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1

Melanoma  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... skin. When melanoma starts in the skin, the disease is called cutaneous melanoma. Melanoma can also occur ... ew tumor are still melanoma cells, and the disease is called metastatic melanoma. Melanoma can occur on ...

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Melanoma  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... In the case of skin cancer, sunlight causes damage to the chromosomes, leading to cancer. Melanoma Melanoma ... sunlamps and tanning booths, can also cause skin damage and probably an increased risk of melanoma. This ...

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Melanoma  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... of these methods. Biological Therapy (Interferon and Interleukin-2) Some patients with advanced melanoma may receive drug ... following are risk factors for melanoma: 1. Having 2 or more close relatives who have had melanoma ...

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Melanoma  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... a careful physical exam and, depending on the thickness of the tumor, may order chest X-rays; ... plan for melanoma depends on: • the location and thickness of the tumor • how deeply the melanoma has ...

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Melanoma  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... D. Epidermis Dermis The skin has 2 main layers: the outer epidermis and the inner dermis. The ... Stage 0: The melanoma involves only the top layer of skin (melanoma in situ). • Stage I: The ...

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Melanoma  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... in outline. Uniform Color Shades of Different Colors Color The color of melanomas is uneven. Shades of black, brown, ... changes slightly. Common changes include changing to black color or forming fine scales. In more advanced melanoma, ...

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Melanoma  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... body • the patient's age and general health The standard treatment for melanoma is surgery; in some cases, ... methods. Surgery to remove a melanoma is the standard treatment. It is necessary to remove not only ...

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Melanoma  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... men, it is often found on the head, neck, and area bet lower legs. Melanoma is rare ... or bleed. Advanced melanomas do not usually cause pain. A skin examination is often part of a ...

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Melanoma  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... sign of melanoma is a change in the size, shape, color, or feel of an existing mole. ... that have changes in symmetry, color, texture, and size. You are more likely to have melanoma if ...

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Melanoma  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... area bet lower legs. Melanoma is rare in black people and others with dark skin. When it ... of an existing mole. Most melanomas have a black or blue-black area. Most people have moles. ...

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Melanoma  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... Having abnormal moles 3. Having had melanoma before 4. Having more than 50 moles 5. Having had one or more severe sunburns as a child or teenager 6. Having fair skin that burns easily in the ...

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Melanoma  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... of melanoma. It also discusses some prevention tips. Skin Anatomy The skin is the body's largest organ. It protects us ... fat, and produces vitamin D. Epidermis Dermis The skin has 2 main layers: the outer epidermis and ...

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Melanoma  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... melanoma may arise in the covering of the brains, meninges, the digestive tract, lymph nodes, or other ... the body such as the liver, lungs, or brain. In such cases, the cancer cells in the ...

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Melanoma  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... squamous cells. Round cells, called basal cells, lie under the squamous cells in the epidermis. The lower ... melanoma often develops on the nds to occur under the fingernails or toenails, on the palms of ...

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Melanoma  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... decide to use one treatment method or a combination of methods. Surgery to remove a melanoma is ... as chemotherapy, biological therapy, radiation therapy, or a combination of these methods. Biological Therapy (Interferon and Interleukin- ...

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Melanoma  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... in an early stage, cancer cells may grow down into the skin, invading healthy tissue. Early melanomas ... millimeter thick and the surface may appear broken down or not broken down. • Stage II: The tumor ...

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Melanoma  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... other parts of the body such as the liver, lungs, or brain. In such cases, the cancer ... X-rays; blood tests; and scans of the liver, bones, and brain. Stages of Melanoma: • Stage 0: ...

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Melanoma  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... growth to remove entirely, the doctor removes a sample of the tissue. A biopsy can usually be ... 07/07/2011 7 To help prevent and reduce the risk of melanoma caused by UV radiation, ...

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Melanoma  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... half. A non-cancerous mole usually does have symmetry. In melanomas the two halves of the lesion ... body for skin growths that have changes in symmetry, color, texture, and size. You are more likely ...

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Melanoma  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... cancer has reached the lymph nodes, it may mean that cancer cells have spread to other parts ... Mole Asymmetry A melanoma is usually asymmetric, which means it is not usually perfectly round. The shape ...

 
 
 
 
21

Melanoma  

Science.gov (United States)

... African Americans. Rarely, melanomas appear in the mouth, iris of the eye, or retina at the back ... edges of the growth are irregular. C olor: Color changes from one area to another, with shades ...

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Melanoma  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... dermis. The epidermis is mostly made up of flat, scale-like cells called squamous cells. Round cells, ... Diagnosis & Staging If the doctor suspects that a spot on the skin is melanoma, the patient will ...

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Melanoma  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... the skin. ween the shoulders and hips. In women, melanoma often develops on the nds to occur ... nearby lymph node or nearby tissue. • Stage IV: Cancer cells have spread to the lungs or other nearby organs, skin areas, or lymph ...

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Melanoma  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... The doctor may decide to use one treatment method or a combination of methods. Surgery to remove a melanoma is the standard ... body. In such cases, doctors may use other methods of treatment, such as chemotherapy, biological therapy, radiation ...

25

Anal Melanoma  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Anal melanoma is rare and aggressive malignancy. Patients commonly present with advanced, even metastatic disease. Unlike cutaneous melanoma, anal melanoma has no known risk factors. Surgical excision remains the cornerstone of therapy. There are no long-term survivors of stage II or III disease; therefore, early diagnosis and treatment remain crucial. There are no trials definitively proving abdominal perineal resection (APR) or wide local excision (WLE) to yield superior long-term survival....

Singer, Marc; Mutch, Matthew G.

2006-01-01

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Oral Melanoma  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Melanoma is a malignant tumor that originates from melanocyte cells. Its oral type is rare. The goal of this investigation was to determine the prevalence of oral malignant melanoma in Iran, as determined by age, sex and location. This research reviewed 623 cases of oral and non-oral malignant melanoma in Immam-Khomeini hospital, Mearaj cancer institute and department of oral pathology of dental faculty, Tehran University of Medical Sciences in a period of 19 years from 1981-1999. The results showed that 54 cases of biopsy lesions were melanoma of oral cavity that included 7.8% of these lesions. The mean age incidence of oral melanoma was 55.5(between 26-86 years. The most prevalent sites were palate (37.1% and alveolar mucosa (20.4% and less common sites included floor of mouth. buccal mucosa and tongue.

A Forouzandeh

2002-02-01

27

Four Types of Melanoma  

Science.gov (United States)

... common type of melanoma in the United States, accounting for about 70% of all diagnosed melanoma cases. ... melanoma in Asians and people with dark skin, accounting for 50% of melanomas that occur in people ...

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Oral Melanoma  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Melanoma is a malignant tumor that originates from melanocyte cells. Its oral type is rare. The goal of this investigation was to determine the prevalence of oral malignant melanoma in Iran, as determined by age, sex and location. This research reviewed 623 cases of oral and non-oral malignant melanoma in Immam-Khomeini hospital, Mearaj cancer institute and department of oral pathology of dental faculty, Tehran University of Medical Sciences in a period of 19 years from 1981-1999. The results...

Forouzandeh, A.; Rostamali, G.

2002-01-01

29

Management of advanced melanoma  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This book presents papers on the subject of management of advanced melanoma. The topics covered are: non-investigational cytotoxic agents; high-dosage chemotherapy in antologous bone marrow transplantation; Radiotherapy of melanomas; hyperthermia; ureal melanoma; surgical treatment of recurrent a metastatic melanoma; role of interferons in management of melanoma and molecular genetics of melanoma

1986-01-01

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Management of advanced melanoma  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This book presents papers on the subject of management of advanced melanoma. The topics covered are: non-investigational cytotoxic agents; high-dosage chemotherapy in antologous bone marrow transplantation; Radiotherapy of melanomas; hyperthermia; ureal melanoma; surgical treatment of recurrent a metastatic melanoma; role of interferons in management of melanoma and molecular genetics of melanoma.

Nathanson, L. (State Univ. of New York at Stony Brook, Stony Brook, NY (US))

1986-01-01

31

Malignant Melanoma  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Melanomas are a major cause of premature death from cancer. The gradual decrease in rates of morbidity and mortality has occurred as a result of public health campaigns and improved rates of early diagnosis. Survival of melanoma has increased to over 90%. Management of melanoma involves a number of components: excision, tumor staging, re-excision with negative margins, adjuvant therapies (chemo, radiation or surgery, treatment of stage IV disease, follow-up examination for metastasis, lifestyle modification and counseling. Sentinel lymph node status is an important prognostic factor for survival in patients with a melanoma >1 mm. However, sentinel lymph node biopsies have received partial support due to the limited data regarding the survival advantage of complete lymph node dissection when a micrometastasis is detected in the lymph nodes. Functional mutations in the mitogen-activated pathways are commonly detected in melanomas and these influence the growth control. Therapies that target these pathways are rapidly emerging, and are being shown to increase survival rates in patients. Access to these newer agents can be gained by participation in clinical trials after referral to a multidisciplinary team for staging and re-excision of the scar.

Eshini Perera

2013-12-01

32

Ocular Melanoma  

Science.gov (United States)

... Veterans What Is an Ophthalmologist? Your Eyes & the Sun Eye Health News Consumer Alerts What Is Ocular Melanoma? Tweet ... Sun - Eye M.D.-approved information from EyeSmart Sun Smart UV Safety Infographic Ocular ... or Subspecialty > Subscribe for Eye Health Info Sign up for our monthly e-mail ...

33

Sinclair swine melanoma  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Sinclair(S-1) miniature swine spontaneously develop melanomas which have many biologic and histologic features in common with human superficial spreading melanoma. Host control of this neoplasm was indicated by the high incidence of spontaneous regression, a decrease in tumor development with age and a decrease in progressive growth of the tumor as age of tumor development increases. Immunologic mechanisms were implicated in host control by histologic observation of a mononuclear inflammatory infiltration of tumors which lead to depigmentation and fibrosis. In vitro immunologic studies revealed that leukocytes from melanoma swine were sensitized specifically to a tumor associated antigen like substance present in extracts of cutaneous melanomas and cultured swine melanoma cells and that melanoma swine leukocytes were cytotoxic for swine melanoma cells. Furthermore, these studies suggested the existence of a common cross reactive, melanoma associated antigen shared by human and swine melanomas. Antigenic analyses of swine melanomas with mouse monoclonal antibodies developed to a single swine melanoma cell culture and with rabbit antisera developed to pooled extracts of cutaneous melanomas demonstrated the presence of tumor associated antigens in swine melanoma cell culture and cutaneous melanomas. The failure of mouse monoclonal antibodies to detect antigens in cutaneous melanoma extracts and the failure of rabbit antisera to detect antigens in melanoma cell culture extracts suggested a differential in antigen expression between swine melanoma cells grown in vitro and in vivo

1986-01-01

34

Choroidal melanoma  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Choroidal melanoma is the most frequent intraocular tumor in adults. Due to its anatomic location the diagnosis often should be made on the basis of clinical examination and ancillary diagnostic procedures. The choroid melanoma may appear as a visual disturbance, retinal detachment and decrease of visual acuity. The diagnostic methods of choice are: Ultrasonography, Doppler, Ophthalmoscopy and Fluorescein Angiography, Computed Tomography and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and are very useful in evaluating extra ocular extension of the tumor, post treatment local recurrence and differential diagnosis. Ultrasound is the primary method of diagnosis and follow up when a conservative treatment has been used, showing changes in vascularity and echogenicity. Magnetic resonance imaging is very useful in melanotic melanomas because the paramagnetic properties of melanine. They appear as areas of moderately high T1 signal and proton weighted MRI greater than vitreous and hypointensity in T2. The proper interpretation of its clinical presentation and the early use of imaging diagnostic methods allow a correct therapeutic approach and avoid local and distant metastasis which decrease survival time in these patients. (author)

2005-01-01

35

Choroidal melanoma  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A useful and practical guide is developed to better track to the uveal melanoma, due to its highly malignant character. Melanoma of the uveal tract (choroid, iris, ciliary body) has been the intraocular tumor most frequent in adults. The biopsy has been inaccessible, due to its location; therefore, the diagnostic should be based on clinical examination and the correct utilization of the diagnostic procedures (ultrasound, fluorescent angiography, computed axial tomography and magnetic resonance). The cases are diagnosed in the histological examination of the operatory piece post-enucleation for other causes. Epidemiological research has been key to determine the associated factors and better to understand the mechanisms of onset of the disease. Anatomopathological studies of choroidal melanoma have permitted to know the natural history of the disease. The decrease of the visual acuity, pain or inflammation are presented as a defect in the visual field. Different techniques to diagnose the disease are explained. Ultrasound in mode A and B, computed axial tomography and magnetic resonance are the diagnostic method of election. Ultrasound has been the primary method of diagnostic, giving the size and vascularisation, useful in tracking, when they are treated in shape conservatively, showing changes in echogenicity and less vascularisation as good response to treatment. The treatments of choroidal melanoma are specified. The correct interpretation of the clinical symptoms and early utilization of diagnostic imaging methods, have permitted to establish the adequate therapeutic and to avoid local and distant metastasis. The uveal melanoma, depending on their size and location, traditionally has been treated by enucleation. Data from the literature and authors, have promoted the conservation of the ocular globe, depending on the size of the tumor. Transpupillary thermotherapy has been an available alternative for small tumors in Costa Rica and level of social security. Patients have had the option to keep the ocular globe and even maintain good visual acuity with this therapy. Brachytherapy has been another alternative treatment in tumors of medium size, and can be performed in countries like Colombia and the United States

2013-01-01

36

Recombinant Interferon Alfa-2b in Treating Patients With Melanoma  

Science.gov (United States)

Stage IA Skin Melanoma; Stage IB Skin Melanoma; Stage IIA Skin Melanoma; Stage IIB Skin Melanoma; Stage IIC Skin Melanoma; Stage IIIA Skin Melanoma; Stage IIIB Skin Melanoma; Stage IIIC Skin Melanoma; Stage IV Skin Melanoma

2013-08-16

37

Melanoma of the Skin  

Science.gov (United States)

... 0 SEER Stat Fact Sheets: Melanoma of the Skin Expand All Collapse All Mortality and lifetime risk ... More after Being Diagnosed with Melanoma of the Skin? Relative survival statistics compare the survival of patients ...

38

Primary ovarian malignant melanoma  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background. Primary ovarian malignant melanoma is extremely rare. It usually appears in the wall of a dermoid cyst or is associated with another teratomatous component. Metastatic primary malignant melanoma to ovary from a primary melanoma elsewhere is well known and has been often reported especially in autopsy studies. Case report. We presented a case of primary ovarian malignant melanoma in a 45- year old woman, with no evidence of extraovarian primary melanoma nor teratomatous component. The tumor was unilateral, macroscopically on section presented as solid mass, dark brown to black color. Microscopically, tumor cells showed positive immunohistochemical reaction for HMB-45, melan-A and S-100 protein, and negative immunoreactivity for estrogen and progesteron receptors. Conclusion. Differentiate metastatic melanoma from rare primary ovarian malignant melanoma, in some of cases may be a histopathological diagnostic problem. Histopathological diagnosis of primary ovarian malignant melanoma should be confirmed by immunohistochemical analyses and detailed clinical search for an occult primary tumor.

Kostov Miloš

2010-01-01

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Melanoma International Foundation  

Science.gov (United States)

... MD September 27, 2013 Our Awards Melanoma International Foundation Our Mission: To develop personalized strategies with patients ... state of Pennsylvania, certificate #29498 © 2013 Melanoma International Foundation. All Rights Reserved. Privacy Policy | Terms of Use ...

40

Pedunculated malignant melanoma  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Pedunculated malignant melanoma is a rare occurrence. A 29 year old woman presented with a pedunculated malignant melanoma on a congenital melanocytic naevus with halo. Pedunculated malignant melanoma is known to have a high incidence of metastasis. The absence of metastasis and the presence of halo, in the case presented, suggests, that the body?s immunological process may have arrested the spread of the melanoma.

Bhat Ramesha

1994-01-01

 
 
 
 
41

Pedunculated malignant melanoma  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Pedunculated malignant melanoma is a rare occurrence. A 29 year old woman presented with a pedunculated malignant melanoma on a congenital melanocytic naevus with halo. Pedunculated malignant melanoma is known to have a high incidence of metastasis. The absence of metastasis and the presence of halo, in the case presented, suggests, that the body?s immunological process may have arrested the spread of the melanoma.

Bhat Ramesha; Sachidanand, S.; Stephen John

1994-01-01

42

Dormancy of metastatic melanoma  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Metastatic dormancy of melanoma has not received sufficient attention, most likely because once detectable, metastasis is almost invariably fatal and, understandably, the focus has been on finding ways to prolong life of patients with overt recurrences. Nevertheless, analysis of the published clinical and experimental data on melanoma indicates that some aspect of melanoma biology imitate traits recently associated with dormancy in other solid cancers. Among them the ability of some melanomas...

Ossowski, Liliana; Aguirre-ghiso, Julio A.

2010-01-01

43

Epigenetic marks in melanoma.  

Science.gov (United States)

Melanoma is a highly heterogeneous cancer that comes in different flavors (lentigo maligna melanoma, superficial spreading melanoma, nodular melanoma, acral lentiginous/mucosal melanoma and other less common subtypes including malignant cellular blue nevus, desmoplastic melanoma, nevoid melanoma, and animal-type melanoma) and colors (black/bluish or unpigmented). Pathologists have known for many years that melanoma displays notable changes in the nuclear architecture including thick chromatic rims, presence of mitosis, nuclear grooves, and more. It is now evident from other cancers that such changes reflect not only genomic alterations but also non-genomic changes in both the structure of DNA and the structure of chromatin to which the DNA is bound (nucleosomes). Although aberrant gene expression resulting from DNA methylation has been known for many years, genome alterations resulting from histone modifications became evident in the current decade. In prostate and other cancers, some histone marks have clinical diagnostic and/or prognostic value. Here, we review the current data on epigenetic research in melanoma skin cancers, discuss ways to modify the epigenetic landscape of melanoma for inhibiting its growth, and propose strategies for identifying novel melanoma markers. PMID:19040501

Richards, Hunter W; Medrano, Estela E

2009-02-01

44

Malignant Melanoma of the Foot  

Science.gov (United States)

... Melanoma of the Foot Text Size Print Bookmark Malignant Melanoma of the Foot What is Malignant Melanoma? Melanoma is a cancer that begins in ... that produce pigmentation (coloration). It is also called malignant melanoma because it spreads to other areas of ...

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Gamma-Secretase/Notch Signalling Pathway Inhibitor RO4929097 in Treating Patients With Stage IV Melanoma  

Science.gov (United States)

Acral Lentiginous Malignant Melanoma; Lentigo Maligna Malignant Melanoma; Nodular Malignant Melanoma; Recurrent Melanoma; Solar Radiation-related Skin Melanoma; Stage IV Melanoma; Superficial Spreading Malignant Melanoma

2014-06-09

46

Decoding Melanoma Metastasis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Metastasis accounts for the vast majority of morbidity and mortality associated with melanoma. Evidence suggests melanoma has a predilection for metastasis to particular organs. Experimental analyses have begun to shed light on the mechanisms regulating melanoma metastasis and organ specificity, but these analyses are complicated by observations of metastatic dormancy and dissemination of melanocytes that are not yet fully malignant. Additionally, tumor extrinsic factors in the microenvironment, both at the site of the primary tumor and the site of metastasis, play important roles in mediating the metastatic process. As metastasis research moves forward, paradigms explaining melanoma metastasis as a step-wise process must also reflect the temporal complexity and heterogeneity in progression of this disease. Genetic drivers of melanoma as well as extrinsic regulators of disease spread, particularly those that mediate metastasis to specific organs, must also be incorporated into newer models of melanoma metastasis.

Marcus Bosenberg

2010-12-01

47

Clínica del melanoma / Clinical manifestations of melanoma  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Argentina | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El melanoma es un tumor maligno originado en los melanocitos, cuya incidencia y mortalidad han aumentado en las últimas décadas. Sus factores de riesgo más importantes son la susceptibilidad genética relacionada con sensibilidad al sol (capacidad para broncearse y tendencia a las quemaduras) y con c [...] iertos genes especíLcos; factores ambientales tales como la exposición a la radiación UV, latitud y una combinación de ambos, como la cantidad de nevos. Sus formas clínicas son: melanoma extensivo superLcial (70%), nodular (15-30%), lentigo maligno (10-15%) y acrolentiginoso (5%). De todas las características histológicas, el espesor de Brelow (medido en mm desde la granulosa hasta el punto más profundo de penetración tumoral) es el predictor de sobrevida más importante. El tratamiento quirúrgico adecuado con 1 cm de margen en aquellos pacientes de bajo riesgo (Breslow Abstract in english Melanoma is a malignant tumor that originates in melanocytes and whose incidence and mortality have increased in the last decades. The most important risk factors are a genetic susceptibility related to sun sensitivity (having tanning capacity and being prone to sunburn) and with certain speci1c gen [...] es; environmental factors such as exposure to UV radiation, latitude and a combination of both such as the number of nevis. Its clinical forms are: super1cial spreading melanoma (70%), nodular melanoma (15-30%), lentigo maligna melanoma (10-15%) and acral lentiginous melanoma (5%). Among all the histological characteristics, Breslow's depth (measured in mm from the granular layer of the epidermis to the deepest point of tumor invasion) is the most important predictor for progression free survival. An appropriate surgical treatment with 1-cm margin melanomas in low-risk patients (Breslow

Mordoh, Ana.

48

Main roads to melanoma  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The characterization of the molecular mechanisms involved in development and progression of melanoma could be helpful to identify the molecular profiles underlying aggressiveness, clinical behavior, and response to therapy as well as to better classify the subsets of melanoma patients with different prognosis and/or clinical outcome. Actually, some aspects regarding the main molecular changes responsible for the onset as well as the progression of melanoma toward a more aggressive phenotype h...

Palmieri, Giuseppe; Capone, Mariaelena; Ascierto, Maria Libera; Gentilcore, Giusy; Stroncek, David F.; Casula, Milena; Sini, Maria Cristina; Palla, Marco; Mozzillo, Nicola; Ascierto, Paolo Antonio

2009-01-01

49

Primary malignant melanoma of prostate  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Primary genitourinary melanoma accounts for less than one per cent of all cases of melanoma. Most cases attributed to the prostate actually originate from the prostatic urethra. Due to its infrequency, primary malignant melanoma of the genitourinary tract presents a difficult diagnostic and management challenge. We report a case of primary malignant melanoma of the prostate found during transurethral resection of the prostate.

Doublali M; Chouaib A; Khallouk A; Tazi M; El Fassi M; Farih My; Elfatmi H; Bendahou M; Benlemlih A; Lamarti O

2010-01-01

50

Melanoma do aparelho ungueal / Nail apparatus melanoma  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese O melanoma do aparelho ungueal é apresentação relativamente rara dessa neoplasia, muitas vezes diagnosticada como nevo juncional, hematoma subungueal ou mesmo onicomicose. Esse fato leva a um atraso no diagnóstico e, conseqüentemente, na instituição da terapêutica específica, contribuindo para agrav [...] ar o prognóstico de uma doença que por si só já é muito agressiva. Os autores relatam um caso de melanoma no primeiro quirodáctilo esquerdo de uma paciente negra com evolução de um ano, ressaltando a importância de avaliar certos critérios clínicos para obter o diagnóstico em fases mais precoces da doença. Abstract in english Nail apparatus melanoma is a rare presentation of melanoma and may be misdiagnosed as junctional nevus, subungual hematoma or onychomycosis. This fact often leads initially to inappropriate treatment and significant delays in appropriately managing such an aggressive disease. The authors report a ca [...] se of melanoma on the left thumb of a black patient evolving for a year. Emphasis was placed on the importance of assessing certain clinical characteristics in order to reach an early diagnosis.

Mendonça, Ignez Regina dos Santos Muri; Kac, Bernard Kawa; Silva, Renata Teixeira da; Spinelli, Letícia Pereira; Orofino, Renata Rodrigues; França, Janine Ribeiro.

51

Melanoma do aparelho ungueal Nail apparatus melanoma  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available O melanoma do aparelho ungueal é apresentação relativamente rara dessa neoplasia, muitas vezes diagnosticada como nevo juncional, hematoma subungueal ou mesmo onicomicose. Esse fato leva a um atraso no diagnóstico e, conseqüentemente, na instituição da terapêutica específica, contribuindo para agravar o prognóstico de uma doença que por si só já é muito agressiva. Os autores relatam um caso de melanoma no primeiro quirodáctilo esquerdo de uma paciente negra com evolução de um ano, ressaltando a importância de avaliar certos critérios clínicos para obter o diagnóstico em fases mais precoces da doença.Nail apparatus melanoma is a rare presentation of melanoma and may be misdiagnosed as junctional nevus, subungual hematoma or onychomycosis. This fact often leads initially to inappropriate treatment and significant delays in appropriately managing such an aggressive disease. The authors report a case of melanoma on the left thumb of a black patient evolving for a year. Emphasis was placed on the importance of assessing certain clinical characteristics in order to reach an early diagnosis.

Ignez Regina dos Santos Muri Mendonça

2004-10-01

52

Interleukin-6 and melanoma  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is a pleiotropic immunomodulatory cytokine produced by various types of cells, including melanoma cells. IL-6 plays a major role in the pathogenesis and development of malignancies. It promotes tumour growth by inhibition of apoptosis and induces tumour angiogenesis. IL-6 is deregulated in many types of cancers, and increased serum concentration of IL-6 has been correlated with a worse prognosis in patients with different cancers, including melanoma. Several serum cytokines including IL-6 play an important role in the development and progression of melanoma; however, the specific biological functions of IL-6 in progression of melanoma are unknown. In this review, we present studies on cell cultures and mouse models and summarize published clinical studies on IL-6 and melanoma.

Hoejberg, Lise; Bastholt, Lars

2012-01-01

53

[Immunotherapy of melanomas].  

Science.gov (United States)

Even early clinical studies showed that adjuvant chemotherapy achieved no therapeutic benefit for melanomas so that in the current guidelines its use is only recommended within the framework of clinical studies. For over 30 years interferons have been used in the adjuvant treatment of primary high risk melanomas as well as in the treatment of metastasized melanomas. They function in an antiviral, immune modulating and antitumor fashion. Direct and indirect effects on tumor cells could be demonstrated for interferons. In Europe low dosage interferon therapy is approved and has become widely established for stage II melanomas, whereas in the USA high dosage therapy for stage III and since March 2011 therapy with pegylated interferon in stage III are also approved. In this article the most important study results will be dealt with in detail. In summary, according to the current study situation therapy with interferon should be offered especially to patients with ulcerated primary melanoma and microscopic lymph node infiltration. Many attempts have been made in the last decades to positively influence the survival time of distant metastasized melanoma by systemic therapy. The recent development of the antibody ipilimumab against cytotoxic T-lymphocyte protein 4 (CTLA-4) could show for the first time a survival advantage in the therapy of melanoma patients in advance stage disease. The licensing of ipilimumab has meant that there is now a new standard available for the second line therapy of malignant melanoma which will be included in the guidelines on therapy of malignant melanoma. A further interesting option for adjuvant therapy is currently vaccination with the recombinant melanoma-associated protein 3 (MAGE-A3) protein in combination with the adjuvant AS015. PMID:23097082

Zimmer, L; Vaubel, J; Schadendorf, D

2012-12-01

54

Radiotherapy resistance of malignant melanoma  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The efficiency of radiotherapy of malignant melanoma is discussed according to observations by other clinicians and ourselves. There is no proof that the melanoma is radiotherapy-resistant. The clinical radiosensitivity of human melanoma can be compared with the experimental hamster or mice melanoma or with the sensitivity of cultured melanoma cells. The possibility of increasing the efficiency of radiotherapy in the future by electroaffine sensitizers, fast electrons, or neutrons with a high LET and a small OER is mentioned. (orig.)

1982-01-01

55

Tumor progression in uveal melanoma  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Ophthalmic melanomas can be divided in extra-ocular (conjunctiva, caruncle) and intraocular uveal melanomas (iris, ciliary body and choroid). Uveal melanomas account for 95% of ocular melanomas, while only 5% are conjunctival in origin. The extra-ocular and intra-ocular melanomas differ in biological behavior. Melanocytes originate from the neural crest and are normally present in the uveal stroma, similar to dermal melanocytes. Intraepithelial precursor lesions of invasive mel...

Mooij, C. M.

1995-01-01

56

Are all melanomas dangerous?  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The increased incidence of cutaneous malignant melanoma, together with only minor changes in mortality, has brought into question the existence of a melanoma epidemic. The discrepancy between incidence and mortality suggests that most newly diagnosed melanomas have indolent behaviour. This review summarizes the most recent epidemiological findings regarding the incidence of cutaneous malignant melanoma, mortality, Breslow thickness and clinical stage. Studies published between 2005 and 2010 with more than 2,000 test subjects were included in this review. These studies all report an increase in incidence of melanoma during the last few decades, with by far the highest increase in tumours at a very early stage (T1 or IA). Little or no change was seen in mortality. However, increases in both mortality and incidence of thick melanomas were found in the oldest subgroups, especially in men. These findings indicate the existence of a certain degree of overdiagnosis of melanoma. They also indicate the existence of two different types of epidemic, for younger and older subgroups.

Nørgaard, Carsten; Glud, Martin

2011-01-01

57

Primary Spinal Cord Melanoma  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Primary central nervous system (CNS) melanoma is a rare condition that accounts for only 1% of all melanomas. A 34-year-old Korean female presented with a two-month history of progressive weakness in both legs. Spinal magnetic resonance image (MRI) revealed a spinal cord tumor at the level of T4, which was hyperintense on T1-weighted imaging and hypointense on T2-weighted imaging. The intradural and extramedullary tumor was completely resected and diagnosed as melanoma. There were no metastat...

Kim, Min Soo; Yoon, Do Heum; Shin, Dong Ah

2010-01-01

58

Los guardianes del melanoma  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Se ha postulado que el melanoma tiene la capacidad de producir una excelente respuesta inmunitaria, ya que hay reportes de casos en los que se ha observado regresión total del melanoma y de la metástasis. Sin embargo, las diferentes inmunoterapias utilizadas contra el melanoma han fallado continuamente, lo cual sugiere la existencia de un mecanismo supresor inmunitario. Las células Tregs son una población de linfocitos T inmunosupresores que expresan altas concentraciones de CD25+ y Foxp3+ y que constituyen entre 2 y 3% de los linfocitos TCD4+. Estas células proveen tolerancia inmunitaria a individuos sanos, y la eliminación de éstas resulta en autoinmunidad severa. Aunque aún no se conocen los mecanismos por los cuales funcionan estas células, se sabe que secretan citocinas inmunosupresoras y que inhiben la activación y proliferación de células T, con lo cual se pierde respuesta antitumoral. Por tanto, a estas células las hemos llamado "los guardianes del melanoma".

Norma Estela Herrera Gonzu00E1lez

2012-01-01

59

Amelanotic metastatic cutaneous melanoma*  

Science.gov (United States)

Dermatoscopy of melanocytic lesions has guided the decision of when or not to biopsy a lesion. The use of this tool has increased clinical examination's sensitivity and specificity in 89% and 96% respectively. However, dermatoscopic evaluation of amelanotic or hypomelanotic melanomas, as well as metastases, can be difficult. There is still no standardization for the analysis of these pathologies, which relies mostly on their vascular pattern. We describe the dermatoscopy of acral metastatic amelanotic melanoma.

Mendes, Marcela Sena Teixeira; Costa, Mariana Carvalho; Gomes, Ciro Martins; de Araujo, Lisley Calixto; Takano, Gustavo Henrique Soares

2013-01-01

60

Adjuvant therapy of melanoma.  

Science.gov (United States)

In 2001, the American Joint Committee on Cancer Melanoma Staging Committee proposed and created a new staging system for melanoma. This new system will become official in 2002, with the publication of the sixth edition of the AJCC Cancer Staging Manual. The new system identifies significant prognostic variables in patients with melanoma and validates them in an analysis of 17,600 patients, making it possible to precisely determine the patient's chance for survival In light of physicians' ability to determine with more precision which patients are at high risk for melanoma recurrence, they face the dilemma of which, if any, surgical adjuvant therapy to choose. Alpha-interferon is the only agent approved for adjuvant therapy of melanoma in the United States, but its questionable benefits and substantial side effects make it hard to justify recommending it to patients. Discussion of trials of high- and low-dose interferon is presented here. The author's group has conducted trials of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF [Leukine]) as surgical adjuvant treatment of patients at high-risk for melanoma recurrence. One of the most important activities of GM-CSF is its ability to activate macrophages and cause them to become cytotoxic for human melanoma cells, at doses low enough to avoid the toxicity associated with other cytokines. The author presents promising trial results, discusses GM-CSF in other malignancies, and includes discussion of tumor vaccines, biochemotherapy, and other agents being studied as adjuvant therapy of melanoma. It is hoped that these newer approaches will result in therapies that are more effective and less toxic than interferon. PMID:11829281

Spitler, Lynn E

2002-01-01

 
 
 
 
61

Disseminated malignant melanoma  

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Full Text Available A 25-year-old man had multiple asymptomatic, nodular lesions on the trunk, extremities and the face for 3 months. He also had left facial palsy with severe headache and vomiting. There were no other systemic or constitutional symptoms. Skin biopsy from a nodular lesion showed features of malignant melanoma, confirmed by Fontana Masson and S-100 protein staining. A diagnosis of disseminated malignant melanoma was made and the patient was treated symptomatically. The patient died in 4 months.

Verma Kaushal

1999-01-01

62

Melanoma-restricted genes  

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Full Text Available Abstract Human metastatic cutaneous melanoma has gained a well deserved reputation for its immune responsiveness. The reason(s remain(s unknown. We attempted previously to characterize several variables that may affect the relationship between tumor and host immune cells but, taken one at the time, none yielded a convincing explanation. With explorative purposes, high-throughput technology was applied here to portray transcriptional characteristics unique to metastatic cutaneous melanoma that may or may not be relevant to its immunogenic potential. Several functional signatures could be identified descriptive of immune or other biological functions. In addition, the transcriptional profile of metastatic melanoma was compared with that of primary renal cell cancers (RCC identifying several genes co-coordinately expressed by the two tumor types. Since RCC is another immune responsive tumor, commonalities between RCC and melanoma may help untangle the enigma of their potential immune responsiveness. This purely descriptive study provides, therefore, a map for the investigation of metastatic melanoma in future clinical trials and at the same time may invite consideration of novel therapeutic targets.

Zanovello Paola

2004-10-01

63

Lymphoscintigraphy in malignant melanoma  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The development and rationale for the use of lymphoscintigraphy in the preoperative evaluation of patients with malignant melanoma being considered for elective lymph node dissection is reviewed. This overview is updated by an analysis of 135 patients with early stage malignant melanoma involving the head, neck, shoulders, and trunk at Moffitt Cancer Center and Research Institute at the University of South Florida (Tampa, FL). High discordancy rates (overall, 41%) were seen between drainage patterns predicted from historical anatomical guidelines and those revealed by the lymphoscintigraphic examination. The high discordancy rate was most pronounced in the head (64%) and the neck (73%). Surgical management was changed in 33% of the patients, overall. A preoperative lymphoscintigram is recommended for all patients with melanoma with head, neck, and truncal lesions evaluated for elective lymph node dissection as the lymphatic drainage patterns are often unpredictable and variable

1992-01-01

64

Cutaneous horn malignant melanoma  

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Full Text Available A 73-year-old Japanese woman presented with cutaneous horn on the right cheek. The resected tumor was 9 mm in diameter, with 14 mm protrusion, and showed exophytic growth with marked papillomatosis. Histopathology showed proliferation of atypical melanocytes with melanin pigments in the epidermis and dermis under the cutaneous horn. These cells were confined to the base of the cutaneous horn, and did not spread to the surrounding epidermis. The final diagnosis was cutaneous horn malignant melanoma. This pathological entity is considered a specific form of verrucous melanoma, and might be added to the list of cutaneous horn-forming lesions.

Haruto Nishida

2013-07-01

65

Melanoma esofágico primario / Primary esophageal melanoma  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Peru | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El melanoma esofágico primario (MEP) es una neoplasia extremadamente rara, con menos de 270 casos descritos. Aunque la presentación clínica es similar a cualquier otra neoplasia esofágica, su comportamiento es más agresivo y fatal en la mayoría de los casos. Presentamos dos nuevos casos de MEP diagn [...] osticados mediante endoscopia y estudio anatomopatológico de las biopsias obtenidas, siendo en ambos casos las muestras positivas para HMB-45 y S100, descartando así mismo la presencia de melanoma primario en otra localización. En el primer caso merece destacar la forma de presentación como miosis izquierda sin ptosis palpebral ni enoftalmos, siendo el primer caso descrito con esta manifestación inicial, lamentablemente al momento del diagnóstico fue irresecable, demostrando así mismo por ecoendoscopia afectación de la aorta torácica. El segundo caso a pesar de ser una neoplasia sin extensión locorregional y sometido a esofaguectomía transhiatal presentó múltiples complicaciones postoperatorias falleciendo al decimo noveno día de la intervención. Así mismo se hace una revisión bibliográfica sobre diagnóstico, opciones de tratamiento y pronóstico de esta excepcional neoplasia. Abstract in english Primary Esophageal Melanoma (PEM) is an extremely rare neoplasm, with less than 270 cases described. Although clinical presentation is similar to any other esophageal neoplasm, MEP's behavior is more aggressive and fatal in most cases. We report two new cases of MEP diagnosed through endoscopy and a [...] natomical-pathological analysis of collected biopsies. Both samples were positive for HMB-45 and S100, so the presence of primary melanoma in other location was ruled out. The form of presentation as left miosis with no eyelid ptosis or enophthalmos should be highlighted in the first case, which was described by this early manifestation. Unfortunately, the neoplasm could not be excised when diagnosed because the thoracic artery was found to be affected through echoendoscopy. In the second case, in spite of the fact that the neoplastic extension was only local, and neoplasm was subject to transhiatal esophagectomy, the patient had multiple post-surgical complications and died nineteen days after the surgical procedure. Furthermore, bibliographic review is applied to diagnosis, treatment options, and prognosis of this exceptional neoplasm.

Robin, Rivera Irigoín; Víctor, Aguilar Urbano; Juana, Gonzalo Marín; Cristobal, Albandea Moreno; Francisco, Fernández Pérez; Andrés, Sánchez Cantos.

66

Melanoma e inmunidad / Melanoma and immunity  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Argentina | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La teoría de la inmunovigilancia postula que el sistema inmune es capaz de detectar células cancerosas reconociendo sus características particulares y eliminarlas previniendo la progresión del cáncer. Sin embargo, dicho proceso no es absolutamente eficaz, identificándose tres etapas propuestas para [...] explicar la aparición de los tumores: en la primera (Eliminación) el sistema inmune es capaz de destruir células neoplásicas básicamente mediante efectores de la inmunidad innata; en la fase de Equilibrio, se inducen efectores específicos que reconocen y destruyen al tumor pero también se genera una presión de selección sobre las células tumorales generando variantes neoplásicas mutadas. Por último, en la etapa de Escape, las variantes del tumor que sobreviven se vuelven resistentes al reconocimiento y/o eliminación por los efectores inmunes y el tumor crece. En este artículo se presentan los principales antígenos (Ags) asociados al melanoma, las diversas estrategias terapéuticas que utilizan a estos Ags como blanco para inducir inmunidad, así como la existencia de los mecanismos de escape tumoral en el melanoma. Se analizan las evidencias más recientes acerca de cómo el microambiente tumoral condiciona la efectividad de la inmunidad celular específica evidenciando la necesidad actual de explorar terapias que combinen la acción de efectores de la inmunidad innata y la específica antitumoral, a la vez que modulen el microambiente tumoral para favorecer su acción. Abstract in english The immunosurveillance theory states that the immune system is capable of detecting cancer cells recognizing their particular characteristics and of eliminating them to prevent cancer progression. However, such process is not completely effective. Three stages proposed to explain the emergence of tu [...] mors can be identified in the process: in the first stage (Elimination) the immune system is capable of destroying neoplasic cells basically by means of innate immunity effectors; in the second (Equilibrium) stage, specific effectors that recognize and destroy the tumor are induced, but on the other hand, selection pressure is generated on tumor cells, originating mutated neoplasic variants. Finally, in the Escape stage, the tumor variants that survive become more resistant to identification and /or elimination by the immune effectors and consequently the tumor grows. The main melanoma-associated Ags, the various therapeutical strategies using these Ags as targets to induce immunity, as well as the existence of tumor escape mechanisms in the melanoma will be introduced in this chapter. Furthermore, the latest evidence on how tumor microenvironment determines the effectiveness of specific cell immunity will be analyzed, proving the present need of exploring therapies that both combine the action of innate immunity effectors and the anti-tumor specific effectors, and modulate the tumor microenvironment to favour its actions.

Barrio, María Marcela.

67

Melanoma amelanótico en ciego / Cecal amelanotic melanoma  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Peru | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Paciente varón de 73 años que acude a emergencia con anemia severa (Hb 4.9 g/dL), refiriendo un mes con deposiciones oscuras, astenia y pérdida significativa de peso. La evaluación endoscópica alta no encontró lesiones potencialmente sangrantes. Posteriormente se constató la presencia de heces sangu [...] inolentas rojizas tipo enterorragia y se realizó una colonoscopía, en la cual se encontraron dos lesiones elevadas en el ciego: una pedunculada (con sangrado activo rezumante) y otra sésil, ambas fueron extirpadas; el estudio de anatomía patológica demostró que correspondían a melanoma amelanótico de ciego. El examen físico no reveló lesiones neoplásicas dérmicas. El sangrado digestivo recurrente obligó a realizar una nueva colonoscopia que demostró una nueva lesión sangrante de ciego. Fue intervenido quirúrgicamente con una cecostomía y extirpación de la lesión cecal. La tomografía demostró metástasis en mediastino y en la cirugía se encontraron implantes metastásicos en hígado e intestino delgado. El paciente continuó tratamiento en oncología médica. Nosotros reportamos el presente caso, por ser la hemorragia digestiva una forma inusual de presentación clínica del melanoma maligno metastásico. Abstract in english A 73 year old male patient who presented to emergency with severe anemia (Hb 4.9 g / dL), referring to a month with dark stools, fatigue and significant weight loss. The high endoscopic evaluation found no potentially bleeding lesions. Subsequently, we confirmed the presence of red blood in stools, [...] like enterorrhagia and underwent a colonoscopy, in which two elevated lesions were found in the cecum: a pedunculated (with active bleeding, oozing) and other sessile; both were removed. the pathology showed that corresponded to amelanotic melanoma in cecal region. Physical examination revealed no malignant skin lesions. Recurrent gastrointestinal bleeding forced to make another colonoscopy that showed new bleeding lesion of the cecum. He was operated with a cecostomy and cecal excision of the lesion.. The tomography scan showed metastases in mediastinum and surgical implants were found in liver metastases and small intestine. The patient continued treatment in medical oncology. We report this case, because gastrointestinal bleeding is an unusual clinical presentation of malignant melanoma.

Ofelia, Castillo; Oscar, Frisancho; Americo, Palomino.

68

Melanoma e inmunidad Melanoma and immunity  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available La teoría de la inmunovigilancia postula que el sistema inmune es capaz de detectar células cancerosas reconociendo sus características particulares y eliminarlas previniendo la progresión del cáncer. Sin embargo, dicho proceso no es absolutamente eficaz, identificándose tres etapas propuestas para explicar la aparición de los tumores: en la primera (Eliminación el sistema inmune es capaz de destruir células neoplásicas básicamente mediante efectores de la inmunidad innata; en la fase de Equilibrio, se inducen efectores específicos que reconocen y destruyen al tumor pero también se genera una presión de selección sobre las células tumorales generando variantes neoplásicas mutadas. Por último, en la etapa de Escape, las variantes del tumor que sobreviven se vuelven resistentes al reconocimiento y/o eliminación por los efectores inmunes y el tumor crece. En este artículo se presentan los principales antígenos (Ags asociados al melanoma, las diversas estrategias terapéuticas que utilizan a estos Ags como blanco para inducir inmunidad, así como la existencia de los mecanismos de escape tumoral en el melanoma. Se analizan las evidencias más recientes acerca de cómo el microambiente tumoral condiciona la efectividad de la inmunidad celular específica evidenciando la necesidad actual de explorar terapias que combinen la acción de efectores de la inmunidad innata y la específica antitumoral, a la vez que modulen el microambiente tumoral para favorecer su acción.The immunosurveillance theory states that the immune system is capable of detecting cancer cells recognizing their particular characteristics and of eliminating them to prevent cancer progression. However, such process is not completely effective. Three stages proposed to explain the emergence of tumors can be identified in the process: in the first stage (Elimination the immune system is capable of destroying neoplasic cells basically by means of innate immunity effectors; in the second (Equilibrium stage, specific effectors that recognize and destroy the tumor are induced, but on the other hand, selection pressure is generated on tumor cells, originating mutated neoplasic variants. Finally, in the Escape stage, the tumor variants that survive become more resistant to identification and /or elimination by the immune effectors and consequently the tumor grows. The main melanoma-associated Ags, the various therapeutical strategies using these Ags as targets to induce immunity, as well as the existence of tumor escape mechanisms in the melanoma will be introduced in this chapter. Furthermore, the latest evidence on how tumor microenvironment determines the effectiveness of specific cell immunity will be analyzed, proving the present need of exploring therapies that both combine the action of innate immunity effectors and the anti-tumor specific effectors, and modulate the tumor microenvironment to favour its actions.

María Marcela Barrio

2009-09-01

69

Melanomas of the Vagina.  

Science.gov (United States)

The clinical and pathologic findings in 13 patients with melanomas arising in the vagina are presented. Melanin pigment was present in 11 and junctional change was present in 10. Attention is drawn to the atypical microscopic appearance of some vaginal me...

H. J. Norris H. B. Taylor

1966-01-01

70

Primary malignant rhabdoid melanoma.  

Science.gov (United States)

Melanoma with rhabdoid features is an uncommon variant of malignant melanoma. Here, we describe a rare case of primary rhabdoid malignant melanoma. A 54-year-old man presented with a black tumor measuring 3×4 cm on the right forearm. Histologic sections showed a tumor mass with rhabdoid features composed entirely of polygonal neoplastic cells with eccentric nuclei, prominent nucleoli, and large hyaline cytoplasmic inclusions. The tumor cells were immunoreactive with HMB-45, S100, Fontana-Masson silver and vimentin, and negative for smooth muscle actin, CD68, CD34, CD99, synaptophysin, desmin, and PAS. The differential diagnosis for this tumor included malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor, malignant peripheral neuroectodermal tumor and rhabdomyosarcoma. The patient was treated with a wide excision and a local skin graft. The excised tumor was entirely composed of rhabdoid tumor cells. No recurrence or metastasis was evident 4 months after removal. This article is relevant to rare cases of primary malignant melanomas showing rhabdoid tumor cells over the entire excised lesion. PMID:22148039

Chung, Bo Young; Ahn, In Su; Cho, Soo Ick; Kim, Hye One; Kim, Kwang Ho; Park, Chun Wook; Lee, Cheol Heon

2011-10-01

71

Cytogenetics of iris melanomas: disparity with other uveal tract melanomas.  

Science.gov (United States)

The chromosomal alterations of iris melanomas are poorly characterized, only one report has been detailed. Cytogenetic analysis was performed on the tumors and heparinized blood samples of three patients with iris melanomas; in one case a primary tumor and its related seedling were examined. On analysis of lymphocytes, two of the patients were found to experience a low level fragility of chromosome 9, in the region of a cutaneous melanoma susceptibility gene. All iris melanoma lesions were karyotyped. Clonal abnormalities of chromosomes 3, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 12, 15, 17, 18, 19, and Y were found, and in one case a large number of marker chromosomes were observed. No specific chromosomal change was common to the iris melanomas, but two cases had different abnormalities of chromosomes 5 and 18. Variations between the primary tumor and its related seedling were the acquisition of an additional chromosome 15, and a polyploid form of the cell line in the seedling. This study suggests that the most common chromosomal changes of posterior uveal melanomas are less frequent in iris melanomas. Iris melanomas also appear to experience relatively high levels of chromosomal alterations, including the formation of marker chromosomes, which is perhaps reminiscent of cutaneous melanoma. PMID:9494614

Sisley, K; Brand, C; Parsons, M A; Maltby, E; Rees, R C; Rennie, I G

1998-03-01

72

Primary malignant melanoma of gallbladder  

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Full Text Available Gallbladder primary malignant melanoma (GPMM is a rare and controversial entity. The existing controversy on the subject appears mainly because of the lack of deinitive objective criteriaof primitivity. Objective criteria proposed by the speciic literature for distinguishing GPMM from secondary gallbladder melanoma include the exclusion of previous primitive melanoma, absence of synchronous involment of other sites, the unicity of lesion, its polipoid or papilary shape and the presence of a junctional melanocitary component. After laparoscopic cholecystectomy in one of our patients, dark polypus inside the gallbladder was found. A malignant melanoma was diagnosed according to all ive criteria for GPMM.

Vlatka Pitlovi?

2011-02-01

73

Malignant Melanoma of the Rectum  

Science.gov (United States)

Malignant melanoma of the rectum is an extremely rare disease. It typically presents in the fifth or sixth decade of life with nonspecific complaints such as rectal bleeding or anal pain. A timely diagnosis of anal melanoma is made even more difficult by the fact that most of the lesions lack obvious pigmentation and are even histologically amelanotic. Prognosis is very poor. Anorectal malignant melanomas spread along submucosal planes and are often beyond complete resection at the time of diagnosis. We present the radiological and pathological features seen in a 43-year-old woman diagnosed with melanoma of the rectum.

Kohli, Supreethi; Narang, Seema; Singhal, Anu; Kumar, Vinod; Kaur, Omkar; Chandoke, Raj

2014-01-01

74

The gene expression signatures of melanoma progression.  

Science.gov (United States)

Because of the paucity of available tissue, little information has previously been available regarding the gene expression profiles of primary melanomas. To understand the molecular basis of melanoma progression, we compared the gene expression profiles of a series of nevi, primary melanomas, and melanoma metastases. We found that metastatic melanomas exhibit two dichotomous patterns of gene expression, which unexpectedly reflect gene expression differences already apparent in comparing laser-capture microdissected radial and vertical phases of a large primary melanoma. Unsupervised hierarchical clustering accurately separated nevi and primary melanomas. Multiclass significance analysis of microarrays comparing normal skin, nevi, primary melanomas, and the two types of metastatic melanoma identified 2,602 transcripts that significantly correlated with sample class. These results suggest that melanoma pathogenesis can be understood as a series of distinct molecular events. The gene expression signatures identified here provide the basis for developing new diagnostics and targeting therapies for patients with malignant melanoma. PMID:15833814

Haqq, Christopher; Nosrati, Mehdi; Sudilovsky, Daniel; Crothers, Julia; Khodabakhsh, Daniel; Pulliam, Brian L; Federman, Scot; Miller, James R; Allen, Robert E; Singer, Mark I; Leong, Stanley P L; Ljung, Britt-Marie; Sagebiel, Richard W; Kashani-Sabet, Mohammed

2005-04-26

75

Primary pineal malignant melanoma  

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Full Text Available Primary pineal malignant melanoma is a rare entity, with only thirteen cases reported in the world literature to date. We report a case of a 70-year-old man, who consulted with gait disturbance of six months duration, associated in the last month with dizziness, visual abnormalities and diplopia. No other additional melanocytic lesions were found elsewhere. The magnetic resonance showed a 25 mm expansive mass in the pineal gland that was associated with hydrocephaly, ventricular and transependimary oedema. The lesion was partially excised by a supracerebellar infratentorial approach. The histological examination revealed a melanoma. The patient received radiation therapy, but died of disease 16 weeks later. We herein review the literature on this rare tumour and comment on its clinical, radiological and histopathological features and differential diagnosis.

Cesar La Cruz Pelea

2011-05-01

76

Targeted therapy in melanoma  

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Malignant melanoma is a highly lethal disease unless detected early. Single-agent chemotherapy is well tolerated but is associated with very low response rates. Combination chemotherapy and biochemotherapy may improve objective response rates but do not prolong survival and are associated with greater toxicity. Immunotherapeutic approaches such as highdose interleukin-2 are associated with durable responses in a small percentage of patients, but are impractical for many patients due to access...

2009-01-01

77

Familial Malignant Melanoma - Overview  

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Abstract Approximately 3-15% of all malignant melanomas (MM) are familial cases. MM is a highly heterogeneous tumour type from a genetic perspective. Pedigrees with disease confined to a single generation of siblings or MM occurring among second- or third-degree relatives suggest multifactorial polygenic inheritance. However, not infrequently, within large families aggregations of MM are consistent with autosomal dominant inheritance, suggesting a hereditary syndrome caused by germl...

D?bniak Tadeusz

2004-01-01

78

Radiotherapy of malignant melanomas  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A study is made of 46 patients with cutaneous and mucoseous malignant melanoma treated in the Department of Radiotherapy of. A.C. Camargo Hospital - Fundacao Antonio Prudente - Sao Paulo - Brazil, from 1960 to 1973. Radiotherapy was employed as a radical procedure in 9 patients, as a, remissive procedure in 10 and as an adjuvant pre-or post-operative therapeutic in 22 patients. Six patients were submitted to actnic hipophysectomy. One out of the cases submitted to radical radiotherapy showed complete response and six patients partial response. Seven out of the ten cases treated with paliative intention did not show symptomatology after radiotherapy that led them to treatment. Under the ever-existing conflict of the clinical literature and experimentation, it is found that there had not been estabilished a definite concept concerning radiosensibility of malignant melanomas yet. The different response to the radiation-therapy from one case to another makes the local prognostic unsafe. It is concluded that the role of radiotherapy has not been perfectly estabilished in the therapeutic approach of malignant melanoma and that prospective studies are needed to situate radiotherapy in the treatment of this disease. (Author)

1979-01-01

79

Targeted therapy in melanoma  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Hussein Tawbi, Neelima NimmagaddaUniversity of Pittsburgh Cancer Institute and the University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburg, PA, USAAbstract: Malignant melanoma is a highly lethal disease unless detected early. Single-agent chemotherapy is well tolerated but is associated with very low response rates. Combination chemotherapy and biochemotherapy may improve objective response rates but do not prolong survival and are associated with greater toxicity. Immunotherapeutic approaches such as high-dose interleukin-2 are associated with durable responses in a small percentage of patients, but are impractical for many patients due to accessibility and toxicity issues. Elucidations of the molecular mechanisms of carcinogenesis in melanoma have expanded the horizon of opportunity to alter the natural history of the disease. Multiple signal transduction pathways seem to be aberrant and drugs that target them have been and continue to be in development. In this review we present data on the most promising targeted agents in development, including B-raf inhibitors and other signal transduction inhibitors, oligonucleotides, proteasome inhibitors, as well as inhibitors of angiogenesis. Most agents are in early phase trials although some have already reached phase III evaluation. As knowledge and experience with targeted therapy advance, new challenges appear to be arising particularly in terms of resistance and appropriate patient selection.Keywords: targeted therapy, metastatic melanoma, sorafenib, oblimersen, bevacizumab 

Hussein Tawbi

2009-10-01

80

Radiotherapy of choroidal malignant melanomas  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Choroidal malignant melanomas are relatively rare tumours and can have a very long natural history. The management of these tumours is controversial. The results of a study of a small group of patients treated by radiotherapy, either as primary treatment or following local excision or enucleation, are presented here. The value of radical radiotherapy in the management of choroidal malignant melanoma is discussed. (author)

1987-01-01

 
 
 
 
81

Epidemiological Study of Malignant Melanoma.  

Science.gov (United States)

Between 1972 and April 15, 1979, 771 patients treated for primary malignant melanoma at New York University Medical Center were interviewed by the NYU Melanoma Cooperative Group. From the beginning of this study to January 31, 1982, an additional 364 case...

B. S. Pasternack

1982-01-01

82

Prognostic tissue markers in melanoma.  

Science.gov (United States)

Prognostic tissue markers in melanoma Prognosis for patients diagnosed with cutaneous melanoma is currently based upon histopathological features alone, although tumours which are morphologically similar can behave differently. Numerous putative biomarkers have been identified in an attempt to aid prognostication for primary melanoma, using methods which include immunhistochemistry, polymerase chain reaction (PCR), array comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) and gene expression arrays. Despite this wide body of research, no biomarkers for prognosis in melanoma have been translated or are close to translation into clinical practice. In this review selected prognostic biomarkers are evaluated and the factors influencing successful biomarker translation, including phases of biomarker development and study design, are explored in an attempt to highlight the current gap between prognostic melanoma biomarker research and clinical translation. PMID:21880059

Moore, David A; Pringle, J Howard; Saldanha, Gerald S

2012-04-01

83

Melanoma and additional primary cancers.  

Science.gov (United States)

The aim of this study was to examine the occurrence of additional, unrelated primary cancers in patients with melanoma. Data from the hospital-based, melanoma registry of a specialist unit (the Melanoma Unit at Charing Cross Hospital, London, UK) were compared with the incidence rates in a population-based cancer registry (the Thames Cancer Registry). In total, 2076 patients with the histological diagnosis of melanoma established between 1960 and 1997 who were registered with the Melanoma Unit at Charing Cross Hospital, were included in the study. Patterns in time and in the tumour type of the additional cancers were analysed in the cohort. The relative risk of subsequent cancers was evaluated, the number of expected cancers being calculated by applying incidence rates in the population of south-east England to the person-years of follow-up in the cohort. Sixty-six (3%) of the 2076 evaluable patients had a history of, or developed, 69 histologically verified additional cancers, the commonest being colorectal, breast and lymphoma. Twenty-six additional cancers preceded the diagnosis of melanoma by 1-42 years, 16 were diagnosed within 12 months and 27 followed the diagnosis of melanoma, 1-28 years later. Seven cancers occurred after chemotherapy for metastatic melanoma: two colorectal, one bladder, one renal, two myelodysplasias and one acute myeloid leukaemia. The relative risk of additional cancers developing after the diagnosis of melanoma during the 8537 evaluable years-at-risk was 0.64 (95% confidence interval 0.41-0.96; P = 0.0006). Thus, the risk of additional cancers following treatment for metastatic melanoma in this cohort is small. The potential influence of other factors on the occurrence of additional cancers observed overall in this study requires further investigation. PMID:10803715

Retsas, S; Mohith, A; Bell, J; Horwood, N; Alexander, H

2000-04-01

84

Radiation biology of malignant melanoma  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The survival curves for melanoma cells exposed to single radiation doses in vitro and the specific growth delays for melanoma xenografts irradiated with single doses in vivo were found to differ considerably among individual cell lines and tumours. In fact, the differences could be almost as large as the largest differences observed among cell lines and xenografts from tumours of different histology with very different clinical radiocurability. Moreover, radiobiologic parameters that may have significant influence on tumour response to fractionated irradiation, e.g. growth rate, hypoxic fraction, reoxygenation ability, PLD-repair capacity and contact repair capacity, were found to differ greatly in magnitude among individual melanomas. This review therefore concludes that malignant melanoma is a tumour type that is very heterogeneous in radioresponsiveness, i.e. malignant melanomas should no longer be considered to be radiation resistant in general. The values of the ?/? ratio derived from cell survival curves for melanoma cells irradiated in vitro and melanoma xenografts irradiated in vivo were found to cover a wide range relative to those for acutely and late responding normal tissues. Although these ?/? ratios are no more than estimates of the effective ?/? ratios in a clinical situation, they still indicated that hyperfractionation may be beneficial in the treatment of some melanomas, whereas others may be more efficiently treated by use of conventional fractionation regimes, either based on 2 Gy or higher doses per fraction. Consequently, optimum radiation therapy of malignant melanoma will probably require an individualized treatment strategy. In vitro assays for prediction of radiocurability and choice of treatment strategy for individual melanoma patients seem therefore highly warranted. (orig.)

1986-01-01

85

The gene expression signatures of melanoma progression  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Because of the paucity of available tissue, little information has previously been available regarding the gene expression profiles of primary melanomas. To understand the molecular basis of melanoma progression, we compared the gene expression profiles of a series of nevi, primary melanomas, and melanoma metastases. We found that metastatic melanomas exhibit two dichotomous patterns of gene expression, which unexpectedly reflect gene expression differences already apparent in comparing laser...

Haqq, Christopher; Nosrati, Mehdi; Sudilovsky, Daniel; Crothers, Julia; Khodabakhsh, Daniel; Pulliam, Brian L.; Federman, Scot; Miller, James R.; Allen, Robert E.; Singer, Mark I.; Leong, Stanley P. L.; Ljung, Britt-marie; Sagebiel, Richard W.; Kashani-sabet, Mohammed

2005-01-01

86

Animal type melanoma: a report of two cases  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Dificuldade potencial no diagnóstico histológico de melanomas é a dificuldade em reconhecer variantes pouco frequentes de melanoma. Entre elas, as mais desafiantes incluem exemplos de melanoma desmoplásico, melanoma nevoide, o chamado "melanoma de desvio mínimo", melanomas com proeminente síntese de pigmento ou "melanoma tipo animal" e o nevo azul maligno. Os autores descrevem dois casos de melanoma tipo animal e discute-se a importância do diagnóstico diferencial clinico-histopatológico nesses casos.A potential diagnostic pitfall in the histological assessment of melanomas is the difficulty in recognizing unusual melanoma variants. Among them, the most challenging examples comprise desmoplastic melanomas, nevoid melanomas, the so-called minimal-deviation melanoma, melanomas with prominent pigment synthesis or animal-type melanoma, and the malignant blue nevus. Two cases of animal type melanoma are reported and the importance of clinical-histopathological differential diagnosis is discussed.

Mariângela Esther Alencar Marques

2010-08-01

87

/ Animal type melanoma: a report of two cases  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Dificuldade potencial no diagnóstico histológico de melanomas é a dificuldade em reconhecer variantes pouco frequentes de melanoma. Entre elas, as mais desafiantes incluem exemplos de melanoma desmoplásico, melanoma nevoide, o chamado "melanoma de desvio mínimo", melanomas com proeminente síntese de [...] pigmento ou "melanoma tipo animal" e o nevo azul maligno. Os autores descrevem dois casos de melanoma tipo animal e discute-se a importância do diagnóstico diferencial clinico-histopatológico nesses casos. Abstract in english A potential diagnostic pitfall in the histological assessment of melanomas is the difficulty in recognizing unusual melanoma variants. Among them, the most challenging examples comprise desmoplastic melanomas, nevoid melanomas, the so-called minimal-deviation melanoma, melanomas with prominent pigme [...] nt synthesis or animal-type melanoma, and the malignant blue nevus. Two cases of animal type melanoma are reported and the importance of clinical-histopathological differential diagnosis is discussed.

Mariângela Esther Alencar, Marques; Thamy, Yamashita; Silvio Alencar, Marques; Gisele Alborghetti, Nai.

88

Epigenetic lesions in malignant melanoma.  

Science.gov (United States)

Malignant melanoma arises through a series of genetic and epigenetic events. A more profound understanding of the biology of metastatic melanoma should greatly aid in the development of new and effective treatments. Currently, avenues being pursued to improve treatment of metastatic melanoma include dendritic cell vaccines and other vaccination strategies, tyrosine kinase inhibitors, adoptive transfer of ex vivo stimulated T cells, and, as reviewed here, epigenetic approaches. The "methylator phenotype", with inactivation by promoter hypermethylation of numerous genes in malignant melanoma cell lines and primary tumors (p16, PTEN, RASSF1, estrogen receptor, retinoic acid receptor beta, SOCS1 and -2, MGMT etc.) offers a strong rationale for treatment approaches based on the use of DNA demethylating agents. The clinical literature on treatment of metastasized malignant melanoma with either 5-azacytidine or 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (decitabine) is reviewed. Future trials in malignant melanoma with these compounds might profit from prolonged low-dose exposure, since they unfold their full effects not immediately but with a certain delay, which may be associated with their DNA demethylating activity. Combinations of DNA demethylation agents with either histone deacetylase inhibitors, interleukin-2, chemotherapy or tamoxifen have been embarked on both in in vitro models of melanoma and recent clinical trials. The in vitro synergism between inhibitors of DNA methylation and histone deacetylation strongly invites a systematic study of combinations of both groups of agents. Up-regulation of cancer testis antigens by epigenetic therapy in melanoma also offers a very strong rationale to place these drugs and schedules within a larger treatment concept of immunotherapy which may include also T cell activation e.g. by interleukin-2, and vaccination strategies. In conclusion, the epigenome of malignant melanoma, with a well-established in vitro reversal potential, holds promise as a novel molecular target. PMID:18289047

Schwabe, M; Lübbert, M

2007-12-01

89

Meningeal metastasing of malignant melanomas  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Two woman patients with malignant melanoma of the skin known from their case history and with acutely emerging neurological symptoms were examined both by CT and by MR tomography (both plain and with intravenous contrast medium). The radiologically derived suspicion of meningioma could not be confirmed by intraoperatively performed histological examination. In both cases the patients had meningeal melanoma metastases with low melanin content and without noticeable bleeding into the metastases. MR diagnosis is rendered difficult by the absence of paramagnetic substances typical of melanoma metastases. Hence, if the case history is known, it should be considered whether there is meningeal metastasising with atypical histology. (orig.)

1989-01-01

90

Malignant melanoma of the skin  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Ultra-violet radiation (UVR) in sunlight is thought to be the main cause of malignant melanoma in lightly-pigmented populations. Individuals with fair skin, fair hair, blue eyes and/or a tendency to burn rather than tan when exposed to the sun are at particularly high risk of melanoma and should be given special attention in primary prevention programmes. Intermittent exposure to the sun, as in recreational exposure, may be a more potent cause of melanoma than more continuous exposure. Primar...

Armstrong, B. K.; Holman, C. D. J.

1987-01-01

91

Melanoma Lentiginoso Acral  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available El melanoma lentiginoso acral (MLA es una variante rápidamente progresiva del melanoma maligno (MM. Constituye el 5-10% de todos los tipos de MM y se presenta con mayor frecuencia en pacientes de raza negra, asiáticos y latinoamericanos. En Colombia el MM se encuentra en aumento, con una incidencia de 3.5/100.000, siendo el MLA una de las variantes más comunes. La edad promedio de presentación es de 58 años, con una tasa de sobrevida menor para las personas de raza negra, asociado a un diagnóstico tardío. EL MLA se localiza en plantas, palmas y región subungueal y en su etiopatología se ha descrito la presencia de mutaciones en genes: 9p21 (p16: 67%, 11q13 (CCND1 (47%, 22q11-q13 (40% y 5p15 (20%. El diagnóstico de MLA, se ha fundamentado clásicamente en la histopatología. Herramientas de diagnóstico como la dermatoscopia, la evaluación del ganglio centinela y la determinación de alteraciones en las proteínas del ciclo celular contribuyen a la detección precoz del MLA y el MM en general.

Gloria Andrea Vargas Suaza

2008-12-01

92

Melanoma Surveillance in the US: The Economic Burden of Melanoma  

Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

This podcast accompanies the publication of a series of articles on melanoma surveillance in the United States, available in the November supplement edition of the Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology. Dr. Gery Guy, from the CDCâ??s Division of Cancer Prevention and Control, discusses the economic burden of melanoma.  Created: 10/19/2011 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 10/19/2011.

2011-10-19

93

Orbital metastasis from cutaneous melanoma  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We report a case of a metastatic cutaneous melanoma to the orbit. A 60-year-old Caucasian male presented with a 2-day history of left-sided ocular pain, lid swelling and chemosis. Initially, this was treated as conjunctivitis with no signs of improvement. Four days later, the patient developed left proptosis, mechanical ptosis, left esotropia and diplopia. Computed tomography scan of the orbit demonstrated marked thickening of the lateral rectus muscle. The patient was treated as pseudotumor. Subsequent biopsy revealed malignant cutaneous melanoma. The patient had a history of cutaneous melanoma excised 15 years previously. Further imaging showed advanced metastatic disease in the brain, the lung and the liver. The patient passed away five months after initial presentation. Cutaneous melanoma metastasizing to the orbit has poor prognosis. Patients often have advanced disease at the time of presentation and orbital metastases may be the initial sign. A detailed history is paramount in making timely diagnosis.

Samer Elsherbiny

2012-01-01

94

CDX-1401 and Poly-ICLC Vaccine Therapy With or Without CDX-301in Treating Patients With Stage IIB-IV Melanoma  

Science.gov (United States)

Ciliary Body and Choroid Melanoma, Medium/Large Size; Ciliary Body and Choroid Melanoma, Small Size; Extraocular Extension Melanoma; Iris Melanoma; Metastatic Carcinoma of Unknown Primary; Metastatic Intraocular Melanoma; Mucosal Melanoma; Stage IIB Intraocular Melanoma; Stage IIB Melanoma; Stage IIC Melanoma; Stage IIIA Intraocular Melanoma; Stage IIIA Melanoma; Stage IIIB Intraocular Melanoma; Stage IIIB Melanoma; Stage IIIC Intraocular Melanoma; Stage IIIC Melanoma; Stage IV Intraocular Melanoma; Stage IV Melanoma

2014-06-11

95

Nanoparticles for Uveal Melanoma Treatment  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Chemotherapy is a common treatment for uveal melanoma. Rapid clearance of injected drug from the vitreous, necessitates repeated injections in to the eye. We have investigated the use of hydrogel particles to deliver chemotherapeutic drugs to the uveal melanoma site. Fluorescent dye-labeled nano- and micro-particles were injected intravenously into the animal. Particle accumulation in the uveal tissue was studied. The nanoparticles showed a much higher accumulation in the uveal tissue than th...

2008-01-01

96

Vaccine therapy in melanoma today  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Melanoma is the most significant malignant tumor of the melanocyte system. It is characterized by a high malignant potential and an outstanding possibility for giving metastasis. Despite all investigations and progress concerning molecular genetics and immunology melanoma is a therapeutic problem even today. Vaccines are being developed with an intention not only to prevent but also to cure the disease, and the most important aim of clinical trails is to develop corresponding antitumor immunotherapy based on vaccine.

Nikolin Borislava L.

2003-01-01

97

Metastatic Malignant Melanoma during Pregnancy  

Science.gov (United States)

Malignant melanoma is one of the most rapidly increasing cancers and, when it occurs during pregnancy, it can frequently metastasise to the placenta and the foetus. Earlier reports suggested a rapid progress of the disease during pregnancy with a poor prognosis; however, recent controlled studies found that stage for stage, the prognosis of melanoma during pregnancy is similar to that in a non-pregnant state. Early diagnosis and prompt treatment can avoid a tragic outcome.

Mathew, Mariam; Sheik, Shahila; Rao, Kuntal; Burney, Ikram A; Sawhney, Sukhpal; Al-Hamdani, Aisha

2009-01-01

98

Progress in understanding melanoma propagation  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Melanoma, like most cancers, is a disease that wreaks havoc mostly through its propensity to spread and establish secondary tumors at sites that are anatomically distant from the primary tumor. The consideration of models of cancer progression is therefore important to understanding the essence of this disease. Previous work has suggested that melanoma may propagate according to a cancer stem cell (CSC) model in which rare tumorigenic and bulk non-tumorigenic cells are organized into stable h...

Shackleton, Mark; Quintana, Elsa

2010-01-01

99

Melanoma Drug Trials Show Significant Promise  

Science.gov (United States)

... sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Melanoma Drug Trials Show Significant Promise By targeting immune ... Monday, June 2, 2014 Related MedlinePlus Pages Medicines Melanoma MONDAY, June 2, 2014 (HealthDay News) -- A relatively ...

100

Intraoral Malignant Melanoma in a Human Albino.  

Science.gov (United States)

A case of melanoma in an albino, the first to be reported with an intraoral site of origin, is presented. The literature concerning melanoma, particularly as it occurs in the albino and in intraoral sites, is reviewed.

G. E. Garrington H. H. Scofield J. Cornyn G. R. Lacy

1967-01-01

 
 
 
 
101

Melanoma maligno conjuntival Malignant melanoma of the conjunctiva  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: Os tumores melanocíticos conjuntivais compreendem lesões que podem variar desde lesões benignas como os nevos conjuntivais, lesões pré-cancerosas como melanose adquirida primária com atipia até o melanoma maligno conjuntival. O reconhecimento das características clinicas destas lesões e seu diagnóstico preciso permitem o tratamento adequado, contribuindo para a redução da morbidade e mortalidade associados ao melanoma de conjuntiva. OBJETIVO: Revisão das características clinicas, diagnóstico e modalidades de tratamento clínico e cirúrgico das lesões precursoras (Nevos e melanose adquirida primária e do maligno conjuntival. MÉTODOS: Revisão de literatura através de pesquisa no banco de dados MEDLINE, PUBMED, LILACS e SciELO no período de 1980 a 2011. As palavras-chave utilizadas, individualmente ou em conjunto, foram: "conjunctival melanoma", "primary acquired melanosis", "nevi", "treatment", "chemotherapy", "recurrence", "metastasis" e "mortality". RESULTADO: Características clínicas que permitem o diagnóstico do melanoma conjuntival e sua diferenciação de outras lesões pigmentadas conjuntivais foram consideradas. O estadiamento clínico e patológico, assim como modalidades de tratamento para o melanoma maligno foram revisadas. CONCLUSÕES: Pacientes portadores de lesões pigmentadas conjuntivais devem ser avaliados por um oftalmologista especialista. A história oftalmológica, a história familiar de melanoma, e características clínicas da lesão necessitam de cuidadosa avaliação, incluindo-se a determinação do risco de malignidade. A documentação fotográfica deve ser realizada. O tratamento clínico e planejamento cirúrgico devem ser baseados na suspeita clinica. A análise histopatológica por patologista experiente é fundamental para orientação do tratamento e para identificação de fatores prognósticos, principalmente em casos de doença maligna.INTRODUCTION: Melanocytic tumors comprise a wide range of lesions. These lesions can be nevi, primary acquired melanosis with or without atypia or malignant as conjunctival melanoma. Early recognition of the clinical features allows precise diagnosis and adequate intervention, reducing the rates of metastatic disease and mortality associated with conjunctival melanoma. PURPOSE: To review clinical features, diagnosis, clinical and surgical treatment modalities of the different precursor pigmented lesions (Nevi and primary acquired melanosis and malignant melanoma. METHODS: Literature review was performed accessing the database of MEDLINE, PUBMED, LILACS e SciELO between 1980 and 2011. The keywords used, individually or combined, were: conjunctival melanoma, primary acquired melanosis, nevi, treatment, chemotherapy, recurrence, metastasis e mortality. RESULTS: Relevant clinical information for the diagnosis of malignant melanoma and differentiation from other pigmented conjunctival lesions were accessed. Clinical and pathological features and different modalities of treatment for malignant melanoma have been reviewed. CONCLUSIONS: Patients presenting with a pigmented conjunctival lesion should be evaluated by an experienced ophthalmologist. Ocular history, family history of melanoma, and clinical features of the lesion need careful assessment and malignancy risk evaluation. Digital photo documentation should be performed. Clinical or surgical planning should be done based on the clinical suspicion. Careful histopathology analysis is required for treatment orientation and prognostic factors identification, mainly in cases of malignancy.

Gustavo Amorim Novais

2012-08-01

102

Polypoid melanoma and superficial spreading melanoma different subtypes in the same lesion  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Melanoma is a malignant melanocytic neoplasm with high mortality rate, and steadily and universally increasing incidence rates. Polypoid melanoma is considered an exophytic variant of the nodular subtype. The incidence of polypoid melanoma is extremely variable, most likely because of the different [...] criteria used for its characterization. We presented a rare case of polypoid melanoma and superficial spreading melanoma in the same lesion.

Renato Shintani, Hikawa; Eliza Sayuri, Kanehisa; Mílvia Maria Simões e Silva, Enokihara; Mauro Yoshiaki, Enokihara; Sérgio Henrique, Hirata.

103

Trabajo de revisión: melanoma / Work of revision: melanoma  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El melanoma maligno es derivado de células dendríticas (névicas) proliferantes progenitoras de lesiones. Son importantes en la histogénesis y en el riesgo de desarrollo del melanoma maligno. Del 30% al 37% de los melanomas malignos del tracto aero-digestivo superior están asociados a una lesión prem [...] aligna melanótica. Los hallazgos histopatológicos con técnicas convencionales concuerdan en considerar de valor el tamaño del tumor, las células atípicas, la distribución de las células y los márgenes de la lesión. Avances mayores en inmunología de los tumores, llevan a identificar la interacción célula tumoral- célula T. Han sido identificados y caracterizados molecularmente un número de melanomas asociados a antígenos. Abstract in english Advance malignant melanoma is generated from proliferating dendritic (nevic) cell progenitors. They are important on the histogenesis and risk of tumor development. From 30% to 37% from high air-digestic track melanoms, there are associated with premalignant cell dendritic lesions. Histophatological [...] approaches agree in consider size of tumor, atypical cells, distribution of this cells and borders of lesion as valued markers. Major advances in tumor irnmunology, have led to understand tumor cell-T cell interactions. A number of melanom associated antigens have been identified and molecularly characterized.

Z. J., Casariego; J. E., Baudo.

104

Melanoma mucoso de tabique nasal / Nasal cavity mucosal melanoma  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Los melanomas mucosos son tumores raros y de mal pronóstico. Representan alrededor del 1% del total de melanomas y el 0,5% de los tumores malignos de cabeza y cuello. Cuando se localiza en las fosas nasales, produce sintomatología tardía e inespecífica como obstrucción respiratoria, epistaxis o dolo [...] r facial. El tratamiento de elección es la cirugía combinada con quimio y radioterapia. Presentamos un caso con sobrevida de 4 años y realizamos una revisión de la literatura. Abstract in english Head and neck mucosal melanoma is a rare entity with poor prognosis. This tumour represents less than 1% of malignant melanomas and 0.5% of head and neck malignancies. Melanomas that arise in the nasal cavity present with non-specific symptoms and have a poor prognosis. Wide local excision is the tr [...] eatment of choice combined with postoperative chemoradiotherapy. We present a case with an unusual survival (4 years) and perform a review of the literature.

Sarra, Luis; Rodríguez, Juan C.; García-Valea, Mariela; Arédez-Ferrer, Aníbal; Vino, Anabel; Guassardo, Bárbara.

105

Retinoinvasive malignant melanoma of the uvea  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

AIMS—To define a retinoinvasive phenotype of uveal melanoma based on an informative case and survey of literature.?METHODS—A 65-year-old woman developed a circumscribed mixed cell type melanoma of the ciliary body that was locally excised. After 6 years, secondary glaucoma evolved. Three years later a ring melanoma was diagnosed and the eye was enucleated. The histopathological material was analysed by immunohistochemistry.?RESULTS—A spindle cell type ring melanoma infiltra...

Kivela, T.; Summanen, P.

1997-01-01

106

A rare case of rynopharyngeal melanoma  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Primary mucosal melanomas (MM) of the head and neck region constitute 0.5-2% of all malignant melanomas. The rynopharynx is a region that is less often involved by malignant melanomas. Because most of mucosal melanotic lesions are painless in their early stages, the diagnosis is unfortunately often delayed until symptoms resulting from ulceration, growth, and/or bleeding are noted. Here, we document the rare case of a malignant rynopharynx melanoma of a 43 year old woman. Its treatment and th...

2012-01-01

107

NUAK2: an emerging acral melanoma oncogene  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Recent technological advances in cancer genomics make it possible to dissect complicated genomic aberrations of melanomas. In particular, several specific genomic aberrations including 11q13 amplification and KIT aberrations have been identified in acral melanomas. We recently identified NUAK2 at 1q32 as a promising oncogene in acral melanomas and reported its significant roles in tumorigenesis in melanoma cells using both in vitro and in vivo analyses. NUAK2 as a member of the AMPK family ha...

Namiki, Takeshi; Coelho, Sergio G.; Hearing, Vincent J.

2011-01-01

108

Malignant Melanoma—Profile of an Epidemic  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Cutaneous malignant melanoma is occurring in epidemic proportions in the United States. To provide a profile of persons at risk and the epidemiologic features of malignant melanoma, we reviewed the records of 325 patients with cutaneous malignant melanoma seen at the University of Colorado Health Sciences Center between 1973 and 1983. Most patients had fair skin, brown or blonde hair, blue or green eyes, and had difficulty in suntanning. The majority of melanomas (72%) developed in preexistin...

Rifkin, Robert M.; Thomas, Mathew Roy; Mughal, Tariq I.; Kaur, Judith S.; Krebs, Linda U.; Robinson, William A.

1988-01-01

109

Particularities of melanoma in Romania  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Full text: Malignant tumor from melanocytic origin, cutaneous melanoma is the most aggressive cutaneous cancer. The particularities of melanoma in Romania are: 1. the increasing number of cases in a geographic area dominated by the third cutaneous phototype; 2. the high level of T, represented by high levels of Breslow and Clark invasion markers; 3. the lack of a National Melanoma Register; 4. the lymph node sentinel biopsy technique introduction is the present focus; this allows an appropriate N affiliation; 5. the increasing of sanitary education in order to clinical and dermoscopical follow-up of atypical moles and the study of risk factors for melanoma; 6. the creation of a melanoma local guide. The survival prognosis could be improved by: a) the early detection in 'in situ' stage of melanoma and b) the correct TNM and/or EORTC affiliation of the case, in order to achieve an appropriate treatment. Sentinel lymph node detection and biopsy offers a new area in the evaluation of cancer spread by detecting micrometastases and performing a complete regional evaluation of the disease. The presence or absence of the metastases in the regional lymph nodes is one of the most important factors in the survival of patients with primary cutaneous melanoma. Early diagnosis of regional lymph node metastases enables the identification of those patients who are candidates for adjuvant therapy and early therapeutic lymph node dissection. At the same time, the sentinel node biopsy procedure represents a sensitive staging method. The paper presents some of gold standard diagnosis cases, dermoscopy and routine HE examination, selected from a total of 356 cases. (author)

2007-07-01

110

Malignant gastrointestinal melanoma with an unknown primary  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Malignant melanoma is rare in India; melanoma presenting as a metastatic disease with an unknown primary, involving the gastrointestinal tract without involving lymph nodes is extremely uncommon. We report a case of a 28-year-old male with a malignant melanoma metastasizing to stomach and liver with an unknown primary. Relevant literature is being reviewed.

Krishna Mohan M.V.T

2009-01-01

111

Melanoma affine radiopharmaceuticals. Pt. 1  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We compared two melanoma-specific radioiodine labelled compunds 4-(3 dimethylamino-propylamino)-7-iodoquinoline (I) and L-3-iodo-a-methyltyrosine (IV) using hamsters. Two groups consisted of hamsters with subcutaneous or subscleral melanotic melanoma, and the third had healthy animals as controls. In comparison with the quinoline derivative (I), the tyrosine derivative (IV) proved to have some better properties as a melanoma-specific radiopharmaceutical and had its highest tumor concentration 1 h after administration. It disappeared more slowly from the tumor tissue than from the other organs thus increasing the tumor-to-organ ratio. There was no obvious difference in the biodistribution of (I) and (IV) in relation to the site of the melanoma growth. In contrast to (I), which took part in the formation of the biopolymer melanin, (IV) acted as a reversible inhibitior of the enzyme tyrosine hydroxylase. The affinity to the tyrosine hydroxylase and not the function as a melanin precursor lead to an accumulation of (IV) in the melanoma tissue. (orig./MG)

1981-01-01

112

Progress in understanding melanoma propagation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Melanoma, like most cancers, is a disease that wreaks havoc mostly through its propensity to spread and establish secondary tumors at sites that are anatomically distant from the primary tumor. The consideration of models of cancer progression is therefore important to understand the essence of this disease. Previous work has suggested that melanoma may propagate according to a cancer stem cell (CSC) model in which rare tumorigenic and bulk non-tumorigenic cells are organized into stable hierarchies within tumors. However, recent studies using assays that are more permissive for revealing tumorigenic potential indicate that it will not be possible to cure patients by focusing research and therapy on rare populations of cells within melanoma tumors. Studies of the nature of tumorigenic melanoma cells reveal that these cells may gain a growth, metastasis and/or therapy resistance advantage by acquiring new genetic mutations and by reversible epigenetic mechanisms. In this light, efforts to link the phenotypes, genotypes and epigenotypes of melanoma cells with differences in their in vivo malignant potential provide the greatest hope of advancing the exciting progress finally being made against this disease. PMID:20655286

Shackleton, Mark; Quintana, Elsa

2010-10-01

113

Epigenetic events in malignant melanoma.  

Science.gov (United States)

Irreversible changes in the DNA sequence, including chromosomal deletions or amplification, activating or inactivating mutations in genes, have been implicated in the development and progression of melanoma. However, increasing attention is being turned towards the participation of 'epigenetic' events in melanoma progression that do not affect DNA sequence, but which nevertheless may lead to stable inherited changes in gene expression. Epigenetic events including histone modifications and DNA methylation play a key role in normal development and are crucial to establishing the correct program of gene expression. In contrast, mistargeting of such epigenetic modifications can lead to aberrant patterns of gene expression and loss of anti-cancer checkpoints. Thus, to date at least 50 genes have been reported to be dysregulated in melanoma by aberrant DNA methylation and accumulating evidence also suggests that mistargetting of histone modifications and altered chromatin remodeling activities will play a key role in melanoma. This review gives an overview of the many different types of epigenetic modifications and their involvement in cancer and especially in melanoma development and progression. PMID:17371436

Rothhammer, Tanja; Bosserhoff, Anja-Katrin

2007-04-01

114

Hyperspectral imaging for melanoma screening  

Science.gov (United States)

The 5-year survival rate for patients diagnosed with Melanoma, a deadly form of skin cancer, in its latest stages is about 15%, compared to over 90% for early detection and treatment. We present an imaging system and algorithm that can be used to automatically generate a melanoma risk score to aid clinicians in the early identification of this form of skin cancer. Our system images the patient's skin at a series of different wavelengths and then analyzes several key dermoscopic features to generate this risk score. We have found that shorter wavelengths of light are sensitive to information in the superficial areas of the skin while longer wavelengths can be used to gather information at greater depths. This accompanying diagnostic computer algorithm has demonstrated much higher sensitivity and specificity than the currently commercialized system in preliminary trials and has the potential to improve the early detection of melanoma.

Martin, Justin; Krueger, James; Gareau, Daniel

2014-03-01

115

Anal canal melanoma: Case report  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Anal canal melanoma is a rare disease comprising 1% of all colorectal ie. anal malignant tumours with very poor long term prognosis. Its significant biologic aggressivity is the consequence of the tendency towards lymphatic, local and hematogenous spread. At the moment of diagnosis even 30% of the patients have distant metastases. Surgical intervention represents the only possibility for cure. Modern approach to the anal canal melanoma treatment implies two types of intervention: wide local excision preserving the sphincter mechanism and abdominoperineal resection of the rectum. There are numerous dilemmas about the choice of surgery in particular disease stages. The authors report on a 61 years old women in which anal canal melanoma with left inguinal lymphatic metastases was detected during the inspection of "haemorrhoids". After the diagnosis was established, abdominoperineal resection of the rectum was performed with dissection of both inguinal regions. .

Brankovi? B.

2006-01-01

116

Novel imaging techniques in melanoma.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cutaneous melanoma is one of the most deadly malignancies. Although it accounts for approximately 4% of all cancer cases, it ac-counts for approximately 79% of skin cancer-related deaths. In the past few years, the nuclear medicine platform used in the management of melanoma has extended to biochemical and structural imaging. In clinical practice, integrated positron emission tomography/CT devices allow anatomic and metabolic characterization of meta-static disease in a single study. Similarly, more accurate localization of sentinel nodes in a 3-D space now is feasible with hybrid single photon emission CT/CT system. In translational research, [18F]fluorodeoxyglucose probes have been designed to optimize the detection of melanoma tumor sites in vivo. PMID:16632214

Essner, Richard; Belhocine, Tarik; Scott, Andrew M; Even-Sapir, Einat

2006-04-01

117

[Malignant melanoma and HIV infection].  

Science.gov (United States)

Among 1000 patients with HIV infection consecutively examined at our dermatological department during the last 3 years, we diagnosed 4 cases of malignant melanoma. This figure is clearly higher than the statistical incidence of 4-13 cases per 100.000 people a year observed in West Germany. The mean age of our 4 patients and 3 additional cases reported in the literature is 10 years less than the average age found in melanoma patients without HIV infection. These findings indicate an increased risk of malignant melanoma in patients with HIV infection. In most of our patients, the cellular immunity was only marginally impaired, corresponding to the stages WR1 and WR2 (Walter Reed classification). Tumor formation, therefore, does apparently not depend on the severity of decompensation of the immunity. PMID:2528242

Rasokat, H; Steigleder, G K; Bendick, C; Müller, S; Meller, M

1989-07-15

118

Metastatic melanoma of the stomach Melanoma metastático do estômago  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Metastatic melanoma of the stomach is a relatively rare entity with an unusual diagnosis during life. Surgery is the treatment of choice once it alleviates the symptoms in over 90% of the cases and increases the long-term survival. CASE REPORT: A 50y woman had presented a dark spot in the ungual bed of her right-hand thumb for two years, evolving into ulceration and bleeding. The biopsy diagnosed ungual malanocytic neoplasia compatible with lentiginous melanoma confirmed by immunohistochemistry, which presented positive pigmented HMB-45 cells. After an year and a half, the patient developed metastasis of the melanoma on her left thigh and extensive ulcerated lesion in the small gastric curvature, whose biopsy was compatible with metastatic melanoma of the stomach. The hemogram found discrete anemia (Hb: 11.1 and Ht: 33% and LDH: 333 U/L. The patient underwent total gastrectomy with reconstruction in Roux-en-Y. There was a good evolution and on the 6th post-operative day, she was discharged home. At present, in the 12th month of follow up, the patient remains without complaints, with full relief of symptoms and all normal control exams. CONCLUSION: Surgical management should always be considered for the metastatic melanoma of the gastrointestinal tract, since the procedure shows low morbidity and mortality, besides providing relief of symptoms with the improvement of the quality of life and increase in the long-term survival.INTRODUCTION: O melanoma metastático do estômago é entidade relativamente rara e de diagnóstico incomum em vida. A cirurgia é o tratamento de escolha, pois alivia os sintomas em mais de 90% dos casos e aumenta a sobrevida a longo prazo. OBJETIVO: Relatar um caso de melanoma metastático do estômago, submetida à ressecção curativa e que evoluiu sem sinais de doença residual. RELATO DO CASO: Mulher de 50 anos apresentou mancha escura em leito ungueal de dedo polegar de mão direita há dois anos, evoluindo com ulceração e sangramento. A biópsia diagnosticou neoplasia melanocítica ungueal compatíveis com melanoma lentiginoso e confirmado pela imunohistoquímica que apresentou células pigmentadas HMB-45 positivas. Após um ano e meio a paciente evoluiu com metástase de melanoma em coxa esquerda e extensa lesão escavada em pequena curvatura gástrica, cuja biopsia foi compatível com melanoma metastático do estômago. Hemograma com discreta anemia (Hb: 11,1 e Ht: 33% e LDH: 333 U/L. A paciente foi submetida à gastrectomia total com reconstrução em Y de Roux. Houve boa evolução e no 6º dia de pós-operatório teve alta hospitalar. Atualmente, no 12º mês de seguimento, a paciente permanece sem queixas, com alívio completo dos sintomas e com todos os exames de controle normais. CONCLUSÃO: O tratamento cirúrgico deve ser sempre considerado no melanoma metastático do trato gastrointestinal, pois o procedimento possui baixa morbidade e mortalidade, além de proporcionar alívio dos sintomas com melhora da qualidade de vida e aumento da sobrevida a longo prazo.

Marcelo Eustáquio Rocha

2008-12-01

119

Metastatic melanoma of the stomach / Melanoma metastático do estômago  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese INTRODUCTION: O melanoma metastático do estômago é entidade relativamente rara e de diagnóstico incomum em vida. A cirurgia é o tratamento de escolha, pois alivia os sintomas em mais de 90% dos casos e aumenta a sobrevida a longo prazo. OBJETIVO: Relatar um caso de melanoma metastático do estômago, [...] submetida à ressecção curativa e que evoluiu sem sinais de doença residual. RELATO DO CASO: Mulher de 50 anos apresentou mancha escura em leito ungueal de dedo polegar de mão direita há dois anos, evoluindo com ulceração e sangramento. A biópsia diagnosticou neoplasia melanocítica ungueal compatíveis com melanoma lentiginoso e confirmado pela imunohistoquímica que apresentou células pigmentadas HMB-45 positivas. Após um ano e meio a paciente evoluiu com metástase de melanoma em coxa esquerda e extensa lesão escavada em pequena curvatura gástrica, cuja biopsia foi compatível com melanoma metastático do estômago. Hemograma com discreta anemia (Hb: 11,1 e Ht: 33%) e LDH: 333 U/L. A paciente foi submetida à gastrectomia total com reconstrução em Y de Roux. Houve boa evolução e no 6º dia de pós-operatório teve alta hospitalar. Atualmente, no 12º mês de seguimento, a paciente permanece sem queixas, com alívio completo dos sintomas e com todos os exames de controle normais. CONCLUSÃO: O tratamento cirúrgico deve ser sempre considerado no melanoma metastático do trato gastrointestinal, pois o procedimento possui baixa morbidade e mortalidade, além de proporcionar alívio dos sintomas com melhora da qualidade de vida e aumento da sobrevida a longo prazo. Abstract in english BACKGROUND: Metastatic melanoma of the stomach is a relatively rare entity with an unusual diagnosis during life. Surgery is the treatment of choice once it alleviates the symptoms in over 90% of the cases and increases the long-term survival. CASE REPORT: A 50y woman had presented a dark spot in th [...] e ungual bed of her right-hand thumb for two years, evolving into ulceration and bleeding. The biopsy diagnosed ungual malanocytic neoplasia compatible with lentiginous melanoma confirmed by immunohistochemistry, which presented positive pigmented HMB-45 cells. After an year and a half, the patient developed metastasis of the melanoma on her left thigh and extensive ulcerated lesion in the small gastric curvature, whose biopsy was compatible with metastatic melanoma of the stomach. The hemogram found discrete anemia (Hb: 11.1 and Ht: 33%) and LDH: 333 U/L. The patient underwent total gastrectomy with reconstruction in Roux-en-Y. There was a good evolution and on the 6th post-operative day, she was discharged home. At present, in the 12th month of follow up, the patient remains without complaints, with full relief of symptoms and all normal control exams. CONCLUSION: Surgical management should always be considered for the metastatic melanoma of the gastrointestinal tract, since the procedure shows low morbidity and mortality, besides providing relief of symptoms with the improvement of the quality of life and increase in the long-term survival.

Marcelo Eustáquio, Rocha; Gilberto Pedro, Rodrigues; Samir Almeida, Borges; Fernando Gusmão, Santiago.

120

Levodopa and melanoma: three cases and review of literature.  

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Three patients are reported who developed a melanoma while taking levodopa for Parkinson's disease. There were two cutaneous melanomas and one metastatic melanoma with occult primary. The literature on the association of Parkinson's disease, levodopa therapy and melanoma is reviewed. The capacity of levodopa to induce melanomas and its alleged adverse effect on the clinical course of the disease are questioned.

Rampen, F. H.

1985-01-01

 
 
 
 
121

Amelanotic metastatic cutaneous melanoma / Melanoma metastatico amelanotico cutaneo  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese A dermatoscopia das lesões melanocíticas tem auxiliado na decisão de biopsiar ou não uma lesão. A utilização desta ferramenta aumentou a sensibilidade e a especificidade do diagnóstico para 89% e 96%, respectivamente. No entanto, a avaliação dermatoscópica de melanomas amelanóticos ou hipomelanótico [...] s, bem como a de metástases cutâneas, pode ser difícil. Ainda falta uma padronização para a análise destas patologias, que se baseia, majoritariamente, no seu padrão vascular. Descreve-se a dermatoscopia de melanoma metastático amelanótico acral. Abstract in english Dermatoscopy of melanocytic lesions has guided the decision of when or not to biopsy a lesion. The use of this tool has increased clinical examination's sensitivity and specificity in 89% and 96% respectively. However, dermatoscopic evaluation of amelanotic or hypomelanotic melanomas, as well as met [...] astases, can be difficult. There is still no standardization for the analysis of these pathologies, which relies mostly on their vascular pattern. We describe the dermatoscopy of acral metastatic amelanotic melanoma.

Marcela Sena Teixeira, Mendes; Mariana Carvalho, Costa; Ciro Martins, Gomes; Lisley Calixto de, Araujo; Gustavo Henrique Soares, Takano.

122

UVB: suscetibilidade no melanoma maligno UVB: susceptibility in malignant melanoma  

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Full Text Available FUNDAMENTOS: Está bem definido que a radiação ultravioleta provoca depleção imunológica na pele, permitindo o desenvolvimento de tumores cutâneos malignos. A maioria dos pacientes de cânceres da pele não melanomas são considerados UVB-suscetíveis. OBJETIVOS: Estudar a UVB-suscetibilidade nos pacientes com melanoma maligno e se este é um fator de risco para o desenvolvimento desse câncer. MÉTODOS: Foram selecionados 88 voluntários divididos em dois grupos: grupo-controle saudável (n=61 e grupo de portadores de melanoma (n=27, todos identificados de acordo com os critérios: tipo histológico, nível de invasão, fotótipos de pele, sexo e idade. A suscetibilidade à radiação ultravioleta B (UVB foi medida pela reação de hipersensibilidade ao contato com o difenciprone nos voluntários sensibilizados em áreas previamente irradiadas. RESULTADOS: A suscetibilidade à radiação UVB foi de 81,5% nos pacientes com melanoma maligno e de 31,2% no grupo-controle. O risco de um indivíduo desenvolver o melanoma maligno foi 9,7 vezes maior do que nos indivíduos UVB-resistentes. CONCLUSÕES: A UVB-suscetibilidade pode ser considerada um fator de risco importante para o desenvolvimento do melanoma maligno.BACKGROUND: It is well established that UV radiation provokes an immunological depletion in the skin, enabling the development of malignant cutaneous tumors. Most nonmelanoma skin cancer patients are considered to be UVB-susceptible. OBJECTIVE: To study the behavior of UVB- susceptibility in malignant melanoma (MM patients and whether this is a risk factor to the development of MM. METHODS: Eighty-eight volunteers were selected and divided into two groups: healthy control group (n = 61 and MM group (n = 27, which were identified according to the following clinical criteria: histopathological type, level of invasion, skin phototype, sex and age. Susceptibility to ultraviolet B (UVB radiation was measured by the onset of a contact hypersensitivity reaction to diphenylcyclopropenone among individuals sensitized in previously irradiated areas. RESULTS: Susceptibility to UVB radiation was 81.5 in the MM group and 31.2% in the control group. The risk of an UVB-susceptible individual to develop MM was 9.7 times higher than when UVB resistant. CONCLUSION: UVB susceptibility should be considered an important risk factor to the development of this type of cancer.

Nilton Nasser

2010-12-01

123

UVB: suscetibilidade no melanoma maligno / UVB: susceptibility in malignant melanoma  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese FUNDAMENTOS: Está bem definido que a radiação ultravioleta provoca depleção imunológica na pele, permitindo o desenvolvimento de tumores cutâneos malignos. A maioria dos pacientes de cânceres da pele não melanomas são considerados UVB-suscetíveis. OBJETIVOS: Estudar a UVB-suscetibilidade nos pacient [...] es com melanoma maligno e se este é um fator de risco para o desenvolvimento desse câncer. MÉTODOS: Foram selecionados 88 voluntários divididos em dois grupos: grupo-controle saudável (n=61) e grupo de portadores de melanoma (n=27), todos identificados de acordo com os critérios: tipo histológico, nível de invasão, fotótipos de pele, sexo e idade. A suscetibilidade à radiação ultravioleta B (UVB) foi medida pela reação de hipersensibilidade ao contato com o difenciprone nos voluntários sensibilizados em áreas previamente irradiadas. RESULTADOS: A suscetibilidade à radiação UVB foi de 81,5% nos pacientes com melanoma maligno e de 31,2% no grupo-controle. O risco de um indivíduo desenvolver o melanoma maligno foi 9,7 vezes maior do que nos indivíduos UVB-resistentes. CONCLUSÕES: A UVB-suscetibilidade pode ser considerada um fator de risco importante para o desenvolvimento do melanoma maligno. Abstract in english BACKGROUND: It is well established that UV radiation provokes an immunological depletion in the skin, enabling the development of malignant cutaneous tumors. Most nonmelanoma skin cancer patients are considered to be UVB-susceptible. OBJECTIVE: To study the behavior of UVB- susceptibility in maligna [...] nt melanoma (MM) patients and whether this is a risk factor to the development of MM. METHODS: Eighty-eight volunteers were selected and divided into two groups: healthy control group (n = 61) and MM group (n = 27), which were identified according to the following clinical criteria: histopathological type, level of invasion, skin phototype, sex and age. Susceptibility to ultraviolet B (UVB) radiation was measured by the onset of a contact hypersensitivity reaction to diphenylcyclopropenone among individuals sensitized in previously irradiated areas. RESULTS: Susceptibility to UVB radiation was 81.5 in the MM group and 31.2% in the control group. The risk of an UVB-susceptible individual to develop MM was 9.7 times higher than when UVB resistant. CONCLUSION: UVB susceptibility should be considered an important risk factor to the development of this type of cancer.

Nasser, Nilton.

124

Quem descobre o melanoma cutâneo / Who discovers the cutaneous melanoma  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese FUNDAMENTO: No Brasil não se sabe quem descobre os casos de melanoma cutâneo. A compreensão dos "modelos de descoberta" poderia servir de base para os programas de educação pública e do profissional de saúde. OBJETIVO: Determinar o papel dos pacientes em encontrar suas próprias lesões. MÉTODOS: Fora [...] m entrevistados 109 pacientes com diagnóstico anterior de melanoma cutâneo, acompanhados na Unidade de Melanoma da Santa Casa de Misericórdia de São Paulo. Outras variáveis foram anotadas para avaliar suas possíveis influências no resultado da descoberta: sexo, idade, estado civil, escolaridade, antecedente familiar de melanoma, localização da lesão primária e conhecimento sobre câncer da pele. RESULTADOS: Dos 109 pacientes, 59 (54%) notaram a própria lesão. Deles, 62% eram mulheres, 51% menores de 60 anos, 90% sem antecedentes familiares de melanoma, 78% negavam conhecimento sobre câncer de pele, 59% eram casados, 52% cursaram apenas a escola primária. Os demais 50 pacientes tiveram sua lesão descoberta em 24% dos casos por profissionais de saúde, 10% pela esposa, 1% pelo marido e 11% por outras pessoas. CONCLUSÃO: 54% dos pacientes notaram sua própria lesão, que em cerca de 25% foi descoberta por leigos. Esses resultados são semelhantes aos da literatura dos países desenvolvidos. A clientela avaliada foi do tipo assistencial, e com esse resultado é possível acreditar que, no Brasil, alguma influência das campanhas públicas de saúde já pode ser notada. Abstract in english BACKGROUND - In Brazil, it is still unknown who first discovers the cases of cutaneous melanoma. The understanding of our “finding patterns” could be used as a basis for public education programs and healthcare professional training. OBJECTIVE - To determine the role of patients in detecting lesions [...] by themselves. METHODS - One hundred and nine patients were interviewed. The patients had a diagnosis of cutaneous melanoma and were regularly seen at the Melanoma Unit of Hospital Santa Casa de Misericórdia, in São Paulo. Other variables were considered to evaluate possible influences in the results: sex, age, marital status, schooling, family history of melanoma, site of the primary lesion and knowledge about skin cancer. RESULTS - Out of 109 interviewed patients, 54% had the lesion detected by themselves. Of those, 62% were female, 51% were aged under 60 years, 90% had no family history of melanoma, 78% had no knowledge about skin cancer, 59% were married and 52% concluded up to primary education. Out of the remaining 50 patients, 24% had their lesions detected by health professionals, 10% by their wives, 1% by their husbands and 11% by other people. CONCLUSION - Fifty-four percent of patients detected the lesion by themselves, and roughly 25% had the lesion detected by a lay person. These results are similar to those reported in the literature of developed countries. The clientele evaluated is attended by public healthcare services and the results lead to the conclusion that some influence of public health campaigns could already be noticed in Brazil.

Marcus, Maia; Marianne, Basso.

125

[Mandibular metastasis of a cutaneous melanoma or metachronous amelanotic melanoma of the oral cavity? A case report and literature review].  

Science.gov (United States)

Primary and metastatic mandibular melanoma are extremely rare. We report the original case of a 55-year-old woman treated 16years before for a cutaneous melanoma, and now presenting with a huge mandibular amelanotic melanoma. Was it an histologically different mandibular metastasis of the previous cutaneous melanoma, or a metachronous oral amelanotic melanoma? PMID:24503521

Vierne, C; Hardy, H; Guichard, B; Barat, M; Péron, J-M; Trost, O

2014-08-01

126

New Therapies Giving Hope for Patients with Advanced Melanoma  

Science.gov (United States)

... represent recent surge in research aimed at battling melanoma OVERVIEW: Although melanoma — the deadliest form of skin cancer — accounts for ... percent of all skin cancer deaths.¹ When melanoma is detected early and treated before it spreads ...

127

Enucleation versus plaque irradiation for choroidal melanoma  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The Collaborative Ocular Melanoma Study (COMS) is an international, multicenter-controlled study. The organization includes an Executive Committee, Steering Committee, 6 Central Units, 32 Clinical Centers, and a Data and Safety Monitoring Committee. Scientifically, the COMS consists of (1) a randomized trial of patients with medium choroidal melanoma treated with enucleation versus iodine-125 plaque irradiation, (2) a randomized trial of patients with large choroidal melanoma treated with enucleation versus preenucleation external beam irradiation and enucleation, and (3) a prospective observational study of patients with small choroidal melanoma to determine whether a randomized trial of treatment is appropriate. In design and conduct of the COMS, special consideration is given to biostatistics and sample size considerations, iodine-125 plaque irradiation of choroidal melanoma, and coordinated ocular melanoma research. Recruitment is in progress. However, the pool of eligible patients is limited and the COMS needs the continued support and cooperation of ophthalmologists throughout the United States and Canada

1988-01-01

128

Desmoplastic Melanoma: Report of 5 Cases  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background. The clinical presentation of desmoplastic melanoma is often challenging. We report the experience of the Melanoma Unit of Spedali Civili University Hospital of Brescia, Italy. Method. Study subjects were drawn from 1770 patients with histologica confirmed melanoma. Within this group, desmoplastic melanoma developed in 5 patients. For each diagnosed melanoma, histological characteristics, treatment, and outcomes were evaluated. Results. Of the 5 patients described in this study, 2 were males and 3 females. The average age was 62.4 years ranging from 56 to 68 years. Breslow thickness ranged from 2.1 to 12?mm with a mean thickness of 5.8?mm. Primary treatment of 5 patients included a wide local excision of their primary lesions. Conclusions. Desmoplastic melanoma is a rare neoplasm which clinically may mimic other tumours or cutaneous infiltrate of uncertain significance. The diagnosis is hiastopathological and radical resection is necessary.

A. M. Manganoni

2009-01-01

129

Aberrant DNA methylation in malignant melanoma.  

Science.gov (United States)

Malignant melanoma remains one of the most deadly human cancers with no effective cures for metastatic disease. The poor efficacy of current therapy in advanced melanoma highlights the need for better understanding of molecular mechanisms contributing to the disease. Recent work has shown that epigenetic changes, including aberrant DNA methylation, lead to alterations in gene expression and are as important in the development of malignant melanoma as the specific and well-characterized genetic events. Reversion of these methylation patterns could thus lead to a more targeted therapy and are currently under clinical investigation. The purpose of this review is to compile recent information on aberrant DNA methylation of melanoma, to highlight key genes and molecular pathways in melanoma development, which have been found to be epigenetically altered and to provide insight as to how DNA methylation might serve as targeted treatment option as well as a molecular and prognostic marker in malignant melanoma. PMID:20418788

Schinke, Carolina; Mo, Yongkai; Yu, Yiting; Amiri, Kathy; Sosman, Jeff; Greally, John; Verma, Amit

2010-08-01

130

Melanoma-specific marker expression in skin biopsy tissues as a tool to facilitate melanoma diagnosis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Diagnosis of cutaneous melanoma requires accurate differentiation of true malignant tumors from highly atypical lesions, which lack the capacity to develop uncontrolled proliferation and to metastasize. We used melanoma markers from previous work to differentiate benign and atypical lesions from melanoma using paraffin-embedded tissue. This critical step in diagnosis generates the most uncertainty and discrepancy between dermatopathologists. A total of 193 biopsy tissues were selected: 47 melanomas, 48 benign nevi, and 98 atypical/suspicious, including 48 atypical nevi and 50 melanomas as later assigned by expert dermatopathologists. Performance for SILV, GDF15, and L1CAM normalized to TYR in unequivocal melanoma versus benign nevi resulted in an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.94, 0.67, and 0.5, respectively. SILV also differentiated atypical cases classified as melanoma from atypical nevi with an AUC=0.74. Furthermore, SILV showed a significant difference between suspicious melanoma and each suspicious atypia group: melanoma versus severe atypia and melanoma versus moderate atypia had P-values of 0.0077 and 0.0009, respectively. SILV showed clear discrimination between melanoma and benign unequivocal cases as well as between different atypia subgroups in the group of suspicious samples. The role and potential utility of this molecular assay as an adjunct to the morphological diagnosis of melanoma are discussed. PMID:20357814

Alexandrescu, Doru T; Kauffman, C Lisa; Jatkoe, Timothy A; Hartmann, Dan P; Vener, Tatiana; Wang, Haiying; Derecho, Carlo; Rajpurohit, Yashoda; Wang, Yixin; Palma, John F

2010-07-01

131

Melanoma of unknown origin: a case series.  

LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

The natural history of metastatic melanoma involving lymph nodes, in the absence of a known primary site (cutaneous, ocular or mucosal) has, to date, been poorly defined; and the optimal management of this rare subtype of disease is therefore unclear. Melanomas of unknown primary site (MUP) are estimated to comprise between 3.7 and 6% of all melanomas (Anbari et al. in Cancer 79:1861-1821, 1997).

Kelly, J

2010-12-01

132

Comedo-like openings in melanoma  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english We describe a case of melanoma with the presence of comedo-like openings at dermoscopy. These structures, typical of seborrheic keratosis, represent an uncommon finding in melanoma. We emphasize the importance of searching for specific dermoscopic criteria for melanocytic lesions during the examinat [...] ion of a pigmented lesion, despite possible observations of characteristic structures of non-melanocytic lesions, in order to increase the accuracy in the diagnosis of melanoma.

Bruno Simão dos, Santos; Lucia Helena Soares, Ribeiro; Eloisa Leis, Ayres; Enoi Aparecida Guedes, Vilar.

133

Melanoma-nevus differentiation by multispectral imaging  

Science.gov (United States)

A clinical trial on multi-spectral imaging of malignant and non-malignant skin pathologies comprising 22 melanomas and 59 pigmented nevi was performed in Latvian Oncology Center. Analysis of data obtained in the spectral range 450-950 nm using multispectral camera have led to a novel image processing algorithm capable to distinguish melanoma from pigmented nevi and different areas of activity of melanoma. The proposed methodology and potential clinical applications are discussed.

Diebele, Ilze; Kuzmina, Ilona; Kapostinsh, Janis; Derjabo, Alexander; Spigulis, Janis

2011-06-01

134

Giant hanging melanoma of the eyelid skin  

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Cutaneous melanoma of the eyelid is a rare entity. We present a 53-year-old male who had a nevus on the left upper eyelid skin since childhood, which transformed into a huge ulcerated hanging mass in the same region. Excision of the mass was done and histopathology confirmed the diagnosis of nodular malignant melanoma. A small preauricular lymph node showed metastatic melanoma on fine needle aspiration cytology.

Pai Radha; Kini Hema; Kamath Sai; Kumar Suneet

2008-01-01

135

Prognostic Molecular Biomarkers for Cutaneous Malignant Melanoma  

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Molecular signatures of melanoma have propelled new approaches to early diagnosis, monitoring of treatment response, and targeted therapy. This review discusses messenger RNA (mRNA), genomic and epigenomic melanoma biomarkers in blood and tissue specimens. The major focus is on tissue-based molecular assays to upstage sentinel lymph nodes and blood-based assays to detect melanoma progression by monitoring levels of circulating tumor cells and circulating DNA.

Tanaka, Ryo; Koyanagi, Kazuo; Narita, Norihiko; Kuo, Christine; Hoon, Dave S. B.

2011-01-01

136

Giant hanging melanoma of the eyelid skin  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Cutaneous melanoma of the eyelid is a rare entity. We present a 53-year-old male who had a nevus on the left upper eyelid skin since childhood, which transformed into a huge ulcerated hanging mass in the same region. Excision of the mass was done and histopathology confirmed the diagnosis of nodular malignant melanoma. A small preauricular lymph node showed metastatic melanoma on fine needle aspiration cytology.

Pai Radha

2008-01-01

137

Malignant melanoma of breast: a case report  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Malignant melanoma rarely affects the breast. Malignant melanoma of breast is divided into two categories: primary and metastatic lesions. Primary melanoma involves the skin and less commonly the glandular parenchyma of the breast. Differentiating them is very important in deciding on treatment strategies. This case report aims to increase awareness of unusual neoplasms of the breast which requires a different surgical and adjuvant therapeutic approach. [Int J Res Med Sci 2014; 2(2.000: 755-758

A. Bhagyalakshmi

2014-04-01

138

Intravascular metastatic melanoma: a difficult diagnosis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Melanoma is a common cancer with the potential for widespread metastasis; however intravascular metastasis is extremely rare. We report an unusual case of a patient with metastatic melanoma in whom (18) F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography-computed tomography (FDG PET-CT) demonstrated an intravascular melanoma metastasis in the superior vena cava (SVC), successfully treated with external beam radiotherapy. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case where FDG PET-CT was used to make this diagnosis. PMID:23425235

Ghattas, Samer; Howle, Julie; Wang, Wei; Kefford, Richard; Gruenewald, Simon

2013-05-01

139

Isolated hepatic perfusion for metastatic melanoma.  

Science.gov (United States)

Unresectable hepatic metastases from melanoma present a challenge to the physician. Although there have been advances in systemic therapies for patients with metastatic cutaneous melanoma to the liver, the overall prognosis is poor and is worse in patients with metastatic ocular melanoma. Isolated hepatic perfusion, open or percutaneous, allows high doses of cytotoxic chemotherapy to be delivered directly to the liver while minimizing systemic exposure, and has emerged as a viable treatment options for these complex patients. PMID:24166748

Yamamoto, Maki; Zager, Jonathan S

2014-03-01

140

Oral malignant melanoma. A case report.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Oral malignant melanoma is a rare aggressive neoplasm of middle age, has predilection for the palate and maxillary gingiva or alveolar ridge and about 1/3rd of these neoplasms may develop from existing melanosis. A case of malignant melanoma in a 55 year old male is being reported. The patient was treated surgically. It is emphasised that the presence of pigmented oral mucosa must alert the clinician to the possibility of malignant melanoma.

Mody R; Puranik S

1992-01-01

 
 
 
 
141

From Melanocyte to Metastatic Malignant Melanoma  

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Malignant melanoma is one of the most aggressive malignancies in human and is responsible for almost 60% of lethal skin tumors. Its incidence has been increasing in white population in the past two decades. There is a complex interaction of environmental (exogenous) and endogenous, including genetic, risk factors in developing malignant melanoma. 8–12% of familial melanomas occur in a familial setting related to mutation of the CDKN2A gene that encodes p16. The aim of ...

Bizhan Bandarchi; Linglei Ma; Roya Navab; Arun Seth; Golnar Rasty

2010-01-01

142

Aberrant DNA methylation in malignant melanoma  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Malignant Melanoma remains one of the most deadly human cancers with no effective cures for metastatic disease. The poor efficacy of current therapy in advanced melanoma highlights the need for better understanding of molecular mechanisms contributing to the disease. Recent work has shown that epigenetic changes, including aberrant DNA methylation, lead to alterations in gene expression and are as important in the development of malignant melanoma as the specific and well characterized geneti...

Schinke, Carolina; Mo, Yongkai; Yu, Yiting; Amiri, Kathy; Sosman, Jeff; Greally, John; Verma, Amit

2010-01-01

143

The Determination of Melanoma Stage at Diagnosis  

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The rising proportion of melanomas diagnosed at an early pathologic stage is commonly ascribed to better public education. However in the US SEER program of cancer registration it has been found that the rates for in situ melanomas are closely related by a log linear relationship to the incidence of invasive melanomas and that this relationship is unrelated to calendar year or gender or patient age. This relationship is sufficiently strong to leave little room for other factors. The relations...

2010-01-01

144

Epidemiología del melanoma cutáneo Epidemiology of cutaneous melanoma  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Durante las últimas décadas hubo un aumento de la incidencia del melanoma cutáneo en la población caucásica del mundo, aunque este tumor puede afectar a cualquier grupo étnico. En la actualidad se considera a la exposición solar intermitente como un factor de riesgo cierto, en el desarrollo del melanoma cutáneo. La incidencia del melanoma cutáneo en Auckland, Nueva Zelanda, es la mayor del mundo. En Europa, la incidencia y la mortalidad fue creciente hasta que en la década de los 80 se estabilizó. En EEUU también se observó una estabilización de la incidencia. Con respecto a la edad, según la bibliografía consultada la incidencia aumenta a partir de los 20 años; en algunos pacientes con más de 200 nevos y sin pautas de protección solar antes de los 5 años de vida. También se observa aumento de la incidencia en los adultos mayores de 60 años de edad. Con respecto al sexo, en los EEUU y la Argentina es más frecuente en los hombres y en Europa en el sexo femenino.During the last decades there was an increase of incidence of cutaneous melanoma in Caucasian population worldwide, but this tumor can affect any ethnic group. Nowadays, the intermittent solar exposition is a well known predisposing factor. The incidence in Auckland, New Zealand, is the highest in the world. In Europe and in the USA, the incidence and mortality rates decreased until the 80's when it stabilized. Regarding the age of appearance, the incidence increases starting at 20 years of age in patients with more than 200 nevi and without history of sun protection in childhood. There was also an increase in the incidence in adults (>60 y-o. The distribution by sex in USA and Argentina is more frequent in males and in Europe in females.

R M C Leitner

2006-06-01

145

Epidemiology and management of uveal melanoma.  

Science.gov (United States)

Uveal melanoma is the most common primary intraocular malignancy in adults. The disease overwhelmingly affects white populations. Other risk factors include fair skin, light iris color, ancestry from northern latitudes, and ocular/oculodermal melanocytosis. Historically, enucleation was the definitive treatment of uveal melanoma, but brachytherapy and proton beam irradiation are now the most commonly used treatment methods. However, there are still no effective therapies against metastatic uveal melanoma, which is almost always fatal. Continued advances in understanding of the molecular mechanisms of uveal melanoma will facilitate the identification of prognostic markers and therapeutic targets. PMID:23116575

Yonekawa, Yoshihiro; Kim, Ivana K

2012-12-01

146

Immunohistochemical diagnostic and prognostic markers for melanoma.  

Science.gov (United States)

Recent studies in our laboratory have identified novel molecular diagnostic and prognostic markers based on analyses in large cohorts of melanoma patients. These markers were initially derived from gene expression profiling analyses of distinct stages of melanoma progression. Immunohistochemical analyses confirmed the differential expression of these markers, and immunohistochemistry-based multimarker assays were developed to assess melanoma diagnosis and prognosis at the molecular level. In this chapter we review the development of these assays and the methodologies used to assess marker expression in both nevi and primary melanomas. PMID:24258983

Nosrati, Mehdi; Kashani-Sabet, Mohammed

2014-01-01

147

Dermatoscopy of amelanotic and hypomelanotic melanoma.  

Science.gov (United States)

Amelanotic melanoma is a subtype of cutaneous melanoma without pigment. The clinical diagnosis is challenging because it may mimic benign or malignant melanocytic and non-melanocytic neoplasms and inflammatory skin diseases. In synchrony with the improvement of the diagnosis of pigmented lesions, dermatoscopy may assist the clinician in the diagnosis of non-pigmented skin neoplasms in general and of amelanotic melanoma in particular. We have searched the literature to extract the most relevant dermatoscopic clues to diagnose amelanotic and hypomelanotic melanomas by dermatoscopy. In addition we present eight consecutive cases and discuss their clinical and dermatoscopic characteristics in the light of published data. PMID:24825465

Stojkovic-Filipovic, Jelena; Kittler, Harald

2014-06-01

148

Neutron capture therapy for melanoma  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The development of boron-containing compounds which localize selectively in tumor may require a tumor-by-tumor type of approach that exploits any metabolic pathways unique to the particular type of tumor. Melanin-producing melanomas actively transport and metabolize aromatic amino acids for use as precursors in the synthesis of the pigment melanin. It has been shown that the boron-containing amino acid analog p-borono-phenylalanine (BPA) is selectively accumulated in melanoma tissue, producing boron concentrations in tumor that are within the range estimated to be necessary for successful boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT). We report here the results of therapy experiments carried out at the Brookhaven Medical Research Reactor (BMRR). 21 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

Coderre, J.A.; Glass, J.D.; Micca, P.; Fairchild, R.G.

1988-01-01

149

Giant melanoacanthoma mimicking malignant melanoma  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Melanoacanthoma denotes a rare variant of pigmented seborrheic keratosis. A 65-year-old male farmer had pigmented, verrucous, itchy, highly painful, progressively growing irregularly oval plaque on left side of lower back for the past five years. The indurated lesion, measuring maximum diameter 10 cm ? 5 cm, had no discharge, bleeding, ulceration, or associated lymphadenopathy. Dermoscopy showed regular pigmentary network and cribiform pattern of ridges without any feature of malignant melanoma. Histopathology showed well-defined islands of basaloid cells interspersed with large and richly dendritic melanocytes. The lesion was totally excised followed by skin grafting. Our patient was unique in its massive size and clinical resemblance with malignant melanoma. The diagnosis was confirmed by dermoscopy and skin biopsy.

Shankar Vikas

2011-01-01

150

Neutron capture therapy for melanoma  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The development of boron-containing compounds which localize selectively in tumor may require a tumor-by-tumor type of approach that exploits any metabolic pathways unique to the particular type of tumor. Melanin-producing melanomas actively transport and metabolize aromatic amino acids for use as precursors in the synthesis of the pigment melanin. It has been shown that the boron-containing amino acid analog p-borono-phenylalanine (BPA) is selectively accumulated in melanoma tissue, producing boron concentrations in tumor that are within the range estimated to be necessary for successful boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT). We report here the results of therapy experiments carried out at the Brookhaven Medical Research Reactor (BMRR). 21 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs

1988-02-01

151

Melanoma of the female urethra  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Melanoma is a malignant tumor that can affect any area of the anatomical economy. Its appearance in the female urethra is extremely rare, with approximately 121 cases in indexed literature since 1966. The subject to be described is an 86-year-old woman who seeks assessment for intermittent macroscopic hematuria with blood clots of 3 months progression. On physical examination, there are no suspicious lesions detected on the surface of the skin. On external genital examination, it is observed ...

2011-01-01

152

Malignant Melanoma of Gastroesophageal Junction.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A rare case of malignant melanoma arising from the gastroesophageal junction is being reported.Since part of the tumor was adherent with hiatus, palliative procedure in form of Mousseau Barbintube insertion was necessitated. Postoperatively patient was subjected to radiotherapy. Malignantmelanoma of gastroesophageal junction is rare accounting for only 0.1% of the lesions of this region.Surgical treatment requires a far greater margin of excision than the usual squamous cell carcinoma.Intracavitary radiotherapy has been recommended.

Arvind Kohli, Anita Kohli, Kuldeep Singh, Gurjeet Singh

2004-04-01

153

Biology of Human Cutaneous Melanoma  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A review of the natural behavior of cutaneous melanoma, clinical and pathological factors, prognostic indicators, some basic research and the present and possible futuristic strategies in the management of this disease are presented. While surgery remains to be the most effective therapeutic approach in the management of early primary lesions, there is no standard adjuvant therapy after surgical resection, or for metastatic disease.

Bhuvnesh K. Sharma

2010-03-01

154

Cancer stem cells in melanoma  

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The identification of cancer stem cells in various malignancies led to the hypothesis that these cells have the exclusive ability of self-renewal, contribute to the plasticity of the tumours and may be the cause for ineffective cancer therapies. Several markers of melanoma stem cells have been described in recent studies including CD133, CD166, Nestin and BMI-1. Further studies are necessary to identify, better define and understand the origin and function of cancer stem cells. If confirmed t...

Regenbrecht, C.; Welte, Y.; Hugel, R.; Trefzer, U.; Losch, Fo; Adjaye, J.; Walden, P.

2008-01-01

155

Spontaneous Splenic Rupture in Melanoma  

Science.gov (United States)

Spontaneous rupture of spleen due to malignant melanoma is a rare situation, with only a few case reports in the literature. This study reports a previously healthy, 30-year-old man who came with chief complaint of acute abdominal pain to emergency room. On physical examination, abdominal tenderness and guarding were detected to be coincident with hypotension. Ultrasonography revealed mild splenomegaly with moderate free fluid in abdominopelvic cavity. Considering acute abdominal pain and hemodynamic instability, he underwent splenectomy with splenic rupture as the source of bleeding. Histologic examination showed diffuse infiltration by tumor. Immunohistochemical study (positive for S100, HMB45, and vimentin and negative for CK, CD10, CK20, CK7, CD30, LCA, EMA, and chromogranin) confirmed metastatic malignant melanoma. On further questioning, there was a past history of a nasal dark skin lesion which was removed two years ago with no pathologic examination. Spontaneous (nontraumatic) rupture of spleen is an uncommon situation and it happens very rarely due to neoplastic metastasis. Metastasis of malignant melanoma is one of the rare causes of the spontaneous rupture of spleen.

Oryan, Ahmad; Davari, Aida; Daneshbod, Khosrow; Daneshbod, Yahya

2014-01-01

156

Simvastatin impairs murine melanoma growth  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Statins induces cell cycle arrest, apoptosis, reduction of angiogenic factors, inhibition of the endothelial growth factor, impairing tissue adhesion and attenuation of the resistance mechanisms. The aim of this study was evaluate the anti-tumoral activity of simvastatin in a B16F10 melanoma-mouse model. Methods Melanoma cells were treated with different concentrations of simvastatin and assessed by viability methods. Melanoma cells (5 × 104 were implanted in two month old C57Bl6/J mice. Around 7 days after cells injection, the oral treatments were started with simvastatin (5 mg/kg/day, p.o.. Tumor size, hematological and biochemical analyses were evaluated. Results Simvastatin at a concentration of 0.8 ?M, 1.2 ?M and 1.6 ?M had toxic effect. Concentration of 1.6 ?M induced a massive death in the first 24 h of incubation. Simvastatin at 0.8 ?M induces early cell cycle arrest in G0/G1, followed by increase of hypodiploidy. Tumor size were evaluated and the difference of treated group and control, after ten days, demonstrates that simvastatin inhibited the tumor expansion in 68%. Conclusion Simvastatin at 1.6 ?M, presented cytototoxicity after 72 h of treatment, with an intense death. In vivo, simvastatin being potentially useful as an antiproliferative drug, with an impairment of growth after ten days.

Barros Francisco E

2010-12-01

157

Clinical assessment of malignant melanoma  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Eleven cases of malignant melanoma in the head and neck region diagnosed and treated at the University of Tsukuba Hospital over a ten-year period were clinically analyzed. The patients consisted of 4 males and 7 females, ranging in age from 20 to 88 years (mean age, 67 years). The tumor originated from the nasal cavity in seven cases and from the maxillary sinus, nasopharyngeal mucosa, external auditory canal and skin of the head in one case each. Most patients were treated by proton beam therapy alone or in combination with surgery and/or chemotherapy. The disease-specific survival rate was 22.5% at 3 years. With recent reports suggesting the effectiveness of proton beam therapy for malignant melanoma of the head and neck region, a combination of treatment modalities including proton beam therapy might improve the survival rate, however, our cases were limited in number. The standard strategy for the treatment of malignant melanoma of the head and neck region should be established, including proton beam therapy. (author)

2013-03-01

158

Treatment of malignant melanoma by selective thermal neutron capture therapy using melanoma-seeking compound  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

As pigment cells undergo melanoma genesis, accentuated melanogenesis concurrently occurs in principle. Subsequent to the understanding of intrinsic factors controlling both processes, we found our selective melanoma neutron capture therapy (NCT) using 10B-dopa (melanin substrate) analogue, 10B1-p-boronophenylalanine (10B1-BPA), followed by 10B(n, alpha)7Li reaction, induced by essentially harmless thermal neutrons, which releases energy of 2.33 MeV to 14 mu, the diameter of melanoma cells. In vitro/in vivo radiobiological analysis revealed the highly enhanced melanoma killing effect of 10B1-BPA. Chemical and prompt gamma ray spectrometry assays of 10B accumulated within melanoma cells after 10B1-BPA administration in vitro and in vivo show high affinity, e.g., 10B melanoma/blood ratio of 11.5. After successfully eradicating melanoma transplanted into hamsters with NCT, we advanced to preclinical studies using spontaneously occurring melanoma in Duroc pig skin. We cured three melanoma cases, 4.6 to 12 cm in diameter, by single neutron capture treatment. Complete disappearance of melanoma was obtained without substantial side effects. Acute and subacute toxicity as well as pharmacodynamics of 10B1-BPA have been studied in relation to therapeutic dosage requirements. Clinical radiation dosimetry using human phantom has been carried out. Further preclinical studies using human melanoma transplanted into nude mouse have been a useful model for obtaining optimal results for each melanoma type. We recently treated the first human melanoma patient with our NCT, using essentially the method for Duroc pig melanoma, and obtained similar regression time course leading to cure

1989-01-01

159

Effects of cuminaldehyde on melanoma cells.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cuminaldehyde (4-isopropylbenzaldehyde) suppressed melanin formation in cultured murine B16-F10 melanoma cells in a dose-dependent decrease up to 0.25 mm without affecting cell growth. Approximately 30% suppression in melanin production resulted when the cells were cultured with 0.25 mm of cuminaldehyde. This activity was not noticeable with cultured human A375 melanoma cells. PMID:18412105

Nitoda, Teruhiko; Fan, Maria D; Kubo, Isao

2008-06-01

160

Malignant melanoma with probable smooth muscle differentiation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Malignant melanomas occasionally exhibit various divergent differentiation types. Of these, smooth muscle differentiation is extremely rare; only 1 case has been reported in the literature until recently. We report an extremely rare case of malignant melanoma with smooth muscle differentiation, which appeared as an amelanotic reddish nodule on the left toe. PMID:24575006

Morimoto, Aya; Asai, Jun; Wakabayashi, Yusuke; Komori, Satoshi; Hanada, Keiji; Takenaka, Hideya; Konishi, Eiichi; Katoh, Norito

2014-01-01

 
 
 
 
161

Unusual thoracic manifestation of metastatic malignant melanoma  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Massive pleural effusion due to metastatic malignant melanoma is rare. We report a case of bilateral (massive on left side) pleural effusion as a metastatic manifestation of cutaneous malignant melanoma. In our case, successful outcome of pleurodesis with vincristine is significant as this agent is rarely used.

2010-01-01

162

Towards new therapeutic approaches for malignant melanoma.  

Science.gov (United States)

Recent progress in understanding the molecular mechanisms of the initiation and progression of melanoma has created new opportunities for developing novel therapeutic modalities to manage this potentially lethal disease. Although at first glance, melanoma carcinogenesis appears to be a chaotic system, it is indeed, arguably, a deterministic multistep process involving sequential alterations of proto-oncogenes, tumour suppressors and miRNA genes. The scope of this article is to discuss the most recent and significant advances in melanoma molecular therapeutics. It is apparent that using single agents targeting solely individual melanoma pathways might be insufficient for long-term survival. However, the outstanding results on melanoma survival observed with novel selective inhibitors of B-RAF, such as PLX4032 give hope that melanoma can be cured. The fact that melanoma develops acquired resistance to PLX4032 emphasises the importance of simultaneously targeting several pathways. Because the most striking feature of melanoma is its unsurpassed ability to metastasise, it is important to implement newer systems for drug delivery adapted from research on stem cells and nanotechnology. PMID:22044938

Pacheco, Ivan; Buzea, Cristina; Tron, Victor

2011-01-01

163

Serum-proteomics in melanoma patients  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The project Serum-proteomics in melanoma patients funded by 'Programma Oncologico Italia-USA' Oncoproteomica has the general aim to collect serum samples from melanoma patients and to analyze the expression profile of several cytokines, in order to identify whether significant differences are evident between patients and controls, or among different patients subgroups with different staging or therapy

2009-01-01

164

Xeroderma pigmentosum genes and melanoma risk.  

Science.gov (United States)

Xeroderma pigmentosum is a rare autosomal recessive disease that is associated with a severe deficiency in nucleotide excision repair. The presence of a distinct the nucleotide excision repair (NER) mutation signature in melanoma suggests that perturbations in this critical repair process are likely to be involved with disease risk. We hypothesized that persons with polymorphic NER gene(s) are likely to have reduced NER activity and are consequently at an increased risk of melanoma development. We assessed the association between 94 SNPs within seven XP genes (XPA-XPG) and the melanoma risk in the Polish population. We genotyped 714 unselected melanoma patients and 1,841 healthy adults to determine if there were any polymorphisms differentially represented in the disease group. We found that a significantly decreased risk of melanoma was associated with the Xeroderma pigmentosum complementation (XPC) rs2228000_CT genotype (odds ratio [OR]?=?0.15; p?XPD) showed a modest association between two haplotypes and a decrease in melanoma risk. There were no major differences between the prevalence of the XP polymorphisms among young or older patients with melanoma. Linkage disequilibrium of XPC: rs2228001, G1475A, G2061A, rs2228000 and rs3731062 was found. The data from our study support the notion that only XPC and XPD genes are associated with melanoma susceptibility. PMID:23436679

Paszkowska-Szczur, K; Scott, R J; Serrano-Fernandez, P; Mirecka, A; Gapska, P; Górski, B; Cybulski, C; Maleszka, R; Sulikowski, M; Nagay, L; Lubinski, J; D?bniak, T

2013-09-01

165

Histopathological patterns of melanoma metastases in sentinel lymph nodes  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Aims: Sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) is an important component in the staging and treatment of cutaneous melanoma (CM). The medical literature provides only limited information regarding melanoma sentinel lymph node (SLN) histology. This report details the specific histological patterns of melanoma metastases in sentinel lymph nodes (SLNs) and highlights some key factors in evaluating SLNs for melanoma.

Murray, C. A.; Leong, W. L.; Mccready, D. R.; Ghazarian, D. M.

2004-01-01

166

A rare case of rynopharyngeal melanoma.  

Science.gov (United States)

Primary mucosal melanomas (MM) of the head and neck region constitute 0.5-2% of all malignant melanomas. The rynopharynx is a region that is less often involved by malignant melanomas. Because most of mucosal melanotic lesions are painless in their early stages, the diagnosis is unfortunately often delayed until symptoms resulting from ulceration, growth, and/or bleeding are noted. Here, we document the rare case of a malignant rynopharynx melanoma of a 43 year old woman. Its treatment and the pertinent literature are discussed. No complication was recorded in the post-operative period and no further surgery was performed. The follow up showed no recurrence in the same position and with the same characteristics, even after six years. Mucosal melanomas are aggressive tumours and the prognosis in these patients is poor. Clinicians must use treatment strategies that provide functional benefit, so as to maintain quality of life without excessive toxicity. PMID:23814590

Grecchi, Francesco; Podrecca, Stefano; Zollino, Ilaria; Candotto, Valentina; Gallo, Francesco; Rubino, Giuseppe; Bianco, Raffaella; Carinci, Francesco

2012-12-01

167

Emerging targeted therapies for melanoma treatment (Review)  

Science.gov (United States)

Cutaneous melanoma is an aggressive cancer with a poor prognosis for patients with advanced disease. The identification of several key molecular pathways implicated in the pathogenesis of melanoma has led to the development of novel therapies for this devastating disease. In melanoma, both the Ras/Raf/MEK/ERK (MAPK) and the PI3K/AKT (AKT) signalling pathways are constitutively activated through multiple mechanisms. Targeting various effectors of these pathways with pharmacologic inhibitors may inhibit melanoma cell growth and angiogenesis. Ongoing clinical trials provide hope to improve progression-free survival of patients with advanced melanoma. This review summarizes the most relevant studies focused on the specific action of these new molecular targeted agents. Mechanisms of resistance to therapy are also discussed.

RUSSO, ANGELA; FICILI, BARTOLOMEA; CANDIDO, SAVERIO; PEZZINO, FRANCA MARIA; GUARNERI, CLAUDIO; BIONDI, ANTONIO; TRAVALI, SALVATORE; McCUBREY, JAMES A.; SPANDIDOS, DEMETRIOS A.; LIBRA, MASSIMO

2014-01-01

168

Primary gastric melanoma: a case report.  

Science.gov (United States)

Melanoma accounts for 1-3 per cent of all malignant tumors. Except cutaneous, other less common melanomas include, among others, those in the GI tract. However, their primary or secondary nature is often difficult to establish. Referring to the stomach, scattered cases of primary melanomas have been reported in the literature. We report a case of a man with an ulcerated sub-mucosal mass at the antrum of the stomach, manifested with dull upper abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, fatigue and anemia. This lesion was histologically proved to be melanoma. A detailed clinical and laboratory investigation revealed no primary site elsewhere. To our knowledge, very few cases of primary gastric melanoma have been reported. Our case is the fourth ever published and the first located at the antrum of the stomach. The debate upon the primitive nature of such lesions still persists. Thus, specific diagnostic criteria have been proposed. PMID:16865791

Lagoudianakis, Emmanuel-Eustathios; Genetzakis, Michael; Tsekouras, Dimitrios-Konstantinos; Papadima, Artemisia; Kafiri, Georgia; Toutouzas, Konstantinos; Katergiannakis, Vaggelogiannis; Manouras, Andreas

2006-07-21

169

Alpha particles for treatment of disseminated melanoma  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Invading melanoma spreads to local and unpredictable distant location at the early stages of its development. It is justifiable, therefore, to classify the disease as a systemic disorder. This requires a systemic treatment that reaches all melanoma cells irrespective of whether they are singly dispersed and in circulation or already forming solid tumours of various sizes. Targeted radiotherapy affects directly and selectively cancer cells provided an appropriate radionuclide and its carrier are chosen. Melanoma is a pigmented tumour. Methylene blue (MTB)) accumulates selectively in melanoma cells due to its exceptionally high affinity to melanin. MTB serves, therefore, as a carrier for radionuclides. {sup 211}At-MTB has proved to be particularly effective in treating disseminated melanoma when administered systemically and, at the same time, non-toxic to normal non-pigmented and pigmented organs. (authors)

Link, E.M. [London University (United Kingdom)

2010-07-01

170

Alpha particles for treatment of disseminated melanoma  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Invading melanoma spreads to local and unpredictable distant location at the early stages of its development. It is justifiable, therefore to classify the disease as a systemic disorder. This requires a systemic treatment that reaches all melanoma cells irrespective of whether they are singly dispersed and in circulation or already forming solid tumours of various sizes. Targeted radiotherapy affects directly and selectively cancer cells provided an appropriate radionuclide and its carrier are chosen. Melanoma is a pigmented tumour. Methylene blue (MTB) accumulates selectively in melanoma cells due to its exceptionally high affinity to melanin. MTB serves, therefore, as a carrier for radionuclides. {sup 211}At-MTB has proved to be particularly effective in treating disseminated melanoma when administered systemically and, at the same time, non-toxic to normal non-pigmented and pigmented organs. (author)

Link, E.M. [London Univ. (United Kingdom)

2010-11-15

171

Emerging targeted therapies for melanoma treatment (Review).  

Science.gov (United States)

Cutaneous melanoma is an aggressive cancer with a poor prognosis for patients with advanced disease. The identification of several key molecular pathways implicated in the pathogenesis of melanoma has led to the development of novel therapies for this devastating disease. In melanoma, both the Ras/Raf/MEK/ERK (MAPK) and the PI3K/AKT (AKT) signalling pathways are constitutively activated through multiple mechanisms. Targeting various effectors of these pathways with pharmacologic inhibitors may inhibit melanoma cell growth and angiogenesis. Ongoing clinical trials provide hope to improve progression-free survival of patients with advanced melanoma. This review summarizes the most relevant studies focused on the specific action of these new molecular targeted agents. Mechanisms of resistance to therapy are also discussed. PMID:24899250

Russo, Angela; Ficili, Bartolomea; Candido, Saverio; Pezzino, Franca Maria; Guarneri, Claudio; Biondi, Antonio; Travali, Salvatore; McCubrey, James A; Spandidos, Demetrios A; Libra, Massimo

2014-08-01

172

Alpha particles for treatment of disseminated melanoma  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Invading melanoma spreads to local and unpredictable distant location at the early stages of its development. It is justifiable, therefore, to classify the disease as a systemic disorder. This requires a systemic treatment that reaches all melanoma cells irrespective of whether they are singly dispersed and in circulation or already forming solid tumours of various sizes. Targeted radiotherapy affects directly and selectively cancer cells provided an appropriate radionuclide and its carrier are chosen. Melanoma is a pigmented tumour. Methylene blue (MTB)) accumulates selectively in melanoma cells due to its exceptionally high affinity to melanin. MTB serves, therefore, as a carrier for radionuclides. 211At-MTB has proved to be particularly effective in treating disseminated melanoma when administered systemically and, at the same time, non-toxic to normal non-pigmented and pigmented organs. (authors)

2010-06-02

173

Alpha particles for treatment of disseminated melanoma  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Invading melanoma spreads to local and unpredictable distant location at the early stages of its development. It is justifiable, therefore to classify the disease as a systemic disorder. This requires a systemic treatment that reaches all melanoma cells irrespective of whether they are singly dispersed and in circulation or already forming solid tumours of various sizes. Targeted radiotherapy affects directly and selectively cancer cells provided an appropriate radionuclide and its carrier are chosen. Melanoma is a pigmented tumour. Methylene blue (MTB) accumulates selectively in melanoma cells due to its exceptionally high affinity to melanin. MTB serves, therefore, as a carrier for radionuclides. 211At-MTB has proved to be particularly effective in treating disseminated melanoma when administered systemically and, at the same time, non-toxic to normal non-pigmented and pigmented organs. (author)

2010-01-01

174

Sunlight exposure and pathogenesis of uveal melanoma.  

Science.gov (United States)

Uveal melanoma is the most frequent primary malignant intraocular tumor of adults. Among various non-modifiable risk factors, Caucasian race seems to be the most significant with light skin color, blond hair, and blue eyes being specific risk factors. The racial predisposition to uveal melanoma have been explained on the basis of susceptibility of Caucasian race to oncogenic effects of sunlight. Although there is ample evidence in support of this hypothesis in regard to skin melanoma, the evidence in regard to uveal melanoma is insufficient and contradictory. In the following review, we examine physiologic, epidemiological, and genetic data in order to determine the role of sunlight exposure in the pathogenesis of uveal melanoma. PMID:15231397

Singh, Arun D; Rennie, Ian G; Seregard, Stefan; Giblin, Michael; McKenzie, John

2004-01-01

175

Epidemiología del melanoma cutáneo / Epidemiology of cutaneous melanoma  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Argentina | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Durante las últimas décadas hubo un aumento de la incidencia del melanoma cutáneo en la población caucásica del mundo, aunque este tumor puede afectar a cualquier grupo étnico. En la actualidad se considera a la exposición solar intermitente como un factor de riesgo cierto, en el desarrollo del mela [...] noma cutáneo. La incidencia del melanoma cutáneo en Auckland, Nueva Zelanda, es la mayor del mundo. En Europa, la incidencia y la mortalidad fue creciente hasta que en la década de los 80 se estabilizó. En EEUU también se observó una estabilización de la incidencia. Con respecto a la edad, según la bibliografía consultada la incidencia aumenta a partir de los 20 años; en algunos pacientes con más de 200 nevos y sin pautas de protección solar antes de los 5 años de vida. También se observa aumento de la incidencia en los adultos mayores de 60 años de edad. Con respecto al sexo, en los EEUU y la Argentina es más frecuente en los hombres y en Europa en el sexo femenino. Abstract in english During the last decades there was an increase of incidence of cutaneous melanoma in Caucasian population worldwide, but this tumor can affect any ethnic group. Nowadays, the intermittent solar exposition is a well known predisposing factor. The incidence in Auckland, New Zealand, is the highest in t [...] he world. In Europe and in the USA, the incidence and mortality rates decreased until the 80's when it stabilized. Regarding the age of appearance, the incidence increases starting at 20 years of age in patients with more than 200 nevi and without history of sun protection in childhood. There was also an increase in the incidence in adults (>60 y-o). The distribution by sex in USA and Argentina is more frequent in males and in Europe in females.

Leitner, R M C.

176

Melanoma Surveillance in the US: Collecting Melanoma Data  

Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

This podcast accompanies the publication of a series of articles on melanoma surveillance in the United States, available in the November supplement edition of the Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology. Dr. Suephy Chen, a dermatologist from Emory University, discusses why the articles are important, as well as the need to increase dermatologistsâ?? awareness of cancer registries and reporting requirements.  Created: 10/19/2011 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 10/19/2011.

2011-10-19

177

Randomised clinical trials of choroidal melanoma treatment.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Purpose: To illustrate an approach to evidence-based medical practice by reporting the Collaborative Ocular Melanoma Study (COMS randomised clinical trials and cohort studies of choroidal melanoma. Methods: COMS randomised clinical trials of Iodine-125 (I-125 brachytherapy, adjunctive cohort study of visual acuity in eyes treated with brachytherapy and adjunctive natural history study. COMS randomised clinical trial of pre-enucleation radiation. Results: The COMS I-125 brachytherapy trial (N = 1,317 patients of medium-sized choroidal melanoma showed 5-year all-cause mortality of 18% [95% Confidence Interval (CI, 16-20%] and no statistically significant difference in mortality following 1-125 brachytherapy or enucleation. Adjunctive cohort natural history study (N-42 patients of patients eligible for the I-125 brachytherapy trial who deferred treatment or had no melanoma treatment had a 5-year all-cause mortality of 30% (95% CI, 18-47%. The COMS pre-enucleation radiation trial (N = 1,003 patients of large-sized choroidal melanoma showed 5-year all-cause mortality of 40% (95% CI, 37-44%. Conclusions: Evidence derived from randomised clinical trials and cohort studies shows the need for longterm (? 5 years follow-up to determine the efficacy of treatment for choroidal melanoma by any modality. The rather similar 5-year mortality for treated and untreated medium melanoma patients suggests that metastatic dissemination may occur at an early stage of choroidal melanoma. To increase longterm survival, ocular treatment of choroidal melanoma must strive for diagnosis and treatment of melanoma at an early stage when metastasis is less likely and be combined with measures to detect and treat micrometastasis

Straatsma Bradley

2003-01-01

178

Melanoma genotypes and phenotypes get personal.  

Science.gov (United States)

Traditionally, the diagnosis of metastatic melanoma was terminal to most patients. However, the advancements towards understanding the fundamental etiology, pathophysiology, and treatment have raised melanoma to the forefront of contemporary medicine. Indeed, the evidence of durable remissions are being heard ever more frequently in clinics around the globe. Despite having more gene mutations per cell than any other type of cancer, investigators are overcoming complex genomic landscapes, signaling pathways, and immune checkpoints by generating novel technological methods and clinical protocols with breath-taking speed. Significant progress in deciphering molecular genetics, epigenetics, kinase-driven networks, metabolomics, and immune-enhancing pathways to achieve personalized and positive outcomes has truly provided new hope for melanoma patients. However, obstacles requiring breakthroughs include understanding the influence of sunlight exposure on melanoma etiology, and overcoming all too frequently acquired drug resistance, complicating targeted therapy. Pathologists continue to have critically important roles in advancing the field, particularly in the area of transitioning from microscope-based diagnostic reports to pharmacogenomics through molecularly informed tumor boards. Although melanoma is no longer considered just 'one disease', pathologists will continue this rapidly progressing and exciting journey to identify tumor subtypes, to utilize tumorgraft or so-called patient-derived xenograft (PDX) models, and to develop companion diagnostics to keep pace with the bewildering breakthroughs occurring on a regular basis. Exactly which combination of drugs will ultimately be required to eradicate melanoma cells remains to be determined. However, it is clear that pathologists who are as dedicated to melanoma as the pioneering pathologist Dr Sidney Farber was committed to childhood cancers, will be required as the battle against melanoma continues. In this review, we describe what sets melanoma apart from other tumors, and demonstrate how lessons learned in the melanoma clinic are being transferred to many other types of aggressive neoplasms. PMID:23817084

Pimiento, Jose M; Larkin, Eileen M; Smalley, Keiran Sm; Wiersma, Ginger L; Monks, Noel R; Fedorenko, Inna V; Peterson, Chelsea A; Nickoloff, Brian J

2013-08-01

179

Current management and novel agents for malignant melanoma  

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Full Text Available Abstract Advanced malignant melanoma remains a challenging cancer. Over the past year, there have been 3 agents approved for treatment of melanoma by Food and Drug Administration. These include pegylated interferon alpha-2b for stage III melanoma, vemurafenib for unresectable or metastatic melanoma with BRAF V600E mutation, and ipilimumab for treatment of unresectable or metastatic melanoma. This review will also update on the development of novel agents, including tyrosine kinase inhibitors and adoptive cellular therapy.

Lee Byung

2012-02-01

180

Current management and novel agents for malignant melanoma  

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Advanced malignant melanoma remains a challenging cancer. Over the past year, there have been 3 agents approved for treatment of melanoma by Food and Drug Administration. These include pegylated interferon alpha-2b for stage III melanoma, vemurafenib for unresectable or metastatic melanoma with BRAF V600E mutation, and ipilimumab for treatment of unresectable or metastatic melanoma. This review will also update on the development of novel agents, including tyrosine kinase inhibitors and adopt...

Lee, Byung; Mukhi, Nikhil; Liu, Delong

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
181

Current management and novel agents for malignant melanoma  

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Abstract Advanced malignant melanoma remains a challenging cancer. Over the past year, there have been 3 agents approved for treatment of melanoma by Food and Drug Administration. These include pegylated interferon alpha-2b for stage III melanoma, vemurafenib for unresectable or metastatic melanoma with BRAF V600E mutation, and ipilimumab for treatment of unresectable or metastatic melanoma. This review will also update on the development of novel agents, including tyrosine kinase i...

Lee Byung; Mukhi Nikhil; Liu Delong

2012-01-01

182

Evolving concepts in melanoma classification and their relevance to multidisciplinary melanoma patient care.  

Science.gov (United States)

In the initial period after melanoma was recognised as a disease entity in the early 1800's, it was subclassified on the basis of its presumed origin (from a precursor naevus, from a melanocytic precursor lesion acquired during adult life or in previously blemish-fee skin). In 1967 the eminent American pathologist, Dr Wallace Clark, proposed a histogenetic classification for melanoma in which the disease was subdivided predominantly on the basis of histopathological features of the intra-epidermal component of the tumour adjacent to any dermal invasive component. The subtypes were superficial spreading melanoma (SSM), lentigo maligna melanoma (LMM) and nodular melanoma (NM). Whilst additional entities, including acral lentiginous melanoma, mucosal melanoma, desmoplastic melanoma and naevoid melanoma have since been recognised, SSM, LMM and NM remain in the latest (2006) version of the WHO melanoma classification. Clark's histogenetic classification has been criticised because the criteria upon which it is based include clinical features (such as the site of the melanoma) and non-tumourous histopathological features (such as the character of the associated epidermis and the degree of solar elastosis) and also because of overlap in defining features, lack of an independent association with patient outcome and minimal relevance as a determinant of clinical management. However, such criticisms fail to acknowledge its importance in highlighting the myriad of clinical and histological guises of melanoma, which if not recognized by clinicians and pathologists will inevitably lead to a delay in diagnosis and a concomitant adverse clinical outcome. Recently, mutually exclusive oncogenic mutations in melanomas involving NRAS (15-20%), BRAF (50%), CKIT (2%), and GNAQ/GNA11 (50% of uveal melanomas) have been identified. This might herald the beginning of a new molecular classification of melanoma in which the biologically distinct subsets share a common oncogenic mechanism, behave clinically in a similar fashion and require similar clinical management. These discoveries are already being successfully exploited as therapeutic targets in clinical trials of metastatic melanoma patients with promising activity. Whilst there remains much to be discovered in this rapidly evolving field, there is already great optimism that more rational and effective therapies for melanoma patients will soon be widely available. PMID:21482206

Scolyer, Richard A; Long, Georgina V; Thompson, John F

2011-04-01

183

Polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemistry frequently detect occult melanoma cells in regional lymph nodes of melanoma patients.  

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AIMS: To evaluate immunohistochemistry and reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for melanoma associated antigens (MAA) in detecting occult melanoma cells in lymph nodes which were missed on routine pathology. METHODS: Occult melanoma cells were sought in 436 lymph nodes from 32 patients with cutaneous melanoma of the lower extremities by immunohistochemistry using the melanoma specific antibody HMB-45. The detection sensitivity of routine histology, immunohistochemistry, a...

Hatta, N.; Takata, M.; Takehara, K.; Ohara, K.

1998-01-01

184

The risk of cutaneous melanoma in melanocytic nevi Risco de melanoma cutâneo nos nevos melanocíticos  

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Full Text Available The data on melanoma associaed with melanocytic nevus are controversial. A longitudinal prospective study of 107 cases of cutaneous melanoma revealed that 9 (8.4% cases were presumed to be linked to a precursor lesion, but only in 1 (0.9% out of these cases the histopathological examination showed an associated melanocytic nevus. The vague information of a preexisting lesion of cutaneous melanoma is not sufficient to consider it a tumour precursor and it requires histopathological evidence to confirm the diagnosis.Os dados sobre risco de melanoma cutâneo nos nevos melanocíticos são ainda controversos. O estudo longitudinal prospectivo de 107 casos de melanoma cutâneo revelou que em 9/107 casos (8,4% houve presunção de lesão precursora, porém em 1/107 caso (0,9% houve comprovação histopatológica para nevo melanocítico. A informação vaga de presença de lesão precursora do melanoma cutâneo torna vulnerável sua vinculação com o tumor e implica em comprovação histopatológica.

Nurimar Conceição Fernandes

2013-04-01

185

Arginine deprivation therapy for malignant melanoma  

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Full Text Available Jung-Ki Yoon,1,2 Arthur E Frankel,3 Lynn G Feun,4 Suhendan Ekmekcioglu,1 Kevin B Kim11Department of Melanoma Medical Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX, USA; 2Hwasung Public Health Center, Hwasung, South Korea, 3Scott and White Cancer Research Institute, Temple, TX, USA; 4Sylvester Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, FL, USAAbstract: Despite recent development of promising immunotherapeutic and targeted drugs, prognosis in patients with advanced melanoma remains poor, and a cure for this disease remains elusive in most patients. The success of melanoma therapy depends on a better understanding of the biology of melanoma and development of drugs that effectively target the relevant genes or proteins essential for tumor cell survival. Melanoma cells frequently lack argininosuccinate synthetase, an essential enzyme for arginine synthesis, and as a result they become dependent on the availability of exogenous arginine. Accordingly, a therapeutic approach involving depletion of available arginine has been shown to be effective in preclinical studies. Early clinical studies have demonstrated sufficient antitumor activity to give rise to cautious optimism. In this article, the rationale for arginine deprivation therapy is discussed. Additionally, various strategies for depleting arginine are discussed and the preclinical and clinical investigations of arginine deprivation therapy in melanoma are reviewed.Keywords: arginine deprivation, argininosuccinate synthetase, melanoma

Yoon JK

2012-12-01

186

Palliative radiation therapy for primary gastric melanoma  

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Introduction Primary gastric melanoma is an exceedingly rare cause of upper gastrointestinal bleeding (GI bleeding). Prior reports of primary gastric melanoma have mostly been treated with surgery with utilization of radiation therapy being unreported. Radiation therapy has been used to palliate bleeding of other cancers including lung, bladder, cervix, and more recently primary gastric cancers. Case presentation This case documents an 87-year-old male who presented with fatigue and melena, and was found to have severe anemia. Endoscopy with biopsy revealed an isolated focus of melanoma. After discharge, he presented two days later and was found to have continued bleeding. Because he was deemed a poor surgical candidate he elected to undergo palliative radiation therapy for bleeding control. Discussion The diagnosis of primary verses metastatic melanoma is a topic of debate. Case reports of patients with no known extra-gastric primary have undergone surgical treatment with varying outcomes. Patients with metastatic gastric melanoma have relied on chemotherapy and radiation in addition to surgery, with radiation being used in the palliative setting. The use of radiation to control bleeding in other cancers including primary gastric adenocarcinoma has been previously studied. This case documents the utilization of radiation therapy in bleeding due to primary gastric melanoma. Conclusions Radiation therapy can provide adequate bleeding palliation in patients with primary gastric melanoma.

Slater, Jason M.; Ling, Ted C.; Slater, Jerry D.

2014-01-01

187

Ellagic acid inhibits melanoma growth in vitro  

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Full Text Available Ellagic is a polyphenolic compound with anti-fibrotic and antioxidant properties as well as exhibits antitumor properties against various cancer cells in vitro. There are few studies, however, which examine the effects of ellagic acid on melanoma. In the present study, we observe effects of ellagic acid on melanoma cells in vitro. Three metastatic melanoma cell lines (1205Lu, WM852c and A375 were examined to determine the effects of ellagic acid on melanoma cell viability, cell-cycle, apoptosis, NF-?? activity, and IL-1? & IL-8 secretion. Cell viability assays demonstrated that ellagic acid possesses an inhibitory effect on cell proliferation at concentrations between 25 and 100 µM. In addition, ellagic acid promoted G1 cell cycle arrest, increased levels of apoptosis and decreased synthesis of IL-1? and IL-8 in melanoma cells. Ellagic acid also decreased NF-?? activity, suggesting at least one potential mechanism by which ellagic acid may exert its effects in melanoma cells. Our findings support further investigation into prospective roles for ellagic acid as a therapeutic, adjuvant, or preventive agent for melanoma.

Robert P. Dellavalle

2011-10-01

188

Wavelengths effective in induction of malignant melanoma  

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It is generally agreed that sunlight exposure is one of the etiologic agents in malignant melanoma of fair-skinned individuals. However, the wavelengths responsible for tumorigenesis are not known, although DNA is assumed to be the target because individuals defective in the repair of UV damage to DNA are several thousandfold more prone to the disease than the average population. Heavily pigmented back-cross hybrids of the genus Xiphophorus (platyfish and swordtails) are very sensitive to melanoma induction by single exposures to UV. The authors irradiated groups of five 6-day-old fish with narrow wavelength bands at 302, 313, 365, 405, and 436 nm and score the irradiated animals for melanomas 4 months later. They used several exposures at each wavelength to obtain estimates of the sensitivity for melanoma induction as a function of exposure and wavelength. The action spectrum (sensitivity per incident photon as a function of wavelength) for melanoma induction shows appreciable sensitivity at 365, 405, and probably 436 nm, suggesting that wavelengths not absorbed directly in DNA are effective in induction. They interpret the results as indicating that light energy absorbed in melanin is effective in inducing melanomas in this animal model and that, in natural sunlight, 90-95% of melanoma induction may be attributed to wavelengths >320 nm-the UV-A and visible spectral regions. 25 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

1993-07-15

189

Melanocortin-1 Receptor Variant R151C Modifies Melanoma Risk in Dutch Families with Melanoma  

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Germline mutations of the cell-cycle regulator p16 (also called “CDKN2A”) in kindreds with melanoma implicate this gene in susceptibility to malignant melanoma. Most families with familial atypical multiple-mole melanoma (FAMMM) who are registered at the Leiden dermatology clinic share the same p16-inactivating deletion (p16-Leiden). Incomplete penetrance and variable clinical expression suggest risk modification by other genetic and/or environmental factors. Variants of the melanocortin-...

Van der velden, Pieter A.; Sandkuijl, Lodewijk A.; Bergman, Wilma; Pavel, Stan; Van mourik, Leny; Frants, Rune R.; Gruis, Nelleke A.

2001-01-01

190

Primary Cilium Depletion Typifies Cutaneous Melanoma In Situ and Malignant Melanoma  

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Cutaneous melanoma is a lethal malignancy that arises spontaneously or via in situ precursor neoplasms. While melanoma in situ and locally invasive malignant melanoma can be cured surgically, these lesions can sometimes be difficult to distinguish from melanocytic nevi. Thus, the identification of histolopathologic or molecular features that distinguish these biologically distinct lesions would represent an important advance. To this end, we determined the abundance of melanocytic primary cil...

Kim, Jinah; Dabiri, Salma; Seeley, E. Scott

2011-01-01

191

Syngeneic murine metastasis models: B16 melanoma.  

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The murine B16 melanoma is one of the most used tumor models, its application having been used to determine the mechanisms associated with the metastatic process and the development of anticancer therapies. The B16 melanoma was originally established by Fidler and collaborators as a tumor line metastasizing to the lung. Since that time a variety of cell lines have been derived, in vitro or in vivo, having different metastatic behaviors.The methods used to obtain artificial metastases to the lung through the intravenous injection of B16 melanoma cells and spontaneous metastasis formation following cancer cell growth in the footpad are described in this chapter. PMID:24092437

Giavazzi, Raffaella; Decio, Alessandra

2014-01-01

192

Mucosal malignant melanoma of the nasal cavity  

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Full Text Available Mucosal malignant melanoma (MMM of the nose is extremely rare. We report a case of MMM of the nasal cavity in a 60-year-old male patient presenting with a polypoidal mass in the right nasal cavity. It was increasing gradually and obstructing breathing. A biopsy of the lesion was done with a clinical suspicion of inverted papilloma/carcinoma. Microscopy revealed features suggestive of malignant melanoma with minimal melanin pigmentation. Subsequently wide local excision was done. Diagnosis of malignant melanoma was facilitated by histochemistry and immunohistochemistry.

Bothale K

2009-01-01

193

Primary genitourinary melanoma presenting as voiding dysfunction.  

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A case of primary malignant melanoma of the urethra in a 67-year-old female is presented. Cystourethroscopy performed during a workup for pelvic organ prolapse revealed a bladder and urethral mass. Initial histologic examination was interpreted as undifferentiated sarcoma; however, after immunohistochemical staining by two separate institutions, malignant melanoma was diagnosed. Being rare, urethral melanoma is often misdiagnosed, and treatment can be delayed. Given its poor prognosis, early diagnosis is essential, and clinicians need to include it in their differential when working up a patient with genitourinary complaint. PMID:19214358

Filipkowski, Lisa A; Barker, Matthew A; Karram, Mickey M

2009-09-01

194

Body CT appearances of metastatic melanoma  

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The authors reviewed the CT studies and clinical records of 57 patients thought to have metastatic melanoma and sought CT findings that might be characteristic of metastatic melanoma. No pattern of lesion density, homogeneity, necrosis, border definition, hazing of adjacent fat, or calcification was characteristic for melanoma. However, widespread lesions in multiple organs, a combination of subcutaneous and visceral lesions, and large yet clinically silent lesions were common. Small (5mm) abnormalities in the lung, liver, spleen, and subcutaneous fat that might be considered inconsequential often represented early deposits of tumor which were enlarged on subsequent scans

1986-12-05

195

Malignant melanoma presenting as bilateral breast  

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Malignant melanoma presenting initially with disseminated disease is common. However, bilateral breast masses as the initial symptom of malignant melanoma are rare. One such case is described in this paper, together with a review of literature. Clinical investigations revealed a high erythrocyte sedimentation rate. The chest X-ray was normal, ultrasound examination of the abdomen confirmed bilateral masses and the bone scan with 99mTc meta diphosphonate showed increased tracer concentration in the D4 and L2 vertebrae. Biopsy form a lump in the breast showed features compatible with malignant melanoma deposit in the breast. 11 refs., 3 figs

1997-02-01

196

Brain metastases from malignant melanoma  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Between 1985 and 1993 30 patients underwent radiation therapy for brain metastases from malignant melanoma. In 9 patients they had been surgically resected. All except 1 patient received whole brain irradiation with a total dose of 20 to 46 Gy/2 to 5 weeks using daily fractions of 2,0 to 4,0 Gy. In 5 patients a local boost of 20 to 25 Gy/2 weeks was administered. Survival rates were compared using the Cox-method. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to define prognostic subgroups. In 6/30 patients (20%) brain metastases were diagnosed at the time of primary manifestation of melanoma. In 83% of patients brain metastases developed during the first 5 years following primary diagnosis. Late manifestation was observed (18 years). Overall survival rate of the whole group was 39% at 6 months and 23% at 1 year. Univariate analysis revealed that age at diagnosis of brain metastases, time to manifestation, number of intracranial metastases and existence of extracerebral distant metastases had significant influence on survival. Sex was not found to influence survival rate. Multivariate analysis identified the existence of extracerebral distant metastases at the time of diagnosis of brain metastases as the most important prognostic factor for survival, followed by age and surgical resection. The role of fractionation was studied separately in a subgroup of patients receiving whole brain irradiation to a total dose of 39 to 42 Gy. Survival rates deteriorated when overall treatment time exceeded 3 weeks. (orig./MG)

1995-03-01

197

Malignant Melanoma Presenting as Superior Mediastinal Mass without Extrathoracic Primary Melanoma  

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Malignant melanoma most commonly occurs in the skin, and other organs are secondarily involved. Malignant melanoma presenting in the mediastinum without an extrathoracic primary is very rare. Authors report a case of malignant melanoma of the superior mediastinum without clinical history of extrathoracic malignant melanoma primarily and discuss its radiologic findings. CT shows lobulated heterogenous enhanced mass. Magnetic resonance shows mild hyperintense mass on T1 and T2-weighted images contained focal hemorrhage and necrosis, and invasion to neural foramen. In addition, positron emission tomography/computed tomography shows high standard uptake values uptake of the mass.

You, Myung Won; Sung, Dong Wook; Lee, Young Kyung [Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, Kyung Hee University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

2013-03-15

198

Metástases cutâneas em melanoma de coróide Cutaneous metastasis in choroidal melanoma  

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Full Text Available Metastasis in choroidal melanoma is frequent on advanced diseases, involving mainly the liver, lungs and central nervous system. We report a case of cutaneous metastasis in choroidal melanoma because is an unusual condition, even in advanced disease.A ocorrência de metástases do melanoma de coróide é frequente na doença avançada, acometendo principalmente fígado, pulmões e sistema nervoso central. Relatamos um caso de melanoma de coróide com metástases cutâneas, por se tratar de acometimento raro, mesmo em casos avançados da doença.

Fabricio Lopes da Fonseca

2011-10-01

199

Four cases of rituximab-associated melanoma.  

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Biological agents have transformed the management of inflammatory and proliferative disorders. Safety issues have been raised, particularly the increased risk of opportunistic infections and secondary cancers. We report four cases of melanoma worsening or occurring after rituximab treatment for associated B-cell lymphoma, and discuss the accountability of the molecule in this process. In three cases, melanoma was diagnosed before or at the same time as a B-cell lymphoma treated with rituximab associated with chemotherapy and we observed rapid metastatic progression. In the last case, melanoma appeared after 5 years treatment with rituximab for a follicular lymphoma. Although it is premature to conclude on the role of rituximab in melanoma, careful follow-up and registration of such cases are important to gain further insight on this topic. PMID:24743053

Velter, Charles; Pagès, Cécile; Schneider, Pierre; Osio, Amélie; Brice, Pauline; Lebbé, Céleste

2014-08-01

200

Induction of melanoma in TPras transgenic mice.  

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In order to study the oncogenesis of melanocytes, transgenic mouse lines were established that express a mutated human Ha-ras (TPras) gene in pigment producing cells. The ras transgenic mice exhibit an altered phenotype, including melanocytic hyperplasia and a muted agouti coat, indicative of hyperproliferative melanocytes. These mice and their wild-type littermates have been subjected to a variety of carcinogenesis protocols, including 7, 12-dimethylbenz-[a]anthracene (DMBA), 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) and UV radiation exposure. Topical DMBA treatment of TPras mice resulted in a high incidence of melanomas. Metastatic lesions were observed in skin, lungs and lymph nodes. TPA treatment of TPras mice induced a small number of papillomas but no nevi or melanomas. UV light exposures induced papillomas in negative littermate and melanomas in some albino TPras mice. These results show that melanocytes expressing an activated Ha-ras in the TPras transgenic mice are susceptible to induction of melanoma by DMBA. PMID:10469620

Broome Powell, M; Gause, P R; Hyman, P; Gregus, J; Lluria-Prevatt, M; Nagle, R; Bowden, G T

1999-09-01

 
 
 
 
201

Consumption of the Epidermis in Malignant Melanoma  

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Full Text Available Background and Aim: Consumption of the epidermis (COE is defined as thinning of the epidermis with attenuation of the basal and suprabasal layers and loss of rete ridges in areas of direct contact with malignant melanocytes. The aim of this study was to investigate the importance of COE as an additional diagnostic criterion for malignant melanoma and to evaluate its relationship to clinicopathological findings. Methodes: The age, gender, localization of the lesion and the histopathological parameters such as tumor type, Breslow thickness, ulceration, and Clark's level were recoeded in 90 malignant melanoma cases. Results: In contrast to other studies, we found that COE was more common in tumors with an acral localization and in the acral lentiginous melanoma.Conclusion: Although COE can be used as a pathological criterion in the diagnosis of malignant melanoma, but no correlation no of COE with ulceration and other prognostic factors were found.

Kambiz Kamyab Hesari

2011-12-01

202

Cutaneous Melanoma: Taiwan Experience and Literature Review  

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Full Text Available Malignant melanoma is a rare disease in Taiwan with anincidence rate of 0.65/100,000. Excessive exposure to ultravioletradiation is not associated with most Taiwanese melanomacases. Acral lentiginous melanoma comprises 58% of cutaneousmelanoma. Advanced disease is seen in 50% of cases.Surgery, including resection of the primary melanoma, sentinellymph nodes that may harbor microscopic metastasis, clinicallyabnormal lymph nodes, and selected distant metastases, isthe most important treatment. Lymphatic mapping and sentinellymph node biopsy has changed the clinical stage in 22.2% ofour patients. Adjuvant high-dose interferon significantly prolongsprogression-free survival. However, its use in Taiwan islimited by its substantial toxicity. The prognosis of metastaticdisease remains poor with a median survival of 12 months. Inthe past, chemotherapy alone was the most common treatmentmodality for metastatic disease. Recently biochemotherapy hasbeen more commonly utilized to treat patients with metastatic melanoma.

John Wen-Cheng Chang

2010-12-01

203

Direct bony invasion of malignant melanoma  

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Full Text Available Malignant melanoma is known to spread by local extention, by the lymphatics by the blood stream. Direct invasion of the bone from a cutaneous melanoma is unknown. Hence, this case is presented in view of its rarity. A 75-year-old Caucasian lady presented with a small papillary lesion in the region of a recurrent chronic cellulitis on the lower third of the lateral aspect of the right leg. Histopathology diagnosed the lesion as locally advanced malignant melanoma. Radiological investigations by X-ray and magnetic resonance imaging revealed malignant infiltration of the tibia in its mid and lower third with two soft tissue metastatic masses adjacent. Histology following amputation confirmed malignant melanoma with cranial resection margin involvement. She underwent a further above-knee amputation followed by chemotherapy. The patient recovered from the amputation but subsequently died 6 months later due to bronchopneumonia from lung metastasis.

Mula Viswanath

2009-01-01

204

Unsuspected Extraocular Extension of Malignant Melanoma.  

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Pathology laboratories periodically receive eyes with obvious but clinically unsuspected extraocular extension of malignant melanoma. Several cases are presented that illustrate the importance of routinely inspecting enucleated eyes in the operating room....

A. P. Ferry

1964-01-01

205

Melanoma in the Larynx of a Dog.  

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A case of melanoma occupying the right lateral ventricle of the larynx in a five-year-old Alsatian bitch is reported. It recurred to the extent of causing severe dyspnoea and cyanosis two weeks after the initial excision.

E. E. McConnell J. D. Smit H. T. Venter

1971-01-01

206

Antisense-mediated melanoma inhibitor of apoptosis protein downregulation sensitizes G361 melanoma cells to cisplatin.  

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Malignant melanoma is an aggressive form of skin cancer that is highly resistant to conventional therapies. The melanoma inhibitor of apoptosis protein is a potent inhibitor of apoptosis and is overexpressed in melanoma cells, but undetectable in most normal tissues including melanocytes. We designed 20-mer phosphorothioate antisense oligonucleotides complementary to five putatively single-stranded sites on the melanoma inhibitor of apoptosis protein mRNA and investigated their ability to sensitize G361 melanoma cells to cisplatin. Inhibition of melanoma inhibitor of apoptosis protein mRNA and protein expression were measured by real-time polymerase chain reaction and immunoblotting. Cell viability and apoptosis were quantitated by colorimetric viability assays and by annexin V staining, respectively. Oligonucleotide M706 was identified as the most efficient antisense sequence which downregulated melanoma inhibitor of apoptosis protein mRNA and protein levels in G361 cells by 68 and 78%, respectively. The specificity of target downregulation was confirmed using scrambled sequence control oligonucleotides that only marginally decreased melanoma inhibitor of apoptosis protein expression. Whereas downregulation of melanoma inhibitor of apoptosis protein moderately inhibited cell growth by 26%, in combination with cisplatin, this resulted in a supra-additive effect with almost 57% reduction in G361 cell viability compared with cisplatin alone (17%) (P<0.05). Cell death was mainly due to apoptosis as demonstrated by a 3- to 4-fold increase in annexin V-positive cells and typical morphological changes compared with controls. In summary, we describe a new antisense oligonucleotide that efficiently downregulates melanoma inhibitor of apoptosis protein expression and sensitizes melanoma cells to cisplatin. PMID:17001176

Mousavi-Shafaei, Parisa; Ziaee, Abed-Ali; Azizi, Ebrahim; Zangemeister-Wittke, Uwe

2006-10-01

207

Malignant melanoma of the bladder: A case report.  

Science.gov (United States)

Primary malignant melanoma of the bladder is very rare. Rather than being a primary lesion, malignant melanomas of the bladder are more commonly metastatic lesions. The histopathological appearance largely does not differ from that of melanoma at other body sites. It is often difficult to discriminate whether a bladder melanoma is primary or metastatic. Therefore, a careful review of histological features and performing necessary immunohistochemical staining procedures for S-100 protein and HMB-45 are very important in achieving a correct diagnosis. We report a case of hypomelanotic malignant melanoma of the bladder. Despite the variety of therapies available for primary melanomas of the bladder, the prognosis is still poor. PMID:24454603

Sayar, Hamide; Erdogan, Seyda; Adamhasan, Fulya; Gurbuz, Esma; Inci, Mehmet Fatih

2014-01-01

208

Spitzoid Melanoma: A Ten Year-Old Boy  

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Full Text Available Spitzoid melanoma is a rare variant of melanoma, in which the clinical and histopathologic diagnoses are difficult. Data on the features of Spitzoid melanoma in children is limited in the literature, since melanoma is rarely seen in childhood. Here, we report a 10 year-old child with a Spitzoid melanoma. By the means of this case, it has been emphasized that melanoma should be considered in the differential diagnosis of vascular lesions even seen in childhood, unless the clinical and dermoscopic features are characteristic for an entity. (Journal of Current Pediatrics 2008; 6: 127-9

I??l K?l?nç Karaarslan

2008-01-01

209

Malignant melanoma showing smooth muscle differentiation.  

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A unique case of a metastatic non-desmoplastic sarcomatoid malignant melanoma in an axillary lymph node showing smooth muscle differentiation in a 54 year old woman is described. The tumour cells exhibited alpha-smooth muscle actin, HHF-35 and desmin positivity but were negative for S100 protein and HMB-45. Ultrastructural examination revealed smooth muscle phenotype and there was no evidence of myofibroblastic differentiation, a feature described previously in desmoplastic melanomas.

Banerjee, S. S.; Bishop, P. W.; Nicholson, C. M.; Eyden, B. P.

1996-01-01

210

SOX2 contributes to melanoma cell invasion.  

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The mechanisms of melanoma invasion are poorly understood despite extensive inquiry. SRY (sex determining region Y)-box 2 (SOX2) is an embryonic stem cell transcription factor that has recently been discovered to be expressed in human melanoma where it is associated with dermal invasion and primary tumor thickness. To assess the potential role of SOX2 expression in melanoma invasion, we examined patient melanomas and humanized melanoma xenografts, and noted preferential SOX2 expression in cells that interfaced and infiltrated dermal stroma. Experimental knockdown (KD) of SOX2 mRNA and protein in A2058 melanoma cells with high constitutive SOX2 expression resulted in 4.5-fold decreased invasiveness in vitro compared with controls (PG361 cells that normally express low SOX2 were transduced to overexpress SOX2 mRNA and protein, a 3.8-fold increase in invasiveness was observed (P=0.0004). Among 84 invasion-related genes, RT-PCR screening revealed that SOX2 KD resulted in striking decrease in matrix metalloproteinase-3 (MMP-3), an endopeptidase associated with cleavage of the extracellular matrix. Quantitatively, SOX2 KD diminished MMP-3 mRNA by 87.8%. MMP-3 KD in SOX2-expressing A2058 cells served to inhibit invasion, although to a lesser degree than SOX2 KD. Finally, immunostaining of patient and xenograft melanomas revealed coordinate SOX2 and MMP-3 expression in regions of stromal infiltration. These data implicate SOX2 expression in melanoma invasion, and suggest a role for MMP-3 as one potential mediator of this process. PMID:22184093

Girouard, Sasha D; Laga, Alvaro C; Mihm, Martin C; Scolyer, Richard A; Thompson, John F; Zhan, Qian; Widlund, Hans R; Lee, Chung-Wei; Murphy, George F

2012-03-01

211

Primary pulmonary melanoma: the unexpected tumour  

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A 62-year-old woman was referred to our pulmonology team with exertional dyspnoea and chest tightness of 2 months duration. Her medical history included cervical cancer and thyroid nodules. Imaging studies showed collapse of left upper lobe. Fiberoptic bronchoscopy unveiled an endoluminal lesion and bronchial biopsy displayed features of melanoma. She denied a history of melanoma or excision of lesions of skin, mucous membranes or the eye. A thorough evaluation including combined positron emi...

Lares Dos Santos, C.; Rodrigues-fernandes, L.; Meruje, M.; Barata, F.

2013-01-01

212

Malignant Melanoma in a Rectal Polyp  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Malignant melanoma is very rare in the rectum. Prompt diagnosis and treatment is necessary as chances of metastasis is very high. A 56 year old male patient came to surgical OPD for complaint of something coming out per rectum. Polyp was identified on per rectal examination the biopsy revealed malignant melanoma. Abdominoperineal resection was done. We reported this case as it is uncommon and also there is controversy in surgical treatment of choice.

Amar Shah, Sanjay Chaudhari, Apurva Shah

2012-01-01

213

Optimizing local control in anorectal melanoma  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Background: Wide local excision (WLE) of anorectal melanoma is associated with a high incidence of local recurrence. There is a paucity of literature on adjuvant radiation in this malignancy. Aim: To identify the optimal method of local treatment in anorectal melanoma. Settings and Design: Retrospective study in a tertiary cancer centre. Materials and Methods: Records of 63 patients who presented between 1980 and 2004 were reviewed. Results: Of the 63 patien...

Ramakrishnan A; Mahajan V; Kannan R

2008-01-01

214

Mucosal malignant melanoma of the nasal cavity  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Mucosal malignant melanoma (MMM) of the nose is extremely rare. We report a case of MMM of the nasal cavity in a 60-year-old male patient presenting with a polypoidal mass in the right nasal cavity. It was increasing gradually and obstructing breathing. A biopsy of the lesion was done with a clinical suspicion of inverted papilloma/carcinoma. Microscopy revealed features suggestive of malignant melanoma with minimal melanin pigmentation. Subsequently wide local excision was done. Diagnosis of...

Bothale K; Maimoon S; Patrikar A; Mahore S

2009-01-01

215

Malignant melanoma of the oral cavity  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Oral malignant melanoma is a rare disease. The common sites of its occurrence are the palate and gingiva with the maxillary arch being affected 80% of the time. Because of their presence at relatively obscure areas in the oral cavity, most of the malignant melanomas of the oral cavity are diagnosed at a late stage. These lesions are associated with poor prognosis. The dental clinician must therefore carefully examine the head, neck, and oral cavity, and any pigmented lesion that may ex...

Ebenezer Jagadish

2006-01-01

216

Molecular Markers of Tumor Progression in Melanoma  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Malignant melanoma represents one of the most aggressive malignancies but outcome is highly variable with early tumor lesions having an excellent prognosis following resection. We review here the data on identification of genes involved in the progression of melanoma as a result of expression array studies, genomic profiling, and genetic models. We focus on the role of tumor suppressors involved in cell cycle function, DNA repair, and genome maintenance. Highlighted are the roles of loss of p...

Rother, Joshua; Jones, Dan

2009-01-01

217

Treatment and outcomes of anorectal melanoma.  

LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

INTRODUCTION: anorectal melanoma is an uncommon disease constituting less than 3% of all melanomas. Due to its rarity, there are a lack of randomized control trials regarding appropriate management and current evidence is based mainly on retrospective studies. METHODS: in view of the controversial surgical treatment of anorectal melanoma, we review the most published literature in an attempt to elucidate its typical clinical features along with current thinking with respect to management approaches to this aggressive disease. Using the keywords "anorectal" and "malignant melanoma", a medline search of all articles in English was performed and the relevant articles procured. Additional references were retrieved by cross reference from key articles. RESULTS: anorectal melanoma affects the elderly with a slight preponderance for females. It commonly presents disguised as benign disease with local bleeding or suspicion for haemorrhoidal disease. There is no convincing evidence to indicate that radical resection of primary anorectal melanoma is associated with improvement in local control or survival, and local excision is an acceptable treatment option. CONCLUSION: optimum management depends on several factors and the therapeutic goals should be to lengthen survival and preserve quality-of-life. Given that wide local excision is a more limited intervention with comparable survival it should be considered as the initial treatment choice. Unfortunately prognosis for patients with this disease remains poor despite choice of treatment strategy with overall five year disease-free survival less than twenty percent in most studies.

Heeney, Anna

2012-02-01

218

Melanoma and rituximab: an incidental association?  

Science.gov (United States)

Rituximab is an anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody increasingly used in haematology and rheumatology, but also in internal medicine and dermatology. It has a good tolerance profile without known increased risk of cancer. We report a case of nodular melanoma with a 4.8 mm Breslow thickness that appeared after 2 years of rituximab in a 45-year-old patient with non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Fifteen additional rituximab-associated melanoma cases in 13 patients have been identified in the literature and in the EudraVigilance database. These patients were treated for various indications and had melanomas, often aggressive, initially diagnosed at a metastatic stage in 31% of cases. Our work raises the question of rituximab accountability in melanoma onset in these immunosuppressed patients. A dermatological monitoring seems necessary in patients treated with rituximab, especially in case of risk factors for melanoma. In case of individual melanoma history, the benefit/risk ratio of initiating rituximab therapy should be carefully assessed. PMID:23941917

Peuvrel, L; Chiffoleau, A; Quéreux, G; Brocard, A; Saint-Jean, M; Batz, A; Jolliet, P; Dréno, B

2013-01-01

219

Malignant melanoma of the external auditory canal.  

Science.gov (United States)

Malignant melanoma of the ear, other than the pinna, rarely occurs. This is the first report of a melanoma confined to the external auditory canal. The case presented is of a 75-year-old man with a malignant melanoma confined to the external auditory canal. Excision of the tumor and surrounding lymphatics was accomplished with a lateral temporal bone resection, superficial parotidectomy, and selective neck dissection. The patient initially refused postoperative radiation therapy. Histologic evaluation documented a 17-mm thick malignant melanoma. All margins were clear and none of the nodes was positive. Eight months later, he returned with local, regional, and distant recurrence. Despite attempts at salvage with external radiation, brachytherapy, and chemotherapy, he died 13 months postoperatively with widespread disease. Melanoma confined to the external auditory canal has not been previously reported. A 17-mm thick melanoma carries a dismal prognosis. Despite initial negative surgical margins and lack of regional metastases, this patient developed a rapid, widespread pattern of recurrence. PMID:9499252

Milbrath, M M; Campbell, B H; Madiedo, G; Janjan, N A

1998-02-01

220

Anorectal malignant melanoma: Report of three cases  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Anorectal malignant melanoma, originating from the anorectal canal, is a very aggressive and rare tumor. They account for 0.8-1% of malignant tumors of this region and 0.7% of all malignant melanomas. It is claimed that malignant melanomas of this region originate from the melanocytes or melanocytic proliferation among the stratified squamous epithelium, transitional epithelium of anus or the columnar epithelium of rectum.In this study, one female and two male patients, aged 62, 62 and 55, admitted to our hospital between years 2001 and 2003 with rectal bleeding and diagnosed as malignant melanoma are discussed. The diagnosis of the rectal biopsy of one patient was undifferentiated carcinoma, and malignant melanoma in the other two, initially. Miles operation was performed. All the tumors were adjacent to the dentate line and they were polypoid masses with partial ulcerations. The greatest diameters of these masses were 5,5, 6 and 10 cm, respectively. Tumor cells showed positive immunoreactivity with HMB45, S100 protein and Melan-A, but immunoreactivity with pancytokeratin was not detected.Anorectal malignant melanoma is a rare tumor whose morphological features can mimic undifferentiated carcinomas and mesenchymal tumors and especially immunohistochemical examinations of endoscopic biopsy specimens can be helpful in differential diagnosis.

Damlanur SAKIZ

2006-01-01

 
 
 
 
221

Melanoma resistance to photodynamic therapy : new insights  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Melanoma is the most dangerous form of skin cancer, with a steeply rising incidence and a poor prognosis in its advanced stages. Melanoma is highly resistant to traditional chemotherapy and radiotherapy, although modern targeted therapies such as BRAF inhibitors are showing some promise. Photodynamic therapy (PDT, the combination of photosensitizing dyes and visible light) has been tested in the treatment of melanoma with some promising results, but melanoma is generally considered to be resistant to it. Optical interference by the highlypigmented melanin, the antioxidant effect of melanin, the sequestration of photosensitizers inside melanosomes, defects in apoptotic pathways, and the efflux of photosensitizers by ATP-binding cassette transporters have all been implicated in melanoma resistance to PDT. Approaches to overcoming melanoma resistance to PDT include: the discovery of highly active photosensitizers absorbing in the 700-800-nm near infrared spectral region; interventions that can temporarily reducethe amount or pigmentation of the melanin; compounds that can reverse apoptotic defects or inhibit drug-efflux of photosensitizers; and immunotherapy approaches that can take advantage of the ability of PDT to activate the host immune system against the tumor being treated.

Huang, Ying-Ying; Vecchio, Daniela

2013-01-01

222

Genética molecular aplicada ao câncer cutâneo não melanoma Molecular genetics of non-melanoma skin cancer  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Os cânceres cutâneos não melanoma são as neoplasias malignas mais comuns em humanos. O carcinoma basocelular e o carcinoma espinocelular representam cerca de 95% dos cânceres cutâneos não melanoma, o que os torna um crescente problema para a saúde p??blica mundial devido a suas prevalências cada vez maiores. As alterações genéticas que ocorrem no desenvolvimento dessas malignidades cutâneas são apenas parcialmente compreendidas, havendo muito interesse no conhecimento e determinação das bases genéticas dos cânceres cutâneos não melanoma que expliquem seus fenótipos, comportamentos biológicos e potenciais metastáticos distintos. Apresenta-se uma revisão atualizada da genética molecular aplicada aos cânceres cutâneos não melanoma, em especial ao carcinoma basocelular e carcinoma espinocelular, enfatizando os mais freqüentes genes e os principais mecanismos de instabilidade genômica envolvidos no desenvolvimento dessas malignidades cutâneas.Non-melanoma skin cancers are the most common malignant neoplasms in humans. About 95% of all non-melanoma skin cancers are represented by basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma. Their prevalences are still increasing worldwide, representing an important public health problem. The genetic alterations underlying basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma development are only partly understood. Much interest lies in determining the genetic basis of non-melanoma skin cancers, to explain their distinctive phenotypes, biological behaviors and metastatic potential. We present here a molecular genetic update, focusing on the most frequent genes and genomic instability involved in the development and progression of non-melanoma skin cancers.

Marcos Antonio Rodrigues Martinez

2006-10-01

223

Sporadic naturally occurring melanoma in dogs as a preclinical model for human melanoma.  

Science.gov (United States)

Melanoma represents a significant malignancy in humans and dogs. Different from genetically engineered models, sporadic canine melanocytic neoplasms share several characteristics with human disease that could make dogs a more relevant preclinical model. Canine melanomas rarely arise in sun-exposed sites. Most occur in the oral cavity, with a subset having intra-epithelial malignant melanocytes mimicking the in situ component of human mucosal melanoma. The spectrum of canine melanocytic neoplasia includes benign lesions with some analogy to nevi, as well as invasive primary melanoma, and widespread metastasis. Growing evidence of distinct subtypes in humans, differing in somatic and predisposing germ-line genetic alterations, cell of origin, epidemiology, relationship to ultraviolet radiation and progression from benign to malignant tumors, may also exist in dogs. Canine and human mucosal melanomas appear to harbor BRAF, NRAS, and c-kit mutations uncommonly, compared with human cutaneous melanomas, although both species share AKT and MAPK signaling activation. We conclude that there is significant overlap in the clinical and histopathological features of canine and human mucosal melanomas. This represents opportunity to explore canine oral cavity melanoma as a preclinical model. PMID:24128326

Simpson, R Mark; Bastian, Boris C; Michael, Helen T; Webster, Joshua D; Prasad, Manju L; Conway, Catherine M; Prieto, Victor M; Gary, Joy M; Goldschmidt, Michael H; Esplin, D Glen; Smedley, Rebecca C; Piris, Adriano; Meuten, Donald J; Kiupel, Matti; Lee, Chyi-Chia R; Ward, Jerrold M; Dwyer, Jennifer E; Davis, Barbara J; Anver, Miriam R; Molinolo, Alfredo A; Hoover, Shelley B; Rodriguez-Canales, Jaime; Hewitt, Stephen M

2014-01-01

224

Periostin accelerates human malignant melanoma progression by modifying the melanoma microenvironment.  

Science.gov (United States)

Given no reliable therapy for advanced malignant melanoma, it is important to elucidate the molecular mechanisms underlying the disease progression. Using a quantitative proteomics approach, the 'isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ)' method, we identified that the extracellular matrix protein, periostin (POSTN), was highly expressed in invasive melanoma compared with normal skin. An immunohistochemical analysis showed that POSTN was expressed in all invasive melanoma (n = 20) and metastatic lymph node (n = 5) tissue samples, notably restricted in their stroma. In terms of the intercellular regulation of POSTN, we found that there was upregulation of POSTN when melanoma cells and normal human dermal fibroblasts (NHDFs) were cocultured, with restricted expression of TGF-?1 and TGF-?3. In a functional analyses, recombinant and NHDF-derived POSTN significantly accelerated melanoma cell proliferation via the integrin/mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway in vitro. The size of implanted melanoma tumors was significantly suppressed in POSTN/Rag2 double knockout mice compared with Rag2 knock-out mice. These results indicate that NHDF-derived POSTN accelerates melanoma progression and might be a promising therapeutic target for malignant melanoma. PMID:24674392

Kotobuki, Yorihisa; Yang, Lingli; Serada, Satoshi; Tanemura, Atsushi; Yang, Fei; Nomura, Shintaro; Kudo, Akira; Izuhara, Kenji; Murota, Hiroyuki; Fujimoto, Minoru; Katayama, Ichiro; Naka, Tetsuji

2014-07-01

225

Desmoplastic melanoma with sarcomatoid dedifferentiation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Desmoplastic melanoma (DM) is a variant of melanoma, which typically affects chronically sun-damaged skin of elderly patients. Pure DM displays a low density of fusiform melanocytes in a collagen-rich matrix. In mixed DM, tumor cell density is higher, and parts of the tumor lack abundant stromal fibrosis. Both pure and mixed DMs usually express S100 protein homogenously. We report herein an unusual biphenotypic tumor characterized by the association of a pure DM with an undifferentiated solid spindle cell nodule. It occurred on the scalp of a 66-year-old man. A biopsy of the undifferentiated spindle cell nodule was initially interpreted at a commercial laboratory as atypical fibroxanthoma. The pure DM was seen only in the excisional specimen. All cells of the pure DM stained for S100 protein and SOX10. The adjacent solid sarcomatoid spindle cell nodule lacked expression of S100 protein, SOX10, as well as melan-A, gp100, and microphthalmia-associated transcription factor in >95% of its tumor cells. Although focal expression of melanocyte differentiation antigens in the solid tumor component made us favor a combined DM with sarcomatoid dedifferentiation, we also considered the possibility of a collision scenario, that is, a pleomorphic dermal sarcoma incidentally colliding with a DM. To further assess a possible relationship of the sarcomatoid nodule with the DM, we performed next-generation sequencing analysis on each component separately. The analysis revealed shared chromosomal copy number changes and a high number of common mutations, thereby supporting the concept of a DM with a dedifferentiated sarcomatoid component. An interesting finding is the presence of mutations of the neurofibromin 1 (NF1) gene in both tumor components. PMID:24618614

Kiuru, Maija; McDermott, Gregory; Berger, Michael; Halpern, Allan C; Busam, Klaus J

2014-06-01

226

Melanoma  

Science.gov (United States)

... think that factors like the thinning of the ozone layer or clothing styles that expose more skin ... may also use immunotherapy (also known as biologic therapy), a treatment that stimulates the body's own immune ...

227

Melanoma  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... if diagnosed and treated when the tumor is thin and has not This document is for informational ... skin biopsies: • Shave biopsy: The doctor uses a thin, sharp blade to shave off the abnormal growth. • ...

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Melanoma  

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Full Text Available ... X-Plain.com oc180205 Last reviewed: 07/07/2011 1 What is Cancer? The body is made ... X-Plain.com oc180205 Last reviewed: 07/07/2011 2 Changes in chromosomes may also occur as ...

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Melanoma  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... or non-cancerous growth. Benign tumors are almost never life-threatening. If a tumor invades and destroys ... its growth. Sudden changes in genetic material can happen for a variety of reasons. These changes are ...

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Melanoma  

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Full Text Available ... the body that drains waste from cells. It travels through special vessels and bean-shaped structures called ... material, it may become out of date over time. It is important that you rely on the ...

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Melanoma  

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Full Text Available ... to minimize the chance that any cancer gets left behind. If a large area of tissue is removed, ... had one or more severe sunburns as a child or teenager 6. Having fair skin that burns ...

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Melanoma  

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Full Text Available ... to become red, tender, and itchy. The side effects of cancer treatment mainly depend on the type and extent of treatment. Side effects may not be the same for everyone, and ...

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Melanoma  

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Full Text Available ... follicles, and glands. Some of these glands produce sweat, which helps regulate body temperature. Other dermis glands ... that helps keep the skin from drying out. Sweat and sebum reach the skin's surface through tiny ...

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Melanoma  

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Full Text Available ... body's largest organ. It protects us against heat, sunlight, injury, and infection. It helps regulate body temperature, ... other factors. In the case of skin cancer, sunlight causes damage to the chromosomes, leading to cancer. ...

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Melanoma  

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Full Text Available ... helps regulate body temperature. Other dermis glands produce sebum, an oily substance that helps keep the skin from drying out. Sweat and sebum reach the skin's surface through tiny openings called ...

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Melanoma  

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Full Text Available ... that drains waste from cells. It travels through special vessels and bean-shaped structures called lymph nodes. ... for your specific condition. ©1995-2011, The Patient Education Institute, Inc. www.X-Plain.com oc180205 Last ...

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Melanoma  

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Full Text Available ... tissue and body parts, it is called a benign tumor, or non-cancerous growth. Benign tumors are almost never life-threatening. If a tumor ... other parts of the body such as the liver, lungs, or brain. In such cases, the cancer ...

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Melanoma  

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Full Text Available ... abnormal growth called a tumor. If a tumor does not invade nearby tissue and body parts, it ... people and others with dark skin. When it does develop in dark-skinned people, it te hands, ...

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Melanoma  

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Full Text Available ... for your specific condition. ©1995-2011, The Patient Education Institute, Inc. www.X-Plain.com oc180205 Last ... for your specific condition. ©1995-2011, The Patient Education Institute, Inc. www.X-Plain.com oc180205 Last ...

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Melanoma  

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Full Text Available ... or cancer. Cancer can sometimes be life-threatening. Lymph System Cancerous cells sometimes spread to different parts of the body through blood vessels and lymph channels. Lymph is a clear fluid produced by ...

 
 
 
 
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Melanoma  

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Full Text Available ... doctor or healthcare professional or a recommendation for any particular treatment plan. Like any printed material, it may become out of date ... doctor or healthcare professional or a recommendation for any particular treatment plan. Like any printed material, it ...

242

Melanoma  

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Full Text Available ... body is made up of very small cells. Normal cells in the body grow and die in ... way. Sometimes cells keep dividing and growing without normal controls, causing an abnormal growth called a tumor. ...

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Melanoma  

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Full Text Available ... They do not spread through the lymph nodes to internal parts of the body. How can you distinguish between a benign mole and a cancerous mole? The following sections discuss 4 A-B-C-D tips: asymmetry, border, color, and diameter. Symmetric ...

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Melanoma  

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Full Text Available ... produce melanin, the pigment that gives skin its natural color. When skin is exposed to the sun, ... receive drug treatments that may improve the body’s natural defense (immune system response) against cancer. These drugs ...

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Melanoma  

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Full Text Available ... darken. The dermis contains blood vessels, lymphatic vessels, hair follicles, and glands. Some of these glands produce ... tan may be present. Areas of white, gray, red, pink, or blue may also be seen. Diameter ...

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Melanoma  

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Full Text Available ... parts of the body such as the liver, lungs, or brain. In such cases, the cancer cells in the n This document is for ... nearby lymph node or nearby tissue. • Stage IV: Cancer cells have spread to the lungs or other nearby organs, skin areas, or lymph ...

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Melanoma  

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Full Text Available ... and destroys nearby cells, it is called a malignant tumor, or cancer. Cancer can sometimes be life- ... occurs when the pigment cells, the melanocytes, become malignant. Currently, we do not fully understand the causes ...

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Melanoma  

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Full Text Available ... parts of the body such as the liver, lungs, or brain. In such cases, the cancer cells ... Stage IV: Cancer cells have spread to the lungs or other nearby organs, skin areas, or lymph ...

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Melanoma  

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Full Text Available ... red, tender, and itchy. The side effects of cancer treatment mainly depend on the type and extent of treatment. Side effects may not be the same for everyone, and they may change from one treatment to the next. Prevention & Risk Factors X Doctors believe that the increase in cases ...

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Melanoma  

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Full Text Available ... or a healthcare professional for your specific condition. ©1995-2011, The Patient Education Institute, Inc. www.X- ... or a healthcare professional for your specific condition. ©1995-2011, The Patient Education Institute, Inc. www.X- ...

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Melanoma  

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Full Text Available ... through special vessels and bean-shaped structures called lymph nodes. Cancer treatments are used to kill or control ... covering of the brains, meninges, the digestive tract, lymph nodes, or other areas where melanocytes are found. This ...

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Melanoma  

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Full Text Available ... non-cancerous growth. Benign tumors are almost never life-threatening. If a tumor invades and destroys nearby ... malignant tumor, or cancer. Cancer can sometimes be life-threatening. Lymph System Cancerous cells sometimes spread to ...

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Melanoma  

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Full Text Available ... the body's largest organ. It protects us against heat, sunlight, injury, and infection. It helps regulate body temperature, stores water and fat, and produces vitamin D. Epidermis Dermis The skin has 2 main ...

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Melanoma  

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Full Text Available ... sometimes necessary. The doctor also does a careful physical exam and, depending on the ... the doctor may also use chemotherapy, biological therapy, or radiation therapy. The doctor may decide to ...

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Melanoma  

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Full Text Available ... and a cancerous mole? The following sections discuss 4 A-B-C-D tips: asymmetry, border, color, ... eraser of a pencil (5 mm or 1/4 inch); non-cancerous moles are smaller. Non-cancerous ...

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Melanoma  

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Full Text Available ... sun. Wearing a hat and long sleeves offers protection. Lotion, cream, or gel that contains sunscreen can ... protect the skin. Those with an SPF (sun protection factor) of 30 or higher provide high protection ...

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Melanoma  

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Full Text Available ... the growth of cells. Cancer always arises from changes that occur in the chromosomes. When the chromosomes ... lose the ability to control its growth. Sudden changes in genetic material can happen for a variety ...

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Melanoma  

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Full Text Available ... cancer. Cancer can sometimes be life-threatening. Lymph System Cancerous cells sometimes spread to different parts of ... surgery because cancer can spread through the lymphatic system. If the pathologist finds cancer cells in the ...

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Melanoma  

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Full Text Available ... body's largest organ. It protects us against heat, sunlight, injury, and infection. It helps regulate body temperature, ... natural color. When skin is exposed to the sun, melanocytes produce more pigment, causing the skin to ...

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Melanoma  

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Full Text Available ... these glands produce sweat, which helps regulate body temperature. Other dermis glands produce sebum, an oily substance that helps keep the skin from drying out. Sweat and sebum reach the skin's surface through tiny openings called pores. This document is ...

 
 
 
 
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Melanoma  

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Full Text Available ... Institute, Inc. www.X-Plain.com oc180205 Last reviewed: 07/07/2011 1 What is Cancer? The ... Institute, Inc. www.X-Plain.com oc180205 Last reviewed: 07/07/2011 2 Changes in chromosomes may ...

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Melanoma  

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Full Text Available ... called lymph nodes. Cancer treatments are used to kill or control abnormally growing cancerous cells. Cancers in ... weakness. Radiation Therapy uses high-energy rays to kill cancer cells. Radiation is not a common treatment ...

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Melanoma  

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Full Text Available ... clear fluid produced by the body that drains waste from cells. It travels through special vessels and ... a fever, or weakness. Radiation Therapy uses high-energy rays to kill cancer cells. Radiation is not ...

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Melanoma  

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Full Text Available ... therapy, or a combination of these methods. Biological Therapy (Interferon and Interleukin-2) Some patients with advanced ... headache, muscle aches, a fever, or weakness. Radiation Therapy uses high-energy rays to kill cancer cells. ...

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Melanoma  

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Full Text Available ... for any particular treatment plan. Like any printed material, it may become out of date over time. ... always be identified. Cells contain hereditary or genetic materials called chromosomes. Chromosomes control the growth of cells. ...

266

Nail apparatus melanoma: a diagnostic opportunity / Melanoma do aparelho ungueal: uma oportunidade diagnóstica  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Melanoma Maligno é uma neoplasia de alta mortalidade, sendo raro o acometimento do aparelho ungueal. Apenas 2/3 dos pacientes procuram atendimento médico devido lesão melanocítica ungueal recente, tornando o diagnóstico tardio e com prognóstico pior que do melanoma cut& [...] #226;neo. Descreve-se um caso de paciente sexo feminino, apresentando lesões ulceradas com características clínico-laboratoriais compatíveis com leishmaniose tegumentar americana. No retorno após início do tratamento foi observada melanoníquia longitudinal no primeiro quirodáctilo direito. Realizada biópsia da matriz ungueal com histopatológico compatível com melanoma in situ. Melanoníquia longitudinal não é sinal específico de melanoma. A identificação das lesões suspeitas é importante tarefa dos dermatologistas. O diagnóstico incidental de melanoma ungueal in situ do caso relatado resultou em grande impacto na sobrevida da paciente. Abstract in english Malignant Melanoma is a high mortality neoplasm. The involvement of the nail apparatus is rare, with only 2 out of 3 patients seeking medical attention as the result of recent nail melanocytic lesions. This results in late diagnosis and a prognosis worse than cutaneous melanoma. We report a female, [...] presenting with ulcerative lesions with clinical and laboratory features compatible with leishmaniasis. On return after treatment initiation a longitudinal melanonychia was observed on her first right finger. Biopsy of the nail matrix was performed. Histopathology was compatible with melanoma in situ. Longitudinal melanonychia is not a specific sign for melanoma and it is important that the dermatologist should identify the suspect lesions correctly. The incidental diagnosis of nail melanoma in situ in our case significantly impacted the patient's survival.

Carreño, Ana Maria; Nakajima, Sílvia Rocha; Pennini, Silmara N.; Candido Junior, Renato; Schettini, Antonio Pedro Mendes.

2013-04-01

267

Nail apparatus melanoma: a diagnostic opportunity Melanoma do aparelho ungueal: uma oportunidade diagnóstica  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Malignant Melanoma is a high mortality neoplasm. The involvement of the nail apparatus is rare, with only 2 out of 3 patients seeking medical attention as the result of recent nail melanocytic lesions. This results in late diagnosis and a prognosis worse than cutaneous melanoma. We report a female, presenting with ulcerative lesions with clinical and laboratory features compatible with leishmaniasis. On return after treatment initiation a longitudinal melanonychia was observed on her first right finger. Biopsy of the nail matrix was performed. Histopathology was compatible with melanoma in situ. Longitudinal melanonychia is not a specific sign for melanoma and it is important that the dermatologist should identify the suspect lesions correctly. The incidental diagnosis of nail melanoma in situ in our case significantly impacted the patient's survival.Melanoma Maligno é uma neoplasia de alta mortalidade, sendo raro o acometimento do aparelho ungueal. Apenas 2/3 dos pacientes procuram atendimento médico devido lesão melanocítica ungueal recente, tornando o diagnóstico tardio e com prognóstico pior que do melanoma cutâneo. Descreve-se um caso de paciente sexo feminino, apresentando lesões ulceradas com características clínico-laboratoriais compatíveis com leishmaniose tegumentar americana. No retorno após início do tratamento foi observada melanoníquia longitudinal no primeiro quirodáctilo direito. Realizada biópsia da matriz ungueal com histopatológico compatível com melanoma in situ. Melanoníquia longitudinal não é sinal específico de melanoma. A identificação das lesões suspeitas é importante tarefa dos dermatologistas. O diagnóstico incidental de melanoma ungueal in situ do caso relatado resultou em grande impacto na sobrevida da paciente.

Ana Maria Carreño

2013-04-01

268

Melanoma Death Risk Higher for Men Living Alone?  

Science.gov (United States)

... sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Melanoma Death Risk Higher for Men Living Alone? Dangerous ... Preidt Friday, April 4, 2014 Related MedlinePlus Pages Melanoma Men's Health FRIDAY, April 4, 2014 (HealthDay News) -- ...

269

The Reaction of Delayed Hypersensitivity in Patients with Malignant Melanoma.  

Science.gov (United States)

A study was made to evaluate allergic skin reactions of a delayed type in patients with malignant melanoma, mammary cancer and nonmelanoma skin tumors. Melanoma antigen was injected into these patients with the following results: allergic reactions to mel...

V. V. Gorodilova Z. M. Saraeva R. I. Slesareva G. D. Monzul

1973-01-01

270

Pyrophosphorolysis detects B-RAF mutations in primary uveal melanoma  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

PURPOSE. Mutations in the genes that control cell proliferation in cutaneous melanoma are generally uncommon in uveal melanoma. Despite the absence of known activating mutations, the RAF-MEK-ERK, or mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), pathway is usually activated in uveal melanoma. An assay with increased potential to identify mutations is now available, and this study was therefore conducted to reanalyze uveal melanoma cell lines and primary tumors for this mutation. METHODS. Eleven uve...

Maat, W.; Kilic, E.; Luyten, G. P. M.; Klein, J. E. M. M.; Jager, M. J.; Gruis, N. A.; Velden, P. A.

2008-01-01

271

Primary bilateral malignant melanoma of the lower limbs  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Malignant melanoma is the eighth most common cancer in European women. Its incidence is increasing rapidly and it has been demonstrated that this is related to sun exposure. Although few cases of bilateral uveal or choroidal melanoma are described in literature, there are no cases reporting bilateral cutaneous malignant melanoma. We report a singular case of a 43-year-old woman with two primary bilateral melanomas localized on the flexural surface of both legs.

Antonello Baldo

2011-08-01

272

Late recurrence of malignant melanoma presenting with hemoptysis  

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After a disease-free period of 10 years, a surgically treated case of cutaneous malignant melanoma is usually not followed up further and there is a tendency to assume that the disease is cured. Late recurrence (after 10 years) of cutaneous malignant melanoma, though infrequent, has been documented well in Western countries. In our country, the malignant melanoma is still considered uncommon and there is no data regarding its late recurrence. We report a case of pulmonary malignant melanoma a...

Gowrinath Karanam; Geetha Vasudevan

2010-01-01

273

Biomarkers as Key Contributors in Treating Malignant Melanoma Metastases  

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Melanoma is a human neurocristopathy associated with developmental defects in the neural crest-derived epidermal melanocytes. At the present time, at least three hypotheses were identified that may explain melanoma aetiology, as follows: (1) a model of linear progression from differentiated melanocytes to metastatic cancer cells (2) a model involving the appearance of melanoma stem-like cells, and (3) an epigenetic progenitor model of cancer. Treating metastatic melanoma is one of the most se...

Souza, Camila Ferreira; Morais, Alice Santana; Jasiulionis, Miriam Galvonas

2012-01-01

274

Metastatic Malignant Melanoma Presenting as an Appendiceal Mucocele  

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Melanoma metastatic to the appendix is extremely rare. Here we describe a case of a 31-year-old female from Bolivia with a remote history of metastatic malignant melanoma first diagnosed as a cutaneous malignant melanoma ten years prior to this presentation. The patient was being followed for a mucocele which on resection was found to be metastatic melanoma. “Mucocele” is a generic diagnosis that warrants further characterization and treatment.

2011-01-01

275

GLO1 overexpression in human malignant melanoma.  

Science.gov (United States)

Glyoxalase I [lactoylglutathione lyase (EC 4.4.1.5) encoded by GLO1] is a ubiquitous cellular defense enzyme involved in the detoxification of methylglyoxal, a cytotoxic byproduct of glycolysis. Accumulative evidence suggests an important role of GLO1 expression in protection against methylglyoxal-dependent protein adduction and cellular damage associated with diabetes, cancer, and chronological aging. On the basis of the hypothesis that GLO1 upregulation may play a functional role in glycolytic adaptations of cancer cells, we examined GLO1 expression status in human melanoma tissue. Quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction analysis of a cDNA tissue array containing 40 human melanoma tissues (stages III and IV) and 13 healthy controls revealed pronounced upregulation of GLO1 expression at the mRNA level. Immunohistochemical analysis of a melanoma tissue microarray confirmed upregulation of glyoxalase I protein levels in malignant melanoma tissue versus healthy human skin. Consistent with an essential role of GLO1 in melanoma cell defense against methylglyoxal cytotoxicity, siRNA interference targeting GLO1-expression (siGLO1) sensitized A375 and G361 human metastatic melanoma cells towards the antiproliferative, apoptogenic, and oxidative stress-inducing activity of exogenous methylglyoxal. Protein adduction by methylglyoxal was increased in siGLO1-transfected cells as revealed by immunodetection using a monoclonal antibody directed against the major methylglyoxal-derived epitope argpyrimidine that detected a single band of methylglyoxal-adducted protein in human LOX, G361, and A375 total cell lysates. Using two-dimensional proteomics followed by mass spectrometry the methylglyoxal-adducted protein was identified as heat shock protein 27 (Hsp27; HSPB1). Taken together, our data suggest a function of GLO1 in the regulation of detoxification and target adduction by the glycolytic byproduct methylglyoxal in malignant melanoma. PMID:20093988

Bair, Warner B; Cabello, Christopher M; Uchida, Koji; Bause, Alexandra S; Wondrak, Georg T

2010-04-01

276

Diffuse melanosis and ascites due to metastatic malignant melanoma.  

Science.gov (United States)

We present a female patient who developed mucosal and skin hyperpigmentation due to metastatic malignant melanoma. Diffuse cutaneous melanosis is a rare entity that complicates a small percentage of metastatic melanomas, confering a fatal prognosis. We discuss briefly the current evidence on pathogenesis of melanosis arising from metastatic melanoma. PMID:18516477

Sendagorta, Elena; Pizarro, Angel; Feito, Marta; Mayor, Matias; Ramírez, Paloma; Floristan, Uxua; Feltes, Rosa

2008-01-01

277

Analysis of skin basalioma and melanoma by multispectral imaging  

Science.gov (United States)

A clinical trial involving multi-spectral imaging of histologically confirmed 8 basaliomas and 30 melanomas was performed. Parametric maps of the melanin index, erythema index and melanoma-nevus differentiation parameter have been constructed and mutually compared. Specific features of basalioma and melanoma images were analyzed and discussed.

Diebele, I.; Bekina, A.; Derjabo, A.; Kapostinsh, J.; Kuzmina, I.; Spigulis, J.

2012-05-01

278

Immunotherapy of metastatic melanoma by reversal of immune suppression  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Beginning with the observation that the human enteorvirus, Poliovirus Sabin 1, will lyse human melanoma cells in culture, clinical trials involving two patients with advance melanoma were performed. Parenteral injection of the viable Poliovirus into cutaneous melanoma metastases followed in 24 hours by oral administration of cyclophosphamide. The results of these two trials are described.

Biggs, M.W.; Eiselein, J.E.

1997-01-01

279

Primary malignant melanoma presenting as superior mediastinal mass  

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Malignant melanoma accounts for 1.5% of all cancers, and arises from a preexisting nevus in 40% of cases. Skin is the most common site for primary malignant melanoma. We present an extremely rare case of primary malignant melanoma presenting as a superior mediastinal mass.

Kalra, Ankur; Kalra, Ankit; Palaniswamy, Chandrasekar; Gajera, Mithil; Rajput, Vijay

2011-01-01

280

Solar radiation and malignant melanoma of the skin  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Several observations suggest that a majority of cases of malignant melanoma of the skin are linked to sun exposure. Evidence includes higher occurrence of melanoma on anatomic areas heavily exposed during recreation, development of melanoma more frequently in lightly pigmented persons, and correlation of melanoma incidence and mortality with proximity to the equator. The role of the sun exposure in the pathogenesis of melanoma remains unclear, however. Many cases of melanoma may be related to heavy doses of solar radiation received during recreation. Chronic sun exposure is not so clearly linked to the development of melanoma (except in the uncommon lentigo maligna variety). Sunspot cycles have been associated with changes in melanoma incidence; an excess of melanoma cases has been observed every 9 to 12 years after peak sunspot activity. These excess cases may be caused by more intense exposure to solar ultraviolet radiation during sunspot maxima, perhaps related to changes in the stratospheric ozone layer. These epidemiologic and clinical clues suggest that many cases of melanoma are related to sun exposure triggering the appearance of clinically evident melanoma. In this regard, solar radiation behaves as a cocarcinogen or promoter, rather than a dose-dependent carcinogen. These observations also suggest that other factors may be involved in the pathogenesis of melanoma, e.g., nevi, heredity, or exposure to chemical carcinogens

1981-01-01

 
 
 
 
281

Animal-Type Melanoma: A Rare Type of Malignant Melanoma with an Indolent Clinical Behaviour  

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Full Text Available Animal-type melanoma is an exceedingly rare histological variant of melanoma in humans. The name was coined to reflect similar histological features to melanomas in grey horses. We present a case of animal-type melanoma. The neoplastic cells were heavily pigmented with an epithelioid morphology, round nuclei and prominent eosinophilic nucleoli. Only occasional mitotic figures were identified. The tumour cells had diffuse and nodular growth patterns with involvement of the dermis and the subcutaneous tissue. The patient had a “benign cellular blue naevus” excised 9 years earlier from the same site. Review of the previous case revealed heavily pigmented epithelioid cells with similar morphology to the current case. Nuclear pleomorphism was minimal and only a single mitotic figure was present. The lesion extended to the margins of excision. The diagnosis of animal-type melanoma was made on the current case and on the previously misdiagnosed case. Recurrence of this case nine years following incomplete excision further supports the hypothesis that animal-type melanoma is a distinct histological type of malignant melanoma with an indolent clinical course.

Muna Sabah

2007-01-01

282

Cure of malignant melanoma by single thermal neutron capture treatment using melanoma-seeking compounds  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Since not only malignant melanomas but also many kinds of human cancers, for example thyroid cancer and squamous cell carcinoma, synthesize their specific protein, much attention has been paid to the establishment of selective thermal neutron capture treatment of malignant melanoma as a prototype of such cancer cells. This paper presents 10B chlorpromazine compounds and 10B1-para-boronophenylalanine (10B1-BPA) as tumor-seeking 10B compounds which themselves possess selective affinity for the specific metabolic activity of the target cancer cells. An overview of the following studies on the effects of 10B1-BPA in the thermal neutron capture treatment of melanoma is provided: 1) in vitro studies on specific enhanced melanoma cell killing effects of 10B1-BPA; 2) in vivo studies on therapeutic effects of 10B1-BPA using melanoma-bearing hamsters; and 3) preclinical therapeutic experiments using spontaneously occurring malignant melanoma in Duroc pig skin, including experiments in which melanoma was successfully cured. (Namekawa, K.)

1985-01-01

283

A Hidden Threat: Subungual Melanoma in Hand  

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Full Text Available Subungual melanoma, a relatively uncommon disease, has a worse prognosis than cutaneous melanoma in other sites. Both this life-threatening disease and its treatment cause cosmetic and functional impairment to the patient. The diagnosis is often delayed and resulting an advanced disease at presentation. The important clinical manifestation, diagnosis and latest treatments for subungual melanoma are reviewed. Electronic databases of Medline, PubMed, and the Cochrane library were searched with the key word “subungual melanoma”. A clinical scoring system is proposed by the authors to stratify patients to undergo biopsy, making earlier diagnosis of this disease possible. The latest trend of treatment involves wide local excision at a more distal level of the affected digit, in contrast to radical amputation of the digit in the past. Studies have shown that this does not decrease the survival nor increase local recurrence, but reduces the functional impairment for the patient. This review aims to summarise the approach to subungual melanoma for clinicians, so that they can recognise and diagnose this disease early and generate the best functional and cosmetic outcome for the patients.

C. P. Lung

2012-02-01

284

Sentinel node biopsy for skin melanoma  

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Full Text Available Background/Aim. Skin melanoma is one of the most malignant diseases with increasing incidence rate. Sentinel node biopsy (SNB is very important for early detection of metastatic spread. The aim of the study was to analyze the first 40 patients with skin melanoma of 1 to 4 mm Breslow thickness when SNB was indicated. Methods. The patient characteristics, localization of the primary melanoma as well as histology grade were analyzed. SNB with intraoperative radiocolloid and methylene blue dye detection was performed. Results. Complication rate after SNB was analyzed and seroma was found in 5% of the patients. The therapeutic node dissection was performed in 10 patients with positive sentinel biopsy. The follow-up lasted two years. In five patients the false negative SNB was defined after the mean time of 11 months and the therapeutic dissection was performed. Conclusion. SNB in melanoma patients is a useful diagnostic procedure. It is advised for melanoma of 1 to 4 mm Breslow thickness.

Kova?evi? Predrag

2009-01-01

285

Prediction of nitric oxide concentrations in melanomas.  

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The presence of iNOS and nitrotyrosine in cutaneous melanomas has been correlated with poor survival rates of patients, suggesting that NO plays a role in the tumor pathophysiology. However, the concentrations of NO that melanoma cells are exposed to in vivo have been unknown. To provide cell kinetic data for use in predicting those concentrations, synthesis and consumption of NO was examined in A375 melanoma cells. Nitric oxide synthesis was undetectable. The rate of intracellular NO consumption was determined by continuous monitoring of NO concentrations following injection of NO solutions in a closed chamber. After correcting for autoxidation and consumption from media-generated O(2)(-), the rate constant obtained for cellular consumption was 7.1±1.1 s(-1). This information was combined with previous data on macrophage NO kinetics to develop a mathematical model to predict NO levels in cutaneous melanomas. Synthesis of NO by macrophages in the stroma was found to give a maximum concentration at the tumor periphery of 0.2 ?M. Because of the high rates of cellular consumption, the elevation in NO concentration is predicted to be very localized, approximately 90% of the concentration decay occurring within 30 ?m of the tumor edge. High NO concentrations at the periphery of a melanoma may contribute to metastasis by stimulating cell proliferation, inhibiting apoptosis, or acting as a lymphangiogenic factor. PMID:20854923

Chin, Melanie P; Deen, William M

2010-12-15

286

Photobiology of ocular melanocytes and melanoma.  

Science.gov (United States)

There are two different types of ocular melanocytes and melanomas. Conjunctival melanocytes are located on the surface of the eye and are exposed to visible light and UV radiation. Recently, epidemiological studies demonstrated that sunlight plays a definite role in the occurrence of conjunctival melanoma, as it does in cutaneous melanoma. Uveal melanocytes consist of the iridal melanocytes, which are exposed to visible light and UV radiation; and the ciliary body melanocytes and choroidal melanocytes, which are not exposed to light radiation. Epidemiological studies demonstrated that sunlight may play a role in the occurrence of iridal melanoma, but may not be a major factor in the etiology of ciliary body and choroidal melanomas. Uveal melanocytes differ from epidermal melanocytes in that epidermal melanocytes respond to UV radiation and skin color becomes darker after exposure to sunlight; but uveal melanocytes do not respond to UV radiation and the iris color remains stable after exposure to sunlight. Recently, in vitro studies indicate that this phenomenon is determined both by cellular factors and environmental factors. PMID:15496134

Hu, Dan-Ning

2005-01-01

287

Vemurafenib for the treatment of melanoma.  

LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

Metastatic melanoma is an aggressive disease resistant to chemotherapy. Recent clinical trials have reported improved survival for two novel agents; ipilimumab, a humanized, IgG1 monoclonal antibody that blocks cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 (CTLA-4) and vemurafenib , a BRAF (v-raf murine sarcoma viral oncogene homolog B1) inhibitor targeting an activating mutation in the serine-threonine-protein kinase BRAF gene. AREAS COVERED: The authors reviewed preclinical and clinical data examining the safety of vemurafenib in melanoma. MEDLINE and EMBASE were searched using the medical subject heading \\'vemurafenib\\' and the following text terms: melanoma, BRAF inhibition, vemurafenib. This review provides the reader with an overview of current data examining the efficacy and safety of vemurafenib in metastatic melanoma. EXPERT OPINION: Vemurafenib is an oral agent licensed for patients with BRAF V600E mutation-positive inoperable and metastatic melanoma. The most common adverse effects observed in Phase III clinical trials were dermatological events, arthralgia and fatigue. Specific dermatological toxicities included development of cutaneous squamous cell cancers and keratoacanthomas. Prolongation of the QT interval was also reported. Regular dermatological assessments and electrocardiograms are recommended. Ongoing trials are examining vemurafenib in both the adjuvant setting and metastatic setting in combination with ipilimumab and MEK inhibitors (mitogen-activated protein kinase\\/extracellular signal-regulated kinase). Understanding and overcoming mechanisms of resistance to BRAF inhibitors is the focus of ongoing research.

Jordan, Emmet John

2012-12-01

288

Selenium for the Prevention of Cutaneous Melanoma  

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Full Text Available The role of selenium (Se supplementation in cancer prevention is controversial; effects often depend on the nutritional status of the subject and on the chemical form in which Se is provided. We used a combination of in vitro and in vivo models to study two unique therapeutic windows for intervention in the process of cutaneous melanomagenisis, and to examine the utility of two different chemical forms of Se for prevention and treatment of melanoma. We studied the effects of Se in vitro on UV-induced oxidative stress in melanocytes, and on apoptosis and cell cycle progression in melanoma cells. In vivo, we used the HGF transgenic mouse model of UV-induced melanoma to demonstrate that topical treatment with l-selenomethionine results in a significant delay in the time required for UV-induced melanoma development, but also increases the rate of growth of those tumors once they appear. In a second mouse model, we found that oral administration of high dose methylseleninic acid significantly decreases the size of human melanoma xenografts. Our findings suggest that modestly elevation of selenium levels in the skin might risk acceleration of growth of incipient tumors. Additionally, certain Se compounds administered at very high doses could have utility for the treatment of fully-malignant tumors or prevention of recurrence.

Douglas Grossman

2013-03-01

289

Melanoma of the Hand: Current Practice and New Frontiers  

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Full Text Available Melanoma of the hand represents a complicated clinical entity. Anatomic features of the hand create challenges in successful management of melanoma not encountered elsewhere in the body. The objectives of this article are to outline current standards for managing melanoma of the hand including diagnosis, surgical, and chemotherapeutic management. Particular emphasis will be placed on currently debated topics of the role of sentinel lymph node biopsy, the role of Mohs micrographic surgery, tissue sparing management of subungual melanoma, and the consideration of melanoma of the hand as a distinct entity based on clinical and molecular studies.

John Brad Turner

2014-03-01

290

Exome sequencing identifies recurrent somatic RAC1 mutations in melanoma  

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We characterized the mutational landscape of melanoma, the form of skin cancer with the highest mortality rate, by sequencing the exomes of 147 melanomas. Sun-exposed melanomas had markedly more ultraviolet (UV)-like C>T somatic mutations compared to sun-shielded acral, mucosal and uveal melanomas. Among the newly identified cancer genes was PPP6C, encoding a serine/threonine phosphatase, which harbored mutations that clustered in the active site in 12% of sun-exposed melanomas, exclusively i...

Krauthammer, Michael; Kong, Yong; Ha, Byung Hak; Evans, Perry; Bacchiocchi, Antonella; Mccusker, James P.; Cheng, Elaine; Davis, Matthew J.; Goh, Gerald; Choi, Murim; Ariyan, Stephan; Narayan, Deepak; Dutton-regester, Ken; Capatana, Ana; Holman, Edna C.

2012-01-01

291

[Dysplastic nevus syndrome with familial melanoma (type D2)].  

Science.gov (United States)

A 37 year-old woman presented with type D2 familial dysplastic nevus syndrome with melanoma. A melanoma was excised of her back and more than one hundred pigmented lesions, four of which presented histologic characteristics of dysplastic nevus were observed. Several relatives of her presented multiple nevi and a sister of her mother and a brother of the patient had been diagnosed of melanoma. It is well established that such kind of nevi are precursor for melanomas, particularly familial forms. The clinical identification of such lesions is very simple and facilitates the diagnosis and early treatment of melanoma. PMID:2716387

Casanova, J M; Panadés, M J; Ramos, J; Salvatella, N

1989-03-18

292

Current Research and Development of Chemotherapeutic Agents for Melanoma  

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Full Text Available Cutaneous malignant melanoma is the most lethal form of skin cancer and an increasingly common disease worldwide. It remains one of the most treatment-refractory malignancies. The current treatment options for patients with metastatic melanoma are limited and in most cases non-curative. This review focuses on conventional chemotherapeutic drugs for melanoma treatment, by a single or combinational agent approach, but also summarizes some potential novel phytoagents discovered from dietary vegetables or traditional herbal medicines as alternative options or future medicine for melanoma prevention. We explore the mode of actions of these natural phytoagents against metastatic melanoma.

Kyaw Minn Hsan

2010-04-01

293

MR imaging of hemorrhagic intracerebral metastatic malignant melanoma: case report  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Malignant melanoma is the third most frequent metastatic lesion to the brain. In MR examination we observe three different images corresponding to three types of the metastasis - non-hemorrhagic melanotic melanoma, non-hemorrhagic amelanotic melanoma, and hemorrhagic melanoma. Three percent to 14 % of all brain metastases are hemorrhagic by MR examinations. In the case of major bleeding the MR image of the metastasis may be covered with that of hematoma. The case report points out problems in a differential diagnosis of a solitary pathologic lesions in the brain of the hypertonic patients six years after the extirpation of the malignant melanoma on the back. (authors)

1995-01-01

294

Malign melanoma of gall bladder: Case report  

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Full Text Available Malign melanom is a disease affecting many organs but rarely seen in gallbladder. Distinction of isolated tumors from primary gallbladder tumors or metastatic disease can not be made in most cases. Mainly the complaints of acute cholecystitis appears. Mostly this clinical condition is not doubted when the primary tumor is not found. In cases with poor prognosis , very few patients benefit from surgery. The role of surgery is limited in malign melanoma of gallbladder because of low experience. Different surgical procedures should be applied to primary gallbladder melanoma and metastatic disease. Patients should be evaluated in a multidisciplinary manner with new therapeutic methods. We report here on an unusual case of gallbladder melanoma that was diagnosed by pathological examination in 46-year-old woman.

Muharrem Battal

2009-01-01

295

Complete regression of melanoma associated with vitiligo.  

Science.gov (United States)

A 53-year-old woman presented with vitiligo. A pigmented lesion was disclosed in the physical examination. Its histopathologic study showed the presence of a band of melanophages in an uneven distribution. Fibroplasia and telangiectasias were also observed, but neither nevus nor melanoma cells were found. A short time afterwards, the patient developed a metastasis in an inguinal lymph node. In spite of high-dose interferon treatment, the patient died two years after the diagnosis. This case associates two uncommon events: a) the whole regression of a melanoma and b) vitiligo associated with melanoma. Although both processes have a similar pathogenic mechanism, this association is exceptional and probably influences the prognosis. PMID:21272495

Piqué-Duran, Enric; Palacios-Llopis, Santiago; Martínez-Martín, MaríaSol; Pérez-Cejudo, Juan A

2011-01-01

296

Malignant melanoma of the oral cavity  

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Full Text Available Oral malignant melanoma is a rare disease. The common sites of its occurrence are the palate and gingiva with the maxillary arch being affected 80% of the time. Because of their presence at relatively obscure areas in the oral cavity, most of the malignant melanomas of the oral cavity are diagnosed at a late stage. These lesions are associated with poor prognosis. The dental clinician must therefore carefully examine the head, neck, and oral cavity, and any pigmented lesion that may exhibit growth potential must be biopsied. This article describes a case of malignant melanoma that was present in the oral cavity and briefly reviews the relevant literature that explains the nature of this lesion.

Ebenezer Jagadish

2006-01-01

297

Topical diphencyprone immunotherapy for cutaneous metastatic melanoma.  

Science.gov (United States)

Topical immunotherapy with contact sensitizers for metastatic melanoma was first reported more than 30 years ago. Diphencyprone (DPCP) immunotherapy is frequently used to treat cutaneous warts and alopecia areata, and we have previously reported the use of DPCP as a single agent to successfully treat extensive, radiotherapy-resistant melanoma metastases on the scalp. We now report DPCP treatment of a further six patients with cutaneous metastatic melanoma. Of seven patients treated with DPCP thus far, four have demonstrated complete responses of their cutaneous lesions and three have had partial responses. The treatment was well-tolerated by all patients. Topical immunotherapy with DPCP is inexpensive and relatively non-invasive and should be considered in patients with locally advanced skin metastases that are unsuitable for other therapies. PMID:19916970

Damian, Diona L; Shannon, Kerwin F; Saw, Robyn P; Thompson, John F

2009-11-01

298

Diagnostic techniques for primary cutaneous melanoma.  

Science.gov (United States)

Despite the rising incidence of melanoma in the Caucasian population, there has not been a concomitantly dramatic increase in mortality, which is due, in part, to the advent of better tools that have been made available for the early detection of melanoma. This article presents an overview of some of the recent diagnostic developments that are of potential interest to practicing dermatologists. Some of these diagnostic advances include: total body photography; dermoscopy; multispectral imaging; confocal scanning laser microscopy; teledermatology; high-frequency ultrasound; computed tomography; magnetic resonance imaging; immunohistochemical stains; comparative genomic hybridization; microphthalmia transcription factor; and melanoma sniffing dogs. Although not all of these tools are uniformly accepted nor mandatory, a passing familiarity with them will be helpful as additional data regarding their use evolves. PMID:19357625

Lien, M H; Sondak, V K

2009-04-01

299

Malignant melanoma and fluorescent lighting: current status  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The incidence of malignant melanoma has increased significantly in recent decades and attempts have been made to relate this increase to a higher personal exposure to ultraviolet radiation. In 1982 an epidemiological study of almost 300 Australian women with malignant melanoma suggested that exposure to fluorescent light at work was associated with a doubling of the melanoma risk. In the intervening years several other epidemiological studies have been published and their conflicting results will be reviewed. The Australian Radiation Laboratory has made spectral irradiance measurements of different fluorescent lamps and has calculated the biological effectiveness of the emission. Exposure from these artificial sources is compared with the potential exposures to solar radiation. The possibility of these lamps causing adverse health effects in humans is discussed. 25 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs

1989-04-01

300

Anti-tyrosinase antibodies in malignant melanoma.  

Science.gov (United States)

Anti-tyrosinase antibodies were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in sera of patients with malignant melanoma with either metastatic disease or no evidence of disease, in patients with melanoma and associated hypopigmentation (MAH), in patients with vitiligo and in healthy volunteers. The mean relative absorbance (Arel) was calculated by dividing the absorbance of each sample by the mean value for the control group. Using this method, the Arel of the control group was 1.000(SE 0.083). Arel of patients with metastatic disease (1.516; SE 0.225) was significantly higher (P = 0.03) than the value for the controls, but insignificantly higher than that for patients with no evidence of disease (1.216; SE 0.148). Patients with no evidence of disease, in whom the primary lesion originated in the lower limb, had a significantly higher (P = 0.01) Arel than the healthy volunteers. Patients with metastatic disease showed higher Arel if their primary lesions were confined to the area of the head and neck or to the lower limb. Patients with vitiligo had higher Arel values for their anti-tyrosinase antibody than any of the other groups. However, those with melanoma and MAH (vitiligo-like) had the same Arel of anti-tyrosinase antibodies as the controls or the patients with metastatic melanoma. This observation reflected the possible absorption of anti-tyrosinase antibodies to melanoma antigens, and pointed to the participation of anti-tyrosinase antibodies in the destruction of normal melanocytes in patients with melanoma, as part of the immune reaction towards this disease. PMID:8706052

Merimsky, O; Baharav, E; Shoenfeld, Y; Chaitchik, S; Tsigelman, R; Cohen-Aloro, D; Fishman, P

1996-06-01

 
 
 
 
301

Melanoma biomolecules: independently identified but functionally intertwined  

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Full Text Available The majority of patients diagnosed with melanoma present with thin lesions and generally these patients have a good prognosis. However, 5% of patients with early melanoma (< 1mm thick will have recurrence and die within 10 years, despite no evidence of local or metastatic spread at the time of diagnosis. Thus, there is a need for additional prognostic markers to help identify those patients that may be at risk of recurrent disease. Many studies and several meta-analyses have compared gene and protein expression in melanocytes, naevi, primary and metastatic melanoma in an attempt to find informative prognostic markers for these patients. However, although a large number of putative biomarkers have been described, few of these molecules are informative when used in isolation. The best approach is likely to involve a combination of molecules. We believe one approach could be to analyze the expression of a group of interacting proteins that regulate different aspects of the metastatic pathway. This is because a primary lesion expressing proteins involved in multiple stages of metastasis may be more likely to lead to secondary disease than one that does not. This review focuses on five putative biomarkers - melanoma cell adhesion molecule (MCAM, galectin-3 (gal-3, matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP-2, chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan 4 (CSPG4 and paired box 3 (PAX3. The goal is to provide context around what is known about the contribution of these biomarkers to melanoma biology and metastasis. Although each of these molecules have been independently identified as likely biomarkers, it is clear from our analyses that each are closely linked with each other, with intertwined roles in melanoma biology.

DanielleErinDye

2013-09-01

302

Higher melanoma incidence in coastal versus inland counties in California.  

Science.gov (United States)

The incidence of melanoma is increasing and there is significant variation by geographical location between and within countries. We sought to determine the incidence of melanoma in coastal versus inland counties in California. Data on melanoma incidence were obtained for 2000-2009 from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results program of the National Cancer Institute. Incidences for melanoma in situ and invasive melanoma for major racial and ethnic groups for coastal and inland counties were analyzed using multivariable Poisson regression, with adjustment for socioeconomic factors (income, education), ultraviolet index, and latitude. Further analyses were carried out for the non-Hispanic white population through stratification of in-situ versus invasive melanoma, age, thickness, and anatomic distribution. The incidence of melanoma in situ is greater in coastal counties of California than inland counties (incidence rate ratio 1.23, 95% confidence interval 1.04-1.47) after adjusting for socioeconomic factors, ultraviolet index, and latitude. In non-Hispanic whites, this difference is significant for in-situ and thin (? 1.00 mm) melanomas, but not for melanomas of greater thickness. In melanoma in situ and thin melanomas in non-Hispanic whites, the incidence is greater in coastal versus inland counties. Causes may include differences in exposures, differences in detection, or artifacts such as residual confounding. Our study highlights the need for further research in identifying and addressing these differences. PMID:24681542

Korgavkar, Kaveri; Lee, Kachiu C; Weinstock, Martin A

2014-06-01

303

Characteristics of familial and non-familial melanoma in Australia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Between 6 and 14% of malignant melanomas have been reported to occur in a familial pattern. In this study 785 melanoma patients from the Victorian Melanoma Service and the private practice of a dermatologist were assessed for the total number of melanocytic naevi, the number of dysplastic naevi and other clinical characteristics categorized according to whether there was a family history of melanoma. It was found that the presence of 100 or more naevi, six or more dysplastic naevi and blue eyes in a patient with melanoma were significantly associated with a family history of melanoma. Patients with two or more family members with melanoma were significantly more likely to develop melanoma at a younger age and to develop multiple melanomas. This study concludes that large numbers of melanocytic naevi and dysplastic naevi in melanoma patients are useful characteristics in practice to identify patients at risk of familial occurrence of melanoma. Family members of these patients should receive a medical assessment for their pigmented lesions. PMID:9835460

Ang, C G; Kelly, J W; Fritschi, L; Dowling, J P

1998-10-01

304

Epidermotropic Metastatic Melanoma with Perilesional Depigmentation in an Indian Male  

Science.gov (United States)

Melanoma is a rare form of cutaneous malignancy encountered in the dark skin population. Epidermotropic metastatic melanoma is a rare form of cutaneous metastatic melanoma which can mimic primary melanoma on histopathology. Hence its differentiation is of immense prognostic importance. The occurrence of rim of depigmentation around the primary cutaneous melanoma has previously been reported to portend a bad prognosis. The occurrence of vitiligo like lesions in patients with metastatic melanoma in comparison has a better prognosis. However the occurrence of depigmentation around the secondaries is rare and its importance is not well known. Hence we wish to report a case of epidermotropic metastatic melanoma with perilesional depigmentation in a 78 year old Indian male.

Doshi, Bhavana; Mahajan, Sunanda; Khopkar, Uday S; Kharkar, Vidya; Agarwal, Prachi

2013-01-01

305

Late recurrence of malignant melanoma presenting with hemoptysis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available After a disease-free period of 10 years, a surgically treated case of cutaneous malignant melanoma is usually not followed up further and there is a tendency to assume that the disease is cured. Late recurrence (after 10 years of cutaneous malignant melanoma, though infrequent, has been documented well in Western countries. In our country, the malignant melanoma is still considered uncommon and there is no data regarding its late recurrence. We report a case of pulmonary malignant melanoma as a late metastatic manifestation of primary plantar malignant melanoma in a 61-year-old man who presented with hemoptysis; metastatic malignant melanoma of the lung occurred 12 years after resection of primary malignant melanoma of sole of the right foot.

Gowrinath Karanam

2010-01-01

306

Analysis of APAF-1 expression in human cutaneous melanoma progression.  

Science.gov (United States)

APAF-1 plays a pivotal role in mitochondria-dependent apoptosis, binding to cytochrome c and favoring activation of caspase-9. It has been shown that epigenetic silencing of the APAF-1 gene is a common event in several metastatic melanoma cells in vitro. We determined, by Western blot, variation in the level of expression of APAF-1 in several human melanoma cell lines and, by immunohistochemistry, in a group of 106 histological samples including benign and malignant melanocytic lesions. We observed APAF-1 down-regulation or loss of expression in two metastatic melanoma cell lines, compared to primary melanoma cell lines. The immunohistochemical analysis revealed a significant difference in APAF-1 staining between nevi and melanomas. In addition, we found a significant negative correlation between APAF-1 expression level and tumor thickness and between primary melanomas and metastases. We conclude that loss of APAF-1 expression can be considered as an indicator of malignant transformation in melanoma. PMID:15009102

Baldi, Alfonso; Santini, Daniele; Russo, Patrizia; Catricalà, Caterina; Amantea, Ada; Picardo, Mauro; Tatangelo, Fabiana; Botti, Gerardo; Dragonetti, Emanuele; Murace, Raffaele; Tonini, Giuseppe; Natali, Pier Giorgio; Baldi, Feliciano; Paggi, Marco G

2004-02-01

307

Molecular classification of cutaneous malignant melanoma by gene expression profiling.  

Science.gov (United States)

The most common human cancers are malignant neoplasms of the skin. Incidence of cutaneous melanoma is rising especially steeply, with minimal progress in non-surgical treatment of advanced disease. Despite significant effort to identify independent predictors of melanoma outcome, no accepted histopathological, molecular or immunohistochemical marker defines subsets of this neoplasm. Accordingly, though melanoma is thought to present with different 'taxonomic' forms, these are considered part of a continuous spectrum rather than discrete entities. Here we report the discovery of a subset of melanomas identified by mathematical analysis of gene expression in a series of samples. Remarkably, many genes underlying the classification of this subset are differentially regulated in invasive melanomas that form primitive tubular networks in vitro, a feature of some highly aggressive metastatic melanomas. Global transcript analysis can identify unrecognized subtypes of cutaneous melanoma and predict experimentally verifiable phenotypic characteristics that may be of importance to disease progression. PMID:10952317

Bittner, M; Meltzer, P; Chen, Y; Jiang, Y; Seftor, E; Hendrix, M; Radmacher, M; Simon, R; Yakhini, Z; Ben-Dor, A; Sampas, N; Dougherty, E; Wang, E; Marincola, F; Gooden, C; Lueders, J; Glatfelter, A; Pollock, P; Carpten, J; Gillanders, E; Leja, D; Dietrich, K; Beaudry, C; Berens, M; Alberts, D; Sondak, V

2000-08-01

308

DNA cell cycle studies in uveal melanoma.  

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We analyzed the cell cycling status of a group of irradiated and nonirradiated uveal melanomas using BrdUrd techniques. These data demonstrate that melanomas are relatively slow-growing tumors with a few cells actively cycling at a given time. Radiation has a profound effect on the number of cycling cells (P less than .0001). After treatment with either 20 Gy of pre-enucleation photon or 60 Gy or more of helium ion irradiation, virtually no cells are detected in the synthesis phase of the DNA...

Char, D. H.

1988-01-01

309

Researchers discover new mutations driving malignant melanoma  

Science.gov (United States)

Two new mutations that collectively occur in 71 percent of malignant melanoma tumors have been discovered in what scientists call the "dark matter" of the cancer genome, where cancer-related mutations haven't been previously found. Reporting their findings in the Jan. 24 issue of Science Express, the researchers from Dana-Farber Cancer Institute and the Broad Institute said the highly "recurrent" mutations – occurring in the tumors of many people – may be the most common mutations in melanoma cells found to date.

310

Negative pigment network identifies a peculiar melanoma subtype and represents a clue to melanoma diagnosis: a dermoscopic study of 401 melanomas.  

Science.gov (United States)

The dermoscopic descriptor "negative pigment network" (NPN) has been reported in several types of melanocytic and non-melanocytic lesions, although it has a higher frequency of association with melanoma and Spitz naevus. In a study of 401 consecutive melanomas, excluding facial, acral and mucosal locations, the frequency and variability of NPN were investigated, and the results of NPN correlated with clinical and histopathological data. NPN of any extension was found in 27% of melanomas, most frequently invasive and arising from a naevus on the trunk of young subjects. Seven percent of melanomas in the study population showed presence of NPN in more than half of the lesion area; most of these did not show typical dermoscopic melanoma features. The authors propose a new melanoma subtype, in which extensive NPN should be considered as a diagnostic indicator. PMID:23695965

Bassoli, Sara; Ferrari, Chiara; Borsari, Stefania; Giusti, Francesca; Magnoni, Cristina; Pellacani, Giovanni; Seidenari, Stefania

2013-11-01

311

Homeopathic treatment of malignant melanoma in a dog. Tratamiento homeopático de melanoma maligno en un perro. Tratamiento homeopático de melanoma maligno num cachorro.  

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Malignant melanoma is the most frequently diagnosed of canine’s oral tumors. Conventional treatment’s efficacy – surgical excision, radio and chemotherapy – is very low and the prognostics are very reserved. The present article presents a case of homeopathically treated malignant melanoma in a dog, with successful results. It may be concluded that following the guidelines suggested by Hahnemann for Psora cases might heal the homeopathic treatment of canine malignant melanoma....

Benites, Nilson R.; Melville, Priscilla A.

2003-01-01

312

Melanoma Surveillance in the US: Melanoma, Ultraviolet Radiation, and Socioeconomic Status  

Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

This podcast accompanies the publication of a series of articles on melanoma surveillance in the United States, available in the November supplement edition of the Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology. Chris Johnson, from the Cancer Data Registry of Idaho, discusses analyses examining the relationship between melanoma and two variables at the county level, ultraviolet radiation and socioeconomic status.  Created: 10/19/2011 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 10/19/2011.

2011-10-19

313

Familial atypical multiple mole melanoma (FAMMM) syndrome: genetic heterogeneity and malignant melanoma.  

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Clinical-pathologic-genetic studies were performed on 3 kindreds showing the familial atypical multiple mole-melanoma syndrome (FAMMM). Findings showed vertical transmission, including father-to-son, of cutaneous malignant melanoma and/or FAMMM moles with no sex predilection. A broad spectrum of clinical signs characterizing the phenotype ranged from an apparent lack of disease expression through minimal, moderate, and florid manifestations. An extreme example was a patient with 9 separate pr...

Lynch, H. T.; Fusaro, R. M.; Pester, J.; Lynch, J. F.

1980-01-01

314

Extra c-myc oncogene copies in high risk cutaneous malignant melanoma and melanoma metastases  

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Amplification and overexpression of the c-myc gene have been associated with neoplastic transformation in a plethora of malignant tumours. We applied interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with a locus-specific probe for the c-myc gene (8q24) in combination with a corresponding chromosome 8 ?-satellite probe to evaluate genetic alterations in 8 primary melanomas and 33 advanced melanomas and compared it to 12 melanocytic nevi, 7 safety margins and 2 cases of normal skin. Additi...

Kraehn, G. M.; Utikal, J.; Udart, M.; Greulich, K. M.; Bezold, G.; Kaskel, P.; Leiter, U.; Peter, R. U.

2001-01-01

315

Gamma knife radiosurgery for uveal melanoma ineligible for brachytherapy by the Collaborative Ocular Melanoma Study criteria  

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Nicola G Ghazi1, Christopher S Ketcherside1, Jason Sheehan2, Brian P Conway11Department of Ophthalmology and 2Neurosurgery, University of Virginia Health System, Charlottesville, VA, USAPurpose: To report outcomes of Gamma Knife radiosurgery (GKRS) in treating uveal melanoma lesions ineligible for standard brachytherapy.Methods: A retrospective interventional case series of uveal melanoma patients treated with GKRS between 1996 and 2004 was performed. The main outcome measures were local tumo...

Ghazi, Nicola G.; Ketcherside, Christopher S.; Jason Sheehan; Conway, Brian P.

2008-01-01

316

Nail apparatus melanoma: a diagnostic opportunity Melanoma do aparelho ungueal: uma oportunidade diagnóstica  

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Malignant Melanoma is a high mortality neoplasm. The involvement of the nail apparatus is rare, with only 2 out of 3 patients seeking medical attention as the result of recent nail melanocytic lesions. This results in late diagnosis and a prognosis worse than cutaneous melanoma. We report a female, presenting with ulcerative lesions with clinical and laboratory features compatible with leishmaniasis. On return after treatment initiation a longitudinal melanonychia was observed on her first ri...

2013-01-01

317

Melanoma primario del esófago Primary esophageal melanoma. Report of one case  

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El melanoma primario maligno del esófago es extremadamente raro y menos de 300 casos han sido publicados hasta el momento. Aunque la resección quirúrgica ha sido considerada como la mejor opción, el pronóstico es muy pobre. Se presenta a un paciente de 70 años a quien se le realizó una esofagogastroscopía por disfagia y epigastralgia de 6 meses de evolución. No había antecedentes de melanoma cutáneo. El examen demostró una masa polipoidea pigmentada de 5 cm de diámetro en el terc...

2009-01-01

318

The risk of cutaneous melanoma in melanocytic nevi / Risco de melanoma cutâneo nos nevos melanocíticos  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Os dados sobre risco de melanoma cutâneo nos nevos melanocíticos são ainda controversos. O estudo longitudinal prospectivo de 107 casos de melanoma cutâneo revelou que em 9/107 casos (8,4%) houve presunção de lesão precursora, porém em 1/107 caso (0,9%) houve comprovação histopatológica para nevo me [...] lanocítico. A informação vaga de presença de lesão precursora do melanoma cutâneo torna vulnerável sua vinculação com o tumor e implica em comprovação histopatológica. Abstract in english The data on melanoma associaed with melanocytic nevus are controversial. A longitudinal prospective study of 107 cases of cutaneous melanoma revealed that 9 (8.4%) cases were presumed to be linked to a precursor lesion, but only in 1 (0.9%) out of these cases the histopathological examination showed [...] an associated melanocytic nevus. The vague information of a preexisting lesion of cutaneous melanoma is not sufficient to consider it a tumour precursor and it requires histopathological evidence to confirm the diagnosis.

Nurimar Conceição, Fernandes.

319

Melanoma de coroides en melanosis óculi Choroidal melanoma in ocular melanosis  

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Full Text Available Casos clínicos: Se presentan cuatro casos de pacientes con signos clínicos de melanosis óculi. En todos se diagnosticó melanoma de coroides. Tres acudieron con disminución de visión en ojo afecto y fueron enucleados por presentar tumores grandes y activos. En el cuarto caso el melanoma fue descubierto en una revisión rutinaria y se pudo aplicar un tratamiento conservador con braquiterapia con I125. Discusión: La melanosis óculi está infravalorada como factor de riesgo para melanoma y glaucoma. Es necesaria una revisión oftalmológica cada 6 ó 12 meses para la detección precoz de enfermedades de alto riesgo en estos pacientes.Cases: We present four cases of ocular melanosis. Choroidal melanoma was detected in all of them. Three eyes had decreased visual acuity and were enucleated because of their large, active tumours. In the fourth case the melanoma was detected in a routine examination and we were able to apply a preserving treatment with I125 brachytherapy. Discussion: Melanosis oculi is often underestimated as a risk factor for uveal melanoma and glaucoma. Ophthalmic surveillance, every 6 or 12 months is important, in patients with ocular melanocytosis for early detection of high risk diseases.

C López Caballero

2003-02-01

320

Melanoma de coroides en melanosis óculi / Choroidal melanoma in ocular melanosis  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Casos clínicos: Se presentan cuatro casos de pacientes con signos clínicos de melanosis óculi. En todos se diagnosticó melanoma de coroides. Tres acudieron con disminución de visión en ojo afecto y fueron enucleados por presentar tumores grandes y activos. En el cuarto caso el melanoma fue descubier [...] to en una revisión rutinaria y se pudo aplicar un tratamiento conservador con braquiterapia con I125. Discusión: La melanosis óculi está infravalorada como factor de riesgo para melanoma y glaucoma. Es necesaria una revisión oftalmológica cada 6 ó 12 meses para la detección precoz de enfermedades de alto riesgo en estos pacientes. Abstract in english Cases: We present four cases of ocular melanosis. Choroidal melanoma was detected in all of them. Three eyes had decreased visual acuity and were enucleated because of their large, active tumours. In the fourth case the melanoma was detected in a routine examination and we were able to apply a prese [...] rving treatment with I125 brachytherapy. Discussion: Melanosis oculi is often underestimated as a risk factor for uveal melanoma and glaucoma. Ophthalmic surveillance, every 6 or 12 months is important, in patients with ocular melanocytosis for early detection of high risk diseases.

C, López Caballero; MA, Saornil Álvarez; G, Blanco Mateos; JM, Frutos Baraja; F, López Lara; C, González Sansegundo.

 
 
 
 
321

Melanoma involved in specific uptake of chlorpromazine (10B carrier) into melanoma cells  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Interrelationship between melanosome and uptake of chlorpromazine (CPZ) into various melanoma cells (B16M-line, W line) having different capacity to produce melanosome and into macrophages feeding various amounts of melanosome was studied. The uptake of CPZ into melanoma cells was well correlated with the capacity to produce melanosome. The uptake of CPZ into macrophages containing melanosome increased according to feeding time and the concentration of melanosome. However, there was not a difference between the uptake of CPZ into macrophages containing latex particles and that into control cells. This fact clarified that promotion of the uptake of CPZ into macrophages containing melanosome depended on specific nature of intracellular melanosome. Therefore, specific uptake of CPZ into melanoma cells was thought to be determined initially by intracellular melanosome. These facts suggested that molecular hybrid of 10B and CPZ such as 10B12-CPZ was effective to melanotic melanoma and was ineffective to amelanotic melanoma. It will be possible to accumulate molecular hybrid of 10B and BPZ in tumors by feeding melanosome and perform thermal neutron capture treatment, if tumors excepting melanoma posses the capacity to feed melanosome. (Tsunoda, M.)

1980-01-01

322

Cartilaginous melanoma: case report and review of the literature Melanoma cartilagíneo: caso clínico e revisão da literatura  

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Full Text Available Malignant melanoma can present a variety of histopathological patterns. Cartilaginous change in the absence of osteogenic differentiation is extremely rare in malignant melanoma, being among the least frequent of the wide range of melanoma histologic patterns. We report a case of a 47-year-old woman with a subungual nodule on her right great toe for many years. Histopathological examination of the lesion led to a diagnosis of malignant melanoma with cartilaginous differentiation devoid of concomitant osseous areas. It would appear that this unusual form of melanoma has a predilection for acral location, particularly the subungual region. Malignant melanoma with chondroid stroma should therefore be considered in the differential diagnosis of cartilaginous lesions of the toes and fingers. Careful examination of the overlying epidermis and identification of an in situ component of melanoma may be necessary in order to establish the correct diagnosis.O melanoma maligno pode apresentar uma grande variedade de padrões histopatológicos. A presença de diferenciação cartilagínea, na ausência de diferenciação osteogénica, é extremamente rara no melanoma maligno. O melanoma cartilagíneo está entre os padrões histológicos menos frequentes. Relatamos um caso de uma doente do sexo feminino de 47 anos de idade com um nódulo subungueal no 1º dedo do pé direito com muitos anos de evolução. O exame histopatológico da lesão revelou melanoma cartilagíneo, sem áreas de diferenciação osteogénica. Esta variante de melanoma parece ter predileção pela extremidades, sobretudo pela região subungueal. Assim, o melanoma maligno com diferenciação condróide, deve ser tido em consideração no diagnóstico diferencial de lesões acrais cartilagíneas. A observação cuidadosa da epiderme e a identificação de um componente do melanoma in situ podem ser necessários para estabelecer um diagnóstico correto.

Parente Joana Devesa

2013-06-01

323

Melanoma cutáneo asociado a nevo previo Cutaneous melanoma associated with previous nevus  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available El melanoma maligno es una neoplasia originada en los melanocitos de la piel y otras localizaciones. No existe información en nuestro país acerca de su incidencia y prevalecencia, sí se sabe cuáles son los factores de riesgo más importantes. El melanoma puede originarse de novo o a partir de lesiones melanocíticas previas. La noción de que un nevo melanocítico pueda servir como lesión precursora es sustentada por evidencias clínicas e histológicas. Realizamos en el Hospital Privado de Córdoba un estudio observacional, retrospectivo y analítico. El objetivo de este trabajo fue conocer cuál es la frecuencia de asociación de melanomas malignos que se desarrollan sobre nevos previos. Fueron analizados un total de 134 melanomas. En 32 pacientes (24%, los melanomas estuvieron histológicamente asociados con nevos, con espesores de Breslow mayores de 1 mm el porcentaje de asociación fue de 16.3%, y con Breslow menores de 1 mm, 38.1%. Al evaluar los melanomas en relación a la clasificación de Breslow y Clark, se objetivó que el grupo de melanomas asociados a nevos presentó un espesor de Breslow y niveles de Clark bajos y en el análisis estadístico fueron predictores significativos en la probabilidad de hallar esta asociación (p The malignant melanoma is a neoplasia originated from the melanocytes located in the skin and other locations. Even though there is not information regarding its incidence and prevalence in our country, its most important risk factors are known. The melanoma can originate de novo or from previous melanocytic lesions. The concept that a melanocytic nevus can serve as a precursor lesion is supported by clinical and histological evidence. An observational, retrospective and analytical study was carried out in the Hospital Privado de Córdoba. The objective was to determine which is the frequency of association of malignant melanomas that develop on previous nevus. A total of 134 melanomas were analyzed. In 32 cases (24%, the melanomas were histologically associated with nevus, in individuals with Breslow's depth bigger than 1 mm the percentage of association was 16.3% while in those exhibiting Breslow smaller than 1 mm the percentage of association was 38.1%. Having evaluated the melanomas in relation to the Breslow and Clark classification, we observed that the nevus associated melanoma group showed less Breslow thickness and low Clark levels, which, by statistical analysis were shown to be significant predictors of the probabilty of finding this association (p < 0.027. This study demonstrates that the tumor thickness by itself is an independent predictive factor of the association melanoma-nevus. However, the rest of the variables studied did not throw significant results from the statistical point of view. In conclusion, patients must be educated for the control of new pigmented injuries as well as for the modification of preexisting nevi.

María P. Gutiérrez

2009-10-01

324

The effect of pentamidine on melanoma  

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Pentamidine is a small molecule inhibitor of the Ca2+ binding protein S100B and disrupts the S100B-p53 protein-protein interaction; this is thought to restore wild type p53 tumour suppressor function in melanoma. Additional anti-cancer effects may be the result of inhibition of PRL family phosphatases.

Smith, Jason; Stewart, Benjamin J.; Glaysher, Sharon; Peregrin, Katherine; Knight, Louise A.; Weber, David J.; Cree, Ian A.

2010-01-01

325

Human malignant melanomas in nude mice  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The purpose of this study was to correlate signal intensities and relaxation times on MR images in malignant melanomas with histopathologic features and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectra. Cell lines from human malignant melanomas in tissue culture were implanted subcutaneously into nude mice. MR imaging was performed in vivo at 1.9 T to assess 12 separate lesions in ten mice using spin-echo and inversion-recovery techniques. T1,T2, and N(H) were calculated in all cases. Histopathologic examination was performed on specimens resected immediately after imaging, using hematoxylin and eosin, Prussian blue, and Fontan stains to assess for tumor necrosis, iron, and melanin content. EPR spectra were also obtained on four resected specimens. The authors' results indicate that the relaxation behavior of nonhemorrhagic malignant melanomas cannot be explained solely by the presence of necrosis, water content, or iron content. The degree of melanin within these tumors did correlate with T1 relaxation enhancement. T2 relaxation times did not correlate with the sole presence of either iron, melanin, or necrosis. Although the unique relaxation behavior of nonhemorrhagic malignant melanoma seems to have many causes, their data suggest that, contrary to previous investigations, it is influenced by the presence of melanin rather than iron

1988-12-02

326

Measurement techniques for melanoma: a statistical comparison.  

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Inter- and intra-observer variation in measuring the depth of invasion of malignant melanomas was assessed using three different techniques: eye-piece graticule, stage Vernier, and projection image analysis. Significant variation was found for all methods but was least pronounced with the stage Vernier. It is recommended that this should be the preferred technique for routine use.

1990-01-01

327

Gamma knife therapy for intraocular melanomas  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Gamma knife radiosurgery developed by Lars Leksell for the treatment of brain tumors is useful for the treatment of uveal melanomas due to its unique physical features. It allows the delivery of a high single dose with minimum involvement of the surrounding tissue. Encouraged by first positive results by Chinela, Zambrano and Bunge we adopted the procedure for the treatment of uveal melanomas. A multi centric trial in accordance with gamma knife procedure is performed in 4 steps: 1. Fixation of the globe with a retrobulbar anaesthetic block. 2. Stereotactic location of the tumor by CT. 3. Calculation of the isodoses. 4. Radiosurgical procedure. Between June 1992 and February 1993 we treated 6 uveal melanomas with the Leksell gamma knife together with the Department of Neurosurgery and the Institute of Radiotherapy. In 5 out of 6 cases gamma knife therapy could stop further tumor growth. In one case of a juxtapapillary melanoma a reduction of tumor height from 8 to 4 mm could be achieved: early side effects like serous retinal detachment resolving spontaneously after 4 months and hemorrhage at the base of the tumor were remarkable in this patient. According to our first encouraging results treatment with the Leksell Gamma Knife seems to be an alternative therapeutic modality in larger tumors or those located at the posterior pole but definite conclusions about the efficiency of this new therapeutic procedure can only be drawn once. A larger number of patients will have been observed after a longer follow up period. (author)

1995-01-01

328

Metastatic malignant ovarian melanoma: A case report  

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Full Text Available Background. Malignant melanomas of the female reproductive system are rare. These are biologically highly aggressive tumors with poor prognosis. Preoperative establishment of the diagnosis is practically impossible. Therapeutic approach and treatment of patients with metastatic ovarian melanoma are highly dependent on precise histological analysis. Case report. A woman aged 48 was admitted to the clinic for occasional pains in the lower abdomen and suspected myomatous changes of the uterus. The patient underwent surgery for melanoma on her right arm five years ago. Classic hysterectomy with bilateral adnexectomy with infracolic omentectomy and selective iliac lymphadenectomy were performed. Macroscopic examination revealed an oval tumefaction on the left ovary sized 12.5 x 10 x 3.5 cm of solid structure. Tumor tissue was yellowish-brown colored, of solid structure and mostly localized subcortically with central edema. Microscopic examination showed positive reaction for HMB-45, anti-Melan-A and S-100 protein, but negative immunoreactivity for estrogen and progesterone receptors. Malignant disease caused death after a 4-year follow-up period following gynecological operation. Conclusion. The previous diagnosis of skin melanoma is also indicative of metastatic ovarian tumor, while immunohistochemical analyses confirmed the histopathological diagnosis.

Berisavac Milica

2013-01-01

329

Primary Malignant Melanoma of the Nasal Cavity.  

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Full Text Available Malignant melanoma is a highly lethal melanocytic neoplasm, usually affecting theskin. Primary malignant melanoma of the nasal cavity is rarely seen. Clinically, mostpatients display initial nonspecific symptoms of unilateral nasal obstruction or epistaxis.The prognosis is generally poor, with a mean survival time of 3.5 years. Extensive localinvasion and distant metastasis to other organs may occur. The usual treatment of choice isradical excision. Radiotherapy and chemotherapy appear to have little effect. We report afatal case of intranasal cavity malignant melanoma in which the patient initially presentedwith blood-tinged sputum, productive cough, and intermittent fever. Preoperative hepaticmetastasis was found. Palliative surgery was performed to excise the nasal cavity tumor.Then, 6 courses of chemotherapy were further administered. Unfortunately, regional cervicalnodal involvement and pancreatic head metastases occurred 1.5 years after the diagnosis.The patient's condition rapidly deteriorated, followed by death. We have chosen to discussthis aggressive condition because of its rarity and also to emphasize the importance of itsearly detection through vigilant attention to nonspecific nasal symptoms. A review of theliterature concerning intranasal malignant melanoma is presented. We further discuss itspossible etiology, site of origin, incidence, clinical presentations, principles of management,and outcome.

Chin-Yew Lin

2003-11-01

330

Thermal neutron capture therapy for malignant melanomas  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Thermal neutron capture therapy (TNCT) has been investigated in the hope that malignant melanomas can be treated selectively. The most important point to achieve successful TNCT is to accumulate large amounts of boron-10 compounds selectively in cancer cells, as well as to use thermal neutron sources having low neutron..gamma..-ray ratio. Various boron-10 compounds have, therefore, been synthesized as cancer-seeking agents. In vitro experiments have shown that /sup 10/B/sub 12/-chlorpromazine undecahydrododecaborate (/sup 10/B/sub 12/-CPZ) and /sup 10/B/sub 1/-p-borono-phenylalanine (/sup 10/B/sub 1/-BPA) was capable of killing melanoma cells alone. TNCT effects with /sup 10/B/sub 12/-CPZ and /sup 10/B/sub 1/-BPA on cellular lethality of malignant melanomas are discussed based on in vitro and in vivo experiments. Absorbed doses of melanoma cells, and cell damage and its repair in TNCT are described. Finally, future perspective of TNCT in the clinical setting is given. (Namekawa, K.) 65 refs

Ichihashi, Masamitsu; Mishima, Yutaka

1987-06-01

331

Collagenase immunolocalization studies of cutaneous secondary melanomas.  

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Immunoreactive collagenase has been demonstrated in 5/14 specimens of cutaneous secondary melanomas. In contrast, very little enzyme was seen in 10 specimens of normal human skin. All specimens were fixed within minutes of excision. These findings support the hypothesis that collagenase facilitates connective-tissue breakdown which is associated with tumour invasiveness and metastatic spread.

Woolley, D. E.; Grafton, C. A.

1980-01-01

332

p16 Mutations in hereditary melanomas  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The p16 gene (CDK4 inhibitor) is located in chromosome 9p21, a region that shows linkage to hereditary melanoma and is deleted in many different tumors. p16 was analyzed in 19 families with hereditary melanoma by amplifying the entire coding region in 5 short segments and screening by SSCP under several conditions that should resolve >95% of polymorphisms. A total of 10 variants were detected in 15 families. The mutations detected included 7 missense, 1 silent, 1 nonsense, and one that destroyed a consensus splice donor site. One of the missense mutations was present in 5/21 spouses in these families, giving an estimated allele frequency of 0.12. Therefore the {triangle}436 [G{yields}A] variant is a common polymorphism and is not involved in the development of melanoma. However, there was strong evidence for the involvement of the other p16 mutations in five 9p21 linked families. In these families, a total of 17/19 individuals with melanoma inherited the mutant allele, while only 2/26 unaffected family members (1 with dysplastic nevi) and 0/13 spouses had the mutant alleles. In two additional 9p21 linked families, one segregated a silent mutation in 3/4 of the affected individuals, and the second only contained the common {triangle}436 [G{yields}A] mutation. In the two families with strong evidence of linkage to chromosome 1p36 and exclusion of linkage to 9p21, no SSCP variants were detected at p16 among 11 melanoma cases, except for a single affected individual who inherited the variant from an unaffected parent. These data confirm the existence of genetic heterogeneity in families with hereditary melanoma. Most (5/7) of the families with strong linkage to 9p21 had p16 missense mutations that segregated with the disease, while 2 families with strong linkage to chromosome 1p36 did not have any detectable p16 mutations that segregated with the disease. Further functional analyses of these mutations will clarify which are causally related to hereditary melanoma.

Hussussian, C.J.; Struewing, J.P.; Goldstein, A.M. [National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (United States)] [and others

1994-09-01

333

Clinical and histologic characteristics of clinically unsuspected melanomas.  

Science.gov (United States)

Thin melanomas are recognized and captured by clinicians at an alarming rate, whereas thick melanomas remain underrecognized. Improved recognition of thick melanomas will require further understanding of their clinical and histologic characteristics at various stages of development because emerging data suggest that the thin melanomas being captured today may not represent the forerunners of the thick melanomas. In this retrospective analysis, pathology requisition forms from melanomas diagnosed by histopathology were examined for submitted clinical diagnosis, patient characteristics, melanoma thickness, and biopsy method. Three hundred eighty-five melanomas were identified from 2003 to 2011. Most lesions (71.7%) were clinically suspected to be melanocytic. The mean depth in this group was 0.62mm. Of the unsuspected cases (28.3%), the most common submitted diagnoses were basal cell carcinomas and seborrheic keratoses, consistent with previous reports. The mean depth in the unsuspected group was 1.64mm, and more frequently extended to the deep margin (51.8% vs 25.4% of the time). Shave biopsy was the overwhelming preferred method of biopsy (79.5% overall). Compared with thin melanomas, thick melanomas are underrecognized by physicians due to their lack of characteristic morphologic features; consequently, they are more frequently associated with suboptimal biopsies. PMID:24559571

Hermes, Heidi M; Sahu, Joya; Schwartz, Laurel R; Lee, Jason B

2014-01-01

334

Importance of glycolysis and oxidative phosphorylation in advanced melanoma  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Serum lactate dehydrogenase (LDH is a prognostic factor for patients with stage IV melanoma. To gain insights into the biology underlying this prognostic factor, we analyzed total serum LDH, serum LDH isoenzymes, and serum lactate in up to 49 patients with metastatic melanoma. Our data demonstrate that high serum LDH is associated with a significant increase in LDH isoenzymes 3 and 4, and a decrease in LDH isoenzymes 1 and 2. Since LDH isoenzymes play a role in both glycolysis and oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS, we subsequently determined using tissue microarray (TMA analysis that the levels of proteins associated with mitochondrial function, lactate metabolism, and regulators of glycolysis were all elevated in advanced melanomas compared with nevic melanocytes. To investigate whether in advanced melanoma, the glycolysis and OXPHOS pathways might be linked, we determined expression of the monocarboxylate transporters (MCT 1 and 4. Analysis of a nevus-to-melanoma progression TMA revealed that MCT4, and to a lesser extend MCT1, were elevated with progression to advanced melanoma. Further analysis of human melanoma specimens using the Seahorse XF24 extracellular flux analyzer indicated that metastatic melanoma tumors derived a large fraction of energy from OXPHOS. Taken together, these findings suggest that in stage IV melanomas with normal serum LDH, glycolysis and OXPHOS may provide metabolic symbiosis within the same tumor, whereas in stage IV melanomas with high serum LDH glycolysis is the principle source of energy.

Ho Jonhan

2012-10-01

335

Lymphoscintigraphy as a guide to treatment in malignant melanoma  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Regional node dissection is practiced as a measure of prophylaxis in patients with stage I and II malignant melanoma. Although the drainage pattern of the extremities is obvious, in the head and neck and trunk it may be ambiguous. We have used lymphoscintigraphy to assist in delineating the lymphatic drainage in 22 patients with primary malignant melanoma. Fourteen patients had melanoma in the head and neck region, and eight had melanoma in the trunk region. Based on Clark's classification there were ten level III melanomas, eight level IV melanomas, and two level V melanomas; the levels of the remaining two melanomas were unspecified. Seven melanomas were between 0.76 and 1.5-mm thick, eleven were between 1.51 and 4.0-mm thick, and two were over 4.0-mm thick (the remaining two were unspecified). Regional nodes were clinically negative in 18 patients. The scan distribution was unexpected in 13 patients (59%), and it influenced the surgical procedure in 11 patients (50%). No patient incurred an adverse effect from the scan. We conclude that lymphoscintigraphy may be of value in guiding prophylactic lymph node dissection in melanoma patients

1989-01-01

336

Malignant melanoma S3-guideline "diagnosis, therapy and follow-up of melanoma".  

Science.gov (United States)

This first German evidence-based guideline for cutaneous melanoma was developed under the auspices of the German Dermatological Society (DDG) and the Dermatologic Cooperative Oncology Group (DeCOG) and funded by the German Guideline Program in Oncology. The recommendations are based on a systematic literature search, and on the consensus of 32 medical societies, working groups and patient representatives. This guideline contains recommendations concerning diagnosis, therapy and follow-up of melanoma. The diagnosis of primary melanoma based on clinical features and dermoscopic criteria. It is confirmed by histopathologic examination after complete excision with a small margin. For the staging of melanoma, the AJCC classification of 2009 is used. The definitive excision margins are 0.5 cm for in situ melanomas, 1 cm for melanomas with up to 2 mm tumor thickness and 2 cm for thicker melanomas, they are reached in a secondary excision. From 1 mm tumor thickness, sentinel lymph node biopsy is recommended. For stages II and III, adjuvant therapy with interferon-alpha should be considered after careful analysis of the benefits and possible risks. In the stage of locoregional metastasis surgical treatment with complete lymphadenectomy is the treatment of choice. In the presence of distant metastasis mutational screening should be performed for BRAF mutation, and eventually for CKIT and NRAS mutations. In the presence of mutations in case of inoperable metastases targeted therapies should be applied. Furthermore, in addition to standard chemotherapies, new immunotherapies such as the CTLA-4 antibody ipilimumab are available. Regular follow-up examinations are recommended for a period of 10 years, with an intensified schedule for the first three years. PMID:24028775

Pflugfelder, Annette; Kochs, Corinna; Blum, Andreas; Capellaro, Marcus; Czeschik, Christina; Dettenborn, Therese; Dill, Dorothee; Dippel, Edgar; Eigentler, Thomas; Feyer, Petra; Follmann, Markus; Frerich, Bernhard; Ganten, Maria-Katharina; Gärtner, Jan; Gutzmer, Ralf; Hassel, Jessica; Hauschild, Axel; Hohenberger, Peter; Hübner, Jutta; Kaatz, Martin; Kleeberg, Ulrich R; Kölbl, Oliver; Kortmann, Rolf-Dieter; Krause-Bergmann, Albrecht; Kurschat, Peter; Leiter, Ulrike; Link, Hartmut; Loquai, Carmen; Löser, Christoph; Mackensen, Andreas; Meier, Friedegund; Mohr, Peter; Möhrle, Matthias; Nashan, Dorothee; Reske, Sven; Rose, Christian; Sander, Christian; Satzger, Imke; Schiller, Meinhard; Schlemmer, Heinz-Peter; Strittmatter, Gerhard; Sunderkötter, Cord; Swoboda, Lothar; Trefzer, Uwe; Voltz, Raymond; Vordermark, Dirk; Weichenthal, Michael; Werner, Andreas; Wesselmann, Simone; Weyergraf, Ansgar J; Wick, Wolfgang; Garbe, Claus; Schadendorf, Dirk

2013-08-01

337

Ability to self-detect malignant melanoma decreases with age  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

The prognosis of malignant melanoma depends on the thickness of the tumour. In this study, we analysed the trends in Breslow thickness in 63 patients referred to our institution, a tertiary dermatology referral centre. The mean thickness of melanoma was 0.31 mm, which was lower than the national average of 1.10 mm. There was a significant trend towards increased melanoma thickness with increasing age, with a rate of 0.24 mm (95% CI 0.12-0.37) for each additional 10 years of age above the age of 20 years. This trend was only apparent in cases of self-diagnosed melanomas; the thickness of tumours diagnosed by a dermatologist did not show any dependence on patient age. As the mortality from melanoma increases with age, this study suggests that dermatologists should include older people in screening programmes for melanoma.

Trolle, L; Henrik-Nielsen, R

2011-01-01

338

Posterior mediastinal melanoma causing severe dysphagia: A case report  

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Full Text Available Abstract Introduction We describe an original case of progressive severe dysphagia caused by a posterior mediastinal metastatic melanoma of unknown origin. To the best of our knowledge, such an event has never been described before in the literature. Case presentation A progressive severe dysphagia case is reported induced by a melanoma of unknown origin (metastatic to a posterior mediastinal lymph node. At the time of diagnosis, the lesion appeared as a large posterior mediastinal mass mimicking a neurogenic tumour with oesophageal involvement. After complete resection, pathological assessment of the tumour by immunohistochemistry was consistent with nodal metastatic melanoma. Conclusion This report of a posterior mediastinal lymph node melanoma is unique. The nodal origin is definitely unusual: a primary melanoma should always be carefully ruled out. In fact no other evidence, a part from the absence of the tumour elsewhere, can support the diagnosis of a primary nodal melanoma.

Meacci Elisa

2008-09-01

339

Malignant uveal melanoma and similar lesions studied by computed tomography  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Forty-four patients with intraocular disease were studied by computed tomography (CT); in 19 cases malignant uveal melanoma was considered the likely diagnosis. CT proved to be accurate in determining the location and size of uveal melanomas, demonstrating scleral invasion, and differentiating melanoma from choroidal detachment or angioma, toxocariasis, and senile macular degeneration. On CT, uveal melanomas appeared as hyperdense lesions with slight to moderate contrast enhancement. Tumors thinner than 2 mm could not be seen. Using dynamic CT, the authors noted moderate peak amplitude, normal or delayed tissue transit time, and persistently elevated washout phase (downslope), indicating increased permeability as the result of an impaired tumor blood barrier. Histological types of uveal melanoma could not be differentiated on the basis of circulatory patterns. Dynamic CT may be useful in distinguishing uveal melanoma from choroidal hemangioma or hematoma

1985-08-01

340

Choroidal melanoma metastatizing to the biliary system: A diagnostic dilemma  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Metastatic melanoma to the gall bladder is extremely rare and is associated with a very poor prognosis. We report a case of choroidal melanoma metastatizing to the hepatobiliary system, with an unusual presentation. Our patient presenting with obstructive jaundice was misdiagnosed as having carcinoma of the gall-bladder, but the diagnosis of metastatic melanoma to the gallbladder was confirmed by ultrasonography guided fine needle aspiration cytology (USG-FNAC. On reviewing the past history, the patient had a history of enucleation for choroidal melanoma. Even though the liver ?is? a common site for metastasis of choroid melanoma, the patient presenting with a suspected gall bladder mass ?is? a rare presentation. Hence, gastrointestinal symptoms and a history of melanoma should be investigated for the presence of gastrointestinal or liver metastases, even if the original primary malignancy was diagnosed years before the patient?s presentation.

Agarwal Samir

2009-12-01

 
 
 
 
341

Combined immunotherapy of malignant melanoma. Unusual survival following cerebral metastasis.  

Science.gov (United States)

An 18-year-old woman was found to have solitary cerebral, choroidal, and pulmonary metastases of malignant melanoma three years after excision of a primary malignant melanoma. The cerebral metastasis was excised, and the patient's condition was treated with CNS irradiation followed by combined immunotherapy with transfer factor and Bacille bilié de Calmette-Guérin. The transfer factor donor was her father, who showed cellular immunity to melanoma extracts on in vitro testing. Histologic examination of the pulmonary nodule, which was excised after the initiation of immunotherapy, revealed a dense lymphocytic infiltrate associated with the metastatic melanoma. The patient is currently free of detectable melanoma more than three years after the cerebral metastasis. Studies in a second patient also demonstrated the appearance of inflammatory infiltrate in metastatic melanoma following transfer factor therapy. PMID:718187

Spitler, L E; Wong, P; Sagebiel, R

1978-10-01

342

Epigenetic silencing of novel tumor suppressors in malignant melanoma.  

Science.gov (United States)

Malignant melanoma is a common and frequently lethal disease. Current therapeutic interventions have little effect on survival, emphasizing the need for a better understanding of the genetic, epigenetic, and phenotypic changes in melanoma formation and progression. We identified 17 genes that were not previously known to be silenced by methylation in melanoma using a microarray-based screen following treatment of melanoma cell lines with the DNA methylation inhibitor 5-Aza-2'-deoxycytidine. Eight of these genes have not been previously shown to undergo DNA methylation in any form of cancer. Three of the genes, QPCT, CYP1B1, and LXN, are densely methylated in >95% of uncultured melanoma tumor samples. Reexpression of either of two of the silenced genes, HOXB13 and SYK, resulted in reduced colony formation in vitro and diminished tumor formation in vivo, indicating that these genes function as tumor suppressors in melanoma. PMID:17145863

Muthusamy, Viswanathan; Duraisamy, Sekhar; Bradbury, C Matthew; Hobbs, Cara; Curley, David P; Nelson, Betsy; Bosenberg, Marcus

2006-12-01

343

Primary Melanoma of the Spinal Cord: A Case Report  

Science.gov (United States)

Primary melanoma is an extremely rare tumour of the spinal cord. We are reporting a case of primary melanoma of the spinal cord in a 55-years-old male patient. Magnetic resonance imaging showed an extradural intraspinal lesion opposite the L4 vertebral body. The lesion was completely resected and a microscopic diagnosis of melanoma was made. Thirty eight months later, the patient is alive, with no evidence of any tumour recurrence.

Sinha, Ruchi; Rizvi, Tauseef Husain; Chakraborti, Shrijeet; Ballal, Chandra Kumar; Kumar, Anup

2013-01-01

344

Similar nucleotide excision repair capacity in melanocytes and melanoma cells  

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Sunlight UV exposure produces DNA photoproducts in skin that are repaired solely by nucleotide excision repair in humans. A significant fraction of melanomas are thought to result from UV-induced DNA damage that escapes repair, however, little evidence is available regarding the functional capacity of normal human melanocytes, malignant melanoma cells and metastatic melanoma cells to repair UV-induced photoproducts in DNA. In this study, we measured nucleotide excision repair in both normal m...

Gaddameedhi, Shobhan; Kemp, Michael G.; Reardon, Joyce T.; Shields, Janiel M.; Smith-roe, Stephanie L.; Kaufmann, William K.; Sancar, Aziz

2010-01-01

345

Selection criteria for genetic assessment of patients with familial melanoma  

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Approximately 5% to 10% of melanoma may be hereditary in nature, and about 2% of melanoma can be specifically attributed to pathogenic germline mutations in cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2A (CDKN2A). To appropriately identify the small proportion of patients who benefit most from referral to a genetics specialist for consideration of genetic testing for CDKN2A, we have reviewed available published studies of CDKN2A mutation analysis in cohorts with invasive, cutaneous melanoma and found v...

Leachman, Sancy A.; Carucci, John; Kohlmann, Wendy; Banks, Kimberly C.; Asgari, Maryam M.; Bergman, Wilma; Bianchi-scarra?, Giovanna; Brentnall, Teresa; Bressac-de Paillerets, Brigitte; Bruno, William; Curiel-lewandrowski, Clara; Snoo, Femke A.; Debniak, Tadeusz; Demierre, Marie-france; Elder, David

2009-01-01

346

Palliative radiotherapy for malign melanoma: a case report  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Malignant melanoma is a skin cancer with poor prognosis. Historically melanoma has been thought of as a relatively radioresistant tumour. Nowadays, radiation delivered according to hypofractionated schedule is the most used, although there are few data confirm that this schedule improves the therapeutic impact. We report a case, with stage IV malignant melanoma, whose tumoral bleeding was palliated successfully giving 20 Gy external radiotherapy in 5 fractionations.

Vuslat YÜRÜT-ÇALO?LU

2006-01-01

347

Macrophage Inhibitory Cytokine-1 Regulates Melanoma Vascular Development  

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Expression of macrophage inhibitory cytokine-1 (MIC-1), a member of the transforming growth factor-? family, normally increases during inflammation or organ injury. MIC-1 is also expressed at higher levels in melanomas; however, its role in tumorigenesis is unknown. This report identifies a novel function for MIC-1 in cancer. MIC-1 was overexpressed in ?67% of advanced melanomas, accompanied by fivefold to six-fold higher levels of secreted protein in serum of melanoma patients compared wi...

Huh, Sung Jin; Chung, Chin-ying; Sharma, Arati; Robertson, Gavin P.

2010-01-01

348

Reactivity to tyrosinase: expression in cancer (melanoma) and autoimmunity (vitiligo).  

Science.gov (United States)

Anti-tyrosinase antibodies are found in the sera of patients with diffuse vitiligo, metastatic melanoma and in sera of patients with melanoma and hypopigmentation (MAH). The autoantigen is tyrosinase itself, the enzyme that participates in pigment (melanin) formation by both melanocytes and melanoma cells. The production of autoantibodies in both diseases is associated with the development of white patches on the patients' skin. The presence of these autoantibodies in patients with melanoma may suggest a better prognosis. Cross-antigenicity between melanoma cells and normal melanocytes is most probably the key mechanism leading to the appearance of MAH. Anti-tyrosinase antibodies are absorbed by melanocytes and by melanoma cells in all the 3 situations (melanoma, vitiligo, MAH). However, since the production of antibodies in vitiligo exceeds that in melanoma or MAH, the antibodies are detected in significantly higher levels only in vitiligo. It is suggested here that anti-tyrosinase antibodies may be responsible, or at least participate in destruction of normal melanocytes during the immune response to melanoma antigens. This mechanism may be responsible for the phenomenon of MAH in patients with melanoma, and for the formation of the autoimmune vitiligo. Anti-tyrosinase antibodies may serve for two clinical applications. One is a marker for monitoring and follow up of patients with melanoma treated by immune therapy. The second is active (or passive) immunotherapy. We have recently shown that C57BL/6J mice immunized with tyrosinase generated a high titer of antityrosinase antibodies, and following the inoculation of melanoma cells developed lower number of lung metastases, compared to the unvaccinated control group. PMID:9140726

Merimsky, O; Shoenfeld, Y; Baharav, E; Zigelman, R; Fishman, P

1996-01-01

349

Unilateral lichen planus pigmentosus mimicking acral lentiginous melanoma.  

Science.gov (United States)

The authors report a case of a Latin American woman who developed progressive pigmentation primarily involving two digits of her right hand. She was scheduled for amputation based on a presumptive histologic diagnosis of melanoma with regression. Dermatology consultation with repeat biopsies disclosed a lichenoid tissue reaction with marked pigment incontinence and no evidence of melanoma. This report should prompt physicians to include lichen planus pigmentosus in the differential diagnosis of acral lentiginous melanoma. PMID:20677541

Bickle, Kelly; Smithberger, Erica; Lien, Mary H; Fenske, Neil Alan

2010-07-01

350

Delayed malignant melanoma recurrence simulating primary ovarian cancer: Case report  

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Abstract Background Metastatic involvement of the ovary from malignant melanoma is uncommon and presents a diagnostic challenge. Most cases are associated with disseminated disease and carry a dismal prognosis. Delayed ovarian recurrences from melanoma may mimic primary ovarian cancer and lead to aggressive cytoreductive procedures. Case presentation A case of malignant melanoma in a premenopausal patient is presented with late abdominal and ovarian metastatic s...

2008-01-01

351

Primary Melanoma of the Vagina Treated by Imatinib: Case Report  

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Melanoma of the vagina is a rare lesion. It results from the malignant transformation of ectopic melanocytes occurring in post-menopause. The CKIT is expressed in 36% of cases in addition to melanoma markers. Prognosis is poor especially for inoperable and disseminated forms despite systemic therapy. Treatment with Imatinib is an option in cases of metastatic mucosal melanoma with CKIT mutation or amplification. We report the case of post-menopausal women...

Karima Oualla; Fatimazahra El’mrabet; Hind Elfatemi; Samia Arifi; Nawfel Mellas; Abdelaziz Banani; Siham Tizniti; Afaf Amarti; Omar Elmesbahi

2013-01-01

352

Sunbed use, Sunscreen use, Childhood Sun Exposure, and Cutaneous Melanoma  

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Cancer registries established after World War II show that in most light?skinned populations, the incidence of malignant cutaneous melanoma (hereafter termed melanoma) has steadily increased. In the 1970s and 1980s, laboratory and epidemiological studies documented the possibility that solar radiation was the main environmental risk factor for most skin cancers, including melanoma, the basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and the squamous cell carcinoma (SCC).

Autier P.J.M.

2011-01-01

353

Pattern of cutaneous malignant melanoma in Zaria, Nigeria  

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Background : Twenty percent of the world?s melanoma is seen in Black Africans and Asians. Melanoma in Nigerians would appear to be arising from existing epidermal melanocytes and not from preexisting naevus cells. Methods : All diagnosed cases of cutaneous malignant melanoma in the Department of Pathology Ahmadu Bello University Teaching Hospital, Zaria, Nigeria over a ten-year study period (1991-2000) were reviewed. The age, sex and anatomical site of the ...

Samaila M; Rafindadi A

2006-01-01

354

DNA-methylation profiling distinguishes malignant melanomas from benign nevi  

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DNA methylation, an epigenetic alteration typically occurring early in cancer development, could aid in the molecular diagnosis of melanoma. We determined technical feasibility for high-throughput DNA-methylation array-based profiling using formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues for selection of candidate DNA-methylation differences between melanomas and nevi. Promoter methylation was evaluated in 27 common benign nevi and 22 primary invasive melanomas using a 1505 CpG site microarray. Unsu...

Conway, Kathleen; Edmiston, Sharon N.; Khondker, Zakaria S.; Groben, Pamela A.; Zhou, Xin; Chu, Haitao; Kuan, Pei Fen; Hao, Honglin; Carson, Craig; Berwick, Marianne; Olilla, David W.; Thomas, Nancy E.

2011-01-01

355

In vitro cellular radiosensitivity of human malignant melanoma  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The agar diffusion chamber assay was used to construct in vitro radiation cell survival curves for two human malignant melanoma xenografts. Both tumors had survival curves of shoulder-exponential shape with large shoulders (Dq 2.38, 2.92 Gy). Comparison with previous studies of 4 human tumor xenografts in the same system suggests that large shoulders are more common in melanomas than other tumor types. This supports the case for large fraction irradiation in the clinical therapy of melanoma

1982-01-01

356

Current Research and Development of Chemotherapeutic Agents for Melanoma  

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Cutaneous malignant melanoma is the most lethal form of skin cancer and an increasingly common disease worldwide. It remains one of the most treatment-refractory malignancies. The current treatment options for patients with metastatic melanoma are limited and in most cases non-curative. This review focuses on conventional chemotherapeutic drugs for melanoma treatment, by a single or combinational agent approach, but also summarizes some potential novel phytoagents discovered from dietary vege...

Kyaw Minn Hsan; Chun-Chieh Chen; Lie-Fen Shyur

2010-01-01

357

Melanoma acrolentiginoso: um desafio ao diagnóstico precoce Acral lentiginous melanoma: a challenge for early diagnosis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available FUNDAMENTOS: As características do melanoma acrolentiginoso (MAL diagnosticado no Brasil são pouco estudadas. OBJETIVOS: Avaliar as características do MAL diagnosticado na Unidade de Melanoma da Santa Casa de São Paulo - UMSC, comparando essa manifestação com outros subtipos e verificar se as possíveis diferenças entre eles teriam importância na determinação do diagnóstico, tratamento e prognóstico. MÉTODO: A Casuística da UMSC foi subdividida em dois grupos, um de melanoma acrolentiginoso (MAL e outro de melanoma não acrolentiginoso (NAL, que foram comparados quanto a sexo, cor, idade, espessura e nível de invasão da lesão primária, estadiamento, tempo decorrido entre a percepção do tumor e o atendimento pelo médico. RESULTADOS: A casuística correspondente ao MAL mostrou freqüência significativa de pacientes não brancos, com faixa etária mais elevada, com a lesão primária em média, mais espessa e ulcerada. Não ocorreram diferenças significativas quanto ao sexo e estadiamento, bem como com relação ao tempo decorrido entre perceber a neoplasia e procurar o médico. CONCLUSÕES: O MAL diagnosticado na UMSC ocorre, principalmente, em pacientes que normalmente não são alertados para câncer da pele (não brancos e pertencem a uma faixa etária mais elevada (portanto, do ponto de vista teórico, poderiam estar menos atentos ao início da doença. A maioria apresentou lesão espessa e ulcerada, conseqüentemente de maior risco para metástases. Essa forma de câncer é desconhecida do público em geral e mesmo por boa parcela da classe médica.BACKGROUND: The characteristics of acral lentiginous melanoma diagnosed in Brazil have been subject to few studies. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the characteristics of acral lentiginous melanoma diagnosed at the Melanoma Unit of Santa Casa Hospital of Sao Paulo, to compare them with the other melanoma subtypes and to verify whether the possible differences between them are important in the determination of the diagnosis, treatment and prognosis. METHOD: Patients were divided into acral lentiginous melanoma and non-acral lentiginous melanoma groups and compared in reference to sex, color, age, depth and level of invasion of the primary lesion, stage, time between perceiving the tumor and seeking medical assistance. RESULTS: The cases of acral lentiginous melanoma were significantly more frequent among non-whites and the elderly, with the primary lesion, on average deeper and ulcerated, without significant differences in the sex, stage or the time elapsed between noticing the neoplasia and seeking the physician. CONCLUSIONS: Acral lentiginous melanoma diagnosed at the Melanoma Unit of Santa Casa Hospital of Sao Paulo, occurred mainly: in patients: who had not been advised about skin cancer (non-whites and patients who are elderly and therefore, theoretically, could be less liable to notice the onset of the disease. The majority also presented deeper and ulcerated lesions and consequently with a higher risk of metastasis. This kind of cancer is unknown to the public in general and even to a large number of physicians.

Marcus Maia

2003-10-01

358

Melanoma cutâneo: estudo prospectivo de 65 casos Cutaneous melanoma: prospective study of 65 cases  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available FUNDAMENTOS: A incidência e a mortalidade por melanoma cutâneo vêm aumentando em todo o mundo. Os registros brasileiros de bases populacionais não refletem precisamente a real dimensão do problema. OBJETIVOS: Estudo prospectivo de 65 casos de melanoma cutâneo observados no Hospital Universitário Clementino Fraga Filho no período de 1993 a 2003. MÉTODOS: Foram analisadas as variáveis idade, sexo, cor, localização, tipos clínico-histológicos e estadiamento. RESULTADOS: 64,7% na faixa etária de 40 a 69 anos, distribuição etária homogênea entre o sexo masculino (49,2% e o sexo feminino (50,8%, predominância de brancos (83%, localização no tronco (35,3%, tipo clínico-histológico expansivo superficial (63%/30,7% e relação de significância entre tipo acral localizado no pé em não brancos. Segundo o American Joint Committee on Cancer, em 2002, 22 casos (33,8% no estádio IA, 14 (21,5% melanomas in situ e um caso indeterminado. CONCLUSÕES: O melanoma cutâneo primário na amostra estudada mostrou padrões semelhantes aos classicamente reconhecidos e maior freqüência do estádio IA e melanoma in situ.BACKGROUND: Incidence and mortality of cutaneous melanoma are increasing all over the world. The data base for the Brazilian population is still inadequate. OBJECTIVES: Prospective study of 65 cases seen at University Hospital Clementino Fraga Filho, from 1993 to 2003. METHODS: Patient's age, sex, ethnic group, anatomic site, clinical histological presentation and staging were analyzed. RESULTS: The case distribution was 64.7% aged 40 to 69 years, males (49.2% and females (50.8%, majority white (83.1%, most lesions in the trunk (35.3%, more frequently of the clinical histological superficial spreading type (63%/30.7% and significant relationship between foot acral type in non-whites. According to American Joint Committee on Cancer 2002 system, 22 cases (33.8% in stage IA, 14 (21.5% melanomas in situ, and one indeterminate case. CONCLUSIONS: Primary cutaneous melanoma in the present study has a similar pattern to other published series and higher frequency of stage IA and in situ melanomas.

Nurimar C. Fernandes

2005-02-01

359

Melanoma lentiginoso acral: una variante de melanoma maligno de especial interés en Colombia / Acral lentiginous melanoma: a variant of malignant melanoma of special interest in Colombia  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El melanoma lentiginoso acral (MLA) es una variante rápidamente progresiva del melanoma maligno (MM). Constituye el 5-10% de los MM y se presenta con mayor frecuencia en pacientes de raza negra, asiáticos y latinoamericanos. En Colombia, la frecuencia de MM se encuentra en aumento y el MLA es una de [...] las variantes más comunes (14,7% de todos los melanomas). La edad promedio de presentación es de 58 años, con una tasa de supervivencia menor para las personas de raza negra, asociada al diagnóstico tardío. EL MLA se localiza en las plantas, palmas y regiones subungueales y en su etiopatología se ha descrito la presencia de mutaciones en varios genes: 9p21 p16: (67%), 11q13 (CCND1) (47%), 22q11-q13 (40%) y 5p15 (20%). El diagnóstico de MLA se ha fundamentado clásicamente en la histopatología; sin embargo, otros métodos como la dermatoscopia, la evaluación del ganglio centinela y la detección de alteraciones en las proteínas del ciclo celular pueden contribuir al diagnóstico precoz y a mejorar el pronóstico tanto del MLA como del MM en general. Abstract in english Acral lentiginous melanoma (ALM) is a rapidly progressive variant of malignant melanoma (MM). It constitutes 5-10% of all cases of MM and its prevalence is higher in blacks, Asians and Latin Americans. In Colombia, the incidence of MM is increasing and ALM is one of its most common variants (14.7% o [...] f all melanoma cases). The mean age at presentation of the disease is 58 years, and the survival rate is lower in black people, partly due to delayed diagnoses. ALM is located in the soles, palms and subungual regions. Mutations in several genes have been described in the pathogenesis of ALM, namely: 9p21 (p16: 67%), 11q13 (CCND1) (47%), 22q11-q13 (40%) and 5p15 (20%). The diagnosis of ALM has been traditionally based on histopathology; however, other diagnostic tools such as dermoscopy, evaluation of the sentinel lymph node and detection of alterations in proteins that control the cell cycle, may contribute to earlier diagnoses and, consequently, improve the prognosis of both ALM and MM.

Lina María, Colmenares Roldán; Margarita, Velásquez Lopera; Gloria Andrea, Vargas Suaza.

360

Enrichment of circulating melanoma cells (CMCs) using negative selection from patients with metastatic melanoma.  

Science.gov (United States)

Circulating tumor cells have emerged as prognostic biomarkers in the treatment of metastatic cancers of epithelial origins viz., breast, colorectal and prostate. These tumors express Epithelial Cell Adhesion Molecule (EpCAM) on their cell surface which is used as an antigen for immunoaffinity capture. However, EpCAM capture technologies are of limited utility for non-epithelial cancers such as melanoma. We report a method to enrich Circulating Melanoma Cells (CMCs) that does not presuppose malignant cell characteristics. CMCs were enriched by centrifugation of blood samples from healthy (N = 10) and patient (N = 11) donors, followed by RBC lysis and immunomagnetic depletion of CD45-positive leukocytes in a specialized magnetic separator. CMCs were identified by immunocytochemistry using Melan-A or S100B as melanoma markers and enumerated using automated microscopy image analyses. Separation was optimized for maximum sensitivity and recovery of CMCs. Our results indicate large number of CMCs in Stage IV melanoma patients. Analysis of survival suggested a trend toward decreased survival with increased number of CMCs. Moreover, melanoma-associated miRs were found to be higher in CMC-enriched fractions in two patients when compared with the unseparated samples, validating this method as applicable for molecular analyses. Negative selection is a promising approach for isolation of CMCs and other EpCAM -negative CTCs, and is amenable to molecular analysis of CMCs. Further studies are required to validate its efficacy at capturing specific circulating cells for genomic analysis, and xenograft studies. PMID:24811334

Joshi, Powrnima; Jacobs, Barbara; Derakhshan, Adeeb; Moore, Lee R; Elson, Paul; Triozzi, Pierre L; Borden, Ernest; Zborowski, Maciej

2014-05-15

 
 
 
 
361

Markers and tissue resources for melanoma: meeting report.  

Science.gov (United States)

The Markers and Tissue Resources for Melanoma meeting convened by the Cancer Diagnosis Program, Division of Cancer Treatment and Diagnosis, Specialized Programs of Research Excellence at the Organ Systems Branch of the National Cancer Institute (NCI), and the Melanoma Research Foundation was held in Gaithersburg, MD on October 2005. The meeting reviewed the current status of biomarkers for early- and advanced-stage melanoma and addressed some of the challenges scientists and clinicians face as they unravel the biology of melanoma and try to apply these findings to patient care. Specifically, the participants focused on molecular changes associated with melanoma progression, potential diagnostic and prognostic markers emerging from molecular profiling studies, and new treatment targets for current and future clinical trials. They also highlighted the ongoing challenges about translational research in melanoma, including availability of tissue resources, and summarized the status of nevus and melanoma tissue microarrays, recently developed as a collaborative project between the melanoma research community and the NCI. The meeting report is intended to provide a perspective on emerging scientific approaches in translational research that can enhance the progress in discovery and validation of markers for melanoma. (Cancer Res 2006; 66(22): 10652-7). PMID:17108101

Becker, Dorothea; Mihm, Martin C; Hewitt, Stephen M; Sondak, Vernon K; Fountain, Jane W; Thurin, Magdalena

2006-11-15

362

The GIST of targeted therapy for malignant melanoma.  

Science.gov (United States)

The high response rates to the tyrosine kinase inhibitor imatinib in KIT-mutated gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST) has led to a paradigm shift in cancer treatment. In a parallel fashion, the field of melanoma is shifting with the utilization of targeted therapy to treat BRAF-mutated melanoma. We reviewed published literature in PubMed on GIST and melanoma, with a focus on both past and current clinical trials. The data presented centers on imatinib, vemurafenib, and most recently dabrafenib, targeting KIT and BRAF mutations and their outcomes in GIST and melanoma. The BRAF(V600E) melanoma mutation, like the KIT exon 11 mutation in GIST, has the highest response to therapy. High response rates with inhibition of KIT in GIST have not been recapitulated in KIT-mutated melanoma. Median time to resistance to targeted agents occurs in ~7 months with BRAF inhibitors and 2 years for imatinib in GIST. In GIST, the development of secondary mutations leads to resistance; however, there have been no similar gatekeeper mutations found in melanoma. Although surgery remains an important component of the treatment of early GIST and melanoma, surgeons will need to continue to define the thresholds and timing for operation in the setting of metastatic disease with improved targeted therapies. Combination treatment strategies may result in more successful clinical outcomes in the management of melanoma in the future. PMID:24531699

Bello, Danielle M; Dematteo, Ronald P; Ariyan, Charlotte E

2014-06-01

363

Sequence and Insertion Sites of Murine Melanoma-Associated Retrovirus  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We previously showed that B16 melanoma cells produce ecotropic melanoma-associated retrovirus (MelARV) which encodes a melanoma-associated antigen recognized by MM2-9B6 monoclonal antibody. The biological significance of MelARV in melanoma formation remains unknown. We found that infection of normal melanocytes with MelARV resulted in malignant transformation. It is likely that MelARV emerged from the defective Emv-2 provirus, a single copy of ecotropic provirus existing in the genome of C57B...

Li, Mengfeng; Huang, Xiaojun; Zhu, Zhenyu; Gorelik, Elieser

1999-01-01

364

Malignant melanoma cure by selective thermal neutron capture therapy  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Thermal neutrons are easily absorbed by the nonradioactive isotope 10B, resulting in the emission of alpha particles and lithium atoms, which release an energy of 2.33 MeV for up to a 14-?m-diam melanoma cell. Thus, if 10B can be selectively accumulated in melanoma, it can be destroyed without injury to the surrounding normal tissues by concentrating high linear energy transfer particles. The authors have synthesized seven melanoma-seeking 10B compounds, two of which, 10B12-chlorpromazine(10B12-CPZ) and 10B1-p-boronophenylalanine(10B1-BPA), are found to be highly effective. The enhanced melanoma-killing effect of the 10B compounds is found by in vitro radiobiological analysis. A chemical assay and alpha-track analysis 28 h after systemic administration to melanoma-bearing hamsters reveals a 10B melanoma/blood ratio of 11.5 and a melanoma/liver ratio of 15. Establishment of a clinical therapeutic method for curing human melanoma without failure is underway by correlating biophysical, biochemical, biological, and therapeutic data analysis. Recently, the authors have also been working to develop neutron capture therapy using 10B-monoclonal antibodies for melanoma and were able to make some 10B conjugates with the specific m259-0 antibody

1986-11-16

365

[Investigation of malignant melanoma in an "open house" setting].  

Science.gov (United States)

Individuals with a self-evaluated risk of malignant melanoma were invited to an "open house" where trained dermatologists examined suspected lesions. The attendants filled in a short questionnaire relating to skin cancer risk factors. Persons with skin changes suspected for malignancy were referred for excision in the dermatological department. The clinical evaluation included dermatoscopy. Nine hundred and eleven individuals attended. Among 16 individuals referred for excision one malignant melanoma, one lentigo maligna melanoma and two in situ melanomas were histologically verified. Furthermore, 21 basal cell carcinomas were identified clinically. The most frequent clinical diagnoses were melanocytic naevi and seborrhoic keratoses. PMID:10210976

Poulsen, A G; Larsen, F G; Weismann, K; Petersen, C S; Ravnborg, L R; Heidenheim, M; Lauritzen, T E; Held, E; Osterlind, A L

1999-03-22

366

Distinct melanoma types based on reflectance confocal microscopy.  

Science.gov (United States)

Distinct melanoma types exist in relation to patient characteristics, tumor morphology, histopathologic aspects and genetic background. A new diagnostic imaging tool, reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM), allows in vivo analysis of a given lesion with nearly histologic resolution while offering a dynamic view of the tissue in its 'natural' environment. The aim of this study was to analyse cell morphology of consecutive melanomas as they appear on RCM and to correlate morphology with tumor and patient characteristics. One hundred melanomas were visualized by RCM before excision. Clinical data, confocal features and histologic criteria were analysed. Four types of melanomas were identified as follows: (i) Melanomas with a predominantly dendritic cell population ('dendritic-cell melanomas') typically were thin by Breslow index; (ii) Melanomas typified by roundish melanocytes were smaller in size than dendritic cell MMs, but thicker by Breslow index, and predominantly occurred in patients with a high nevus count; (iii) Melanomas characterized by dermal nesting proliferation usually were thick by Breslow index at the time of diagnosis, although frequently smaller in size compared with the other types; and (iv) combined type melanomas may represent an evolution of dendritic cell and/or round cell types. Integration of confocal microscopy with clinical and histologic aspects may help in identifying and managing distinct tumors. PMID:24750486

Pellacani, Giovanni; De Pace, Barbara; Reggiani, Camilla; Cesinaro, Anna Maria; Argenziano, Giuseppe; Zalaudek, Iris; Soyer, H Peter; Longo, Caterina

2014-06-01

367

Assessment of PALB2 as a Candidate Melanoma Susceptibility Gene  

Science.gov (United States)

Partner and localizer of BRCA2 (PALB2) interacts with BRCA2 to enable double strand break repair through homologous recombination. Similar to BRCA2, germline mutations in PALB2 have been shown to predispose to Fanconi anaemia as well as pancreatic and breast cancer. The PALB2/BRCA2 protein interaction, as well as the increased melanoma risk observed in families harbouring BRCA2 mutations, makes PALB2 a candidate for melanoma susceptibility. In order to assess PALB2 as a melanoma predisposition gene, we sequenced the entire protein-coding sequence of PALB2 in probands from 182 melanoma families lacking pathogenic mutations in known high penetrance melanoma susceptibility genes: CDKN2A, CDK4, and BAP1. In addition, we interrogated whole-genome and exome data from another 19 kindreds with a strong family history of melanoma for deleterious mutations in PALB2. Here we report a rare known deleterious PALB2 mutation (rs118203998) causing a premature truncation of the protein (p.Y1183X) in an individual who had developed four different cancer types, including melanoma. Three other family members affected with melanoma did not carry the variant. Overall our data do not support a case for PALB2 being associated with melanoma predisposition.

Aoude, Lauren G.; Xu, Mai; Zhao, Zhen Zhen; Kovacs, Michael; Palmer, Jane M.; Johansson, Peter; Symmons, Judith; Trent, Jeffrey M.; Martin, Nicholas G.; Montgomery, Grant W.; Brown, Kevin M.; Hayward, Nicholas K.

2014-01-01

368

Malignant melanoma of the oral cavity: A review of literature  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Oral malignant melanoma is a rare aggressive neoplasm of the middle age. This malignancy commonly affects male subjects and is more frequently seen at the level of the hard palate and gingiva. At present, the clinicopathological classification of oral melanoma is not yet clearly outlined; consequently, the skin form is often taken as a reference. In many cases (up to 30%, the diagnosis of melanoma is made on lesions, which have evolved from the pre-existing pigmented lesions. The poor prognosis of oral melanomas requires that pigmented lesions of undetermined origin be routinely biopsied. The surgical approach, combined with the chemotherapeutic one, is the first choice treatment. The purpose of this study is to review literature that has been published about malignant melanoma of the oral cavity. Materials and Methods: Thirty-eight published articles and 8 textbooks related to oral malignant melanoma and been published in the last two decades are reviewed. Conclusion: The review of literature in the field of malignant melanoma of the oral cavity show that this malignancy might be different from cutaneous malignant melanomas, and new criteria for diagnosis and therapy should be considered for this disease. Physicians and dentists who treat problems of the oral cavity should be aware of the need for early diagnosis of oral melanomas and performing biopsies of doubtful pigmented lesions.

Hashemi Pour M

2008-01-01

369

Ultraviolet radiation and melanoma mortality in the United States  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

White male and female melanoma mortality rates for the period 1950 to 1969 for 18 US counties have been examined to clarify the importance of received ultraviolet radiation as a factor in melanoma mortality. Although latitude and received ultraviolet radiation were correlated at the 0.01 significance level, no significant correlation was found between melanoma mortality in white males or females and ultraviolet radiation. This suggests that factors other than received ultraviolet radiation may play a role in melanoma mortality, particularly in the 18 counties studied

1980-01-01

370

Primary malignant melanoma of the esophagus: a case report  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Primary malignant melanoma of the esophagus is extremely rare, with less than 200 cases reported in the literature. However, primary malignant melanoma is an aggressive tumor. We report a case of primary esophageal malignant melanoma that presented with a large polypoid mass in the lower esophagus, and subsequently showed multiple metastatic nodules in the subcutaneous layer, skin and retroperitoneum. Primary malignant melanoma should be included in the differential diagnosis of a polypoid esophageal mass, especially in cases where metastases to unexpected areas occur or in cases of unexpected metastatic patterns

2007-07-01

371

Irradiation of malignant eyelid melanoma with iodine 125 plaque  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

We used contact irradiation with iodine 125 seeds to treat a large, exulcerative, nodular, amelanotic malignant eyelid melanoma with metastasis to the regional lymph nodes in an 80-year-old man. The procedure was similar to iodine 125 plaque irradiation of malignant choroidal melanoma; special equipment, however, was needed to protect the eye from radiation exposure. The response of the malignant eyelid melanoma to iodine 125 plaque irradiation was similar to that of malignant melanomas of the choroid. No complications were observed in a follow-up period of 15 months

1990-07-15

372

DNA-methylation profiling distinguishes malignant melanomas from benign nevi.  

Science.gov (United States)

DNA methylation, an epigenetic alteration typically occurring early in cancer development, could aid in the molecular diagnosis of melanoma. We determined technical feasibility for high-throughput DNA-methylation array-based profiling using formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues for selection of candidate DNA-methylation differences between melanomas and nevi. Promoter methylation was evaluated in 27 common benign nevi and 22 primary invasive melanomas using a 1505 CpG site microarray. Unsupervised hierarchical clustering distinguished melanomas from nevi; 26 CpG sites in 22 genes were identified with significantly different methylation levels between melanomas and nevi after adjustment for age, sex, and multiple comparisons and with ?-value differences of ? 0.2. Prediction analysis for microarrays identified 12 CpG loci that were highly predictive of melanoma, with area under the receiver operating characteristic curves of > 0.95. Of our panel of 22 genes, 14 were statistically significant in an independent sample set of 29 nevi (including dysplastic nevi) and 25 primary invasive melanomas after adjustment for age, sex, and multiple comparisons. This first report of a DNA-methylation signature discriminating melanomas from nevi indicates that DNA methylation appears promising as an additional tool for enhancing melanoma diagnosis. PMID:21375697

Conway, Kathleen; Edmiston, Sharon N; Khondker, Zakaria S; Groben, Pamela A; Zhou, Xin; Chu, Haitao; Kuan, Pei Fen; Hao, Honglin; Carson, Craig; Berwick, Marianne; Olilla, David W; Thomas, Nancy E

2011-04-01

373

MERTK receptor tyrosine kinase is a therapeutic target in melanoma.  

Science.gov (United States)

Metastatic melanoma is one of the most aggressive forms of cutaneous cancers. Although recent therapeutic advances have prolonged patient survival, the prognosis remains dismal. C-MER proto-oncogene tyrosine kinase (MERTK) is a receptor tyrosine kinase with oncogenic properties that is often overexpressed or activated in various malignancies. Using both protein immunohistochemistry and microarray analyses, we demonstrate that MERTK expression correlates with disease progression. MERTK expression was highest in metastatic melanomas, followed by primary melanomas, while the lowest expression was observed in nevi. Additionally, over half of melanoma cell lines overexpressed MERTK compared with normal human melanocytes; however, overexpression did not correlate with mutations in BRAF or RAS. Stimulation of melanoma cells with the MERTK ligand GAS6 resulted in the activation of several downstream signaling pathways including MAPK/ERK, PI3K/AKT, and JAK/STAT. MERTK inhibition via shRNA reduced MERTK-mediated downstream signaling, reduced colony formation by up to 59%, and diminished tumor volume by 60% in a human melanoma murine xenograft model. Treatment of melanoma cells with UNC1062, a novel MERTK-selective small-molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitor, reduced activation of MERTK-mediated downstream signaling, induced apoptosis in culture, reduced colony formation in soft agar, and inhibited invasion of melanoma cells. This work establishes MERTK as a therapeutic target in melanoma and provides a rationale for the continued development of MERTK-targeted therapies. PMID:23585477

Schlegel, Jennifer; Sambade, Maria J; Sather, Susan; Moschos, Stergios J; Tan, Aik-Choon; Winges, Amanda; DeRyckere, Deborah; Carson, Craig C; Trembath, Dimitri G; Tentler, John J; Eckhardt, S Gail; Kuan, Pei-Fen; Hamilton, Ronald L; Duncan, Lyn M; Miller, C Ryan; Nikolaishvili-Feinberg, Nana; Midkiff, Bentley R; Liu, Jing; Zhang, Weihe; Yang, Chao; Wang, Xiaodong; Frye, Stephen V; Earp, H Shelton; Shields, Janiel M; Graham, Douglas K

2013-05-01

374

A primary amelanotic melanoma of the vagina, diagnosed by immunohistochemical staining with HMB-45, which recurred as a pigmented melanoma  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Usually, malignant melanoma is readily diagnosed by the presence of melanin granules. Although amelanotic melanoma contains a few melanin granules, it is often difficult to differentiate from non-epithelial malignant tumours. This report describes a case of amelanotic melanoma of the vagina, which was originally suspected to be a non-epithelial malignant tumour, but was subsequently correctly diagnosed by immunohistochemical staining with the HMB-45 antibody and for the S-100 protein. A light...

Oguri, H.; Izumiya, C.; Maeda, N.; Fukaya, T.; Moriki, T.

2004-01-01

375

Mobile Phone Use and Risk of Uveal Melanoma: Results of the Risk Factors for Uveal Melanoma Case-Control Study  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We recently reported an increased risk of uveal melanoma among mobile phone users. Here, we present the results of a case–control study that assessed the association between mobile phone use and risk of uveal melanoma. We recruited 459 uveal melanoma case patients at the University of Duisburg-Essen and matched 455 case patients with 827 population control subjects, 133 with 180 ophthalmologist control subjects, and 187 with 187 sibling control subjects. We used a questionnaire to assess mo...

2009-01-01

376

Future perspectives in melanoma research. Meeting report from the "Melanoma Bridge. Napoli, December 2nd-4th 2012"  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Recent insights into the genetic and somatic aberrations have initiated a new era of rapidly evolving targeted and immune-based treatments for melanoma. After decades of unsuccessful attempts to finding a more effective cure in the treatment of melanoma now we have several drugs active in melanoma. The possibility to use these drugs in combination to improve responses to overcome the resistance, to potentiate the action of immune system with the new immunomodulating antibodies, and identifica...

Ascierto, Paolo; Grimaldi, Antonio; Acquavella, Nicolas; Borgognoni, Lorenzo; Calabro?, Luana; Cascinelli, Natale; Cesano, Alessandra; Del Vecchio, Michele; Eggermont, Alexander; Faries, Mark; Ferrone, Soldano; Fox, Bernard; Gajewski, Thomas; Galon, Je?ro?me; Gnjatic, Sacha

2013-01-01

377

Future perspectives in melanoma research. Meeting report from the “Melanoma Bridge. Napoli, December 2nd-4th 2012”  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Recent insights into the genetic and somatic aberrations have initiated a new era of rapidly evolving targeted and immune-based treatments for melanoma. After decades of unsuccessful attempts to finding a more effective cure in the treatment of melanoma now we have several drugs active in melanoma. The possibility to use these drugs in combination to improve responses to overcome the resistance, to potentiate the action of immune system with the new immunomodulating antibodies, and identifica...

Ascierto, Paolo A.; Grimaldi, Antonio M.; Acquavella, Nicolas; Borgognoni, Lorenzo; Calabro?, Luana; Cascinelli, Natale; Cesano, Alessandra; Del Vecchio, Michele; Eggermont, Alexander M.; Faries, Mark; Ferrone, Soldano; Fox, Bernard A.; Gajewski, Thomas F.; Galon, Je?ro?me; Gnjatic, Sacha

2013-01-01

378

Metastatic melanoma to the ethmoid sinus.  

Science.gov (United States)

Malignant melanomas comprise approximately 1.5% of all malignant tumors and one fifth of these will involve the head and neck. The surgeon who operates in this region should be familiar with all aspects of this disease. The most common site of metastasis to the nose and paranasal sinuses is via the maxillary sinus. Often these metastases are of renal origin, with pulmonary metastases being the second most common source. The most frequent presenting symptoms are epistaxis, a nasal mass, or nasal obstruction. Review of the English literature to date has not revealed any reports of isolated metastatic melanoma to the ethmoid sinus. Batson, in 1940, proposed a plausible mechanism of such hematogenous metastasis via a valveless vertebral venous bed. PMID:3964454

Bizon, J G; Newman, R K

1986-06-01

379

Therapeutic vaccines against melanoma and colorectal cancer.  

Science.gov (United States)

Our overall strategy is to develop multivalent recombinant vaccines capable of eliciting broad immune responses in patients with malignant melanoma or colorectal cancer. We report herein results from initial studies conducted in cancer patients to evaluate the effect of intratumoral administration of recombinant canarypox viruses carrying cytokine genes. Our current focus is on the induction of tumor-specific T-cell responses using a prime/boost immunization schedule with a unique vector system derived from the canary pox virus called ALVAC, in which we incorporate genes encoding Tumor Associated Antigens (TAAs) of interest. Clinical studies in colorectal cancer evaluating an ALVAC CEA candidate vaccine have shown that this approach is safe and can induce tumor-specific T cell responses. Additional clinical studies evaluating candidate vaccines against melanoma and colorectal cancer, targeting either the gp100, Mage 1, Mage 3 or p53 molecules are ongoing. PMID:11257394

Tartaglia, J; Bonnet, M C; Berinstein, N; Barber, B; Klein, M; Moingeon, P

2001-03-21

380

Proteomics of Uveal Melanoma : A Minireview  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Uveal melanoma (UM) continues to be associated with a high mortality rate of up to 50% due to metastatic spread primarily to the liver. Currently there are relatively effective treatments for the primary tumor, though the management of the metastatic disease remains inadequate. Conventional diagnostic tools have a low sensitivity for detecting metastasis, and early detection of metastatic spread would allow more treatment options that could ultimately increase survival of UM patients. Advanced proteomic methods have already helped to find potential biomarkers associated with UM pathogenesis and metastasis. In the present review we discuss the field of proteomics in relation to studies elucidating biomarkers of UM, where proteins such as S-100 β , osteopontin (OPN), and melanoma inhibitory activity (MIA) have been shown to be associated with metastasis.

Kromann Opstrup Abildgaard, Søren; Vorum, Henrik

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
381

Molecular markers of tumor progression in melanoma.  

Science.gov (United States)

Malignant melanoma represents one of the most aggressive malignancies but outcome is highly variable with early tumor lesions having an excellent prognosis following resection. We review here the data on identification of genes involved in the progression of melanoma as a result of expression array studies, genomic profiling, and genetic models. We focus on the role of tumor suppressors involved in cell cycle function, DNA repair, and genome maintenance. Highlighted are the roles of loss of p16 in promoting neoplasia in cooperation with deregulated MAPK signaling, and the role of loss of the RASSF1A protein in promoting chromosomal instability. The interactions between point mutation in growth signaling molecules and epigenetic changes in genes involved in DNA repair and cell division are discussed. PMID:19949544

Rother, Joshua; Jones, Dan

2009-06-01

382

Primary malignant melanoma of the lacrimal sac.  

Science.gov (United States)

Primary malignant melanoma of the lacrimal sac is extremely rare. It is usually diagnosed at an advanced stage after excision or biopsy of a tumour. We treated a 59-year-old man with tearing and bloody discharge from the right eye. Clinical examination revealed a firm, localised mass at the inner canthus consistent with a lacrimal sac swelling. Sac washout demonstrated obstruction to entry into the lacrimal sac with a reflux of blood-stained fluid. The pathological findings and the immunohistochemical studies showed a malignant melanoma of the lacrimal sac. We performed radical surgery and radiation therapy. Follow-up 4 months after surgery revealed no evidence of recurrence. Because this tumour often presents with symptoms similar to dacryocystitis and may masquerade as a chronic dacryocystitis, ophthalmologists should be aware of this disease entity when encountered with patients with epiphora and mass in the medial canthal area. PMID:22891020

Li, Yang-Jun; Zhu, Shao-Jun; Yan, Hong; Han, Jing; Wang, Dan; Xu, Shuang

2012-01-01

383

Melanoma primario del esófago tratado con esofagectomía: Casos clínicos Esophageal melanoma: Report of two cases  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Esophageal melanomas correspond to 0.1 to 0.2% of esophageal tumors. We report two patients with the disease. The first patient is a 51 year-old woman pre-sentingwith dysphagia and weight loss. An upper gastrointestinal endoscopy showed a polypoid ulcerated lesion in the middle third of the esophagus. The pathological study ofthe biopsy disclosed a malignant melanoma. The patient was subjected to an esophagectomy with a satisfactory postoperative evolution. Four months later, liver metastases were detected and the patient died eleven months after the operation. The second patient is a 59 year-old mole that consulted by dysphagia. An endoscopy showed a pigmented esophageal lesion whose pathological diagnosis was a malignant melanoma. The patient was subjected to an esophagectomy and sixteen months after surgery there was no evidence of relapse.

JEAN M BUTTE

2010-01-01

384

Melanoma primario del esófago tratado con esofagectomía: Casos clínicos / Esophageal melanoma: Report of two cases  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Chile | Language: Spanish Abstract in english Esophageal melanomas correspond to 0.1 to 0.2% of esophageal tumors. We report two patients with the disease. The first patient is a 51 year-old woman pre-sentingwith dysphagia and weight loss. An upper gastrointestinal endoscopy showed a polypoid ulcerated lesion in the middle third of the esophagu [...] s. The pathological study ofthe biopsy disclosed a malignant melanoma. The patient was subjected to an esophagectomy with a satisfactory postoperative evolution. Four months later, liver metastases were detected and the patient died eleven months after the operation. The second patient is a 59 year-old mole that consulted by dysphagia. An endoscopy showed a pigmented esophageal lesion whose pathological diagnosis was a malignant melanoma. The patient was subjected to an esophagectomy and sixteen months after surgery there was no evidence of relapse.

BUTTE, JEAN M; VISSCHER, ALVARO; DE LA FUENTE, HERNÁN; MENESES, MANUEL; CARRASCO, ANA MARÍA; AMARAL, HORACIO; WAUGH, ENRIQUE.

385

Future perspectives in melanoma research. Meeting report from the "Melanoma Bridge. Napoli, December 2nd-4th 2012".  

Science.gov (United States)

Recent insights into the genetic and somatic aberrations have initiated a new era of rapidly evolving targeted and immune-based treatments for melanoma. After decades of unsuccessful attempts to finding a more effective cure in the treatment of melanoma now we have several drugs active in melanoma. The possibility to use these drugs in combination to improve responses to overcome the resistance, to potentiate the action of immune system with the new immunomodulating antibodies, and identification of biomarkers that can predict the response to a particular therapy represent new concepts and approaches in the clinical management of melanoma. The third "Melanoma Research: "A bridge from Naples to the World" meeting, shortened as "Bridge Melanoma Meeting" took place in Naples, December 2 to 4th, 2012. The four topics of discussion at this meeting were: advances in molecular profiling and novel biomarkers, combination therapies, novel concepts toward integrating biomarkers and therapies into contemporary clinical management of patients with melanoma across the entire spectrum of disease stage, and the knowledge gained from the biology of tumor microenvironment across different tumors as a bridge to impact on prognosis and response to therapy in melanoma. This international congress gathered more than 30 international faculty members who in an interactive atmosphere which stimulated discussion and exchange of their experience regarding the most recent advances in research and clinical management of melanoma patients. PMID:23731854

Ascierto, Paolo A; Grimaldi, Antonio M; Acquavella, Nicolas; Borgognoni, Lorenzo; Calabrò, Luana; Cascinelli, Natale; Cesano, Alessandra; Del Vecchio, Michele; Eggermont, Alexander M; Faries, Mark; Ferrone, Soldano; Fox, Bernard A; Gajewski, Thomas F; Galon, Jérôme; Gnjatic, Sacha; Gogas, Helen; Kashani-Sabet, Mohammed; Kaufman, Howard L; Larkin, James; Lo, Roger S; Mantovani, Alberto; Margolin, Kim; Melief, Cornelis; McArthur, Grant; Palmieri, Giuseppe; Puzanov, Igor; Ribas, Antoni; Seliger, Barbara; Sosman, Jeff; Suenaert, Peter; Tarhini, Ahmad A; Trinchieri, Giorgio; Vidal-Vanaclocha, Fernando; Wang, Ena; Ciliberto, Gennaro; Mozzillo, Nicola; Marincola, Francesco M; Thurin, Magdalena

2013-01-01

386

Plasma 25-Hydroxyvitamin D and Risk of Non-Melanoma and Melanoma Skin Cancer : A Prospective Cohort Study  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Sun exposure is a major risk factor for skin cancer and is also an important source of vitamin D. We tested the hypothesis that elevated plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OH-vitD) associates with increased risk of non-melanoma and melanoma skin cancer in the general population. We measured plasma 25-OH-vitD in 10,060 white individuals from the Danish general population. During 28 years of follow-up, 590 individuals developed non-melanoma skin cancer and 78 developed melanoma skin cancer. Increasing 25-OH-vitD levels, by clinical categories or by seasonally adjusted tertiles, were associated with increasing cumulative incidence of non-melanoma skin cancer (trend P=2 Ã? 10(-15) and P=3 Ã? 10(-17)) and melanoma skin cancer (P=0.003 and P=0.001). Multivariable adjusted hazard ratios of non-melanoma skin cancer were 5.04 (95% confidence interval (CI): 2.78-9.16) for 25-OH-vitD î?¶50 vs. 60 years, 25-OH-vitD winter levels î?¶50â??nmolâ??l(-1), and performing outdoor exercise. In conclusion, we show that increasing levels of 25-OH-vitD are associated with increased risk of non-melanoma and melanoma skin cancer.Journal of Investigative Dermatology advance online publication, 29 November 2012; doi:10.1038/jid.2012.395.

Afzal, Shoaib; Nordestgaard, Børge G

2013-01-01

387

Identification of cells initiating human melanomas.  

Science.gov (United States)

Tumour-initiating cells capable of self-renewal and differentiation, which are responsible for tumour growth, have been identified in human haematological malignancies and solid cancers. If such minority populations are associated with tumour progression in human patients, specific targeting of tumour-initiating cells could be a strategy to eradicate cancers currently resistant to systemic therapy. Here we identify a subpopulation enriched for human malignant-melanoma-initiating cells (MMIC) defined by expression of the chemoresistance mediator ABCB5 (refs 7, 8) and show that specific targeting of this tumorigenic minority population inhibits tumour growth. ABCB5+ tumour cells detected in human melanoma patients show a primitive molecular phenotype and correlate with clinical melanoma progression. In serial human-to-mouse xenotransplantation experiments, ABCB5+ melanoma cells possess greater tumorigenic capacity than ABCB5- bulk populations and re-establish clinical tumour heterogeneity. In vivo genetic lineage tracking demonstrates a specific capacity of ABCB5+ subpopulations for self-renewal and differentiation, because ABCB5+ cancer cells generate both ABCB5+ and ABCB5- progeny, whereas ABCB5- tumour populations give rise, at lower rates, exclusively to ABCB5- cells. In an initial proof-of-principle analysis, designed to test the hypothesis that MMIC are also required for growth of established tumours, systemic administration of a monoclonal antibody directed at ABCB5, shown to be capable of inducing antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity in ABCB5+ MMIC, exerted tumour-inhibitory effects. Identification of tumour-initiating cells with enhanced abundance in more advanced disease but susceptibility to specific targeting through a defining chemoresistance determinant has important implications for cancer therapy. PMID:18202660

Schatton, Tobias; Murphy, George F; Frank, Natasha Y; Yamaura, Kazuhiro; Waaga-Gasser, Ana Maria; Gasser, Martin; Zhan, Qian; Jordan, Stefan; Duncan, Lyn M; Weishaupt, Carsten; Fuhlbrigge, Robert C; Kupper, Thomas S; Sayegh, Mohamed H; Frank, Markus H

2008-01-17

388

Identification of therapeutic biomarkers in melanoma  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

O melanoma deriva da transformação maligna de melanócitos e é frequentemente encontrado na pele e na região ocular. A identificação de marcadores moleculares que inequivocamente indiquem a agressividade do tumor ou que possam prever a resposta/resistência a uma terapia é uma prioridade da comunidade científica que estuda esta patologia. Mutações do gene do BRAF, maioritariamente V600E e mutações do gene do NRAS têm sido implicadas no desenvolvimento de melanom...

Tavares, Sandra Raquel Oliveira

2011-01-01

389

Prognosis of mucous naso-sinus melanomas  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Purpose: The mucous melanoma of superior aero-digestive tracts represents 1-2% of malignant melanomas, 5-10% of head and neck melanomas, and concerns particularly, the nasal cavities and naso-sinus cavities. The recurrences are frequent, often local ones, sometimes multifocal ones, the survival rate at five years is ? 30%. The Ballantyne classification distinguishes three stages: 1 localised tumors, 2 ganglions attack, 3 metastases. Are pejorative: a stage number 3 ( deep invasion, muscles, bones, cartilages) according to the Prasad classification (1: in situ or micro invasive, 2: invasion of the lamina propria), the achromia sub-type, a pseudo papillary or sarcoma, vascular emboli, necrosis. The recommendations rest on evidence level at 4. The complete excision is the rule and must be counterbalanced with the morbidity in case of orbital, dura-mater, frontal lobe, and infra temporal fossa. The adjuvant irradiation is debated.We evaluated the prognosis of mucous naso-sinus melanomas. Conclusion: The principal cause of death was the local failure. The Ballantyne classification does not take into account the extensions and overestimates the prognosis impact of ganglions invasion that is yet ?10% ( and does not justify a radiotherapy in lack of adenopathy). It underestimates probably the impact of adjuvant radiotherapy. One should be able to distinguish the unfavourable stage 1 tumors (receiving eventually a radiotherapy) and these ones of very localised stage 1 for which it could be omitted. The fractionation and the optimal dose remain to be defined. The volume ?100 ml and the irradiation by carbon ions seem promising in term of local control but the metastases stay a problem in the recent series. (N.C.)

2009-10-01

390

Small choroidal melanoma with monosomy 3  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Purpose: To report a patient with small juxtapapillary choroidal melanoma with chromosome 3 monosomy treated with I 125 plaque and transpupillary thermotherapy (TTT). A 64-year-old Caucasian male presented with painless blurred vision of the left eye. Ocular examination disclosed a small juxtapapillary choroidal melanocytic tumor with overlying subretinal fluid and orange pigment. Ultrasound showed an elevated choroidal mass of 2 mm thickness with low reflectivity on A-sca...

Ghassemi Fariba; Shields Carol; Materin Miguel; Shields Jerry

2010-01-01

391

Wavelengths effective in induction of malignant melanoma.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

It is generally agreed that sunlight exposure is one of the etiologic agents in malignant melanoma of fair-skinned individuals. However, the wavelengths responsible for tumorigenesis are not known, although DNA is assumed to be the target because individuals defective in the repair of UV damage to DNA are several thousandfold more prone to the disease than the average population. Heavily pigmented backcross hybrids of the genus Xiphophorus (platyfish and swordtails) are very sensitive to mela...

1993-01-01

392

Gallium-67 scanning for malignant melanoma  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Melanoma is characterized by a tendency to metastasize widely throughout the body and its relative affinity for gallium-67. Because of the ability of this nuclide to image tumor sites in numerous organ systems, it has been used to detect metastases in patients with malignant melanoma. The effectiveness of this technique, however, has been controversial. This article documents the retrospective analysis of results from 296 gallium-67 scintiscans from 222 patients with melanoma. Patients were placed in two groups. The low suspicion group (148 patients undergoing 191 scans) consisted of patients with no evidence of disease; the gallium scans were performed solely for screening purposes. There were 175 true-negative scans, nine true-positive scans (eight of the nine were positive only at the untreated primary site), three false-negative scans, and four false-positive scans. Therefore, in only one patient (0.5%) did a screening gallium scan reveal disease that was not expected. The high suspicion group (85 patients undergoing 105 scans) consisted of patients with established evidence of metastatic disease; the gallium scan was performed to confirm those findings and to search for involvement of other organ systems. Of these scans, ten were true-negative, 73 true-positive, 21 false-negative, and one false-positive. In this group the 20% false-negative results indicate that gallium scanning is considerably less sensitive than the combination of clinical and standard radiographic assessment. It was concluded that gallium-67 scintiscanning of patients with melanoma, whether for screening or evaluation of patients with known metastases, provides little information that affects clinical staging or therapeutic design. Therefore, the technique is of limited value for routinely investigating the extent of disease

1988-01-15

393

Gallium-67 scanning for malignant melanoma  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Melanoma is characterized by a tendency to metastasize widely throughout the body and its relative affinity for gallium-67. Because of the ability of this nuclide to image tumor sites in numerous organ systems, it has been used to detect metastases in patients with malignant melanoma. The effectiveness of this technique, however, has been controversial. This article documents the retrospective analysis of results from 296 gallium-67 scintiscans from 222 patients with melanoma. Patients were placed in two groups. The low suspicion group (148 patients undergoing 191 scans) consisted of patients with no evidence of disease; the gallium scans were performed solely for screening purposes. There were 175 true-negative scans, nine true-positive scans (eight of the nine were positive only at the untreated primary site), three false-negative scans, and four false-positive scans. Therefore, in only one patient (0.5%) did a screening gallium scan reveal disease that was not expected. The high suspicion group (85 patients undergoing 105 scans) consisted of patients with established evidence of metastatic disease; the gallium scan was performed to confirm those findings and to search for involvement of other organ systems. Of these scans, ten were true-negative, 73 true-positive, 21 false-negative, and one false-positive. In this group the 20% false-negative results indicate that gallium scanning is considerably less sensitive than the combination of clinical and standard radiographic assessment. It was concluded that gallium-67 scintiscanning of patients with melanoma, whether for screening or evaluation of patients with known metastases, provides little information that affects clinical staging or therapeutic design. Therefore, the technique is of limited value for routinely investigating the extent of disease.

Kagan, R.; Witt, T.; Bines, S.; Mesleh, G.; Economou, S.

1988-01-15

394

Gamma knife radiosurgery for uveal melanoma ineligible for brachytherapy by the Collaborative Ocular Melanoma Study criteria  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Nicola G Ghazi1, Christopher S Ketcherside1, Jason Sheehan2, Brian P Conway11Department of Ophthalmology and 2Neurosurgery, University of Virginia Health System, Charlottesville, VA, USAPurpose: To report outcomes of Gamma Knife radiosurgery (GKRS in treating uveal melanoma lesions ineligible for standard brachytherapy.Methods: A retrospective interventional case series of uveal melanoma patients treated with GKRS between 1996 and 2004 was performed. The main outcome measures were local tumor control, metastasis, and death.Results: Four patients with uveal melanoma treated with GKS were identified. Three tumors involved the ciliary body and one was macular with its border within 2 mm of the optic disc. Adequate globe stabilization was achieved by retrobulbar anesthesia in all cases. Pretreatment mean visual acuity was 20/30. Tumor volume as determined by magnetic resonance imaging ranged from 0.05 to 0.30 cc. Ultrasonographic greatest tumor diameter and height ranged from 11 to 18 mm (mean 14.5 mm and 2.9 to 4.5 mm (mean 3.6 mm, respectively. The peripheral dose varied from 16.5 to 30 Gray. Local tumor control was achieved in all cases over a follow up period of 6 to 96 months. Mean final visual acuity was 20/50. One eye was enucleated for neovascular glaucoma and one patient died from liver and lung metastasis.Conclusions: GKRS for uveal melanoma appears to be safe and effective. The metastasis and mortality rates appear to be comparable to those following brachytherapy and enucleation. Moreover, local tumor control and enucleation rates are similar to those following brachytherapy. The findings in this small series suggest a role for GKRS in the treatment of selected cases of uveal melanomas.Keywords: gamma knife radiosurgery, radiation therapy, uveal melanoma

Nicola G Ghazi

2008-09-01

395

Proton beam radiotherapy of iris melanoma  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Purpose: To report on outcomes after proton beam radiotherapy of iris melanoma. Methods and Materials: Between 1993 and 2004, 88 patients with iris melanoma received proton beam radiotherapy, with 53.1 Gy in 4 fractions. Results: The patients had a mean age of 52 years and a median follow-up of 2.7 years. The tumors had a median diameter of 4.3 mm, involving more than 2 clock hours of iris in 32% of patients and more than 2 hours of angle in 27%. The ciliary body was involved in 20%. Cataract was present in 13 patients before treatment and subsequently developed in another 18. Cataract had a 4-year rate of 63% and by Cox analysis was related to age (p = 0.05), initial visual loss (p < 0.0001), iris involvement (p < 0.0001), and tumor thickness (p < 0.0001). Glaucoma was present before treatment in 13 patients and developed after treatment in another 3. Three eyes were enucleated, all because of recurrence, which had an actuarial 4-year rate of 3.3% (95% CI 0-8.0%). Conclusions: Proton beam radiotherapy of iris melanoma is well tolerated, the main problems being radiation-cataract, which was treatable, and preexisting glaucoma, which in several patients was difficult to control

2005-09-01

396

[Treatment of choroidal melanoma using photocoagulation].  

Science.gov (United States)

The author defines the conditions for treatment of chorioid melanomas by photocoagulation which is restricted only to a small number of tumours. The author describes different therapeutic techniques, using photocoagulation. The success rate of treatment of chorioid melanomas by xenon photocoagulation is 50-60%, similar results are obtained with laser coagulation (maily krypton or a combination of argon and krypton). Treatment with an argon laser alone is not suitable as blue light which forms 70% of the light energy does not penetrate into the chorioid. Green light of the argon laser is suited for use in the first stage of treatment, i. e. for obliteration of retinal and chorioid vessels. The authors treated six patients with melanoma of the chorioid using combined xenon-argon therapy. During the average observation period of six years only one patient developed regression of the tumour, in another patient further growth ceased, but regression was not observed. In four patients on account of progression of the tumour the eye had to be enucleated. PMID:1364665

Cernák, A

1991-12-01

397

Ultrasonic characterisation of malignant melanoma of choroid  

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Full Text Available An in-vitro study of wave spectral analysis in 8 enucleated eyes was conducted in order to differentiate histological subtypes of malignant melanoma. To obtain the backscattering coefficient for the tissues, we used a broadband focussed transducer with a frequency range of 7-12 MHz and a centre frequency of 10 MHz. Experimental measurement of backscattering coefficient and attenuation coefficient at various frequencies was done by substitution techniques. The backscattering coefficient, scatterer size, and root mean square velocity fluctuation were derived by the numerical method, while the attenuation coefficient at 1 MHz was derived from attenuation coefficient at different frequencies. This study revealed that backscattering coefficient and attenuation coefficient, over a frequency range of 7-12 MHz, show an increase in the spindle cell type compared to the mixed cell type of malignant melanoma. Particularly, the scatterer size was significantly higher in the spindle cell group (p = 0.013 in contrast to the mixed cell type. Spindle cells have uniform and compact histological pattern which contributes to an increase in scatterer size and root mean square velocity fluctuation. The ultrasonically obtained parameters have been shown to have a good correlation with the histology of malignant melanoma.

John Sheila

1998-01-01

398

Melanoma de coroides: presentación de un caso  

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Full Text Available Fundamento: los melanomas de coroides son considerados los tumores malignos más frecuentes en el adulto, aparece generalmente entre la sexta y séptima década de la vida y se diagnostica a través de la oftalmoscopia, la biomiscroscopia, el ultrasonido y la angiografía fluoresceínica. Su forma de presentación puede ser en su variante nodular o difusa la malignidad depende del tamaño del tumor, la localización, extensión extra escleral, tipo histológico, entre otros factores. La causa de muerte por esta enfermedad suele ocurrir por metástasis hepática. Objetivo: evitar el diagnóstico tardío del melanoma ocular. Caso clínico: se presenta el caso de una paciente femenina de 50 años de edad que acudió al centro oftalmológico del Hospital Universitario Manuel Ascunce Domenech, por disminución lenta de la agudeza visual del ojo derecho, detectándose al examen oftalmológico la presencia de una masa tumoral de color pardo que ocupaba la hemiretina superior, lo cual se corroboró con la observación de el ultrasonido ocular, por lo que se decidió proceder a la enucleación del globo ocular debido a las características del mismo. El estudio histopatológico confirmó la presencia de un melanoma de coroides de células tipo mixtas con infiltración a cuerpo ciliar. Los resultados del examen físico general, hematológico e imagenológico fueron negativos, descartándose la presencia de metástasis.

Aymed Rodru00EDguez Pargas

2012-01-01

399

Persistent Pain After Surgery for Cutaneous Melanoma  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

OBJECTIVES:: Chronic pain is a well-known complication after surgery, but the prevalence of persistent pain after melanoma surgery is unknown. This study examined the prevalence and predictors of persistent pain after melanoma surgery. METHODS:: Between September 2005 and June 2009, 448 patients underwent surgery for cutaneous melanoma at the Department of Plastic Surgery, Aalborg Hospital. A questionnaire was sent to all 402 survivors, and 350 (87.1%) responded. In addition, all patients with pain and a control group of sex-matched and age-matched patients without pain were invited to a clinical examination. RESULTS:: Thirty-four patients (9.7%) reported pain in the scar area within the last month, and 8.6% reported chronic pain. The pain was mostly mild with little impact on daily life, but 1.7% reported moderate to severe pain, and 3.4% reported at least moderate impact of pain on daily life. Sensory changes were reported by 108 patients (31.5%); 25% of these had pain compared with 3% of patients with normal sensation [P

Høimyr, Hilde; von Sperling, Marie Louise

2012-01-01

400

Uveal melanoma dormancy: an acceptable clinical endpoint?  

Science.gov (United States)

Uveal melanoma is a rare but life-threatening malignancy. Over the past decades, the morbidity of uveal melanoma has been markedly reduced as a result of advances in the diagnostic ability to detect smaller tumors at an earlier stage. This has allowed for the use of more conservative treatments, avoiding enucleation. Mortality, however, has remained unchanged. This indicates that life expectancy is independent of local tumor control. Metastatic disease, the leading cause of death, is usually diagnosed many years later, despite successful treatment of the primary tumor, and at a late stage, when no effective therapy is available. These observations suggest that the disease was already disseminated at the time of tumor diagnosis. The detection of circulating malignant cells in the bloodstream of patients at different time points in the course of the disease supports this observation. Tumor dormancy has been considered as the leading theory for this intriguing delayed appearance of metastasis. Recent knowledge gained about the biological behavior of uveal melanoma as well as novel potential therapeutic targets are presented in this review. PMID:22895346

Blanco, Paula L; Lim, Li Anne; Miyamoto, Cristina; Burnier, Miguel N

2012-10-01

 
 
 
 
401

Cutaneous melanoma: new advances in treatment  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Cutaneous melanoma is a challenge to treat. Over the last 30 years, no drug or combination of drugs demonstrated significant impact to improve patient survival. From 1995 to 2000, the use of cytokines such as interferon and interleukin become treatment options. In 2011, new drugs were approved by th [...] e U.S. Food and Drug Administration, including peginterferon alfa-2b for patients with stage III disease, vemurafenib for patients with metastatic melanoma with the BRAF V600E mutation, and ipilimumab, a monoclonal antibody directed to the CTLA-4 T lymphocyte receptor, to combat metastatic melanoma in patients who do not have the BRAF V600E mutation. Both ipilimumab and vemurafenib showed results in terms of overall survival. Other trials with inhibitors of other genes, such as the KIT gene and MEK, are underway in the search for new discoveries. The discovery of new treatments for advanced or metastatic disease aims to relieve symptoms and improve patient quality of life.

Foletto, Michele Ceolin; Haas, Sandra Elisa.

402

Proton beam irradiation for ocular melanoma, 2  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Seventy MeV Proton beam irradiation (beam range:38 mm in the water) was applied for the treatment of 6 patients of ocular melanoma between October 1985 and July 1986 at National Institute of Radiological Sciences(NIRS). The Proton beam has more localized and uniform dose distributions than the electron beams, leading to increased delivery of the dose to tumors with out excess exposure to adjacent normal tissues. Since the accurate treatment planning was necessary for the Proton beam therapy, various studies concerned with the diagnosis of tumor localization using X-CT, MRI or ultrasonography and with the methods for fixation of the body or target using holder or plastic shell were performed. The diagnosis of ocular melanoma was established in the all cases through clinical examinations, such as indirect ophthalmoscopy, fundus photography, fluorescein angiography, ultrasonography and so on. The narrow horizontal Proton beam(10 ? 24 mm diameter) was straightly irradiated to the tumor, through the several thicked bolus, avoiding an exposure to the lens. The dose of 30 ? 60 Gy/3 ? 5 fractions/3 ? 5 weeks (TDF 90 ? 150) was prescribed. Although the follow up studies in order to estimate the tumor response and the complications are not enough to long to evaluate the results, we believe that Proton beam irradiation is considered to be an excellent therapy for the management of ocular melanomas, alternative to enucleation of affected eye. (author)

1987-01-01

403

Clinical factors in the identification of small choroidal melanoma.  

Science.gov (United States)

The detection and treatment of choroidal melanoma early in its natural course is critical to providing the patient with the best prognosis. Studies of tumour doubling time have indicated that metastasis from choroidal melanoma can occur quite early in the course of the disease, when the tumour is about 3.0 mm in basal dimension and 1.5 mm in thickness. Clinical studies have shown that, at 5 years, metastasis occurs in 16% of patients with small choroidal melanomas (less than 4 mm thick), compared with 32% of those with medium-sized (4-8 mm thick) choroidal melanomas and 53% of those with large (more than 8 mm thick) choroidal melanomas. The difficulty with early detection of choroidal melanoma relates to its clinical similarity to benign choroidal nevus. Factors that assist in differentiating small choroidal melanoma from choroidal nevus can be remembered using the mnemonic "TFSOM" (to find small ocular melanoma), where T = thickness greater than 2 mm, F = subretinal fluid, S = symptoms, O = orange pigment and M = margin touching optic disc. Choroidal melanocytic tumours that display none of these factors have a 3% risk of growth into melanoma at 5 years and most likely represent choroidal nevi. Tumours that display one factor have a 38% risk of growth, and those with two or more factors show growth in over 50% of cases. Most tumours with two or more risk factors probably represent small choroidal melanomas, and early treatment is generally indicated. Therefore, ophthalmologists should be aware of the clinical factors that identify small choroidal melanoma so that early treatment and better prognosis can be achieved for their patients. PMID:15327099

Shields, Carol L; Demirci, Hakan; Materin, Miguel A; Marr, Brian P; Mashayekhi, Arman; Shields, Jerry A

2004-06-01

404

Melanoma primario del esófago Primary esophageal melanoma. Report of one case  

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Full Text Available El melanoma primario maligno del esófago es extremadamente raro y menos de 300 casos han sido publicados hasta el momento. Aunque la resección quirúrgica ha sido considerada como la mejor opción, el pronóstico es muy pobre. Se presenta a un paciente de 70 años a quien se le realizó una esofagogastroscopía por disfagia y epigastralgia de 6 meses de evolución. No había antecedentes de melanoma cutáneo. El examen demostró una masa polipoidea pigmentada de 5 cm de diámetro en el tercio inferior del esófago, que la biopsia informó como melanoma maligno. Se realizó una esofagectomía transhiatal y el estómago fue reemplazado por un tubo gástrico isoperistáltico con una anastomosis esofagogástrica cervical. El estudio de la pieza operatorio demostró un tumor polipoideo de 5,5 cm, con pigmentación negra. El estudio histológico demostró que el tumor correspondía a un melanoma maligno primario del esófago. Los márgenes de resección oral y caudal estaban libres de tumor. No recibió terapia adyuvante complementaria y a los 3 meses de la intervención había signos clínicos e imagenológicos de recurrencia de la enfermedad.Primary malignant melanoma of the esophagus is an extremely rare tumor. Less than 300 cases have been published worldwide. Although surgical excision is the best possible therapeutic option, the prognosis is poor. We report a 70 years oíd man, who underwent an esophagoscopy due to a 6-months history of dysphagia and upper abdominal discomfort. There was no history of previous cutaneous melanoma. A polypoid and pigmented mass (of 5 cm diameter almost completely occluding the lumen in the lower fhird of the esophagus, was found. The histological diagnosis of the initial biopsy was melanoma. Transhiatal esophagectomy was performed and the esophagus was replaced by an isoperistaltic gastric tube with cervical esophageal anastomosis. The excised specimen showed a polypoid tumor with black pigmentation of 5.5 cm. The diagnosis of pathological and immunohistochemical studies was a primary esophageal malignant melanoma. The resection margins of esophagus were free of tumor. He received no postoperative adjuvant therapy and signs of recurrence were observed 3 months after the operation.

RIMSKY ÁLVAREZ U

2009-04-01

405

Melanoma de iris con invasión al ángulo camerular / Iris melanoma invading the camerular angle  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Los melanomas uveales son los tumores intraoculares primarios más frecuentes, con una incidencia de 8/1 000 000 al año en la raza blanca. Específicamente el melanoma de iris representa entre 5 y 7 % de los melanomas malignos de la úvea. Estos tumores pueden ser amelánicos o pigmentados y por lo gene [...] ral muy vascularizados. Se presenta un paciente de 18 años con antecedentes de salud, que fue atendido en el cuerpo de guardia de oftalmología refiriendo dolor ocular y disminución brusca de la visión del ojo derecho. En el examen físico se constató hipertensión ocular marcada, hifema de 2 mm, y edema corneal. Este cuadro cedió con tratamiento y permitió observar una tumoración del iris que invadía el ángulo iridocorneal, muy vascularizada. Por esto se realizaron exámenes en busca de tumores a otros niveles, y finalmente una biopsia por aspiración con aguja fina. Se concluye el caso con el diagnóstico de un melanoma de iris con invasión a cuerpo ciliar. El paciente se remite para tratamiento quirúrgico al Instituto Nacional de Oncología y Radiobiología. Abstract in english Uveal melanomas are the most frequent primary uveal tumors, having an incidence of 8/1 000 000 a year in Caucasian people. Specifically, iris Melanoma represents 5 to 7 % of the uveal malignant melanomas and they may be amelanic or pigmented, generally very vascularized. An eighteen years old male p [...] atient with a history of health problems was presented, who had been seen at the Ophthalmological Emergency Service because of eye pain and sudden visual reduction in his right eye. In the physical exam, a marked ocular hypertension was confirmed as well as a 2 mm hyphema and corneal edema. These conditions were overcome with treatment and afterwards, there was observed iris tumoration invading the iridocorneal angle. Some complementary studies were carried out to search further tumors at other levels and finally a fine needle aspiration biopsy was performed. The diagnosis was amelanic Iris Melanoma invading the ciliary body. The patient was referred for surgical treatment at the National Institute of Oncology and Radiology.

Leticia, Verona Ugando; Beatriz, Landrián Iglesias; Naysa, Padierne González; Raquel, Delgado Moya; Yamilet, Leiva González.

406

Melanoma nodular en borde de pie / Nodular melanoma on foot edge  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Introducción: el melanoma cutáneo es un tumor maligno originado en los melanocitos, cuya incidencia y mortalidad han aumentado en las últimas décadas. Es la causa más frecuente de muerte entre las enfermedades cutáneas, y responsable del 75% de éstas. La mayoría se originan en la piel sana, sobre un [...] nevo u otros órganos. Es una tumoración de alta agresividad y con tendencia a la metástasis linfática o hemática. El melanoma nodular representa el 15-35% de estos tumores, afectando áreas de piel fotoprotegidas, con fase de crecimiento vertical, lo cual condiciona su comportamiento tan agresivo y peor pronóstico. Presentación del caso: paciente anciana, con lesión tumoral en pie derecho, asintomática, de cuatro años de evolución, con crecimiento rápido en los últimos tres meses. Se realiza diagnóstico clínico-histopatológico, compatible con melanoma nodular. El tratamiento de elección es la extirpación quirúrgica. Conclusiones: el melanoma nodular es un tumor muy agresivo y la supervivencia depende de un diagnóstico precoz, posibilitando la cura de más del 90% de los casos. Abstract in english Introduction: cutaneous melanoma is a malignant tumor originated from melanocytes, whose incidence and mortality rates have increased in recent decades. It is the most common cause of death among skin diseases, and accounts for its 75%. Most of them originate in healthy skin on a nevus or other orga [...] ns. It is a highly aggressive tumor with a tendency to lymphatic or hematogenous metastases. Nodular melanoma accounts for 15 to 35% of these tumors, affecting photo-protected areas of skin, with vertical growth phase, which determines their behavior as aggressive and its worse prognosis. Case report: old patient with right foot tumor injury, asymptomatic, four years of evolution, with rapid growth in the last three months. Clinical and histopathological diagnosis is made, compatible with nodular melanoma. The treatment of choice is surgical removal. Conclusions: nodular melanoma is a very aggressive tumor and survival depends on early diagnosis, allowing the cure of more than 90% of the cases.

Blanco Córdova, Carlos Alberto.

407

MelanomaDB: a Web Tool for Integrative Analysis of Melanoma Genomic Information to Identify Disease-Associated Molecular Pathways  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Despite on-going research, metastatic melanoma survival rates remain low and treatment options are limited. Researchers can now access a rapidly growing amount of molecular and clinical information about melanoma. This information is becoming difficult to assemble and interpret due to its dispersed nature, yet as it grows it becomes increasingly valuable for understanding melanoma. Integration of this information into a comprehensive resource to aid rational experimental design and patient stratification is needed. As an initial step in this direction, we have assembled a web-accessible melanoma database, MelanomaDB, which incorporates clinical and molecular data from publically available sources, which will be regularly updated as new information becomes available. This database allows complex links to be drawn between many different aspects of melanoma biology: genetic changes (e.g. mutations in individual melanomas revealed by DNA sequencing, associations between gene expression and patient survival, data concerning drug targets, biomarkers, druggability and clinical trials, as well as our own statistical analysis of relationships between molecular pathways and clinical parameters that have been produced using these data sets. The database is freely available at http://genesetdb.auckland.ac.nz/melanomadb/about.html . A subset of the information in the database can also be accessed through a freely available web application in the Illumina genomic cloud computing platform BaseSpace at http://www.biomatters.com/apps/melanoma-profiler-for-research . This illustrates dysregulation of specific signalling pathways, both across 310 exome-sequenced melanomas and in individual tumours and identifies novel features about the distribution of somatic variants in melanoma. We suggest that this database can provide a context in which to interpret the tumour molecular profiles of individual melanoma patients relative to biological information and available drug therapies.

CristinGregorPrint

2013-07-01

408

Malignant melanoma of the tongue following low-dose radiation  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

A 47-year-old man had a spindly malignant melanoma of the tongue many years after low-dose radiation therapy for lichen planus. To our knowledge, only 12 melanomas of the tongue have been reported previously, and in none of these was radiation documented

1985-01-01

409

Primary mucosal malignant melanoma of the nasopharynx: two case reports  

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Full Text Available Primary mucosal malignant melanoma of the nasopharynx is rarely seen. This tumor grows and extends silently and its early recognition is difficult. Herein, the clinical presentations of two cases of primary mucosal malignant melanomas are reported together with the treatment results.

Mert BA?ARAN

2009-01-01

410

Primary melanoma of the vagina. A clinical case  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Primary melanoma of the vagina is a rare neoplasm that appears in the 6th and 7th decades of life. It has a poor prognosis, for which there is no consensus regarding treatment; indeed, the literature describes a number of therapeutic options. This paper describes a patient with vaginal melanoma treated by local excision and immunotherapy.

Isabel Alemany

2011-03-01

411

Gene expression signature for spontaneous cancer regression in melanoma pigs.  

Science.gov (United States)

Incomplete spontaneous regression of melanoma is common. However, complete melanoma regression is still a very rare phenomenon. Because melanoma is the most immunogenic human malignancy, the mechanisms leading to regression, based on accumulative evidence, are the host's immune responses. Unfortunately, therapies aiming to enhance the patient's natural immunity against melanoma have yet to meet their expectations. Reasons for failure include various immune escape mechanisms, induced by the tumor, that subsequently lead to tolerance. Here, we performed time-dependent gene expression profiling to unravel molecular changes involved in the transition of progressive melanoma to complete tumor regression using a porcine model. The melanoblastomabearing Libechov minipigs are highly suitable for this study because these animals exhibit naturally occurring and regressing melanomas. We were able to identify a molecular signature of the melanoma regression process. Genes regulated in this signature were associated with 1) cell cycle, 2) immune response, and 3) melanocyte differentiation. These genes may shed light on molecular mechanisms involved in complete melanoma regression and indicate what improvements are needed for successful antimelanoma therapy. PMID:18592010

Rambow, Florian; Piton, Guillaume; Bouet, Stephan; Leplat, Jean-Jaques; Baulande, Sylvain; Marrau, Angelique; Stam, Mark; Horak, Vratislav; Vincent-Naulleau, Silvia

2008-07-01

412

''Pathomorphosis'' of skin melanomas in complex treatment with hyperthermia  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Examined were histotogically and histochemically the melanomas removed in 40 patients, subjected to general and local hyperthermia associated with radiation and chemotherapy. In such cases it was found that melanoma tissues exhibit grave destructive changes characterized by the morphological features, which are manifested by microcirculatory disorders in the tumor and metastases and are associated with extensive injuries of the neoplastic tissue

1979-01-01

413

Increased HOX C13 expression in metastatic melanoma progression  

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Full Text Available Abstract Background The process of malignant transformation, progression and metastasis of melanoma is not completely understood. Recently, the microarray technology has been used to survey transcriptional differences that might provide insight into the metastatic process, but the validation of changing gene expression during metastatic transition period is poorly investigated. A large body of literature has been produced on the role of the HOX genes network in tumour evolution, suggesting the involvement of HOX genes in several types of human cancers. Deregulated paralogous group 13 HOX genes expression has been detected in melanoma, cervical cancer and odonthogenic tumors. Among these, Hox C13 is also involved in the expression control of the human keratin genes hHa5 and hHa2, and recently it was identified as a member of human DNA replication complexes. Methods In this study, to investigate HOX C13 expression in melanoma progression, we have compared its expression pattern between naevi, primary melanoma and metastasis. In addition HOXC13 profile pattern of expression has been evaluated in melanoma cell lines. Results Our results show the strong and progressive HOX C13 overexpression in metastatic melanoma tissues and cytological samples compared to nevi and primary melanoma tissues and cells. Conclusions The data presentated in the paper suggest a possible role of HOX C13 in metastatic melanoma switch.

Cantile Monica

2012-05-01

414

Angiokeratoma presenting as a melanoma: a case report.  

Science.gov (United States)

Angiokeratomas are benign skin lesions that can resemble melanomas or verrucae. Although morbidity from these lesions is rare, treatment for angiokeratomas typically consists of simple surgical excision. We aim to describe a case of a painful angiokeratoma that presented with the appearance of melanoma. PMID:23697732

Dumitrache, Nelida; Neiderer, Katherine; Martin, Billy; Dancho, James

2013-01-01

415

Melanoma epitelióide de coróide em adolescente: relato de caso  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available O melanoma maligno de úvea é uma doença muito rara antes dos 30 anos de idade. Este é um relato de um caso de melanoma epitelióide de coróide em adolescente de 12 anos cujo diagnóstico presuntivo foi realizado por exame clínico, ressonância e ultra-sonografia sendo confirmado por meio de exame anatomopatológico.

Araújo Ângelo Augusto

2004-01-01

416

Prevalence of left-sided melanomas in an Irish population.  

LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

BACKGROUND: A predominance of melanomas on the left side of the body has recently been described. No associations between tumour laterality and gender, age or anatomical site have been identified. AIM: The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of left-sided melanomas in an Irish population and to examine potential associations with various patient and tumour characteristics. METHODS: A retrospective chart review of patients with cutaneous melanoma who were treated over a 10-year period was carried out. Lateral distribution of melanoma on either side of the body was compared using ?(2) analysis and evaluated by gender, age group, anatomic location, histologic subtype and Breslow depth. RESULTS: More melanomas occurred on the left side (57%, P = 0.015), and this finding was particularly significant in females. For both genders combined, there were no statistically significant differences in laterality by age group, anatomic location, type of melanoma and Breslow depth. There were significantly more superficial spreading melanomas on the left side in both men and women. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates a predominance of left-sided melanomas in Irish patients. While a number of demographic and molecular associations have been proposed, further research is required to fully explain this phenomenon.

de Blacam, C

2011-04-17

417

Prevalence of left-sided melanomas in an Irish population.  

LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

BACKGROUND: A predominance of melanomas on the left side of the body has recently been described. No associations between tumour laterality and gender, age or anatomical site have been identified. AIM: The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of left-sided melanomas in an Irish population and to examine potential associations with various patient and tumour characteristics. METHODS: A retrospective chart review of patients with cutaneous melanoma who were treated over a 10-year period was carried out. Lateral distribution of melanoma on either side of the body was compared using chi(2) analysis and evaluated by gender, age group, anatomic location, histologic subtype and Breslow depth. RESULTS: More melanomas occurred on the left side (57%, P = 0.015), and this finding was particularly significant in females. For both genders combined, there were no statistically significant differences in laterality by age group, anatomic location, type of melanoma and Breslow depth. There were significantly more superficial spreading melanomas on the left side in both men and women. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates a predominance of left-sided melanomas in Irish patients. While a number of demographic and molecular associations have been proposed, further research is required to fully explain this phenomenon.

de Blacam, C

2012-02-01

418

Hormonal exposures and the risk of uveal melanoma  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Several studies suggest that hormonal mechanisms may be associated with the development of uveal melanoma. Therefore, the association between the risk of uveal melanoma and exposure to hormonal exposures was investigated in a case-control study from nine European countries.

Behrens, Thomas Flensted; Kaerlev, Linda

2010-01-01

419

Cytodiagnosis of metastatic melanoma in the lymph nodes.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Lymph-node aspirates performed over ten years numbering 1,555 showed 8.2 percent of metastatic tumors. Of these, only six percent were metastatic melanomas. Clinical diagnosis was made in three cases. Melanin in the cells made the diagnosis easy. But even in the absence of the pigment as in two amelanotic melanomas, the cytologic features were characteristic.

Pandit A; Prayag A

1991-01-01

420

Scientists Develop New Model for Estimating Risk of Melanoma  

Science.gov (United States)

A team of researchers, led by scientists at the NCI, has developed a model for estimating the five-year risk of melanoma, a potentially deadly skin cancer. This model, a first iteration that is subject to further refinement, can be used by health professionals to identify individuals at increased risk of melanoma and help them plan for potential interventions.

 
 
 
 
421

Are we overemphasizing sun avoidance in protection from melanoma?  

Science.gov (United States)

The public health effect of melanoma in the United States is undeniable as approximately 60,000 diagnoses of invasive melanoma and 8,000 deaths from melanoma are expected in 2007. Due to the poor outcomes associated with treating advanced cases of melanoma, substantial public health resources have been devoted to prevention efforts. Of the various factors involved in the pathogenesis of melanoma, including genetic predisposition, immunosuppression, and UV radiation, decreasing UV exposure has attracted the most attention for decreasing the public health effect of melanoma. Although sun avoidance may be an important measure for reducing the public health effect of melanocytic and keratinocytic malignancies, educational and media campaigns to encourage sun avoidance have failed to achieve the desired behavior changes in young people, have had limited effect on elderly patients who have already experienced decades of damaging sun exposure, and most importantly have failed to decrease the incidence of melanoma. We believe the best method to reduce deaths from melanoma is to emphasize early detection and treatment of suspicious lesions through combined efforts of both patients and providers. PMID:18319330

Wartman, David; Weinstock, Martin

2008-03-01

422

Systemic Therapy of Non-Resectable Metastatic Melanoma  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In advanced metastatic melanoma (non-resectable stage III/IV, the prognosis still remains poor, with median survival times between six and twelve months. Systemic therapeutic approaches for metastatic melanoma include chemotherapy, immunotherapy, immunochemotherapy, small molecules and targeted therapy. In this review, we will focus on the various treatment modalities as well as new agents used for targeted therapy.

Azadeh Orouji

2010-05-01

423

Melanoma in Organ Transplant Recipients: Incidence, Outcomes and Management Considerations  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The incidence of melanoma continues to increase year on year. With better surgical techniques and medical management, greater numbers of organ transplants are being performed annually with much longer graft survival. The authors review our current understanding of the incidence of melanoma amongst organ transplant recipients, outcomes compared to the immunocompetent population, and management strategies in this burgeoning group.

2012-01-01

424

Metastatic malignant melanoma arising in the ovary: A case report and review of the literature  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Introduction: This article is a case report of metastatic malignant melanoma to the ovary and a review of the current literature on recommendations for diagnosis and management. Background: Metastatic involvement of the ovary from malignant melanoma is relatively uncommon and represents a diagnostic challenge. There are 74 cases of malignant melanoma metastasing to the ovary reported in the English literature. Malignant melanoma in...

Amani Harris; Norman Blumenthal

2013-01-01

425

Multi-institute study finds uncommon BRAF melanoma mutation  

Science.gov (United States)

An uncommon mutation of the BRAF gene in melanoma patients has been found to respond to MEK inhibitor drugs, providing a rationale for routine screening and therapy in melanoma patients who harbor the BRAF L597 mutation. Mutations in BRAF V600E or KIT are common in about 40 percent to 50 percent of melanomas, and drugs that block or inhibit BRAF V600E were recently approved for treatment of melanoma patients with these mutations. However, there has been no effective treatment for patients with wildtype (WT) melanoma that is negative for these driver mutations. This study included researchers from the Vanderbilt-Ingram Cancer Center, UCLA Jonsson Comprehensive Cancer Center, and Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center.

426

A clinical trial of fast neutron therapy for malignant melanoma  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Fifty-four patients with malignant melanoma of the skin or the head and neck underwent fast neutron therapy between November 1975 and March 1983. Of these patients, 21 patients with melanoma of the skin and 12 patients with melanoma of the head and neck were chosen as subjects for this study. Of the 21 patients with skin lesions, complete regression was seen in 2 patients undergoing fast neutron therapy alone and in 17 patients undergoing fast neutron therapy combined with salvage surgery. A cumulative five-year survival rate was 47 %. Preoperative fast neutron therapy is a promising method used in the treatment of malignant melanoma. Two of 12 patients with advanced melanoma of the head and neck were long-term survivors. Fast neutron-induced skin damage was seen in one of the 33 patients. (Namekawa, K.)

1985-01-01

427

Immunological basis of melanoma-associated vitiligo-like depigmentation.  

Science.gov (United States)

Vitiligo is a skin condition characterized by white, hypopigmented macules. Melanocyte loss is a feature of the disease, and it has been hypothesized that an autoimmune mechanism could be responsible for the depigmentation. Melanoma is a malignancy that develops in melanocytes; if not detected and treated early, it is often deadly. Leukoderma, a condition characterized by depigmentation of the skin, is sometimes associated with malignant melanoma. An immune response against melanocyte antigens leading to destruction of either melanoma cells or melanocytes has been observed in both vitiligo and melanoma. Studies in animal models and humans have shown that humoral and cell-mediated immune responses are involved in modulating cytotoxic activity against tumor cells and normal melanocytes. The study of factors associated with anti-tumor immunopathogenic mechanisms -autoimmunity for example- may provide us with tools for the diagnosis and treatment of diseases such as vitiligo and malignant melanoma. PMID:23146137

González, R; Torres-López, E

2014-03-01

428

Adjuvant medical treatment options for cutaneous malignant melanoma  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Patients with early-stage malignant melanoma can be cured with surgical resection with or without adjuvant therapy. Prognosis is still poor in the patients with metastatic melanoma. Treatment options are limited. Lymph node involvement and Breslow tumor thickness are the most important prognostic factors. There have been many trials in the adjuvant setting of malignant melanoma due to the poor prognosis of metastatic disease. High-risk node-negative patients and node-positive patients are candidates for systemic adjuvant therapy following surgery. Different treatment modalities have been widely investigated for the adjuvant treatment in high-risk melanoma patients. Stage III (locoregional metastasis and stage II (Breslow thickness >1.5 mm patients are included in adjuvant melanoma trials. The rationale for adjuvant therapy is summarized in this review, and the roles of interferon, interleukin (high-intermediate-low dose, chemotherapy, vaccines, colony stimulating factors, and combination therapies (biochemotherapy, combined immunotherapy, immunochemotherapy are discussed.

Banu ÖZTÜRK

2010-01-01

429

Primary malignant melanoma of the liver: A case report  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Primary malignant melanoma of the liver is an exceedingly rare tumor. Only 12 cases have been reported in the worldwide literature. We present a case of isolated malignant melanoma of the liver occurring in a 36-year-old Chinese male patient. Comprehensive dermatologic and ophthalmologic examinations revealed no evidence of a cutaneous or ocular primary lesion. Other lesions in brain, respiratory tract, lung, gastrointestinal tract and anus, were not demonstrated by serial position emission tomography (PET. Micro