognita race 1 via gall index and number of galls and egg masses per root system. Five families had scores for leaf blade and borders similar to cultivars Verônica and Grand Rapids. Furthermore, 84% of the families were as tolerant to early bolting as cultivar Veronica, while 92% of the families were homozygous for resistance to Meloidogyne incognita race 1.

José Luiz S de, Carvalho Filho; Luiz Antonio A, Gomes; Felipe A, Biguzzi; Wilson Roberto, Maluf; Sindynara, Ferreira.

2009-09-01

204

Efeito de exsudatos de cultura de células de plantas em juvenis de segundo estádio de Meloidogyne incognita  

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Full Text Available Calus foram obtidos de tomateiro (Lycopersicon esculentum, cafeeiro (Coffea arabica, alfafa (Medicago sativa, orquídea (Dendrobium nobile, mostarda (Brassica rapa, batata doce (Ipomoea batatas, fumo (Nicotiana tabacum, cenoura (Daucus carota e Crotalaria juncea em meio sólido de Murashige & Skoog (MS seguido do cultivo em meio líquido MS em temperatura de 25-28 ºC. Após um mês, a suspensão foi passada em membrana Millipore 0,22 µm, obtendo-se, assim, o exsudato da cultura de células de cada planta testada. Ovos ou juvenis de segundo estádio (J2 de Meloidogyne incognita foram incubados nesses exsudatos e avaliadas as percentagens de eclosão, mobilidade e mortalidade dos J2. Com exceção dos ovos incubados em exsudato de orquídea, todos os demais inibiram a eclosão quando comparados com a incubação em água (testemunha. Entretanto, nos exsudatos de L. esculentum, cafeeiro e C. juncea a inibição foi mais drástica, semelhante ao aldicarb, mas significativamente diferente e menor do que em soluções contendo ingredientes do meio MS (1-5. Todos os exsudatos reduziram a mobilidade e aumentaram a mortalidade, com maior intensidade em 24 h de exposição. Porém, maior redução na mobilidade ocorreu nos exsudatos de tomateiro e alfafa, enquanto maior mortalidade no exsudato de tomateiro, seguido pelo de mostarda.

Rocha Fernando S.

2004-01-01

205

Effect of Crop Rotation on Meloidogyne spp. and Pratylenchus spp. Populations in Strawberry Fields in Taiwan.  

Science.gov (United States)

Changes in population levels of Meloidogyne hapla, M. incognita, Pratylenchus coffeae, and P. penetrans were studied in 12 strawberry fields in the Dahu region of Taiwan. Ten potential rotation crops and two cultural practices were evaluated for their effect on nematode populations and influence on strawberry yield. Rotation with rice or taro and the cultural practice of flooding and bare fallowing for four months were found to reduce nematode soil populations to two or fewer nematodes per 100 ml soil. Average strawberry yields increased between 2.4% to 6.3% following taro compared to the bare fallow treatment. Corn suppressed M. incognita and M. hapla populations and resulted in an increased in strawberry yield compared to bare fallow. Other phytopathogens also present in these fields limited taro as the rotation choice for nematode management. Results of this research and economic analysis of the input requirements for various rotation crops, corn and bare fallow were recommended as the most appropriate rotation strategies for nematode management in strawberry in this region. PMID:19259538

Chen, P; Tsay, T T

2006-09-01

206

Effects of chloroform extract of Dryopteris crassirhizoma on the ultramicroscopic structures of Meloidogyne incognita.  

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In our early experiments, the chloroform extract of D. crassirhizoma was demonstrated to contain the highest concentrations of total phloroglucinols among several extract fractions and possessed the most effective nematicidal activity. This study aimed to ascertain the ultrastructural changes in M. incognita after treatment with a D. crassirhizoma chloroform extract at 1?mg·mL?¹ for 24?h. It was found that the extract exhibited significant destructive effects on the worm's ultrastructure and caused distinctive damage to body surfaces and internal structures. These results will contribute to a deeper understanding of the nematicidal mechanism of D. crassirhizoma, as well as in the design of efficient bionematicides. PMID:24282379

Liu, Ji-quan; Xie, Shu-lian; Feng, Jia; Cai, Jin

2013-01-01

207

Virtual screening and in vitro assay of potential drug like inhibitors from spices against Glutathione-S-Transferase of Meloidogyne incognita.  

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Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) enzymes are critical antioxidant and detoxification system responsible for long-term existence of nematodes in host species. Hence, 16 phytochemicals predicted and reported to have potential nematicidal activity have been docked to GST enzyme of Meloidogyne incognita to assess their binding affinity and inhibitory activity. In vitro effects of these phytochemicals from in silico results have been done for validation of docking studies and efficacy in GST inhibition of following compounds such as alpha- pinene, alpha- terpineol, beta- caryophyllene, capsaicin, cinnamic acid, citronellol, curcumin, eugenol, geraniol, isoeugenol, linalool, myristicin, neral, NVA (N-vanillylnonanamide), piperine, vanillin have been revealed. Nematode inhibition in vitro bioassay for selected compounds could conclude that maximum mortality was observed with highest concentrations of beta- caryophyllene (78%) followed by eugenol (61.6%), cinnamic acid (55%) and N-vanillylnonanamide (49%). These findings thus suggest that the above phytochemicals could be potentially developed as nematicidal molecules against M. incognita infections. PMID:22553389

Babu, Rosana O; Moorkoth, Dinsha; Azeez, Shamina; Eapen, Santhosh J

2012-01-01

208

Integrated application of some compatible biocontrol agents along with mustard oil seed cake and furadan on Meloidogyne incognita infecting tomato plants.  

Science.gov (United States)

Experiments were carried out to study the effect of two fungal bioagents along with mustard oil cake and furadan against root knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita infecting tomato under greenhouse condition. Bioagents viz., Paecilomyces lilacinus and Trichoderma viride alone or in combination with mustard cake and furadan promoted plant growth, reduced number of galls/plant, egg masses/root system and eggs/egg mass. The fungal bioagents along with mustard cake and nematicide showed least nematodes reproduction factor as compared to untreated infested soil. PMID:17048300

Goswami, Bijoy Kumar; Pandey, Rajesh Kumar; Rathour, Kabindra Singh; Bhattacharya, Chaitali; Singh, Lokendra

2006-11-01

209

Efecto in vitro de concentraciones del NEMACID® sobre huevos y juveniles de Meloidogyne incognita (Kofoid y White) Chitwood / In vitro effect of different concentrations of NEMACID® on eggs and juveniles of Meloidogyne incognita (Kofoid and White) Chitwood  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Para el manejo de nematodos, se desarrolló en Cuba el producto NEMACID®, que posee como ingrediente activo metabolitos obtenidos a partir de los efluentes de la fermentación líquida de Lecanicillium lecanii (Zare & Gams) formulado con sulfato de amonio. El objetivo de este ensayo fue determinar el e [...] fecto del NEMACID® sobre los huevos y juveniles (J2) de Meloidogyne incognita (Kofoid y White) Chitwood. En el ensayo se utilizaron como controles agua destilada, sulfato de amonio ((NH4)2SO4; 1,69 mg.ml-1) y Dazomet (1g.1000ml-1); y se evaluaron cinco concentraciones de NEMACID® (18,75; 3,75; 1,875; 0, 1875 y 0,01875mg.ml-1). Los valores de LC50 y LC90, se calcularon usando el método Probit. Las evaluaciones se llevaron a cabo a las 24 horas, contabilizándose el número de J2 inmóviles y huevos no eclosionados del total. Los resultados corroboraron la acción nematicida del producto que provocó el colapso del contenido interno de los juveniles y resultó imposible su recuperación posterior. El NEMACID® a la concentración de 18,75 mg.ml-1 produjo mayor efectividad sobre la eclosión de los huevos y mortalidad de los juveniles que el Dazomet (control). El sulfato de amonio, producto que acompaña al hongo en el proceso de fermentación y forma parte de la formulación final del NEMACID®, no produjo afectación a huevos y juveniles. Las concentraciones de NEMACID® de 3,75 mg.ml-1 e inferiores no resultaron satisfactorias en el tratamiento de los huevos, donde el porcentaje de inhibición de la eclosión de los mismos estuvo por debajo del 50. Mientras que en juveniles, la concentración de 3,75 mg.ml-1 del producto ocasionó mortalidad por encima del 70%, sin diferencia significativa con el producto Dazomet. Abstract in english NEMACID® was developed in Cuba for root knot nematode management. This product contains the effluents from liquid fermentation of Lecanicillium lecani (Zare and Gams) as active ingredient, and is formulated with ammonium sulfate. The objective of this test was to determine the effect of NEMACID® on [...] eggs and juveniles (J2) of Meloidogyne incognita (Kofoid and White) Chitwood. In the test, five concentrations of NEMACID® (18,75; 3,75; 1,875; 0,1875 y 0,01875mg.ml-1) were evaluated using distilled water, ammonium sulfate ((NH4)2SO4; 1,69mg.ml-1) and Dazomet (1g.1000ml-1) as controls. The CL50 and CL90 were calculated using Probit analysis. The evaluations were done at 24h, when the total number of non mobile juveniles and non hatched eggs from the total were counted. The result corroborated the nematicide action of the product by producing the collapse of the internal content in juveniles with an impossible recovery. NEMACID® at a concentration of 18,75 mg. ml-1 showed a higher effect on egg hatching and juvenile mortality than Dazomet (control). The ammonium sulfate, a product accompanying the fungus in the fermentation process as part of the final formulation of NEMACID®, did not affect eggs or juveniles. Concentrations of NEMACID® equal to 3,75mg.ml-1 or lower did not affect the eggs, with a percentage of hatching inhibition below 50%. Meanwhile, in juveniles, the concentration of 3.75mg.ml-1 caused a mortality over 70%, without significant differences with Dazomet.

Yusmila, Guevara; Eulalia, Gómez; Oriela, Pino; Y, Rodríguez; Ileana, Miranda; R, Enrique; Mayra G, Rodríguez.

2013-04-01

210

Damage quantification and reaction of bean genotypes (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) to Meloidogyne incognita race 3 and M. javanica / Quantificação de danos e reção de genótipos de feijoeiro (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) à Meloidogyne incognita raça 3 e M. javanica  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Avaliaram-se danos e os níveis de resistência de cultivares e acessos de feijoeiro-comum resgatados nas regiões Sul e Serrana do Estado do Espírito Santo ao parasitismo de M. incognita raça 3 e M. javanica em casa de vegetação. Foram testados quatro genótipos resgatados de feijoeiro ("FORT-10", "FOR [...] T-13", "FORT-16" e "FORT-19"), e mais 2 cultivares comerciais: "Pérola"; e "Aporé". O cultivar "Rico-23" foi incluído como padrão de suscetibilidade aos nematóides e plantas não inoculadas constituíram a testemunha. Desta forma, o experimento foi conduzido em delineamento inteiramente casualizado em esquema fatorial 3 (tratamentos considerando nematóides) x 7 (genótipos e cultivares de feijoeiros), com 7 repetições. Os dados foram mensurados aos 50 dias após a inoculação das plantas. Para a quantificação de danos foram avaliadas: altura das plantas (ALT), número de nós (NOS), número de folhas trifolioladas (NFT), peso da matéria fresca (PMF) e da matéria seca (PMS) da parte aérea, peso de raiz (PR), número de nódulos radiculares (NOD) e população final (PF) de nematóides por sistema radicular. Não foram observadas diferenças significativas entre os efeitos causados por M. incognita e M. javanica, porém ambas as espécies apresentaram valores inferiores quanto à ALT, NOS, NFT, PR, PMF e PMS em relação às testemunhas. Em relação aos níveis de resistência dos feijoeiros a M. incognita os feijoeiros "FORT-10", "FORT-13", "Aporé" e "FORT-16" comportaram-se como moderadamente resistente, as cultivares "Rico 23" e "Pérola" como pouco resistente e o genótipo "FORT-19" como altamente suscetível. Quando parasitados por M. javanica, os feijoeiros "FORT-19", "Rico 23", "FORT-16" e "FORT-13" foram pouco resistentes, "Pérola" e "Aporé" suscetíveis e "FORT-10" altamente suscetíveis. Abstract in english The damage and the resistance levels of cultivars and accessions of common beans rescued in the South and mountain regions of Espírito Santo State, Brazil, to M. incognita race 3 and M. javanica parasitism were evaluated under a greenhouse. Four rescued bean genotypes ("FORT-10", "FORT-13", "FORT-16 [...] " and "FORT-19") and 2 commercial cultivars: "Pérola", and "Aporé", were tested. The cultivar "Rico-23" was included as standard of susceptibility to nematodes and non-inoculated plants constituted the control. Thus, the experiment was carried out in a completely randomized design in 3 (treatments considering nematodes) x 7 (genotypes and bean cultivars) factorial arrangement, with 7 replicates. Data were measured at 50 days after plant inoculation. For damage quantification, the following variables were evaluated: plant height (PHE), number of nodes (NNO), number of trifoliate leaves (NRT), fresh matter weight (FWE) and dry matter weight (DWE) of shoots, root weight (RWE), number of root nodules (NRO) and final population (FPO) of nematodes per root system. There were no significant differences between the effects caused by M. incognita and M. javanica, but both species showed inferior values of PHE, NNO, NRT, RWE, FWE and DWE compared to controls. Concerning the levels of resistance of bean plants to M. incognita, the genotypes "FORT-10", "FORT-13", "Aporé" and "FORT-16" behaved as moderately resistant, the cultivars "Rico 23" and "Pérola" low resistant, and the genotype "FORT-19" as highly susceptible. When parasitized by M. javanica, the beans "FORT-19", "Rico-23", "FORT-16" and "FORT-13" were low resistant, "Pérola" and "Aporé" susceptible and "FORT-10" highly susceptible.

Leonardo Nazário Silva dos, Santos; Fábio Ramos, Alves; Leônidas Leoni, Belan; Pablo Diego Silva, Cabral; Frederico de Pina, Matta; Waldir Cintra de, Jesus Junior; Willian Bucker de, Moraes.

2012-03-01

211

Damage quantification and reaction of bean genotypes (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) to Meloidogyne incognita race 3 and M. javanica / Quantificação de danos e reção de genótipos de feijoeiro (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) à Meloidogyne incognita raça 3 e M. javanica  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Avaliaram-se danos e os níveis de resistência de cultivares e acessos de feijoeiro-comum resgatados nas regiões Sul e Serrana do Estado do Espírito Santo ao parasitismo de M. incognita raça 3 e M. javanica em casa de vegetação. Foram testados quatro genótipos resgatados de feijoeiro ("FORT-10", "FOR [...] T-13", "FORT-16" e "FORT-19"), e mais 2 cultivares comerciais: "Pérola"; e "Aporé". O cultivar "Rico-23" foi incluído como padrão de suscetibilidade aos nematóides e plantas não inoculadas constituíram a testemunha. Desta forma, o experimento foi conduzido em delineamento inteiramente casualizado em esquema fatorial 3 (tratamentos considerando nematóides) x 7 (genótipos e cultivares de feijoeiros), com 7 repetições. Os dados foram mensurados aos 50 dias após a inoculação das plantas. Para a quantificação de danos foram avaliadas: altura das plantas (ALT), número de nós (NOS), número de folhas trifolioladas (NFT), peso da matéria fresca (PMF) e da matéria seca (PMS) da parte aérea, peso de raiz (PR), número de nódulos radiculares (NOD) e população final (PF) de nematóides por sistema radicular. Não foram observadas diferenças significativas entre os efeitos causados por M. incognita e M. javanica, porém ambas as espécies apresentaram valores inferiores quanto à ALT, NOS, NFT, PR, PMF e PMS em relação às testemunhas. Em relação aos níveis de resistência dos feijoeiros a M. incognita os feijoeiros "FORT-10", "FORT-13", "Aporé" e "FORT-16" comportaram-se como moderadamente resistente, as cultivares "Rico 23" e "Pérola" como pouco resistente e o genótipo "FORT-19" como altamente suscetível. Quando parasitados por M. javanica, os feijoeiros "FORT-19", "Rico 23", "FORT-16" e "FORT-13" foram pouco resistentes, "Pérola" e "Aporé" suscetíveis e "FORT-10" altamente suscetíveis. Abstract in english The damage and the resistance levels of cultivars and accessions of common beans rescued in the South and mountain regions of Espírito Santo State, Brazil, to M. incognita race 3 and M. javanica parasitism were evaluated under a greenhouse. Four rescued bean genotypes ("FORT-10", "FORT-13", "FORT-16 [...] " and "FORT-19") and 2 commercial cultivars: "Pérola", and "Aporé", were tested. The cultivar "Rico-23" was included as standard of susceptibility to nematodes and non-inoculated plants constituted the control. Thus, the experiment was carried out in a completely randomized design in 3 (treatments considering nematodes) x 7 (genotypes and bean cultivars) factorial arrangement, with 7 replicates. Data were measured at 50 days after plant inoculation. For damage quantification, the following variables were evaluated: plant height (PHE), number of nodes (NNO), number of trifoliate leaves (NRT), fresh matter weight (FWE) and dry matter weight (DWE) of shoots, root weight (RWE), number of root nodules (NRO) and final population (FPO) of nematodes per root system. There were no significant differences between the effects caused by M. incognita and M. javanica, but both species showed inferior values of PHE, NNO, NRT, RWE, FWE and DWE compared to controls. Concerning the levels of resistance of bean plants to M. incognita, the genotypes "FORT-10", "FORT-13", "Aporé" and "FORT-16" behaved as moderately resistant, the cultivars "Rico 23" and "Pérola" low resistant, and the genotype "FORT-19" as highly susceptible. When parasitized by M. javanica, the beans "FORT-19", "Rico-23", "FORT-16" and "FORT-13" were low resistant, "Pérola" and "Aporé" susceptible and "FORT-10" highly susceptible.

Leonardo Nazário Silva dos, Santos; Fábio Ramos, Alves; Leônidas Leoni, Belan; Pablo Diego Silva, Cabral; Frederico de Pina, Matta; Waldir Cintra de, Jesus Junior; Willian Bucker de, Moraes.

212

Pathogenicity of Meloidogyne incognita Race 1 on Turmeric (Curcuma longa L. as Influenced by Inoculum Density and Poultry Manure Amendment  

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Full Text Available A glasshouse experiment was conducted to assess the pathogenicity of Meloidogyne incognita race 1 on turmeric (Curcuma longa L. at three inoculum densities (0, 2500, 5000 eggs plant-1 and soil amendment with different levels of Poultry Manure (PM (0, 10, 20, 30 and 40 t ha-1. The results obtained showed that root-galling and egg production decreased in a linear response to increasing PM level at both low and high inoculum densities (r = -0.88 and r = -0.85, respectively; p=0.01. The lowest gall index and egg mass index of 2.0 were recorded in plants amended with 40 and 30 t ha-1 PM, respectively. The high nematode density was more pathogenic (p=0.05 than the low density. Shoot length, fresh shoot and root weights responded in a curvilinear pattern with increasing levels of PM. In general, these growth variables increased with increase in PM level up to 20 t ha-1 and then declined with further increase. At high inoculum density, shoot growth was enhanced by 242 and 58% with 20 and 40 t ha-1 PM relative to unamended soil, respectively. Conversely, fresh root weight was increased by 120% and reduced by 12.8% with 20 and 40 t ha-1 PM, respectively. From this study, it could be inferred that higher levels of PM were highly nematicidal but phytotoxic to turmeric plants; the optimal rate of PM amendment is predicted to be 18-22 t ha-1. However, for this method to be incorporated into Integrated Nematode Management Programme of turmeric, field trials are needed for the optimization of the quantity, time and method of application.

Kevin I. Ugwuoke

2010-01-01

213

Repulsion of Meloidogyne incognita by Alginate Pellets Containing Hyphae of Monacrosporium cionopagum, M. ellipsosporum, or Hirsutella rhossiliensis.  

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The responses of second-stage juveniles (J2) of Meloidogyne incognita race 3 to calcium alginate pellets containing hyphae of the nematophagous fungi Monacrosporiura cionopagum, M. ellipsosporum, and Hirsutella rhossiliensis were examined using cylinders (38-mm-diam., 40 or 72 mm long) of sand (94% <250-mum particle size). Sand was wetted with a synthetic soil solution (10% moisture, 0.06 bar water potential). A layer of 10 or 20 pellets was placed 4 or 20 mm from one end of the cylinder. After 3, 5, or 13 days, J2 were put on both ends, on one end, or in the center; J2 were extracted from 8-ram-thick sections 1 or 2 days later. All three fungal pellets were repellent; pellets without fungi were not. Aqueous extracts of all pellets and of sand in which fungal pellets had been incubated were repellent, but acetone extracts redissolved in water were not. Injection of CO (20 mul/minute) into the pellet layer attracted J2 and increased fungal-induced mortality. In vials containing four randomly positioned pellets and 17 cm(3) of sand or loamy sand, the three fungi suppressed the invasion of cabbage roots by M. javanica J2. Counts of healthy and parasitized nematodes observed in roots or extracted from soil indicated that, in the vial assay, the failure of J2 to penetrate roots resulted primarily from parasitism rather than repulsion. Data were similar whether fungal inoculum consisted of pelletized hyphae or fungal-colonized Steinernema glaseri. Thus, the results indicate that nematode attractants and repellents can have major or negligible effects on the biological control efficacy of pelletized nematophagous fungi. Factors that might influence the importance of substances released by the pellets include the strength, geometry, and duration of gradients; pellet degradation by soil microflora; the nematode species involved; and attractants released by roots. PMID:19277129

Robinson, A F; Jaffee, B A

1996-06-01

214

Uptake and translocation of nitrogen, phosphorus and calcium in soybean infected with Meloidogyne incognita and M. javanica  

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Full Text Available Two soybean (Glycine max cultivars were used in this study, Ocepar 4, rated as moderately resistant to Meloidogyne incognita race 3 but susceptible to M. javanica, and 'BR 16', susceptible to both nematodes. The effect of nematodes infection on the uptake and transport of N, P and Ca to the shoot was studied in plants growing in a split root system. The upper half was inoculated with 0, 3,000, 9,000 or 27,000 eggs/plant while the lower half received 15N, 32P or 45Ca. Infected plants showed an increase of root but a decrease of shoot mass with increasing inoculum levels. In general, total endogenous nutrients increased in the roots and tended to decrease in the shoots with increasing inoculum levels. When concentrations were calculated, there was an increase in the three nutrients in the roots, and an increase of Ca but no significant variation of N and P was observed in the shoots. The total amount of 15N in the roots increased at the highest inoculum levels but 32P and 45Ca decreased. In the shoots there was a reduction of 32P and 45Ca. The specific concentrations of the labelled nutrients (abundance or radioactivity/tissue mass also showed a decrease of 32P and 45Ca in the shoots and roots of infected plants and an increase of 15N in the shoots. Considering that overall nutrient concentrations reflect cumulative nutrient uptake and the data from labelled elements gave information at a specific moment of the infection, thus nematodes do interfere with nutrient uptake and translocation.

CARNEIRO RUI G.

2002-01-01

215

Analysis of Gene expression in soybean (Glycine max roots in response to the root knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita using microarrays and KEGG pathways  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background Root-knot nematodes are sedentary endoparasites that can infect more than 3000 plant species. Root-knot nematodes cause an estimated $100 billion annual loss worldwide. For successful establishment of the root-knot nematode in its host plant, it causes dramatic morphological and physiological changes in plant cells. The expression of some plant genes is altered by the nematode as it establishes its feeding site. Results We examined the expression of soybean (Glycine max genes in galls formed in roots by the root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita, 12 days and 10 weeks after infection to understand the effects of infection of roots by M. incognita. Gene expression was monitored using the Affymetrix Soybean GeneChip containing 37,500 G. max probe sets. Gene expression patterns were integrated with biochemical pathways from the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes using PAICE software. Genes encoding enzymes involved in carbohydrate and cell wall metabolism, cell cycle control and plant defense were altered. Conclusions A number of different soybean genes were identified that were differentially expressed which provided insights into the interaction between M. incognita and soybean and into the formation and maintenance of giant cells. Some of these genes may be candidates for broadening plants resistance to root-knot nematode through over-expression or silencing and require further examination.

Gamal El-Din Abd El Kader Y

2011-05-01

216

Suppression of the root-knot nematode [Meloidogyne incognita (Kofoid & White) Chitwood] on tomato by dual inoculation with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria.  

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Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi and plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) have potential for the biocontrol of soil-borne diseases. The objectives of this study were to quantify the interactions between AM fungi [Glomus versiforme (Karsten) Berch and Glomus mosseae (Nicol. & Gerd.) Gerdemann & Trappe] and PGPR [Bacillus polymyxa (Prazmowski) Mace and Bacillus sp.] during colonization of roots and rhizosphere of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill) plants (cultivar Jinguan), and to determine their combined effects on the root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita, and on tomato growth. Three greenhouse experiments were conducted. PGPR increased colonization of roots by AM fungi, and AM fungi increased numbers of PGPR in the rhizosphere. Dual inoculations of AM fungi plus PGPR provided greater control of M. incognita and greater promotion of plant growth than single inoculations, and the best combination was G. mosseae plus Bacillus sp. The results indicate that specific AM fungi and PGPR can stimulate each other and that specific combinations of AM fungi and PGPR can interact to suppress M. incognita and disease development. PMID:21755407

Liu, Runjin; Dai, Mei; Wu, Xia; Li, Min; Liu, Xingzhong

2012-05-01

217

Field Evaluation of Yield and Resistances of Local and Improved Sweet Potato (Ipomoeabatatas (L Lam Accessions to Cylas puncticollis and Meloidogyne incognita inSoutheastern Nigeria  

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Full Text Available Aim of the study was to evaluate local and improved accessions of sweet potato for resistances to Cylas puncticollis and Meloidogyne incognita and identify suitable ones for incorporation in breeding programmes for the production of genetically resistant and high yielding varieties. The experiment was conducted at the University of Uyo, Teaching and Research Farm located at Use Offot-Uyo, Southeastern Nigeria and laid out in a randomized complete block design, with three replications. Eighteen sweet potato accessions were studied, comprising 13 local accessions, namely: E5, B6, E3, B26, B2, E11, E6, E17, B21, E14, E7, B23, E10 and five IITA improved and recommended varieties (TIS 87/0087, TIS 8441, TIS 8164, TIS 2532 and TIS 86/0356 for southeastern Nigeria. Three of the IITA improved and recommended varieties (TIS 86/0356, TIS 8164 and TIS 87/0087 had higher number of root tubers per plot and higher root tuber yield per hectare than the local accessions, while eight of the local accessions indicated high resistances to Cylas puncticollis, namely: B6, B2, E17, B21, E14, E7, B23 and E10 and Meloidogyne incognita, namely: B6, E3, B26, B21, E14, E7, B23 and E10. The local accessions with high root tuber yields and very high resistances to C. puncticollis and M. incognita (B6, B21 and E10 could be incorporated in breeding programmes involving TIS 87/0087, TIS 8164, TIS 2532 and TIS 86/0356 for the production of hybrid varieties with higher yields and resistances to the pests in southeastern Nigeria.

Emmanuel E. Bassey

2012-11-01

218

Nematicidal activity of leaf extracts from Lantana camara L. against Meloidogyne incognita (kofoid and white chitwood and its use to manage roots infection of Solanum melongena L.  

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Full Text Available Various concentrations of aqueous leaf extract of Lantana camara were assessed in vitro conditions against second stage juveniles (J2 of Meloidogyne incognita. The standard concentration 'S' of leaf extract was found to be highly nematostatic, where nematodes were completely paralyzed after 12 h and after 48 h of exposure, 96% of juveniles were killed at same concentration. However, the mortality of juveniles was 75% in S/2 dilution at 48 h. The degree of effectiveness and dilutions of extract were directly proportional. The percentage of paralyzed juveniles was decreased, when J2 transferred in distilled water after 48 h incubation in standard aqueous leaf extract. Addition of freeze-dried aqueous extract to sterile sandy substrate at S/2 dilution significantly decreased the root-knot infection to susceptible eggplants whereas second stage juveniles (J2 that penetrated roots of eggplant were able to complete development in sterile sandy substrate without treatment of freeze-dried aqueous extract.

Faheem Ahmad

2010-06-01

219

Studies on the management of root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita-wilt fungus, Fusarium oxysporum disease complex of green gram, Vigna radiata cv ML-1108.  

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Studies were conducted under pot conditions to determine the comparative efficacy of carbofuran at 1 mg a.i./kg soil, bavistin at 1 mg a.i./kg soil, neem (Azadirachta indica) seed powder at 50 mg/kg soil, green mould (Trichoderma harzianum) at 50.0 ml/kg soil, rhizobacteria (Pseudomonas fluorescens) at 50.0 ml/kg soil against root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita-wilt fungus, Fusarium oxysporum disease complex on green gram, Vigna radiata cv ML-1108. All the treatments significantly improved the growth of the plants as compared to untreated inoculated plants. Analysis of data showed that carbofuran and A. indica seed powder increased plant growth and yield significantly more in comparison to bavistin and P. fluorescens. Carbofuran was highly effective against nematode, bavistin against fungus, A. indica seed powder against both the pathogens and both the bioagents were moderately effective against both the pathogens. PMID:16052706

Haseeb, Akhtar; Sharma, Anita; Shukla, Prabhat Kumar

2005-08-01

220

Evaluation of a nematode bio-product Dbx-20% against root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita affecting grapevine under field conditions.  

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A field trial was conducted in El-Shourouk Farm, El-Beheira governorate, western Nile valley, Egypt to determine the effectiveness of the commercial bio-product Dbx 1003 20% containing the nematode-trapping fungus Dactylaria brochopaga against root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita infesting grapevine variety Superior. Its effects on plant growth criteria and yield production were also investigated. The fungus was introduced to soil by either of two ways. First: soil was drenched with spore suspension at the rate of 3 l/tree. Second: 1/2 kg of a vermiculite substrate, as a carrier of spores and mycelia was added around each tree both as single and twice application in autumn and spring. All treatments significantly reduced M. incognita J2 in soil and number of root galls compared with the untreated control. Significant yield increases have been observed with all treatments compared with the untreated control. Spores suspension twice applications gave the highest yield production. PMID:17390807

Aboul-Eid, H Z; Noweer, E M A; Ashour, N E; Ameen, Hoda H

2006-01-01

 
 
 
 
221

Salicylic acid-induced glutathione status in tomato crop and resistance to root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita (Kofoid & White Chitwood  

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Full Text Available Salicylic acid-(SA is a plant defense stimulator. Exogenous application of SA might influence the status of glutathione-(GSH. GSH activates and SA alters the expression of defense genes to modulate plant resistance against pathogens. The fate of GSH in a crop following SA treatment is largely unknown. The SA-induced profiles of free reduced-, free oxidized-(GSSG and protein bound-(PSSG glutathione in tomato crop following foliar treatment of transplant at 5.0-10.0 ?g mL–1 were measured by liquid chromatography. Resistance to root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita damaging tomato and crop performance were also evaluated. SA treatment at 5.0-10.0 ?g mL–1 to tomato transplants increased GSH, GSSG and PSSG in plant leaf and root, more so in leaf, during crop growth and development. As the fruits ripened, GSH and PSSG increased and GSSG declined. SA reduced the root infection by M. incognita, nematode reproduction and thus, improved the resistance of tomato var. Pusa Ruby, but reduced crop growth and redox status. SA at 5.0 ?g mL–1 improved yield and fruit quality. The study firstly linked SA with activation of glutathione metabolism and provided an additional dimension to the mechanism of induced resistance against obligate nematode pathogen. SA increased glutathione status in tomato crop, imparted resistance against M. incognita, augmented crop yield and functional food quality. SA can be applied at 5.0 ?g mL–1 for metabolic engineering of tomato at transplanting to combine host-plant resistance and health benefits in formulating a strategic nematode management decision.

Ghanendra Singh

2011-05-01

222

Multiyear evaluation of the durability of the resistance conferred by Ma and RMia genes to Meloidogyne incognita in Prunus under controlled conditions.  

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Root-knot nematodes (RKNs) (Meloidogyne spp.) are highly polyphagous pests that parasitize Prunus crops in Mediterranean climates. Breeding for RKN-resistant Prunus cultivars, as an alternative to the now-banned use of nematicides, is a real challenge, because the perennial nature of these trees increases the risk of resistance breakdown. The Ma plum resistance (R) gene, with a complete spectrum, and the RMia peach R gene, with a more restricted spectrum, both provide total control of Meloidogyne incognita, the model parthenogenetic species of the genus and the most important RKN in terms of economic losses. We investigated the durability of the resistance to this nematode conferred by these genes, comparing the results obtained with those for the tomato Mi-1 reference gene. In multiyear experiments, we applied a high and continuous nematode inoculum pressure by cultivating nematode-infested susceptible tomato plants with either Prunus accessions carrying Ma or RMia R genes, or with resistant tomato plants carrying the Mi-1 gene. Suitable conditions for Prunus development were achieved by carrying out the studies in a glasshouse, in controlled conditions allowing a short winter leaf fall and dormancy. We first assessed the plum accession 'P.2175', which is heterozygous for the Ma gene, in two successive 2-year evaluations, for resistance to two M. incognita isolates. Whatever the isolate used, no nematodes reproducing on P.2175 were detected, whereas galls and nematodes reproducing on tomato plants carrying Mi-1 were observed. In a second experiment with the most aggressive isolate, interspecific full-sib material (P.2175 × ['Garfi' almond × 'Nemared' peach]), carrying either Ma or RMia (from Nemared) or both (in the heterozygous state) or neither of these genes, was evaluated for 4 years. No virulent nematodes developed on Prunus spp. carrying R genes, whereas galling and virulent individuals were observed on Mi-1-resistant tomato plants. Thus, the resistance to M. incognita conferred by Ma in Prunus material in both a pure-plum and an interspecific genetic background, or by RMia in an interspecific background, appears to be durable, highlighting the value of these two genes for the creation of Prunus rootstock material. PMID:23425239

Khallouk, Samira; Voisin, Roger; Portier, Ulysse; Polidori, Joël; Van Ghelder, Cyril; Esmenjaud, Daniel

2013-08-01

223

Isolamento e avaliação da atividade nematicida de constituintes químicos de Mucuna cinerea contra Meloidogyne incognita e Heterodera glycines Isolation and nematocidal activity evaluation of chemical constituents from Mucuna cinerea against Meloidogyne incognita and Heterodera glycines  

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Full Text Available Phytochemical investigation of the aerial parts and roots of Mucuna cinerea led to the isolation of a mixture of fatty acids, triacylglicerols, beta-sitosterol, stigmasterol, stigmasterol glucoside, daucosterol, asperglaucide (4 and the isoflavonoids prunetin (1, genistein (2, medicarpin (3, daidzein (5, 7-O-alpha-glycopiranosyl daidzein (6. An in vitro bioassay was carried out with compounds 1-4, at the concentration of 50 and 5 mug mL-1 against the phytonematodes M. incognita and H. glycines. Although the four compounds showed some nematocidal property, the most active was (1, causing 70% mortality of M. incognita at the concentration of 50 mug mL-1.

Antonio Jacinto Demuner

2003-05-01

224

In vitro and foliar spray evaluation of Verbena officinalis (L.), Erythrina mulungu (Mart. ex Benth.), Quassia amara (L.), Bidens pilosa (L.) and Plantago lanceolata (L.), extracts on Meloidogyne incognita (Kofoid & White, 1919) Chitwood, 1949 Evaluación in vitro y aplicación foliar de Verbena officinalis (L.), Erythrina mulungu (Mart. ex Benth.), Quassia amara (L.), Bidens pilosa (L.) y Plantago lanceolata (L.), sobre Meloidogyne incognita (Kofoid & White, 1919) Chitwood, 1949  

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This study aimed to evaluate the efficiency of aqueous extracts of five species of medicinal plant, Verbena officinalis (L.), Erythrina mulungu (Mart. ex Benth.), Quassia amara (L.), Bidens pilosa (L.) and Plantago lanceolata (L.) in vitro, and sprayed on tomato plants for the control of Meloidogyne incognita. In vitro experiments were conducted in growth chambers in acrylic ELISA plates. The treatments were doses of 0, 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 g • L-1 of different aqueous extracts. On the...

Ferrari Mateus, Milena A.; Duarte Rios Faria¹, Cacilda M.; Botelho, Renato V.; Rosangela Dallemole-Giaretta; Martins Ferreira, Silvana G.; Zaluski, Welton L.

2013-01-01

225

Variabilidade fisiológica em populações de Meloidogyne paranaensis / Physiological variability of two populations of Meloidogyne paranaensis  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Comparou-se a capacidade reprodutiva de duas populações de Meloidogyne paranaensis, originárias de plantas de soja (Mp-s) e de cafeeiro (Mp-c), em diferentes hospedeiros. A população Mp-s apresentou maior capacidade reprodutiva que a Mp-c, apresentando fator de reprodução superior em tomateiro e em [...] duas cultivares de soja, porém em cafeeiro a Mp-c reproduziu melhor. Em tomateiro 'Santa Clara', ambas reproduziram significativamente mais que nos outros hospedeiros e não houve diferença entre as cultivares de soja 'MS/BR 34' e 'Fepagro RS 10'. Contudo, maior número de populações deverá ser estudado. Abstract in english Two populations of Meloidogyne paranaensis, one from soybean plants (Mp-s) and another from coffee plants (Mp-c) were studied to compare their ability in reproducing on different hosts. Mp-s was able to reproduce more than Mp-c on tomato plants and on two soybean cultivars, but Mp-c showed a higher [...] reproduction factor on coffee plants. On tomato 'Santa Clara', both populations reproduced significantly more than on other hosts, but no difference was detected between the soybean cultivars 'MS/BR 34' and 'Fepagro RS 10'. However, a larger number of populations should be studied.

Alexandre D., Roese; Rosângela D.L., Oliveira; Dagoberto S., Oliveira.

226

REAÇÃO DE GENÓTIPOS DE MILHO (Zea mays L. AOS NEMATÓIDES DE GALHAS (Meloidogyne javanica e M. incognita REACTION OF CORN GENOTYPES (Zea mays L. TO ROOT-KNOT NEMATODES (Melodoigyne javanica and M. incognita  

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Full Text Available

Foram conduzidos dois experimentos, sob condições de estufa de produção, com o objetivo de avaliar a reação de oito genótipos de milho em relação aos nematóides formadores de galhas Meloidogyne javanica e M. incognita. Foram testados os híbridos DINA-657, DINA-766, DINA-170, HATÃ-1045, HATÃ-1001, FT-5140, CO-9560 E CO-32. Com relação a M. javanica, observou-se que as cultivares HATÃ-1001, HATÃ-1045, DINA-657 E FT-5140 apresentam os menores fatores de reprodução, destacando-se para uso em programas de rotação de culturas com a soja. Todas as cultivares testadas comportaram-se como boas multiplicadoras de M. incognita, apresentando fatores de reprodução superiores a 3,98. Estas cultivares não devem ser recomendadas para áreas infestadas por esta espécie de nematóide.

PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Resistência; nematóides de galhas; milho.

Two experiments were carried out under greenhouse conditions with the objective of evaluating the reaction of eight corn genotypes to the root-knot nematodes Meloidogyne javanica and M. incognita. Cultivars HATÃ-1001, HATÃ-1045, DINA-657 and FT-5140 presented smaller reproduction factors (RF for M. javanica. Therefore, the use of these cultivars may be indicated in the crop rotation program with soybean. All cultivars were suitable hosts for M. incognita

Hércules Diniz Campos

2007-09-01

227

Isolamento e avaliação da atividade nematicida de constituintes químicos de Mucuna cinerea contra Meloidogyne incognita e Heterodera glycines  

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Phytochemical investigation of the aerial parts and roots of Mucuna cinerea led to the isolation of a mixture of fatty acids, triacylglicerols, beta-sitosterol, stigmasterol, stigmasterol glucoside, daucosterol, asperglaucide (4) and the isoflavonoids prunetin (1), genistein (2), medicarpin (3), daidzein (5), 7-O-alpha-glycopiranosyl daidzein (6). An in vitro bioassay was carried out with compounds 1-4, at the concentration of 50 and 5 mug mL-1 against the phytonematodes M. incognita and H. g...

Demuner Antonio Jacinto; Barbosa Luiz Cláudio de Almeida; Nascimento Jeferson Chagas do; Vieira Jessy James; Santos Maria Amelia dos

2003-01-01

228

A gene encoding a peptide with similarity to the plant IDA signaling peptide (AtIDA) is expressed most abundantly in the root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne incognita) soon after root infection.  

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Small peptides play important roles in intercellular signaling. Inflorescence deficient in abscission (ida) is an Arabidopsis mutant that does not abscise (shed) its flower petals. The IDA gene encodes a small, secreted peptide that putatively binds to two redundant receptor-like kinases (HAESA and HAESA-like2) that initiate a signal transduction pathway. We identified IDA-like (IDL) genes in the genomic sequence for Meloidogyne incognita and Meloidogyne hapla. No orthologous sequences were found in any other genus of nematodes. Transcript for both M. incognita and M. hapla IDLs were found in total RNA isolated from infected root systems of tomato, Solanum lycopersicum. Five and three prime RACE of RNA from M. incognita infected tomato roots revealed a sequence of 392 nt that includes a poly (A) tail of 39 nt. The open reading frame encodes a 47 aa protein with a putative 25 aa N-terminal signal peptide. Expression of MiIDL1 is very low in eggs and pre-parasitic J2 and rapidly increases in the first four days post inoculation (dpi) and then declines at approximately 14 dpi. A proposed role for the root-knot nematode IDL is discussed. PMID:23538028

Tucker, Mark L; Yang, Ronghui

2013-06-01

229

Comparative study of Fusarium oxysporum f sp. lycopersici and Meloidogyne incognita race-2 on plant growth parameters of tomato  

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Full Text Available Many species of soil-inhabiting fungus Fusarium, cause severe yield loss in many crops. Experiments were conducted in net house condition with complete randomized block design to determine the individual effect of different in-oculum levels of root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita, Race-2 and Fusarium oxysporum f sp. lycopersici on plant growth parameters viz., Plant length, fresh and dry weight and number of fruits of tomato var. P21. The experimental results showed that both the pathogens cause significant reduction in plant growth parameters. However, the fungus was not much effective on plant growth parameters in comparison to root-knot nematode. Greatest reduction in plant growth parameters was recorded in plants inoculated with 8000 J2/Kg soil of Meloidogyne in-cognita race 2. The threshold level of root-knot nematode was 1000 J2/kg soil while threshold level of Fusarium was @ 1 g/Kg soil. Inoculum level of Fusarium oxysporum f sp. lycopersici and Meloidogyne in-cognita race-2 was pathogenic and caused significant reduction at and above 1 g/kg soil and 1000 J2/Kg soil respectively.

Safiuddin  

2012-10-01

230

Nematicidal activity of leaf extracts from Lantana camara L. against Meloidogyne incognita (kofoid and white) chitwood and its use to manage roots infection of Solanum melongena L.  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Various concentrations of aqueous leaf extract of Lantana camara were assessed in vitro conditions against second stage juveniles (J2) of Meloidogyne incognita. The standard concentration 'S' of leaf extract was found to be highly nematostatic, where nematodes were completely paralyzed after 12 h an [...] d after 48 h of exposure, 96% of juveniles were killed at same concentration. However, the mortality of juveniles was 75% in S/2 dilution at 48 h. The degree of effectiveness and dilutions of extract were directly proportional. The percentage of paralyzed juveniles was decreased, when J2 transferred in distilled water after 48 h incubation in standard aqueous leaf extract. Addition of freeze-dried aqueous extract to sterile sandy substrate at S/2 dilution significantly decreased the root-knot infection to susceptible eggplants whereas second stage juveniles (J2) that penetrated roots of eggplant were able to complete development in sterile sandy substrate without treatment of freeze-dried aqueous extract.

Faheem, Ahmad; Mohmad Azhar, Rather; Mansoor Ahmad, Siddiqui.

2010-06-01

231

influence of some types of Algerian soil on the development of rot-knot nematodes Meloidogyne incognita, M. javanica and M. arenaria (Tylenchida,Meloidogynidae)  

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Crops under greenhouses offer the possibility of vegetables production of high added value by focusing on earliness. They help to spread the availability timing of vegetables and fruits in the market throughout the year. However, these crops are subject to numerous attacks entailing heavy losses of yield quantity and quality. The plant parasitic nematodes especially rot-knot nematodes of the genus Meloidogyne are considered dangerous enemies of these cultures. The evolution study of these nematodes in different soil types allows one to compare the migration and movement of these nematodes in sandy soils considered as light soils, in clay soils heavy and intermediate silty clay soils. These soils have also rates of organic matter and a percentage of magnesium and calcium that might provide better conditions to the survival and migration of second stage larvae inoculated at a rate of 650 juveniles per pot of 24 cm in diameter where plants of melon Cucumis melo var. (Charentais) known to be susceptible to Meloidogyne was cultivated. The results for the population development of Meloidogyne, after a growing period of 3 months show an increase in the number of eggs, juvenile stages, inflated, swollen females and males in the 3 types of soil and that independently of clay fraction although clay soil may asphyxiate Meloidogyne. The development of the three species of Meloidogyne studied in these soils, the parameters taken into consideration (index of galls, which were 1.58,deration (index of galls, which were 1.58, 1.75 and 1.5 for the sandy clay and the middle ground soils, vigour index and the evolution of populations of Meloidogyne and roots and soil as well as parameters related to production reveal the adaptation of these root-knot nematodes to the clay and sandy loam soils. At the end of culture, the final populations are important in the soils studied; 2680 for soil S. (sandy), 2272 for soil A (clay) and 2327 for soil I (intermediate) with a multiplication rate almost similar ( 4.12, 3.49 and 3.58 respectively). All these parameters can give one clues about the real possibility of developing root-knot nematodes on all types of soil. These findings may be real on the coastal areas of the southern regions characterized with sandy soils that are most infested, but the infestation potential of interior plains characterized by clay and clay loam are certain if necessary measures are not seriously taken to control them. (author)

232

Assessment of Yield Loss of Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.) due to Root Knot Nematode, Meloidogyne incognita under Field Conditions  

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The root knot nematodes are included within the genus Meloidogyne Goldi, 1892 and belong to a relatively small but important polyphagous group of highly adapted obligate plant pathogens. Typically, they are distributed worldwide and parasitize nearly every species of higher plant. Due to their endoparasitic way of living and feeding, root knot nematodes disrupt the physiology of the plant and may reduce crop yield and product quality and, therefore, are of great economic importance and mak...

Adegbite, Ayodele Adesina

2011-01-01

233

In vitro proteolysis of nematode FMRFamide-like peptides (FLPs) by preparations from a free-living nematode (Panagrellus redivivus) and two plant-parasitic nematodes (Heterodera glycines and Meloidogyne incognita).  

Science.gov (United States)

Proteolytic activities in extracts from three nematodes, the plant parasites Heterodera glycines and Meloidogyne incognita, and the free-living Panagrellus redivivus, were surveyed for substrate preferences using a battery of seven FRET-modified peptide substrates, all derived from members of the large FMRF-amide like peptide (FLP) family in nematodes. Overall protease activity in P. redivivus was four- to fivefold greater than in either of the parasites, a result that might reflect developmental differences. Digestion of the M. incognita FLP KHEFVRFa (substrate Abz-KHEFVRF-Y(3-NO2)a) by M. incognita extract was sevenfold greater than with H. glycines extract and twofold greater than P. redivivus, suggesting species-specific preferences. Additional species differences were revealed upon screening 12 different protease inhibitors. Two substrates were used in the screen, Abz-KHEFVRF-Y(3-NO2)a and Abz-KPSFVRF-Y(3-NO2)a), which was digested equally by all three species. The effects of various inhibitor, substrate and extract source combinations on substrate digestion suggest that M. incognita differs significantly from P. redivivus and H. glycines in its complement of cysteine proteases, particularly cathepsin L-type protease. PMID:21392420

Masler, E P

2012-03-01

234

Efeito do armazenamento na energia corporal de juvenis do segundo estádio de Meloidogyne incognita infestados por Pasteuria penetrans / Effect of storage on body energy of second stage juveniles of Meloidogyne incognita infested by Pasteuria penetrans  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Neste trabalho, objetivou-se estudar o efeito do período de armazenamento no teor de lipídios de juvenis do segundo estádio (J2) de M. incognita com endósporos de P. penetrans na infectividade e reprodução em tomateiro. Suspensões de M. incognita contendo ou não endósporos de P. penetrans aderidos à [...] cutícula foram armazenadas por 0, 3, 6, 9 e 12 dias, a 28ºC. Após cada período de estocagem, determinou-se a concentração de lipídios neutros corporais por meio da análise de imagem dos J2 coloridos com o corante "Oil Red O". Em seguida, 1.000 J2 foram inoculados em mudas de tomateiros. Após 28 dias, avaliou-se o número de fêmeas parasitadas, número de endósporos/fêmea, número de galhas, massas de ovos e de ovos/g de raiz. O teor de lipídio dos J2 reduziu-se com o aumento do período de estocagem. Porém, maiores perdas ocorreram nos J2 sem endósporos de P. penetrans. A proporção entre as perdas dos J2 com e sem P. penetrans foi pequena e decrescente com o período de estocagem. Entretanto, a desproporção foi grande entre 3 e 6 dias de armazenamento dos J2 com e sem P. penetrans com relação aos parâmetros reprodução e número de galhas, indicando consumo de fontes alternativas ao lipí dio neutro de energia p elo J2 parasitado. Mas o período de armazenamento sempre reduziu a reprodução e número de galhas formadas em tomateiros por J2 com e sem P. penetrans. A perda dessas fontes de energia, ao que tudo indica, leva muitos J2 a morrer antes de chegar ao estádio adulto, pois o número de fêmeas parasitadas reduz-se com o armazenamento, além de propiciar menor produção de endósporos por fêmea. O J2 parasitado por P. penetrans necessita encontrar rapidamente a raiz e não permanecer no solo por mais de 6 dias antes de parasitar a planta. Abstract in english This work aimed to study the effect of storage period on lipid content of second stage juveniles (J2) of M. incognita with endospores of P. penetrans on infectivity and reproduction in tomato. Suspensions of M. incognita containing or not endospores of P. penetrans adhered to cuticle were stored by [...] 0, 3, 6, 9 and 12 days at 28ºC. After each storage period, the concentration of neutral lipids in the body of J2 was determined by image analysis of J2 stained with "Oil Red O". After that, 1.000 J2 were inoculated in tomato seedlings. After 28 days, the number of infected females, number of endospores per females, number of galls, number of egg masses and number of eggs per gram of root were evaluated. The lipid content of J2 reduced with the increase of storage period. However, greater lost occurred on J2 without endospores of P. penetrans. The ratio between J2 lipid losses with and without P. penetrans was small and decreased with storage period. However, the ratio between J2 with and without P. penetrans was greatest between 3 and 6 days of storage in relation to parameters reproduction and number of galls, indicating consumption of alternative energy sources others than neutral lipids by infected J2. But the storage period always reduced the reproduction and number of galls formed in tomatoes by J2 with and without P. penetrans. The loss of those energy sources indicate that many J2 dye before adult stage, because the number of parasitized females reduced with storage, besides of smaller endospores production per female. The J2 infested by P. penetrans needs to find the root quickly and should not stay in the soil for more than 6 days before parasitizing the plant.

Fernando da Silva, Rocha; Vicente Paulo, Campos; Renata da Silva, Canuto; Ricardo Magela de, Souza.

2009-02-01

235

Reaction of Field-grown Sericea Lespedeza to Selected Meloidogyne spp.  

Science.gov (United States)

Five sericea lespedeza (Lespedeza cuneata [Dumont] G. Don) breeding lines resistant to Meloidogyne incognita, M. incognita acrita, and M. hapla as seedlings in greenhouse tests and two varieties were resistant to M. incognita acrita in field experiments. Root-knot galling and larvae numbers were less for resistant entries than for the susceptible check when grown in root-knot infested field soil for three growing seasons. Forage yields were as much as 57 times greater for resistant entries than for susceptible check. Lines resistant to M. incognita acrita generally appeared more tolerant to M. javanica than the susceptible check in the field. A population predominantly M. incognita acrita built up on cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) and hairy vetch (Vicia villosa L.) shifted to M. javanica under sericea lespedeza. PMID:19322393

Minton, N A; Donnelly, E D

1971-10-01

236

Reaction of coffee genotypes to different populations of Meloidogyne spp.: detection of a naturally virulent M. exigua population / Reação de genótipos de cafeeiro a diferentes populações de Meloidogyne spp.: detecção de uma população de M. exigua naturalmente virulenta  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese A reação de sete genótipos de Coffea arabica a 10 populações de Meloidogyne spp. coletadas principalmente em plantios de café no Brasil e Costa Rica foi avaliada em casa de vegetação. O inóculo consistiu de 10.000 ovos por planta. As avaliações foram realizadas 8 meses após as inoculações consideran [...] do-se a massa da matéria fresca das raízes, índices de galhas e massas de ovos, número de ovos por grama de raiz e fator de reprodução (FR). As cultivares Obatã IAC 1669-20, Sarchimor IAC 4361 e Tupi Amarelo IAC 5111 exibiram suscetibilidade às quatro populações brasileiras de M. exigua. Entretanto, cv. Tupi Vermelho IAC 1669-33 mostrou-se resistente (FR=0,7) a uma população de M. exigua proveniente de Lavras, MG, Brasil. A população de M. exigua oriunda de Bom Jesus de Itabapoana, RJ, Brasil foi altamente virulenta à cv. IAPAR 59 (FR= 165,7), portadora do gene de resistência Mex-1 e ao genótipo Paraíso (H 419-5-4-5-2) (FR=396,2). A população de Meloidogyne sp. do cafeeiro, Garça, SP, Brasil, reproduziu-se em baixos níveis (FR = 0,1 - 3,9) sobre todos os genótipos. Todas as cultivares testadas foram suscetíveis a M. incognita e M. paranaensis. A reprodução de M. mayaguensis obtida de goiabeira, PR, Brasil, foi baixa (FR = 0,0-1,6), em todos os genótipos. Entretanto, outra população obtida do cafeeiro na Costa Rica apresentou valores de FR que variaram de 0,8 a 12,4. Os resultados deste trabalho mostraram, pela primeira vez, a capacidade de uma população de M. exigua obtida em campo de superar a resistência conferida pelo gene Mex-1. Abstract in english The reaction of seven genotypes of Coffea arabica to 10 Meloidogyne spp. populations collected mainly from coffee plantations in Brazil and Costa Rica was evaluated under greenhouse conditions. The inoculum consisted of 10,000 eggs per plant. Evaluations were done 8 months after inoculations conside [...] ring the root fresh weight, gall and egg mass indices, number of eggs per gram of root and reproduction factor (RF). The cultivars Obatã IAC 1669-20, Sarchimor IAC 4361 and Tupi Amarelo IAC 5111 exhibited susceptibility to the four Brazilian M. exigua populations tested. However, cv. Tupi Vermelho IAC 1669-33 revealed resistance (RF value of 0.7) to the M. exigua population from Lavras, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. A population of M. exigua from Bom Jesus de Itabapoana, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil, was highly virulent on cv. IAPAR 59 (RF= 165.7), bearing resistance gene Mex-1, and was also virulent on genotype Paraíso (H 419-5-4-5-2) (RF=396.2). A Meloidogyne sp. population on coffee from Garça, São Paulo State, Brazil, reproduced at low rates (RF ranging from 0.1 to 3.9) on all genotypes. All tested cultivars were susceptible to M. incognita and M. paranaensis. M. mayaguensis of guava from Paraná State, Brazil, reproduced at low rates in all coffee genotypes; however, another population of coffee, from Costa Rica, was more aggressive and showed RF value that ranged from 0.8 to 12.4. Results of this study point for the first time to the ability of a naturally occurring M. exigua population to overcome the resistance conferred by the Mex-1 gene.

Maria de Fátima S., Muniz; Vicente P., Campos; Antônio W., Moita; Wallace, Gonçalves; Maria Ritta A., Almeida; Fábio Rodrigues de, Sousa; Regina Maria D. G., Carneiro.

237

Reaction of coffee genotypes to different populations of Meloidogyne spp.: detection of a naturally virulent M. exigua population / Reação de genótipos de cafeeiro a diferentes populações de Meloidogyne spp.: detecção de uma população de M. exigua naturalmente virulenta  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese A reação de sete genótipos de Coffea arabica a 10 populações de Meloidogyne spp. coletadas principalmente em plantios de café no Brasil e Costa Rica foi avaliada em casa de vegetação. O inóculo consistiu de 10.000 ovos por planta. As avaliações foram realizadas 8 meses após as inoculações consideran [...] do-se a massa da matéria fresca das raízes, índices de galhas e massas de ovos, número de ovos por grama de raiz e fator de reprodução (FR). As cultivares Obatã IAC 1669-20, Sarchimor IAC 4361 e Tupi Amarelo IAC 5111 exibiram suscetibilidade às quatro populações brasileiras de M. exigua. Entretanto, cv. Tupi Vermelho IAC 1669-33 mostrou-se resistente (FR=0,7) a uma população de M. exigua proveniente de Lavras, MG, Brasil. A população de M. exigua oriunda de Bom Jesus de Itabapoana, RJ, Brasil foi altamente virulenta à cv. IAPAR 59 (FR= 165,7), portadora do gene de resistência Mex-1 e ao genótipo Paraíso (H 419-5-4-5-2) (FR=396,2). A população de Meloidogyne sp. do cafeeiro, Garça, SP, Brasil, reproduziu-se em baixos níveis (FR = 0,1 - 3,9) sobre todos os genótipos. Todas as cultivares testadas foram suscetíveis a M. incognita e M. paranaensis. A reprodução de M. mayaguensis obtida de goiabeira, PR, Brasil, foi baixa (FR = 0,0-1,6), em todos os genótipos. Entretanto, outra população obtida do cafeeiro na Costa Rica apresentou valores de FR que variaram de 0,8 a 12,4. Os resultados deste trabalho mostraram, pela primeira vez, a capacidade de uma população de M. exigua obtida em campo de superar a resistência conferida pelo gene Mex-1. Abstract in english The reaction of seven genotypes of Coffea arabica to 10 Meloidogyne spp. populations collected mainly from coffee plantations in Brazil and Costa Rica was evaluated under greenhouse conditions. The inoculum consisted of 10,000 eggs per plant. Evaluations were done 8 months after inoculations conside [...] ring the root fresh weight, gall and egg mass indices, number of eggs per gram of root and reproduction factor (RF). The cultivars Obatã IAC 1669-20, Sarchimor IAC 4361 and Tupi Amarelo IAC 5111 exhibited susceptibility to the four Brazilian M. exigua populations tested. However, cv. Tupi Vermelho IAC 1669-33 revealed resistance (RF value of 0.7) to the M. exigua population from Lavras, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. A population of M. exigua from Bom Jesus de Itabapoana, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil, was highly virulent on cv. IAPAR 59 (RF= 165.7), bearing resistance gene Mex-1, and was also virulent on genotype Paraíso (H 419-5-4-5-2) (RF=396.2). A Meloidogyne sp. population on coffee from Garça, São Paulo State, Brazil, reproduced at low rates (RF ranging from 0.1 to 3.9) on all genotypes. All tested cultivars were susceptible to M. incognita and M. paranaensis. M. mayaguensis of guava from Paraná State, Brazil, reproduced at low rates in all coffee genotypes; however, another population of coffee, from Costa Rica, was more aggressive and showed RF value that ranged from 0.8 to 12.4. Results of this study point for the first time to the ability of a naturally occurring M. exigua population to overcome the resistance conferred by the Mex-1 gene.

Maria de Fátima S., Muniz; Vicente P., Campos; Antônio W., Moita; Wallace, Gonçalves; Maria Ritta A., Almeida; Fábio Rodrigues de, Sousa; Regina Maria D. G., Carneiro.

2009-12-01

238

Purification and identification of metabolites produced by Bacillus cereus and B. subtilis active against Meloidogyne exigua, and their in silico interaction with a putative phosphoribosyltransferase from M. incognita  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Com o objetivo de contribuir para o desenvolvimento de produtos para o controle de Meloidogyne exigua, as bactérias Bacillus cereus e B. subtilis foram cultivadas em meio líquido de cultura para produzirem metabólitos ativos contra este nematoide parasita de plantas. Os fracionamentos dos extratos e [...] m diclorometano dos meios de cultura produziram uracila, 9H-purina e di-idrouracila. Todos os compostos foram ativos contra M. exigua, sendo o último o mais eficiente. Ele apresentou CL50 de 204 µg/mL contra o nematoide, enquanto uma CL50 de 260 µg/mL foi observada para o nematicida comercial carbofuran. Uma busca por complexos proteína-ligante nos quais o ligante fosse estruturalmente similar à di-idrouracila resultou na seleção de fosforibosiltransferases, cujas sequências foram utilizadas em uma busca in silico no genoma de M. incognita por sequência de aminoácidos semelhante. A sequência resultante foi modelada e di-idrouracila e 9H-purina foram inseridos nos sítios ativos desta provável fosforibosiltransferase, resultando em complexos proteína-ligante que foram submetidos a simulações por dinâmica molecular. Cálculos das energias livres de ligação destes complexos revelaram que a constante de dissociação de di-idrouracila e 9H-purina da enzima é da ordem de 8,3 x 10-7 e 1,6 x 10-6 M, respectivamente. Consequentemente, estas substâncias e a provável fosforibosiltransferase podem ser de grande utilidade para o desenvolvimento de novos produtos para o controle de M. exigua. Abstract in english To contribute to the development of products to control Meloidogyne exigua, the bacteria Bacillus cereus and B. subtilis were cultivated in liquid medium to produce metabolites active against this plant-parasitic nematode. Fractionation of the crude dichloromethane extracts obtained from the culture [...] s afforded uracil, 9H-purine and dihydrouracil. All compounds were active against M. exigua, the latter being the most efficient. This substance presented a LC50 of 204 µg/mL against the nematode, while a LC50 of 260 µg/mL was observed for the commercial nematicide carbofuran. A search for protein-ligand complexes in which the ligands were structurally similar to dihydrouracil resulted in the selection of phosphoribosyltransferases, the sequences of which were used in an in silico search in the genome of M. incognita for a similar sequence of amino acids. The resulting sequence was modelled and dihydrouracil and 9H-purine were inserted in the active site of this putative phosphoribosyltransferase resulting in protein-ligand complexes that underwent molecular dynamics simulations. Calculation of the binding free-energies of these complexes revealed that the dissociation constant of dihydrouracil and 9H-purine to this protein is around 8.3 x 10-7 and 1.6 x 10-6 M, respectively. Consequently, these substances and the putative phosphoribosyltransferase are promising for the development of new products to control M. exigua.

DENILSON F., OLIVEIRA; HELVÉCIO M. DOS, SANTOS JÚNIOR; ALEXANDRO S., NUNES; VICENTE P., CAMPOS; RENATA S.C. DE, PINHO; GIOVANNA C., GAJO.

2014-06-01

239

Purification and identification of metabolites produced by Bacillus cereus and B. subtilis active against Meloidogyne exigua, and their in silico interaction with a putative phosphoribosyltransferase from M. incognita  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Com o objetivo de contribuir para o desenvolvimento de produtos para o controle de Meloidogyne exigua, as bactérias Bacillus cereus e B. subtilis foram cultivadas em meio líquido de cultura para produzirem metabólitos ativos contra este nematoide parasita de plantas. Os fracionamentos dos extratos e [...] m diclorometano dos meios de cultura produziram uracila, 9H-purina e di-idrouracila. Todos os compostos foram ativos contra M. exigua, sendo o último o mais eficiente. Ele apresentou CL50 de 204 µg/mL contra o nematoide, enquanto uma CL50 de 260 µg/mL foi observada para o nematicida comercial carbofuran. Uma busca por complexos proteína-ligante nos quais o ligante fosse estruturalmente similar à di-idrouracila resultou na seleção de fosforibosiltransferases, cujas sequências foram utilizadas em uma busca in silico no genoma de M. incognita por sequência de aminoácidos semelhante. A sequência resultante foi modelada e di-idrouracila e 9H-purina foram inseridos nos sítios ativos desta provável fosforibosiltransferase, resultando em complexos proteína-ligante que foram submetidos a simulações por dinâmica molecular. Cálculos das energias livres de ligação destes complexos revelaram que a constante de dissociação de di-idrouracila e 9H-purina da enzima é da ordem de 8,3 x 10-7 e 1,6 x 10-6 M, respectivamente. Consequentemente, estas substâncias e a provável fosforibosiltransferase podem ser de grande utilidade para o desenvolvimento de novos produtos para o controle de M. exigua. Abstract in english To contribute to the development of products to control Meloidogyne exigua, the bacteria Bacillus cereus and B. subtilis were cultivated in liquid medium to produce metabolites active against this plant-parasitic nematode. Fractionation of the crude dichloromethane extracts obtained from the culture [...] s afforded uracil, 9H-purine and dihydrouracil. All compounds were active against M. exigua, the latter being the most efficient. This substance presented a LC50 of 204 µg/mL against the nematode, while a LC50 of 260 µg/mL was observed for the commercial nematicide carbofuran. A search for protein-ligand complexes in which the ligands were structurally similar to dihydrouracil resulted in the selection of phosphoribosyltransferases, the sequences of which were used in an in silico search in the genome of M. incognita for a similar sequence of amino acids. The resulting sequence was modelled and dihydrouracil and 9H-purine were inserted in the active site of this putative phosphoribosyltransferase resulting in protein-ligand complexes that underwent molecular dynamics simulations. Calculation of the binding free-energies of these complexes revealed that the dissociation constant of dihydrouracil and 9H-purine to this protein is around 8.3 x 10-7 and 1.6 x 10-6 M, respectively. Consequently, these substances and the putative phosphoribosyltransferase are promising for the development of new products to control M. exigua.

DENILSON F., OLIVEIRA; HELVÉCIO M. DOS, SANTOS JÚNIOR; ALEXANDRO S., NUNES; VICENTE P., CAMPOS; RENATA S.C. DE, PINHO; GIOVANNA C., GAJO.

2014-04-25

240

Purification and identification of metabolites produced by Bacillus cereus and B. subtilis active against Meloidogyne exigua, and their in silico interaction with a putative phosphoribosyltransferase from M. incognita  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Com o objetivo de contribuir para o desenvolvimento de produtos para o controle de Meloidogyne exigua, as bactérias Bacillus cereus e B. subtilis foram cultivadas em meio líquido de cultura para produzirem metabólitos ativos contra este nematoide parasita de plantas. Os fracionamentos dos extratos e [...] m diclorometano dos meios de cultura produziram uracila, 9H-purina e di-idrouracila. Todos os compostos foram ativos contra M. exigua, sendo o último o mais eficiente. Ele apresentou CL50 de 204 µg/mL contra o nematoide, enquanto uma CL50 de 260 µg/mL foi observada para o nematicida comercial carbofuran. Uma busca por complexos proteína-ligante nos quais o ligante fosse estruturalmente similar à di-idrouracila resultou na seleção de fosforibosiltransferases, cujas sequências foram utilizadas em uma busca in silico no genoma de M. incognita por sequência de aminoácidos semelhante. A sequência resultante foi modelada e di-idrouracila e 9H-purina foram inseridos nos sítios ativos desta provável fosforibosiltransferase, resultando em complexos proteína-ligante que foram submetidos a simulações por dinâmica molecular. Cálculos das energias livres de ligação destes complexos revelaram que a constante de dissociação de di-idrouracila e 9H-purina da enzima é da ordem de 8,3 x 10-7 e 1,6 x 10-6 M, respectivamente. Consequentemente, estas substâncias e a provável fosforibosiltransferase podem ser de grande utilidade para o desenvolvimento de novos produtos para o controle de M. exigua. Abstract in english To contribute to the development of products to control Meloidogyne exigua, the bacteria Bacillus cereus and B. subtilis were cultivated in liquid medium to produce metabolites active against this plant-parasitic nematode. Fractionation of the crude dichloromethane extracts obtained from the culture [...] s afforded uracil, 9H-purine and dihydrouracil. All compounds were active against M. exigua, the latter being the most efficient. This substance presented a LC50 of 204 µg/mL against the nematode, while a LC50 of 260 µg/mL was observed for the commercial nematicide carbofuran. A search for protein-ligand complexes in which the ligands were structurally similar to dihydrouracil resulted in the selection of phosphoribosyltransferases, the sequences of which were used in an in silico search in the genome of M. incognita for a similar sequence of amino acids. The resulting sequence was modelled and dihydrouracil and 9H-purine were inserted in the active site of this putative phosphoribosyltransferase resulting in protein-ligand complexes that underwent molecular dynamics simulations. Calculation of the binding free-energies of these complexes revealed that the dissociation constant of dihydrouracil and 9H-purine to this protein is around 8.3 x 10-7 and 1.6 x 10-6 M, respectively. Consequently, these substances and the putative phosphoribosyltransferase are promising for the development of new products to control M. exigua.

DENILSON F., OLIVEIRA; HELVÉCIO M. DOS, SANTOS JÚNIOR; ALEXANDRO S., NUNES; VICENTE P., CAMPOS; RENATA S.C. DE, PINHO; GIOVANNA C., GAJO.

 
 
 
 
241

In vitro and foliar spray evaluation of Verbena officinalis (L., Erythrina mulungu (Mart. ex Benth., Quassia amara (L., Bidens pilosa (L. and Plantago lanceolata (L., extracts on Meloidogyne incognita (Kofoid & White, 1919 Chitwood, 1949 Evaluación in vitro y aplicación foliar de Verbena officinalis (L., Erythrina mulungu (Mart. ex Benth., Quassia amara (L., Bidens pilosa (L. y Plantago lanceolata (L., sobre Meloidogyne incognita (Kofoid & White, 1919 Chitwood, 1949  

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Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the efficiency of aqueous extracts of five species of medicinal plant, Verbena officinalis (L., Erythrina mulungu (Mart. ex Benth., Quassia amara (L., Bidens pilosa (L. and Plantago lanceolata (L. in vitro, and sprayed on tomato plants for the control of Meloidogyne incognita. In vitro experiments were conducted in growth chambers in acrylic ELISA plates. The treatments were doses of 0, 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 g • L-1 of different aqueous extracts. On the sixteenth day the number of second stage juveniles (J2 hatched per treatment was evaluated. The results showed that aqueous extracts of V. officinalis, E. mulungu, Q. amara, B. pilosa and P. lanceolata, reduced the hatching of M. incognita, with the aqueous extract of P. lanceolata showing up to 100% reduction in hatching. The in vivo assay was conducted in a greenhouse. For this, four sprays of different extracts were applied to tomato shoots. According to the results of this test, none of the extracts were efficient at controlling M. incognita through foliar spraying. The efficiency of these extracts to control plant parasitic nematodes during in vivo tests should not be disregarded, however, further studies should be conducted to test different methods of application, doses or methods of extracting the active principles.El objetivo del estudio fue evaluar la eficacia de los extractos acuosos de cinco especies de plantas medicinales, Verbena officinalis (L., Erythrina mulungu (Mart. ex Benth., Quassia amara (L., Bidens pilosa (L. y Plantago lanceolata (L. in vitro, y se pulverizaron en las plantas de tomates para el control de Meloidogyne incognita. Los experimentos in vitro fueron realizados en cámaras de crecimiento en placas de ELISA de tipo acrílico. Los tratamientos fueron dosis de 0,10, 20, 30, 40 y 50 g • L-1 de diferentes extractos acuosos. En el día dieciséis se evaluó el número de juveniles segunda etapa (J2nacidos por tratamiento. Los resultados mostraron que los extractos acuosos de V. officinalis, E. mulungu, Q. amara, B. pilosa y P. lanceolata reducen la eclosión de los juveniles de M. incognita, y el extracto acuoso de P. lanceolata mostró hasta 100% de reducción de la tasa de eclosión. El ensayo in vivo se realizó en un invernadero, y para ello, había cuatro pulverizaciones de diferentes extractos en los brotes de tomate. Según los resultados de esta prueba, ninguno de los extractos por pulverización foliar era eficaz en el control de M. incognita. Sin embargo, no se debe descartar la eficiencia de estos extractos en el control de nematodos parásitos de plantas, pero más estudios se llevan a cabo utilizando diferentes métodos de aplicación, las dosis o métodos de extracción de los principios activos de los extractos.

Milena A Ferrari Mateus

2013-04-01

242

Integrated Management of Meloidogyne incognita Infecting Eggplant by Certain Organic Amendments, Bacillus thuringiensis and Oxamyl with Reference to N P K and Total Chlorophyll Status  

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Full Text Available Greenhouse experiment on the impact of horse manure or sesame-oil-cake or Bacillus thuringiensis singly and/or integrated with oxamyl on Meloidogyne incognita infecting eggplant cv. Black long at 25±5°C, revealed that all tested treatments obviously improved plant growth response and reduced nematode development. Among the tested components, B. thuringiensis applied alone or mixed with oxamyl gave the highest percentage of increase in plant growth parameters i.e., plant fresh weight and shoot dry weight with values of 105.9 and 85.8% and 127.8 and 107.5%, respectively, as well as the lowest percent reduction of nematode developmental criteria. Moreover, in concomitant application of horse manure plus oxamyl appeared to be the best treatment in suppressing nematode development and improving plant growth parameters, followed by sesame oil-cake plus oxamyl, then sesame oil-cake and horse manure alone. Meanwhile, length of shoot and number of leaves were positively affected by the tested materials either when applied singly or integrated with oxamyl as compared to nematode alone. Regarding N, P and K status in shoots of eggplant, their concentrations were remarkably reduced by nematode infection. Moreover, single application of any organic amendment or bacterium or oxamyl achieved the highest concentration of N, P and K, whereas the concomitant application of horse manure plus oxamyl showed the highest concentration of phosphorus with value of 0.56 ppm. In addition, the previous treatments obviously decreased the total chlorophyll content of eggplant shoot, whereas nematode infection alone recorded the highest increase percentage for this plant parameter with value of 51.3%.

A.G. El-Sherif

2007-01-01

243

EVALUACION DE DOS VARIADES DE LECHUGA (Lactuca sativa L.) PARA SU USO COMO PLANTAS TRAMPAS DE Meloidogyne incognita Kofoid Y white (Chitwood ) / EVALUATION OF TWO VARIETIES OF LETTUCE (Lactuca sativa L.) TO BE USED AS TRAP OF CROP OF Meloidogyne incognita Kofoid AND white (Chitwood)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Se realizó un experimento en condiciones semicontroladas, donde se evaluaron dos variedades de lechuga (var. "Chile 1185-3" y "Black Seeded Simpson " como plantas trampa para disminuir las poblaciones de Meloidogyne incognita . Las evaluaciones se realizaron a los 25 y 30 días después de la inoculac [...] ión de tres niveles de inóculo del nematodo (0.5 J2. g-1 suelo, 1.5 J2. g-1 suelo, 2.5 J2. g-1 suelo). Se manifestó la susceptibilidad de las variedades frente al ataque de esta plaga, observándose los síntomas y daños en el sistema radical y la producción de ootecas y huevos a los 30 días. Los efectos del nematodo sobre las plantas se agudizaron con el incremento del nivel de inóculo. Se observó un ligero aumento en la producción de huevos de la variedad "Chile 1185-3" sobre la variedad "Black Seeded Simpson ". Se demostró que la extracción de las raíces de lechuga, utilizada como planta trampa para el manejo de las poblaciones de este nematodo, debe realizarse entre los 25 y 30 días. De ser extendido este período, se perdería el objetivo de esta práctica cultural, con la consiguiente re-infestación del suelo, una vez que las larvas contenidas en los huevos lleguen a eclosionar. Abstract in english Two varieties of lettuce ("Chile 1185-3" and "Black Seeded Simpson") were evaluated as trap crops for M. incognita in semi-controlled conditions. Evaluations were carried out at 25 and 30 days after the inoculation of three nematode levels (0.5 J2. g-1 soil, 1.5 J2. g-1 soil and 2.5 J2. g-1 soil). H [...] igh susceptibility to M. incognita was shown by the two varieties of lettuce evaluated. Root symptoms and damages, as well as the production of egg masses and eggs were increased as long as the infestation levels of nematodes were higher. A slight increasing of nematode eggs and egg mass productions was observed on lettuce var. "Chile1185-3". It was demonstrated that the nematode infesting lettuce roots when used as a trap crop have to be removed from the soil between 25 and 30 days. Otherwise, the main goal of this cultural practice could be failed.

M.A, Hernández; Lucila, Gómez; Mayra G, Rodríguez; R, Enrique; Ileana, Miranda.

244

Potential of Leguminous Cover Crops in Management of a Mixed Population of Root-knot Nematodes (Meloidogyne spp.)  

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Root-knot nematode is an important pest in agricultural production worldwide. Crop rotation is the only management strategy in some production systems, especially for resource poor farmers in developing countries. A series of experiments was conducted in the laboratory with several leguminous cover crops to investigate their potential for managing a mixture of root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne arenaria, M. incognita, M. javanica). The root-knot nematode mixture failed to multiply on Mucuna pru...

Osei, Kingsley; Gowen, Simon R.; Pembroke, Barbara; Brandenburg, Rick L.; Jordan, David L.

2010-01-01

245

Integrated Management of Meloidogyne incognita Infecting Soybean by Certain Organic Amendments, Bacillus thuringiensis, Trichoderma harzianum and Oxamyl with Reference to NPK and Total Chlorophyll Statuus  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The integrated control of M. incognita infecting soybean cv. Giza 21 using camel manure, dried leaf powder of marigold, Trichoderma harzianum 100% filtrate, Bacillus thringiensis singly or in combination with oxamyl under greenhouse condition (22±3°C indicated that the concomitant treatments obviously gave better results than single ones did. Moreover, B. thringiensis plus oxamyl at half dose each surpassed all other tested materials in percentage increase of total plant fresh and shoot dry weights (99 and 88 %, respectively, followed by T. harzianum filtrate plus oxamyl (95 and 61% in this respect. On the other hand, pots received T. harzianum filtrate plus oxamyl ranked first in suppressing final nematode population (90%, root galling (65% and eggmass numbers (62.79%, followed by B.t. plus oxamyl, marigold powder +oxamyl and then camel manure + oxamyl, where their reduction percentage values amounted to 88.7, 62.5 and 61%; 88.5, 59.87 and 58.9% and 67, 50.5 and 52.97%, respectively. Of the tested singly applications, T. harzianum filtrate showed the best results in improving plant growth and suppressing nematode development criteria, followed by B.t., whereas, marigold powder and camel manure achieved the lowest values in this respect comparing to nematode alone. Regarding the N, P and K concentrations in leaves of soybean plants inoculated with M. incognita treated with certain organic matters or fungal filtrate or bacterium alone or mixed with oxamyl, they were obviously enhanced by all tested materials whereas the opposite results was recorded for total chlorophyll content comparing to nematode alone.

A.G. El-Sherif

2009-01-01

246

Efecto de la biodesinfección con residuos de nim (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) sobre población de Meloidogyne spp. en suelo / Effect of neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) Waste on Meloidogyne spp. population in soil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Se evaluó el efecto de residuos del proceso industrial de obtención de plaguicidas del nim (Azadirachta indica A. Juss), provenientes de la Fábrica «Rosa E. Simeón», Güines (Mayabeque, Cuba) sobre una población de Meloidogyne spp. El experimento se desarrolló en condiciones semicontroladas, utilizan [...] do suelo no estéril, con nivel inicial de Meloidognye spp. de 0,5 juveniles de segundo estadio (J2)-huevos.g de suelo-1. Se establecieron ocho tratamientos, cuatro de los cuales se inocularon adicionalmente con 5 J2-huevos.g de suelo-1 de Meloidogyne incognita (Kofoid y White) Chitwood y se empleó como hospedante tomate (Solanum lycopersicom L. var. Campbell 28). Se aplicaron tres dosis de residuos 138,47 g.maceta-1, 60,28 g.maceta-1 y 40,19 g.maceta-1 (lo que equivale a aplicar 4, 3 y 2 kg.m2-1 respectivamente). A los 50 días se determinó el Índice de Agallamiento (IA) (0 a 5 grados), longitud del tallo y masa fresca de raíces. Las mayores poblaciones de nematodos se produjeron en el tratamiento testigo (sin nim) (IA =5), exhibiendo diferencias significativas con aquellos donde se aplicaron los residuos, destacándose el tratamiento con 138,47 g.maceta-1 (equivalente a 4 kg.m2-1) que mostró un IA de 2,4. Los resultados mostraron la potencialidad que posee este desecho para el manejo de nematodos y la necesidad de estudiar su efecto sobre las plantas y las propiedades físico, químicas y biota del suelo. Abstract in english The effect of the waste from the industrial production of neem-based pesticides (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) originated in «Rosa Elena Simeón» factory in Güines (Mayabeque, Cuba) on Meloidogyne spp. population was evaluated, The experiment was carried out under semi-controlled conditions, using non [...] sterilized soil with an initial level of Meloidogyne spp. of 0,5 juveniles-eggs.g of soil-1. Eight treatments were set up; four of them were additionally inoculated with 5 juveniles-eggs.g of soil-1 of Meloidogyen incognita (Kofoid and White) Chitwood. Tomato (Solanum lycopersicom L. var. Campbell 28) was used as host. Three doses of the waste (138,47g.pot-1, 60,288 g.pot-1 and 40,19 g.pot¹; -equivalent to 4, 3 and 2 kg.m2-1 respectively) were applied. After fifty days, root knot galling index (GI) (0 to 5 grades), stem length and fresh weight of roots were evaluated. The highest populations appeared in the control treatment (without neem) (GI=5), which differed significantly from the treatments with the waste, where the best behavior was observed with 138,47 g.pot-1 (equivalent to 4 kg.m2-1) with a GI of 2,4. The results showed the potential of this waste for the management of plant parasitic nematodes and the need for studies on the effect upon the plants and the physical-chemical properties and biota of soils.

Mayra G, Rodríguez; Lucila, Gómez; Dainé, Hernández-Ochandía; R, Enrique; Ileana, Miranda; Oriela, Pino; I, Castro-Lizazo; L. Carolina, Rosales; Luisa, Díaz-Viruliche.

247

Efecto de la biodesinfección con residuos de nim (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) sobre población de Meloidogyne spp. en suelo / Effect of neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) Waste on Meloidogyne spp. population in soil  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Se evaluó el efecto de residuos del proceso industrial de obtención de plaguicidas del nim (Azadirachta indica A. Juss), provenientes de la Fábrica «Rosa E. Simeón», Güines (Mayabeque, Cuba) sobre una población de Meloidogyne spp. El experimento se desarrolló en condiciones semicontroladas, utilizan [...] do suelo no estéril, con nivel inicial de Meloidognye spp. de 0,5 juveniles de segundo estadio (J2)-huevos.g de suelo-1. Se establecieron ocho tratamientos, cuatro de los cuales se inocularon adicionalmente con 5 J2-huevos.g de suelo-1 de Meloidogyne incognita (Kofoid y White) Chitwood y se empleó como hospedante tomate (Solanum lycopersicom L. var. Campbell 28). Se aplicaron tres dosis de residuos 138,47 g.maceta-1, 60,28 g.maceta-1 y 40,19 g.maceta-1 (lo que equivale a aplicar 4, 3 y 2 kg.m2-1 respectivamente). A los 50 días se determinó el Índice de Agallamiento (IA) (0 a 5 grados), longitud del tallo y masa fresca de raíces. Las mayores poblaciones de nematodos se produjeron en el tratamiento testigo (sin nim) (IA =5), exhibiendo diferencias significativas con aquellos donde se aplicaron los residuos, destacándose el tratamiento con 138,47 g.maceta-1 (equivalente a 4 kg.m2-1) que mostró un IA de 2,4. Los resultados mostraron la potencialidad que posee este desecho para el manejo de nematodos y la necesidad de estudiar su efecto sobre las plantas y las propiedades físico, químicas y biota del suelo. Abstract in english The effect of the waste from the industrial production of neem-based pesticides (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) originated in «Rosa Elena Simeón» factory in Güines (Mayabeque, Cuba) on Meloidogyne spp. population was evaluated, The experiment was carried out under semi-controlled conditions, using non [...] sterilized soil with an initial level of Meloidogyne spp. of 0,5 juveniles-eggs.g of soil-1. Eight treatments were set up; four of them were additionally inoculated with 5 juveniles-eggs.g of soil-1 of Meloidogyen incognita (Kofoid and White) Chitwood. Tomato (Solanum lycopersicom L. var. Campbell 28) was used as host. Three doses of the waste (138,47g.pot-1, 60,288 g.pot-1 and 40,19 g.pot¹; -equivalent to 4, 3 and 2 kg.m2-1 respectively) were applied. After fifty days, root knot galling index (GI) (0 to 5 grades), stem length and fresh weight of roots were evaluated. The highest populations appeared in the control treatment (without neem) (GI=5), which differed significantly from the treatments with the waste, where the best behavior was observed with 138,47 g.pot-1 (equivalent to 4 kg.m2-1) with a GI of 2,4. The results showed the potential of this waste for the management of plant parasitic nematodes and the need for studies on the effect upon the plants and the physical-chemical properties and biota of soils.

Mayra G, Rodríguez; Lucila, Gómez; Dainé, Hernández-Ochandía; R, Enrique; Ileana, Miranda; Oriela, Pino; I, Castro-Lizazo; L. Carolina, Rosales; Luisa, Díaz-Viruliche.

2012-12-01

248

In vitro and foliar spray evaluation of Verbena officinalis (L.), Erythrina mulungu (Mart. ex Benth.), Quassia amara (L.), Bidens pilosa (L.) and Plantago lanceolata (L.), extracts on Meloidogyne incognita (Kofoid & White, 1919) Chitwood, 1949 / Evaluación in vitro y aplicación foliar de Verbena officinalis (L.), Erythrina mulungu (Mart. ex Benth.), Quassia amara (L.), Bidens pilosa (L.) y Plantago lanceolata (L.), sobre Meloidogyne incognita (Kofoid & White, 1919) Chitwood, 1949  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: English Abstract in spanish El objetivo del estudio fue evaluar la eficacia de los extractos acuosos de cinco especies de plantas medicinales, Verbena officinalis (L.), Erythrina mulungu (Mart. ex Benth.), Quassia amara (L.), Bidens pilosa (L.) y Plantago lanceolata (L.) in vitro, y se pulverizaron en las plantas de tomates pa [...] ra el control de Meloidogyne incognita. Los experimentos in vitro fueron realizados en cámaras de crecimiento en placas de ELISA de tipo acrílico. Los tratamientos fueron dosis de 0,10, 20, 30, 40 y 50 g • L-1 de diferentes extractos acuosos. En el día dieciséis se evaluó el número de juveniles segunda etapa (J2)nacidos por tratamiento. Los resultados mostraron que los extractos acuosos de V. officinalis, E. mulungu, Q. amara, B. pilosa y P. lanceolata reducen la eclosión de los juveniles de M. incognita, y el extracto acuoso de P. lanceolata mostró hasta 100% de reducción de la tasa de eclosión. El ensayo in vivo se realizó en un invernadero, y para ello, había cuatro pulverizaciones de diferentes extractos en los brotes de tomate. Según los resultados de esta prueba, ninguno de los extractos por pulverización foliar era eficaz en el control de M. incognita. Sin embargo, no se debe descartar la eficiencia de estos extractos en el control de nematodos parásitos de plantas, pero más estudios se llevan a cabo utilizando diferentes métodos de aplicación, las dosis o métodos de extracción de los principios activos de los extractos. Abstract in english This study aimed to evaluate the efficiency of aqueous extracts of five species of medicinal plant, Verbena officinalis (L.), Erythrina mulungu (Mart. ex Benth.), Quassia amara (L.), Bidens pilosa (L.) and Plantago lanceolata (L.) in vitro, and sprayed on tomato plants for the control of Meloidogyne [...] incognita. In vitro experiments were conducted in growth chambers in acrylic ELISA plates. The treatments were doses of 0, 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 g • L-1 of different aqueous extracts. On the sixteenth day the number of second stage juveniles (J2) hatched per treatment was evaluated. The results showed that aqueous extracts of V. officinalis, E. mulungu, Q. amara, B. pilosa and P. lanceolata, reduced the hatching of M. incognita, with the aqueous extract of P. lanceolata showing up to 100% reduction in hatching. The in vivo assay was conducted in a greenhouse. For this, four sprays of different extracts were applied to tomato shoots. According to the results of this test, none of the extracts were efficient at controlling M. incognita through foliar spraying. The efficiency of these extracts to control plant parasitic nematodes during in vivo tests should not be disregarded, however, further studies should be conducted to test different methods of application, doses or methods of extracting the active principles.

Milena A, Ferrari Mateus; Cacilda M, Duarte Rios Faria¹; Renato V, Botelho; Rosangela, Dallemole-Giaretta; Silvana G, Martins Ferreira; Welton L, Zaluski.

2013-04-01

249

Pathological Reaction of Crested Wheatgrass Cultivars to Four Meloidogyne chitwoodi Populations  

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Meloidogyne chitwoodi populations from Tulelake, California; Ft. Hall, Idaho; Beryl, Utah; and Prosser, Washington, significantly (P < 0.05) reduced dry shoot weights of crested wheatgrass (Agropyron cristatum L., Gaertn. and A. desertorum, Fisch. ex Link, Schult.) cultivars Hycrest, Fairway, and Nordan in experiments conducted in a greenhouse and growth chamber. Shoot growth depression, root galling, and nematode reproduction indices were greatest (P < 0.05) on plants inoculated with 5,000 e...

Griffin, G. D.; Asay, K. H.

1989-01-01

250

Seasonal Populations of Pratylenchus penetrans and Meloidogyne hapla in Strawberry Roots  

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Strawberry roots were sampled through the year to determine the populations and distribution of Pratylenchus penetrans and Meloidogyne hapla. Three strawberry root types were sampled—structural roots; feeder roots without secondary tissues; and suberized, black perennial roots. Both lesion and root-knot nematodes primarily infected feeder roots from structural roots or healthy perennial roots. Few nematodes were recovered from soil, diseased roots, or suberized roots. Lesion nematode recove...

Lamindia, J. A.

2002-01-01

251

Potential of Leguminous Cover Crops in Management of a Mixed Population of Root-knot Nematodes (Meloidogyne spp.).  

Science.gov (United States)

Root-knot nematode is an important pest in agricultural production worldwide. Crop rotation is the only management strategy in some production systems, especially for resource poor farmers in developing countries. A series of experiments was conducted in the laboratory with several leguminous cover crops to investigate their potential for managing a mixture of root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne arenaria, M. incognita, M. javanica). The root-knot nematode mixture failed to multiply on Mucuna pruriens and Crotalaria spectabilis but on Dolichos lablab the population increased more than 2- fold when inoculated with 500 and 1,000 nematodes per plant. There was no root-galling on M. pruriens and C. spectabilis but the gall rating was noted on D. lablab. Greater mortality of juvenile root-knot nematodes occurred when exposed to eluants of roots and leaves of leguminous crops than those of tomato; 48.7% of juveniles died after 72 h exposure to root eluant of C. spectabilis. The leaf eluant of D. lablab was toxic to nematodes but the root eluant was not. Thus, different parts of a botanical contain different active ingredients or different concentrations of the same active ingredient. The numbers of root-knot nematode eggs that hatched in root exudates of M. pruriens and C. spectabilis were significantly lower (20% and 26%) than in distilled water, tomato and P. vulgaris root exudates (83%, 72% and 89%) respectively. Tomato lacks nematotoxic compounds found in M. pruriens and C. spectabilis. Three months after inoculating plants with 1,000 root-knot nematode juveniles the populations in pots with M. pruriens, C. spectabilis and C. retusa had been reduced by approximately 79%, 85% and 86% respectively; compared with an increase of 262% nematodes in pots with Phaseolus vulgaris. There was significant reduction of 90% nematodes in fallow pots with no growing plant. The results from this study demonstrate that some leguminous species contain compounds that either kill root-knot nematodes or interfere with hatching and affect their capacity to invade and develop within their roots. M. pruriens, C. spectabilis and C. retusa could be used with effect to decrease a mixed field populations of root-knot nematodes. PMID:22736854

Osei, Kingsley; Gowen, Simon R; Pembroke, Barbara; Brandenburg, Rick L; Jordan, David L

2010-09-01

252

Seasonal Populations of Pratylenchus penetrans and Meloidogyne hapla in Strawberry Roots.  

Science.gov (United States)

Strawberry roots were sampled through the year to determine the populations and distribution of Pratylenchus penetrans and Meloidogyne hapla. Three strawberry root types were sampled-structural roots; feeder roots without secondary tissues; and suberized, black perennial roots. Both lesion and root-knot nematodes primarily infected feeder roots from structural roots or healthy perennial roots. Few nematodes were recovered from soil, diseased roots, or suberized roots. Lesion nematode recovery was correlated with healthy roots. In both 1997 and 1998, P. penetrans populations peaked about day 150 (end of May) and then declined. The decline in numbers corresponded to changes in total strawberry root weight and root type distribution. The loss of nematode habitat resulted from loss of roots due to disease and the transition from structural to suberized perennial roots. Meloidogyne hapla juvenile recovery peaked around 170 days (mid June) in 1997 and at 85, 147, 229, and 308 days (late March, late May, mid August, and early November, respectively) in 1998. There appear to be at least four generations per year of M. hapla in Connecticut. Diagnostic samples from an established strawberry bed may be most reliable and useful when they include feeder roots taken in late May. PMID:19265965

Lamindia, J A

2002-12-01

253

Application of Mitochondrial DNA Polymorphism to Meloidogyne Molecular Population Biology  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Recent advances in molecular biology have enabled the genotyping of individual nematodes, facilitating the analysis of genetic variability within and among plant-pathogenic nematode isolates. This review first describes representative examples of how RFLP, RAPD, AFLP, and DNA sequence analysis have been employed to describe populations of several phytonematodes, including the pinewood, burrowing, root-knot, and cyst nematodes. The second portion of this paper evaluates the utility of a size-v...

Hyman, B. C.; Whipple, L. E.

1996-01-01

254

Diversity of Meloidogyne spp. on Musa in Martinique, Guadeloupe, and French Guiana  

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Ninety-six isolates of Meloidogyne species collected from banana fields from Martinique, Guadeloupe, and French Guiana, were examined using esterase (Est) and malate dehydrogenase (Mdh) phenotypes. Adult females identified as M. arenaria, M. incognita, M. javanica, M. cruciani, M. hispanica, and Meloidogyne sp. showed species-specific phenotypes only for the esterase enzymes. Intraspecific variability among isolates of M. arenaria, M. incognita, and M. javanica was detected using Est and Mdh....

Cofcewicz, E. T.; Carneiro, R. M. D. G.; Randig, O.; Chabrier, C.; Que?ne?herve?, P.

2005-01-01

255

Reprodução de Meloidogyne spp. em porta-enxertos e híbridos de pepino / Reproduction of Meloidogyne spp. in rootstocks and cucumber hybrids  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A enxertia é uma técnica alternativa frequentemente recomendada para a cultura do pepino em áreas infestadas com nematóides das galhas. O presente trabalho teve como objetivo determinar o fator de reprodução de Meloidogyne javanica e de Meloidogyne incognita raça 2 em seis porta-enxertos para pepino [...] (abóbora 'Menina Brasileira', moranga 'Exposição', 'Shelper', 'Tetsukabuto', 'B8-A Tetsukabuto' e 'Excite Ikki') e quatro híbridos de pepino (Cucumis sativus) tipo japonês ('Yoshinari', 'Kouki', 'Taisho' e 'Tsuyataro'). Foram conduzidos dois experimentos em casa-de-vegetação, um com cada espécie do nematóide, sendo cada parcela constituída de uma planta mantida em vaso contendo 2 litros de solo autoclavado. Nove dias após transplante, cada planta foi inoculada com 5.000 ovos e juvenis de segundo estádio (população inicial - Pi) de M. javanica ou M. incognita raça 2. Tomateiros 'Rutgers' foram utilizados como padrão de viabilidade do inóculo, em ambos os experimentos. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado com cinco repetições por tratamento. Sessenta dias após a inoculação, cada planta foi avaliada, quanto ao peso fresco da raiz, número total de nematóides presentes no solo e na raiz (população final - Pf), número de nematóides/g de raiz e fator de reprodução de ambas as espécies de Meloidogyne (FR=Pf/Pi). Todos os porta-enxertos e híbridos de pepino testados apresentaram fatores de reprodução superiores a um, proporcionando a multiplicação de M. javanica e de M. incognita raça 2, porém, os valores nos híbridos de pepino foram superiores aos dos porta-enxertos. Abstract in english Grafting is an alternative technique often recommended for the cucumber crop in root-knot nematodes infested areas. This study aimed to determine the reproduction factor of Meloidogyne javanica and M. incognita race 2 on six rootstocks for cucumber (squash 'Menina Brasileira, pumpkim 'Exposição', 'S [...] helper', 'Tetsukabuto', 'B8-A Tetsukabuto' and 'Excite Ikki') and four cucumber (Cucumis sativus) Japanese type hybrids of ('Yoshinari', 'Kouki', 'Taisho' and 'Tsuyataro'). Two experiments were carried out in greenhouse, each one with a nematode specie. Each plot consisted of one plant per pot containing 2 liters of autoclaved soil. Nine days after the seedlings transplantation, each plant was inoculated with 5,000 eggs and second-stage juveniles (initial population - Pi) of M. javanica or M. incognita race 2. 'Rutgers' tomatoes were used as a standard for inoculum viability in both experiments. The experimental design was completely randomized with five replicates per treatment. Sixty days after inoculated, each plant was evaluated, when root fresh weight, total number of nematodes in the soil and in the roots (final population - Pf), nematodes number per gram of root and the reproduction factor of both Meloidogyne species (FR=Pf/Pi) were determined. All rootstocks and cucumber hybrids allowed the M. javanica and M. incognita race 2 multiplication, but, generally, reproduction factor values were greater in cucumbers than in rootstocks.

Silvia Renata S, Wilcken; Juliana MO, Rosa; Andréa RO, Higuti; Maria José de M, Garcia; Antonio Ismael Inácio, Cardoso.

256

Reprodução de Meloidogyne spp. em porta-enxertos e híbridos de pepino Reproduction of Meloidogyne spp. in rootstocks and cucumber hybrids  

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Full Text Available A enxertia é uma técnica alternativa frequentemente recomendada para a cultura do pepino em áreas infestadas com nematóides das galhas. O presente trabalho teve como objetivo determinar o fator de reprodução de Meloidogyne javanica e de Meloidogyne incognita raça 2 em seis porta-enxertos para pepino (abóbora 'Menina Brasileira', moranga 'Exposição', 'Shelper', 'Tetsukabuto', 'B8-A Tetsukabuto' e 'Excite Ikki' e quatro híbridos de pepino (Cucumis sativus tipo japonês ('Yoshinari', 'Kouki', 'Taisho' e 'Tsuyataro'. Foram conduzidos dois experimentos em casa-de-vegetação, um com cada espécie do nematóide, sendo cada parcela constituída de uma planta mantida em vaso contendo 2 litros de solo autoclavado. Nove dias após transplante, cada planta foi inoculada com 5.000 ovos e juvenis de segundo estádio (população inicial - Pi de M. javanica ou M. incognita raça 2. Tomateiros 'Rutgers' foram utilizados como padrão de viabilidade do inóculo, em ambos os experimentos. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado com cinco repetições por tratamento. Sessenta dias após a inoculação, cada planta foi avaliada, quanto ao peso fresco da raiz, número total de nematóides presentes no solo e na raiz (população final - Pf, número de nematóides/g de raiz e fator de reprodução de ambas as espécies de Meloidogyne (FR=Pf/Pi. Todos os porta-enxertos e híbridos de pepino testados apresentaram fatores de reprodução superiores a um, proporcionando a multiplicação de M. javanica e de M. incognita raça 2, porém, os valores nos híbridos de pepino foram superiores aos dos porta-enxertos.Grafting is an alternative technique often recommended for the cucumber crop in root-knot nematodes infested areas. This study aimed to determine the reproduction factor of Meloidogyne javanica and M. incognita race 2 on six rootstocks for cucumber (squash 'Menina Brasileira, pumpkim 'Exposição', 'Shelper', 'Tetsukabuto', 'B8-A Tetsukabuto' and 'Excite Ikki' and four cucumber (Cucumis sativus Japanese type hybrids of ('Yoshinari', 'Kouki', 'Taisho' and 'Tsuyataro'. Two experiments were carried out in greenhouse, each one with a nematode specie. Each plot consisted of one plant per pot containing 2 liters of autoclaved soil. Nine days after the seedlings transplantation, each plant was inoculated with 5,000 eggs and second-stage juveniles (initial population - Pi of M. javanica or M. incognita race 2. 'Rutgers' tomatoes were used as a standard for inoculum viability in both experiments. The experimental design was completely randomized with five replicates per treatment. Sixty days after inoculated, each plant was evaluated, when root fresh weight, total number of nematodes in the soil and in the roots (final population - Pf, nematodes number per gram of root and the reproduction factor of both Meloidogyne species (FR=Pf/Pi were determined. All rootstocks and cucumber hybrids allowed the M. javanica and M. incognita race 2 multiplication, but, generally, reproduction factor values were greater in cucumbers than in rootstocks.

Silvia Renata S Wilcken

2010-03-01

257

Reprodução de Meloidogyne spp. em porta-enxertos e híbridos de pepino / Reproduction of Meloidogyne spp. in rootstocks and cucumber hybrids  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese A enxertia é uma técnica alternativa frequentemente recomendada para a cultura do pepino em áreas infestadas com nematóides das galhas. O presente trabalho teve como objetivo determinar o fator de reprodução de Meloidogyne javanica e de Meloidogyne incognita raça 2 em seis porta-enxertos para pepino [...] (abóbora 'Menina Brasileira', moranga 'Exposição', 'Shelper', 'Tetsukabuto', 'B8-A Tetsukabuto' e 'Excite Ikki') e quatro híbridos de pepino (Cucumis sativus) tipo japonês ('Yoshinari', 'Kouki', 'Taisho' e 'Tsuyataro'). Foram conduzidos dois experimentos em casa-de-vegetação, um com cada espécie do nematóide, sendo cada parcela constituída de uma planta mantida em vaso contendo 2 litros de solo autoclavado. Nove dias após transplante, cada planta foi inoculada com 5.000 ovos e juvenis de segundo estádio (população inicial - Pi) de M. javanica ou M. incognita raça 2. Tomateiros 'Rutgers' foram utilizados como padrão de viabilidade do inóculo, em ambos os experimentos. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado com cinco repetições por tratamento. Sessenta dias após a inoculação, cada planta foi avaliada, quanto ao peso fresco da raiz, número total de nematóides presentes no solo e na raiz (população final - Pf), número de nematóides/g de raiz e fator de reprodução de ambas as espécies de Meloidogyne (FR=Pf/Pi). Todos os porta-enxertos e híbridos de pepino testados apresentaram fatores de reprodução superiores a um, proporcionando a multiplicação de M. javanica e de M. incognita raça 2, porém, os valores nos híbridos de pepino foram superiores aos dos porta-enxertos. Abstract in english Grafting is an alternative technique often recommended for the cucumber crop in root-knot nematodes infested areas. This study aimed to determine the reproduction factor of Meloidogyne javanica and M. incognita race 2 on six rootstocks for cucumber (squash 'Menina Brasileira, pumpkim 'Exposição', 'S [...] helper', 'Tetsukabuto', 'B8-A Tetsukabuto' and 'Excite Ikki') and four cucumber (Cucumis sativus) Japanese type hybrids of ('Yoshinari', 'Kouki', 'Taisho' and 'Tsuyataro'). Two experiments were carried out in greenhouse, each one with a nematode specie. Each plot consisted of one plant per pot containing 2 liters of autoclaved soil. Nine days after the seedlings transplantation, each plant was inoculated with 5,000 eggs and second-stage juveniles (initial population - Pi) of M. javanica or M. incognita race 2. 'Rutgers' tomatoes were used as a standard for inoculum viability in both experiments. The experimental design was completely randomized with five replicates per treatment. Sixty days after inoculated, each plant was evaluated, when root fresh weight, total number of nematodes in the soil and in the roots (final population - Pf), nematodes number per gram of root and the reproduction factor of both Meloidogyne species (FR=Pf/Pi) were determined. All rootstocks and cucumber hybrids allowed the M. javanica and M. incognita race 2 multiplication, but, generally, reproduction factor values were greater in cucumbers than in rootstocks.

Silvia Renata S, Wilcken; Juliana MO, Rosa; Andréa RO, Higuti; Maria José de M, Garcia; Antonio Ismael Inácio, Cardoso.

2010-03-01

258

Native-plant hosts of Meloidogyne spp. from Western Paraná, Brazil  

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Full Text Available The present study was focused on the parasitism of Meloidogyne species on the roots of native nursery plants from the Atlantic forest. Native plants were selected from a commercial nursery in Western Paraná, searching for the natural infection of Meloidogyne. Also, the seeds of native plants were cultivated in sterile soil and inoculated with M. incognita. In both the experiments, the number of galls and number of eggs and J2 per root, allied to the reproduction factor of M. incognita on each inoculated plant were assessed. Natural infection by M. javanica was found on Cordia ecalyculata, Citharexyllum myrianthum and Aspidosperma subincanum and by M. incognita on Croton urucurana, Lonchocarpus muehlbergianus, Tabebuia impetiginosa and T. serratifolia. Meloidogyne incognita induced galls formation on Genipa americana, Schinus terebinthifolius and Rollinia mucosa after inoculation, which suggested that those plants could host this nematode in natural biomes. Nursery soil should be disinfested before seeding the native forest plants for reforestation purposes

Vanessa A. Antes

2012-04-01

259

DNA characterization and relationship of the genomes of some Meloidogyne species  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Cesium trifluoroacetate (CsTFA) ultracentrifugation method of DNA isolation proved more satisfactory than phenol extraction. The base composition (%GC) of the DNAs of M. incognita, M. javanica, M. arenaria, and M. hapla, as determined by thermal denaturation tests ranged from 31.0 to 32.6% for all the four species. Similarly, the thermal stability covered a narrow range from 82.97 to 83.630C. The relationship of the genomes of twelve populations representing the four Meloidogyne species was measured by binding hybridized DNA by hydroxyapatite. M. incognita, M. javanica, and M. arenaria were found to be closely related to each other, with 80 to 100% DNA homology to labeled 32P-DNA probes prepared from M. incognita and M. arenaria. M. hapla showed wide divergence with 24.5 to 33.5% DNA homology to the probes. One half of the populations showed a slightly higher percent DNA homology with the non-repetitive sequences of the probes, whereas, the other half with the repetitive fraction. The thermal stabilities of the reassociated DNAs indicated differences of 0 to 2.5% in nucleotide base pairs between the populations and the probes

260

Nematode Population Densities and Yield of Sweet Potato and Onion as Affected by Nematicides and Time of Application  

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Nematode population densities and yield of sweet potato and onion as affected by nematicides and time of application were determined in a 3-year test. Population densities of Meloidogyne incognita race 1 in untreated plots of sweet potato increased each year, but Helicotylenchus dihystera and Criconemella ornata did not. Ethoprop (6.8 kg a.i./ha) incorporated broadcast in the top 15-cm soil layer each spring before planting sweet potato reduced population densities of nematodes in the soil an...

Hall, M. R.; Johnson, A. W.; Smittle, D. A.

1988-01-01

 
 
 
 
261

Major emerging problems with minor meloidogyne species.  

Science.gov (United States)

Root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp.) represent one of the most polyphagous genera of plant-parasitic nematodes. To date, close to 100 valid species are recognized. In contrast to the size of the genus, the majority of past research focused on a small number of species, i.e., the so-called 'major' species M. arenaria, M. hapla, M. incognita, and M. javanica. This review highlights recent work aimed at 'minor' root-knot nematodes: M. chitwoodi, M. fallax, M. minor, M. enterolobii (=M. mayaguensis), M. exigua, and M. paranaensis. Some of these species have been described only recently. After a brief profile of each species, identification methods and their application in Meloidogyne spp. are summarized. Intraspecific variation and its impact on plant resistance breeding are discussed and interactions between M. enterolobii and Fusarium solani are highlighted as an example of synergistic interactions with other plant pathogens. Future research on Meloidogyne spp. is not only shaped by recent breakthroughs such as completing the genome sequences of M. hapla and M. incognita, but is also influenced by changes in agriculture. Taken together, the aim of this review is to draw attention to previously neglected and newly described Meloidogyne spp. that are developing into major problems for agriculture in tropical and temperate climates. PMID:23777404

Elling, Axel A

2013-11-01

262

Resistance to Meloidogyne spp. in Allohexaploid Wheat Derived from Triticum turgidum and Aegilops squarrosa  

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Expression of resistance to Meloidogyne incognita and M. javanica from Aegilops squarrosa was studied in a synthetic allohexaploid produced from Triticum turgidum var. durum cv. Produra and Ae. squarrosa G 3489. The reproductive rate of different races of M. incognita and M. javanica, expressed in eggs per gram of fresh root, was low (P < 0.05) on the synthetic allohexaploid and the resistant parent, Ae. squarrosa G 3489, compared with different bread and durum wheat cultivars. Reproduction o...

Kaloshian, I.; Roberts, P. A.; Thomason, I. J.

1989-01-01

263

Application of Isoelectric Focusing to the Taxonomic Identification of Meloidogyne spp.  

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Meloidogyne incognita, M. arenaria, M. hapla, and M. javanica were distinguishable from each other by isoelectric focusing (IEF) of nematode egg proteins. Proteins extracted from larvae and adults of Hoplolaimus columbus and from eggs of Heterodera glycines had distinctive profiles, also. Protein profiles from eggs, preparasitic larvae and egg-laying adults of M. incognita showed differences. It was necessary to compare samples run at the same time to ensure reliability.

Lawson, Edgar C.; Carter, George E.; Lewis, Stephen A.

1984-01-01

264

Pathogenicity of Meloidogyne spp. (Tylenchida: Meloidogynidae) from Brazil and Central America on two genotypes of Coffea arabica / Patogenicidade de Meloidogyne spp. (Tylenchida: Meloidogynidae) originárias do Brasil e América Central a dois genótipos de Coffea arabica  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Entre as espécies de nematóides de galhas mais danosas ao cafeeiro, Meloidogyne exigua, M. paranaensis, M. incognita, M. arabicida, M. izalcoensis e M. mayaguensis são as que causam os maiores problemas em áreas de cultivo de café no Brasil e países da América Latina. A reação de resistência a essas [...] seis espécies foi estudada na progênie H 419-5-4-5-2, obtida do cruzamento artificial entre a cultivar Catuaí Amarelo IAC 30 com a seleção de Híbrido de Timor UFV 445-46. As genótipos foram inoculados com 6.000 ovos/planta e o experimento foi conduzido no delineamento inteiramente ao acaso, com 10 repetições para cada espécie de Meloidogyne e cada genótipo de cafeeiro. A avaliação foi realizada 240 dias após a inoculação. O Fator de Reprodução (FR= População Final/6000) foi usado como variável para se avaliar a resistência. M. exigua causou galhas arredondadas típicas, sobretudo nas raízes novas. M. incognita, M. paranaensis e M. arabicida causaram engrossamento nas raízes, descolamento cortical e rachaduras em várias partes do sistema radicular.Nenhum sintoma foi observado para M. mayaguensis. M. izalcoensis causou galhas pequenas, a maioria na extremidade das raízes novas. As massas de ovos foram produzidas externamente e em grande número. O genótipo IAC 144 (testemunha) foi suscetível (FR>1.0) a todas espécies de Meloidogyne, exceto a M. mayaguensis. Esse isolado mostrou-se um parasita fraco para o cafeeiro. A progênie H 419-5-4-5-2 foi resistente a M. exigua e M. mayaguensis (FR Abstract in english Among the most damaging root-knot nematode species, Meloidogyne exigua, M. paranaensis, M. incognita, M. arabicida, M. izalcoensis and M. mayaguensis are major agronomic constraints in coffee-growing areas in Brazil and other Latin American countries. The resistance reaction to those six species was [...] studied for the H 419-5-4-5-2 progeny, derived from the artificial hybridization between Catuaí Amarelo 'IAC 30' x Timor Hybrid UFV 445-46 selection. The Catuaí Vermelho IAC 144 genotype was used as susceptibility control for Meloidogyne spp. The genotypes were inoculated with 6,000 eggs/plant and the experiment was set up in a completely randomized design, replicated 10 times for each Meloidogyne species and genotype. The evaluation was performed at 240 days after inoculation and the reproduction factor (RF= Final population/6000) was used as the variable to evaluate resistance. M. exigua caused typical rounded galls mostly on new roots, and egg-masses were produced mostly in the cortex under the root epidermis. M. incognita, M. paranaensis and M. arabicida caused swollen roots, peeling and cracking of cortical root tissue. No symptoms were observed for M. mayaguensis. M. izalcoensis induced very small galls, mostly on the extremity of new roots. Egg-masses were produced outside the roots in large quantities. The genotype IAC 144 was susceptible (FR>1.0) to all Meloidogyne spp. studied, except to M. mayaguensis. The nematode isolate used in this experiment seems to be a weak parasite for coffee. The H 419-5-4-5-2 progeny was resistant to M. exigua (FR

Regina M.D.G., Carneiro; Luiz F.G. de, Mesquita; Wallace, Gonçalves; Antônio A., Pereira.

2008-08-01

265

Identification of Meloidogyne javanica Using Morphological and Morphometerical Characters and Species Specific Primers  

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Full Text Available Root knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp. cause yield loss in all countries, of which, M. javanica, is the most widespread species in Iran. In order to identify M. javanica, 100 infected root and soil samples of root knot nematode were collected from different regions of Kerman province. After purification of populations and identification of M. javanica based on morphological and morphometerical characters of females and second stage juveniles (J2, total DNA was extracted from eggs, J2 and female adults. Specific 670 and 1600 bp bands were amplified in all M. javanica populations using species-specific primer pairs including OPARjav / OPAFjav and Mjavf / Mjavr These specific bands could not be amplified in other species such as M. incognita and M. arenaria. It seems that, application of these species specific primers in comparison with morphological characters would be more applicable, leading to easier identification of M. javanica.

E Mahdikhani

2009-04-01

266

Resistencia en pimiento a nematodos formadores de nódulos del género Meloidogyne Göldi  

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Se hace un estudio sobre la virulencia de diferentes poblaciones de Meloidogyne arenaria, M. hapla, M. incognita y M. javanica. Las poblaciones de Meloidogyne han sido recogidas en las regiones hortícolas más representativas de España y Uruguay, elaborando un biotest para la caracterización de su virulencia. Se encuentra que las poblaciones de M. arenaria raza 2 y M. javanica no parasitan a los cultivares de pimiento estudiados, por el contrario las poblaciones de M. hapla ...

Lo?pez-pe?rez, J. A.; Robertson, L.; Bello, A.; Escuer, M.; Di?ez-rojo, M. A.; Piedra Buena, A.; Ros, C.; Marti?nez, C.

2004-01-01

267

Evaluation of Cover Crops with Potential for Use in Anaerobic Soil Disinfestation (ASD) for Susceptibility to Three Species of Meloidogyne.  

Science.gov (United States)

Several cover crops with potential for use in tropical and subtropical regions were assessed for susceptibility to three common species of root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne arenaria, M. incognita, and M. javanica. Crops were selected based on potential use as organic amendments in anaerobic soil disinfestation (ASD) applications. Nematode juvenile (J2) numbers in soil and roots, egg production, and host plant root galling were evaluated on arugula (Eruca sativa, cv. Nemat), cowpea (Vigna unguiculata, cv. Iron & Clay), jack bean (Canavalia ensiformis, cv. Comum), two commercial mixtures of Indian mustard and white mustard (Brassica juncea & Sinapis alba, mixtures Caliente 61 and Caliente 99), pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum, cv. Tifleaf III), sorghum-sudangrass hybrid (Sorghum bicolor × S. bicolor var. sudanense, cv. Sugar Grazer II), and three cultivars of sunflower (Helianthus annuus, cvs. 545A, Nusun 660CL, and Nusun 5672). Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum, cv. Rutgers) was included in all trials as a susceptible host to all three nematode species. The majority of cover crops tested were less susceptible than tomato to M. arenaria, with the exception of jack bean. Sunflower cv. Nusun 5672 had fewer M. arenaria J2 isolated from roots than the other sunflower cultivars, less galling than tomato, and fewer eggs than tomato and sunflower cv. 545A. Several cover crops did not support high populations of M. incognita in roots or exhibit significant galling, although high numbers of M. incognita J2 were isolated from the soil. Arugula, cowpea, and mustard mixture Caliente 99 did not support M. incognita in soil or roots. Jack bean and all three cultivars of sunflower were highly susceptible to M. javanica, and all sunflower cultivars had high numbers of eggs isolated from roots. Sunflower, jack bean, and both mustard mixtures exhibited significant galling in response to M. javanica. Arugula, cowpea, and sorghum-sudangrass consistently had low numbers of all three Meloidogyne species associated with roots and are good selections for use in ASD for root-knot nematode control. The remainder of crops tested had significant levels of galling, J2, and eggs associated with roots, which varied among the Meloidogyne species tested. PMID:24379486

Kokalis-Burelle, Nancy; Butler, David M; Rosskopf, Erin N

2013-12-01

268

Bahiagrass for the Management of Meloidogyne arenaria in Peanut  

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Bahiagrass (Paspalum notatum) cultivars Argentine, Pensacola, and Tifton-9 were non-hosts for Meloidogyne arenaria, M. incognita, and Heterodera glycines in a greenhouse experiment using field soil infested with these nematodes. The effect of Pensacola bahiagrass in rotation with peanut (Arachis hypogaea) on M. arenaria was studied in 1986 and 1987 in a field at the Wiregrass substation near Headland, Alabama. Each year soil densities of second-stage juveniles of M. arenaria, determined near ...

Rodri?guez-ka?bana, R.; Weaver, C. F.; Robertson, D. G.; Ivey, H.

1988-01-01

269

Efeito de isolados de Paecilomyces lilacinus no desenvolvimento de cafezais e na população de Meloidogyne paranaensis / Effect of isolates of Paecilomyces lilacinus on the development of coffee plantations and on the population of Meloidogyne paranaensis  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Com a finalidade de diminuir as perdas causadas pelos nematóides do gênero Meloidogyne (Goeldi, 1887) na cultura do cafeeiro, dentre as diversas medidas de manejo, o controle biológico com o fungo Paecilomyces lilacinus (Thom., 1910) Samson, 1974 se destaca como uma alternativa de controle vantajosa [...] , quer dos pontos de vista ecológico ou econômico. Assim, neste trabalho, objetivou-se avaliar a eficiência de 10 isolados de Paecilomyces lilacinus no controle de Meloidogyne paranaensis em cafeeiro (Coffea arabica L. cv. Icatú), em casa-de-vegetação. No experimento I, as mudas de cafeeiro foram transplantadas em solo onde foram, anteriormente, cultivados tomateiros para multiplicação de M. paranaensis mais 50 g de arroz colonizado com os 10 isolados. No segundo experimento, mudas de cafeeiro foram transplantadas para substrato solo e areia (1:1) juntamente com 50 g de arroz colonizado com os isolados. Em seguida, as mudas foram inoculadas com ± 5000 ovos de M. paranaensis. Nos dois experimentos, após 15 dias procedeu-se aplicação por cobertura de 50 g dos isolados. O delineamento foi inteiramente casualizado com 12 tratamentos. Após 90 dias, foram feitas as avaliações. Os isolados de P. lilacinus não afetaram o diâmetro do caule de cafeeiro. No experimento I, os isolados Pae 22, 24 e 28 promoveram o crescimento dos cafeeiros; todos os isolados reduziram a população de ovos no sistema radicular; e os isolados Pae 3 e 12 reduziram a população de J2 de M. paranaensis no solo. No experimento II, os isolados Pae 03, 10, 12 e 13 favoreceram o crescimento das plantas, mas reduziram o peso fresco do sistema radicular; todos os isolados reduziram a população de J2 no solo; e os isolados Pae 3, 10, 13, 18, 22 e 24 reduziram as malformações causadas por M. paranaensis nas raízes. Abstract in english In order to reduce the losses caused by nematodes of the genus Meloidogyne (Goeldi, 1887) in coffee plantation, among several management measures, biological control with the fungus Paecilomyces lilacinus (Thom., 1910) Samson, 1974 stands out as an advantageous alternative of control, from the ecolo [...] gical or economy points of view. Thus, the objective of this work was to evaluate ten isolates of Paecilomyces lilacinus in the control of Meloidogyne paranaensis in coffee trees (Coffea arabica L.) cv. Icatú, in greenhouse conditions. In the first experiment, the coffee seedlings were transplanted to substrate where tomato plants were previously cultivated, for M. paranaensis multiplication. The soil was mixed with 50 g rice colonized with ten isolates of P. lilacinus. In the second experiment, coffee seedlings were transplanted to substrate (1 sand: 1 dirt) with 50 g rice colonized with the isolates of P. lilacinus. Then, the seedlings were inoculated with suspension of ±5000 eggs of M. paranaensis. In the two experiments, a new application was made with 50 g of the isolates after fifteen days. The design was completely randomized with twelve treatments and ten replicates. After 90 they days were evaluated. The isolated of P. lilacinus did not affect the diameter of the coffee stalk. In the first experiment, the isolates Pae 22, 24, and 28 promoted the growth of the seedlings, all of the isolates reduced the population of eggs in the root system, and the isolates Pae 3 and 12 reduced the population of J2 of M. paranaensis in the soil. In the second experiment, the isolates Pae 3, 10, 12, and 13 favored the growth of the plants but reduced the weight of the fresh roots, all of the isolates reduced the population of J2 in the soil, and the isolates Pae 3, 10, 13, 18, 22, and 24 reduced the malformations caused by M. paranaensis roots.

Marina Capparelli, Cadioli; Débora Cristina, Santiago; Arian Derdote de, Oliveira; Vanessa dos Santos, Paes; Giovani de Oliveira, Arieira; Fernando Cesar, Baida.

270

Efeito de isolados de Paecilomyces lilacinus no desenvolvimento de cafezais e na população de Meloidogyne paranaensis Effect of isolates of Paecilomyces lilacinus on the development of coffee plantations and on the population of Meloidogyne paranaensis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Com a finalidade de diminuir as perdas causadas pelos nematóides do gênero Meloidogyne (Goeldi, 1887 na cultura do cafeeiro, dentre as diversas medidas de manejo, o controle biológico com o fungo Paecilomyces lilacinus (Thom., 1910 Samson, 1974 se destaca como uma alternativa de controle vantajosa, quer dos pontos de vista ecológico ou econômico. Assim, neste trabalho, objetivou-se avaliar a eficiência de 10 isolados de Paecilomyces lilacinus no controle de Meloidogyne paranaensis em cafeeiro (Coffea arabica L. cv. Icatú, em casa-de-vegetação. No experimento I, as mudas de cafeeiro foram transplantadas em solo onde foram, anteriormente, cultivados tomateiros para multiplicação de M. paranaensis mais 50 g de arroz colonizado com os 10 isolados. No segundo experimento, mudas de cafeeiro foram transplantadas para substrato solo e areia (1:1 juntamente com 50 g de arroz colonizado com os isolados. Em seguida, as mudas foram inoculadas com ± 5000 ovos de M. paranaensis. Nos dois experimentos, após 15 dias procedeu-se aplicação por cobertura de 50 g dos isolados. O delineamento foi inteiramente casualizado com 12 tratamentos. Após 90 dias, foram feitas as avaliações. Os isolados de P. lilacinus não afetaram o diâmetro do caule de cafeeiro. No experimento I, os isolados Pae 22, 24 e 28 promoveram o crescimento dos cafeeiros; todos os isolados reduziram a população de ovos no sistema radicular; e os isolados Pae 3 e 12 reduziram a população de J2 de M. paranaensis no solo. No experimento II, os isolados Pae 03, 10, 12 e 13 favoreceram o crescimento das plantas, mas reduziram o peso fresco do sistema radicular; todos os isolados reduziram a população de J2 no solo; e os isolados Pae 3, 10, 13, 18, 22 e 24 reduziram as malformações causadas por M. paranaensis nas raízes.In order to reduce the losses caused by nematodes of the genus Meloidogyne (Goeldi, 1887 in coffee plantation, among several management measures, biological control with the fungus Paecilomyces lilacinus (Thom., 1910 Samson, 1974 stands out as an advantageous alternative of control, from the ecological or economy points of view. Thus, the objective of this work was to evaluate ten isolates of Paecilomyces lilacinus in the control of Meloidogyne paranaensis in coffee trees (Coffea arabica L. cv. Icatú, in greenhouse conditions. In the first experiment, the coffee seedlings were transplanted to substrate where tomato plants were previously cultivated, for M. paranaensis multiplication. The soil was mixed with 50 g rice colonized with ten isolates of P. lilacinus. In the second experiment, coffee seedlings were transplanted to substrate (1 sand: 1 dirt with 50 g rice colonized with the isolates of P. lilacinus. Then, the seedlings were inoculated with suspension of ±5000 eggs of M. paranaensis. In the two experiments, a new application was made with 50 g of the isolates after fifteen days. The design was completely randomized with twelve treatments and ten replicates. After 90 they days were evaluated. The isolated of P. lilacinus did not affect the diameter of the coffee stalk. In the first experiment, the isolates Pae 22, 24, and 28 promoted the growth of the seedlings, all of the isolates reduced the population of eggs in the root system, and the isolates Pae 3 and 12 reduced the population of J2 of M. paranaensis in the soil. In the second experiment, the isolates Pae 3, 10, 12, and 13 favored the growth of the plants but reduced the weight of the fresh roots, all of the isolates reduced the population of J2 in the soil, and the isolates Pae 3, 10, 13, 18, 22, and 24 reduced the malformations caused by M. paranaensis roots.

Marina Capparelli Cadioli

2009-06-01

271

Population dynamics of plant nematodes in cultivated soil: length of rotation in newly cleared and old agricultural land.  

Science.gov (United States)

During a 6-year study of 1-, 2-, and 3-year crop rotations, population densities of Pratylenchus brachyurus, Trichodorus christiei, and Meloidogyne incognita were significantly affected by the choice of crops but not by length of crop rotation. The density of P. brachyurus and T. christiei increased rapidly on milo (Sorghum vulgate). In addition, populations of P. brachyurus increased significantly in cropping systems that involved crotalaria (C. rnucronata), millet (Setaria italica), and sudangrass (Sorghum sudanense). Lowest numbers of P. brachyurus occurred where okra (Hibiscus esculentus) was grown or where land was fallow. The largest increase in populations of T. christiei occurred in cropping systems that involved millet, sudangrass, and okra whereas the smallest increase occurred in cropping systems that involved crotalaria or fallow. A winter cover of rye (Secale cereale) had no distinguishable effect on population densities of P. brachyurus or T. christiei. Meloidogyne incognita was detected during the fourth year in both newly cleared and old agricultural land when okra was included in the cropping system. Detectable populations of M. incognita did not develop in any of the other cropping systems. Yields of tomato transplants were higher on the newly cleared land than on the old land. Highest yields were obtained when crotalaria was included in the cropping system. Lowest yields were obtained when milo, or fallow were included in the cropping system. Length of rotation had no distinguishable effect on yields of tomato transplants. PMID:19319315

Good, J M; Murphy, W S; Brodie, B B

1973-04-01

272

SINTOMATOLOGÍA Y ESPECIES DE Meloidogyne ASOCIADAS A VID (Vitis vinifera L. cv. Aramond) EN GÜIRA DE MELENA, ARTEMISA. (Resultados preliminares) / SYMPTOMATOLOGY AND SPECIES OF Meloidogyne ASSOCIATED WITH GRAPEVINE (Vitis vinifera L. cv. Aramond) IN GÜIRA DE MELENA, Artemisa. (Preliminary results)  

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Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Un viñedo (Vitis vinifera L. cv. Aramond) de 21 años de plantado mostraba síntomas semejantes a los producidos por la presencia de nematodos formadores de agallas (Meloidogyne spp.), así como mermas en los rendimientos. En visita realizada a la plantación, se constató la existencia de áreas con plan [...] tas cloróticas y con diversos grados de defoliación. Las bases de los tallos mostraban rajaduras longitudinales y ensanchamientos en la región que se encontraba por encima de la superficie del suelo. Al examinar las raíces se encontraron agallas de diversos tamaños y la pérdida de volúmenes importantes de raíces secundarias. En las agallas, se encontraron hembras adultas de Meloidogyne con ootecas desarrolladas, y el estudio de los patrones perineales de estas hembras evidenció la presencia de especímenes de tres especies (Meloidogyne arenaria (Neal) Chitwood, Meloidogyne incognita (Kofoid & White) Chitwood y Meloidogyne javanica (Trueb) Chitwood), mientras otros fueron ubicados en la categoría de Meloidogyne spp., hasta completar los estudios moleculares. Del total de especímenes examinados, M. arenaria mostró ser componente mayoritario de la comunidad con un 53%, seguido de M. incognita (21%) y M. javanica (4%). La presencia de M. arenaria en vid, representa el primer informe de la especie en este cultivo en Cuba y constituye foco de atención para el servicio fitosanitario, por ser una de las plagas más importante para la vid a nivel mundial. Abstract in english A 21 year old vineyard (Vitis vinifera L. cv. Aramond) showed symptoms similar to those caused by the root knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp.) as well as decreases in yield. In a visit to the area, several chlorotic plants with different degree of defoliation were observed. The stem bases above the so [...] il surface were swollen and they showed longitudinal cracks. Galls of different sizes were observed on the roots with significant losses of secondary roots. Adult females of Meloidogyne with well developed egg masses were found inside the galls. The study of the perineal patterns of these females showed the presence of specimens belonging to three species (Meloidogyne arenaria (Neal) Chitwood, Meloidogoyne incognita (Kofoid & White) Chitwood and Meloidogyne javanica (Trueb) Chitwood), as well as others that were grouped as Meloidogyne spp. until completing the molecular studies of all the specimens observed. M. arenaria showed to be the majority component of the community with 53%, followed by M. incognita and M. javanica with 21% and 4% respectively. The presence of M. arenaria in grapevine is the first report of this specie in the crop in Cuba and constitutes a focus of attention for the plant protection service because it is one of the most important pests in grapevine in the world.

Mayra G, Rodríguez; Dainé, Hernández; R, Enrique; Lucila, Gómez; Luisa, Díaz-Viruliche; Belkis, Peteira.

2011-08-01

273

Greenhouse Studies on the Effect of Marigolds (Tagetes spp.) on Four Meloidogyne Species.  

Science.gov (United States)

The effects of preplanted marigold on tomato root galling and multiplication of Meloidogyne incognita, M. javanica, M. arenaria, and M. hapla were studied. Marigold cultivars of Tagetes patula, T. erecta, T. signata, and a Tagetes hybrid all reduced galling and numbers of second-stage juveniles in subsequent tomato compared to the tomato-tomato control. All four Meloidogyne spp. reproduced on T. signata 'Tangerine Gem'. Several cultivars of T. patula and T. erecta suppressed galling and reproduction of Meloidogyne spp. on tomato to levels lower than or comparable to a fallow control. Phytotoxic effects of marigold on tomato were not observed. Several of the tested marigold cultivars are ready for full-scale field evaluation against Meloidogyne spp. PMID:19270876

Ploeg, A T

1999-03-01

274

Mentha x piperita, Mentha spicata and Effects of Their Essential Oils on Meloidogyne in Soil  

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Six peppermint (Mentha x piperita) and six spearmint (M. spicata) PI accessions were inoculated with Meloidogyne incognita race 3 and M. arenaria race 2, under greenhouse conditions. No galls formed on roots of any of the plants inoculated with 1,800 eggs/pot. Fewer than two galls per root system formed on three PI accessions of peppermint inoculated with M. incognita at 5,400 eggs/pot. Only one peppermint accession developed galls when inoculated with M. arenaria, whereas none of the spearmi...

Walker, J. T.; Melin, J. B.

1996-01-01

275

First report of the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne ethiopica on tomato in Slovenia  

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The root-knot nematode Meloidogyne ethiopica Whitehead originally described from Tanzania is also distributed in South Africa, Zimbabwe, and Ethiopia (3). Although this species is a relatively unknown root-knot nematode, M. ethiopica parasitizes several economical important crops, such as tomato, cowpea, bean, cabbage, pepper, pumpkin, tobacco, lettuce, and soybean (4). This species can be morphologically confused with M. incognita (Kofoid & White), and therefore, is probably easily overlooke...

Sirca, S.; Urek, G.; Karssen, G.

2004-01-01

276

Response of some common annual bedding plants to three species of meloidogyne.  

Science.gov (United States)

Twelve ornamental bedding plant cultivars were grown in soil infested with isolates of Meloidogyne incognita race 1, M. javanica, or M. arenaria race 1 in a series of tests in containers in a growth room. Root galling (0-5 scale) and eggs/plant were evaluated 8-10 weeks after soil infestation and seedling transplantation. Snapdragon, Antirrhinum majus cv. First Ladies, was extensively galled and highly susceptible (mean gall rating >/=4.2 and >/=14,500 eggs/plant), and Celosia argentea cv. Century Mix and Coleus blumei cv. Rainbow were susceptible (>1,500 eggs/plant) to all three Meloidogyne isolates. Response of Petunia x hybrida varied with cultivar and nematode isolate. Little or no galling or egg production from any Meloidogyne isolate was observed on Ageratum houstonianum cv. Blue Mink, Lobularia maritima cv. Rosie O'Day, or Tagetes patula cv. Dwarf Primrose. Galling was slight (mean rating 4.0 and >/=7,900 eggs/plant) by M. javanica and M. arenaria but was nearly free of galling from M. incognita. Zinna elegans cv. Scarlet was nearly free of galling from M. incognita and M. arenaria but was susceptible (mean gall rating = 2.9; 3,400 eggs/plant) to M. javanica. PMID:19279963

McSorley, R; Frederick, J J

1994-12-01

277

Host plants of root-knot nematodes / Algumas plantas hospedeiras de nematóides do gênero Meloidogyne  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Coletaram-se plantas do gênero Coffea e de diversas ervas daninhas, as quais foram examinadas em laboratório visando verificar a ocorrência de nematóides do gênero Meloidogyne Goeldi, 1887. As plantas parasitadas por M. exigua, M. incognita, M. arenaria e por uma espécie não identificada, referida c [...] omo Meloidogyne sp., são. apresentadas. Indicam-se os hospedeiros novos de alguns dos nematóides mencionados e confirma-se o parasitismo de outras plantas, nas condições estudadas. Abstract in english Root-knot nematodes were found attacking Coffea spp. and also roots of a few weed species usually found in the coffee orchards in São Paulo. C. arabica cv. Catuaí, C. arabica cv. Mundo Novo, Timor Hybrid and a few plants of C. racemosa showed to be susceptible to Meloidogyne exigua. Roots of Ageratu [...] m conyzoides, Amaranthus viridis, Bidens pilosa, Coffea arabica cv. Mundo Novo, Coffea racemosa, Commelina virginica, Digitaria sanguinalis, Galinsoga parviflora, Gnaphalium spathulatum, Porophyllum ruderale, Portulaca oleracea, Pterocaulon virgatum and Solanum americanum were disfigured by M. incognita M. arenaria was found attacking roots of Eleusine indica and Gnaphalium spathulatum, and the presence of an unidentified Meloidogyne species was verified in roots of the following species: Vernonia ferruginea, C. arabica x C. canephora, Eupatorium pauciflorum, Coffea canephora cv. Kouillou, Coffea eugenioides, Coffea racemosa, Coffea stenophylla, Euphorbia pilullifera, Solanum americanum, Ageratum conyzoides, Phyllanthus corcovadensis, and Emilia sagittata.

Luiz Gonzaga E., Lordello; Luiz Carlos, Fazuoli; Condorcet, Aranha; Rubens R.A., Lordello.

278

Influence of Six Vegetable Cultivars on Reproduction of Meloidogyne javanica  

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Replicated field and greenhouse experiments were used to evaluate the effect of tomato, cabbage, cucumber, carrot, Amaranthus hybridus, and pepper on growth and fecundity of Meloidogyne spp., particularly M. javanica. In the field tests, tomato, cucumber, and carrot favored population increases of Meloidogyne spp., while Amaranthus, pepper, and cabbage limited them. Some cropping sequences that included crops from the latter group had a suppressive effect on population growth. Thus, of the 36...

Bafokuzara, N. D.

1983-01-01

279

Efecto de diferentes densidades poblacionales de Meloidogyne hapla sobre uchuva (Physalis peruviana L.) en invernadero / Effect of different population densities of Meloidogyne hapla on the cape gooseberry (Physalis peruviana L.) in greenhouse  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Este estudio se realizó en el Centro de Investigaciones y Asesorías Agroindustriales de la Universidad de Bogotá Jorge Tadeo Lozano, Chía (Cundinamarca), bajo condiciones de invernadero, durante diez meses de cultivo. Se evaluó el efecto de diferentes densidades poblacionales de Meloidogyne hapla (0 [...] , 50, 100, 200, 500 y 1.000 larvas J2/100 cc de suelo), sobre parámetros productivos de la uchuva: altura de las plantas, diámetro de tallo, peso fresco, peso seco y biomasa de follaje, peso fresco de raíces, índice de nodulación radicular y peso fresco de frutos. Se hizo análisis de varianza, pruebas de contrastes y prueba de Tukey (?=0,05), en un diseño completamente aleatorio, con seis tratamientos y cinco repeticiones, mediante el programa SAS v.8.0. El tratamiento de 500 larvas J2/100 cc suelo fue el que más afectó la altura de las plantas, el diámetro del tallo, la biomasa de follaje, el peso fresco de raíces y presentó el índice de nodulación radical más alto. No se encontraron diferencias significativas entre los tratamientos inoculados con M. hapla, para peso fresco, peso seco de follaje y peso fresco de frutos, ni para el número de larvas J2 en suelo y masas de huevos. Mediante la ecuación: Y = m + (1-m)Z P-T propuesta por Seinhorst (1965), se estableció un límite de tolerancia de 50 larvas J2 de M. hapla/100 cc suelo, para peso fresco de raíces y un límite de tolerancia de 450 larvas J2 de M. hapla/100 cc suelo, para biomasa de follaje. Abstract in english A trial was conducted at the Center of Investigations and Agroindustrial Accessory of the University Jorge Tadeo Lozano, Chía (Cundinamarca) under greenhouse condition during ten months of cultivation. The effect of different population densities of M. hapla (0, 50, 100, 200, 500 and 1,000 larvae J2 [...] /100 cc soil) on productive parameters of the cape gooseberry, such as plant height, stem diameter, fresh and dry weights of leaves, fresh weight of roots, root nodulation index and weight of fruits in four harvests were evaluated. A variance analysis, contrasts test and Tukey test, within a randomized design with six treatments, and five repetitions was done within SAS v.8.0 program. It was determined that a treatment 500 larvae J2/100 cc soil had the highest effect on the plant height, stem diameter, leaf biomass and fresh weight of roots, besides it showed the highest root nodulation index. There were no significant differences found among the treatments for fresh weight and dry weight of leaves and fruits weight. For J2 larvae’s number in soil and eggs mass, the differences among the treatments inoculated with M. hapla were not found. A tolerance limit of 50 larvas J2/l00 cc soil was derived from fitting the data of root fresh weight and a tolerance limit of 450 larvas J2/l00 cc soil from data of biomass using the equation Y=m+(1-m)Z P-T proposed by Seinhorst (1965).

Nancy Eunice, Niño; Germán, Arbeláez; Rafael, Navarro.

2008-04-30

280

Phylogenetic Analyses of Meloidogyne Small Subunit rDNA.  

Science.gov (United States)

Phylogenies were inferred from nearly complete small subunit (SSU) 18S rDNA sequences of 12 species of Meloidogyne and 4 outgroup taxa (Globodera pallida, Nacobbus abberans, Subanguina radicicola, and Zygotylenchus guevarai). Alignments were generated manually from a secondary structure model, and computationally using ClustalX and Treealign. Trees were constructed using distance, parsimony, and likelihood algorithms in PAUP* 4.0b4a. Obtained tree topologies were stable across algorithms and alignments, supporting 3 clades: clade I = [M. incognita (M. javanica, M. arenaria)]; clade II = M. duytsi and M. maritima in an unresolved trichotomy with (M. hapla, M. microtyla); and clade III = (M. exigua (M. graminicola, M. chitwoodi)). Monophyly of [(clade I, clade II) clade III] was given maximal bootstrap support (mbs). M. artiellia was always a sister taxon to this joint clade, while M. ichinohei was consistently placed with mbs as a basal taxon within the genus. Affinities with the outgroup taxa remain unclear, although G. pallida and S. radicicola were never placed as closest relatives of Meloidogyne. Our results show that SSU sequence data are useful in addressing deeper phylogeny within Meloidogyne, and that both M. ichinohei and M. artiellia are credible outgroups for phylogenetic analysis of speciations among the major species. PMID:19265950

De Ley, Irma Tandingan; De Ley, Paul; Vierstraete, Andy; Karssen, Gerrit; Moens, Maurice; Vanfleteren, Jacques

2002-12-01

 
 
 
 
281

Pathogenic Variability Among Isolates of Meloidogyne javanica on Capsicum annum  

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Meloidogyne javanica isolates were collected from nine districts of Uttar Pradesh. These isolates showed pathogenic variability when inoculated on the pepper cultivars California Wonder and Suryamukhi Green. Meloidogyne javanica that infected Suryamukhi Green but not California Wonder were designated as pepper race 1 and the populations that infected both the cultivars were designated pepper race 2. Race 1 was more frequent than race 2 in Almora, Pauri Garhwal, Basti, Gorakhpur, and Deoria, w...

Khan, B.; Khan, A. A.; Khan, M. R.

2003-01-01

282

Reproduction of Meloidogyne chitwoodi on Popcorn Cultivars  

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Popcorn cultivars were evaluated in field and greenhouse tests for resistance to the Columbia root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne chitwoodi, as potential resistant crops in potato rotations. A nematode reproductive factor (Rf) was calculated for each cultivar. Reproductive factor values also were compared on a relative basis as percentages of the Rf on a susceptible field corn standard, Pioneer 3578. Popcorn cultivars W206 and Robust 33-77 consistently supported low population densities of M. chi...

Cardwell, D. M.; Ingham, R. E.

1997-01-01

283

Occurrence of the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne arenaria on balm and in a mixed population with M. javanica on grapevine in Greece  

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Summary The root-knot nematode Meloidogyne arenaria was found in Greece infecting balm (Melissa officinalis L.) and grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.). The isolate from balm was M. arenaria while the one from grapevine was a mixture of M. arenaria and M. javanica (prevalent species). This is the first report of the M. arenaria species in the country in which identification was based on biochemical methods and its occurrence on balm is a new host record.

Karanastasi, E.; Conceic?a?o, I. Da; Santos, M. Dos; Tzortzakakis, E.; Abrantes, I. O.

2008-01-01

284

THE USE OF FUNGAL ENDOPHYTES Gliocladium spp. IN DIFFERENT CONCENTRATION TO CONTROL OF ROOT-KNOT NEMATODE Meloidogyne spp.  

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Root-knot nematodes Meloidogyne spp are serious pests of many cultivated crops around the word and is estimated economic losses around US $ 157 billion annually. The purpose of the present investigation was to see of efication of endophytic fungi Gliocladium spp.in different concentration towards root-knot nematode Meloidogyne spp. in greenhouse. All of the treatment concentration of endphytic fungi Gliocladium spp. in term of intensity damaged and population density of Meloidogyne-J2 stati...

Nur Amin

2014-01-01

285

IDENTIFICACIÓN DE GENES CANDIDATOS DE PATOGENICIDAD EN LA INTERACCIÓN DE LA CEPA CENICAFE 9501 CON EL NEMÁTODO DEL NUDO RADICAL Meloidogyne spp. IDENTIFICATION OF PATHOGENIC CANDIDATES GENES IN THE INTERACTION OF THE CENICAFE 9501 STRAIN WITH THE ROOT KNOT NEMATODE Meloidogyne spp.  

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En 1997 se registró por primera vez el aislamiento de un hongo Hyphomycete de suelos de Chinchiná (Caldas, Colombia) atacando huevos y otros estadios biológicos de las especies de nematodos fitoparásitos Meloidogyne incognita y M. javanica provenientes de lotes comerciales con café. Debido a la imposibilidad de clasificarlo taxonómicamente en los géneros actuales, este aislamiento se ha denominado temporalmente como CENICAFE 9501. Dado su potencial como biocontrolador, se propuso ident...

Nadya Lorena Cardona Bustos; Jhon Fredy Betancur Pérez; Luis Fernando Rivera Serna; Alvaro Gaitán Bustamante

2008-01-01

286

Resistência de porta-enxertos para pessegueiro e ameixeira aos nematóides causadores de galhas (Meloidogyne spp.) / Resistance of rootstock for peach tree and plum to root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp.)  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O trabalho foi realizado com o objetivo de comparar o comportamento de cinco diferentes porta-enxertos para frutas de caroço em frente a duas espécies de nematóides do gênero Meloidogyne (Meloidogyne javanica e Meloidogyne incognita). O cultivar GF 677 foi obtido a partir do cultivo in vitro e os de [...] mais porta-enxertos a partir de sementes. Aos dois meses, as plântulas foram repicadas e inoculadas com uma mistura de Meloidogyne javanica e M. incognita aos 30, 60 e 70 dias após o plantio em canteiros incorporando-se 0,2kg de solo altamente infestado com os nematóides ao redor de cada planta. Ao final do experimento, avaliaram-se o desenvolvimento das plantas e o grau de infecção de cada cultivar. O grau de resistência dos cultivares foi estimado a partir do índice de galhas, obtido através de uma escala de grau ou nota, a qual varia de 0 a 5, em função do número de galhas ou ootecas. Os resultados obtidos demonstraram que o cultivar Okinawa não apresentou galhas no sistema radicular e na análise de crescimento foi superior aos demais cultivares. Os cultivares R-15-2 e Aldrighi foram considerados resistentes aos fitonematóides por apresentarem pequeno número de galhas no sistema radicular. Já o cultivar GF 677 apresentou maior número de galhas no sistema radicular, chegando a 126 galhas/g de raiz. Abstract in english The work was carried out with the objective of comparing the response of five different stone fruit rootstocks to two nematode species (Meloidogyne javanica and Meloidogyne incognita). The cultivar GF677, which was obtained from in vitro cultivation and the others rootstocks, were obtained from seed [...] lings. Two month old plants were transplanted and inoculated with a mixture of both nematode species at 30, 60, 70 days after planting, by incorporating 0.2kg of highly infested soil around each cultivar. The development of the roststocks were evaluated at the end of the experiment. Number of galls, ranging from 0 to 5 was used to score the level of resistance of each cultivar. The results showed that cultivar Okinawa did not present any root galls and also had a superior growth than the other cultivars. The cultivars R-15-2 and Aldrighi presented small numbers of galls in the roots, they were considered resistant to nematodes. On the other hand, the cultivar GF677 presented the largest number of galls in the roots, achieving 126 galls/g of root.

José Carlos, Fachinello; Carlos Augusto Posser, Silva; Cesar, Sperandio; Alexandre Couto, Rodrigues; Eder Zarnott, Strelow.

287

Reação de porta-enxertos comerciais de tomateiro a Meloidogyne mayaguensis / Reaction of commercial tomato rootstocks plant to Meloidogyne mayaguensis  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O objetivo do presente trabalho foi verificar a resistência ao nematóide Meloidogyne mayaguensis em oito porta-enxertos de tomateiro considerados resistentes à Meloidogyne incognita, M. javanica e M. arenaria, comercializados no Brasil. Os porta-enxertos testados foram: 'Guardião', 'Helper-M', 'Anch [...] or-T', 'Dr. K', 'Kagemuscha', 'TMA 809', 'Magnet' e 'He-Man'. O experimento constou de 9 tratamentos (8 porta-enxertos e a cultivar Rutgers utilizada como padrão de suscetibilidade), com 6 repetições, sendo cada parcela constituída por 1 planta por vaso, mantidas em casa de vegetação. As plantas foram inoculadas com 5.000 ovos e eventuais juvenis infectantes de M. mayaguensis. O experimento seguiu o delineamento inteiramente casualizado. Aos 60 dias da inoculação procederam-se as avaliações, quando foram avaliados os índices de galhas e massas de ovos, número de nematóides no solo e na raiz, peso do sistema radicular e o fator de reprodução. Todos os porta-enxertos estudados demonstraram-se suscetíveis a M. mayaguensis. Abstract in english The objective of this research was to verify the resistance response of eight Brazilian commercial tomato rootstocks to the nematode Meloidogyne mayaguensis. The studied rootstocks were: 'Guardião', 'Helper-M', 'Anchor-T', 'Dr. K', 'Kagemuscha', 'TMA 809', 'Magnet' and 'He-Man'. The experiment consi [...] sted of 9 treatments (8 rootstocks and 'Rutgers' used as susceptible control), with 6 replication. Each plot was constituted by 1 plant per pot, maintained in green-house. The plants were inoculated with 5,000 eggs and second stage juvenile of M. mayaguensis. The experimental design was completely randomized. The evaluation was 60 days after inoculation, when the root weight, gall and egg mass index, nematode number in soil and in root and reproduction factor were evaluated. All studied rootstocks were susceptible to M. mayaguensis.

Rafael Ricardo, Cantu; Silvia Renata Siciliano, Wilcken; Juliana Magrinelli Osório, Rosa; Rumy, Goto.

2009-09-01

288

Reação de porta-enxertos comerciais de tomateiro a Meloidogyne mayaguensis Reaction of commercial tomato rootstocks plant to Meloidogyne mayaguensis  

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Full Text Available O objetivo do presente trabalho foi verificar a resistência ao nematóide Meloidogyne mayaguensis em oito porta-enxertos de tomateiro considerados resistentes à Meloidogyne incognita, M. javanica e M. arenaria, comercializados no Brasil. Os porta-enxertos testados foram: 'Guardião', 'Helper-M', 'Anchor-T', 'Dr. K', 'Kagemuscha', 'TMA 809', 'Magnet' e 'He-Man'. O experimento constou de 9 tratamentos (8 porta-enxertos e a cultivar Rutgers utilizada como padrão de suscetibilidade, com 6 repetições, sendo cada parcela constituída por 1 planta por vaso, mantidas em casa de vegetação. As plantas foram inoculadas com 5.000 ovos e eventuais juvenis infectantes de M. mayaguensis. O experimento seguiu o delineamento inteiramente casualizado. Aos 60 dias da inoculação procederam-se as avaliações, quando foram avaliados os índices de galhas e massas de ovos, número de nematóides no solo e na raiz, peso do sistema radicular e o fator de reprodução. Todos os porta-enxertos estudados demonstraram-se suscetíveis a M. mayaguensis.The objective of this research was to verify the resistance response of eight Brazilian commercial tomato rootstocks to the nematode Meloidogyne mayaguensis. The studied rootstocks were: 'Guardião', 'Helper-M', 'Anchor-T', 'Dr. K', 'Kagemuscha', 'TMA 809', 'Magnet' and 'He-Man'. The experiment consisted of 9 treatments (8 rootstocks and 'Rutgers' used as susceptible control, with 6 replication. Each plot was constituted by 1 plant per pot, maintained in green-house. The plants were inoculated with 5,000 eggs and second stage juvenile of M. mayaguensis. The experimental design was completely randomized. The evaluation was 60 days after inoculation, when the root weight, gall and egg mass index, nematode number in soil and in root and reproduction factor were evaluated. All studied rootstocks were susceptible to M. mayaguensis.

Rafael Ricardo Cantu

2009-09-01

289

Reação de porta-enxertos comerciais de tomateiro a Meloidogyne mayaguensis / Reaction of commercial tomato rootstocks plant to Meloidogyne mayaguensis  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O objetivo do presente trabalho foi verificar a resistência ao nematóide Meloidogyne mayaguensis em oito porta-enxertos de tomateiro considerados resistentes à Meloidogyne incognita, M. javanica e M. arenaria, comercializados no Brasil. Os porta-enxertos testados foram: 'Guardião', 'Helper-M', 'Anch [...] or-T', 'Dr. K', 'Kagemuscha', 'TMA 809', 'Magnet' e 'He-Man'. O experimento constou de 9 tratamentos (8 porta-enxertos e a cultivar Rutgers utilizada como padrão de suscetibilidade), com 6 repetições, sendo cada parcela constituída por 1 planta por vaso, mantidas em casa de vegetação. As plantas foram inoculadas com 5.000 ovos e eventuais juvenis infectantes de M. mayaguensis. O experimento seguiu o delineamento inteiramente casualizado. Aos 60 dias da inoculação procederam-se as avaliações, quando foram avaliados os índices de galhas e massas de ovos, número de nematóides no solo e na raiz, peso do sistema radicular e o fator de reprodução. Todos os porta-enxertos estudados demonstraram-se suscetíveis a M. mayaguensis. Abstract in english The objective of this research was to verify the resistance response of eight Brazilian commercial tomato rootstocks to the nematode Meloidogyne mayaguensis. The studied rootstocks were: 'Guardião', 'Helper-M', 'Anchor-T', 'Dr. K', 'Kagemuscha', 'TMA 809', 'Magnet' and 'He-Man'. The experiment consi [...] sted of 9 treatments (8 rootstocks and 'Rutgers' used as susceptible control), with 6 replication. Each plot was constituted by 1 plant per pot, maintained in green-house. The plants were inoculated with 5,000 eggs and second stage juvenile of M. mayaguensis. The experimental design was completely randomized. The evaluation was 60 days after inoculation, when the root weight, gall and egg mass index, nematode number in soil and in root and reproduction factor were evaluated. All studied rootstocks were susceptible to M. mayaguensis.

Rafael Ricardo, Cantu; Silvia Renata Siciliano, Wilcken; Juliana Magrinelli Osório, Rosa; Rumy, Goto.

290

Pathogenic Variability Among Isolates of Meloidogyne javanica on Capsicum annum.  

Science.gov (United States)

Meloidogyne javanica isolates were collected from nine districts of Uttar Pradesh. These isolates showed pathogenic variability when inoculated on the pepper cultivars California Wonder and Suryamukhi Green. Meloidogyne javanica that infected Suryamukhi Green but not California Wonder were designated as pepper race 1 and the populations that infected both the cultivars were designated pepper race 2. Race 1 was more frequent than race 2 in Almora, Pauri Garhwal, Basti, Gorakhpur, and Deoria, whereas race 2 was more frequent than race 1 in the Dehradun, Farrukhabad, Hardoi, and Sitapur districts. The overall frequencies were 70% and 30% for race 1 and race 2, respectively, in the study area. PMID:19262775

Khan, B; Khan, A A; Khan, M R

2003-12-01

291

Velvetbean and Bahiagrass as Rotation Crops for Management of Meloidogyne spp. and Heterodera glycines in Soybean  

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Soybean (Glycine max) yield often is limited by the phytoparasitic nematodes Meloidogyne spp. and Heterodera glycines in the southeastern United States. We studied the effects of rotation with bahiagrass (Paspalum notatum), velvetbean (Mucuna pruiens), or continuous soybean, aldicarb, and soybean cultivar on yield and population densities in two fields infested with a mixture of Meloidogyne spp. and H. glycines. Velvetbean and bahiagrass reduced population levels of both nematode species to n...

Weaver, D. B.; Rodri?guez-ka?bana, R.; Carden, E. L.

1998-01-01

292

Susceptibilidad de genotipos de Solanum spp. al nematodo causante del nudo radical Meloidogyne spp. (chitwood  

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Full Text Available

El cultivo del lulo (Solanum quitoense L. presenta una disminución en su productividad, debido al ataque de patógenos como el nematodo del nudo radical Meloidogyne  spp., en el Departamento  de Nariño (Colombia, se han reportado incidencias cercanas al 79%, y pérdidas del 50%.   En la presente investigación, se colectaron 45 genotipos de (Solanum quitoense  L. en los Departamentos  de Nariño  y Putumayo  y 4 genotipos  silvestres  (S. mammosum, S. hirtum,       S. marginatum  y S. umbellatum buscando fuentes de resistencia al nematodo. Se inocularon 9 plantas de cada genotipo de dos meses de edad con 10000 huevos de Meloidogyne spp., dejando tres testigos por cada material. Las variables evaluadas fueron: altura de planta, severidad, incidencia, peso fresco (tallo y raíz y especies prevalentes de Meloidogyne spp. Se hizo una clasificación de genotipos mediante escala de resistencia y regresión entre la severidad y las demás variables para establecer el efecto de Meloidogyne spp. sobre los genotipos de planta. Los resultados mostraron 100% de incidencia del nematodo en  todos  los  genotipos,  2.04%  genotipos  resistentes,  34.7%  moderadamente  resistentes, 42.8% moderadamente susceptibles, 18.3% susceptibles, y 2.04% altamente susceptibles. El genotipo SQbr05 resistente, no se vio afectado por la severidad, al contrario SQbc04 genotipo susceptible, mostró reducciones significativas en peso fresco de tallo y raIz, (R2 = 0.71 y 0.98,el genotipo silvestre (S. mammosum es altamente susceptible, Meloidogyne incognita presentó 55.31% de presencia. El genotipo SQbr05 es promisorio para ser evaluado en campo.

Gelpud Chaves Cristian

2011-03-01

293

Inheritance and mapping of Mj-2, a new source of root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne javanica) resistance in carrot.  

Science.gov (United States)

Root-knot nematodes limit carrot production around the world by inducing taproot forking and galling deformities that render carrots unmarketable. In warmer climates, Meloidogyne javanica and Meloidogyne incognita are most prevalent. In F2 and F3 progeny from the cross between an Asian carrot resistant to M. javanica, PI 652188, and a susceptible carrot, resistance response was incompletely dominant with a relatively high heritability (H (2) = 0.78) and provided evidence for a single gene, designated Mj-2, contributing to resistance. Molecular markers linked to the previously described root-knot nematode resistance gene, Mj-1 on chromosome 8 derived from "Brasilia," demonstrated that Mj-2 does not map to that same locus but is on the same chromosome. PMID:24336925

Ali, Aamir; Matthews, William C; Cavagnaro, Pablo F; Iorizzo, Massimo; Roberts, Philip A; Simon, Philipp W

2014-01-01

294

Immunolocalisation of secreted-excreted products of Meloidogyne spp. using polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies Imunolocalização de produtos secretados-excretados de Meloidogyne spp. usando anticorpos policlonais e monoclonais  

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Full Text Available Molecules expressed at the surface cuticle (SC of plant parasitic nematodes represent the primary plant-nematode interface, and together with secreted-excreted (S-E products are probably the first signals perceived by the host. These molecules, which are released into plant tissue, probably play important roles in the host-parasite interactions. Characterisation of these antigens will help in the identification of nematode targets useful for novel control strategies, which interfere with the nematode infection of plants. Three monoclonal (MAbs and three polyclonal (PAbs antibodies produced to S-E products of Meloidogyne spp. and Heterodera avenae were used to examine their reactivity towards M. incognita and/or M. arenaria second stage juveniles and adult females. The three PAbs showed cross-reactivity with M. incognita and M. arenaria. Antibody Roth-PC 373 strongly recognised molecules present in the SC, amphids and intestine, antibody Roth-PC 389 recognised the nematode amphids and metacorpus, while antibody Roth-PC 419 bound to molecules present in the subventral glands. Reactivity of the MAbs was only tested against M. arenaria. Monoclonal antibody Roth-MAb T116C1.1 showed intense reactivity with molecules present in the amphidial and phasmidial glands. Monoclonal antibodies Roth-MAb T46.2 and T42D.2 labeled the nematode amphids and molecules present in the nematode oesophagus (metacorpus, respectively.Moléculas expressadas na cutícula dos nematóides parasitas de plantas representam o primeiro contato planta-nematóide e, junto com produtos secretados/excretados (S-E, são, provavelmente, os primeiros sinais percebidos pelo hospedeiro. Essas moléculas, as quais são liberadas dentro do tecido da planta, podem ter papel importante na interação parasita-hospedeiro. A caracterização desses antígenos pode ajudar na identificação de alvos para novas estratégias que interfiram na infecção de plantas por nematóides. Três anticorpos monoclonais e três anticorpos policlonais produzidos para secreções-excreções de Meloidogyne spp. e Heterodera avenae foram usados para examinar a reatividade a juvenis de segundo estádio (J2 e/ou fêmeas de M. incognita e M. arenaria. Os três anticorpos policlonais mostraram reação tanto para M. incognita quanto para M. arenaria. Roth-PC 373 reconheceu fortemente moléculas presentes na cutícula, anfídios e intestino, Roth-PC 389 reconheceu anfidios e metacorpo, enquanto Roth-PC 419 ligou-se a moléculas presentes nas glândulas subventrais. A reatividade dos MAbs foi testada somente com M. Arenaria. Roth-MAb T116C1.1 reagiu intensamente com moléculas presentes nas glândulas anfidial e fasmidial. Roth-MAb T46.2 e T42D.2 marcaram anfídios e moléculas presentes no esôfago (metacorpo do nematóide, respectivamente.

Liziane M. Lima

2005-12-01

295

Glomus intraradices para el control de Meloidogyne incognita (Kofoid & White) Chitwood en condiciones protegidas / Glomus intraradices for the Control of Meloidogyne incognita (Kofoid & White) Chitwood under Protected Conditions  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Se evaluó el efecto de la aplicación del hongo micorrízico arbuscular Glomus intraradices en plantas de tomate (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) cv. Maya. Las variables de reproducción del nematodo estimadas fueron número de agallas por planta_1 (NA), número de hembras por g_1de raíz teñida (NHE) y nú [...] mero de huevos por g_1 de raíz licuada (NHU). Para las plantas, las variables agronómicas de vigor consideradas correspondieron a altura de planta (AP), peso de fruto (PF), peso de raíz (PR), volumen radical (VR) y peso seco de planta (PS). Los análisis de varianza realizados con las variables NA, NHE, AP, PF, PR, VR y PS no mostraron diferencias significativas entre tratamientos. Solo se detectó diferencias entre tratamientos con la variable NHU; sin embargo, el NA fue mayor en el tratamiento testigo sin la inoculación de la micorriza arbuscular Glomus intraradices, con un promedio de 467 agallas por planta. Se observó que conforme se incrementaron las dosis de inóculo del hongo micorrízico, disminuyó la formación de agallas en las plantas. Se obtuvo una diferencia de al menos el 39% menos de formación de agallas en los tratamientos inoculados con el hongo micorrízico. Abstract in english The effects of the inoculation with arbuscular micorrhizal fungus Glomus intraradices on tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) cv. Maya were evaluated. Variables related to nematode reproduction such as number of galls per plant_1 (NA), number of females per g-1 of stained root (NF) and number of e [...] ggs per g_1 of blended root (NE) were estimated. Plant agronomic variables such as plant height (AH), fruit weight (FW), root weight (RW), root volume (RV) and plant dry weight (DW) were also evaluated. The variance analysis for the variables NA, NF, AH, FW, RW, RV and DW did not show significant differences among treatments. Significant difference was only observed on the variable NE. The variable NA was higher on the control plants with no inoculation of arbuscular micorrhizal Glomus intraradices with an average of 467 root-knots per plant; it was also observed that the plants treated with higher concentration of the inoculum showed lower number of root-knots per plant. In general, it was observed at least 39% lower knot-root formation on plants inoculated with the micorrhizal fungus.

Jairo, Cristóbal Alejo; Elizabeth, Herrera-Parra; Vicente, Reyes Oregel; Esaú, Ruiz Sánchez; José María, Tun Suárez; Teresita, Celis Rodríguez.

2010-03-01

296

Glomus intraradices para el control de Meloidogyne incognita (Kofoid & White) Chitwood en condiciones protegidas / Glomus intraradices for the Control of Meloidogyne incognita (Kofoid & White) Chitwood under Protected Conditions  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Se evaluó el efecto de la aplicación del hongo micorrízico arbuscular Glomus intraradices en plantas de tomate (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) cv. Maya. Las variables de reproducción del nematodo estimadas fueron número de agallas por planta_1 (NA), número de hembras por g_1de raíz teñida (NHE) y nú [...] mero de huevos por g_1 de raíz licuada (NHU). Para las plantas, las variables agronómicas de vigor consideradas correspondieron a altura de planta (AP), peso de fruto (PF), peso de raíz (PR), volumen radical (VR) y peso seco de planta (PS). Los análisis de varianza realizados con las variables NA, NHE, AP, PF, PR, VR y PS no mostraron diferencias significativas entre tratamientos. Solo se detectó diferencias entre tratamientos con la variable NHU; sin embargo, el NA fue mayor en el tratamiento testigo sin la inoculación de la micorriza arbuscular Glomus intraradices, con un promedio de 467 agallas por planta. Se observó que conforme se incrementaron las dosis de inóculo del hongo micorrízico, disminuyó la formación de agallas en las plantas. Se obtuvo una diferencia de al menos el 39% menos de formación de agallas en los tratamientos inoculados con el hongo micorrízico. Abstract in english The effects of the inoculation with arbuscular micorrhizal fungus Glomus intraradices on tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) cv. Maya were evaluated. Variables related to nematode reproduction such as number of galls per plant_1 (NA), number of females per g-1 of stained root (NF) and number of e [...] ggs per g_1 of blended root (NE) were estimated. Plant agronomic variables such as plant height (AH), fruit weight (FW), root weight (RW), root volume (RV) and plant dry weight (DW) were also evaluated. The variance analysis for the variables NA, NF, AH, FW, RW, RV and DW did not show significant differences among treatments. Significant difference was only observed on the variable NE. The variable NA was higher on the control plants with no inoculation of arbuscular micorrhizal Glomus intraradices with an average of 467 root-knots per plant; it was also observed that the plants treated with higher concentration of the inoculum showed lower number of root-knots per plant. In general, it was observed at least 39% lower knot-root formation on plants inoculated with the micorrhizal fungus.

Jairo, Cristóbal Alejo; Elizabeth, Herrera-Parra; Vicente, Reyes Oregel; Esaú, Ruiz Sánchez; José María, Tun Suárez; Teresita, Celis Rodríguez.

297

Avaliação de linhagens, híbridos F1 e cultivares de pimentão quanto à resistência a Meloidogyne spp. / Evaluation of resistance of lines, hybrids F1 and cultivars of sweet pepper to Meloidogyne spp.  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Com o objetivo de avaliar híbridos F1 de pimentão, juntamente com suas linhagens progenitoras e cultivares, quanto à resistência a Meloidogyne incognita (raças 1, 2, 3 e 4) e a M. javanica, foi instalado um experimento em casa de vegetação nas dependências da Pioneer Sementes Ltda, em Ijaci, MG. Foi [...] utilizado o delineamento de blocos casualizados, em esquema de parcela subdividida, com cinco parcelas (compostas pelas quatro raças de M. incognita e mais a espécie M. javanica) e 48 subparcelas (compostas por 47 genótipos de pimentão e mais uma cultivar de tomate (Ângela Gigante I-5100), usada como testemunha padrão). Foram usadas cinco repetições e oito plantas em cada subparcela. A inoculação foi feita na concentração de 60 ovos/mL de substrato à base de vermiculita e casca de Pinus sp. (50%) e casca de arroz carbonizada (50%). Sessenta dias após a inoculação, procedeu-se às avaliações. Todas as cultivares e linhagens-padrão (Linha 004 e Linha 006) mostraram-se suscetíveis às raças 1, 2, 3 e 4 de M. incognita. Todos os genótipos de pimentão foram resistentes a M. javanica. Todas as linhagens experimentais mostraram-se resistentes às quatro raças de M. incognita; o mesmo ocorreu com a maioria dos híbridos F1 experimentais, apesar de o grau de resistência dos híbridos F1, em geral, ter sido inferior ao das respectivas linhagens. Os resultados indicaram que é viável a utilização de híbridos F1 entre linhagens resistentes vs. linhagens suscetíveis para fins de controle dos nematóides M. incognita e M. javanica, via resistência varietal. Abstract in english With the purposes of evaluating F1 hybrids of sweet pepper, together with their parents, for resistance to Meloidogyne incognita (races 1, 2, 3 and 4) and M. javanica nematodes, an experiment was conducted in glasshouse conditions in the facilities of Pioneer Sementes Ltda, in Ijaci, MG, Brazil. A r [...] andomized block in split-plot design was used with five plots, composed of four races of M. incognita and one isolate of M. javanica, and 48 subplots, composed of 47 genotypes of sweet pepper and one cultivar of tomato (Ângela Gigante I-5100) as a standard check. Five replicates and eight plants in each subplot were used. Inoculation was done with 60 eggs/mL of substrate mixture of vermiculite, Pinus sp. bark and carbonized rice husk. After 60 days following inoculation, the evaluations were performed. All the cultivars and standard-lines (line 004 and line 006) were susceptible to the races 1, 2, 3 and 4 of M. incognita. All the genotypes of sweet pepper were resistant to M. javanica. Almost all of the experimental lines were proved to be resistant to all of the four races of M. incognita. The same occurred to most of the experimental hybrids F1, although the degree of resistance of the hybrids in general was lower than that of their respective resistant parents. It is thus proven to be feasible to utilize F1 hybrids by crossing resistant to susceptible sweet pepper lines to control the nematodes M. incognita and M. javanica through varietal resistance.

José Ricardo, Peixoto; Wilson Roberto, Maluf; Vicente Paulo, Campos.

298

Avaliação de linhagens, híbridos F1 e cultivares de pimentão quanto à resistência a Meloidogyne spp. Evaluation of resistance of lines, hybrids F1 and cultivars of sweet pepper to Meloidogyne spp.  

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Full Text Available Com o objetivo de avaliar híbridos F1 de pimentão, juntamente com suas linhagens progenitoras e cultivares, quanto à resistência a Meloidogyne incognita (raças 1, 2, 3 e 4 e a M. javanica, foi instalado um experimento em casa de vegetação nas dependências da Pioneer Sementes Ltda, em Ijaci, MG. Foi utilizado o delineamento de blocos casualizados, em esquema de parcela subdividida, com cinco parcelas (compostas pelas quatro raças de M. incognita e mais a espécie M. javanica e 48 subparcelas (compostas por 47 genótipos de pimentão e mais uma cultivar de tomate (Ângela Gigante I-5100, usada como testemunha padrão. Foram usadas cinco repetições e oito plantas em cada subparcela. A inoculação foi feita na concentração de 60 ovos/mL de substrato à base de vermiculita e casca de Pinus sp. (50% e casca de arroz carbonizada (50%. Sessenta dias após a inoculação, procedeu-se às avaliações. Todas as cultivares e linhagens-padrão (Linha 004 e Linha 006 mostraram-se suscetíveis às raças 1, 2, 3 e 4 de M. incognita. Todos os genótipos de pimentão foram resistentes a M. javanica. Todas as linhagens experimentais mostraram-se resistentes às quatro raças de M. incognita; o mesmo ocorreu com a maioria dos híbridos F1 experimentais, apesar de o grau de resistência dos híbridos F1, em geral, ter sido inferior ao das respectivas linhagens. Os resultados indicaram que é viável a utilização de híbridos F1 entre linhagens resistentes vs. linhagens suscetíveis para fins de controle dos nematóides M. incognita e M. javanica, via resistência varietal.With the purposes of evaluating F1 hybrids of sweet pepper, together with their parents, for resistance to Meloidogyne incognita (races 1, 2, 3 and 4 and M. javanica nematodes, an experiment was conducted in glasshouse conditions in the facilities of Pioneer Sementes Ltda, in Ijaci, MG, Brazil. A randomized block in split-plot design was used with five plots, composed of four races of M. incognita and one isolate of M. javanica, and 48 subplots, composed of 47 genotypes of sweet pepper and one cultivar of tomato (Ângela Gigante I-5100 as a standard check. Five replicates and eight plants in each subplot were used. Inoculation was done with 60 eggs/mL of substrate mixture of vermiculite, Pinus sp. bark and carbonized rice husk. After 60 days following inoculation, the evaluations were performed. All the cultivars and standard-lines (line 004 and line 006 were susceptible to the races 1, 2, 3 and 4 of M. incognita. All the genotypes of sweet pepper were resistant to M. javanica. Almost all of the experimental lines were proved to be resistant to all of the four races of M. incognita. The same occurred to most of the experimental hybrids F1, although the degree of resistance of the hybrids in general was lower than that of their respective resistant parents. It is thus proven to be feasible to utilize F1 hybrids by crossing resistant to susceptible sweet pepper lines to control the nematodes M. incognita and M. javanica through varietal resistance.

José Ricardo Peixoto

1999-12-01

299

Efeito da Incorporação de Folhas de Nim ao Solo sobre o Complexo Fusarium x Meloidogyne em Quiabeiro / Effect of amendment of soil with neem leaf on Fusarium x Meloidogyne on okra  

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Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito da incorporação de folhas frescas de nim (Azadirachta indica) ao solo, sobre o complexo Fusarium x Meloidogyne em quiabeiro (Abelmoschus esculentum) em um experimento realizado em condições de casa de vegetação. Os tratamentos constaram da adição de 25g [...] ou 50g de folhas trituradas/kg de solo previamente autoclavado e inoculado com M. incognita, Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum, juntos e isoladamente, contidos em vasos com capacidade de 2 L. Solo sem folhas de nim serviu como testemunha. O experimento foi realizado seguindo um delineamento inteiramente casualizado com seis repetições, sendo cada repetição representada por um vaso com 5 plantas. As folhas foram incorporadas 30 dias antes do plantio e a avaliação deu-se 90 dias após o plantio, adotando-se a percentagem de plantas mortas como parâmetro para avaliar o efeito dos tratamentos. A incorporação de 50g de folhas frescas de nim foi eficiente para o controle de Meloidogyne e Fusarium isoladamente, bem como na interação desses patógenos. A incorporação de 25g de folhas de nim mostrou-se eficiente apenas para o controle de Meloidogyne isoladamente. Abstract in english The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of soil ammendment with neem (Azadirachta indica) leaf on the complex Fusarium x Meloidogyne in okra (Abelmoschus esculentum) in greenhouse conditions. The treatments consisted of the addition of 25g or 50g of leaves per kg of soil and infest [...] ed with M. incognita and Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum, together and separately, contained in pots with capacity of 2 L. Soil without supplement it served as the control. The experimental design was completely randomized with six replications and five plants per pot. The leaves were incorporate 30 days before planting and the evaluation 90 days later. The percentagem of dead plants was used to evaluate the efficiency of neem. The incorporation of 50g of fresh neem leaves was efficient in the control of both Meloidogyne and Fusarium separately as well as in their interaction. The incorporation of 25g of neem leaves was shown efficient just for the control of Meloidogyne separately.

Gilson Soares da, Silva; Aurenice Lucena, Pereira.

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Efeito da Incorporação de Folhas de Nim ao Solo sobre o Complexo Fusarium x Meloidogyne em Quiabeiro Effect of amendment of soil with neem leaf on Fusarium x Meloidogyne on okra  

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Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito da incorporação de folhas frescas de nim (Azadirachta indica ao solo, sobre o complexo Fusarium x Meloidogyne em quiabeiro (Abelmoschus esculentum em um experimento realizado em condições de casa de vegetação. Os tratamentos constaram da adição de 25g ou 50g de folhas trituradas/kg de solo previamente autoclavado e inoculado com M. incognita, Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum, juntos e isoladamente, contidos em vasos com capacidade de 2 L. Solo sem folhas de nim serviu como testemunha. O experimento foi realizado seguindo um delineamento inteiramente casualizado com seis repetições, sendo cada repetição representada por um vaso com 5 plantas. As folhas foram incorporadas 30 dias antes do plantio e a avaliação deu-se 90 dias após o plantio, adotando-se a percentagem de plantas mortas como parâmetro para avaliar o efeito dos tratamentos. A incorporação de 50g de folhas frescas de nim foi eficiente para o controle de Meloidogyne e Fusarium isoladamente, bem como na interação desses patógenos. A incorporação de 25g de folhas de nim mostrou-se eficiente apenas para o controle de Meloidogyne isoladamente.The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of soil ammendment with neem (Azadirachta indica leaf on the complex Fusarium x Meloidogyne in okra (Abelmoschus esculentum in greenhouse conditions. The treatments consisted of the addition of 25g or 50g of leaves per kg of soil and infested with M. incognita and Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum, together and separately, contained in pots with capacity of 2 L. Soil without supplement it served as the control. The experimental design was completely randomized with six replications and five plants per pot. The leaves were incorporate 30 days before planting and the evaluation 90 days later. The percentagem of dead plants was used to evaluate the efficiency of neem. The incorporation of 50g of fresh neem leaves was efficient in the control of both Meloidogyne and Fusarium separately as well as in their interaction. The incorporation of 25g of neem leaves was shown efficient just for the control of Meloidogyne separately.

Gilson Soares da Silva

2008-12-01