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Sample records for meloidogyne incognita population

  1. Molecular Comparison of Iranian Populations of Meloidogyne javanica and Meloidogyne incognita with PCR-RFLP

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    M. Mohammadi

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available To carry out this study, total DNA was extracted from eggs and from second stage juveniles of several populations of Meloidogyne javanica and Meloidogyne incognita, using phenol / chloroform method. Following extraction, DNA was electrophoresed on 1% agarose gel to determine its quality and quantity. A specific primer pair (C2F3 / 1108; 23 and 20 nucleotides, respectively was used to discriminate M. javanica from M. incognita populations using polymerase chain reaction (PCR. Primer annealing sites were located in the 3? portion of mitochondrial gene encoding cytochrome oxidase subunit II (COII and in the 16S rRNA gene. Following PCR amplification, electrophoresis of amplified DNA showed 1.7 kb fragment in populations of both species. Digestion of 1.7 kb amplified product with HinfI restriction endonuclease resulted in the generation of two DNA fragments of 0.7 and 1.0 kb in M. javanica and three DNA fragments of 0.3, 0.4 and 1.0 kb in M. incognita. There were no differences in the digestion patterns among various populations of each species examined.

  2. Suitability of Zucchini and Cucumber Genotypes to Populations of Meloidogyne arenaria, M. incognita, and M. javanica

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Gómez, Manuel; Flor-Peregrín, Elena; Talavera, Miguel; Verdejo-Lucas, Soledad

    2015-01-01

    The host suitability of five zucchini and three cucumber genotypes to Meloidogyne incognita (MiPM26) and M. javanica (Mj05) was determined in pot experiments in a greenhouse. The number of egg masses (EM) did not differ among the genotypes of zucchini or cucumber, but the eggs/plant and reproduction factor (Rf) did slightly. M. incognita MiPM26 showed lower EM, eggs/plant, and Rf than M. javanica Mj05. Examination of the zucchini galls for nematode postinfection development revealed unsuitable conditions for M. incognita MiPM26 as only 22% of the females produced EM compared to 95% of the M. javanica females. As far as cucumber was concerned, 86% of the M. incognita and 99% of the M. javanica females produced EM, respectively. In a second type of experiments, several populations of M. arenaria, M. incognita, and M. javanica were tested on zucchini cv. Amalthee and cucumber cv. Dasher II to assess the parasitic variation among species and populations of Meloidogyne. A greater parasitic variation was observed in zucchini than cucumber. Zucchini responded as a poor host for M. incognita MiPM26, MiAL09, and MiAL48, but as a good host for MiAL10 and MiAL15. Intraspecific variation was not observed among the M. javanica or M. arenaria populations. Cucumber was a good host for all the tested populations. Overall, both cucurbits were suitable hosts for Meloidogyne but zucchini was a poorer host than the cucumber. PMID:25861120

  3. Interaction of Population Levels of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum and Meloidogyne incognita on Cotton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garber, R H; Jorgenson, E C; Smith, S; Hyer, A H

    1979-04-01

    In autoclaved greenhouse soil without Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum, Meloidogyne incognita did not cause leaf or vascular discoloration of 59-day-old cotton plants. Plants had root galls with as few as 50 Meloidogyne larvae per plant. Root galling was directly proportional to the initial nematode population level. Fusarium wilt symptoms occurred without nematodes with 77,000 fungus propagules or more per gram of soil. As few as 50 Meloidogyne larvae accompanying 650 fungus propagules caused Fusarium wilt. With few exceptions, leaf symptoms appeared sooner as numbers of either or both organisms increased. In soils infested with both organisms, the extent of fungal invasion and colonization was well correlated with the extent of nematode galling and other indications of the Fusarium wilt syndrome. PMID:19305546

  4. Identification of msp1 Gene Variants in Populations of Meloidogyne incognita Using PCR-DGGE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, Mohamed; Hallmann, Johannes; Heuer, Holger

    2014-09-01

    Effectors of root-knot nematodes are essential for parasitism and prone to recognition by adapted variants of the host plants. This selective pressure initiates hypervariability of effector genes. Diversity of the gene variants within nematode populations might correlate with host preferences. In this study we developed a method to compare the distribution of variants of the effector gene msp1 among populations of Meloidogyne incognita. Primers were designed to amplify a 234-bp fragment of msp1. Sequencing of cloned PCR products revealed five msp1 variants from seven populations that were distinguishable in their reproduction on five host plants. A protocol for denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) was developed to separate these msp1 variants. DGGE for replicated pools of juveniles from the seven populations revealed ten variants of msp1. A correlation between the presence of a particular gene variant and the reproductive potential on particular hosts was not evident. Especially race 3 showed substantial variation within the population. DGGE fingerprints of msp1 tended to cluster the populations according to their reproduction rate on pepper. The developed method could be useful for analyzing population heterogeneity and epidemiology of M. incognita. PMID:25276001

  5. Root Penetration by Meloidogyne incognita Juveniles Infected with Bacillus Penetrans

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    Brown, Stephen M.; Smart, Grover C.

    1985-01-01

    Bacillus penetrans inhibited penetration by Meloidogyne incognita second-stage juveniles (J2) into tomato roots in the laboratory and greenhouse. Spores from this Florida population of B. penetrans attached to J2 of M. javanica, M. incognita, and M. arenaria. A greater proportion of J2 of M. javanica were infected than were J2 of either M. incognita or M. arenaria, and a greater number of spores attached to M. incognita than to M. arenaria.

  6. INTERACCIÓN ENTRE EL ECOMIC® Y UNA POBLACIÓN CUBANA DE Meloidogyne incognita EN TOMATE / INTERACTION BETWEEN ECOMIC® AND A CUBAN POPULATION OF Meloidogyne incognita IN TOMATO

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    Lucila, Gómez; MayraG, Rodríguez; Blanca, de la Noval; Miranda, Ileana; M.A, Hernández.

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available El estudio de tácticas para el manejo de los nematodos agalleros en la producción protegida de hortalizas en Cuba, se ha incrementado en los últimos años. El objetivo del trabajo fue determinar la interacción entre el ECOMICâ, producto a base de hongos formadores de micorrizas arbusculares, y una po [...] blación cubana de Meloidogyne incognita en el tomate (Lycopersicon esculentum. Mill var. Vyta). El experimento se desarrolló en los aisladores biológicos del CENSA empleando un diseño completamente aleatorio. Se emplearon dos formas de inoculación del ECOMICâ: peletización de la semilla e incorporación al sustrato para semilleros (1.5 g del producto/alveolo de cepellón). La dosis de nematodos fue de 1.5 huevos-J2. g suelo-1. Se evaluó el índice de agallamiento (IA), el número de juveniles infectivos (J2) en suelo y peso del sistema radical. La evaluación de la simbiosis micorrícica comprendió el porcentaje de colonización, densidad visual y peso del endófito. Se demostró que la aplicación de ECOMICâen la rizosfera del tomate favoreció el desarrollo de la raíz aparejado con un alto número de agallas (IA=4). En el control el desarrollo de la raíz fue menor con un IA=5. Se observó una disminución de los J2 en el suelo de las plantas micorrizadas. El establecimiento de la simbiosis micorrícica no se afectó por el desarrollo del nematodo. Abstract in english The study of tactics for the root-knot nematode management in vegetable production under crop protected systems has been increased in Cuba in the last decade. The main goal of this work was to assess the relationship of ECOMIC®, a commercial product containing several mycorrhizal fungi, and a Cuban [...] population of Meloidogyne incognita in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill var. Vyta). The experiment was carried out in a green house at CENSA using a completely randomized design. ECOMICâ was inoculated by seed pelleting or mixed with the seedbed substrate. The nematode dose used was 1.5 egg-J2. g soil-1. Gall index, infective juveniles in soil and root weight were evaluated. The percentage of colonization, the visual density and the mycellial weight were also estimated. ECOMICâ was shown to benefit root development despite the high value of the gall index (GI=4) in the inoculated plants. Root development was lower in the untreated plants with a GI=5. A decreased number of infective juveniles was observed in the soil with mycorrhized plants. The micorrhizal colonization was not affected by nematode establishment.

  7. Influence of 1,3-Dichloropropene, Fenamiphos, and Carbofuran on Meloidogyne incognita Populations and Yield of Chile Peppers

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas, S. H.

    1994-01-01

    Field trials were conducted during 1986, 1988, 1989, and 1991 to compare the effects of 1,3-dichloropropene, fenamiphos, and carbofuran on yield and quality of chile peppers (Capsicum annuum) in soil infested with Meloidogyne incognita. When compared with untreated plots, numbers of M. incognita juveniles recovered from soil 60 and(or) 90 days after chile pepper emergence were reduced (P = 0.05) following 1,3-D treatment every year except 1986. Nematode numbers were also reduced (P = 0.05) by...

  8. Reação de crisântemos a Meloidogyne incognita, Meloidogyne javanica e Meloidogyne enterolobii / Chrysanthemum reaction to Meloidogyne incognita, Meloidogyne javanica and Meloidogyne enterolobii

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    Lucivane Aparecida, Gonçalves; Andressa Lima de, Brida; Maria de Fátima Almeida, Silva; Cezar, Bueno Junior; Silvia Renata Siciliano, Wilcken.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a resistência de 14 variedades de crisântemos aos nematoides Meloidogyne incognita, M. javanica e M. enterolobii. O experimento foi conduzido em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, constando de 15 tratamentos e 4 repetições, por espécie de nematoide. Cada [...] parcela foi constituída por uma planta por vaso, mantidas em casa de vegetação e inoculadas com 5.000 ovos e eventuais juvenis de M. incognita, M. javanica e M. enterolobii. Após 60 dias, os índices de massas de ovos, número de nematoides por grama de raiz e o fator de reprodução foram avaliados. As variedades apresentaram imunidade a M. incognita, M. javanica e M. enterolobii, exceto 'Capello Vermelho' e 'White Reagon', que foram respectivamente suscetível e resistente a M. incognita. Abstract in english This study aimed to evaluate the resistance of 14 chrysanthemum varieties to the nematodes Meloidogyne incognita, M. javanica and M. enterolobii. The experiment was conducted in a completely randomized design, consisting of 15 treatments and 4 replicates per nematode species. Each plot was constitut [...] ed of one plant per pot; plants were kept in a greenhouse and inoculated with 5,000 eggs and possible juveniles of M. incognita, M. javanica and M. enterolobii. After 60 days, the rates of egg masses, the number of nematodes per gram of root and the reproduction factor were evaluated. The varieties showed immunity to M. incognita, M. javanica and M. enterolobii, except 'Capello Vermelho' and 'White Reagon', which were susceptible and resistant, respectively, to M. incognita.

  9. Response of Resistant Soybean Plant Introductions to Meloidogyne incognita in Field Microplots

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    Herman, M.; Hussey, R. S.; Boerma, H. R.

    1990-01-01

    The response of two soybean plant introductions, PI 96354 and PI 417444, highly resistant to Meloidogyne incognita, to increasing initial soil population densities (Pi) (0, 31, 125, and 500 eggs/100 cm³ soil) of M. incognita was studied in field microplots for 2 years. The plant introductions were compared to the cultivars Forrest, moderately resistant, and Bossier, susceptible to M. incognita. Averaged across years, the yield suppressions of Bossier, Forrest, PI 417444, and PI 96354 were 97...

  10. Reproduction of Four Races of Meloidogyne incognita on Hibiscus cannabinus

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    Veech, Joseph A.

    1992-01-01

    The feasibility of cultivation of kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus) in the United States is receiving a multifaceted evaluation. Among the factors being evaluated is kenafs susceptibility to nematodes. In this investigation, four races of Meloidogyne incognita reproduced extensively on each of the several kenaf genotypes examined in greenhouse tests. Some genotypes of kenaf, however, demonstrated limited resistance to certain races of M. incognita.

  11. Elementos del ciclo de vida de población cubana de Meloidogyne incognita (Kofoid y White) Chitwood en Solanum lycopersicum L. / Life cycle elements of a Cuban population Meloidogyne incognita (Kofoid and White) in Solanum lycopersicum L.

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Dainé, Hernández-Ochandía; Yailén, Arias; Lucila, Gómez; Belkis, Peteira; Ileana, Miranda; Mayra G, Rodríguez.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available El experimento se desarrolló en condiciones semicontroladas, en aisladores biológicos (18-21ºC), con el objetivo de determinar la duración del ciclo de vida de Meloidogyne incognita (Kofoid y White) Chitwood y la producción de huevos por hembras adultas en las primeras 96h en tomate (Solanum lycoper [...] sicum L.). Plantas de unos 15cm de altura se trasplantaron a macetas y una semana después se inocularon 2500±5 J2 de M. incognita raza 2. A las 72 horas se retiraron y plantaron en macetas con suelo estéril. El sistema radical fue extraído seis días post-inoculación para observar los diferentes estadios. La temperatura media en el período del estudio fue de 18-21ºC. Tres plantas fueron extraídas diariamente y se detuvo la extracción 96h después de haberse observado las primeras hembras adultas con huevos en la matriz gelatinosa. Entre 7 y 10 días posteriores a la inoculación, las raíces del tomate mostraron zonas hinchadas, indicativo de la entrada de los juveniles y de su alimentación. El ciclo de vida, desde J2 a hembra con matriz gelatinosa y huevos fue de 24 días. Las hembras en las primeras 24 horas depositaron más de 50 huevos en las matrices y a las 96h, tenían como promedio más de 100 huevos cada una. Abstract in english The experiment was carried out under semi controlled conditions in biological insulators (18-21ºC), with the objective of determining the duration of the life cycle of Meloidogyne incognita (Kofoid & White) Chitwood and the egg production of the adult females on tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) in t [...] he first 96h. Plants with about 15cm of height were transplanted to pots and, a week later, inoculated with 2500 ±5 J2 of M. incognita race 2. At 72 hours, they were removed and planted in pots with sterile soil. The root system was drawn out six days after inoculation to observe the different stages. The average temperature during the study was 18 to 21ºC. Three plants were removed and the daily extraction was stopped 96 h after the first adult females with eggs in the gelatinous matrix were observed. Between 7 and 10 days after inoculation, the roots of tomato showed swollen areas, indicative of the entrance of the juveniles and their feeding. The life cycle from J2 to female eggs with gelatinous matrix was 24 days. In the first 24 hours, the females deposited over 50 eggs in the wombs, and at 96h, each of them had an average of eggs higher than 100.

  12. Toxicidade de filtrados fúngicos a meloidogyne incognita Fungus filtrates toxicity to Meloidogyne incognita

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    MAURO J.N. COSTA

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available Visando à obtenção de novas moléculas nematicidas, 18 filtrados de espécies fúngicas e extratos de sete micélios fúngicos foram estudados in vitro quanto aos efeitos sobre a eclosão, motilidade e mortalidade de juvenis do segundo estádio (J2 de Meloidogyne incognita. Filtrados fúngicos foram obtidos de culturas em meio Czapek. Metanol foi usado como solvente para obter extratos dos micélios fúngicos. Filtrados de Paecilomyces lilacinus, Fusarium moniliforme e Fusarium oxysporum reduziram a motilidade e eclosão, e aumentaram a mortalidade (P In the search for new nematicidal molecules, 18 fungal species filtrates and seven fungus mycelium extracts were studied in vitro to see their influence on hatching, mobility and mortality of second stage juveniles (J2 of Meloidogyne incognita. Fungal filtrates were obtained from fifteen day Czapek cultures. Methanol was used as solvent to obtain fungus mycelium extracts. Paecilomyces lilacinus, Fusarium moniliforme and Fusarium oxysporum filtrates reduced J2 motility and hatching, and increased J2 mortality (P < 0,05 similarly to Aldicarb. Some fungus filtrates reduced J2 mobility without leading to death. Aspergillus flavus, Cylindrocarpon magnusianum, Fusarium solani and Mortierella sp. filtrates reduced (P < 0,05 only J2 hatching. Production of toxic fungus metabolites was not dependent on the amount of mycelium produced. P. lilacinus produced toxic filtrates after one day culturing. Since then, toxicity increased steadily, reaching 100% J2 mortality on the thirteenth day.

  13. Reproduction of Meloidogyne marylandi and M. incognita on several Poaceae

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    Faske, T. R.; Starr, J.L.

    2009-01-01

    The susceptibility of 22 plant species to Meloidogyne marylandi and M. incognita was examined in three greenhouse experiments. Inoculum of M. marylandi was eggs from cultures maintained on Zoysia matrella “Cavalier” or Cynodon dactylon x C. trasvaalensis “Tifdwarf”. Inoculum of M. incognita was eggs from cultures maintained on Solanum lycopersicum ‘Rutgers’. In each host test the inoculum density was 2,000 nematode eggs/pot. None of the three dicot species tested (Gossypium hirsut...

  14. Reproduction of Meloidogyne marylandi and M. incognita on several Poaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faske, T R; Starr, J L

    2009-03-01

    The susceptibility of 22 plant species to Meloidogyne marylandi and M. incognita was examined in three greenhouse experiments. Inoculum of M. marylandi was eggs from cultures maintained on Zoysia matrella "Cavalier" or Cynodon dactylon x C. trasvaalensis "Tifdwarf". Inoculum of M. incognita was eggs from cultures maintained on Solanum lycopersicum 'Rutgers'. In each host test the inoculum density was 2,000 nematode eggs/pot. None of the three dicot species tested (Gossypium hirsutum, Arachis hypogaea, and S. lycopersicum) were hosts for M. marylandi but, as expected, M. incognita had high levels of reproduction on G. hirsutum and S. lycopersicum. Meloidogyne marylandi reproduced on all of the 19 grass species (Poaceae) tested but reproduction varied greatly (P = 0.05) among these hosts. The following grasses were identified for the first time as hosts for M. marylandi: Buchloe dactyloides (buffalograss), Echinochloa colona (jungle rice), Eragostis curvula (weeping lovegrass), Paspalum dilatatum (dallisgrass), P. notatum (bahiagrass), Sorghastrum, nutans (indiangrass), Tripsacum dactyloides (eastern gamagrass), and Zoysia matrella (zoysiagrass). No reproduction of M. incognita was observed on B. dactyloides, Cyndon dactylon (common bermudagrass), E. curvula, P. vaginatum (seashore paspalum), S. nutans, T. dactyloides, Z. matrella or Z. japonica. Reproduction of M. incognita was less than reproduction of M. marylandi on the other grass species, except for the Zea mays inbred line B73 on which M. incognita had greater reproduction than did M. marylandi (P = 0.05) and Stenotaphrum secundatum (St. Augustinegrass) on which M. incognita and M. marylandi had similar levels of reproduction. PMID:22661770

  15. Development of virulence to Meloidogyne incognita on resistant pepper rootstocks

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    Ros-Ibanez, C.; Robertson, L.; Martinez-Lluch, M. C.; Cano-Garcia, A.; Lacasa-Plasencia, A.

    2014-06-01

    The root-knot nematode (RKN) Meloidogyne incognita is a major soil parasite of pepper crops in greenhouses in Southeast Spain. Due to the limitations of the use of soil fumigants, grafting plants on resistant rootstocks (R-rootstocks) has become an important alternative to chemical nematicides. The repeated use of R-rootstocks can bring about the selection of virulent populations capable of overcoming resistance. We carried out a six-year investigation on resistant rootstocks in a naturally M. incognita infested greenhouse, and found that two successive years of growing plants grafted on R-rootstocks Atlante (ATL) were sufficient to overcome resistance (galling index 1.5 and 5.6 in the first and second years respectively). A large variability was observed between several R-rootstocks. Two R-rootstocks (C19 and Snooker) behaved like ATL while two others (Terrano and DRO 8801) were not infected by RKN. Laboratory studies with the same R-rootstocks, inoculated with two nematode isolates (avirulent and virulent against ATL) confirmed the greenhouse results, indicating that some rootstocks may be infested by virulent populations and others may not. It suggests that different R-genes, which are differentially overcome by RKN, have been introgressed into the rootstocks. This may have consequences for the management of resistant rootstocks in the field. (Author)

  16. GENOTYPIC DIVERSITY OF POTATO GERMPLASM AGAINST ROOT KNOT NEMATODE (MELOIDOGYNE INCOGNITA INFECTION IN PAKISTAN

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    Sajid A. Khan

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Potato (Solanum tuberosum, an important vegetable crop of Pakistan endures significant yield losses due to root knot nematode (Meloidogyne incognita.. Research wok was designed to identify resistant potato germplasm against RKN (Meloidogyne incognita infection. A field trial was conducted in the research area of Department of Plant Pathology, University of Agriculture Faisalabad. Thirty six (36 potato verities/ cultivars relocated five times were sown in four years sick plot containing root knot nematode (Meloidogyne incognita in RCBD layout. Root knot nematode reproduction and host damage was accessed by recording nematode root galls and egg mass indices, root weight, shoot weight, , number of leaves, fruit weight, rate of reproduction and final population of nematodes. Experiment revealed a considerable variation in response against Meloidogyne incognita infection among the genotype tested but none of the single cultivar was immune. FD-8-1 was used as negative control. The cultivar FD-19-2 was highly susceptible followed by SH-692 and SH-5. All other cultivars had less galling index with low fecundity rate indicating their ability to suppress the adult female reproduction. The cultivar FD-1-3 scored least number of galls and egg mass indices followed by FD-49-62, SH-339 and SH-332.

  17. Reação de genótipos de maracujazeiro a Meloidogyne incognita raça 3 e Meloidogyne javanica / Reaction of passion fruit genotypes to Meloidogyne incognita race 3 and Meloidogyne javanica

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Leandro Souza, Rocha; Regina Cássia Ferreira, Ribeiro; Adelica Aparecida, Xavier; Fabíola de Jesus, Silva; Claudio Horst, Bruckner.

    1017-10-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar a reação de genótipos de maracujazeiro a Meloidogyne spp.. O experimento foi conduzido em casa de vegetação em DBC, com seis repetições, em esquema fatorial 9x2 (Passiflora giberti, P. nitida, P. setacea, P. mucronata, P. cincinnata, P. ligularis, P.alata, híbrido [...] BRS Sol do Cerrado e seleção M19-UFV x Meloidogyne javanica e M. incognita raça 3). Segundo os critérios de Oostenbrink, e Moura e Régis, o BRS Sol do Cerrado, a seleção M-19-UFV e P. alata comportaram-se como imunes a M. incognita. Além destes, P. cincinnata e P. setacea foram imunes a M. javanica. Passiflora cincinnata e P.giberti comportaram-se como resistentes a M. incognita e M. javanica, respectivamente. Segundo Taylor e Sasser, os genótipos classificados como imunes pelos outros critérios foram classificados como resistentes aos nematoides. Todas as variáveis nematológicas avaliadas em P. giberti, P. ligularis, P. mucronata e P. nitida foram superiores em plantas infectadas por M. incognita. Independentemente do nematoide, P. mucronata apresentou maior número de galhas, massas de ovos, ovos, J2 e FR, em relação aos outros genótipos. O peso de matéria fresca de raiz de P. ligularis e P. mucronata foi menor na presença de M. incognita em relação a M. javanica. Abstract in english The aim of this study was to evaluate the reaction of genotypes of passion fruit to Meloidogyne spp.. The experiment was carried out in a greenhouse in RBD with six replications in 9 x 2 factorial designs (Passiflora giberti, P. nitida, P. setacea, P. mucronata, P. cincinnata, P. ligularis, P. alata [...] , BRS Sol do Cerrado cultivar and selection M19-UFV x Meloidogyne javanica and M. incognita race 3). According to Oostenbrink criteria, and Moura and Régis, the BRS Sol do Cerrado, and selection M-19-UFV and P. alata behaved as immune to M. incognita. In addition to these, P. cincinnata and P. setacea were immune to M. javanica. Passiflora cincinnata and P.giberti behaved as resistant to M. incognita and M. javanica, respectively. According to Taylor and Sasser, the genotypes classified as immune by the other criteria were classified as resistant to nematodes. All the nematological variables evaluated in P. giberti, P. ligularis, P. mucronata and P. nitida were superior in plants infected by M. incognita. Regardless of the nematode, P mucronata presented larger number of root galls, egg masses, eggs, J2 and RF, as compared to the other genotypes. The root fresh matter weight of P. ligularis and P. mucronata was smaller in the presence of M. incognita as compared to M. javanica.

  18. Reação de genótipos de Avena spp. a Meloidogyne incognita raça 4 / Host suitability of Avena spp. genotypes to Meloidogyne incognita race 4

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Dárcio C., Borges; Sonia R., Antedomênico; Viviane P., Santos; Mário M., Inomoto.

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available As aveias preta (Avena strigosa), branca (A. sativa) e amarela (A. byzantina) são muito utilizadas como culturas de cobertura, em sucessão a soja, algodão, feijão, batata e cenoura, que são culturas que sofrem elevadas perdas provocadas por Meloidogyne incognita. O manejo de M. incognita pode ter co [...] mo um dos componentes o uso de genótipos de aveia que reduzam a densidade populacional do nematóide. Foram conduzidos três experimentos em casa de vegetação com o objetivo de avaliar cinco genótipos de aveia preta ('CPAO 0010', 'Comum', 'Embrapa 29', 'Embrapa 140' e 'IPFA 99006'), um de aveia branca ('UFRGS 17') e um de aveia amarela ('São Carlos'), em relação a sua resposta a três isolados da raça 4 de M. incognita (BA, SP e MT). As aveias pretas aumentaram a densidade populacional do nematóide. As aveias branca e amarela reduziram ou causaram pequeno aumento da densidade populacional de M. incognita, não se diferenciando de Crotalaria spectabilis. Portanto, a aveia branca 'UFRGS 17' e a amarela 'São Carlos' devem ser preferidas em relação às aveias pretas como culturas de cobertura, em áreas infestadas com M. incognita raça 4. Abstract in english The black oat (Avena strigosa), the white oat (A. sativa) and the Algerian oat (A. byzantina) have been widely used as cover crops under succession with soybean, cotton, bean, potato and carrot, which are crops highly damaged by Meloidogyne incognita. The management of M. incognita may have as a com [...] ponent the use of oat genotypes that reduce the nematode population density. Three greenhouse experiments were carried out in order to evaluate the host suitability of five genotypes of black oat ('CPAO 0010', 'Common', 'Embrapa 29', 'Embrapa 140' and 'IPFA 99006'), one of white oat ('UFRGS 17') and one of Algerian oat ('São Carlos') to three isolates of M. incognita race 4 (BA, SP and MT). The black oats increased the population density of the nematode. The oats 'UFRGS 17' and 'São Carlos' reduced or caused a small increase in the population of M. incognita race 4, and neither differentiated from Crotalaria spectabilis. Therefore, the white oat 'UFRGS 17' and the Algerian oat 'São Carlos' should be used in preference to black oats as cover crops in areas infested with M. incognita race 4.

  19. Reação de genótipos de Avena spp. a Meloidogyne incognita raça 4 Host suitability of Avena spp. genotypes to Meloidogyne incognita race 4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dárcio C. Borges

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available As aveias preta (Avena strigosa, branca (A. sativa e amarela (A. byzantina são muito utilizadas como culturas de cobertura, em sucessão a soja, algodão, feijão, batata e cenoura, que são culturas que sofrem elevadas perdas provocadas por Meloidogyne incognita. O manejo de M. incognita pode ter como um dos componentes o uso de genótipos de aveia que reduzam a densidade populacional do nematóide. Foram conduzidos três experimentos em casa de vegetação com o objetivo de avaliar cinco genótipos de aveia preta ('CPAO 0010', 'Comum', 'Embrapa 29', 'Embrapa 140' e 'IPFA 99006', um de aveia branca ('UFRGS 17' e um de aveia amarela ('São Carlos', em relação a sua resposta a três isolados da raça 4 de M. incognita (BA, SP e MT. As aveias pretas aumentaram a densidade populacional do nematóide. As aveias branca e amarela reduziram ou causaram pequeno aumento da densidade populacional de M. incognita, não se diferenciando de Crotalaria spectabilis. Portanto, a aveia branca 'UFRGS 17' e a amarela 'São Carlos' devem ser preferidas em relação às aveias pretas como culturas de cobertura, em áreas infestadas com M. incognita raça 4.The black oat (Avena strigosa, the white oat (A. sativa and the Algerian oat (A. byzantina have been widely used as cover crops under succession with soybean, cotton, bean, potato and carrot, which are crops highly damaged by Meloidogyne incognita. The management of M. incognita may have as a component the use of oat genotypes that reduce the nematode population density. Three greenhouse experiments were carried out in order to evaluate the host suitability of five genotypes of black oat ('CPAO 0010', 'Common', 'Embrapa 29', 'Embrapa 140' and 'IPFA 99006', one of white oat ('UFRGS 17' and one of Algerian oat ('São Carlos' to three isolates of M. incognita race 4 (BA, SP and MT. The black oats increased the population density of the nematode. The oats 'UFRGS 17' and 'São Carlos' reduced or caused a small increase in the population of M. incognita race 4, and neither differentiated from Crotalaria spectabilis. Therefore, the white oat 'UFRGS 17' and the Algerian oat 'São Carlos' should be used in preference to black oats as cover crops in areas infested with M. incognita race 4.

  20. Tagetes Patula y T Erecta para Controlar Meloidogyne Incognita y Hellcotylenchus Dihystera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vergel German

    1979-06-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was carried out under greenhouse conditions to test the control of Meloidogyne incognita and Helicotylenchus dihystera by Tagetes patula nana var. Petit Harmony and T. erecta var. Orange. For each of these nematode species, the population levels tested were considered as high, moderate and low. These populations were obtained mixing infested soil with sterilized one. Both Tagetes species gave satisfactory control. The decrease in population of nematodes in comparison with tomato was ranged from 15.5 to 136.3% depencing on the nematode species and on its population level on the soil No significate difference was found between the two Tagetes species. There was a greater decrease in population density for M. incognita than for H. dihystera; this was particulary true at the lowest population levels tested. In the case of M. incognita, an inverse relation was found between degree of control and population density of these nematodes in soil.

  1. Reproduction of Meloidogyne incognita on Winter Cover Crops Used in Cotton Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timper, Patricia; Davis, Richard F; Tillman, P Glynn

    2006-03-01

    Substantial reproduction of Meloidogyne incognita on winter cover crops may lead to damaging populations in a subsequent cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) crop. The amount of population increase during the winter depends on soil temperature and the host status of the cover crop. Our objectives were to quantify M. incognita race 3 reproduction on rye (Secale cereale) and several leguminous cover crops and to determine if these cover crops increase population densities of M. incognita and subsequent damage to cotton. The cover crops tested were 'Bigbee' berseem clover (Trifolium alexandrinum), 'Paradana' balansa clover (T. balansae), 'AU Sunrise' and 'Dixie' crimson clover (T. incarnatum), 'Cherokee' red clover (T. pratense), common and 'AU Early Cover' hairy vetch (Vicia villosa), 'Cahaba White' vetch (V. sativa), and 'Wrens Abruzzi' rye. In the greenhouse tests, egg production was greatest on berseem clover, Dixie crimson clover, AU Early Cover hairy vetch, and common hairy vetch; intermediate on Balansa clover and AU Sunrise crimson clover; and least on rye, Cahaba White vetch, and Cherokee red clover. In both 2002 and 2003 field tests, enough heat units were accumulated between 1 January and 20 May for the nematode to complete two generations. Both AU Early Cover and common hairy vetch led to greater root galling than fallow in the subsequent cotton crop; they also supported high reproduction of M. incognita in the greenhouse. Rye and Cahaba White vetch did not increase root galling on cotton and were relatively poor hosts for M. incognita. Only those legumes that increased populations of M. incognita reduced cotton yield. In the southern US, M. incognita can complete one to two generations on a susceptible winter cover crop, so cover crops that support high nematode reproduction may lead to damage and yield losses in the following cotton crop. Planting rye or Meloidogyne-resistant legumes as winter cover crops will lower the risk of increased nematode populations compared to most vetches and clovers. PMID:19259434

  2. Behavioral Responses of Meloidogyne incognita to Small Temperature Changes

    OpenAIRE

    Dusenbery, D. B.

    1988-01-01

    Small, rapid temperature changes were generated by incandescent radiation, and behavioral responses of Meloidogyne incognita juveniles were recorded with high time resolution by computer tracking. Temperature changes away from the preferred temperature resulted in decreases in the rate of movement and increases in the rate of change of direction, whether the changes were toward warmer or cooler temperatures. These behavioral changes lasted about 30 seconds. Temperature changes toward the pref...

  3. Efectividad biológica de extractos de Carya illinoensis, para el control de Meloidogyne incognita / Biological effectiveness of Carya illinoensis extracts for Meloidogyne incognita management

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Fabiola, Garrido Cruz; Melchor, Cepeda Siller; Francisco Daniel, Hernández Castillo; Yisa María, Ochoa Fuentes; Ernesto, Cerna Chávez; Diana Margarita, Morales Adame.

    1317-13-01

    Full Text Available El trabajo se desarrolló durante 2012 en el Laboratorio de Nematología de la Universidad Autónoma Agraria Antonio Narro, con el objetivo de evaluar extractos vegetales derivados del nogal Carya illinoinensis (Wangenh) K. Koch, para el control del nematodo agallador Meloidogyne sp. Göldi 1889. Los ne [...] matodos fueron obtenidos a partir de tubérculos de papa (Solanum tuberosum L.) Var. "Alpha", que presentaban sintomatología. Se realizó la identificación de los nematodos y se determinó que correspondían a Meloidogyne incognita. Para el estudio de evaluació de efectividad biológica de los extractos se colocaron los extractos a diferentes concentraciones, (1.0, 1.5 y 2%) utilizando una población de 30 ±5 especímenes de Meloidogyne incognita activos, se estableció un experimento completamente al azar, con once tratamientos incluyendo al testigo y cinco repeticiones. Se observaron al microscopio estereoscópico a las 24, 48 y 72 h de exposición con los extractos, para determinar el porcentaje de mortalidad. De los extractos evaluados, los que presentaron mayor actividad nematicida fueron el FIM8 (ruezno acuoso) con 89.16%, FIM6 (Ruezno etanolítico) con 69.22%, y el FIM7 (Cáscara acuoso) con 60.77%, todos éstos en la concentración al 2% y en la observación a las 72 h de exposición con el extracto. Abstract in english The work was developed in 2012 at the Nematology Laboratory of the Universidad Autonoma Agraria Antonio Narro, with the aim of evaluating plant extracts derived hickory Carya illinoinensis (Wangenh) K. Koch, for the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne sp. Göldi (1889) management. Nematodes were obtained [...] from potato tubers (Solanum tuberosum L.) Var. "Alpha", presenting symptoms. Identification of nematodes was performed and it was determined that corresponded to Meloidogyne incognita. Assessment study for the biological effectiveness of the extracts extracts were placed at different concentrations (1.0, 1.5 and 2%) using a population of 30 ± 5 Meloidogyne incognita specimens of assets, an experiment was completely randomized, with eleven treatments including control and five replications. Stereoscopic microscope at 24, 48 and 72 h of exposure to the extracts were observed to determine the percentage of mortality. Of the extracts tested, those with higher nematicidal activity were FIM8 (aqueous husk) with 89.16%, FIM6 (etanolítico husk) with 69.22%, and FIM7 (aqueous shell) with 60.77%, all these in the concentration of 2% and observation at 72 h of exposure to the extract.

  4. Meloidogyne incognita Inoculum Source Affects Host Suitability and Growth of Yellow Nutsedge and Chile Pepper

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas, S. H.; Schroeder, J.; Kenney, M. J.; Murray, L. W.

    1997-01-01

    Meloidogyne incognita (Mi) reproduction and host plant responses in chile pepper (Capsicum annuum) and yellow nutsedge (Cyperus esculentus = YNS) to three sources of inoculum obtained by rearing a single Mi population on chile, YNS, and tomato were evaluated in two factorial greenhouse experiments. The interactive effects of Mi inoculum source and crop-weed competition were determined. In the absence of YNS competition, chile growth was reduced less by Mi inoculum from chile than by inoculum ...

  5. Reaction of common bean genotypes to Meloidogyne incognita Race 1 Reação do plantas de feijoeiro a Meloidogyne incognita Raça 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio R Alves

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The objective was to determine the reaction of 33 Phaseolus vulgaris L. genotypes to parasitism by Meloidogyne incognita race 1. The genotypes used in this study six included commercially exploited ("IAPAR­- 81", "EL- 22", "Carioca", "Serrano", "BATT- 477" and "Uirapuru" varieties, one susceptible ("Rico- 23" and two resistant ("Aporé" and "Pérola" varieties; the others were provided by farmers of the South of Espírito Santo State. The experiment was carried out in a greenhouse in a completely randomized design with 7 replicates. The plants were inoculated with 4,000 eggs + second-stage juveniles (J2 of nematodes. After 50 days, the final population of nematodes (FP, reproduction factor (RF and percentage reproduction rate (%RR were evaluated. The resistance selection was based on the %RR, i.e., 0-25% = highly susceptible (HS; 26-50% = susceptible (SU; 51-75% = little resistant (LR; 76-95% = moderately resistant (MR; 96-99% = resistant (RE; 100% = highly resistant (HR or immune (IM. Only the genotype "Preto Meia Lua" was highly resistant. The genotypes "Terrinha- 2" and "Mulatinho" were classified as resistant, "EL- 22", "BATT- 477", "Vermelho", "Bate Estrada" and "Paina" as (susceptible and genotypes "Rico 23" and "Morgado" as highly susceptible.RESUMO Objetivou-se com esse trabalho estudar a reação de 33 genótipos de Phaseolus vulgaris L. ao parasitismo de Meloidogyne incognita raça 1 em casa de vegetação. Desses genótipos seis são cultivados comercialmente ("IAPAR­- 81" , "EL- 22" , "Carioca", "Serrano", "BATT- 477" e "Uirapuru", um é suscetível ("Rico- 23" , dois são resistentes ("Aporé" e "Pérola" e os demais foram resgatados em propriedades localizadas no Sul do Espírito Santo. O experimento foi conduzido em casa de vegetação em delineamento inteiramente casualisado com 7 repetições. As plantas foram inoculadas com 4.000 ovos + juvenis de segundo estádio (J2 do nematóide. Após 50 dias da inoculação, foram avaliados a população final de nematóides (PF, fator de reprodução (FR e o percentual de redução do fator de reprodução (% RFR. Os genótipos foram classificados como altamente susceptível (AS, susceptível (SU, pouco resistente (PR, moderadamente resistente (MR, resistente (RE, altamente resistente (AR ou imune (IM. Apenas o genótipo "Preto Meia Lua" comportou-se como AR. Os genótipos "Terrinha- 2" e "Mulatinho" foram classificados como RE, os genótipos "EL- 22", "BATT- 477", "Vermelho", "Bate Estrada" e "Paina" como SU e os genótipos "Rico- 23" e "Morgado" como AS.

  6. Resistência de cultivares de batata-doce a Meloidogyne incognita Resistance of sweet potato cultivars to Meloidogyne incognita

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria J. A. Wanderley

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve o objetivo de estudar a resistência em 35 cultivares de batata-doce (Ipomoea batatas a Meloidogyne incognita, bem como documentar alterações anatômicas em tecidos de raízes de cultivares infetadas. As plantas foram inoculadas em vasos com 3.000 ovos e juvenis de segundo estádio do nematóide e avaliadas aos 90 dias após com base no fator de reprodução (FR. Entre as 35 cultivares 15 foram consideradas resistentes. Alterações anatômicas nas raízes de cultivares suscetíveis são ilustradas, observando-se bloqueio de vasos do xilema e supressão de tecidos vasculares.The objectives of this study were to evaluate the resistance of 35 sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas cultivars to Meloidogyne incognita and illustrating anatomical changes in tissue of infected plants. The plants were inoculated with 3,000 eggs and juveniles of M. incognita and evaluated at 90 days after inoculation based on the reproduction factor of the nematode (RF. Among the 35 cultivars tested, 15 of them were considered resistant. Anatomical changes in sweet potato roots are illustrated, showing interruption of xylem vessels and progressive suppression of vascular tissues.

  7. Resistência de cultivares de batata-doce a Meloidogyne incognita / Resistance of sweet potato cultivars to Meloidogyne incognita

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Maria J. A., Wanderley; Jaime M., Santos.

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve o objetivo de estudar a resistência em 35 cultivares de batata-doce (Ipomoea batatas) a Meloidogyne incognita, bem como documentar alterações anatômicas em tecidos de raízes de cultivares infetadas. As plantas foram inoculadas em vasos com 3.000 ovos e juvenis de segundo est [...] ádio do nematóide e avaliadas aos 90 dias após com base no fator de reprodução (FR). Entre as 35 cultivares 15 foram consideradas resistentes. Alterações anatômicas nas raízes de cultivares suscetíveis são ilustradas, observando-se bloqueio de vasos do xilema e supressão de tecidos vasculares. Abstract in english The objectives of this study were to evaluate the resistance of 35 sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) cultivars to Meloidogyne incognita and illustrating anatomical changes in tissue of infected plants. The plants were inoculated with 3,000 eggs and juveniles of M. incognita and evaluated at 90 days aft [...] er inoculation based on the reproduction factor of the nematode (RF). Among the 35 cultivars tested, 15 of them were considered resistant. Anatomical changes in sweet potato roots are illustrated, showing interruption of xylem vessels and progressive suppression of vascular tissues.

  8. Identificación morfológica, morfométrica y molecular de meloidogyne incognita en higuera (ficus carica l.) en Costa Rica

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Walter, Peraza-Padilla; Johaner, Rosales-Flores; Alejandro, Esquivel-Hernández; Irena, Hilje-Rodríguez; Ramón, Molina-Bravo; Pablo, Castillo-Castillo.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Identificación morfológica, morfométrica y molecular de Meloidogyne incognita en higuera (Ficus carica L.) en Costa Rica. El objetivo de este estudio fue identificar la especie de Meloidogyne asociada a dos plantaciones de higuera en Costa Rica. En marzo de 2012, en el distrito de Pacayas, provincia [...] de Cartago, se detectaron agallas en los sistemas radicales de plantas de higuera (Ficus carica L.) de dos fincas. De las raíces agalladas se extrajeron hembras, masas de huevos y juveniles (J2) de Meloidogyne sp. Se examinaron los patrones perineales de las hembras y los segundos estadios infectivos se analizaron morfológica y molecularmente mediante PCR-RFLP. Se amplificó la región intergénica (IGS) del genoma mitocondrial, delimitada por el gen de la subunidad II de la citocromo oxidasa (COII) y el gen ribosomal 16S. La población de nematodos se identificó como M. incognita. El tamaño de los productos de PCR generados con los imprimadores C2F3 y 1108 fue de 1,7 kb. Al tratar los productos de PCR con enzimas de restricción, se generaron cuatro fragmentos de 850, 450, 250 y 150 pb con la enzima AluI y dos fragmentos de 1300 y 400 pb con la enzima HinfI. Abstract in english Morphological, morphometrical and molecular identification of Meloidogyne incognita in fig (Ficus carica L.) in Costa Rica. The objective of this study was to identify species of Meloidogyne associated with two fig plantations in Costa Rica. On March 2012 in Pacayas, Cartago province, root-galls wer [...] e found in two fig plantations of Ficus carica L. Females, egg-masses and juveniles (J2) of Meloidogyne sp. were extracted from the galled roots. Female perineal patterns were examined and second infective stages were analyzed morphometrically and molecularly by PCR-RFLP. The mitochondrial intergenic region (IGS) flanked by the cytochrome oxidase subunit II gene (COII) and the 16S ribosomal gene was amplified. The population was identified morphologically, morphometrically and molecularly as M. incognita. The PCR product obtained with primers C2F3 and 1108 were 1.7 kb in size. When PCR products were treated with restriction enzymes they generated four fragments of 850, 450, 250 and 150 bp with AluI and two fragments of 1300 and 400 bp with HinfI.

  9. Purificação de metabólitos fúngicos com efeitos tóxicos sobre Meloidogyne incognita / Purification of fungal metabolites with toxic effects on Meloidogyne incognita

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    GERALDO H., SILVA; DENILSON F., OLIVEIRA; VICENTE P., CAMPOS.

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available Objetivando o desenvolvimento de novas metodologias de controle de fitonematóides, este trabalho buscou purificar as substâncias nematicidas produzidas por Cunninghamella elegans, Fusarium sp., Paecilomyces lilacinus eP. variotii. Esses fungos foram cultivados em meio líquido Czapek-Dox durante 15 d [...] ias, a 25 ºC, em agitador orbital. Em seguida, filtraram-se as misturas, o que permitiu a obtenção de soluções que foram concentradas sob vácuo e submetidas à purificação direcionada por testes in vitro com Meloidogyne incognita. Observou-se que os filtrados de P. lilacinus e P. variotii perdiam suas atividades nematicidas após a concentração sob vácuo, sugerindo que as substâncias ativas produzidas por esses fungos são consideravelmente voláteis. Para o filtrado de Fusarium sp., observou-se perda total da atividade contra M. incognita após fracionamento em coluna de sílica gel, indicando instabilidade da substância nematicida frente às condições empregadas.Do filtrado de C. elegans isolou-se uma substância que, em solução aquosa na concentração de 250 ppm, imobilizou 94% dos juvenis do segundo estádio de M. incognita expostos a tal solução durante 48 h. Abstract in english In a search for new molecules toxic to plant parasitic nematodes, procedures were set up to purify nematode toxic molecules produced by Cunninghamella elegans, Fusarium sp., Paecilomyces lilacinus and P. variotii. Those fungi were grown in Czapek-Dox liquid medium during 15 days, at 25 ºC, in an orb [...] ital shaker. After fungus mycelium removal by filtration, the solutions were concentrated under vacuum and submitted to purification, guided by in vitro assays with Meloidogyne incognita juveniles. As a result, it was observed that P. lilacinus and P.variotii filtrates lost their activity after vacuum concentration, which suggests that the nematocides produced by those fungi are considerably volatile. In the case of Fusarium sp. filtrate, the active substance seems to be unstable, as the activity against M. incognita juveniles completely disappeared after chromatography in a silica gel column. The C. elegans filtrate rendered one isolated substance that immobilized 94% of the M. incognita juveniles exposed during 48 h to an aqueous solution of the substance at 250 ppm.

  10. Reducing Meloidogyne incognita Injury to Cucumber in a Tomato-Cucumber Double-Cropping System

    OpenAIRE

    Colyer, P. D.; Kirkpatrick, T. L.; Vernon, P. R.; Barham, J. D.; Bateman, R. J.

    1998-01-01

    The effects of a root-knot nematode-resistant tomato cultivar and application of the nematicide ethoprop on root-knot nematode injury to cucumber were compared in a tomato-cucumber double-cropping system. A root-knot nematode-resistant tomato cultivar, Celebrity, and a susceptible cultivar, Heatwave, were grown in rotation with cucumber in 1995 and 1996. Celebrity suppressed populations of Meloidogyne incognita in the soil and resulted in a low root-gall rating on the subsequent cucumber crop...

  11. Susceptibilidad de genotipos de Solanum lycopersicum L. frente a Meloidogyne incognita Kofoid y White (Chitwood) / Susceptibility of Solanum lycopersicum L. genotypes against Meloidogyne incognita Kofoid & White (Chitwood)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Lucila, Gómez; R, Enrique; Dainé, Hernández-Ochandía; Ileana, Miranda; E, González; Belkis, Peteira; Mayra G, Rodríguez.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó la resistencia/susceptibilidad de los genotipos Aro 8484, HA 3063, Caramba y HA 8476 de Solanum lycopersicum L. frente a Meloidogyne incognita Kofoid y White (Chitwood) raza 2 y se determinó la influencia de este nematodo sobre su crecimiento. Se establecieron dos experimentos en condicion [...] es semi-controladas, en macetas de 1,5L de capacidad. En el primero, cada genotipo, incluyendo el control susceptible tomate cv. Campbell-28, se inoculó con 1,5 J2. g de suelo-1. Para la categorización de los genotipos en resistentes/susceptibles se determinó el índice de agallamiento, el factor de reproducción y el índice de reproducción del nematodo. En el segundo experimento los genotipos se inocularon con 0; 0,5; 1,5 y 2,5 J2. g de suelo-1. Los cuatro genotipos con niveles 0 de nematodos constituyeron los controles. Cada experimento contó con 10 réplicas por tratamiento con una distribución aleatoria en casas de vegetación. Se realizó un análisis de regresión lineal para establecer la relación entre los niveles de nematodos y la altura de las plantas. Todos los genotipos fueron susceptibles a M. incognita. Se demostró que entre el 60 y el 94% de la disminución del tamaño de las plantas está relacionado con el aumento de las poblaciones del nematodo. No se recomienda el uso de estos genotipos en instalaciones de producción protegida de hortalizas con suelos infestados por M. incognita, sin antes establecer medidas de manejo que disminuyan las poblaciones por debajo de 0,5 J2.g de suelo-1. Abstract in english The resistance/susceptibility of Solanum lycopersicum L genotypes Aro 8484, HA 3063, Caramba and HA 8476 against Meloidogyne incognita Kofoid and White (Chitwood) race 2 and the influence of the nematode on the genotype growths were evaluated in two experiments under semi-controlled conditions. In t [...] he first experiment, the genotypes, including a susceptible control tomato Campbell-28, were inoculated with a level of 1,5 J2. g of soil-1. Root gall index, was reproduction factor and reproduction index of the nematode were determined for categorizing resistant/susceptible genotypes. In the second experiment, three levels of nematodes (0,5; 1,5 and 2,5 J2. g of soil-1) were used. Not inoculated genotypes were established as a control. Both experiments had 10 repetitions and were placed in a green house using a randomized distribution design. A lineal regression analysis was used to establish the relation of nematode levels and the plant growths. All genotypes were susceptible to M. incognita. It was demonstrated that the 60 to 94% of plant growth decrease related to the nematode population increase. The use of genotypes is not recommended in soils infected with M. incognita unless management measures are established for keeping nematode population below 0,5 J2.g of soil-1.

  12. Biocontrol of root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita damaging queen palm, Livistona rotundifolia using Trichoderma species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jegathambigai, V; Karunaratne, M D S D; Svinningen, Arne; Mikunthan, G

    2008-01-01

    Livistona rotundifolia is a widely grown queen palm in all the net houses of floriculture industries in Sri Lanka. It is grown to an extent of 10,000 mZ in Green Farms Ltd, Marawilla under shade net house. Root knot nematode is one among the key pests of queen palms and causes heavy loss in the queen palm industry. Queen palm is grown in a coir based compost media under sprinkler irrigation. Management of nematodes using chemicals is impractical due the non availability and selectivity of the nematicides available in the market. This study attempted to evaluate the efficacy of Trichoderma species to control root knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita that damage L. rotundifolia and caused heavy loss at Green Farms Ltd, Marawilla. Experiments were conducted using organic amendments with T. viride + T. harzianum (1 x 10(10) cfu/ml) to control the nematodes. Carbofuran (3%) (2.5 g/750 ml pot with organic amendments), the only available pesticide with nematicidal property, was used as a standard check. Queen palm naturally infected with M. incognita was treated with Trichoderma species and the effect was compared with the carbofuran treatment. Standard procedures were adopted to count the nematodes in the pre and post treated queen palm plots. The results revealed that the application of mixture of T. viride and T. harzianum at 1 x 10(10) cfu/ml significantly reduced the nematode populations in the media and number of galls in the palms compare to Carbofuran treated palms. Eggs and juveniles of M. incognita were found infected with Trichoderma species under the in-vitro conditions. The population of M. incognita was started declining significantly 3 weeks after the first application of Trichoderma species in the field. The response was apparent in the palms treated with mixture of Trichoderma species and recovered within 3 months as a healthy and quality product with export standards. PMID:19226812

  13. Efficacy of rootstocks for control of Meloidogyne incognita on grafted tomato and cantaloupe

    Science.gov (United States)

    A microplot experiment was conducted to evaluate root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne incognita) resistance in rootstocks used for producing grafted tomato (Solanum esculentum) and muskmelon (Cucumis melo). Three tomato rootstocks including ‘TX301’ (Syngenta Seeds), ‘Multifort’ (De Ruiter Seeds), and ‘A...

  14. Microplot Evaluation of Rootstocks for Control of Meloidogyne incognita on Grafted Tomato, Muskmelon, and Watermelon

    OpenAIRE

    Kokalis-Burelle, Nancy; Rosskopf, Erin N.

    2011-01-01

    Microplot experiments were conducted over two years (four growing seasons) to evaluate Meloidogyne incognita resistance in rootstocks used for grafted tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), muskmelon (Cucumis melo), and watermelon (Citrullus lanatus). Three tomato rootstocks; ‘TX301’, ‘Multifort’, and ‘Aloha’, were tested in addition to the nongrafted scion, ‘Florida-47’. Two muskmelon rootstocks; Cucumis metuliferus and ‘Tetsukabuto’ (Cucurbita maxima × Cucurbita moschata) were evaluated with the no...

  15. Control of Meloidogyne incognita Using Mixtures of Organic Acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Yunhee; Kim, Young Ho

    2014-12-01

    This study sought to control the root-knot nematode (RKN) Meloidogyne incognita using benign organo-chemicals. Second-stage juveniles (J2) of RKN were exposed to dilutions (1.0%, 0.5%, 0.2%, and 0.1%) of acetic acid (AA), lactic acid (LA), and their mixtures (MX). The nematode bodies were disrupted severely and moderately by vacuolations in 0.5% of MX and single organic acids, respectively, suggesting toxicity of MX may be higher than AA and LA. The mortality of J2 was 100% at all concentrations of AA and MX and only at 1.0% and 0.5% of LA, which lowered slightly at 0.2% and greatly at 0.1% of LA. This suggests the nematicidal activity of MX may be mostly derived from AA together with supplementary LA toxicity. MX was applied to chili pepper plants inoculated with about 1,000 J2, for which root-knot gall formations and plant growths were examined 4 weeks after inoculation. The root gall formation was completely inhibited by 0.5% MX and standard and double concentrations of fosthiazate; and inhibited 92.9% and 57.1% by 0.2% and 0.1% MX, respectively. Shoot height, shoot weight, and root weight were not significantly (P ? 0.05) different among all treatments and the untreated and non-inoculated controls. All of these results suggest that the mixture of the organic acids may have a potential to be developed as an eco-friendly nematode control agent that needs to be supported by the more nematode control experiments in fields. PMID:25506312

  16. Produtos naturais aplicados para manejo de Meloidogyne incognita em tomateiros / Natural products applied to the management of Meloidogyne incognita in tomato plants

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Thiago Anchieta de, Melo; Ilka Márcia Ribeiro de Sousa, Serra; Gilson Soares da, Silva; Rosa Maria Souto de, Sousa.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar o efeito de produtos naturais na expressão da resistência a Meloidogyne incognita em plantas de tomate produzidos organicamente. Os indutores Rocksil, Quitosana, Neemseto e Biopirol foram aplicados 5, 10 e 15 dias, em tratamentos independentes, antes da inocul [...] ação do patógeno através da pulverização foliar, utilizando-se duas dosagens para cada indutor. A inoculação do nematoide foi realizada 30 dias após o plantio, usando-se 5000 ovos/ planta. Avaliando-se o número de ovos e o fator de reprodução, 30 dias após a inoculação, observou-se que todos os tratamentos diferiram estatisticamente da testemunha, impedindo o aumento da população inicial do patógeno. Dentre os indutores, o indutor silicatado Rocksil foi o que apresentou os melhores resultados para o controle da meloidoginose em todas as épocas de aplicação e em todas as dosagens. Contudo, plantas tratadas com o produto apresentaram baixos pesos de parte aérea sugerindo que houve um custo adaptativo de resistência. Considerando-se o fator de reprodução não foram observadas diferenças estatísticas quando comparadas a dosagem e época de aplicação entre os indutores, com exceção da Quitosana aplicada aos 5 dias antes da inoculação e do Neemseto aplicado aos 15 dias antes da inoculação do nematóide. Abstract in english This study aimed to evaluate the effect of natural products on the expression of resistance to Meloidogyne incognita in organically produced tomato plants. The inducers Rocksil, Chitosan, Neemseto and Biopirol were applied at 5, 10 and 15 days as independent treatments before the pathogen inoculatio [...] n by means of leaf spraying, using two levels for each inducer. The nematode inoculation was performed at 30 days after planting, using 5000 eggs/plant. Evaluating the number of eggs and the reproduction factor, at 30 days after inoculation, all treatments statistically differed from the control, preventing an increase in the initial population of the pathogen. Of the natural inducers, Rocksil showed the best results for controlling the root-knot nematode in all application times and at all levels. However, plants treated with the product had low shoot weights, suggesting that there was a fitness cost of resistance. Considering the reproduction factor, there were not statistical differences when the level and the application time were compared among natural inducers, except for Chitosan applied at 5 days before the nematode inoculation and Neemseto applied at 15 days before the nematode inoculation.

  17. Effect of Temperature on Suppression of Meloidogyne incognita by Tagetes Cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ploeg, A T; Maris, P C

    1999-12-01

    The suppression of Meloidogyne incognita by marigolds differed among six marigold cultivars and five soil temperatures. Tagetes signata (syn. T. tenuifolia) cv. Tangerine Gem and the Tagetes hybrid Polynema allowed reproduction and root galling when grown at 30 degrees C, and should not be used for control of M. incognita at temperatures close to 30 degrees C. Tagetes patula cultivars Single Gold and Tangerine and T. erecta Flor de Muerto, when grown within a 20-30 degrees C soil temperature range, significantly reduced root galling and nematode infestation of subsequent tomato compared to tomato following fallow. When grown at 10 degrees C or 15 degrees C, only one of the tested marigold cultivars (T. erecta CrackerJack at 15 degrees C) reduced M. incognita infection of subsequent tomato compared to tomato after fallow. Marigolds should be grown at soil temperatures above 15 degrees C to suppress M. incognita infection of a subsequent crop. PMID:19270940

  18. Systemic nematicidal activity and biocontrol efficacy of Bacillus firmus against the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Jing; Zhou, Qiaoni; Luo, Haiyan; Xia, Liqiu; Li, Lin; Sun, Ming; Yu, Ziquan

    2015-04-01

    A strain of marine bacterium Bacillus firmus YBf-10 with nematicidal activity was originally isolated by our group. In the present study, the systemic nematicidal activity and biocontrol efficacy in pot experiment of B. firmus YBf-10 were investigated. Our results showed that YBf-10 exhibits systemic nematicidal activity against Meloidogyne incognita, including lethal activity, inhibition of egg hatch and motility. Pot experiment suggested that soil drenching with YBf-10 efficiently reduced damage of M. incognita to tomato plants, such as reduction of galls, egg masses on roots, and final nematode population in soil; and moreover, YBf-10 significantly promoted host plant growth. In addition, our results also indicated that the systemic nematicidal activity is likely attributed to the secondary metabolites produced by YBf-10. The obtained results of the current study confirmed that B. firmus YBf-10 is a promising nematicidal agent, and has great potential in plant-parasitic nematicidal management. PMID:25672545

  19. HISTOPATHOLOGICAL CHANGES AND ENZYMATIC ACTIVITIES INDUCED BY MELOIDOGYNE INCOGNITA ON RESISTANT AND SUSCEPTIBLE POTATO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moawad M. Mohamad

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available All potato cultivars are susceptible to root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp. which infest the roots and induce galls on the surface and necrotic spots in the flesh tuber of potato, Solanum tuberosum. Infested tubers are unacceptable for processing and fresh market. Tubers are also putative source of dissemination of the nematode. A French nematode- resistant tetraploid potato genotype gained from ex-S. sparsipilum material hybridized with S. tuberosum in F1 and in their back cross progenies and designated as 02T.155.6 was tested and compared in the present study in Egypt as a suitable different environment. Histopathological changes and chitinase activity induced by M. incognita population, of common occurrence in Egypt, in four French tetraploid materials and two common cultivars known as nematode- resistant and susceptible potato genotypes were investigated. Hypertrophied cells were initiated in both cortical and steler regions of the roots which were then developed to abnormal xylem elements expanding into the cortex in French susceptible genotypes designated as 02T.149.6, 02T.150.54, and 02T.157.16. Nematode within the vascular tissue (stele could induce giant cell development close to nematode heads. The largest number of such induced cells was shown by the cultivars Spunta and Diamant. The clone 02T.155.6 with putative nematode resistance demonstrated none or very little nematode development. Recently dead second stage juveniles could also indicate incompatible plant reaction to the invading nematodes in 02T.155.6. M. incognita, Giza population, resistance was generally more coherent to 02T.155.6 as demonstrated by our histological investigations but less coherent as shown by another Egyptian M. incognita population. Chitinase activity was enhanced in M. incognita (Giza-inoculated with respect to uninoculated roots in all plants. After inoculation, such an activity generally increased more in roots of a potato genotype previously known to have resistance or relatively low numbers of both nematode galls and eggmasses than in the other tested cultivars. Peroxidase and catalase activities of nematode- inoculated with respect to uninoculated potato roots were presented and discussed.

  20. Seed treatment affects Meloidogyne incognita penetration, colonization and reproduction on cotton Tratamento de sementes afeta a penetração, colonização e reprodução de Meloidogyne incognita em algodão

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosana Bessi

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The effect of abamectin, applied as seed treatment, on Meloidogyne incognita penetration, colonization, and reproduction on cotton was evaluated in two greenhouse experiments. Second stage juveniles (J2 penetration was evaluated 3, 9 and 15 days after germination (dag, whereas the nematode colonization was evaluated 27dag, by counting the total number of galls and egg masses per root system. Eggs and J2 were extracted from the roots to assess the nematode reproduction at 50 and 100dag. The seed treatment caused a decrease in J2 penetration in the roots, resulting in lower colonization and reproduction of M. incognita. These findings are discussed considering the environmental aspects of abamectin in the soil and the current practices for the crop management.O efeito de abamectina em tratamento de sementes na penetração, colonização e reprodução de Meloidogyne incognita, em algodão, foi avaliado em dois experimentos de casa de vegetação. A penetração de juvenis de segundo estádio (J2 foi avaliada aos três, nove e 15 dias após a germinação (dag, enquanto que a colonização 27dag foi avaliada por meio da contagem do número total de galhas e massas de ovos por sistema radicular. Ovos e J2 de M. incognita foram extraídos das raízes para determinar a reprodução do nematoide aos 50 e 100dag. O tratamento de sementes diminuiu a penetração dos J2 nas raízes, resultando em menor colonização e reprodução de M. incognita. Os resultados obtidos são discutidos tendo em vista os aspectos ambientais da presença de abamectina no solo e as práticas agrícolas em uso.

  1. Seed treatment affects Meloidogyne incognita penetration, colonization and reproduction on cotton / Tratamento de sementes afeta a penetração, colonização e reprodução de Meloidogyne incognita em algodão

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Rosana, Bessi; Fernando Ribeiro, Sujimoto; Mário Massayuki, Inomoto.

    1428-14-01

    Full Text Available O efeito de abamectina em tratamento de sementes na penetração, colonização e reprodução de Meloidogyne incognita, em algodão, foi avaliado em dois experimentos de casa de vegetação. A penetração de juvenis de segundo estádio (J2) foi avaliada aos três, nove e 15 dias após a germinação (dag), enquan [...] to que a colonização 27dag foi avaliada por meio da contagem do número total de galhas e massas de ovos por sistema radicular. Ovos e J2 de M. incognita foram extraídos das raízes para determinar a reprodução do nematoide aos 50 e 100dag. O tratamento de sementes diminuiu a penetração dos J2 nas raízes, resultando em menor colonização e reprodução de M. incognita. Os resultados obtidos são discutidos tendo em vista os aspectos ambientais da presença de abamectina no solo e as práticas agrícolas em uso. Abstract in english The effect of abamectin, applied as seed treatment, on Meloidogyne incognita penetration, colonization, and reproduction on cotton was evaluated in two greenhouse experiments. Second stage juveniles (J2) penetration was evaluated 3, 9 and 15 days after germination (dag), whereas the nematode coloniz [...] ation was evaluated 27dag, by counting the total number of galls and egg masses per root system. Eggs and J2 were extracted from the roots to assess the nematode reproduction at 50 and 100dag. The seed treatment caused a decrease in J2 penetration in the roots, resulting in lower colonization and reproduction of M. incognita. These findings are discussed considering the environmental aspects of abamectin in the soil and the current practices for the crop management.

  2. Optimal Levels of Meloidogyne incognita Inoculum for Infection of Tomato and Peach in Vitro

    OpenAIRE

    Hashmi, Ghazala; Huettel, Robin N.; Hammerschlag, Freddi A.; Krusberg, Lorin R.

    1994-01-01

    Penetration of second-stage juveniles (J2) of Meloidogyne incognita into tomato root explants and in vitro propagated peach plantlet roots were compared. Five inoculum levels were used: 25, 50, 75, 100, and 200 J2 for tomato; and 50, 100, 200, 500, and 1,000J2 for peach. The greatest root penetration into tomato was 30% at the 75 J2 level, but the maximum penetration into peach roots was only 8% at the 200 J2 level. The difference (P = 0.05) in penetration of M. incognita at all inoculum leve...

  3. Penetration and Development of Meloidogyne incognita in Roots of Resistant and Susceptible Corn Genotypes

    OpenAIRE

    Windham, G. L.; Williams, W P

    1994-01-01

    Rates of penetration and development ofMeloidogyne incognita race 4 in roots of resistant (inbred Mp307, and S4 lines derived from the open-pollinated varieties Tebeau and Old Raccoon) and susceptible (Pioneer 3110) corn genotypes were determined. Seedlings grown in styrofoam containers were inoculated with 5,000 eggs of M. incognita. Roots were harvested at 3-day intervals starting at 3 days after inoculation (DAI) to 27 DAI and stained with acid fuchsin. Penetration of roots by second-stage...

  4. Growth and Energy Demand of Meloidogyne incognita on Susceptible and Resistant Vitis vinifera Cultivars

    OpenAIRE

    Melakeberhan, H.; Ferris, H.

    1988-01-01

    Food (energy) consumption rates ofMeloidogyne incognita were calculated on Vitis vinifera cv. French Colombard (highly susceptible) and cv. Thompson Seedless (moderately resistant). One-month-old grape seedlings in styrofoam cups were inoculated with 2,000 or 8,000 M. incognita second-stage juveniles (J2) and maintained at 17.5 degree days (DD - base 10 C)/day until maximum adult female growth and (or) the end of oviposition. At 70 DD intervals, nematode fresh biomass was calculated on the ba...

  5. INDUCCIÓN DE ENZIMAS EXTRACELULARES CON HUEVOS DE Meloidogyne incognita Y DE Globodera pallida / INDUCTION OF EXTRACELLULAR ENZYMES WITH Meloidogyne incognita AND Globodera pallida EGGS

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Belkis, Peteira; Ivania, Estévez; S, Atkins; L, Hidalgo-Díaz; B, Kerry.

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available La cepa cubana IMI SD 187 del hongo nematofago Pochonia chlamydosporia var. catenulata es un agente de control biológico potencial de nematodos formadores de agallas. Existen informes sobre la acción controladora de los hongos de la especie Pochonia chlamydosporia sobre nematodos de quistes. Sin emb [...] argo también se conoce de la especificidad de los aislamientos según su hospedante original. El objetivo de este trabajo fue estudiar el comportamiento de diferentes sistemas enzimáticos en la cepa IMI SD 187, frente a huevos de Meloidogyne incognita y Globodera pallida. Se realizaron los ensayos de inducción con huevos de ambos nematodos en medio líquido y se determinaron los contenidos de proteínas totales y niveles de actividad enzimática de proteasas, quitinasas, lipasas y VCP 1. La dinámica de la inducción de los sistemas enzimáticos estuvo relacionada con las fases del proceso de infección de los huevos de M. incognita en la cepa IMI SD 187. Esta cepa de P. chlamydosporia var. catenulata procedente de nematodos formadores de agallas es capaz de infectar huevos de nematodos de quistes. Abstract in english The Cuban strain IMI SD 187 of the nematophagous fungus Pochonia chlamydosporia var. catenulata is a potential biological control agent for the root knot nematodes. There are reports about the controlling action of these fungi on cyst nematodes. However, isolate specificity according to the original [...] host is also known. The aim of this work was to study the enzymatic performance induced by Meloidogyne incognita and Globodera pallida eggs. The induction assays were carried out in liquid media. The total protein content and the enzymatic activity levels for proteases, chitinases, lipases and VCP 1 were determined. The time course experiment for enzymatic activity induction was related to the infection process of M. incognita eggs by the strain IMI SD 187. The strain IMI SD 187 of P. chlamydosporia var. catenulata isolated from root knot nematodes is able to infect eggs from cyst nematodes.

  6. Expression of Resistance to Meloidogyne incognita in Kenaf Cultivars (Hibiscus cannibinus) under Field Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    A. A. Adegbite; G.O. Agbaje; M.O. Akande; N.A.Amusa; Adetumbi, J. A.; O.O. Adeyeye

    2005-01-01

    Field studies were conducted in 2003 and 2004 to investigate the reaction of 10 varieties of kenaf to natural infestation of Meloidogyne incognita. Ten weeks after planting, ten randomly selected plants per variety were assessed for root galling. Plants were carefully uprooted soil adhering to roots was washed off under a gentle stream of tap water and roots then were observed using a stereo microscope. Eggs were extracted from the roots with sodium hypochlorite. The reproduction factor (Pf /...

  7. Mustard seed meal mixtures: management of Meloidogyne incognita on pepper and potential phytotoxicity

    OpenAIRE

    Meyer, Susan L. F.; ZASADA, INGA A; Orisajo, Samuel B.; Morra, Matthew J.

    2011-01-01

    Meals produced when oil is extracted from seeds in the Brassicaceae have been shown to suppress weeds and soilborne pathogens. These seed meals are commonly used individually as soil amendments; the goal of this research was to evaluate seed meal mixes of Brassica juncea (Bj) and Sinapis alba (Sa) against Meloidogyne incognita. Seed meals from Bj ‘Pacific Gold’ and Sa ‘IdaGold’ were tested alone and in combinations to determine rates and application times that would suppress M. incogn...

  8. The Feeding Behavior of Adult Root-knot Nematodes (Meloidogyne incognita) in Rose Balsam and Tomato

    OpenAIRE

    Miyashita, Nao; Yabu, Tetsuo; Kurihara, Takayuki; KOGA, HIRONORI

    2014-01-01

    Meloidogyne incognita is a parasitic root-knot nematode that causes considerable yield loss in a wide range of plants. In this study we documented the movement of adult female nematodes for more than 2 hr in micro-slices of infected tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) and rose balsam (Impatiens balsamina) plants using light and video microscopy. Stylet thrusting was followed by short pumping actions of the esophagus, dorsal esophageal gland ampulla, and metacorpal bulb. Regular thrusting was normal...

  9. Scanning Electron Microscope Study of the Root-knot Nematode (Meloidogyne incognita) on Tomato Root

    OpenAIRE

    Wergin, W P; Orion, D

    1981-01-01

    This study examines the types of structural information that can be gained by utilizing the scanning electron microscope (SEM) and a cryofracture technique to examine the host-parasite interaction. Roots of tomato, Lycopersicon esculentum cv. Marglobe, were cultured aseptically and inoculated with the root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita. Twenty-four hours to four weeks after inoculation, developing galls were removed from the cultures and processed for SEM observation. The cryofracture ...

  10. Penetration and Development of Meloidogyne incognita on Roots of Resistant Soybean Genotypes

    OpenAIRE

    Herman, M.; Hussey, R. S.; Boerma, H. R.

    1991-01-01

    Meloidogyne incognita penetration and development were studied in roots of highly resistant (PI 96354, PI 417444), resistant (Forrest), and susceptible (Bossier) soybean genotypes. Although more second-stage juveniles (J2) had penetrated roots of PI 96354 and PI 417444 than roots of Forrest and Bossier by 2 days after inoculation, fewer J2 were present in roots of PI 96354 at 4 days after inoculation. Juvenile development in all genotypes was evident by 6 days after inoculation, with the high...

  11. Survival of Paecilomyces lilacinus in Selected Carriers and Related Effects on Meloidogyne incognita on Tomato

    OpenAIRE

    Cabanillas, Enrique; Barker, K.R.; Nelson, L. A.

    1989-01-01

    Laboratory and microplot experiments were conducted to determine the influence of carrier and storage of Paecilomyces lilacinus on its survival and related protection of tomato against Meloidogyne incognita. Spores of P. lilacinus were prepared in five formulations: alginate pellets (pellets), diatomaceous earth granules (granules), wheat grain, soil, and soil plus chitin. Fungal viability was high in wheat and granules, intermediate in pellets, and low in soil and chitin-amended soil stored ...

  12. Weed Hosts of Meloidogyne arenaria and M. incognita Common in Tobacco Fields in South Carolina

    OpenAIRE

    Tedford, E. C.; Fortnum, B. A.

    1988-01-01

    Thirty-two weed species common in South Carolina and one cultivar of tobacco were evaluated as hosts of Meloidogyne arenaria race 2 and M. incognita race 3 in the greenhouse. Egg mass production and galling differed (P < 0.05) among weed species. Chenopodium album, Euphorbia maculata, and Vicia villosa were good hosts of M. arenaria. Amaranthus palmeri, Rumex crispus, Amaranthus hybridus, Ambrosia artemisiifolia, lpomoea hederacea var. integriuscula, Setaria lutescens, Sida spinosa, Portulaca...

  13. Intensity and duration of water deficit on the pathosystem sugarcane x Meloidogyne incognita / Intensidade e duração do déficit hídrico no patossistema cana-de-açúcar x Meloidogyne incognita

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Matheus P., Quintela; Elvira M. R., Pedrosa; Lilia, Willadino; Mario M., Rolim; Ênio F. de F. e, Silva; Mariana F. de L., David.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO Neste trabalho objetivou-se estudar a interação entre a intensidade e a duração do déficit hídrico (90, 56 e 22% capacidade de pote [CP] por 30, 60 e 90 dias de estresse contínuo) associado ao parasitismo do nematoide Meloidogyne incognita no crescimento inicial da cana-de-açúcar variedade RB [...] 92579 e à atividade das enzimas catalase e ascorbato peroxidase. O delineamento adotado foi inteiramente casualizado em esquema fatorial 7 (tratamentos hídricos: controle [90% da CP], 56% CP com duração de 30, 60 e 90 dias, 22% CP com duração de 30, 60 e 90 dias) × 2 (densidade de M. incognita: 0 e 20000 ovos por planta), com quatro repetições. O estresse hídrico correspondente a 56% da CP com duração de 30 e 60 dias não afetou o desenvolvimento da variedade RB92579. Os tratamentos hídricos testados aumentaram a atividade da enzima ascorbato peroxidase, porém não afetaram a atividade da enzima catalase. O nematoide não afetou as respostas da RB92579 nas condições estudadas; enfim, o déficit hídrico com maior severidade (22% CP por 90 dias) reduziu a reprodução do M. incognita. Abstract in english ABSTRACT This study aimed to evaluate the interaction between intensity and duration of water deficit (90, 56 and 22% of pot capacity [PC] for 30, 60 and 90 days under continuous stress) associated to the parasitism of the nematode Meloidogyne incognita on the growth of the sugarcane variety RB92579 [...] and the activity of the enzymes catalase and ascorbate peroxidase. The experiment was conducted in completely randomized design in a 7 x 2 factorial scheme (seven water deficit treatments: control [90% PC], 56% PC for 30, 60 and 90 days, 20% PC for 30, 60 and 90 days; and two densities of M. incognita: 0 and 20000 eggs plant-1), with four replicates. The water stress corresponding to 56% PC for 30 or 60 days did not affect RB92579 development. The evaluated water treatments increased ascorbate peroxidase activity, but it did not affect catalase activity. Nematode inoculation did not affect RB92579 responses to drought stress conditions. The higher severity of water deficit (22% PC for 90 days) reduced M. incognita reproduction.

  14. EFFECT OF ROOT EXUDATES OF TAGETES SP. ON EGG HATCHING BEHAVIOR OF MELOIDOGYNE INCOGNITA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iruthaya Kalaiselvam

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The effect root exudates of pre-planted marigold intercropped with tomato in regulating the hatching behavior of root-knot nematode - Meloidogyne incognita eggs were investigated. Marigold cultivars Tagetes patula, T. minuta, T. erecta, T. erecta (var. Orange, T. erecta (var. Yellow significantly reduced the numbers of second-stage juveniles (J2s in subsequent tomato compared to the tomato-tomato control. Four different concentrations (25, 50, 75 and 100 % of water soluble extract from the selected varieties of Marigold cultivars were filtered and added to the petri dish and infested with the eggs of M. incognita. Data indicate that egg hatching was significantly affected by root exudates of Tagetes sp. however, nematicidal activity was species dependent. Root exudates of T. erecta were lethal to J2 of M. incognita and were inhibitory to the hatch of eggs at the concentration of 75 % or higher.

  15. Weed Hosts of Meloidogyne arenaria and M. incognita Common in Tobacco Fields in South Carolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tedford, E C; Fortnum, B A

    1988-10-01

    Thirty-two weed species common in South Carolina and one cultivar of tobacco were evaluated as hosts of Meloidogyne arenaria race 2 and M. incognita race 3 in the greenhouse. Egg mass production and galling differed (P Amaranthus palmeri, Rumex crispus, Amaranthus hybridus, Ambrosia artemisiifolia, lpomoea hederacea var. integriuscula, Setaria lutescens, Sida spinosa, Portulaca oleracea, and Rumex acetosella were moderate hosts. Taraxacum officinale, Ipomoea hederacea, Cyperus esculentus, Cynodon dactyIon, Echinochloa crus-galli, Eleusine indica, Sorghum halepense, Setaria viridis, Digitaria sanguinalis, and Datura stramonium were poor hosts for M. arenaria. Amaranthus palmeri, Amaranthus hybridus, Chenopodium album, Euphorbia maculata, Setaria lutescens, Vicia villosa, Sida spinosa, Rumex crispus, and Portulaca oleracea were moderate hosts and Ipomoea hederacea var. integriuscula, Xanthium strumarium, Cyperus esculentus, Cynodon dactylon, Paspalum notatum, Eleusine indica, Setaria viridis, and Rumex acetosella were poor hosts for M. incognita. None of the above were good hosts for M. incognita. Tobacco 'PD4' supported large numbers of both nematode species. PMID:19290313

  16. The nematicidal effect of some bacterial biofertilizers on Meloidogyne incognita in sandy soil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    M.E, El-Hadad; M.I, Mustafa; Sh.M, Selim; T.S, El-Tayeb; A.E.A, Mahgoob; Norhan H. Abdel, Aziz.

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available In a greenhouse experiment, the nematicidal effect of some bacterial biofertilizers including the nitrogen fixing bacteria (NFB) Paenibacillus polymyxa (four strains), the phosphate solubilizing bacteria (PSB) Bacillus megaterium (three strains) and the potassium solubilizing bacteria (KSB) B. circu [...] lans (three strains) were evaluated individually on tomato plants infested with the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita in potted sandy soil. Comparing with the uninoculated nematode-infested control, the inoculation with P. polymyxa NFB7, B. megaterium PSB2 and B. circulans KSB2, increased the counts of total bacteria and total bacterial spores in plants potted soil from 1.2 to 2.6 folds estimated 60 days post-inoculation. Consequently, the inoculation with P. polymyxa NFB7 increased significantly the shoot length (cm), number of leaves / plant, shoot dry weight (g) / plant and root dry weight (g) / plant by 32.6 %, 30.8 %, 70.3 % and 14.2 %, respectively. Generally, the majority treatments significantly reduced the nematode multiplication which was more obvious after 60 days of inoculation. Among the applied strains, P. polymyxa NFB7, B. megaterium PSB2 and B. circulans KSB2 inoculations resulted in the highest reduction in nematode population comparing with the uninoculated nematode-infested control. They recorded the highest reduction in numbers of hatched juveniles/root by 95.8 %, females/root by 63.75 % and juveniles/1kg soil by 57.8 %. These results indicated that these bacterial biofertilizers are promising double purpose microorganisms for mobilizing of soil nutrients (nitrogen, phosphate and potassium) and for the biological control of M. incognita.

  17. AVALIAÇÃO DO DESENVOLVIMENTO DE GENÓTIPOS DE FEIJOEIROS PARASITADOS POR MELOIDOGYNE INCOGNITA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FONSECA, Abel Souza da

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available This work had as objective to evaluate the growth of bean plants genotypes parasitized byMeloidogyne incognita under controlled conditions. The experiment was carried out on an entirely randomizeddesign with eight replicates, disposed in a factorial arrangement 3x4, that are: three bean plants genotypes(Pérola, Córrego Alto e Amarelinho and four levels of nematodes inoculum (0, 2.000, 4.000 e 6.000nematodes.plant-1. At the end of the culture cycle the following variables were evaluated: number of trifoliateleaves (NFT, stem diameter (DC, leaf area (AF, number of galls (NG, number of egg masses (NMO andfinal nematodes population (PF. The genotype Pérola presented higher values of MSF, MSC, MST and DCwhen compared to Amarelinho. Inversely, the genotype Amarelinho had lower movement when compared withthe other cultivars. The number of galls induced by the nematode in the genotype Pérola increased as increasedthe inoculum levels. There was tendency of increase as much of NMO as of the PF as soon as the nematodeinoculum levels were increased. The higher values of MSF and MST were observed on the genotype Amarelinhowith the increase of the nematode inoculum levels.Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o crescimento de genótipo de feijoeiros parasitados porMeloidogyne incognita em condições controladas. O experimento foi conduzido em delineamento inteiramentecasualizado com oito repetições, disposto em arranjo fatorial 3x4, a saber: três genótipos de feijoeiro (Pérola,Córrego Alto e Amarelinho e quatro níveis de inóculo de nematóide (0, 2.000, 4.000 e 6.000 nematóides.planta-1. Foram avaliadas no final do ciclo da cultura as seguintes variáveis: número de folhas trifoliadas (NFT,diâmetro do caule (DC, área foliar (AF, número de galhas (NG, número de massas de ovos (NMO epopulação final dos nematóides (PF. O genótipo Peróla apresentou maiores valores de MSF, MSC, MST e DCquando comparado ao Amarelinho. Contrariamente, o genótipo Amarelinho teve menor crescimento quandocomparado com as demais cultivares. O número de galhas induzidas pelo nematóide no genótipo Pérolaaumentou à medida que aumentou os níveis de inóculo. Houve tendência de aumento tanto do NMO quanto daPF à medida que foram aumentados os níveis de inóculo do nematóide. Os maiores valores de MSF e MSTforam observados no genótipo Amarelinho com o aumento dos níveis de inóculo do nematóide.

  18. Rootstocks resistant to Meloidogyne incognita and compatibility of grafting in net melon / Porta-enxertos resistentes a Meloidogyne incognita e compatibilidade de enxertia de melão rendilhado

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Francine de Souza, Galatti; Alexandre Junqueira, Franco; Letícia Akemi, Ito; Hamilton de Oliveira, Charlo; Lucas Aparecido, Gaion; Leila Trevisan, Braz.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Devido aos poucos estudos realizados com enxertias em melão rendilhado, visando um maior controle de patógenos do solo, este trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar 16 genótipos de cucurbitáceas quanto à resistência a Meloidogyne incognita e a compatibilidade da enxertia do melão rendilhado. Foram avalia [...] dos 16 acessos de cucurbitáceas: Benincasa hispida, Bucha, Abóbora 'Jacarezinho', Abóbora 'Menina Brasileira', Moranga 'Exposição', Moranga 'Coroa', Abóbora 'Canhão Seca', Abóbora 'Squash', Mogango 'Enrrugado Verde', Abóbora 'Mini Paulista', Abóbora 'Goianinha', Melancia 'Charleston Gray', Melão 'Rendondo Gaúcho', Melão 'Redondo Amarelo', Pepino 'Caipira HS' e Pepino 'Caipira Rubi', quanto à resistência ao nematóide M. incognita, com base no fator de reprodução (FR), segundo Oostenbrink (1966). Para avaliação da resistência, as mudas foram transplantadas para vasos de cerâmica e foram aplicados 300 ovos ou juvenis de segundo estádio/mL de M. incognita, num total de 10 mL por vaso. Aos 50 dias após o transplantio, as plantas foram removidas dos vasos e realizou-se a avaliação da resistência. Para a compatibilidade entre os porta-enxertos resistentes e enxerto de melão rendilhado, foram realizadas enxertias do tipo garfagem fenda simples, em híbrido comercial de melão rendilhado de grande aceitação comercial e suscetíveil a M. incognita (Bônus N° 2). Os genótipos Bucha, Abóbora 'Goianinha', Abóbora 'Mini-Paulista', Melão 'Redondo Amarelo', Melancia 'Charleston Gray', foram resistentes ao nematóide M. incognita. As melhores compatibilidades ocorreram com os porta-enxertos Melão 'Amarelo', o qual teve 100% de pegamento, seguido da Abóbora 'Mini-Paulista' com 94%. Já Bucha, Melancia 'Charleston Gray' e Abóbora 'Goianinha', tiveram baixas porcentagens de pegamento: 66%, 62% e 50% respectivamente. Abstract in english Due to the few studies about grafting in net melon, in order to obtain better control of soil pathogens, the aim of the present study was to evaluate 16 genotypes of Cucurbitaceae: Benincasa hispida, Luffa cylindrica, pumpkin 'Jacarezinho', pumpkin 'Menina Brasileira', squash 'Exposição', squash 'Co [...] roa', pumpkin 'Canhão Seca', pumpkin 'Squash', pumpkin 'Enrrugado Verde', pumpkin 'Mini Paulista', pumpkin 'Goianinha', watermelon 'Charleston Gray', melon 'Rendondo Gaucho', melon 'Redondo Amarelo', cucumber 'Caipira HS' and cucumber 'Caipira Rubi', regarding to compatibility of grafting in net melon and resistance to Meloidogyne incognita, based on the reproduction factor (RF), according to Oostenbrink (1966). To assess resistance, the seedlings were transplanted to ceramic pots and inoculated with 300/mL eggs and/or second stage juveniles of M. incognita. At 50 days after transplanting, the plants were removed from the pots and the resistance was evaluated. The compatibility between resistant rootstock and grafts of net melon was determined by performing simple cleft grafting, in a commercial net melon hybrid of great market acceptance and susceptible to M. incognita (Bonus no. 2). The genotypes Luffa cylindrica, pumpkin 'Goianinha', pumpkin 'Mini-Paulista', melon 'Redondo Amarelo', watermelon 'Charleston Gray' are resistant to the nematode M. incognita. The better compatibilities occurred with the rootstocks melon 'Amarelo', which presented 100% of success, followed by pumpkin 'Mini-Paulista' with 94%. On the other hand, Sponge gourd, watermelon 'Charleston Gray' and pumpkin 'Goianinha' showed low graft take percentages of 66%, 62% and 50%, respectively.

  19. Interactions between arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and Meloidogyne incognita in the ornamental plant Impatiens balsamina

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    J, Banuelos; A, Alarcón; J, Larsen; S, Cruz-Sánchez; D, Trejo.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Biocontrol traits of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF), in terms of single and mixed species inoculum, against the root knot nematode Meloidogyne incongita in Impatiens balsamina L., were examined with and without mineral fertilization in a greenhouse pot experiment. At harvest, 60 days after sowin [...] g, general plant growth parameters and plant defense response in terms of antioxidant activity and content of phenolic compounds in roots and leaves were measured. Also AMF root colonization and abundance ofnematode root-knots were determined. Mineral fertilization increased all plant growth parameters measured, which coincided with an increased disease development caused by M. incognita. Inoculation with AMF mitigated the observed plant growth reduction caused by M.incognita, though, higher abundance of M. incognita root knots was found in mycorrhizal plants. Plant defense responses in terms of antioxidant activity and content of phenolic compounds did not seem to be linked to the observed biocontrol traits of AMF against M. incognita. However, roots inoculated with a consortium of AMF, which presented less nematode root knots than roots with the single species inoculum, had the highest level of phenolic compounds. The results from the present study suggest that AMF induce tolerance in I. balsamina against the root knot nematode M. incognita.

  20. Resistance to Meloidogyne incognita Race 3 and Rotylenchulus reniformis in Wild Accessions of Gossypium hirsutum and G. barbadense from Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Robinson, A.F.; Percival, A. E.

    1997-01-01

    Forty-six accessions of G. hirsutum and two of G. barbadense were examined for resistance to Meloidogyne incognita race 3 and Rotylenchulus reniformis in environmental growth chamber experiments, with the objective of finding new sources of resistance. Only the G. barbadense accessions, TX-1347 and TX-1348, supported significantly less reproduction by R. reniformis than the susceptible control, Deltapine 16 (USDA accession SA-1186). However, they were highly susceptible to M. incognita race 3...

  1. Seleção de clones de batata-doce resistentes a Meloidogyne incognita raça 1 / Selection of sweetpotato clones resistant to Meloidogyne incognita race 1

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Aline, Marchese; Wilson Roberto, Maluf; Álvaro Carlos, Gonçalves Neto; Ranoel José de Sousa, Gonçalves; Luiz Antonio Augusto, Gomes.

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi selecionar clones de batata-doce (Ipomoea batatas) resistentes à raça 1 de Meloidogyne incognita e avaliar a eficiência do método de seleção empregado, pela estimação dos coeficientes de variação genética e ambiental e das herdabilidades no sentido amplo. Foram utilizad [...] os 123 genótipos de batata-doce, entre os quais quatro cultivares comerciais - Brazlândia Rosada, Brazlândia Roxa, Brazlândia Branca e Palmas -, e 119 acessos previamente selecionados no programa de melhoramento vegetal da Universidade Federal de Lavras. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o de blocos aumentados, com três tratamentos comuns: as cultivares de batata-doce Brazlândia Branca e Palmas, e a cultivar de tomate Santa Clara, suscetível ao nematoide. A classificação dos níveis de resistência foi realizada de acordo com o fator de reprodução do nematoide e o índice de reprodução relativo à cultivar Santa Clara, de tomateiro. A relação entre os coeficientes de variação genética e ambiental e as herdabilidades no sentido amplo foram altas, tanto para o fator de reprodução quanto para o índice de reprodução dos nematoides, o que demonstra a eficiência do método empregado para a seleção de genótipos resistentes. Foram identificados 57 genótipos promissores de batata-doce, resistentes à raça 1 de M. incognita, e selecionados para continuar no programa de melhoramento. Abstract in english The objective of this work was to select sweetpotato (Ipomoea batatas) resistant clones to Meloidogyne incognita race 1, and to assess the efficiency of the selection method deployed, through the estimation of genetic and environmental coefficients of variation, and broad-sense heritabilities. Genot [...] ypes assessed comprised 123 sweetpotato entries altogether, including four commercial cultivars - Brazlândia Rosada, Brazlândia Roxa, Brazlândia Branca, Palmas - and 119 clones previously selected by the Universidade Federal de Lavras sweetpotato breeding program. The experimental setup was a an augmented block design, using three common treatments: the sweetpotato cultivars Brazlândia branca and Palmas, and the nematode-susceptible tomato cultivar Santa Clara. Nematode resistance levels were defined both by the nematode reproduction factor and by the nematode reproduction index relative to tomato cv. Santa Clara. The ratio between genetic and environmental coefficients of variation and the broad-sense heritability estimates were high, for both nematodes reproduction factor and reproduction index, indicating that the selection method deployed was efficient for the selection of resistant genotypes. Fifty-seven sweetpotato clones were identified as resistant to M. incognita race 1, and selected to continue in the sweetpotato breeding program.

  2. Seleção de clones de batata-doce resistentes a Meloidogyne incognita raça 1 Selection of sweetpotato clones resistant to Meloidogyne incognita race 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Marchese

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi selecionar clones de batata-doce (Ipomoea batatas resistentes à raça 1 de Meloidogyne incognita e avaliar a eficiência do método de seleção empregado, pela estimação dos coeficientes de variação genética e ambiental e das herdabilidades no sentido amplo. Foram utilizados 123 genótipos de batata-doce, entre os quais quatro cultivares comerciais - Brazlândia Rosada, Brazlândia Roxa, Brazlândia Branca e Palmas -, e 119 acessos previamente selecionados no programa de melhoramento vegetal da Universidade Federal de Lavras. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o de blocos aumentados, com três tratamentos comuns: as cultivares de batata-doce Brazlândia Branca e Palmas, e a cultivar de tomate Santa Clara, suscetível ao nematoide. A classificação dos níveis de resistência foi realizada de acordo com o fator de reprodução do nematoide e o índice de reprodução relativo à cultivar Santa Clara, de tomateiro. A relação entre os coeficientes de variação genética e ambiental e as herdabilidades no sentido amplo foram altas, tanto para o fator de reprodução quanto para o índice de reprodução dos nematoides, o que demonstra a eficiência do método empregado para a seleção de genótipos resistentes. Foram identificados 57 genótipos promissores de batata-doce, resistentes à raça 1 de M. incognita, e selecionados para continuar no programa de melhoramento.The objective of this work was to select sweetpotato (Ipomoea batatas resistant clones to Meloidogyne incognita race 1, and to assess the efficiency of the selection method deployed, through the estimation of genetic and environmental coefficients of variation, and broad-sense heritabilities. Genotypes assessed comprised 123 sweetpotato entries altogether, including four commercial cultivars - Brazlândia Rosada, Brazlândia Roxa, Brazlândia Branca, Palmas - and 119 clones previously selected by the Universidade Federal de Lavras sweetpotato breeding program. The experimental setup was a an augmented block design, using three common treatments: the sweetpotato cultivars Brazlândia branca and Palmas, and the nematode-susceptible tomato cultivar Santa Clara. Nematode resistance levels were defined both by the nematode reproduction factor and by the nematode reproduction index relative to tomato cv. Santa Clara. The ratio between genetic and environmental coefficients of variation and the broad-sense heritability estimates were high, for both nematodes reproduction factor and reproduction index, indicating that the selection method deployed was efficient for the selection of resistant genotypes. Fifty-seven sweetpotato clones were identified as resistant to M. incognita race 1, and selected to continue in the sweetpotato breeding program.

  3. COMPORTAMIENTO DE GENOTIPOS DE LA FAMILIA SOLANACEAE FRENTE A Meloidogyne incognita (KOFOID Y WHITE) CHITWOOD1 / BEHAVIOUR OF GENOTYPES FROM SOLANACEA FAMILY IN FRONT TO Meloidogyne incognita (KOFOID Y WHITE) CHITWOOD1

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Mayra G, Rodríguez; Lucila, Gómez; Farah M, González; Yudines, Carrillo; Maite, Piñón; Olimpia, Gómez; A.S, Casanova; Martha, Álvarez; Belkis, Peteira.

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Los nematodos formadores de agallas (Meloidogyne spp.) constituyen factores limitantes de los rendimientos en la producción de hortalizas en campo abierto y casas de cultivo, donde el tomate (Solanum lycopersicum L. (ex Lycopersicon esculentum Mill)) representa un buen hospedante de estos nematodos. [...] Para manejar las poblaciones de estos organismos, entre otras tácticas se hace uso de genotipos resistentes o se acude al injerto herbáceo para obtener resultados productivos favorables, resultando necesaria la evaluación de los genotipos a emplear frente a poblaciones nativas, pues se sabe que la resistencia puede ser quebrada por factores tales como la virulencia de la población de Meloidogyne. El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar el comportamiento de líneas, híbridos y variedades de tomate ante una población nativa de M. incognita raza 2, como elemento básico del programa de injerto herbáceo que se desarrolla en Cuba para contar con alternativas al bromuro de metilo. Se inocularon 10 plantas por genotipo, con 1,5 huevos/juveniles.g de suelo-1 y se evaluaron a los 60 días, determinándose el Índice de Agallamiento (IA), Factor de Reproducción (FR) e índice de reproducción (IR). Los cultivares evaluados fueron Lycopersicon peruvianum acc. B6-140; Physalis ixocarpa acc. B6236; Lycopersicon pimpinelifolium acc. Mex 121-A; las variedades/híbridos de S. lycopersicum var. cerasiforme, Vyta, Mariela, Amalia, HC 3880 y HA 3019; el híbrido inter-específico Lycopersicon hirsutum x L. esculentum, Solanum torvum y los híbridos de tomate T-1x14, T-1x15, T-2x16 y LTM. Resultó inmune L. hirsutum x L. esculentum y muy resistentes S. torvum y L. peruvianum. Por su parte, P. ixocarpa se comportó como moderadamente resistente y el resto de los materiales evaluados fueron susceptibles a la población cubana de M. incognita raza 2. Abstract in english The root knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp.) are limiting factors for yields of vegetables in open areas and crops under shelter conditions, where tomato Solanum lycopersicon L. (ex Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) represents a very good host for these nematodes. For population management of this pest, [...] resistance and graffing are used, among other tactics, to obtain good productive results, but it is necessary to evaluated the resistance of genotypes to native populations, since as it is know resistancemay be broken by factors like virulence of Meloidogyne population. The objective of this study was to determine the behaviour of tomato lines hybrids and varieties to native population of M. incognita race 2, as a basic element for the graffting program being develop in Cuba as an alternative to methyl bromide. Ten plants per genotype were inoculated with 1,5 eggs/juvenils.g of soil-1 and evaluated after 60 days to determined the Root Galling Index (IA), the Reproduction Factor (FR) and the Reproduction Index (IR). The cultivars evaluated were Lycopersicon peruvianum acc. B6-140; Physalis ixocarpa acc. B6236; Lycopersicon pimpinellifolium acc. Mex 121-A; the following varieties/hybrids of Solanum lycopersicum var. ceraciforme, Vyta, Mariela, Amalia, HC 3880 and HA 3019; the interespecific hybrid Lycopersicon hirsutum x L. esculentum, Solanum torvum and the tomato hybrids T-1x14, T-1x15, T-2x16 and LTM. The interespecific hybrid L. hirsutum x L. esculentum was immune, whereas S. torvum and L. peruvianum were very resistant. In other hand, P. ixocarpa behaved as moderately resistant and the rest of genotypes were susceptibles to the Cuban population of M. incognita race 2.

  4. Microplot Evaluation of Rootstocks for Control of Meloidogyne incognita on Grafted Tomato, Muskmelon, and Watermelon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokalis-Burelle, Nancy; Rosskopf, Erin N

    2011-09-01

    Microplot experiments were conducted over two years (four growing seasons) to evaluate Meloidogyne incognita resistance in rootstocks used for grafted tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), muskmelon (Cucumis melo), and watermelon (Citrullus lanatus). Three tomato rootstocks; 'TX301', 'Multifort', and 'Aloha', were tested in addition to the nongrafted scion, 'Florida-47'. Two muskmelon rootstocks; Cucumis metuliferus and 'Tetsukabuto' (Cucurbita maxima × Cucurbita moschata) were evaluated with the nongrafted scion 'Athena'. Two watermelon rootstocks included 'Emphasis', a lagenaria-type, and an interspecific squash hybrid 'StrongTosa', which were grafted to the scion 'TriX Palomar' and planted only in the second year. Microplots were infested with M. incognita eggs in September each year. Tomatoes were planted in September followed by melons in March. In both years of the study, M. incognita juveniles (J2) in soil were similar among all tomato rootstocks, but numbers in roots were higher in the nongrafted Florida 47 than in all grafted rootstocks. In muskmelon only C. metuliferus rootstock reduced galling in nematode infested soil. Tetsukabuto did not reduce numbers of M. incognita J2 in either soil or roots either year. There were no differences in nematode numbers, galling, or plant growth parameters among the watermelon rootstocks tested. The use of resistant rootstocks has great potential for improving nematode control in the absence of soil fumigants. PMID:23431109

  5. Control Effect of Sudan Grass on Root-Knot Nematode, Meloidogyne incognita, in Cucumber and Lettuce Greenhouses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyeong-Hwan Kim

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The effect of biological control of the root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita, on cucumber and lettuce was evaluated with green manure crop species in greenhouse. Nematicidal effect of sudan grass cultivation in cucumber greenhouse was comparable to that of chemical treatment with fosthiazate GR, showing the high activity of 88.6%. Sudan grass cultivation in lettuce greenhouse significantly reduced the number of M. incognita in soil, showing 93.5% of nematiidal activity. In addition, since growth of sudan grass was superior to other green manure crop species, it is considered that cultivation of sudan grass is proper to control M. incognita in greenhouse.

  6. Fosthiazate Controls Meloidogyne arenaria and M. incognita in Flue-Cured Tobacco

    OpenAIRE

    Pullen, M. P.; Fortnum, B. A.

    1999-01-01

    The nematicide fosthiazate was evaluated over a 3-year period for management of Meloidogyne incognita race 3 (site 1) and M. arenaria race 2 (site 2) in flue-cured tobacco. Fosthiazate was applied broadcast and incorporated at rates ranging from 22 to 88 g a.i./100 m², and compared with the nematicides fenamiphos (67 g a.i./100 m²), 1,3-D (56.1 L/ha, 670 ml/100-m row), and an untreated control. Root-gall indices and leaf yields were averaged over the 3-year period. Root galling was negatively...

  7. Resistance induction for Meloidogyne incognita in sugarcane through mineral organic fertilizers

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Andréa, Chaves; Elvira Maria Régis, Pedrosa; Rejane Magalhães de Mendonça, Pimentel; Rildo Sartori Barbosa, Coelho; Lílian Margarete Paes, Guimarães; Sandra Roberta Vaz Lira, Maranhão.

    1393-14-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo investigou, em condições de casa de vegetação, os efeitos de três complexos organo-minerais (Coda Radimax, Coda Humus-PK e Coda Vit) na indução de resistência a Meloidogyne incognita em três variedades: RB92579, RB863129, RB867515 de cana-de-açúcar (Saccharum sp.), considerando-se a repr [...] odução do nematóide, desenvolvimento das plantas e anatomia das raízes, com ênfase a diferenças na deposição de lignina e proporções do córtex e cilindro vascular. As avaliações foram efetuadas 90 dias após a inoculação com 5000 ovos de M. incognita por planta. Em relação à testemunha, Coda Radimax reduziu significativamente o número final de ovos por sistema radicular em todas as variedades. Coda Humus-PK e Coda Vit se mostraram eficientes em diminuir a densidade de ovos em RB867515, mas não em RB863129. Todos os compostos testados não afetaram o diâmetro do colmo, peso da biomassa seca da parte aérea e número de perfilho. Coda Radimax aumentou significativamente o número de colmos em RB92579 e a biomassa fresca da parte aérea em RB863129 e RB92579. Coda Humus-PK aumentou significativamente a altura da planta em RB92579 e a biomassa fresca da parte aérea em RB92579 e RB867515, enquanto Coda Vit afetou, significativamente, a biomassa fresca da parte aérea e raízes de RB863129. Fundamentando-se nas sessões transversais obtidas das raízes de cada variedade de cana observada sob microscópio ótico, não ocorreram modificações anatômicas significativas nos tecidos inoculados com M. incognita em relação aos tecidos sadios. Abstract in english The effects of Coda Radimax (CR), Coda Humus-PK (CH) and Coda Vit (CV) on the induction of resistance for Meloidogyne incognita in sugarcane (Saccharum sp.) varieties (RB92579, RB863129, RB867515) through nematode reproduction, plant development and root anatomy analysis, emphasizing the differences [...] of the lignin deposition, and cortex-vascular cylinder proportions were investigated. In 90 days after inoculation with eggs of M. incognita, CR reduced the number of eggs per root system in all the sugarcane varieties; CH and CV reduced eggs density in RB867515; CR increased stalk number in RB92579 and fresh weight of shoots in RB863129 and RB92579; CH increased plant height in RB92579 and fresh weight of shoots in RB92579 and RB867515, CV affected fresh weigh of shoots and roots of RB863129. All the tested compounds did not affect stalk diameter, number and dry weight of shoots. Cross-sections of roots showed no anatomical changes in the M. incognita inoculated tissues.

  8. Manejo do solo e da irrigação como nova tática de controle de Meloidogyne incognita em feijoeiro Soil and water management as a new tactic, for controlling Meloidogyne incognita in Phaseolus vulgaris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Roberto Dutra

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available A população de Meloidogyne incognita e sua infetividade foram estudadas em parcelas amostradas a zero, dois e 14 dias após o revolvimento do solo com ou sem irrigação, irrigadas sem revolvimento e testemunha. Na amostragem aos dois dias após a instalação do ensaio, ocorreu maior redução (PPopulation of Meloidogyne incognita were evaluated in the soil and by biotesting. The population fluctuation of M. incognita was also studied during the beans (Phaseolus vulgaris life cycle. Two days after the treatments in the field, plowing, without irrigation was found to be the most efficient in reducing J2 population (P<0,01, followed by plowed-irrigated plots. The soil inoculum infectivity, however, was lower (P<0,01 in plowed-irrigated plots than in plowed soil only. At 14 days, the lowest (P<0,01 J2 population was observed in plowed-irrigated plots, followed by plowed soil. The infectivity at 14 days was different (P<0,01 for all treatments, but lowest (P<0,01 in plowed-irrigated plots. At 45 days after bean planting in the field, the J2 population in soil was, also, different (P<0,01 for all treatments, but still the lowest (P<0,01 in plowed-irrigated soil 14 days before seeding. At 90 days, in the field, the numbers of eggs and egg-masses per bean plant, and the numbers of J2 in the soil were also the lowest (P<0,01 in plowed-irrigated plots. The root and shoot weight of field bean in plowed and plowed-irrigated plots were equally (P<0,01 high, but higher (P<0,01 than in control and in only irrigated plots. Crop yield was different in all treatments (P<0,01. The greatest (P<0,01 bean yield occurred in plowed-irrigated plots 14 days before seeding with an increased productivity of four times compared to the control. Irrigation as a way of increasing effectiveness against plant parasitic nematodes has been previously postulated but never proved experimentally, as it was accomplished in this work.

  9. Efecto del Vermicompost y Quitina sobre el control de meloidogyne incognita en tomate a nivel de invernadero / Effect of vermicompost and chitin on the control of Meloidogyne incognita in greenhouse tomato

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Leida, Castro; Lorena, Flores; Lidieth, Uribe.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Meloidogyne incognita es un nematodo endoparásito sedentario, de penetración total y formador de nódulos radicales; tiene una amplia distribución geográfica y causa pérdidas agrícolas importantes. Recientemente se han utilizado abonos orgánicos y compuestos como la quitina en la supresión de plagas [...] y enfermedades de plantas. El objetivo de esta investigación fue evaluar el efecto de la aplicación de vermicompost de estiércol bovino y su enriquecimiento con quitina, sobre la infección de M. incognita en plantas de tomate var. Hayslip bajo condiciones de invernadero. Para esto se inocularon las plantas con 5000 unidades de inóculo (huevos+juveniles en segundo estado) por maceta y se compararon con controles que fueron sembrados en suelo sin enmienda orgánica o quitina. La evaluación se llevó a cabo 60 días después y se midió el peso fresco aéreo y radical, peso seco aéreo, población total de nematodos en raíz y suelo, índice de nódulos radicales (INR), índice de masas de huevos (IMH), el factor de reproducción del nematodo (FR) y recuento de grupos funcionales (hongos, bacterias y actinomicetes). La adición al suelo de vermicompost provocó un incremento en las variables peso fresco y seco foliar y peso fresco radical: a mayor porcentaje de vermicompost, mayor incremento; así mismo, la aplicación del vermicompost redujo la cantidad del nematodo en raíz y en suelo. La aplicación de quitina acentuó estos resultados, obteniéndose el menor factor de reproducción de M. Incognita, con un valor de 3,76 para la dosis de 50% vermicompost+quitina, mientras que en el testigo este factor fue de 93,20. La aplicación de quitina como enmienda única solo afectó la población de hongos en el suelo, mientras que la de actinomicetes aumentó en los tratamientos enmendados Abstract in english Meloidogyne incognita is a sedentary endoparasitic nematode, with total penetration and gall-forming; it has a wide geographical distribution and causes significant agricultural losses. Recently, organic fertilizers and compounds such as chitin have been used in the suppression of plant pests and di [...] seases. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of applying cattle manure vermicompost, and its enrichment with chitin, on the infection of M. incognita in tomato plants var. Hayslip under greenhouse conditions. For this purpose, plants were inoculated with 5000 units of eggs+second stage juveniles per pot and were compared with controls grown in soil without organic amendment or chitin. The evaluation was carried out 60 days afterwards: the shoot and root fresh weight, shoot dry weight, total population in root and soil nematodes, root knot index (INR), rate of egg masses (IMH), the nematode reproduction factor (FR) and functional-groups numbers (fungi, bacteria and actinomycetes) were measured. The addition of vermicompost to soil caused an increase in the variables of shoot fresh and dry weight and fresh root weight: the higher the percentage of vermicompost, the higher the increase; likewise, the application of vermicompost reduced the number of nematodes both in root and soil. The application of chitin accentuated these results by bringing about the lowest reproduction factor of M. incognita, with a value of 3.76 for the dose of vermicompost+50% chitin, whereas in the control this factor had a value of 93.20. The application of chitin as sole amendment affected only the soil fungi population, while the actinomycetes population nincreased in the amended treatments

  10. Efectividad de hongos nematófagos sobre Meloidogyne incognita (Kofoid y White) Chitwood en tomate en condiciones de campo, Loja, Ecuador / Effectiveness of nematophagous fungi on Meloidogyne incognita (Kofoid and White) Chitwood on tomato in field conditions in Loja, Ecuador

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Tulio F., Solano Castillo; Marcia L., Castillo Ávila; José V., Medina Medina; Elio M., del Pozo Núñez.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del presente trabajo fue determinar el efecto de varios aislamientos autóctonos de los hongos Pochonia chlamydosporia (Goddard) Zare y Gams (Hypocreales: Clavicipitaceae) y Purpureocillium lilacinum Luansa-ard et al. (Hypocreales: Ophiocordycipitaceae) en el control de Meloidogyne incogn [...] ita (Kofoid y White) Chitwood, en tomate, en condiciones de campo. Se utilizaron seis aislamientos fúngicos y un control sin aplicación, distribuidos según un diseño de bloques al azar con cuatro réplicas. Las aplicaciones de los hongos lograron reducir el índice de agallamiento por M. incognita, así como las poblaciones de juveniles infestivos (J2) en el suelo y en las raíces del cultivo, a la vez que se observó un estímulo en las variables agronómicas número de frutos, masa de los frutos y rendimiento agrícola. Estos resultados constituyen una contribución a la solución del problema de los nematodos formadores de agalla, en el cultivo del tomate en las condiciones de Loja, Ecuador, con recursos locales, no agresivos al medio ambiente. Abstract in english This work was aimed to evaluate the effect of isolates of the fungi Pochonia chlamydosporia (Goddard) Zare and Gams (Hypocreales: Clavicipitaceae) and Purpureocillium lilacinum Luansa-ard et al. (Hypocreales: Ophiocordycipitaceae) in the Meloidogyne incognita (Kofoid and White) Chitwood control in t [...] omato in field conditions. The assay comprised six fungic isolates and a control without fungi, in a ramdomized block design. In treated plants the gall index and the nematode population in roots and in the soil were reduced in comparison with the untreated plots. The number of fruits, the weight of fruits and yields were enhanced in the plots treated with the fungi. These results are a contribution to the solution of the root-knot nematode problem in the conditions of Loja, Ecuador, with local resources and no harmful to the environment.

  11. Expression of Phenylalanine Ammonia Lyase Genes in Maize Lines Differing in Susceptibility to Meloidogyne incognita

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, W.; Yan, Y.; Crutcher, F.; Kolomiets, M.

    2014-01-01

    Maize is a well-known host for Meloidogyne incognita, and there is substantial variation in host status among maize genotypes. In previous work it was observed that nematode reproduction increased in the moderately susceptible maize inbred line B73 when the ZmLOX3 gene from oxylipid metabolism was knocked out. Additionally, in this mutant line, use of a nonspecific primer for phenyl alanine ammonialyase (PAL) genes indicated that expression of these genes was reduced in the mutant maize plants whereas expression of several other defense related genes was increased. In this study, we used more specific gene primers to examine the expression of six PAL genes in three maize genotypes that were good, moderate, and poor hosts for M. incognita, respectively. Of the six PAL genes interrogated, two (ZmPAL3 and ZmPAL6) were not expressed in either M. incognita–infected or noninfected roots. Three genes (ZmPAL1, ZmPAL2, and ZmPAL5) were strongly expressed in all three maize lines, in both nematode-infected and noninfected roots, between 2 and 16 d after inoculation (DAI). In contrast, ZmPAL4 was most strongly expressed in the most-resistant maize line W438, was not detected in the most-susceptible maize line CML, and was detected only at 8 DAI in the maize line B73 that supported intermediate levels of reproduction by M. incognita. These observations are consistent with at least one PAL gene playing a role in modulating host status of maize toward M. incognita and suggest a need for additional research to further elucidate this association. PMID:25580029

  12. Microorganismos Benéficos Asociados a Meloidogyne incognita (Kofoid y White) Chitwood en Guayabo (Psidium guajava L.) de Calvillo, Aguascalientes, México / Beneficent Microorganisms Associated to Meloidogyne incognita (Kofoid & White) Chitwood in Guava (Psidium guajava L.) of Calvillo, Aguascalientes, México

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Gabriel, Gallegos-Morales; Melchor, Cepeda-Siller; Francisco Daniel, Hernández-Castillo; Ana María, Acosta-Zamarripa; Rodolfo, Velásquez-Valle; Ernesto, González-Gaona; Juan Manuel, Sánchez-Yánez.

    Full Text Available Se identificó a Meloidogyne incognita como la especie del nematodo agallador que parásita al cultivo del guayabo, en la región de Calvillo (Aguascalientes, México). También se aisló hongos y bacterias benéficos asociados a suelo y raíces colectadas en las localidades de Cerro Blanco, Mesa Grande, La [...] Labor y Malpaso. Veinte muestras distintas de Meloidogyne sp., fueron identificadas tomando en cuenta las características de patrones perineales de las hembras adultas así como por la observación de la región anterior de los machos. La especie Meloidogyne incognita fue identificada en todas las muestras. Los microorganismos benéficos aislados y asociados a la rizósfera del guayabo con uso potencial en control biológico, pertenecen a las especies de Bacillus cereus, B. subtilis B. megaterium y Paecilomyces farinosus. Además los nematodos edáficos Rhabditis y Mononchus fueron identificados en las muestras. Abstract in english The root-knot nematode species Meloidogyne incognita was identified as the one species that parasites guava orchards in the Calvillo region (Aguascalientes, Mexico). Beneficent fungi and bacteria were isolated as well, associated to soil and roots collected from the Cerro Blanco, Mesa Grande, La Lab [...] or and Malpaso locations. Twenty different Meloidogyne sp., samples were identified taking adult female perinea pattern characteristics into account, as well as the male anterior region observation. The Meloidogyne incognita species was identified in all the samples. The isolated beneficent microorganisms and associated to guava rhizosphere with a potential use in biological control, belong to the Bacillus cereus, B. subtilis B. megaterium and Paecilomyces farinosus species. Furthermore, the Rhabditis and Mononchus soil nematodes were identified in the samples.

  13. Analysis and functional classification of transcripts from the nematode Meloidogyne incognita

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarter, James P; Dautova Mitreva, Makedonka; Martin, John; Dante, Mike; Wylie, Todd; Rao, Uma; Pape, Deana; Bowers, Yvette; Theising, Brenda; Murphy, Claire V; Kloek, Andrew P; Chiapelli, Brandi J; Clifton, Sandra W; Bird, David Mck; Waterston, Robert H

    2003-01-01

    Background Plant parasitic nematodes are major pathogens of most crops. Molecular characterization of these species as well as the development of new techniques for control can benefit from genomic approaches. As an entrée to characterizing plant parasitic nematode genomes, we analyzed 5,700 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) from second-stage larvae (L2) of the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita. Results From these, 1,625 EST clusters were formed and classified by function using the Gene Ontology (GO) hierarchy and the Kyoto KEGG database. L2 larvae, which represent the infective stage of the life cycle before plant invasion, express a diverse array of ligand-binding proteins and abundant cytoskeletal proteins. L2 are structurally similar to Caenorhabditis elegans dauer larva and the presence of transcripts encoding glyoxylate pathway enzymes in the M. incognita clusters suggests that root-knot nematode larvae metabolize lipid stores while in search of a host. Homology to other species was observed in 79% of translated cluster sequences, with the C. elegans genome providing more information than any other source. In addition to identifying putative nematode-specific and Tylenchida-specific genes, sequencing revealed previously uncharacterized horizontal gene transfer candidates in Meloidogyne with high identity to rhizobacterial genes including homologs of nodL acetyltransferase and novel cellulases. Conclusions With sequencing from plant parasitic nematodes accelerating, the approaches to transcript characterization described here can be applied to more extensive datasets and also provide a foundation for more complex genome analyses. PMID:12702207

  14. Efecto de extractos acuosos de dos meliaceas sobre Meloidogyne incognita (Nematoda, meloidogynidae)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Graciela, Mareggiani; Norma, Zamuner; Gisella, Angarola.

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó la bioactividad de seis extractos acuosos al 10% y 30% (P/V), conteniendo terpenoides de Melia azedarach y Trichilia glauca (Meliaceae) en su constitución química, sobre la plaga Meloidogyne incognita (Nematoda, Meloidogynidae). Los resultados muestran que los productos naturales ensayados [...] poseen una buena actividad nematicida, ya que ejercieron efectos letales moderados (mortalidad: 23-46.2%, dependiendo del tratamiento). Estos datos indican que las interesantes propiedades de ambas Meliaceae podrían utilizarse en el manejo de este nematode en huertas, en reemplazo de los nematicidas sintéticos. Abstract in english The bioactivity of six aqueous extracts 10% and 30% (P/V), containing terpenoids from Melia azedarachand Trichilia glauca (Meliaceae) in their chemical constitution, was evaluated against the pest Meloidogyne incognita (Nematoda, Meloidogynidae). Results show that the natural products assayed had a [...] good nematicidal activity, because they had moderate lethal effects (mortality: 23-46.2%, depending upon treatment). These data show that the interesting properties of both Meliaceae could be used in orchard nematode management, in replacement of synthetic nematicides.

  15. Chemical Composition and Nematicidal Activity of Essential Oil of Agastache rugosa against Meloidogyne incognita

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi Wei Deng

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to determine the chemical composition and nematicidal activity of essential oil of Agastache rugosa flowering aerial parts against the root knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita, and to isolate and identify any nematicidal constituents from the essential oil. The essential oil of A. rugosa aerial parts was obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by GC-FID and GC-MS. A total of 37 components of the essential oil were identified, with the principal compounds being methyleugenol (50.51%, estragole (8.55%, and eugenol (7.54%, followed by thymol (3.62%, pulegone (2.56%, limonene (2.49% and caryophyllene (2.38%. Based on bioactivity-guided fractionation, the three active constituents were isolated from the essential oil and identified as methyleugenol, estragole and eugenol. The essential oil of A. rugosa exhibited strong nematicidal activity against M. incognita, with a LC50 value of 47.3 ?g/mL. The components eugenol (LC50 = 66.6 ?g/mL and methyleugenol (LC50 = 89.4 ?g/mL exhibited stronger nematicidal activity against M. incognita (LC50 = 185.9 ?g/mL. The results indicate that the essential oil of A. rugosa aerial parts and its constituent compounds have potential for development into natural nematicides for control of the root knot nematode.

  16. Histopathological Studies of Eggplant Roots as Affected by IAA, Agrobacterium tumefaciens and Meloidogyne incognita Alone and in Combinations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed A. Elwakil

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The anatomy of eggplant roots as affected by the application of IAA, Agrobacterium tumefaciens and Meloidogyne incognita alone and in combination was studied. IAA and A. tumefaciens, alone and in combination increased the root diameter, cortex thickness, number of cortex layers, stele diameter, number of xylem vessels but decreased the vessel diameter. Inoculation with M. incognita led to the formation of multinucleated giant cells surrounded by deformed xylem elements, hypertrophy of the cortex and hyperplasia of the pericycle. More giant cells with higher dimensions were formed and more eggs/egg mass were produced in plants where IAA, A. tumefaciens alone or in combination was introduced with M. incognita. On the other hand, the presence of IAA, A. tumefaciens or their combination extended the life-span of giant cells, providing long-lasting feeding sites for the nematode. The auxin-mediated role of A. tumefaciens in development and reproduction of M. incognita was discussed.

  17. Behavior of Ilex paraguariensis St. Hilaire, 1822 to Meloidogyne incognita and M. paranaensis and their influence on development of plantlets

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Débora Cristina, Santiago; Alaíde Aparecida, Krzyzanowski; Martin, Homechin.

    Full Text Available A influência de Meloidogyne incognita e M paranaensis no desenvolvimento de mudas de erva-mate, foi avaliada em casa-de-vegetação e laboratório. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado, com 10 repetições, sendo cada parcela formada de 1 plântula de erva-mate/vaso, inoculada com 5000 [...] ovos de M. incognita raças 1, 2, 3, 4 e M. paranaensis. Aos 120 dias, observou-se que a erva-mate, além de boa hospedeira destes nematóides, permitiu-lhes completar seu ciclo vital. O desenvolvimento das plantas foi significativamente afetado pelas raças 1 e 2 de M. incognita.; os pesos de matéria seca e fresca da parte aérea sofreram alterações conforme o tratamento. Não houve alteração no peso fresco de raízes e o número de ovos por raízes foi semelhante para as raças 1 e 2 de M. incognita, sendo, porém, mais elevado nos demais tratamentos. O fator de reprodução foi superior a 1 em todos os tratamentos, indicando a susceptibilidade da erva-mate a estes agentes. Abstract in english The influence of Meloidogyne incognita and M. paranaensis on the development of mate (Ilex paraguariensis ST. Hill) plantlets was assessed in greenhouse and laboratory. The experimental design was randomized. Every plot of each one of the 10 repetitions contained one mate plantlet , inoculated with [...] 5,000 eggs of M. incognita (races 1, 2, 3 and 4) and M. paranaensis. After 120 days it was observed that mate was a reliable hostess to such nematodes and that they could finish their life cycle. Plant development was significantly modified by M. incognita, races 1 and 2. Dry and green matter weight of shoots changed according to treatment. No changes were observed in fresh root weight. The number of eggs per root was similar for M. incognita, races 1 and 2, and higher for the other treatments. The reproduction factor was above 1 for all treatments, indicating mate plants susceptibility to them.

  18. Geographical Distributions of Rotylenchulus reniformis, Meloidogyne incognita, and Tylenchulus semipenetrans in the Lower Rio Grande Valley as Related to Soil Texture and Land Use

    OpenAIRE

    Robinson, A.F.; Heald, C. M.; Flanagan, S. L.; Thames, W. H.; Amador, J.

    1987-01-01

    A survey was conducted over a 22-year period to evaluate the influence of soil texture and land use on the geographical distributions of Rotylenchulus reniformis, Meloidogyne incognita, and Tylenchulus semipenetrans in the lower Rio Grande valley. The distributions of R. reniformis and M. incognita were related to soil texture, whereas T. semipenetrans occurred wherever host plants were present regardless of soil texture. The incidence of M. incognita was greatest in elevated sandy loams and ...

  19. Effects of insect cadavers infected by Heterorhabditis bacteriophora and Steinernema diaprepesi on Meloidogyne incognita parasitism in pepper and summer squash plants / Efecto de insectos cadáveres infectados por Heterorhabditis bacteriophora y Steinernema diaprepesi sobre el parasitismo de Meloidogyne incognita en plantas de pimiento y zapallito redondo de tronco

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Eleodoro E, Del Valle; Paola, Lax; Juan, Rondán Dueñas; Marcelo E, Doucet.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available E.E. Del Valle, P. Lax, J. Rondán Dueñas y M.E. Doucet. 2013. Efecto de insectos cadáveres infectados por Heterorhabditis bacteriophora y Steinernema diaprepesi sobre el parasitismo de Meloidogyne incognita en plantas de pimiento y zapallito redondo de tronco. Cien. Inv. Agr. 40(1):109-118. El efect [...] o de cadáveres de insectos infectados con tres aislados de Heterorhabditis bacteriophora y un aislado de Steinernema diaprepesi sobre una población de Meloidogyne incognita en plantas de pimiento (Capsicum annuum) y zapallito redondo de tronco (Cucurbita maxima) fue evaluado en experiencias de invernadero conducidas en Santa Fe (Argentina). Los cadáveres de insectos necesarios para la experiencia se obtuvieron infectando larvas de último estadio de Galleria mellonella y Tenebrio monitor con nematodos entomopatógenos. Dos cadáveres de seis días de infección se colocaron debajo de la superficie del suelo de macetas que fueron inoculadas con 100 juveniles de segundo estadio de M. incognita. A los sesenta días se registraron los siguientes parámetros en cada planta: número de hojas, peso seco de la parte aérea, número de agallas, masas de huevos y huevos, y número de agallas, masas de huevos y huevos g-1 de materia fresca radical. En pimiento, la única variable afectada por los cadáveres en relación al testigo fue el número de huevos de M. incognita en el tratamiento de cadáveres de T. molitor infectados con H. bacteriophora aislado Rama Caída. En zapallito redondo de tronco, varios tratamientos provocaron una disminución en el número de agallas y masas de huevos. Sólo la aplicación de cadáveres de G. mellonella infectados con H. bacteriophora aislado Rama Caída demostró ser eficiente en reducir el número de huevos de M. incognita. Nuestros resultados indicaron que la aplicación de cadáveres de insectos infectados con los nematodos entomopatógenos estudiados podría reducir los daños causados por M. incognita en plantas de pimiento y zapallito redondo de tronco. Abstract in english E. E. Del Valle, P. Lax, J. Rondán Dueñas, and M. E. Doucet. 2013. Effects of insect cadavers infected by Heterorhabditis bacteriophora and Steinernema diaprepesi on Meloidogyne incognita parasitism in pepper and summer squash plants. Cien. Inv. Agr. 40(1):109-118. The effects of insect cadavers inf [...] ected with three isolates of Heterorhabditis bacteriophora and one isolate of Steinernema diaprepesi on a population of Meloidogyne incognita in pepper (Capsicum annuum) and summer squash (Cucurbita maxima) were evaluated in greenhouse experiments carried out in Santa Fe (Argentina). Insect cadavers were obtained for the experiments from last instar larvae of Galleria mellonella and Tenebrio molitor that had been infected with entomopathogenic nematodes. Two six-day-old insect cadavers per pot were placed below the soil surface, and the soil was inoculated with 100 second-stage juveniles ofM incognita. Sixty days after inoculation, the following parameters were recorded for each plant: number of leaves; dry weight of aerial parts; numbers of galls, egg masses and eggs; and numbers of galls, egg masses and eggs g-1 of root fresh matter. In pepper, the only variable affected by the infected cadavers with respect to control was the number of eggs in the treatment involving T. molitor cadavers infected with the H. bacteriophora isolate Rama Caída. In summer squash, several treatments using infected cadavers resulted in a decrease in the numbers of galls and egg masses. Only the treatment involving G. mellonella cadavers infected with the H. bacteriophora isolate Rama Caída proved to be efficient in reducing the number of M. incognita eggs. Our results indicated that the application of insect cadavers infected with the entomopathogenic nematodes studied might reduce M. incognita damage in pepper and summer squash plants.

  20. Registro da ocorrência de Meloidogyne incognita no porta-enxerto 'IAC 766-Campinas' no estado de Pernambuco e reação de porta-enxertos e de cultivares copa de videira a Meloidogyne spp. Meloidogyne incognita report on 'IAC 766-Campinas' rootstock in the state of Pernambuco and reaction of grape rootstocks and cultivars to Meloidogyne spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lúcia Somavilla

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Relata-se a ocorrência de Meloidogyne incognita (Est. I2 em pomar de videira na cidade de Petrolina, Pernambuco. Plantas da cultivar Festival enxertadas sobre 'IAC 766-Campinas', atacadas por Meloidogyne incognita, apresentavam sintomas de menor vigor, folhas amarelecidas e folhagem mais esparsa, e raízes com numerosas galhas em meio ao cultivo de feijão-de-porco (Canavalia ensiformis, também atacado pelo nematoide. Com o objetivo de avaliar a resistência de quatro porta-enxertos tropicais, oito de clima temperado, e as cultivares Niágara Rosada e Chardonnay quanto à reação a M. incognita e M. arenaria, em casa de vegetação, realizou-se este trabalho. Mudas das videiras, mantidas em vaso com solo esterilizado, foram inoculadas com 10.000 ovos + J2 de M. incognita ou M. arenaria por planta. Decorridos oito meses da inoculação, cada planta foi avaliada quanto ao número de galhas e número de ovos por planta, determinando-se, a seguir, o fator de reprodução de cada espécie do nematoide (FR=população inicial/população final nos diferentes materiais testados. Entre os porta-enxertos avaliados, 'Harmony', 'Salt Creek', '1103 Paulsen', 'IAC 572-Jales', 'IAC 313-Tropical', 'K5BB Kober' e 'SO4', foram resistentes (FR1,00 ao nematoide. No entanto, ambas as cultivares copa foram suscetíveis às duas espécies de Meloidogyne testadas.The occurrence of root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita (Est. I2 is reported in grapevine in Petrolina municipality, State of Pernambuco. Grape plants of Festival cultivar grafted on the 'IAC 766 - Campinas' rootstock attacked by M. incognita exhibited symptoms of less vigorous growth, yellowing and sparse leaves and multiple galls in the root system in an area cultivated with jack-bean (Canavalia ensiformis also infected by the same nematode. In order to evaluate resistance of four tropical rootstocks, eight temperate and two cultivars Chardonnay and Niagara Rosada in reaction to M. incognita and M. arenaria, this study was carried out. Seedlings of the investigated grapevine genotypes were maintained in pots with sterilized soil and subsequently inoculated with 10,000 eggs + J2 of M. incognita or M. arenaria per plant in a six replicate design. Eight months after nematode inoculation, each plant was evaluated by counting gall and eggs. The final number of eggs (FP of each Meloidogyne specie was calculated and the reproductive factor (RF = FP/IP, determined. Among the tested rootstocks, 'Harmony', 'Salt Creek', '1103 Paulsen', 'IAC 572-Jales', 'IAC 313-Tropical', 'K5BB Kober', 'SO4' , were resistant (RF1.00 to M. arenaria. In contrast, both tested grapevine scion cultivars were susceptible to the investigated Meloidogyne species.

  1. Registro da ocorrência de Meloidogyne incognita no porta-enxerto 'IAC 766-Campinas' no estado de Pernambuco e reação de porta-enxertos e de cultivares copa de videira a Meloidogyne spp. / Meloidogyne incognita report on 'IAC 766-Campinas' rootstock in the state of Pernambuco and reaction of grape rootstocks and cultivars to Meloidogyne spp.

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Lúcia, Somavilla; Cesar Bauer, Gomes; Vera Maria, Quecini.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Relata-se a ocorrência de Meloidogyne incognita (Est. I2) em pomar de videira na cidade de Petrolina, Pernambuco. Plantas da cultivar Festival enxertadas sobre 'IAC 766-Campinas', atacadas por Meloidogyne incognita, apresentavam sintomas de menor vigor, folhas amarelecidas e folhagem mais esparsa, e [...] raízes com numerosas galhas em meio ao cultivo de feijão-de-porco (Canavalia ensiformis), também atacado pelo nematoide. Com o objetivo de avaliar a resistência de quatro porta-enxertos tropicais, oito de clima temperado, e as cultivares Niágara Rosada e Chardonnay quanto à reação a M. incognita e M. arenaria, em casa de vegetação, realizou-se este trabalho. Mudas das videiras, mantidas em vaso com solo esterilizado, foram inoculadas com 10.000 ovos + J2 de M. incognita ou M. arenaria por planta. Decorridos oito meses da inoculação, cada planta foi avaliada quanto ao número de galhas e número de ovos por planta, determinando-se, a seguir, o fator de reprodução de cada espécie do nematoide (FR=população inicial/população final) nos diferentes materiais testados. Entre os porta-enxertos avaliados, 'Harmony', 'Salt Creek', '1103 Paulsen', 'IAC 572-Jales', 'IAC 313-Tropical', 'K5BB Kober' e 'SO4', foram resistentes (FR1,00) ao nematoide. No entanto, ambas as cultivares copa foram suscetíveis às duas espécies de Meloidogyne testadas. Abstract in english The occurrence of root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita (Est. I2) is reported in grapevine in Petrolina municipality, State of Pernambuco. Grape plants of Festival cultivar grafted on the 'IAC 766 - Campinas' rootstock attacked by M. incognita exhibited symptoms of less vigorous growth, yellowing [...] and sparse leaves and multiple galls in the root system in an area cultivated with jack-bean (Canavalia ensiformis) also infected by the same nematode. In order to evaluate resistance of four tropical rootstocks, eight temperate and two cultivars Chardonnay and Niagara Rosada in reaction to M. incognita and M. arenaria, this study was carried out. Seedlings of the investigated grapevine genotypes were maintained in pots with sterilized soil and subsequently inoculated with 10,000 eggs + J2 of M. incognita or M. arenaria per plant in a six replicate design. Eight months after nematode inoculation, each plant was evaluated by counting gall and eggs. The final number of eggs (FP) of each Meloidogyne specie was calculated and the reproductive factor (RF = FP/IP), determined. Among the tested rootstocks, 'Harmony', 'Salt Creek', '1103 Paulsen', 'IAC 572-Jales', 'IAC 313-Tropical', 'K5BB Kober', 'SO4' , were resistant (RF1.00) to M. arenaria. In contrast, both tested grapevine scion cultivars were susceptible to the investigated Meloidogyne species.

  2. Presencia del marcador mi-23 de resistencia a Meloidogyne incognita como apoyo a la caracterización del germoplasma de tomate en Venezuela / Presence of marker Mi-23 for resistance to Meloidogyne incognita as support to tomato germplasm characterization in Venezuela

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Iris, Pérez-Almeida; Ariadne, Vegas García; Delis, Pérez; Julio, Muñoz; Sergei, Malyshev.

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Especies del género Meloidogyne causan daños económicamente significativos en cultivos como el tomate, induciendo agallas en las raíces y causando amarillamiento en las plantas infestadas. El empleo de cultivares resistentes garantiza una agricultura sostenible y productos de alta calidad. Se plante [...] ó el uso del marcador co-dominante Mi-23 ligado al gen de resistencia Mi-1.2, el cual confiere resistencia a Meloidogyne spp. como apoyo a la caracterización de 39 accesiones de germoplasma de tomate del INIA-CENIAP y Lara, incluyendo tomates silvestres Solanum pimpinellifolium y S. lycopersicum locales (tipo Cherry, Perita y Margariteño), poblaciones avanzadas y variedades e híbridos comerciales. El ADN se extrajo siguiendo la metodología del CTAB y las amplificaciones de PCR se realizaron con los cebadores Mi23F/R. Los materiales genéticos formaron tres grupos de acuerdo al patrón de amplificación: 1) la población 9, del INIA-Lara, con un fragmento de 400 pb, como el ADN testigo (proveniente de Belarús); 2) Cherry-Lobatera, Perita Agrovitas, poblaciones 5 y 10, Cherry-189, híbridos Mariana y Salad-F1, con dos fragmentos de 450 y 400 pb; y 3) los restantes 31 materiales, entre ellos, tomates silvestres, cultivares locales, poblaciones avanzadas o promisorias, y variedades e híbridos comerciales, con un fragmento de 450 pb. Los dos primeros grupos se pueden correlacionar con genotipos resistentes homocigotos y heterocigotos, respectivamente, y el último con genotipos susceptibles. La utilización del marcador SCAR Mi-23, ligado al gen Mi-1.2 permitió discriminar las accesiones de tomate del INIA, e identificar ocho de ellas con patrones asociados a genotipos resistentes al nematodo M. incognita, incluyendo tres poblaciones avanzadas del INIA-Lara y una local del INIA-CENIAP. Abstract in english Meloidogyne species cause economically significant damage to crops such as tomatoes, inducing galls on roots and causing yellowing of infested plants. The use of resistant cultivars ensures sustainable agriculture and high quality products. We proposed the use of co-dominant marker Mi-23, linked to [...] the resistance gene Mi-1.2, which confers resistance to Meloidogyne spp. to support the characterization of 39 accessions of tomato germplasm from INIA-CENIAP and Lara, including wild tomatoes Solanum pimpinellifolium, and S. lycopersicum local types (Cherry, Pera and Margariteño), advanced populations, and commercial hybrids and varieties. DNA was extracted following CTAB methodology, and PCR amplifications using Mi23F/R primers. Genetic materials formed three groups according to the amplification patterns: 1) population 9, from INIA-Lara, with a fragment of 400 bp, as the DNA control from Belarus; 2) Cherry-Lobatera, Perita Agrovitas, populations 5 and 10, Cherry-189, Mariana and Salad-F1 hybrids, with two fragments of 450 and 400 bp; and 3) the remaining 31 materials, among them, wild tomatoes, locals, advanced populations, and commercial varieties and hybrids, with amplification of a single 450 bp fragment. The first two groups can be correlated to homozygous and heterozygous resistance genotypes, respectively, and the last group to susceptible ones. By using the SCAR marker Mi-23, linked to gen Mi-1.2, we were able to discriminate the INIA tomatoes accessions, and identify eight of them associated with the resistance genotypes to nematode M. incognita, including three advanced populations from INIA-Lara and one local from INIA-CENIAP.

  3. Scanning Electron Microscope Study of the Root-knot Nematode (Meloidogyne incognita) on Tomato Root.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wergin, W P; Orion, D

    1981-07-01

    This study examines the types of structural information that can be gained by utilizing the scanning electron microscope (SEM) and a cryofracture technique to examine the host-parasite interaction. Roots of tomato, Lycopersicon esculentum cv. Marglobe, were cultured aseptically and inoculated with the root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita. Twenty-four hours to four weeks after inoculation, developing galls were removed from the cultures and processed for SEM observation. The cryofracture technique was used to reveal internal structural features within the developing galls. The results illustrate structural details concerning penetration of the roots, differentiation of syncytia, and development of the nematodes beginning with the second-stage larvae and ending with adult egg-laying females. PMID:19300776

  4. Comportamiento de cuatro cultivares de Cucurbita maxima cv. zapallito frente al parasitismo del nematodo de las agallas Meloidogyne incognita

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    E.E, Del Valle; A.M, Guzmán; A.M, Belavi; M, Soressi.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available El nematodo de las agallas, Meloidogyne incognita, es causante de pérdidas productivas en los principales cultivos hortícolas que se realizan en el albardón costero santafesino. El objetivo de la investigación fue determinar la reacción de cuatro cultivares comerciales de zapallito redondo de tronco [...] (Cucurbita maxima cv. zapallito) frente al parasitismo de M. incognita. Las experiencias se condujeron en macetas bajo invernadero y se evaluaron los cultivares Nacional, Premier, Sais superselección y Máximo. Los tratamientos consistieron en inocular plantas de cada cultivar con 100 juveniles de segundo estadio de M. incognita y de sus correspondientes testigos no inoculados. A los 45 días de la inoculación se determinó el número de agallas, Índice de Agallas, número de masas de huevos, Índice de Masas de Huevos, número de huevos y el factor e reproducción. Los cuatro cultivares estudiados demostraron ser susceptibles a M. incognita. Abstract in english The root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita, causes yield losses in many horticultural crops in the coastal área of Santa Fe province. The aim of this research was to determine the reaction of four commercial cultivars of summer squash (Cucurbita maxima cv. zapallito) when parasitized by M. incogn [...] ita. The experiments were conducted in pots under greenhouse conditions and Nacional, Premier, Sais superselection and Máximo cultivars were evaluated. The treatments consisted of plants of each cultivar inoculated with 100 second-stage juveniles of M. incognita and its corresponding control. 45 days after inoculation the number of galls, Gall Index, number of egg masses, Eggs Mass Index, number of eggs and reproduction factor were determined. The four cultivars studied showed susceptibility to M. incognita.

  5. Management of Meloidogyne incognita with Chemicals and Cultivars in Cotton in a Semi-Arid Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, T. A.; Siders, K. T.; Anderson, M. G.; Russell, S. A.; Woodward, J. E.; Mullinix, B. G.

    2014-01-01

    Management of Meloidogyne incognita (root-knot nematode) in cotton in the United States was substantially affected by the decision to stop production of aldicarb by its principle manufacturer in 2011. The remaining commercially available tools to manage M. incognita included soil fumigation, nematicide seed treatments, postemergence nematicide application, and cultivars partially resistant to M. incognita. Small plot field studies were conducted on a total of nine sites from 2011–2013 to examine the effects of each of these tools alone or in combinations, on early season galling, late-season nematode density in soil, yield, and value ($/ha = lint value minus chemical costs/ha). The use of a partially resistant cultivar resulted in fewer galls/root system at 35 d after planting in eight of nine tests, lower root-knot nematode density late in the growing season for all test sites, higher lint yield in eight of nine sites, and higher value/ha in six of nine sites. Galls per root were reduced by aldicarb in three of nine sites and by 1,3-dichloropropene (1,3-D) in two of eight sites, relative to the nontreated control (no insecticide or nematicide treatment). Soil fumigation reduced M. incognita density late in the season in three of nine sites. Value/ha was not affected by chemical treatment in four of nine sites, but there was a cultivar × chemical interaction in four of nine sites. When value/ha was affected by chemical treatment, the nontreated control had a similar value to the treatment with the highest value/ha in seven of eight cultivar-site combinations. The next “best” value/ha were associated with seed treatment insecticide (STI) + oxamyl and aldicarb (similar value to the highest value/ha in six of eight cultivar-site combinations). The lowest valued treatment was STI + 1,3-D. In a semi-arid region, where rainfall was low during the spring for all three years, cultivars with partial resistance to M. incognita was the most profitable method of managing root-knot nematode in cotton. PMID:24987161

  6. Cowpea-Meloidogyne incognita interaction: Root proteomic analysis during early stages of nematode infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villeth, Gabriela R C; Carmo, Lilian S T; Silva, Luciano P; Fontes, Wagner; Grynberg, Priscila; Saraiva, Mario; Brasileiro, Ana C M; Carneiro, Regina M D; Oliveira, José T A; Grossi-de-Sá, Maria F; Mehta, Angela

    2015-05-01

    Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) is an important legume species well adapted to low fertility soils and prolonged drought periods. One of the main problems that cause severe yield losses in cowpea is the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita. The aim of this work was to analyze the differential expression of proteins in the contrasting cultivars of cowpea CE 31 (highly resistant) and CE 109 (slightly resistant) during early stages of M. incognita infection. Cowpea roots were collected at 3, 6, and 9 days after inoculation and used for protein extraction and 2-DE analysis. From a total of 59 differential spots, 37 proteins were identified, mostly involved in plant defense, such as spermidine synthase, patatin, proteasome component, and nitrile-specifier protein. A follow-up study was performed by quantitative RT-PCR analysis of nine selected proteins and the results revealed a very similar upregulation trend between the protein expression profiles and the corresponding transcripts. This study also identified ACT and GAPDH as a good combination of reference genes for quantitative RT-PCR analysis of the pathosystem cowpea/nematode. Additionally, an interactome analysis showed three major pathways affected by nematode infection: proteasome endopeptidase complex, oxidative phosphorylation, and flavonoid biosynthesis. Taken together, the results obtained by proteome, transcriptome, and interactome approaches suggest that oxidative stress, ubiquitination, and glucosinolate degradation may be part of cowpea CE 31 resistance mechanisms in response to nematode infection. PMID:25736976

  7. Chitosan-cinnamon beads enhance suppressive activity against Rhizoctonia solani and Meloidogyne incognita in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Dong-Jun; Nguyen, Dang-Minh-Chanh; Park, Ro-Dong; Jung, Woo-Jin

    2014-01-01

    A novel chitosan-cinnamon bead carrier was prepared in this study. Chitosan was mixed with cinnamon powder (CP) and cinnamon extract (CE) to obtain chitosan-cinnamon powder (CCP) beads and chitosan-cinnamon extracted (CCE) beads, respectively. The potential antifungal and nematicidal activities of CCP and CCE were investigated against Rhizoctonia solani and Meloidogyne incognita in vitro. Relative antifungal activity of the CCP (5% CP) bead-treated R. solani was 30.9 and 23.9% after 1 and 2 day incubations, respectively. Relative antifungal activity of the CCE (0.5% CE) bead-treated R. solani was 4.3, 3.0 and 4.2% after 1, 2 and 3 days of incubation. Inhibition of hatch by CCP beads with CP of 5% was 78.8%. Inhibition of hatch by CCE beads with CE of 0.5% was 82.0%. J2 mortality following the CCP (5% CP) and CCE (0.5% CE) bead treatments was 85.0 and 95.8%, respectively against M. incognita after 48 h incubations. PMID:24417978

  8. IDENTIFICACIÓN MORFOLÓGICA, MORFOMÉTRICA Y MOLECULAR DE Meloidogyne incognita EN HIGUERA (Ficus carica L. EN COSTA RICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter Peraza-Padilla

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este estudio fue identificar la especie de Meloidogyne asociada a dos plantaciones de higuera en Costa Rica. En marzo de 2012, en el distrito de Pacayas, provincia de Cartago, se detectaron agallas en los sistemas radicales de plantas de higuera (Ficus carica L. de dos fincas. De las raíces agalladas se extrajeron hembras, masas de huevos y juveniles (J2 de Meloidogyne sp. Se examinaron los patrones perineales de las hembras y los segundos estadios infectivos se analizaron morfológica y molecularmente mediante PCR-RFLP. Se amplificó la región intergénica (IGS del genoma mitocondrial, delimitada por el gen de la subunidad II de la citocromo oxidasa (COII y el gen ribosomal 16S. La población de nematodos se identificó como M. incognita. El tamaño de los productos de PCR generados con los imprimadores C2F3 y 1108 fue de 1,7 kb. Al tratar los productos de PCR con enzimas de restricción, se generaron cuatro fragmentos de 850, 450, 250 y 150 pb con la enzima AluI y dos fragmentos de 1300 y 400 pb con la enzima HinfI.

  9. Management of Meloidogyne incognita race 3 and Macrophomina phaseolina by fungus culture filtrates and Bacillus subtilis on chickpea

    OpenAIRE

    Siddiqui, Z. A.; Mahmood, I.

    1995-01-01

    #Bacillus subtilis$ et des filtrats de culture des champignons #Aspergillus niger, Curvularia tuberculata$ et #Penicillium coryophilum$ ont été utilisés, seuls ou en combinaison, comme traitement de semences pour protéger le pois chiche contre une maladie racinaire complexe associant le nématode "Meloidogyne incognita$ race 3 et le champignon #Macrophomina phaseolina$. D'une manière générale, les traitements à l'aide de ces quatre agents, seuls ou en combinaison, accroissent le poids...

  10. Low-Temperature Scanning Electron Microscope Observations of the Meloidogyne incognita Egg Mass: The Gelatinous Matrix and Embryo Development

    OpenAIRE

    Orion, D; Wergin, W P; Chitwood, D. J.; Erbe, E F

    1994-01-01

    The root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita was cultured monoxenically on excised tomato roots. Galls and egg masses were observed daily using a light microscope. Two phases were distinguished in the gelatinous matrix of the egg mass: a translucent, amorphous material on the surface of the egg mass and a denser, layered phase in which nematode eggs were deposited. Egg masses were also cryofixed, fractured, and observed as frozen, hydrated specimens on a cold stage in a scanning electron micr...

  11. Root Cortical Cell Spherical Bodies Associated with an Induced Resistance Reaction in Monoxenic Cultures of Meloidogyne incognita

    OpenAIRE

    Orion, D; Wergin, W P; Chitwood, D. J.

    1995-01-01

    The root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita was monoxenically cultured on excised roots of soybean cv. Pickett and tomato cv. Rutgers in agar media containing either 0 to 1,600 ?g/ml ammonium nitrate or 0 to 100 ?g/ml urea. Observations with scanning and transmission electron microscopy indicated that an elevated concentration of ammonium nitrate or urea inhibited giant cell formation and suppressed nematode development in the infected soybean roots. In the tomato roots, concentrations of am...

  12. Studies on the interactions of Meloidogyne incognita, Radopholus similis and Fusarium solani on black pepper (Piper nigrum L.).

    OpenAIRE

    Mustika, I.

    1990-01-01

    This study on the interactions between various cultivars of the black pepper plant (Piper nigrum L. ) and three of its pathogens, Meloidogyne Incognita (Kofoid & White) , Radopholus similis (Cobb) , Thorne and Fusarium solani f. sp. piperi Albuquerque was initiated to search for a biological cause of "yellow disease" of black pepper.This disease was described already in 1932 by Van der Vecht as "geelziektel" and its symptoms on the aerial parts of the pepper plants were yellowing of the leave...

  13. In-vitro Assays of Meloidogyne incognita and Heterodera glycines for Detection of Nematode-antagonistic Fungal Compounds

    OpenAIRE

    Nitao, James K.; Meyer, Susan L. F.; Chitwood, David J.

    1999-01-01

    In-vitro methods were developed to test fungi for production of metabolites affecting nematode egg hatch and mobility of second-stage juveniles. Separate assays were developed for two nematodes: root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne incognita) and soybean cyst nematode (Heterodera glycines). For egg hatch to be successfully assayed, eggs must first be surface-disinfested to avoid the confounding effects of incidental microbial growth facilitated by the fungal culture medium. Sodium hypochlorite was...

  14. Effects of Site-specific Application of Aldicarb on Cotton in a Meloidogyne incognita-infested Field

    OpenAIRE

    Wrather, J. A.; Stevens, W. E.; Kirkpatrick, T. L.; Kitchen, N. R.

    2002-01-01

    Cotton farmers in Missouri commonly apply a single rate of aldicarb throughout the field at planting to protect their crop from Meloidogyne incognita, even though these nematodes are spatially aggregated. Our purpose was to determine the effect of site-specific application of aldicarb on cotton production in a field infested with these nematodes in 1997 and 1998. Cotton yields were collected from sites not treated with aldicarb (control), sites receiving aldicarb at the standard recommended r...

  15. COMPORTAMIENTO DE MATERIALES GENÉTICOS DE PIÑA (Ananas comosus) AL ATAQUE DE Meloidogyne incognita RAZA 1 / BEHAVIOUR OF THE PINEAPPLE (Ananas comosus) GENETIC MATERIALS TO THE ATTACK OF Meloidogyne incognita RACE 1

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Zoraida, Suárez H; Ligia Carolina, Rosales.

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available La resistencia de cuatro accesiones de piña (Ananas comosus (L.) Merr.) a Meloidogyne incognita raza 1 procedentes de la región Amazónica Venezolana fue evaluada en invernadero. Las accesiones fueron identificadas como CRF-037, CRF-048, CRF-008 y CRF-040. El diseño experimental fue completamente ale [...] atorizado, con dos tratamientos y cinco repeticiones/accesión/tratamiento. Se utilizaron envases de 1 kg de suelo esterilizado con vapor. Un tratamiento estuvo representado por cinco plantas/accesión de un año de edad, las cuales se inocularon con una población inicial (Pi) de 10000 huevos y/o juveniles en segundo estado (J2). Otras cinco plantas/accesión no se inocularon y se utilizaron como testigos. El peso fresco y seco de la parte aérea y radical, además del Factor de Reproducción del nematodo (FR= Pf /Pi) se determinaron cuatro meses después de la inoculación. Los datos fueron analizados a través de una prueba t de Student para muestras independientes al 1%. Las plantas con FR=1 se consideraron resistentes y tolerantes, si no se afectaban las variables agronómicas. Los resultados demostraron que en las plantas inoculadas de la accesión CRF-008 los pesos frescos y secos de la parte aérea y el peso fresco radical fueron significativamente menores al compararlos con los de las plantas no inoculadas, mientras que en la accesión CRF-040 solo se afectó el peso fresco radical. El FR fue menor a uno en todas las accesiones, por lo que se pueden considerar en esta etapa del estudio como materiales resistentes. Las accesiones CRF-037 y CRF-048, se comportaron como resistentes tolerantes por no haberse afectado las variables agronómicas evaluadas, mientras que la accesión CRF-008 y CRF-040 se pueden catalogar como resistentes no tolerantes debido a que se afectaron tres y una de las variables agronómicas evaluadas, respectivamente. Estos materiales son promisorios en los programas de mejoramiento genético. Abstract in english Resistance to Meloidogyne incognita race 1 of four pineapple (Ananas comosus (L.) Merr.) accessions from the Venezuelan Amazonic region was evaluated under greenhouse conditions. Pineapple accessions were identified as CRF-037, CRF-048, CRF-008 and CRF-040. Pots of 1 kg of soil sterilized with steam [...] were used in a completely randomized design with two treatments and five replications/accession/treatment. One of the treatments was represented by five one-year old plants/accessions, which were inoculated with an initial population (Pi) of 10000 eggs and/or second stage juveniles (J2) of Meloidogyne incognita race 1. In the other treatment used as control, the five plants/accessions were not inoculated with nematodes. Fresh and dry weights of tops and roots and the nematode reproduction factor (RF= Pf /Pi) were recorded four months after inoculation. The data were analyzed by t Student test for independent samples at 1%. Plants with RF

  16. Estreptomicetos no controle da meloidoginose em mudas de tomateiro Streptomycetes in the control of Meloidogyne incognita in tomato plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla da Silva Sousa

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o efeito de seis isolados de estreptomicetos na mortalidade e eclosão de juvenis de segundo estádio (J2 de Meloidogyne incognita e no controle da meloidoginose em mudas de tomateiro. Foi montado um bioensaio em placas tipo Elisa, sendo adicionados em cada célula, 200 µL de metabólitos dos isolados, com 20 µL de uma suspensão com 25 juvenis de segundo estádio (J2 de M. incognita. Os metabólitos produzidos por Streptomyces griseus subsp. griseus causaram 98,2% de mortalidade dos J2 de M. incognita. Em outro bioensaio, foram adicionados 3 mL dos metabólitos em frascos de vidro, com 100 µL da suspensão contendo 25 ovos de M.incognita. O isolado N0035 de Streptomyces proporcionou 98,8% de inibição na eclosão de J2 de M. incognita. Num terceiro bioensaio, o substrato de produção de mudas foi infestado com suspensão de estreptomicetos e incubado por 30 dias. Quinze dias depois da germinação das sementes do tomateiro, foi realizada a inoculação com 2.000 J2 por planta. Verificou-se a redução de 68% no número de galhas por grama de raiz e de 76,8% na massa de ovos por grama de raiz, nas mudas produzidas no substrato infestado e incubado com Streptomyces griseus subsp. griseus, quando comparado com a testemunha.This work aimed to evaluate the effect of six streptomycete isolates on mortality, hatching, and control of Meloidogyne incognita on tomato seedlings. An assay was conducted in Elisa plates, with the addition of 200 µL of the streptomycete metabolites, along with 20 µL of suspension containing 25 second stage juveniles (J2 of M. incognita. The metabolites produced by Streptomyces griseus subsp. griseus caused mortality of 98.2% on M. incognita. A second assay was conducted with 3 mL of streptomycete metabolites and 25 eggs of M. incognita. The isolate N0035 of Streptomyces caused inhibition of 98.8% on hatching. In a third assay, potting mix was infested with suspension of the streptomycetes isolates and incubated for 30 days. Fifteen days after germination, tomato seedlings were inoculated with a suspension containing 2,000 J2 of M. incognita. Reductions of 68% in the number of galls per gram of roots and of 76.8% in the egg mass per gram of roots were observed on tomato seedlings grown in the potting mix inoculated with Streptomyces griseus subsp. griseus, compared to the control.

  17. Estreptomicetos no controle da meloidoginose em mudas de tomateiro / Streptomycetes in the control of Meloidogyne incognita in tomato plants

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Carla da Silva, Sousa; Ana Cristina Fermino, Soares; Marlon da Silva, Garrido; Gabriela Maria Carneiro de Oliveira, Almeida.

    1759-17-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o efeito de seis isolados de estreptomicetos na mortalidade e eclosão de juvenis de segundo estádio (J2) de Meloidogyne incognita e no controle da meloidoginose em mudas de tomateiro. Foi montado um bioensaio em placas tipo Elisa, sendo adicionados em cada cé [...] lula, 200 µL de metabólitos dos isolados, com 20 µL de uma suspensão com 25 juvenis de segundo estádio (J2) de M. incognita. Os metabólitos produzidos por Streptomyces griseus subsp. griseus causaram 98,2% de mortalidade dos J2 de M. incognita. Em outro bioensaio, foram adicionados 3 mL dos metabólitos em frascos de vidro, com 100 µL da suspensão contendo 25 ovos de M.incognita. O isolado N0035 de Streptomyces proporcionou 98,8% de inibição na eclosão de J2 de M. incognita. Num terceiro bioensaio, o substrato de produção de mudas foi infestado com suspensão de estreptomicetos e incubado por 30 dias. Quinze dias depois da germinação das sementes do tomateiro, foi realizada a inoculação com 2.000 J2 por planta. Verificou-se a redução de 68% no número de galhas por grama de raiz e de 76,8% na massa de ovos por grama de raiz, nas mudas produzidas no substrato infestado e incubado com Streptomyces griseus subsp. griseus, quando comparado com a testemunha. Abstract in english This work aimed to evaluate the effect of six streptomycete isolates on mortality, hatching, and control of Meloidogyne incognita on tomato seedlings. An assay was conducted in Elisa plates, with the addition of 200 µL of the streptomycete metabolites, along with 20 µL of suspension containing 25 se [...] cond stage juveniles (J2) of M. incognita. The metabolites produced by Streptomyces griseus subsp. griseus caused mortality of 98.2% on M. incognita. A second assay was conducted with 3 mL of streptomycete metabolites and 25 eggs of M. incognita. The isolate N0035 of Streptomyces caused inhibition of 98.8% on hatching. In a third assay, potting mix was infested with suspension of the streptomycetes isolates and incubated for 30 days. Fifteen days after germination, tomato seedlings were inoculated with a suspension containing 2,000 J2 of M. incognita. Reductions of 68% in the number of galls per gram of roots and of 76.8% in the egg mass per gram of roots were observed on tomato seedlings grown in the potting mix inoculated with Streptomyces griseus subsp. griseus, compared to the control.

  18. Inoculum Densities of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum and Meloidogyne incognita in Relation to the Development of Fusarium Wilt and the Phenology of Cotton Plants (Gossypium hirsutum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devay, J E; Gutierrez, A P; Pullman, G S; Wakeman, R J; Garber, R H; Jeffers, D P; Smith, S N; Goodell, P B; Roberts, P A

    1997-03-01

    ABSTRACT Development of Fusarium wilt in upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) usually requires infections of plants by both Meloidogyne incognita and Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum. In this study, the soil densities of M. incognita and F. oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum and the incidence of Fusarium wilt in three field sites were determined in 1982-1984. Multiple regression analysis of percent incidence of Fusarium wilt symptoms on population densities of M. incognita and F. oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum yielded a significant fit (R (2) = 0.64) only on F. oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum. Significant t-values for slope were also obtained for the interaction of M. incognita and F. oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum, but densities of M. incognita and F. oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum were also related on a log(10) scale. The physiological time of appearance of first foliar symptoms of Fusarium wilt, based on a degree-days threshold of 11.9 degrees C (53.5 degrees F), was used as a basis for determining disease progress curves and the phenology of cotton plant growth and development. Effects of Fusarium wilt on plant height and boll set were determined in three successive years. Increases in both of these plant characteristics decreased or stopped before foliar symptoms were apparent. Seed cotton yields of plant cohorts that developed foliar wilt symptoms early in the season (before 2,000 F degree-days) were variable but not much different in these years. This contrasted with cohorts of plants that first showed foliar symptoms late in the season (after 2,400 F degree-days) and cohorts of plants that showed no foliar symptoms of wilt. Regression analyses for 1982-1984 indicated moderate to weak correlations (r = 0.16-0.74) of the time of appearance of the first foliar symptoms and seed cotton yields. PMID:18945178

  19. Efeitos do nível de inóculo de Meloidogyne incognita em algodoeiro / Effects of low inoculum level of Meloidogyne incognita on cotton plants

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    MARLUCI MUNDIN, ABRÃO; PAULO, MAZZAFERA.

    Full Text Available Pesquisas acerca da fisiologia de plantas em resposta ao ataque de nematóides normalmente são feitas com doses altas de inóculo, quer sejam ovos ou juvenis de segundo estágio. Diferentemente, as avaliações da resistência de plantas a nematóides em programas de melhoramento são realizadas com doses b [...] astante inferiores. Neste estudo acompanhou-se a variação de alguns parâmetros fisiológicos em algodão, em resposta à aplicação de baixas doses de inóculo de Meloidogyne incognita raça 3. Duas cultivares foram utilizadas, Acala e IAC-20, respectivamente suscetível e moderadamente resistente. Plântulas com duas folhas receberam 500 ou 5.000 ovos e, 90 dias depois, foram comparadas a plantas que não receberam o inóculo, quanto à massa da parte aérea e raízes, fotossíntese, atividade da enzima redutase do nitrato e teores de clorofila e açúcares solúveis. Aos 90 dias algumas plantas também foram submetidas à deficiência hídrica e o potencial da água determinado nas folhas. O maior nível de inóculo levou à redução da parte aérea (massa de folhas) em 'Acala'. Com 500 ovos parece ter ocorrido um estímulo em ambas as cultivares, uma vez que houve tendência de maior crescimento da parte aérea. Em 'Acala' houve maior crescimento de raiz com o aumento do inóculo, provavelmente devido à emissão de raízes secundárias nos pontos de penetração do nematóide e também pela formação de galhas. Houve aumento dos teores de clorofila e de açúcares solúveis, bem como da fotossíntese, com o aumento do inóculo. Discute-se se tal ocorrência deve-se à maior demanda de fotoassimilados para suportar o crescimento de raízes, em 'Acala'. Em IAC-20 esse fato estaria ligado aos mecanismos de defesa induzidos pelo ataque do nematóide. Após o estresse hídrico o potencial da água diminuiu em 'IAC-20' e aumentou na 'Acala', com o aumento do inóculo. A elevação do potencial da água, nesta última cultivar, poderia estar ligada ao crescimento das raízes e, principalmente, à emissão de novas raízes secundárias, ao passo que a resposta em 'IAC-20' seria a previsível, ou seja, de deficiência hídrica. Abstract in english Investigations on physiological responses of plants to nematode are usually carried out with plants inoculated with high number of eggs or second-stage juveniles. On the other hand, resistance against nematodes in plant breeding programs is evaluated with low number of inoculum. The aim of this rese [...] arch was to study some physiological responses of cotton plants inoculated with low inoculum levels of Meloidogyne incognita race 3. Two cultivars were used, Acala and IAC-20, susceptible and moderately resistant hosts respectively. Seedlings with 500 or 5,000 eggs were compared with control plants at 90 days post inoculation. The following aspects were assessed: shoot and root masses, photosynthesis, activity of the enzyme nitrate reductase, and chlorophyll and soluble sugar contents. At 90 days a water stress was imposed to some plants and the leaf water potentials determined. At 5,000 eggs, 'Acala' had a shoot reduction (leafmass). With 500 eggs, there was an estimulation of shoot growth in both cultivars, as revealed by a shootmass increase There was a clear increase on root growth of 'Acala' which was directly related to the inoculum levels. This response was probably caused by emission of new secondary roots and nematode galls formation. Chlorophyll and sugar content, and photosynthesis increased with the increase of inoculum levels, suggesting a response to support root growth in 'Acala'. In 'IAC-20' these higher values would be related with the energy demanded by defense mechanisms against the nematode. The imposed water stress caused a decrease on leaf water potential in 'IAC-20', but an increase in 'Acala' with increasing inoculum levels. The observed increase in the later cultivar might be related with the root growth, mainly due to emission of new secondary roots, while 'IAC 20' water stress response, would be considered as a pattern.

  20. Efeitos do nível de inóculo de Meloidogyne incognita em algodoeiro Effects of low inoculum level of Meloidogyne incognita on cotton plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARLUCI MUNDIN ABRÃO

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Pesquisas acerca da fisiologia de plantas em resposta ao ataque de nematóides normalmente são feitas com doses altas de inóculo, quer sejam ovos ou juvenis de segundo estágio. Diferentemente, as avaliações da resistência de plantas a nematóides em programas de melhoramento são realizadas com doses bastante inferiores. Neste estudo acompanhou-se a variação de alguns parâmetros fisiológicos em algodão, em resposta à aplicação de baixas doses de inóculo de Meloidogyne incognita raça 3. Duas cultivares foram utilizadas, Acala e IAC-20, respectivamente suscetível e moderadamente resistente. Plântulas com duas folhas receberam 500 ou 5.000 ovos e, 90 dias depois, foram comparadas a plantas que não receberam o inóculo, quanto à massa da parte aérea e raízes, fotossíntese, atividade da enzima redutase do nitrato e teores de clorofila e açúcares solúveis. Aos 90 dias algumas plantas também foram submetidas à deficiência hídrica e o potencial da água determinado nas folhas. O maior nível de inóculo levou à redução da parte aérea (massa de folhas em 'Acala'. Com 500 ovos parece ter ocorrido um estímulo em ambas as cultivares, uma vez que houve tendência de maior crescimento da parte aérea. Em 'Acala' houve maior crescimento de raiz com o aumento do inóculo, provavelmente devido à emissão de raízes secundárias nos pontos de penetração do nematóide e também pela formação de galhas. Houve aumento dos teores de clorofila e de açúcares solúveis, bem como da fotossíntese, com o aumento do inóculo. Discute-se se tal ocorrência deve-se à maior demanda de fotoassimilados para suportar o crescimento de raízes, em 'Acala'. Em IAC-20 esse fato estaria ligado aos mecanismos de defesa induzidos pelo ataque do nematóide. Após o estresse hídrico o potencial da água diminuiu em 'IAC-20' e aumentou na 'Acala', com o aumento do inóculo. A elevação do potencial da água, nesta última cultivar, poderia estar ligada ao crescimento das raízes e, principalmente, à emissão de novas raízes secundárias, ao passo que a resposta em 'IAC-20' seria a previsível, ou seja, de deficiência hídrica.Investigations on physiological responses of plants to nematode are usually carried out with plants inoculated with high number of eggs or second-stage juveniles. On the other hand, resistance against nematodes in plant breeding programs is evaluated with low number of inoculum. The aim of this research was to study some physiological responses of cotton plants inoculated with low inoculum levels of Meloidogyne incognita race 3. Two cultivars were used, Acala and IAC-20, susceptible and moderately resistant hosts respectively. Seedlings with 500 or 5,000 eggs were compared with control plants at 90 days post inoculation. The following aspects were assessed: shoot and root masses, photosynthesis, activity of the enzyme nitrate reductase, and chlorophyll and soluble sugar contents. At 90 days a water stress was imposed to some plants and the leaf water potentials determined. At 5,000 eggs, 'Acala' had a shoot reduction (leafmass. With 500 eggs, there was an estimulation of shoot growth in both cultivars, as revealed by a shootmass increase There was a clear increase on root growth of 'Acala' which was directly related to the inoculum levels. This response was probably caused by emission of new secondary roots and nematode galls formation. Chlorophyll and sugar content, and photosynthesis increased with the increase of inoculum levels, suggesting a response to support root growth in 'Acala'. In 'IAC-20' these higher values would be related with the energy demanded by defense mechanisms against the nematode. The imposed water stress caused a decrease on leaf water potential in 'IAC-20', but an increase in 'Acala' with increasing inoculum levels. The observed increase in the later cultivar might be related with the root growth, mainly due to emission of new secondary roots, while 'IAC 20' water stress response, would be considered as a pattern.

  1. Efeito de extratos aquosos de espécies de Asteraceae sobre Meloidogyne incognita Effect of aqueous extracts of Asteraceae species on Meloidogyne incognita

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Cristina Madeira Ferreira

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se, in vitro e in vivo a atividade nematicida dos extratos aquosos de vedélia (Sphagneticola trilobata, erva-de-touro (Tridax procumbens, cravo-de-defunto (Tagetes patula, girassol mexicano (Tithonia diversifolia, botão de ouro (Unxia suffruticosa e zínia (Zinnia peruviana, sobre Meloidogyne incognita. Os extratos foram preparados na proporção de 1,0g do material seco e triturado para 10mL de água destilada e armazenados por 24h, sendo seguidamente utilizados nos experimentos. Nos testes in vitro, foram depositados 4,0mL do extrato bruto e 2,0mL de uma suspensão aquosa contendo 200 ovos do nematóide em placas de Petri de 5cm de diâmetro e, quinze dias após, procedeu-se a contagem do número de juvenis eclodidos e dos ovos remanescentes para o cálculo das porcentagens de eclosão. Nos testes in vivo, os extratos foram aplicados, separadamente, via pulverização foliar, tratamento de raiz e vertido no solo, semanalmente durante 60 dias. Como testemunha utilizou-se apenas água nos dois experimentos. No ensaio in vitro observou-se que todos os extratos foram eficientes na redução da eclosão de juvenis de M. incognita quando comparados à testemunha, as porcentagens de redução foram 89,96%, 91,13%, 92,48%, 92,72%, 93,2% e 97,48% para erva-de-touro, cravo-de-defunto, girassol mexicano, vedélia, botão de ouro e zínia, respectivamente, e no ensaio in vivo, que os tratamentos não exerceram nenhum efeito sobre o peso do sistema radicular dos tomateiros, no entanto, observou-se que os resultados diferiram entre as espécies utilizadas e a forma de aplicação do extrato na avaliação do peso fresco da parte aérea das plantas. Quanto ao fator de reprodução, observou-se que nenhum dos extratos apresentou diferença estatística em relação à testemunha, no entanto, quando se compara as diferentes formas de aplicação dos mesmos, observa-se que houve diferença estatística quando os extratos de erva de touro e girassol mexicano foram aplicados via pulverização foliar e no tratamento de raiz, contudo, não houve diferença quando estes extratos foram aplicados em forma de rega no solo.The nematicide activity of aqueous extracts of Wedelia (Sphagneticola trilobata, tridax daisy (Tridax procumbens, marigold (Tagetes patula, Mexican sunflower (Tithonia diversifolia, "botão de ouro" (Unxia suffruticosa and Peruvian zinnia (Zinnia peruviana was studied in vitro and in vivo on Meloidogyne incognita. The extracts were prepared at a ratio of 1.0 g of dry and crushed material to 10 ml of distilled water, stored for 24 hours, and then used in the experiments. In in vitro tests, 4.0 mL of crude extract and 2.0 ml of an aqueous suspension containing 200 nematode eggs were deposited on Petri plates of 5cm diameter and, fifteen days later, the number of hatched juveniles and the remaining eggs were counted to calculate the percentages of hatching. In in vivo tests, the extracts were separately applied by leaf spraying, root treatment and pouring onto the soil, weekly for 60 days. As control, only water was used in both experiments. The in vitro test showed that all extracts were effective in reducing the hatching of juveniles of M. incognita when compared to the control; the reduction percentages were 89.96%, 91.13%, 92.48%, 92.72%, 93.2% and 97.48% for tridax daisy, marigold, Mexican sunflower, Wedelia, "botão de ouro" and Peruvian zinnia, respectively, while in the in vivo assay, treatments did not have any effect on the root system weight of tomato plants; however, results differed between the used species and the way of application of the extract in the evaluation of the fresh weight of shoots. As to the reproduction rate, none of the extracts showed a statistical difference, compared to control; however, comparing the different ways of application, there was statistical difference when the extracts of tridax daisy and Mexican sunflower were applied through leaf spraying and root treatment, but there was no difference when these extracts were applied as irrigation on the soil.

  2. Robusta coffee rootstocks resistants to Meloidogyne paranaensis and M. incognita races 1 and 2/ Porta-enxertos de café robusta resistentes aos nematóides Meloidogyne paranaensis e M. incognita raças 1 e 21

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    Inês Cristina de Batista Fonseca

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The Meloidogyne paranaensis and M. incognita races 1 and 2 are the most pathogenic root knot nematodes of coffee crop in Paraná state, Brazil. The use of susceptible arabica cultivars on resistant rootstock robusta cultivars, especially cultivar Apoatã IAC-2258 of Coffea canephora var. robusta, has been successful, but there are segregations to susceptible ones. The aim of this research was to identify C. canephora var. robusta coffee trees with simultaneous resistance to M. paranaensis, M. incognita races 1 and 2. Twenty-four C. canephora genotypes were evaluated using Taylor´s evaluation method, conducted in randomized blocks design with three replications and 30 plants per plot. The cultivar Mundo Novo IAC 376-4 was used as susceptible standard. The variables evaluated were nematodes incidence and root volume. The resistance levels founded among plants were resistant, moderately resistant and susceptible. Six genotypes of C. canephora var. robusta with simultaneous resistance, probably in homozygous, to M. paranaensis, M. incognita race 1 and M. incognita race 2 were found, all with good root volume. The mother plants of these six better treatments will be vegetatively propagated and used to begin seed production of rootstock cultivars.No Estado do Paraná, os nematóides mais danosos para o café são Meloidogyne paranaensis e M. incognita raças 1 e 2. A enxertia de cultivares suscetíveis de Coffea arabica sobre C. canephora resistentes tem sido bem sucedida, especialmente com o porta-enxerto Apoatã IAC-2258, porém existe segregação para a resistência. O objetivo deste trabalho foi identificar cafeeiros de C. canephora var. robusta com resistência simultânea aos nematóides M. paranaensis e M. incognita raças 1 e 2. Avaliaramse 24 genótipos de C. canephora na metodologia de Taylor, no delineamento em blocos ao acaso com três repetições e parcelas de 30 plantas. Como testemunha suscetível utilizou-se a cultivar Mundo Novo IAC 376-4. As variáveis avaliadas foram incidência dos nematóides e volume radicular. Os níveis de resistência encontrados entre as plantas foram resistente, moderadamente resistente e suscetível. Foram identificados seis genótipos do porta-enxerto C. canephora var. robusta com resistência, provavelmente em homozigoze, para os nematóides M. paranaensis, M. incognita raça 1 e M. incognita raça 2, todos com bom volume radicular. As plantas mães desses seis melhores genótipos serão propagadas vegetativamente e usadas para formar campo de sementes de cultivares porta-enxertos.

  3. Physiological Effects of Meloidogyne incognita Infection on Cotton Genotypes with Differing Levels of Resistance in the Greenhouse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Ping; Davis, Richard F.; Kemerait, Robert C.; van Iersel, Marc W.; Scherm, Harald

    2014-01-01

    Greenhouse tests were conducted to evaluate (i) the effect of Meloidogyne incognita infection in cotton on plant growth and physiology including the height-to-node ratio, chlorophyll content, dark-adapted quantum yield of photosystem II, and leaf area; and (ii) the extent to which moderate or high levels of resistance to M. incognita influenced these effects. Cultivars FiberMax 960 BR (susceptible to M. incognita) and Stoneville 5599 BR (moderately resistant) were tested together in three trials, and PD94042 (germplasm, susceptible) and 120R1B1 (breeding line genetically similar to PD94042, but highly resistant) were paired in two additional trials. Inoculation with M. incognita generally resulted in increases in root gall ratings and egg counts per gram of root compared with the noninoculated control, as well as reductions in plant dry weight, root weight, leaf area, boll number, and boll dry weight, thereby confirming that growth of our greenhouse-grown plants was reduced in the same ways that would be expected in field-grown plants. In all trials, M. incognita caused reductions in height-to-node ratios. Nematode infection consistently reduced the area under the height-to-node ratio curves for all genotypes, and these reductions were similar for resistant and susceptible genotypes (no significant genotype × inoculation interaction). Our study is the first to show that infection by M. incognita is associated with reduced chlorophyll content in cotton leaves, and the reduction in the resistant genotypes was similar to that in the susceptible genotypes (no interaction). The susceptible PD94042 tended to have increased leaf temperature compared with the genetically similar but highly resistant 120R1B1 (P < 0.08), likely attributable to increased water stress associated with M. incognita infection. PMID:25580028

  4. Mitochondrial genomes of Meloidogyne chitwoodi and M. incognita (Nematoda: Tylenchina): comparative analysis, gene order and phylogenetic relationships with other nematodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphreys-Pereira, Danny A; Elling, Axel A

    2014-01-01

    Root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp.) are among the most important plant pathogens. In this study, the mitochondrial (mt) genomes of the root-knot nematodes, M. chitwoodi and M. incognita were sequenced. PCR analyses suggest that both mt genomes are circular, with an estimated size of 19.7 and 18.6-19.1kb, respectively. The mt genomes each contain a large non-coding region with tandem repeats and the control region. The mt gene arrangement of M. chitwoodi and M. incognita is unlike that of other nematodes. Sequence alignments of the two Meloidogyne mt genomes showed three translocations; two in transfer RNAs and one in cox2. Compared with other nematode mt genomes, the gene arrangement of M. chitwoodi and M. incognita was most similar to Pratylenchus vulnus. Phylogenetic analyses (Maximum Likelihood and Bayesian inference) were conducted using 78 complete mt genomes of diverse nematode species. Analyses based on nucleotides and amino acids of the 12 protein-coding mt genes showed strong support for the monophyly of class Chromadorea, but only amino acid-based analyses supported the monophyly of class Enoplea. The suborder Spirurina was not monophyletic in any of the phylogenetic analyses, contradicting the Clade III model, which groups Ascaridomorpha, Spiruromorpha and Oxyuridomorpha based on the small subunit ribosomal RNA gene. Importantly, comparisons of mt gene arrangement and tree-based methods placed Meloidogyne as sister taxa of Pratylenchus, a migratory plant endoparasitic nematode, and not with the sedentary endoparasitic Heterodera. Thus, comparative analyses of mt genomes suggest that sedentary endoparasitism in Meloidogyne and Heterodera is based on convergent evolution. PMID:24751670

  5. Histological mechanisms of the resistance conferred by the Ma gene against Meloidogyne incognita in Prunus spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khallouk, Samira; Voisin, Roger; Van Ghelder, Cyril; Engler, Gilbert; Amiri, Saïd; Esmenjaud, Daniel

    2011-08-01

    The Ma gene from Myrobalan plum is a TNL gene that confers a high-level resistance to all root-knot nematodes of major economic importance, including Meloidogyne incognita, M. javanica, M. arenaria, and M. enterolobii. The nematode behavior in the roots and the corresponding histological mechanisms of the Ma resistance to M. incognita in the resistant (R) accessions of the plum 'P.2175' and the interspecific hybrid P.2175×almond-peach '35', carrying the Ma1 allele (Ma1/ma), were characterized in comparison with the susceptible (S) accessions in the plum 'P.2032' and the interspecific hybrid P.2175×almond-peach '253' (ma/ma). Second-stage juveniles (J2s) were inoculated in micropropagated plantlets grown in soil substrate under controlled conditions at 25°C. Nematodes penetrated both R and S plants preferentially along the apical zone or close to the young lateral buds and moved via similar routes. Then they migrated into the cortex downward in the direction of the apex and turned up in the meristematic apical region to colonize the differentiating stele. In R accessions, motile J2s neither swelled nor developed into J3s, and initiation of feeding sites was never observed. This complete absence of gall symptoms is associated with cell necroses and corresponding hypersensitive-like reaction (HLR) phenotypes occurring either in the stele or in the meristematic apical region or in the cortex. Nematode attacks often disorganized the meristematic apical tissues of R accessions, which induced the development of subterminal lateral roots replacing primary terminal apices and, thus, provided an active resistance reaction to HLR damage. PMID:21446787

  6. Inconsistency of the biological control of Meloidogyne incognita race 2 in melon by endophytic bacteria / Inconsistência do controle biológico de Meloidogyne incognita raça 2 em meloeiro por bactérias endofíticas

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Jeane E de, Medeiros; Rosa de LR, Mariano; Elvira MR, Pedrosa; Elineide B da, Silveira.

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available A partir de amostras de solo coletadas em plantios comerciais de meloeiro, situados em Mossoró-RN, foram obtidos 61 isolados de rizobactérias que, juntamente com outros 56 isolados endofíticos pertencentes à Coleção de Culturas do Laboratório de Fitobacteriologia da Universidade Federal Rural de Per [...] nambuco, foram avaliados para o controle de Meloidogyne incognita raça 2 em melão. Plantas de meloeiro Amarelo, cultivar AF 682, com dez dias de idade tiveram o solo infestado com 1000 ovos de M. incognita raça 2 por planta. Dois dias antes, foram depositados em cada vaso 20 mL da suspensão bacteriana (DO570nm = 0,7). Decorridos 60 dias, foram determinados a biomassa fresca das raízes, os índices de galhas e de massa de ovos e o fator de reprodução do nematóide. Dos 117 isolados avaliados, foram selecionados inicialmente os isolados endofíticos ENM7, ENM10 e ENM51, todos pertencentes ao gênero Bacillus, que reduziram significativamente a massa de ovos e/ou o índice de galhas. Contudo, quando testados novamente, separadamente ou em misturas, esses isolados não mantiveram a eficiência na redução dessas variáveis e, in vitro, não afetaram a eclosão dos juvenis. Os resultados obtidos evidenciam a inconstância da ação das bactérias endofíticas no controle de M. incognita raça 2 em meloeiro. Abstract in english We obtained 61 rhizobacterium isolates from rhizosphere soil samples collected in melon commercial fields located in Mossoró, Rio Grande do Norte State, Brazil. These isolates, along with 56 endophytic bacteria from the Collection of Cultures of the Plant Bacteriology Laboratory of the Universidade [...] Federal Rural de Pernambuco, were tested for controlling Meloidogyne incognita race 2 in melon. To infest the soil with nematodes, 1000 eggs of Meloidogyne incognita race 2 per plant were placed in pots where seedlings of the yellow-type melon, cultivar AF 682, were growing for 10 days. Two days before, 20 mL of bacterial suspension (0.7 OD570nm) were poured into each pot. After 60 days, fresh root biomass, gall index, egg mass, and the nematode reproduction factor were assessed. Among the 117 isolates screened, the endophytic Bacillus ENM7, ENM10, and ENM51 were selected because they significantly reduced egg mass and/or gall index. However, when tested again, separately and in mixtures, these isolates nor confirmed their efficiency in vivo, neither affected juvenile emergence in vitro. These results give evidence on the inconsistency of using endophytic-bacteria in the control of M. incognita race 2 in melon.

  7. Inconsistency of the biological control of Meloidogyne incognita race 2 in melon by endophytic bacteria Inconsistência do controle biológico de Meloidogyne incognita raça 2 em meloeiro por bactérias endofíticas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeane E de Medeiros

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available We obtained 61 rhizobacterium isolates from rhizosphere soil samples collected in melon commercial fields located in Mossoró, Rio Grande do Norte State, Brazil. These isolates, along with 56 endophytic bacteria from the Collection of Cultures of the Plant Bacteriology Laboratory of the Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco, were tested for controlling Meloidogyne incognita race 2 in melon. To infest the soil with nematodes, 1000 eggs of Meloidogyne incognita race 2 per plant were placed in pots where seedlings of the yellow-type melon, cultivar AF 682, were growing for 10 days. Two days before, 20 mL of bacterial suspension (0.7 OD570nm were poured into each pot. After 60 days, fresh root biomass, gall index, egg mass, and the nematode reproduction factor were assessed. Among the 117 isolates screened, the endophytic Bacillus ENM7, ENM10, and ENM51 were selected because they significantly reduced egg mass and/or gall index. However, when tested again, separately and in mixtures, these isolates nor confirmed their efficiency in vivo, neither affected juvenile emergence in vitro. These results give evidence on the inconsistency of using endophytic-bacteria in the control of M. incognita race 2 in melon.A partir de amostras de solo coletadas em plantios comerciais de meloeiro, situados em Mossoró-RN, foram obtidos 61 isolados de rizobactérias que, juntamente com outros 56 isolados endofíticos pertencentes à Coleção de Culturas do Laboratório de Fitobacteriologia da Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco, foram avaliados para o controle de Meloidogyne incognita raça 2 em melão. Plantas de meloeiro Amarelo, cultivar AF 682, com dez dias de idade tiveram o solo infestado com 1000 ovos de M. incognita raça 2 por planta. Dois dias antes, foram depositados em cada vaso 20 mL da suspensão bacteriana (DO570nm = 0,7. Decorridos 60 dias, foram determinados a biomassa fresca das raízes, os índices de galhas e de massa de ovos e o fator de reprodução do nematóide. Dos 117 isolados avaliados, foram selecionados inicialmente os isolados endofíticos ENM7, ENM10 e ENM51, todos pertencentes ao gênero Bacillus, que reduziram significativamente a massa de ovos e/ou o índice de galhas. Contudo, quando testados novamente, separadamente ou em misturas, esses isolados não mantiveram a eficiência na redução dessas variáveis e, in vitro, não afetaram a eclosão dos juvenis. Os resultados obtidos evidenciam a inconstância da ação das bactérias endofíticas no controle de M. incognita raça 2 em meloeiro.

  8. GAMMA IRRADIATION OF SUGAR BEET SEEDS INDUCED PLANT RESISTANCE TO ROOT-KNOT NEMATODE MELOIDOGYNE INCOGNITA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main objective of this study was to investigate the effect of irradiation of sugar beet seeds on the plant resistance to root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita infection in addition to some morphological parameters, biochemical components and root technological characters. Relative to control (non-irradiated seeds), the obtained data showed that, all doses except 10 Gy significantly increased root length of un inoculated plants and the most effective dose was 200 Gy. All doses significantly decreased root diameter except 50 and 100 Gy. The 10 and 400 Gy significantly reduced root fresh weight while 50, 100 and 200 Gy caused non-significant increase. All doses significantly increased root fresh weight/dry weight than control. There was non-significant effect on the morphological parameters of the plants germinated from gamma irradiated seeds and inoculated with Meloidogyne incognita. Total chlorophyll of seed irradiated and un inoculated plants were significantly reduced by all doses except 200 Gy. All doses of gamma radiation caused non-significant decrease in the total chlorophyll of the infected plants. In un inoculated plants, a significant reduction in the total phenol was occurred due to all doses of gamma radiation. In contrast, in inoculated plants, 10 and 25 Gy caused significant reduction in the total phenol while 50 and 400 Gy caused significant increase in the total phenol.Significant increase in sucrose % was observed due to 10 Gy in the un inoculate observed due to 10 Gy in the un inoculated plants. The 400 Gy caused significant decrease while other doses caused non-significant decrease in the sucrose %. In the inoculated plants, 50, 100 and 400 Gy caused significant increase in sucrose %. All doses significantly increased total soluble salts percent (TSS %) of either inoculated or un inoculated plants. Purity % was increased by all doses in the inoculated plants.The number of galls and egg masses were reduced gradually by increasing gamma doses and 100 Gy caused the highest reduction 89.5 % and 94.7 % for galls and egg masses, respectively

  9. Manejo do solo e da irrigação no controle de Meloidogyne incognita em cultivo protegido Soil and water management in the control of Meloidogyne incognita in greenhouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos R. Dutra

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available A flutuação populacional de juvenis do segundo estádio (J2 de M. incognita e sua infectividade foram estudadas por meio de bioteste em solo revolvido com ou sem irrigação, comparadas a condições de solo não revolvido nem irrigado, considerado testemunha, e com apenas irrigado, em casa-de-vegetação por 14 dias. Aos sete dias, a população de J2 no solo foi significativamente reduzida apenas nas parcelas revolvidas. Entretanto, a infectividade do inóculo no solo nesse período, avaliada em bioteste, foi reduzida apenas nas parcelas revolvidas e irrigadas. Aos 14 dias, a população de J2 no solo foi menor nas parcelas revolvidas com ou sem irrigação, porém continuou sendo a mais baixa nas parcelas apenas revolvidas. Contudo, a infectividade do inóculo no solo neste período foi mais baixa nas parcelas revolvidas e irrigadas e mais elevada na testemunha.The population fluctuation of second-stage juveniles (J2 of M. incognita and their infectivity assessed by biotest were studied in the greenhouse, using plowed soil, irrigated or not, compared to control (unplowed and unirrigated and to plots irrigated only, for 14 days. At seven days, the J2 population in the soil was significantly reduced only in plowed plots. However, the soil inoculum infectivity, in this period, was reduced only in plowed and irrigated plots. At 14 days, the J2 population in the soil was lower in plowed plots with or without irrigation, but lowest in plots only plowed.The infectivity of soil inoculum, in this period, was lowest in plowed and irrigated soil and highest in the control.

  10. Tolerancia de 26 colectas de tomates nativos de México al nematodo Meloidogyne incognita (Kofoid y White) Chitwood / Tolerance of 26 native tomato collections from Mexico to nematode Meloidogyne incognita (Kofoid and White) Chitwood

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Raquel, Cervantes-Moreno; Juan Enrique, Rodríguez-Pérez; Calixto, Carrillo Fonseca; Jaime, Sahagún-Castellanos; Eduardo, Rodríguez-Guzmán.

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Se determinó la tolerancia de 26 colectas de tomates nativos de México a Meloidogyne incongnita (Kofoid y White) Chitwood, con el fin de identificar aquellas con potencial para su empleo en el mejoramiento genético o como portainjertos. Para ello, plantas de 30 días de edad fueron establecidas en hi [...] droponia bajo invernadero. Diez días después del trasplante (ddt) fue aplicada al sustrato una solución con 100,000 huevecillos-larva por planta. Se registraron caracteres de la parte aérea de plantas y a los 210 ddt se cuantificó el desarrollo de poblaciones de nematodos en raíces. M. incognita disminuyó el diámetro de frutos y el porte de planta (altura al primer racimo, peso seco de tallo y número de nudos), e incrementó el número de frutos y flores. Además, redujo la longitud de raíces y aumentó el volumen de éstas por la formación de nódulos. Mediante análisis multivariados (agrupamiento y discriminante) se definieron cinco grupos de colectas en función de la cantidad de agallas pequeñas y grandes, así como el total de éstas (82% de variación) y por la cantidad de larvas en raíz y huevecillos en sustrato (13% de variación). Se identificaron tres colectas tolerantes con bajos índices de agallas y menor presencia de huevecillos-larva en raíz y en sustrato. Ocho colectas fueron moderadamente tolerantes; nueve, moderadamente susceptibles, y seis, susceptibles. No se detectaron asociaciones entre orígenes de colectas o forma de fruto con respecto a la tolerancia al nematodo. Abstract in english The tolerance of 26 native tomato collections from Mexico to Meloidogyne incongnita (Kofoid and White) Chitwood was studied to identify those with potential for use in breeding or as rootstock. To do this, 30-day-old plants were established in a hydroponic system under greenhouse conditions. A solut [...] ion with 100,000 eggs-larvae per plant was applied to the substrate 10 days after transplantation (dat). Characters of the above-ground part of the plants were recorded and at 210 dat the development of nematode populations in roots was quantified. Meloidogyne incognita reduced fruit diameter and plant size (first truss height, stem dry weight, and node number), and increased the number of fruits and flowers. Additionally, it reduced root length and increased root volume due to nodule formation. By means of multivariate analysis (cluster and discriminant), five collection groups were defined based on the number of small and large galls, as well as total galls (82 % variation), and by the number of larvae in roots and eggs in the substrate (13 % variation). Three tolerant collections with low gall indices and a lower number of eggs-larvae in the roots and substrate were identified. Eight collections were moderately tolerant, nine moderately susceptible and six susceptible. No associations were detected between collection origins or fruit shape and tolerance to nematode.

  11. Nematicidal activity of mint aqueous extracts against the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caboni, Pierluigi; Saba, Marco; Tocco, Graziella; Casu, Laura; Murgia, Antonio; Maxia, Andrea; Menkissoglu-Spiroudi, Urania; Ntalli, Nikoletta

    2013-10-16

    The nematicidal activity and chemical characterization of aqueous extracts and essential oils of three mint species, namely, Mentha × piperita , Mentha spicata , and Mentha pulegium , were investigated. The phytochemical analysis of the essential oils was performed by means of GC-MS, whereas the aqueous extracts were analyzed by LC-MS. The most abundant terpenes were isomenthone, menthone, menthol, pulegone, and carvone, and the water extracts yielded mainly chlorogenic acid, salvianolic acid B, luteolin-7-O-rutinoside, and rosmarinic acid. The water extracts exhibited significant nematicidal activity against Meloidogyne incognita , and the EC50/72h values were calculated at 1005, 745, and 300 mg/L for M. × piperita, M. pulegium, and M. spicata, respectively. Only the essential oil from M. spicata showed a nematicidal activity with an EC50/72h of 358 mg/L. Interestingly, menthofuran and carvone showed EC50/48h values of 127 and 730 mg/L, respectively. On the other hand, salicylic acid, isolated in the aqueous extracts, exhibited EC50 values at 24 and 48 h of 298 ± 92 and 288 ± 79 mg/L, respectively. PMID:24050256

  12. Genome-wide survey and analysis of microsatellites in nematodes, with a focus on the plant-parasitic species Meloidogyne incognita

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillemaud Thomas

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Microsatellites are the most popular source of molecular markers for studying population genetic variation in eukaryotes. However, few data are currently available about their genomic distribution and abundance across the phylum Nematoda. The recent completion of the genomes of several nematode species, including Meloidogyne incognita, a major agricultural pest worldwide, now opens the way for a comparative survey and analysis of microsatellites in these organisms. Results Using MsatFinder, the total numbers of 1-6 bp perfect microsatellites detected in the complete genomes of five nematode species (Brugia malayi, Caenorhabditis elegans, M. hapla, M. incognita, Pristionchus pacificus ranged from 2,842 to 61,547, and covered from 0.09 to 1.20% of the nematode genomes. Under our search criteria, the most common repeat motifs for each length class varied according to the different nematode species considered, with no obvious relation to the AT-richness of their genomes. Overall, (ATn, (AGn and (CTn were the three most frequent dinucleotide microsatellite motifs found in the five genomes considered. Except for two motifs in P. pacificus, all the most frequent trinucleotide motifs were AT-rich, with (AATn and (ATTn being the only common to the five nematode species. A particular attention was paid to the microsatellite content of the plant-parasitic species M. incognita. In this species, a repertoire of 4,880 microsatellite loci was identified, from which 2,183 appeared suitable to design markers for population genetic studies. Interestingly, 1,094 microsatellites were identified in 801 predicted protein-coding regions, 99% of them being trinucleotides. When compared against the InterPro domain database, 497 of these CDS were successfully annotated, and further assigned to Gene Ontology terms. Conclusions Contrasted patterns of microsatellite abundance and diversity were characterized in five nematode genomes, even in the case of two closely related Meloidogyne species. 2,245 di- to hexanucleotide loci were identified in the genome of M. incognita, providing adequate material for the future development of a wide range of microsatellite markers in this major plant parasite.

  13. Efecto del follaje de Tagetes minuta sobre la nodulación radicular de Meloidogyne incognita en Capsicum annuum, en invernadero / Effect of the foliage of Tagetes minuta on Meloidogyne incognita root-galling on Capsicum annuum in a greenhouse

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Santos Nélida, Murga-Gutiérrez; Juan Carlos, Alvarado-Ibáñez; Nora Yessenia, Vera-Obando.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Se investigó el efecto del follaje del "huacatay" Tagetes minuta sobre la nodulación radicular producida por el nematodo Meloidogyne incognita que parasita el "pimiento páprika" Capsicum annuum cultivado en invernadero, con la finalidad de obtener una alternativa de control de este nematodo. Se util [...] izaron tres grupos experimentales y un testigo, con 12 macetas cada uno, las cuales contenían suelo y arena estériles (1:1). A este substrato se adicionó el follaje de T. minuta al 20, 35 y 50% (v/v) según grupo experimental, y el testigo no recibió esta enmienda. En cada maceta se sembró una plántula de C. annuum, y a la semana postsiembra se inoculó 5000 huevos de M. incognita. A las ocho semanas, se evaluaron los nódulos en sus raíces. Todas las plantas presentaron nódulos; aunque, en aquellas de los grupos experimentales el número de éstos fue menor que en las plantas testigo, con diferencia estadística significativa (p 0,05). Se concluye que el follaje de T. minuta adicionado como enmienda orgánica al 20, 35 y 50% al suelo de cultivo de plantas de C. annuum limita la nodulación radicular ocasionada por M. incognita. Lo cual sugiere su uso potencial en el control de este nematodo Abstract in english The effect of the foliage of Tagetes minuta "huacatay" on Meloidogyne incognita root-galling on Capsicum annuum "paprika pepper" cultured in a greenhouse was researched, to obtain a control strategy for this nematode. Three experimental groups and one control with 12 pots each were used, which conta [...] ined sterilized soil and sand (1:1). To this substrate was added cut foliage of T. minuta at 20, 35 and 50% (v/v) according to the experimental group, and the control group remained without this amendment. In each pot a seedling of C. annuum was sown, and one week post-seeding was inoculated with 5000 eggs of M. incognita. Eight weeks later the root galling was evaluated. All the plants had root galling; although the number of galls in plants of the experimental groups was less than those in the control group with statistical significant difference (p 0.05). It is concluded that the foliage of T. minuta added as organic amendment at 20, 35 and 50% to the culture soil for C. annuum plants limits the M. incognita root galling. That suggests its potential use in the control of this nematode

  14. COMPORTAMIENTO DE GENOTIPOS DE TOMATE (Solanum lycopersicum L.) FRENTE A Meloidogyne incognita (Kofoid y White) CHITWOOD¹ / RESPONCE OF TOMATO GENOTYPES (Solanum lycopersicum L.) TO THE PARASITISM OF of Meloidogyne incognita (Kofoid y White) CHITWOOD¹

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    L, Navarro-Barthelemy; Lucila, Gómez; R, Enrique; Farah M, González; Mayra G, Rodríguez.

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Los nematodos del género Meloidogyne Göldi representan un factor limitante en la producción protegida de hortalizas en Cuba. Los híbridos y variedades de tomate empleados en esta tecnología provienen de firmas extranjeras, cuyo comportamiento ante Meloidogyne incognita (Kofoid y White) Chitwood se d [...] esconoce. El objetivo de este trabajo es evaluar la resistencia/susceptibilidad de los híbridos de tomate FA 572- Katherine y LT-M12 frente a M. incognita. El experimento se estableció en condiciones semi-controladas en macetas con plantas de cada genotipo inoculadas con 1,5 J2 de M. incognita por gramo de suelo. El cultivo susceptible Cucurbita sp. var. RG5 fue utilizado como control de la población de nematodos. Se establecieron diez repeticiones para cada tratamiento. A los 60 días después de la inoculación se determinó el Índice de Agallamiento (IA), el factor de reproducción (FR) y el índice de reproducción(IR) para la categorización de los genotipos en resistentes/susceptibles. Se evidenció que los IA para los dos genotipos fueron bajos (IA= 2 - 3) con respecto al control (IA= 5). Sin embargo, permitieron la reproducción del nematodo y que estos aumentaran su población nueve veces más que la inoculada inicialmente. El índice de reproducción obtenido los sitúa dentro de la categoría de muy susceptibles (MS), ya que la reproducción tuvo un incremento de más del 50 % con respecto al cultivo susceptible utilizado como control. Este trabajo ratifica que el IA no debe ser utilizado como único elemento para determinar la resistencia/susceptibilidad de los genotipos. Abstract in english Root-knot nematodes Meloidogyne spp., represent one of the factors that limit vegetable production under sheltered conditions. The hybrids and varieties of tomato produced under this technology are imported and their responses to Meloidogyne incognita Kofoi y White (Chitwood) under these conditions [...] are unknown. The main objective of this work was to evaluate the resistant/susceptibility of tomato hybrids FA 572- Katherine and LT-M12 to M. incognita. The experiment was set up under semi-controlled conditions using potted plants of each genotype and the susceptible crop Cucurbita sp. var. RG5, used as a control of the experiment. The plants were inoculated with 1,5 egg-juveniles per gram of soil with 10 replications per treatment. At sixty days after nematode inoculation, the gall index (GI), the reproduction factor and the reproduction index were determined to categorize the genotypes as resistant/susceptible. Both genotypes showed a low root gall index (GI=2-3) in comparison with the control (GI=5) although they responded very susceptible to M. incognita as they allowed higher reproduction of the nematode in a 50% than the control. The results of this work confirmed that the gall index can not be used as a unique criterion to determine genotype resistance to M. incognita.

  15. Screening of field pea (Pisum sativum) selections for their reactions to root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne incognita)

    OpenAIRE

    Sharma, Anita; Haseeb, Akhtar; Abuzar, Syed

    2006-01-01

    Pot studies were carried out to evaluate the reactions of 23 selections of field pea (Pisum sativum) against Meloidogyne incognita (2000 freshly hatched juveniles (J2)/pot). Experiment was conducted under greenhouse conditions ((24.7±3) °C and (62±7)% RH) and terminated 45 d after inoculation. The roots of all the selections were assessed to determine root-knot indices (RKI) on a 0~4 scale. Out of 23 selections HFP-990713, Pant P-25, and HFP-0129 were resistant; Pant P-2005, NDP-2 and Pant...

  16. Reação de clones de batata-doce à Meloidogyne incognita raças 1 e 4 e estimativa de parâmetros genéticos / Reaction of sweet potato clones to Meloidogyne incognita races 1 and 4, and estimation of genetic parameters

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Danielle C, Kalkmann; José R, Peixoto; Daiane da S, Nóbrega.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi selecionar clones de batata-doce resistentes às raças 1 e 4 de Meloidogyne incognita, além de avaliar a eficiência do método de seleção empregado, pela estimativa de parâmetros genéticos. Foram avaliados 21 acessos do jardim clonal da Universidade de Brasília e três cul [...] tivares de batata-doce (Brazlândia Branca, Brazlândia Roxa e Amarela). O experimento foi conduzido em casa de vegetação, com delineamento de blocos casualizados em arranjo simples, com 24 tratamentos, quatro repetições e três plantas por parcela. A inoculação do patógeno foi feita trinta dias após o plantio das ramas e, após noventa dias, foi feita a contagem do número médio de massas de ovos encontradas nas raízes das plantas inoculadas. Foram considerados resistentes os clones que apresentaram em média 0 a 1,9 massas de ovos por sistema radicular, moderadamente resistentes aqueles que apresentaram de 2,0 a 2,9 massas de ovos, moderadamente suscetíveis os que obtiveram número médio de massas de ovos variando entre 3,0 e 3,9, e suscetíveis aqueles com 4,0 a 5,0 massas de ovos por sistema radicular. Dos 24 materiais analisados, nove (37,5%) foram classificados como resistentes à raça 1 de M. incognita e 16 (66,67%) foram classificados como resistentes à M. incognita raça 4. Os clones 1200, 1210, 1199, 1229, 1230, 1202, 1231, 1216 e 1209 apresentaram resistência tanto à raça 1 quanto à raça 4 de M. incognita. A resistência das plantas a essas duas populações de nematoides testadas apresentou alta herdabilidade, e a relação entre os coeficientes de variação genético e ambiental do experimento para resistência à raça 4 de M. incognita apresentou-se mais baixa que aquela encontrada no outro experimento para resistência à raça 1. Abstract in english The objective of this work was to select sweet potato resistant clones to the races 1 and 4 of Meloidogyne incognita, and measure the efficiency of the selection method used, by means of the estimation of genetic and environmental coefficients of variation, and broad-sense heritabilities. We evaluat [...] ed 21 accessions of the clonal garden of the Universidade de Brasilia, and three cultivars of sweet potato (Brazlândia Branca, Brazlândia Roxa and Amarela). The experiment was carried out in a greenhouse with a randomized block design in simple arrangement, with 24 treatments, four replications and three plants per plot. The inoculation of the pathogen was made thirty days after planting the slips and, after ninety days, the counting of the average number of egg masses of the infected plants was completed. Clones were considered resistant when presented a number of egg masses per root system from 0 to 1.9, moderately resistant 2.0 to 2.9, moderately susceptible 3.0 to 3.9, and, susceptible 4.0 to 5.0. From 24 clones analyzed, nine (37.5%) were classified as resistant to the race 1 of M. incognita, and 16 (66.67%) were classified as resistant to the race 4 of M. incognita. The clones 1200, 1210, 1199, 1229, 1230, 1202, 1231, 1216 and 1209 were resistant to the two races tested of M. incognita. The resistance of the plants to these two races of root-knot nematodes presented high heritability, and the relationship between the coefficients of genetic and environmental variation of the experiment to resistance to race 4 of M. incognita was shorter than that one found in the another experiment, that aimed resistance to the race 1.

  17. Avaliação da resistência de genótipos de quiabeiro à infestação por Meloidogyne incognita raça 2 e M. javanica Resistance of okra genotypes to Meloidogyne incognita race 2 and M. javanica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilmar Efrem Martinello

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available Vinte e dois genótipos de quiabeiro (Abelmoschus spp. foram avaliados para resistência à Meloidogyne incognita raça 2 e M. javanica. Estes materiais, mantidos no Banco de Germoplasma da Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense, constam de quatro espécies selvagens Abelmoschus manihot (CGO 8655, A. caillei (CGO 8656, A. tetraphyllus (CGO 8657 e A. ficulneus (CGO 8658; 16 linhas de A. esculentus na sétima geração de autofecundação, resultantes de inter-cruzamentos do genótipo PI-357991 (supostamente resistentes a nematóides com as cultivares Piranema e Santa Cruz 47. Essas cultivares serviram como padrão de suscetibilidade. As plantas foram inoculadas separadamente com 5.000 ovos/segundo estádio juvenil (J2 de M. incognita raça 2 e M. javanica. Não houve diferença significativa com relação à resistência dos materiais a M. javanica. Os genótipos descendentes de 'PI-357991' mostraram-se segregantes para a reação de resistência, sendo que entre estes 'CGO 8180A7' apresentou o maior nível de tolerância à raça 2 de M. incognita. As espécies silvestres também não mostraram alguma fonte de resistência. As altas temperaturas ocorridas no período do experimento, podem ter aumentado a suscetibilidade dos genótipos aos dois patógenos.Twenty two okra genotypes were evaluated for resistance to M. incognita race 2 and M. javanica. The Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense (Brazil maintains okra genotypes in the germplasm collection, consisting of four wild Abelmoschus species and 16 F7 lines obtained from crosses between PI-357991 (considered resistant to root-knot nematodes and the local cvs, Piranema and Santa Cruz 47 (both susceptible to nematodes. No resistance was observed among okra genotypes to infection by M. javanica. The 16 F7 lines segregated for pathogenic reaction, and the CGO 8180A7 presented the highest resistance level to M. incognita race 2. The wild species did not show genetic resistance to both pathogens. High temperature occurring during experimental period could have increased the genotype susceptibility to the pathogens.

  18. Greenhouse Evaluation of Selected Soybean Germplasm for Resistance to North Carolina Populations of Heterodera glycines, Rotylenchulus reniformis, and Meloidogyne Species

    OpenAIRE

    Davis, E. L.; Koenning, S. R.; Burton, J. W.; Barker, K. R.

    1996-01-01

    Selected soybean genotypes were evaluated for resistance to North Carolina populations of the soybean cyst nematode Heterodera glycines, the root-knot nematodes Meloidogyne incognita races 3 and 4, M. arenaria races 1 and 2, M. javanica, and the reniform nematode Rotylenchulus reniformis in two greenhouse tests. Populations of cyst nematode used in the first test were cultures from field samples originally classified as races 1-5, and those used in the second test included inbred cyst lines t...

  19. The Feeding Behavior of Adult Root-knot Nematodes (Meloidogyne incognita) in Rose Balsam and Tomato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyashita, Nao; Yabu, Tetsuo; Kurihara, Takayuki; Koga, Hironori

    2014-09-01

    Meloidogyne incognita is a parasitic root-knot nematode that causes considerable yield loss in a wide range of plants. In this study we documented the movement of adult female nematodes for more than 2 hr in micro-slices of infected tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) and rose balsam (Impatiens balsamina) plants using light and video microscopy. Stylet thrusting was followed by short pumping actions of the esophagus, dorsal esophageal gland ampulla, and metacorpal bulb. Regular thrusting was normally accompanied by head turning and always preceded continuous stylet thrusting aimed at a single point (for 20 to 90 sec). Females often held the stylet in a protruded position, while pulsating the metacorpus bulb, for about 30 sec. Subsequently, the stylet was paused in a retracted position for 5 to 40 sec. This sequence of behavior took 290 to 380 sec to complete. The procedure developed in this study provides a useful cytological technique to investigate the interaction between root-knot nematodes and the giant cells formed by infected plants. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that the head of the adult nematode was located in the narrow intercellular spaces among several giant cells. The anterior part of the head of the adult was folded like a concertina, whereas that of the second-stage juvenile was not. The labial disc and medial lips of second-stage juveniles seemed expanded and sturdy, whereas those of the adult were star-shaped, appeared to be contracted, and softer. These morphological differences in the heads of adult and second-stage juveniles are discussed with respect to their movement. PMID:25276004

  20. The Feeding Behavior of Adult Root-knot Nematodes (Meloidogyne incognita) in Rose Balsam and Tomato

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyashita, Nao; Yabu, Tetsuo; Kurihara, Takayuki; Koga, Hironori

    2014-01-01

    Meloidogyne incognita is a parasitic root-knot nematode that causes considerable yield loss in a wide range of plants. In this study we documented the movement of adult female nematodes for more than 2 hr in micro-slices of infected tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) and rose balsam (Impatiens balsamina) plants using light and video microscopy. Stylet thrusting was followed by short pumping actions of the esophagus, dorsal esophageal gland ampulla, and metacorpal bulb. Regular thrusting was normally accompanied by head turning and always preceded continuous stylet thrusting aimed at a single point (for 20 to 90 sec). Females often held the stylet in a protruded position, while pulsating the metacorpus bulb, for about 30 sec. Subsequently, the stylet was paused in a retracted position for 5 to 40 sec. This sequence of behavior took 290 to 380 sec to complete. The procedure developed in this study provides a useful cytological technique to investigate the interaction between root-knot nematodes and the giant cells formed by infected plants. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that the head of the adult nematode was located in the narrow intercellular spaces among several giant cells. The anterior part of the head of the adult was folded like a concertina, whereas that of the second-stage juvenile was not. The labial disc and medial lips of second-stage juveniles seemed expanded and sturdy, whereas those of the adult were star-shaped, appeared to be contracted, and softer. These morphological differences in the heads of adult and second-stage juveniles are discussed with respect to their movement. PMID:25276004

  1. Screenhouse Assessment of Reaction of Fluted Pumpkin, Telfairia Occidentalis Hook F. to Root-Knot Nematode Meloidogyne Incognita

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    N. B. IZUOGU

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Screenhouse studies were carried out between April – June and July – September, 2004 at the vegetable researchunit of National HorticulturalResearch Institute (NIHORT, Ibadan,Nigeria to investigate the reaction of five linesof Telfairia occidentalis (EN2000-4, EN2000-6, EN2000-10, EN2000-11, EN2000-13 to different populationlevels (0, 5000 and 10 000 eggs of Meloidogyne incognita race 2. Seeds from five different matured pods ofTelfairia lines were planted on moist sawdust medium. They were watered every two days until germination andtransplanting. Experimental layout was a completely randomized design and each treatment was replicated fivetimes. Nematode inoculation was done at one week after transplanting. The plants were watered every two daysand observation of vine length, vine girth and number of leaves commenced two weeks after transplanting (WATon bi weekly basis and lasted till the 10th week. From the 4th WAT, roots were assessed for the presence of eggsevery five days in view of determining the generation time in the various lines. Soil nematode population and rootgall indices were determined at the end of the trial.Results showed that there were significant differences between the Telfairia lines in the measured parametersirrespective of the inoculum levels. EN2000-4 performed significantly better than the other lines. EN2000-13which closely followed EN2000-4 with respect to vegetative growth, recorded significantly higher galling indexthan all the other lines. There were significant differences between the inoculum levels. Inoculum levels wereinversely proportional to growth parameters and directly proportional to gall indices in all the lines. Chloroticpatches were also observed on the leaves of plants inoculated with 10 000 eggs. The uninoculated (control plantsgave significantly better vegetative growth than their inoculated counterparts. The disparities in growth and yieldresponses indicate that there is genetic variability among the lines.

  2. Interactions between an arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus (Scutellospora heterogama) and the root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne incognita) on sweet passion fruit (Passiflora alata)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Érika Cristina Teixeira dos, Anjos; Uided Maaze Tiburcio, Cavalcante; Danielle Maria Correia, Gonçalves; Elvira Maria Regis, Pedrosa; Venézio Felipe dos, Santos; Leonor Costa, Maia.

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available O efeito da inoculação com Scutellospora heterogama (200 esporos/planta) em relação aos sintomas e reprodução de Meloidogyne incognita raça 1 (5000 ovos/planta) foi avaliado em plantas de maracujazeiro doce em dois experimentos em casa de vegetação. No primeiro experimento, inoculações com nematóide [...] e FMA foram simultâneas; no segundo, nematóides foram inoculados 120 dias após o estabelecimento da simbiose micorrízica. Após o 220º dia da inoculação do FMA o fungo estimulou o crescimento da planta nos dois experimentos. No solo desinfestado as mudas não inoculadas com S. heterogama mostraram intolerância ao parasitismo de M. incognita. A esporulação de S. heterogama foi negativamente afetada pela presença do nematóide. M. incognita não afetou o crescimento das mudas micorrizadas ou o desenvolvimento do FMA. O estabelecimento da micorriza antes do nematóide contribui para a redução da severidade dos sintomas e reprodução de M. incognita em solo desinfestado. Abstract in english The effects of inoculation of sweet passion fruit plants with the arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungus Scutellospora heterogama on the symptoms produced by Meloidogyne incognita race 1 and its reproduction were evaluated in two greenhouse experiments. In the 1st, the M. incognita (5000 eggs/plant) and [...] S. heterogama (200 spores/plant) inoculations were simultaneous; in the 2nd, the nematodes were inoculated 120 days after the fungal inoculation. In both the experiments, 220 days after AM fungal inoculation, plant growth was stimulated by the fungus. In disinfested soil, control seedlings (without S. heterogama) were intolerant to parasitism of M. incognita, while the growth of mycorrhized seedlings was not affected. Sporulation of S. heterogama was negatively affected by the nematodes that did not impair the colonization. M. incognita did not affect mycorrhizal seedling growth. The establishment of mycorrhiza prior to the nematode infection contributed for the reduction of symptoms severity and reproduction of M. incognita in disinfested soil.

  3. Mean Dosage Stimulation Range of Allelochemicals from Crude Extracts of Cucumis africanus Fruit for Improving Growth of Tomato Plant and Suppressing Meloidogyne incognita Numbers

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    Osvaldo Pelinganga

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Successful utilisation of allelochemicals in management of plant-parasitic nematodes depends on their degree of phytotoxicity. Conventional methods of determining phytotoxicity are tedious, with inconsistent results. Plants respond to increased dosages of allelochemicals in a density-dependent growth pattern, which allows the use of the Curve-fitting Allelochemical Response Data computer-based model to determine the mean dosage stimulation range of used allelochemicals. The CARD modelling was used to determine the stimulation range of fermented dried crude extracts of wild cucumber (Cucumis africanus fruit for improving growth of tomato (Solanum lycopersicon plants, each infested with 1500 eggs and juveniles of the southern root-knot (Meloidogyne incognita nematode. Dilutions at 0, 2, 4, 8, 16, 32 and 64% were applied weekly through irrigation system. At 56 days after treatment, CARD demonstrated density-dependent growth patterns as dosages increased. The mean dosage stimulation range of diluted fermented crude extracts, computed from CARD biological indices, was 2.64% dilution for tomato plant. Since at 2% dilution, the material reduced final nematode population density of M. incognita by 90%. The 2.64% was suitable for stimulation of tomato plant and suppression of nematode numbers.

  4. Efeito de manipueira sobre Meloidogyne incognita em ensaios in vitro e em tomateiros em casa de vegetação / Effect of manipueira on Meloidogyne incognita through in vitro and in vivo essays on tomatoes in greenhouse

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Érica G.C., Nasu; Ely, Pires; Heloísa M., Formentini; Cleber, Furlanetto.

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se estudar o efeito nematicida de manipueira no controle de Meloidogyne incognita. Testes in vitro foram divididos em dois ensaios inteiramente casualizados: 1. manipueira a 100%, 75%, 50% e 25% em 12 repetições; 2. manipueira a 15%, 10%, 8%, 6%, 4% e 2% em 5 repetições. O ensaio em vasos [...] seguiu o delineamento inteiramente casualisado com manipueira a 10%, 25% e 50% em 5 repetições. Para ambos os ensaios utilizou-se o tratamento somente água como testemunha positiva e Carbofuran (50 mg.L-1 de ingrediente ativo (i.a.) ou 2 g de produto comercial/vaso) como negativa. Para os ensaios in vitro foram avaliados nematóides vivos e mortos e número de galhas em plantas inoculadas. Para os ensaios em vaso foram avaliadas as variáveis altura de plantas, comprimento de raízes, número de galhas, número de ovos e fator de reprodução (FR). Os resultados in vitro demonstraram que os tratamentos com manipueira até 10% de diluição apresentaram 100% de controle. O ensaio com tomateiros previamente inoculados demonstrou que o tratamento manipueira 50% causou um melhor desenvolvimento da parte aérea das plantas de tomate. Os tratamentos manipueira a 10% e 25% foram mais efetivos no controle de M. incognita em vasos. Abstract in english The aim of this work was to study the nematicidal effect of manipueira on the control of Meloidogyne incognita. In vitro tests were split into two completely randomized assays: 1. manipueira 100%, 75%, 50% and 25% in 12 replications; 2. manipueira 15%, 10%, 8%, 6%, 4% and 2% in 5 replications. The p [...] ot assay followed a completely randomized design with the treatments manipueira 10%, 25% and 50% in 5 replications. For both assays the positive control was water and the negative control was the nematicide Carbofuran (50 mg.L-1 of active ingredient (a.i.) or 2 g of commercial product/pot). For in vitro assays the variables assessed were live or dead nematodes and number of galls on inoculated plants. For the pot assay the variables evaluated were plant height, root length, number of galls, number of eggs and reproduction factor (RF). The in vitro results indicated that only the manipueira treatments from 100% to 10% dilution showed maximum control. The pot assay demonstrated that the treatment manipueira 50% caused better development of tomato shoots than the others. However, manipueira 10% and 25% were more effective against of M. incognita in pots.

  5. Short interfering RNA-mediated gene silencing in Globodera pallida and Meloidogyne incognita infective stage juveniles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalzell, Johnathan J; McMaster, Steven; Fleming, Colin C; Maule, Aaron G

    2010-01-01

    The analysis of gene function through RNA interference (RNAi)-based reverse genetics in plant parasitic nematodes (PPNs) remains inexplicably reliant on the use of long double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) silencing triggers; a practice inherently disadvantageous due to the introduction of superfluous dsRNA sequence, increasing chances of aberrant or off-target gene silencing through interactions between nascent short interfering RNAs (siRNAs) and non-cognate mRNA targets. Recently, we have shown that non-nematode, long dsRNAs have a propensity to elicit profound impacts on the phenotype and migrational abilities of both root knot and cyst nematodes. This study presents, to our knowledge for the first time, gene-specific knockdown of FMRFamide-like peptide (flp) transcripts, using discrete 21bp siRNAs in potato cyst nematode Globodera pallida, and root knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita infective (J2) stage juveniles. Both knockdown at the transcript level through quantitative (q)PCR analysis and functional data derived from migration assay, indicate that siRNAs targeting certain areas of the FMRFamide-like peptide (FLP) transcripts are potent and specific in the silencing of gene function. In addition, we present a method of manipulating siRNA activity through the management of strand thermodynamics. Initial evaluation of strand thermodynamics as a determinant of RNA-Induced Silencing Complex (RISC) strand selection (inferred from knockdown efficacy) in the siRNAs presented here suggested that the purported influence of 5' stand stability on guide incorporation may be somewhat promiscuous. However, we have found that on strategically incorporating base mismatches in the sense strand of a G. pallida-specific siRNA, we could specifically increase or decrease the knockdown of its target (specific to the antisense strand), presumably through creating more favourable thermodynamic profiles for incorporation of either the sense (non-target-specific) or antisense (target-specific) strand into a cleavage-competent RISC. Whilst the efficacy of similar approaches to siRNA modification has been demonstrated in the context of Drosophila whole-cell lysate preparations and in mammalian cell cultures, it remained to be seen how these sense strand mismatches may impact on gene silencing in vivo, in relation to different targets and in different sequence contexts. This work presents the first application of such an approach in a whole organism; initial results show promise. PMID:19651131

  6. Multiplex PCR for the simultaneous identification and detection of Meloidogyne incognita, M. enterolobii, and M. javanica using DNA extracted directly from individual galls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, M X; Zhuo, K; Liao, J L

    2011-11-01

    Meloidogyne incognita, M. enterolobii, and M. javanica are the most widespread species of root-knot nematodes in South China, affecting many economically important crops, ornamental plants, and fruit trees. In this study, one pair of Meloidogyne universal primers was designed and three pairs of species-specific primers were employed successfully to rapidly detect and identify M. incognita, M. enterolobii, and M. javanica by multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using DNA extracted from individual galls. Multiplex PCR from all M. incognita, M. enterolobii, and M. javanica isolates generated two fragments of ?500 and 1,000, 500 and 200, and 500 and 700 bp, respectively. The 500-bp fragment is the internal positive control fragment of rDNA 28S D2/D3 resulting from the use of the universal primers. Other Meloidogyne spp. included in this study generated only one fragment of ?500 bp in size. Using this approach, M. incognita, M. enterolobii, and M. javanica were identified and detected using DNA extracted directly from individual galls containing the Meloidogyne spp. at various stages of their life cycle. Moreover, the percentage of positive PCR amplification increased with nematode development and detection was usually easy after the late stage of the second-stage juvenile. The protocol was applied to galls from naturally infested roots and the results were found to be fast, sensitive, robust, and accurate. This present study is the first to provide a definitive diagnostic tool for M. incognita, M. enterolobii, and M. javanica using DNA extracted directly from individual galls using a one-step multiplex PCR technique. PMID:21770774

  7. Elucidating the molecular bases of epigenetic inheritance in non-model invertebrates: the case of the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita

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    LaetitiaPerfus-Barbeoch

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Root-knot nematodes of the genus Meloidogyne are biotrophic plant parasites that exhibit different reproduction modes, ranging from classical amphimixis to obligatory mitotic parthenogenesis (apomixis, depending on the species. Meloidogyne incognita, an apomictic species, exhibits a worldwide distribution and a wide host range affecting more than 3,000 plant species. Furthermore, evidences suggest that apomixis does not prevent M. incognita from adapting to its environment in contrast to what is expected from mitotic parthenogenesis that should theoretically produce clonal progenies. This raises questions about mechanisms of genome plasticity leading to genetic variation and adaptive evolution in apomictic animals. We reasoned that epigenetic mechanisms might in part be responsible for the generation of phenotypic variants that provide potential for rapid adaptation. We investigated therefore the principal carriers of epigenetic information, DNA methylation and post-translational histone modifications. Even if M. incognita possesses the epigenetic machinery i.e. chromatin modifying enzymes, 5-methyl-cytosine and 5-hydroxy-methyl-cytosine content is absent or very weak. In contrast, we demonstrated that the canonical histone modifications are present and chromatin shows typical nucleosome structure. This work is the first characterization of carriers of epigenetic information in M. incognita and constitutes a preamble to further investigate whether M. incognita development and its adaptation to plant hosts are under epigenetic control.

  8. Efeito da incorporação de sementes trituradas defeijão de porco ao solo sobre o parasitismo de Meloidogyne incognita em tomateiro Effect of soil amendment with powdered seeds of pig bean on Meloidogyne incognita in tomato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GILSON S. SILVA

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se, em condições de casa de vegetação, o efeito da suplementação do solo com sementes trituradas de feijão de porco (Canavalia ensiformis sobre os índices de galhas e de massas de ovos de Meloidogyne incognita raça 1 em tomateiro (Lycopersicon esculentum. O substrato utilizado foi solo autoclavado suplementado com 2,5; 5,0; 7,5 e 10,0 g de sementes trituradas/kg de solo. Solo sem a suplementação serviu como testemunha. Para efeito de comparação, o nematicida Carbofuran foi incluído como tratamento adicional. Controle do nematóide foi obtido a partir da incorporação de 5,0 g de sementes trituradas/kg de solo, sendo o efeito proporcional à dosagem. Os índices de galhas e massas de ovos foram reduzidos em 48% e 64%, respectivamente, com a aplicação de 10 g de sementes trituradas/kg de solo.A greenhouse experiment was carried out to study the effect of powdered seeds of pig bean (Canavalia ensiformis incorporated into the soil, for the control of Meloidogyne incognita race 1 in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum plants. Autoclaved soil was amended with 2.5, 5.0, 7.5 and 10.0 g of powdered seeds/kg of soil. Soil without amendment served as control. For comparison, the nematicide Carbofuran was included as an additional treatment. Nematode was controlled at rates above 5.0 g. Gall and egg mass indexes were reduced by 48% and 64%, respectively, with the application of 10 g of powdered seeds/kg of soil.

  9. Efeito da incorporação de sementes trituradas defeijão de porco ao solo sobre o parasitismo de Meloidogyne incognita em tomateiro / Effect of soil amendment with powdered seeds of pig bean on Meloidogyne incognita in tomato

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    GILSON S., SILVA; ILKA M. R., SOUZA; FLÁVIA A., CUTRIM.

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se, em condições de casa de vegetação, o efeito da suplementação do solo com sementes trituradas de feijão de porco (Canavalia ensiformis) sobre os índices de galhas e de massas de ovos de Meloidogyne incognita raça 1 em tomateiro (Lycopersicon esculentum). O substrato utilizado foi solo aut [...] oclavado suplementado com 2,5; 5,0; 7,5 e 10,0 g de sementes trituradas/kg de solo. Solo sem a suplementação serviu como testemunha. Para efeito de comparação, o nematicida Carbofuran foi incluído como tratamento adicional. Controle do nematóide foi obtido a partir da incorporação de 5,0 g de sementes trituradas/kg de solo, sendo o efeito proporcional à dosagem. Os índices de galhas e massas de ovos foram reduzidos em 48% e 64%, respectivamente, com a aplicação de 10 g de sementes trituradas/kg de solo. Abstract in english A greenhouse experiment was carried out to study the effect of powdered seeds of pig bean (Canavalia ensiformis) incorporated into the soil, for the control of Meloidogyne incognita race 1 in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) plants. Autoclaved soil was amended with 2.5, 5.0, 7.5 and 10.0 g of powder [...] ed seeds/kg of soil. Soil without amendment served as control. For comparison, the nematicide Carbofuran was included as an additional treatment. Nematode was controlled at rates above 5.0 g. Gall and egg mass indexes were reduced by 48% and 64%, respectively, with the application of 10 g of powdered seeds/kg of soil.

  10. Reação de clones de bananeira(Musa spp. ao nematóide Meloidogyne incognita (Kofoid & White, 1919 Chitwood, 1949, Raça 2 Reaction of banana clones (Musa spp. to nematode Meloidogyne incognita (kofoid & White, 1919 chitwood, 1949, race 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenisa Cezar Vilas Boas

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho teve por objetivo estudar em condições de casa de vegetação a reação de clones de bananeira, em relação a Meloidogyne incognita raça 2. Mudas micropropagadas foram inoculadas, utilizando-se da suspensão de M. incognita, formada de ovos e de juvenis do segundo estádio, totalizando 20.000 / muda. A inoculação foi feita após cinco dias do transplante das mudas para sacos de plástico preto de cinco litros de capacidade, contendo solo, areia e esterco, na proporção 3:1:1, esterilizado em caldeira a 100ºC, por duas horas. O delineamento experimental foi o inteiramente casualizado, com quatro repetições. Após 120 dias, os clones foram avaliados. Determinou-se o número de ovos e juvenis contido no sistema radicular, sendo utilizado o clone CPA-34, a cultivar Grande Naine, como padrão de suscetibilidade. Amostras de 200 cm³ de solo foram coletadas para a determinação do número de nematóides no solo. De acordo com os fatores de reprodução (Pf/Pi, verificou-se que o clone CPA-34 apresentou-se suscetível ao nematóide, como era esperado, com o maior fator de reprodução, seguido do clone CPA-49, da cultivar Maçã, com índice superior a um. Os demais clones testados apresentaram fator de reprodução menor que um, indicando certa resistência ao nematóide M. incognita raça 2. Entretanto, nas análises estatísticas, foram verificadas diferenças significativas entre o clone-padrão CPA-34, quando comparado com os clones CPA-58 e CPA-54. Para os resultados de peso de raízes e peso da parte aérea, a diferença foi significativa (1% para todos os clones testados, apresentando os maiores valores para os clones não inoculados.The aim of this work was to study banana clones reaction in relation to Meloidogyne incognita race 2, under greenhouse conditions. The plants were inoculated with a suspension of 20,000 M. incognita which includes the presence of eggs and second stage juveniles. The inoculation occurred five days after the seedlings were transplanted to a plastic bag (5L which contains soil, sand and manure, with 3:1:1 rate, and this was sterilized at 100ºC during two hours. The experimental outline was at random with four replications. The clones were evaluated after 120 days inoculation. The number of eggs and juveniles in the root system were determined. The clone CPA-34 from Grande Naine variety was used as susceptibility standard. Soil samples of 200cm³ were collected to determine the number of nematodes present in the soil. According to reproduction factors (FP/IP, as it was expected, it was shown that the clone CPA-34 is susceptible to the nematode, with the highest reproduction rate followed by the clone CPA-49 from Maçã variety, with FP/IP above one. The other tested clones showed reproduction rate below one, which indicates a certain resistance to M. incognita race 2. However, statistical analysis demonstrate significant differences between the standard clone CPA-34 compared to clones CPA-58 and CPA-54. The results of root weight and aerial part weight, showed a significant difference (1% for all tested clones, with higher rates for the non-inoculated clones.

  11. Reação de clones de bananeira(Musa spp.) ao nematóide Meloidogyne incognita (Kofoid & White, 1919) Chitwood, 1949, Raça 2 / Reaction of banana clones (Musa spp.) to nematode Meloidogyne incognita (kofoid & White, 1919) chitwood, 1949, race 2

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Lenisa Cezar, Vilas Boas; Renata Cesar Vilardi, Tenente; Vilmar, Gonzaga; Sebastião Pedro da, Silva Neto; Herminio Souza, Rocha.

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho teve por objetivo estudar em condições de casa de vegetação a reação de clones de bananeira, em relação a Meloidogyne incognita raça 2. Mudas micropropagadas foram inoculadas, utilizando-se da suspensão de M. incognita, formada de ovos e de juvenis do segundo estádio, totalizando 20.000 / [...] muda. A inoculação foi feita após cinco dias do transplante das mudas para sacos de plástico preto de cinco litros de capacidade, contendo solo, areia e esterco, na proporção 3:1:1, esterilizado em caldeira a 100ºC, por duas horas. O delineamento experimental foi o inteiramente casualizado, com quatro repetições. Após 120 dias, os clones foram avaliados. Determinou-se o número de ovos e juvenis contido no sistema radicular, sendo utilizado o clone CPA-34, a cultivar Grande Naine, como padrão de suscetibilidade. Amostras de 200 cm³ de solo foram coletadas para a determinação do número de nematóides no solo. De acordo com os fatores de reprodução (Pf/Pi), verificou-se que o clone CPA-34 apresentou-se suscetível ao nematóide, como era esperado, com o maior fator de reprodução, seguido do clone CPA-49, da cultivar Maçã, com índice superior a um. Os demais clones testados apresentaram fator de reprodução menor que um, indicando certa resistência ao nematóide M. incognita raça 2. Entretanto, nas análises estatísticas, foram verificadas diferenças significativas entre o clone-padrão CPA-34, quando comparado com os clones CPA-58 e CPA-54. Para os resultados de peso de raízes e peso da parte aérea, a diferença foi significativa (1%) para todos os clones testados, apresentando os maiores valores para os clones não inoculados. Abstract in english The aim of this work was to study banana clones reaction in relation to Meloidogyne incognita race 2, under greenhouse conditions. The plants were inoculated with a suspension of 20,000 M. incognita which includes the presence of eggs and second stage juveniles. The inoculation occurred five days af [...] ter the seedlings were transplanted to a plastic bag (5L) which contains soil, sand and manure, with 3:1:1 rate, and this was sterilized at 100ºC during two hours. The experimental outline was at random with four replications. The clones were evaluated after 120 days inoculation. The number of eggs and juveniles in the root system were determined. The clone CPA-34 from Grande Naine variety was used as susceptibility standard. Soil samples of 200cm³ were collected to determine the number of nematodes present in the soil. According to reproduction factors (FP/IP), as it was expected, it was shown that the clone CPA-34 is susceptible to the nematode, with the highest reproduction rate followed by the clone CPA-49 from Maçã variety, with FP/IP above one. The other tested clones showed reproduction rate below one, which indicates a certain resistance to M. incognita race 2. However, statistical analysis demonstrate significant differences between the standard clone CPA-34 compared to clones CPA-58 and CPA-54. The results of root weight and aerial part weight, showed a significant difference (1%) for all tested clones, with higher rates for the non-inoculated clones.

  12. Proteome of Soybean Seed Exudates Contains Plant Defense-Related Proteins Active against the Root-Knot Nematode Meloidogyne incognita.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Raquel O; Morais, Janne K S; Oliveira, Jose T A; Oliveira, Hermogenes D; Sousa, Daniele O B; Souza, Carlos Eduardo A; Moreno, Frederico B; Monteiro-Moreira, Ana Cristina O; Antonino de Souza Júnior, José Dijair; Grossi de Sá, Maria F; Vasconcelos, Ilka M

    2015-06-10

    Several studies have described the effects of seed exudates against microorganisms, but only few of them have investigated the proteins that have defensive activity particularly against nematode parasites. This study focused on the proteins released in the exudates of soybean seeds and evaluated their nematicidal properties against Meloidogyne incognita. A proteomic approach indicated the existence of 63 exuded proteins, including ?-1,3-glucanase, chitinase, lectin, trypsin inhibitor, and lipoxygenase, all of which are related to plant defense. The presence of some of these proteins was confirmed by their in vitro activity. The soybean exudates were able to reduce the hatching of nematode eggs and to cause 100% mortality of second-stage juveniles (J2). The pretreatment of J2 with these exudates resulted in a 90% reduction of the gall number in tobacco plants. These findings suggest that the exuded proteins are directly involved in plant defense against soil pathogens, including nematodes, during seed germination. PMID:26034922

  13. Root Cortical Cell Spherical Bodies Associated with an Induced Resistance Reaction in Monoxenic Cultures of Meloidogyne incognita.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orion, D; Wergin, W P; Chitwood, D J

    1995-09-01

    The root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita was monoxenically cultured on excised roots of soybean cv. Pickett and tomato cv. Rutgers in agar media containing either 0 to 1,600 mug/ml ammonium nitrate or 0 to 100 mug/ml urea. Observations with scanning and transmission electron microscopy indicated that an elevated concentration of ammonium nitrate or urea inhibited giant cell formation and suppressed nematode development in the infected soybean roots. In the tomato roots, concentrations of ammonium nitrate above 400 mug/ml or urea above 25 mug/ml inhibited giant cell formation and nematode development. Coincident with the nitrogen concentrations that suppressed giant cell formation was the appearance of electron-dense spherical bodies in the cortical parenchyma cells of both the soybean and tomato roots. These bodies, which were 1-4 mum in diameter, appeared to form in the cytoplasm and migrate to the cell vacuole. PMID:19277295

  14. Efeito de exsudatos de cultura de células de plantas em juvenis de segundo estádio de Meloidogyne incognita / Effect of exudates of plant cell culture on second-stage juveniles of Meloidogyne incognita

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Fernando S., Rocha; Vicente P., Campos.

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Calus foram obtidos de tomateiro (Lycopersicon esculentum), cafeeiro (Coffea arabica), alfafa (Medicago sativa), orquídea (Dendrobium nobile), mostarda (Brassica rapa), batata doce (Ipomoea batatas), fumo (Nicotiana tabacum), cenoura (Daucus carota) e Crotalaria juncea em meio sólido de Murashige & [...] Skoog (MS) seguido do cultivo em meio líquido MS em temperatura de 25-28 ºC. Após um mês, a suspensão foi passada em membrana Millipore 0,22 µm, obtendo-se, assim, o exsudato da cultura de células de cada planta testada. Ovos ou juvenis de segundo estádio (J2) de Meloidogyne incognita foram incubados nesses exsudatos e avaliadas as percentagens de eclosão, mobilidade e mortalidade dos J2. Com exceção dos ovos incubados em exsudato de orquídea, todos os demais inibiram a eclosão quando comparados com a incubação em água (testemunha). Entretanto, nos exsudatos de L. esculentum, cafeeiro e C. juncea a inibição foi mais drástica, semelhante ao aldicarb, mas significativamente diferente e menor do que em soluções contendo ingredientes do meio MS (1-5). Todos os exsudatos reduziram a mobilidade e aumentaram a mortalidade, com maior intensidade em 24 h de exposição. Porém, maior redução na mobilidade ocorreu nos exsudatos de tomateiro e alfafa, enquanto maior mortalidade no exsudato de tomateiro, seguido pelo de mostarda. Abstract in english Callus of Lycopersicon esculentum, Coffea arabica, Medicago sativa, Dendrobium nobile, Brassica rapa, Ipomoea batatas, Nicotiana tabacum, Daucus carota and Crotalaria juncea were obtained in Murashige & Skoog (MS) solid medium followed by cell cultivation in MS liquid medium at temperature varying f [...] rom 25-28 ºC. After one month, the cell suspension was passed through a 0,22 µm Millipore membrane, and the resulting liquid was the cell exudate from each of the tested plants. Eggs or second-stage juveniles (J2) of Meloidogyne incognita were then incubated in these exudates and hatching, mobility and mortality percentages of the J2 were evaluated. Except for the eggs incubated in the exudate of orchid, all the exudates inhibited J2 hatching when compared with incubation in water (control). However, in L. esculentum, C. arabica and C. juncea exudates the inhibition was greatest, similar to aldicar, but significantly less and different than that found in solution of culture medium ingredients MS (1-5). All exudates reduced mobility and increased mortality of M. incognita J2, although theses were enhanced when exposed for 24 h. The greatest reduction of mobility occurred with the exudates of tomato and M. sativa, while greatest mortality occurred with the exudate of L. esculentum, followed by B. rapa.

  15. Efeito de exsudatos de cultura de células de plantas em juvenis de segundo estádio de Meloidogyne incognita Effect of exudates of plant cell culture on second-stage juveniles of Meloidogyne incognita

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando S. Rocha

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Calus foram obtidos de tomateiro (Lycopersicon esculentum, cafeeiro (Coffea arabica, alfafa (Medicago sativa, orquídea (Dendrobium nobile, mostarda (Brassica rapa, batata doce (Ipomoea batatas, fumo (Nicotiana tabacum, cenoura (Daucus carota e Crotalaria juncea em meio sólido de Murashige & Skoog (MS seguido do cultivo em meio líquido MS em temperatura de 25-28 ºC. Após um mês, a suspensão foi passada em membrana Millipore 0,22 µm, obtendo-se, assim, o exsudato da cultura de células de cada planta testada. Ovos ou juvenis de segundo estádio (J2 de Meloidogyne incognita foram incubados nesses exsudatos e avaliadas as percentagens de eclosão, mobilidade e mortalidade dos J2. Com exceção dos ovos incubados em exsudato de orquídea, todos os demais inibiram a eclosão quando comparados com a incubação em água (testemunha. Entretanto, nos exsudatos de L. esculentum, cafeeiro e C. juncea a inibição foi mais drástica, semelhante ao aldicarb, mas significativamente diferente e menor do que em soluções contendo ingredientes do meio MS (1-5. Todos os exsudatos reduziram a mobilidade e aumentaram a mortalidade, com maior intensidade em 24 h de exposição. Porém, maior redução na mobilidade ocorreu nos exsudatos de tomateiro e alfafa, enquanto maior mortalidade no exsudato de tomateiro, seguido pelo de mostarda.Callus of Lycopersicon esculentum, Coffea arabica, Medicago sativa, Dendrobium nobile, Brassica rapa, Ipomoea batatas, Nicotiana tabacum, Daucus carota and Crotalaria juncea were obtained in Murashige & Skoog (MS solid medium followed by cell cultivation in MS liquid medium at temperature varying from 25-28 ºC. After one month, the cell suspension was passed through a 0,22 µm Millipore membrane, and the resulting liquid was the cell exudate from each of the tested plants. Eggs or second-stage juveniles (J2 of Meloidogyne incognita were then incubated in these exudates and hatching, mobility and mortality percentages of the J2 were evaluated. Except for the eggs incubated in the exudate of orchid, all the exudates inhibited J2 hatching when compared with incubation in water (control. However, in L. esculentum, C. arabica and C. juncea exudates the inhibition was greatest, similar to aldicar, but significantly less and different than that found in solution of culture medium ingredients MS (1-5. All exudates reduced mobility and increased mortality of M. incognita J2, although theses were enhanced when exposed for 24 h. The greatest reduction of mobility occurred with the exudates of tomato and M. sativa, while greatest mortality occurred with the exudate of L. esculentum, followed by B. rapa.

  16. Reaction of vegetables and aromatic plants to Meloidogyne javanica and M. incognita Reação de hortaliças e plantas aromáticas aos nematoides Meloidogyne javanica e M. incognita

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudia Regina Dias-Arieira

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available For this research we used 15 day-old seedlings which were transplanted to 2 L pots and inoculated with 4,000 nematode eggs plus juveniles (J2. After 60 days, the root systems were removed and the number of galls and eggs evaluated and used to calculate the nematode reproduction factor (RF. The tomato cv. Santa Cruz was used as a susceptible control. The experimental design was completely randomized, with six replications. Averages were compared using the Tukey or Scott-Knott test at 5%. For lettuce, Salad Bowl (Mimosa type, Elizabeth and Elisa (Lisa and Vera cultivars (crisphead, the number of galls and the RF for M. javanica were statistically higher than for the control, whereas, for the other vegetable crops, the highest number of galls and eggs were found in chicory and basil. The highest susceptibility to M. incognita was observed in Mimosa lettuce cv. Salad Bowl, chicory cultivars, parsley cv. Graúda Portuguesa and basil. Marjoram exhibited no M. incognita galls.Para avaliar a reação, mudas com 15 dias de idade foram transplantadas para vasos de 2 L de capacidade e inoculadas com 4.000 ovos e eventuais juvenis (J2 dos nematoides. Decorridos 60 dias, os sistemas radiculares foram retirados e avaliados quanto ao número de galhas e ovos, determinando-se o fator de reprodução (FR dos nematoides nas respectivas plantas. Tomateiro cv. Santa Cruz foi utilizado como testemunha. O experimento foi conduzido em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com seis repetições, e as médias foram comparadas pelo teste Tukey ou Scott-Knott a 5% de probabilidade. Nas alfaces tipo Mimosa cv. Salad Bowl; nas cultivares do tipo Lisa, Elizabeth e Elisa; e na cultivar Vera (tipo crespa, o número de galhas e o FR de M. javanica foi superior ao observado para a testemunha; enquanto para as demais oleráceas, os maiores números de galhas e ovos foram para as cultivares de chicória e para o manjericão. Maior suscetibilidade a M. incognita foi observada para a alface tipo Mimosa cv. Salad Bowl, para as cultivares de chicória, salsa cv. Graúda Portuguesa e manjericão. Apenas manjerona apresentou número de galhas de M. incognita igual a zero.

  17. Reaction of vegetables and aromatic plants to Meloidogyne javanica and M. incognita / Reação de hortaliças e plantas aromáticas aos nematoides Meloidogyne javanica e M. incognita

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Cláudia Regina, Dias-Arieira; Tatiana PL da, Cunha; Fernando Marcelo, Chiamolera; Heriksen H, Puerari; Fabio, Biela; Simone de M, Santana.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Para avaliar a reação, mudas com 15 dias de idade foram transplantadas para vasos de 2 L de capacidade e inoculadas com 4.000 ovos e eventuais juvenis (J2) dos nematoides. Decorridos 60 dias, os sistemas radiculares foram retirados e avaliados quanto ao número de galhas e ovos, determinando-se o fat [...] or de reprodução (FR) dos nematoides nas respectivas plantas. Tomateiro cv. Santa Cruz foi utilizado como testemunha. O experimento foi conduzido em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com seis repetições, e as médias foram comparadas pelo teste Tukey ou Scott-Knott a 5% de probabilidade. Nas alfaces tipo Mimosa cv. Salad Bowl; nas cultivares do tipo Lisa, Elizabeth e Elisa; e na cultivar Vera (tipo crespa), o número de galhas e o FR de M. javanica foi superior ao observado para a testemunha; enquanto para as demais oleráceas, os maiores números de galhas e ovos foram para as cultivares de chicória e para o manjericão. Maior suscetibilidade a M. incognita foi observada para a alface tipo Mimosa cv. Salad Bowl, para as cultivares de chicória, salsa cv. Graúda Portuguesa e manjericão. Apenas manjerona apresentou número de galhas de M. incognita igual a zero. Abstract in english For this research we used 15 day-old seedlings which were transplanted to 2 L pots and inoculated with 4,000 nematode eggs plus juveniles (J2). After 60 days, the root systems were removed and the number of galls and eggs evaluated and used to calculate the nematode reproduction factor (RF). The tom [...] ato cv. Santa Cruz was used as a susceptible control. The experimental design was completely randomized, with six replications. Averages were compared using the Tukey or Scott-Knott test at 5%. For lettuce, Salad Bowl (Mimosa type), Elizabeth and Elisa (Lisa) and Vera cultivars (crisphead), the number of galls and the RF for M. javanica were statistically higher than for the control, whereas, for the other vegetable crops, the highest number of galls and eggs were found in chicory and basil. The highest susceptibility to M. incognita was observed in Mimosa lettuce cv. Salad Bowl, chicory cultivars, parsley cv. Graúda Portuguesa and basil. Marjoram exhibited no M. incognita galls.

  18. Transformation of the endophytic fungus Acremonium implicatum with GFP and evaluation of its biocontrol effect against Meloidogyne incognita.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Yu-Rong; Tian, Xue-Liang; Shen, Bao-Ming; Mao, Zhen-Chuan; Chen, Guo-Hua; Xie, Bing-Yan

    2015-04-01

    Acremonium implicatum is an endophytic fungus with biocontrol potential against Meloidogyne incognita based on its opportunistic egg-parasitic, hatching inhibition, and toxic properties. To understand its mode of plant endophytism and opportunistic egg parasitism, GFP-tagged A. implicatum was constructed by PEG-mediated protoplast transformation. By laser scanning confocal microscopy (LSCM), we evaluated the endophytism and opportunistic egg parasitism of a stable gfp transformant (Acr-1). Acr-1 could colonize epidermal tissue, cortical tissue, and xylem of roots and form a mutualistic symbiosis with tomato host plants. LSCM of Acr-1 infecting M. incognita eggs revealed that hyphae penetrated the shell and grew inside eggs to form trophic hyphae. A large number of hyphae enveloped parasitized eggs. In addition, the egg shell integrity was destroyed by fungal penetration. The percentage of egg parasitism was 33.8 %. There were no marked differences between the wild type and mutant in nematode second-stage juvenile mortality and egg hatching and in fungal control efficiency in a pot experiment. In conclusion, gfp-transformation did not change the nematicidal activity of A. implicatum and is a tool to examine the mode of plant endophytism and opportunistic egg parasitism of A. implicatum. PMID:25724297

  19. Screening of field pea (Pisum sativum) selections for their reactions to root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne incognita).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Anita; Haseeb, Akhtar; Abuzar, Syed

    2006-03-01

    Pot studies were carried out to evaluate the reactions of 23 selections of field pea (Pisum sativum) against Meloidogyne incognita (2000 freshly hatched juveniles (J2)/pot). Experiment was conducted under greenhouse conditions ((24.7+/-3) degrees C and (62+/-7)% RH) and terminated 45 d after inoculation. The roots of all the selections were assessed to determine root-knot indices (RKI) on a 0-4 scale. Out of 23 selections HFP-990713, Pant P-25, and HFP-0129 were resistant; Pant P-2005, NDP-2 and Pant P-42 were tolerant; LFP-305, HFP-8909, HFP-4, HUP-31, HFP-0128, Pant P-31, Pant P-40, LFP-363, and HFP-0118 were moderately resistant; HFP-0110, HUDP-28, HUDP-15, HUDP-27, HUP-30, HUP-2 and HUDP-26 were moderately susceptible; and only Ambika was susceptible to M. incognita. It was observed that reproduction of nematode was favored on tolerant and susceptible cultivars but inhibited on resistant ones. Strong negative correlation was observed between the total fresh and dry plant weights and the root-knot index. The selection Pant P-42 showed highest tolerance among all the selections tested and can be recommended for field trials, whereas, selection Ambika showed highest susceptibility and should be avoided. PMID:16502508

  20. EFECTO DEL VERMICOMPOST Y QUITINA SOBRE EL CONTROL DE Meloidogyne incognita EN TOMATE A NIVEL DE INVERNADERO

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    Leida Castro

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Meloidogyne incognita es un nematodo endoparásito sedentario, de penetración total y formador de nódulos radicales; tiene una amplia distribución geográfica y causa pérdidas agrícolas importantes. Recientemente se han utilizado abonos orgánicos y compuestos como la quitina en la supresión de plagas y enfermedades de plantas. El objetivo de esta investigación fue evaluar el efecto de la aplicación de vermicompost de estiércol bovino y su enriquecimiento con quitina, sobre la infección de M. incognita en plantas de tomate var. Hayslip bajo condiciones de invernadero. Para esto se inocularon las plantas con 5000 unidades de inóculo (huevos+juveniles en segundo estado por maceta y se compararon con controles que fueron sembrados en suelo sin enmienda orgánica o quitina. La evaluación se llevó a cabo 60 días después y se midió el peso fresco aéreo y radical, peso seco aéreo, población total de nematodos en raíz y suelo, índice de nódulos radicales (INR, índice de masas de huevos (IMH, el factor de reproducción del nematodo (FR y recuento de grupos funcionales (hongos, bacterias y actinomicetes. La adición al suelo de vermicompost provocó un incremento en las variables peso fresco y seco foliar y peso fresco radical: a mayor porcentaje de vermicompost, mayor incremento; así mismo, la aplicación del vermicompost redujo la cantidad del nematodo en raíz y en suelo. La aplicación de quitina acentuó estos resultados, obteniéndose el menor factor de reproducción de M. Incognita, con un valor de 3,76 para la dosis de 50% vermicompost+quitina, mientras que en el testigo este factor fue de 93,20. La aplicación de quitina como enmienda única solo afectó la población de hongos en el suelo, mientras que la de actinomicetes aumentó en los tratamientos enmendados.

  1. Virtual screening and in vitro assay of potential drug like inhibitors from spices against Glutathione-S-Transferase of Meloidogyne incognita

    OpenAIRE

    Babu, Rosana O.; Moorkoth, Dinsha; Azeez, Shamina; Eapen, Santhosh J.

    2012-01-01

    Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) enzymes are critical antioxidant and detoxification system responsible for long-term existence of nematodes in host species. Hence, 16 phytochemicals predicted and reported to have potential nematicidal activity have been docked to GST enzyme of Meloidogyne incognita to assess their binding affinity and inhibitory activity. In vitro effects of these phytochemicals from in silico results have been done for validation of docking studies and efficacy in...

  2. Effects of Cyanide Ion and Hypoxia on the Volumes of Second-Stage Juveniles of Meloidogyne incognita in Polyethylene Glycol Solutions

    OpenAIRE

    Robinson, A.F.; Carter, W. W.

    1986-01-01

    Changes in the volumes of second-stage juveniles of Meloidogyne incognita were monitored in aqueous solutions of polyethylene glycol supplemented with dilute balanced salts. At key points within a 48-hour cycle of fluctuating water potential, nematodes were placed under hypoxic conditions or exposed to the respiratory inhibitor, sodium cyanide, to detect any respiration-dependent process that regulates volume. Aerobic respiratory arrest at -500 kPa induced pronounced water loss, lateral and d...

  3. Non-nematode-derived double-stranded RNAs induce profound phenotypic changes in Meloidogyne incognita and Globodera pallida infective juveniles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalzell, Johnathan J; McMaster, Steven; Johnston, Michael J; Kerr, Rachel; Fleming, Colin C; Maule, Aaron G

    2009-11-01

    Nine non-nematode-derived double-stranded RNAs (dsRNAs), designed for use as controls in RNA interference (RNAi) screens of neuropeptide targets, were found to induce aberrant phenotypes and an unexpected inhibitory effect on motility of root knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita J2s following 24h soaks in 0.1 mg/ml dsRNA; a simple soaking procedure which we have found to elicit profound knockdown of neuronal targets in Globodera pallida J2s. We have established that this inhibitory phenomenon is both time- and concentration-dependent, as shorter 4h soaks in 0.1 mg/ml dsRNA had no negative impact on M. incognita J2 stage worms, yet a 10-fold increase in concentration to 1 mg/ml for the same 4h time period had an even greater qualitative and quantitative impact on worm phenotype and motility. Further, a 10-fold increase of J2s soaked in 0.1 mg/ml dsRNA did not significantly alter the observed phenotypic aberration, which suggests that dsRNA uptake of the soaked J2s is not saturated under these conditions. This phenomenon was not initially observed in potato cyst nematode G. pallida J2s, which displayed no aberrant phenotype, or diminution of migratory activity in response to the same 0.1 mg/ml dsRNA 24h soaks. However, a 10-fold increase in dsRNA to 1mg/ml was found to elicit comparable irregularity of phenotype and inhibition of motility in G. pallida, to that initially observed in M. incognita following a 24h soak in 0.1 mg/ml dsRNA. Again, a 10-fold increase in the number of G. pallida J2s soaked in the same volume of 1 mg/ml dsRNA preparation did not significantly affect the observed phenotypic deviation. We do not observe any global impact on transcript abundance in either M. incognita or G. pallida J2s following 0.1 mg/ml dsRNA soaks, as revealed by reverse transcriptase-PCR and quantitative PCR data. This study aims to raise awareness of a phenomenon which we observe consistently and which we believe signifies a more expansive deficiency in our knowledge and understanding of the variables inherent to RNAi-based investigation. PMID:19482028

  4. COMPORTAMIENTO DE MATERIALES DE GUAYABO (Psidium guajava LINNEO) AL PARASITISMO DEL NEMATODO FORMADOR DE AGALLAS [Meloidogyne incognita (KOFOID & WHITE) CHITWOOD Y Meloidogyne javanica (TREUB) CHITWOOD] / BEHAVIOR OF GUAVA MATERIALS (Psidiumguajava LINNEO) ON THE ROOT KNOT NEMATODE [Meloidogyne incognita (KOFOID & WHITE) CHITWOOD AND Meloidogyne javanica (TREUB) CHITWOOD] PARASITISM

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    ALEJANDRA, DUQUE ARISTIZÁBAL; ÓSCAR ADRIÁN, GUZMÁN PIEDRAHÍTA.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Las raíces del guayabo son parasitadas por el nematodo del nudo radical (Meloidogyne spp.), ocasionando pérdidas de la producción entre 30 y 60%. Debido a esto, el principal objetivo de esta investigación fue evaluar en condiciones de almácigo la reacción de cuatro variedades de guayabo al ataque de [...] l complejo Meloidogyne incognita y M. javanica. En el vivero Jaibaná Frutales, del municipio de Pereira (Risaralda), plántulas de cuatro variedades: Pera y Común (Psidium guajava), Agrio (Psidium friedrichsthalianum) y Peruano (Psidium cattleianum), fueron sembradas en bolsas de plástico que contenían suelo y cascarilla de arroz en proporción 3:1. Veinte días después de sembradas, a 15 plántulas de cada una de las variedades le fueron inoculadas una mezcla de 1.000, 5.000 y 10.000 huevos y juveniles de Meloidogyne, y los respectivos testigos sin inocular. Las plántulas fueron asignadas bajo un diseño experimental completamente aleatorio. Las variedades Peruano con 5,75g y 8,03g de peso seco de raíces y parte aérea, respectivamente, y Agrio con 10,27g y 9,23g de peso seco de raíces y parte aérea, respectivamente, presentaron el menor índice de nudosidad con 0,1 y 1,1, y reproducción de Meloidogyne spp. con valores entre 75 y 4.575 huevos y juveniles/100g de raíces. Estas variedades fueron estadísticamente diferentes a la variedad Pera con 13,96g y 11,33g de peso seco de raíces y parte aérea, respectivamente, y Común con 11,35g y 13,9g de peso seco de raíces y parte aérea, respectivamente, quienes presentaron mayor índice de nudosidad con 5 y reproducción con 149.775 huevos y 72.950 juveniles/100g de raíces. Las variedades Agrio y Peruano fueron resistentes e inmunes, respectivamente, al ataque de Meloidogyne incognita y M. javanica, permitiendo ser utilizadas como portainjertos o patrones; mientras que las variedades Pera y Común fueron altamente susceptibles. Abstract in english Guava roots are parasitized by the root knot nematode (Meloidogyne spp.), which causes production losses between 30 and 60%. Due to this, the main goal of this research was to evaluate the reaction of four varieties of guava under nursery conditions to the attack of Meloidogyne incognita and M. java [...] nica complex. In the Jaibaná Frutales nursery, in the municipality of Pereira (Risaralda), seedlings of four varieties of guava: Guava pear and Common guava (Psidiumguajava), Cas guava (Psidiumfriedrichsthalianum), and Peruvian guava (Psidiumcattleianum), were planted in plastic bags containing soil and rice hull in a 3:1 proportion. Twenty days after planted, 15 seedlings of each variety were inoculated with a mixture of 1,000, 5,000 and 10,000 eggs and Meloidogyne spp juveniles, and their respective controls without inoculation. Seedlings were assigned under a completely randomized design. The Peruvian guava variety with 5.75g and 8.03g roots and aerial parts dry weight respectively, and Cas guava variety with 10.27g and 9.23g roots and aerial parts dry weight, respectively, had the lowest root gall index with 0.1 and 1.1, and Meloidogyne spp. reproduction with values between 75 and 4.575 eggs and juveniles/100g of roots. These varieties were statistically different from the guava Pear variety with 13,96g y 11,33g roots and aerial parts dry weight respectively, and Common guava with 11,35g y 13,9g roots and aerial parts dry weight respectively, which had the highest root gall index with 5 and reproduction with 149.775 eggs and 72.950 juveniles/100g of roots. In conclusion, the Cas and Peruvian varieties were resistant and immune respectively, to Meloidogyne incognita and M. javanica, allowing them to be used as rootstocks or patronages, while guava Pear and Common guava were highly susceptible to both species.

  5. BEHAVIOR OF GUAVA MATERIALS (Psidiumguajava LINNEO ON THE THE ROOT KNOT NEMATODE [Meloidogyne incognita (KOFOID & WHITE CHITWOOD AND Meloidogyne javanica (TREUB CHITWOOD] PARASITISM / COMPORTAMIENTO DE MATERIALES DE GUAYABO (Psidium guajava LINNEO AL PARASITISMO DEL NEMATODO FORMADOR DE AGALLAS [Meloidogyne incognita (KOFOID & WHITE CHITWOOD Y Meloidogyne javanica (TREUB CHITWOOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALEJANDRA DUQUE ARISTIZÁBAL

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Guava roots are parasitized by the root knot nematode (Meloidogyne spp., which causes production losses between 30 and 60%. Due to this, the main goal of this research was to evaluate the reaction of four varieties of guava under nursery conditions to the attack of Meloidogyne incognita and M javanica complex. In the Jaibaná Frutales nursery, in the municipality of Pereira (Risaralda, seedlings of four varieties of guava: Guava pear and Common guava (Psidiumguajava, Cas guava (Psidiumfriedrichsthalianum, and Peruvian guava (Psidiumcattleianum, were planted in plastic bags containing soil and rice hull in a 3:1 proportion. Twenty days after planted, 15 seedlings of each variety were inoculated with a mixture of 1,000, 5,000 and 10,000 eggs and Meloidogyne spp juveniles, and their respective controls without inoculation. Seedlings were assigned under a completely randomized design. The Peruvian guava variety with 5.75g and 8.03g roots and aerial parts dry weight respectively, and Cas guava variety with 10.27g and 9.23g roots and aerial parts dry weight, respectively, had the lowest root gall index with 0.1 and 1.1, and Meloidogyne spp. reproduction with values between 75 and 4.575 eggs and juveniles/100g of roots. These varieties were statistically different from the guava Pear variety with 13,96g y 11,33g roots and aerial parts dry weight respectively, and Common guava with 11,35g y 13,9g roots and aerial parts dry weight respectively, which had the highest root gall index with 5 and reproduction with 149.775 eggs and 72.950 juveniles/100g of roots. In conclusion, the Cas and Peruvian varieties were resistant and immune respectively, to Meloidogyne incognita and M. javanica, allowing them to be used as rootstocks or patronages, while guava Pear and Common guava were highly susceptible to both species. RESUMEN: Las raíces del guayabo son parasitadas por el nematodo del nudo radical (Meloidogyne spp., ocasionando pérdidas de la producción entre 30 y 60%. Debido a esto, el principal objetivo de esta investigación fue evaluar en condiciones de almácigo la reacción de cuatro variedades de guayabo al ataque del complejo Meloidogyne incognita y M. javanica. En el vivero Jaibaná Frutales, del municipio de Pereira (Risaralda, plántulas de cuatro variedades: Pera y Común (Psidium guajava, Agrio (Psidium friedrichsthalianum y Peruano (Psidium cattleianum, fueron sembradas en bolsas de plástico que contenían suelo y cascarilla de arroz en proporción 3:1. Veinte días después de sembradas, a 15 plántulas de cada una de las variedades le fueron inoculadas una mezcla de 1.000, 5.000 y 10.000 huevos y juveniles de Meloidogyne, y los respectivos testigos sin inocular. Las plántulas fueron asignadas bajo un diseño experimental completamente aleatorio. Las variedades Peruano con 5,75g y 8,03g de peso seco de raíces y parte aérea, respectivamente, y Agrio con 10,27g y 9,23g de peso seco de raíces y parte aérea, respectivamente, presentaron el menor índice de nudosidad con 0,1 y 1,1, y reproducción de Meloidogyne spp. con valores entre 75 y 4.575 huevos y juveniles/100g de raíces. Estas variedades fueron estadísticamente diferentes a la variedad Pera con 13,96g y 11,33g de peso seco de raíces y parte aérea, respectivamente, y Común con 11,35g y 13,9g de peso seco de raíces y parte aérea, respectivamente, quienes presentaron mayor índice de nudosidad con 5 y reproducción con 149.775 huevos y 72.950 juveniles/100g de raíces. Las variedades Agrio y Peruano fueron resistentes e inmunes, respectivamente, al ataque de Meloidogyne incognita y M. javanica, permitiendo ser utilizadas como portainjertos o patrones; mientras que las variedades Pera y Común fueron altamente susceptibles.

  6. Efeito de exsudatos radiculares em endósporos de Pasteuria penetrans e em juvenis do segundo estádio de Meloidogyne incognita / Effect of root exudates on endospores of Pasteuria penetrans and on second-stage juvenile of Meloidogyne incognita

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Fernando da Silva, Rocha; Vicente P., Campos; Ricardo Magela de, Souza.

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Juvenis do segundo estádio (J2) de Meloidogyne incognita foram incubados nos exsudatos radiculares de soja (Glycine max), tomateiro (Lycopersicon esculentum), cafeeiro (Coffea arabica), feijoeiro (Phaseolus vulgaris), mostarda (Brassica rapa), Crotalaria juncea e C. spectabilis e em água por 12 h. E [...] m seguida, realizou-se o teste de adesão por centrifugação ou por borbulhamento. Em outro ensaio, endósporos de Pasteuria penetrans foram incubados por quatro dias a 26 ºC nos exsudatos e submetidos à adesão em J2 de M. incognita, sob borbulhamento constante por 24 h em tubos contendo água. Os J2 com endósporos aderidos pelo teste de borbulhamento foram inoculados em mudas de tomateiro. Verificou-se que a incubação dos J2 por 12 h nos exsudatos radiculares testados reduziu o número de endósporos de P. penetrans por J2 independentemente do método de adesão empregado. Os J2 incubados nos exsudatos radiculares testados proporcionaram menor número de fêmeas parasitadas em tomateiro em relação à testemunha (água), bem como menor número de galhas com exceção dos J2 incubados em exsudato do próprio tomateiro. A reprodução dos J2 incubados nos exsudatos radiculares não foi afetada quando comparada à testemunha. A incubação dos endósporos nos exsudatos das plantas testadas reduziu a adesão e a infetividade em J2, em relação à testemunha. Após 28 dias da inoculação, observou-se redução no número de fêmeas parasitadas resultantes da infecção desses J2 com endósporos incubados em exsudatos radiculares comparada com aqueles incubados em água. O parasitismo do J2 com endósporos tratados com exsudatos radiculares e a reprodutividade de fêmeas oriundas da infetividade desses J2 foram semelhantes aos incubados em água. Abstract in english In one assay, second stage juveniles (J2) of Meloidogyne incognita were incubated in root exudates of soybean (Glycine max), tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum), coffee (Coffea arabica), bean (Phaseolus vulgaris), mustard (Brassica rapa), Crotalaria juncea and C. spectabilis and in water for 12 h, foll [...] owed by endospores adhesion by centrifugation or by air bubbling. In another assay, endospores of Pasterius penetrans were incubated for four days at 26 ºC in the exudates and submitted to adhesion on J2 of M. incognita by constant air bubbling for 24 h in tubes containing water. The J2 with endospore adhesion by air bubbling were inoculated in tomato seedlings. The incubation of J2 for 12 h in the root exudates reduced the number of P. penetrans endospore per J2, regardless of the adhesion test used, and resulted in fewer parasitized females when compared with the control, as well as a lower number of galls, except in the J2 incubated in exudate of tomato. The reproduction of incubated J2 in the root exudates was not affected when compared to the control. The endospore incubation in the exudates of the tested plants reduced the adhesion and the infectivity of these endospores to J2 in relation to the control. After 28 days from inoculation, reduction was observed in the number of parasitized females resulting from infection of those J2 with endospore incubated in exudates when compared with those incubated in water. The parasitism of J2 with endospore treated with exudates and the reproduction of infected J2 females were similar to those incubated in water.

  7. Efeito de exsudatos radiculares em endósporos de Pasteuria penetrans e em juvenis do segundo estádio de Meloidogyne incognita Effect of root exudates on endospores of Pasteuria penetrans and on second-stage juvenile of Meloidogyne incognita

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando da Silva Rocha

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Juvenis do segundo estádio (J2 de Meloidogyne incognita foram incubados nos exsudatos radiculares de soja (Glycine max, tomateiro (Lycopersicon esculentum, cafeeiro (Coffea arabica, feijoeiro (Phaseolus vulgaris, mostarda (Brassica rapa, Crotalaria juncea e C. spectabilis e em água por 12 h. Em seguida, realizou-se o teste de adesão por centrifugação ou por borbulhamento. Em outro ensaio, endósporos de Pasteuria penetrans foram incubados por quatro dias a 26 ºC nos exsudatos e submetidos à adesão em J2 de M. incognita, sob borbulhamento constante por 24 h em tubos contendo água. Os J2 com endósporos aderidos pelo teste de borbulhamento foram inoculados em mudas de tomateiro. Verificou-se que a incubação dos J2 por 12 h nos exsudatos radiculares testados reduziu o número de endósporos de P. penetrans por J2 independentemente do método de adesão empregado. Os J2 incubados nos exsudatos radiculares testados proporcionaram menor número de fêmeas parasitadas em tomateiro em relação à testemunha (água, bem como menor número de galhas com exceção dos J2 incubados em exsudato do próprio tomateiro. A reprodução dos J2 incubados nos exsudatos radiculares não foi afetada quando comparada à testemunha. A incubação dos endósporos nos exsudatos das plantas testadas reduziu a adesão e a infetividade em J2, em relação à testemunha. Após 28 dias da inoculação, observou-se redução no número de fêmeas parasitadas resultantes da infecção desses J2 com endósporos incubados em exsudatos radiculares comparada com aqueles incubados em água. O parasitismo do J2 com endósporos tratados com exsudatos radiculares e a reprodutividade de fêmeas oriundas da infetividade desses J2 foram semelhantes aos incubados em água.In one assay, second stage juveniles (J2 of Meloidogyne incognita were incubated in root exudates of soybean (Glycine max, tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum, coffee (Coffea arabica, bean (Phaseolus vulgaris, mustard (Brassica rapa, Crotalaria juncea and C. spectabilis and in water for 12 h, followed by endospores adhesion by centrifugation or by air bubbling. In another assay, endospores of Pasterius penetrans were incubated for four days at 26 ºC in the exudates and submitted to adhesion on J2 of M. incognita by constant air bubbling for 24 h in tubes containing water. The J2 with endospore adhesion by air bubbling were inoculated in tomato seedlings. The incubation of J2 for 12 h in the root exudates reduced the number of P. penetrans endospore per J2, regardless of the adhesion test used, and resulted in fewer parasitized females when compared with the control, as well as a lower number of galls, except in the J2 incubated in exudate of tomato. The reproduction of incubated J2 in the root exudates was not affected when compared to the control. The endospore incubation in the exudates of the tested plants reduced the adhesion and the infectivity of these endospores to J2 in relation to the control. After 28 days from inoculation, reduction was observed in the number of parasitized females resulting from infection of those J2 with endospore incubated in exudates when compared with those incubated in water. The parasitism of J2 with endospore treated with exudates and the reproduction of infected J2 females were similar to those incubated in water.

  8. Enxertia e sua influencia na produção de pepino e reprodução de Meloidogyne javanica e M. incognita / Effect of grafting on cucumber production and reproduction of Meloidogyne javanica and M. incognita

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ariane C, Salata; Erick Vinicius, Bertolini; Felipe O, Magro; Antonio II, Cardoso; Silvia Renata S, Wilcken.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A enxertia em porta-enxertos resistentes é uma técnica frequentemente recomendada para a cultura do pepino em áreas infestadas com nematoides-das-galhas. O presente trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a produção de pepino enxertado em dois porta-enxertos comparado com pé-franco em solo infestado com [...] Meloidogyne incognita raça 2 ou com M. javanica. Foram avaliados nove tratamentos (fatorial 3x3: pepino híbrido Tsuyataro pé-franco, enxertado na abóbora híbrida 'Shelper' e enxertado na abóbora híbrida 'Excitte Ikki' x sem inoculação, inoculação com M. incognita e inoculação com M. javanica), no delineamento em blocos ao acaso, com quatro repetições e seis plantas por parcela. Para as características de produção de frutos (número de frutos totais e comerciais por planta, massa de frutos totais e comerciais por planta) não foi obtida interação entre os fatores. Obteve-se maior produção de frutos em plantas enxertadas sobre a abóbora 'Shelper', independente da espécie de nematoide, enquanto que a enxertia sobre 'Excitte Ikki' não diferiu do pé-franco para produção total. Ambas as espécies de nematoide reduziram a produção de frutos, porém este efeito foi mais pronunciado com M. javanica. Tanto o pepino pé-franco como as plantas enxertadas foram suscetíveis, pois permitiram a multiplicação dos nematoides, com fator de reprodução, em avaliação realizada aos 72 dias após a inoculação, variando de 3,57 a 15,04, sendo que para M. javanica este valor foi maior no pepino pé-franco. Abstract in english Grafting on resistant rootstock is a technique often recommended for cucumber crop in root-knot nematodes infested areas. We studied the yield of grafted cucumber on two rootstocks compared with non grafted in soil infested with Meloidogyne javanica or with M. incognita race 2. Nine treatments (fact [...] orial 3x3: Japanese cucumber hybrid Tsuyataro without grafting, grafted on squash hybrid Shelper and grafted on squash hybrid Excitte Ikki x without nematode inoculation, inoculated with M. incognita and inoculated with M. javanica) were evaluated in a randomized block design, with four replications and six plants per plot. There was no interaction between factors for yield evaluated characteristics (total and marketable fruit number per plant, total and marketable fruit weight per plant). Higher fruit yield was obtained in cucumber grafted on 'Shelper', for both nematode species, while cucumber grafted on 'Excitte Ikki' did not differ from non grafted plants for total fruit weight. Both nematode species reduced fruit yield, which was more evident when M. javanica was inoculated. Grafted and non grafted plants were susceptible, because they enabled the multiplication of nematodes, with a reproduction factor, at 72 days after inoculation, ranging from 3.57 to 15.04, with the highest value in cucumber non grafted inoculated with M. javanica.

  9. Grafted eggplant yield, quality and growth in infested soil with Verticillium dahliae and Meloidogyne incognita / Produção, qualidade e crescimento de beringela enxertada, em solo infestado com Verticillium dahliae e Meloidogyne incognita

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Sebahattin, Çürük; H. Y& #305; ld& #305; z, Dasgan; Sedat, Mansuro& #287; lu; & #350; ener, Kurt; Meltem, Mazmano& #287; lu; Özgür, Antakl& #305; ; Gülcan, Tarla.

    1673-16-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito sobre a altura de planta, a produção e a qualidade de frutos do enxerto das cultivares de beringela (Solanum melongena L.) Pala e Faselis em Solanum torvum Sw., quando cultivadas em solo infestado com Verticillium dahliae e Meloidogyne incognita ou em s [...] olo não infestado. A infestação do solo reduziu a produção, altura da planta, biomassa da parte aérea, massa média dos frutos, massa de matéria seca da parte aérea, conforme a cultivar utilizada e a enxertia. A enxertia reduziu os conteúdos de ácido oxálico e de sólidos solúveis e aumentou a massa média de frutos, conforme a cultivar ou a presença do patógeno no solo. A enxertia também reduziu o efeito negativo dos patógenos sobre o índice de doença, a altura de planta e a massa de matéria seca da parte aérea. A cultivar Pala foi mais vigorosa que a Faselis, e S. torvum foi um porta-enxerto vigoroso. A combinação de porta-enxerto vigoroso com a cultivar fraca (Faselis) foi mais adequada que a de porta-enxerto vigoroso e a cultivar vigorosa (Pala). Ouso de S. torvum como porta-enxerto para a cultivar Faselis, em solo infestado, é provavelmente promissora na horticultura convencional e na horticultura sustentável de baixos insumos, pois a enxertia aumenta a proteção contra os patógenos, e reduz a perda de qualidade dos frutos e da produção. Abstract in english The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of grafting (onto Solanum torvum Sw.) on plant growth, yield and fruit quality of the Pala and Faselis eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) cultivars, grown in a soil infested with Verticillium dahliae Kleb. and Meloidogyne incognita, or in noninfeste [...] d soil. Soil infestation decreased yield, plant height, final above-ground biomass, and also reduced fruit mean weight and shoot dry weight depending on cultivar or grafting. Grafting decreased fruit oxalic acid and the soluble solid contents, and increased mean fruit weight, depending on cultivar and soil infestation. Grafting also reduced the negative effects of the pathogens on disease index, plant height and shoot dry weight. Cultivar Pala was more vigorous than Faselis, and S. torvum was a vigorous rootstock. The combination of a vigorous rootstock with a weak cultivar (Faselis) is more profitable than that of a vigorous rootstock and a vigorous cultivar (Pala). Using S. torvum as a rootstock for cultivar Faselis, grown in soil infested with the pathogens, is most likely to be useful in conventional and low-input sustainable horticulture, since grafting increases protection against the pathogens, and reduces the losses in quality and yield.

  10. Grafted eggplant yield, quality and growth in infested soil with Verticillium dahliae and Meloidogyne incognita Produção, qualidade e crescimento de beringela enxertada, em solo infestado com Verticillium dahliae e Meloidogyne incognita

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebahattin Çürük

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of grafting (onto Solanum torvum Sw. on plant growth, yield and fruit quality of the Pala and Faselis eggplant (Solanum melongena L. cultivars, grown in a soil infested with Verticillium dahliae Kleb. and Meloidogyne incognita, or in noninfested soil. Soil infestation decreased yield, plant height, final above-ground biomass, and also reduced fruit mean weight and shoot dry weight depending on cultivar or grafting. Grafting decreased fruit oxalic acid and the soluble solid contents, and increased mean fruit weight, depending on cultivar and soil infestation. Grafting also reduced the negative effects of the pathogens on disease index, plant height and shoot dry weight. Cultivar Pala was more vigorous than Faselis, and S. torvum was a vigorous rootstock. The combination of a vigorous rootstock with a weak cultivar (Faselis is more profitable than that of a vigorous rootstock and a vigorous cultivar (Pala. Using S. torvum as a rootstock for cultivar Faselis, grown in soil infested with the pathogens, is most likely to be useful in conventional and low-input sustainable horticulture, since grafting increases protection against the pathogens, and reduces the losses in quality and yield.O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito sobre a altura de planta, a produção e a qualidade de frutos do enxerto das cultivares de beringela (Solanum melongena L. Pala e Faselis em Solanum torvum Sw., quando cultivadas em solo infestado com Verticillium dahliae e Meloidogyne incognita ou em solo não infestado. A infestação do solo reduziu a produção, altura da planta, biomassa da parte aérea, massa média dos frutos, massa de matéria seca da parte aérea, conforme a cultivar utilizada e a enxertia. A enxertia reduziu os conteúdos de ácido oxálico e de sólidos solúveis e aumentou a massa média de frutos, conforme a cultivar ou a presença do patógeno no solo. A enxertia também reduziu o efeito negativo dos patógenos sobre o índice de doença, a altura de planta e a massa de matéria seca da parte aérea. A cultivar Pala foi mais vigorosa que a Faselis, e S. torvum foi um porta-enxerto vigoroso. A combinação de porta-enxerto vigoroso com a cultivar fraca (Faselis foi mais adequada que a de porta-enxerto vigoroso e a cultivar vigorosa (Pala. Ouso de S. torvum como porta-enxerto para a cultivar Faselis, em solo infestado, é provavelmente promissora na horticultura convencional e na horticultura sustentável de baixos insumos, pois a enxertia aumenta a proteção contra os patógenos, e reduz a perda de qualidade dos frutos e da produção.

  11. Efeito de extratos aquosos de espécies de Asteraceae sobre Meloidogyne incognita / Effect of aqueous extracts of Asteraceae species on Meloidogyne incognita

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Isabel Cristina Madeira, Ferreira; Gilson Soares da, Silva; Fagner Sousa, Nascimento.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se, in vitro e in vivo a atividade nematicida dos extratos aquosos de vedélia (Sphagneticola trilobata), erva-de-touro (Tridax procumbens), cravo-de-defunto (Tagetes patula), girassol mexicano (Tithonia diversifolia), botão de ouro (Unxia suffruticosa) e zínia (Zinnia peruviana), sobre Meloi [...] dogyne incognita. Os extratos foram preparados na proporção de 1,0g do material seco e triturado para 10mL de água destilada e armazenados por 24h, sendo seguidamente utilizados nos experimentos. Nos testes in vitro, foram depositados 4,0mL do extrato bruto e 2,0mL de uma suspensão aquosa contendo 200 ovos do nematóide em placas de Petri de 5cm de diâmetro e, quinze dias após, procedeu-se a contagem do número de juvenis eclodidos e dos ovos remanescentes para o cálculo das porcentagens de eclosão. Nos testes in vivo, os extratos foram aplicados, separadamente, via pulverização foliar, tratamento de raiz e vertido no solo, semanalmente durante 60 dias. Como testemunha utilizou-se apenas água nos dois experimentos. No ensaio in vitro observou-se que todos os extratos foram eficientes na redução da eclosão de juvenis de M. incognita quando comparados à testemunha, as porcentagens de redução foram 89,96%, 91,13%, 92,48%, 92,72%, 93,2% e 97,48% para erva-de-touro, cravo-de-defunto, girassol mexicano, vedélia, botão de ouro e zínia, respectivamente, e no ensaio in vivo, que os tratamentos não exerceram nenhum efeito sobre o peso do sistema radicular dos tomateiros, no entanto, observou-se que os resultados diferiram entre as espécies utilizadas e a forma de aplicação do extrato na avaliação do peso fresco da parte aérea das plantas. Quanto ao fator de reprodução, observou-se que nenhum dos extratos apresentou diferença estatística em relação à testemunha, no entanto, quando se compara as diferentes formas de aplicação dos mesmos, observa-se que houve diferença estatística quando os extratos de erva de touro e girassol mexicano foram aplicados via pulverização foliar e no tratamento de raiz, contudo, não houve diferença quando estes extratos foram aplicados em forma de rega no solo. Abstract in english The nematicide activity of aqueous extracts of Wedelia (Sphagneticola trilobata), tridax daisy (Tridax procumbens), marigold (Tagetes patula), Mexican sunflower (Tithonia diversifolia), "botão de ouro" (Unxia suffruticosa) and Peruvian zinnia (Zinnia peruviana) was studied in vitro and in vivo on Me [...] loidogyne incognita. The extracts were prepared at a ratio of 1.0 g of dry and crushed material to 10 ml of distilled water, stored for 24 hours, and then used in the experiments. In in vitro tests, 4.0 mL of crude extract and 2.0 ml of an aqueous suspension containing 200 nematode eggs were deposited on Petri plates of 5cm diameter and, fifteen days later, the number of hatched juveniles and the remaining eggs were counted to calculate the percentages of hatching. In in vivo tests, the extracts were separately applied by leaf spraying, root treatment and pouring onto the soil, weekly for 60 days. As control, only water was used in both experiments. The in vitro test showed that all extracts were effective in reducing the hatching of juveniles of M. incognita when compared to the control; the reduction percentages were 89.96%, 91.13%, 92.48%, 92.72%, 93.2% and 97.48% for tridax daisy, marigold, Mexican sunflower, Wedelia, "botão de ouro" and Peruvian zinnia, respectively, while in the in vivo assay, treatments did not have any effect on the root system weight of tomato plants; however, results differed between the used species and the way of application of the extract in the evaluation of the fresh weight of shoots. As to the reproduction rate, none of the extracts showed a statistical difference, compared to control; however, comparing the different ways of application, there was statistical difference when the extracts of tridax daisy and Mexican sunflower were applied through leaf spraying and root treatment, but there was no difference when these extracts

  12. Pyramiding taro cystatin and fungal chitinase genes driven by a synthetic promoter enhances resistance in tomato to root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Yuan-Li; He, Yong; Hsiao, Tsen-Tsz; Wang, Chii-Jeng; Tian, Zhihong; Yeh, Kai-Wun

    2015-02-01

    Meloidogyne incognita, one of the major root-knot nematode (RKN) species in agriculture, attacks many plant species, causing severe economic losses. Genetic engineering of plants with defense-responsive genes has been demonstrated to control RKN. These studies, however, focused on controlling RKN at certain growth stages. In the present study, a dual gene overexpression system, utilizing a plant cysteine proteinase inhibitor (CeCPI) and a fungal chitinase (PjCHI-1), was used to transform tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) in order to provide protection from all growth stages of RKN. A synthetic promoter, pMSPOA, containing NOS-like and SP8a elements, was employed to drive the expression of introduced genes. Gall formation and the proportion of female nematodes in the population, as well as effects on the reproduction of RKN, were monitored in both transgenic and control plants. RKN eggs collected from transgenic plants displayed reduced chitin content and retardation in embryogenesis. The results demonstrated that transgenic plants had inhibitory effects on RKN that were superior to plants transformed with a single gene. The pyramiding expression system produced synergistic effects by the two defense-responsive genes, leading to a detrimental effect on all growth stages of RKN. PMID:25575993

  13. Evaluation of Verticilum Chlamydosporium and Arrthrobotrys for Biological Control of Meloidogyne Incognita in Celery and Tomato

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ability of nematode trapping fungi and egg-parasitic fungi to colonize and persist in the rhizosphere of crop plants is thought to be an important factor influencing the success of bi logical control of root infecting nematodes. In this study, two strains of an egg parasite fungus Verticillium chlamydosporium (Vc-10 and Vc-2M) and an isolate of the nematode-trapping fungus Arthrobotrys oligospora and persistence in the rhizosphere and tomato plants in a green house pot experiment. The isolates tested differed in their pathogenicity to M. incognita and survival in the rhizosphere. An isolate of Verticillum chlamydosporium (Vc-10) was the most virulent pathogen of the nematode. Root galling was slowest in tomato plants treated with V-10 (2.2); pots treated with this isolate had the lowest final soil population of infective juveniles; there was a 62.2% and 98.5% infections of eggs and egg masses respectively by Vc-10 on tomato plants. The two isolates of Verticillium chlamydosporium (Vc-10 and Vc2M) persisted in the soil and could be re-isolated from the rhizosphere and roots of tomato plants at least 16 weeks after soil application. The final inoculum density was, however higher for Vc-10 (1.35x105 cfu/g soil) than Vc-2M (9.25x104 cfu/g soil). Arthrobotrys oligospora on the other hand did not give any significant control of the nematode on both crops, there was severe galling on the roots of plants treated with this agent. It could not be re-isted with this agent. It could not be re-isolated from the plant rhizosphere sixteen weeks after soil infestation. Lack of nematode control on both crops by A.oligo spora was attributed to it's poor on establishment in the plant rhizosphere; low density and roots penetration by infective juveniles before they were ensnared in the trapping devices of this fungal biocontrol agent. The fact that it could not be re-isolated from the rhizosphere may imply that the fungus did not survive in the rhizosphere in quantities enough to enhance nematode control

  14. Low-Temperature Scanning Electron Microscope Observations of the Meloidogyne incognita Egg Mass: The Gelatinous Matrix and Embryo Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orion, D; Wergin, W P; Chitwood, D J; Erbe, E F

    1994-12-01

    The root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita was cultured monoxenically on excised tomato roots. Galls and egg masses were observed daily using a light microscope. Two phases were distinguished in the gelatinous matrix of the egg mass: a translucent, amorphous material on the surface of the egg mass and a denser, layered phase in which nematode eggs were deposited. Egg masses were also cryofixed, fractured, and observed as frozen, hydrated specimens on a cold stage in a scanning electron microscope (SEM). In the SEM, the layered phase appeared as a meshwork of fibrils that became more loosely associated as the gelatinous matrix aged: Small pearl-like bodies were observed along the fibers of gelatinous matrix. The egg shell surface and several stages of embryo development, including the one-cell stage, initial cleavages, blastula, gastrula, tadpole stage, elongation, and molt of the first-stage juvenile within the egg shell, were observed and photographed with this technique. The developmental events observed were consistent with those described in other nematode species with different techniques. PMID:19279909

  15. Exploitation of microbes for enhancing bacoside content and reduction of Meloidogyne incognita infestation in Bacopa monnieri L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Rupali; Tiwari, Sudeep; Saikia, Shilpi K; Shukla, Virendra; Singh, Rashmi; Singh, S P; Kumar, P V Ajay; Pandey, Rakesh

    2015-01-01

    Despite the vast exploration of rhizospheric microbial wealth for crop yield enhancement, knowledge about the efficacy of microbial agents as biocontrol weapons against root-knot disease is scarce, especially in medicinal plants, viz., Bacopa monnieri. In the present investigation, rhizospheric microbes, viz., Bacillus megaterium, Glomus intraradices, Trichoderma harzianum ThU, and their combinations were evaluated for the management of Meloidogyne incognita (Kofoid and White) Chitwood and bacoside content enhancement in B. monnieri var CIM-Jagriti. A novel validated method Fourier transform near infrared was used for rapid estimation of total bacoside content. A significant reduction (2.75-fold) in root-knot indices was observed in the combined treatment of B. megaterium and T. harzianum ThU in comparison to untreated control plants. The same treatment also showed significant enhancement (1.40-fold) in total bacoside contents (plant active molecule) content using Fourier transform near-infrared (FT-NIR) method that analyses samples rapidly in an hour without solvent usage and provides ample scope for natural product studies. PMID:24841892

  16. Virtual screening and in vitro assay of potential drug like inhibitors from spices against Glutathione-S-Transferase of Meloidogyne incognita

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babu, Rosana O; Moorkoth, Dinsha; Azeez, Shamina; Eapen, Santhosh J

    2012-01-01

    Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) enzymes are critical antioxidant and detoxification system responsible for long-term existence of nematodes in host species. Hence, 16 phytochemicals predicted and reported to have potential nematicidal activity have been docked to GST enzyme of Meloidogyne incognita to assess their binding affinity and inhibitory activity. In vitro effects of these phytochemicals from in silico results have been done for validation of docking studies and efficacy in GST inhibition of following compounds such as alpha- pinene, alpha- terpineol, beta- caryophyllene, capsaicin, cinnamic acid, citronellol, curcumin, eugenol, geraniol, isoeugenol, linalool, myristicin, neral, NVA (N-vanillylnonanamide), piperine, vanillin have been revealed. Nematode inhibition in vitro bioassay for selected compounds could conclude that maximum mortality was observed with highest concentrations of beta- caryophyllene (78%) followed by eugenol (61.6%), cinnamic acid (55%) and N-vanillylnonanamide (49%). These findings thus suggest that the above phytochemicals could be potentially developed as nematicidal molecules against M. incognita infections. PMID:22553389

  17. Studies on the management of root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita-wilt fungus, Fusarium oxysporum disease complex of green gram, Vigna radiata cv ML-1108

    OpenAIRE

    Haseeb, Akhtar; Sharma, Anita; Shukla, Prabhat Kuma

    2005-01-01

    Studies were conducted under pot conditions to determine the comparative efficacy of carbofuran at 1 mg a.i./kg soil, bavistin at 1 mg a.i./kg soil, neem (Azadirachta indica) seed powder at 50 mg/kg soil, green mould (Trichoderma harzianum) at 50.0 ml/kg soil, rhizobacteria (Pseudomonas fluorescens) at 50.0 ml/kg soil against root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita–wilt fungus, Fusarium oxysporum disease complex on green gram, Vigna radiata cv ML-1108. All the treatments significantly imp...

  18. Pathogenicity of Meloidogyne incognita Race 1 on Turmeric (Curcuma longa L.) as Influenced by Inoculum Density and Poultry Manure Amendment

    OpenAIRE

    Ugwuoke, Kevin I.; Udo, Idorenyin A.

    2010-01-01

    A glasshouse experiment was conducted to assess the pathogenicity of Meloidogyne incognita race 1 on turmeric (Curcuma longa L.) at three inoculum densities (0, 2500, 5000 eggs plant-1) and soil amendment with different levels of Poultry Manure (PM) (0, 10, 20, 30 and 40 t ha-1). The results obtained showed that root-galling and egg production decreased in a linear response to increasing PM level at both low and high inoculum densities (r = -0.88 and r = -0.85, respectively; p=0.01). The lowe...

  19. Efecto in vitro de concentraciones del NEMACID® sobre huevos y juveniles de Meloidogyne incognita (Kofoid y White) Chitwood / In vitro effect of different concentrations of NEMACID® on eggs and juveniles of Meloidogyne incognita (Kofoid and White) Chitwood

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Yusmila, Guevara; Eulalia, Gómez; Oriela, Pino; Y, Rodríguez; Ileana, Miranda; R, Enrique; Mayra G, Rodríguez.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Para el manejo de nematodos, se desarrolló en Cuba el producto NEMACID®, que posee como ingrediente activo metabolitos obtenidos a partir de los efluentes de la fermentación líquida de Lecanicillium lecanii (Zare & Gams) formulado con sulfato de amonio. El objetivo de este ensayo fue determinar el e [...] fecto del NEMACID® sobre los huevos y juveniles (J2) de Meloidogyne incognita (Kofoid y White) Chitwood. En el ensayo se utilizaron como controles agua destilada, sulfato de amonio ((NH4)2SO4; 1,69 mg.ml-1) y Dazomet (1g.1000ml-1); y se evaluaron cinco concentraciones de NEMACID® (18,75; 3,75; 1,875; 0, 1875 y 0,01875mg.ml-1). Los valores de LC50 y LC90, se calcularon usando el método Probit. Las evaluaciones se llevaron a cabo a las 24 horas, contabilizándose el número de J2 inmóviles y huevos no eclosionados del total. Los resultados corroboraron la acción nematicida del producto que provocó el colapso del contenido interno de los juveniles y resultó imposible su recuperación posterior. El NEMACID® a la concentración de 18,75 mg.ml-1 produjo mayor efectividad sobre la eclosión de los huevos y mortalidad de los juveniles que el Dazomet (control). El sulfato de amonio, producto que acompaña al hongo en el proceso de fermentación y forma parte de la formulación final del NEMACID®, no produjo afectación a huevos y juveniles. Las concentraciones de NEMACID® de 3,75 mg.ml-1 e inferiores no resultaron satisfactorias en el tratamiento de los huevos, donde el porcentaje de inhibición de la eclosión de los mismos estuvo por debajo del 50. Mientras que en juveniles, la concentración de 3,75 mg.ml-1 del producto ocasionó mortalidad por encima del 70%, sin diferencia significativa con el producto Dazomet. Abstract in english NEMACID® was developed in Cuba for root knot nematode management. This product contains the effluents from liquid fermentation of Lecanicillium lecani (Zare and Gams) as active ingredient, and is formulated with ammonium sulfate. The objective of this test was to determine the effect of NEMACID® on [...] eggs and juveniles (J2) of Meloidogyne incognita (Kofoid and White) Chitwood. In the test, five concentrations of NEMACID® (18,75; 3,75; 1,875; 0,1875 y 0,01875mg.ml-1) were evaluated using distilled water, ammonium sulfate ((NH4)2SO4; 1,69mg.ml-1) and Dazomet (1g.1000ml-1) as controls. The CL50 and CL90 were calculated using Probit analysis. The evaluations were done at 24h, when the total number of non mobile juveniles and non hatched eggs from the total were counted. The result corroborated the nematicide action of the product by producing the collapse of the internal content in juveniles with an impossible recovery. NEMACID® at a concentration of 18,75 mg. ml-1 showed a higher effect on egg hatching and juvenile mortality than Dazomet (control). The ammonium sulfate, a product accompanying the fungus in the fermentation process as part of the final formulation of NEMACID®, did not affect eggs or juveniles. Concentrations of NEMACID® equal to 3,75mg.ml-1 or lower did not affect the eggs, with a percentage of hatching inhibition below 50%. Meanwhile, in juveniles, the concentration of 3.75mg.ml-1 caused a mortality over 70%, without significant differences with Dazomet.

  20. Pathogenicity of Meloidogyne incognita Race 1 on Turmeric (Curcuma longa L. as Influenced by Inoculum Density and Poultry Manure Amendment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin I. Ugwuoke

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A glasshouse experiment was conducted to assess the pathogenicity of Meloidogyne incognita race 1 on turmeric (Curcuma longa L. at three inoculum densities (0, 2500, 5000 eggs plant-1 and soil amendment with different levels of Poultry Manure (PM (0, 10, 20, 30 and 40 t ha-1. The results obtained showed that root-galling and egg production decreased in a linear response to increasing PM level at both low and high inoculum densities (r = -0.88 and r = -0.85, respectively; p=0.01. The lowest gall index and egg mass index of 2.0 were recorded in plants amended with 40 and 30 t ha-1 PM, respectively. The high nematode density was more pathogenic (p=0.05 than the low density. Shoot length, fresh shoot and root weights responded in a curvilinear pattern with increasing levels of PM. In general, these growth variables increased with increase in PM level up to 20 t ha-1 and then declined with further increase. At high inoculum density, shoot growth was enhanced by 242 and 58% with 20 and 40 t ha-1 PM relative to unamended soil, respectively. Conversely, fresh root weight was increased by 120% and reduced by 12.8% with 20 and 40 t ha-1 PM, respectively. From this study, it could be inferred that higher levels of PM were highly nematicidal but phytotoxic to turmeric plants; the optimal rate of PM amendment is predicted to be 18-22 t ha-1. However, for this method to be incorporated into Integrated Nematode Management Programme of turmeric, field trials are needed for the optimization of the quantity, time and method of application.

  1. Analysis of Gene expression in soybean (Glycine max roots in response to the root knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita using microarrays and KEGG pathways

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    Gamal El-Din Abd El Kader Y

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Root-knot nematodes are sedentary endoparasites that can infect more than 3000 plant species. Root-knot nematodes cause an estimated $100 billion annual loss worldwide. For successful establishment of the root-knot nematode in its host plant, it causes dramatic morphological and physiological changes in plant cells. The expression of some plant genes is altered by the nematode as it establishes its feeding site. Results We examined the expression of soybean (Glycine max genes in galls formed in roots by the root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita, 12 days and 10 weeks after infection to understand the effects of infection of roots by M. incognita. Gene expression was monitored using the Affymetrix Soybean GeneChip containing 37,500 G. max probe sets. Gene expression patterns were integrated with biochemical pathways from the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes using PAICE software. Genes encoding enzymes involved in carbohydrate and cell wall metabolism, cell cycle control and plant defense were altered. Conclusions A number of different soybean genes were identified that were differentially expressed which provided insights into the interaction between M. incognita and soybean and into the formation and maintenance of giant cells. Some of these genes may be candidates for broadening plants resistance to root-knot nematode through over-expression or silencing and require further examination.

  2. Field Evaluation of Yield and Resistances of Local and Improved Sweet Potato (Ipomoeabatatas (L Lam Accessions to Cylas puncticollis and Meloidogyne incognita inSoutheastern Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel E. Bassey

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the study was to evaluate local and improved accessions of sweet potato for resistances to Cylas puncticollis and Meloidogyne incognita and identify suitable ones for incorporation in breeding programmes for the production of genetically resistant and high yielding varieties. The experiment was conducted at the University of Uyo, Teaching and Research Farm located at Use Offot-Uyo, Southeastern Nigeria and laid out in a randomized complete block design, with three replications. Eighteen sweet potato accessions were studied, comprising 13 local accessions, namely: E5, B6, E3, B26, B2, E11, E6, E17, B21, E14, E7, B23, E10 and five IITA improved and recommended varieties (TIS 87/0087, TIS 8441, TIS 8164, TIS 2532 and TIS 86/0356 for southeastern Nigeria. Three of the IITA improved and recommended varieties (TIS 86/0356, TIS 8164 and TIS 87/0087 had higher number of root tubers per plot and higher root tuber yield per hectare than the local accessions, while eight of the local accessions indicated high resistances to Cylas puncticollis, namely: B6, B2, E17, B21, E14, E7, B23 and E10 and Meloidogyne incognita, namely: B6, E3, B26, B21, E14, E7, B23 and E10. The local accessions with high root tuber yields and very high resistances to C. puncticollis and M. incognita (B6, B21 and E10 could be incorporated in breeding programmes involving TIS 87/0087, TIS 8164, TIS 2532 and TIS 86/0356 for the production of hybrid varieties with higher yields and resistances to the pests in southeastern Nigeria.

  3. Separate and Combined Effects of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. tracheiphilum and Meloidogyne incognita on Growth and Yield of Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp Var. Moussa-Local

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.O. Ogaraku

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A study was undertaken to determine the separate and combined affects of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. tracheiphilum and Meloidogyne incognita on growth and yield of cowpea variety Moussa-local. It was observed that growth and yield components of the cowpea were generally reduced in all treatments as compared to that of control. Single infection with only nematode caused more growth and yield reductions than infection with only fungus. Reduction in the growth and yield components were generally higher in simultaneous infection than infection with either of the pathogens. Growth and yield reduction in combined infection did not vary significantly from those caused by successive infection where either of the pathogens was made to precede the other. Infection with both pathogens caused significant increases in the root galls, number of eggs and juveniles when compared with infection with nematode only.

  4. Studies on the management of root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita-wilt fungus, Fusarium oxysporum disease complex of green gram, Vigna radiata cv ML-1108.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haseeb, Akhtar; Sharma, Anita; Shukla, Prabhat Kumar

    2005-08-01

    Studies were conducted under pot conditions to determine the comparative efficacy of carbofuran at 1 mg a.i./kg soil, bavistin at 1 mg a.i./kg soil, neem (Azadirachta indica) seed powder at 50 mg/kg soil, green mould (Trichoderma harzianum) at 50.0 ml/kg soil, rhizobacteria (Pseudomonas fluorescens) at 50.0 ml/kg soil against root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita-wilt fungus, Fusarium oxysporum disease complex on green gram, Vigna radiata cv ML-1108. All the treatments significantly improved the growth of the plants as compared to untreated inoculated plants. Analysis of data showed that carbofuran and A. indica seed powder increased plant growth and yield significantly more in comparison to bavistin and P. fluorescens. Carbofuran was highly effective against nematode, bavistin against fungus, A. indica seed powder against both the pathogens and both the bioagents were moderately effective against both the pathogens. PMID:16052706

  5. Nematicidal activity of leaf extracts from Lantana camara L. against Meloidogyne incognita (kofoid and white) chitwood and its use to manage roots infection of Solanum melongena L.

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Faheem, Ahmad; Mohmad Azhar, Rather; Mansoor Ahmad, Siddiqui.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Various concentrations of aqueous leaf extract of Lantana camara were assessed in vitro conditions against second stage juveniles (J2) of Meloidogyne incognita. The standard concentration 'S' of leaf extract was found to be highly nematostatic, where nematodes were completely paralyzed after 12 h an [...] d after 48 h of exposure, 96% of juveniles were killed at same concentration. However, the mortality of juveniles was 75% in S/2 dilution at 48 h. The degree of effectiveness and dilutions of extract were directly proportional. The percentage of paralyzed juveniles was decreased, when J2 transferred in distilled water after 48 h incubation in standard aqueous leaf extract. Addition of freeze-dried aqueous extract to sterile sandy substrate at S/2 dilution significantly decreased the root-knot infection to susceptible eggplants whereas second stage juveniles (J2) that penetrated roots of eggplant were able to complete development in sterile sandy substrate without treatment of freeze-dried aqueous extract.

  6. Effects of Meloidogyne spp. and Rhizoctonia solani on the Growth of Grapevine Rootings

    OpenAIRE

    Walker, G. E.

    1997-01-01

    A disease complex involving Meloidogyne incognita and Rhizoctonia solani was associated with stunting of grapevines in a field nursery. Nematode reproduction was occurring on both susceptible and resistant cultivars, and pot experiments were conducted to determine the virulence of this M. incognita population, and of M. javanica and M. hapla populations, to V. vinifera cv. Colombard (susceptible) and to V. champinii cv. Ramsey (regarded locally as highly resistant). The virulence of R. solani...

  7. Efecto del filtrado crudo de Purpureocillium sp. (Cepa UdeA0106, sobre la eclosión de huevos y movilidad de juveniles de Meloidogyne incognita-javanica

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    Nadya Lorena Cardona Bustos; M.Sc., Ph.D.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Meloidogyne incognita-javanica represents an important threat to the agricultural crops, and it is necessary to seek alternatives for its control. The aim of this research it was to evaluate a crude filtrate from the strain Purpureocillium sp. UdeA0106 in order to establish the in vitro effect on the egg hatching and the immobility of juvenile stages of Meloidogyne spp. The mediums evaluated were malt extract broth (MEB, yeast extract broth (YEB, and potato dextrose broth (PDB, after which it was chosen the one that didn’t produce any damages on nematode eggs and allowed the emergence of the larval stages. The fungus was multiplied for 7 days, and then it was filtrated. To evaluate its effect on the eggs and the J2 of Meloidogyne spp., filtrate concentrations were made at 100 %, 90 %, 70 %, 50 %, 25 % and 10 %, contrasting them with a control composed of the J2 stages in sterile distilled water and PDB. The variables evaluated were the percentage of altered eggs and the immobility observed in J2 stages. The experimental unit was the Petri dish, each one containing 200 eggs /J2. Each treatment was replicated 5 times. It was used a completely randomized design, and an ANOVA was performed (P = 0,05 as well as a multiple comparison test (Tukey. Significant differences were found between all treatments (P < 0,05, although the most effective in inhibiting both egg hatching and J2 mobility (96,8 % were the full strength filtering (100 %. The dilutions at 90 % and 70 %, were able to produce effects with high percentages in the immobility.

  8. Isolamento e avaliação da atividade nematicida de constituintes químicos de Mucuna cinerea contra Meloidogyne incognita e Heterodera glycines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demuner Antonio Jacinto

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Phytochemical investigation of the aerial parts and roots of Mucuna cinerea led to the isolation of a mixture of fatty acids, triacylglicerols, beta-sitosterol, stigmasterol, stigmasterol glucoside, daucosterol, asperglaucide (4 and the isoflavonoids prunetin (1, genistein (2, medicarpin (3, daidzein (5, 7-O-alpha-glycopiranosyl daidzein (6. An in vitro bioassay was carried out with compounds 1-4, at the concentration of 50 and 5 mug mL-1 against the phytonematodes M. incognita and H. glycines. Although the four compounds showed some nematocidal property, the most active was (1, causing 70% mortality of M. incognita at the concentration of 50 mug mL-1.

  9. Comparative study of Fusarium oxysporum f sp. lycopersici and Meloidogyne incognita race-2 on plant growth parameters of tomato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Safiuddin  

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Many species of soil-inhabiting fungus Fusarium, cause severe yield loss in many crops. Experiments were conducted in net house condition with complete randomized block design to determine the individual effect of different in-oculum levels of root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita, Race-2 and Fusarium oxysporum f sp. lycopersici on plant growth parameters viz., Plant length, fresh and dry weight and number of fruits of tomato var. P21. The experimental results showed that both the pathogens cause significant reduction in plant growth parameters. However, the fungus was not much effective on plant growth parameters in comparison to root-knot nematode. Greatest reduction in plant growth parameters was recorded in plants inoculated with 8000 J2/Kg soil of Meloidogyne in-cognita race 2. The threshold level of root-knot nematode was 1000 J2/kg soil while threshold level of Fusarium was @ 1 g/Kg soil. Inoculum level of Fusarium oxysporum f sp. lycopersici and Meloidogyne in-cognita race-2 was pathogenic and caused significant reduction at and above 1 g/kg soil and 1000 J2/Kg soil respectively.

  10. influence of some types of Algerian soil on the development of rot-knot nematodes Meloidogyne incognita, M. javanica and M. arenaria (Tylenchida,Meloidogynidae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crops under greenhouses offer the possibility of vegetables production of high added value by focusing on earliness. They help to spread the availability timing of vegetables and fruits in the market throughout the year. However, these crops are subject to numerous attacks entailing heavy losses of yield quantity and quality. The plant parasitic nematodes especially rot-knot nematodes of the genus Meloidogyne are considered dangerous enemies of these cultures. The evolution study of these nematodes in different soil types allows one to compare the migration and movement of these nematodes in sandy soils considered as light soils, in clay soils heavy and intermediate silty clay soils. These soils have also rates of organic matter and a percentage of magnesium and calcium that might provide better conditions to the survival and migration of second stage larvae inoculated at a rate of 650 juveniles per pot of 24 cm in diameter where plants of melon Cucumis melo var. (Charentais) known to be susceptible to Meloidogyne was cultivated. The results for the population development of Meloidogyne, after a growing period of 3 months show an increase in the number of eggs, juvenile stages, inflated, swollen females and males in the 3 types of soil and that independently of clay fraction although clay soil may asphyxiate Meloidogyne. The development of the three species of Meloidogyne studied in these soils, the parameters taken into consideration (index of galls, which were 1.58,deration (index of galls, which were 1.58, 1.75 and 1.5 for the sandy clay and the middle ground soils, vigour index and the evolution of populations of Meloidogyne and roots and soil as well as parameters related to production reveal the adaptation of these root-knot nematodes to the clay and sandy loam soils. At the end of culture, the final populations are important in the soils studied; 2680 for soil S. (sandy), 2272 for soil A (clay) and 2327 for soil I (intermediate) with a multiplication rate almost similar ( 4.12, 3.49 and 3.58 respectively). All these parameters can give one clues about the real possibility of developing root-knot nematodes on all types of soil. These findings may be real on the coastal areas of the southern regions characterized with sandy soils that are most infested, but the infestation potential of interior plains characterized by clay and clay loam are certain if necessary measures are not seriously taken to control them. (author)

  11. Interaction between Two Meloidogyne incognita (Tylenchida: Heteroderidae) Biotypes and the Enthomopathogenic Nematodes Steinernema feltiae and S. carpocapsae (Rhabditida: Steinernematidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Campos-herrera, R.; Piedra Buena, A.; Labrador, S.; Gutie?rrez, Carmen

    2008-01-01

    Entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs) from Heterorhabditidae and Steinernematidae families, in association with enteric bacteria, are considered one of the best non-chemical alternatives for insect pest control (Boemare, 2002; Kaya et al., 2006). Moreover, several studies have suggested that EPNs could be applied against plant-parasitic nematodes (PPNs) such as Meloidogyne spp. As the effect might be affected by the interaction between EPNs species and PPNs species/biotypes, as well as t...

  12. Reaction of coffee genotypes to different populations of Meloidogyne spp.: detection of a naturally virulent M. exigua population / Reação de genótipos de cafeeiro a diferentes populações de Meloidogyne spp.: detecção de uma população de M. exigua naturalmente virulenta

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Maria de Fátima S., Muniz; Vicente P., Campos; Antônio W., Moita; Wallace, Gonçalves; Maria Ritta A., Almeida; Fábio Rodrigues de, Sousa; Regina Maria D. G., Carneiro.

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available A reação de sete genótipos de Coffea arabica a 10 populações de Meloidogyne spp. coletadas principalmente em plantios de café no Brasil e Costa Rica foi avaliada em casa de vegetação. O inóculo consistiu de 10.000 ovos por planta. As avaliações foram realizadas 8 meses após as inoculações consideran [...] do-se a massa da matéria fresca das raízes, índices de galhas e massas de ovos, número de ovos por grama de raiz e fator de reprodução (FR). As cultivares Obatã IAC 1669-20, Sarchimor IAC 4361 e Tupi Amarelo IAC 5111 exibiram suscetibilidade às quatro populações brasileiras de M. exigua. Entretanto, cv. Tupi Vermelho IAC 1669-33 mostrou-se resistente (FR=0,7) a uma população de M. exigua proveniente de Lavras, MG, Brasil. A população de M. exigua oriunda de Bom Jesus de Itabapoana, RJ, Brasil foi altamente virulenta à cv. IAPAR 59 (FR= 165,7), portadora do gene de resistência Mex-1 e ao genótipo Paraíso (H 419-5-4-5-2) (FR=396,2). A população de Meloidogyne sp. do cafeeiro, Garça, SP, Brasil, reproduziu-se em baixos níveis (FR = 0,1 - 3,9) sobre todos os genótipos. Todas as cultivares testadas foram suscetíveis a M. incognita e M. paranaensis. A reprodução de M. mayaguensis obtida de goiabeira, PR, Brasil, foi baixa (FR = 0,0-1,6), em todos os genótipos. Entretanto, outra população obtida do cafeeiro na Costa Rica apresentou valores de FR que variaram de 0,8 a 12,4. Os resultados deste trabalho mostraram, pela primeira vez, a capacidade de uma população de M. exigua obtida em campo de superar a resistência conferida pelo gene Mex-1. Abstract in english The reaction of seven genotypes of Coffea arabica to 10 Meloidogyne spp. populations collected mainly from coffee plantations in Brazil and Costa Rica was evaluated under greenhouse conditions. The inoculum consisted of 10,000 eggs per plant. Evaluations were done 8 months after inoculations conside [...] ring the root fresh weight, gall and egg mass indices, number of eggs per gram of root and reproduction factor (RF). The cultivars Obatã IAC 1669-20, Sarchimor IAC 4361 and Tupi Amarelo IAC 5111 exhibited susceptibility to the four Brazilian M. exigua populations tested. However, cv. Tupi Vermelho IAC 1669-33 revealed resistance (RF value of 0.7) to the M. exigua population from Lavras, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. A population of M. exigua from Bom Jesus de Itabapoana, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil, was highly virulent on cv. IAPAR 59 (RF= 165.7), bearing resistance gene Mex-1, and was also virulent on genotype Paraíso (H 419-5-4-5-2) (RF=396.2). A Meloidogyne sp. population on coffee from Garça, São Paulo State, Brazil, reproduced at low rates (RF ranging from 0.1 to 3.9) on all genotypes. All tested cultivars were susceptible to M. incognita and M. paranaensis. M. mayaguensis of guava from Paraná State, Brazil, reproduced at low rates in all coffee genotypes; however, another population of coffee, from Costa Rica, was more aggressive and showed RF value that ranged from 0.8 to 12.4. Results of this study point for the first time to the ability of a naturally occurring M. exigua population to overcome the resistance conferred by the Mex-1 gene.

  13. Reaction of coffee genotypes to different populations of Meloidogyne spp.: detection of a naturally virulent M. exigua population Reação de genótipos de cafeeiro a diferentes populações de Meloidogyne spp.: detecção de uma população de M. exigua naturalmente virulenta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria de Fátima S. Muniz

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The reaction of seven genotypes of Coffea arabica to 10 Meloidogyne spp. populations collected mainly from coffee plantations in Brazil and Costa Rica was evaluated under greenhouse conditions. The inoculum consisted of 10,000 eggs per plant. Evaluations were done 8 months after inoculations considering the root fresh weight, gall and egg mass indices, number of eggs per gram of root and reproduction factor (RF. The cultivars Obatã IAC 1669-20, Sarchimor IAC 4361 and Tupi Amarelo IAC 5111 exhibited susceptibility to the four Brazilian M. exigua populations tested. However, cv. Tupi Vermelho IAC 1669-33 revealed resistance (RF value of 0.7 to the M. exigua population from Lavras, Minas Gerais State, Brazil. A population of M. exigua from Bom Jesus de Itabapoana, Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil, was highly virulent on cv. IAPAR 59 (RF= 165.7, bearing resistance gene Mex-1, and was also virulent on genotype Paraíso (H 419-5-4-5-2 (RF=396.2. A Meloidogyne sp. population on coffee from Garça, São Paulo State, Brazil, reproduced at low rates (RF ranging from 0.1 to 3.9 on all genotypes. All tested cultivars were susceptible to M. incognita and M. paranaensis. M. mayaguensis of guava from Paraná State, Brazil, reproduced at low rates in all coffee genotypes; however, another population of coffee, from Costa Rica, was more aggressive and showed RF value that ranged from 0.8 to 12.4. Results of this study point for the first time to the ability of a naturally occurring M. exigua population to overcome the resistance conferred by the Mex-1 gene.A reação de sete genótipos de Coffea arabica a 10 populações de Meloidogyne spp. coletadas principalmente em plantios de café no Brasil e Costa Rica foi avaliada em casa de vegetação. O inóculo consistiu de 10.000 ovos por planta. As avaliações foram realizadas 8 meses após as inoculações considerando-se a massa da matéria fresca das raízes, índices de galhas e massas de ovos, número de ovos por grama de raiz e fator de reprodução (FR. As cultivares Obatã IAC 1669-20, Sarchimor IAC 4361 e Tupi Amarelo IAC 5111 exibiram suscetibilidade às quatro populações brasileiras de M. exigua. Entretanto, cv. Tupi Vermelho IAC 1669-33 mostrou-se resistente (FR=0,7 a uma população de M. exigua proveniente de Lavras, MG, Brasil. A população de M. exigua oriunda de Bom Jesus de Itabapoana, RJ, Brasil foi altamente virulenta à cv. IAPAR 59 (FR= 165,7, portadora do gene de resistência Mex-1 e ao genótipo Paraíso (H 419-5-4-5-2 (FR=396,2. A população de Meloidogyne sp. do cafeeiro, Garça, SP, Brasil, reproduziu-se em baixos níveis (FR = 0,1 - 3,9 sobre todos os genótipos. Todas as cultivares testadas foram suscetíveis a M. incognita e M. paranaensis. A reprodução de M. mayaguensis obtida de goiabeira, PR, Brasil, foi baixa (FR = 0,0-1,6, em todos os genótipos. Entretanto, outra população obtida do cafeeiro na Costa Rica apresentou valores de FR que variaram de 0,8 a 12,4. Os resultados deste trabalho mostraram, pela primeira vez, a capacidade de uma população de M. exigua obtida em campo de superar a resistência conferida pelo gene Mex-1.

  14. Purification and identification of metabolites produced by Bacillus cereus and B. subtilis active against Meloidogyne exigua, and their in silico interaction with a putative phosphoribosyltransferase from M. incognita

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    DENILSON F., OLIVEIRA; HELVÉCIO M. DOS, SANTOS JÚNIOR; ALEXANDRO S., NUNES; VICENTE P., CAMPOS; RENATA S.C. DE, PINHO; GIOVANNA C., GAJO.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de contribuir para o desenvolvimento de produtos para o controle de Meloidogyne exigua, as bactérias Bacillus cereus e B. subtilis foram cultivadas em meio líquido de cultura para produzirem metabólitos ativos contra este nematoide parasita de plantas. Os fracionamentos dos extratos e [...] m diclorometano dos meios de cultura produziram uracila, 9H-purina e di-idrouracila. Todos os compostos foram ativos contra M. exigua, sendo o último o mais eficiente. Ele apresentou CL50 de 204 µg/mL contra o nematoide, enquanto uma CL50 de 260 µg/mL foi observada para o nematicida comercial carbofuran. Uma busca por complexos proteína-ligante nos quais o ligante fosse estruturalmente similar à di-idrouracila resultou na seleção de fosforibosiltransferases, cujas sequências foram utilizadas em uma busca in silico no genoma de M. incognita por sequência de aminoácidos semelhante. A sequência resultante foi modelada e di-idrouracila e 9H-purina foram inseridos nos sítios ativos desta provável fosforibosiltransferase, resultando em complexos proteína-ligante que foram submetidos a simulações por dinâmica molecular. Cálculos das energias livres de ligação destes complexos revelaram que a constante de dissociação de di-idrouracila e 9H-purina da enzima é da ordem de 8,3 x 10-7 e 1,6 x 10-6 M, respectivamente. Consequentemente, estas substâncias e a provável fosforibosiltransferase podem ser de grande utilidade para o desenvolvimento de novos produtos para o controle de M. exigua. Abstract in english To contribute to the development of products to control Meloidogyne exigua, the bacteria Bacillus cereus and B. subtilis were cultivated in liquid medium to produce metabolites active against this plant-parasitic nematode. Fractionation of the crude dichloromethane extracts obtained from the culture [...] s afforded uracil, 9H-purine and dihydrouracil. All compounds were active against M. exigua, the latter being the most efficient. This substance presented a LC50 of 204 µg/mL against the nematode, while a LC50 of 260 µg/mL was observed for the commercial nematicide carbofuran. A search for protein-ligand complexes in which the ligands were structurally similar to dihydrouracil resulted in the selection of phosphoribosyltransferases, the sequences of which were used in an in silico search in the genome of M. incognita for a similar sequence of amino acids. The resulting sequence was modelled and dihydrouracil and 9H-purine were inserted in the active site of this putative phosphoribosyltransferase resulting in protein-ligand complexes that underwent molecular dynamics simulations. Calculation of the binding free-energies of these complexes revealed that the dissociation constant of dihydrouracil and 9H-purine to this protein is around 8.3 x 10-7 and 1.6 x 10-6 M, respectively. Consequently, these substances and the putative phosphoribosyltransferase are promising for the development of new products to control M. exigua.

  15. In vitro and foliar spray evaluation of Verbena officinalis (L., Erythrina mulungu (Mart. ex Benth., Quassia amara (L., Bidens pilosa (L. and Plantago lanceolata (L., extracts on Meloidogyne incognita (Kofoid & White, 1919 Chitwood, 1949 Evaluación in vitro y aplicación foliar de Verbena officinalis (L., Erythrina mulungu (Mart. ex Benth., Quassia amara (L., Bidens pilosa (L. y Plantago lanceolata (L., sobre Meloidogyne incognita (Kofoid & White, 1919 Chitwood, 1949

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena A Ferrari Mateus

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the efficiency of aqueous extracts of five species of medicinal plant, Verbena officinalis (L., Erythrina mulungu (Mart. ex Benth., Quassia amara (L., Bidens pilosa (L. and Plantago lanceolata (L. in vitro, and sprayed on tomato plants for the control of Meloidogyne incognita. In vitro experiments were conducted in growth chambers in acrylic ELISA plates. The treatments were doses of 0, 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 g • L-1 of different aqueous extracts. On the sixteenth day the number of second stage juveniles (J2 hatched per treatment was evaluated. The results showed that aqueous extracts of V. officinalis, E. mulungu, Q. amara, B. pilosa and P. lanceolata, reduced the hatching of M. incognita, with the aqueous extract of P. lanceolata showing up to 100% reduction in hatching. The in vivo assay was conducted in a greenhouse. For this, four sprays of different extracts were applied to tomato shoots. According to the results of this test, none of the extracts were efficient at controlling M. incognita through foliar spraying. The efficiency of these extracts to control plant parasitic nematodes during in vivo tests should not be disregarded, however, further studies should be conducted to test different methods of application, doses or methods of extracting the active principles.El objetivo del estudio fue evaluar la eficacia de los extractos acuosos de cinco especies de plantas medicinales, Verbena officinalis (L., Erythrina mulungu (Mart. ex Benth., Quassia amara (L., Bidens pilosa (L. y Plantago lanceolata (L. in vitro, y se pulverizaron en las plantas de tomates para el control de Meloidogyne incognita. Los experimentos in vitro fueron realizados en cámaras de crecimiento en placas de ELISA de tipo acrílico. Los tratamientos fueron dosis de 0,10, 20, 30, 40 y 50 g • L-1 de diferentes extractos acuosos. En el día dieciséis se evaluó el número de juveniles segunda etapa (J2nacidos por tratamiento. Los resultados mostraron que los extractos acuosos de V. officinalis, E. mulungu, Q. amara, B. pilosa y P. lanceolata reducen la eclosión de los juveniles de M. incognita, y el extracto acuoso de P. lanceolata mostró hasta 100% de reducción de la tasa de eclosión. El ensayo in vivo se realizó en un invernadero, y para ello, había cuatro pulverizaciones de diferentes extractos en los brotes de tomate. Según los resultados de esta prueba, ninguno de los extractos por pulverización foliar era eficaz en el control de M. incognita. Sin embargo, no se debe descartar la eficiencia de estos extractos en el control de nematodos parásitos de plantas, pero más estudios se llevan a cabo utilizando diferentes métodos de aplicación, las dosis o métodos de extracción de los principios activos de los extractos.

  16. Integrated Management of Meloidogyne incognita Infecting Eggplant by Certain Organic Amendments, Bacillus thuringiensis and Oxamyl with Reference to N P K and Total Chlorophyll Status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.G. El-Sherif

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Greenhouse experiment on the impact of horse manure or sesame-oil-cake or Bacillus thuringiensis singly and/or integrated with oxamyl on Meloidogyne incognita infecting eggplant cv. Black long at 25±5°C, revealed that all tested treatments obviously improved plant growth response and reduced nematode development. Among the tested components, B. thuringiensis applied alone or mixed with oxamyl gave the highest percentage of increase in plant growth parameters i.e., plant fresh weight and shoot dry weight with values of 105.9 and 85.8% and 127.8 and 107.5%, respectively, as well as the lowest percent reduction of nematode developmental criteria. Moreover, in concomitant application of horse manure plus oxamyl appeared to be the best treatment in suppressing nematode development and improving plant growth parameters, followed by sesame oil-cake plus oxamyl, then sesame oil-cake and horse manure alone. Meanwhile, length of shoot and number of leaves were positively affected by the tested materials either when applied singly or integrated with oxamyl as compared to nematode alone. Regarding N, P and K status in shoots of eggplant, their concentrations were remarkably reduced by nematode infection. Moreover, single application of any organic amendment or bacterium or oxamyl achieved the highest concentration of N, P and K, whereas the concomitant application of horse manure plus oxamyl showed the highest concentration of phosphorus with value of 0.56 ppm. In addition, the previous treatments obviously decreased the total chlorophyll content of eggplant shoot, whereas nematode infection alone recorded the highest increase percentage for this plant parameter with value of 51.3%.

  17. Microbiological evaluation and pathogenicity of a liquid bioformulation of the fungus Purpureocillium sp. (strain UdeA 0109) on Meloidogyne incognita-javanica stages / Microbiological evaluation and pathogenicity of a liquid bioformulation of the fungus Purpureocillium sp. (strain UdeA 0109) on Meloidogyne incognita-javanica stages

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Nadya, Lorena Cardona; David, Andrés Borrego; Erika, Pamela Fernández; Jessika, Sánchez; Valentina, Cardona; Gabriel, Montoya.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available El Grupo de Biocontrol y Microbiología Ambiental (BIOMA) cuenta con una formulación industrial líquida del hongo Purpureocillium sp. (cepa UdeA 0109), desarrollada de conjunto con la casa comercial Laverlam S.A. (Cali, Colombia). En la presente investigación se evaluaron la viabilidad y la pureza de [...] l producto a diferentes temperaturas de almacenamiento, así como el potencial biocontrolador in vitro y en condiciones de invernadero. Los resultados de viabilidad mostraron cómo las estructuras infectivas no se afectaron por los tiempos de evaluación ni por las temperaturas de almacenamiento. Los estudios también mostraron cómo la pureza del bioformulado bajo las mismas condiciones, se mantuvo por encima del 99 %, y además se corroboró su patogenicidad in vitro con una CL50 de 104 conidias/mL. Las evaluaciones en invernadero demostraron la propiedad de afectación de los huevos del complejo Meloidogyne incognita-javanica así como la disminución de los estadios jóvenes con una concentración de 108 conidias/mL en tres pruebas, con distintas aplicaciones y tiempos de aplicación. Abstract in english The BIOMA research group (Biocontrol and environmental microbiology) has an industrial liquid formulation based on Purpureocillium sp. (UdeA 0109 strain), developed with the collaboration of Laverlam S.A, a Colombian (Cali) commercial house. In the present study the researchers tested the viability [...] and the purity at different storage temperatures as well as its biological potential both in vitro and under greenhouse conditions. The results of viability showed how the infective structures were affected neither by the evaluation time nor by the storage temperatures. Studies also showed that the purity of the bioformulation in the same conditions was over 99 %, and its pathogenicity in vitro with an LC50 of 104 conidia/mL was corroborated. The greenhouse tests showed the ability to produce damages in eggs of the Meloidogyne incognita-javanica complex, and a decreasing of the J2 stages at a concentration of 108 conidia/mL in three tests performed with a different number of applications and at different times each.

  18. Interaction of Concurrent Populations of Meloidogyne partityla and Mesocriconema xenoplax on Pecan

    OpenAIRE

    Nyczepir, A. P.; Wood, B. W.

    2008-01-01

    The effect of the interaction between Meloidogyne partityla and Mesocriconema xenoplax on nematode reproduction and vegetative growth of Carya illinoinensis ‘Desirable’ pecan was studied in field microplots. Meloidogyne partityla suppressed reproduction of M. xenoplax, whereas the presence of M. xenoplax did not affect the population density of M. partityla second-stage juveniles in soil. Above-ground tree growth, as measured by trunk diameter 32 months following inoculation, was reduced ...

  19. Efecto del filtrado crudo de Purpureocillium sp. (Cepa UdeA0106), sobre la eclosión de huevos y movilidad de juveniles de Meloidogyne incognita-javanica / Effect of the raw filtrate of Purpureocillium sp. (UdeA0106 strain) on the eclosion of eggs and the motility of Meloidogyne incognitajavanica juveniles

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Nadya Lorena, Cardona Bustos; Harold, Pavas; Erika Pamela, Fernández.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Meloidogyne incognita-javanica representa una limitación de los cultivos agrícolas y es necesario buscar alternativas para su manejo. El presente trabajo tuvo como objetivo evaluar el efecto in vitro del filtrado crudo de Purpureocillium sp. (Cepa UdeA0106) sobre laeclosión de huevos y los estadios [...] juveniles de Meloidogyne spp. Adicionalmente, se evaluaron los medios: caldo extracto de malta (CEM), caldo extracto de levadura (CEL) y caldo papa glucosa (CPG), escogiéndose aquel que no ejerciera daño sobre la morfología de los huevos y permitiera la eclosión de los estadios juveniles. El hongo se multiplicó durante 7 días y fue filtrado. Para establecer su efecto sobre los huevos y estadios J2 de Meloidogyne spp., se probaron concentraciones del filtrado al 100 %, 90 %, 70 %, 50 %, 25 % y 10 %; comparándolas con un control compuesto de estadios J2 en agua destilada estéril (ADE) y CPG. Las variables a evaluar fueron el porcentaje de eclosión e inmovilidad en los J2. La unidad experimental fue la caja de Petri, cada una con 200 huevos/J2, con 5 réplicas de cada tratamiento. Se utilizó un diseño experimental completamente aleatorizado con ANOVA (P = 0,05) y análisis de comparación múltiple de Tukey. Se encontraron diferencias significativas entre todos los tratamientos (P Abstract in english Meloidogyne incognita-javanica represents an important threat to the agricultural crops, and it is necessary to seek alternatives for its control. The aim of this research it was to evaluate a crude filtrate from the strain Purpureocillium sp. UdeA0106 in order to establish the in vitro effect on th [...] e egg hatching and the immobility of juvenile stages of Meloidogyne spp. The mediums evaluated were malt extract broth (MEB), yeast extract broth (YEB), and potato dextrose broth (PDB), after which it was chosen the one that didn't produce any damages on nematode eggs and allowed the emergence of the larval stages. The fungus was multiplied for 7 days, and then it was filtrated. To evaluate its effect on the eggs and the J2 of Meloidogyne spp., filtrate concentrations were made at 100 %, 90 %, 70 %, 50 %, 25 % and 10 %, contrasting them with a control composed of the J2 stages in sterile distilled water and PDB. The variables evaluated were the percentage of altered eggs and the immobility observed in J2 stages. The experimental unit was the Petri dish, each one containing 200 eggs /J2. Each treatment was replicated 5 times. It was used a completely randomized design, and an ANOVA was performed (P = 0,05) as well as a multiple comparison test (Tukey). Significant differences were found between all treatments (P

  20. Integrated Management of Meloidogyne incognita Infecting Soybean by Certain Organic Amendments, Bacillus thuringiensis, Trichoderma harzianum and Oxamyl with Reference to NPK and Total Chlorophyll Statuus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.G. El-Sherif

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The integrated control of M. incognita infecting soybean cv. Giza 21 using camel manure, dried leaf powder of marigold, Trichoderma harzianum 100% filtrate, Bacillus thringiensis singly or in combination with oxamyl under greenhouse condition (22±3°C indicated that the concomitant treatments obviously gave better results than single ones did. Moreover, B. thringiensis plus oxamyl at half dose each surpassed all other tested materials in percentage increase of total plant fresh and shoot dry weights (99 and 88 %, respectively, followed by T. harzianum filtrate plus oxamyl (95 and 61% in this respect. On the other hand, pots received T. harzianum filtrate plus oxamyl ranked first in suppressing final nematode population (90%, root galling (65% and eggmass numbers (62.79%, followed by B.t. plus oxamyl, marigold powder +oxamyl and then camel manure + oxamyl, where their reduction percentage values amounted to 88.7, 62.5 and 61%; 88.5, 59.87 and 58.9% and 67, 50.5 and 52.97%, respectively. Of the tested singly applications, T. harzianum filtrate showed the best results in improving plant growth and suppressing nematode development criteria, followed by B.t., whereas, marigold powder and camel manure achieved the lowest values in this respect comparing to nematode alone. Regarding the N, P and K concentrations in leaves of soybean plants inoculated with M. incognita treated with certain organic matters or fungal filtrate or bacterium alone or mixed with oxamyl, they were obviously enhanced by all tested materials whereas the opposite results was recorded for total chlorophyll content comparing to nematode alone.

  1. Preservation of Meloidogyne hapla and M. chitwoodi in liquid nitrogen : differences in response between populations

    OpenAIRE

    Beek, H. J. G.; Veldhuis, W. B. J.; Zijlstra, C.; Silfhout, C. H.

    1996-01-01

    Une procédure est décrite pour la conservation de lignées de #Meloidogyne hapla$ et #M. chitwoodi$ dans l'azote liquide avec un prétraitement avec de l'éthanediol à 10% pendant 2 h à la température du laboratoire et avec de l'éthanediol à 40% pendant 45 min sur la glace. Les taux de survie varient de 45 à 98% avec une moyenne de 75%. La comparaison de trois populations de #M. hapla$, de deux populations de #M. chitwoodi$ et de deux populations de #Meloidogyne$ n. sp. révèle un ta...

  2. In vitro and foliar spray evaluation of Verbena officinalis (L.), Erythrina mulungu (Mart. ex Benth.), Quassia amara (L.), Bidens pilosa (L.) and Plantago lanceolata (L.), extracts on Meloidogyne incognita (Kofoid & White, 1919) Chitwood, 1949 / Evaluación in vitro y aplicación foliar de Verbena officinalis (L.), Erythrina mulungu (Mart. ex Benth.), Quassia amara (L.), Bidens pilosa (L.) y Plantago lanceolata (L.), sobre Meloidogyne incognita (Kofoid & White, 1919) Chitwood, 1949

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Milena A, Ferrari Mateus; Cacilda M, Duarte Rios Faria¹; Renato V, Botelho; Rosangela, Dallemole-Giaretta; Silvana G, Martins Ferreira; Welton L, Zaluski.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del estudio fue evaluar la eficacia de los extractos acuosos de cinco especies de plantas medicinales, Verbena officinalis (L.), Erythrina mulungu (Mart. ex Benth.), Quassia amara (L.), Bidens pilosa (L.) y Plantago lanceolata (L.) in vitro, y se pulverizaron en las plantas de tomates pa [...] ra el control de Meloidogyne incognita. Los experimentos in vitro fueron realizados en cámaras de crecimiento en placas de ELISA de tipo acrílico. Los tratamientos fueron dosis de 0,10, 20, 30, 40 y 50 g • L-1 de diferentes extractos acuosos. En el día dieciséis se evaluó el número de juveniles segunda etapa (J2)nacidos por tratamiento. Los resultados mostraron que los extractos acuosos de V. officinalis, E. mulungu, Q. amara, B. pilosa y P. lanceolata reducen la eclosión de los juveniles de M. incognita, y el extracto acuoso de P. lanceolata mostró hasta 100% de reducción de la tasa de eclosión. El ensayo in vivo se realizó en un invernadero, y para ello, había cuatro pulverizaciones de diferentes extractos en los brotes de tomate. Según los resultados de esta prueba, ninguno de los extractos por pulverización foliar era eficaz en el control de M. incognita. Sin embargo, no se debe descartar la eficiencia de estos extractos en el control de nematodos parásitos de plantas, pero más estudios se llevan a cabo utilizando diferentes métodos de aplicación, las dosis o métodos de extracción de los principios activos de los extractos. Abstract in english This study aimed to evaluate the efficiency of aqueous extracts of five species of medicinal plant, Verbena officinalis (L.), Erythrina mulungu (Mart. ex Benth.), Quassia amara (L.), Bidens pilosa (L.) and Plantago lanceolata (L.) in vitro, and sprayed on tomato plants for the control of Meloidogyne [...] incognita. In vitro experiments were conducted in growth chambers in acrylic ELISA plates. The treatments were doses of 0, 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 g • L-1 of different aqueous extracts. On the sixteenth day the number of second stage juveniles (J2) hatched per treatment was evaluated. The results showed that aqueous extracts of V. officinalis, E. mulungu, Q. amara, B. pilosa and P. lanceolata, reduced the hatching of M. incognita, with the aqueous extract of P. lanceolata showing up to 100% reduction in hatching. The in vivo assay was conducted in a greenhouse. For this, four sprays of different extracts were applied to tomato shoots. According to the results of this test, none of the extracts were efficient at controlling M. incognita through foliar spraying. The efficiency of these extracts to control plant parasitic nematodes during in vivo tests should not be disregarded, however, further studies should be conducted to test different methods of application, doses or methods of extracting the active principles.

  3. Efecto de la biodesinfección con residuos de nim (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) sobre población de Meloidogyne spp. en suelo / Effect of neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) Waste on Meloidogyne spp. population in soil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Mayra G, Rodríguez; Lucila, Gómez; Dainé, Hernández-Ochandía; R, Enrique; Ileana, Miranda; Oriela, Pino; I, Castro-Lizazo; L. Carolina, Rosales; Luisa, Díaz-Viruliche.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó el efecto de residuos del proceso industrial de obtención de plaguicidas del nim (Azadirachta indica A. Juss), provenientes de la Fábrica «Rosa E. Simeón», Güines (Mayabeque, Cuba) sobre una población de Meloidogyne spp. El experimento se desarrolló en condiciones semicontroladas, utilizan [...] do suelo no estéril, con nivel inicial de Meloidognye spp. de 0,5 juveniles de segundo estadio (J2)-huevos.g de suelo-1. Se establecieron ocho tratamientos, cuatro de los cuales se inocularon adicionalmente con 5 J2-huevos.g de suelo-1 de Meloidogyne incognita (Kofoid y White) Chitwood y se empleó como hospedante tomate (Solanum lycopersicom L. var. Campbell 28). Se aplicaron tres dosis de residuos 138,47 g.maceta-1, 60,28 g.maceta-1 y 40,19 g.maceta-1 (lo que equivale a aplicar 4, 3 y 2 kg.m2-1 respectivamente). A los 50 días se determinó el Índice de Agallamiento (IA) (0 a 5 grados), longitud del tallo y masa fresca de raíces. Las mayores poblaciones de nematodos se produjeron en el tratamiento testigo (sin nim) (IA =5), exhibiendo diferencias significativas con aquellos donde se aplicaron los residuos, destacándose el tratamiento con 138,47 g.maceta-1 (equivalente a 4 kg.m2-1) que mostró un IA de 2,4. Los resultados mostraron la potencialidad que posee este desecho para el manejo de nematodos y la necesidad de estudiar su efecto sobre las plantas y las propiedades físico, químicas y biota del suelo. Abstract in english The effect of the waste from the industrial production of neem-based pesticides (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) originated in «Rosa Elena Simeón» factory in Güines (Mayabeque, Cuba) on Meloidogyne spp. population was evaluated, The experiment was carried out under semi-controlled conditions, using non [...] sterilized soil with an initial level of Meloidogyne spp. of 0,5 juveniles-eggs.g of soil-1. Eight treatments were set up; four of them were additionally inoculated with 5 juveniles-eggs.g of soil-1 of Meloidogyen incognita (Kofoid and White) Chitwood. Tomato (Solanum lycopersicom L. var. Campbell 28) was used as host. Three doses of the waste (138,47g.pot-1, 60,288 g.pot-1 and 40,19 g.pot¹; -equivalent to 4, 3 and 2 kg.m2-1 respectively) were applied. After fifty days, root knot galling index (GI) (0 to 5 grades), stem length and fresh weight of roots were evaluated. The highest populations appeared in the control treatment (without neem) (GI=5), which differed significantly from the treatments with the waste, where the best behavior was observed with 138,47 g.pot-1 (equivalent to 4 kg.m2-1) with a GI of 2,4. The results showed the potential of this waste for the management of plant parasitic nematodes and the need for studies on the effect upon the plants and the physical-chemical properties and biota of soils.

  4. Differential Reaction of Alfalfa Cultivars to Meloidogyne hapla and M. chitwoodi Populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, G D; Inserra, R N; Vovlas, N; Sisson, D V

    1986-07-01

    Meloidogyne hapla reproduced and suppressed growth (P chitwoodi population from Utah reproduced on Lahontan, Moapa, and Nevada Syn XX alfalfa, suppressing growth (P chitwoodi population were greater (P chitwoodi population on alfalfa suggests the possible existence of nematode strains revealed by variability in alfalfa resistance. No reproduction or inconsistent final nematode population densities with no damage were observed on Lahontan, Moapa, and Nevada Syn XX plants grown in soil infested with Idaho and Washington State M. chitwoodi populations. PMID:19294189

  5. Desempenho de genótipos de algodoeiro na presença ou não de rotação de cultura com Crotalaria spectabilis, em área infestada com Meloidogyne incognita Performance of cotton genotypes in the presence or absence of crop rotation with Crotalaria spectabilis in an area infested with Meloidogyne incognita

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Galbieri

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Em área naturalmente infestada com Meloidogyneincognita raça 3, localizada em Primavera do Leste-MT, foi estudado o desempenho de 21 genótipos de algodoeiro com níveis diversos de tolerância ao nematoide, com a adoção ou não de rotação de cultura com Crotalaria spectabilis. De modo geral a rotação diminuiu a severidade dos sintomas exibidos pelas plantas, devidos ao ataque do parasita, e promoveu aumento na produtividade de algodão. Entretanto, seu efeito não foi suficiente para tornar eficaz o desempenho de genótipos de baixa tolerância ao nematoide, os quais, mesmo na presença da leguminosa, tiveram notas para sintomas 142% maiores e produtividades de algodão 57% menores do que as cultivares mais tolerantes. Alta correlação entre as médias de produção dos genótipos na seqüência ou não da leguminosa e ausência de interação genótipo x rotação, indicaram que, embora em patamar mais elevado de produção, a tendência de desempenho dos genótipos foi a mesma na presença e na ausência da crotalária. De tal modo que, na média, a produção dos três genótipos mais tolerantes, na ausência de rotação, foi, ainda assim, 48% superior à dos genótipos mais intolerantes, na presença da crotalária. As perdas mínimas possíveis na produção, atribuíveis ao uso de genótipos intolerantes, foram estimadas em 37% na ausência da rotação e em 29% com rotação.In an area naturally infested with Meloidogyne incognita race 3, located in Primavera do Leste, Mato Grosso State, Brazil, the performance of 21 cotton genotypes having different levels of tolerance to this parasitic nematode was studied, in the presence or absence of crop rotation with Crotalaria spectabilis. A general trend was observed for crop rotation to reduce the severity of symptoms exibited by plant sowing to nematode incidence, and lead to increased cotton yield. However, its effect was not sufficient to increase the performance of genotypes with low tolerance to the parasite, which, even under the crop rotation schem, had disease sympton rates that were 142% higher and cotton yields that were 57% lower than those obtained for more tolerant genotypes. High correlation between average yield in the presence or absence of crop rotation, and absence of interaction between genotype and crop rotation, indicated that, although at higher yield level being achieved, the tendency of genotype performance remained the same in both systems. The yield of the three more tolerant genotypes in the absence of crop rotation was 48% superior to that of the three least tolerant genotypes under crop rotation. The minimum possible losses, attributable to the use of susceptible genotypes, were estimated at 37% and 29%, respectively, without crop rotation being used or under conditions of crop rotation.

  6. Desempenho de genótipos de algodoeiro na presença ou não de rotação de cultura com Crotalaria spectabilis, em área infestada com Meloidogyne incognita / Performance of cotton genotypes in the presence or absence of crop rotation with Crotalaria spectabilis in an area infested with Meloidogyne incognita

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Rafael, Galbieri; Milton G., Fuzatto; Edivaldo, Cia; Adinara M., Welter; Sheila, Fanan.

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Em área naturalmente infestada com Meloidogyneincognita raça 3, localizada em Primavera do Leste-MT, foi estudado o desempenho de 21 genótipos de algodoeiro com níveis diversos de tolerância ao nematoide, com a adoção ou não de rotação de cultura com Crotalaria spectabilis. De modo geral a rotação d [...] iminuiu a severidade dos sintomas exibidos pelas plantas, devidos ao ataque do parasita, e promoveu aumento na produtividade de algodão. Entretanto, seu efeito não foi suficiente para tornar eficaz o desempenho de genótipos de baixa tolerância ao nematoide, os quais, mesmo na presença da leguminosa, tiveram notas para sintomas 142% maiores e produtividades de algodão 57% menores do que as cultivares mais tolerantes. Alta correlação entre as médias de produção dos genótipos na seqüência ou não da leguminosa e ausência de interação genótipo x rotação, indicaram que, embora em patamar mais elevado de produção, a tendência de desempenho dos genótipos foi a mesma na presença e na ausência da crotalária. De tal modo que, na média, a produção dos três genótipos mais tolerantes, na ausência de rotação, foi, ainda assim, 48% superior à dos genótipos mais intolerantes, na presença da crotalária. As perdas mínimas possíveis na produção, atribuíveis ao uso de genótipos intolerantes, foram estimadas em 37% na ausência da rotação e em 29% com rotação. Abstract in english In an area naturally infested with Meloidogyne incognita race 3, located in Primavera do Leste, Mato Grosso State, Brazil, the performance of 21 cotton genotypes having different levels of tolerance to this parasitic nematode was studied, in the presence or absence of crop rotation with Crotalaria s [...] pectabilis. A general trend was observed for crop rotation to reduce the severity of symptoms exibited by plant sowing to nematode incidence, and lead to increased cotton yield. However, its effect was not sufficient to increase the performance of genotypes with low tolerance to the parasite, which, even under the crop rotation schem, had disease sympton rates that were 142% higher and cotton yields that were 57% lower than those obtained for more tolerant genotypes. High correlation between average yield in the presence or absence of crop rotation, and absence of interaction between genotype and crop rotation, indicated that, although at higher yield level being achieved, the tendency of genotype performance remained the same in both systems. The yield of the three more tolerant genotypes in the absence of crop rotation was 48% superior to that of the three least tolerant genotypes under crop rotation. The minimum possible losses, attributable to the use of susceptible genotypes, were estimated at 37% and 29%, respectively, without crop rotation being used or under conditions of crop rotation.

  7. Development of Four Populations of Meloidogyne hapla on Two Cultivars, of Cucumber at Different Temperatures

    OpenAIRE

    Stephan, Z. A.; Trudgill, D. L.

    1982-01-01

    The infectivity and development of four populations of Meloidogyne hapla were compared, at three temperatures, on tomato and two varieties of cucumber. A population from Canada produced few root-galls on cucumber and, except at 24 C, no larvae developed into adult females and produced egg masses. In contrast, a population with 45 chromosomes from America produced many galls on cucumber and small proportions of larvae became females and produced egg masses at 20 and 24 C. At 18 C this populati...

  8. Effects of Cropping Sequences on Population Densities of Meloidogyne hapla and Carrot Yield in Organic Soil

    OpenAIRE

    Bélair, Guy

    1992-01-01

    The influence of various cropping sequences on population densities of Meloidogyne hapla and carrot yield was studied in organic soil under microplot-and field conditions. Spinach, radish, barley, oat, and wheat were poor or nonhosts for M. hapla. Population densities of M. hapla were maintained or increased on cabbage, celery, lettuce, leek, marigold, and potato. Marketable percent-age and root weight of carrots were greater following spinach, oat, radish, and fallow-onion than those followi...

  9. Differential Reaction of Alfalfa Cultivars to Meloidogyne hapla and M. chitwoodi Populations

    OpenAIRE

    Griffin, G. D.; Inserra, R. N.; Vovlas, N.; Sisson, D. V.

    1986-01-01

    Meloidogyne hapla reproduced and suppressed growth (P < 0.05) of susceptible Lahontan and Moapa alfalfa at 15, 20, and 25 C. At 30 C, resistant Nevada Syn XX lost resistance to M. hapla. M. hapla invaded and reproduced on Rhizobium meliloti nodules of Lahontan and Moapa, inducing giant cell formation and structural disorder of vascular bundles of nodules without disrupting bacteroids. At 15, 20, and 25 C a M. chitwoodi population from Utah reproduced on Lahontan, Moapa, and Nevada Syn XX alfa...

  10. Pathological Reaction of Crested Wheatgrass Cultivars to Four Meloidogyne chitwoodi Populations

    OpenAIRE

    Griffin, G. D.; Asay, K. H.

    1989-01-01

    Meloidogyne chitwoodi populations from Tulelake, California; Ft. Hall, Idaho; Beryl, Utah; and Prosser, Washington, significantly (P < 0.05) reduced dry shoot weights of crested wheatgrass (Agropyron cristatum L., Gaertn. and A. desertorum, Fisch. ex Link, Schult.) cultivars Hycrest, Fairway, and Nordan in experiments conducted in a greenhouse and growth chamber. Shoot growth depression, root galling, and nematode reproduction indices were greatest (P < 0.05) on plants inoculated with 5,000 e...

  11. Comparative and evolutionary analyses of Meloidogyne spp. Based on mitochondrial genome sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Laura Evangelina; Sánchez-Puerta, M Virginia

    2015-01-01

    Molecular taxonomy and evolution of nematodes have been recently the focus of several studies. Mitochondrial sequences were proposed as an alternative for precise identification of Meloidogyne species, to study intraspecific variability and to follow maternal lineages. We characterized the mitochondrial genomes (mtDNAs) of the root knot nematodes M. floridensis, M. hapla and M. incognita. These were AT rich (81-83%) and highly compact, encoding 12 proteins, 2 rRNAs, and 22 tRNAs. Comparisons with published mtDNAs of M. chitwoodi, M. incognita (another strain) and M. graminicola revealed that they share protein and rRNA gene order but differ in the order of tRNAs. The mtDNAs of M. floridensis and M. incognita were strikingly similar (97-100% identity for all coding regions). In contrast, M. floridensis, M. chitwoodi, M. hapla and M. graminicola showed 65-84% nucleotide identity for coding regions. Variable mitochondrial sequences are potentially useful for evolutionary and taxonomic studies. We developed a molecular taxonomic marker by sequencing a highly-variable ~2 kb mitochondrial region, nad5-cox1, from 36 populations of root-knot nematodes to elucidate relationships within the genus Meloidogyne. Isolates of five species formed monophyletic groups and showed little intraspecific variability. We also present a thorough analysis of the mitochondrial region cox2-rrnS. Phylogenies based on either mitochondrial region had good discrimination power but could not discriminate between M. arenaria, M. incognita and M. floridensis. PMID:25799071

  12. Population Dynamics of Meloidogyne chitwoodi on Russet Burbank Potatoes in Relation to Degree-day Accumulation

    OpenAIRE

    Pinkerton, J. N.; Santo, G. S.; Mojtahedi, H.

    1991-01-01

    Population dynamics of Meloidogyne chitwoodi were studied for 2 years in a commercial potato field and microplots. Annual second-stage juvenile (J2) densities peaked at harvest in mid-fall, declined through the winter, and were lowest in early summer. In the field and in one microplot study, population increase displayed trimodal patterns during the 1984 and 1985 seasons. Overwintering nematodes produced egg masses on roots by 600-800 degree-days base 5 C (DD?) after planting. Second-genera...

  13. Pathological Reaction of Crested Wheatgrass Cultivars to Four Meloidogyne chitwoodi Populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, G D; Asay, K H

    1989-10-01

    Meloidogyne chitwoodi populations from Tulelake, California; Ft. Hall, Idaho; Beryl, Utah; and Prosser, Washington, significantly (P < 0.05) reduced dry shoot weights of crested wheatgrass (Agropyron cristatum L., Gaertn. and A. desertorum, Fisch. ex Link, Schult.) cultivars Hycrest, Fairway, and Nordan in experiments conducted in a greenhouse and growth chamber. Shoot growth depression, root galling, and nematode reproduction indices were greatest (P < 0.05) on plants inoculated with 5,000 eggs/plant. Nematode populations from Tulelake, Ft. Hall, and Beryl significantly (P < 0.05) reduced the growth of the three grass cultivars at 15, 20, 25, and 30 C; the greatest reductions occurred at 20 and 25 C. There were significant differences in the virulence of the nematode populations at high (30 C) and low (15 C) soil temperatures. At 15 C, plant growth was reduced more by the Beryl and Tulelake than by the Ft. Hall population; whereas at 30 C, the Ft. Hall population was more virulent than the Beryl and Tulelake populations. Root galling and nematode reproduction were greater on plants inoculated with Beryl and Tulelake populations at 15 C than on plants inoculated with the Ft. Hall population, while the Ft. Hall population had the most pronounced effects at 30 C. PMID:19287637

  14. Native-plant hosts of Meloidogyne spp. from Western Paraná, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Antes, Vanessa A.; Comerlato, Anna P.; Adílson Ricken Schuelter; Carneiro, Regina M. D. G.; Cleber Furlanetto

    2012-01-01

    The present study was focused on the parasitism of Meloidogyne species on the roots of native nursery plants from the Atlantic forest. Native plants were selected from a commercial nursery in Western Paraná, searching for the natural infection of Meloidogyne. Also, the seeds of native plants were cultivated in sterile soil and inoculated with M. incognita. In both the experiments, the number of galls and number of eggs and J2 per root, allied to the reproduction factor of M. incognita on eac...

  15. Relationship Between Crop Losses and Initial Population Densities of Meloidogyne arenaria in Winter-Grown Oriental Melon in Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, D.G.; Ferris, H.

    2002-01-01

    To determine the economic threshold level, oriental melon (Cucumis melo L. cv. Geumssaragi-euncheon) grafted on Shintozoa (Cucurbita maxima × Cu. moschata) was planted in plots (2 × 3 m) under a plastic film in February with a range of initial population densities (Pi) of Meloidogyne arenaria. The relationships of early, late, and total yield to Pi measured in September and January were adequately described by both linear regression and the Seinhorst damage model. Initial nematode densities...

  16. Reprodução de Meloidogyne spp. em porta-enxertos e híbridos de pepino / Reproduction of Meloidogyne spp. in rootstocks and cucumber hybrids

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Silvia Renata S, Wilcken; Juliana MO, Rosa; Andréa RO, Higuti; Maria José de M, Garcia; Antonio Ismael Inácio, Cardoso.

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available A enxertia é uma técnica alternativa frequentemente recomendada para a cultura do pepino em áreas infestadas com nematóides das galhas. O presente trabalho teve como objetivo determinar o fator de reprodução de Meloidogyne javanica e de Meloidogyne incognita raça 2 em seis porta-enxertos para pepino [...] (abóbora 'Menina Brasileira', moranga 'Exposição', 'Shelper', 'Tetsukabuto', 'B8-A Tetsukabuto' e 'Excite Ikki') e quatro híbridos de pepino (Cucumis sativus) tipo japonês ('Yoshinari', 'Kouki', 'Taisho' e 'Tsuyataro'). Foram conduzidos dois experimentos em casa-de-vegetação, um com cada espécie do nematóide, sendo cada parcela constituída de uma planta mantida em vaso contendo 2 litros de solo autoclavado. Nove dias após transplante, cada planta foi inoculada com 5.000 ovos e juvenis de segundo estádio (população inicial - Pi) de M. javanica ou M. incognita raça 2. Tomateiros 'Rutgers' foram utilizados como padrão de viabilidade do inóculo, em ambos os experimentos. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado com cinco repetições por tratamento. Sessenta dias após a inoculação, cada planta foi avaliada, quanto ao peso fresco da raiz, número total de nematóides presentes no solo e na raiz (população final - Pf), número de nematóides/g de raiz e fator de reprodução de ambas as espécies de Meloidogyne (FR=Pf/Pi). Todos os porta-enxertos e híbridos de pepino testados apresentaram fatores de reprodução superiores a um, proporcionando a multiplicação de M. javanica e de M. incognita raça 2, porém, os valores nos híbridos de pepino foram superiores aos dos porta-enxertos. Abstract in english Grafting is an alternative technique often recommended for the cucumber crop in root-knot nematodes infested areas. This study aimed to determine the reproduction factor of Meloidogyne javanica and M. incognita race 2 on six rootstocks for cucumber (squash 'Menina Brasileira, pumpkim 'Exposição', 'S [...] helper', 'Tetsukabuto', 'B8-A Tetsukabuto' and 'Excite Ikki') and four cucumber (Cucumis sativus) Japanese type hybrids of ('Yoshinari', 'Kouki', 'Taisho' and 'Tsuyataro'). Two experiments were carried out in greenhouse, each one with a nematode specie. Each plot consisted of one plant per pot containing 2 liters of autoclaved soil. Nine days after the seedlings transplantation, each plant was inoculated with 5,000 eggs and second-stage juveniles (initial population - Pi) of M. javanica or M. incognita race 2. 'Rutgers' tomatoes were used as a standard for inoculum viability in both experiments. The experimental design was completely randomized with five replicates per treatment. Sixty days after inoculated, each plant was evaluated, when root fresh weight, total number of nematodes in the soil and in the roots (final population - Pf), nematodes number per gram of root and the reproduction factor of both Meloidogyne species (FR=Pf/Pi) were determined. All rootstocks and cucumber hybrids allowed the M. javanica and M. incognita race 2 multiplication, but, generally, reproduction factor values were greater in cucumbers than in rootstocks.

  17. Reprodução de Meloidogyne spp. em porta-enxertos e híbridos de pepino Reproduction of Meloidogyne spp. in rootstocks and cucumber hybrids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Renata S Wilcken

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available A enxertia é uma técnica alternativa frequentemente recomendada para a cultura do pepino em áreas infestadas com nematóides das galhas. O presente trabalho teve como objetivo determinar o fator de reprodução de Meloidogyne javanica e de Meloidogyne incognita raça 2 em seis porta-enxertos para pepino (abóbora 'Menina Brasileira', moranga 'Exposição', 'Shelper', 'Tetsukabuto', 'B8-A Tetsukabuto' e 'Excite Ikki' e quatro híbridos de pepino (Cucumis sativus tipo japonês ('Yoshinari', 'Kouki', 'Taisho' e 'Tsuyataro'. Foram conduzidos dois experimentos em casa-de-vegetação, um com cada espécie do nematóide, sendo cada parcela constituída de uma planta mantida em vaso contendo 2 litros de solo autoclavado. Nove dias após transplante, cada planta foi inoculada com 5.000 ovos e juvenis de segundo estádio (população inicial - Pi de M. javanica ou M. incognita raça 2. Tomateiros 'Rutgers' foram utilizados como padrão de viabilidade do inóculo, em ambos os experimentos. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado com cinco repetições por tratamento. Sessenta dias após a inoculação, cada planta foi avaliada, quanto ao peso fresco da raiz, número total de nematóides presentes no solo e na raiz (população final - Pf, número de nematóides/g de raiz e fator de reprodução de ambas as espécies de Meloidogyne (FR=Pf/Pi. Todos os porta-enxertos e híbridos de pepino testados apresentaram fatores de reprodução superiores a um, proporcionando a multiplicação de M. javanica e de M. incognita raça 2, porém, os valores nos híbridos de pepino foram superiores aos dos porta-enxertos.Grafting is an alternative technique often recommended for the cucumber crop in root-knot nematodes infested areas. This study aimed to determine the reproduction factor of Meloidogyne javanica and M. incognita race 2 on six rootstocks for cucumber (squash 'Menina Brasileira, pumpkim 'Exposição', 'Shelper', 'Tetsukabuto', 'B8-A Tetsukabuto' and 'Excite Ikki' and four cucumber (Cucumis sativus Japanese type hybrids of ('Yoshinari', 'Kouki', 'Taisho' and 'Tsuyataro'. Two experiments were carried out in greenhouse, each one with a nematode specie. Each plot consisted of one plant per pot containing 2 liters of autoclaved soil. Nine days after the seedlings transplantation, each plant was inoculated with 5,000 eggs and second-stage juveniles (initial population - Pi of M. javanica or M. incognita race 2. 'Rutgers' tomatoes were used as a standard for inoculum viability in both experiments. The experimental design was completely randomized with five replicates per treatment. Sixty days after inoculated, each plant was evaluated, when root fresh weight, total number of nematodes in the soil and in the roots (final population - Pf, nematodes number per gram of root and the reproduction factor of both Meloidogyne species (FR=Pf/Pi were determined. All rootstocks and cucumber hybrids allowed the M. javanica and M. incognita race 2 multiplication, but, generally, reproduction factor values were greater in cucumbers than in rootstocks.

  18. Enzymatic relationships and evolution in the genus meloidogyne (nematoda: tylenchida).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esbenshade, P R; Triantaphyllou, A C

    1987-01-01

    Thirty populations of Meloidogyne of diverse geographic origin representing 10 nominal species and various reproductive, cytological, and physiological forms known to exist in the genus were examined to determine their enzymatic relationships. The 184 bands resolved in the study of 27 enzymes were considered as independent characters. Pair-wise comparisons of populations were performed in all possible combinations to estimate the enzymatic distances (ED) and coefficients of similarity (S). A phylogenetic tree was constructed. The apomictic species M. arenaria, M. microcephala, M. javanica, and M. incognita shared a common lineage. M. arenaria was highly polytypic, whereas conspecific populations of M. javanica and M. incognita were largely monomorphic. The mitotic and meiotic forms of M. hapla were very similar (S = 0.93), suggesting that the apomictic race B evolved only recently from the meiotic race A. The five remaining meiotic species (M. chitwoodi, M. graminicola, M. graminis, M. microtyla, and M. naasi - each represented by a single population) were not closely related to each other or to the mitotic species. PMID:19290100

  19. Population Dynamics of Meloidogyne chitwoodi on Russet Burbank Potatoes in Relation to Degree-day Accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinkerton, J N; Santo, G S; Mojtahedi, H

    1991-07-01

    Population dynamics of Meloidogyne chitwoodi were studied for 2 years in a commercial potato field and microplots. Annual second-stage juvenile (J2) densities peaked at harvest in mid-fall, declined through the winter, and were lowest in early summer. In the field and in one microplot study, population increase displayed trimodal patterns during the 1984 and 1985 seasons. Overwintering nematodes produced egg masses on roots by 600-800 degree-days base 5 C (DD) after planting. Second-generation and third-generation eggs hatched by 950-1,100 DD and 1,500-1,600 DD, respectively, and J2 densities rapidly increased in the soil. A fourth generation was observed at 2,150 DD in 1985 microplot studies. Tubers were initiated by 450-500 DD, but J2 were not observed in the tubers until after the second generation hatched at 988-1,166 DD. A second period of tuber invasion was observed when third generation J2 hatched. The regional variation in M. chitwoodi damage on potato may be explained by degree-day accumulation in different potato production regions of the western United States. PMID:19283128

  20. Native-plant hosts of Meloidogyne spp. from Western Paraná, Brazil

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Vanessa A., Antes; Anna P., Comerlato; Adílson Ricken, Schuelter; Regina M.D.G., Carneiro; Cleber, Furlanetto.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study was focused on the parasitism of Meloidogyne species on the roots of native nursery plants from the Atlantic forest. Native plants were selected from a commercial nursery in Western Paraná, searching for the natural infection of Meloidogyne. Also, the seeds of native plants were cu [...] ltivated in sterile soil and inoculated with M. incognita. In both the experiments, the number of galls and number of eggs and J2 per root, allied to the reproduction factor of M. incognita on each inoculated plant were assessed. Natural infection by M. javanica was found on Cordia ecalyculata, Citharexyllum myrianthum and Aspidosperma subincanum and by M. incognita on Croton urucurana, Lonchocarpus muehlbergianus, Tabebuia impetiginosa and T. serratifolia. Meloidogyne incognita induced galls formation on Genipa americana, Schinus terebinthifolius and Rollinia mucosa after inoculation, which suggested that those plants could host this nematode in natural biomes. Nursery soil should be disinfested before seeding the native forest plants for reforestation purposes

  1. Native-plant hosts of Meloidogyne spp. from Western Paraná, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa A. Antes

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study was focused on the parasitism of Meloidogyne species on the roots of native nursery plants from the Atlantic forest. Native plants were selected from a commercial nursery in Western Paraná, searching for the natural infection of Meloidogyne. Also, the seeds of native plants were cultivated in sterile soil and inoculated with M. incognita. In both the experiments, the number of galls and number of eggs and J2 per root, allied to the reproduction factor of M. incognita on each inoculated plant were assessed. Natural infection by M. javanica was found on Cordia ecalyculata, Citharexyllum myrianthum and Aspidosperma subincanum and by M. incognita on Croton urucurana, Lonchocarpus muehlbergianus, Tabebuia impetiginosa and T. serratifolia. Meloidogyne incognita induced galls formation on Genipa americana, Schinus terebinthifolius and Rollinia mucosa after inoculation, which suggested that those plants could host this nematode in natural biomes. Nursery soil should be disinfested before seeding the native forest plants for reforestation purposes

  2. Nematode Population Densities and Yield of Sweet Potato and Onion as Affected by Nematicides and Time of Application

    OpenAIRE

    Hall, M. R.; Johnson, A. W.; Smittle, D. A.

    1988-01-01

    Nematode population densities and yield of sweet potato and onion as affected by nematicides and time of application were determined in a 3-year test. Population densities of Meloidogyne incognita race 1 in untreated plots of sweet potato increased each year, but Helicotylenchus dihystera and Criconemella ornata did not. Ethoprop (6.8 kg a.i./ha) incorporated broadcast in the top 15-cm soil layer each spring before planting sweet potato reduced population densities of nematodes in the soil an...

  3. DNA characterization and relationship of the genomes of some Meloidogyne species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cesium trifluoroacetate (CsTFA) ultracentrifugation method of DNA isolation proved more satisfactory than phenol extraction. The base composition (%GC) of the DNAs of M. incognita, M. javanica, M. arenaria, and M. hapla, as determined by thermal denaturation tests ranged from 31.0 to 32.6% for all the four species. Similarly, the thermal stability covered a narrow range from 82.97 to 83.630C. The relationship of the genomes of twelve populations representing the four Meloidogyne species was measured by binding hybridized DNA by hydroxyapatite. M. incognita, M. javanica, and M. arenaria were found to be closely related to each other, with 80 to 100% DNA homology to labeled 32P-DNA probes prepared from M. incognita and M. arenaria. M. hapla showed wide divergence with 24.5 to 33.5% DNA homology to the probes. One half of the populations showed a slightly higher percent DNA homology with the non-repetitive sequences of the probes, whereas, the other half with the repetitive fraction. The thermal stabilities of the reassociated DNAs indicated differences of 0 to 2.5% in nucleotide base pairs between the populations and the probes

  4. Meloidogyne mayaguensis RAMMAH Y HIRSCHMANN, PLAGA EMERGENTE PARA LA AGRICULTURA TROPICAL Y SUBTROPICAL / Meloidogyne mayaguensis RAMMAH Y HIRSCHMANN, EMERGENT PEST FOR TROPICAL AND SUBTROPICAL AGRICULTURE

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Mayra G, Rodríguez; Lucila, Gómez; Belkis, Peteira.

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Meloidogyne mayaguensis Rammah y Hirschmann, constituye una importante plaga en países de la zona tropical y subtropical, donde parasita de manera natural más de 30 especies de diferentes plantas de cultivo como guayaba (Psidium guajava), cafeto (Coffea spp.), hortalizas, ornamentales y arvenses. Su [...] distribución ha ocurrido relativamente rápido debido a factores antropogénicos y la mayor preocupación con esta especie es su capacidad para parasitar y reproducirse en plantas con resistencia a Meloidogyne spp. Esta especie presenta alta variabilidad en la morfología de su patrón perineal, por lo que es recomendable, para su identificación, el uso de elementos complementarios como los que ofrecen los perfiles de esterasas. Esta especie puede hallarse en poblaciones concomitantes junto a Meloidogyne incognita, Meloidogyne arenaria y Meloidogyne javanica, haciendo más complejo su diagnóstico y manejo. Entre las regulaciones empleadas para mitigar su efecto negativo se encuentran, la implementación de medidas de cuarentena interna y el uso de Cadusafos y Abamectina, con resultados variables. De igual modo, grupos de investigación en África y América han evaluado extractos de Crotalaria spp. y agentes de control biológico (Arthrobotrys spp.), entre otras tácticas. M. mayaguensis se considera una de las especies más peligrosas del género, su detección, correcta identificación y contención en las áreas donde aparece constituyen uno de los retos más importantes de las autoridades sanitarias en los países donde ha sido encontrada, para los cuales la información oportuna y capacitación efectiva de los actores involucrados en esta esfera representa un elemento de vital importancia para el enfrentamiento a esta plaga emergente. Abstract in english Meloidogyne mayaguensis Rammah y Hirschmann, is an important pest in tropical and subtropical countries, because it affects in natural way more than 30 different species like guava (Psidium guajava), coffee (Coffea spp.), vegetables, ornamental plants and weeds. Its distribution has been very fast d [...] ue to anthropogenic factors, and the highest concern about this species is its capacity to infest and reproduce on resistant plants to Meloidogyne spp. This species has a high variability in its perineal pattern morphology; thus the use of complementary elements like the offered by esterase profile is recommended. This specie has been found in mixed population with Meloidogyne incognita, Meloidogyne arenaria and Meloidogyne javanica, making more complex its diagnosis and management. Among the measurements to diminish its negative effect are the implementation of internal quarantine measures and the use of Cadusafos and Abermectine with variable results. In the same way, different research teams from Africa and America have evaluated extracts from Crotalaria spp., biological control agents (Arthrobotrys spp.), among other tactics. M. mayaguensis has been considered one of the most dangerous species of this genus. Its detection, right identification and contention in the areas in which it is found constitute one of the most important challenges for the sanitary authorities in the countries when the species has been reported. The opportune information and the effective training of the staff involved in the phytosanitary area represent a vital element for facing this emergent pest.

  5. Pathogenicity of Meloidogyne spp. (Tylenchida: Meloidogynidae from Brazil and Central America on two genotypes of Coffea arabica Patogenicidade de Meloidogyne spp. (Tylenchida: Meloidogynidae originárias do Brasil e América Central a dois genótipos de Coffea arabica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina M.D.G. Carneiro

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Among the most damaging root-knot nematode species, Meloidogyne exigua, M. paranaensis, M. incognita, M. arabicida, M. izalcoensis and M. mayaguensis are major agronomic constraints in coffee-growing areas in Brazil and other Latin American countries. The resistance reaction to those six species was studied for the H 419-5-4-5-2 progeny, derived from the artificial hybridization between Catuaí Amarelo 'IAC 30' x Timor Hybrid UFV 445-46 selection. The Catuaí Vermelho IAC 144 genotype was used as susceptibility control for Meloidogyne spp. The genotypes were inoculated with 6,000 eggs/plant and the experiment was set up in a completely randomized design, replicated 10 times for each Meloidogyne species and genotype. The evaluation was performed at 240 days after inoculation and the reproduction factor (RF= Final population/6000 was used as the variable to evaluate resistance. M. exigua caused typical rounded galls mostly on new roots, and egg-masses were produced mostly in the cortex under the root epidermis. M. incognita, M. paranaensis and M. arabicida caused swollen roots, peeling and cracking of cortical root tissue. No symptoms were observed for M. mayaguensis. M. izalcoensis induced very small galls, mostly on the extremity of new roots. Egg-masses were produced outside the roots in large quantities. The genotype IAC 144 was susceptible (FR>1.0 to all Meloidogyne spp. studied, except to M. mayaguensis. The nematode isolate used in this experiment seems to be a weak parasite for coffee. The H 419-5-4-5-2 progeny was resistant to M. exigua (FREntre as espécies de nematóides de galhas mais danosas ao cafeeiro, Meloidogyne exigua, M. paranaensis, M. incognita, M. arabicida, M. izalcoensis e M. mayaguensis são as que causam os maiores problemas em áreas de cultivo de café no Brasil e países da América Latina. A reação de resistência a essas seis espécies foi estudada na progênie H 419-5-4-5-2, obtida do cruzamento artificial entre a cultivar Catuaí Amarelo IAC 30 com a seleção de Híbrido de Timor UFV 445-46. As genótipos foram inoculados com 6.000 ovos/planta e o experimento foi conduzido no delineamento inteiramente ao acaso, com 10 repetições para cada espécie de Meloidogyne e cada genótipo de cafeeiro. A avaliação foi realizada 240 dias após a inoculação. O Fator de Reprodução (FR= População Final/6000 foi usado como variável para se avaliar a resistência. M. exigua causou galhas arredondadas típicas, sobretudo nas raízes novas. M. incognita, M. paranaensis e M. arabicida causaram engrossamento nas raízes, descolamento cortical e rachaduras em várias partes do sistema radicular.Nenhum sintoma foi observado para M. mayaguensis. M. izalcoensis causou galhas pequenas, a maioria na extremidade das raízes novas. As massas de ovos foram produzidas externamente e em grande número. O genótipo IAC 144 (testemunha foi suscetível (FR>1.0 a todas espécies de Meloidogyne, exceto a M. mayaguensis. Esse isolado mostrou-se um parasita fraco para o cafeeiro. A progênie H 419-5-4-5-2 foi resistente a M. exigua e M. mayaguensis (FR<1 e suscetível a M. incognita, M. paranaensis, M. arabicida e M. izalcoensis.

  6. Major emerging problems with minor meloidogyne species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elling, Axel A

    2013-11-01

    Root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp.) represent one of the most polyphagous genera of plant-parasitic nematodes. To date, close to 100 valid species are recognized. In contrast to the size of the genus, the majority of past research focused on a small number of species, i.e., the so-called 'major' species M. arenaria, M. hapla, M. incognita, and M. javanica. This review highlights recent work aimed at 'minor' root-knot nematodes: M. chitwoodi, M. fallax, M. minor, M. enterolobii (=M. mayaguensis), M. exigua, and M. paranaensis. Some of these species have been described only recently. After a brief profile of each species, identification methods and their application in Meloidogyne spp. are summarized. Intraspecific variation and its impact on plant resistance breeding are discussed and interactions between M. enterolobii and Fusarium solani are highlighted as an example of synergistic interactions with other plant pathogens. Future research on Meloidogyne spp. is not only shaped by recent breakthroughs such as completing the genome sequences of M. hapla and M. incognita, but is also influenced by changes in agriculture. Taken together, the aim of this review is to draw attention to previously neglected and newly described Meloidogyne spp. that are developing into major problems for agriculture in tropical and temperate climates. PMID:23777404

  7. Incidence and population density of plant parasitic nematodes associated with olive planting stocks at nurseries in southern Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Nico, Andre?s I.; Rapoport, Hava F.; Jime?nez-di?az, Rafael M.; Castillo, Pablo

    2002-01-01

    Nematode population densities were determined in 259 soil and root samples collected from 18 olive nurseries in Córdoba, Jaén, and Sevilla provinces (southern Spain), between October 1997 and May 1998. The most important plant-parasitic nematodes detected, in order of decreasing frequency of infestation (percentage of samples), were Mesocriconema xenoplax (39.0%), Pratylenchus penetrans (32.1%), P. vulnus (25.9%), Meloidogyne incognita (14.7%), M. javanica (11.2%), and M. arenar...

  8. Host Status of Endophyte-Infected and Noninfected Tall Fescue Grass to Meloidogyne spp.

    OpenAIRE

    Nyczepir, A. P.; Meyer, S. L. F.

    2010-01-01

    Tall fescue grass cultivars with or without endophytes were evaluated for their susceptibility to Meloidogyne incognita in the greenhouse. Tall fescue cultivars evaluated included, i) wild-type Jesup (E+, ergot-producing endophyte present), ii) endophyte-free Jesup (E-, no endophyte present), iii) Jesup (Max-Q, non-ergot producing endophyte) and iv) Georgia 5 (E+). Peach was included as the control. Peach supported greater (P ? 0.05) reproduction of M. incognita than all tall fescue cultiva...

  9. Pathogenicity of Meloidogyne spp. (Tylenchida: Meloidogynidae) from Brazil and Central America on two genotypes of Coffea arabica / Patogenicidade de Meloidogyne spp. (Tylenchida: Meloidogynidae) originárias do Brasil e América Central a dois genótipos de Coffea arabica

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Regina M.D.G., Carneiro; Luiz F.G. de, Mesquita; Wallace, Gonçalves; Antônio A., Pereira.

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Entre as espécies de nematóides de galhas mais danosas ao cafeeiro, Meloidogyne exigua, M. paranaensis, M. incognita, M. arabicida, M. izalcoensis e M. mayaguensis são as que causam os maiores problemas em áreas de cultivo de café no Brasil e países da América Latina. A reação de resistência a essas [...] seis espécies foi estudada na progênie H 419-5-4-5-2, obtida do cruzamento artificial entre a cultivar Catuaí Amarelo IAC 30 com a seleção de Híbrido de Timor UFV 445-46. As genótipos foram inoculados com 6.000 ovos/planta e o experimento foi conduzido no delineamento inteiramente ao acaso, com 10 repetições para cada espécie de Meloidogyne e cada genótipo de cafeeiro. A avaliação foi realizada 240 dias após a inoculação. O Fator de Reprodução (FR= População Final/6000) foi usado como variável para se avaliar a resistência. M. exigua causou galhas arredondadas típicas, sobretudo nas raízes novas. M. incognita, M. paranaensis e M. arabicida causaram engrossamento nas raízes, descolamento cortical e rachaduras em várias partes do sistema radicular.Nenhum sintoma foi observado para M. mayaguensis. M. izalcoensis causou galhas pequenas, a maioria na extremidade das raízes novas. As massas de ovos foram produzidas externamente e em grande número. O genótipo IAC 144 (testemunha) foi suscetível (FR>1.0) a todas espécies de Meloidogyne, exceto a M. mayaguensis. Esse isolado mostrou-se um parasita fraco para o cafeeiro. A progênie H 419-5-4-5-2 foi resistente a M. exigua e M. mayaguensis (FR Abstract in english Among the most damaging root-knot nematode species, Meloidogyne exigua, M. paranaensis, M. incognita, M. arabicida, M. izalcoensis and M. mayaguensis are major agronomic constraints in coffee-growing areas in Brazil and other Latin American countries. The resistance reaction to those six species was [...] studied for the H 419-5-4-5-2 progeny, derived from the artificial hybridization between Catuaí Amarelo 'IAC 30' x Timor Hybrid UFV 445-46 selection. The Catuaí Vermelho IAC 144 genotype was used as susceptibility control for Meloidogyne spp. The genotypes were inoculated with 6,000 eggs/plant and the experiment was set up in a completely randomized design, replicated 10 times for each Meloidogyne species and genotype. The evaluation was performed at 240 days after inoculation and the reproduction factor (RF= Final population/6000) was used as the variable to evaluate resistance. M. exigua caused typical rounded galls mostly on new roots, and egg-masses were produced mostly in the cortex under the root epidermis. M. incognita, M. paranaensis and M. arabicida caused swollen roots, peeling and cracking of cortical root tissue. No symptoms were observed for M. mayaguensis. M. izalcoensis induced very small galls, mostly on the extremity of new roots. Egg-masses were produced outside the roots in large quantities. The genotype IAC 144 was susceptible (FR>1.0) to all Meloidogyne spp. studied, except to M. mayaguensis. The nematode isolate used in this experiment seems to be a weak parasite for coffee. The H 419-5-4-5-2 progeny was resistant to M. exigua (FR

  10. Identification of Meloidogyne javanica Using Morphological and Morphometerical Characters and Species Specific Primers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Mahdikhani

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Root knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp. cause yield loss in all countries, of which, M. javanica, is the most widespread species in Iran. In order to identify M. javanica, 100 infected root and soil samples of root knot nematode were collected from different regions of Kerman province. After purification of populations and identification of M. javanica based on morphological and morphometerical characters of females and second stage juveniles (J2, total DNA was extracted from eggs, J2 and female adults. Specific 670 and 1600 bp bands were amplified in all M. javanica populations using species-specific primer pairs including OPARjav / OPAFjav and Mjavf / Mjavr These specific bands could not be amplified in other species such as M. incognita and M. arenaria. It seems that, application of these species specific primers in comparison with morphological characters would be more applicable, leading to easier identification of M. javanica.

  11. Greenhouse Studies on the Effect of Marigolds (Tagetes spp.) on Four Meloidogyne Species

    OpenAIRE

    Ploeg, Antoon T.

    1999-01-01

    The effects of preplanted marigold on tomato root galling and multiplication of Meloidogyne incognita, M. javanica, M. arenaria, and M. hapla were studied. Marigold cultivars of Tagetes patula, T. erecta, T. signata, and a Tagetes hybrid all reduced galling and numbers of second-stage juveniles in subsequent tomato compared to the tomato-tomato control. All four Meloidogyne spp. reproduced on T. signata 'Tangerine Gem'. Several cultivars of T. patula and T. erecta suppressed galling and repro...

  12. Penetration Rates by Second-stage Juveniles of Meloidogyne spp. and Heterodera glycines into Soybean Roots

    OpenAIRE

    Gourd, T. R.; Schmitt, D. P.; Barker, K.R.

    1993-01-01

    The rates of soybean root penetration by freshly hatched second-stage juveniles (J2) of Meloidogyne arenaria, M. hapla, M. incognita, M. javanica, and Heterodera glycines races 1 and 5 were examined over a period of 1 to 240 hours. Heterodera glycines entered roots more quickly than Meloidogyne spp. Penetration by most nematodes was accomplished within 48 hours. The increases in penetration after 48 hours were insufficient to warrant further assessments. Penetration of J2 into roots of soybea...

  13. Morphological Comparison of Meloidogyne Males by Scanning Electron Microscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Rohde, W. A.; Johnson, A W; Dowlet, C. C.; Glaze, N. C.

    1980-01-01

    Field plots of Tifton loamy sand were treated with methyl bromide, DD-MENCS, or ethoprop for control of root-knot nematodes, Meloidogyne incognita, in a multiple cropping system of turnips, field corn, and southern peas. Annual applications of methyl bromide and DD-MENCS in November or December suppressed nematode numbers to very low levels through September, but numbers increased in the following October, November, and/or December. No benefit was found from ethoprop applied to DD-MENCS-treat...

  14. Mitochondrial genome plasticity among species of the nematode genus Meloidogyne (Nematoda: Tylenchina).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphreys-Pereira, Danny A; Elling, Axel A

    2015-04-15

    The mitochondrial (mt) genomes of the plant-parasitic root-knot nematodes Meloidogyne arenaria, Meloidogyne enterolobii and Meloidogyne javanica were sequenced and compared with those of three other root-knot nematode species in order to explore the mt genome plasticity within Meloidogyne. The mt genomes of M. arenaria, M. enterolobii and M. javanica are circular, with an estimated size of 18.8, 18.9 and 19.6 kb, respectively. Compared to other nematodes these mt genomes are larger, due to the presence of large non-coding regions. The mt genome architecture within the genus Meloidogyne varied in the position of trn genes and in the position, length and nucleotide composition of non-coding regions. These variations were observed independent of the species' natural environments or reproductive modes. M. enterolobii showed three main non-coding regions whereas Meloidogyne chitwoodi, Meloidogyne incognita, M. javanica and M. arenaria had two non-coding regions, and Meloidogyne graminicola had a unique large non-coding region interrupted by two trn genes. trn genes were positioned in different regions of the mt genomes in M. chitwoodi, M. enterolobii and M. graminicola, whereas the trn gene order was identical between M. arenaria, M. incognita and M. javanica. Importantly, M. graminicola had extra copies of trnV and trnS2. High divergence levels between the two copies of each trn might indicate duplication events followed by random loss and mutations in the anticodon. Tree-based methods based on amino acid sequences of 12 mt protein-coding genes support the monophyly for the tropical and mitotic parthenogenetic species, M. arenaria, M. enterolobii, M. incognita and M. javanica and for a clade that includes the meiotic parthenogenetic species, M. chitwoodi and M. graminicola. A comparison of the mt genome architecture in plant-parasitic nematodes and phylogenetic analyses support that Pratylenchus is the most recent ancestor of root-knot nematodes. PMID:25655462

  15. Efeito de isolados de Paecilomyces lilacinus no desenvolvimento de cafezais e na população de Meloidogyne paranaensis Effect of isolates of Paecilomyces lilacinus on the development of coffee plantations and on the population of Meloidogyne paranaensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Capparelli Cadioli

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Com a finalidade de diminuir as perdas causadas pelos nematóides do gênero Meloidogyne (Goeldi, 1887 na cultura do cafeeiro, dentre as diversas medidas de manejo, o controle biológico com o fungo Paecilomyces lilacinus (Thom., 1910 Samson, 1974 se destaca como uma alternativa de controle vantajosa, quer dos pontos de vista ecológico ou econômico. Assim, neste trabalho, objetivou-se avaliar a eficiência de 10 isolados de Paecilomyces lilacinus no controle de Meloidogyne paranaensis em cafeeiro (Coffea arabica L. cv. Icatú, em casa-de-vegetação. No experimento I, as mudas de cafeeiro foram transplantadas em solo onde foram, anteriormente, cultivados tomateiros para multiplicação de M. paranaensis mais 50 g de arroz colonizado com os 10 isolados. No segundo experimento, mudas de cafeeiro foram transplantadas para substrato solo e areia (1:1 juntamente com 50 g de arroz colonizado com os isolados. Em seguida, as mudas foram inoculadas com ± 5000 ovos de M. paranaensis. Nos dois experimentos, após 15 dias procedeu-se aplicação por cobertura de 50 g dos isolados. O delineamento foi inteiramente casualizado com 12 tratamentos. Após 90 dias, foram feitas as avaliações. Os isolados de P. lilacinus não afetaram o diâmetro do caule de cafeeiro. No experimento I, os isolados Pae 22, 24 e 28 promoveram o crescimento dos cafeeiros; todos os isolados reduziram a população de ovos no sistema radicular; e os isolados Pae 3 e 12 reduziram a população de J2 de M. paranaensis no solo. No experimento II, os isolados Pae 03, 10, 12 e 13 favoreceram o crescimento das plantas, mas reduziram o peso fresco do sistema radicular; todos os isolados reduziram a população de J2 no solo; e os isolados Pae 3, 10, 13, 18, 22 e 24 reduziram as malformações causadas por M. paranaensis nas raízes.In order to reduce the losses caused by nematodes of the genus Meloidogyne (Goeldi, 1887 in coffee plantation, among several management measures, biological control with the fungus Paecilomyces lilacinus (Thom., 1910 Samson, 1974 stands out as an advantageous alternative of control, from the ecological or economy points of view. Thus, the objective of this work was to evaluate ten isolates of Paecilomyces lilacinus in the control of Meloidogyne paranaensis in coffee trees (Coffea arabica L. cv. Icatú, in greenhouse conditions. In the first experiment, the coffee seedlings were transplanted to substrate where tomato plants were previously cultivated, for M. paranaensis multiplication. The soil was mixed with 50 g rice colonized with ten isolates of P. lilacinus. In the second experiment, coffee seedlings were transplanted to substrate (1 sand: 1 dirt with 50 g rice colonized with the isolates of P. lilacinus. Then, the seedlings were inoculated with suspension of ±5000 eggs of M. paranaensis. In the two experiments, a new application was made with 50 g of the isolates after fifteen days. The design was completely randomized with twelve treatments and ten replicates. After 90 they days were evaluated. The isolated of P. lilacinus did not affect the diameter of the coffee stalk. In the first experiment, the isolates Pae 22, 24, and 28 promoted the growth of the seedlings, all of the isolates reduced the population of eggs in the root system, and the isolates Pae 3 and 12 reduced the population of J2 of M. paranaensis in the soil. In the second experiment, the isolates Pae 3, 10, 12, and 13 favored the growth of the plants but reduced the weight of the fresh roots, all of the isolates reduced the population of J2 in the soil, and the isolates Pae 3, 10, 13, 18, 22, and 24 reduced the malformations caused by M. paranaensis roots.

  16. Host Suitability of Twelve Leguminosae Species to Populations of Meloidogyne hapla and M. chitwoodi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, G D; Rumbaugh, M D

    1996-09-01

    Legumes of the genera Astragalus (milkvetch), Coronilla (crownvetch), Lathyrus (pea vine), Lotus (birdsfoot trefoil), Medicago (alfalfa), Melilotus (clover), Trifolium (clover), and Vicia (common vetch) were inoculated with a population of Melaidogyne chitwoodi from Utah or with one of three M. hapla populations from California, Utah, and Wyoming.Thirty-nine percent to 86% of alfalfa (M. scutellata) and 10% to 55% of red clover (T. pratense) plants survived inoculation with the nematode populations at a greenhouse temperature of 24 +/- 3 degrees C. All plants of the other legume species survived all nematode populations, except 4% of the white clover (T. repens) plants inoculated with the California M. hapla population. Entries were usually more susceptible to the M. hapla populations than to M. chitwoodi. Galling of host roots differed between nematode populations and species. Root-galling indices (1 = none, 6 = severely galled) ranged from 1 on pea vine inoculated with the California population of M. hapla to 6 on yellow sweet clover inoculated with the Wyoming population of M. hapla. The nematode reproductive factor (Rf = final nematode population/initial nematode population) ranged from 0 for all nematode populations on pea vine to 35 for the Wyoming population of M. hapla on alfalfa (M. sativa). PMID:19277158

  17. Host Suitability of Twelve Leguminosae Species to Populations of Meloidogyne hapla and M. chitwoodi

    OpenAIRE

    Griffin, G. D.; Rumbaugh, M. D.

    1996-01-01

    Legumes of the genera Astragalus (milkvetch), Coronilla (crownvetch), Lathyrus (pea vine), Lotus (birdsfoot trefoil), Medicago (alfalfa), Melilotus (clover), Trifolium (clover), and Vicia (common vetch) were inoculated with a population of Melaidogyne chitwoodi from Utah or with one of three M. hapla populations from California, Utah, and Wyoming.Thirty-nine percent to 86% of alfalfa (M. scutellata) and 10% to 55% of red clover (T. pratense) plants survived inoculation with the nematode popul...

  18. SINTOMATOLOGÍA Y ESPECIES DE Meloidogyne ASOCIADAS A VID (Vitis vinifera L. cv. Aramond) EN GÜIRA DE MELENA, ARTEMISA. (Resultados preliminares) / SYMPTOMATOLOGY AND SPECIES OF Meloidogyne ASSOCIATED WITH GRAPEVINE (Vitis vinifera L. cv. Aramond) IN GÜIRA DE MELENA, Artemisa. (Preliminary results)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Mayra G, Rodríguez; Dainé, Hernández; R, Enrique; Lucila, Gómez; Luisa, Díaz-Viruliche; Belkis, Peteira.

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Un viñedo (Vitis vinifera L. cv. Aramond) de 21 años de plantado mostraba síntomas semejantes a los producidos por la presencia de nematodos formadores de agallas (Meloidogyne spp.), así como mermas en los rendimientos. En visita realizada a la plantación, se constató la existencia de áreas con plan [...] tas cloróticas y con diversos grados de defoliación. Las bases de los tallos mostraban rajaduras longitudinales y ensanchamientos en la región que se encontraba por encima de la superficie del suelo. Al examinar las raíces se encontraron agallas de diversos tamaños y la pérdida de volúmenes importantes de raíces secundarias. En las agallas, se encontraron hembras adultas de Meloidogyne con ootecas desarrolladas, y el estudio de los patrones perineales de estas hembras evidenció la presencia de especímenes de tres especies (Meloidogyne arenaria (Neal) Chitwood, Meloidogyne incognita (Kofoid & White) Chitwood y Meloidogyne javanica (Trueb) Chitwood), mientras otros fueron ubicados en la categoría de Meloidogyne spp., hasta completar los estudios moleculares. Del total de especímenes examinados, M. arenaria mostró ser componente mayoritario de la comunidad con un 53%, seguido de M. incognita (21%) y M. javanica (4%). La presencia de M. arenaria en vid, representa el primer informe de la especie en este cultivo en Cuba y constituye foco de atención para el servicio fitosanitario, por ser una de las plagas más importante para la vid a nivel mundial. Abstract in english A 21 year old vineyard (Vitis vinifera L. cv. Aramond) showed symptoms similar to those caused by the root knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp.) as well as decreases in yield. In a visit to the area, several chlorotic plants with different degree of defoliation were observed. The stem bases above the so [...] il surface were swollen and they showed longitudinal cracks. Galls of different sizes were observed on the roots with significant losses of secondary roots. Adult females of Meloidogyne with well developed egg masses were found inside the galls. The study of the perineal patterns of these females showed the presence of specimens belonging to three species (Meloidogyne arenaria (Neal) Chitwood, Meloidogoyne incognita (Kofoid & White) Chitwood and Meloidogyne javanica (Trueb) Chitwood), as well as others that were grouped as Meloidogyne spp. until completing the molecular studies of all the specimens observed. M. arenaria showed to be the majority component of the community with 53%, followed by M. incognita and M. javanica with 21% and 4% respectively. The presence of M. arenaria in grapevine is the first report of this specie in the crop in Cuba and constitutes a focus of attention for the plant protection service because it is one of the most important pests in grapevine in the world.

  19. Greenhouse Studies on the Effect of Marigolds (Tagetes spp.) on Four Meloidogyne Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ploeg, A T

    1999-03-01

    The effects of preplanted marigold on tomato root galling and multiplication of Meloidogyne incognita, M. javanica, M. arenaria, and M. hapla were studied. Marigold cultivars of Tagetes patula, T. erecta, T. signata, and a Tagetes hybrid all reduced galling and numbers of second-stage juveniles in subsequent tomato compared to the tomato-tomato control. All four Meloidogyne spp. reproduced on T. signata 'Tangerine Gem'. Several cultivars of T. patula and T. erecta suppressed galling and reproduction of Meloidogyne spp. on tomato to levels lower than or comparable to a fallow control. Phytotoxic effects of marigold on tomato were not observed. Several of the tested marigold cultivars are ready for full-scale field evaluation against Meloidogyne spp. PMID:19270876

  20. Mentha x piperita, Mentha spicata and Effects of Their Essential Oils on Meloidogyne in Soil

    OpenAIRE

    Walker, J.T.; Melin, J. B.

    1996-01-01

    Six peppermint (Mentha x piperita) and six spearmint (M. spicata) PI accessions were inoculated with Meloidogyne incognita race 3 and M. arenaria race 2, under greenhouse conditions. No galls formed on roots of any of the plants inoculated with 1,800 eggs/pot. Fewer than two galls per root system formed on three PI accessions of peppermint inoculated with M. incognita at 5,400 eggs/pot. Only one peppermint accession developed galls when inoculated with M. arenaria, whereas none of the spearmi...

  1. Behavioral Response of Meloidogyne incognita to Benzyl Isothiocyanate

    Science.gov (United States)

    After the incorporation of brassicaceous plant material into soil, it is likely that nematodes are not always exposed to lethal concentrations of nematotoxic isothiocyanates. It would be informative to know what effect sub-lethal concentrations of isothiocyanates have on plant-parasitic nematode be...

  2. MiRNAs from cotton roots infected with Meloidogyne incognita

    Science.gov (United States)

    The molecular activities associated with the resistance of Upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) to the root-knot nematode (RKN) are largely unknown. Small RNAs or microRNAs (miRNA), a well-conserved gene regulatory system, have an important role in plant development, stress responses, and epigeneti...

  3. Monoclonal Antibodies to Secretory Granules in Esophageal Glands of Meloidogyne Species

    OpenAIRE

    Hussey, R. S.

    1989-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies to secretory granules in the dorsal or subventral esophageal glands were generated by injecting BALB/c mice with immunogens from preparasitic second-stage juveniles (J2) of Meloidogyne incognita. Antibodies specific for secretory granules in the J2 subventral esophageal glands or the dorsal gland were identified by indirect immunofluorescence microscopy. Only antibodies that reacted with granules in the J2 dorsal gland reacted with the esophageal gland lobe ofM. incognit...

  4. First Report of Root-Knot Nematode Meloidogyne enterolobii on Tomato and Cucumber in Switzerland

    OpenAIRE

    Kiewnick, S.; Karssen, G.; Brito, J. A.; Oggenfuss, M.; Frey, J E

    2008-01-01

    Severe stunting and extensive root galling were observed on tomato rootstock (Solanum lycopersicum L. cv. Maxifort) resistant to Meloidogyne incognita (Kofoid & White, 1919) Chitwood, 1949, M. javanica (Treub, 1885), and M. arenaria (Neal, 1889) Chitwood, 1949 and cucumber (Cucumis sativus L. cv. Loustik) from two commercial greenhouses in the cantons Aargau and Lucerne in northern Switzerland. Examination of the roots of infected plants revealed the presence of root-knot nematodes in large n...

  5. A Polymerase Chain Reaction Method for Identification of Five Major Meloidogyne Species

    OpenAIRE

    Powers, T. O.; Harris, T. S.

    1993-01-01

    A polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method for discriminating Meloidogyne incognita, M. arenaria, M. javanica, M. hapla, and M. chitwoodi was developed. Single juveniles were ruptured in a drop of water and added directly to a PCR reaction mixture in a microcentrifuge tube. Primer annealing sites were located in the 3' portion of the mitochondrial gene coding for cytochrome oxidase subunit II and in the 16S rRNA gene. Following PCR amplification, fragments of three sizes were detected. The M. i...

  6. Response of some common annual bedding plants to three species of meloidogyne.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McSorley, R; Frederick, J J

    1994-12-01

    Twelve ornamental bedding plant cultivars were grown in soil infested with isolates of Meloidogyne incognita race 1, M. javanica, or M. arenaria race 1 in a series of tests in containers in a growth room. Root galling (0-5 scale) and eggs/plant were evaluated 8-10 weeks after soil infestation and seedling transplantation. Snapdragon, Antirrhinum majus cv. First Ladies, was extensively galled and highly susceptible (mean gall rating >/=4.2 and >/=14,500 eggs/plant), and Celosia argentea cv. Century Mix and Coleus blumei cv. Rainbow were susceptible (>1,500 eggs/plant) to all three Meloidogyne isolates. Response of Petunia x hybrida varied with cultivar and nematode isolate. Little or no galling or egg production from any Meloidogyne isolate was observed on Ageratum houstonianum cv. Blue Mink, Lobularia maritima cv. Rosie O'Day, or Tagetes patula cv. Dwarf Primrose. Galling was slight (mean rating 4.0 and >/=7,900 eggs/plant) by M. javanica and M. arenaria but was nearly free of galling from M. incognita. Zinna elegans cv. Scarlet was nearly free of galling from M. incognita and M. arenaria but was susceptible (mean gall rating = 2.9; 3,400 eggs/plant) to M. javanica. PMID:19279963

  7. Inheritance of Resistance to Meloidoygne incognita in Primitive Cotton Accessions from Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starr, J L; Moresco, E R; Smith, C W; Nichols, R L; Roberts, P A; Chee, P

    2010-12-01

    Few sources of resistance to root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne incognita) in upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) have been utilized to develop resistant cultivars, making this resistance vulnerable to virulence in the pathogen population. The objectives of this study were to determine the inheritance of resistance in five primitive accessions of G. hirsutum (TX1174, TX1440, TX2076, TX2079, and TX2107) and to determine allelic relations with the genes for resistance in the genotypes Clevewilt-6 (CW) and Wild Mexico Jack Jones (WMJJ). A half-diallel experimental design was used to create 28 populations from crosses among these seven sources of resistance and the susceptible cultivar DeltaPine 90 (DP90). Resistance to M. incognita was measured as eggs per g roots in the parents, F(1) and F(2) generations of each cross. The resistance in CW and WMJJ was inherited as recessive traits, as reported previously for CW, whereas the resistance in the TX accessions was inherited as a dominant trait. Chi square analysis of segregation of resistance in the F(2) was used to estimate the numbers of genes that conditioned resistance. Resistance in CW and WMJJ appeared to be a multigenic trait whereas the resistance in the TX accessions best fit either a one or two gene model. The TX accessions were screened with nine SSR markers linked to resistance loci in other cotton genotypes. The TX accessions lacked the allele amplified by SSR marker CR316 and linked to resistance in CW and other resistant genotypes derived from this source. Four of five TX genotypes lacked the amplification products from the marker BNL1231 that is also associated with the resistant allele on Chromosome 11 in WMJJ, CW, NemX, M120 RNR and Auburn 634 RNR. However, all five TX genotypes produced the same amplification products from three SSR markers linked to the resistant allele on Chromosome 14 in M120 RNR and M240 RNR. The TX accessions have unique resistance genes that are likely to be useful in efforts to develop resistant cotton cultivars with increased durability. PMID:22736869

  8. Broad Meloidogyne Resistance in Potato Based on RNA Interference of Effector Gene 16D10

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinh, Phuong T. Y.; Zhang, Linhai; Mojtahedi, Hassan; Brown, Charles R.

    2015-01-01

    Root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp.) are a significant problem in potato (Solanum tuberosum) production. There is no potato cultivar with Meloidogyne resistance, even though resistance genes have been identified in wild potato species and were introgressed into breeding lines. The objectives of this study were to generate stable transgenic potato lines in a cv. Russet Burbank background that carry an RNA interference (RNAi) transgene capable of silencing the 16D10 Meloidogyne effector gene, and test for resistance against some of the most important root-knot nematode species affecting potato, i.e., M. arenaria, M. chitwoodi, M. hapla, M. incognita, and M. javanica. At 35 days after inoculation (DAI), the number of egg masses per plant was significantly reduced by 65% to 97% (P plant was significantly reduced by 66% to 87% in M. arenaria and M. hapla, respectively, compared to wild type and empty vector controls (P Plant-mediated RNAi silencing of the 16D10 effector gene resulted in significant resistance against all of the root-knot nematode species tested, whereas RMc1(blb), the only known Meloidogyne resistance gene in potato, did not have a broad resistance effect. Silencing of 16D10 did not interfere with the attraction of M. incognita second-stage juveniles to roots, nor did it reduce root invasion. PMID:25861119

  9. Host plants of root-knot nematodes / Algumas plantas hospedeiras de nematóides do gênero Meloidogyne

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Luiz Gonzaga E., Lordello; Luiz Carlos, Fazuoli; Condorcet, Aranha; Rubens R.A., Lordello.

    Full Text Available Coletaram-se plantas do gênero Coffea e de diversas ervas daninhas, as quais foram examinadas em laboratório visando verificar a ocorrência de nematóides do gênero Meloidogyne Goeldi, 1887. As plantas parasitadas por M. exigua, M. incognita, M. arenaria e por uma espécie não identificada, referida c [...] omo Meloidogyne sp., são. apresentadas. Indicam-se os hospedeiros novos de alguns dos nematóides mencionados e confirma-se o parasitismo de outras plantas, nas condições estudadas. Abstract in english Root-knot nematodes were found attacking Coffea spp. and also roots of a few weed species usually found in the coffee orchards in São Paulo. C. arabica cv. Catuaí, C. arabica cv. Mundo Novo, Timor Hybrid and a few plants of C. racemosa showed to be susceptible to Meloidogyne exigua. Roots of Ageratu [...] m conyzoides, Amaranthus viridis, Bidens pilosa, Coffea arabica cv. Mundo Novo, Coffea racemosa, Commelina virginica, Digitaria sanguinalis, Galinsoga parviflora, Gnaphalium spathulatum, Porophyllum ruderale, Portulaca oleracea, Pterocaulon virgatum and Solanum americanum were disfigured by M. incognita M. arenaria was found attacking roots of Eleusine indica and Gnaphalium spathulatum, and the presence of an unidentified Meloidogyne species was verified in roots of the following species: Vernonia ferruginea, C. arabica x C. canephora, Eupatorium pauciflorum, Coffea canephora cv. Kouillou, Coffea eugenioides, Coffea racemosa, Coffea stenophylla, Euphorbia pilullifera, Solanum americanum, Ageratum conyzoides, Phyllanthus corcovadensis, and Emilia sagittata.

  10. Descriptions of Meloidogyne camelliae n.sp. and M. querciana n.sp (Nematoda:Meloidogynidae), with SEM and Host-Range Observations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golden, A M

    1979-04-01

    Meloidogyne camelliae n.sp. on camellia (Camellia japonica) from Japan and M. querciana n.sp. on pin oak (Quercus palustris) from Virginia, USA, are described and illustrated. M. camelliae n.sp. is distingnishable from other species of the genus especially by its striking perineal pattern having heavy ropelike striae forming a squarish to rectangular outline with shoulders or projections, appearing sometimes ahnost starlike. M. querciana differs from other species by its characteristic perineal pattern round to oval in outline, sometimes with a low arch, and sunken vulva surrounded by a prominent obovate area devoid of striae. M. querciana shows some relationship to M. ovalis, but differs further fxom the latter by longer larvae, absence of annules on head of larvae, and rarity of males. Examination of specimens of M. camelliae n.sp. and M. querciana n.sp. with the scanning electron microscope confirmed observations made by optical microscopy and revealed diagnostic and other structures in greater detail. In greenhouse host tests, M. camelliae infected camellia heavily, showed moderate infection on oxalis, only a trace infection on tomato, and no infection on five other plants tested; and M. querciana attacked pin oak, red oak, and American chestnut heavily, but did not infect nine other test plants. In another test, pin oak seedlings did not become infected when heavily inoculated with and grown in the presence of two populations of M. incognita incognita and one of M. incognita acrita. The common names "camellia root-knot nematode" and "oak root-knot nematode" are respectively proposed for M. camelliae and M. querciana. PMID:19305554

  11. Response of potential cucurbit rootstocks against Meloidogyne spp

    OpenAIRE

    Munera, M.; Giné, Ariadna; Pocurull Domènech, Miriam; Picó, B.; Gisbert, C.; Sorribas Royo, Francisco Javier

    2014-01-01

    the Cucurbita hybrids, usually used as cucurbit rootstocks, are susceptible to Meloidogyne. Its cultivation increases the nematode population densities at similar levels than ungrafted cucumber or melon crops, and higher 'Ievels than watermelon.

  12. Influence of Six Vegetable Cultivars on Reproduction of Meloidogyne javanica

    OpenAIRE

    Bafokuzara, N. D.

    1983-01-01

    Replicated field and greenhouse experiments were used to evaluate the effect of tomato, cabbage, cucumber, carrot, Amaranthus hybridus, and pepper on growth and fecundity of Meloidogyne spp., particularly M. javanica. In the field tests, tomato, cucumber, and carrot favored population increases of Meloidogyne spp., while Amaranthus, pepper, and cabbage limited them. Some cropping sequences that included crops from the latter group had a suppressive effect on population growth. Thus, of the 36...

  13. Evaluation of Cover Crops with Potential for Use in Anaerobic Soil Disinfestation (ASD) for Susceptibility to Three Species of Meloidogyne

    OpenAIRE

    Kokalis-burelle, Nancy; Butler, David M.; Rosskopf, Erin N.

    2013-01-01

    Several cover crops with potential for use in tropical and subtropical regions were assessed for susceptibility to three common species of root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne arenaria, M. incognita, and M. javanica. Crops were selected based on potential use as organic amendments in anaerobic soil disinfestation (ASD) applications. Nematode juvenile (J2) numbers in soil and roots, egg production, and host plant root galling were evaluated on arugula (Eruca sativa, cv. Nemat), cowpea (Vigna unguic...

  14. Genetic variation among parthenogenetic Meloidogyne species revealed by AFLPs and 2D-protein electrophoresis contrased to morphology

    OpenAIRE

    Beek, J. G.; Folkertsma, R.; Zijlstra, C.; Koert, P. H. G.; Poley, L. M.; Bakker, J.

    1998-01-01

    Des isolats appartenant aux espèces parthénogénétiques améiotiques #Meloidogyne arenaria$, #M. hapla$ race B, #M. incognita$, #M. javanica$ et parthénogénéiques méiotiques #M. chitwoodi$, #M. fallax$, #M. hapla$ race A, #M. naasi$ ont été comparés quant à leurs protéines totales solubles - par électrophorèse sur gel en deux dimensions (2-DGE) -, leur ADN génomique total - par AFLP - et leurs caractères morphologiques - par mensurations directes et données provenant de la li...

  15. Phylogenetic Analyses of Meloidogyne Small Subunit rDNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Ley, Irma Tandingan; De Ley, Paul; Vierstraete, Andy; Karssen, Gerrit; Moens, Maurice; Vanfleteren, Jacques

    2002-12-01

    Phylogenies were inferred from nearly complete small subunit (SSU) 18S rDNA sequences of 12 species of Meloidogyne and 4 outgroup taxa (Globodera pallida, Nacobbus abberans, Subanguina radicicola, and Zygotylenchus guevarai). Alignments were generated manually from a secondary structure model, and computationally using ClustalX and Treealign. Trees were constructed using distance, parsimony, and likelihood algorithms in PAUP* 4.0b4a. Obtained tree topologies were stable across algorithms and alignments, supporting 3 clades: clade I = [M. incognita (M. javanica, M. arenaria)]; clade II = M. duytsi and M. maritima in an unresolved trichotomy with (M. hapla, M. microtyla); and clade III = (M. exigua (M. graminicola, M. chitwoodi)). Monophyly of [(clade I, clade II) clade III] was given maximal bootstrap support (mbs). M. artiellia was always a sister taxon to this joint clade, while M. ichinohei was consistently placed with mbs as a basal taxon within the genus. Affinities with the outgroup taxa remain unclear, although G. pallida and S. radicicola were never placed as closest relatives of Meloidogyne. Our results show that SSU sequence data are useful in addressing deeper phylogeny within Meloidogyne, and that both M. ichinohei and M. artiellia are credible outgroups for phylogenetic analysis of speciations among the major species. PMID:19265950

  16. Pathogenic Variability Among Isolates of Meloidogyne javanica on Capsicum annum

    OpenAIRE

    B. Khan; Khan, A.A; M. R. Khan

    2003-01-01

    Meloidogyne javanica isolates were collected from nine districts of Uttar Pradesh. These isolates showed pathogenic variability when inoculated on the pepper cultivars California Wonder and Suryamukhi Green. Meloidogyne javanica that infected Suryamukhi Green but not California Wonder were designated as pepper race 1 and the populations that infected both the cultivars were designated pepper race 2. Race 1 was more frequent than race 2 in Almora, Pauri Garhwal, Basti, Gorakhpur, and Deoria, w...

  17. Efecto de diferentes densidades poblacionales de Meloidogyne hapla sobre uchuva (Physalis peruviana L.) en invernadero / Effect of different population densities of Meloidogyne hapla on the cape gooseberry (Physalis peruviana L.) in greenhouse

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Nancy Eunice, Niño; Germán, Arbeláez; Rafael, Navarro.

    2008-04-30

    Full Text Available Este estudio se realizó en el Centro de Investigaciones y Asesorías Agroindustriales de la Universidad de Bogotá Jorge Tadeo Lozano, Chía (Cundinamarca), bajo condiciones de invernadero, durante diez meses de cultivo. Se evaluó el efecto de diferentes densidades poblacionales de Meloidogyne hapla (0 [...] , 50, 100, 200, 500 y 1.000 larvas J2/100 cc de suelo), sobre parámetros productivos de la uchuva: altura de las plantas, diámetro de tallo, peso fresco, peso seco y biomasa de follaje, peso fresco de raíces, índice de nodulación radicular y peso fresco de frutos. Se hizo análisis de varianza, pruebas de contrastes y prueba de Tukey (?=0,05), en un diseño completamente aleatorio, con seis tratamientos y cinco repeticiones, mediante el programa SAS v.8.0. El tratamiento de 500 larvas J2/100 cc suelo fue el que más afectó la altura de las plantas, el diámetro del tallo, la biomasa de follaje, el peso fresco de raíces y presentó el índice de nodulación radical más alto. No se encontraron diferencias significativas entre los tratamientos inoculados con M. hapla, para peso fresco, peso seco de follaje y peso fresco de frutos, ni para el número de larvas J2 en suelo y masas de huevos. Mediante la ecuación: Y = m + (1-m)Z P-T propuesta por Seinhorst (1965), se estableció un límite de tolerancia de 50 larvas J2 de M. hapla/100 cc suelo, para peso fresco de raíces y un límite de tolerancia de 450 larvas J2 de M. hapla/100 cc suelo, para biomasa de follaje. Abstract in english A trial was conducted at the Center of Investigations and Agroindustrial Accessory of the University Jorge Tadeo Lozano, Chía (Cundinamarca) under greenhouse condition during ten months of cultivation. The effect of different population densities of M. hapla (0, 50, 100, 200, 500 and 1,000 larvae J2 [...] /100 cc soil) on productive parameters of the cape gooseberry, such as plant height, stem diameter, fresh and dry weights of leaves, fresh weight of roots, root nodulation index and weight of fruits in four harvests were evaluated. A variance analysis, contrasts test and Tukey test, within a randomized design with six treatments, and five repetitions was done within SAS v.8.0 program. It was determined that a treatment 500 larvae J2/100 cc soil had the highest effect on the plant height, stem diameter, leaf biomass and fresh weight of roots, besides it showed the highest root nodulation index. There were no significant differences found among the treatments for fresh weight and dry weight of leaves and fruits weight. For J2 larvae’s number in soil and eggs mass, the differences among the treatments inoculated with M. hapla were not found. A tolerance limit of 50 larvas J2/l00 cc soil was derived from fitting the data of root fresh weight and a tolerance limit of 450 larvas J2/l00 cc soil from data of biomass using the equation Y=m+(1-m)Z P-T proposed by Seinhorst (1965).

  18. A polymerase chain reaction method for identification of five major meloidogyne species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, T O; Harris, T S

    1993-03-01

    A polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method for discriminating Meloidogyne incognita, M. arenaria, M. javanica, M. hapla, and M. chitwoodi was developed. Single juveniles were ruptured in a drop of water and added directly to a PCR reaction mixture in a microcentrifuge tube. Primer annealing sites were located in the 3' portion of the mitochondrial gene coding for cytochrome oxidase subunit II and in the 16S rRNA gene. Following PCR amplification, fragments of three sizes were detected. The M. incognita and M. javanica reactions produced a 1.7-kb fragment; the M. arenaria reaction, a 1.1-kb fragment; and the M. hapla and M. chitwoodi reactions resulted in a 0.52-kb fragment. Digestion of the amplified product with restriction endonucleases allowed discrimination among species with identically sized amplification products. Dra I digestions of the 0.52-kb amplification product produced a characteristic three-banded pattern in M. chitwoodi, versus a two-banded pattern in M. hapla. Hinf I digestion of the 1.7-kb fragment produced a two-banded pattern in M. javanica, versus a three-banded pattern in M. incognita. Amplification and digestion of DNA from juveniles from single isolates of M. marylandi, M. naasi, and M. nataliei indicated that the diagnostic application of this primer set may extend to less frequently encountered Meloidogyne species. PMID:19279734

  19. Reproduction of Meloidogyne chitwoodi on Popcorn Cultivars

    OpenAIRE

    Cardwell, D. M.; Ingham, R. E.

    1997-01-01

    Popcorn cultivars were evaluated in field and greenhouse tests for resistance to the Columbia root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne chitwoodi, as potential resistant crops in potato rotations. A nematode reproductive factor (Rf) was calculated for each cultivar. Reproductive factor values also were compared on a relative basis as percentages of the Rf on a susceptible field corn standard, Pioneer 3578. Popcorn cultivars W206 and Robust 33-77 consistently supported low population densities of M. chi...

  20. Morphological and Molecular Characterization of a New Root-Knot Nematode, Meloidogyne thailandica n. sp. (Nematoda: Meloidogynidae), Parasitizing Ginger (Zingiber sp.)

    OpenAIRE

    Handoo, Z.A.; Skantar, A. M.; Carta, L. K.; Erbe, E F

    2005-01-01

    A root-knot nematode Meloidogyne thailandica n. sp. was discovered on roots of ginger (Zingiber spp.) intercepted from Thailand in October 2002 by the U.S. Department of Agriculture Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service at the port of San Francisco. Comparison by light microscopy (LM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to five other morphologically related species (M. incognita, M. arenaria, M. microcephala, M. megatyla, and M. enterolobii) revealed that the new species differs from ...

  1. Morphological, molecular, and differential-host characterization of Meloidogyne floridensis n. sp (Nematoda : Meloidogynidae), a root-knot nematode parasitizing peach in Florida

    OpenAIRE

    Handoo, Z. A.; Nyczepir, A. P.; Esmenjaud, D.; Beek, J. G.; Castagnone-sereno, P.; Carta, L. K.; Skantar, A. M.; Higgins, J. A.

    2004-01-01

    A root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne floridensis n. sp., is described and illustrated from peach originally collected from Gainesville, Florida. This new species resembles M. incognita, M. christiei, M. graminicola, and M. hispanica, but with LM and SEM observations it differs from these species either by the body length, shape of head, tail and tail terminus of second-stage juveniles, body length and shape of spicules in males, and its distinctive female perineal pattern. This pattern has a hig...

  2. Morphological, Molecular, and Differential-Host Characterization of Meloidogyne floridensis n. sp. (Nematoda: Meloidogynidae), a Root-Knot Nematode Parasitizing Peach in Florida

    OpenAIRE

    Handoo, Z. A.; Nyczepir, A. P.; Esmenjaud, D.; Beek, J. G.; Castagnone-sereno, P.; Carta, L. K.; Skantar, A. M.; Higgins, J. A.

    2004-01-01

    A root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne floridensis n. sp., is described and illustrated from peach originally collected from Gainesville, Florida. This new species resembles M. incognita, M. christiei, M. graminicola, and M. hispanica, but with LM and SEM observations it differs from these species either by the body length, shape of head, tail and tail terminus of second-stage juveniles, body length and shape of spicules in males, and its distinctive female perineal pattern. This pattern has a hig...

  3. Broad Meloidogyne Resistance in Potato Based on RNA Interference of Effector Gene 16D10.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinh, Phuong T Y; Zhang, Linhai; Mojtahedi, Hassan; Brown, Charles R; Elling, Axel A

    2015-03-01

    Root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp.) are a significant problem in potato (Solanum tuberosum) production. There is no potato cultivar with Meloidogyne resistance, even though resistance genes have been identified in wild potato species and were introgressed into breeding lines. The objectives of this study were to generate stable transgenic potato lines in a cv. Russet Burbank background that carry an RNA interference (RNAi) transgene capable of silencing the 16D10 Meloidogyne effector gene, and test for resistance against some of the most important root-knot nematode species affecting potato, i.e., M. arenaria, M. chitwoodi, M. hapla, M. incognita, and M. javanica. At 35 days after inoculation (DAI), the number of egg masses per plant was significantly reduced by 65% to 97% (P < 0.05) in the RNAi line compared to wild type and empty vector controls. The largest reduction was observed in M. hapla, whereas the smallest reduction occurred in M. javanica. Likewise, the number of eggs per plant was significantly reduced by 66% to 87% in M. arenaria and M. hapla, respectively, compared to wild type and empty vector controls (P < 0.05). Plant-mediated RNAi silencing of the 16D10 effector gene resulted in significant resistance against all of the root-knot nematode species tested, whereas R Mc1(blb) , the only known Meloidogyne resistance gene in potato, did not have a broad resistance effect. Silencing of 16D10 did not interfere with the attraction of M. incognita second-stage juveniles to roots, nor did it reduce root invasion. PMID:25861119

  4. Reação de porta-enxertos comerciais de tomateiro a Meloidogyne mayaguensis / Reaction of commercial tomato rootstocks plant to Meloidogyne mayaguensis

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Rafael Ricardo, Cantu; Silvia Renata Siciliano, Wilcken; Juliana Magrinelli Osório, Rosa; Rumy, Goto.

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do presente trabalho foi verificar a resistência ao nematóide Meloidogyne mayaguensis em oito porta-enxertos de tomateiro considerados resistentes à Meloidogyne incognita, M. javanica e M. arenaria, comercializados no Brasil. Os porta-enxertos testados foram: 'Guardião', 'Helper-M', 'Anch [...] or-T', 'Dr. K', 'Kagemuscha', 'TMA 809', 'Magnet' e 'He-Man'. O experimento constou de 9 tratamentos (8 porta-enxertos e a cultivar Rutgers utilizada como padrão de suscetibilidade), com 6 repetições, sendo cada parcela constituída por 1 planta por vaso, mantidas em casa de vegetação. As plantas foram inoculadas com 5.000 ovos e eventuais juvenis infectantes de M. mayaguensis. O experimento seguiu o delineamento inteiramente casualizado. Aos 60 dias da inoculação procederam-se as avaliações, quando foram avaliados os índices de galhas e massas de ovos, número de nematóides no solo e na raiz, peso do sistema radicular e o fator de reprodução. Todos os porta-enxertos estudados demonstraram-se suscetíveis a M. mayaguensis. Abstract in english The objective of this research was to verify the resistance response of eight Brazilian commercial tomato rootstocks to the nematode Meloidogyne mayaguensis. The studied rootstocks were: 'Guardião', 'Helper-M', 'Anchor-T', 'Dr. K', 'Kagemuscha', 'TMA 809', 'Magnet' and 'He-Man'. The experiment consi [...] sted of 9 treatments (8 rootstocks and 'Rutgers' used as susceptible control), with 6 replication. Each plot was constituted by 1 plant per pot, maintained in green-house. The plants were inoculated with 5,000 eggs and second stage juvenile of M. mayaguensis. The experimental design was completely randomized. The evaluation was 60 days after inoculation, when the root weight, gall and egg mass index, nematode number in soil and in root and reproduction factor were evaluated. All studied rootstocks were susceptible to M. mayaguensis.

  5. Susceptibilidad de genotipos de Solanum spp. al nematodo causante del nudo radical Meloidogyne spp. (chitwood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gelpud Chaves Cristian

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available

    El cultivo del lulo (Solanum quitoense L. presenta una disminución en su productividad, debido al ataque de patógenos como el nematodo del nudo radical Meloidogyne  spp., en el Departamento  de Nariño (Colombia, se han reportado incidencias cercanas al 79%, y pérdidas del 50%.   En la presente investigación, se colectaron 45 genotipos de (Solanum quitoense  L. en los Departamentos  de Nariño  y Putumayo  y 4 genotipos  silvestres  (S. mammosum, S. hirtum,       S. marginatum  y S. umbellatum buscando fuentes de resistencia al nematodo. Se inocularon 9 plantas de cada genotipo de dos meses de edad con 10000 huevos de Meloidogyne spp., dejando tres testigos por cada material. Las variables evaluadas fueron: altura de planta, severidad, incidencia, peso fresco (tallo y raíz y especies prevalentes de Meloidogyne spp. Se hizo una clasificación de genotipos mediante escala de resistencia y regresión entre la severidad y las demás variables para establecer el efecto de Meloidogyne spp. sobre los genotipos de planta. Los resultados mostraron 100% de incidencia del nematodo en  todos  los  genotipos,  2.04%  genotipos  resistentes,  34.7%  moderadamente  resistentes, 42.8% moderadamente susceptibles, 18.3% susceptibles, y 2.04% altamente susceptibles. El genotipo SQbr05 resistente, no se vio afectado por la severidad, al contrario SQbc04 genotipo susceptible, mostró reducciones significativas en peso fresco de tallo y raIz, (R2 = 0.71 y 0.98,el genotipo silvestre (S. mammosum es altamente susceptible, Meloidogyne incognita presentó 55.31% de presencia. El genotipo SQbr05 es promisorio para ser evaluado en campo.

  6. Chitin in Meloidogyne javanica

    OpenAIRE

    Bird, A. F.; Self, P. G.

    1995-01-01

    La gangue gélatineuse extrudée par les femelles vivantes de #Meloidogyne javanica$ et formant avec les oeufs la masse d'oeufs, a été analysée en vue de la présence de chitine. A 22°C, la gelée fraîchement extrudée se dissout rapidement lorsque du KOH à 5 % est ajouté à une lame de perfusion contenant le nématode. La gelée des masses d'oeufs est plus dure mais se dissout en 24h dans la potasse à 5 % portée à 105°C. Les coques des oeufs résistent à ce traitement et produise...

  7. Immunolocalisation of secreted-excreted products of Meloidogyne spp. using polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies Imunolocalização de produtos secretados-excretados de Meloidogyne spp. usando anticorpos policlonais e monoclonais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liziane M. Lima

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Molecules expressed at the surface cuticle (SC of plant parasitic nematodes represent the primary plant-nematode interface, and together with secreted-excreted (S-E products are probably the first signals perceived by the host. These molecules, which are released into plant tissue, probably play important roles in the host-parasite interactions. Characterisation of these antigens will help in the identification of nematode targets useful for novel control strategies, which interfere with the nematode infection of plants. Three monoclonal (MAbs and three polyclonal (PAbs antibodies produced to S-E products of Meloidogyne spp. and Heterodera avenae were used to examine their reactivity towards M. incognita and/or M. arenaria second stage juveniles and adult females. The three PAbs showed cross-reactivity with M. incognita and M. arenaria. Antibody Roth-PC 373 strongly recognised molecules present in the SC, amphids and intestine, antibody Roth-PC 389 recognised the nematode amphids and metacorpus, while antibody Roth-PC 419 bound to molecules present in the subventral glands. Reactivity of the MAbs was only tested against M. arenaria. Monoclonal antibody Roth-MAb T116C1.1 showed intense reactivity with molecules present in the amphidial and phasmidial glands. Monoclonal antibodies Roth-MAb T46.2 and T42D.2 labeled the nematode amphids and molecules present in the nematode oesophagus (metacorpus, respectively.Moléculas expressadas na cutícula dos nematóides parasitas de plantas representam o primeiro contato planta-nematóide e, junto com produtos secretados/excretados (S-E, são, provavelmente, os primeiros sinais percebidos pelo hospedeiro. Essas moléculas, as quais são liberadas dentro do tecido da planta, podem ter papel importante na interação parasita-hospedeiro. A caracterização desses antígenos pode ajudar na identificação de alvos para novas estratégias que interfiram na infecção de plantas por nematóides. Três anticorpos monoclonais e três anticorpos policlonais produzidos para secreções-excreções de Meloidogyne spp. e Heterodera avenae foram usados para examinar a reatividade a juvenis de segundo estádio (J2 e/ou fêmeas de M. incognita e M. arenaria. Os três anticorpos policlonais mostraram reação tanto para M. incognita quanto para M. arenaria. Roth-PC 373 reconheceu fortemente moléculas presentes na cutícula, anfídios e intestino, Roth-PC 389 reconheceu anfidios e metacorpo, enquanto Roth-PC 419 ligou-se a moléculas presentes nas glândulas subventrais. A reatividade dos MAbs foi testada somente com M. Arenaria. Roth-MAb T116C1.1 reagiu intensamente com moléculas presentes nas glândulas anfidial e fasmidial. Roth-MAb T46.2 e T42D.2 marcaram anfídios e moléculas presentes no esôfago (metacorpo do nematóide, respectivamente.

  8. Incorporating Molecular Identification of Meloidogyne spp. into a Large-scale Regional Nematode Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powers, T O; Mullin, P G; Harris, T S; Sutton, L A; Higgins, R S

    2005-06-01

    A regional nematode survey of potato fields was conducted in the central United States during 2002 and 2003. The survey encompassed seven states and included a morphological and molecular examination of nematodes of regulatory concern from 1,929 soil samples. No regulated pest species were recovered during this survey. Meloidogyne juveniles extracted from soil were identified by mitochondrial and 18S ribosomal molecular markers. Eighty-two DNA sequences representing the two marker regions for Meloidogyne species were submitted to GenBank to facilitate evaluation of marker variability. Sufficient 18S variation was observed among some Meloidogyne species to aid in identification; however, nucleotide sequence from this highly conserved region of 18S did not discriminate among M. arenaria, M. incognita, and M. javanica. The mitochondrial gene region provided greater species discrimination and revealed intraspecific variation among many isolates. One nucleotide substitution found in a subset of M. hapla isolates from west Texas and New Mexico affected a DraI restriction site used in the PCR/RFLP diagnostic protocol. None of the mitochondrial sequence variants observed in this study compromised the PCR/RFLP identification protocol for M. chitwoodi. Additional sequence analysis is recommended for validation and evaluation of genetic markers used in diagnostic decisions. PMID:19262865

  9. Enzymatic Relationships and Evolution in the Genus Meloidogyne (Nematoda: Tylenchida)

    OpenAIRE

    Esbenshade, P. R.; Triantaphyllou, A. C.

    1987-01-01

    Thirty populations of Meloidogyne of diverse geographic origin representing 10 nominal species and various reproductive, cytological, and physiological forms known to exist in the genus were examined to determine their enzymatic relationships. The 184 bands resolved in the study of 27 enzymes were considered as independent characters. Pair-wise comparisons of populations were performed in all possible combinations to estimate the enzymatic distances (ED) and coefficients of similarity (S). A ...

  10. Efeito da Incorporação de Folhas de Nim ao Solo sobre o Complexo Fusarium x Meloidogyne em Quiabeiro Effect of amendment of soil with neem leaf on Fusarium x Meloidogyne on okra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilson Soares da Silva

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito da incorporação de folhas frescas de nim (Azadirachta indica ao solo, sobre o complexo Fusarium x Meloidogyne em quiabeiro (Abelmoschus esculentum em um experimento realizado em condições de casa de vegetação. Os tratamentos constaram da adição de 25g ou 50g de folhas trituradas/kg de solo previamente autoclavado e inoculado com M. incognita, Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum, juntos e isoladamente, contidos em vasos com capacidade de 2 L. Solo sem folhas de nim serviu como testemunha. O experimento foi realizado seguindo um delineamento inteiramente casualizado com seis repetições, sendo cada repetição representada por um vaso com 5 plantas. As folhas foram incorporadas 30 dias antes do plantio e a avaliação deu-se 90 dias após o plantio, adotando-se a percentagem de plantas mortas como parâmetro para avaliar o efeito dos tratamentos. A incorporação de 50g de folhas frescas de nim foi eficiente para o controle de Meloidogyne e Fusarium isoladamente, bem como na interação desses patógenos. A incorporação de 25g de folhas de nim mostrou-se eficiente apenas para o controle de Meloidogyne isoladamente.The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of soil ammendment with neem (Azadirachta indica leaf on the complex Fusarium x Meloidogyne in okra (Abelmoschus esculentum in greenhouse conditions. The treatments consisted of the addition of 25g or 50g of leaves per kg of soil and infested with M. incognita and Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum, together and separately, contained in pots with capacity of 2 L. Soil without supplement it served as the control. The experimental design was completely randomized with six replications and five plants per pot. The leaves were incorporate 30 days before planting and the evaluation 90 days later. The percentagem of dead plants was used to evaluate the efficiency of neem. The incorporation of 50g of fresh neem leaves was efficient in the control of both Meloidogyne and Fusarium separately as well as in their interaction. The incorporation of 25g of neem leaves was shown efficient just for the control of Meloidogyne separately.

  11. Efeito da Incorporação de Folhas de Nim ao Solo sobre o Complexo Fusarium x Meloidogyne em Quiabeiro / Effect of amendment of soil with neem leaf on Fusarium x Meloidogyne on okra

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Gilson Soares da, Silva; Aurenice Lucena, Pereira.

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito da incorporação de folhas frescas de nim (Azadirachta indica) ao solo, sobre o complexo Fusarium x Meloidogyne em quiabeiro (Abelmoschus esculentum) em um experimento realizado em condições de casa de vegetação. Os tratamentos constaram da adição de 25g [...] ou 50g de folhas trituradas/kg de solo previamente autoclavado e inoculado com M. incognita, Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum, juntos e isoladamente, contidos em vasos com capacidade de 2 L. Solo sem folhas de nim serviu como testemunha. O experimento foi realizado seguindo um delineamento inteiramente casualizado com seis repetições, sendo cada repetição representada por um vaso com 5 plantas. As folhas foram incorporadas 30 dias antes do plantio e a avaliação deu-se 90 dias após o plantio, adotando-se a percentagem de plantas mortas como parâmetro para avaliar o efeito dos tratamentos. A incorporação de 50g de folhas frescas de nim foi eficiente para o controle de Meloidogyne e Fusarium isoladamente, bem como na interação desses patógenos. A incorporação de 25g de folhas de nim mostrou-se eficiente apenas para o controle de Meloidogyne isoladamente. Abstract in english The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of soil ammendment with neem (Azadirachta indica) leaf on the complex Fusarium x Meloidogyne in okra (Abelmoschus esculentum) in greenhouse conditions. The treatments consisted of the addition of 25g or 50g of leaves per kg of soil and infest [...] ed with M. incognita and Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum, together and separately, contained in pots with capacity of 2 L. Soil without supplement it served as the control. The experimental design was completely randomized with six replications and five plants per pot. The leaves were incorporate 30 days before planting and the evaluation 90 days later. The percentagem of dead plants was used to evaluate the efficiency of neem. The incorporation of 50g of fresh neem leaves was efficient in the control of both Meloidogyne and Fusarium separately as well as in their interaction. The incorporation of 25g of neem leaves was shown efficient just for the control of Meloidogyne separately.

  12. Susceptibilidad de genotipos de Solanum spp. al nematodo causante del nudo radical Meloidogyne spp. (chitwood) Susceptibility of genotypes of Solanum spp. to the nematode causative of the root knot Meloidogyne spp. (chitwood)

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian Gelpud Chaves

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available El cultivo del lulo (Solanum quitoense L.) presenta una disminución en su productividad, debido al ataque de patógenos como el nematodo del nudo radical Meloidogyne spp., en el Departamento de Nariño (Colombia), se han reportado incidencias cercanas al 79%, y pérdidas del 50%. En la presente investigación, se colectaron 45 genotipos de (Solanum quitoense L.) en los Departamentos de Nariño y Putumayo y 4 genotipos silvestres (S. mammosum, S. hirtum, S. marginatum y S. umbellatum) buscando fuentes de resistencia al nematodo. Se inocularon 9 plantas de cada genotipo de dos meses de edad con 10000 huevos de Meloidogyne spp., dejando tres testigos por cada material. Las variables evaluadas fueron: altura de planta, severidad, incidencia, peso fresco (tallo y raíz) y especies prevalentes de Meloidogyne spp. Se hizo una clasificación de genotipos mediante escala de resistencia y regresión entre la severidad y las demás variables para establecer el efecto de Meloidogyne spp. sobre los genotipos de planta. Los resultados mostraron 100% de incidencia del nematodo en todos los genotipos, 2.04% genotipos resistentes, 34.7% moderadamente resistentes, 42.8% moderadamente susceptibles, 18.3% susceptibles, y 2.04% altamente susceptibles. El genotipo SQbr05 resistente, no se vio afectado por la severidad, al contrario SQbc04 genotipo susceptible, mostró reducciones significativas en peso fresco de tallo y raíz, (R² = 0.71 y 0.98), el genotipo silvestre (S. mammosum) es altamente susceptible, Meloidogyne incognita presentó 55.31% de presencia. El genotipo SQbr05 es promisorio para ser evaluado en campo.The green orange (Solanum quitoense L.) crop has decreased in its productivity due to the pathogens attack such as the root knot nematode Meloidogyne spp. In the Nariño Department of Colombia, pest incidences near to 79% and losses of 50% have been reported. In this study, 45 genotypes of Solanum quitoense were collected in Nariño and Putumayo Departments. Four wild genotypes (S. mammosum, S. hirtum, S. marginatum and S. umbellatum) were collected to look for nematode resistance sources. Nine plants of each genotype two month old were inoculated with 10000 eggs of Meloidogyne spp., leaving three plants as control by each material. The evaluated variables were: plant height, pest severity, pest incidence, fresh weight (stem and root) and Meloidogyne spp. prevalent species. A genotype classification was made through a pest resistance scale and regression among severity and the rest of variables to determine the effect of Meloidogyne spp. over the plant genotypes. The results showed 100% nematode incidence in all genotypes, resistant genotypes ².04%, 34.7% moderately resistant, 42.8% moderately susceptible, 18.3% were susceptible, and 2.04% highly susceptible. The SQbr05 resistant genotype, was not affected by severity. On the other hand, the pest susceptible genotype SQbc04 showed significant reductions in stem and root fresh weight (R² = 0.71 and 0.98), the wild genotype (S. mammosum) was highly susceptible, Meloidogyne incognita showed 55.31% of presence. The SQbr05 genotype is promising to be evaluated in field.

  13. Susceptibilidad de genotipos de Solanum spp. al nematodo causante del nudo radical Meloidogyne spp. (chitwood) / Susceptibility of genotypes of Solanum spp. to the nematode causative of the root knot Meloidogyne spp. (chitwood)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Cristian, Gelpud Chaves; Edwin, Mora Marcillo; Claudia, Salazar Gonzalez.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available El cultivo del lulo (Solanum quitoense L.) presenta una disminución en su productividad, debido al ataque de patógenos como el nematodo del nudo radical Meloidogyne spp., en el Departamento de Nariño (Colombia), se han reportado incidencias cercanas al 79%, y pérdidas del 50%. En la presente investi [...] gación, se colectaron 45 genotipos de (Solanum quitoense L.) en los Departamentos de Nariño y Putumayo y 4 genotipos silvestres (S. mammosum, S. hirtum, S. marginatum y S. umbellatum) buscando fuentes de resistencia al nematodo. Se inocularon 9 plantas de cada genotipo de dos meses de edad con 10000 huevos de Meloidogyne spp., dejando tres testigos por cada material. Las variables evaluadas fueron: altura de planta, severidad, incidencia, peso fresco (tallo y raíz) y especies prevalentes de Meloidogyne spp. Se hizo una clasificación de genotipos mediante escala de resistencia y regresión entre la severidad y las demás variables para establecer el efecto de Meloidogyne spp. sobre los genotipos de planta. Los resultados mostraron 100% de incidencia del nematodo en todos los genotipos, 2.04% genotipos resistentes, 34.7% moderadamente resistentes, 42.8% moderadamente susceptibles, 18.3% susceptibles, y 2.04% altamente susceptibles. El genotipo SQbr05 resistente, no se vio afectado por la severidad, al contrario SQbc04 genotipo susceptible, mostró reducciones significativas en peso fresco de tallo y raíz, (R² = 0.71 y 0.98), el genotipo silvestre (S. mammosum) es altamente susceptible, Meloidogyne incognita presentó 55.31% de presencia. El genotipo SQbr05 es promisorio para ser evaluado en campo. Abstract in english The green orange (Solanum quitoense L.) crop has decreased in its productivity due to the pathogens attack such as the root knot nematode Meloidogyne spp. In the Nariño Department of Colombia, pest incidences near to 79% and losses of 50% have been reported. In this study, 45 genotypes of Solanum qu [...] itoense were collected in Nariño and Putumayo Departments. Four wild genotypes (S. mammosum, S. hirtum, S. marginatum and S. umbellatum) were collected to look for nematode resistance sources. Nine plants of each genotype two month old were inoculated with 10000 eggs of Meloidogyne spp., leaving three plants as control by each material. The evaluated variables were: plant height, pest severity, pest incidence, fresh weight (stem and root) and Meloidogyne spp. prevalent species. A genotype classification was made through a pest resistance scale and regression among severity and the rest of variables to determine the effect of Meloidogyne spp. over the plant genotypes. The results showed 100% nematode incidence in all genotypes, resistant genotypes ².04%, 34.7% moderately resistant, 42.8% moderately susceptible, 18.3% were susceptible, and 2.04% highly susceptible. The SQbr05 resistant genotype, was not affected by severity. On the other hand, the pest susceptible genotype SQbc04 showed significant reductions in stem and root fresh weight (R² = 0.71 and 0.98), the wild genotype (S. mammosum) was highly susceptible, Meloidogyne incognita showed 55.31% of presence. The SQbr05 genotype is promising to be evaluated in field.

  14. Morphological comparison of meloidogyne males by scanning electron microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohde, W A; Johnson, A W; Dowlet, C C; Glaze, N C

    1980-01-01

    Field plots of Tifton loamy sand were treated with methyl bromide, DD-MENCS, or ethoprop for control of root-knot nematodes, Meloidogyne incognita, in a multiple cropping system of turnips, field corn, and southern peas. Annual applications of methyl bromide and DD-MENCS in November or December suppressed nematode numbers to very low levels through September, but numbers increased in the following October, November, and/or December. No benefit was found from ethoprop applied to DD-MENCS-treated plots before the planting of each crop. Nematode numbers were not significantly suppressed by ethoprop alone. Concentrations of ethoprop in the 0-15-cm soil layer were near 6 mug/g at application but were root-knot nematodes on field corn and southern peas in multiple cropping systems. Stepwise regression analyses indicated that 81% and 36% of the variations in concentration of ethoprop in the soil were attributable to the amount of water that the plots received when the maximum soil temperature ranged from 10 C to 19 C and from 31 C to 41 C, respectively, and that 11% was attributable to the maximum soil temperature within the temperature range of 17 C to 33 C. PMID:19300667

  15. Host-Parasite Relationship of Meloidogyne chitwoodi on Potato

    OpenAIRE

    Griffin, G. D.

    1985-01-01

    The soil fumigant 1,3-dichloropropene gave good to excellent control of the Columbia root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne chitwoodi, on potato, Solanum tuberosum L. Nonfumigant nematicides (aldicarb, fensulfothion, carbofuran, ethoprop, and phenamiphos) were less effective in controlling M. chitwoodi, since the nematode affects tuber quality more than quantity. Soil temperature during the growing season affected parasitism of M. chitwoodi on potato more than did the initial nematode population. Th...

  16. Host Status of Selected Crops to Meloidogyne chitwoodi

    OpenAIRE

    Ferris, H.; Carlson, H. L.; Viglierchio, D. R.; Westerdahl, B. B.; Wu, F. W.; Anderson, C. E.; Juurma, A.; Kirby, D. W.

    1993-01-01

    Various crops were tested in greenhouse and field trials for their potential utility in the rotation sequence in the potato cropping system in Meloidogyne chitwoodi-infested soils of the Klamath Basin in northeastern California and southern Oregon. Two Solarium accessions from the International Potato Center in Peru were potential sources of resistance to M. chitwoodi. Cultivars of barley, oat, rye, wheat, and white lupine were maintenance hosts, supporting the nematode population at its curr...

  17. Resistance verification in Prunus selections to a mixture of thirteen Meloidogyne isolates and resistance mechanisms of a peach-almond hybrid to M. javanica

    OpenAIRE

    Marull, J.; Pinochet, J.; Felipe, A.; Cenis, J. L.

    1994-01-01

    Treize isolats de #Meloidogyne$ originaires d'Espagne comprenant #M. incognita$ (six), #M. arenaria$ (six) et #M. javanica$ (trois) ont été utilisés pour vérifier le niveau de résistance de douze porte-greffe de #Prunus$. La majorité de ces porte-greffe était constituée d'hybrides pêcher-amandier en cours de sélection. Lors d'un premier essai, les hybrides G X N Nos 3, 7, 14, 16 et Cachirulo, l'amandier D-3-5 et le pêcher Nemared ont montré différents niveaux de résistance à un mélange de dou...

  18. Effect of Some Plant Extracts on the Hatch of Meloidogyne incognita Eggs

    OpenAIRE

    Anuja Bharadwaj; Satyawati Sharma

    2007-01-01

    Root-knot nematodes are one of the major limiting factors affecting plant growth and yield. Currently, synthetic pesticides are principle means used to control the nematodes but natural products may provide a safer alternative. Nematicidal compounds have been identified in a wide diversity of plant species. A study was conducted to evaluate potential of aqueous extracts from Azadirachta indica, Carica papaya, Ocimum sanctum, Ricinus communis and Tagetes patula, in controlling the hatch of egg...

  19. Effects of Anaerobically Digested Slurry on Meloidogyne incognita and Pratylenchus penetrans in Tomato and Radish Production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since effective disposable way of anaerobically digested biogas slurry is expected, ADS was applied to soil to evaluate its effects on nematode damage. Damage index of tomato by root-knot nematode was significantly (P4+ -N kg-1) than that in those with chemical fertilizer and control (no ADS). ADS was applied into radish cultivated fields infested with the root-lesion nematode: a single (100 kg NH4+ -N ha-1) in 2007 and 2008 and multiple applications (25, 50, 25 kg NH4+-N ha-1 soil) in 2009. Damage to radish was 30% and 50% lower in ADS-treated fields than that in the control in 2007 and 2009, respectively, although not in 2008. These results suggest that application of ADS to fields might be feasible for mitigating nematode damage, but the rate and timing should be considered further for the best application way.

  20. Efecto del follaje de Tagetes minutasobre la nodulación radicular de Meloidogyne incognitaen Capsicum annuum, en invernadero

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santos Nélida Murga-Gutiérrez

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Se investigó el efecto del follaje del “huacatay” Tagetes minutasobre la nodulación radicular producida por el nematodo Meloidogyne incognitaque parasita el “pimiento páprika” Capsicum annuumcultivado en invernadero, con la finalidad de obtener una alternativa de control de este nematodo. Se utilizaron tres grupos experimentales y un testigo, con 12 macetas cada uno, las cuales contenían suelo y arena estériles (1:1. A este substrato se adicionó el follaje de T. minutaal 20, 35 y 50% (v/v según grupo experimental, y el testigo no recibió esta enmienda. En cada maceta se sembró una plántula de C. annuum, y a la semana postsiembra se inoculó 5000 huevos de M. incognita.A las ocho semanas, se evaluaron los nódulos en sus raíces. Todas las plantas presentaron nódulos; aunque, en aquellas de los grupos experimentales el número de éstos fue menor que en las plantas testigo, con diferencia estadística significativa (p< 0,05. Entre el número de nódulos de las plantas de los grupos experimentales no hubo diferencia estadística (p> 0,05. Se concluye que el follaje de T. minutaadicionado como enmienda orgánica al 20, 35 y 50% al suelo de cultivo de plantas de C. annuum limita la nodulación radicular ocasionada por M. incognita. Lo cual sugiere su uso potencial en el control de este nematodo.

  1. Host status of different crops for Meloidogyne ethiopica control Reação de diferentes culturas para controlar Meloidogyne ethiopica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edriana A. Lima

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Two greenhouse experiments were carried out to characterize the resistance or susceptibility reactions of 52 species of plants to Meloidogyne ethiopica and their possible adverse effect on nematode population under greenhouse conditions. Tested plants with Reproduction Factor less than one (RFDois experimentos foram realizados em casa de vegetação, visando a caracterização de resistência ou suscetibilidade de 52 espécies vegetais a Meloidogyne ethiopica e os seus possíveis efeitos adversos sobre a população do nematóide, em condições de casa de vegetação. As plantas que apresentaram o Fator de Reprodução menor que um (FR1.0. Alguns sistemas de rotação de culturas alternando plantas de verão e de inverno não hospedeiras foram sugeridos para realização de experimentos a campo para validar os resultados de casa de vegetação.

  2. Suppression of Meloidogyne chitwoodi with Sudangrass Cultivars as Green Manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mojtahedi, H; Santo, G S; Ingham, R E

    1993-06-01

    Meloidogyne chitwoodi race 1 reproduced on Piper sudangrass (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench), 332 (sudangrass hybrid), and P855F and P877F (sorghum-sudangrass hybrids), but failed to reproduce efficiently on Trudan 8, Trudex 9 (sudangrass hybrids), and Sordan 79, SS-222, and Bravo II (sorghum-sudangrass hybrids). Meloidogyne chitwoodi race 2 behaved similarly and reproduced more efficiently on Piper, P855F, and P877F than on Trudan 8, Trudex 9, or Sordan 79. The mean reproductive factor for M. chitwoodi races on the poorer hosts ranged from Meloidogyne hapla failed to reproduce on any of the cultivars tested. In the laboratory, leaves of each cultivar chopped and incorporated as green manure reduced the M. chitwoodi population in infested soil more than unamended or wheat green manure treatments. Trudan 8, although limited to the zone of incorporation, protected this zone from colonization of upward migrating second stage juveniles (J2) for up to 6 weeks. Leaves of Trudan 8 but not roots were effective against M. chitwoodi, and J2 appeared to be more sensitive than egg masses. Trudan 8 and Sordan 79 as green manure reduced M. chitwoodi in bucket microplots under field conditions. PMID:19279773

  3. Intra- and interspecific variation of root-knot nematodes, Meloidogyne spp., with regard to resistance in wild tuber-bearing Solanum species

    OpenAIRE

    Janssen, G. J. W.; Norel, A.; Verkerk-bakker, B.; Janssen, R.

    1997-01-01

    Des génotypes appartenant à des espèces sauvages de #Solanum$ ont été testés pour déterminer leur niveau de résistance aux nématodes #Meloidogyne$ et pour détecter la présence de populations virulentes chez #Meloidogyne chitwoodi$, #M. fallax$ et #M. hapla$. Une résistance élevée de toutes les populations testées appartenant à #M. chitwoodi$ et #M. fallax$ est observée chez des génotypes de #Solanum bulbocastanum$, #S. hougasii$, #S. cardiophyllum$ et #S. fendleri$. Quelques...

  4. Management of Root-Nematode (Meloidogyne SPP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenhouse and field experiments were undertaken to determine the possibility of using soil amendments with different C:N levels or applied at different rates and times in the control of root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp.)in tomato c.v Cal J.A naturally infested field was used while artificial inoculation was done in the greenhouse. Root galling was rated on a scale of 0-10, nematode population was estimated by counting second stage juveniles extracted from 200 cm3 soil and fruit yields were recorded at the end of the season. Nematode population densities and galling indices were significantly (P< or=0.05) lower in amended soils compared to the control. Application of the amendments also resulted in significant (P< or=0.05) increase in yields. Chicken manure, compost manure, neem products and pig manure were were the most effective amendments. Fresh chicken manure had a more suppressive effect on nematode than when the manure was decomposed within or outside a nematode infested field. A general decrease in juvenile populations and galling was observed with increase of organic amendments applied

  5. Immunolocalisation of secreted-excreted products of Meloidogyne spp. using polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies / Imunolocalização de produtos secretados-excretados de Meloidogyne spp. usando anticorpos policlonais e monoclonais

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Liziane M., Lima; Maria F., Grossi-de-Sa; Railene A., Pereira; Rosane H.C., Curtis.

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Moléculas expressadas na cutícula dos nematóides parasitas de plantas representam o primeiro contato planta-nematóide e, junto com produtos secretados/excretados (S-E), são, provavelmente, os primeiros sinais percebidos pelo hospedeiro. Essas moléculas, as quais são liberadas dentro do tecido da pla [...] nta, podem ter papel importante na interação parasita-hospedeiro. A caracterização desses antígenos pode ajudar na identificação de alvos para novas estratégias que interfiram na infecção de plantas por nematóides. Três anticorpos monoclonais e três anticorpos policlonais produzidos para secreções-excreções de Meloidogyne spp. e Heterodera avenae foram usados para examinar a reatividade a juvenis de segundo estádio (J2) e/ou fêmeas de M. incognita e M. arenaria. Os três anticorpos policlonais mostraram reação tanto para M. incognita quanto para M. arenaria. Roth-PC 373 reconheceu fortemente moléculas presentes na cutícula, anfídios e intestino, Roth-PC 389 reconheceu anfidios e metacorpo, enquanto Roth-PC 419 ligou-se a moléculas presentes nas glândulas subventrais. A reatividade dos MAbs foi testada somente com M. Arenaria. Roth-MAb T116C1.1 reagiu intensamente com moléculas presentes nas glândulas anfidial e fasmidial. Roth-MAb T46.2 e T42D.2 marcaram anfídios e moléculas presentes no esôfago (metacorpo) do nematóide, respectivamente. Abstract in english Molecules expressed at the surface cuticle (SC) of plant parasitic nematodes represent the primary plant-nematode interface, and together with secreted-excreted (S-E) products are probably the first signals perceived by the host. These molecules, which are released into plant tissue, probably play i [...] mportant roles in the host-parasite interactions. Characterisation of these antigens will help in the identification of nematode targets useful for novel control strategies, which interfere with the nematode infection of plants. Three monoclonal (MAbs) and three polyclonal (PAbs) antibodies produced to S-E products of Meloidogyne spp. and Heterodera avenae were used to examine their reactivity towards M. incognita and/or M. arenaria second stage juveniles and adult females. The three PAbs showed cross-reactivity with M. incognita and M. arenaria. Antibody Roth-PC 373 strongly recognised molecules present in the SC, amphids and intestine, antibody Roth-PC 389 recognised the nematode amphids and metacorpus, while antibody Roth-PC 419 bound to molecules present in the subventral glands. Reactivity of the MAbs was only tested against M. arenaria. Monoclonal antibody Roth-MAb T116C1.1 showed intense reactivity with molecules present in the amphidial and phasmidial glands. Monoclonal antibodies Roth-MAb T46.2 and T42D.2 labeled the nematode amphids and molecules present in the nematode oesophagus (metacorpus), respectively.

  6. Reproduction of Meloidogyne chitwoodi on Popcorn Cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardwell, D M; Ingham, R E

    1997-12-01

    Popcorn cultivars were evaluated in field and greenhouse tests for resistance to the Columbia root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne chitwoodi, as potential resistant crops in potato rotations. A nematode reproductive factor (Rf) was calculated for each cultivar. Reproductive factor values also were compared on a relative basis as percentages of the Rf on a susceptible field corn standard, Pioneer 3578. Popcorn cultivars W206 and Robust 33-77 consistently supported low population densities of M. chitwoodi in repeated tests. However, WOC 9508 had the greatest resistance in any of the field tests, with an Rf value of 0.04. Cultivars with a mean field and greenhouse Rf value less than 50% of the value for Pioneer 3578 were WOC 9508 (8%), WOC 9554 (13%), W206 (15%), WOX 9512 (23%), Robust 33-77 (30%), Robust 20-70 (38%), WOC 9510 (41%), and WOC 9504 (42%). If these cultivars were used in rotation, M. chitwoodi population densities at the end of the popcorn season would be between 58% and 92% less than if Pioneer 3578 were grown. In greenhouse tests, WOX 9511, WOX 9528, WOC 9556, and WOX 9531 also had low Rf values (7-46% that of Pioneer 3578), but field testing of these cultivars is needed. PMID:19274265

  7. Importance of Temperature in the Pathology of Meloidogyne hapla and M. chitwoodi on Legumes

    OpenAIRE

    Griffin, G. D.; Jensen, K. B.

    1997-01-01

    Effects of temperatures on the host-parasite relationships were studied for three legume species and four populations of root-knot nematodes from the western United States. The nematode populations were Meloidogyne hapla from California (MHCA), Utah (MHUT), and Wyoming (MHWY), and a population of M. chitwoodi from Utah (MCUT). The legumes were milkvetch (Astragalus cicer), alfalfa (Medicago sativa), and yellow sweet clover (Melilotus officinalis). All milkvetch plants survived inoculation wit...

  8. Competition between the Plant-parasitic Nematodes Pratylenchus neglectus and Meloidogyne chitwoodi

    OpenAIRE

    Umesh, Kodira C.; Ferris, Howard; Bayer, David E.

    1994-01-01

    In experiments on competition between Pratylenchus neglectus and Meloidogyne chitwoodi in barley, the species that parasitized the roots first inhibited penetration by the latter species. Prior presence of P. neglectus impeded the development of M. chitwoodi. Pratylenchus neglectus reduced egg production, final population levels, and reproductive index of M. chitwoodi. The reduction was linearly related to initial population densities of P. neglectus. Initial population densities of M. chitwo...

  9. Influence of Meloidogyne chitwoodi and M. hapla on Wheat Growth

    OpenAIRE

    Nyczepir, A. P.; Inserra, R. N.; O Bannon, J. H.; Santo, G. S.

    1984-01-01

    Meloidogyne chitwoodi reduced the growth of winter wheat 'Nugaines' directly in relation to nematode density in the greenhouse, The relationship between top dry weight and initial nematode density suggests a tolerance limit of Nugaines wheat to M. chitwoodi of between 0.03 and 0.18 eggs/cm³ of soil; the value for relative minimum plant top weight was 0.45 g and 0.75 g, respectively. Growth of wheat in field microplots containing four population densities (0.003, 0.05, 0.75 and 9 eggs/cm³ so...

  10. Estimation of partial resistance in potato genotypes against Meloidogyne chitwoodi

    OpenAIRE

    Norshie, P. M.; Been, T. H.; Schomaker, C. H.

    2011-01-01

    Three new potato genotypes, designated AR 04-4107, AR 04-4096 and AR 04-4098, with resistance towards Meloidogyne chitwoodi, and the susceptible cv. Désirée were grown at a range of population densities of M. chitwoodi in a climate-controlled glasshouse in order to establish the presence and degree of partial resistance. Tuber parts of about 12 g were planted at densities (Pi) of 0, 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 8, 16, 32, 64, 128 and 256 second-stage juveniles (J2) (g dry soil)?1. The plants were allowe...

  11. Effects of One and Two Applications of Nematicides on Nematode Populations and Soybean Yields

    OpenAIRE

    Minton, N. A.; Parker, M. B.; Perry, C. E.

    1980-01-01

    Yields of 'McNair 800' soybeans, Glycine max (L.) Merr., were significantly increased with ethylene dibromide + chloropicrin, DBCP, phenamiphos, and aldicarb applied at-planting and with phenamiphos, aldicarb, and DBCP applied postplant to soil infested with Meloidogyne incognita (Kofoid and White) Chitwood. Yields of 'GaSoy 17' were significantly increased with ethylene dibromide + chloropicrin, DBCP, phenamiphos, and aldicarb applied, preplant and with DBCP, carbofuran, phenamiphos, aldicar...

  12. Molecular characterization of putative parasitism genes in the plant-parasitic nematode Meloidogyne hispanica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, A; Maleita, C; Tiago, I; Curtis, R; Abrantes, I

    2014-10-16

    Meloidogyne hispanica (Mhi) is a difficult-to-control polyphagous root-knot nematode (RKN) species of emerging importance for economically valuable crops. Nematode secretions are likely to be the first signals perceived by the plant and are thought to be involved in various aspects of the plant-nematode interaction. The aims of this work were to identify and characterize M. hispanica parasitism genes: cathepsin L cysteine protease (cpl-1), calreticulin (crt-1), ?-1,4-endoglucanase-1 (eng-1) and manganese superoxide dismutase (mnsod). As there are no genomic data available for M. hispanica, primers were designed from the conserved regions of the putative parasitism genes in M. incognita and M. hapla and used to amplify the genes in M. hispanica, which led to the successful amplification of these genes in M. hispanica. Partial gene sequences were also obtained for M. arenaria, M. hapla, M. hispanica, M. incognita and M. javanica cpl-1, crt-1, eng-1 and mnsod genes, and their phylogenetic relationship analysed. In order to determine whether these genes are differentially expressed during M. hispanica development, cDNA was amplified from mRNA isolated from eggs, second-stage juveniles (J2) and females. Amplification products were observed from cDNA of all developmental stages for the Mhi-cpl-1 and Mhi-crt-1 genes. However, the gene Mhi-crt-1 exhibited intense amplification bands in females, while the Mhi-eng-1 gene was equally amplified in eggs and J2 and the Mhi-mnsod gene was only expressed in eggs. In comparison to the other RKN species, the genes Mhi-eng-1 and Mhi-mnsod showed transcription in different nematode developmental stages. PMID:25319213

  13. Resistance and Host-response of Selected Plants to Meloidogyne megadora

    OpenAIRE

    de Almeida, A. M. S. F.; A.Santos, M.S.N., de

    2002-01-01

    Fourteen plant species, including 30 genotypes, were assessed for host suitability to Meloidogyne megadora in a growth room at 20 to 28°C. Host suitability was based on the gall index (GI) and the reproduction factor (Rf):final population density (Pf)/initial population density (Pi). The presence of distinct galling was observed on roots of six plant species, and reproduction occurred on five of the 14 species tested. Three cultivars of cantaloupe (cvs. Branco do Ribatejo, Concerto, and Gali...

  14. First report of the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne marylandi on Turfgrasses in Israel

    OpenAIRE

    Oka, Y.; Karssen, G.; Mor, M.

    2004-01-01

    In a turfgrass nursery in Arava, Israel, a population of root-knot nematodes was isolated from poorly growing Zoysiagrass (Zoysia japonica Steud.) with symptoms of foliar chlorosis and roots with very small, smooth galls and protruding egg masses. The isolated population (genus Meloidogyne) included females and second-stage juveniles, whereas no males were observed. Measurements and morphological observations of 20 second-stage juveniles (body length = 423 ± 13 ?m, dorsal gland orifice from ...

  15. Interspecific Hybridization of Meiotic Parthenogenetic Meloidogyne chitwoodi and M. fallax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Beek, J G; Karssen, G

    1997-10-01

    ABSTRACT Hybridization between two meiotic parthenogenetic species of root-knot nematodes, Meloidogyne chitwoodi and M. fallax, was investigated in two different crossing experiments on tomato plants grown in sand. The first experiment was a controlled cross between the two species. The second experiment was a bulk mating in a 1:1 mixture of two isolates. The haploid chromosome number of the parental isolates was n = 18. Successful interspecific hybridization was obtained, and the resulting hybrids produced egg masses. In eggs, cell division was observed, but most of them were without clear differentiation and consequently were sterile. Hatched F(2) juveniles were small in number, not viable, and showed morphological distortions. In the progeny of the isolate mixture of the bulk mating experiment, parental-type females of the two isolates were present in equal numbers, and 10% of all females were nonviable hybrids. Similar ratios of parental-type and hybrid females were detected in roots of test plants grown in soil from a field sample that contained a mixture of M. chitwoodi and M. fallax populations. In the controlled cross experiment, isozyme electrophoresis of malate dehydrogenase was applied to distinguish the two species and their hybrids. In the bulk mating experiment, malate dehydrogenase, esterase, and glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase were used as markers, two by two simultaneously on the same individual females, providing conclusive evidence for the occurrence of hybrids. This is the first report on interspecific hybridization in Meloidogyne. The possible role of interspecific hybridization in species differentiation and interspecific exchange of genetic material within Meloidogyne is discussed. PMID:18945041

  16. AFLP analysis of the genetic diversity of Meloidogyne chitwoodi and M. fallax, major agricultural pests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fargette, Mireille; Lollier, Virginie; Phillips, Mark; Blok, Vivian; Frutos, Roger

    2005-05-01

    M. chitwoodi and M. fallax populations are clustered and separated from the other species studied. The genetic diversity observed for M. incognita, M. arenaria, M. javanica, M. hapla, and M. mayaguensis correlates well with the previously validated species. Two main groups can be identified within the M. chitwoodi/M. fallax cluster, the first group comprises only M. chitwoodi populations whereas the second group is made of M. chitwoodi and M. fallax populations. Moreover, M. chitwoodi displays a higher genetic diversity than M. fallax and is characterised by the presence of several clusters. PMID:15948634

  17. Resistance to Meloidogyne paranaensis in wild Coffea arabica / Avaliação da resistência de cafeeiros silvestres (Coffea arabica) a Meloidogyne paranaensis

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Marc, Boisseau; Jamel, Aribi; Fábio Rodriguez de, Sousa; Regina M.D.G., Carneiro; François, Anthony.

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Foram avaliados quanto à resistência a Meloidogyne paranaensis, nove acessos de cafeeiros silvestres incluindo dois cultivares bem caracterizados como testemunhas de suscetibilidade e resistência. Os experimentos foram realizados sob condições controladas em câmara de crescimento, utilizando uma pop [...] ulação clonal de M. paranaensis (fenótipo de esterase P1), proveniente do Brasil. A resistência e a suscetibilidade ao nematóide foram avaliadas com base no número total de nematóides por planta (ovos + J2) e por grama de raiz e no fator de reprodução (FR). Todos os acessos mostraram resposta à infecção por M. paranaensis similar à da testemunha resistente (FR Abstract in english Nine accessions of wild Coffea arabica from Ethiopia were evaluated for resistance to Meloidogyne paranaensis. Two well-characterized susceptible and resistant cultivars were used as comparative controls. The experiments were conducted in a growth chamber using a clonal population of M. paranaensis [...] (esterase phenotype P1) originating from Brazil. Resistance and susceptibility to the nematode were evaluated using the number of nematodes (eggs and J2) per plant, number of nematodes per gram of root and the reproduction factor (RF). All wild coffee accessions expressed a resistance response to M. paranaensis similar to that of the resistant control Nemaya (RF

  18. Host status of different crops for Meloidogyne ethiopica control / Reação de diferentes culturas para controlar Meloidogyne ethiopica

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Edriana A., Lima; Jean K., Mattos; Antônio W., Moita; Rui Gomes, Carneiro; Regina M.D.G., Carneiro.

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Dois experimentos foram realizados em casa de vegetação, visando a caracterização de resistência ou suscetibilidade de 52 espécies vegetais a Meloidogyne ethiopica e os seus possíveis efeitos adversos sobre a população do nematóide, em condições de casa de vegetação. As plantas que apresentaram o Fa [...] tor de Reprodução menor que um (FR1.0). Alguns sistemas de rotação de culturas alternando plantas de verão e de inverno não hospedeiras foram sugeridos para realização de experimentos a campo para validar os resultados de casa de vegetação. Abstract in english Two greenhouse experiments were carried out to characterize the resistance or susceptibility reactions of 52 species of plants to Meloidogyne ethiopica and their possible adverse effect on nematode population under greenhouse conditions. Tested plants with Reproduction Factor less than one (RF[...] were rated as non-hosts or resistant, including: peanut (Arachis hypogaea) 'Cavalo Vermelho', forage pigeon peas (Cajanus cajan) 'IAPAR 43'and 'PPI 832', Crotalaria grantiana, C. apioclice, C. spectabilis, dwarf velvet bean (Mucuna deeringiana), castor bean (Ricinus communis) 'IAC 80', sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) 'SARA', cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) 'Espace 10' and 'Australian', black oat (Avena strigosa) 'IAPAR' 61', ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum) 'Italian', forage radish (Raphanus sativus var. oleiferus) IPR116' and rye (Secale cereale) 'IPR 69'. The first 11 are summer plants and the last four winter plants. The other 37 species/cultivars tested were good hosts or susceptible. Some crop succession systems alternating summer and winter non-host plants are suggested for field experiments to validate these greenhouse results.

  19. Ecological Relationships between Meloidogyne spartinae and Salt Marsh Grasses in Connecticut

    OpenAIRE

    Lamondia, J. A.; Elmer, W. H.

    2008-01-01

    Healthy specimens of selected grasses were collected from salt marshes and grown in the greenhouse. Plants were inoculated with Meloidogyne spartinae to determine the host range of this nematode. After 12 weeks, Spartina alterniflora plants formed root galls in response to infection and increased M. spartinae populations. Spartina patens, Spartina cynosuroides, Juncus gerardii and Distichlis spicata were non-hosts. In order to determine the natural distribution of M. spartinae in dieback area...

  20. Genetic Analysis of Resistance to Meloidogyne chitwoodi Introgressed from Solanum hougasii into Cultivated Potato

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, C. R.; Mojtahedi, H.; Santo, G. S.

    1999-01-01

    An accession of Solanum hougasii, a wild tuber-bearing potato species native to Mexico, was found to be resistant to races 1 and 2 of Meloidogyne chitwoodi. A resistant selection was selfed and its progeny possessed the same combined resistance uniformly. A selected resistant seedling from the selfed progeny was crossed to cultivated tetraploid potato (S. tuberosum) to form an F? hybrid, and was backcrossed to cultivated tetraploid potato to form a BC? population in which resistance to th...

  1. Influence of Temperature and Host Plant on the Interaction Between Pratylenchus neglectus and Meloidogyne chitwoodi

    OpenAIRE

    Umesh, Kodira C.; Ferris, Howard

    1994-01-01

    The interaction between Pratylenchus neglectus (Pn) and Meloidogyne chitwoodi (Mc) was investigated at soil temperatures of 15, 20, and 25 C on barley and potato. Maximum numbers of Pn and Mc penetrated barley roots at 20 C, whereas a minimum number penetrated at 15 C. Pratylenchus neglectus restricted root penetration by Mc over time and vice-versa. Population densities of each species increased with increasing temperature. Concomitant inoculation of the two species resulted in lower numbers...

  2. EFFECT OF SOLE AND COMBINED INOCULATION OF RALSTONIA SOLANACEARUM AND MELOIDOGYNE JAVANICA ON TOMATO

    OpenAIRE

    Ghosh, P. P.; S. Dutta

    2014-01-01

    The effects of Meloidogyne javanica alone and in different combination with Ralstonia solanacearum on tomato were investigated. The highest shoot length reduction (32.1%) was at the highest density of both the parasites over control. The highest initial population density of M. javanica was solely responsible for the highest root length reduction (33.25%) and shoot dry weight reduction (67.44%). The highest density of R. solanacearum is solely responsible for root fresh weight red...

  3. The Multi-Resistant Reaction of Drought-Tolerant Coffee 'Conilon Clone 14' to Meloidogyne spp. and Late Hypersensitive-Like Response in Coffea canephora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Edriana A; Furlanetto, Cleber; Nicole, Michel; Gomes, Ana C M M; Almeida, Maria R A; Jorge-Júnior, Aldemiro; Correa, Valdir R; Salgado, Sônia Maria; Ferrão, Maria A G; Carneiro, Regina M D G

    2015-06-01

    Root-knot nematodes (RKN), Meloidogyne spp., have major economic impact on coffee production in Central and South America. Genetic control of RKN constitutes an essential part for integrated pest management strategy. The objective of this study was to evaluate the resistance of Coffea canephora genotypes (clones) to Meloidogyne spp. Sensitive and drought-tolerant coffee genotypes were used to infer their resistance using nematode reproduction factor and histopathology. Eight clonal genotypes were highly resistant to M. paranaensis. 'Clone 14' (drought-tolerant) and 'ESN2010-04' were the only genotypes highly resistant and moderately resistant, respectively, to both M. incognita races 3 and 1. Several clones were highly resistant to both avirulent and virulent M. exigua. Clone 14 and ESN2010-04 showed multiple resistance to major RKNs tested. Roots of 'clone 14' (resistant) and 'clone 22' (susceptible) were histologically studied against infection by M. incognita race 3 and M. paranaensis. Reduction of juvenile (J2) penetration in clone 14 was first seen at 2 to 6 days after inoculation (DAI). Apparent early hypersensitive reaction (HR) was seen in root cortex between 4 and 6 DAI, which led to cell death and prevention of some nematode development. At 12 to 20 DAI, giant cells formed in the vascular cylinder, besides normal development into J3/J4. From 32 to 45 DAI, giant cells were completely degenerated. Late, intense HR and cell death were frequently observed around young females and giant cells reported for the first time in coffee pathosystem. These results provide rational bases for future studies, including prospection, characterization, and expression profiling of genomic loci involved in both drought tolerance and resistance to multiple RKN species. PMID:25738554

  4. Meloidogyne partityla on Pecan Isozyme Phenotypes and Other Host

    OpenAIRE

    Starr, J. L.; Tomaszewski, E. K.; Mundo-ocampo, M.; Baldwin, J. G.

    1996-01-01

    Meloidogyne sp. from five pecan (Carya illinoensis) orchards in Texas were distinctive in host range and iszoyme profiles from common species of Meloidogyne but were morphologically congruent with Meloidogyne partityla Kleynhans, a species previously known only in South Africa. In addition to pecan, species of walnut (Juglans hindsii and J. regia) and hickory (C. ovata) also were hosts. No reproduction was observed on 15 other plant species from nine families, including several common hosts o...

  5. IDENTIFICACIÓN DE GENES CANDIDATOS DE PATOGENICIDAD EN LA INTERACCIÓN DE LA CEPA CENICAFE 9501 CON EL NEMÁTODO DEL NUDO RADICAL Meloidogyne spp. / IDENTIFICATION OF PATHOGENIC CANDIDATES GENES IN THE INTERACTION OF THE CENICAFE 9501 STRAIN WITH THE ROOT KNOT NEMATODE Meloidogyne spp.

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Nadya Lorena, Cardona Bustos; Jhon Fredy, Betancur Pérez; Luis Fernando, Rivera Serna; Alvaro, Gaitán Bustamante.

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available En 1997 se registró por primera vez el aislamiento de un hongo Hyphomycete de suelos de Chinchiná (Caldas, Colombia) atacando huevos y otros estadios biológicos de las especies de nematodos fitoparásitos Meloidogyne incognita y M. javanica provenientes de lotes comerciales con café. Debido a la impo [...] sibilidad de clasificarlo taxonómicamente en los géneros actuales, este aislamiento se ha denominado temporalmente como CENICAFE 9501. Dado su potencial como biocontrolador, se propuso identificar genes candidatos involucrados en el proceso de patogenicidad de huevos de Meloidogyne. Con este fin se construyeron librerías diferenciales mediante el método de hibridación sustractiva. La secuenciación de 188 clones obtenidos permitió identificar 80 unigenes, de los cuales el mayor porcentaje correspondió a secuencias sin homología (32%), seguidas por genes candidatos a funciones de patogénesis (22%), transporte celular (17%), síntesis de proteínas (11%) y en menor proporción aquellos involucrados con transcripción y metabolismo primario (18%). Dentro de aquellos genes que contienen marcos de lectura con homología a proteínas que intervienen en la patogenicidad se encuentran una peptidasa, un receptor para sitios de ubiquitinación, una deubiquinasa, una ubiquinona oxidoreductasa, proteína relacionada con la degradación de pared celular, glicosil hidrolasa e hidroxilasa de ácidos grasos, asi como una serin proteasa. Se hace necesaria la validación de las funciones putativas de estos genes candidatos con el fin de incrementar el conocimiento básico de la fisiología de este hongo con potencial biorregulador. Abstract in english In 1997 it was reported for the first time from soil isolation of a Hyphomycete fungus from Chinchiná ( Caldas, Colombia ), attacking eggs and other biological stages of the plant parasite nematodes Meloidogyne incognita and M. javanica, from commercial coffee plots. Due to the impossibility to clas [...] sify it taxonomically under current genera, this isolate has been labeled in the mean time as CENICAFE 9501. Given its potential as biological control agent, the identification of canditate genes involved in pathogenicity processes on Meloidogyne eggs was proposed. With this purpose, differential libraries were constructed using the subtractive hybridization method. Sequencing of 188 clones allowed the identification of 80 unigenes, with the highest percentage corresponding to sequences without homology (32%), followed by candidate genes for pathogenesis (22%), cellular transport (17%), protein synthesis (11%) and in lesser degree those involved with transcription and primary metabolism (18%). Among those genes with reading frames showing homology to proteins involved in pathogenicity can be found a peptidase, a ubiquitination receptor, a deubiquitinase, a ubiquinone oxydoreductase, a protein related to the degradation of the cell wall, a glycosyl hydrolase and fatty acid hydrolase, as well as a serine protease. A validation of the putative function of these genes is neccesary in order to increase the basic knowledge of the physiology of this fungus with bioregulation potential.

  6. Interaction between Meloidogyne enterolobii and Helicotylenchus dihysteroides in guava seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicente Martins Gomes

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate the effect of joint infection by Meloidogyne enterolobii and Helicotylenchus dihysteroides on vegetative growth of guava seedlings (Psidium guajava L., as well as to observe symptoms caused by pathogens in host plants, an experiment was conducted in microplots. In these experimental units, suspensions were used containing H. dihysteroides and M. enterolobii. The plants were separately inoculated with H. dihysteroides and jointly inoculated with H. dihysteroides and M. enterolobii, and the blank controls were represented by noninoculated plants. No significant differences were observed between treatments related to morpho-physiological variables of guava seedlings, but joint inoculation resulted in a reduced final population of H. dihysteroides. It was also concluded that neither infection by H. dihysteroides alone nor a joint infection by the two pathogens caused any damage to guava seedlings.

  7. Host Status of Selected Crops to Meloidogyne chitwoodi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferris, H; Carlson, H L; Viglierchio, D R; Westerdahl, B B; Wu, F W; Anderson, C E; Juurma, A; Kirby, D W

    1993-12-01

    Various crops were tested in greenhouse and field trials for their potential utility in the rotation sequence in the potato cropping system in Meloidogyne chitwoodi-infested soils of the Klamath Basin in northeastern California and southern Oregon. Two Solarium accessions from the International Potato Center in Peru were potential sources of resistance to M. chitwoodi. Cultivars of barley, oat, rye, wheat, and white lupine were maintenance hosts, supporting the nematode population at its current level without substantial increase or decline. Poor to nonhosts to race 1 of the nematode included cultivars of alfalfa, amaranth, oilseed radish, oilseed rape, and safflower. These crops have potential for inclusion in the cropping system but are subject to various constraints, including frost sensitivity and availability of markets. Sugarbeet, a new crop in the area, is a maintenance or better host of M. chitwoodi. Potato, tomato, and sunflower are excellent hosts. PMID:19279852

  8. Morphological and Molecular Characterization of a New Root-Knot Nematode, Meloidogyne thailandica n. sp. (Nematoda: Meloidogynidae), Parasitizing Ginger (Zingiber sp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handoo, Z A; Skantar, A M; Carta, L K; Erbe, E F

    2005-09-01

    A root-knot nematode Meloidogyne thailandica n. sp. was discovered on roots of ginger (Zingiber spp.) intercepted from Thailand in October 2002 by the U.S. Department of Agriculture Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service at the port of San Francisco. Comparison by light microscopy (LM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to five other morphologically related species (M. incognita, M. arenaria, M. microcephala, M. megatyla, and M. enterolobii) revealed that the new species differs from these by one or more of the following: body, tail and hyaline tail length, shape of head, tail and tail terminus of second-stage juveniles; stylet length and shape of spicules in males; perineal pattern, stylet length and shape of knobs in females. The distinctive perineal pattern is oval to rectangular, with smooth to moderately wavy and coarse striae, and with characteristic radial structures present underneath the pattern area; the dorsal arch is high, sometimes round to rectangular, and striae in and around the anal area form a thick network-like pattern interrupted by lateral lines and large phasmids. Second-stage juveniles have a long, slender tail and long, gradually tapering hyaline tail region ending in a rounded terminus. Male spicules commonly have an acutely angled shaft with a bidentate terminus. Molecular data from the ribosomal large subunit D3 expansion segment revealed four haplotypes, two of which were unique and distinguish M. thailandica n. sp. from M. arenaria, M. incognita, and M. javanica. PMID:19262883

  9. Morphological, Molecular, and Differential-Host Characterization of Meloidogyne floridensis n. sp. (Nematoda: Meloidogynidae), a Root-Knot Nematode Parasitizing Peach in Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handoo, Z A; Nyczepir, A P; Esmenjaud, D; van der Beek, J G; Castagnone-Sereno, P; Carta, L K; Skantar, A M; Higgins, J A

    2004-03-01

    A root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne floridensis n. sp., is described and illustrated from peach originally collected from Gainesville, Florida. This new species resembles M. incognita, M. christiei, M. graminicola, and M. hispanica, but with LM and SEM observations it differs from these species either by the body length, shape of head, tail and tail terminus of second-stage juveniles, body length and shape of spicules in males, and its distinctive female perineal pattern. This pattern has a high to narrowly rounded arch with coarsely broken and network-like striae in and around anal area, faint lateral lines interrupting transverse striae, a sunken vulva and anus, and large distinct phasmids. Molecular data from ribosomal IGS illustrate that M. floridensis n. sp. is different from the mitotic species M. arenaria, M. incognita, and M. javanica. Data from RAPDs confirm it and suggest that this new species lies in an intermediate phylogenetic position between the previous species and the meiotic species M. hapla, M. fallax, and M. chitwoodi. Differential host tests based on annual crops and on Prunus accessions are reported. PMID:19262784

  10. ROOT-KNOT NEMATODE RESISTANCE IN PEARL MILLETS FROM WEST AND EAST AFRICA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resistance to Meloidogyne incognita is important to provide stability to pearl millet production and to reduce nematode populations that can damage crops grown in rotation with pearl millet. The objectives of this study were to determine if resistance to M. incognita exists in pearl millets from Wes...

  11. Ovicidal activity of lactic acid produced by Lysobacter capsici YS1215 on eggs of root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yong Seong; Naning, Kyaw Wai; Nguyen, Xuan Hoa; Kim, Sun Bae; Moon, Jae Hak; Kim, Kil Yong

    2014-11-28

    Lysobacter capsici YS1215 isolated from soil previously showed nematicidal potential for biological control of the root-knot nematode. In this study, lactic acid, a nematicidal compound, was isolated from culture filtrate of YS1215, and its ovicidal activity was investigated. Purification and identification of lactic acid were performed by a series of column chromatographies and identified by (1)H and (13)C NMR spectra and GC-MS analysis. Our results showed that bacterial culture filtrate containing lactic acid significantly inhibited egg hatching. The lowest egg hatch rate (5.9%) was found at a high concentration (25 ?l/ml) of lactic acid at 5 days after incubation, followed by 20 (15.2%), 15 (23.7%), 10 (29.8%), and 5 (36.4%) ?l/ml, while egg hatching in the control (sterile distilled water) was 44.5%. This is the first report of lactic acid as an ovicidal compound, and it may be considered as an alternative of chemical pesticide against root-knot nematodes. PMID:25085571

  12. Efecto de las micorrizas arbusculares y Meloidogyne spp. en tomate (Solanum lycopersicum L.) / Effect of arbuscular mycorrhizas and Meloidogyne spp. on tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Alejandro, Alarcón; Tony, Boicet; María, Godefoy; Macario, Bacilio-Jiménez; Wilson, Ceiro; Yurdanys, Bazán.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available El estudio se desarrolló en la Universidad de Granma (Cuba) en el período comprendido de octubre/2007 a enero/2008, para determinar los efectos de las micorrizas arbusculares y Meloidogyne spp., en el cultivo del tomate (Solanum lycopersicum L.) cv. Vyta. Se utilizaron siete tratamientos, consistent [...] es en aplicaciones simples y combinadas de un concentrado de cepas nativas y no nativas de micorrizas (Glomus mosseae (Gerdemann y Trappe) y Glomus sp. (Schenck y Smith), incluyendo un testigo y dos niveles poblacionales de Meloidogyne spp., con 30 repeticiones, los cuales se establecieron sobre un diseño completamente aleatorizado en condiciones semi-controladas, con arreglo factorial. Se utilizaron macetas de 2 kg de capacidad, que contenían un sustrato estéril, compuesto por una mezcla de suelo y estiércol ovino en proporción 3:1 v:v y una población de Meloidogyne spp. procedente de Granma. Se evaluaron las variables: índice de agallamiento e indicadores del crecimiento de las plantas: altura promedio (cm), masa seca promedio (g) y el rendimiento (kg.planta-1) a los 60 días después de la inoculación del nematodo. Los datos fueron procesados mediante un análisis de varianza y comparación de medias por la prueba del rango múltiple de Duncan (p Abstract in english This study was carried out at the University of Granma (Cuba) from October 2007 to January 2008 in order to determine the effect of arbuscular mycorrhizas and Meloidogyne spp. on tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.), var. Vyta. Seven treatments of single or combined applications of native and non-native [...] strains(Glomus mosseae (Gerdemann and Trappe), and Glomus sp. (Schenck and Smith), of arbuscular mycorrhizas and an uninoculated control) and two levels of Meloidogine spp. were included in a completely randomized design set up in a factorial arrangement with thirty replicates under semi-controlled conditions. Two kg plastic pots containing a sterile substrate with a mixture of soil and ovine manure in a 3:1 v:v. ratio, as well as a population of Meloidogyne spp. from Granma were used. The gall index and plant growth parameters such as average height (cm), average dry weight (g) and crop yield (kg.plant-1) were evaluated 60 days after nematode inoculation. The data were analyzed by an analysis of variance and the means compared by Duncan's multiple range test (p

  13. Distribution and Regulation of Meloidogyne nataliei

    OpenAIRE

    Bird, G.; Diamond, C.; Warner, F.; Davenport, J.

    1994-01-01

    Between 1978 and 1990, eight surveys were conducted in southwest Michigan to document the occurrence of Meloidogyne nataliei, the Michigan grape root-knot nematode. The known distribution of M. nataliei is limited to a total of six sections in Antwerp and Porter Townships in Van Buren County, Michigan. In 1984, a M. nataliei regulatory program was initiated by the Michigan Department of Agriculture, U. S. Department of Agriculture Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, and Michigan State...

  14. Tolerance in chickpea to Meloidogyne javanica

    OpenAIRE

    Sharma, S. B.; Mohiuddin, M.; Reddy, M. V.; Singh, O.; Rego, T. J.; Singh, U.

    1995-01-01

    Quarante-sept cultivars de pois chiche ont été testés pour leur résistance ou leur tolérance envers #Meloidogyne javanica$ en notant leur croissance dans des sols infestés et des sols sans nématodes. En se fondant sur le nombre de galles, la taille de celles-ci, la surface des racines occupée par les galles et le nombre de masses d'oeufs produites, tous les cultivars paraissent sensibles. L'infestation par le nématode provoque un nanisme, un jaunissement, un dessèchement précoce et...

  15. Cytology of parthenogenesis of five Meloidogyne species

    OpenAIRE

    Beek, J. G.; Los, J. A.; Pijnacker, L. P.

    1998-01-01

    La présente étude a porté sur l'ovogenèse de plusieurs isolats à parthénogenèse méiotique facultative - #Meloidogyne hapla$ race A, #M. chitwoodi$, #M. fallax$ - et à parthénogenèse améiotique (mitotique) - #M. hapla$ race B, #M. javanica$ et l'isolat Xa appartenant à une espèce non identifiée - et ce au moyen d'une technique de coloration fluorescente au Hoechst 33258. En l'absence de fécondation, le nombre de chromosomes somatiques est rétabli par fusion du pronucleus et du...

  16. Host-Parasite Relationship of Meloidogyne chitwoodi on Potato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, G D

    1985-10-01

    The soil fumigant 1,3-dichloropropene gave good to excellent control of the Columbia root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne chitwoodi, on potato, Solanum tuberosum L. Nonfumigant nematicides (aldicarb, fensulfothion, carbofuran, ethoprop, and phenamiphos) were less effective in controlling M. chitwoodi, since the nematode affects tuber quality more than quantity. Soil temperature during the growing season affected parasitism of M. chitwoodi on potato more than did the initial nematode population. There were positive linear correlations between degree-days and infected and galled tubers (r = 0.92), degree-days and nematode generations (r = 1.00), and infected and galled tubers and nematode generations (r = 0.91). Differences in degree-days and resultant nematode reproduction caused great variability in infection and galling of potato tubers during four growing seasons: 89% for 1979, 0% for 1980, 13% for 1981, and 18% for 1982, giving positive linear correlation (r = 0.99) between final nematode soil population (Pf) and percentage of infected and galled tubers. Corresponding increases in the soil populations of second-stage juveniles (J2) during the growing season were 9,700% in 1979, 170% in 1980,552% in 1981, and 326% in 1982. There was a negative linear correlation (r = -0.87) between initial soil J2 populations (Pi) and the degree of parasitism (infection and galling) of potato tubers, Pi being of secondary importance to degree-days. PMID:19294115

  17. Vertical Migration of Meloidogyne chitwoodi and M. hapla under Controlled Temperature

    OpenAIRE

    Pinkerton, J. N.; Mojtahedi, H.; Santo, G. S.; O'Bannon, J. H.

    1987-01-01

    Migratory ability of second-stage juveniles (J2) of two Meloidogyne chitwoodi races and a M. hapla population were compared in soil-filled columns at 12, 18, and 24 C. J2 of all populations migrated farthest at 18 C and least at 12 C. Nematode survival was significantly reduced (P = 0.05) at 24 C.M. chitwoodi J2 migrated further and in greater numbers than M. hapla J2 at all temperatures. A comparison with and without a host plant demonstrated no preferential migration toward the plant. Water...

  18. Vertical Migration of Meloidogyne chitwoodi and M. hapla under Controlled Temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinkerton, J N; Mojtahedi, H; Santo, G S; O'Bannon, J H

    1987-04-01

    Migratory ability of second-stage juveniles (J2) of two Meloidogyne chitwoodi races and a M. hapla population were compared in soil-filled columns at 12, 18, and 24 C. J2 of all populations migrated farthest at 18 C and least at 12 C. Nematode survival was significantly reduced (P = 0.05) at 24 C.M. chitwoodi J2 migrated further and in greater numbers than M. hapla J2 at all temperatures. A comparison with and without a host plant demonstrated no preferential migration toward the plant. Water percolation through the migration columns stimulated upward migration. PMID:19290123

  19. Development of Meloidogyne chitwoodi on Wheat

    OpenAIRE

    Inserra, R. N.; Vovlas, N.; O Bannon, J. H.; Griffin, G. D.

    1985-01-01

    Postinfection development of Meloidogyne chitwoodi from second-stage juveniles (J2) to mature females and egg deposition on 'Nugaines' winter wheat required 105, 51, 36, and 21 days at 10, 15, 20, and 25 C. At 25 C, the J2 induced cavities and hyperplasia in the cortex and apical meristem of root tips with hypertrophy of cortical and apical meristem cell nuclei, 2 and 5 days after inoculation. Giant cells induced by late J2 were observed in the stele 10 days after inoculation. Clusters of egg...

  20. Effects of some rhizosphere bacteria for the biocontrol of nematodes of the genus Meloidogyne with Arthrobotrys oligospora

    OpenAIRE

    Duponnois, Robin; Ba, A. M.; Mateille, Thierry

    1998-01-01

    A été étudiée l'action d'isolats bactériens au champignon nématophage #Arthrobotrys oligospora$ ORS 18692 S7 isolé au Sénégal sur le développement du champignon (croissance saprophytique et activité prédatrice), la multiplication d'une population de #Meloidogyne mayaguensis$ sur des plants de tomate, et la croissance de la plante hôte. Trois isolats bactériens ont été capables de stimuler in vitro l'activité prédatrice du champignon et de réduire le développement d'une pop...

  1. Penetration and Development of Meloidogyne arenaria on Two New Grape Rootstocks

    OpenAIRE

    Anwar, Safdar A.; McKenry, M. V.

    2002-01-01

    Penetration, development, and reproduction of a virulent 'Harmony' population of Meloidogyne arenaria was studied on two nematode-resistant grape rootstocks 10-17A and 6-19B. 'Cabernet Sauvignon' was used as a susceptible control for comparison. Plants were inoculated with 100 freshly hatched second-stage juveniles (J2) of M. arenaria. Greater numbers of J2 penetrated roots of 'Cabernet' than 10-17A, and none penetrated roots of 6-19B 4 days after inoculation (DAI). At 7 DAI, vermiform J2 adv...

  2. On the species status of the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne mayaguensis Rammah & Hirschmann, 1988.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karssen, Gerrit; Liao, Jinling; Kan, Zhuo; van Heese, Evelyn Yj; den Nijs, Loes Jmf

    2012-01-01

    Holo- and paratypes of the root-knot nematodes Meloidogyne mayaguensis Rammah & Hirschmann, 1988 and Meloidogyne enterolobii Yang & Eisenback, 1983 were morphometrically and morphologically compared. All observed female, male and second-stage juvenile morphometrical and morphological characters are identical for the two studied species. Additionally, contradictions between the original species descriptions were unravelled.The present study of holo- and paratypes confirms the taxonomical status of Meloidogyne mayaguensis as a junior synonym for Meloidogyne enterolobii. PMID:22539912

  3. A mathematic model for the interaction between Meloidogyne spp. and Pasteuria penetrans / Modelo matemático de la interacción entre Meloidogyne spp. y Pasteuria penetrans

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ileana, Miranda; Lucila, Gómez; Hugo L., Benítez; Yoannia, Castillo; Dainé, Hernández-Ochandía; Mayra G., Rodríguez.

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available El estudio de algunos aspectos de la regulación del crecimiento de los nematodos agalleros del género Meloidogyne Goeldi por la acción de la bacteria Pasteuria penetrans, permitió proponer un modelo matemático para predecir la dinámica de ambos organismos. El modelo incluye 11 ecuaciones diferencial [...] es y 31 constantes biológicas que describen las fases de desarrollo del nematodo y su relación con la bacteria. Para simular el comportamiento real de las poblaciones, las constantes, que representan parámetros biológicos, deberán ser evaluadas en condiciones controladas similares a la del microcosmo del suelo. Abstract in english Some aspects of Meloidogyne spp. (root-knot nematode) growth regulation by the gram-negative bacterium Pasteuria penetrans were reviewed. The study allowed the construction of a mathematical model to predict the dynamics of both organisms. The model includes 11 differential equations and 31biologica [...] l constants describing the life-cycle of the nematode and its relationship with the bacterium. To simulate the real behavior of the populations, the constants, which represent biological parameters, have to be evaluated under controlled conditions similar to those of soil microcosm.

  4. Influence of Meloidogyne chitwoodi and M. hapla on Wheat Growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyczepir, A P; Inserra, R N; O'Bannon, J H; Santo, G S

    1984-04-01

    Meloidogyne chitwoodi reduced the growth of winter wheat 'Nugaines' directly in relation to nematode density in the greenhouse, The relationship between top dry weight and initial nematode density suggests a tolerance limit of Nugaines wheat to M. chitwoodi of between 0.03 and 0.18 eggs/cm(3) of soil; the value for relative minimum plant top weight was 0.45 g and 0.75 g, respectively. Growth of wheat in field microplots containing four population densities (0.003, 0.05, 0.75 and 9 eggs/cm(3) soil) was not affected significantly at any inoculum level compared to controls during September to July, However, suppression of head weights of 'Fielder' spring wheat grown May-July occurred in microplots initially infested with 0.75 and 9 eggs/cm(3) soil. Reproduction (Pf/Pi) was poorer at these two inoculum levels as compared to the lower densities. In another greenhouse experiment, roots of wheat cultivars Fielder, 'Fieldwin,' 'Gaines,' 'Hyslop,' and Nugaines became infected by M. chitwoodi, but not by M. hapla. Reproduction of M. chitwoodi was less on Gaines and Nugaines than on Fielder, Fieldwin, or Hyslop. PMID:19295895

  5. Competition between the Plant-parasitic Nematodes Pratylenchus neglectus and Meloidogyne chitwoodi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umesh, K C; Ferris, H; Bayer, D E

    1994-09-01

    In experiments on competition between Pratylenchus neglectus and Meloidogyne chitwoodi in barley, the species that parasitized the roots first inhibited penetration by the latter species. Prior presence of P. neglectus impeded the development of M. chitwoodi. Pratylenchus neglectus reduced egg production, final population levels, and reproductive index of M. chitwoodi. The reduction was linearly related to initial population densities of P. neglectus. Initial population densities of M. chitwoodi had no effect on final population levels of P. neglectus. Carbon assimilation by barley plants was reduced when either nematode species was present alone, but not when both were present together. Both nematode species assimilated lower amounts of carbon when present together than when present alone. A split-root experiment demonstrated that translocatable chemicals were not involved in the competition between the two species. PMID:19279894

  6. Pasteuria penetrans COMO AGENTE DE CONTROL BIOLÓGICO DE Meloidogyne spp / Pasteuria penetrans AS A BIOLOGICAL CONTROL AGENT OF Meloidogyne spp

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Lucila, Gómez; Hortensia, Gandarilla; Mayra G, Rodríguez.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de esta reseña es hacer una recopilación de la información más reciente de la biología, ecología y potencialidades de Pasteuria penetrans y otras especies del género como agente de control biológico. P. penetrans es una bacteria formadora de endosporas y micelio, parásito obligado de nem [...] atodos del género Meloidogyne. En los últimos años muchos han sido los progresos para entender su biología e importancia como agente de control biológico de nematodos formadores de agallas en el suelo. Las especies del género Pasteuria, están ampliamente distribuida a nivel mundial y han sido informadas, en al menos, 80 países infectando 323 especies de nematodos pertenecientes a 116 géneros que incluyen nematodos de vida libre, fitoparásitos y nematodos entomopatógenos. La temperatura y las condiciones físico-químicas, así como los factores bióticos del suelo desempeñan una importante función en su biología y patogenicidad. El cultivo in vitro de la bacteria no ha sido exitoso hasta el presente, por lo que las producciones de endosporas a gran escala se realizan en sistemas in vivo. Las potencialidades de P. penetrans en el manejo de poblaciones de Meliodogyne spp., así como su función en los suelos supresores son examinados en esta reseña. Abstract in english The objective of this paper is to summarize the current knowledge of the biology, ecology and potentialities of P. penetrans and others Pasteuria members as biological control agents Pasteuria penetrans is a mycelial, endospore-forming, bacterial parasite that has shown great potential as a biologic [...] al control agent of root-knot nematodes. Considerable progress has been made during the last years in understanding its biology and importance as an agent capable of effectively suppressing root-knot nematodes in field soil. Pasteuria spp. are distributed worldwide and have been reported from 80 countries, parasitizing 323 nematode species belonging to 116 genera of free-living, predatory, plant-parasitic, and entomopathogenic nematodes. Temperature and physico- chemical conditions, as well as biological factors in the soil play an important role in their biology and pathogenesis. Artificial cultivation of P. penetrans has met with limited success; large-scale production of endospores depends on in vivo cultivation. The potentialities of P. penetrans in management of Meloidogyne spp. populations are also examined in this review.

  7. Efecto de poblaciones de Meloidogyne sp. en el desarrollo y rendimiento del tomate

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Wilber, Salazar-Antón; Tomás de Jesús, Guzmán-Hernández.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Efecto de poblaciones de Meloidogyne sp. en el desarrollo y rendimiento del tomate. El objetivo de este trabajo fue determinar el efecto de la población inicial de Meloidogyne sp. en el cultivo del tomate. El estudio se realizó en León, Nicaragua en el año 2011. Las variables medidas fueron número d [...] e nematodos al trasplante y al momento de la cosecha, altura de la planta al momento de la madurez fisiológica y el rendimiento en kilogramos. La extracción de nematodos se realizó mediante el método de Baermann modificado. En el estudio, la densidad inicial (Pi) presentó una correlación lineal positiva con la densidad final (Pf). Sin embargo, se observó que cuando la Pi era igual a 400 nematodos/100 g de suelo, el factor de reproducción se incrementaba a 3,64; por el contrario, cuando la Pi era igual a 700 nematodos/100 g de suelo, el factor de reproducción se reducía a 2,48. La Pi se correlacionó inversamente con el peso de frutos y altura de las plantas. Plantas con 200 nematodos/100 g de suelo presentaban peso de frutos de 2,19 kg y altura de 153,20 cm en comparación con 0,93 kg y 135,24 cm en plantas con 600 nematodos/100 g de suelo. Existió una correlación positiva entre Pi y Pf de Meloidogyne sp. en el tomate. Las poblaciones de este nematodo, se correlacionaron inversamente con las variables altura y peso de los frutos. Abstract in english Effect of Meloidogyne sp. on growth and yield of tomato. The objective of this work was to determinate the relationship between initial density and final density of Meloidogyne sp in tomato crop. The study was carried out at León, Nicaragua during 2011. The variables measured were number of nematode [...] s at transplant, number of nematodes at harvest time, height at maturity of plants and yield in kilograms. Nematode extraction was performed through the Baermann modified method. In the study, the initial density (Pi) showed a positive linear correlation with the final density (Pf). However, it was observed that when Pi was equal to 400 nematodes/100 g of soil, the reproduction factor was increased to 3.64, on the contrary, when Pi was equal to 700 nematodes/100 g of soil, reproduction factor was reduced to 2.48. Pi was inversely correlated to weight of tomato fruits and height of plants. Plants with 200 nematodes/100 g of soil had fruit weight 2.19 kg and height 153.20 cm compared to 0.93 kg and 135.24 cm in plants with 600 nematodes/100 g of soil. There was a positive correlation between Pi and Pf of Meloidogyne sp. in tomatoes. The populations of this nematode, were inversely correlated with plant height and fruits weight.

  8. Efeito de indutores de resistência sobre Meloidogyne exigua do cafeeiro Effect of resistance inducers on Meloidogyne exígua of coffee

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sônia Maria de Lima Salgado

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available A possibilidade de manejo de Meloidogyne exigua Goeldi, 1887, pela ativação de mecanismos de defesa no cafeeiro representa uma alternativa potencialmente útil no manejo desse patógeno. Com este trabalho, objetivou-se avaliar a eclosão e mortalidade de juvenis do segundo estádio (J2 de M. exigua na presença de produtos indutores de resistência e avaliar o efeito do acibenzolar-S-metil (ASM, Bion® na indução de resistência do cafeeiro (Coffea arabica L. 'Catuaí- 144' contra M. exigua. A eclosão e mortalidade do J2 foram avaliadas no ASM e ácido salicílico (AS nas dosagens de 0,2; 0,35 e 0,5 g. i. a./L; e no fosfito de potássio (Hortifós® PK e silicato de potássio (Supa-potássio® nas dosagens 5,0; 7,5 e 10,0 mL/L, empregando água e aldicarbe como testemunhas. No segundo ensaio o ASM (0,2 g i.a./L foi aplicado na quantidade de 125 mL por planta de 'Catuaí-144' com um ano de idade, via pulverização foliar e diretamente ao solo aos 7 dias antes da inoculação e aos 2 e 7 dias após a inoculação de aproximadamente 7000 ovos de M. exigua/planta. Foram utilizadas 8 plantas/tratamento/bloco, totalizando 6 tratamentos (3 épocas de aplicação do ASM, testemunhas absoluta e inoculada, em 4 blocos. Aos 90 dias da inoculação, foi feita a avaliação da população final (número de ovos e juvenis de M. exigua, número de galhas, fator de reprodução (população final/população inicial e peso da matéria fresca da raiz. A dosagem dos produtos não influenciou a eclosão e mortalidade dos J2 de M. exigua. Menor eclosão dos J2 de M. exigua ocorreu igualmente no Supa-potássio® e ácido salicílico, enquanto que a eclosão no ASM e na água foi igual (P The parasitism of coffee roots by Meloidogyne exigua Goeldi, 1887, widespread nematode in the main producing regions, can provoke a series of modifications in the normal development of the plant. The induction of resistance for the activation of existing latent mechanisms of defense in plants represents a potentially useful alternative for the management of M. exigua in coffee plantations. In a first assay, the present work aimed at evaluating hatching and mortality of second stage juveniles (J2 of M. exigua in solutions of acibenzolar-S-metil (ASM, Bion® and salicylic acid (SA at the dosages of 0.2, 0.35 and 0.5 g. of a. i./L and Supa-potássio® (potassium silicate, Hortifós® PK (potassium phosphite at the dosages 5.0; 7.5 and 10.0 mL/L, using water and aldicarb as control. The effect of ASM (0.2 g of a.i./L was also evaluated by foliar and drench applications at 7 days before inoculation and at 2 and 7 days after inoculation of 7000 eggs of M. exigua/plant. The hatching of M. exigua J2 was inhibited in potassium silicate and in salicylic acid solutions independent of the used dosage, while J2 hatching in ASM and water was equal and significantly lower than J2 hatching verified in potassium phosphite. The mortality of J2 in SA was next to 100% and equal to the observed in aldicarb (500 ppm. The remaining products caused the same mortality of J2, however lesser than the observed in water. At ninety days of the inoculation of M. exigua on seedlings, the final population (number of eggs + J2, number of galls, reproduction factor (final population/initial population and fresh weight of roots of plants treated with ASM did not differed significantly from control (inoculated plants.

  9. Efeito de indutores de resistência sobre Meloidogyne exigua do cafeeiro / Effect of resistance inducers on Meloidogyne exígua of coffee

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Sônia Maria de Lima, Salgado; Mário Lúcio Vilela, Resende; Vicente Paulo, Campos.

    1007-10-01

    Full Text Available A possibilidade de manejo de Meloidogyne exigua Goeldi, 1887, pela ativação de mecanismos de defesa no cafeeiro representa uma alternativa potencialmente útil no manejo desse patógeno. Com este trabalho, objetivou-se avaliar a eclosão e mortalidade de juvenis do segundo estádio (J2) de M. exigua na [...] presença de produtos indutores de resistência e avaliar o efeito do acibenzolar-S-metil (ASM, Bion®) na indução de resistência do cafeeiro (Coffea arabica L.) 'Catuaí- 144' contra M. exigua. A eclosão e mortalidade do J2 foram avaliadas no ASM e ácido salicílico (AS) nas dosagens de 0,2; 0,35 e 0,5 g. i. a./L; e no fosfito de potássio (Hortifós® PK) e silicato de potássio (Supa-potássio®) nas dosagens 5,0; 7,5 e 10,0 mL/L, empregando água e aldicarbe como testemunhas. No segundo ensaio o ASM (0,2 g i.a./L) foi aplicado na quantidade de 125 mL por planta de 'Catuaí-144' com um ano de idade, via pulverização foliar e diretamente ao solo aos 7 dias antes da inoculação e aos 2 e 7 dias após a inoculação de aproximadamente 7000 ovos de M. exigua/planta. Foram utilizadas 8 plantas/tratamento/bloco, totalizando 6 tratamentos (3 épocas de aplicação do ASM), testemunhas absoluta e inoculada, em 4 blocos. Aos 90 dias da inoculação, foi feita a avaliação da população final (número de ovos e juvenis de M. exigua), número de galhas, fator de reprodução (população final/população inicial) e peso da matéria fresca da raiz. A dosagem dos produtos não influenciou a eclosão e mortalidade dos J2 de M. exigua. Menor eclosão dos J2 de M. exigua ocorreu igualmente no Supa-potássio® e ácido salicílico, enquanto que a eclosão no ASM e na água foi igual (P Abstract in english The parasitism of coffee roots by Meloidogyne exigua Goeldi, 1887, widespread nematode in the main producing regions, can provoke a series of modifications in the normal development of the plant. The induction of resistance for the activation of existing latent mechanisms of defense in plants repres [...] ents a potentially useful alternative for the management of M. exigua in coffee plantations. In a first assay, the present work aimed at evaluating hatching and mortality of second stage juveniles (J2) of M. exigua in solutions of acibenzolar-S-metil (ASM, Bion®) and salicylic acid (SA) at the dosages of 0.2, 0.35 and 0.5 g. of a. i./L and Supa-potássio® (potassium silicate), Hortifós® PK (potassium phosphite) at the dosages 5.0; 7.5 and 10.0 mL/L, using water and aldicarb as control. The effect of ASM (0.2 g of a.i./L) was also evaluated by foliar and drench applications at 7 days before inoculation and at 2 and 7 days after inoculation of 7000 eggs of M. exigua/plant. The hatching of M. exigua J2 was inhibited in potassium silicate and in salicylic acid solutions independent of the used dosage, while J2 hatching in ASM and water was equal and significantly lower than J2 hatching verified in potassium phosphite. The mortality of J2 in SA was next to 100% and equal to the observed in aldicarb (500 ppm). The remaining products caused the same mortality of J2, however lesser than the observed in water. At ninety days of the inoculation of M. exigua on seedlings, the final population (number of eggs + J2), number of galls, reproduction factor (final population/initial population) and fresh weight of roots of plants treated with ASM did not differed significantly from control (inoculated plants).

  10. Suppression of Meloidogyne chitwoodi with Sudangrass Cultivars as Green Manure

    OpenAIRE

    Mojtahedi, H.; Santo, G. S.; Ingham, R. E.

    1993-01-01

    Meloidogyne chitwoodi race 1 reproduced on Piper sudangrass (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench), 332 (sudangrass hybrid), and P855F and P877F (sorghum-sudangrass hybrids), but failed to reproduce efficiently on Trudan 8, Trudex 9 (sudangrass hybrids), and Sordan 79, SS-222, and Bravo II (sorghum-sudangrass hybrids). Meloidogyne chitwoodi race 2 behaved similarly and reproduced more efficiently on Piper, P855F, and P877F than on Trudan 8, Trudex 9, or Sordan 79. The mean reproductive factor for M. c...

  11. Development of Meloidogyne chitwoodi on Wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inserra, R N; Vovlas, N; O'Bannon, J H; Griffin, G D

    1985-07-01

    Postinfection development of Meloidogyne chitwoodi from second-stage juveniles (J2) to mature females and egg deposition on 'Nugaines' winter wheat required 105, 51, 36, and 21 days at 10, 15, 20, and 25 C. At 25 C, the J2 induced cavities and hyperplasia in the cortex and apical meristem of root tips with hypertrophy of cortical and apical meristem cell nuclei, 2 and 5 days after inoculation. Giant cells induced by late J2 were observed in the stele 10 days after inoculation. Clusters of egg-laying females were common on wheat root galls 25 days after inoculation. Juveniles penetrated wheat roots at 4 C and above, but not at 2 C, when inoculum was obtained from cultures grown at 20 C, but no penetration occurred at 4 C when inoculum was stored for 12 hours at 4 C before inoculation. In northern Utah, J2 penetrated Nugaines wheat roots in the field in mid-May, about 5 months after seedling emergence. M. chitwoodi eggs were first observed on wheat roots in mid-July when plants were in blossom. Only 40% of overwintered M. chitwoodi eggs hatched at 25 C. PMID:19294100

  12. Ocorrência de Meloidogyne ethiopica no Paraná e reação de cultivares de batata ao nematoide das galhas / Meloidogyne ethiopica report in Parana state, Brazil, and reaction of potato cultivars to root-knot nematode

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Israel, L-Medina; Víctor, HC-Coila; Cesar B, Gomes; Arione S, Pereira; Nilceu RX, Nazareno.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Plantas de batata das cultivares Agata e Caesar debilitadas, com sistema radicular repleto de galhas e empipocamento severo nos tubérculos causado pelo nematoide das galhas (Meloidogyne sp.), foram detectadas em Contenda, município produtor tradicional do estado do Paraná. Posteriormente, fêmeas ad [...] ultas do nematoide foram extraídas das raízes e tubérculos e submetidas à eletroforese identificando-se Meloidogyne ethiopica (Est E3) pelo perfil das bandas esterásticas reveladas. Utilizando-se uma população pura de M. ethiopica, plantas de batata de diferentes genótipos, mantidas em casa de vegetação em vasos contendo solo esterilizado, foram inoculadas com 5.000 ovos + juvenis de 2o estádio do nematoide por planta. Decorridos 55 dias da inoculação, cada planta foi avaliada quanto ao número de galhas e número de ovos, determinando-se o fator de reprodução do nematoide (FR) nos diferentes materiais testados. A cultivar Eliza comportou-se como moderadamente resistente a M. ethiopica; 'Ana', 'Bel', 'Agata' e 'Catucha', como moderadamente suscetíveis; 'Clara', 'Asterix', 'Cris' e 'Cota', suscetíveis (FR>4,00); e 'Caesar', como altamente suscetível. Abstract in english Potato plants of cultivars Agata and Caesar attacked by root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne sp.) showing root systems with multiple galls and protuberances in tubers were detected in Contenda, municipality traditionally producer of the Paraná state. Adult female of Meloidogyne sp. extracted from the pot [...] ato roots and tubers and submitted to electrophoresis showed esterastic band profile as Meloidogyne ethiopica (Est E3). Using a pure population of M. ethiopica, potato plants of different cultivars, kept in pots with sterilized soil in greenhouse, were inoculated with 5,000 eggs + second stage juvenile of the nematode. Fifty-five days after the inoculation, each plant was evaluated by counting the number of galls and eggs, and determined the nematode reproduction factor (RF) in the different tested genotypes. The cultivar Eliza behaved as moderately resistant to M. ethiopica; 'Ana', 'Bel', 'Agata', and 'Catucha', as moderately susceptible; 'Clara', 'Asterix', 'Cris', and 'Cota', susceptible; and 'Caesar', as highly susceptible.

  13. Effects of Aldicarb on Nematodes, Early Season Insect Pests, and Yield of Soybean

    OpenAIRE

    Herbert, D. A.; Rodri?guez-ka?bana, R.; Backman, P. A.; Mack, T. P.

    1987-01-01

    The effects of aldicarb on soybean cyst (Heterodera glycines) and root-knot (Meloidogyne incognita and M. arenaria) nematode populations, early season insect pests and soybean (Glycine max) yield were evaluated in five field experiments in northern and southern Alabama. Aldicarb significantly (P = 0.05) reduced nematode populations in only two cases: M. arenaria in Centennial soybean in the Wiregrass site and M. incognita in Bedford soybean in a Tennessee Valley site. No significant differenc...

  14. Reação de genótipos e híbridos de tomateiro à Meloidogyne enterolobii / Reaction of tomato genotypes and hybrids to Meloidogyne enterolobii

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Juliana Magrinelli Osório, Rosa; Juliana Nogueira, Westerich; Silvia Renata Siciliano, Wilcken.

    1166-11-01

    Full Text Available A meloidoginose tem sido considerada uma das mais importantes doenças da cultura do tomate. O uso de tomateiros resistentes ao nematoide das galhas é medida bastante utilizada no controle de diferentes espécies, entretanto, a reação de tomateiros à Meloidogyne enterolobii ainda é pouco conhecida. Po [...] rtanto, objetivou-se a determinação da reprodução de M. enterolobii em dez híbridos de tomate (Absoluto, Cascade, Cordillera, Donatto, Ellen, Fascínio, Laura, Marguerita, Nícolas e Sanni) e dois genótipos experimentais (05 tom0041 e 08 tom00345). Os ensaios foram conduzidos em casa de vegetação e em BOD (25°C), com cinco e três repetições por tratamento, respectivamente. A infestação do substrato foi realizada com 5.000 ovos e eventuais juvenis de segundo estádio de M. enterolobii/vaso, dois dias após o transplante das plântulas. A avaliação do índice de galhas, índice de massa de ovos, população final e fator de reprodução foi realizada 60 dias após a inoculação. Em ambos os ensaios, verificou-se a suscetibilidade de todos os genótipos e híbridos avaliados. Abstract in english The diseases caused by root-knot nematodes on tomato have been considered as the most dangerous for this crop. This research aimed to study the reaction of ten tomato hybrids (Absoluto, Cascade, Cordillera, Donatto, Ellen, Fascínio, Laura, Marguerita, Nícolas and Sanni) and two genotypes (05 tom0041 [...] and 08 tom00345) to M. enterolobii. The experiments were developed out separately in a greenhouse and BOD (25°C). The substrate inoculation was made with 5,000 eggs and second stage juveniles of M. enterolobii. The variables gall and egg mass indexes, final population and the reproduction factor were determined 60 days after inoculation. On both experiments, all the genotypes and hybrids were susceptible to M. enterolobii.

  15. REDUÇÃO DA TAXA DE EXPANSÃO FOLIAR DE TOMATEIROS PARASITADOS POR Meloidogyne javanica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BELAN, Leônidas Leoni

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Among the problems affecting tomato production phytopatogens are the most important.Among these, nematodes of the genus Meloidogyne cause large annual economic yield losses in tomatocultivation around the world. The knowledge of the physiological indices of growth is extremely important in theinterpretation of pathogen-host-environment relationships. This way, the effect of growing populations of M.javanica (Treub on the leaf area expansion rate (LAX during the early development of cherry tomato accesswas evaluated. The negative effects of nematodes were expressed in early development of tomato plants. Therewas linear increase in population (FP of M. javanica in all cherry tomato access as it was increased the initiallevel of nematode, resulting in reduction of linear TEAF. Thus any management practice that reduces thenematode population of soil during the growing season of tomatoes, will may favor the growth and developmentof plants and subsequently the production.Entre os problemas que mais afetam a produção do tomateiro estão os fitopatógenos. Dentreesses, os nematoides do gênero Meloidogyne causam consideráveis perdas econômicas anuais no cultivo detomate em todo o mundo. O conhecimento dos índices fisiológicos de crescimento é extremamente importantena interpretação das relações patógeno-hospedeiro-ambiente. Neste contexto, quantificou-se a influência doparasitismo de populações crescentes de M. javanica (Treub sobre a taxa expansão da área foliar (TEAF nafase de desenvolvimento inicial de acessos de tomateiro tipo cereja. Os efeitos negativos do parasitismo dosnematoides se manifestaram na fase inicial de desenvolvimento das plantas. Verificou-se crescimento linear dapopulação final (PF de M. javanica em todos os acessos de tomateiro cereja avaliados à medida que seaumentou o nível do inóculo inicial do nematoide, ocasionando redução linear da TEAF. Dessa forma, práticasde manejo que reduzam a população de nematoides do solo durante a fase vegetativa dos tomateiros, poderãofavorecer o crescimento e desenvolvimento das plantas e a consequente produção de frutos.

  16. Parasitismo de Meloidogyne enterolobii em espécies de myrtaceae / Parasitism of Meloidogyne enterolobii in myrtaceae species

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Luiza Suely Semen, Martins; Rosimar dos Santos, Musser; Aline das Graças, Souza; Luciane Vilela, Resende; Wilson Roberto, Maluf.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available A meloidoginose da goiabeira, causada por M. enterolobii (= M. mayaguensis), é hoje considerado o principal problema fitossanitário desta cultura em todo o País, pois sua incidência resulta em acentuada queda de produtividade e, na maioria das vezes, a morte das plantas em médio prazo. Visando a seu [...] controle, objetivou-se neste trabalho identificar fontes de resistência em goiabeira Psidium guajava L e araçazeiro Psidium sp.. Foram avaliados onze genótipos oriundos do Câmpus da Universidade Federal de Lavras (UFLA) e de regiões próximas ao município de Lavras (MG). As sementes foram coletadas de frutos fisiologicamente maduros e germinadas em piscinas hidropônicas. Ao atingirem 12 cm de altura, foram transferidas para casa de vegetação, em vasos individuais, e mantidas a temperatura entre 18-38°C. Após quinze dias, foram inoculados individualmente com suspensão de 10.000 ovos e juvenis de segundo estádio (J2) de M. enterolobii e avaliadas após 120 dias. As reações dos hospedeiros foram enquadradas nos parâmetros estabelecidos pelo fator de reprodução FR, estimado pelo quociente Pf/Pi, em que Pf representa a população final e Pi a população inicial. O delineamento utilizado foi o inteiramente casualizado, com 11 genótipos, uma espécie de nematoide e seis repetições, sendo duas plantas em cada genótipo adicionadas como controle. Quatro meses depois, foram avaliados os teores foliares de macro e micronutrientes e o grau de infecção de cada genótipo. A produção média de ovos e J2 de M. enterolobii variou de 200 a 428.146,1, e os fatores de reprodução (FR) médios variaram de 0,02(ALU1) a 42,81(A-PASTO). Os genótipos de araçazeiro (Psidium spp.) AUFLA1, AUFLA4, AUFLA5 e APASTO e os genótipos de goiabeira (P. guajava) G-ROXA e G-AMAR foram considerados suscetíveis. Os genótipos de araçazeiro ALU1, ALU2, ALU3, AROXO-C e AROXO-U mostraram-se resistentes, reforçando a necessidade de trabalhos complementares com essas espécies para uso como porta-enxerto em cultivares comerciais de goiabeira. A absorção de macro e micronutrientes é alterada quando os genótipos de Psidium spp. são inoculados com o fitonematoide M. enterolobii. Abstract in english Guava tree root-knot, caused by M. enterolobii (= M. mayaguensis), is today regarded as the main phytosanitary problem of this crop all over the country, for its incidence results into marked yield fall and most of the time, the death of the plant on a medium term. Aiming at its control, it was inte [...] nded in this study to identify resistance sources on guava tree, Psidium guajava L and Surinam cherry tree, Psidium sp. Eleven genotypes coming from the campus of the Federal University of Lavras (UFLA - Universidade Federal de Lavras) and regions close to Lavras (MG) were evaluated. The seeds were collected from physiologically ripe fruits and germinated in hydroponic pools. Reaching 12 cm high, they were transferred to the greenhouse in individual pots and kept at the temperature between 18 to 38°C. After fifteen days, they were inoculated with a suspension of 10,000 eggs and J2 of M. enterolobii and evaluated after 120 days. The hosts' reactions were fitted in the parameters established by the reproduction factor FR, estimated by the Pf/Pi quotient, where Pf stands for the final population and Pi the initial population and by the gall index (IG) and index of egg mass (IMO) through the score scale of the International Meloidogyne Project (IMP). The design utilized was the completely randomized with 11 genotypes, one nematode species and six replicates, that is, two plants in each genotype being added as a control. Four months later, the leaf contents of macro and micronutrients and degree of infection of each genotype were evaluated. The average yield of eggs and J2 of M. enterolobii ranged from 200 to 428,146.1 and the average reproduction factors (FR) varied from 0.02(ALU1) to 42.81(A-PASTO). The genotypes of Surinam cherry (Psidium spp.) AUFLA1, AUFLA4, AUFLA5 and APASTO and the genotypes of guava (P. g

  17. Use of Neem Extract in Controlling Root-knot Nematode (Meloidogyne javanica) of Sweet-gourd

    OpenAIRE

    Yasmin, L (Lubna); M.H. Rashid; M. Nazim Uddin; M.S. Hossain; M.E. Hossain; Ahmed, M.U.

    2003-01-01

    Extract of neem (Azadirachta indica.L) seed was used to control the root knot nematode Meloidogyne javanica of sweet gourd. Extract of neem seed was found to be leathal to the juvenile of M. javanica compared to the extracts of bark and leaf of neem. Pot experiment with standard `S` concentration of all the extracts both in side drench and root-dipping methods appeared to give significant suppression in root galling, L2 and L3 population of the nematode. Identical response among the treatment...

  18. Comparative Efficacy of Oil Seed Radish and Tomato Root Exudates on Hatching of Meloidogyne hapla

    OpenAIRE

    Sevilhan Mennan; Haddish Melakeberhan

    2006-01-01

    Oil seed radish (Raphanus sativus cv. common L.) has been used for plant-parasitic nematodes as an green manure and trap crops. This study was conducted to determine and compare the effects of root exudates of oilseed radish and susceptible tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum L. variety Rutgers) on Meloidogyne hapla greenhouse populations from Manhattan (MH), New York (NY) and Michigan (MI) in order to understand the way of effect of OSRC (Oil seed radish). In a laboratory, 3 mL exudates of OSRC,...

  19. Resistência de genótipos de batata a Meloidogyne javanica Resistance of potato genotypes to Meloidogyne javanica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Maria Charchar

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available A resistência de 48 genótipos de batata brasileiros e europeus à infecção por Meloidogyne javanica foi avaliada em campo naturalmente infestado, em época seca e chuvosa, no Distrito Federal. O delineamento experimental foi o de blocos casualizados, com quatro repetições e parcelas com dez plantas. Na época seca (maio a setembro, os níveis de infecção em tubérculos comerciais foram de, no máximo, 9,7%, com as temperaturas do solo variando de 13,5ºC a 27,7ºC. Na época chuvosa (novembro a março, os níveis de infecção por M. javanica variaram de 31,0% a 93,5% em tubérculos de batata em solo com temperaturas mais elevadas, de 27,0ºC a 33,0ºC. 'Achat', com maior grau de resistência a M. javanica entre os 48 genótipos de batata avaliados, apresentou porcentagem de infecção de tubérculos comerciais de 1% na época seca e de, no máximo, 31% na época chuvosa.The resistance of 48 Brazilian and European potato genotypes to infection by Meloidogyne javanica was evaluated in a naturally infested field, in the dry and rainy seasons in the Federal District, Brazil. The experimental design was the complete randomized block with four replicates and plots with ten plants. In the dry season (May to September, the infection levels on the marketable tubers reached up to 9.7%, with the soil temperatures ranging from 13.5ºC to 27.7ºC. The levels of infection varied from 31.0% to 93.5% in the rainy season (November to March, under higher soil temperatures ranging from 27.0ºC to 33.0ºC. 'Achat' behaved as the most resistant to M. javanica among the 48 potato genotypes, and presented percentages of infection on the marketable tubers of 1% in the dry season and 31.0% in the rainy season.

  20. Importance of Temperature in the Pathology of Meloidogyne hapla and M. chitwoodi on Legumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, G D; Jensen, K B

    1997-03-01

    Effects of temperatures on the host-parasite relationships were studied for three legume species and four populations of root-knot nematodes from the western United States. The nematode populations were Meloidogyne hapla from California (MHCA), Utah (MHUT), and Wyoming (MHWY), and a population of M. chitwoodi from Utah (MCUT). The legumes were milkvetch (Astragalus cicer), alfalfa (Medicago sativa), and yellow sweet clover (Melilotus officinalis). All milkvetch plants survived inoculation with all nematode populations, while alfalfa and yellow sweet clover were more susceptible. On yellow sweet clover, MHCA was most pathogenic at 30 degrees C based on suppression of shoot growth while MHUT, MHWY, and MCUT were most pathogenic at 25 degrees C. All nematode populations suppressed growth of yellow sweet clover more than growth of milkvetch and alfalfa. The reproductive factor (Rf = final nematode population/initial nematode population) of MHCA was positively correlated (r = 0.83) with temperature between 15 degrees C and 30 degrees C. The greatest Rf occurred on alfalfa inoculated with MHCA at 30 degrees C. The Rf of MHUT, MHWY, and MCUT were positively correlated (r= 0.76, r= 0.78, and r= 0.73, respectively) with temperature between 15 degrees C and 25 degrees C. The Rf values of MHUT and MHWY were similar on all species and exceeded the Rf of MCUT at all temperatures (P < 0.05). PMID:19274139

  1. Genetic Analysis of Resistance to Meloidogyne chitwoodi Introgressed from Solanum hougasii into Cultivated Potato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, C R; Mojtahedi, H; Santo, G S

    1999-09-01

    An accession of Solanum hougasii, a wild tuber-bearing potato species native to Mexico, was found to be resistant to races 1 and 2 of Meloidogyne chitwoodi. A resistant selection was selfed and its progeny possessed the same combined resistance uniformly. A selected resistant seedling from the selfed progeny was crossed to cultivated tetraploid potato (S. tuberosum) to form an F hybrid, and was backcrossed to cultivated tetraploid potato to form a BC population in which resistance to the two races segregated. Progeny of the BC were tested in inoculation experiments with four replicates for each progeny genotype for each race of nematode. Resistance was evaluated on the basis of extracted egg counts from the entire root system of pot-grown plants. Considering resistance to each race separately, for race 1, non-host (Rf chitwoodi only. PMID:19270896

  2. Incidence and Distinguishing Characteristics of Meloidogyne chitwoodi and M. hapla in Potato from the Northwestern United States

    OpenAIRE

    Nyczepir, A. P.; O Bannon, J. H.; Santo, G. S.; Finley, A. M.

    1982-01-01

    From September 1980 to June 1981, a survey was conducted in the major potato growing regions of northern California, Idaho, Nevada, Oregon. and Washington to determine the distribution of Meloidogyne chitwoodi and other Meloidogyne spp. Meloidogyne chitwoodi and M. hapla were the only root-knot nematode species detected parasitizing potato in all the states surveyed. Meloidogyne chitwoodi occurred alone in 83% of the samples and M. hapla in 11%, with 6% of all samples containing both species....

  3. Preservação da capacidade reprodutiva de Meloidogyne exigua em mudas de pimentão / Maintenance of the reproductive capacity of Meloidogyne exigua on pepper seedlings

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Rodrigo V., Silva; Rosângela D.L., Oliveira; Patrícia S., Ferreira; Dalila J., Sêni; Douglas B., Castro.

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available O cafeeiro é o hospedeiro tipo de Meloidogyne exigua, no qual a produção de inóculo em larga escala demanda tempo prolongado. Objetivou-se comparar a reprodução de populações de M. exigua em plantas de café e pimentão, e avaliar a possível ocorrência de seletividade fisiológica depois de sucessivas [...] gerações em pimentão. A reprodução foi estudada em cinco populações e a seletividade envolveu uma população que foi mantida em plantas de café e pimentão por 30 meses, com as avaliações realizadas a cada 90 dias. O número de galhas e de ovos foi sempre superior em pimentão. A taxa reprodutiva de M. exigua foi cerca de quatro vezes maior em pimentão do que em cafeeiro. Não houve diferença na reprodução de M. exigua em cafeeiro, para as duas fontes de inóculo, cafeeiro e pimentão, durante os 30 meses. Conclui-se que o pimentão é melhor hospedeiro que o cafeeiro para a multiplicação de inóculo de M. exigua, inclusive, para as populações que não se multiplicam em tomateiro, com as vantagens da rapidez e facilidade de condução das plantas em casa de vegetação. Assim, a produção de grande quantidade de inóculo de M. exigua é possível pela utilização do pimentão, uma vez que o nematóide não perde sua habilidade de infectar o cafeeiro. Abstract in english Coffee is the host-type of Meloidogyne exigua and significant inoculum production on this plant takes a long time. The objective of this study was to evaluate the reproduction of five M. exigua populations on coffee comparatively with reproduction on pepper, and the possible occurrence of physiologi [...] cal selectivity after successive generations on pepper. In the selectivity test, one population was maintained on coffee and pepper for 30 months and reproduction was evaluated 10 times, at 90 day intervals. The number of galls and eggs was always higher in pepper roots than in coffee ones. The reproductive rate in pepper was four times higher than in coffee. There was no difference in nematode reproduction in coffee between the two inoculum sources, coffee and pepper, during 30 months. Pepper proved to be a better host than coffee for the rearing of M. exigua, including those populations unable to reproduce in tomato roots, since pepper plants are easy to manage under green-house conditions and nematode reproduction is faster than in coffee. Therefore, pepper should be used to rear M. exigua since the nematode does not lose its ability to infect coffee.

  4. Preservação da capacidade reprodutiva de Meloidogyne exigua em mudas de pimentão Maintenance of the reproductive capacity of Meloidogyne exigua on pepper seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo V. Silva

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available O cafeeiro é o hospedeiro tipo de Meloidogyne exigua, no qual a produção de inóculo em larga escala demanda tempo prolongado. Objetivou-se comparar a reprodução de populações de M. exigua em plantas de café e pimentão, e avaliar a possível ocorrência de seletividade fisiológica depois de sucessivas gerações em pimentão. A reprodução foi estudada em cinco populações e a seletividade envolveu uma população que foi mantida em plantas de café e pimentão por 30 meses, com as avaliações realizadas a cada 90 dias. O número de galhas e de ovos foi sempre superior em pimentão. A taxa reprodutiva de M. exigua foi cerca de quatro vezes maior em pimentão do que em cafeeiro. Não houve diferença na reprodução de M. exigua em cafeeiro, para as duas fontes de inóculo, cafeeiro e pimentão, durante os 30 meses. Conclui-se que o pimentão é melhor hospedeiro que o cafeeiro para a multiplicação de inóculo de M. exigua, inclusive, para as populações que não se multiplicam em tomateiro, com as vantagens da rapidez e facilidade de condução das plantas em casa de vegetação. Assim, a produção de grande quantidade de inóculo de M. exigua é possível pela utilização do pimentão, uma vez que o nematóide não perde sua habilidade de infectar o cafeeiro.Coffee is the host-type of Meloidogyne exigua and significant inoculum production on this plant takes a long time. The objective of this study was to evaluate the reproduction of five M. exigua populations on coffee comparatively with reproduction on pepper, and the possible occurrence of physiological selectivity after successive generations on pepper. In the selectivity test, one population was maintained on coffee and pepper for 30 months and reproduction was evaluated 10 times, at 90 day intervals. The number of galls and eggs was always higher in pepper roots than in coffee ones. The reproductive rate in pepper was four times higher than in coffee. There was no difference in nematode reproduction in coffee between the two inoculum sources, coffee and pepper, during 30 months. Pepper proved to be a better host than coffee for the rearing of M. exigua, including those populations unable to reproduce in tomato roots, since pepper plants are easy to manage under green-house conditions and nematode reproduction is faster than in coffee. Therefore, pepper should be used to rear M. exigua since the nematode does not lose its ability to infect coffee.

  5. Response of Additional Herbaceous Perennial Ornamentals to Meloidogyne hapla

    OpenAIRE

    Lamondia, J. A.

    1996-01-01

    Twenty-nine herbaceous perennial ornamentals were evaluated for root galling after 2 months in soil infested with Meloidogyne hapla u n d e r greenhouse conditions. Plants such as Asclepias, Epimedium, Liriope, Lithospermura, Myosotis, Penstemon, Sidalecea, and Solidago did not have galls or egg masses present on the root system and were rated as resistant. Astrantia, Boltonia, Centranthus, and Miscanthus had more than 100 galls on the roots (similar to 'Rutgers' tomato controls) and were rat...

  6. Phylogenetic Analyses of Meloidogyne Small Subunit rDNA

    OpenAIRE

    Ley, Irma Tandingan; Ley, Paul; Vierstraete, Andy; Karssen, Gerrit; Moens, Maurice; Vanfleteren, Jacques

    2002-01-01

    Phylogenies were inferred from nearly complete small subunit (SSU) 18S rDNA sequences of 12 species of Meloidogyne and 4 outgroup taxa (Globodera pallida, Nacobbus abberans, Subanguina radicicola, and Zygotylenchus guevarai). Alignments were generated manually from a secondary structure model, and computationally using ClustalX and Treealign. Trees were constructed using distance, parsimony, and likelihood algorithms in PAUP* 4.0b4a. Obtained tree topologies were stable across algorithms and ...

  7. Resistance in Triticum and Aegilops spp. to Meloidogyne chitwoodi

    OpenAIRE

    Kaloshian, I.; Roberts, P. A.; Thomason, I. J.

    1989-01-01

    Two lines of Aegilops squarrosa (G 3489 and G 1279) and Triticum cultivars Anza, Cocorit, Produra, Chinese Spring, Nugaines, and a synthetic hexaploid were screened for resistance to Meloidogyne chitwoodi. Reproduction of M. chitwoodi, expressed as eggs per gram root, was low (P < 0.01) on G 3489 and the synthetic hexaploid. Reproduction on all other cultivars tested was high although differences (P < 0.01) existed among them.

  8. A real-time PCR assay to identify Meloidogyne minor

    OpenAIRE

    Weerdt, M.; Kox, L.; Wayenberge, L.; Viaene, N.; Zijlstra, C.

    2011-01-01

    Meloidogyne minor is a small root-knot nematode that causes yellow patch disease in golf courses and severe quality damage in potatoes. It was described in 2004 and has been detected in The Netherlands, England, Wales, Northern Ireland, Ireland and Belgium. The nematode often appears together with M. naasi on grasses. It causes similar symptoms on potato tubers as M. chitwoodi and M. fallax, which are both quarantine organisms in Europe. An accurate identification method therefore is required...

  9. Resistance in Triticum and Aegilops spp. to Meloidogyne chitwoodi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaloshian, I; Roberts, P A; Thomason, I J

    1989-10-01

    Two lines of Aegilops squarrosa (G 3489 and G 1279) and Triticum cultivars Anza, Cocorit, Produra, Chinese Spring, Nugaines, and a synthetic hexaploid were screened for resistance to Meloidogyne chitwoodi. Reproduction of M. chitwoodi, expressed as eggs per gram root, was low (P < 0.01) on G 3489 and the synthetic hexaploid. Reproduction on all other cultivars tested was high although differences (P < 0.01) existed among them. PMID:19287662

  10. ROOT-KNOT NEMATODE RESISTANCE IN AFRICAN PEARL MILLETS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resistance to Meloidogyne incognita in pearl millet reduces nematode populations that can damage crops grown in rotations. Pearl millets from Africa were evaluated as sources of resistance. Seventeen pearl millets were evaluated as bulk (S0) populations. All African varieties expressed some level o...

  11. Variation in Virulence Within Meloidogyne chitwoodi, M. fallax, and M. hapla on Solanum spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Beek, J G; Poleij, L M; Zijlstra, C; Janssen, R; Janssen, G J

    1998-07-01

    ABSTRACT The virulence of Meloidogyne hapla, M. chitwoodi, and M. fallax was studied on genotypes of Solanum spp. in a greenhouse. Juveniles of 11 M. hapla race A isolates, 3 M. hapla race B isolates, and 5 mono-female lines of a M. hapla race A isolate were inoculated on S. chacoense, S. hougasii, and S. sparsipilum. Juveniles of eight M. chitwoodi isolates, five M. fallax isolates, and six mono-female lines of a M. chitwoodi isolate were inoculated on S. bulbocastanum, S. chacoense, S. hougasii, S. stoloniferum, and S. tuberosum. Virulence was expressed as nematode reproduction 8 weeks after inoculation. Nematode reproduction was estimated by the number of egg masses and, in one experiment, by the number of hatched second-stage juveniles per inoculated juvenile. Considerable variation in virulence and resistance was observed among M. hapla isolates and plant genotypes, respectively. The M. hapla isolate-plant species interaction was highly significant. The response to M. chitwoodi ranged from susceptible (S. tuberosum and S. chacoense) to highly resistant (S. bulbocastanum and S. hougasii). S. tuberosum was susceptible to M. fallax, whereas all four wild species were resistant. In contrast to M. hapla, no significant isolate-plant genotype interaction was obtained for M. chitwoodi or M. fallax, indicating no or little intraspecific variation in virulence. M. chitwoodi juveniles in species mixtures with M. fallax isolates appeared to be able to break the resistance of S. bulbocastanum and S. hougasii. Significant differences among mono-female lines of M. hapla and M. chitwoodi were observed, indicating heterogeneity of pathogenicity within meiotic parthenogenic Meloidogyne populations. PMID:18944937

  12. Analysis of Gene expression in soybean (Glycine max) roots in response to the root knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita using microarrays and KEGG pathways

    OpenAIRE

    Gamal El-Din Abd El Kader Y; Hussein Ebtissam HA; Alkharouf Nadim W.; Hosseini Parsa; Ibrahim Heba MM; Aly Mohammed AM; Matthews Benjamin F

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Root-knot nematodes are sedentary endoparasites that can infect more than 3000 plant species. Root-knot nematodes cause an estimated $100 billion annual loss worldwide. For successful establishment of the root-knot nematode in its host plant, it causes dramatic morphological and physiological changes in plant cells. The expression of some plant genes is altered by the nematode as it establishes its feeding site. Results We examined the expression of soybean (Glycine max) g...

  13. Mean Dosage Stimulation Range of Allelochemicals from Crude Extracts of Cucumis africanus Fruit for Improving Growth of Tomato Plant and Suppressing Meloidogyne incognita Numbers

    OpenAIRE

    Osvaldo Pelinganga; Phatu Mashela

    2012-01-01

    Successful utilisation of allelochemicals in management of plant-parasitic nematodes depends on their degree of phytotoxicity. Conventional methods of determining phytotoxicity are tedious, with inconsistent results. Plants respond to increased dosages of allelochemicals in a density-dependent growth pattern, which allows the use of the Curve-fitting Allelochemical Response Data computer-based model to determine the mean dosage stimulation range of used allelochemicals. The CARD modelling wa...

  14. Linalyl Acetate Is Metabolized by Pseudomonas incognita with the Acetoxy Group Intact

    OpenAIRE

    Renganathan, V.; Madyastha, K Madhava

    1983-01-01

    Metabolism of linalyl acetate by Pseudomonas incognita isolated by enrichment culture on the acyclic monoterpene alcohol linalool was studied. Biodegradation of linalyl acetate by this strain resulted in the formation of linalool, linalool-8-carboxylic acid, oleuropeic acid, and ?5-4-acetoxy-4-methyl hexenoic acid. Cells adapted to linalyl acetate metabolized linalyl acetate-8-aldehyde to linalool-8-carboxylic acid, linalyl acetate-8-carboxylic acid, ?5-4-acetoxy-4-methyl hexenoic acid, and...

  15. Specific Diagnosis of Two Root-Knot Nematodes, Meloidogyne chitwoodi and M. fallax, with Satellite DNA Probes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castagnone-Sereno, P; Leroy, F; Bongiovanni, M; Zijlstra, C; Abad, P

    1999-05-01

    ABSTRACT Meloidogyne chitwoodi and M. fallax are serious pests of potato, and both species have been recently designated as quarantine organisms in the European Community and in Canada. The sympatric and less damaging species M. hapla is often found associated with both of them under temperate climates. Here, we describe the use of satellite DNA (satDNA) sequences previously isolated from these three root-knot nematode species for the development of specific diagnostic procedures. In dot-blot experiments, it was unambiguously possible to separate M. chitwoodi and M. fallax from M. hapla using satDNA monomers as probes. In squash-blot experiments, satDNAs allowed discrimination between single individuals of M. chitwoodi or M. fallax from M. hapla, even within root tissues, without the need for DNA purification. The same results were obtained with radioactive or digoxigenin-labeled probes with no loss of sensitivity in detection. M. fallax and M. chitwoodi could not be distinguished. From this study, it is concluded that such cloned satDNA sequences may constitute a powerful tool for the identification and management of Meloidogyne spp. populations in the field and for the implementation of quarantine regulations against these pests. PMID:18944750

  16. Patogenicidade de Meloidogyne mayaguensis em goiabeira 'Paluma' em condições de microparcelas / Pathogenicity of Meloidogyne mayaguensis in guava'Paluma' in microplots

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Eduardo José de, Almeida; Gleina Costa Silva, Alves; Jaime Maia dos, Santos; Anderson Robert, Ruas.

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se a relação entre densidade populacional inicial de Meloidogyne mayaguensis em mudas de goiabeiras 'Paluma', seu desenvolvimento vegetativo e a primeira colheita, em condições de microparcelas na área experimental do Departamento de Fitossanidade da UNESP/ FCAV, Jaboticabal-SP. Os tratame [...] ntos consistiram em cinco níveis crescentes de inóculo (0; 10; 100; 1.000 e 10.000 ovos+juvenis de segundo estádio - J2) aplicados por planta. Periodicamente, foram avaliados os seguintes parâmetros: diâmetro do tronco, comprimento dos ramos, massa fresca e seca da parteaérea retirada nas podas e área foliar. Verificou-se que todas variáveis quantitativas foram afetadas na relação direta com os níveis de inóculo do nematoide. Todas as plantas inoculadas com 1.000 ovos e J2 morreram 10 meses após a inoculação. Houve produção de frutos somente nas plantas dos níveis 0 (zero) e 10 ovos + J2 de M. mayaguensis/planta. Não houve diferença significativa entre os tratamentos quanto à massa dos frutos, porém o comprimento, a largura e o número de frutos por planta foram superiores nas plantas não inoculadas. Abstract in english It was evaluated the relationship between initial population density of Meloidogyne mayaguensis in guava 'Paluma' seedling, their growth, and the first harvest in a microplot at the Department of Plant Sanity UNESP/ FCAV, Campus of Jaboticabal, State of São Paulo. The treatments consisted of five le [...] vels of inoculums (0; 10; 100; 1,000 and 10,000 eggs and juveniles of the second stage - J2) per root system of guava. Periodically, were evaluated the follows parameters: diameter of the trunk, length of the branches, fresh and dry matter of shoots removed in pruning and aerial part of the plant. All plants inoculated with 1,000 eggs and J2 died 10 months after inoculation. There were fruit production only in the levels 0 (zero) and 10 eggs and J2 of the nematode. There was no significant difference between treatments on the weight of fruit, but the length, width and the fruit number per plant were higher in the non inoculated plants.

  17. Densidad crítica de Meloidogyne Exigua en plantas de Almácigo de café variedad Caturra

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Mainor, Rojas; Luis, Salazar.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del estudio fue evaluar el efecto de densidad creciente de Meloidogyne exigua sobre el desarrollo de plantas de almácigo. Se trasplantaron plántulas de café variedad caturra a bolsas de polietileno con 1335 cm³ de sustrato desinfectado, para establecer un ensa-yo con diseño de bloques co [...] mpletos al azar, con 8 repeticiones. Los tratamientos aplicados consistieron de poblaciones iniciales (Pi) de 0; 0,125; 0,25; 0,5; 1; 2; 4; 8; 16; 32 y 64 huevos+J2/ cm³ de sustrato, aplicadas un mes después del trasplante. El modelo y=m+(1-m) Z P-T aplicado 234 días después del trasplante para la altura, diámetro, número de nudos y peso fresco aéreo, indicó que el límite de tolerancia (T) fue de 0,66; 0,06; 0,13 y 0,88 huevos+J2/cm³, respectivamen-te; la producción mínima relativa (m) fue de 0,79; 0,79; 0,33 y 0,54 respectivamente, a Pi iguales o mayores a 64 huevos+J2/cm³. El índice de agallas alcanzó el máximo a partir de una Pi de 2; el pico máximo de nematodos en el suelo y las raíces se alcanzó con Pi entre 2 y 4; mientras la tasa máxima de reproducción fue de 114 con Pi de 0,125. Se concluyó que la densidad crítica fue cercana a cero huevos/cm3 de sustrato como población inicial, y que el almácigo se debe desarrollar libre de nematodos, ya que aún con Pi bajas se puede alcanzar la máxima población en corto tiempo. Abstract in english Critical density of Meloidogyne exigua in nursery coffee plants, Caturra variety. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of increasing density of Meloidogyne exigua on the development of nursery plants. Coffee plantlets of the Caturra variety were transplanted into polyethylene bags wi [...] th 1335 cm3 of disinfected substrate, to establish a trial with a randomized complete block design, with 8 replicates. The treatments applied included initial populations (Pi) of 0; 0,125; 0,25; 0,5; 1; 2; 4; 8; 16; 32 and 64 eggs + J2/cm ³ substrate applied one month after transplant. The model y=m+(1-m) Z P-T applied 234 days after transplant to the height, diameter, number of nodes and aerial fresh weight, indicated that the tolerance limit (T) was 0,66; 0,06; 0,13 and 0,88 eggs + J2/cm³, respectively; the relative minimum production (m) was 0,79; 0,79; 0,33 and 0,54 respectively, at Pi equal to or higher than 64 eggs + J2/cm³. The gall index reached its maximum from a Pi of 2; the maximum peak of nematodes on the soil and roots was reached with a Pi between 2 and 4 while, the maximum rate of reproduction rate was 114 with a Pi of 0,125. It was concluded that the critical density was close to zero eggs/cm3 of substrate as initial population, and the nursery plants should develop free of nematodes since, even with a low Pi; it could reach the maximum population in a short time.

  18. Resistance to root-knot nematodes, Meloidogyne spp., I potato.

    OpenAIRE

    Janssen, G. J. W.

    1997-01-01

    Root-knot nematodes, Meloidogyne spp., are world-wide one of the most damaging pests to arable farming. In North Western Europe, the species M. chitwoodi, M. fallax and M. hapla are becoming a serious problem in potato growing areas as a result of recent changes in crop rotation, that now include highly profitable host crops, and a reduced use of nematicides in potato. The root-knot nematodes can cause yield reduction and deteriorate the quality of the tuber to an unmarketable product. Since ...

  19. Trigonella foenum-graecum (fenugreek-mediated suppression of Meloidogyne javanica in mungbean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tayyaba Zia

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Soil amendments with powdered seeds of Trigonella foenum - graecum (fenugreek caused soil suppressiveness against Meloidogyne javanica. Decomposed seeds of fenugreek caused marked reduction in nematode population densities and subsequent root-knot development as compared to the aqueous extract of the seeds indicating that some indirect factors are involved in the suppression of root-knot nematode. Both decomposed seeds and aqueous extracts enhanced plant height and fresh weights of shoot whereas root growth remained uninfluenced. Changes in fungal communities associated with nematode control were studied by comparing population numbers of fungi in the soil and in internal root tissues (endorhiza in non-amended and fenugreekamended soils. Acremonium sp., Chaetomium globosum, Fusarium solani, Macrophomina phaseolina and Rhizoctonia solani were found to colonize inner root tissues of mungbean. Acremonium sp., C. globosum and F.solani were isolated in a relatively higher frequency from roots growing in the amended soils while M. phaseolina and R. solani colonized greatly in roots growing in non-amended soil. Of the fungi isolated from soils, Penicillium brefaldianum caused maximum juvenile mortality of M.javanica whereas F.solani caused greatest inhibition of egg hatch.

  20. Influence of Temperature and Host Plant on the Interaction Between Pratylenchus neglectus and Meloidogyne chitwoodi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umesh, K C; Ferris, H

    1994-03-01

    The interaction between Pratylenchus neglectus (Pn) and Meloidogyne chitwoodi (Mc) was investigated at soil temperatures of 15, 20, and 25 C on barley and potato. Maximum numbers of Pn and Mc penetrated barley roots at 20 C, whereas a minimum number penetrated at 15 C. Pratylenchus neglectus restricted root penetration by Mc over time and vice-versa. Population densities of each species increased with increasing temperature. Concomitant inoculation of the two species resulted in lower numbers of Pn at 15 and 25 C in both barley and potato, whereas the numbers of Mc were lower at 15 C in barley and at 25 C in potato. Root weights of potato and barley at 15 and 20 C, respectively, were lowered by the presence of both nematodes singly or concomitantly. At 25 C, barley plants inoculated with Mc alone had lower shoot weight than uninoculated controls, but the damage was restricted when Pn also was present. The two species interact competitively, and the outcome varies with soil temperature and host plant. Pn has the potential to suppress Mc population levels and reduce the damage it causes to potato and barley. PMID:19279870

  1. Triagem de genótipos de hortaliças para resistência a Meloidogyne enterolobii / Screening vegetable crop species for resistance to Meloidogyne enterolobii

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Osvânder David de, Melo; Wilson Roberto, Maluf; Ranoel José de Sousa, Gonçalves; Álvaro Carlos, Gonçalves Neto; Luiz Antonio Augusto, Gomes; Regis de Castro, Carvalho.

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi identificar genótipos de alface, batata-doce, feijão, tomate e Capsicum resistentes ao nematoide Meloidogyne enterolobii (Syn. M. mayaguensis) e classificá-los quanto ao grau de resistência. Foram avaliados: 10 genótipos de alface, 8 de batata-doce, 10 de feijão e feijã [...] o-vagem, 25 de Capsicum e 6 de tomate. Foram calculados o fator de reprodução e o índice de reprodução, e os genótipos foram classificados quanto ao grau de resistência ao nematoide. Foram observados níveis moderados de resistência na cultivar de feijão Aporé e nos acessos de pimenta, BGH-433 e BGH-4285, e de pimentão, PIM-031, PIX-022I-31-07-02 e PIX-022I-31-13-01. Todos os genótipos de tomate são suscetíveis a M. enterolobii. As cultivares de alface Julia, Hortência, Verônica, Grand Rapids e Babá de Verão, e os clones de batata-doce UFLA07-49 e UFLA07-53 são muito resistentes ao nematoide. A resistência a M. enterolobii aparentemente é mediada por genes diferentes dos que conferem resistência a outras espécies e raças de Meloidogyne. Abstract in english The objective of this work was to identify genotypes of lettuce, sweet potato, bean, tomato, and Capsicum resistant to the nematode Meloidogyne enterolobii (Syn. M. mayaguensis), and to classify them according to their resistance degree. The following were evaluated: 10 genotypes of lettuce, 8 of sw [...] eet potato, 10 of bean and snap bean, 25 of Capsicum, and 6 of tomato genotypes. Reproduction factor and reproduction index were determined, and genotypes were classified according to their resistance degree to the nematode. Moderate levels of resistance were observed in the bean cultivar Aporé and in the accessions of pepper BGH-433 and BGH-4285, and of sweet pepper, PIM-031, PIX-022I-31-07-02, and PIX-022I-31-13-01. All tomato genotypes are susceptible to M. enterolobii. Lettuce cultivars Julia, Hortência, Verônica, Grand Rapids and Babá de Verão, and sweetpotato clones UFLA07-49 and UFLA07-53 are very resistant to the nematode. Apparently, the resistance to M. enterolobii is controlled by different genes from the ones which confer resistance to other species and races of Meloidogyne.

  2. Triagem de genótipos de hortaliças para resistência a Meloidogyne enterolobii Screening vegetable crop species for resistance to Meloidogyne enterolobii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osvânder David de Melo

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi identificar genótipos de alface, batata-doce, feijão, tomate e Capsicum resistentes ao nematoide Meloidogyne enterolobii (Syn. M. mayaguensis e classificá-los quanto ao grau de resistência. Foram avaliados: 10 genótipos de alface, 8 de batata-doce, 10 de feijão e feijão-vagem, 25 de Capsicum e 6 de tomate. Foram calculados o fator de reprodução e o índice de reprodução, e os genótipos foram classificados quanto ao grau de resistência ao nematoide. Foram observados níveis moderados de resistência na cultivar de feijão Aporé e nos acessos de pimenta, BGH-433 e BGH-4285, e de pimentão, PIM-031, PIX-022I-31-07-02 e PIX-022I-31-13-01. Todos os genótipos de tomate são suscetíveis a M. enterolobii. As cultivares de alface Julia, Hortência, Verônica, Grand Rapids e Babá de Verão, e os clones de batata-doce UFLA07-49 e UFLA07-53 são muito resistentes ao nematoide. A resistência a M. enterolobii aparentemente é mediada por genes diferentes dos que conferem resistência a outras espécies e raças de Meloidogyne.The objective of this work was to identify genotypes of lettuce, sweet potato, bean, tomato, and Capsicum resistant to the nematode Meloidogyne enterolobii (Syn. M. mayaguensis, and to classify them according to their resistance degree. The following were evaluated: 10 genotypes of lettuce, 8 of sweet potato, 10 of bean and snap bean, 25 of Capsicum, and 6 of tomato genotypes. Reproduction factor and reproduction index were determined, and genotypes were classified according to their resistance degree to the nematode. Moderate levels of resistance were observed in the bean cultivar Aporé and in the accessions of pepper BGH-433 and BGH-4285, and of sweet pepper, PIM-031, PIX-022I-31-07-02, and PIX-022I-31-13-01. All tomato genotypes are susceptible to M. enterolobii. Lettuce cultivars Julia, Hortência, Verônica, Grand Rapids and Babá de Verão, and sweetpotato clones UFLA07-49 and UFLA07-53 are very resistant to the nematode. Apparently, the resistance to M. enterolobii is controlled by different genes from the ones which confer resistance to other species and races of Meloidogyne.

  3. On the species status of the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne mayaguensis Rammah & Hirschmann, 1988

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerrit Karssen

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Holo- and paratypes of the root-knot nematodes Meloidogyne mayaguensis Rammah & Hirschmann, 1988 and M. enterolobii Yang & Eisenback, 1983 were morphometrically and morphologically compared. All observed female, male and second-stage juvenile morphometrical and morphological characters are identical for the two studied species. Additionally, contradictions between the original species descriptions were unravelled.The present study of holo- and paratypes confirms the taxonomical status of Meloidogyne mayaguensis as a junior synonym for M. enterolobii.

  4. Evidence for pathotype mixtures on Solanum bulbocastanum in Meloidogyne chitwoodi but not in M-fallax

    OpenAIRE

    Beek, J. G.; Poleij, L. M.

    2008-01-01

    Variability for pathogenicity on seven Solanum bulbocastanum clones was studied in a collection of isolates of Meloidogyne chitwoodi and M. fallax from a wide range of geographical origins. Four different pathotypes could be distinguished within M. chitwoodi, while no specialisation was found in M. fallax. Meloidogyne chitwoodi isolates from the USA showed the largest variation; those from Europe belonged to one pathotype. In several M. chitwoodi isolates, the occurrence of pathotype mixtures...

  5. A Pathotype System to Describe Intraspecific Variation in Pathogenicity of Meloidogyne chitwoodi

    OpenAIRE

    Beek, J. G.; Maas, P. W. Th; Zijlstra, C.; Janssen, G. J. W.; Silfhout, C. H.

    1999-01-01

    Tests of eight Dutch Meloidogyne chitwoodi isolates to the differential set for host races 1 and 2 in M. chitwoodi provided no evidence for the existence of host race 2 in the Netherlands. The data showed deviations from expected reactions on the differential hosts, which raised doubts of the usefulness of the host race classification in M. chitwoodi. The term ''pathotype'' is proposed for groups of isolates of one Meloidogyne sp. that exhibit the same level of pathogenicity on genotypes of o...

  6. Intraspecific variability of the facultative meiotic parthenogenetic root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne graminicola) from rice fields in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellafiore, Stéphane; Jougla, Claire; Chapuis, Élodie; Besnard, Guillaume; Suong, Malyna; Vu, Phong Nguyen; De Waele, Dirk; Gantet, Pascal; Thi, Xuyen Ngo

    2015-07-01

    Twenty years ago, the facultative meiotic parthenogenetic root-knot nematode (RKN), Meloidogyne graminicola, was recognised as an important rice pathogen in South Vietnam. Although this country is one of the most important rice exporters worldwide, a comprehensive picture of the occurrence of M. graminicola in Vietnamese rice fields is still not available. Therefore a nematode survey was carried out with the aim of better understanding the geographical distribution, and the pathogenic and genetic variability of the RKN in Vietnam. From the fields surveyed in a range of ecosystems, 21 RKN populations were recovered from infected rice roots. A diagnostic SCAR marker was developed showing that all Vietnamese populations belong to M. graminicola. Furthermore, sequencing of the Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS) of the rDNA genes confirmed this identification. These populations were then characterised using morphometrics and pathogenicity tests (host plant range diversity, reproduction and virulence diversity) revealing intraspecific variability. We showed that morphometric traits are mainly genetically heritable characters with significant differences among the studied populations. Finally, a distinctive trait signature was found for the populations isolated from the upland rice cultures. All together, our study reveals the prevalence of M. graminicola populations in Vietnamese rice. Further investigations need to be developed to explore the population dynamics and evolutionary history of this species in South East Asia. PMID:26026576

  7. Reproduction of Meloidogyne enterolobii in rootstocks and cucumber hybrids / Reprodução de Meloidogyne enterolobii em porta-enxertos e híbridos de pepino

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Silvia Renata S, Wilcken; Juliana MO, Rosa; Juliana N, Westerich; Maria José de M, Garcia; Antonio Ismael Inácio, Cardoso.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo teve como objetivo determinar a resistência de seis porta-enxertos para pepino (abóbora 'Menina Brasileira', moranga 'Exposição', 'Shelper', 'Tetsukabuto Takaiama', 'B8-A Tetsukabuto' e 'Excite Ikki') e quatro híbridos de pepino tipo japonês ('Yoshinari', 'Kouki', 'Taisho' e 'Tsuyataro') [...] a Meloidogyne enterolobii. O experimento foi conduzido em casa de vegetação, cada parcela constou de uma planta por vaso contendo 2 litros de solo autoclavado. Dois dias após o transplantio das mudas, cada planta foi inoculada com 5.000 ovos e juvenis de segundo estádio (população inicial = Pi) de M. enterolobii. Tomateiros 'Rutgers' foram utilizados como padrão de viabilidade do inóculo. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado com cinco repetições por tratamento. Sessenta dias após a inoculação, cada planta foi avaliada quanto ao número total de nematoides nas raízes (população final = Pf) e fator de reprodução (FR = Pf / Pi). Todos os porta-enxertos e híbridos de pepino estudados permitiram a multiplicação de M. enterolobii, entretanto os valores do FR foram menores nos porta-enxertos 'Shelper', 'Excite Ikki KY' e 'Menina Brasileira'. Em um segundo experimento, confirmou-se o baixo valor do FR destes três porta-enxertos, porém, com valor pouco maior para 'Menina Brasileira'. Desta maneira, estes porta-enxertos podem ser recomendados em áreas infestadas com M. enterolobii, desde que em baixa população, por restringirem drasticamente a multiplicação do patógeno. Conclui-se que os porta-enxertos 'Shelper' e 'Excite Ikki KY' foram os que apresentaram os menores FR podendo ser classificados como moderadamente resistentes a este nematoide. Abstract in english This study aimed to determine the resistance of six rootstocks for cucumber (squash 'Menina Brasileira', pumpkin 'Exposição', 'Shelper', 'Tetsukabuto Takaiama', 'B8-A Tetsukabuto' and 'Excite Ikki') and four Japanese cucumber hybrids ('Yoshinari', 'Kouki', 'Taisho' and 'Tsuyataro') to Meloidogyne en [...] terolobii. The experiment was conducted in greenhouse; each plot consisted of one plant per pot containing 2 liters of autoclaved soil. The experimental design was completely randomized, with five replicates per treatment. Two days after transplanting the seedlings, each plant was inoculated with 5,000 eggs and second-stage juveniles (initial population = Pi) of M. enterolobii. Tomato 'Rutgers' was used as indicative of inoculum viability. Sixty days after inoculated, each plant was evaluated for total number of nematodes in the roots (final population = Pf) and reproduction factor (FR=Pf/Pi). All rootstocks and cucumber hybrids allowed M. enterolobii multiplication, but FR values were lower in 'Shelper', 'Excite Ikki KY' and 'Menina Brasileira' rootstocks. In a second experiment, the low FR in these three rootstocks was confirmed, but with higher values in 'Menina Brasileira'. So, these rootstocks can be recommended to M. enterolobii infested areas, but with low populations, because they don't permit great multiplication of the patogen. It is concluded that 'Shelper' and 'Excite Ikki KY' rootstocks had the lowest FR and can be classified as moderate resistant to this nematode.

  8. Ocorrência de Meloidogyne enterolobii em muricizeiro (Byrsonima cydoniifolia) / Occurrence of Meloidogyne enterolobii on muricizeiro of (Byrsonima cydoniifolia)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Vanessa dos S., Paes; Pedro L.M., Soares; Devanir M., Murakami; Jaime M. dos, Santos; Bruno F.F., Barbosa; Samira S., Neves.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available A entrada de agentes fitopatogênicos em novas localidades através de mudas infectadas constitui uma das principais formas de disseminação. Meloidogyne enterolobii é uma espécie de nematoide altamente virulenta que tem causado sérios danos a plantas cultivadas no Brasil. Neste trabalho é relatada a p [...] rimeira ocorrência de M. enterolobii em mudas de muricizeiro (Byrsonima cydoniifolia), uma planta nativa da Amazônia e em mudas de goiabeira (Psidium guajava), no Estado de Mato Grosso. Com base nos caracteres morfológicos do padrão perineal de fêmeas, região labial dos machos e no fenótipo isoenzimático de esterase, foi confirmado que a espécie encontrada tanto nas mudas de muricizeiro quanto nas de goiabeira é M. enterolobii. Abstract in english Spreading of plant pathogens through seedlings is one of the main ways of introducing pathogens in places free of these agents. Meloidogyne enterolobii is a highly virulent species of nematode responsible for serious damage to plants grown in Brazil. In this study the occurrence of M. enterolobii on [...] young individuals of muricizeiro (Byrsonima cydoniifolia), a native species of the Amazon forest, is made for the first time together with the first report of the occurrence of this nematode on guava (Psidium guajava) in the State of Mato Grosso, Brazil. Based on morphological characters of the perineal pattern of females, lip region of males and the esterase isoenzyme phenotype, we confirmed that the species found in both of B. cydoniifolia and P. guajava is M. enterolobii.

  9. Ocorrência de Meloidogyne enterolobii em muricizeiro (Byrsonima cydoniifolia Occurrence of Meloidogyne enterolobii on muricizeiro of (Byrsonima cydoniifolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa dos S. Paes

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available A entrada de agentes fitopatogênicos em novas localidades através de mudas infectadas constitui uma das principais formas de disseminação. Meloidogyne enterolobii é uma espécie de nematoide altamente virulenta que tem causado sérios danos a plantas cultivadas no Brasil. Neste trabalho é relatada a primeira ocorrência de M. enterolobii em mudas de muricizeiro (Byrsonima cydoniifolia, uma planta nativa da Amazônia e em mudas de goiabeira (Psidium guajava, no Estado de Mato Grosso. Com base nos caracteres morfológicos do padrão perineal de fêmeas, região labial dos machos e no fenótipo isoenzimático de esterase, foi confirmado que a espécie encontrada tanto nas mudas de muricizeiro quanto nas de goiabeira é M. enterolobii.Spreading of plant pathogens through seedlings is one of the main ways of introducing pathogens in places free of these agents. Meloidogyne enterolobii is a highly virulent species of nematode responsible for serious damage to plants grown in Brazil. In this study the occurrence of M. enterolobii on young individuals of muricizeiro (Byrsonima cydoniifolia, a native species of the Amazon forest, is made for the first time together with the first report of the occurrence of this nematode on guava (Psidium guajava in the State of Mato Grosso, Brazil. Based on morphological characters of the perineal pattern of females, lip region of males and the esterase isoenzyme phenotype, we confirmed that the species found in both of B. cydoniifolia and P. guajava is M. enterolobii.

  10. Nematicidal activity of leaves of common shrub and tree species from Southern Chile against Meloidogyne hapla

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Laura, Böhm; Nolberto, Arismendi; Luigi, Ciampi.

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Buscando alternativas biológicas para el control del nemátodo de las agallas radicales, Meloidogyne hapla, se evaluó la incorporación al sustrato de follaje seco y molido de Buddleja globosa, Drymis winteri, Eucalyptus globulus, Gevuina avellana, Laurelia sempervirens, huma apiculata, Maytenus boari [...] a y Ugni molinae. Se utilizó como control un tratamiento sin follaje. El ensayo se realizó en macetas en las que se trasplantaron plantas de lechuga (cv Reina de Mayo). Todas las macetas se inocularon con 2000 huevos y juveniles de M. hapla y se mantuvieron por 45 días en invernadero. Los resultados indicaron que las plantas de lechuga desarrolladas en sustratos con hojas secas de L. sempervirens, G. avellana, M. boaria, D. winteri y B. globosa redujeron significativamente el agallamiento radical. Mientras que todos los tratamientos afectaron significativamente la formación de huevos y juveniles de M. hapla, destacando el efecto inhibitorio sobre este parámetro el follaje seco de U. molinae, D. winteri y L. sempervirens. En todas las especies, el incremento de la concentración de follaje incorporado al sustrato resultó en un mayor control en la multiplicación de M. hapla. Abstract in english The biological control of the root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne hapla , was evaluated through the addition of organic amendments of dry and chopped leaves of Buddleia globes, Dramas winter, Eucalyptus globules, Genuine aflame, Aurelia sempervirens, huma apiculata, Maytenus boaria and Ugni molinae to t [...] he soil substratum. The assays were carried out in pots seeded with lettuce plants (cv. Reina de Mayo). All pots were inoculated with 2000 eggs and juveniles of M. hapla, and then maintained under greenhouse conditions for 45 days. Control pots without foliage additions were also seeded with lettuce. The results show that the addition of dry leaves of L. sempervirens, G. avellana, M. boaria, D. winteri , and B. globosa significantly reduced root-knot nematode development in soil in which lettuce plants were grown. On the other hand, while all of the treatments significantly affected the development of eggs and juveniles of M hapla, the best inhibitory effect was found with dry leaves of U. molinae, D. winteri and L. sempervirens . For all plant species, an increase in the concentration of dry leaves incorporated into the substratum resulted in better control of nematode population.

  11. Defense responses to Meloidogyne exigua in resistant coffee cultivar and non-host plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo V. Silva

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The resistance of coffee plants to Meloidogyne exigua is conferred by the gene Mex-1. However, the mechanisms of resistance still need to be clarified. Therefore, the penetration, development and reproduction of two populations of M. exigua (M1, isolated from the coffee plant and M2, from rubber tree in susceptible (Coffea arabica 'Catuai' and resistant (C. canephora 'Apoatã' cultivars were studied. A greater quantity of J2 from M1 penetrated the susceptible cultivar, but there was no difference between the cultivars for M2. Although the resistant coffee cultivar formed some galls, the nematode did not reproduce. M2 did not induce the formation of galls or the production of eggs in either cultivars. Events related to hypersensitive reaction (HR were observed as well as other defense responses of the coffee cultivar against M. exigua, which inhibited the formation of the feeding site, provoked emigration of the J2 and delayed or inhibited development and reproduction. The response of the non-host plant was more effective, because it did not allow development of the nematode or, consequently, its reproduction. It was concluded that the coffee cultivar's resistance to M. exigua is not restricted to HR, but rather to a set of defense responses, both constitutive and induced, expressed after nematode penetration, especially phenolic-like compounds.

  12. Effects of silicon on the penetration and reproduction events of Meloidogyne exigua on coffee roots

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Rodrigo Vieira, Silva; Rosângela D& #8217; Arc de Lima, Oliveira; Patrícia da Silva, Ferreira; Douglas Barbosa, Castro; Fabrício Ávila, Rodrigues.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Considering that the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne exigua has caused great yield losses to coffee production in Brazil, this study aimed to determine whether the penetration and the reproduction events of this nematode on the roots of plants from two coffee cultivars with different levels of basal [...] resistance to this nematode could be affected by silicon (Si). Coffee plants from the cultivars Catuaí and IAPAR 59, which are susceptible and resistant, respectively, to M. exigua, were grown in pots containing Si-deficient soil that was amended with either calcium silicate (+Si) or calcium carbonate (–Si). The Si concentration on the root tissue significantly increased by 159 and 97% for the +Si plants from the cultivars Catuaí and IAPAR 59, respectively, compared to the –Si plants of these cultivars. The population of M. exigua, the number of galls and the number of eggs were significantly reduced on the roots of the +Si plants of the cultivars Catuaí and IAPAR 59 compared to the –Si plants of these cultivars. It was concluded that the development and reproduction events of M. exigua were negatively impacted on the roots of coffee plants supplied with Si.

  13. Defense responses to Meloidogyne exigua in resistant coffee cultivar and non-host plant

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Rodrigo V., Silva; Rosângela D.L., Oliveira; Patrícia S., Ferreira; Aline O., Ferreira; Fabrício A., Rodrigues.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The resistance of coffee plants to Meloidogyne exigua is conferred by the gene Mex-1. However, the mechanisms of resistance still need to be clarified. Therefore, the penetration, development and reproduction of two populations of M. exigua (M1, isolated from the coffee plant and M2, from rubber tre [...] e) in susceptible (Coffea arabica 'Catuai') and resistant (C. canephora 'Apoatã') cultivars were studied. A greater quantity of J2 from M1 penetrated the susceptible cultivar, but there was no difference between the cultivars for M2. Although the resistant coffee cultivar formed some galls, the nematode did not reproduce. M2 did not induce the formation of galls or the production of eggs in either cultivars. Events related to hypersensitive reaction (HR) were observed as well as other defense responses of the coffee cultivar against M. exigua, which inhibited the formation of the feeding site, provoked emigration of the J2 and delayed or inhibited development and reproduction. The response of the non-host plant was more effective, because it did not allow development of the nematode or, consequently, its reproduction. It was concluded that the coffee cultivar's resistance to M. exigua is not restricted to HR, but rather to a set of defense responses, both constitutive and induced, expressed after nematode penetration, especially phenolic-like compounds.

  14. Seasonal Migration of Meloidogyne chitwoodi and its Role in Potato Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mojtahedi, H; Ingram, R E; Santo, G S; Pinkerton, J N; Reed, G L; Wilson, J H

    1991-04-01

    Seasonal vertical migration of Meloidogyne chitwoodi through soil and its impact on potato production in Washington and Oregon was studied. Nematode eggs and second-stage juveniles (J2) were placed at various depths (0-180 cm) in tubes filled with soil and buried vertically or in holes dug in potato fields. Tubes were removed at intervals over a 12-month period and soil was bioassayed on tomato roots. Upward migration began in the spring after water had percolated through the tubes. Nematodes were detected in the top 5 cm of tubes within 1-2 months of burial, depending on depth of placement. Potatoes were grown in field plots for 4 or 5 months before the tubers were evaluated for infection. One hundred eggs and J2 per gram soil placed at 60 and 90 cm caused significant tuber damage at the Washington and Oregon sites, respectively. At the Washington site, inoculum placed at 90, 120, and 150 cm caused potato root infection without serious impact on tuber quality, but inoculum diluted 2-8 times and placed at 90 cm did not cause root or tuber infection. Nematode migration was dependent on soil texture; 9 days after placement at the bottoms of tubes, J2 had moved up 55 cm in sandy loam soil (Oregon) but only 15 cm in silt loam (Washington). Thus, the importance of M. chitwoodi which occur deep in a soil profile may depend on soil texture, population density, and length of the growing season. PMID:19283107

  15. Effects of silicon on the penetration and reproduction events of Meloidogyne exigua on coffee roots

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Rodrigo Vieira, Silva; Rosângela D& #8217; Arc de Lima, Oliveira; Patrícia da Silva, Ferreira; Douglas Barbosa, Castro; Fabrício Ávila, Rodrigues.

    Full Text Available Considering that the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne exigua has caused great yield losses to coffee production in Brazil, this study aimed to determine whether the penetration and the reproduction events of this nematode on the roots of plants from two coffee cultivars with different levels of basal [...] resistance to this nematode could be affected by silicon (Si). Coffee plants from the cultivars Catuaí and IAPAR 59, which are susceptible and resistant, respectively, to M. exigua, were grown in pots containing Si-deficient soil that was amended with either calcium silicate (+Si) or calcium carbonate (–Si). The Si concentration on the root tissue significantly increased by 159 and 97% for the +Si plants from the cultivars Catuaí and IAPAR 59, respectively, compared to the –Si plants of these cultivars. The population of M. exigua, the number of galls and the number of eggs were significantly reduced on the roots of the +Si plants of the cultivars Catuaí and IAPAR 59 compared to the –Si plants of these cultivars. It was concluded that the development and reproduction events of M. exigua were negatively impacted on the roots of coffee plants supplied with Si.

  16. Efecto nematicida de extractos de Quassia amara y Brugmansia suaveolens sobre Meloidogyne sp. asociado al tomate en Nicaragua / Nematicidal effect of plant extracts from Quassia amara and Brugmansia suaveolens against Meloidogyne sp. on tomato plants in Nicaragua

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Wilber, Salazar-Anton; Tomas de Jesús, Guzman-Hernandez.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar extractos de hojas de Quassia amara L. (Simaroubaceae) y flores de Brugmansia suaveolens L. (Solanaceae) para determinar su efecto nematicida contra Meloidogyne sp. El estudio se realizó en el Campus Agropecuario de la Universidad Nacional Autónoma de Nicaragu [...] a-León (UNAN-León) en el año 2012. El material vegetal fue deshidratado, pulverizado y sus compuestos fueron extraídos utilizando como solvente metanol. Este estudio se realizó in vitro, se evaluó la mortalidad de los juveniles de Meloidogyne sp. en segundo instar después de 12, 24 y 48 horas de exposición a los extractos. Además, estos se aplicaron a plantas de tomate en maceteras bajo condiciones de invernadero, cuantificándose las poblaciones de nematodos a los 25, 50 y 75 días de exposición al extracto (DEE). En el experimento in vitro Q. amara y B. suaveolens diluidos al 10%, presentaron los más altos porcentajes de mortalidad después de 48 h, alcanzando 89 y 78% de juveniles muertos, respectivamente. En maceteras se evaluó la mortalidad de juveniles, índice de agallamiento (IA) y factor de reproducción (FR). Los mejores resultados para Q. amara se obtuvieron a los 25 DEE, con un porcentaje de mortalidad de 80%, un IA de 1 en una escala de 0-5 y FR de 0,20. Con B. suaveolens, a los 25 DEE se alcanzó el mayor porcentaje de mortalidad de 71%, un IA de 1,2 y un FR de 0,29. Estos resultados in vitro y en maceteras evidenciaron que ambos extractos poseen propiedades nematicidas, ya que redujeron significativamente (P? 0,05) las poblaciones de nematodos, su reproducción y el nivel de agallamiento de las raíces de tomate. Abstract in english The nematicidal activity of leaves of Quassia amara L. (Simaroubaceae) and flowers of Brugmansia suaveolens L. (Solanaceae) was evaluated against Meloidogyne sp. during a study conducted at the Agricultural Campus of the National Agricultural University in León (UNAN- León). The plant material was d [...] ehydrated, ground and the compounds quassin and scopolamine were extracted using methanol as a solvent. Then a study was conducted in vitro to evaluate mortality in second stage juveniles of Meloidogyne sp. after exposure to extracts (12, 24 and 48 hours). Subsequently, extracts were also evaluated in tomato plants established in pots under greenhouse conditions, and the corresponding nematode population was quantified after exposure to the extract (25, 50 and 75 days of exposure to extract, DEE). In vitro tests with extracts of B. suaveolens and Q. amara diluted at 10% showed that the highest rate of nematode mortality occurs after 48 h of exposure, leaving 89% and 78% of all juveniles dead, respectively. In the test in pots, several aspects were evaluated including juvenile mortality, the plant galling index (GI), and the nematode reproduction factor (RF). The best result for Q. amara was obtained at 25 DEE, with 80% of mortality, a GI of 1 (in a scale from 0-5) and a RF of 0.2. Similarly, the best effect for B. suaveolens, was obtained at 25 DEE with a 71% of mortality, a GI of 1.2, and a RF of 0.29. These results from tests in vitro and in pots results indicate that both extracts have nematicidal activities, as they significantly reduced the nematode population (.? 0.05), the reproductive ability and the incidence of root galling in tomato plants.

  17. Nematodos fitoparásitos asociados al cultivo de papaya (Carica papaya L.) en Colima, México / Phytoparasitic nematodes associated with the cultivation of papaya (Carica papaya L.) in Colima, Mexico

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    José Ángel, Martínez Gallardo; Tomás, Díaz Valdés; Raúl, Allende Molar; José Alfonso, Ortiz Meza; Raymundo Saúl, García Estrada; José Armando, Carrillo Fasio.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Este estudio tuvo como objetivo detectar e identificar los géneros de nematodos fitoparásitos asociados al cultivo de papaya (Caricapapaya L.) en los municipios de Tecomán y Colima, Colima. Se seleccionaron diez huertos, de siete ranchos en los que se colectaron muestras de raíces y suelo rizosféric [...] o; en cada muestra se cuantificó e identificaron las poblaciones de los fitonematodos. Para la identificación específica de Meloidogyne, se analizaron cortes perineales de las hembras y se confirmó por reacción en cadena de la polimerasa (PCR). Los géneros de fitonematodos detectados e identificados fueron: Aphelenchus, Ditylenchus, Helicotylenchus, Paratylenchus, Pratylenchus, Rotylenchulus, Rotylenchus, Trophurus, Tylenchorrhynchus, Tylenchus, y Meloidogyne, con la especie M. incognita. Los resultados permiten el reporte por primera vez de M. incognita, asociado al cultivo de papaya en Colima, México. Abstract in english This study aimed to detect and identify phytoparasitic nematodes associated with the cultivation of papaya (Caricapapaya L.) in the municipalities of Tecomán and Colima, Colima. We selected ten orchards, seven ranches in which samples were collected roots and rhizosphere soil, in each sample was qua [...] ntified and identified populations of phytoparasitic nematodes. For specific identification of Meloidogyne, perineal cuts were analyzed and confirmed females by chain reaction (PCR). The genera of phytoparasitic nematodes were detected and identified: Aphelenchus, Ditylenchus, Helicotylenchus, Paratylenchus, Pratylenchus, Rotylenchulus, Rotylenchus, Trophurus, Tylenchorrhynchus, Tylenchus, and Meloidogyne, with the species M. incognita. The results allow the first report of M incognita associated with papaya in Colima, Mexico.

  18. Sisal leaf decortication liquid residue for controlling Meloidogyne javanica in tomato plants / Resíduo líquido do desfibramento de folhas de sisal no controle de Meloidogyne javanica em tomateiro

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Josilda CA, Damasceno; Ana CF, Soares; Fábio N, Jesus; Rosane S, Sant' Ana.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve o objetivo de avaliar o efeito do resíduo líquido (fresco e fermentado) de sisal no controle de Meloidogyne javanica em tomateiro. Foram conduzidos bioensaios in vitro com 100 µL de suspensão aquosa contendo 300 juvenis (J2) de M. javanica e 1000 µL de resíduo líquido. Os tratamen [...] tos consistiram do resíduo líquido fresco e fermentado, nas concentrações de 2,5, 5, 7,5, 10, 12,5, 15, 17,5 e 20%, o controle sem resíduo e o nematicida Carbofuran a 350 mg/L do i.a., com a imersão dos J2 nestes tratamentos, por 24 e 48 horas. Em casa de vegetação, 4000 juvenis de M. javanica foram inoculados em tomateiro e, após uma semana, foram vertidos na base da planta 100 mL do resíduo líquido de sisal nas concentrações de 0, 4, 8, 12, 16 e 20%, além da água destilada e o nematicida Carbofuran a 0,50 g por vaso, como testemunhas. Foram analisados o crescimento vegetativo e os danos nas raízes. Avaliou-se a seletividade do resíduo do sisal sobre micro-organismos benéficos do solo. Todas as concentrações do resíduo apresentaram efeito nematicida nos testes in vitro, após 48 horas de exposição dos nematoides, ocorrendo até 100% de mortalidade dos juvenis de M. javanica na concentração de 20%. O aumento das concentrações do resíduo fresco ou fermentado reduziu o número de galhas e massas de ovos por planta e por grama de raízes e também a população final de M. javanica no solo. Houve crescimento dos micro-organismos benéficos nos tratamentos com resíduo fresco de sisal, para todas as concentrações avaliadas. O resíduo fermentado inibiu o crescimento de micro-organismos benéficos do solo. Estudos futuros serão conduzidos visando comprovar a ação nematicida deste resíduo no controle de M. javanica em tomateiro a campo. Abstract in english The effect of sisal liquid residue (fresh and fermented) was evaluated in controlling the root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne javanica) in tomato plants. Bioassays were conducted in vitro with 100 µL of an aqueous suspension containing 300 juveniles (J2) of M. javanica and 1000 µL of sisal liquid residu [...] e. The treatments consisted of nematode immersion for 24 and 48 hours in sisal liquid residue, fresh or fermented, diluted in water to the final concentrations of 0, 2.5, 5, 7.5, 10, 12.5, 15, 17.5 and 20%, and nematicide Carbofuran at 350 mg of the active ingredient per liter. Under greenhouse conditions, 4000 juveniles of M. javanica were inoculated on tomato plants grown in pots, and after one week, 100 mL of sisal liquid residue at concentrations of 0, 4, 8, 12, 16 and 20%, were added to soil around the tomato plants. Control treatments received either 100 mL of distilled water or 0.5 g of Carbofuran per pot. Forty days after inoculation, plants were harvested and evaluated for plant growth and root damage. In addition, the selective effect of sisal liquid residue on growth of beneficial soil microorganisms was evaluated. All concentrations of sisal liquid residue presented nematicidal effect, after 48 h of nematode exposure. A mortality rate of 100% was obtained for M. javanica juveniles exposed to liquid residue at a concentration of 20%. Application of increasing concentrations of both sisal liquid residues reduced the number of galls and egg masses per plant and per gram of roots, as well as the final population of M. javanica in soil. Growth of beneficial soil microorganisms was observed in soil amended with sisal fresh liquid residue, for all concentrations tested. The fermented residue caused inhibition of soil beneficial microorganisms. Future studies should be conducted to test the nematicidal effect on tomato plants under field conditions.

  19. Alterações anatômicas induzidas por Meloidogyne enterolobii (=M. mayaguensis) e Meloidogyne javanica em tomateiros resistentes a meloidoginose / Anatomical changes induced by Meloidogyne enterolobii (=M. mayaguensis) and Meloidogyne javanica in tomato plants resistant to the root-knot nematode

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Juliana Nogueira, Westerich; Roberto Antonio, Rodella; Juliana Magrinelli Osório, Rosa; Silvia Renata Siciliano, Wilcken.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available A resistência de tomateiros (Solanum lycopersicum L.) a M. incognita, M. javanica e M. arenaria, conferida pela presença do gene Mi, não contempla a espécie M. enterolobii (=M. mayaguensis). O objetivo da pesquisa foi verificar as alterações anatômicas causadas por M. enterolobii no sistema radicula [...] r de porta-enxertos de tomateiro com o gene de resistência Mi ('Magnet' e Helper M') e compará-las com as causadas por M. javanica. As observações anatômicas das raízes foram feitas com auxílio de microscópio de luz e os aspectos mais relevantes foram fotografados. Com base em contagens e mensurações do tamanho dos sítios de alimentação e das células gigantes, foram efetuadas analises utilizando o método estatístico de Análise de Agrupamento. O aparecimento de células nutridoras incitadas por M. enterolobii foi verificado em ambos os porta-enxertos de tomateiro, entre 10 e 17 dias após a inoculação (DAI). O número e a área de sítios de alimentação e de células gigantes foram menores aos 17 DAI do que aos 24 DAI. Nesta época (24 DAI), foram observados sítios de alimentação constituídos pela presença de várias células nutridoras multinucleadas, com parede celular espessa, citoplasma denso e granuloso. Os tecidos vasculares apresentaram-se comprimidos e desorganizados, foi observada, também, hipertrofia de células do parênquima cortical. As raízes inoculadas com M. javanica não apresentaram alterações anatômicas. Abstract in english The resistance of tomato plants (Solanum Lycopersicum L.) to M. incognita, M. javanica and M. arenaria, provided by the presence of Mi gene, does not include the species M. enterolobii (=M. mayaguensis). The aim of this study was to verify the anatomical changes caused by M. enterolobii in the root [...] system of rootstocks from tomato plants with Mi resistance gene ('Magnet' and 'Helper M') and to compare these changes with those caused by M. javanica. The anatomical observations of roots were done with the aid of a light microscope and the most relevant aspects were photographed. Based on counts and measurements of the size of feeding sites and giant cells, the data were analyzed by using the statistical method of Cluster Analysis. The emergence of nurse cells stimulated by M. enterolobii was observed for both tomato rootstocks between 10 and 17 days after inoculation (DAI). The number and the area of feeding sites and giant cells were smaller at 17 DAI than at 24 DAI. On the latter occasion (24 DAI), there were feeding sites established by the presence of several multinucleate nurse cells with thick cell walls and dense and granular cytoplasm. Vascular tissues were compressed and disorganized; there was also hypertrophy of cortical parenchyma cells. Roots inoculated with M. javanica did not show anatomical changes.

  20. Alterações anatômicas induzidas por Meloidogyne enterolobii (=M. mayaguensis e Meloidogyne javanica em tomateiros resistentes a meloidoginose Anatomical changes induced by Meloidogyne enterolobii (=M. mayaguensis and Meloidogyne javanica in tomato plants resistant to the root-knot nematode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Nogueira Westerich

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available A resistência de tomateiros (Solanum lycopersicum L. a M. incognita, M. javanica e M. arenaria, conferida pela presença do gene Mi, não contempla a espécie M. enterolobii (=M. mayaguensis. O objetivo da pesquisa foi verificar as alterações anatômicas causadas por M. enterolobii no sistema radicular de porta-enxertos de tomateiro com o gene de resistência Mi ('Magnet' e Helper M' e compará-las com as causadas por M. javanica. As observações anatômicas das raízes foram feitas com auxílio de microscópio de luz e os aspectos mais relevantes foram fotografados. Com base em contagens e mensurações do tamanho dos sítios de alimentação e das células gigantes, foram efetuadas analises utilizando o método estatístico de Análise de Agrupamento. O aparecimento de células nutridoras incitadas por M. enterolobii foi verificado em ambos os porta-enxertos de tomateiro, entre 10 e 17 dias após a inoculação (DAI. O número e a área de sítios de alimentação e de células gigantes foram menores aos 17 DAI do que aos 24 DAI. Nesta época (24 DAI, foram observados sítios de alimentação constituídos pela presença de várias células nutridoras multinucleadas, com parede celular espessa, citoplasma denso e granuloso. Os tecidos vasculares apresentaram-se comprimidos e desorganizados, foi observada, também, hipertrofia de células do parênquima cortical. As raízes inoculadas com M. javanica não apresentaram alterações anatômicas.The resistance of tomato plants (Solanum Lycopersicum L. to M. incognita, M. javanica and M. arenaria, provided by the presence of Mi gene, does not include the species M. enterolobii (=M. mayaguensis. The aim of this study was to verify the anatomical changes caused by M. enterolobii in the root system of rootstocks from tomato plants with Mi resistance gene ('Magnet' and 'Helper M' and to compare these changes with those caused by M. javanica. The anatomical observations of roots were done with the aid of a light microscope and the most relevant aspects were photographed. Based on counts and measurements of the size of feeding sites and giant cells, the data were analyzed by using the statistical method of Cluster Analysis. The emergence of nurse cells stimulated by M. enterolobii was observed for both tomato rootstocks between 10 and 17 days after inoculation (DAI. The number and the area of feeding sites and giant cells were smaller at 17 DAI than at 24 DAI. On the latter occasion (24 DAI, there were feeding sites established by the presence of several multinucleate nurse cells with thick cell walls and dense and granular cytoplasm. Vascular tissues were compressed and disorganized; there was also hypertrophy of cortical parenchyma cells. Roots inoculated with M. javanica did not show anatomical changes.

  1. Nematicide Effect of Various Organic Soil Amendments on Meloidogyne ethiopica Whitehead, 1968, on Potted Vine Plants / Efecto Nematicida de Varias Enmiendas Orgánicas Sobre Meloidogyne ethiopica Whitehead, 1968, en Plantas de Vid en Macetas

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Lucia, Rivera; Erwin, Aballay.

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un experimento en macetas con plantas enraizadas de Vitis vinífera L. var. Chardonnay para evaluar el efecto nematicida de diferentes enmiendas orgánicas sobre el nematodo agallador Meloidogyne ethiopica Whitehead, 1968. Se usaron dos composts inmaduros: Compost A, elaborado con residuos [...] de té (Camellia sinensis (L.) Kuntze, guano de pollo seco y orujo de uva; Compost B, elaborado con residuos de té, escobajo y orujo de uva; y separadamente residuos sólidos de té; orujo de uva y guano de pollo seco. Estas enmiendas fueron aplicadas a principio de primavera, tanto en cobertera como incorporadas al suelo, considerando además un testigo químico fenamiphos y un testigo absoluto. Se determinó la población de nematodos de segundo estado juvenil (estado infestivo) de Meloidogyne spp., la cantidad de nódulos, huevos por gramo de raíz y el índice reproductivo, determinando de esta manera la tasa de reproducción de los nematodos. Además se evaluó el peso fresco de la parte aérea y de la masa radical. El testigo químico fue el tratamiento que obtuvo menor población final de Meloidogyne spp., y al evaluar la actividad nematicida de las enmiendas orgánicas, el Compost A incorporado al suelo, orujo de uva en cobertera y residuos sólidos de té en cobertera obtuvieron índices reproductivos bajos, que no fueron estadísticamente diferentes del testigo químico. En el peso fresco de la parte aérea no hubo diferencias significativas. El peso fresco de la masa radical del testigo químico presentó el valor más bajo comparado con los tratamientos de Compost B en cobertera y residuos sólidos de té en cobertera. Abstract in english Five organic soil amendments were evaluated for their nematicide effect on root-knot Meloidogyne ethiopica Whitehead, 1968, on potted Vitis vinifera L. var. Chardonnay plants. The amendments included two immature composts: Compost A made with tea (Camellia sinensis (L.) Kuntze) residues, broiler lit [...] ter and grape pomace; Compost B made with tea residues, rachis and grape pomace; and separately dried tea residues, grape pomace and broiler litter. These amendments were either incorporated or applied as cover to the substrate in 5 L pots at the beginning of spring. A chemical treatment with the nematicide fenamiphos and a control with substrate only were added for comparisons. The assay was composed of 11 treatments with six replicates, with a grape plant as experimental unit. Seven months later, the assessment of the treatments was carried out based on number of second stage juvenile, nodules, eggs per root gram and reproductive index. Fresh aerial and root plant weight were also measured. The chemical treatment presented the lowest final population of M. ethiopica. When evaluating the nematicide action of the organic amendments: compost A soil-incorporated and both grape pomace and solid dry tea residue as covers obtained low reproductive indexes, similar to the chemical treatment and control (P ? 0.05). No differences in aerial fresh weight were determined. However, the chemical treatment showed the smallest root mass as compared to compost B and solid dry tea residues, both as cover.

  2. Ribosomal Intergenic Spacer: A Polymerase Chain Reaction Diagnostic for Meloidogyne chitwoodi, M. fallax, and M. hapla.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wishart, J; Phillips, M S; Blok, V C

    2002-08-01

    ABSTRACT Polymerase chain reaction amplification of the intergenic spacer region between the 5S and 18S genes from Meloidogyne chitwoodi, M. fallax, and M. hapla enabled these three important temperate species to be differentiated. Length polymorphism was found between M. chitwoodi and M. fallax as a result of differing numbers of short repeats located between the 5S and 18S genes. The presence of the 5S gene within the rDNA cistrons was confirmed in the Meloidogyne spp. included in this study. The region between the 28S and 5S genes for M. chitwoodi and M. fallax was short and lacked variability in repeated sequences compared with the main tropical Meloidogyne spp. and M. hapla. Differences in the number of these repeats resulted in intraspecific length polymorphism for M.hapla. PMID:18942968

  3. Relationship of Resistance to Meloidogyne chitwoodi (race 2) and M. hapla in Alfalfa

    OpenAIRE

    Mccord, Per H.

    2012-01-01

    In the Pacific Northwest, alfalfa (Medicago sativa) is host to two species of root-knot nematodes, including race 2 of the Columbia root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne chitwoodi) and the northern root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne hapla). In addition to the damage caused to alfalfa itself by M. hapla, alfalfa’s host status to both species leaves large numbers of nematodes available to damage rotation crops, of which potato is the most important. A nematode-resistant alfalfa germplasm release, W12S...

  4. Respuesta de Zamia incognita L. al cultivo in vitro, una alternativa para su conservación / In vitro culture response of Zamia incognita, an alternative for preservation

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Aura, I. Urrea; Sonia, Gomez; Esther J., Naranjo.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Las Zamiaceas son plantas relictuales consideradas fósiles vivientes. En Colombia, el 65% de esta familia se encuentra en alguna categoría de amenaza, por la destrucción del hábitat e intensa recolección. Teniendo en cuenta que entre las ventajas de la propagación in vitro está la conservación ex si [...] tu de germoplasma, el presente trabajo tuvo como objetivo evaluar el potencial de regeneración de plantas de Z. incognita a partir de explantes foliares y embriones cigoticos. Se evaluó el efecto de diferentes combinaciones de Auxinas (2,4-D y ANA) y citoquininas (KIN, BAP y TDZ) sobre la formación de callo y la regeneración de brotes (directa o indirecta), utilizando como medio basal MS (MB1) y medio basal B5 modificado (MB2). La formación de callo se presentó sobre un amplio rango de concentraciones de 2,4-D con KIN y 2,4-D con BAP, independientemente del medio basal, pero no en los explantes tratados con ANA más KIN o TDZ. Para los explantes foliares no hubo respuesta a la formación de embriones somáticos y/o brotes con las combinaciones y concentraciones hormonales evaluadas, no obstante los callos inducidos en MB2 con 2,4-D (0,22 mg/l) y BAP (0, 1, 2, 3 mg/l) fueron diferentes, su aspecto nodular, color crema y apariencia proembriogénica coincidió con una gran cantidad de células meristemáticas potenciales para el proceso de regeneración. A partir de embriones cigoticos inmaduros se logró la formación de embriones somáticos en el medio MB2 exento de reguladores o conteniendo 2,4-D solo (0,22 mg/l) y en combinación con BAP (1 mg/l), sin lograr el proceso de conversión a plántulas. Abstract in english Zamiaceas are relict plants considered living fossils. In Colombia, 65% of this family is under some threat category due to their habitat destruction and their intense collection. Given that the advantages of in vitro propagation is ex situ conservation of germoplasm, this study aimed to evaluate th [...] e regeneration potential of Z incognita plants from leaf explants and zygotic embryos. The effect of different combinations of auxin (2.4-D and NAA) and cytokinins (KIN, BAP and TDZ) was evaluated on the formation of callus and shoot regeneration (direct or indirect), using MS (MB1) basal medium and B5 (MB2) basal modified medium. The callus formation was presented over a wide concentration range of 2.4-D with KIN and 2.4-D with BAP, regardless of the basal medium, but not in explants treated with ANA more TDZ or KIN. For leaf explants there was no response to the formation of somatic embryos or shoots with hormonal combinations and concentrations evaluated; however, MB2 calluses induced with 2.4-D (0.22 mg / l) and BAP (0. 1 , 2. 3 mg / l) were different, their nodular aspect, cream color and pro-embryogenic appearance coincided with a lot of potential meristematic cells for the regeneration process. From immature zygotic embryos, somatic embryo formation in the MB2 medium was achieved without growth regulators or containing 2.4-D alone (0.22 mg /l) or 2.4-D in combination with BAP (1 mg/l) without achieving the conversion process to seedlings.

  5. Grafting guava on cattley guava resistant to Meloidogyne enterolobii / Enxertia da goiabeira sobre araçazeiros resistentes a Meloidogyne enterolobii

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Renata Rodrigues, Robaina; Graziella Siqueira, Campos; Cláudia Sales, Marinho; Ricardo Moreira, Souza; Cíntia Aparecida, Bremenkamp.

    Full Text Available O uso de porta-enxertos resistentes poderá ser um método promissor para o controle do nematoide Meloidogyne enterolobii em plantios comerciais de goiaba, em caso de compatibilidade de enxertia. O presente trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar o pegamento via enxertia por garfagem de topo em fenda chei [...] a, entre a goiabeira e acessos de araçazeiros resistentes a M. enterolobii. Os tratamentos foram constituídos pelos porta-enxertos utilizados, araçazeiros (três acessos de Psidium cattleyanum) e a goiabeira. O delineamento estatístico adotado foi em blocos casualizados (DBC), com quatro tratamentos, cinco repetições, e oito plantas por parcela. Após a enxertia, foi avaliada a percentagem de pegamento dos enxertos. As mudas produzidas foram plantadas no campo e avaliadas quanto ao crescimento inicial das diferentes combinações. Constatou-se pegamento de enxertia entre a goiabeira 'Paluma' e os porta-enxertos de goiabeira e araçazeiros dos acessos 115 e 117, ocorrendo uma taxa de pegamento de 63, 32 e 29%, respectivamente. No campo, os araçazeiros utilizados como porta-enxertos induziram menor desenvolvimento de copa e resultaram em morte de plantas. A incompatibilidade entre a goiabeira 'Paluma' e o porta-enxerto P. cattleyanum foi confirmada um ano após plantio no campo. Abstract in english The use of resistant rootstocks could be a promising method to control nematode Meloidogyne enterolobii in commercial plantations of guava. The present study aimed to evaluate the success of grafting guava as a scion on accessions of cattley guava as rootstocks resistant to M. enterolobii. The treat [...] ments consisted of the rootstocks cattley guava plants (three accessions of Psidium cattleyanum) and common guava (control). In the apical wedge grafting method, scion of Paluma cultivated variety was used. The experiment was arranged in a randomized block design with four treatments and five replicates, and eight plants per plot. The saplings produced as described before were planted in the field where the initial growth of the different combinations were evaluated. Graft success was observed for the control (common guava) and for accessions 115 and 117 of cattley guava plants, with success rates of 63, 32 and 29%, respectively. In the field, the cattley guava used as rootstocks hampered Paluma canopy development and caused death of plants. Incompatibility of P. cattleyanum as rootstocks for P. guajava Paluma was confirmed one year after cultivation in field.

  6. Effect of plant and fungous metabolites on Meloidogyne exigua / Efeito de metabólitos vegetais e fúngicos sobre Meloidogyne exigua

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Daniel Rufino, Amaral; Denilson Ferreira, Oliveira; Vicente Paulo, Campos; José Antônio, Pantaleão; Douglas Antônio de, Carvalho; Alexandro da Silva, Nunes.

    1861-18-01

    Full Text Available Os nematóides acarretam grandes perdas aos produtores brasileiros de café, sendo necessário o desenvolvimento de métodos eficientes para o seu controle. Em trabalho anterior, Allium cepa L., Cajanus cajan (L.) Mill., Crotalaria juncea L., Ficus elastica Roxb., Ruta graveolens L., Stylosanthes guiane [...] nsis Aubl., Leucaena leucocephala (Lam.) Dewit., Brachiaria decumbens Stapf., Catharanthus roseus G. Don, Tagetes minuta L., Ricinus communis L. e Coffea arabica L. produziram substâncias ativas contra o nematóide Meloidogyne exigua Goeldi, que é amplamente disseminado pelos cafezais brasileiros. Dando continuidade a esse trabalho, extratos aquosos das plantas mencionadas, coletadas em época diferente daquela mencionada no trabalho anterior, bem como metabólitos na forma bruta de Fusarium moniliforme Shelden e Cylindrocarpon magnusianum (Sacc.) Woll., produzidos em meio de cultura líquido, foram submetidos a testes in vitro com juvenis do segundo estádio (J2) de M. exigua. Todas as plantas e fungos produziram substâncias ativas contra J2. Portanto, seus metabólitos foram aplicados em mudas de café de seis meses de idade, inoculadas com M. exigua. Após 90 dias em casa de vegetação, verificou-se que os materiais oriundos de A. cepa, L. leucocephala, R. graveolens e F. moniliforme inibiram a produção de ovos e de galhas por M. exigua, demonstrando potencial para o controle de tal parasita. Abstract in english As nematodes cause great damage to Brazilian coffee production, effective methods to control these parasites are necessary. In a previous work Allium cepa L., Cajanus cajan (L.) Mill., Crotalaria juncea L., Ficus elastica Roxb., Ruta graveolens L., Stylosanthes guianensis Aubl., Leucaena leucocephal [...] a (Lam.) Dewit., Brachiaria decumbens Stapf., Catharanthus roseus G. Don, Tagetes minuta L., Ricinus communis L. and Coffea arabica L. produced active substances against Meloidogyne exigua Goeldi, a nematode widely disseminated through Brazilian coffee fields. Thus, aqueous extracts of such plants, collected in a different season from that of the previous work, as well as crude metabolites produced in liquid medium by Fusarium moniliforme Shelden and Cylindrocarpon magnusianum (Sacc.) Woll., were submitted to in vitro assays with M. exigua second-stage juveniles (J2). All plants and fungi produced active substances against J2. Therefore, their metabolites were applied to six-month-old coffee plants inoculated with M. exigua. After 90 days in a greenhouse, those samples obtained from A. cepa, L. leucocephala, R. graveolens and F. moniliforme inhibited the production of galls and eggs by M. exigua, demonstrating potential to control such parasite.

  7. Experimentos com os nematicidas D. D., E. D. B. e brometo de metilo no combate aos nematódeos causadores de galhas em raízes de plantas (Meloidogyne spp.)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Luiz Gonzaga E., Lordello.

    Full Text Available [...] Abstract in english Tomato roots heavily disfigured by root-knot nematodes were throughly mixed with soil. At various time intervals, samples were taken from the mixture and treated in closed containers by each of the folio wing nematicides: D.D., E.D.B. and M.B. The efficacy of the treatment was tested by setting indi [...] cator plants in the treated soil and by examining their roots for the presence of galls two months later. In other words, the ability of the three nematicides to penetrate nematode galls after various periods of rotting, which varied from 5 to 30 days was studied. The main conclusions drawn are as follows: a) no nematicide among the three listed above showed the ability for complete destruction of the nematodes protected inside the roots, for a number of small galls developed on the root system of the indicator plant in all treatments; b) smaller and less numerous galls were present on the roots of the indicator plants grown in soil treated after a rotting period of 30 days; c) however, the control obtained seems to be quite satisfactory economically, since the check plants grew poorly and have developed a very unhealthy root system. This is in accordance with STARK & LEAR (1947), LEAR (1951) and CICCARONE's (1951) statements. The results of the present experiments show again that awaiting for the rotting of galls of the root-knot nematodes is not indispensable for an economically convenient soil fumigation. Fields in which many fleshy infected roots from previous crops have been buried can be economically fumigated immediately, without any loss of time. Notwithstanding, when thick woody roots are present in the soil, the above statements may not hold true. This should constitute a new problem calling for further experiments. Another essay dealing with methyl bromide alone, consisted in treating cotton roots heavily disfigured by Meloidogyne incognita in a container (diameter = 28cm, height = 32 cm), which remained closed for five days. After the treatment, the roots were mixed with soil, in which tomato seedlings were planted. After a growing period of two months, the roots of the tomato plants were washed in running water and examined for the presence of galls. As an early infeccion was present in the root system of all plants, the inefficacy of the treatment has been proved.

  8. Zinc Improves Biocontrol of Meloidogyne javanica by the Antagonistic Rhizobia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Shahid Shaukat

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Mineral amendments influence the performance of antagonistic microorganism to suppress soil-borne fungal and nematode diseases. Experiments were conducted to evaluate the influence of zinc on the production of nematicidal compound(s in vitro and root-knot infection by Meloidogyne javanica in tomato. Nutrient rich medium amended with various concentrations (0.25-2.0 mM markedly improved the nematicidal activity of rhizobia in vitro. Species and even strain-specific differences were observed among bacteria with respect to their response to different zinc concentrations. Efficacy of the 10 different isolates (66.6% of the total isolates was maximum when growth medium was amended with zinc at 1.5 mM while 4 isolates (26.6% of the total isolates exhibited optimal performance when exposed to 2.0 mM zinc. In vitro nematicidal activity of only one strain was optimal at 1.0 mM zinc. Soil amendment with zinc in the form of ZnSO4 at 0.9 mg/kg of soil alone or in conjunction with rhizobia caused significant inhibition of root-knot development and enhanced the growth of tomato plants under glasshouse conditions.

  9. Avaliação em casa de vegetação do uso de sorgo, milheto e crotalária no manejo de Meloidogyne javanica / Greenhouse evaluation of the potential of sorghum, pearl millet and crotalaria in the management of Meloidogyne javanica

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Mário M., Inomoto; Sonia R., Antedomênico; Viviane P., Santos; Rosangela A., Silva; Giovane C., Almeida.

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available A rotação de cultura pode desempenhar um importante papel no manejo de nematóides fitoparasitos, dependendo da disponibilidade de culturas econômicas que lhes sejam não hospedeiras ou más hospedeiras. Como alternativa, culturas de cobertura ou adubos verdes podem ser utilizados em sucessão com as cu [...] lturas econômicas de verão. O objetivo do presente estudo foi avaliar, em casa de vegetação, a reação de híbridos e cultivares comerciais de sorgos (Sorghum bicolor) granífero e silageiro ao nematóide Meloidogyne javanica, e estimar seu efeito na população do nematóide, em comparação ao milheto (Pennisetum glaucum; mau hospedeiro), Crotalaria spectabilis e C. juncea, não hospedeiras. Com base em dois experimentos comparando diversos híbridos e cultivares de sorgo, estabeleceu-se que, como regra geral, o sorgo granífero é mau hospedeiro e o silageiro, bom hospedeiro de M. javanica; porém o sorgo silageiro ‘BRS 601’ foi exceção. Em outros experimentos, o sorgo granífero, o milheto ‘BN 2’, Crotalaria spectabilis ‘Comum’ e C. juncea ‘IAC-KR-1’ reduziram a densidade de M. javanica no solo e os sorgos silageiros aumentaram. Abstract in english Crop rotation can play a valuable role in managing plant parasitic nematodes, depending on the availability of profitable non-host or poor host crops. Alternatively, non-host cover crops or green manures can be used in succession to summer cash crops for this purpose. The aim of the current study wa [...] s to evaluate, under greenhouse conditions, the host status of commercial hybrids and cultivars of grain and silage sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) for Meloidogyne javanica, and to assess the effect of sorghum on nematode population in comparison with pearl millet (poor host for M. javanica), showy crotalaria and sunn hemp (both non-hosts). Based on two experiments, it was stated that, as a rule, grain sorghum is a poor host for M. javanica, but silage sorghum is a good host. Silage sorghum ‘BRS 601’ was an exception. In other experiments, grain sorghum, pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum ‘BN 2’), showy crotalaria (Crotalaria spectabilis ‘Comum’) and sunn hemp (C. juncea ‘IAC-KR-1’) reduced M. javanica population level, while silage sorghum increased the nematode density.

  10. Avaliação em casa de vegetação do uso de sorgo, milheto e crotalária no manejo de Meloidogyne javanica Greenhouse evaluation of the potential of sorghum, pearl millet and crotalaria in the management of Meloidogyne javanica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mário M. Inomoto

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available A rotação de cultura pode desempenhar um importante papel no manejo de nematóides fitoparasitos, dependendo da disponibilidade de culturas econômicas que lhes sejam não hospedeiras ou más hospedeiras. Como alternativa, culturas de cobertura ou adubos verdes podem ser utilizados em sucessão com as culturas econômicas de verão. O objetivo do presente estudo foi avaliar, em casa de vegetação, a reação de híbridos e cultivares comerciais de sorgos (Sorghum bicolor granífero e silageiro ao nematóide Meloidogyne javanica, e estimar seu efeito na população do nematóide, em comparação ao milheto (Pennisetum glaucum; mau hospedeiro, Crotalaria spectabilis e C. juncea, não hospedeiras. Com base em dois experimentos comparando diversos híbridos e cultivares de sorgo, estabeleceu-se que, como regra geral, o sorgo granífero é mau hospedeiro e o silageiro, bom hospedeiro de M. javanica; porém o sorgo silageiro ‘BRS 601’ foi exceção. Em outros experimentos, o sorgo granífero, o milheto ‘BN 2’, Crotalaria spectabilis ‘Comum’ e C. juncea ‘IAC-KR-1’ reduziram a densidade de M. javanica no solo e os sorgos silageiros aumentaram.Crop rotation can play a valuable role in managing plant parasitic nematodes, depending on the availability of profitable non-host or poor host crops. Alternatively, non-host cover crops or green manures can be used in succession to summer cash crops for this purpose. The aim of the current study was to evaluate, under greenhouse conditions, the host status of commercial hybrids and cultivars of grain and silage sorghum (Sorghum bicolor for Meloidogyne javanica, and to assess the effect of sorghum on nematode population in comparison with pearl millet (poor host for M. javanica, showy crotalaria and sunn hemp (both non-hosts. Based on two experiments, it was stated that, as a rule, grain sorghum is a poor host for M. javanica, but silage sorghum is a good host. Silage sorghum ‘BRS 601’ was an exception. In other experiments, grain sorghum, pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum ‘BN 2’, showy crotalaria (Crotalaria spectabilis ‘Comum’ and sunn hemp (C. juncea ‘IAC-KR-1’ reduced M. javanica population level, while silage sorghum increased the nematode density.

  11. Meloidogyne javanica control by Pochonia chlamydosporia, Gracilibacillus dipsosauri and soil conditioner in tomato / Pochonia chlamydosporia, Gracilibacillus dipsosauri e condicionador de solo para o controle de Meloidogyne javanica em tomateiro

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Guilherme Silva de, Podestá; Leandro Grassi de, Freitas; Rosangela, Dallemole-Giaretta; Ronaldo João Falcão, Zooca; Larissa de Brito, Caixeta; Silamar, Ferraz.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available A matéria orgânica exerce papel fundamental na atividade antagonista de microrganismos sobre populações de fitonematoides no solo. Nesse trabalho foram avaliados a compatibilidade entre o fungo Pochonia chlamydosporia (Pc-12) e a rizobactéria Gracilibacillus dipsosauri (MIC 14) in vitro e o efeito d [...] este fungo a 5000 clamidósporos/g de solo, da rizobactéria a 4,65 x 10(9) células/g de solo, e do condicionador de solo Ribumin® a 10 g/vaso, isoladamente ou em conjunto, sobre Meloidogyne javanica em tomateiro (3000 ovos/vaso). Uma suspensão de água ou apenas Ribumin®, foi aplicada ao solo como testemunhas negativas, enquanto uma suspensão de ovos do nematoide foi aplicada como controle positivo. A redução no número de galhas em raízes por planta foi de 48 e 41% nos tratamentos Ribumin + MIC 14 + Pc-12 e MIC 14 + Pc-12, respectivamente. Quanto ao número de ovos por planta, MIC 14 e Pc-12 + Ribumin proporcionaram redução de 26 e 21% respectivamente em relação ao tratamento testemunha. A interação entre o fungo nematófago e a rizobactéria foi positiva para o controle do nematoide, apesar do fato de G. dipsosauri ter inibido o crescimento do fungo P. clamidosporia em até 30% em teste in vitro. Abstract in english Organic matter plays a fundamental role in the antagonistic activity of microorganisms against phytonematode populations on the soil. In this study, the compatibility between the fungus Pochonia chlamydosporia (Pc-12) and the rhizobacterium Gracilibacillus dipsosauri (MIC 14) was evaluated in vitro, [...] as well as the effect of the fungus at the concentration of 5,000 chlamydospores per gram of soil, rhizobacterium at 4.65 x 10(9) cells/g of soil, and the soil conditioner Ribumin® at 10 g/pot, either alone or in combination, against Meloidogyne javanica population in tomato plants (3,000 eggs/pot). A suspension of water or Ribumin® alone was applied on the soil as negative control, while a suspension of nematode eggs was applied as positive control. The reduction in the number of galls in roots per plant was 48 and 41% for the treatments Ribumin + MIC 14 + Pc-12 and MIC 14 + Pc-12, respectively. Regarding to the number of eggs per plant, MIC 14 and Pc-12 + Ribumin led to a reduction by 26 and 21%, respectively, compared to the control treatment. Interaction between the nematophagous fungus and the rhizobacterium was positive for the nematode control, even though G. dipsosauri inhibited P. chlamydosporia growth by up to 30% in in vitro tests.

  12. Efeito dos exsudatos radiculares de Solanum Sisymbriifolium na enclosão de Meloidogyne SPP / Hatching effect of root exudates from Solanum Sisymbriifolium on Meloidogyne SPP

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Isabel Luci, Conceição; Ana Margarida Caetano, Dias; Isabel, Abrantes; Maria José Moreno da, Cunha.

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Os nemátodes-das-galhas-radiculares (NGR), Meloidogyne spp., são fitoparasitas com uma grande distribuição e economicamente importantes, causando reduções significativas na quantidade e qualidade da produção agrícola. O seu controlo é difícil e muitos dos métodos utilizados são ineficazes. Algumas p [...] lantas libertam fitoquímicos naturais com propriedades nematodicidas e os exsudatos radiculares podem actuar como estimuladores ou inibidores da eclosão de jovens do segundo estádio (J2). O objectivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito dos exsudatos radiculares de Solanum sisiymbriifolium (cvs Sharp, Pion, Sis 4004 e Domino) na eclosão de J2 de cinco isolados de Meloidogyne (M. arenaria, M. chitwoodi, M. hapla, M. hispanica e M. javanica), contribuindo para o desenvolvimento de estratégias de protecção alternativas à utilização de nematodicidas. Os exsudatos radiculares obtidos através da lixiviação sucessiva do solo foram testados, com contagens diárias, durante o período de 15 dias. O exsudato de tomateiro (S. lycopersicum cv. Easypeel) e a água destilada foram utilizados como testemunhas. Abstract in english Root-knot nematodes (RKN), Meloidogyne spp., are widespread and economically important plant-parasitic nematodes, causing significant reduction on quantity and quality of agricultural production. Its control is difficult and many methods are inefficient. Some plants release natural phytochemicals th [...] at have been identified and proved to have nematicides properties. The root exudates may act as stimulants or inhibitors of second-stage juveniles (J2) hatching. The goal of this research was to evaluate the hatching effect of root exudates from Solanum sisiymbriifolium (cvs Sharp, Pion, Sis 4004 e Domino) on five Meloidogyne isolates (M. arenaria, M. chitwoodi, M. hapla, M. hispanica and M. javanica) and to contribute for the development of an alternative strategy to the use of the nematicides. The root exudates, obtained by successive soil leaching, were tested, with daily counts, for a period of 15 days. The exsudate from tomato (S. lycopersicum cv. Easypeel) and distilled water were used as controls.

  13. Respuesta de Zamia incognita L. al cultivo in vitro, una alternativa para su conservación

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aura I. Urrea

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Título en ingles: In vitro culture response on Zamia incognita,  an alternative for preservation Resumen: Las Zamiaceas son plantas relictuales consideradas fósiles vivientes. En Colombia, el 65% de esta familia se encuentra en alguna categoría de amenaza, por la destrucción del hábitat e intensa recolección. Teniendo en cuenta que entre las ventajas de la propagación in vitro está la conservación ex situ de germoplasma, el presente trabajo tuvo como objetivo evaluar el potencial de regeneración de plantas de Z. incognita a partir de explantes foliares y embriones cigoticos. Se evaluó el efecto de diferentes combinaciones de Auxinas (2,4-D y ANA y citoquininas (KIN, BAP y TDZ sobre la formación de callo  y la regeneración de brotes (directa o indirecta, utilizando como medio basal MS (MB1 y medio basal B5 modificado (MB2. La formación de callo se presentó sobre un amplio rango de concentraciones de 2,4-D con KIN y 2,4-D con BAP, independientemente del medio basal, pero no en los explantes tratados con ANA más KIN o TDZ.  Para los explantes foliares no hubo respuesta  a la formación de embriones somáticos y/o brotes con las combinaciones y concentraciones hormonales evaluadas, no obstante los callos inducidos en MB2 con 2,4-D (0,22 mg/l y BAP (0, 1, 2, 3 mg/l fueron diferentes, su aspecto nodular, color crema y  apariencia proembriogénica coincidió con una gran cantidad de células meristemáticas potenciales para el proceso de regeneración. A partir de embriones cigoticos inmaduros se logró la formación de embriones somáticos en el medio MB2 exento de reguladores o conteniendo 2,4-D solo (0,22 mg/l y en combinación con BAP (1 mg/l, sin lograr el proceso de conversión a plántulas. Palabras clave: micropropagación; hojas jóvenes; reguladores de crecimiento; embriones cigóticos; medio basal. Abstract: Zamiaceas are relict plants considered living fossils. In Colombia, 65% of this family is under some threat category due to their habitat destruction and their intense collection. Given that the advantages of in vitro propagation is ex situ conservation of germoplasm, this study aimed to evaluate the regeneration potential of  Z incognita plants  from leaf explants and zygotic embryos. The effect of different combinations of auxin (2.4-D and NAA and cytokinins (KIN, BAP and TDZ was evaluated on the formation of callus and shoot regeneration (direct or indirect, using MS (MB1 basal medium and B5 (MB2 basal modified medium.  The callus formation was presented over a wide concentration range of 2.4-D with KIN and 2.4-D with BAP, regardless of the basal medium, but not in explants treated with ANA more TDZ or KIN. For leaf explants there was no response to the formation of somatic embryos or shoots with hormonal combinations and concentrations evaluated; however, MB2 calluses induced with 2.4-D (0.22 mg / l and BAP (0. 1 , 2. 3 mg / l were different, their nodular aspect, cream color and pro-embryogenic appearance coincided with a lot of potential meristematic cells for the regeneration process. From immature zygotic embryos, somatic embryo formation in the MB2 medium was achieved without growth regulators or containing 2.4-D alone (0.22 mg /l or 2.4-D in combination with BAP (1 mg/l without achieving the conversion process to seedlings. Key words: microprogation; young leaves; plant growth regulators; zygotic embryos; basal medium.

  14. A new Pathotype of Meloidogyne chitwoodi Race 1 from Washington State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meloidogyne chitwoodi Golden et al. is a serious pest of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.), and widespread in the Pacific Northwestern States of USA. M. chitwoodi is currently reported to consist of two host races and one pathotype (2, 3), which are not distinguished morphologically. Host race 1 repro...

  15. Transcriptome analysis of resistant soybean roots infected by Meloidogyne javanica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Eugênia Lisei de Sá

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Soybean is an important crop for Brazilian agribusiness. However, many factors can limit its production, especially root-knot nematode infection. Studies on the mechanisms employed by the resistant soybean genotypes to prevent infection by these nematodes are of great interest for breeders. For these reasons, the aim of this work is to characterize the transcriptome of soybean line PI 595099-Meloidogyne javanica interaction through expression analysis. Two cDNA libraries were obtained using a pool of RNA from PI 595099 uninfected and M. javanica (J2 infected roots, collected at 6, 12, 24, 48, 96, 144 and 192 h after inoculation. Around 800 ESTs (Expressed Sequence Tags were sequenced and clustered into 195 clusters. In silico subtraction analysis identified eleven differentially expressed genes encoding putative proteins sharing amino acid sequence similarities by using BlastX: metallothionein, SLAH4 (SLAC1 Homologue 4, SLAH1 (SLAC1 Homologue 1, zinc-finger proteins, AN1-type proteins, auxin-repressed proteins, thioredoxin and nuclear transport factor 2 (NTF-2. Other genes were also found exclusively in nematode stressed soybean roots, such as NAC domain-containing proteins, MADS-box proteins, SOC1 (suppressor of overexpression of constans 1 proteins, thioredoxin-like protein 4-Coumarate-CoA ligase and the transcription factor (TF MYBZ2. Among the genes identified in non-stressed roots only were Ser/Thr protein kinases, wound-induced basic protein, ethylene-responsive family protein, metallothionein-like protein cysteine proteinase inhibitor (cystatin and Putative Kunitz trypsin protease inhibitor. An understanding of the roles of these differentially expressed genes will provide insights into the resistance mechanisms and candidate genes involved in soybean-M. javanica interaction and contribute to more effective control of this pathogen.

  16. Transcriptome analysis of resistant soybean roots infected by Meloidogyne javanica

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Maria Eugênia Lisei de, Sá; Marcus José Conceição, Lopes; Magnólia de Araújo, Campos; Luciano Vilela, Paiva; Regina Maria Santos de, Amorim; Magda Aparecida, Beneventi; Alexandre Augusto Pereira, Firmino; Maria Fátima Grossi de, Sá.

    Full Text Available Soybean is an important crop for Brazilian agribusiness. However, many factors can limit its production, especially root-knot nematode infection. Studies on the mechanisms employed by the resistant soybean genotypes to prevent infection by these nematodes are of great interest for breeders. For thes [...] e reasons, the aim of this work is to characterize the transcriptome of soybean line PI 595099-Meloidogyne javanica interaction through expression analysis. Two cDNA libraries were obtained using a pool of RNA from PI 595099 uninfected and M. javanica (J2) infected roots, collected at 6, 12, 24, 48, 96, 144 and 192 h after inoculation. Around 800 ESTs (Expressed Sequence Tags) were sequenced and clustered into 195 clusters. In silico subtraction analysis identified eleven differentially expressed genes encoding putative proteins sharing amino acid sequence similarities by using BlastX: metallothionein, SLAH4 (SLAC1 Homologue 4), SLAH1 (SLAC1 Homologue 1), zinc-finger proteins, AN1-type proteins, auxin-repressed proteins, thioredoxin and nuclear transport factor 2 (NTF-2). Other genes were also found exclusively in nematode stressed soybean roots, such as NAC domain-containing proteins, MADS-box proteins, SOC1 (suppressor of overexpression of constans 1) proteins, thioredoxin-like protein 4-Coumarate-CoA ligase and the transcription factor (TF) MYBZ2. Among the genes identified in non-stressed roots only were Ser/Thr protein kinases, wound-induced basic protein, ethylene-responsive family protein, metallothionein-like protein cysteine proteinase inhibitor (cystatin) and Putative Kunitz trypsin protease inhibitor. An understanding of the roles of these differentially expressed genes will provide insights into the resistance mechanisms and candidate genes involved in soybean-M. javanica interaction and contribute to more effective control of this pathogen.

  17. USO DE LA BIOFUMIGACIÓN PARA EL MANEJO DE Meloidogyne spp., EN LAPRODUCCIÓN PROTEGIDA DE HORTALIZAS / USE OF BIOFUMIGATION FOR THE MANAGEMENT OF Meloidogyne spp.INVEGETABLE SHELTERED PRODUCTION

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Lucila, Gómez; E, González; R, Enrique; M.A, Hernández; Mayra G, Rodríguez.

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó el efecto de la biofumigación del suelo con estiércol vacuno sobreMeloidogyne spp., en un túnel de cultivo protegido durante dos ciclos sucesivos de tomate y pepino. El estiércol vacuno semi-descompuesto se incorporó al suelo de los canteros (10kg.m de suelo) antes del establecimiento de l [...] os cultivos. Para determinar el efecto de la biofumigación sobre las poblaciones de Meloidogyne spp. en el suelo, se determinó el índice de infestación antes y después de la biofumigación, utilizando el método indirecto de bioensayo por planta indicadora, a partir de muestras colectadas a lo largo de los cinco canteros del túnel. Previo a la conformación de los semilleros, las semillas de cada cultivo se peletizaron con ECOMIC (10% del peso de la semilla) y recibieron la aplicación de FITOMAS (3mL. L de agua). Al término de cada cosecha se extrajeron las raíces en su totalidad y se determinó el grado de agallamiento. También se registraron los rendimientos de cada cultivo, expresados en kg de producto.túnel. El índice de infestación en suelo por Meloidogyne spp., después de la biofumigación disminuyó de 4,8 a 1,8 grados. El grado de agallamiento al final de cada ciclo de los cultivos evaluados se mantuvo por debajo de tres y los rendimientos alcanzados superaron en un 50% el obtenido en cosechas anteriores. En este trabajo se confirma que la biogumigación de suelos es una alternativa práctica para el manejo de Meloidogyne spp. en la producción protegida de hortalizas. Abstract in english The effect of soil biofumigation on Meloidogyne spp. during two crop cycles (tomatocucumber) grown under sheltered conditions was evaluated. Semi-rotted cattle manure, used as the biofumigation material, was incorporated in the soil of the plots at a dose of 10 kg.m of soil. Before and after biofumi [...] gation, the soil infestation index of Meloidogyne spp. was determined in soil samples taken along the five plots of the tunnel using the indirect bioassay method. The seeds of both tomato and cucumber crops were pelleted with ECOMIC(10% of seed weight) and FITOMAS (3 mL.L of water) before the seedbeds were set up. The entire root system of each crop was removed from the soil at the end of the harvest. The gall index in the root system of both crops was evaluated. The yields of each crop were also recorded as kg of product per tunnel. The infestation level of the soil after biofumigation decreased from 4,8 to 1,8 degree. The gall index at the end of each crop cycle was always below three. The yields achieved in both crops were 50% higher than those obtained in these crops before this experiment. The results of this work confirm that soil biofumigation is a practicable alternative for the management of the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne spp. in the vegetable production under sheltered conditions.

  18. Reaction of Cultivar Coffee 'Vitória INCAPER 8142' of Cornillon to Parasitism of Meloidogyne exigua / Reacción del Cultivar de café 'Vitória INCAPER 8142' de Cornillon al parasitismo de Meloidogyne exigua

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Cristiano C, Contarato; Marcelo A, Tomaz; Fábio R, Alves; Fabrício M, Sobreira; Waldir C. de Jesus, Junior; Lilian K.C, Rabello; Maria A.G, Ferrão; Romário G, Ferrão.

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Entre los factores que limitan la productividad de los cultivos de café en Brasil son las enfermedades, especialmente el nematodo Meloidogyne exigua presenta relevancia. El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar la resistencia de 13 clones (1V, 2V, 3V, 4V, 5V, 6V, 7V, 8V, 9V, 10V, 11V, 12V y 13V) que [...] comprenden la variedad clonal de café Conillón "Vitoria INCAPER 8142" (Coffea canephora Pierre), a M. exigua. Clones y un testigo (C. arabica cv. Catuai IAC-44) se inocularon con 7.000 individuos (huevos + juveniles) de M. exigua. Después de 180 días de la inoculación se determinó la población final de nematodos por planta. Para determinar los niveles de resistencia se consideró el factor de la reproducción y el Indice de reproducción. El cultivar "Victoria INCAPER 8142" mostró clones con diferentes niveles de resistencia. Los clones 1V, 4V, 7V, 9V e 12V se comportaron como huésped susceptible y eficiente, y los otros clones fueron anfitriones menos resistentes o ineficientes. Abstract in english Among factors limiting to the yield of the coffee crop are the diseases, deserving prominence the nematode Meloidogyne exigua. The objective of this work was to assess the level of resistance of 13 clones (1V, 2V, 3V, 4V, 5V, 6V, 7V, 8V, 9V, 10V, 11V, 12V and 13V) wich composes the clonal variety 'V [...] itória INCAPER 8142' of conilon coffee (Coffea canephora Pierre), to M. exigua. The 13 clones and more one control (C. arabica, cv. Catuaí IAC-44) were inoculated with 7,000 individuals of M. exigua. After 180 days of inoculation, the final population of nematodes per root system was determined. For determination of the resistance levels, both the reproduction factor and the reduction of the reproduction factor were considered. The variety 'Vitória INCAPER 8142' presented clones with different levels of resistance. Clones 1V, 4V, 7V, 9V and 12V behaved as susceptible or efficient host and the other clones were resistant or non-efficient host.

  19. Role of Nematodes, Nematicides, and Crop Rotation on the Productivity and Quality of Potato, Sweet Potato, Peanut, and Grain Sorghum

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, A. W.; Dowler, C. C.; Glaze, N. C.; Handoo, Z. A.

    1996-01-01

    The objective of this experiment was to determine the effects of fenamiphos 15G and short-cycle potato (PO)-sweet potato (SP) grown continuously and in rotation with peanut (PE)-grain sorghum (GS) on yield, crop quality, and mixed nematode population densities of Meloidogyne arenaria, M. hapla, M. incognita, and Mesocriconema ornatum. Greater root-gall indices and damage by M. hapla and M. incognita occurred on potato than other crops. Most crop yields were higher and root-gall indices lower ...

  20. Site-Specific Management of Meloidogyne chitwoodi in Idaho Potatoes Using 1,3-Dichloropropene; Approach, Experiences, and Economics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Bradley A; Taberna, John P

    2013-09-01

    Fumigation for nematode management in irrigated potato production systems of Idaho is widely practiced. Soil injection is the only labeled application method for 1,3-dichloropropene that is conventionally applied on a whole-field basis. Plant-parasitic nematode species exhibit spatially variable population densities that provide an opportunity to practice site-specific fumigation to reduce chemical usage and production costs. During 2002 to 2008, 62 fields intended for commercial potato production in eastern Idaho were sampled using a geo-referenced grid sampling system for plant-parasitic nematode population densities. In total, 4,030 grid samples were collected representing nearly 3,200 ha of commercial potato production. Collectively, 73% of the grid samples had Columbia root knot (CRN) (Meloidogyne chitwoodi) population densities below detectable levels. Site-specific fumigation is the practice of varying application rate of a fumigant based on nematode population density. In 2007, 640 ha of potato production were site-specific fumigated for CRN nematode control in eastern Idaho. On average, this practice resulted in a 30% reduction in chemical usage and production cost savings of $209/ha when 1,3-dichloropropene was used as the sole source of nematode suppression. Reductions in usage of 1,3-dichloropropene can exceed 50% if used in combination with a nonfumigant nematicide such as oxamyl. This combination approach can have production cost savings exceeding $200/ha. Based on farm-gate receipts and USDA inspections provided by potato producers from 2001 to 2011, potato tuber yield and quality have not been adversely affected using site-specific fumigation. PMID:24115785

  1. Management of Plant-parasitic Nematodes with a Chitin-Urea Soil Amendment and Other Materials

    OpenAIRE

    Westerdahl, B. B.; Carlson, H. L.; Grant, J.; Radewald, J. D.; Welch, N.; Anderson, C. A.; Darso, J.; Kirby, D.; Shibuya, F.

    1992-01-01

    Field trials were conducted with a chitin-urea soil amendment and several other nematicides on four crop-nematode combinations: tomato-Meloidogyne incognita; potato-Meloidogyne chitwoodi; walnut-Pratylenchus vulnus; and brussels sprouts-Heterodera schachtii. Significant (P ? 0.10) nematode population reductions were obtained with the chitin-urea soil amendment in the trims on potato and walnut. In the trials on brussels sprouts and on tomato, phytotoxicity occurred at rates of 1,868 and 1,0...

  2. Desenvolvimento de Pasteuria penetrans em Meloidogyne spp. parasitando diferentes espécies vegetais / Development of Pasteuria penetrans in Meloidogyne spp. parasitizing different host plants

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Adriana K., Rodrigues; Leandro G., Freitas; Aristéa A., Azevedo; Silamar, Ferraz.

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available A bactéria Pasteuria penetrans é um parasita obrigatório do nematóide das galhas (Meloidogyne spp.) e produz esporos que persistem por anos no solo. A sua produção por cultivo in vitro ainda é inviável e a produção de inoculo requer o seu cultivo in vivo em nematóides parasitando plantas em vasos. N [...] este trabalho, buscou-se, por meio do estudo histológico de raízes, averiguar diferenças no desenvolvimento de P. penetrans em Meloidogyne spp. parasitando raízes de tomateiro (Lycopersicon esculentum), maxixe (Cucumis anguria) e camapu (Physalis angulata), e possíveis razões para estas diferenças, como forma e tamanho de células gigantes e das fêmeas do nematóide. O maxixe foi o pior dentre os hospedeiros em teste para a produção de inóculo e apresentou células gigantes anormais. A estrutura das células gigantes assim como o desenvolvimento da bactéria foram semelhantes no camapu e no tomateiro, entretanto o ciclo de vida de P. penetrans foi ligeiramente mais curto no tomateiro. Abstract in english The bacterium Pasteuria penetrans is an obligate parasite of root-knot nematodes and produces spores that persist in soil for many years. At present, in vitro cultivation is not feasible, thereby requiring inoculum production in vivo cultivation, inside nematode parasitizing potted plants. In this w [...] ork, the differences in the development of P. penetrans in Meloidogyne spp. parasitizing roots of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum), gherkin (Cucumis anguria) and "camapu" (Physalis angulata) were evaluated by histopathology of infected roots. Possible reasons for the differences found were analyzed, such as change in the giant cells or nematode females. The gherkin was the worst host for inoculum production and presented abnormal giant cells. The anatomy of giant cells and the bacterium development were similar in tomato and "camapu" root systems, but the P. penetrans life cicle was slightly shorter in tomato than in camapu.

  3. Desenvolvimento de Pasteuria penetrans em Meloidogyne spp. parasitando diferentes espécies vegetais Development of Pasteuria penetrans in Meloidogyne spp. parasitizing different host plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana K. Rodrigues

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available A bactéria Pasteuria penetrans é um parasita obrigatório do nematóide das galhas (Meloidogyne spp. e produz esporos que persistem por anos no solo. A sua produção por cultivo in vitro ainda é inviável e a produção de inoculo requer o seu cultivo in vivo em nematóides parasitando plantas em vasos. Neste trabalho, buscou-se, por meio do estudo histológico de raízes, averiguar diferenças no desenvolvimento de P. penetrans em Meloidogyne spp. parasitando raízes de tomateiro (Lycopersicon esculentum, maxixe (Cucumis anguria e camapu (Physalis angulata, e possíveis razões para estas diferenças, como forma e tamanho de células gigantes e das fêmeas do nematóide. O maxixe foi o pior dentre os hospedeiros em teste para a produção de inóculo e apresentou células gigantes anormais. A estrutura das células gigantes assim como o desenvolvimento da bactéria foram semelhantes no camapu e no tomateiro, entretanto o ciclo de vida de P. penetrans foi ligeiramente mais curto no tomateiro.The bacterium Pasteuria penetrans is an obligate parasite of root-knot nematodes and produces spores that persist in soil for many years. At present, in vitro cultivation is not feasible, thereby requiring inoculum production in vivo cultivation, inside nematode parasitizing potted plants. In this work, the differences in the development of P. penetrans in Meloidogyne spp. parasitizing roots of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum, gherkin (Cucumis anguria and "camapu" (Physalis angulata were evaluated by histopathology of infected roots. Possible reasons for the differences found were analyzed, such as change in the giant cells or nematode females. The gherkin was the worst host for inoculum production and presented abnormal giant cells. The anatomy of giant cells and the bacterium development were similar in tomato and "camapu" root systems, but the P. penetrans life cicle was slightly shorter in tomato than in camapu.

  4. Reproduction of Meloidogyne enterolobii in lettuce cultivars of the American group / Multiplicação de Meloidogyne enterolobii em cultivares de alface do grupo americano

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Érika CSS, Correia; Norberto, Silva; Marylia GS, Costa; Silvia RS, Wilcken.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A alface é a principal hortaliça folhosa cultivada no Brasil, tanto em volume como em valor comercializado. Em áreas de cultivo, a alface tem a sua produtividade comprometida por diversas enfermidades, incluindo as causadas pelos nematoides-das-galhas (Meloidogyne spp). Este trabalho teve como objet [...] ivo avaliar o potencial reprodutivo de Meloidogyne enterolobii em vinte e duas cultivares de alface do tipo americana. As plantas foram inoculadas com 5.000 ovos e eventuais juvenis de segundo estádio de M. enterolobii por vaso, dois dias após o transplante das cultivares. O tomateiro 'Rutgers' foi utilizado como padrão de viabilidade do inóculo de M. enterolobii. Foram avaliados o índice de galhas (IG), índice de massas de ovos (IMO) e fator de reprodução (FR) do nematoide, aos 60 dias após a inoculação. As cultivares Ithaca, Raider Plus, RS-1397, L-104, Challenge, IP-11, Classic, Salinas 88, Vanguard 75, Calona e Desert Queen apresentaram resistência a M. enterolobii, com FR variando de 0,22 a 0,9, e as cultivares Lady, Winterset, Robinson, Sonoma, Raider, Lucy Brown, Bnondaga, Summer Time, Tainá, Sundevil e L-109 foram suscetíveis a esse nematoide, com FR variando de 1,06 a 5,73. Abstract in english Lettuce is the main vegetable cultivated in Brazil, in volume and in marketed value. There are ranges of diseases which may affect lettuce crops, including those caused by root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp.). We evaluated the reproductive potential of Meloidogyne enterolobii in 22 lettuce cultiva [...] rs. The plants were inoculated with 5,000 eggs and eventuals second stage juveniles of nematode per pot, two days after the transplanting. 'Rutgers' tomato was used as standard for inoculum viability of M. enterolobii. We evaluated, 60 days after inoculation, the gall index, egg mass index and reproduction factor (RF). The 'Ithaca', 'Raider Plus', 'RS-1397', 'L-104', 'Challenge', 'IP-11', 'Classic', 'Salinas 88', 'Vanguard 75', 'Calona' and 'Desert Queen' were resistant to M. enterolobii with RF varying from 0.22 to 0.9, and the cultivars Lady Winterset, Robinson, Sonoma, Raider, Lucy Brown, Bnondaga, Summer Time, Taina, Sundevil and L-109 were susceptible to this nematode, with RF ranging from 1.06 to 5.73.

  5. Description and SEM Observations of Meloidogyne sasseri n. sp. (Nematoda: Meloidogynidae), Parasitizing Beachgrasses

    OpenAIRE

    Handoo, Zafar A.; Huettel, Robin N.; Golden, A. Morgan

    1993-01-01

    Meloidogyne sasseri n. sp. is described and illustrated from American beachgrass (Ammophila breviliffulata) originally collected from Henlopen State Park and Fenwick Island near the Maryland state line in Delaware, United States (6). Its relationship to M. graminis, M. spartinae, and M. californiensis is discussed. Primary distinctive characters of the female perineal pattern were a high to rounded arch with shoulders, widely spaced lateral lines interrupting transverse striations, a sunken v...

  6. Damage and Management of Meloidogyne hapla Using Oxamyl on Carrot in New York

    OpenAIRE

    Gugino, B.K.; Abawi, G. S.; Ludwig, J. W.

    2006-01-01

    The northern root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne hapla) is a major pathogen of processing carrot in New York, significantly reducing marketable yield and profitability. Severely infected carrots are stubby, galled and forked and therefore unmarketable. In field microplot trials in 1996 and 1998, the incidence and severity of root-galling increased and the marketable yield of carrot decreased as the initial inoculum density of M. hapla was increased from 0 to 8 eggs/cm3 soil, in mineral or organic...

  7. Meloidogyne enterolobii n. sp. (Meloidogynidae), a Root-knot Nematode Parasitizing Pacara Earpod Tree in China

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Baojun; Eisenback, J.D.

    1983-01-01

    Meloidogyne enterolobii n. sp. is described and illustrated from roots of pacara earpod tree, Enterolobium contortisiliquum (Vell.) Morong, on Hainan Island in China. The perineal pattern of the female is usually oval shaped, the striae are fine to coarse, the dorsal arch is moderately high to high and usually rounded, and the phasmids are large. The stylet knobs in females are divided longitudinally by a groove so that each knob appears as two. The mean distance of the excretory pore to the ...

  8. Responses of Guava Plants to Inoculation with Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi in Soil Infested with Meloidogyne enterolobii

    OpenAIRE

    Campos, Maryluce Albuquerque da Silva; da Silva, Fábio Sérgio Barbosa; Yano-Melo, Adriana Mayumi; DE MELO, NATONIEL FRANKLIN; Pedrosa, Elvira Maria Régis; Maia, Leonor Costa

    2013-01-01

    In the Northeast of Brazil, expansion of guava crops has been impaired by Meloidogyne enterolobii that causes root galls, leaf fall and plant death. Considering the fact that arbuscular mycorrhizal Fungi (AMF) improve plant growth giving protection against damages by plant pathogens, this work was carried out to select AMF efficient to increase production of guava seedlings and their tolerance to M. enterolobii. Seedlings of guava were inoculated with 200 spores of Gigaspora albida, Glomus et...

  9. On the species status of the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne mayaguensis Rammah & Hirschmann, 1988

    OpenAIRE

    Gerrit Karssen; Jinling Liao; Zhuo Kan; Evelyn van Heese; Loes den Nijs

    2012-01-01

    Holo- and paratypes of the root-knot nematodes Meloidogyne mayaguensis Rammah & Hirschmann, 1988 and M. enterolobii Yang & Eisenback, 1983 were morphometrically and morphologically compared. All observed female, male and second-stage juvenile morphometrical and morphological characters are identical for the two studied species. Additionally, contradictions between the original species descriptions were unravelled.The present study of holo- and paratypes confirms the taxonomical status...

  10. Efficacy of Fumigant and Nonfurmigant Nematicides for Control of Meloidogyne arenaria on Peanut

    OpenAIRE

    Dickson, D. W.; Hewlett, T. E.

    1988-01-01

    Three tests were conducted to evaluate the efficacy of fumigant and nonfumigant nematicides for control of Meloidogyne arenaria race 1 on peanut. Methyl bromide, 1,3-D, methyl isothiocyanate, and methyl isothiocyanate mixtures were applied 7 or 8 days preplant either broadcast or in-the-row. Aldicarb, ethoprop, fenamiphos, and F5145 were applied at different rates and by different methods at-plant or at early flowering. Of the 32 treatments evaluated, only seven resulted in yield increases (P...

  11. Analysis of phenolic and indole acetic acids in Meloidogyne graminicola infected rice plants (Oryza sativa L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Amitabh Singh; Ritesh Kumar Jaiswal; Sudarshan Maurya; Udai Pratap Singh

    2013-01-01

    Meloidogyne spp. incite root-knot disease in the roots of Solanaceous and Cereal crop plants inflicting heavy damage to the crops. M. graminicola, a root-knot nematode is ubiquitous as a rice pathogen wherever rice is grown. High Performance Liquid Chromatographic (HPLC) analysis of phenolic acids in healthy and root-knot infected plant parts of rice indicated that phenolic acid contents were highly variable in both the cases. Upper leaves of healthy plants had seven phenolic acids in which g...

  12. Ringtest to evaluate four methods of resistance testing in fodder radish against Meloidogyne chitwoodi

    OpenAIRE

    Visser, J.H.M.; Berg, W; Korthals, G.W.

    2009-01-01

    To measure levels of resistance in fodder radish cultivars a reliable, objective and cost effective testing method is required. In 2006 German and Dutch plant breeder’s organizations (Bundesverband Deutscher Pflanzenzüchter; BDP and Plantum), a number of research institutes (PRI, PPO (WUR) and JKI) and breeding companies started this “Ring test project”.Aim of this project was to compare different methods to quantify the level of resistance in fodder radish varieties against Meloidogyn...

  13. Pathogenicity of the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne javanica on potato

    OpenAIRE

    Vovlas, Nicola; Mifsud, D.; Landa, Blanca B.; Castillo, Pablo

    2005-01-01

    Host–parasite relationships and pathogenicity of Meloidogyne javanica on potatoes (newly recorded from Malta) were studied under glasshouse and natural conditions. Potato cvs Cara and Spunta showed a typical susceptible reaction to M. javanica under natural and artificial infections, respectively. In potato tubers, M. javanica induced feeding sites that consisted of three to four hypertrophied giant cells per adult female. Infection of feeder roots by the nematode resulted in mature larg...

  14. Expression of Tolerance for Meloidogyne graminicola in Rice Cultivars as Affected by Soil Type and Flooding

    OpenAIRE

    Soriano, Imelda R. S.; Prot, Jean-Claude; Matias, Danilo M.

    2000-01-01

    The effects of different water regimes on the pathogenicity of Meloidogyne graminicola on six rice cultivars were determined in two soil types in three greenhouse experiments. Two water regimes, simulating continuous flooding and intermittent flooding, were used with five of the cultivars. All cultivars were susceptible to the nematode, but IR72 and IR74 were more tolerant than IR20 and IR29 under intermittent flooding. All were tolerant under continuous flooding. UPLRi-5 was grown under mult...

  15. Relationship Between Levels of Cyanide in Sudangrass Hybrids Incorporated into Soil and Suppression of Meloidogyne hapla

    OpenAIRE

    Widmer, T.L.; Abawi, G. S.

    2002-01-01

    Sudangrass cv. Trudan 8 has been demonstrated to suppress infection of vegetables by Meloidogyne hapla (Mh). Hydrogen cyanide, released from the degradation of the cyanogenic glucoside (dhurrin) during decomposition of Trudan 8, was the primary factor involved in suppression of Mh on vegetables. The cyanide ion level in leaf tissue of 14 hybrids of sudangrass varied between 0.04 (cv. SX-8) to 1.84 parts per million (cv. 840F). The suppressive activity of the sudangrass hybrids against Mh was ...

  16. Levantamento de Meloidogyne exigua na cultura da seringueira em São José do Rio Claro, MT, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernardo Eduardo Roberto de Almeida

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi realizado com o objetivo de efetuar um levantamento da ocorrência de Meloidogyne exigua em seringueira em São José do Rio Claro, MT. Foram amostradas 191 propriedades agrícolas, totalizando cerca de 18.000ha. Os nematóides foram identificados no Laboratório de Nematologia do Departamento de Fitossanidade da FCAV/UNESP, em Jaboticabal, SP. Foram encontrados níveis populacionais de M. exigua entre 0 e 61.824 juvenis/5g de raízes.

  17. A PCR Assay to Identify and Distinguish Single Juveniles of Meloidogyne hapla and M. chitwoodi

    OpenAIRE

    Williamson, V. M.; Caswell-chen, E. P.; Westerdahl, B. B.; Wu, F. F.; Caryl, G.

    1997-01-01

    Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) bands that distinguish Meloidogyne hapla and M. chitwoodi from each other, and from other root-knot nematode species, were identified using a series of random octamer primers. The species-specific amplified DNA fragments were cloned and sequenced, and then the sequences were used to design 20-mer primer pairs that specifically amplified a DNA fragment from each species. Using the primer pairs, successful amplifications from single juveniles were readily...

  18. Incorporating Molecular Identification of Meloidogyne spp. into a Large-scale Regional Nematode Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Powers, T. O.; Mullin, P. G.; Harris, T. S.; Sutton, L. A.; Higgins, R. S.

    2005-01-01

    A regional nematode survey of potato fields was conducted in the central United States during 2002 and 2003. The survey encompassed seven states and included a morphological and molecular examination of nematodes of regulatory concern from 1,929 soil samples. No regulated pest species were recovered during this survey. Meloidogyne juveniles extracted from soil were identified by mitochondrial and 18S ribosomal molecular markers. Eighty-two DNA sequences representing the two marker regions for...

  19. Control of Meloidogyne chitwoodi in Potato with Fumigant and Nonfumigant Nematicides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingham, R E; Hamm, P B; Williams, R E; Swanson, W H

    2000-12-01

    During 1993-94, several fumigant and nonfumigant nematicides were tested alone and in combination at various rates for control of Columbia root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne chitwoodi) in potato. Ethoprop, oxamyl, or metam sodium alone did not adequately reduce tuber infection. Metam sodium plus ethoprop reduced culled tubers to 3%, and metam sodium plus 2 or 3 foliar applications of oxamyl reduced culls to chitwoodi and would be the treatment of choice where soilborne fungal pathogens are also present. PMID:19271010

  20. Molecular evidence that Meloidogyne hapla, M. chitwoodi, and M. fallax are distinct biological entities

    OpenAIRE

    Beek, J. G.; Folkertsma, R.; Poley, L. M.; Koert, P. H. G.; Bakker, J.

    1997-01-01

    Six isolats de #Meloidogyne hapla$ - quatre de la race A et deux de la race B -, huit de #M. chitwoodi$ et cinq de #M. fallax$ ont été soumis à une électrophorèse bidimensionnelle sur gel (2-DGE) afin d'étudier la similarité intraspécifique des isolats appartenant à chacune des trois espèces, ceci basé sur les protéines solubles totales. Pour chaque isolat, deux échantillons distincts de 50 jeunes femelles gravides ont été extraits des racines. Chaque échantillon a été utili...

  1. Biology and ecology of the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne hispanica : a species of emerging importance

    OpenAIRE

    Maleita, Carla Maria Nobre

    2011-01-01

    Meloidogyne hispanica Hirschmann, 1986 foi detectada pela primeira vez em Espanha causando perdas importantes em Prunus spp. Desde então, esta espécie tem vindo a ser detectada em vários continentes (África, Ásia, Austrália, Europa, e no Norte, Centro e Sul da América) associada a outras culturas economicamente importantes. A identificação correcta desta espécie de nemátodes-das-galhas radiculares (NGR) é fundamental não só para fins de investigação mas também ...

  2. Control of Meloidogyne chitwoodi in Potato with Shank-injected Metam Sodium and other Nematicides

    OpenAIRE

    Ingham, R. E.; Hamm, P. B.; Baune, M.; David, N. L.; Wade, N. M.

    2007-01-01

    Metam sodium (MS) is often applied to potato fields via sprinkler irrigation systems (water-run, WR) to reduce propagules of soil-borne pathogenic fungi, particularly Verticillium dahliae, to prevent yield loss from potato early dying disease. However, this procedure has not been effective for controlling quality defects in tubers caused by Columbia root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne chitwoodi). In five trials from 1996 to 2001, application of MS by soil shank injection (SH) provided better cont...

  3. Resistance of Diploid Triticeae Species and Accessions to the Columbia Root-knot Nematode, Meloidogyne chitwoodi

    OpenAIRE

    Jensen, K. B.; Griffin, G. D.

    1994-01-01

    The Columbia root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne chitwoodi race 2, is associated with several plant species, including members of the tribe Triticeae. We evaluated 15 diploid species for M. chitwoodi gall and reproductive indices from the following genera: Agropyron, Pseudoroegneria, Hordeum, Psathyrostachys, and Thinopyrum. Species from the genus Thinopyrum (Thinopyrum bessarabicum; J genome) and Psathyrostachys (Psathyrostachys fragilis, P. juncea, P. stoloniformis; N genome) expressed more res...

  4. Differential Response of Thor Alfalfa to Meloidogyne chitwoodi Races and M. hapla

    OpenAIRE

    Mojtahedi, H.; Santo, G. S.; Pinkerton, J. N.

    1988-01-01

    Second-stage juveniles (J2) of races 1 and 2 of Meloidogyne chiiwoodi and M. hapla readily penetrated roots of Thor alfalfa and Columbian tomato seedlings; however, few individuals of M. chitwoodi race 1 were able to establish feeding sites and mature on alfalfa. Histopathological studies indicate that J2 of race 1 either failed to initiate feeding sites or they caused cell enlargement without typical cell wall thickening. The protoplasm of these cells coagulated, and juveniles of race 1 did ...

  5. Host-parasite Relationship of Carrot Cultivars and Meloidogyne chitwoodi Races and M. hapla

    OpenAIRE

    Santo, G. S.; Mojtahedi, H.; Wilson, J. H.

    1988-01-01

    Most of the 15 carrot cultivars tested were moderate to good hosts to Meloidogyne chitwoodi race 1, whereas all except Orlando Gold were nonhosts or poor hosts for M. chitwoodi race 2. All carrot cultivars were good hosts for M. hapla. The plant weights of the carrot cultivars Red Cored Chantenay and Orlando Gold infected with either race of M. chitwoodi were significantly less than uninoculated checks in pots. Under field microplot conditions, however, detrimental effects on quality were rar...

  6. Control of Meloidogyne chitwoodi in Potato with Fumigant and Nonfumigant Nematicides

    OpenAIRE

    Ingham, R. E.; Hamm, P. B.; Williams, R. E.; Swanson, W. H.

    2000-01-01

    During 1993-94, several fumigant and nonfumigant nematicides were tested alone and in combination at various rates for control of Columbia root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne chitwoodi) in potato. Ethoprop, oxamyl, or metam sodium alone did not adequately reduce tuber infection. Metam sodium plus ethoprop reduced culled tubers to 3%, and metam sodium plus 2 or 3 foliar applications of oxamyl reduced culls to ?10% in all but one instance. Fosthiazate provided excellent control of tuber infection...

  7. Resistance of Auto- and Allotetraploid Triticeae Species and Accessions to Meloidogyne chitwoodi based on Genome Composition

    OpenAIRE

    Jensen, K. B.; Griffin, G. D.

    1997-01-01

    The Columbia root-knot nematode Meloidogyne chitwoodi parasitizes several plant species, including grasses that have been developed for semiarid environments, and substantially reduces the productivity of cereals and the longevity of perennial grasses growing under semiarid conditions throughout the intermountain region. Thirty-two auto- and allotetraploid (2n = 28) taxa in the perennial Triticeae were evaluated as possible sources of resistance to M. chitwoodi. Low levels of root galling wer...

  8. Mining the secretome of the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne chitwoodi for candidate parasitism genes

    OpenAIRE

    Roze, E. H. A.; Hanse, B.; Mitreva, M.; Vanholme, B.; Bakker, J.; Smant, G.

    2008-01-01

    Parasite proteins secreted at the interface of nematode and host are believed to play an essential role in parasitism. Here, we present an efficient pipeline of bio-informatic algorithms and laboratory experiments to identify candidate parasitism genes within nematode secretomes, i.e. the repertoire of secreted proteins in an organism. We performed our approach on 12 218 expressed sequence tags (ESTs) originating from three life stages of the plant parasitic nematode Meloidogyne chitwoodi¿a ...

  9. Effects of Etomopathiogenic Nematodes on Meloidogyne javanica on Tomatoes and Soybeans

    OpenAIRE

    Fallon, Declan J.; KAYA, Harry K.; Gaugler, Randy; Sipes, Brent S.

    2002-01-01

    Two Hawaiian isolates of Steinernema feltiae MG-14 and Heterohabditis indica MG-13, a French isolate of S. feltiae SN, and a Texan isolate of S. riobrave TX were tested for their efficacy against the root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne javanica, in the laboratory and greenhouse. Experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of treatment application time and dose on M. javanica penetration in soybean, and egg production and plant development in tomato. Two experiments conducted to assess t...

  10. Host Range and Distribution of the Clover Root-knot Nematode, Meloidogyne trifoliophila

    OpenAIRE

    Bernard, E. C.; Jennings, P. L.

    1997-01-01

    The ability of Meloidogyne trifoliophila to gall 230 species and cultivars of plants was determined in a greenhouse. All clovers (Trifolium spp.) were severely galled regardless of species or cultivar. Most soybean cultivars were moderately to severely galled. Among other legumes, broad bean, garden pea, Korean lespedeza, sweetclover, and common vetch were good hosts, but alfalfa, bird's-foot trefoil, peanut, and pole bean were poor or nonhosts. Among other plant families, most Apiaceae (Umbe...

  11. Yield Loss Caused by Meloidogyne graminicola on Lowland Rainfed Rice in Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Padgham, J. L.; Duxbury, J. M.; Mazid, A. M.; Abawi, G. S.; Hossain, M.

    2004-01-01

    The impact of Meloidogyne graminicola on growth and yield of lowland rainfed rice was assessed with and without carbofuran in a rice-wheat rotation area of northwestern Bangladesh. The experiment was conducted on farmer fields and at a research station, with experimental plots arranged in a randomized complete block design. Prior to transplanting, rice seedling height and dry weight were greater (P ? 0.05) and soil levels of M. graminicola were lower (P ? 0.05) in the treated seedbed plot...

  12. A Pathotype System to Describe Intraspecific Variation in Pathogenicity of Meloidogyne chitwoodi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van der Beek, J G; Maas, P W; Janssen, G J; Zijlstra, C; Van Silfhout, C H

    1999-12-01

    Tests of eight Dutch Meloidogyne chitwoodi isolates to the differential set for host races 1 and 2 in M. chitwoodi provided no evidence for the existence of host race 2 in the Netherlands. The data showed deviations from expected reactions on the differential hosts, which raised doubts of the usefulness of the host race classification in M. chitwoodi. The term ''pathotype'' is proposed for groups of isolates of one Meloidogyne sp. that exhibit the same level of pathogenicity on genotypes of one host species. We recommend that the pathotype classification be applied in pathogen-host relationships when several genotypes of a Meloidogyne sp. are tested on several genotypes of one host species. Three pathotypes of M. chitwoodi were identified on Solanum bulbocastanum, suggesting at least two different genetic factors for virulence and resistance in the pathogen and the host species, respectively. The occurrence of several virulence factors in M. chitwoodi will complicate the successful application of resistance factors from S. bulbocastanum for developing resistant potato cultivars. PMID:19270911

  13. Resistance to Root-knot, Reniform, and Soybean Cyst Nematodes in Selected Soybean Breeding Lines

    OpenAIRE

    Davis, E. L.; Meyers, D. M.; Burton, J. W.; Barker, K. R.

    1998-01-01

    Soybean breeding lines and reported sources of nematode resistance were evaluated in repeated greenhouse tests for resistance to North Carolina populations of the soybean cyst nematode Heterodera glycines, reniform nematode Rotylenchulus reniformis, and the root-knot nematode species Meloidogyne incognita, M. arenaria, and M. arenaria. Lines from the soybean breeding program in Missouri that had 'Hartwig' soybean as a parent were the most resistant to races 1-4 of the soybean cyst nematode an...

  14. Survey of Nematodes on Coffee in Hawaii

    OpenAIRE

    Schenck, S.; Schmitt, D. P.

    1992-01-01

    Surveys of coffee fields in Hawaii during 1989-1991 indicated the presence of 10 nematode species in 8 genera. After coffee was planted in fields previously in sugarcane, populations of Criconemella sp. and Pratylenchus zeae gradually decreased, while Rotylenchulus reniformis and, in one field, Meloidogyne incognita, increased in numbers. Coffee is a poor host of R. reniformis, but weeds in coffee plantations may support this nematode. At present, nematodes pose no serious threat to Hawaii's ...

  15. Efeito da temperatura na multiplicação celular, no desenvolvimento embrionário e na eclosão de juvenis do segundo estádio de Meloidogyne javanica Effect of temperature on embryonic development and in hatching of Meloidogyne javanica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hercules Diniz Campos

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Fatores abióticos influenciam a multiplicação celular, o desenvolvimento embrionário, bem como a sobrevivência e eclosão de juvenis do segundo estádio (J2 de Meloidogyne spp. O efeito relativo à temperatura constante tem sido estudado com várias espécies e populações de Meloidogyne. Entretanto, tem sido pouco pesquisado a flutuação de temperatura, a qual predomina no campo entre o dia e a noite ou durante períodos de predominância de massas polares. Assim, objetivou-se estudar o efeito da flutuação de temperatura em ovos de M. javanica com estádios de desenvolvimento padronizados. Quando foram usados ovos com juvenis já formados, maior percentual de eclosão ocorreu em temperatura fixa de 28 ºC, mas a redução do tempo de exposição a esta temperatura reduziu a eclosão. A exposição dos ovos por 10 horas a 10 ºC, seguido de 14 horas a 28 ºC, proporcionou maior eclosão dos J2 em relação ao mesmo período de exposição mas a 5 ºC seguido de 14 horas a 28 ºC. Já a incubação em temperatura constante de 10 ºC proporcionou menor taxa de eclosão. Ovos no estádio de duas células incubados em temperatura constante de 28 ºC tiveram a multiplicação celular e o desenvolvimento embrionário acelerado em relação às alternadas. Em temperatura constante de 10 ºC ocorreu apenas a multiplicação celular, após a incubação dos ovos por 12 dias. Entretanto, quando incubados por períodos de 10 horas a 10 ºC seguido de 14 horas a 28 ºC ocorreram a formação de juvenis e eclosão de J2, porém significativamente inferior às observadas em temperatura constante de 28 ºC. Em temperaturas de 5 ºC por 10 horas seguida de 28 ºC por 14 horas, não proporcionou eclosão de juvenis no período de 12 dias. Nos ovos ocorreram apenas os estádios pluricelulares, gástrula e "tadpole". Portanto, a temperatura constante de 10 ºC permite apenas a multiplicação celular, e o intervalo de temperatura entre 5 ºC e 10 ºC afeta drasticamente os processos envolvidos no desenvolvimento embrionário de M. javanica.Abiotic factors affect the embryonic development, survival and hatching of second-stage juvenile (J2 of Meloidogyne spp. The effect of constant temperature has been studied with various species and populations of Meloidogyne spp. However, the temperature fluctuation which predominates in the field between day and night or during periods of predominance of polar cold front, has not been well studied. Thus, this work aimed to study the effect of temperature fluctuation on egg of M. javanica with standardized embryo development. When eggs with formed juveniles inside were used, highest percentage of hatching occurred at fixed temperature of 28 ºC. The reduction of the exposure time at 28 ºC reduced hatching. The eggs exposed for 10 hours at 10 ºC and complemented by 14 hours at 28 ºC resulted in greater J2 hatching as compared to 10 hours at 5 ºC complemented by 14 hours at 28 ºC. The incubation at fixed temperature of 10 ºC rendered lowest hatching. When eggs at the two-cell stage were used and incubated at 28 ºC the cell multiplication and embryonic development were speeded up. At constant temperature of 10 ºC for egg incubation during 12 days only cell multiplication occurred. However, when the incubation temperatures varied with period of 10 hours at 10 ºC and complemented by 14 hours at 28 ºC, juveniles were formed inside the eggs and hatched but significantly lower than those at constant temperature of 28 ºC. At alternated temperatures of 10 hours at 5 ºC, complemented by 14 hours at 28 ºC, with the same incubation time, juveniles were not formed. In the eggs occurred only the pluricelular, gastrula and tadpole stages occurred. Therefore, the constant temperature of 10 ºC allows only the cellular multiplication, and the temperature interval of 5 ºC and 10 ºC affect drastically several processes involved in embryo development of M. javanica.

  16. Efeito da temperatura na multiplicação celular, no desenvolvimento embrionário e na eclosão de juvenis do segundo estádio de Meloidogyne javanica / Effect of temperature on embryonic development and in hatching of Meloidogyne javanica

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Hercules Diniz, Campos; Vicente Paulo, Campos; Edson Ampélio, Pozza.

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Fatores abióticos influenciam a multiplicação celular, o desenvolvimento embrionário, bem como a sobrevivência e eclosão de juvenis do segundo estádio (J2) de Meloidogyne spp. O efeito relativo à temperatura constante tem sido estudado com várias espécies e populações de Meloidogyne. Entretanto, tem [...] sido pouco pesquisado a flutuação de temperatura, a qual predomina no campo entre o dia e a noite ou durante períodos de predominância de massas polares. Assim, objetivou-se estudar o efeito da flutuação de temperatura em ovos de M. javanica com estádios de desenvolvimento padronizados. Quando foram usados ovos com juvenis já formados, maior percentual de eclosão ocorreu em temperatura fixa de 28 ºC, mas a redução do tempo de exposição a esta temperatura reduziu a eclosão. A exposição dos ovos por 10 horas a 10 ºC, seguido de 14 horas a 28 ºC, proporcionou maior eclosão dos J2 em relação ao mesmo período de exposição mas a 5 ºC seguido de 14 horas a 28 ºC. Já a incubação em temperatura constante de 10 ºC proporcionou menor taxa de eclosão. Ovos no estádio de duas células incubados em temperatura constante de 28 ºC tiveram a multiplicação celular e o desenvolvimento embrionário acelerado em relação às alternadas. Em temperatura constante de 10 ºC ocorreu apenas a multiplicação celular, após a incubação dos ovos por 12 dias. Entretanto, quando incubados por períodos de 10 horas a 10 ºC seguido de 14 horas a 28 ºC ocorreram a formação de juvenis e eclosão de J2, porém significativamente inferior às observadas em temperatura constante de 28 ºC. Em temperaturas de 5 ºC por 10 horas seguida de 28 ºC por 14 horas, não proporcionou eclosão de juvenis no período de 12 dias. Nos ovos ocorreram apenas os estádios pluricelulares, gástrula e "tadpole". Portanto, a temperatura constante de 10 ºC permite apenas a multiplicação celular, e o intervalo de temperatura entre 5 ºC e 10 ºC afeta drasticamente os processos envolvidos no desenvolvimento embrionário de M. javanica. Abstract in english Abiotic factors affect the embryonic development, survival and hatching of second-stage juvenile (J2) of Meloidogyne spp. The effect of constant temperature has been studied with various species and populations of Meloidogyne spp. However, the temperature fluctuation which predominates in the field [...] between day and night or during periods of predominance of polar cold front, has not been well studied. Thus, this work aimed to study the effect of temperature fluctuation on egg of M. javanica with standardized embryo development. When eggs with formed juveniles inside were used, highest percentage of hatching occurred at fixed temperature of 28 ºC. The reduction of the exposure time at 28 ºC reduced hatching. The eggs exposed for 10 hours at 10 ºC and complemented by 14 hours at 28 ºC resulted in greater J2 hatching as compared to 10 hours at 5 ºC complemented by 14 hours at 28 ºC. The incubation at fixed temperature of 10 ºC rendered lowest hatching. When eggs at the two-cell stage were used and incubated at 28 ºC the cell multiplication and embryonic development were speeded up. At constant temperature of 10 ºC for egg incubation during 12 days only cell multiplication occurred. However, when the incubation temperatures varied with period of 10 hours at 10 ºC and complemented by 14 hours at 28 ºC, juveniles were formed inside the eggs and hatched but significantly lower than those at constant temperature of 28 ºC. At alternated temperatures of 10 hours at 5 ºC, complemented by 14 hours at 28 ºC, with the same incubation time, juveniles were not formed. In the eggs occurred only the pluricelular, gastrula and tadpole stages occurred. Therefore, the constant temperature of 10 ºC allows only the cellular multiplication, and the temperature interval of 5 ºC and 10 ºC affect drastically several processes involved in embryo development of M. javanica.

  17. Use of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in the control od root-knot disease complex in tomato: the effects of different inoculum levels of Meloidogyne javanica and Rhizoctonia solani

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. Siddiqui

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available The potential impact of Pseudomons aeruginosa strain IE-6 as a biological control agent against Meloidogyne javanica at four inoculum densities (0, 250, 500 and 1000 eggs/plant and Rhizoctonia solani at three inoeulum levels (0, 1 and 3 ml culture suspension/kg of soil was examined on tomato in the greenhouse experiments. The biocontrol bacterium suppressed root infection caused by R. solani and M. javanica on tomato in both sterilized and non-sterilized soils. Root-rot infection increased with the increase in pathogen(s concentration. P. aeruginosa showed better biocontrol effects at low population levels of M.javanica and R. solani than at higher population densities of the pathogen(s. Root-rot disease severity was more pronounced in sterilized soil compared to the non-sterilized one. Soil infested with high population densities ofR. solani (3 ml /kg of soil and M. javanica (2000 eggs/pot resulted in complete mortality of tomato seedlings in sterilized soil, whereas some plants were found to survive in non-stenlized soil. There seems to be a correlation between population density of M. javanica and root colonization by R. solani. Root colonization by other three root-infecting fungi including Macrophomina phaseolina, Fusarium oxysporum and Fusarium solani was also lower in the presence of P. aeruginosa in non-sterilized soil. P. aeruginosa enhanced plant growth in both types of soil.

  18. EFEITOS DE PRODUTOS QUÍMICOS NO CONTROLE DE Meloidogyne sp SOBRE QUIABEIRO (Hibiscus sculentum L. EFFECTS OF CHEMICAL CONTROL OF Meloidogyne sp. IN Hibiscus sculentum L. IN OKRA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lincoln Fonseca Zica

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Testou-se o poder nematicida de Shell-DD, Vapan, Nemagon granulado, brometo de metila e Neantina solúvel em solos com infestacão natural de Meloidogyne sp., usando-se o quiabeiro (Hibiscus escullentum L. como referência para medir a intensidade de infestação após o tratamento. O Shell-DD (40 ml/m² exerceu notável efeito nematicida, mas o Vapan (60 ml/m², o Nemagon granulado (40 g/m² e a Neantina solúvel (solução a 0,3% - 10 l/m² deram resultados estatisticamente iguais à testemunha. As parcelas tratadas com Brometo de metila (40 ml/m² foram perdidas em consequência do efeito fitotóxico do produto sobre as sementes e plântulas do quiabeiro.

    The nematicide power of Shell-DD, vapan, granulated nemagon, methyl bromide and soluble neantina, were tested by applying them to soil affected by Meloidogyne sp. The okra plant (Hibiscus esculentum L. was used as the hosting agent, to measure the amount of worms af-ter treatment. The results showed that Shell-DD (40 ml/m² controlled the worms well, but that vapan, granulated nemagon and the soluble neantina were statistically equal to the control plot. The plots treated with methyl bromide were not included in the results because of the toxic effect of the product on the plants.

  19. Comportamento de duas cultivares de feijoeiro em relação a Meloidogyne javanica Behavior of two common bean cultivars in relation to Meloidogyne javanica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gervásio Simão

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Devido à escassez de informações sobre fontes de resistência a Meloidogyne no gênero Phaseolus, o presente trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar, em casa-de-vegetação, nos períodos de verão e inverno, o comportamento das cultivares de feijoeiro Pérola e Iapar 81 frente a M. javanica. Os dados de reprodução de M. javanica, independente do período do ano e da época de avaliação, mostraram que ambas as cultivares foram eficientes hospedeiras na multiplicação de M. javanica. Em termos médios, a cultivar Pérola apresentou as maiores taxas de reprodução quando comparada a Iapar 81. Apesar de ambas as cultivares serem suscetíveis nas diferentes concentrações de inóculo, não houve redução no rendimento das mesmas.There is a lack of information on resistance search to the genera Meloidogyne in Phaseolus. The aim of the present research was to evaluate in greenhouse conditions, during summer and winter, the behavior of the common bean cv. Pérola and Iapar 81 against the M. javanica. The reproduction data of M. javanica showed that both cultivars were efficient hosts based upon M. javanica multiplication. Pérola cultivar showed the greatest reproduction index when compared to Iapar 81. Although both cultivars were susceptible at different inoculum concentrations, there was no yield reduction.

  20. Eclosão e mortalidade de Meloidogyne exigua em extratos e em produtos naturais / Hatching and mortality of Meloidogyne exigua in extracts and in natural products

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Sônia M. L., Salgado; Vicente P., Campos.

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available A eclosão e mortalidade de juvenis de segundo estádio (J2) de Meloidogyne exigua foram avaliadas em extratos aquosos de urucum-colorau (Bixa orellana), cravo-da-índia (Syzygium aromaticum), canela (Cinnamomum zeylanicum), pimenta-do-reino (Piper nigrum), gengibre (Zingiber officinale), salsa (Petros [...] elium crispum), soro de leite, solução nutritiva hidropônica, solução aquosa de cloreto de sódio (NaCl) e açúcar (sacarose), fermento biológico e probiótico (Controlmix®). O soro de leite e os extratos de canela, fermento biológico e cloreto de sódio causaram 100% de mortalidade (P Abstract in english The hatching and mortality of Meloidogyne exigua second-stage juveniles (J2) were evaluated after 24 h in aqueous extracts of Bixa orellana, Cinnamomum zeylanicum, Petroselium crispum, Piper nigrum, Syzygium aromaticum, Zingiber officinale whey of milk, hidroponic solution, sodium chloride (NaCl) an [...] d saccharose aqueous solution, yeast and probiotic (Controlmix®) solutions. The whey of milk, C. zeylanicum, yeast and sodium chloride (NaCl) solutions caused 100% mortality of J2 (P

  1. Detecção de Meloidogyne enterolobii em mudas de amoreira (Morus nigra L.) / Detection of Meloidogyne Enterolobii in mulberry seedlings (Morus nigra L.)

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Vanessa dos Santos, Paes-Takahashi; Pedro Luiz Martins, Soares; Franciele Alves, Carneiro; Rivanildo Junior, Ferreira; Eduardo José de, Almeida; Jaime Maia dos, Santos.

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available O comércio de mudas sem certificação contribui para disseminação de pragas e doenças, que podem causar sérios danos às plantas cultivadas. Na região de Itapetininga (SP), foram apreendidas, pela equipe da Defesa Agropecuária, mudas de aceroleira, goiabeira e amoreira, comercializadas em caminhões, q [...] ue apresentavam galhas nas raízes, sintoma típico causado por Meloidogyne spp. A identificação da espécie foi feita através da morfologia da configuração perineal de fêmeas e região labial de machos, bem como através da caracterização do fenótipo enzimático de esterase. Foi constatada a presença de M. enterolobii nas amostras analisadas. Trata-se do primeiro relato do parasitismo de M. enterolobii em mudas de amoreira no mundo. Abstract in english Trade seedlings without certification contributed to spread pests and diseases which can cause a large damage to grown plants. In Itapetininga (SP), was seized by Agricultural Defense staff, seedlings of barbados cherry, guava and mulberry, sold in trucks, all of that had galls on roots, typical sym [...] ptom caused by Meloidogyne spp. Specie identification was made by morphology of female perineal pattern and male head, as well as characterization of esterase enzyme phenotype. It was confirmed the presence of M. enterolobii in the samples analyzed. This is the first report of M. enterolobii in mulberry seedlings in the world.

  2. Reação de aceroleira (Malpighia emarginata D.C.) à Meloidogyne enterolobii / Reaction in barbados cherry (Malpighia emarginata D.C.) to Meloidogyne enterolobii

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    José Carlos, Cavichioli; Maria José de Marchi, Garcia; Andressa Lima de, Brida; Sílvia Renata Siciliano, Wilcken.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available O Brasil é o maior produtor, consumidor e exportador de acerola (Malpighia emarginata D.C.) do mundo. Por conter altos teores de vitamina C, tornou-se uma fruta altamente requisitada no mercado mundial para o preparo de sucos e no consumo in natura. Nos últimos anos, as lavouras desta fruta vêm apre [...] sentando um decréscimo nas produções em razäo da ocorrência de nematoides de galhas (Meloidogyne spp.), um dos principais problemas que afetam a cultura. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a resistência de genótipos de aceroleira frente à Meloidogyne enterolobii. O experimento foi conduzido em casa de vegetação do Departamento de Proteção Vegetal, da Faculdade de Ciências Agronômicas/UNESP - Câmpus de Botucatu (SP). Foram utilizados cinco clones: Cereja-Brs-236; Fruta Cor- Brs-238; Roxinha-Brs-237; Mirandópolis; Japi, e três variedades: Okinawa; Olivier e Waldy-CATI. Cada planta foi inoculada com 2.500 ovos e eventuais juvenis de segundo estádio (Pi) de M. enterolobii. Após 60 dias, a parte área de cada planta foi descartada, e o sistema radicular lavado, submetido à coloração com floxina-B e examinado para a obtenção dos índices de galhas (IG) e massa de ovos (IMO), e processados pelo método de trituração em liquidificador, peneiramento e centrifugação com sacarose para a obtenção do número total de ovos (Pf), que foi utilizado para o cálculo do fator de reprodução (Pf/Pi). Todos os clones e as variedades foram considerados suscetíveis à Meloidogyne enterolobii apresentando os fatores de reprodução variando de 4,1 a 18,3. Abstract in english Brazil is the biggest producer, consumer and exporter of acerola (Malpighia emarginata D.C.). It has become a highly requested fruit in the world market for preparing juices and consumption in nature because it contains high levels of vitamin C. Nowadays brazilian acerola orchards have shown decreas [...] e in production due to the occurrence of root-knot nematodes, one of the main problem affecting the culture. The aim of this study was to evaluate the resistance of acerola genotypes to Meloidogyne enterolobii. The experiment was conducted in greenhouse of the Department of Plant Protection of Agronomic Science College - FCA/UNESP - Botucatu, SP. Five clones, Cherry-Brs-236; Fruit Color-Brs-238; Roxinha-Brs-237; Mirandópolis; Japi, and three varieties, Okinawa; Olivier and Waldy-CATI, were studied. Each plant was inoculated with 2,500 M. enterolobii eggs and second stage juveniles (Pi). After 60 days the roots of each plant was washed, staining with phloxine-B and examined for obtaining gall and egg mass indices (GI; EMI), and processed by blender, sieving and centrifugation method to obtain the total number of eggs (Pf), which was used to calculate the reproduction factor (Pf / Pi). All acerola clones and varieties were considered susceptible to Meloidogyne enterolobii, with RF ranging from 4.1 to 18.3.

  3. The potential of five winter-grown crops to reduce root-knot nematode damage and increase yield of tomato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Pérez, Jose Antonio; Roubtsova, Tatiana; de Cara García, Miguel; Ploeg, Antoon

    2010-06-01

    Broccoli (Brassica oleracea), carrot (Daucus carota), marigold (Tagetes patula), nematode-resistant tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), and strawberry (Fragaria ananassa) were grown for three years during the winter in a root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne incognita) infested field in Southern California. Each year in the spring, the tops of all crops were shredded and incorporated in the soil. Amendment with poultry litter was included as a sub-treatment. The soil was then covered with clear plastic for six weeks and M. incognita-susceptible tomato was grown during the summer season. Plastic tarping raised the average soil temperature at 13 cm depth by 7°C.The different winter-grown crops or the poultry litter did not affect M. incognita soil population levels. However, root galling on summer tomato was reduced by 36%, and tomato yields increased by 19% after incorporating broccoli compared to the fallow control. This crop also produced the highest amount of biomass of the five winter-grown crops. Over the three-year trial period, poultry litter increased tomato yields, but did not affect root galling caused by M. incognita. We conclude that cultivation followed by soil incorporation of broccoli reduced M. incognita damage to tomato. This effect is possibly due to delaying or preventing a portion of the nematodes to reach the host roots. We also observed that M. incognita populations did not increase under a host crop during the cool season when soil temperatures remained low (< 18°C). PMID:22736848

  4. An investigation into the potential of crude and partially separated material of selected non-crop plant species as control agents of root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne incognita) in tomato / Mbokota Candy Khosa

    OpenAIRE

    Khosa, Mbokota Candy

    2012-01-01

    Plant-parasitic nematodes (PPN) are a serious problem in vegetable production and can cause severe damage to several crops. In rural, low-input farming nematode damage is much higher and yields can be completely destroyed. Some Commercial nematicides have been withdrawn from the market due to health and environment concerns. These need to be replaced by alternative nematode control strategies of which soil amendments is one alternative. Nine non-crop plant species used in vario...

  5. Effect of Soil Temperature on the Pathogenicity and Reproduction of Meloidogyne chitwoodi and M. hapla on Russet Burbank potato

    OpenAIRE