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Sample records for melanoma

  1. Melanoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melanoma is the most serious type of skin cancer. Often the first sign of melanoma is a change in the size, shape, color, or feel of a mole. Most melanomas have a black or black-blue area. Melanoma ...

  2. Melanoma genetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Read, Jazlyn; Wadt, Karin A W; Hayward, Nicholas K

    2016-01-01

    Approximately 10% of melanoma cases report a relative affected with melanoma, and a positive family history is associated with an increased risk of developing melanoma. Although the majority of genetic alterations associated with melanoma development are somatic, the underlying presence of...... combined total of approximately 50% of familial melanoma cases, the underlying genetic basis is unexplained for the remainder of high-density melanoma families. Aside from the possibility of extremely rare mutations in a few additional high penetrance genes yet to be discovered, this suggests a likely...... polygenic component to susceptibility, and a unique level of personal melanoma risk influenced by multiple low-risk alleles and genetic modifiers. In addition to conferring a risk of cutaneous melanoma, some 'melanoma' predisposition genes have been linked to other cancers, with cancer clustering observed...

  3. Paediatric melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Benjamin A

    2016-02-01

    Cutaneous melanoma occurs only rarely in children under 10 years of age. Mimics of melanoma, including Spitz naevi and proliferative nodules in congenital melanocytic naevi are much more frequent in this age group. Melanoma arising in congenital melanocytic naevus is uncommon, but can show aggressive behaviour. Although spitzoid lesions constitute the majority of 'diagnostically challenging' cases, they are an uncommon cause of mortality in this age group. Among lesions with undoubted metastatic potential, there are biologically distinct tumours which differ significantly in behaviour from the common types of melanoma seen in adults. In patients over 10 years of age and increasingly into the late adolescent years, melanoma is a relatively common neoplasm. Just as in adult patients, care should be taken to exclude melanoma mimics. Particular care is warranted in this older age group in the assessment of lesions with spitzoid morphology as there is significant potential for both over-and under-diagnosis. PMID:27020388

  4. Cutaneous melanoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) for malignant melanoma was initiated by Y. Mishima and his associates. Following basic research of 13 years, this team started the first clinical trial of cutaneous melanoma BNCT using 10B-para-boronophenylalanine (BPA) in 1985. Since then, 32 patients have been treated. We developed the following regimen for BNCT of malignant melanoma: 1) 170 - 250 mg/kg of BPA-fructose complex is administered by drip infusion over 3-hours. 2) The minimum dose for melanoma control by single irradiation is assumed to be 25 Gy-eq. 3) The maximum tolerable dose to the skin by single irradiation is assumed to be 18 Gy-eq. 4) As the therapeutic dose, the maximum tolerable dose to the skin itself is chosen. We report the clinical results of two patients with cutaneous melanoma treated by BNCT. We believe that cutaneous melanoma are suitable for BNCT and that the excellent results will have a great impact on patients in QOL. (author)

  5. Malignant Melanoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eshini Perera

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Melanomas are a major cause of premature death from cancer. The gradual decrease in rates of morbidity and mortality has occurred as a result of public health campaigns and improved rates of early diagnosis. Survival of melanoma has increased to over 90%. Management of melanoma involves a number of components: excision, tumor staging, re-excision with negative margins, adjuvant therapies (chemo, radiation or surgery, treatment of stage IV disease, follow-up examination for metastasis, lifestyle modification and counseling. Sentinel lymph node status is an important prognostic factor for survival in patients with a melanoma >1 mm. However, sentinel lymph node biopsies have received partial support due to the limited data regarding the survival advantage of complete lymph node dissection when a micrometastasis is detected in the lymph nodes. Functional mutations in the mitogen-activated pathways are commonly detected in melanomas and these influence the growth control. Therapies that target these pathways are rapidly emerging, and are being shown to increase survival rates in patients. Access to these newer agents can be gained by participation in clinical trials after referral to a multidisciplinary team for staging and re-excision of the scar.

  6. Melanoma Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horsch, Alexander

    The chapter deals with the diagnosis of the malignant melanoma of the skin. This aggressive type of cancer with steadily growing incidence in white populations can hundred percent be cured if it is detected in an early stage. Imaging techniques, in particular dermoscopy, have contributed significantly to improvement of diagnostic accuracy in clinical settings, achieving sensitivities for melanoma experts of beyond 95% at specificities of 90% and more. Automatic computer analysis of dermoscopy images has, in preliminary studies, achieved classification rates comparable to those of experts. However, the diagnosis of melanoma requires a lot of training and experience, and at the time being, average numbers of lesions excised per histology-proven melanoma are around 30, a number which clearly is too high. Further improvements in computer dermoscopy systems and their competent use in clinical settings certainly have the potential to support efforts of improving this situation. In the chapter, medical basics, current state of melanoma diagnosis, image analysis methods, commercial dermoscopy systems, evaluation of systems, and methods and future directions are presented.

  7. Malignant Melanoma of the Foot

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Text Size Print Bookmark Malignant Melanoma of the Foot What is Malignant Melanoma? Melanoma is a cancer ... age groups, even the young. Melanoma in the Foot Melanoma that occurs in the foot or ankle ...

  8. What Does Melanoma Look Like?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Skin Cancer Skin Cancer Screening Research What Does Melanoma Look Like? Melanoma is a type of cancer ... melanoma is itchy, tender, or painful. Photos of Melanoma A large, asymmetrical melanoma with an uneven color ...

  9. Choroidal melanoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choroidal melanoma is the most frequent intraocular tumor in adults. Due to its anatomic location the diagnosis often should be made on the basis of clinical examination and ancillary diagnostic procedures. The choroid melanoma may appear as a visual disturbance, retinal detachment and decrease of visual acuity. The diagnostic methods of choice are: Ultrasonography, Doppler, Ophthalmoscopy and Fluorescein Angiography, Computed Tomography and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and are very useful in evaluating extra ocular extension of the tumor, post treatment local recurrence and differential diagnosis. Ultrasound is the primary method of diagnosis and follow up when a conservative treatment has been used, showing changes in vascularity and echogenicity. Magnetic resonance imaging is very useful in melanotic melanomas because the paramagnetic properties of melanine. They appear as areas of moderately high T1 signal and proton weighted MRI greater than vitreous and hypointensity in T2. The proper interpretation of its clinical presentation and the early use of imaging diagnostic methods allow a correct therapeutic approach and avoid local and distant metastasis which decrease survival time in these patients. (author)

  10. Choroidal melanoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A useful and practical guide is developed to better track to the uveal melanoma, due to its highly malignant character. Melanoma of the uveal tract (choroid, iris, ciliary body) has been the intraocular tumor most frequent in adults. The biopsy has been inaccessible, due to its location; therefore, the diagnostic should be based on clinical examination and the correct utilization of the diagnostic procedures (ultrasound, fluorescent angiography, computed axial tomography and magnetic resonance). The cases are diagnosed in the histological examination of the operatory piece post-enucleation for other causes. Epidemiological research has been key to determine the associated factors and better to understand the mechanisms of onset of the disease. Anatomopathological studies of choroidal melanoma have permitted to know the natural history of the disease. The decrease of the visual acuity, pain or inflammation are presented as a defect in the visual field. Different techniques to diagnose the disease are explained. Ultrasound in mode A and B, computed axial tomography and magnetic resonance are the diagnostic method of election. Ultrasound has been the primary method of diagnostic, giving the size and vascularisation, useful in tracking, when they are treated in shape conservatively, showing changes in echogenicity and less vascularisation as good response to treatment. The treatments of choroidal melanoma are specified. The correct interpretation of the clinical symptoms and early utilization of diagnostic imaging methods, have permitted to establish the adequate therapeutic and to avoid local and distant metastasis. The uveal melanoma, depending on their size and location, traditionally has been treated by enucleation. Data from the literature and authors, have promoted the conservation of the ocular globe, depending on the size of the tumor. Transpupillary thermotherapy has been an available alternative for small tumors in Costa Rica and level of social security. Patients have had the option to keep the ocular globe and even maintain good visual acuity with this therapy. Brachytherapy has been another alternative treatment in tumors of medium size, and can be performed in countries like Colombia and the United States

  11. Melanoma progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elder, David E

    2016-02-01

    Tumours progress to fully malignant neoplasms through stages of development in a stepwise process. A carcinogenic stimulus such as UV light typically results in a large number of lesions, most of which are benign. Most such lesions will remain stable or regress, while a few will develop cytological and architectural atypia, placing them in a morphologically 'intermediate' category between wholly benign and fully malignant. It is important to categorise intermediate lesions, as they may be simulants, risk markers, and potential precursors of malignancy. Although many but not all malignancies arise in an evident precursor lesion, the vast majority of 'potential precursors' will not progress, as is evidenced by their vastly greater numbers in populations. Progression continues with the onset of malignancy including in metastatic disease. In melanoma as in other tumours, progression has been clearly related to the stepwise acquisition of genetic abnormalities. The first step is the activation of a single 'driver' oncogene, which is sufficient to induce a benign neoplasm whose growth is limited by oncogene-induced senescence driven by activated suppressors. In the intermediate lesions, additional genetic alterations occur such as additional driver mutations or heterozygous loss of suppressors due to copy number variation or other mechanisms. Fully malignant lesions are characterised by complete loss of relevant suppressors and by additional abnormalities, which together account for attributes of malignancy such as invasion and metastasis. Any of the steps of progression can be 'skipped', potentially due to telescoped progression or to alternative pathways. Although stages of progression might simply be viewed as markers of an individual's risk for developing subsequent stages, genetic associations that have been demonstrated among contiguous stages of progression in complex primary tumours and in their metastases would argue against this. For example, complex primary melanomas can be associated with remnants of earlier stage lesions both clinically and histologically. These include small symmetrical benign naevi and/or morphologically atypical dysplastic naevi ('precursor naevi'), and/or radial growth phase melanomas many of which may be inexorably progressive but lack competence for metastasis. Vertical growth phase is the stage of melanoma progression in which risk for metastasis may be acquired. This risk can be characterised statistically using prognostic attributes which at present are mostly clinicopathological, although in the future molecular profiling may contribute or even supplant these attributes. In metastatic disease, tumours can continue to progress, acquiring resistance to various therapeutic strategies which presents a considerable challenge to the efficacy of current promising therapeutic strategies. PMID:27020387

  12. Radiotherapy of malignant melanoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the last years is increasing clinical evidence to contradict the well-established idea that melanomas are uniformly radiation resistant. Although surgery remains the first choice for most localized melanoma, radiotherapy is an alternative in a small subgroup of patients in whom the surgery was associated with a deformity, for example in lentigo malign melanoma localized on the face, and in melanoma of the UVEA. Adjuvant radiation therapy following lymphadenectomy in node positive melanoma prevents local and regional recurrence. Stereotactic radiosurgery for brain metastases has shown effective local control The radiotherapy is likely to play a greater role in melanoma management. (author)

  13. Melanoma of the Skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 0 SEER Stat Fact Sheets: Melanoma of the Skin Expand All Collapse All Lifetime risk estimates are ... More after Being Diagnosed with Melanoma of the Skin? Relative survival statistics compare the survival of patients ...

  14. Melanoma International Foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... MD May 09, 2015 Our Awards Melanoma International Foundation Our Mission: To develop personalized strategies with patients ... state of Pennsylvania, certificate #29498 © 2013 Melanoma International Foundation. All Rights Reserved. Privacy Policy | Terms of Use ...

  15. Primary ovarian malignant melanoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kostov Miloš

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Primary ovarian malignant melanoma is extremely rare. It usually appears in the wall of a dermoid cyst or is associated with another teratomatous component. Metastatic primary malignant melanoma to ovary from a primary melanoma elsewhere is well known and has been often reported especially in autopsy studies. Case report. We presented a case of primary ovarian malignant melanoma in a 45- year old woman, with no evidence of extraovarian primary melanoma nor teratomatous component. The tumor was unilateral, macroscopically on section presented as solid mass, dark brown to black color. Microscopically, tumor cells showed positive immunohistochemical reaction for HMB-45, melan-A and S-100 protein, and negative immunoreactivity for estrogen and progesteron receptors. Conclusion. Differentiate metastatic melanoma from rare primary ovarian malignant melanoma, in some of cases may be a histopathological diagnostic problem. Histopathological diagnosis of primary ovarian malignant melanoma should be confirmed by immunohistochemical analyses and detailed clinical search for an occult primary tumor.

  16. Drugs Approved for Melanoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Ask about Your Treatment Research Drugs Approved for Melanoma This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for melanoma. The list includes generic names and brand names. ...

  17. Melanoma - neck (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This melanoma on the neck is variously colored with a very darkly pigmented area found centrally. It has irregular ... be larger than 0.5 cm. Prognosis in melanoma is best defined by its depth on resection.

  18. Are all melanomas dangerous?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Carsten; Glud, Martin; Gniadecki, Robert

    2011-01-01

    The increased incidence of cutaneous malignant melanoma, together with only minor changes in mortality, has brought into question the existence of a melanoma epidemic. The discrepancy between incidence and mortality suggests that most newly diagnosed melanomas have indolent behaviour. This review...

  19. Genetics of familial melanoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aoude, Lauren G; Wadt, Karin A W; Pritchard, Antonia L; Hayward, Nicholas K

    2015-01-01

    Twenty years ago, the first familial melanoma susceptibility gene, CDKN2A, was identified. Two years later, another high-penetrance gene, CDK4, was found to be responsible for melanoma development in some families. Progress in identifying new familial melanoma genes was subsequently slow; however...

  20. Burden of Melanoma

    OpenAIRE

    Holterhues, Cynthia

    2011-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Melanoma is a type of skin cancer that arises from melanocytes. More than 95% of all melanomas occur in the skin, but rarely in the pigmented cells of the eye, meninges or mucosa. This thesis will only regard the invasive cutaneous malignant melanomas.

  1. Malignant melanoma - cutaneous metastases

    OpenAIRE

    Padmavathy L; Rao L; Ethirajan N; Swamy B

    2008-01-01

    Melanoma composed of melanocytes may arise in the skin or other tissues harboring melanocytes, such muco-cutaneous junctions, mucosa including the conjunctiva, iris, choroids and substantia nigra.1 Metastases to the skin and subcutaneous tissues from a malignant melanoma are less common. A case of multiple painless nodules on the body that revealed metastatic deposits of melanoma on histopathological examination is being reported.

  2. Clínica del melanoma Clinical manifestations of melanoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Mordoh

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available El melanoma es un tumor maligno originado en los melanocitos, cuya incidencia y mortalidad han aumentado en las últimas décadas. Sus factores de riesgo más importantes son la susceptibilidad genética relacionada con sensibilidad al sol (capacidad para broncearse y tendencia a las quemaduras y con ciertos genes especíLcos; factores ambientales tales como la exposición a la radiación UV, latitud y una combinación de ambos, como la cantidad de nevos. Sus formas clínicas son: melanoma extensivo superLcial (70%, nodular (15-30%, lentigo maligno (10-15% y acrolentiginoso (5%. De todas las características histológicas, el espesor de Brelow (medido en mm desde la granulosa hasta el punto más profundo de penetración tumoral es el predictor de sobrevida más importante. El tratamiento quirúrgico adecuado con 1 cm de margen en aquellos pacientes de bajo riesgo (Breslow Melanoma is a malignant tumor that originates in melanocytes and whose incidence and mortality have increased in the last decades. The most important risk factors are a genetic susceptibility related to sun sensitivity (having tanning capacity and being prone to sunburn and with certain speci1c genes; environmental factors such as exposure to UV radiation, latitude and a combination of both such as the number of nevis. Its clinical forms are: super1cial spreading melanoma (70%, nodular melanoma (15-30%, lentigo maligna melanoma (10-15% and acral lentiginous melanoma (5%. Among all the histological characteristics, Breslow's depth (measured in mm from the granular layer of the epidermis to the deepest point of tumor invasion is the most important predictor for progression free survival. An appropriate surgical treatment with 1-cm margin melanomas in low-risk patients (Breslow < 1 mm cures over 90% of the patients. Thus, early detection of melanoma is an important goal in melanoma treatment.

  3. Surgical Management of Melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koshenkov, Vadim P; Broucek, Joe; Kaufman, Howard L

    2016-01-01

    The surgical management of melanoma has undergone considerable changes over the past several decades, as new strategies and treatments have become available. Surgeons play a pivotal role in all aspects of melanoma care: diagnostic, curative, and palliative. There is a high potential for cure in patients with early-stage melanoma and the selection of an appropriate operation is very important for this reason. Staging the nodal basin has become widespread since the adoption of sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) for the management of melanoma. This operation provides the best prognostic information that is currently available for patients with melanoma. The surgeon plays a central role in the palliation of symptoms resulting from nodal disease and metastases, as melanoma has a propensity to spread to almost any site in the body. PMID:26601862

  4. Decoding Melanoma Metastasis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Damsky, William E. Jr. [Department of Dermatology, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut (United States); Department of Pathology, University of Vermont College of Medicine, Burlington, Vermont (United States); Rosenbaum, Lara E.; Bosenberg, Marcus, E-mail: Marcus.Bosenberg@yale.edu [Department of Dermatology, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut (United States)

    2010-12-30

    Metastasis accounts for the vast majority of morbidity and mortality associated with melanoma. Evidence suggests melanoma has a predilection for metastasis to particular organs. Experimental analyses have begun to shed light on the mechanisms regulating melanoma metastasis and organ specificity, but these analyses are complicated by observations of metastatic dormancy and dissemination of melanocytes that are not yet fully malignant. Additionally, tumor extrinsic factors in the microenvironment, both at the site of the primary tumor and the site of metastasis, play important roles in mediating the metastatic process. As metastasis research moves forward, paradigms explaining melanoma metastasis as a step-wise process must also reflect the temporal complexity and heterogeneity in progression of this disease. Genetic drivers of melanoma as well as extrinsic regulators of disease spread, particularly those that mediate metastasis to specific organs, must also be incorporated into newer models of melanoma metastasis.

  5. Sunburn and malignant melanoma.

    OpenAIRE

    Green, A.; Siskind, V.; C. Bain; Alexander, J.

    1985-01-01

    We investigated the relationship between cutaneous malignant melanoma and multiple sunburns in the Queensland population. Interview data were gathered from 236 case-control pairs concerning their lifetime experience of severe sunburns, their occupational and recreational sun exposure, and their skin type. Excluding the lentigo maligna melanoma subtype, an association between multiple sunburns and melanoma was evident. After controlling for other major risk factors there was a significant dose...

  6. Malignant melanoma - cutaneous metastases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Padmavathy L

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Melanoma composed of melanocytes may arise in the skin or other tissues harboring melanocytes, such muco-cutaneous junctions, mucosa including the conjunctiva, iris, choroids and substantia nigra. Metastases to the skin and subcutaneous tissues from a malignant melanoma are less common. A case of multiple painless nodules on the body that revealed metastatic deposits of melanoma on histopathological examination is being reported.

  7. Malignant melanoma - cutaneous metastases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    L, Padmavathy; L, Lakshmana Rao; N, Ethirajan; B, Krishna Swamy

    2008-01-01

    Melanoma composed of melanocytes may arise in the skin or other tissues harboring melanocytes, such muco-cutaneous junctions, mucosa including the conjunctiva, iris, choroids and substantia nigra.1 Metastases to the skin and subcutaneous tissues from a malignant melanoma are less common. A case of multiple painless nodules on the body that revealed metastatic deposits of melanoma on histopathological examination is being reported. PMID:19882041

  8. Uveal melanoma: Estimating prognosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swathi Kaliki

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Uveal melanoma is the most common primary malignant tumor of the eye in adults, predominantly found in Caucasians. Local tumor control of uveal melanoma is excellent, yet this malignancy is associated with relatively high mortality secondary to metastasis. Various clinical, histopathological, cytogenetic features and gene expression features help in estimating the prognosis of uveal melanoma. The clinical features associated with poor prognosis in patients with uveal melanoma include older age at presentation, male gender, larger tumor basal diameter and thickness, ciliary body location, diffuse tumor configuration, association with ocular/oculodermal melanocytosis, extraocular tumor extension, and advanced tumor staging by American Joint Committee on Cancer classification. Histopathological features suggestive of poor prognosis include epithelioid cell type, high mitotic activity, higher values of mean diameter of ten largest nucleoli, higher microvascular density, extravascular matrix patterns, tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes, tumor-infiltrating macrophages, higher expression of insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor, and higher expression of human leukocyte antigen Class I and II. Monosomy 3, 1p loss, 6q loss, and 8q and those classified as Class II by gene expression are predictive of poor prognosis of uveal melanoma. In this review, we discuss the prognostic factors of uveal melanoma. A database search was performed on PubMed, using the terms "uvea," "iris," "ciliary body," "choroid," "melanoma," "uveal melanoma" and "prognosis," "metastasis," "genetic testing," "gene expression profiling." Relevant English language articles were extracted, reviewed, and referenced appropriately.

  9. Uveal melanoma: estimating prognosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaliki, Swathi; Shields, Carol L; Shields, Jerry A

    2015-02-01

    Uveal melanoma is the most common primary malignant tumor of the eye in adults, predominantly found in Caucasians. Local tumor control of uveal melanoma is excellent, yet this malignancy is associated with relatively high mortality secondary to metastasis. Various clinical, histopathological, cytogenetic features and gene expression features help in estimating the prognosis of uveal melanoma. The clinical features associated with poor prognosis in patients with uveal melanoma include older age at presentation, male gender, larger tumor basal diameter and thickness, ciliary body location, diffuse tumor configuration, association with ocular/oculodermal melanocytosis, extraocular tumor extension, and advanced tumor staging by American Joint Committee on Cancer classification. Histopathological features suggestive of poor prognosis include epithelioid cell type, high mitotic activity, higher values of mean diameter of ten largest nucleoli, higher microvascular density, extravascular matrix patterns, tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes, tumor-infiltrating macrophages, higher expression of insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor, and higher expression of human leukocyte antigen Class I and II. Monosomy 3, 1p loss, 6q loss, and 8q and those classified as Class II by gene expression are predictive of poor prognosis of uveal melanoma. In this review, we discuss the prognostic factors of uveal melanoma. A database search was performed on PubMed, using the terms "uvea," "iris," "ciliary body," "choroid," "melanoma," "uveal melanoma" and "prognosis," "metastasis," "genetic testing," "gene expression profiling." Relevant English language articles were extracted, reviewed, and referenced appropriately. PMID:25827538

  10. Interleukin-6 and melanoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoejberg, Lise; Bastholt, Lars; Schmidt, Henrik

    2012-01-01

    Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is a pleiotropic immunomodulatory cytokine produced by various types of cells, including melanoma cells. IL-6 plays a major role in the pathogenesis and development of malignancies. It promotes tumour growth by inhibition of apoptosis and induces tumour angiogenesis. IL-6 is...... deregulated in many types of cancers, and increased serum concentration of IL-6 has been correlated with a worse prognosis in patients with different cancers, including melanoma. Several serum cytokines including IL-6 play an important role in the development and progression of melanoma; however, the specific...... biological functions of IL-6 in progression of melanoma are unknown. In this review, we present studies on cell cultures and mouse models and summarize published clinical studies on IL-6 and melanoma....

  11. The morphologic universe of melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaimes, Natalia; Marghoob, Ashfaq A

    2013-10-01

    Differentiating dysplastic nevi from melanoma remains one of the main objectives of dermoscopy. Melanomas tend not to manifest any of the benign patterns described for nevi and instead usually display chaotic dermoscopic morphologies. Melanomas located on the face, chronically sun-damaged skin, volar surfaces, nails, and mucosal surfaces have additional features that can assist in their identification. However, some melanomas lack any defined dermoscopic structures. These so-called featureless melanomas can be identified via digital surveillance. This article reviews the melanoma-specific structures as a function of anatomic location (ie, melanomas on nonglabrous skin, face, volar surfaces, mucosae, and nails). PMID:24075548

  12. Melanoma inhibitory activity in Brazilian patients with cutaneous melanoma

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Macanori, Odashiro; Gunter, Hans Filho; Patricia Rusa, Pereira; Ana Rita Coimbra Motta, Castro; Alcione Cavalheiro, Stief; Elenir Rose Jardim Cury, Pontes; Alexandre Nakao, Odashiro.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract BACKGROUND: Melanoma inhibitory activity is a protein secreted by melanoma cells and has been used as a tumor marker. Increased Melanoma inhibitory activity serum levels are related to metastatic disease or tumor recurrence. Currently there are no studies on Melanoma inhibitory activity and [...] cutaneous melanoma involving Brazilian patients. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the performance and feasibility of measuring Melanoma inhibitory activity levels in Brazilian patients with cutaneous melanoma. METHODS: Blood was obtained from ten patients with proved metastatic cutaneous melanoma (Group 1), 15 patients resected for cutaneous melanoma without metastasis (Group 2) and 5 healthy donors (Group 3). Melanoma inhibitory activity was measured using a commercially available ELISA kit. RESULTS: There was a statistically significant difference of Melanoma inhibitory activity levels between patients with and without metastasis (p=0.002), and between patients with metastasis and healthy donors (p=0.002). There was no difference between patients without metastasis and healthy donors (p=0.443). CONCLUSION: Melanoma inhibitory activity is a tumor marker for cutaneous melanoma and the Melanoma inhibitory activity-ELISA test can be easily performed. Patients with metastasis have increased Melanoma inhibitory activity serum levels when compared to patients without metastasis and healthy donors.

  13. A Case of Spitzoid Melanoma

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Heung Yeol; Yoon, Jong Hyun; Cho, Eun Byul; Park, Eun Ju; Kim, Kwang Ho; Kim, Kwang Joong

    2015-01-01

    Spitzoid melanoma is a subtype of melanoma that, clinically and histologically, resembles a Spitz nevus. Clinically, spitzoid melanomas usually evolve from amelanotic nodular lesions, growing to 1 cm or more in diameter. They often remain clinically undiagnosed because of their wide variety of clinical appearances and a lack of pigmentation. Distinguishing a Spitz nevus from a spitzoid melanoma can be extremely difficult. Features that favor the diagnosis of a spitzoid melanoma are asymmetric...

  14. Characterization of melanoma associated spongiform scleropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alyahya, Ghassan Ayish Jabur; Heegaard, Steffen; Prause, J.U.

    ophthalmology, melanoma associated spongiform scleropathy (MASS), MASS, malignant uveal melanoma, sclera, ciliary body, choroid, histopathology......ophthalmology, melanoma associated spongiform scleropathy (MASS), MASS, malignant uveal melanoma, sclera, ciliary body, choroid, histopathology...

  15. Sunburn and malignant melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, A.; Siskind, V.; Bain, C.; Alexander, J.

    1985-01-01

    We investigated the relationship between cutaneous malignant melanoma and multiple sunburns in the Queensland population. Interview data were gathered from 236 case-control pairs concerning their lifetime experience of severe sunburns, their occupational and recreational sun exposure, and their skin type. Excluding the lentigo maligna melanoma subtype, an association between multiple sunburns and melanoma was evident. After controlling for other major risk factors there was a significant dose-response relationship (P less than 0.05): the estimated relative risk associated with 2-5 sunburns in life was 1.5, and with 6 or more was 2.4. This observation extends the hitherto circumstantial evidence of a causal relationship between exposure to solar ultraviolet radiation and melanoma, and suggests that precautionary measures could prevent the development of this disease in a proportion of cases in fair-skinned populations. PMID:3970815

  16. Proteomics in uveal melanoma.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ramasamy, Pathma

    2014-01-01

    Uveal melanoma is the most common primary intraocular malignancy in adults, with an incidence of 5-7 per million per year. It is associated with the development of metastasis in about 50% of cases, and 40% of patients with uveal melanoma die of metastatic disease despite successful treatment of the primary tumour. The survival rates at 5, 10 and 15 years are 65%, 50% and 45% respectively. Unlike progress made in many other areas of cancer, uveal melanoma is still poorly understood and survival rates have remained similar over the past 25 years. Recently, advances made in molecular genetics have improved our understanding of this disease and stratification of patients into low risk and high risk for developing metastasis. However, only a limited number of studies have been performed using proteomic methods. This review will give an overview of various proteomic technologies currently employed in life sciences research, and discuss proteomic studies of uveal melanoma.

  17. Melanoma Epidemiology and Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berwick, Marianne; Buller, David B; Cust, Anne; Gallagher, Richard; Lee, Tim K; Meyskens, Frank; Pandey, Shaily; Thomas, Nancy E; Veierød, Marit B; Ward, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    The epidemiology of melanoma is complex, and individual risk depends on sun exposure, host factors, and genetic factors, and in their interactions as well. Sun exposure can be classified as intermittent, chronic, or cumulative (overall) exposure, and each appears to have a different effect on type of melanoma. Other environmental factors, such as chemical exposures-either through occupation, atmosphere, or food-may increase risk for melanoma, and this area warrants further study. Host factors that are well known to be important are the numbers and types of nevi and the skin phenotype. Genetic factors are classified as high-penetrant genes, moderate-risk genes, or low-risk genetic polymorphisms. Subtypes of tumors, such as BRAF-mutated tumors, have different risk factors as well as different therapies. Prevention of melanoma has been attempted using various strategies in specific subpopulations, but to date optimal interventions to reduce incidence have not emerged. PMID:26601858

  18. Biomarkers in melanoma

    OpenAIRE

    Gogas, H.; Eggermont, A.M.M.; Hauschild, A; Hersey, P; Mohr, P; Schadendorf, D.; Spatz, A; Dummer, R

    2009-01-01

    Biomarkers are tumour- or host-related factors that correlate with tumour biological behaviour and patient prognosis. High-throughput analytical techniques--DNA and RNA microarrays--have identified numerous possible biomarkers, but their relevance to melanoma progression, clinical outcome and the selection of optimal treatment strategies still needs to be established. The review discusses a possible molecular basis for predictive tissue biomarkers such as melanoma thickness, ulceration and mi...

  19. [Photoimmunology of melanoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubin, F; Agache, P

    1993-01-23

    Several epidemiological studies suggest that exposure to ultraviolet radiation and immunological responsiveness of the host contribute to the etiology of melanoma. In addition, a growing experimental evidence indicates a stimulant effect of ultraviolet radiation and a high immunogenicity of melanocytic tumors. These findings lead to the hypothesis of an ultraviolet-induced alteration of the immune response that decreases the host-resistance to melanoma antigens. PMID:8493207

  20. Primary Anorectal Melanoma: An Update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Carcoforo, M.T Raiji, G.M Palini, M Pedriali, U Maestroni, G Soliani, A Detroia, M.V Zanzi, A.L Manna, J.G Crompton, R.C Langan, A Stojadinovic, I Avital

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The anorectum is a rare anatomic location for primary melanoma. Mucosal melanoma is a distinct biological and clinical entity from the more common cutaneous melanoma. It portrays worse prognosis than cutaneous melanoma, with distant metastases being the overwhelming cause of morbidity and mortality. Surgery is the treatment of choice, but significant controversy exists over the extent of surgical resection. We present an update on the state of the art of anorectal mucosal melanoma. To illustrate the multimodality approach to anorectal melanoma, we present a typical patient.

  1. Radioimmunoscintigraphy in ocular melanoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Malignant choroidal melanoma is one of the most common primary intraocular neoplasms. Despite significant advances in indirect ophthalmology, ultrasound, computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and fluoroescein angiography, choroidal melanomas may be difficult to distinguish from other malignant and non-malignant eye lesions. Radioimmunoscintigraphy (RIS) with 99Tcm-labelled monoclonal antibody F(ab')2 fragments was performed on three patients (2 females, 1 male) who were suspected of having a choroidal melanoma. Patients were injected with 240-420 MBq Technemab-K-1 and scanned 6 and 22 h post-injection. Both planar and single photon emission tomographic (SPET) imaging were performed. RIS was faintly positive in one patient in whom the diagnosis of choroidal melanoma was confirmed by enucleation of the left eye. In the other two patients, immunoscintigraphy was negative. One patient had a benign choroidal haemangioma and the other an amelanotic melanoma. This was confirmed on clinical follow-up. These preliminary results indicate that this procedure may have utility for choroidal melanoma

  2. Cutaneous malignant melanoma in Scotland.

    OpenAIRE

    Mackie, R.M.; Hunter, J A

    1982-01-01

    In view of the concern over the rising incidence of malignant melanoma in many parts of the world, and the suggestion that emigrants of Scottish and Irish descent have a higher incidence of melanoma in North America and Australia, a Scottish Melanoma Group has been formed to study epidemiological, pathological and therapeutic aspects of the tumour. In 1979, 260 histologically proven primary cutaneous malignant melanomas of the skin presented. This represents an incidence of 5.1/10(5) for Scot...

  3. Clinical applications of melanoma genetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabree, Michele; Patel, Devanshi; Rodgers, Linda

    2014-06-01

    Families that have several relatives with melanoma, multiple primary melanomas in one individual, younger than average ages of melanoma onset, and/or the presence of both pancreatic cancer and melanoma may be suggestive of a hereditary melanoma syndrome and are candidates for genetic counseling and risk assessment. Genetic counseling for hereditary melanoma presents many complexities. Only a minority of hereditary melanoma cases have been attributed to a single genetic factor, CDKN2A. Both the frequency and the penetrance of CDKN2A mutations has been shown to be dependent on multiple factors. The clinical utility of genetic testing for hereditary melanoma families is debatable because CDKN2A status may not impact medical management in patients with melanoma. No standard medical management guidelines exist for families with CDKN2A mutations; however, family history of melanoma and pancreatic cancer may warrant further discussion. Clinicians should discuss the clinical and psychological implications before genetic testing. Genetic counseling and pretest education regarding melanoma risk factors provides an opportunity to increase knowledge and understanding of melanoma risk, while addressing psychological risks and concerns. PMID:24652319

  4. Methods of Melanoma Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leachman, Sancy A; Cassidy, Pamela B; Chen, Suephy C; Curiel, Clara; Geller, Alan; Gareau, Daniel; Pellacani, Giovanni; Grichnik, James M; Malvehy, Josep; North, Jeffrey; Jacques, Steven L; Petrie, Tracy; Puig, Susana; Swetter, Susan M; Tofte, Susan; Weinstock, Martin A

    2016-01-01

    Detection and removal of melanoma, before it has metastasized, dramatically improves prognosis and survival. The purpose of this chapter is to (1) summarize current methods of melanoma detection and (2) review state-of-the-art detection methods and technologies that have the potential to reduce melanoma mortality. Current strategies for the detection of melanoma range from population-based educational campaigns and screening to the use of algorithm-driven imaging technologies and performance of assays that identify markers of transformation. This chapter will begin by describing state-of-the-art methods for educating and increasing awareness of at-risk individuals and for performing comprehensive screening examinations. Standard and advanced photographic methods designed to improve reliability and reproducibility of the clinical examination will also be reviewed. Devices that magnify and/or enhance malignant features of individual melanocytic lesions (and algorithms that are available to interpret the results obtained from these devices) will be compared and contrasted. In vivo confocal microscopy and other cellular-level in vivo technologies will be compared to traditional tissue biopsy, and the role of a noninvasive "optical biopsy" in the clinical setting will be discussed. Finally, cellular and molecular methods that have been applied to the diagnosis of melanoma, such as comparative genomic hybridization (CGH), fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH), and quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR), will be discussed. PMID:26601859

  5. Immunoscintigraphy in ocular melanoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Immunoscintigraphy (IS) of malignant tumors has become an encouraging tool in nuclear medicine. Early diagnosis of small lesions is mandatory for successful cancer therapy generally. The scintigraphic detectability of small lesions (2 fragments of the anti-melanoma monoclonal antibody 225.28S; this antibody recognizes the high-molecular-weight melanoma-associated antigen. No adverse effects were observed. In terms of true positive results, Single Photon Emission CT proved to be superior compared to planar scans (81 versus 46 percent true positive results). (author). 30 refs

  6. Vitamins and Melanoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Russo

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available A tremendous amount of information was published over the past decades in relation to the role of vitamins in various neoplastic diseases. In particular, several studies showed an inverse relationship between selected vitamins intake and cancer risk. In this review we will focus on the role played by vitamins in melanoma with particular regard to vitamin A, D, K, E and C. Given that vitamin supplementation is easy, convenient, and readily accepted by patients, in the future the use of vitamins in chemoprevention and therapy of melanoma could be encouraged if supported by pre-clinical and clinical evidence.

  7. MIR genes in Melanoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On the basis of the previous project, further studies have been performed on the expression of selected miR genes in normal melanocytes and in melanoma cell lines, using real-time reverse transcription-PCR (qRT-PCR). In particular, we have analyzed the expression of 8 miR genes (i.e. 17-5p, 18a, 20a, 92a, 146a, 146b, 155, 221) in 10 different melanocyte cultures obtained from skin biopsies of 10 different healthy donors, and in 14 long-term human melanoma cell cultures

  8. Melanoma brain metastases therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melanoma frequently metastasizes to the central nervous system. Patients with brain metastases have considerable morbidity, poor quality of life and prognosis. For almost 40 years, the treatment had been based primarily on whole brain radiation. In the last decade, new treatment modalities have emerged. Surgery's role has been better defined, radiosurgery has become a new option, and the introduction of new chemotherapeutic agents such as fotemustine with consistent activity in brain metastases has brought a new perspective to the management of these patients. This article intends to review the recent advances in the treatment of brain metastases of melanoma. (author)

  9. Angiogenesis and Melanoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angiogenesis occurs in pathological conditions, such as tumors, where a specific critical point in tumor progression is the transition from the avascular to the vascular phase. Tumor angiogenesis depends mainly on the release by neoplastic cells of growth factors specific for endothelial cells, which are able to stimulate the growth of the host’s blood vessels. This article summarizes the literature concerning the relationship between angiogenesis and human melanoma progression. The recent applications of antiangiogenic agents which interfere with melanoma progression are also described

  10. A case of spitzoid melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Heung Yeol; Yoon, Jong Hyun; Cho, Eun Byul; Park, Eun Ju; Kim, Kwang Ho; Kim, Kwang Joong

    2015-04-01

    Spitzoid melanoma is a subtype of melanoma that, clinically and histologically, resembles a Spitz nevus. Clinically, spitzoid melanomas usually evolve from amelanotic nodular lesions, growing to 1 cm or more in diameter. They often remain clinically undiagnosed because of their wide variety of clinical appearances and a lack of pigmentation. Distinguishing a Spitz nevus from a spitzoid melanoma can be extremely difficult. Features that favor the diagnosis of a spitzoid melanoma are asymmetrical shape, diameter greater than 1 cm, a lesion with a deep invasive component, and a high degree of cytologic atypia. There have been only rare reports in the literature of the presence of giant cells in malignant melanoma, and the presence of these cells may result in its misdiagnosis as a histiocytic tumor. We present a case of spitzoid melanoma on the right ankle of a 22-year-old-woman. PMID:25834363

  11. Are all melanomas dangerous?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Carsten; Glud, Martin; Gniadecki, Robert

    2011-01-01

    summarizes the most recent epidemiological findings regarding the incidence of cutaneous malignant melanoma, mortality, Breslow thickness and clinical stage. Studies published between 2005 and 2010 with more than 2,000 test subjects were included in this review. These studies all report an increase in...

  12. Biomarkers in melanoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gogas, H.; Eggermont, A. M. M.; Hauschild, A.; Hersey, P.; Mohr, P.; Schadendorf, D.; Spatz, A.; Dummer, R.

    2009-01-01

    Biomarkers are tumour- or host-related factors that correlate with tumour biological behaviour and patient prognosis. High-throughput analytical techniques—DNA and RNA microarrays—have identified numerous possible biomarkers, but their relevance to melanoma progression, clinical outcome and the selection of optimal treatment strategies still needs to be established. The review discusses a possible molecular basis for predictive tissue biomarkers such as melanoma thickness, ulceration and mitotic activity, and provides a list of promising new biomarkers identified from tissue microarrays that needs confirmation by independent, prospectively collected clinical data sets. In addition, common predictive serum biomarkers—lactate dehydrogenase, S100B and melanoma-inhibiting activity—as well as selected investigational serum biomarkers such as TA90IC and YKL-40 are also reviewed. A more accurate, therapeutically predictive classification of human melanomas and selection of patient populations that would profit from therapeutic interventions are among the major challenges expected to be addressed in the future. PMID:19617299

  13. Melanoma Risk Prediction Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Developing statistical models that estimate the probability of developing melanoma cancer over a defined period of time will help clinicians identify individuals at higher risk of specific cancers, allowing for earlier or more frequent screening and counseling of behavioral changes to decrease risk.

  14. Spice Blocks Melanoma Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Science Teacher, 2005

    2005-01-01

    Curcumin, the pungent yellow spice found in both turmeric and curry powders, blocks a key biological pathway needed for development of melanoma and other cancers, according to a study that appears in the journal Cancer. Researchers from The University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center demonstrate how curcumin stops laboratory strains of…

  15. Melanoma risk prediction models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolić Jelena

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. The lack of effective therapy for advanced stages of melanoma emphasizes the importance of preventive measures and screenings of population at risk. Identifying individuals at high risk should allow targeted screenings and follow-up involving those who would benefit most. The aim of this study was to identify most significant factors for melanoma prediction in our population and to create prognostic models for identification and differentiation of individuals at risk. Methods. This case-control study included 697 participants (341 patients and 356 controls that underwent extensive interview and skin examination in order to check risk factors for melanoma. Pairwise univariate statistical comparison was used for the coarse selection of the most significant risk factors. These factors were fed into logistic regression (LR and alternating decision trees (ADT prognostic models that were assessed for their usefulness in identification of patients at risk to develop melanoma. Validation of the LR model was done by Hosmer and Lemeshow test, whereas the ADT was validated by 10-fold cross-validation. The achieved sensitivity, specificity, accuracy and AUC for both models were calculated. The melanoma risk score (MRS based on the outcome of the LR model was presented. Results. The LR model showed that the following risk factors were associated with melanoma: sunbeds (OR = 4.018; 95% CI 1.724- 9.366 for those that sometimes used sunbeds, solar damage of the skin (OR = 8.274; 95% CI 2.661-25.730 for those with severe solar damage, hair color (OR = 3.222; 95% CI 1.984-5.231 for light brown/blond hair, the number of common naevi (over 100 naevi had OR = 3.57; 95% CI 1.427-8.931, the number of dysplastic naevi (from 1 to 10 dysplastic naevi OR was 2.672; 95% CI 1.572-4.540; for more than 10 naevi OR was 6.487; 95%; CI 1.993-21.119, Fitzpatricks phototype and the presence of congenital naevi. Red hair, phototype I and large congenital naevi were only present in melanoma patients and thus were strongly associated with melanoma. The percentage of correctly classified subjects in the LR model was 74.9%, sensitivity 71%, specificity 78.7% and AUC 0.805. For the ADT percentage of correctly classified instances was 71.9%, sensitivity 71.9%, specificity 79.4% and AUC 0.808. Conclusion. Application of different models for risk assessment and prediction of melanoma should provide efficient and standardized tool in the hands of clinicians. The presented models offer effective discrimination of individuals at high risk, transparent decision making and real-time implementation suitable for clinical practice. A continuous melanoma database growth would provide for further adjustments and enhancements in model accuracy as well as offering a possibility for successful application of more advanced data mining algorithms.

  16. Radiopharmaceuticals targeting melanoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pham, T.Q.; Berghofer, P.; Liu, X.; Greguric, I.; Dikic, B.; Ballantyne, P.; Mattner, F.; Nguyen, V.; Loc' h, C.; Katsifis, A. [Radiopharmaceuticals Research Institute, Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Menai, N.S.W., Sydney (Australia)

    2008-02-15

    Melanoma is one of the most aggressive cancers known with a high rate of mortality and increasing global incidence. So, the development of radiopharmaceuticals for either diagnostic or therapeutic purposes could make enormous contributions to melanoma patient health care. We have been studying melanoma tumours through several targeting mechanisms including melanin or specific receptor based radiopharmaceuticals Structure activity studies indicate that the substitution patterns on radioiodinated benzamides significantly influence the uptake mechanism from melanin to sigma-receptor binding. Furthermore, the position of the iodine as well as the presence of key functional groups and substituents has resulted in compounds with varying degrees of activity uptake and retention in tumours. From these results, a novel molecule 2-(2-(4-(4-iodo benzyl)piperazin-1-yl)-2-oxo-ethyl)isoindoline- 1,3-dione (M.E.L.037) was synthesized, labelled with iodine-123 and evaluated for application in melanoma tumour scintigraphy and radiotherapy. The tumour imaging potential of {sup 123}IM.E.L.037 was studied in vivo in C.57 B.L./ 6 J female mice bearing the B.16 F.0. murine melanoma tumour and in BALB/c nude mice bearing the A.375 human amelanotic melanoma tumour by biodistribution, competition studies and by SPECT imaging. {sup 123}I-M.E.L.037 exhibited high and rapid uptake in the B.16 F.0 melanoma tumour at 1 h (13 % I.D./g) increasing with time to reach 25 % I.D./g at 6 h. A significant uptake was also observed in the eyes (2% I.D., at 3-6 h p.i.) of black mice. No uptake was observed in the tumour or in the eyes of nude mice bearing the A.375 tumour. Due to high uptake and long retention in the tumour and rapid body clearance, standardized uptake values(S.U.V.) of {sup 123}I-M.E.L.037 were 30 and 60, at 24 and 48 h p.i.,respectively. SPECT imaging of mice bearing the B.16 melanoma indicated the radioactivity was predominately located in the tumour followed by the eyes, while no specific localisation of the radioactivity was noticed in mice bearing A.375 human amelanotic tumour. In competition experiments,uptake of {sup 123}I-M..E.L.037 in brain, lung, heart and kidney, organs known to contain s-receptors, was not significantly different in haloperidol treated animals compared to controls. Therefore,reduction of uptake in tumour and eyes of the pigmented mice bearing the B.16 F.0 tumour suggested that the mechanism of tumour uptake was likely due to an interaction with melanin.These findings suggested that {sup 123}I-M.E.L.037, which displays a rapid and very high tumour uptake, appeared to be a promising imaging agent for detection of most melanoma tumours with the potential for development as a therapeutic agent in melanoma tumour proliferation. (authors)

  17. RARE METASTASES OF MALIGNANT MELANOMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marija Trenki?-Božinovi?

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Melanomas are malignant neoplasms that originate from melanocytes. The most common are on the skin and mucous membranes. Choroidal melanomas are quite different from cutaneous melanomas with regard to presentation, metastases, and treatment. We report two cases of metastatic gastric malignant melanoma of the eye and skin, with reference to the literature. The first patient was a woman aged 23 years, who underwent gastrectomy 22 months after enucleation of the eye due to malignant choroid melanoma. The second patient was a man, 72 years old, who underwent surgery 28 months before because of malignant melanoma of the skin of the forehead. Paraffin sections, 4 ?m thick were stained using a classic method, as well as immunohistochemical DAKO APAAP method, using a specific S - 100 antibody and Melan A antibodies. The stomach is considered a rare place for the development of metastases. Metastases in the stomach are often limited to the submucosal as well as the serousmuscular layer, as noted in one of our patients. Metastatic melanoma of the gastrointestinal tract should be suspected in any patient with a history of malignant melanoma and new gastrointestinal symptoms. Because of the similarity between certain common histopathological types of malignant melanoma, primarily achromatic, and types of primary cancers of the stomach, the following immunohistochemical studies are needed: Melan A and S - 100 protein ( markers of malignant melanoma , as well as mucins: MUC5AC, MUC2 and CDX2 ( markers of different types of primary gastric carcinoma.

  18. Melanoma inhibitor of apoptosis protein is expressed differentially in melanoma and melanocytic naevus, but similarly in primary and metastatic melanomas

    OpenAIRE

    Gong, J.; Chen, N.; Zhou, Q.; Yang, B.; Wang, Y.; Wang, X.

    2005-01-01

    Background: Malignant melanoma is highly resistant to current treatments. The inhibitor of apoptosis protein (IAP) family member, melanoma IAP (ML-IAP), is overexpressed in some melanoma cell lines, rendering them resistant to apoptotic signals. Targeting ML-IAP is a promising approach to treating melanoma. However, the status of ML-IAP expression in human melanoma tissues and the difference in expression between melanoma and melanocytic naevus are not known.

  19. Emergency Surgery for Metastatic Melanoma

    OpenAIRE

    Dimitrios Mantas; Petros Tsaparas; Petros Charalampoudis; Helen Gogas; Gregory Kouraklis

    2014-01-01

    Visceral metastases from malignant melanoma (stage M1c) confer a very poor prognosis, as documented on the most recent revised version of the TNM/AJCC staging system. Emergency surgery for intra-abdominal complications from the disease is rare. We report on our 5-year single institution experience with surgical management of metastatic melanoma to the viscera in the emergent setting. From 2009 to 2013, 14 patients with metastatic melanoma were admitted emergently due to an acute abdomen. Clin...

  20. MALIGNANT MELANOMA – CUTANEOUS METASTASES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padmavathy, L; Lakshmana Rao, L; Ethirajan, N; Krishna Swamy, B

    2008-01-01

    Melanoma composed of melanocytes may arise in the skin or other tissues harboring melanocytes, such muco-cutaneous junctions, mucosa including the conjunctiva, iris, choroids and substantia nigra.1 Metastases to the skin and subcutaneous tissues from a malignant melanoma are less common. A case of multiple painless nodules on the body that revealed metastatic deposits of melanoma on histopathological examination is being reported. PMID:19882041

  1. Radioembolization and Ipilimumab in Treating Patients With Uveal Melanoma With Liver Metastases

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-22

    Ciliary Body and Choroid Melanoma, Medium/Large Size; Ciliary Body and Choroid Melanoma, Small Size; Extraocular Extension Melanoma; Iris Melanoma; Liver Metastases; Metastatic Intraocular Melanoma; Recurrent Intraocular Melanoma; Stage IV Intraocular Melanoma

  2. Nodular amelanotic melanoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nalamwar Rashmi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of 65-year-old male patient who presented with multiple erythematous papules coalescing to form a nodular mass over posterior aspect of right thigh of six months duration. His general and systemic examinations were within normal range except for right inguinal lymphadenopathy. Biopsy from the lesion was done, which showed diffuse infiltrate of nests of atypical melanocytes extending upto reticular dermis. Malignant cells were positive for S100 and human melanin black 45(HMB 45. Hence, a diagnosis of amelanotic melanoma (AM - Clarke level IV and TNM stage III was reached. MRI of involved leg showed fungating soft tissue mass in the posterolateral aspect of right thigh and metastatic right inguinal adenopathy. Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC from the right inguinal nodes confirmed metastasis of melanoma. The patient was referred to oncosurgery department for further management.

  3. Los guardianes del melanoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norma Estela Herrera González

    2012-01-01

    autoinmunidad severa. Aunque aún no se conocen los mecanismos por los cuales funcionan estas células, se sabe que secretan citocinas inmunosupresoras y que inhiben la activación y proliferación de células T, con lo cual se pierde respuesta antitumoral. Por tanto, a estas células las hemos llamado "los guardianes del melanoma".

  4. Understanding melanoma stem cells

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, Nicholas; Couts, Kasey L.; Luo, Yuchun; Fujita, Mayumi

    2015-01-01

    Tumors are incredibly diverse and contain many different subpopulations of cells. The cancer stem cell (CSC) subpopulation is responsible for many aspects of tumorigenesis and has been shown to play an important role in melanoma development, progression, drug resistance and metastasis. However, it is becoming clear that tumor cell populations are dynamic and can be influenced by many factors, such as signals from the tumor microenvironment and somatic evolution. This review will present the c...

  5. Vitamins and Melanoma

    OpenAIRE

    Irene Russo; Francesca Caroppo; Mauro Alaibac

    2015-01-01

    A tremendous amount of information was published over the past decades in relation to the role of vitamins in various neoplastic diseases. In particular, several studies showed an inverse relationship between selected vitamins intake and cancer risk. In this review we will focus on the role played by vitamins in melanoma with particular regard to vitamin A, D, K, E and C. Given that vitamin supplementation is easy, convenient, and readily accepted by patients, in the future the use of vitamin...

  6. Malignant melanoma of choroid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manohar S

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available Four cases of malignant melanoma of the choroid are reported due to rarity of the condition in India. One of the cases presented with Naevus of Ota. All the cases had typical clinical and investigative features. All cases were enucleated. Histopathologically three of them were of mixed type and one was of the epithelioid type. Two of the cases were seen in patients below 40 years of age.

  7. Surgery of Primary Melanomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Surgery remains the mainstay of melanoma therapy, regardless of the tumor site. Only the early diagnosis combined with proper surgical therapy currently gives patients affected by this malignancy the chance for a full cure. The main goal of surgical therapy is to provide the local control of the disease and to secure long-term survival of the patient without reasonable functional and esthetic impairment. The recommended method of biopsy—excisional biopsy, as an initial diagnostic and, to some extent, therapeutic procedure—is performed under local anesthesia as an elliptical incision with visual clear margins of 1–3 mm and with some mm of subcutaneous tissue. The extent of radical excision of the primary tumor (or scar after excisional biopsy) is based on the histopathologic characteristics of the primary tumor and usually consists of 1–2 cm margins with primary closure. The philosophy behind conducted randomized clinical trials has been to find the most conservative surgical approach that is able to guarantee the same results as more demolitive treatment. This has been the background of the trials designed to define the correct margins of excision around a primary cutaneous melanoma. Much less definition can be dedicated to the surgical management of patients with non-cutaneous melanomas

  8. Surgery of Primary Melanomas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rutkowski, Piotr, E-mail: rutkowskip@coi.waw.pl; Zdzienicki, Marcin; Nowecki, Zbigniew I. [Soft Tissue/Bone Sarcoma and Melanoma Department, M. Sklodowska-Curie Memorial Cancer Center and Institute of Oncology, Warsaw (Poland); Akkooi, Alexander C. J. van [Erasmus University Medical Center-Daniel den Hoed Cancer Center, Rotterdam (Netherlands)

    2010-05-11

    Surgery remains the mainstay of melanoma therapy, regardless of the tumor site. Only the early diagnosis combined with proper surgical therapy currently gives patients affected by this malignancy the chance for a full cure. The main goal of surgical therapy is to provide the local control of the disease and to secure long-term survival of the patient without reasonable functional and esthetic impairment. The recommended method of biopsy—excisional biopsy, as an initial diagnostic and, to some extent, therapeutic procedure—is performed under local anesthesia as an elliptical incision with visual clear margins of 1–3 mm and with some mm of subcutaneous tissue. The extent of radical excision of the primary tumor (or scar after excisional biopsy) is based on the histopathologic characteristics of the primary tumor and usually consists of 1–2 cm margins with primary closure. The philosophy behind conducted randomized clinical trials has been to find the most conservative surgical approach that is able to guarantee the same results as more demolitive treatment. This has been the background of the trials designed to define the correct margins of excision around a primary cutaneous melanoma. Much less definition can be dedicated to the surgical management of patients with non-cutaneous melanomas.

  9. Principles of Melanoma Staging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boland, Genevieve M; Gershenwald, Jeffrey E

    2016-01-01

    Although now commonplace in contemporary cancer care, the systematic approach to classification of disease-specific cancers into a formalized staging system is a relatively modern concept. Overall, the goals of cancer staging are to characterize the status of cancer at a specific moment in time, risk stratify, facilitate prognostication, and inform clinical decision making. The revisions to the American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) melanoma staging system over time reflect changes in our understanding of the biology of the disease. Since the 1st edition, where tumor thickness was defined anatomically by its relationship to the reticular or papillary dermis (Clark level) as well as tumor thickness (Breslow thickness), there have been significant strides in our use of clinicopathological variables to stratify low- versus high-risk patients. Management of the regional nodal basin has also changed dramatically over time, impacted by techniques such as lymphatic mapping and sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) and changes in pathological evaluation of the regional lymph nodes. Additionally, stratification of distant metastases has evolved as survival outcomes have been shown to vary based upon anatomic site of metastases and serum lactate dehydrogenase levels. The variables in use in the current (7th edition) AJCC staging system are surrogate markers of biology with validated impact of survival outcomes. Going forward, it is likely that these and additional clinicopathological factors will be integrated with molecular and other correlates of melanoma tumor biology to further refine and personalize melanoma staging. PMID:26601861

  10. ADAM15 expression is downregulated in melanoma metastasis compared to primary melanoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research highlights: → Strong ADAM15 expression is found in normal melanocytes. → ADAM15 expression is significantly downregulated in patients with melanoma metastasis. → TGF-β can downregulate ADAM15 expression in melanoma cells. → Overexpression of ADAM15 in melanoma cells inhibits migration, proliferation and invasion of melanoma cells. → Conclusion: ADAM15 represents an tumor suppressor protein in melanoma. -- Abstract: In a mouse melanoma metastasis model it has been recently shown that ADAM15 overexpression in melanoma cells significantly reduced the number of metastatic nodules on the lung. Unfortunately, the expression of ADAM15 in human melanoma tissue has not been determined so far. In our study, we characterized the expression of ADAM15 in tissue micro-arrays of patients with primary melanoma with melanoma metastasis. ADAM15 was expressed in melanocytes and endothelial cells of benign nevi and melanoma tissue. Importantly, ADAM15 was significantly downregulated in melanoma metastasis compared to primary melanoma. We further demonstrate that IFN-γ and TGF-β downregulate ADAM15 protein levels in melanoma cells. To investigate the role of ADAM15 in melanoma progression, we overexpressed ADAM15 in melanoma cells. Importantly, overexpression of ADAM15 in melanoma cells reduced the migration, invasion and the anchorage dependent and independent cell growth of melanoma cells. In summary, the downregulation of ADAM15 plays an important role in melanoma progression and ADAM15 act as a tumorsuppressor in melanoma.

  11. ADAM15 expression is downregulated in melanoma metastasis compared to primary melanoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ungerer, Christopher; Doberstein, Kai [Pharmazentrum Frankfurt/ZAFES, University Hospital Goethe University Frankfurt, Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Buerger, Claudia; Hardt, Katja; Boehncke, Wolf-Henning [Department of Dermatology, Clinic of the Goethe-University, Theodor-Stern-Kai, Frankfurt (Germany); Boehm, Beate [Division of Rheumatology, Goethe University, Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Pfeilschifter, Josef [Pharmazentrum Frankfurt/ZAFES, University Hospital Goethe University Frankfurt, Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Dummer, Reinhard [Department of Pathology, Institute of Surgical Pathology, University Hospital, Zurich (Switzerland); Mihic-Probst, Daniela [Department of Dermatology, University Hospital Zurich (Switzerland); Gutwein, Paul, E-mail: p.gutwein@med.uni-frankfurt.de [Pharmazentrum Frankfurt/ZAFES, University Hospital Goethe University Frankfurt, Frankfurt am Main (Germany)

    2010-10-22

    Research highlights: {yields} Strong ADAM15 expression is found in normal melanocytes. {yields} ADAM15 expression is significantly downregulated in patients with melanoma metastasis. {yields} TGF-{beta} can downregulate ADAM15 expression in melanoma cells. {yields} Overexpression of ADAM15 in melanoma cells inhibits migration, proliferation and invasion of melanoma cells. {yields} Conclusion: ADAM15 represents an tumor suppressor protein in melanoma. -- Abstract: In a mouse melanoma metastasis model it has been recently shown that ADAM15 overexpression in melanoma cells significantly reduced the number of metastatic nodules on the lung. Unfortunately, the expression of ADAM15 in human melanoma tissue has not been determined so far. In our study, we characterized the expression of ADAM15 in tissue micro-arrays of patients with primary melanoma with melanoma metastasis. ADAM15 was expressed in melanocytes and endothelial cells of benign nevi and melanoma tissue. Importantly, ADAM15 was significantly downregulated in melanoma metastasis compared to primary melanoma. We further demonstrate that IFN-{gamma} and TGF-{beta} downregulate ADAM15 protein levels in melanoma cells. To investigate the role of ADAM15 in melanoma progression, we overexpressed ADAM15 in melanoma cells. Importantly, overexpression of ADAM15 in melanoma cells reduced the migration, invasion and the anchorage dependent and independent cell growth of melanoma cells. In summary, the downregulation of ADAM15 plays an important role in melanoma progression and ADAM15 act as a tumorsuppressor in melanoma.

  12. Histopathological findings concerning ocular melanomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costache, Mariana; P?tra?cu, Oana Maria; Dumitru, Adrian; Costache, Diana; Voinea, Liliana Mary; Simionescu, Olga; Sajin, Maria

    2014-01-01

    Ocular melanoma is rare in clinical practice. In this study, we present three cases of ocular melanoma surgically removed in the Department of Ophthalmology of the Emergency University Hospital of Bucharest, Romania, and diagnosed in the Department of Pathology of the same hospital using conventional histopathological techniques and immunohistochemical tests. PMID:25178339

  13. What Is Melanoma Skin Cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... skin cancer? ” for more information about moles. A Spitz nevus is a kind of mole that sometimes looks like melanoma. It is more common in children and teens, but it can also be ... have trouble telling Spitz nevi from true melanomas, even when looking at ...

  14. Brain metastases from malignant melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiarion-Sileni, Vanna; Murr, Rita; Pigozzo, Jacopo; Sarti, Samanta; Tomassi, Ottaviano; Romanini, Antonella

    2003-01-01

    Metastatic spread of tumour cells detached from melanoma into the central nervous system (CNS) occurs haematogenously since lymphatic drainage is absent in the brain. CNS metastases occur in 10 to 40% of melanoma patients in clinical studies and up to 90% in autopsy studies. Headache is the most common presenting symptom, but brain metastases should be suspected in all melanoma patients with new neurologic findings. Magnetic resonance imaging is the best diagnostic technique for detecting CNS metastases. Median survival of melanoma patients with CNS metastases ranges between 2 and 8 months. The optimal treatment of melanoma patients with CNS metastases depends on the objective situation, often surgery, radiosurgery, whole brain radiotherapy and chemotherapy are used in combination to obtain longer remissions and optimal symptom relieve. PMID:14732883

  15. Oral amelanotic melanoma of the maxilla.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasrollah Saghravanian

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Amelanotic melanoma is a variant of malignant melanoma comprising 2% to 8% of all malignant melanomas. The amelanotic presentation of melanoma in the oral cavity is extremely rare and has been reported only occasionally in the literature. Moreover, the lack of melanin makes these tumors difficult to diagnose than that of pigmented lesions and the prognosis tends to be poorer. Herein, we report an amelanotic melanoma involving the oral mucosa of the maxilla in a 27 year-old male.

  16. The gene expression signatures of melanoma progression

    OpenAIRE

    Haqq, Christopher; Nosrati, Mehdi; Sudilovsky, Daniel; Crothers, Julia; Khodabakhsh, Daniel; Brian L. Pulliam; Federman, Scot; Miller, James R.; Allen, Robert E.; Singer, Mark I.; Leong, Stanley P. L.; Ljung, Britt-Marie; Sagebiel, Richard W; Kashani-Sabet, Mohammed

    2005-01-01

    Because of the paucity of available tissue, little information has previously been available regarding the gene expression profiles of primary melanomas. To understand the molecular basis of melanoma progression, we compared the gene expression profiles of a series of nevi, primary melanomas, and melanoma metastases. We found that metastatic melanomas exhibit two dichotomous patterns of gene expression, which unexpectedly reflect gene expression differences already apparent in comparing laser...

  17. Preventing Melanoma PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-06-02

    This 60 second public service announcement is based on the June 2015 CDC Vital Signs report. Skin cancer is the most common form of cancer in the U.S. In 2011, there were more than 65,000 cases of melanoma, the most deadly form of skin cancer. Learn how everyone can help prevent skin cancer.  Created: 6/2/2015 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 6/2/2015.

  18. Slug expression during melanoma progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirley, Stephanie H; Greene, Victoria R; Duncan, Lyn M; Torres Cabala, Carlos A; Grimm, Elizabeth A; Kusewitt, Donna F

    2012-06-01

    Slug (Snai2), a member of the Snail family of zinc finger transcription factors, plays a role in the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transformation (EMT) that occurs during melanocyte emigration from the neural crest. A role for Slug in the EMT-like loss of cell adhesion and increased cell motility exhibited during melanoma progression has also been proposed. Our immunohistochemical studies of melanoma arrays, however, revealed that Slug expression was actually higher in nevi than in primary or metastatic melanomas. Moreover, Slug expression in melanomas was not associated with decreased expression of E-cadherin, the canonical Slug target in EMT. Comparisons of endogenous Slug and E-cadherin expression in cultured normal human melanocytes and melanoma cell lines supported our immunohistochemical findings. Expression of exogenous Slug in melanocytes and melanoma cells in vitro, however, suppressed E-cadherin expression, enhanced N-cadherin expression, and stimulated cell migration and invasion. Interestingly, both in tumors and cultured cell lines, there was a clear relationship between expression of Slug and MITF, a transcription factor known to regulate Slug expression during development. Taken together, our findings suggest that Slug expression during melanomagenesis is highest early in the process and that persistent Slug expression is not required for melanoma progression. The precise role of Slug in melanomagenesis remains to be elucidated and may be related to its interactions with other drivers of EMT, such as Snail. PMID:22503751

  19. Targeted Radionuclide Therapy of Melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norain, Abdullah; Dadachova, Ekaterina

    2016-05-01

    An estimated 60,000 individuals in the United States and 132,000 worldwide are yearly diagnosed with melanoma. Until recently, treatment options for patients with stages III-IV metastatic disease were limited and offered marginal, if any, improvement in overall survival. The situation changed with the introduction of B-RAF inhibitors and anti-cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4 and anti-programmed cell death protein 1 immunotherapies into the clinical practice. With only some patients responding well to the immune therapies and with very serious side effects and high costs of immunotherapy, there is still room for other approaches for the treatment of metastatic melanoma. Targeted radionuclide therapy of melanoma could be divided into the domains of radioimmunotherapy (RIT), radiolabeled peptides, and radiolabeled small molecules. RIT of melanoma is currently experiencing a renaissance with the clinical trials of alpha-emitter (213)Bi-labeled and beta-emitter (188)Rhenium-labeled monoclonal antibodies in patients with metastatic melanoma producing encouraging results. The investigation of the mechanism of efficacy of melanoma RIT points at killing of melanoma stem cells by RIT and involvement of immune system such as complement-dependent cytotoxicity. The domain of radiolabeled peptides for targeted melanoma therapy has been preclinical so far, with work concentrated on radiolabeled peptide analogues of melanocyte-stimulating hormone receptor and on melanin-binding peptides. The field of radiolabeled small molecule produced radioiodinated benzamides that cross the cellular membrane and bind to the intracellular melanin. The recent clinical trial demonstrated measurable antitumor effects and no acute or midterm toxicities. We are hopeful that the targeted radionuclide therapy of metastatic melanoma would become a clinical reality as a stand-alone therapy or in combination with the immunotherapies such as anti-PD1 programmed cell death protein 1 monoclonal antibodies within the next few years. PMID:27067506

  20. Melanoma Lentiginoso Acral

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gloria Andrea Vargas Suaza

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available El melanoma lentiginoso acral (MLA es una variante rápidamente progresiva del melanoma maligno (MM. Constituye el 5-10% de todos los tipos de MM y se presenta con mayor frecuencia en pacientes de raza negra, asiáticos y latinoamericanos. En Colombia el MM se encuentra en aumento, con una incidencia de 3.5/100.000, siendo el MLA una de las variantes más comunes. La edad promedio de presentación es de 58 años, con una tasa de sobrevida menor para las personas de raza negra, asociado a un diagnóstico tardío. EL MLA se localiza en plantas, palmas y región subungueal y en su etiopatología se ha descrito la presencia de mutaciones en genes: 9p21 (p16: 67%, 11q13 (CCND1 (47%, 22q11-q13 (40% y 5p15 (20%. El diagnóstico de MLA, se ha fundamentado clásicamente en la histopatología. Herramientas de diagnóstico como la dermatoscopia, la evaluación del ganglio centinela y la determinación de alteraciones en las proteínas del ciclo celular contribuyen a la detección precoz del MLA y el MM en general.

  1. Simulants of Malignant Melanoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piérard-Franchimont, Claudine; Delvenne, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    During the recent period, dermoscopy has yielded improvement in the early disclosure of various atypical melanocytic neoplasms (AMN) of the skin. Beyond this clinical procedure, AMN histopathology remains mandatory for establishing their precise diagnosis. Of note, panels of experts in AMN merely report moderate agreement in various puzzling cases. Divergences in opinion and misdiagnosis are likely increased when histopathological criteria are not fine-tuned and when facing a diversity of AMN types. Furthermore, some AMN have been differently named in the literature including atypical Spitz tumor, metastasizing Spitz tumor, borderline and intermediate melanocytic tumor, malignant Spitz nevus, pigmented epithelioid melanocytoma or animal-type melanoma. Some acronyms have been further suggested such as MELTUMP (after melanocytic tumor of uncertain malignant potential) and STUMP (after Spitzoid melanocytic tumor of uncertain malignant potential). In this review, such AMN at the exclusion of cutaneous malignant melanoma (MM) variants, are grouped under the tentative broad heading skin melanocytoma. Such set of AMN frequently follows an indolent course, although they exhibit atypical and sometimes worrisome patterns or cytological atypia. Rare cases of skin melanocytomas progress to loco regional clusters of lesions (agminate melanocytomas), and even to regional lymph nodes. At times, the distinction between a skin melanocytoma and MM remains puzzling. However, multipronged immunohistochemistry and emerging molecular biology help profiling any malignancy risk if present. PMID:26779311

  2. Simulants of Malignant Melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piérard, Gérald E; Piérard-Franchimont, Claudine; Delvenne, Philippe

    2015-02-10

    During the recent period, dermoscopy has yielded improvement in the early disclosure of various atypical melanocytic neoplasms (AMN) of the skin. Beyond this clinical procedure, AMN histopathology remains mandatory for establishing their precise diagnosis. Of note, panels of experts in AMN merely report moderate agreement in various puzzling cases. Divergences in opinion and misdiagnosis are likely increased when histopathological criteria are not fine-tuned and when facing a diversity of AMN types. Furthermore, some AMN have been differently named in the literature including atypical Spitz tumor, metastasizing Spitz tumor, borderline and intermediate melanocytic tumor, malignant Spitz nevus, pigmented epithelioid melanocytoma or animal-type melanoma. Some acronyms have been further suggested such as MELTUMP (after melanocytic tumor of uncertain malignant potential) and STUMP (after Spitzoid melanocytic tumor of uncertain malignant potential). In this review, such AMN at the exclusion of cutaneous malignant melanoma (MM) variants, are grouped under the tentative broad heading skin melanocytoma. Such set of AMN frequently follows an indolent course, although they exhibit atypical and sometimes worrisome patterns or cytological atypia. Rare cases of skin melanocytomas progress to loco regional clusters of lesions (agminate melanocytomas), and even to regional lymph nodes. At times, the distinction between a skin melanocytoma and MM remains puzzling. However, multipronged immunohistochemistry and emerging molecular biology help profiling any malignancy risk if present. PMID:26779311

  3. Simulants of malignant melanoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gérald E. Piérard

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available During the recent period, dermoscopy has yielded improvement in the early disclosure of various atypical melanocytic neoplasms (AMN of the skin. Beyond this clinical procedure, AMN histopathology remains mandatory for establishing their precise diagnosis. Of note, panels of experts in AMN merely report moderate agreement in various puzzling cases. Divergences in opinion and misdiagnosis are likely increased when histopathological criteria are not fine-tuned and when facing a diversity of AMN types. Furthermore, some AMN have been differently named in the literature including atypical Spitz tumor, metastasizing Spitz tumor, borderline and intermediate melanocytic tumor, malignant Spitz nevus, pigmented epithelioid melanocytoma or animal-type melanoma. Some acronyms have been further suggested such as MELTUMP (after melanocytic tumor of uncertain malignant potential and STUMP (after Spitzoid melanocytic tumor of uncertain malignant potential. In this review, such AMN at the exclusion of cutaneous malignant melanoma (MM variants, are grouped under the tentative broad heading skin melanocytoma. Such set of AMN frequently follows an indolent course, although they exhibit atypical and sometimes worrisome patterns or cytological atypia. Rare cases of skin melanocytomas progress to loco regional clusters of lesions (agminate melanocytomas, and even to regional lymph nodes. At times, the distinction between a skin melanocytoma and MM remains puzzling. However, multipronged immunohistochemistry and emerging molecular biology help profiling any malignancy risk if present.

  4. Uveal Melanoma UK National Guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nathan, P; Cohen, V; Coupland, S; Curtis, K; Damato, B; Evans, J; Fenwick, S; Kirkpatrick, L; Li, O; Marshall, E; McGuirk, K; Ottensmeier, C; Pearce, N; Salvi, S; Stedman, B; Szlosarek, P; Turnbull, N

    2015-11-01

    The United Kingdom (UK) uveal melanoma guideline development group used an evidence based systematic approach (Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network (SIGN)) to make recommendations in key areas of uncertainty in the field including: the use and effectiveness of new technologies for prognostication, the appropriate pathway for the surveillance of patients following treatment for primary uveal melanoma, the use and effectiveness of new technologies in the treatment of hepatic recurrence and the use of systemic treatments. The guidelines were sent for international peer review and have been accredited by NICE. A summary of key recommendations is presented. The full documents are available on the Melanoma Focus website. PMID:26278648

  5. Subungual melanoma with osteocartilaginous differentiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giele, H.; Hollowood, K.; Gibbons, C.L.M.H. [Nuffield Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, University of Oxford, Nuffield Orthopaedic Centre, OX3 7LD, Oxford (United Kingdom); Wilson, D.J. [Department of Radiology, University of Oxford, Nuffield Orthopaedic Centre, OX3 7LD, Oxford (United Kingdom); Athanasou, N.A. [Department of Pathology, University of Oxford, Nuffield Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Nuffield Orthopaedic Centre, Windmill Road, Headington, OX3 7LD, Oxford (United Kingdom)

    2003-12-01

    Osteocartilaginous metaplasia is known to occur rarely in melanomas, particularly in subungual melanomas. We present a case of a calcified subungual soft tissue tumour in which biopsy of the lesion showed malignant round and spindle-shaped tumour cells, many of which were associated with the formation of cartilage and osteoid-like material. Subsequent resection showed clear histological evidence of a subungual melanoma. Tumour cells expressed S100, melan-A and neurone-specific enolase but were negative for HMB45. Diagnostic radiological and histological features and the nature of the osteocartilaginous differentiation within this lesion is discussed. (orig.)

  6. Morphogenesis of early stage melanoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatelain, Clément; Amar, Martine Ben

    2015-08-01

    Melanoma early detection is possible by simple skin examination and can insure a high survival probability when successful. However it requires efficient methods for identifying malignant lesions from common moles. This paper provides an overview first of the biological and physical mechanisms controlling melanoma early evolution, and then of the clinical tools available today for detecting melanoma in vivo at an early stage. It highlights the lack of diagnosis methods rationally linking macroscopic observables to the microscopic properties of the tissue, which define the malignancy of the tumor. The possible inputs of multiscale models for improving these methods are shortly discussed.

  7. Melanoma Surveillance in the US: The Economic Burden of Melanoma

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-10-19

    This podcast accompanies the publication of a series of articles on melanoma surveillance in the United States, available in the November supplement edition of the Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology. Dr. Gery Guy, from the CDC’s Division of Cancer Prevention and Control, discusses the economic burden of melanoma.  Created: 10/19/2011 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 10/19/2011.

  8. GNAQ mutation in a patient with metastatic mucosal melanoma

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Chung-Young; KIM, DAE WON; Kim, Kevin; Curry, Jonathan; Torres-Cabala, Carlos; Patel, Sapna

    2014-01-01

    Background Mucosal melanomas represent about 1% of all melanoma cases and classically have a worse prognosis than cutaneous melanomas. Due to the rarity of mucosal melanomas, only limited clinical studies with metastatic mucosal melanoma are available. Mucosal melanomas most commonly contain mutations in the gene CKIT, and treatments have been investigated using targeted therapy for this gene. Mutations in mucosal melanoma are less common than in cutaneous or uveal melanomas and occur in desc...

  9. CDC Vital Signs: Preventing Melanoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... not use the device. Include warning statements in marketing materials about the risk of using the device. ... Story On Other Web Sites MedlinePlus - Melanoma Get Email Updates To receive email updates about this page, ...

  10. Cerebral metastases of cutaneous melanoma.

    OpenAIRE

    Gupta, G; Robertson, A. G.; Mackie, R.M.

    1997-01-01

    Cerebral metastases of cutaneous melanoma carry a very poor prognosis. We report our experience of 31 patients who presented with cerebral metastasis of cutaneous melanoma in a 5-year period between mid-1991 and mid-1996. Cerebral metastases were diagnosed on computerized tomography (CT) scan after patients became symptomatic. The overall median survival in our series was 4 months. Seventeen patients (55%) received treatment with radiotherapy and dexamethasone with resolution of their symptom...

  11. Slug Expression during Melanoma Progression

    OpenAIRE

    Shirley, Stephanie H.; Greene, Victoria R.; Duncan, Lyn M.; Torres Cabala, Carlos A.; Grimm, Elizabeth A.; Donna F. Kusewitt

    2012-01-01

    Slug (Snai2), a member of the Snail family of zinc finger transcription factors, plays a role in the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transformation (EMT) that occurs during melanocyte emigration from the neural crest. A role for Slug in the EMT-like loss of cell adhesion and increased cell motility exhibited during melanoma progression has also been proposed. Our immunohistochemical studies of melanoma arrays, however, revealed that Slug expression was actually higher in nevi than in primary or met...

  12. Fulminant metastatic malignant melanoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.M.K. Faheem,

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available A 50-year-old lady presented with complaints of chest pain and cough for the past one month. Right supraclavicular lymphadenopathy, bilateral pleural effusion were present. Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC from the lymph node showed brownish-black pigment laden tumour cells. Review of history subsequently revealed that she had undergone a surgical procedure over the sole of her left foot three years ago of which no records were available. Reexamination of sole of left foot showed a pigmented infiltraling lesion. Pleural biopsy revealed pigmented tumour deposits. The patient was diagnosed to have fulminant metastatic malignant melanoma of left foot with metastasis to cervical lymph nodes and pleura. This case report re-emphasizes the importance of combined approach to ascertain diagnosis early.

  13. High accuracy of family history of melanoma in Danish melanoma cases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wadt, Karin A W; Drzewiecki, Krzysztof T; Gerdes, Anne-Marie

    2015-01-01

    The incidence of melanoma in Denmark has immensely increased over the last 10 years making Denmark a high risk country for melanoma. In the last two decades multiple public campaigns have sought to increase the awareness of melanoma. Family history of melanoma is a known major risk factor but...

  14. Melanoma Cancer Stem Cells: Markers and Functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parmiani, Giorgio

    2016-01-01

    The discovery of cancer stem cells (CSCs) in human solid tumors has allowed a better understanding of the biology and neoplastic transformation of normal melanocytes, and the possible mechanisms by which melanoma cells acquire tumorigenicity. In this review I summarize the literature findings on the potential biomarkers of melanoma CSCs, their presence in the melanoma cell populations, the interaction with the immune system (with both T and NK cells) and the role of melanoma CSCs in the clinics. Given the extraordinary progress in the therapy of melanoma caused by immune checkpoint antibodies blockade, I discuss how these antibodies can work by the activation of melanoma infiltrating T cells specifically recognizing neo-antigens expressed even by melanoma CSCs. This is the mechanism that can induce a regression of the metastatic melanomas. PMID:26978405

  15. Photoprotection and prevention of melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks, R

    1999-01-01

    This article summarizes the current position on primary prevention of melanoma, including what is the evidence relating sunlight exposure to the development of melanoma, what forms of photoprotection there are and what are their relative values. There have been increasing incidence and mortality rates due to melanoma in most countries where they are being recorded. The initial approach in many countries has been to develop some form of early detection program in an attempt to diagnose and treat at a curable stage the melanomas that are occurring now. Primary prevention of melanoma is the more long term approach to the problem which many countries are now considering and a number are actively pursuing. Recent concern about stratospheric ozone depletion has contributed to the desire for the primary prevention approach. There are epidemiological data associating the risk of melanoma with increased exposure to sunlight in people with fair skin. They show that it is sunlight exposure in childhood and in doses sufficient to cause sunburn remembered many years later, that is particularly associated with risk of melanoma in adulthood. The exact spectrum of radiation in sunlight which is responsible for these tumours is not known, although the ultraviolet range is believed to be most important, particularly UVB but probably also UVA. The approach to photoprotection is a reduction in the overall exposure to sunlight, not just a single component of it. The natural protection of shade, clothing and hats is promoted as the best protection. Sunscreens have assumed a major component of primary prevention programs based on their convenience of use and also on their widespread promotion by those people who have a commercial interest in them. These products protect predominantly in the UVB range for which there is a sun protection factor (SPF) grading, as well as having some activity in the UVA range (for which there is not yet a satisfactory grading method). PMID:10417449

  16. Melanoma Cancer Stem Cells: Markers and Functions

    OpenAIRE

    Giorgio Parmiani

    2016-01-01

    The discovery of cancer stem cells (CSCs) in human solid tumors has allowed a better understanding of the biology and neoplastic transformation of normal melanocytes, and the possible mechanisms by which melanoma cells acquire tumorigenicity. In this review I summarize the literature findings on the potential biomarkers of melanoma CSCs, their presence in the melanoma cell populations, the interaction with the immune system (with both T and NK cells) and the role of melanoma CSCs in the clini...

  17. Isolated malignant melanoma metastasis to the pancreas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Anne K; Krag, Christen; Geertsen, Poul; Jakobsen, Linda P

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY: Malignant melanomas rarely develop isolated pancreatic metastases. We describe a unique patient who is still alive 22 years following an isolated pancreatic melanoma metastasis, and we review the sparse literature in the field.......SUMMARY: Malignant melanomas rarely develop isolated pancreatic metastases. We describe a unique patient who is still alive 22 years following an isolated pancreatic melanoma metastasis, and we review the sparse literature in the field....

  18. Melanoma vaccines: trials and tribulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dillman RO

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Robert O Dillman1,21Hoag Cancer Institute and Hoag Institute for Research and Education, Newport Beach, CA, USA; 2University of California Irvine, Irvine, CA, USAAbstract: Metastatic melanoma has been a target of immunotherapy for more than 4 decades. Three immunotherapeutics have received regulatory approval for treating melanoma: interferon-alpha, interleukin-2, and ipilimumab. The antitumor mechanisms of these products depend on enhancing existing immune responses, including autoimmune effects. The combination of autologous, cytotoxic T-lymphocytes plus high-dose interleukin-2 is a promising patient-specific therapy, but has limited clinical application. Other approaches include vaccines targeting melanoma-associated antigens, and patient-specific vaccines that utilize autologous tumor. Non-patient-specific vaccine approaches target melanocyte differentiation antigens (eg, tyrosinase, Melan-A, gp100, antigens identified by cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (eg, NY-Eso-1, Melan-A/Mart-1, Mage-3, and antigens originally identified by murine monoclonal antibodies (gangliosides, gp97, gp225. Self-renewing cells in tumor cell lines may represent tumor stem cells, but vaccines derived from allogeneic tumor cell lines have yielded disappointing results in randomized trials. Patient-specific vaccines can be derived from bulk autologous tumor or autologous tumor cell lines, and intratumoral injections of immunostimulatory fusion products have shown promise. While technically more complex to manufacture, patient-specific vaccines derived from autologous tumor cell lines have the potential to target tumor stem cells and overcome interpatient tumor cell heterogeneity. This article reviews sources of melanoma-associated antigens, costimulatory agents, and clinical trial results for various melanoma vaccines. Comparing Phase II trials is difficult because of the wide range of vaccine strategies and the differences in study patient populations; therefore, randomized trials are necessary to prove the efficacy of such products. Therapeutic vaccines are more likely to enhance, rather than replace, other anti-melanoma immune therapies. In particular, effective vaccines may be synergistic with products that block T-cell immune checkpoint molecules such as ipilimumab and monoclonal antibodies that interfere with programmed death ligand-receptor interactions.Keywords: melanoma, vaccines, melanoma-associated antigens, melanoma stem cells, dendritic cells, GM-CSF, checkpoint molecules

  19. Emergency surgery for metastatic melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantas, Dimitrios; Tsaparas, Petros; Charalampoudis, Petros; Gogas, Helen; Kouraklis, Gregory

    2014-01-01

    Visceral metastases from malignant melanoma (stage M1c) confer a very poor prognosis, as documented on the most recent revised version of the TNM/AJCC staging system. Emergency surgery for intra-abdominal complications from the disease is rare. We report on our 5-year single institution experience with surgical management of metastatic melanoma to the viscera in the emergent setting. From 2009 to 2013, 14 patients with metastatic melanoma were admitted emergently due to an acute abdomen. Clinical manifestations encompassed intestinal obstruction and bleeding. Surgical procedures involved multiple enterectomies with primary anastomoses in 8 patients, and one patient underwent splenectomy, one adrenalectomy, one right colectomy, one gastric wedge resection, one gastrojejunal anastomosis, and one transanal debulking, respectively. The 30-day mortality was 7 percent. Median follow-up was 14 months. Median overall survival was 14 months. Median disease free survival was 7.5 months. One-year overall survival was 64.2 percent and 2-year overall survival was 14.2 percent. Emergency surgery for metastatic melanoma to the viscera is rare. Elective curative surgery combined with novel cytotoxic systemic therapies is under investigation in an attempt to grant survival benefit in melanoma patients with visceral disease. PMID:25530876

  20. Melanoma stem cells in experimental melanoma are killed by radioimmunotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Introduction: In spite of recently approved B-RAF inhibitors and immunomodulating antibodies, metastatic melanoma has poor prognosis and novel treatments are needed. Melanoma stem cells (MSC) have been implicated in the resistance of this tumor to chemotherapy. Recently we demonstrated in a Phase I clinical trial in patients with metastatic melanoma that radioimmunotherapy (RIT) with 188-Rhenium(188Re)-6D2 antibody to melanin was a safe and effective modality. Here we investigated the interaction of MSC with RIT as a possible mechanism for RIT efficacy. Methods: Mice bearing A2058 melanoma xenografts were treated with either 1.5 mCi 188Re-6D2 antibody, saline, unlabeled 6D2 antibody or 188Re-labeled non-specific IgM. Results: On Day 28 post-treatment the tumor size in the RIT group was 4-times less than in controls (P < 0.001). The tumors were analyzed by immunohistochemistry and FACS for two MSC markers — chemoresistance mediator ABCB5 and H3K4 demethylase JARID1B. There were no significant differences between RIT and control groups in percentage of ABCB5 or JARID1B-positive cells in the tumor population. Our results demonstrate that unlike chemotherapy, which kills tumor cells but leaves behind MSC leading to recurrence, RIT kills MSC at the same rate as the rest of tumor cells. Conclusions: These results have two main implications for melanoma treatment and possibly other cancers. First, the susceptibility of ABCB5 + and JARID1B + cells to RIT in melanoma might be indicative of their susceptibility to antibody-targeted radiation in other cancers where they are present as well. Second, specifically targeting cancer stem cells with radiolabeled antibodies to ABCB5 or JARID1B might help to completely eradicate cancer stem cells in various cancers

  1. CDX-1401 and Poly-ICLC Vaccine Therapy With or Without CDX-301in Treating Patients With Stage IIB-IV Melanoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-10

    Carcinoma of Unknown Primary Origin; Iris Melanoma; Medium/Large Size Posterior Uveal Melanoma; Mucosal Melanoma; Ocular Melanoma With Extraocular Extension; Small Size Posterior Uveal Melanoma; Stage IIB Skin Melanoma; Stage IIB Uveal Melanoma; Stage IIC Skin Melanoma; Stage IIIA Skin Melanoma; Stage IIIA Uveal Melanoma; Stage IIIB Skin Melanoma; Stage IIIB Uveal Melanoma; Stage IIIC Skin Melanoma; Stage IIIC Uveal Melanoma; Stage IV Skin Melanoma; Stage IV Uveal Melanoma

  2. Cell Cycle Regulation and Melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wen; McArthur, Grant

    2016-06-01

    Dysregulation of cell cycle control is a hallmark of melanomagenesis. Agents targeting the G1-S and G2-M checkpoints, as well as direct anti-mitotic agents, have all shown promising preclinical activity in melanoma. However, in vivo, standalone single agents targeting cell cycle regulation have only demonstrated modest efficacy in unselected patients. The advent of specific CDK 4/6 inhibitors targeting the G1-S transition, with an improved therapeutic index, is a significant step forward. Potential synergy exists with the combination of CDK4/6 inhibitors with existing therapies targeting the MAPK pathway, particularly in subsets of metastatic melanomas such as NRAS and BRAF mutants. This reviews summaries of the latest developments in both preclinical and clinical data with cell cycle-targeted therapies in melanoma. PMID:27106898

  3. ORAL MELANOMA: A FATAL ENTITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available : Oral melanomas are uncommon and similar to their cutaneous counterparts, are neoplasm that developed from melanocytic cells lying in the basal layer of the mucosa, its incidence is about 1.2 cases per 10 million inhabitants per year with a variation between 0.2% to 8% of all the melanomas and 0.5% of all the malignant neoplasias of the oral cavity.1 Oral conditions with increased melanin pigmentation are common; however, melanocytic hyperplasias are rare. The relative incidence amongst mucosal neoplasms of the head and neck had been reviewed by Hormia and Vuori2, about 7253 cases of malignancies of upper respiratory and gastrointestinal tracts between 1953-1964, five cases of oral melanoma were found with an incidence of 0.07%

  4. Quem descobre o melanoma cutâneo / Who discovers the cutaneous melanoma

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Marcus, Maia; Marianne, Basso.

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTO: No Brasil não se sabe quem descobre os casos de melanoma cutâneo. A compreensão dos "modelos de descoberta" poderia servir de base para os programas de educação pública e do profissional de saúde. OBJETIVO: Determinar o papel dos pacientes em encontrar suas próprias lesões. MÉTODOS: Fora [...] m entrevistados 109 pacientes com diagnóstico anterior de melanoma cutâneo, acompanhados na Unidade de Melanoma da Santa Casa de Misericórdia de São Paulo. Outras variáveis foram anotadas para avaliar suas possíveis influências no resultado da descoberta: sexo, idade, estado civil, escolaridade, antecedente familiar de melanoma, localização da lesão primária e conhecimento sobre câncer da pele. RESULTADOS: Dos 109 pacientes, 59 (54%) notaram a própria lesão. Deles, 62% eram mulheres, 51% menores de 60 anos, 90% sem antecedentes familiares de melanoma, 78% negavam conhecimento sobre câncer de pele, 59% eram casados, 52% cursaram apenas a escola primária. Os demais 50 pacientes tiveram sua lesão descoberta em 24% dos casos por profissionais de saúde, 10% pela esposa, 1% pelo marido e 11% por outras pessoas. CONCLUSÃO: 54% dos pacientes notaram sua própria lesão, que em cerca de 25% foi descoberta por leigos. Esses resultados são semelhantes aos da literatura dos países desenvolvidos. A clientela avaliada foi do tipo assistencial, e com esse resultado é possível acreditar que, no Brasil, alguma influência das campanhas públicas de saúde já pode ser notada. Abstract in english BACKGROUND - In Brazil, it is still unknown who first discovers the cases of cutaneous melanoma. The understanding of our “finding patterns” could be used as a basis for public education programs and healthcare professional training. OBJECTIVE - To determine the role of patients in detecting lesions [...] by themselves. METHODS - One hundred and nine patients were interviewed. The patients had a diagnosis of cutaneous melanoma and were regularly seen at the Melanoma Unit of Hospital Santa Casa de Misericórdia, in São Paulo. Other variables were considered to evaluate possible influences in the results: sex, age, marital status, schooling, family history of melanoma, site of the primary lesion and knowledge about skin cancer. RESULTS - Out of 109 interviewed patients, 54% had the lesion detected by themselves. Of those, 62% were female, 51% were aged under 60 years, 90% had no family history of melanoma, 78% had no knowledge about skin cancer, 59% were married and 52% concluded up to primary education. Out of the remaining 50 patients, 24% had their lesions detected by health professionals, 10% by their wives, 1% by their husbands and 11% by other people. CONCLUSION - Fifty-four percent of patients detected the lesion by themselves, and roughly 25% had the lesion detected by a lay person. These results are similar to those reported in the literature of developed countries. The clientele evaluated is attended by public healthcare services and the results lead to the conclusion that some influence of public health campaigns could already be noticed in Brazil.

  5. MMP19 is upregulated during melanoma progression and increases invasion of melanoma cells

    OpenAIRE

    Muller, M; Beck, I.; Gadesmann, J.; Karschuk, N.; Paschen, A.; Proksch, E; V. Djonov; Reiss, K.; Sedláček, R. (Radislav)

    2010-01-01

    In this study, we analysed the expression of MMP19 in the course of melanoma progression. Although MMP19 was absent in melanocytes and melanoma cells of early stages of melanoma development, its expression was strongly upregulated in the neighbouring keratinocytes. In contrast to early stages, MMP19 was upregulated during the vertical growth phase of melanoma and in metastases. The upregulation of MMP19 in melanoma of Clark levels IV and V correlates with that of MMP2 and E-cadherin. Melanoma...

  6. Biology of Human Cutaneous Melanoma

    OpenAIRE

    Bhuvnesh K. Sharma; Hasskamp, Joanne H.; Elias, Elias G.

    2010-01-01

    A review of the natural behavior of cutaneous melanoma, clinical and pathological factors, prognostic indicators, some basic research and the present and possible futuristic strategies in the management of this disease are presented. While surgery remains to be the most effective therapeutic approach in the management of early primary lesions, there is no standard adjuvant therapy after surgical resection, or for metastatic disease.

  7. MMP19 is upregulated during melanoma progression and increases invasion of melanoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Matthias; Beck, Inken M; Gadesmann, Judith; Karschuk, Nadine; Paschen, Annette; Proksch, Ehrhard; Djonov, Valentin; Reiss, Karina; Sedlacek, Radislav

    2010-04-01

    During the progression of cutaneous melanomas, matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) facilitate the tumour cells to traverse the basement membrane and invade the dermis. In this study, we analysed the expression of MMP19 in the course of melanoma progression. Although MMP19 was absent in melanocytes and melanoma cells of early stages of melanoma development, its expression was strongly upregulated in the neighbouring keratinocytes that may facilitate the vertical outgrowth of melanoma cells. In contrast to early stages, MMP19 was upregulated during the vertical growth phase of melanoma and in metastases. The upregulation of MMP19 in melanoma of Clark levels IV and V correlates with that of MMP2 and also simultaneously with ceased expression of E-cadherin. To reveal whether MMP19 facilitates the invasion of melanomas, we examined adhesion and migratory capacity of selected melanoma cell lines. Melanoma cell lines with low expression of MMP19 exhibited increased adhesion to various substrates and lower migration in comparison with the cell line with higher expression of MMP19. Moreover, ectopic expression of MMP19 could restore the migratory capacity of melanoma cells with low endogenous level of MMP19. These results suggest that the increase of MMP19 expression hallmarks the progression of cutaneous melanoma and might augment melanoma growth by promoting the invasion of tumour cells. PMID:20098411

  8. [Endocrine factors influencing melanoma progression].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobos, Judit

    2009-03-01

    According to recent findings that beside cancers traditionally considered as hormone-dependent, several other tumor types show different behavior in the two sexes, indicating the possible role of endocrine factors in the course of these diseases. The possibility that endocrine factors may influence the clinical course of human malignant melanoma is suggested by the higher survival rate in premenopausal vs. postmenopausal women or men of any ages. However, investigations on the sex hormone receptor status of human cutaneous melanomas and experiments attempting to support the epidemiological results yielded conflicting results. In our human melanoma cell lines we failed to detect steroid receptors at protein level, while quantitative PCR demonstrated that their mRNA expression level was orders of magnitude lower compared to the positive control cell lines. Sex hormones did not influence the in vitro features of the human melanoma cells considerably. On the other hand, glucocorticoid receptor was present both at mRNA and protein level, although dexamethasone was effective in vitro only at high doses. Our previous experiments showed that intrasplenic injection of human melanoma cells resulted in a significantly higher number of liver colonies in male than in female SCID mice. We now show that this difference evolves during the first day. After injection into the tail vein we did not observe gender-dependent difference in the efficiency of pulmonary colonization. Examining the pattern of metastasis formation after intracardiac injection, we have found differences between the two sexes in the incidence or number of colonies only in the case of the liver but not in other organs. We concluded that the observed phenomenon is specific to the liver; therefore we investigated the effects of 2-methoxyestradiol, an endogenous metabolite of estradiol produced mainly in the liver, with an estrogen receptor-independent antitumor activity. 2ME2 effectively inhibited melanoma cell proliferation by inducing apoptosis and an arrest in the G2/M phase. The mechanism of action involved microtubules, mitochondrial damage and caspase activation as well. In SCID mice, 2ME2 was effective in reducing primary tumor weight and the number of liver colonies after intrasplenic injection of human melanoma cells, and causing significantly higher rate of apoptotic cells in the colonies. PMID:19318326

  9. What's New in Research and Treatment of Melanoma Skin Cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... new in research and treatment of melanoma skin cancer? Research into the causes , prevention , and treatment of melanoma ... Your Doctor After Treatment What`s New in Skin Cancer - Melanoma Research? Other Resources and References Cancer Information Cancer Basics ...

  10. A challenging case of ocular melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costache, Mariana; Dumitru, Adrian Vasile; P?tra?cu, Oana Maria; Popa-Cherecheanu, Daniela Alina; B?dil?, Patricia; Miu, Jeni C?t?lina; Procop, Alexandru; Popa, Manuela; Tampa, Mircea ?tefan; Sajin, Maria; Simionescu, Olga; Cîrstoiu, Monica Mihaela

    2015-01-01

    Ocular melanoma is a rare malignancy found in clinical practice. In this paper, we present a case of highly aggressive ocular melanoma, which was surgically removed at the Department of Ophthalmology and diagnosed at the Department of Pathology, Emergency University Hospital, Bucharest, Romania, using conventional histopathological techniques. Uveal melanoma, a subset of ocular melanoma, has a distinct behavior in comparison to cutaneous melanoma and has a widely divergent prognosis. Approximately half of patients with ocular melanoma will develop metastatic disease, predominantly with hepatic, pulmonary or cerebral location, over a 10 to 15 years period. No systemic therapy was associated with an evident clinical outcome for patients with advanced disease and overall survival rate remains poor. PMID:26429178

  11. The genomic landscape of cutaneous melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tongwu; Dutton-Regester, Ken; Brown, Kevin M; Hayward, Nicholas K

    2016-05-01

    Somatic mutation analysis of melanoma has been performed at the single gene level extensively over the past several decades. This has provided considerable insight into the critical pathways controlling melanoma initiation and progression. During the last 5 yr, next-generation sequencing (NGS) has enabled even more comprehensive mutational screening at the level of multigene panels, exomes and genomes. These studies have uncovered many new and unexpected players in melanoma development. The recent landmark study from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) consortium describing the genomic architecture of 333 cutaneous melanomas provides the largest and broadest analysis to date on the somatic aberrations underlying melanoma genesis. It thus seems timely to review the mutational landscape of melanoma and highlight the key genes and cellular pathways that appear to drive this cancer. PMID:26833684

  12. Enucleation versus plaque irradiation for choroidal melanoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Collaborative Ocular Melanoma Study (COMS) is an international, multicenter-controlled study. The organization includes an Executive Committee, Steering Committee, 6 Central Units, 32 Clinical Centers, and a Data and Safety Monitoring Committee. Scientifically, the COMS consists of (1) a randomized trial of patients with medium choroidal melanoma treated with enucleation versus iodine-125 plaque irradiation, (2) a randomized trial of patients with large choroidal melanoma treated with enucleation versus preenucleation external beam irradiation and enucleation, and (3) a prospective observational study of patients with small choroidal melanoma to determine whether a randomized trial of treatment is appropriate. In design and conduct of the COMS, special consideration is given to biostatistics and sample size considerations, iodine-125 plaque irradiation of choroidal melanoma, and coordinated ocular melanoma research. Recruitment is in progress. However, the pool of eligible patients is limited and the COMS needs the continued support and cooperation of ophthalmologists throughout the United States and Canada

  13. Malignant melanoma of the mandibular gingiva

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandeep Fauzdar

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Oral malignant melanoma is an infrequent neoplasia making up less than 1% of all melanomas, which exhibits much more aggressive behavior than those found on the skin. We present an aggressive case of oral malignant melanoma located on the mandibular gingiva in a 24-year-old male patient, who developed metastases to not only the regional lymph nodes but also the lungs and liver. The advanced stage of the disease contraindicated any surgical intervention and palliative chemotherapy was planned.

  14. Melanoma M (Zero): Diagnosis and Therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Marco Rastrelli; Mauro Alaibac; Roberto Stramare; Vanna Chiarion Sileni; Maria Cristina Montesco; Antonella Vecchiato; Luca Giovanni Campana; Carlo Riccardo Rossi

    2013-01-01

    This paper reviews the epidemiology, diagnosis, and treatment of M zero cutaneous melanoma including the most recent developments. This review also examined the main risk factors for melanoma. Tumor thickness measured according to Breslow, mitotic rate, ulceration, and growth phase has the greatest predictive value for survival and metastasis. Wide excision of the primary tumor is the only potentially curative treatment for primary melanoma. The sentinel node biopsy must be performed on all p...

  15. Massive nodular melanoma scalp: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Bhagya Lakshmi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Melanoma is responsible for 1% to 2% of all cancer deaths around the world. Nodular melanoma often carries a poor prognosis because of no prodromal radial growth phase, early distant metastasis and significant tumour volume. We present a case of nodular melanoma measuring 20x10x8 cm in 28 year old tribal women. [Int J Res Med Sci 2015; 3(4.000: 1002-1005

  16. Characterization of Malignant Melanoma Using Vibrational Spectroscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Ziad Hammody; Ranjit Kumar Sahu; Shaul Mordechai; Emanuela Cagnano; Shmuel Argov

    2005-01-01

    Malignant melanoma, a malignant neoplasm of epidermal melanocytes is the third most common skin cancer. In many cases, melanoma develops from nevus, which is considered as the nonmalignant stage. Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopy (FTIR-MSP), which is based on characteristic molecular vibrational spectra of cells, was used to investigate spectral differences between melanoma, nevus, and the corresponding normal epidermis. In the present work, FTIR-MSP was performed on formalin-fixed...

  17. Melanoma of unknown origin: a case series.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kelly, J

    2010-12-01

    The natural history of metastatic melanoma involving lymph nodes, in the absence of a known primary site (cutaneous, ocular or mucosal) has, to date, been poorly defined; and the optimal management of this rare subtype of disease is therefore unclear. Melanomas of unknown primary site (MUP) are estimated to comprise between 3.7 and 6% of all melanomas (Anbari et al. in Cancer 79:1861-1821, 1997).

  18. Laser radiation therapy of skin melanoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pulsed neodymium laser radiation was used for the treatment of 79 patients with cutaneous melanomas and 19 patients with melanoma metastases to the skin. The patients were followed up from 3 months up to 8 years. During this period local recurrences were detected in 2 cases. Out of 70 patients with cutaneous melanomas, who by the start of the treatment had no metastases in the regional lymph nodes or distant organs, metastases developed in 15 patients (21.4%). There are all reasons to consider pulsed laser radiation an effective means of treatment of some forms of skin melanoma. (orig.)

  19. Secondary prevention of cutaneous malignant melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKie, R M

    1997-08-01

    The incidence of cutaneous malignant melanoma continues to increase in most parts of the world. Survival rates for melanoma patients show a striking difference between those diagnosed with thin primary tumours, and those whose tumours are only 2 mm thicker at the time of excision. This fact together with the poor response rates to current non-surgical therapies makes a clear case for earlier diagnosis and prompt surgical treatment of primary cutaneous malignant melanoma. Campaigns aimed at both early diagnosis (secondary prevention) and also at primary prevention of cutaneous malignant melanoma are discussed and methods of their evaluation considered. PMID:9578431

  20. Treatment Algorithms in Stage IV Melanoma

    OpenAIRE

    Espinosa, Enrique; Grob, Jean-Jacques; Dummer, Reinhard; RUTKOWSKI, PIOTR; Robert, Caroline; Gogas, Helen; Kefford, Richard; Eggermont, Alexander M. M.; Martin Algarra, Salvador; Hauschild, Axel; Schadendorf, Dirk

    2015-01-01

    The molecular classification of melanoma and the advent of new drugs are changing the paradigm of therapy for advanced melanoma. A review of the recent key studies was performed, followed by a discussion in an expert forum. The aim of this review was to generate a therapeutic algorithm for stage IV melanoma. Tumor genotyping for BRAF and/or KIT should be performed before selection of therapy. For most BRAF-mutated melanoma patients and particularly those with a high tumor load, vemurafenib or...

  1. Sun exposure and melanoma prognostic factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    GANDINI, SARA; MONTELLA, MAURIZIO; AYALA, FABRIZIO; BENEDETTO, LUCIA; ROSSI, CARLO RICCARDO; VECCHIATO, ANTONELLA; CORRADIN, MARIA TERESA; DE GIORGI, VINCENZO; QUEIROLO, PAOLA; ZANNETTI, GUIDO; GIUDICE, GIUSEPPE; BORRONI, GIOVANNI; FORCIGNANÒ, ROSACHIARA; PERIS, KETTY; TOSTI, GIULIO; TESTORI, ALESSANDRO; TREVISAN, GIUSTO; SPAGNOLO, FRANCESCO; ASCIERTO, PAOLO A.

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have reported an association between sun exposure and the increased survival of patients with cutaneous melanoma (CM). The present study analyzed the association between ultraviolet (UV) light exposure and various prognostic factors in the Italian Clinical National Melanoma Registry. Clinical and sociodemographic features were collected, as well as information concerning sunbed exposure and holidays with sun exposure. Analyses were performed to investigate the association between exposure to UV and melanoma prognostic factors. Between December 2010 and December 2013, information was obtained on 2,738 melanoma patients from 38 geographically representative Italian sites. A total of 49% of the patients were >55 years old, 51% were men, 50% lived in the north of Italy and 57% possessed a high level of education (at least high school). A total of 8 patients had a family history of melanoma and 56% had a fair phenotype (Fitzpatrick skin type I or II). Of the total patients, 29% had been diagnosed with melanoma by a dermatologist; 29% of patients presented with a very thick melanoma (Breslow thickness, >2 mm) and 25% with an ulcerated melanoma. In total, 1% of patients had distant metastases and 13% exhibited lymph node involvement. Holidays with sun exposure 5 years prior to CM diagnosis were significantly associated with positive prognostic factors, including lower Breslow thickness (Peffect of sun exposure on melanoma prognosis, as additional confounding factors, including vitamin D serum levels, may have a role.

  2. Cerebral metastases of cutaneous melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, G; Robertson, A G; MacKie, R M

    1997-01-01

    Cerebral metastases of cutaneous melanoma carry a very poor prognosis. We report our experience of 31 patients who presented with cerebral metastasis of cutaneous melanoma in a 5-year period between mid-1991 and mid-1996. Cerebral metastases were diagnosed on computerized tomography (CT) scan after patients became symptomatic. The overall median survival in our series was 4 months. Seventeen patients (55%) received treatment with radiotherapy and dexamethasone with resolution of their symptoms, although median survival remained at 4 months. Six patients (19%) had surgery followed by whole brain radiotherapy, with median survival of 5 months. The remaining eight patients received dexamethasone alone. Data from patients surviving less than 2 months and over 6 months suggest that the poor prognostic factors are the presence of more than one cerebral metastasis and additional extracranial metastases. PMID:9231928

  3. Prognostic stratification of ulcerated melanoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bønnelykke-Behrndtz, Marie L; Schmidt, Henrik; Christensen, Ib J; Damsgaard, Tine E; Møller, Holger J; Bastholt, Lars; Nørgaard, Peter H; Steiniche, Torben

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: For patients with melanoma, ulceration is an important prognostic marker and interestingly also a predictive marker for the response of adjuvant interferon. A consensual definition and accurate assessment of ulceration are therefore crucial for proper staging and clinical management. We...... evaluated the prognostic impact of the extent and type of ulceration and the epidermal involvement theoretically preceding it (consumption of epidermis and cleft formation) or seen subsequent to the inflammation (reepithelialization and reactive epidermal hyperplasia), aiming for better prognostic...... stratification of ulcerated lesions. METHODS: From H&E-stained sections, the status (presence vs absence), extent (percentage of the total tumor length), and type (infiltrative vs attenuative) of ulceration and epidermal involvement were evaluated from 385 patients with cutaneous melanoma. RESULTS: The presence...

  4. Neutron capture therapy for melanoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The development of boron-containing compounds which localize selectively in tumor may require a tumor-by-tumor type of approach that exploits any metabolic pathways unique to the particular type of tumor. Melanin-producing melanomas actively transport and metabolize aromatic amino acids for use as precursors in the synthesis of the pigment melanin. It has been shown that the boron-containing amino acid analog p-borono-phenylalanine (BPA) is selectively accumulated in melanoma tissue, producing boron concentrations in tumor that are within the range estimated to be necessary for successful boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT). We report here the results of therapy experiments carried out at the Brookhaven Medical Research Reactor (BMRR). 21 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs

  5. Advances in immunotherapy for melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redman, Jason M; Gibney, Geoffrey T; Atkins, Michael B

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, the introduction and Federal Drug Administration approval of immune checkpoint inhibitor antibodies has dramatically improved the clinical outcomes for patients with advanced melanoma. These antagonist monoclonal antibodies are capable of unleashing dormant or exhausted antitumor immunity, which has led to durable complete and partial responses in a large number of patients. Ipilimumab targets the cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated protein 4 (CTLA-4) receptor. Nivolumab and pembrolizumab target programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) receptors and have proven to be superior to ipilimumab alone. The combination of ipilimumab and nivolumab has yielded higher response rates, greater tumor shrinkage, and longer progression-free survival than either monotherapy alone. As other promising immunotherapies for melanoma proceed through clinical trials, future goals include defining the role of immune checkpoint inhibitors as adjuvant therapy, identifying optimal combination strategies, and developing reliable predictive biomarkers to guide treatment selection for individual patients. PMID:26850630

  6. Neutron capture therapy for melanoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coderre, J.A.; Glass, J.D.; Micca, P.; Fairchild, R.G.

    1988-01-01

    The development of boron-containing compounds which localize selectively in tumor may require a tumor-by-tumor type of approach that exploits any metabolic pathways unique to the particular type of tumor. Melanin-producing melanomas actively transport and metabolize aromatic amino acids for use as precursors in the synthesis of the pigment melanin. It has been shown that the boron-containing amino acid analog p-borono-phenylalanine (BPA) is selectively accumulated in melanoma tissue, producing boron concentrations in tumor that are within the range estimated to be necessary for successful boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT). We report here the results of therapy experiments carried out at the Brookhaven Medical Research Reactor (BMRR). 21 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  7. Perineural extension of facial melanoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalina, Peter [Mayo Clinic, Department of Radiology, Rochester, Minnesota (United States); Bevilacqua, Paula

    2005-05-01

    A 64-year-old man presented with a pigmented cutaneous lesion on the right side of his face along with right facial numbness. Histological examination revealed malignant melanoma. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed perineural extension along the entire course of the maxillary division of the right trigeminal nerve. This is a rare but important manifestation of the spread of head and neck malignancy. (orig.)

  8. Biology of Human Cutaneous Melanoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhuvnesh K. Sharma

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available A review of the natural behavior of cutaneous melanoma, clinical and pathological factors, prognostic indicators, some basic research and the present and possible futuristic strategies in the management of this disease are presented. While surgery remains to be the most effective therapeutic approach in the management of early primary lesions, there is no standard adjuvant therapy after surgical resection, or for metastatic disease.

  9. Personalized treatment of uveal melanoma

    OpenAIRE

    DAMATO, B.; Heimann, H.

    2012-01-01

    Personalized treatment of uveal melanoma involves the tailoring of all aspects of care to the condition, needs, wishes, and fears of the patient, taking account of the individual's circumstances. When selecting between radiotherapy, surgical resection, and phototherapy, or when deciding how best to combine these different therapeutic modalities, it is necessary to understand the patients utilities, with respect to tumour control, visual conservation, and preservation of the eye, so as to prio...

  10. Adjuvant interferon treatment for melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwala, S S; Kirkwood, J M

    1998-08-01

    After decades of research, the adjuvant therapy of patients with melanoma has recently shown significant survival and relapse-free interval benefit for the intravenous and subcutaneous administration of maximally tolerable dosages of recombinant IFN alpha 2b in a trial conducted by the ECOG (E1684). Despite the toxicity of this therapy, retrospective analyses of its impact upon quality-of-life using Q-TWiST methods and cost-efficacy analyses all argue for the benefit and utility of this intervention, especially for node-positive patients with resectable melanoma at highest risk of relapse. A confirmatory trial has been completed and will mature in the spring of 1998. The impact of lower dosages of IFN, apparent transiently during and for a period of time following treatment has not been sustained with longer follow-up in a number of trials. Current approaches in Europe and North America focus upon refinement of dose and duration of treatment with IFN and their potential interactions with, and comparison with, active specific immunotherapy with vaccines. A recently emerging area of research is the patient with stage IIA melanoma and the potential role of an abbreviated high-dose regimen of IFN alpha in this patient subset. PMID:9759581

  11. Treatment of malignant melanoma by selective thermal neutron capture therapy using melanoma-seeking compound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As pigment cells undergo melanoma genesis, accentuated melanogenesis concurrently occurs in principle. Subsequent to the understanding of intrinsic factors controlling both processes, we found our selective melanoma neutron capture therapy (NCT) using 10B-dopa (melanin substrate) analogue, 10B1-p-boronophenylalanine (10B1-BPA), followed by 10B(n, alpha)7Li reaction, induced by essentially harmless thermal neutrons, which releases energy of 2.33 MeV to 14 mu, the diameter of melanoma cells. In vitro/in vivo radiobiological analysis revealed the highly enhanced melanoma killing effect of 10B1-BPA. Chemical and prompt gamma ray spectrometry assays of 10B accumulated within melanoma cells after 10B1-BPA administration in vitro and in vivo show high affinity, e.g., 10B melanoma/blood ratio of 11.5. After successfully eradicating melanoma transplanted into hamsters with NCT, we advanced to preclinical studies using spontaneously occurring melanoma in Duroc pig skin. We cured three melanoma cases, 4.6 to 12 cm in diameter, by single neutron capture treatment. Complete disappearance of melanoma was obtained without substantial side effects. Acute and subacute toxicity as well as pharmacodynamics of 10B1-BPA have been studied in relation to therapeutic dosage requirements. Clinical radiation dosimetry using human phantom has been carried out. Further preclinical studies using human melanoma transplanted into nude mouse have been a useful model for obtaining optimal results for each melanoma type. We recently treated the first human melanoma patient with our NCT, using essentially the method for Duroc pig melanoma, and obtained similar regression time course leading to cure

  12. Ipilimumab for Patients With Advanced Mucosal Melanoma

    OpenAIRE

    Postow, Michael A; Luke, Jason J.; Bluth, Mark J.; Ramaiya, Nikhil; Katherine S. Panageas; Lawrence, Donald P; Ibrahim, Nageatte; Flaherty, Keith T.; Sullivan, Ryan J; Ott, Patrick A.; Callahan, Margaret K.; Harding, James J.; D'Angelo, Sandra P.; Mark A. Dickson; Gary K. Schwartz

    2013-01-01

    This multicenter, retrospective analysis assessed the efficacy and safety of ipilimumab in 33 patients with unresectable or metastatic mucosal melanoma. The study provides evidence that ipilimumab can result in durable antitumor effects in a subset of patients with mucosal melanoma, although the response rate was low.

  13. Unusual thoracic manifestation of metastatic malignant melanoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohan K

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Massive pleural effusion due to metastatic malignant melanoma is rare. We report a case of bilateral (massive on left side pleural effusion as a metastatic manifestation of cutaneous malignant melanoma. In our case, successful outcome of pleurodesis with vincristine is significant as this agent is rarely used.

  14. Malignant melanoma at a scientific laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The general consensus of the seven reviewers is that occupational exposures at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory have not been established as a causal factor for the observed excess of malignant melanoma. Several observations support the impression that some or all of the observed melanoma excess may be attributable to intense surveillance and enhanced detection of early stage melanoma lesions. Since the incidence of melanomas among Laboratory employees has not diminished, an early harvesting effect is unlikely. This suggests the distinct possibility that localized, in situ melanomas that would normally not be detected are being reported, and that in the absence of this enhanced detection, many of these early stage lesions would show little or no clinical progression. This phenomenon would explain the continued high incidence of melanomas in the absence of a physical or chemical inciting cause. A key point in this reasoning is the issue of the rate of growth of early stage melanomas, and this point remains a key question for study. Even if the observed excess cannot be explained by detection bias, the reviewers agree that the Austin and Reynolds' study does not make a convincing case for occupational factors being a cause of the high melanoma incidence. 6 refs

  15. HIV Drug to Aid Melanoma Therapies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyungsoo; Ronai, Ze'ev A

    2016-03-14

    The HIV1 protease inhibitor nelfinavir is being investigated as a cancer therapeutic. In this issue of Cancer Cell, Smith et al. (2016) report that nelfinavir suppresses MITF expression induced by MAPK pathway inhibition in melanoma cells and sensitizes melanoma cells with NRAS or BRAF plus NRAS mutations to MEK inhibitors. PMID:26977874

  16. Malignant melanoma at a scientific laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shy, C.M.; Checkoway, H.; Marshall, E.G.

    1985-11-15

    The general consensus of the seven reviewers is that occupational exposures at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory have not been established as a causal factor for the observed excess of malignant melanoma. Several observations support the impression that some or all of the observed melanoma excess may be attributable to intense surveillance and enhanced detection of early stage melanoma lesions. Since the incidence of melanomas among Laboratory employees has not diminished, an early harvesting effect is unlikely. This suggests the distinct possibility that localized, in situ melanomas that would normally not be detected are being reported, and that in the absence of this enhanced detection, many of these early stage lesions would show little or no clinical progression. This phenomenon would explain the continued high incidence of melanomas in the absence of a physical or chemical inciting cause. A key point in this reasoning is the issue of the rate of growth of early stage melanomas, and this point remains a key question for study. Even if the observed excess cannot be explained by detection bias, the reviewers agree that the Austin and Reynolds' study does not make a convincing case for occupational factors being a cause of the high melanoma incidence. 6 refs.

  17. Mistletoe in the treatment of malignant melanoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esin Sakallı Çetin

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Malignant melanoma is a malignant neoplasia drives from melanocytes. Malignant melanoma, the most causing death, is seen in the third place at skin cancer. Malignant melanoma shows intrinsic resistance to chemotherapeutic agents and variability in the course of the disease which are distinct features separating from other solid tumors. These features prevent the development and standardization of non-surgical treatment models of malignant melanoma. Although there is a large number of chemotherapeutic agents used in the treatment of metastatic malignant melanoma, it hasn’t been demonstrated the survival advantage of adjuvant treatment with chemotherapeutic agents. Because of the different clinical course of malignant melanoma, the disease is thought to be closely associated with immune system. Therefore, immunomodulatory therapy models were developed. Mistletoe stimulates the immune system by increasing the number and activity of dendritic cells, thus it has been shown to effect on tumor growth and metastasis of malignant melanoma patient. Outlined in this review are the recent developments in the understanding the role of mistletoe as a complementary therapy for malignant melanoma. J Clin Exp Invest 2014; 5 (1: 145-152

  18. Serum-proteomics in melanoma patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The project Serum-proteomics in melanoma patients funded by 'Programma Oncologico Italia-USA' Oncoproteomica has the general aim to collect serum samples from melanoma patients and to analyze the expression profile of several cytokines, in order to identify whether significant differences are evident between patients and controls, or among different patients subgroups with different staging or therapy

  19. Optic nerve invasion of uveal melanoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindegaard, Jens; Isager, Peter; Prause, Jan Ulrik; Heegaard, Steffen

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the study was to identify the histopathological characteristics associated with the invasion of the optic nerve of uveal melanoma and to evaluate the association between invasion of the optic nerve and survival. In order to achieve this, all uveal melanomas with optic nerve invasion in...... Denmark between 1942 and 2001 were reviewed (n=157). Histopathological characteristics and depth of optic nerve invasion were recorded. The material was compared with a control material from the same period consisting of 85 cases randomly drawn from all choroidal/ciliary body melanomas without optic nerve...... 4) in one case a tumor spread along the inner limiting membrane to the optic nerve through the lamina cribrosa. Invasion of the optic nerve had no impact on all-cause mortality or melanoma-related mortality in multivariate analyses. The majority of melanomas invading the optic nerve are large...

  20. Alpha particles for treatment of disseminated melanoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Invading melanoma spreads to local and unpredictable distant location at the early stages of its development. It is justifiable, therefore to classify the disease as a systemic disorder. This requires a systemic treatment that reaches all melanoma cells irrespective of whether they are singly dispersed and in circulation or already forming solid tumours of various sizes. Targeted radiotherapy affects directly and selectively cancer cells provided an appropriate radionuclide and its carrier are chosen. Melanoma is a pigmented tumour. Methylene blue (MTB) accumulates selectively in melanoma cells due to its exceptionally high affinity to melanin. MTB serves, therefore, as a carrier for radionuclides. 211At-MTB has proved to be particularly effective in treating disseminated melanoma when administered systemically and, at the same time, non-toxic to normal non-pigmented and pigmented organs. (author)

  1. Alpha particles for treatment of disseminated melanoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Link, E.M. [London Univ. (United Kingdom)

    2010-11-15

    Invading melanoma spreads to local and unpredictable distant location at the early stages of its development. It is justifiable, therefore to classify the disease as a systemic disorder. This requires a systemic treatment that reaches all melanoma cells irrespective of whether they are singly dispersed and in circulation or already forming solid tumours of various sizes. Targeted radiotherapy affects directly and selectively cancer cells provided an appropriate radionuclide and its carrier are chosen. Melanoma is a pigmented tumour. Methylene blue (MTB) accumulates selectively in melanoma cells due to its exceptionally high affinity to melanin. MTB serves, therefore, as a carrier for radionuclides. {sup 211}At-MTB has proved to be particularly effective in treating disseminated melanoma when administered systemically and, at the same time, non-toxic to normal non-pigmented and pigmented organs. (author)

  2. Alpha particles for treatment of disseminated melanoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Link, E.M. [London University (United Kingdom)

    2010-07-01

    Invading melanoma spreads to local and unpredictable distant location at the early stages of its development. It is justifiable, therefore, to classify the disease as a systemic disorder. This requires a systemic treatment that reaches all melanoma cells irrespective of whether they are singly dispersed and in circulation or already forming solid tumours of various sizes. Targeted radiotherapy affects directly and selectively cancer cells provided an appropriate radionuclide and its carrier are chosen. Melanoma is a pigmented tumour. Methylene blue (MTB)) accumulates selectively in melanoma cells due to its exceptionally high affinity to melanin. MTB serves, therefore, as a carrier for radionuclides. {sup 211}At-MTB has proved to be particularly effective in treating disseminated melanoma when administered systemically and, at the same time, non-toxic to normal non-pigmented and pigmented organs. (authors)

  3. Melanoma Surveillance in the US: Collecting Melanoma Data

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-10-19

    This podcast accompanies the publication of a series of articles on melanoma surveillance in the United States, available in the November supplement edition of the Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology. Dr. Suephy Chen, a dermatologist from Emory University, discusses why the articles are important, as well as the need to increase dermatologists’ awareness of cancer registries and reporting requirements.  Created: 10/19/2011 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 10/19/2011.

  4. Propiedades linfangiogénicas del melanoma Lymphagiogenesis in melanomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Paula Roberti

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available El melanoma cutáneo representa el más letal de los cánceres de piel y la alta mortalidad es debida a la formación de metástasis. A través del sistema linfático local, los sitios iniciales de metástasis son comúnmente los ganglios linfáticos regionales. A pesar de que la relevancia clínica de las metástasis a ganglios linfáticos está bien establecida, muy poco se conoce acerca de sus mecanismos moleculares. El descubrimiento de nuevos marcadores de células linfáticas ha permitido en los últimos años comenzar a esclarecer múltiples interrogantes y controversias relacionados con la interacción entre las células tumorales con los vasos linfáticos. Este capítulo tratará la creciente información con la que se cuenta actualmente para comprender la linfangiogénesis en el cáncer, en particular en melanoma, su potencial aplicación en diagnóstico de metástasis, pronóstico de la enfermedad y estrategias terapéuticas.Melanoma skin cancer represents the most deadly of all skin cancers and its high incidence of mortality is due to metastasis. Through the local lymphatic system, the sites of initial metastasis are usually the regional lymph nodes. Despite the clinical relevance of metastasis spreading to lymph nodes is clearly established, not much is known about its molecular mechanisms. The finding of new markers in lymph node cells has made it possible over the last years to start clarifying many questions and controversies related to the interaction between tumour cells and lymph vessels. This chapter deals with the growing information nowadays available to understand lymphagiogenesis in cancer, especially melanoma, its potential application to metastasis diagnosis, disease prognosis and therapeutic strategies.

  5. Systemic therapy of metastatic melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauschenberg, Ricarda; Garzarolli, Marlene; Dietrich, Ursula; Beissert, Stefan; Meier, Friedegund

    2015-12-01

    For patients with metastatic melanoma, there are currently several effective therapeutic options. The BRAF inhibitors vemurafenib and dabrafenib are characterized by rapid tumor control and high response rates. In combination with one of the two MEK inhibitors trametinib and cobimetinib, they achieve response rates (CR + PR, complete plus partial remissions) of 70 %, while delaying the development of treatment resistance, as well as a median overall survival of > 2 years with tolerable side effects. Showing long-term survival rates of approximately 20 %, the anti-CTLA-4 antibody ipilimumab is the first substance that has led to a significant prolongation of overall survival in patients with metastatic melanoma. However, delayed treatment response and severe immune-mediated side effects may pose limitations to its therapeutic benefit. Usually well tolerated, anti-PD-1 antibody monotherapy using nivolumab and pembrolizumab has yielded response rates (CR + PR) of up to 45 % and one-year survival rates of > 70 %. The combination of ipilimumab and nivolumab has shown response rates of up to 58 % and a median progression-free survival of > 11 months. While this combination is expected to result in a rapid and long-lasting response, this potential benefit comes at the expense of a high level of toxicity. Strategies for treatment sequencing and treatment combinations are currently being investigated in clinical studies. Overall, the prognosis for patients with metastatic melanoma has significantly improved. With long-term survival a possibility, not only acute but also long-term therapeutic side effects must be taken into account. PMID:26612791

  6. Current management and novel agents for malignant melanoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Byung

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Advanced malignant melanoma remains a challenging cancer. Over the past year, there have been 3 agents approved for treatment of melanoma by Food and Drug Administration. These include pegylated interferon alpha-2b for stage III melanoma, vemurafenib for unresectable or metastatic melanoma with BRAF V600E mutation, and ipilimumab for treatment of unresectable or metastatic melanoma. This review will also update on the development of novel agents, including tyrosine kinase inhibitors and adoptive cellular therapy.

  7. Surgical aspects of melanoma therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Surgery is still the most important treatment modality to guarantee the highest survival ratio of melanoma patients. The adequacy of the surgical approach is a crucial aspect in face of the initial clinical appearances of the disease. Best results are obtained with the correct treatment of primary melanomas and lymph node metastases. To reach a general consensus on the surreal indications in terms of extension and timing, a large number of randomized trials have been conducted in the last 3 - 4 decades. The rationale behind these trials, even if proposed by different institutions on different continents, has been to find the most conservative surgical approach able to guarantee the same results as those achieved with more aggressive treatment This lay behind the design of trials designed to determine the correct excision margin around primary melanomas in the most important studies. A similar approach has been followed in the preparation of several trials dedicated to the definition of the importance of performing immediate dissection of the locoregional nodes in view of the absence of clinical evidence of metastases. Ever since the sentinel node technique has become the standard treatment in a majority of institutions, the guidelines for the treatment of locoregional nodes have undergone a kind of revolution. In fact the policy of wait and see introduced by the aforementioned trials has been overridden by a more specific and selective even if a more invasive approach to obtain precise information regarding the status of clinically non-invaded locoregional nodes. The sentinel node biopsy technique makes use of a majority of scientific surgical tools, is the most conservative (when compared to elective node dissection), extremely precise and sophisticated and provides crucial data necessary to make decisions regarding the necessity to perform radical surgery, i.e. therapeutic node dissection. Radical lymph node dissection is recommended in case of confirmed regional lymph node metastases. However still little is known of the role of surgery in the treatment of patients with distant metastases and with extra cutaneous melanoma. (authors)

  8. Lymphangiomatosis masquerading as metastatic melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qutub, William; Lewis, Karl; Gonzalez, Rene; Quaife, Robert; Russ, Paul; McCarter, Martin

    2006-04-01

    A patient undergoing evaluation for malignant melanoma was thought to have a metastatic process involving the anterior mediastinum, axilla, spleen, and possibly liver based on radiologic findings from positron emission tomography and computed tomography scans. The clinical picture did not corroborate this suspicion, and biopsies ultimately confirmed lymphangioma in the accessory spleen and subcutaneous tissues, leading to a diagnosis of lymphangiomatosis. Diagnosis and management of lymphangiomatosis is clinically challenging. This report reviews the literature on the pathology, diagnostic imaging, and management of lymphangiomatosis. PMID:16676867

  9. Roads to melanoma: Key pathways and emerging players in melanoma progression and oncogenic signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paluncic, Jasmina; Kovacevic, Zaklina; Jansson, Patric J; Kalinowski, Danuta; Merlot, Angelika M; Huang, Michael L-H; Lok, Hiu Chuen; Sahni, Sumit; Lane, Darius J R; Richardson, Des R

    2016-04-01

    Melanoma has markedly increased worldwide during the past several decades in the Caucasian population and is responsible for 80% of skin cancer deaths. Considering that metastatic melanoma is almost completely resistant to most current therapies and is linked with a poor patient prognosis, it is crucial to further investigate potential molecular targets. Major cell-autonomous drivers in the pathogenesis of this disease include the classical MAPK (i.e., RAS-RAF-MEK-ERK), WNT, and PI3K signaling pathways. These pathways play a major role in defining the progression of melanoma, and some have been the subject of recent pharmacological strategies to treat this belligerent disease. This review describes the latest advances in the understanding of melanoma progression and the major molecular pathways involved. In addition, we discuss the roles of emerging molecular players that are involved in melanoma pathogenesis, including the functional role of the melanoma tumor antigen, p97/MFI2 (melanotransferrin). PMID:26844774

  10. Immunotherapy for advanced melanoma: fulfilling the promise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gogas, Helen; Polyzos, Aristidis; Kirkwood, John

    2013-12-01

    The incidence of melanoma is increasing worldwide and despite early detection and intervention, the number of patients dying from metastatic disease continues to rise. The prognosis of advanced melanoma remains poor, with median survival between 6 and 9 months. Over the past thirty years and despite extensive clinical research, the treatment options for metastatic disease were limited and melanoma is still considered as one of the most therapy-resistant malignancies. Single-agent and combination chemotherapy, hormonal therapy, biochemotherapy, immunotherapy, targeted agent therapy and combination regimes failed to show significant improvement in overall survival. Recent advances and in-depth understanding of the biology of melanoma, have contributed in the development of new agents. Based on the molecular and immunological background of the disease, the new drugs have shown benefit in overall and progression free survival. As the picture of the disease begins to change, oncologists need to alter their approach to melanoma treatment and consider disease biology together with targeted individualized treatment. In this review the authors attempt to offer an insight in present and past melanoma treatment options, with a focus on the recently approved immunotherapeutic agents and the clinical perspectives of these new weapons against metastatic melanoma. PMID:23725878

  11. Automatic differentiation of melanoma from dysplastic nevi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rastgoo, Mojdeh; Garcia, Rafael; Morel, Olivier; Marzani, Franck

    2015-07-01

    Malignant melanoma causes the majority of deaths related to skin cancer. Nevertheless, it is the most treatable one, depending on its early diagnosis. The early prognosis is a challenging task for both clinicians and dermatologist, due to the characteristic similarities of melanoma with other skin lesions such as dysplastic nevi. In the past decades, several computerized lesion analysis algorithms have been proposed by the research community for detection of melanoma. These algorithms mostly focus on differentiating melanoma from benign lesions and few have considered the case of melanoma against dysplastic nevi. In this paper, we consider the most challenging task and propose an automatic framework for differentiation of melanoma from dysplastic nevi. The proposed framework also considers combination and comparison of several texture features beside the well used colour and shape features based on "ABCD" clinical rule in the literature. Focusing on dermoscopy images, we evaluate the performance of the framework using two feature extraction approaches, global and local (bag of words) and three classifiers such as support vector machine, gradient boosting and random forest. Our evaluation revealed the potential of texture features and random forest as an almost independent classifier. Using texture features and random forest for differentiation of melanoma and dysplastic nevi, the framework achieved the highest sensitivity of 98% and specificity of 70%. PMID:25797605

  12. Ellagic acid inhibits melanoma growth in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Daniel Jensen

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Ellagic is a polyphenolic compound with anti-fibrotic and antioxidant properties as well as exhibits antitumor properties against various cancer cells in vitro. There are few studies, however, which examine the effects of ellagic acid on melanoma. In the present study, we observe effects of ellagic acid on melanoma cells in vitro. Three metastatic melanoma cell lines (1205Lu, WM852c and A375 were examined to determine the effects of ellagic acid on melanoma cell viability, cell-cycle, apoptosis, NF-?? activity, and IL-1? & IL-8 secretion. Cell viability assays demonstrated that ellagic acid possesses an inhibitory effect on cell proliferation at concentrations between 25 and 100 µM. In addition, ellagic acid promoted G1 cell cycle arrest, increased levels of apoptosis and decreased synthesis of IL-1? and IL-8 in melanoma cells. Ellagic acid also decreased NF-?? activity, suggesting at least one potential mechanism by which ellagic acid may exert its effects in melanoma cells. Our findings support further investigation into prospective roles for ellagic acid as a therapeutic, adjuvant, or preventive agent for melanoma.

  13. Malignant melanoma of the uvea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since February 1984, patients suffering from uveal melanomas can be irradiated with protons (72 MeV) at the Paul Scherrer Institute, Villigen/Switzerland. The selection and preparation of the 660 patients so far treated were carried out at the Lausanne University Eye Clinic. The irradiation is performed in four sessions on four consecutive days, the single dose being 1500 cGy and the total dose 6000 cGy. Sixty per cent of the patients improved or maintained their visual acuity. The rate of local progressions so far amounts to 2,9%. In more than 30% of the patients with a tumour width of more than 15 mm, death due to metastases occurred within five years. The superior functional results increasingly make proton irradiation therapy the method of choice and at the same time widen the indication for conservative treatment. In Europe, proton therapy of uveal melanoma is as of recently also possible in Uppsala and Liverpool. Further irradiation facilities are planned, including the Federal Republic of Germany. (orig.)

  14. A potential new radiopharmaceutical for melanoma imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the sequence of our studies on radiopharmaceuticals for malignant melanoma detection the results were most promising for the possible use of 125I or 123I - N-(2-diethyl amino ethyl) 4-iodobenzamide. The biodistribution in mice bearing melanoma either human or animal from 4 to 24 hrs. post i.v. injection showed high uptake in tumor tissue together with relatively low uptake in muscle, brain, lung and liver. Scintigraphic images of the tumor obtained at the same times confirmed that melanoma detection was very promising

  15. Malignant melanoma presenting as bilateral breast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jayalakshmi, S.; Chander, S.; Prasad, R.R.; Saxena, A.K.; Sharma, M.C.; Rath, G.K. [All India Inst. of Medical Sciences, New Delhi (India)

    1997-02-01

    Malignant melanoma presenting initially with disseminated disease is common. However, bilateral breast masses as the initial symptom of malignant melanoma are rare. One such case is described in this paper, together with a review of literature. Clinical investigations revealed a high erythrocyte sedimentation rate. The chest X-ray was normal, ultrasound examination of the abdomen confirmed bilateral masses and the bone scan with {sup 99m}Tc meta diphosphonate showed increased tracer concentration in the D4 and L2 vertebrae. Biopsy form a lump in the breast showed features compatible with malignant melanoma deposit in the breast. 11 refs., 3 figs.

  16. A Zebrafish Model of Uveal Melanoma

    OpenAIRE

    Rose, Kristin

    2015-01-01

    Uveal melanoma is the most common primary intraocular tumor in adults, and is often characterized by poor prognosis and few effective therapeutic options. The typical site of metastasis for uveal melanoma is the liver, and over 80% of patients with metastatic disease will die within one year of metastasis diagnosis. The vast majority of human uveal melanomas contain activating somatic mutations in the GPCR alpha subunits GNAQ or GNA11. To directly observe the in vivo effects of GNA11 Q209L (c...

  17. A modified COMS plaque for iris melanoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel J. Scanderbeg

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Melanoma of the iris is a rare condition compared to posterior ocular tumors and in this case report we presenta 51-year-old female patient with diffuse iris melanoma. Traditional COMS (Collaborative Ocular Melanoma Studyplaques are used at our institution for radiation therapy, so a novel modification of the traditional plaque was requiredto allow better conformance with placement on the cornea. The usual silastic insert was machined to dimensions incompliance with the cornea, placed without incident, and treatment delivered with excellent patient tolerance of themodified plaque.

  18. Desmoplastic Melanoma: Clinical Behavior and Management Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapil, Jyoti P.; Wolfe, Luke G.; Kaplan, Brian J.; Neifeld, James P.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Desmoplastic melanoma is a rare variant of melanoma that has been reported to demonstrate unique clinical behavior when compared with other histological subtypes. In this study, we present the clinical course of patients with this unusual diagnosis. We hypothesized that desmoplastic melanoma would differ from nondesmoplastic melanoma with regard to its presentation, rate of regional metastasis, and recurrence pattern. Methods: After institutional review board approval, a retrospective chart review was performed on all patients with a diagnosis of desmoplastic melanoma since 1998. The following data were collected: patient demographics, histopathological details of the lesion, initial treatment, and clinical course. In addition, the available slides were reviewed by a dermatopathologist. Results: Twenty-eight patient charts were reviewed. Mean age at diagnosis was 65 years. Fifty-seven percent of patients were men, and 67% of the lesions originated from the head and neck. Of the 28 patients, 11 had pathology slides that were adequate for evaluation. Pure desmoplastic melanoma, defined by more than 90% of the specimen demonstrating desmoplastic features, was found in only 3 patients. Taking into account all cases, the mean Breslow thickness was 5.09 mm and ulceration was present in 12.5% of lesions. Regional disease was discovered in 18% of patients. The mean follow-up time was 43 months, and the overall recurrence rate was 32%. 66.7% of first recurrences were local. Two of 3 patients with pure desmoplastic melanoma developed regional metastasis. Conclusions: Our data largely support previous studies that suggest desmoplastic melanoma behaves differently compared with other histological subtypes. However, the incidence of regional disease among patients with pure desmoplastic melanoma appears to be higher in our study than in previous reports. Although this rare variant typically presents with advanced local disease, the rate of regional metastasis is less than what would be expected for similar thickness, nondesmoplastic cutaneous melanoma. The recurrence pattern is different compared with nondesmoplastic melanoma, and the most common site of recurrence is local. Discrepancy in the literature regarding the clinical behavior of this disease may be related to inconsistent pathological criteria for diagnosis. Further research will help clarify the optimal management of desmoplastic melanoma. PMID:26816556

  19. Experimental boron neutron capture therapy for melanoma: Systemic delivery of boron to melanotic and amelanotic melanoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The boron-containing melanin precursor analogue p-boronophenylalanine (BPA) has previously been shown to selectively deliver boron to pigmented murine melanomas when administered in a single intragastric dose. If boron neutron capture therapy is to become a clinically useful method of radiation therapy for human malignant melanoma, the boron carrier must be capable of delivering useful amounts of boron to remote tumor sites (metastases) and to poorly pigmented melanomas. The authors have now determined the ability of BPA to accumulate in several nonpigmented melanoma models including human melanoma xenografts in nude mice. The absolute amount of boron in the nonpigmented melanomas was about 50% of the observed in the pigmented counterparts but was still selectively concentrated in the tumor relative to normal tissues in amounts sufficient for effective neutron capture therapy. Single intragastric doses of BPA resulted in selective localization of boron in the amelanotic Greene melanoma carried in the anterior chamber of the rabbit eye and in a pigmented murine melanoma growing in the lungs. The ratio of the boron concentration in these tumors to the boron concentration in the immediately adjacent normal tissue was in the range of 3:1 to 4:1. These distribution studies support the proposal that boron neutron capture therapy may be useful as a regional therapy for malignant melanoma

  20. Malignant Melanoma Presenting as Superior Mediastinal Mass without Extrathoracic Primary Melanoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    You, Myung Won; Sung, Dong Wook; Lee, Young Kyung [Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, Kyung Hee University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-03-15

    Malignant melanoma most commonly occurs in the skin, and other organs are secondarily involved. Malignant melanoma presenting in the mediastinum without an extrathoracic primary is very rare. Authors report a case of malignant melanoma of the superior mediastinum without clinical history of extrathoracic malignant melanoma primarily and discuss its radiologic findings. CT shows lobulated heterogenous enhanced mass. Magnetic resonance shows mild hyperintense mass on T1 and T2-weighted images contained focal hemorrhage and necrosis, and invasion to neural foramen. In addition, positron emission tomography/computed tomography shows high standard uptake values uptake of the mass.

  1. Malignant Melanoma Presenting as Superior Mediastinal Mass without Extrathoracic Primary Melanoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malignant melanoma most commonly occurs in the skin, and other organs are secondarily involved. Malignant melanoma presenting in the mediastinum without an extrathoracic primary is very rare. Authors report a case of malignant melanoma of the superior mediastinum without clinical history of extrathoracic malignant melanoma primarily and discuss its radiologic findings. CT shows lobulated heterogenous enhanced mass. Magnetic resonance shows mild hyperintense mass on T1 and T2-weighted images contained focal hemorrhage and necrosis, and invasion to neural foramen. In addition, positron emission tomography/computed tomography shows high standard uptake values uptake of the mass.

  2. Malignant melanoma with metastasis into the capitate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metastases to the hand and wrist are rare, with fewer than 200 cases reported in the literature. Phalanges are more commonly involved than metacarpal and wrist. The lung, breast and kidneys are the more common sites of primary lesions than metastasize in the hand. We present an exceptional case of melanoma that metastasized to the capitate. Melanoma can give bone metastases, but we are not aware of reports of this tumour metastatising to the carpal bones. In our knowledge, we have only found a report of metastases in the capitate, a clear-cell sarcoma of the right foot, a tumour close to melanoma with some cytogenetic differences. Hand metastases in a patient who is suffered melanoma should be ruled out if a lytic aggressive lesion appears on x-ray film or positive technetium bone scan is demonstrated

  3. Poliosis circumscripta unmasking a scalp melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeo, L; Husain, E; Rajpara, S

    2015-12-01

    A 28-year-old man presented with a 1-year history of a localized patch of grey hair and an underlying darkly pigmented lesion on his right occipital area. Clinical appearance revealed poliosis overlying an asymmetrical plaque with variable degrees of brown pigmentation and white discolouration. Owing to the suspicious nature of the lesion, excision with a 2 mm margin was performed. Histology revealed an invasive melanoma with extensive regression and prominent involvement of multiple hair follicles. Scalp melanoma with associated poliosis is extremely rare, and has only been reported once in the literature to date. There have been two reports in the opthalmology literature regarding eyelash poliosis associated with orbital melanoma. The pathogenesis of poliosis still remains unclear. This is the second reported case of poliosis circmscripta unmasking a scalp melanoma, and highlights the importance of being vigilant when examining patients with poliosis of the scalp. PMID:25546496

  4. Pembrolizumab for Ipilimumab-Resistant Melanoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    KEYNOTE-002 was designed to test the safety and efficacy of two doses of pembrolizumab compared with chemotherapy in patients with ipilimumab-resistant melanoma; interim results show that pembrolizumab improves progression-free survival for these patients

  5. Second primary oral melanoma: A rare presentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meghanand T Nayak

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Melanomas are neoplasms of melanocytic origin. They are aggressive neoplasms with an unpredictable behavior, and can involve virtually any organ of the body. Oral melanomas are very rare and have an extremely poor prognosis. Early diagnosis and prompt treatment is the key to reduce the morbidity and mortality. A second primary tumor is a new primary tumor developing in a person with a history of tumor, in a new site or tissue and subsequent to the initial tumor. Patients with previous history of melanoma are associated with a higher risk of developing second primaries. A case of second primary oral melanoma in a 55-year-old female is reported here. The anachronistic presentation of the primary and the second primary lesions make this case clinically interesting. Noteworthy immunohistochemical findings were recorded, HMB-45 positive and S-100 negative.

  6. Direct bony invasion of malignant melanoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mula Viswanath

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Malignant melanoma is known to spread by local extention, by the lymphatics by the blood stream. Direct invasion of the bone from a cutaneous melanoma is unknown. Hence, this case is presented in view of its rarity. A 75-year-old Caucasian lady presented with a small papillary lesion in the region of a recurrent chronic cellulitis on the lower third of the lateral aspect of the right leg. Histopathology diagnosed the lesion as locally advanced malignant melanoma. Radiological investigations by X-ray and magnetic resonance imaging revealed malignant infiltration of the tibia in its mid and lower third with two soft tissue metastatic masses adjacent. Histology following amputation confirmed malignant melanoma with cranial resection margin involvement. She underwent a further above-knee amputation followed by chemotherapy. The patient recovered from the amputation but subsequently died 6 months later due to bronchopneumonia from lung metastasis.

  7. CT findings of diffuse malignant leptomeningeal melanoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This was a case of malignant melanoma which spreaded diffusely in the meninges. The diagnosis was established by cytology of the cerebrospinal fluid. The CT images, cerebral angiographic findings and pathological findings by autopsy were presented. (Chiba, N.)

  8. Brachytherapy in the Management of Uveal Melanomas

    OpenAIRE

    Samuray Tuncer

    2014-01-01

    Uveal melanoma is the most common intraocular tumor in adults. Clinical studies have shown similar patient survival rates after treatment of medium-sized melanomas when comparing plaque brachytherapy with radioactive iodine-125 versus enucleation. This finding further emphasizes the importance of this globe-sparing treatment. Brachytherapy is a special local radiotherapy technique that aims to deliver high-dose radiation directly to the tumor by sparing the periocular structures. Bra...

  9. Molecular Markers of Tumor Progression in Melanoma

    OpenAIRE

    Rother, Joshua; JONES, DAN

    2009-01-01

    Malignant melanoma represents one of the most aggressive malignancies but outcome is highly variable with early tumor lesions having an excellent prognosis following resection. We review here the data on identification of genes involved in the progression of melanoma as a result of expression array studies, genomic profiling, and genetic models. We focus on the role of tumor suppressors involved in cell cycle function, DNA repair, and genome maintenance. Highlighted are the roles of loss of p...

  10. Immunomodulatory Therapy for Melanoma: Ipilimumab and Beyond

    OpenAIRE

    Callahan, Margaret K.; Postow, Michael A; Wolchok, Jedd D

    2013-01-01

    In 2011, the FDA approved the first new therapy for melanoma in over a decade, ipilimumab (Yervoy). Ipilimumab is a novel antibody that blockscytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 (CTLA-4), a regulatory molecule expressed on activated T cells. Blockade of this important immune checkpoint can lead to durable tumor regression and Phase III studies showed an overall survival benefit for patients with advanced melanoma. During the clinical development of ipilimumab, several unique features ...

  11. Ipilimumab Pharmacotherapy in Patients with Metastatic Melanoma

    OpenAIRE

    Jeter, Joanne M.; Cranmer, Lee D.; Hersh, Evan M

    2012-01-01

    Immune augmentation with ipilimumab, an anti-CTLA-4 monoclonal antibody, has joined the ranks of approved immunologic agents for the treatment of metastatic melanoma. Phase III studies of ipilimumab in metastatic melanoma have demonstrated an overall survival advantage as compared to other approved and investigational therapies. However, the adverse effects associated with this medication are unique and often require management with steroids or other immunosuppressants. In addition, the time ...

  12. Primary Mucosal Melanoma: Uncommonly Described Entity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaushal Yadav

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Because of rarity and clinical challenges arising from different anatomic location, our understanding of optimal management of mucosal melanoma remains limited. The most common sites for primary mucosal melanoma are head and neck followed by anorectal, and vulvovaginal regions. Data are limited but improved understanding has led to change in management from more radical excision to conservative surgery with negative margins. We try to summarize available evidences for management this uncommonly described entity.

  13. Diagnosis and treatment of skin melanoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A successful treatment of melanomas becomes possible in case of their early detection and hospitalization of the patients. Surgical, radiation, cryogenic, laser therapeutic methods and their combinations are applied for melanomas treatment depending on localization and propagation of tumour process. Radiation therapy of primary tumours was undertaken in the pre-operational storage in all cases of their localization on the patient's face because the size of the section of tissues to be cut off after radiation therapy decreases significantly

  14. Ipilimumab til behandling af metastaserende melanoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghasemi, Habib; Schmidt, Henrik; Stolle, Lars Bjørn

    Until recently metastatic melanoma was a disease with limited treatment options and a poor prognosis. However, new promising products have been developed. Ipilimumab, a full human anti-cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen-4 antibody, has shown improved survival in several clinical trials and is now a...... part of the standard treatment options for this disease in Denmark. In this case report we present a 78-year-old man with metastatic melanoma who had complete remission after treatment with ipilimumab....

  15. A Case of Melanoma Associated Leukoderma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özer Arıcan

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Melanoma associated leukoderma is a rare disease characterized by hypopigmented or depigmented macules, which are usualy localized at distant sites from the primary malignant melonoma. Immunologic response to abnormal melanocytes is thought to be responsible for the physiopathology of the disease. A 34-year- old male patient with a facially localized melanoma associated leukoderma is presented and the clinical features, pathogenesis, differential diagnosis, treatment and follow-up of the disease are discussed with the recent literature.

  16. Malignant melanoma of the oral cavity

    OpenAIRE

    M.S. Hashemi Pour

    2006-01-01

    Oral malignant melanoma is a rare disease. The common sites of its occurrence are the palate and gingiva with the maxillary arch being affected 80% of the time. Because of their presence at relatively obscure areas in the oral cavity, most of the malignant melanomas of the oral cavity are diagnosed at a late stage. These lesions are associated with poor prognosis. The dental clinician must therefore carefully examine the head, neck, and oral cavity, and any pigmented lesion that may ex...

  17. Novel anti-melanoma treatment: focus on immunotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng-Ze Hao

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Melanoma is an intractable cancer that is aggressive, lethal, and metastatic. The prognosis of advanced melanoma is very poor because it is insensitive to chemotherapy and radiotherapy. The incidence of melanoma has been ascending stably for years worldwide, accompanied by increasing mortality. New approaches to managing this deadly disease are much anticipated to enhance the cure rate and to extend clinical benefits to patients with metastatic melanoma. Due to its high degree of immunogenicity, melanoma could be a good target for immunotherapy, which has been developed for decades and has achieved certain progress. This article provides an overview of immunotherapy for melanoma.

  18. Non-melanoma skin cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Liezel L; Ali, Faisal Rehman; Lear, John T

    2016-02-01

    Non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) comprises basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and squamous cell carcinoma, together with a host of rare tumours. NMSC is the commonest malignancy among Caucasians and its incidence continues to rise annually. Exposure to UV radiation initiates approximately 90% of NMSC, causing malignant transformation of keratinocytes and suppression of the inflammatory response. Risk factors include sun exposure and immunosuppression. There are several subtypes of BCC, although histological overlap is common. Surgery has traditionally been regarded as the 'gold-standard' treatment, offering excellent cure rates and cosmetic results. Other treatment modalities include physical destruction (radiotherapy, curettage and cautery, and cryotherapy), chemical destruction (photodynamic therapy and topical 5-flurouracil) and immunomodulatory therapy (topical imiquimod). The recent development of novel hedgehog pathway inhibitors for high-risk BCC (including oral vismodegib and sonidegib) may represent a paradigm shift towards medical management of NMSC. PMID:26833519

  19. Surgical treatment of anorectal melanomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegal, B; Cohen, D; Jacob, E T

    1983-09-01

    Thirty cases of anorectal melanoma have been recorded in Israel from 1960 to 1981. The frequency of the disease doubled in the last decade (from 10 to 20 cases). A clear predominance has been noted among Jews of European descent (18 patients) as opposed to Sephardic Jews (9 patients) or Arabs (3 patients). From this series, the emerging conclusion is that in most cases radical surgery (abdominoperineal resection) is seldom indicated. It is doubtful whether this form of treatment increases the survival while affecting considerably the quality of life. Survival correlated well with the stage of disease at the time of diagnosis. No such correlation could be established with the type of treatment employed. PMID:6614323

  20. Two cases of subungual melanoma in situ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imakado, Sumihisa; Sato, Hiroyuki; Hamada, Kazutoshi

    2008-11-01

    Melanonychia, which is characterized by brown or black pigmentation within the nail plate, includes heterogeneous conditions such as pigmented nevus, subungual melanoma and lentigo. We treated two cases of subungual melanoma in situ. One case was a 58-year-old woman who suffered from a malignant melanoma in situ of the left third fingernail, who had also suffered from melanonychia of the fingers for more than 30 years. She had a past history of carcinoma of the uterine cervix. The other patient was a 42-year-old man, who suffered from a malignant melanoma in situ of the right fifth fingernail. He had a past history of carcinoma of the stomach for which he had undergone surgery 2 years earlier. Both cases were accompanied by Hutchinson's sign on the fingertip skin, and the presence of this sign led to the correct diagnosis of subungual melanoma in situ. Judging from previously reported cases, it is unlikely that patients with malignant melanoma have an increased risk of carcinoma of the uterine cervix or of the stomach. PMID:19120774

  1. Treatment and outcomes of anorectal melanoma.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Heeney, Anna

    2012-02-01

    INTRODUCTION: anorectal melanoma is an uncommon disease constituting less than 3% of all melanomas. Due to its rarity, there are a lack of randomized control trials regarding appropriate management and current evidence is based mainly on retrospective studies. METHODS: in view of the controversial surgical treatment of anorectal melanoma, we review the most published literature in an attempt to elucidate its typical clinical features along with current thinking with respect to management approaches to this aggressive disease. Using the keywords "anorectal" and "malignant melanoma", a medline search of all articles in English was performed and the relevant articles procured. Additional references were retrieved by cross reference from key articles. RESULTS: anorectal melanoma affects the elderly with a slight preponderance for females. It commonly presents disguised as benign disease with local bleeding or suspicion for haemorrhoidal disease. There is no convincing evidence to indicate that radical resection of primary anorectal melanoma is associated with improvement in local control or survival, and local excision is an acceptable treatment option. CONCLUSION: optimum management depends on several factors and the therapeutic goals should be to lengthen survival and preserve quality-of-life. Given that wide local excision is a more limited intervention with comparable survival it should be considered as the initial treatment choice. Unfortunately prognosis for patients with this disease remains poor despite choice of treatment strategy with overall five year disease-free survival less than twenty percent in most studies.

  2. Melanoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... skin cancer is to reduce your exposure to sunlight. Ultraviolet light is most intense between 10 a.m. and ... important facts to help you avoid too much sun exposure: Avoid surfaces that reflect light more, such as water, sand, concrete, and white- ...

  3. Melanoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... events AAD publications Make a difference Career planning Media Relations Toolkit Dermatology issues in the news Background materials Customized outreach templates Other resources Media Update Join the Media Expert Team AAD apps . ...

  4. AC-93253 triggers the downregulation of melanoma progression markers and the inhibition of melanoma cell proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karwaciak, Iwona; Gorzkiewicz, Michal; Ryba, Katarzyna; Dastych, Jaroslaw; Pulaski, Lukasz; Ratajewski, Marcin

    2015-07-01

    A major challenge in anti-melanoma therapy is to develop treatments that are effective for advanced melanoma patients. Unfortunately, the currently used regimens are not efficient and have unsatisfactory effects on disease progression, thus increasing the pressure to develop new, profitable drugs and to identify new molecular targets. Here, we show for the first time that AC-93253, a SIRT2 inhibitor, exerts a negative effect on the expression of a set of genes involved in the progression and chemoresistance (e.g., oncogenes, apoptosis-related genes, ABC transporter genes, and cell cycle control genes) of melanoma cells. Furthermore, melanoma cells exposed to AC-93253 and doxorubicin displayed altered biological responses, including apoptosis and proliferation, compared to cells exposed to single treatments. Taken together, we conclude that the usage of AC-93253 in combined therapy could be a promising strategy for melanoma patients. PMID:25912555

  5. Melanoma risk perception and prevention behavior among African-Americans: the minority melanoma paradox

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goldenberg A

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Alina Goldenberg,1 Igor Vujic,2,3 Martina Sanlorenzo,2,4 Susana Ortiz-Urda2 1Department of Internal Medicine/Dermatology, University of California, San Diego, 2Mt Zion Cancer Research Center, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, USA; 3Department of Dermatology, The Rudolfstiftung Hospital, Academic Teaching Hospital, Medical University Vienna, Vienna, Austria; 4Section of Dermatology, Department of Medical Sciences, University of Turin, Turin, Italy Introduction: Melanoma is the most deadly type of skin cancer with 75% of all skin cancer deaths within the US attributed to it. Risk factors for melanoma include ultraviolet exposure, genetic predisposition, and phenotypic characteristics (eg, fair skin and blond hair. Whites have a 27-fold higher incidence of melanoma than African-Americans (AA, but the 5-year survival is 17.8% lower for AA than Whites. It is reported continuously that AA have more advanced melanomas at diagnosis, and overall lower survival rates. This minority melanoma paradox is not well understood or studied. Objective: To explore further, the possible explanations for the difference in melanoma severity and survival in AA within the US. Methods: Qualitative review of the literature. Results: Lack of minority-targeted public education campaigns, low self-risk perception, low self-skin examinations, intrinsic virulence, vitamin D differences, and physician mistrust may play a role in the melanoma survival disparity among AA. Conclusion: Increases in public awareness of melanoma risk among AA through physician and media-guided education, higher index of suspicion among individuals and physicians, and policy changes can help to improve early detection and close the melanoma disparity gap in the future. Keywords: acral, advanced, African-American, disparity, melanoma, survival

  6. Melanoma Strikes Earlier If Indoor Tanning Begins in Teens

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_156931.html Melanoma Strikes Earlier If Indoor Tanning Begins in Teens: ... age significantly raises a woman's risk of developing melanoma before the age of 50, a new study ...

  7. Screening for metastatic malignant melanoma of the uvea revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eskelin, Sebastian; Pyrhönen, Seppo; Summanen, Paula; Prause, J.U.; Kivelä, Tero

    ophthalmology, malignant uveal melanoma, metastasis, liver, screening, ultrasonography, X-ray, lactate dehydrogenase, alkaline phosphatase, aminotransferases......ophthalmology, malignant uveal melanoma, metastasis, liver, screening, ultrasonography, X-ray, lactate dehydrogenase, alkaline phosphatase, aminotransferases...

  8. Role of radiotherapy in melanoma management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In melanoma, radiotherapy has generally been considered as a palliative treatment option indicated only for advanced cases or disseminated disease. In the 70s of the previous century, the technological advances in radiotherapy, linked to rapid development of computer sciences, resulted in restored interest for radiotherapy in melanoma management. Although a fundamental lack of well designed prospective and/or randomized clinical trials critically influenced the integration of radiotherapy into treatment strategies in melanoma, radiotherapy was recently recognized as an indispensable part in the multidisciplinary management of patients with melanoma. Altogether, approximately 23% of melanoma patients should receive at least one course of radiotherapy during the course of the disease. In this review, radiobiological properties of melanoma that govern the decisions for the fractionation patterns used in the treatment of this disease are described. Moreover, the indications for irradiation and the results of pertinent clinical studies from the literature, creating a rationale for the use of radiotherapy in the management of this disease, are reviewed and a brief description of radiotherapy techniques is given. Basic treatment modality in melanoma is surgery. However, whenever surgery is not radical or there are adverse prognostic factors identified on histopathological examination of resected tissue specimen, it needs to be supplemented. Also, in patients with unresectable disease or in those not being suitable for major surgery or who refuse proposed surgical intervention, other effective mode(s) of therapy need to be implemented. From this perspective, supported by clinical experiences and literature results, radiotherapy is a valuable option: it is effective and safe, in curative and palliative setting

  9. ERBB3 is required for metastasis formation of melanoma cells

    OpenAIRE

    Tiwary, S; Preziosi, M; Rothberg, P. G.; Zeitouni, N; Corson, N.; L Xu

    2014-01-01

    Melanoma is curable when it is at an early phase but is lethal once it becomes metastatic. The recent development of BRAFV600E inhibitors (BIs) showed great promise in treating metastatic melanoma, but resistance developed quickly in the treated patients, and these inhibitors are not effective on melanomas that express wild-type BRAF. Alternative therapeutic strategies for metastatic melanoma are urgently needed. Here we report that ERBB3, a member of the epidermal growth factor receptor fami...

  10. Endothelin-1 in the tumor microenvironment correlates with melanoma invasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiriboga, Luis; Meehan, Shane; Osman, Iman; Glick, Michael; de la Cruz, Gelo; Howell, Brittny S; Friedman-Jiménez, George; Schneider, Robert J; Jamal, Sumayah

    2016-06-01

    Endothelin-1 (ET-1) is a vasoactive peptide that also plays a role in the tanning response of the skin. Animal and cell culture studies have also implicated ET-1 in melanoma progression, but no association studies have been performed to link ET-1 expression and melanoma in humans. Here, we present the first in-vivo study of ET-1 expression in pigmented lesions in humans: an ET-1 immunohistochemical screen of melanocytic nevi, melanoma in situ lesions, invasive melanomas, metastatic melanomas, and blue nevi was performed. Twenty-six percent of melanocytic nevi and 44% of melanoma in situ lesions demonstrate ET-1 expression in the perilesional microenvironment, whereas expression in nevus or melanoma cells was rare to absent. In striking contrast, 100% of moderately to highly pigmented invasive melanomas contained numerous ET-1-positive cells in the tumor microenvironment, with 79% containing ET-1-positive melanoma cells, confirmed by co-staining with melanoma tumor marker HMB45. Hypopigmented invasive melanomas had reduced ET-1 expression, suggesting a correlation between ET-1 expression and pigmented melanomas. ET-1-positive perilesional cells were CD68-positive, indicating macrophage origin. Sixty-two percent of highly pigmented metastatic melanomas demonstrated ET-1 expression in melanoma cells, in contrast to 28.2% of hypopigmented specimens. Eighty-nine percent of benign nevi, known as blue nevi, which have a dermal localization, were associated with numerous ET-1-positive macrophages in the perilesional microenvironment, but no ET-1 expression was detected in the melanocytes. We conclude that ET-1 expression in the microenvironment increases with advancing stages of melanocyte transformation, implicating a critical role for ET-1 in melanoma progression, and the importance of the tumor microenvironment in the melanoma phenotype. PMID:26825037

  11. MUCOSAL MALIGNANT MELANOMA OF NASOPHARYNX: A CASE REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandrasekhar

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Primary mucosal malignant melanomas of sinonasal tract are uncommon tumors comprising 0.3-2% of all malignant melanomas and 4% of all head and Neck melanomas. We are reporting a rare case of mucosal malignant melanoma in a 45 year old female arising from nasopharynx which was excised completely by trans palatal approach followed by irradiation. This case is being reported because of its isolated involvement of nasopharynx, and early age of presentation.

  12. Hormonal exposures and the risk of uveal melanoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Behrens, Thomas Flensted; Kaerlev, Linda; Cree, Ian; Lutz, Jean-Michel; Afonso, Noemia; Eriksson, Mikael; Guénel, Pascal; Merletti, Franco; Morales-Suarez-Varela, Maria; Stengrevics, Aivars; Sabroe, Svend; Cyr, Diane; Llopis-González, Agustin; Gorini, Giuseppe; Sharkova, Galina; Hardell, Lennart; Ahrens, Wolfgang

    2010-01-01

    Several studies suggest that hormonal mechanisms may be associated with the development of uveal melanoma. Therefore, the association between the risk of uveal melanoma and exposure to hormonal exposures was investigated in a case-control study from nine European countries.......Several studies suggest that hormonal mechanisms may be associated with the development of uveal melanoma. Therefore, the association between the risk of uveal melanoma and exposure to hormonal exposures was investigated in a case-control study from nine European countries....

  13. Melanoma after laser therapy of pigmented lesions - circumstances and outcome

    OpenAIRE

    Zipser, M C; Mangana, J; Oberholzer, P A; French, L.E.; Dummer, R

    2010-01-01

    The use of laser therapy in the treatment of pigmented lesions is a controversial issue as it can delay melanoma diagnosis and may negatively impact mortality. Few cases of melanoma after laser therapy have been reported. It is still unknown whether melanoma can be induced by lasers. We discuss the outcomes of twelve patients presenting with melanoma subsequent to previous treatment with laser. In four patients, a skin biopsy was performed before laser treatment. Histology was re-evaluated by...

  14. Characteristics and Treatment of Cutaneous Melanoma of the Foot

    OpenAIRE

    Nam, Kyung Wook; Bae, Yong Chan; Nam, Soo Bong; Kim,Joo Hyung; Kim, Hoon Soo; Choi, Young Jin

    2016-01-01

    Background In East Asia, the foot is the most common site of cutaneous melanoma. The purpose of this study was to investigate the differences between cutaneous melanoma of the foot and melanomas of other sites. Methods We studied 52 patients who underwent surgical treatment for cutaneous melanoma of the foot from September 2000 to January 2015. Through a retrospective review of their medical records, we collected data relating to their sex, age, histopathological subtype, Clark level, tumor t...

  15. Malignant melanoma of gingiva: Report of a rare case

    OpenAIRE

    Vikey, Ashok; Kapoor, Prakhar; Kathariya, Rahul; Vikey, Deepali; Kukreja, Ipsita

    2015-01-01

    According to the World Health Organization, oral malignant melanoma (OMM) is a rare disease, accounting for only 0.8% of all melanomas, 8% of head and neck melanomas, and up to 0.5% of all oral malignancies. OMM presents as a pigmented lesion with asymmetrical borders, irregular surface characteristics, and a distinct color. Melanoma-associated pigmented lesion of the oral cavity does not possess clinical specificity and frequently divert the clinical diagnosis; hence, differential diagnosis ...

  16. Indium-111 labeled anti-melanoma monoclonal antibodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, S.C.; Fawwaz, R.A.; Ferrone, S.

    1984-04-30

    A monoclonal antibody to a high molecular weight melanoma-associated antigen was chelated and radiolabeled with indium-111. This material shows high affinity for melanoma and thus can be used in the detection, localization and imaging of melanoma. 1 figure.

  17. Clinical Activity of Ipilimumab in Acral Melanoma: A Retrospective Review

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, Douglas B.; Peng, Chengwei; Richard G. Abramson; YE, FEI; Zhao, Shilin; Wolchok, Jedd D; Sosman, Jeffrey A; Carvajal, Richard D.; Ariyan, Charlotte E

    2015-01-01

    This study retrospectively reviewed the demographics, treatment history, and clinical outcomes for all patients with acral melanoma treated with ipilimumab from two academic centers between February 2006 and June 2013. Ipilimumab was found to have activity that appears equivalent to unselected melanoma proving it to be a viable treatment option for this melanoma subpopulation.

  18. Immunotherapy of metastatic melanoma by reversal of immune suppression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biggs, M.W.; Eiselein, J.E.

    1997-01-01

    Beginning with the observation that the human enteorvirus, Poliovirus Sabin 1, will lyse human melanoma cells in culture, clinical trials involving two patients with advance melanoma were performed. Parenteral injection of the viable Poliovirus into cutaneous melanoma metastases followed in 24 hours by oral administration of cyclophosphamide. The results of these two trials are described.

  19. Cytotoxic T lymphocyte responses against melanocytes and melanoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schwartz Erich J

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vitiligo is a common toxicity associated with immunotherapy for melanoma. Cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs against melanoma commonly target melanoma-associated antigens (MAAs which are also expressed by melanocytes. To uncouple vitiligo from melanoma destruction, it is important to understand if CTLs can respond against melanoma and melanocytes at different levels. Methods To understand the dichotomous role of MAA-specific CTL, we characterized the functional reactivities of established CTL clones directed to MAAs against melanoma and melanocyte cell lines. Results CTL clones generated from melanoma patients were capable of eliciting MHC-restricted, MAA-specific lysis against melanocyte cell lines as well as melanoma cells. Among the tested HLA-A*0201-restricted CTL clones, melanocytes evoked equal to slightly higher degranulation and cytolytic responses as compared to melanoma cells. Moreover, MAA-specific T cells from vaccinated patients responded directly ex vivo to melanoma and melanocytes. Melanoma cells express slightly higher levels of MART-1 and gp100 than melanocytes as measured by quantitative reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR and immunohistochemistry. Conclusions Our data suggest that CTLs respond to melanoma and melanocytes equally in vitro and directly ex vivo.

  20. Brachytherapy in the Management of Uveal Melanomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuray Tuncer

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Uveal melanoma is the most common intraocular tumor in adults. Clinical studies have shown similar patient survival rates after treatment of medium-sized melanomas when comparing plaque brachytherapy with radioactive iodine-125 versus enucleation. This finding further emphasizes the importance of this globe-sparing treatment. Brachytherapy is a special local radiotherapy technique that aims to deliver high-dose radiation directly to the tumor by sparing the periocular structures. Brachytherapy is still the most widely used treatment for uveal melanoma. Iodine-125 and ruthenium-106 are the most common radioisotopes used in brachytherapy. After brachytherapy, sight-threatening complications occur unavoidably in many patients. Brachytherapy is mostly associated with long-term complications. Radiation retinopathy and cataract formation are the most common treatment-related complications. Brachytherapy provides local tumor control (ocular salvage in about 90% of patients. Adjunctive transpupillary thermotherapy (sandwich therapy improves the control rate of local tumors to 97%. About 10% of patients treated with brachytherapy subsequently require enucleation because of local tumor recurrence or neovascular glaucoma at 5 years of follow-up. Metastatic disease occurs in 10% of patients with medium-sized melanoma at 5-year follow-up. This rate increases to 55% at 10-year follow-up in patients with large melanomas (thickness >8 mm. Thus, it is very important to inform the patients under the light of these data prior to brachytherapy. (Turk J Ophthalmol 2014; 44: Supplement 43-8

  1. Antioxidants can increase melanoma metastasis in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Gal, Kristell; Ibrahim, Mohamed X; Wiel, Clotilde; Sayin, Volkan I; Akula, Murali K; Karlsson, Christin; Dalin, Martin G; Akyürek, Levent M; Lindahl, Per; Nilsson, Jonas; Bergo, Martin O

    2015-10-01

    Antioxidants in the diet and supplements are widely used to protect against cancer, but clinical trials with antioxidants do not support this concept. Some trials show that antioxidants actually increase cancer risk and a study in mice showed that antioxidants accelerate the progression of primary lung tumors. However, little is known about the impact of antioxidant supplementation on the progression of other types of cancer, including malignant melanoma. We show that administration of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) increases lymph node metastases in an endogenous mouse model of malignant melanoma but has no impact on the number and size of primary tumors. Similarly, NAC and the soluble vitamin E analog Trolox markedly increased the migration and invasive properties of human malignant melanoma cells but did not affect their proliferation. Both antioxidants increased the ratio between reduced and oxidized glutathione in melanoma cells and in lymph node metastases, and the increased migration depended on new glutathione synthesis. Furthermore, both NAC and Trolox increased the activation of the small guanosine triphosphatase (GTPase) RHOA, and blocking downstream RHOA signaling abolished antioxidant-induced migration. These results demonstrate that antioxidants and the glutathione system play a previously unappreciated role in malignant melanoma progression. PMID:26446958

  2. Treating advanced melanoma: current insights and opportunities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tronnier M

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Michael Tronnier, Christina Mitteldorf Department of Dermatology, Klinikum Hildesheim GmbH, Hildesheim, Germany Abstract: Whereas thin melanomas have an excellent prognosis after sufficient surgical treatment, melanoma disease in advanced stages is still a therapeutic challenge. After decades of frustrating studies, new therapeutic strategies have come up in the past few years. On the one hand, increasing insights into the molecular aberrations in melanoma have led to specific "targeted" therapies to affect only the mutated tumor cells, as in many other types of cancers. Today there are few "targeted" substances which are already approved and successfully used for single or combination therapy, but many others are under development. While on the other hand, nonpersonalized strategy substances have been developed successfully inducing an immunologic tumor response. Both kinds of therapy have been found to result in an improvement not only of the response rate, but also of the overall survival in metastatic disease, which represents a milestone in melanoma therapy. However, using these therapies there is still much to learn regarding the effects, the side effects, and the limitations of these promising substances. Keywords: melanoma, treatment, targeted therapy, immunotherapy, BRAF, CTLA-4

  3. Vemurafenib for the treatment of melanoma.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Jordan, Emmet John

    2012-12-01

    Metastatic melanoma is an aggressive disease resistant to chemotherapy. Recent clinical trials have reported improved survival for two novel agents; ipilimumab, a humanized, IgG1 monoclonal antibody that blocks cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 (CTLA-4) and vemurafenib , a BRAF (v-raf murine sarcoma viral oncogene homolog B1) inhibitor targeting an activating mutation in the serine-threonine-protein kinase BRAF gene. AREAS COVERED: The authors reviewed preclinical and clinical data examining the safety of vemurafenib in melanoma. MEDLINE and EMBASE were searched using the medical subject heading \\'vemurafenib\\' and the following text terms: melanoma, BRAF inhibition, vemurafenib. This review provides the reader with an overview of current data examining the efficacy and safety of vemurafenib in metastatic melanoma. EXPERT OPINION: Vemurafenib is an oral agent licensed for patients with BRAF V600E mutation-positive inoperable and metastatic melanoma. The most common adverse effects observed in Phase III clinical trials were dermatological events, arthralgia and fatigue. Specific dermatological toxicities included development of cutaneous squamous cell cancers and keratoacanthomas. Prolongation of the QT interval was also reported. Regular dermatological assessments and electrocardiograms are recommended. Ongoing trials are examining vemurafenib in both the adjuvant setting and metastatic setting in combination with ipilimumab and MEK inhibitors (mitogen-activated protein kinase\\/extracellular signal-regulated kinase). Understanding and overcoming mechanisms of resistance to BRAF inhibitors is the focus of ongoing research.

  4. Treatment algorithms in stage IV melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinosa, Enrique; Grob, Jean-Jacques; Dummer, Reinhard; Rutkowski, Piotr; Robert, Caroline; Gogas, Helen; Kefford, Richard; Eggermont, Alexander M M; Martin Algarra, Salvador; Hauschild, Axel; Schadendorf, Dirk

    2015-01-01

    The molecular classification of melanoma and the advent of new drugs are changing the paradigm of therapy for advanced melanoma. A review of the recent key studies was performed, followed by a discussion in an expert forum. The aim of this review was to generate a therapeutic algorithm for stage IV melanoma. Tumor genotyping for BRAF and/or KIT should be performed before selection of therapy. For most BRAF-mutated melanoma patients and particularly those with a high tumor load, vemurafenib or other BRAF inhibitors such as dabrafenib are the treatment of choice. KIT inhibitors can be effective in KIT-mutant tumors, especially in those patients with mutations at exons 11 and 13. Ipilimumab is a good option for patients with nontargetable or nondetected mutations and those who progress under therapy with vemurafenib or a KIT inhibitor. There is still a role for conventional chemotherapy either as first-line treatment in BRAF wild-type patients or as salvage therapy in second or third line, or after other treatment modalities. Participation in clinical trials is strongly encouraged, either in first or in subsequent lines. New therapeutic options for advanced melanoma are guided by tumor genotyping. The current therapeutic algorithm includes kinase inhibitors, anti-CTLA4 therapy, immunotherapy, and chemotherapy, depending on the tumor genotype and response to previous treatments. Participation in clinical trials should always be encouraged because the treatment goal is long-term survival and potential cure in a subset of patients. PMID:24413374

  5. Selenium for the Prevention of Cutaneous Melanoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas Grossman

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The role of selenium (Se supplementation in cancer prevention is controversial; effects often depend on the nutritional status of the subject and on the chemical form in which Se is provided. We used a combination of in vitro and in vivo models to study two unique therapeutic windows for intervention in the process of cutaneous melanomagenisis, and to examine the utility of two different chemical forms of Se for prevention and treatment of melanoma. We studied the effects of Se in vitro on UV-induced oxidative stress in melanocytes, and on apoptosis and cell cycle progression in melanoma cells. In vivo, we used the HGF transgenic mouse model of UV-induced melanoma to demonstrate that topical treatment with l-selenomethionine results in a significant delay in the time required for UV-induced melanoma development, but also increases the rate of growth of those tumors once they appear. In a second mouse model, we found that oral administration of high dose methylseleninic acid significantly decreases the size of human melanoma xenografts. Our findings suggest that modestly elevation of selenium levels in the skin might risk acceleration of growth of incipient tumors. Additionally, certain Se compounds administered at very high doses could have utility for the treatment of fully-malignant tumors or prevention of recurrence.

  6. Cure of malignant melanoma by single thermal neutron capture treatment using melanoma-seeking compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since not only malignant melanomas but also many kinds of human cancers, for example thyroid cancer and squamous cell carcinoma, synthesize their specific protein, much attention has been paid to the establishment of selective thermal neutron capture treatment of malignant melanoma as a prototype of such cancer cells. This paper presents 10B chlorpromazine compounds and 10B1-para-boronophenylalanine (10B1-BPA) as tumor-seeking 10B compounds which themselves possess selective affinity for the specific metabolic activity of the target cancer cells. An overview of the following studies on the effects of 10B1-BPA in the thermal neutron capture treatment of melanoma is provided: 1) in vitro studies on specific enhanced melanoma cell killing effects of 10B1-BPA; 2) in vivo studies on therapeutic effects of 10B1-BPA using melanoma-bearing hamsters; and 3) preclinical therapeutic experiments using spontaneously occurring malignant melanoma in Duroc pig skin, including experiments in which melanoma was successfully cured. (Namekawa, K.)

  7. Plasma 25-Hydroxyvitamin D and Risk of Non-Melanoma and Melanoma Skin Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Afzal, Shoaib; Nordestgaard, Børge G; Bojesen, Stig E

    2013-01-01

    Sun exposure is a major risk factor for skin cancer and is also an important source of vitamin D. We tested the hypothesis that elevated plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OH-vitD) associates with increased risk of non-melanoma and melanoma skin cancer in the general population. We measured plasma 25......-OH-vitD in 10,060 white individuals from the Danish general population. During 28 years of follow-up, 590 individuals developed non-melanoma skin cancer and 78 developed melanoma skin cancer. Increasing 25-OH-vitD levels, by clinical categories or by seasonally adjusted tertiles, were associated with...... increasing cumulative incidence of non-melanoma skin cancer (trend P=2 × 10(-15) and P=3 × 10(-17)) and melanoma skin cancer (P=0.003 and P=0.001). Multivariable adjusted hazard ratios of non-melanoma skin cancer were 5.04 (95% confidence interval (CI): 2.78-9.16) for 25-OH-vitD 50 vs. 60 years, 25-OH-vitD...

  8. Termoterapia transpupilar em melanoma maligno da coróide Transpupillary thermotherapy for malignant choroidal melanoma

    OpenAIRE

    Martha M. Motomo Chojniak; Tércio Guia; Fausto Uno; Clélia Maria Erwenne

    2001-01-01

    Objetivo: Vários métodos vem sendo utilizados para o tratamento dos melanomas da coróide. A proposta deste trabalho preliminar é avaliar a eficácia da termoterapia transpupilar (TTT) como tratamento primário de melanomas da coróide pequenos. Métodos: Foi realizado um trabalho prospectivo e não-randomizado para avaliar os aspectos clínicos, resposta do tumor, complicações e resultados visuais de pacientes portadores de melanomas da coróide pequenos (até 4,0 mm de espessura e 12 mm de diâmetro ...

  9. Control of differentiation of melanoma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To develop the method to induce the appearance of differentiation in amelanotic melanoma, experimental control of differentiation in B-16 melanoma cells of mice was discussed. Human melanoma cells and yellow melanin pigment cells useful for a fundamental study of radiotherapy for cancer were cultured and were differentiated into some lines. Melanotic B-16 cells and amelanotic B-16 cells were irradiated with thermal neutron (neutron: 2.7 x 1012, ?-dose: 32.3 rad) after they were cultured in culture solution containing 10 ?/ml of 10B-dopa for 13 hours. A fine structure 5 hours after the irradiation in one of 5 experimental cases showed aggregated disintegration of melanin pigment particles, markedly deformed and fragmentized nucleus, and structural changes in cell membrane. (Tsunoda, M.)

  10. Malignant melanoma of the nasal septum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazzeri, Davide; Agostini, Tommaso; Giacomina, Alessandro; Giannotti, Giordano; Colizzi, Livio; De Rosa, Maurizio; Massei, Pietro; Pantaloni, Marcello

    2010-11-01

    Primary malignant melanoma involving the nasal and paranasal sinus mucosa is a rare neoplasm, accounting for less than 1% of all melanomas. Being more aggressive than its cutaneous counterpart, it carries a poor prognosis. We report a case arising from the nasal septum mucosae in a 78-year-old man. We describe clinical features, diagnosis, and treatment of this rare disease along with a review of the pertinent literature. Endoscopic resection of the neoplasm was performed, enabling diagnosis of sinonasal mucosal melanoma involving the frontal sinus floor. Because the patient was too compromised to achieve radical surgical approach (craniofacial resection), he underwent radiation therapy. Through this article, we wish to emphasize that early diagnosis with a high index of suspicion is critical because this type of tumor is extremely aggressive. Its location and relatively nonspecific features frequently delay diagnosis, and its rarity avoids an optimal treatment guideline setting. PMID:21119468

  11. Bioelectric Applications for Treatment of Melanoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two new cancer therapies apply bioelectric principles. These methods target tumor structures locally and function by applying millisecond electric fields to deliver plasmid DNA encoding cytokines using electrogene transfer (EGT) or by applying rapid rise-time nanosecond pulsed electric fields (nsPEFs). EGT has been used to locally deliver cytokines such as IL-12 to activate an immune response, resulting in bystander effects. NsPEFs locally induce apoptosis-like effects and affect vascular networks, both promoting tumor demise and restoration of normal vascular homeostasis. EGT with IL-12 is in melanoma clinical trials and nsPEFs are used in models with B16F10 melanoma in vitro and in mice. Applications of bioelectrics, using conventional electroporation and extensions of it, provide effective alternative therapies for melanoma

  12. Bioelectric Applications for Treatment of Melanoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beebe, Stephen J., E-mail: sbeebe@odu.edu; Schoenbach, Karl H.; Heller, Richard [Frank Reidy Research Center for Bioelectrics/Old Dominion University 4211 Monarch Way, Suite 300, Norfolk, Virginia 23508 (United States)

    2010-09-27

    Two new cancer therapies apply bioelectric principles. These methods target tumor structures locally and function by applying millisecond electric fields to deliver plasmid DNA encoding cytokines using electrogene transfer (EGT) or by applying rapid rise-time nanosecond pulsed electric fields (nsPEFs). EGT has been used to locally deliver cytokines such as IL-12 to activate an immune response, resulting in bystander effects. NsPEFs locally induce apoptosis-like effects and affect vascular networks, both promoting tumor demise and restoration of normal vascular homeostasis. EGT with IL-12 is in melanoma clinical trials and nsPEFs are used in models with B16F10 melanoma in vitro and in mice. Applications of bioelectrics, using conventional electroporation and extensions of it, provide effective alternative therapies for melanoma.

  13. Bioelectric Applications for Treatment of Melanoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Heller

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Two new cancer therapies apply bioelectric principles. These methods target tumor structures locally and function by applying millisecond electric fields to deliver plasmid DNA encoding cytokines using electrogene transfer (EGT or by applying rapid rise-time nanosecond pulsed electric fields (nsPEFs. EGT has been used to locally deliver cytokines such as IL-12 to activate an immune response, resulting in bystander effects. NsPEFs locally induce apoptosis-like effects and affect vascular networks, both promoting tumor demise and restoration of normal vascular homeostasis. EGT with IL-12 is in melanoma clinical trials and nsPEFs are used in models with B16F10 melanoma in vitro and in mice. Applications of bioelectrics, using conventional electroporation and extensions of it, provide effective alternative therapies for melanoma.

  14. Ensemble approach for differentiation of malignant melanoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rastgoo, Mojdeh; Morel, Olivier; Marzani, Franck; Garcia, Rafael

    2015-04-01

    Melanoma is the deadliest type of skin cancer, yet it is the most treatable kind depending on its early diagnosis. The early prognosis of melanoma is a challenging task for both clinicians and dermatologists. Due to the importance of early diagnosis and in order to assist the dermatologists, we propose an automated framework based on ensemble learning methods and dermoscopy images to differentiate melanoma from dysplastic and benign lesions. The evaluation of our framework on the recent and public dermoscopy benchmark (PH2 dataset) indicates the potential of proposed method. Our evaluation, using only global features, revealed that ensembles such as random forest perform better than single learner. Using random forest ensemble and combination of color and texture features, our framework achieved the highest sensitivity of 94% and specificity of 92%.

  15. Malign melanoma of gall bladder: Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muharrem Battal

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Malign melanom is a disease affecting many organs but rarely seen in gallbladder. Distinction of isolated tumors from primary gallbladder tumors or metastatic disease can not be made in most cases. Mainly the complaints of acute cholecystitis appears. Mostly this clinical condition is not doubted when the primary tumor is not found. In cases with poor prognosis , very few patients benefit from surgery. The role of surgery is limited in malign melanoma of gallbladder because of low experience. Different surgical procedures should be applied to primary gallbladder melanoma and metastatic disease. Patients should be evaluated in a multidisciplinary manner with new therapeutic methods. We report here on an unusual case of gallbladder melanoma that was diagnosed by pathological examination in 46-year-old woman.

  16. Malignant melanoma of the oral cavity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebenezer Jagadish

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Oral malignant melanoma is a rare disease. The common sites of its occurrence are the palate and gingiva with the maxillary arch being affected 80% of the time. Because of their presence at relatively obscure areas in the oral cavity, most of the malignant melanomas of the oral cavity are diagnosed at a late stage. These lesions are associated with poor prognosis. The dental clinician must therefore carefully examine the head, neck, and oral cavity, and any pigmented lesion that may exhibit growth potential must be biopsied. This article describes a case of malignant melanoma that was present in the oral cavity and briefly reviews the relevant literature that explains the nature of this lesion.

  17. High nevus counts confer a favorable prognosis in melanoma patients

    OpenAIRE

    Ribero, Simone; Davies, John R.; Requena, Celia; Carrera, Cristina; Glass, Daniel; Rull, Ramon; Vidal-Sicart, Sergi; Vilalta, Antonio; Alos, Lucia; Soriano, Virtudes; Quaglino, Pietro; Traves, Victor; Newton-Bishop, Julia A.; Nagore, Eduardo; Malvehy, Josep

    2015-01-01

    A high number of nevi is the most significant phenotypic risk factor for melanoma and is in part genetically determined. The number of nevi decreases from middle age onward but this senescence can be delayed in patients with melanoma. We investigated the effects of nevus number count on sentinel node status and melanoma survival in a large cohort of melanoma cases. Out of 2,184 melanoma cases, 684 (31.3%) had a high nevus count (>50). High nevus counts were associated with favorable progno...

  18. Current Research and Development of Chemotherapeutic Agents for Melanoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyaw Minn Hsan

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Cutaneous malignant melanoma is the most lethal form of skin cancer and an increasingly common disease worldwide. It remains one of the most treatment-refractory malignancies. The current treatment options for patients with metastatic melanoma are limited and in most cases non-curative. This review focuses on conventional chemotherapeutic drugs for melanoma treatment, by a single or combinational agent approach, but also summarizes some potential novel phytoagents discovered from dietary vegetables or traditional herbal medicines as alternative options or future medicine for melanoma prevention. We explore the mode of actions of these natural phytoagents against metastatic melanoma.

  19. MR imaging of hemorrhagic intracerebral metastatic malignant melanoma: case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malignant melanoma is the third most frequent metastatic lesion to the brain. In MR examination we observe three different images corresponding to three types of the metastasis - non-hemorrhagic melanotic melanoma, non-hemorrhagic amelanotic melanoma, and hemorrhagic melanoma. Three percent to 14 % of all brain metastases are hemorrhagic by MR examinations. In the case of major bleeding the MR image of the metastasis may be covered with that of hematoma. The case report points out problems in a differential diagnosis of a solitary pathologic lesions in the brain of the hypertonic patients six years after the extirpation of the malignant melanoma on the back. (authors)

  20. Historical summary and recommendations on Melanoma in the LLNL workforce

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, D.H. II; Hatch, F.

    1994-12-01

    This document provides a historical summary and recommendations on melanoma in the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) workforce. Melanoma of the skin comprises about 3.5% of the incidence (38,000 new cases in 1991) and 1.7% of the mortality (8500 deaths in 1991) of all cancer in the U.S. However, for several decades it has shown the fastest rate of increase of any cancer site. The following areas are discussed: background and recognition of increased melanoma at LLNL, history of melanoma studies at LLNL, results from occupational factors study, overall conclusion on increased melanoma incidence, and recommendations for future management.

  1. A rare case of subungual melanoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesh Verma

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A 51-year-old male presented with blackish discoloration of nails of 10 months duration. Examination revealed black dystrophic left thumb finger nail. Detailed examination showed a mass under the dystrophic nail. Hutchinson sign was positive. Histopathology revealed characteristic features of melanoma. A detailed evaluation revealed no features of local or distant metastasis. The entire lesion was then removed surgically along with disarticulation at the interphalangeal joint. Resection-free margin was confirmed. This case is being reported for the rare occurrence of subungual melanoma in the Indian population and also for presentation with a long history of lesion with no evidence of metastasis.

  2. Malignant Melanoma Arising in Red Tattoo Ink

    OpenAIRE

    Joyce, Cormac Weekes; Duff, Gerald; McKenna, Dermot; Regan, Padraic James

    2015-01-01

    We report the case of a 33-year-old male who presented with a malignant melanoma on his anterior chest wall. The lesion was only found in the red ink pigment of the tattoo, as were several in-transit dermal metastases. Possible explanations include a pre-existing lesion which was seeded with red ink or the possibility of the red ink causing an inflammatory reaction leading to malignant transformation. This is the first reported case of a melanoma developing in the red ink pigment of a multi-c...

  3. Malignant Melanoma Arising in Red Tattoo Ink.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joyce, Cormac Weekes; Duff, Gerald; McKenna, Dermot; Regan, Padraic James

    2015-07-01

    We report the case of a 33-year-old male who presented with a malignant melanoma on his anterior chest wall. The lesion was only found in the red ink pigment of the tattoo, as were several in-transit dermal metastases. Possible explanations include a pre-existing lesion which was seeded with red ink or the possibility of the red ink causing an inflammatory reaction leading to malignant transformation. This is the first reported case of a melanoma developing in the red ink pigment of a multi-colored tattoo. PMID:26217569

  4. Anorectal melanoma: report of two cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remigio, P A; Der, B K; Forsberg, R T

    1976-01-01

    We have described the clinicopathologic findings in two cases of anorectal melanoma, and extracted the salient features from the medical literature. The disease is rare. Melanoma arises from the anal squamous membrane and very often spreads upward through submucosal planes, producing secondary satelites in the rectum. Trauma from defecation, vast lymphatic and venous systems in the anorectal region, and high invasiveness of the tumor cells eviden;ly account for early distant metastases. Histologically, the neoplastic cells often mimic other cancers. Treatment is surgical, with dismal end results. PMID:1084261

  5. An unusual presentation of recurring metastatic melanoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Rose; Vincent, Kira; Abdelrahman, Abd A.; Krishnan, Mridula; Koppala, Jahnavi

    2016-01-01

    A 53-year-old non-distressed Caucasian female complains of dyspnea and palpitations for 5 days. Past medical history includes Stage IV melanoma with adequate resection 23 years prior. The patient suddenly became increasingly tachycardic in mild respiratory distress while maintaining hemodynamic stability. TTE depicted 10.5 × 7.5 × 9.5 cm3 mass within her left ventricle and a large volume of pericardial effusion, which progressed to cardiac tamponade. Pericardial window was performed. Metastatic involvement should be ruled out for all symptomatic patients with a history of melanoma. PMID:26968788

  6. Metastatic melanoma and vemurafenib: novel approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramon Andrade De Mello

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Metastatic melanoma (MM presents a treatment challenge to oncologists worldwide. Dacarbazine is the first line chemotherapy treatment for MM, though the overall response rates are very poor. Recently, the v-raf murine sarcoma viral oncogene homolog B1 (BRAF V600 mutation was found to play a main role in MM. This mutation is present in 40-60% of melanoma patients. Vemurafenib is a BRAF kinase inhibitor that showed impressive results in phase I-III trials and was thus recently approved for the treatment of MM. This paper will briefly focus on vemurafenib in the treatment of MM and highlight concerns.

  7. Sarcoidosis in Melanoma Patients: Case Report and Literature Review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarcoidosis is a systemic inflammatory disease characterized by the development of noncaseating granulomas in multiple organ systems. Many hematologic malignancies and solid tumors, including melanoma, have been associated with sarcoidosis. We describe the clinical and pathologic findings of a 54-year-old man with melanoma-associated sarcoidosis. In addition, we not only review the literature describing characteristics of other melanoma patients with sarcoidosis, but also the features of melanoma patients with antineoplastic therapy-associated sarcoidosis. Sarcoidosis has been described in 80 melanoma patients; sufficient information for analysis was provided in 39 of these individuals. In 43.6% of individuals (17 out of 39), sarcoidosis was directly associated with melanoma; in 56.4% of oncologic patients (22 out of 39), sarcoidosis was induced by antineoplastic therapy that had been administered for the treatment of their metastatic melanoma. The discovery of melanoma preceded the development of sarcoidosis in 12 of the 17 (70.5%) individuals who did not receive systemic treatment. Pulmonary and/or cutaneous manifestations of sarcoidosis were common among both groups of patients. Most patients did not require treatment for sarcoidosis. Melanoma patients—either following antineoplastic therapy or without systemic treatment—may be at an increased risk to develop sarcoidosis. In antineoplastic therapy naive melanoma patients, a common etiologic factor—such as exposure to ultraviolet light—may play a role in their developing melanoma and sarcoidosis

  8. Sarcoidosis in Melanoma Patients: Case Report and Literature Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beutler, Bryce D., E-mail: brycebeutler@hotmail.com [School of Allied Health Sciences, University of Nevada, Las Vegas, 1060 Wiegand Road, Encinitas, CA 92024 (United States); Cohen, Philip R., E-mail: brycebeutler@hotmail.com [Department of Dermatology, University of California San Diego, 10991 Twinleaf Court, San Diego, CA 92131 (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Sarcoidosis is a systemic inflammatory disease characterized by the development of noncaseating granulomas in multiple organ systems. Many hematologic malignancies and solid tumors, including melanoma, have been associated with sarcoidosis. We describe the clinical and pathologic findings of a 54-year-old man with melanoma-associated sarcoidosis. In addition, we not only review the literature describing characteristics of other melanoma patients with sarcoidosis, but also the features of melanoma patients with antineoplastic therapy-associated sarcoidosis. Sarcoidosis has been described in 80 melanoma patients; sufficient information for analysis was provided in 39 of these individuals. In 43.6% of individuals (17 out of 39), sarcoidosis was directly associated with melanoma; in 56.4% of oncologic patients (22 out of 39), sarcoidosis was induced by antineoplastic therapy that had been administered for the treatment of their metastatic melanoma. The discovery of melanoma preceded the development of sarcoidosis in 12 of the 17 (70.5%) individuals who did not receive systemic treatment. Pulmonary and/or cutaneous manifestations of sarcoidosis were common among both groups of patients. Most patients did not require treatment for sarcoidosis. Melanoma patients—either following antineoplastic therapy or without systemic treatment—may be at an increased risk to develop sarcoidosis. In antineoplastic therapy naive melanoma patients, a common etiologic factor—such as exposure to ultraviolet light—may play a role in their developing melanoma and sarcoidosis.

  9. Isolation and Molecular Characterization of Circulating Melanoma Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xi Luo

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Melanoma is an invasive malignancy with a high frequency of blood-borne metastases, but circulating tumor cells (CTCs have not been readily isolated. We adapted microfluidic CTC capture to a tamoxifen-driven B-RAF/PTEN mouse melanoma model. CTCs were detected in all tumor-bearing mice and rapidly declined after B-RAF inhibitor treatment. CTCs were shed early from localized tumors, and a short course of B-RAF inhibition following surgical resection was sufficient to dramatically suppress distant metastases. The large number of CTCs in melanoma-bearing mice enabled a comparison of RNA-sequencing profiles with matched primary tumors. A mouse melanoma CTC-derived signature correlated with invasiveness and cellular motility in human melanoma. CTCs were detected in smaller numbers in patients with metastatic melanoma and declined with successful B-RAF-targeted therapy. Together, the capture and molecular characterization of CTCs provide insight into the hematogenous spread of melanoma.

  10. Epidermotropic metastatic melanoma with perilesional depigmentation in an Indian male

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhavana Doshi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Melanoma is a rare form of cutaneous malignancy encountered in the dark skin population. Epidermotropic metastatic melanoma is a rare form of cutaneous metastatic melanoma which can mimic primary melanoma on histopathology. Hence its differentiation is of immense prognostic importance. The occurrence of rim of depigmentation around the primary cutaneous melanoma has previously been reported to portend a bad prognosis. The occurrence of vitiligo like lesions in patients with metastatic melanoma in comparison has a better prognosis. However the occurrence of depigmentation around the secondaries is rare and its importance is not well known. Hence we wish to report a case of epidermotropic metastatic melanoma with perilesional depigmentation in a 78 year old Indian male.

  11. Melanoma gástrico sin origen primario conocido

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gorka Docio Gregorio

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available El melanoma maligno es una neoplasia derivada de los melanocitos, que equivale al 5 % de las neoplasias cutáneas. El 95 % de los melanomas se desarrolla en la piel y menos de 3 % corresponde a melanoma metastásico sin evidencia de tumor primario. En el tracto gastrointestinal, la afectación por melanoma es debido la mayoría de las veces a metástasis. El melanoma primario gastrointestinal está descrito que afecta a la zona anorrectal, seguido de esófago. El melanoma gástrico primario es un tumor excepcional, existen muy pocos casos documentados en la literatura. Presentamos el caso de un paciente con un melanoma en estómago como primera manifestación de la enfermedad y hacemos una revisión del estado actual.

  12. CLINICAL AND MORPHOLOGICAL CONSIDERATIONS IN CUTANEOUS MALIGNANT MELANOMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doinita Radulescu

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available 278 cases of cutaneous malignant melanoma admitted in „Emergency Clinic Hospital” Iasi between 1996-2006 have been described. Our cases showed that cutaneous malignant melanoma prevailed in females, has the highest incidence in the fourth decade, and is mostly located in lower limbs. Malignant melanoma occured on healthy skin (205 cases, congenital nevus (9 cases, preexisting nevus (29 cases, lentigo maligna (14 cases, and as a subungual form (21 cases. Our cases have been classified as lentigo maligna, superficial spreading melanoma, nodular melanoma and as melanoma arising in a giant congenital nevus. The retrospective comparison of our data reveals that in the evaluation of cutaneous malignant melanoma prognosis clinical parameters, as well as morphological ones, reprezented by Clark’s levels of invasion, Breslow’s thickness, tumour infiltrating lymphocytes, ulceration and vascular invasion, should be considered.

  13. Possibilidade de associação de melanoma e acromegalia Possibility of an association between melanoma and acromegaly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Garcia Soares Leães

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Neoplasias como câncer de próstata, mama e cólon estão relacionadas à acromegalia. Raras vezes foi mencionada a associação com melanoma. Descreve-se caso de paciente com acromegalia no qual foi identificada lesão melanocítica suspeita, com posterior confirmação de melanoma. A excisão cirúrgica da lesão levou à cura da neoplasia. Chama-se a atenção para a necessidade de exame cuidadoso da pele de pacientes com acromegalia.Neoplasias such as prostate, breast, and colon cancer are commonly associated with acromegaly. However, the association of the latter with melanoma has been rarely mentioned. We describe the case of a patient with acromegaly in whom a suspicious melanocytic lesion was detected, and later confirmed to be melanoma by means of biopsy. Surgical excision of the lesion led to the cure of the neoplasia. More attention should be drawn to the need for careful skin examination of patients with acromegaly.

  14. Tyrosinase expression in malignant melanoma, desmoplastic melanoma, and peripheral nerve tumors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boyle, Jenny L; Haupt, Helen M; Stern, Jere B; Multhaupt, Hinke A B

    2002-01-01

    tyrosinase expression in the differential diagnosis of melanoma, desmoplastic melanoma, and peripheral nerve sheath tumors. DESIGN: Immunoreactivity for tyrosinase, HMB-45 (anti-gp100 protein), S100 protein, CD34, and vimentin was studied in 70 tumors, including 15 melanomas (5 desmoplastic, 4 amelanotic, 6...... 121 degrees C. RESULTS: All melanomas demonstrated positive immunostaining for tyrosinase, HMB-45, and S100 protein. Immunoreactivity for HMB-45 was generally stronger than that for tyrosinase in amelanotic lesions and significantly stronger in 1 of the desmoplastic lesions. The 4 pigmented...... neurofibromas were focally positive for tyrosinase, but did not stain for HMB-45. The pigmented schwannoma was focally positive for both tyrosinase and HMB-45. The malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors, dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans, and dermatofibromas were nonreactive for tyrosinase and HMB-45...

  15. Pathogenesis, diagnosis and management of primary melanoma of the colon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imam Ayesha

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Melanomas within the alimentary tract are usually metastatic in origin. On the other hand, primary melanomas of the gastrointestinal tract are relatively uncommon. There are several published reports of melanomas occurring in the esophagus, stomach, small bowel, and anorectum. The occurrence of primary melanoma of the colon has, however, only been rarely reported. The optimum modus operandi for the management of primary colonic melanoma remains nebulous due to the limited number of reports in literature. Methods A comprehensive search of Medline, Cochrane and Highwire was performed using the following keywords: 'melanoma', 'malignant melanoma', 'primary melanoma', 'colon', 'gastrointestinal tract', 'alimentary tract', 'digestive tract', and 'large bowel'. All patients with primary melanoma localized to the colon were included in the review. Patients with metastatic melanomas to the gastrointestinal (GI tract and primary melanomas localized to the GI tract in anatomic locations other than colon were excluded. Results There have been only 12 reported cases of primary melanoma of the colon to date. The average age of patients on presentation was 60.4 years without any significant gender predilection. Right colon (33% and cecum (33% were the most common sites for the occurrence of primary colonic melanoma while abdominal pain (58% and weight loss (50% were the most common presenting complaints. Colonoscopy is the most reliable diagnostic investigation and offers the additional advantage of obtaining tissue for diagnosis. S-100 and HMB-45 are highly sensitive and specific for the diagnosis of this malignancy. For primary colonic melanomas that have not metastasized to any distant parts of the body, surgical resection with wide margins appears to be the treatment of choice. Although the management was individualized in every case, most of the authors preferred traditional hemicolectomy as the favored surgical approach. Chemotherapeutic agents including interferons, cytokines, biological agents and radiation therapy for brain metastases have been reported as adjuvant and palliative options while considering malignant melanomas in general. The average recurrence-free interval was 2.59 years. Nine of the 12 reports documented follow-up in their patients. Two of these 9 (22.2% patients died. Conclusions Primary melanoma of the colon is a rare clinical entity. Whenever a seemingly primary melanoma is detected in an atypical location such as the colon, it is prudent to conduct a thorough clinical investigation to consider the possibility of metastatic disease. Further studies are needed to document the long term follow-up, survival advantage and safety of the management approaches employed in patients with primary colonic melanoma. Based on current data, surgical resection appears to be appropriate management for primary colonic melanomas; unless the disease has metastasized to distant sites where surgery may have a limited palliative role.

  16. UV wavelength-dependent DNA damage and human non-melanoma and melanoma skin cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Pfeifer, Gerd P.; Besaratinia, Ahmad

    2011-01-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) irradiation from the sun has been epidemiologically and mechanistically linked to skin cancer, a spectrum of diseases of rising incidence in many human populations. Both non-melanoma and melanoma skin cancers are associated with sunlight exposure. In this review, we discuss the UV wavelength-dependent formation of the major UV-induced DNA damage products, their repair and mutagenicity and their potential involvement in sunlight-associated skin cancers. We emphasize the major ...

  17. Antibody binding to membrane of cultured melanoma cells by sera of melanoma patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canevari, S; Fossati, G; Vezzoni, P; Biguzzi, S; Garcia-Puche, J; Della Porta, G

    1979-02-28

    One hundred and nine sera from 75 patients with malignant melanoma and 69 sera from as many healthy donors were assayed by isotopic antiglobulin technique (IAT) on 2 melanoma cell lines. The same picture of reactivity was observed with patients' and healthy donors' sera, and in both groups 35% of the cases were high responders on 1 line and 21% on the other one. The specificity of the reactions was analyzed by absorption experiments using 12 melanoma sera selected for their high binding activity. Pools of human erythrocytes or leukocytes did not remove, except in 1 case respectively, the activity of the sera, suggesting that it was not directed against alloantigens. Quantitative absorption experiments were done with the 2 melanoma lines and with 1 colon carcinoma line. The results, evaluated on the basis of absorption capacity per cell, indicate that the 2 melanoma lines had a similar amount of shared antigens, whereas the colon line was also effective in absorbing out the serum activity, but less frequently and less efficiently. Further experiments performed to analyze the influence of culturing the target cells in presence of fetal bovine serum (FBS), showed that the activity of sera was removed, at various degrees for different sera, by absorption with free FBS, with FBS coupled to Sepharose 4B, and with normal leukocytes cultured overnight with 10% FBS. The same positive melanoma sera became negative when assayed on the same melanoma line cultured in gamma-globulin-depleted human AB serum. In conclusion, in our experimental conditions, the activity of melanoma sera seems mostly directed against components of FBS absorbed on cell membrane during culturing. PMID:87047

  18. Possibilidade de associação de melanoma e acromegalia Possibility of an association between melanoma and acromegaly

    OpenAIRE

    Carolina Garcia Soares Leães; Rafael Loch Batista; Cristina Micheletto Dallago; Julia Fernanda Semelmann Pereira Lima; Miriam da Costa Oliveira

    2008-01-01

    Neoplasias como câncer de próstata, mama e cólon estão relacionadas à acromegalia. Raras vezes foi mencionada a associação com melanoma. Descreve-se caso de paciente com acromegalia no qual foi identificada lesão melanocítica suspeita, com posterior confirmação de melanoma. A excisão cirúrgica da lesão levou à cura da neoplasia. Chama-se a atenção para a necessidade de exame cuidadoso da pele de pacientes com acromegalia.Neoplasias such as prostate, breast, and colon cancer are commonly assoc...

  19. Targeting melanoma metastasis and immunosuppression with a new mode of melanoma inhibitory activity (MIA) protein inhibition

    OpenAIRE

    Schmidt, Jennifer; Riechers, Alexander; Stoll, Raphael; Amann, Thomas; Fink, Florian; Spruss, Thilo; Gronwald, Wolfram; König, Burkhard; Hellerbrand, Claus; Bosserhoff, Anja Katrin

    2012-01-01

    Melanoma is the most aggressive form of skin cancer, with fast progression and early dissemination mediated by the melanoma inhibitory activity (MIA) protein. Here, we discovered that dimerization of MIA is required for functional activity through mutagenesis of MIA which showed the correlation between dimerization and functional activity. We subsequently identified the dodecapeptide AR71, which prevents MIA dimerization and thereby acts as a MIA inhibitor. Two-dimensional nuclear magnetic re...

  20. Hereditary melanoma: Update on syndromes and management: Emerging melanoma cancer complexes and genetic counseling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soura, Efthymia; Eliades, Philip J; Shannon, Kristen; Stratigos, Alexander J; Tsao, Hensin

    2016-03-01

    Recent advances in cancer genomics have enabled the discovery of many cancer-predisposing genes that are being used to classify new familial melanoma/cancer syndromes. In addition to CDKN2A and CDK4, germline variants in TERT, MITF, and BAP1 have been added to the list of genes harboring melanoma-predisposing mutations. These newer entities may have escaped earlier description in part because of more advanced technologies now being used and in part because of their mixed cancer phenotype as opposed to a melanoma-focused syndrome. Dermatologists should be aware of (and be able to recognize) the clinical signs in high-risk patients in different contexts. Personal and family histories of cancer should always be sought in patients with multiple nevi or a positive history for melanoma, and should be updated annually. Various features that are unique to specific disorders, such as the appearance of melanocytic BAP1-mutated atypical intradermal tumors in cases of BAP1 melanoma syndrome, should also be recognized early. These patients should be offered regular screenings with the use of dermoscopy and total body photography, as needed. More importantly, referral to other specialists may be needed if a risk for internal malignancy is suspected. It is important to have in mind that these patients tend to develop multiple melanomas, along with various internal organ malignancies, often at younger ages; a multidisciplinary approach to their cancer screening and treatment is ideal. PMID:26892651

  1. Desmoplastic malignant melanoma masquerading as chalazion.

    OpenAIRE

    Roper, J. P.; Jones, T.; Common, J. D.

    1986-01-01

    Desmoplastic malignant melanoma is a rare and highly malignant tumour, which usually occurs in the head and neck. This is demonstrated by a case history of a patient with this lesion on the lower lid, which has not been previously described in the British ophthalmological literature. The lesion often presents considerable problems of histological diagnosis.

  2. Melanoma and the Unfolded Protein Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sykes, Erin K; Mactier, Swetlana; Christopherson, Richard I

    2016-01-01

    The UPR (unfolded protein response) has been identified as a key factor in the progression and metastasis of cancers, notably melanoma. Several mediators of the UPR are upregulated in cancers, e.g., high levels of GRP78 (glucose-regulator protein 78 kDa) correlate with progression and poor outcome in melanoma patients. The proliferative burden of cancer induces stress and activates several cellular stress responses. The UPR is a tightly orchestrated stress response that is activated upon the accumulation of unfolded proteins within the ER (endoplasmic reticulum). The UPR is designed to mediate two conflicting outcomtes, recovery and apoptosis. As a result, the UPR initiates a widespread signaling cascade to return the cell to homeostasis and failing to achieve cellular recovery, initiates UPR-induced apoptosis. There is evidence that ER stress and subsequently the UPR promote tumourigenesis and metastasis. The complete role of the UPR has yet to be defined. Understanding how the UPR allows for adaption to stress and thereby assists in cancer progression is important in defining an archetype of melanoma pathology. In addition, elucidation of the mechanisms of the UPR may lead to development of effective treatments of metastatic melanoma. PMID:26927180

  3. Testing Adjuvant Ipilimumab in Advanced Melanoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this clinical trial, patients with stage III or stage IV melanoma that has been completely resected will be randomly assigned to receive post-surgical treatment with either ipilimumab or high-dose interferon alfa-2b, the current standard of care.

  4. Mucosal melanoma of the head and neck

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    7 cases of the upper aerodigestive tract primary mucosal malignant melanoma were observed by the authors. They emphasized that characteristic black pigmentation was rarely seen. Diagnosis was made on a base of the histopathological examination. The combined treatment is the method of choice-radical surgery, followed by radiotherapy. (author)

  5. Melanoma developed during pregnancy - A case report*

    OpenAIRE

    Mestnik, Natalia Cammarosano; Afonso, João Paulo Junqueira Magalhães; Enokihara, Milvia Maria Simões e Silva; Enokihara, Mauro Yoshiaki; Porro, Adriana Maria; Hirata, Sérgio Henrique

    2014-01-01

    We describe a case of plantar interdigital cutaneous melanoma in a 22-year-old woman who reported changes in a pigmented lesion during pregnancy. Diagnosis was late and evolution unfavourable. The purpose of this report is to draw the attention of dermatologists to the need for careful regular examination of melanocytic lesions in pregnant women, not ignoring possible changes as always physiological.

  6. Melanoma and the Unfolded Protein Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sykes, Erin K.; Mactier, Swetlana; Christopherson, Richard I.

    2016-01-01

    The UPR (unfolded protein response) has been identified as a key factor in the progression and metastasis of cancers, notably melanoma. Several mediators of the UPR are upregulated in cancers, e.g., high levels of GRP78 (glucose-regulator protein 78 kDa) correlate with progression and poor outcome in melanoma patients. The proliferative burden of cancer induces stress and activates several cellular stress responses. The UPR is a tightly orchestrated stress response that is activated upon the accumulation of unfolded proteins within the ER (endoplasmic reticulum). The UPR is designed to mediate two conflicting outcomtes, recovery and apoptosis. As a result, the UPR initiates a widespread signaling cascade to return the cell to homeostasis and failing to achieve cellular recovery, initiates UPR-induced apoptosis. There is evidence that ER stress and subsequently the UPR promote tumourigenesis and metastasis. The complete role of the UPR has yet to be defined. Understanding how the UPR allows for adaption to stress and thereby assists in cancer progression is important in defining an archetype of melanoma pathology. In addition, elucidation of the mechanisms of the UPR may lead to development of effective treatments of metastatic melanoma. PMID:26927180

  7. Instantánea del melanoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Información sobre las tendencias de incidencia, mortalidad y financiamiento del NCI sobre el melanoma; así como ejemplos de actividades del NCI y adelantos en la investigación de este tipo de cáncer.

  8. Primary Malignant Melanoma of the Nasal Cavity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chin-Yew Lin

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available Malignant melanoma is a highly lethal melanocytic neoplasm, usually affecting theskin. Primary malignant melanoma of the nasal cavity is rarely seen. Clinically, mostpatients display initial nonspecific symptoms of unilateral nasal obstruction or epistaxis.The prognosis is generally poor, with a mean survival time of 3.5 years. Extensive localinvasion and distant metastasis to other organs may occur. The usual treatment of choice isradical excision. Radiotherapy and chemotherapy appear to have little effect. We report afatal case of intranasal cavity malignant melanoma in which the patient initially presentedwith blood-tinged sputum, productive cough, and intermittent fever. Preoperative hepaticmetastasis was found. Palliative surgery was performed to excise the nasal cavity tumor.Then, 6 courses of chemotherapy were further administered. Unfortunately, regional cervicalnodal involvement and pancreatic head metastases occurred 1.5 years after the diagnosis.The patient's condition rapidly deteriorated, followed by death. We have chosen to discussthis aggressive condition because of its rarity and also to emphasize the importance of itsearly detection through vigilant attention to nonspecific nasal symptoms. A review of theliterature concerning intranasal malignant melanoma is presented. We further discuss itspossible etiology, site of origin, incidence, clinical presentations, principles of management,and outcome.

  9. Cerebral MR imaging of malignant melanoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melanoma is the third leading cancer entity to metastasize to the central nervous system (CNS) after lung and breast cancer. This is often an early event in the disease course and limits survival. Metastasis in the CNS is the cause of death in 10-40 % of melanoma patients and the incidence of brain metastasis is even higher (50-75 %). Cerebral metastases are commonly found in the subcortical white matter. The signal characteristics can vary substantially and may change over time due to hemorrhages or the accumulation of melanin and paramagnetic ions. It is not yet clear whether novel targeted therapies (e.g. immunotherapy and kinase inhibitors) alter imaging characteristics. Also immune-related side effects, such as hypophysitis (in approximately 5 % of patients receiving ipilimumab therapy) or granulomatous disease (neurosarcoid) can occur. Melanoma metastases are usually hyperdense in computed tomography (CT). In magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) T2-weighted (T2-w) fluid-attentuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) and T1-w sequences (with and without i.v. contrast) should be obtained. Coronal and axial imaging planes should be scanned to cross-correlate findings. Susceptibility-weighted imaging is a new sensitive method to detect melanoma metastases. Approximately 66 % of melanoma metastases show intratumoral susceptibility signals (ITSS). This sets them apart from other metastases (e.g. lung and breast cancer show less ITSSs, specificity approximately 81-96 %). Diffusion imaging plays no major role in melanoma brain imaging. Susceptibility-weighted imaging increases the sensitivity to detect metastases but lacks specificity. Differentiating metastases, microbleeding or calcification can be impossible. It is controversial how to interpret susceptibility signals without correlative signs on other sequences (differential diagnosis: metastasis, microbleeding and calcification). CNS metastases are common in melanoma. MRI screening starting in stage IIc should be considered even in asymptomatic patients. Stage IV requires quarterly MRI examinations. Melanotic and amelanotic metastases show different MRI characteristics. The differentiation between metastasis and microbleeding can be impossible and might require a follow-up scan. Susceptibility-weighted imaging increases the sensitivity of metastases detection but lacks specificity. It can help to differentiate between different metastatic entities. (orig.)

  10. Lymphoscintigraphy as a guide to treatment in malignant melanoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Regional node dissection is practiced as a measure of prophylaxis in patients with stage I and II malignant melanoma. Although the drainage pattern of the extremities is obvious, in the head and neck and trunk it may be ambiguous. We have used lymphoscintigraphy to assist in delineating the lymphatic drainage in 22 patients with primary malignant melanoma. Fourteen patients had melanoma in the head and neck region, and eight had melanoma in the trunk region. Based on Clark's classification there were ten level III melanomas, eight level IV melanomas, and two level V melanomas; the levels of the remaining two melanomas were unspecified. Seven melanomas were between 0.76 and 1.5-mm thick, eleven were between 1.51 and 4.0-mm thick, and two were over 4.0-mm thick (the remaining two were unspecified). Regional nodes were clinically negative in 18 patients. The scan distribution was unexpected in 13 patients (59%), and it influenced the surgical procedure in 11 patients (50%). No patient incurred an adverse effect from the scan. We conclude that lymphoscintigraphy may be of value in guiding prophylactic lymph node dissection in melanoma patients

  11. Expression of soluble adenylyl cyclase in acral melanomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, H; Kim, S M; Savkovic, V; Jin, S A; Choi, Y D; Yun, S J

    2016-06-01

    Soluble adenylyl cyclase (sAC) regulates melanocytic cells, and is a diagnostic marker for pigmented skin lesions. Because only a few studies on sAC expression in acral melanomas have been performed, we investigated the histopathological significance of sAC expression in 33 cases of acral melanoma, and assessed its diagnostic value in distinguishing melanoma in situ (MIS, n = 17) from acral invasive melanomas (n = 16) and melanocytic naevi (n = 11). Acral melanomas exhibited more marked nuclear immunopositivity compared with acral melanocytic naevi. sAC expression significantly correlated with the nuclear morphology of melanocytes and melanoma cells, namely, hyperchromatic nuclei and prominent nucleoli within vesicular nuclei. sAC expression was predominantly observed in the hyperchromatic nuclei of MIS and the prominent nucleoli invasive melanomas, respectively. In vitro culture models of melanocytes and melanoma cell lines exhibited sAC staining patterns similar to those of acral melanomas. Differentiation induction showed that nuclear and nucleolar expression varied depending on cell morphology. sAC immunostaining may be useful for the differential diagnosis of acral melanocytic lesions, and sAC expressed in the nucleus and nucleolus might be related to cytological and nuclear changes associated with invasion and progression of acral melanomas. PMID:26290224

  12. Importance of glycolysis and oxidative phosphorylation in advanced melanoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ho Jonhan

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Serum lactate dehydrogenase (LDH is a prognostic factor for patients with stage IV melanoma. To gain insights into the biology underlying this prognostic factor, we analyzed total serum LDH, serum LDH isoenzymes, and serum lactate in up to 49 patients with metastatic melanoma. Our data demonstrate that high serum LDH is associated with a significant increase in LDH isoenzymes 3 and 4, and a decrease in LDH isoenzymes 1 and 2. Since LDH isoenzymes play a role in both glycolysis and oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS, we subsequently determined using tissue microarray (TMA analysis that the levels of proteins associated with mitochondrial function, lactate metabolism, and regulators of glycolysis were all elevated in advanced melanomas compared with nevic melanocytes. To investigate whether in advanced melanoma, the glycolysis and OXPHOS pathways might be linked, we determined expression of the monocarboxylate transporters (MCT 1 and 4. Analysis of a nevus-to-melanoma progression TMA revealed that MCT4, and to a lesser extend MCT1, were elevated with progression to advanced melanoma. Further analysis of human melanoma specimens using the Seahorse XF24 extracellular flux analyzer indicated that metastatic melanoma tumors derived a large fraction of energy from OXPHOS. Taken together, these findings suggest that in stage IV melanomas with normal serum LDH, glycolysis and OXPHOS may provide metabolic symbiosis within the same tumor, whereas in stage IV melanomas with high serum LDH glycolysis is the principle source of energy.

  13. Immunohistochemical Analysis of Collagen IV and Laminin Expression in Spontaneous Melanoma Regression in the Melanoma-Bearing Libechov Minipig

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spontaneous regression (SR) of human melanoma is a rare, well-documented phenomenon that is not still fully understood. Its detailed study cannot be performed in patients due to ethical reasons. Using the Melanoma-bearing Libechov Minipig (MeLiM) animals of various ages (from 3 weeks to 8 months) we implemented a long-term monitoring of melanoma growth and SR. We focused on immunohistochemical detection of two important extracellular matrix proteins, collagen IV and laminin, which are associated with cancer. We showed that SR of melanoma is a highly dynamic process. The expression of collagen IV and laminin correlated with changes in population of melanoma cells. Tumours of 3-week-old animals consisted primarily of melanoma cells with a granular expression of collagen IV and laminin around them. Thereafter, melanoma cells were gradually destroyed and tumour tissue was rebuilt into the connective tissue. Collagen IV expression slightly increased in tumours of 10-week-old pigs showing extracellular fibrous appearance. In tumours of older animals, areas lacking melanoma cells demonstrated a low expression and areas still containing melanoma cells a high expression of both proteins. We considered the age of 10 weeks as a turning point in the transition between tumour growth and SR of the MeLiM melanoma

  14. Quinoline analog labeled with 123I in melanoma detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using the Greene melanoma in the hamster (Syrian Golden), the radiopharmaceutical, 123I-4(3-dimethylaminopropylamino)- 7-Iodoquinoline, was tested for its ability to localize melanoma. This quinoline analog has been described for use in the detection of melanoma, but this is the first report, to our knowledge, of its being used with an 123I label. Hamsters with either skin or eye melanomas were studied. Both melanomas could be seen with a gamma camera at three hours after injection. In vitro analysis confirmed the tumor specificity. Thus, it appears that this preclinical trial of a new radiopharmaceutical justifies clinical testing to determine its value in the localization of melanomas of the eyes and skin of humans

  15. Malignant uveal melanoma and similar lesions studied by computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forty-four patients with intraocular disease were studied by computed tomography (CT); in 19 cases malignant uveal melanoma was considered the likely diagnosis. CT proved to be accurate in determining the location and size of uveal melanomas, demonstrating scleral invasion, and differentiating melanoma from choroidal detachment or angioma, toxocariasis, and senile macular degeneration. On CT, uveal melanomas appeared as hyperdense lesions with slight to moderate contrast enhancement. Tumors thinner than 2 mm could not be seen. Using dynamic CT, the authors noted moderate peak amplitude, normal or delayed tissue transit time, and persistently elevated washout phase (downslope), indicating increased permeability as the result of an impaired tumor blood barrier. Histological types of uveal melanoma could not be differentiated on the basis of circulatory patterns. Dynamic CT may be useful in distinguishing uveal melanoma from choroidal hemangioma or hematoma

  16. Ability to self-detect malignant melanoma decreases with age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trolle, L; Henrik-Nielsen, R; Gniadecki, R

    2011-01-01

    The prognosis of malignant melanoma depends on the thickness of the tumour. In this study, we analysed the trends in Breslow thickness in 63 patients referred to our institution, a tertiary dermatology referral centre. The mean thickness of melanoma was 0.31 mm, which was lower than the national...... average of 1.10 mm. There was a significant trend towards increased melanoma thickness with increasing age, with a rate of 0.24 mm (95% CI 0.12-0.37) for each additional 10 years of age above the age of 20 years. This trend was only apparent in cases of self-diagnosed melanomas; the thickness of tumours...... diagnosed by a dermatologist did not show any dependence on patient age. As the mortality from melanoma increases with age, this study suggests that dermatologists should include older people in screening programmes for melanoma....

  17. Malignant melanoma showing a rapid response to nivolumab.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsutsumi, Miho; Asai, Jun; Wada, Makoto; Takenaka, Hideya; Katoh, Norito

    2016-02-01

    Malignant melanoma is a highly aggressive skin tumour, with a recent rise in incidence. Nivolumab is a recently developed anti-programmed cell death-1 immune checkpoint inhibitor and its usage has resulted in a significant improvement in the overall survival of patients with metastatic melanomas. We report a case of advanced melanoma that showed a significant and rapid response to nivolumab treatment. The patient displayed multiple melanoma-associated vitiligo prior to treatment; this symptom was theorised to indicate potentially immunoreactive melanoma and the need for nivolumab. In addition, interferon-? was injected prior to nivolumab treatment. The significant rapid response to nivolumab suggested the induction of a marked immune response against melanoma by interferon-?. Therefore, interferon-? could be a useful and effective adjuvant for nivolumab therapy. PMID:25854419

  18. Comparative analysis of methods of preinvasive melanoma diagnostics

    OpenAIRE

    Kozlov S.V.; Neretin Е.У.

    2013-01-01

    The article discusses one of the problems of oncology — skin melanoma. The research objective is to study and to compare diagnostic methods of preinvasive melanoma including fluorescence diagnosis, dermatoscopy and microwave radiometry. Materials and Methods: The survey has used dermatoscope of Heine Delta 20 Company, the unit RTM-01-RES and the instrument of fluorescent diagnostics «Spectrum-Cluster.» The results suggest the possibility of early detection of melanoma with the use of dermatos...

  19. Prognostic survival model for people diagnosed with invasive cutaneous melanoma

    OpenAIRE

    Baade, Peter D.; Royston, Patrick; Youl, Philipa H; Weinstock, Martin A.; Geller, Alan; Aitken, Joanne F

    2015-01-01

    Background: The ability of medical practitioners to communicate risk estimates effectively to patients diagnosed with melanoma relies on accurate information about prognostic factors and their impact on survival. This study reports the development of one of the few melanoma prognostic models, called the Melanoma Severity Index (MSI), based on population-based cancer registry data. Methods: Data from the Queensland Cancer Registry for people (20–89 years) diagnosed with a single invasive melan...

  20. The clinical and dermoscopic features of extremity melanomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatma Pelin Cengiz

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Dermoscopy is a noninvasive tool that helps to differentiate structures which can not be seen by naked eye. Dermoscopic and clinical features of malignant melanomas on the extremities are not well described in the literature. Therefore, in this study we aim to determine dermoscopic and clinical characteristics of melanoma on the extremities. Materials and Methods: 40 patients with melanoma on the extremities were included in this study. Their dermoscopic and clinical images, histopathological and clinical data were assessed. The relations between Breslow thickness and dermoscopic characteristics were evaluated. Results: The most frequent localization for women was lower extremities, whereas it was upper extremities for men. The most common subtype of melanoma was superficial spreading melanoma on the extremities. The mean age of patients with extremity melanoma was 56,21 ± 15,20 in men, as well as the mean age of patients with extremity melanoma was 53,09 ± 13,96 in women. The most common dermoscopic feature for extremity melanoma was irregular dots (85%. There were positive correlations between Breslow thickness and diameter, 3 or more colors in lesion, blue-white veil and lineer white streaks, respectively (p< 0.005, r= +0.462 (p< 0.001, r= +0.550 (p< 0.001, r= +0.606 (p< 0.001, r= +0.662. Conclusions: To our knowledge, this is the first study investigating dermoscopic and clinical features in patients with extremity melanomas. We should suggest that melanomas on the lower extremities are more common in women than men and the patients with lower extremity melanomas were younger than the patients with upper extremity melanomas and there are associations between Breslow thickness and some dermoscopic characteristics.

  1. The clinical and dermoscopic features of extremity melanomas

    OpenAIRE

    Fatma Pelin Cengiz; Nazan Emiroğlu; Rainer Hofmann-wellenhof

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Dermoscopy is a noninvasive tool that helps to differentiate structures which can not be seen by naked eye. Dermoscopic and clinical features of malignant melanomas on the extremities are not well described in the literature. Therefore, in this study we aim to determine dermoscopic and clinical characteristics of melanoma on the extremities. Materials and Methods: 40 patients with melanoma on the extremities were included in this study. Their dermoscopic and clinical images, hi...

  2. Conjunctival Melanoma: A New Clinical and Therapeutical Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez-Martín, M; Rodríguez-Martín, J.; de Paz, N. Merino; Ferrer, P. Contreras; Cabrera, P. Rocha; Rodríguez Martín, B.; Gordillo Santana, G.; Martín-Herrera, A.; Noda-Cabrera, A.

    2010-01-01

    Melanoma involving the conjunctiva is extremely rare. Graver prognosis has been reported with primary conjunctival melanoma than with their cutaneous counterparts [Collin et al.: Aust N Z J Ophthalmol 1986;14:29–34]. Among conjunctival melanomas, two significant risk factors for tumour-related death have been identified: (i) age older than 55 years and (ii) unfavourable tumour location (caruncle, cornea, fornix, palpebral conjunctiva) [Werschnik and Lommatzsch: Am J Clin Oncol 2002;25:248–255...

  3. Temporal and Spatial Melanoma Trends in Austria: An Ecological Study

    OpenAIRE

    Daniela Haluza; Stana Simic; Hanns Moshammer

    2014-01-01

    Annual solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR) is mostly determined by latitude and altitude. Over the last decades, increasing UVR ground levels have been observed. Exposure to UVR is associated with a life-time risk to develop melanoma, a malign skin cancer. Thus, we hypothesized that melanoma incidence in Austria is associated with altitude of place of living and time of diagnosis. We investigated this hypothesis in an ecological study by district and year for Austrian melanoma incidence ...

  4. Docetaxel in Combination with Dacarbazine in Patients with Advanced Melanoma

    OpenAIRE

    Bafaloukos, D.; Aravantinos, G.; Fountzilas, G.; Stathopoulos, G.; Gogas, H.; Samonis, G; Briasoulis, E.; Mylonakis, N.; Skarlos, D. V.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: The number of agents that are active in patients with metastatic melanoma is limited and cure is not a realistic objective for treatment at this stage. The aim of the study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of new combination regimen cosisting of docetaxel and dacarbazine (DTIC), as first-line chemotherapy, in patients with advanced melanoma. Patients and Methods: Patients with advanced melanoma (including cerebral metastases) were eligible. Docetaxel 80 mg/m2, i.v. over 1 h...

  5. Nivolumab in Previously Untreated Melanoma without BRAF Mutation

    OpenAIRE

    Robert, Caroline; Long, Georgina V.; Brady, Benjamin; Dutriaux, Caroline; Maio, Michele; Mortier, Laurent; Hassel, Jessica C.; RUTKOWSKI, PIOTR; Mcneil, Catriona; Kalinka-Warzocha, Ewa; Savage, Kerry J; Hernberg, Micaela M.; Lebbe, Celeste; Charles, Julie; Mihalcioiu, Catalin

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Nivolumab was associated with higher rates of objective response than chemotherapy in a phase 3 study involving patients with ipilimumab-refractory metastatic melanoma. The use of nivolumab in previously untreated patients with advanced melanoma has not been tested in a phase 3 controlled study. METHODS We randomly assigned 418 previously untreated patients who had metastatic melanoma without a BRAF mutation to receive nivolumab (at a dose of 3 mg per kilogram of body weight every ...

  6. Associations between environmental factors and incidence of cutaneous melanoma. Review

    OpenAIRE

    Volkovova Katarina; Bilanicova Dagmar; Bartonova Alena; Letašiová Silvia; Dusinska Maria

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Cutaneous melanoma is one of the most serious skin cancers. It is caused by neural crest-derived melanocytes - pigmented cells normally present in the epidermis and, sometimes, in the dermis. Methods We performed a review of current knowledge on the risk factors of cutaneous melanoma. Relevant studies were identified using the PubMed, Science Direct, Medline, Scopus, Scholar Google and ISI Web of Knowledge databases. Results Melanoma incurs a considerable public health bur...

  7. A Global Review of Melanoma Follow-up Guidelines

    OpenAIRE

    Trotter, Shannon C.; Sroa, Novie; Winkelmann, Richard R.; Olencki, Thomas; Bechtel, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Early detection of a melanoma recurrence is a major concern for the clinician. However, the follow-up care of melanoma patients lacks a uniform approach. Different dermatological and oncological organizations have developed their own strategies of follow-up management that vary by specialty and methods of screening for recurrence. Some areas of controversy in the follow-up care of melanoma patients include providers of care, use of staging versus Breslow depth to determine follow-up, the role...

  8. Similar nucleotide excision repair capacity in melanocytes and melanoma cells

    OpenAIRE

    Gaddameedhi, Shobhan; Kemp, Michael G.; Reardon, Joyce T.; Shields, Janiel M.; Smith-Roe, Stephanie L.; Kaufmann, William K; Sancar, Aziz

    2010-01-01

    Sunlight UV exposure produces DNA photoproducts in skin that are repaired solely by nucleotide excision repair in humans. A significant fraction of melanomas are thought to result from UV-induced DNA damage that escapes repair, however, little evidence is available regarding the functional capacity of normal human melanocytes, malignant melanoma cells and metastatic melanoma cells to repair UV-induced photoproducts in DNA. In this study, we measured nucleotide excision repair in both normal m...

  9. Microsomal PGE2 synthase-1 regulates melanoma cell survival and associates with melanoma disease progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sun-Hee; Hashimoto, Yuuri; Cho, Sung-Nam; Roszik, Jason; Milton, Denái R; Dal, Fulya; Kim, Sangwon F; Menter, David G; Yang, Peiying; Ekmekcioglu, Suhendan; Grimm, Elizabeth A

    2016-05-01

    COX-2 and its product PGE2 enhance carcinogenesis and tumor progression, which has been previously reported in melanoma. As most COX inhibitors cause much toxicity, the downstream microsomal PGE2 synthase-1 (mPGES1) is a consideration for targeting. Human melanoma TMAs were employed for testing mPGES1 protein staining intensity and percentage levels, and both increased with clinical stage; employing a different Stage III TMA, mPGES1 intensity (not percentage) associated with reduced patient survival. Our results further show that iNOS was also highly expressed in melanoma tissues with high mPGES1 levels, and iNOS-mediated NO promoted mPGES1 expression and PGE2 production. An mPGES1-specific inhibitor (CAY10526) as well as siRNA attenuated cell survival and increased apoptosis. CAY10526 significantly suppressed tumor growth and increased apoptosis in melanoma xenografts. Our findings support the value of a prognostic and predictive role for mPGES1, and suggest targeting this molecule in the PGE2 pathway as another avenue toward improving melanoma therapy. PMID:26801201

  10. Prognosis of thin cutaneous head and neck melanoma (

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, A P; Dahlstrøm, Karin Kjærgaard; Drzewiecki, K T

    1996-01-01

    Thin malignant melanomas, i.e. tumours less than 1 mm, are generally considered to have a good prognosis. The records of 148 patients with thin invasive melanomas located to the head and neck region were reviewed. All patients were followed for the excision of the primary tumour until death, or the...... these 16 patients (75%) died of disseminated melanoma. We conclude that thin head and neck melanomas do not necessarily carry an excellent prognosis. Prognosis is not dependent upon tumour thickness when less than 1.00 mm....

  11. Stress and melanoma: increasing the evidence towards a causal basis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinnya, Sudipta; De'Ambrosis, Brian

    2013-11-01

    Melanoma is a multifactorial disease with a strong genetic component and known risk factors such as excessive ultraviolet exposure, intermittent sunburns and fair skin type. The prognosis is poor if diagnosis is delayed, in spite of recent treatment advances. Evidence is mounting that the incidence of melanoma is higher in the immunosuppressed and individuals with highly stressful occupations. We present a case series of individuals diagnosed with multiple cutaneous melanomas over a few months to 1 year. All had encountered psychological stressors in their lives, and the melanomas were diagnosed briefly after encountering these stressors. No known causes of immunosuppression were detected to explain the sporadic occurrence of melanomas in these individuals. There is evidence in the current literature that stress can lead to immune disregulation, predisposing an individual to various disease states including melanoma. Stress hormones such as norepinephrine have been shown to cause upregulation of cytokines such as Interleukin 6 and 8, which are proangiogenic and support tumour progression. Coupled with genetic and environmental factors, stress appears to play a role in melanoma formation and progression. Large prospective studies are required to study the link between stress and melanoma and gain further insight into the etiology of melanoma. PMID:23740369

  12. Malignant melanoma cure by selective thermal neutron capture therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thermal neutrons are easily absorbed by the nonradioactive isotope 10B, resulting in the emission of alpha particles and lithium atoms, which release an energy of 2.33 MeV for up to a 14-μm-diam melanoma cell. Thus, if 10B can be selectively accumulated in melanoma, it can be destroyed without injury to the surrounding normal tissues by concentrating high linear energy transfer particles. The authors have synthesized seven melanoma-seeking 10B compounds, two of which, 10B12-chlorpromazine(10B12-CPZ) and 10B1-p-boronophenylalanine(10B1-BPA), are found to be highly effective. The enhanced melanoma-killing effect of the 10B compounds is found by in vitro radiobiological analysis. A chemical assay and alpha-track analysis 28 h after systemic administration to melanoma-bearing hamsters reveals a 10B melanoma/blood ratio of 11.5 and a melanoma/liver ratio of 15. Establishment of a clinical therapeutic method for curing human melanoma without failure is underway by correlating biophysical, biochemical, biological, and therapeutic data analysis. Recently, the authors have also been working to develop neutron capture therapy using 10B-monoclonal antibodies for melanoma and were able to make some 10B conjugates with the specific m259-0 antibody

  13. Clinical utilities and biological characteristics of melanoma sentinel lymph nodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Dale; Thomas, Daniel C; Zager, Jonathan S; Pockaj, Barbara; White, Richard L; Leong, Stanley PL

    2016-01-01

    An estimated 73870 people will be diagnosed with melanoma in the United States in 2015, resulting in 9940 deaths. The majority of patients with cutaneous melanomas are cured with wide local excision. However, current evidence supports the use of sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) given the 15%-20% of patients who harbor regional node metastasis. More importantly, the presence or absence of nodal micrometastases has been found to be the most important prognostic factor in early-stage melanoma, particularly in intermediate thickness melanoma. This review examines the development of SLNB for melanoma as a means to determine a patient’s nodal status, the efficacy of SLNB in patients with melanoma, and the biology of melanoma metastatic to sentinel lymph nodes. Prospective randomized trials have guided the development of practice guidelines for use of SLNB for melanoma and have shown the prognostic value of SLNB. Given the rapidly advancing molecular and surgical technologies, the technical aspects of diagnosis, identification, and management of regional lymph nodes in melanoma continues to evolve and to improve. Additionally, there is ongoing research examining both the role of SLNB for specific clinical scenarios and the ways to identify patients who may benefit from completion lymphadenectomy for a positive SLN. Until further data provides sufficient evidence to alter national consensus-based guidelines, SLNB with completion lymphadenectomy remains the standard of care for clinically node-negative patients found to have a positive SLN.

  14. Accessibility to air travel correlates strongly with increasing melanoma incidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agredano, Yolanda Z; Chan, Joanna L; Kimball, Ranch C; Kimball, Alexa B

    2006-02-01

    As the cost of air travel has decreased substantially in the USA and Europe over the past few decades, leisure travel to vacation destinations during the winter months has expanded significantly. This trend has probably increased the incidence of significant ultraviolet radiation exposure and sunburn in a broader population who could not previously afford this kind of travel. The purpose of this study was to analyse the correlation between increasing accessibility to air travel and melanoma incidence. This ecological study surveyed air travel patterns and melanoma incidence over the past three decades. Melanoma age-adjusted incidence was obtained from the United States Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results 9 Registry Database, 1975-2000, and the Cancer Registry of Norway, 1965-2000. United States mean inflation-adjusted airfare prices for four airports linked to leisure destinations (Miami, Los Angeles, San Diego, Phoenix) were compared with melanoma incidence. Parallel analyses were performed using annual domestic passenger-kilometres and melanoma incidence in Norway. Declining United States leisure-specific airfares corresponded strongly with increasing melanoma incidence (r = 0.96, r = 0.92, P air passenger mileage corresponded strongly with increasing melanoma incidence. Although correlation does not equate to causality, the very strong relationship between increasing access to air travel and melanoma incidence suggests that changes in recreational patterns may be contributing significantly to the public health problem of melanoma. PMID:16432460

  15. Prenylation Inhibition-Induced Cell Death in Melanoma: Reduced Sensitivity in BRAF Mutant/PTEN Wild-Type Melanoma Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Garay, Tamás; Kenessey, István; Molnár, Eszter; Juhász, Éva; Réti, Andrea; László, Viktória; Rózsás, Anita; Dobos, Judit; Döme, Balázs; Berger, Walter; Klepetko, Walter; Tóvári, József; Tímár, József; Hegedűs, Balázs

    2015-01-01

    While targeted therapy brought a new era in the treatment of BRAF mutant melanoma, therapeutic options for non-BRAF mutant cases are still limited. In order to explore the antitumor activity of prenylation inhibition we investigated the response to zoledronic acid treatment in thirteen human melanoma cell lines with known BRAF, NRAS and PTEN mutational status. Effect of zoledronic acid on proliferation, clonogenic potential, apoptosis and migration of melanoma cells as well as the activation ...

  16. Ultraviolet exposure of melanoma cells induces fibroblast activation protein-alpha in fibroblasts: Implications for melanoma invasion

    OpenAIRE

    Wäster, Petra; Rosdahl, Inger; Gilmore, Brendan F.; Seifert, Oliver

    2011-01-01

    Fibroblast activation protein-alpha (FAP-alpha) promotes tumor growth and cell invasiveness through extracellular matrix degradation. How ultraviolet radiation (UVR), the major risk factor for malignant melanoma, influences the expression of FAP-alpha is unknown. We examined the effect of UVR on FAP-alpha expression in melanocytes, keratinocytes and fibroblasts from the skin and in melanoma cells. UVR induces upregulation of FAP-alpha in fibroblasts, melanocytes and primary melanoma cells (PM...

  17. Psychosocial care to patients with Malignant Melanoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorup, Charlotte Brun

    group of patients. Background: MM is the type of cancer, which over the past 50 years has increased the most in newly discovered cases, and is the most aggressive type of skin cancer. The statement above shows that this group of patients will increase in the future. It is therefore important to......Psychosocial care to patients with Malignant Melanoma Intensions: The intension of this project is to link new knowledge with the nurses experience based knowledge within the psychosocial care to patients, who have been diagnosed with Malignant Melanoma (MM), thereby improving the care to this...... in the same way as other patients with cancer. As nurses, we experience that these patients stand out, is it because they find it very difficult to understand the severity of the disease; possibly due to the lack of knowledge of MM in the population. Perspectives: From the project we want to prepare...

  18. Mucosal melanomas of the upper aerodigestive tract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mucosal melanoma of the upper aerodigestive tract is a rare disease with a relentless inexorable course. This lesion involved the nasal cavity, maxillary sinus and palate in two cases each all of whom underwent a radical excision. The disease did not respond to radiotherapy in two patients with nasopharyngeal involvement. One other patient died of distant metastasis within five weeks of diagnosis. Despite surgery offering variable disease free periods, the prognosis remains guarded. (author). 20 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  19. CDC Vital Signs-Preventing Melanoma

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-06-02

    This podcast is based on the June 2015 CDC Vital Signs report. Skin cancer is the most common form of cancer in the U.S. In 2011, there were more than 65,000 cases of melanoma, the most deadly form of skin cancer. Learn how everyone can help prevent skin cancer.  Created: 6/2/2015 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 6/2/2015.

  20. Recent advances in diagnosing cutaneous melanomas

    OpenAIRE

    Wurm, Elisabeth MT; Curchin, Claudia ES; Soyer, H. Peter

    2010-01-01

    Early detection of lesions while minimising the unnecessary removal of benign lesions is the clinical aim in melanoma diagnosis. In this context, several non-invasive diagnostic modalities, such as dermoscopy, total body photography, and reflectance confocal microscopy have emerged in recent years aiming at increasing diagnostic accuracy. The main developments in this field are the integration of dermoscopy and digital photography into clinical practice.

  1. Nodular Melanoma Mimicking Keratoacanthoma; Lessons to learn

    OpenAIRE

    Leelavathi Muthupalaniappen; Srijit Das; Norazirah Md Nor; Ali, Siti A. M.

    2012-01-01

    A 67-year-old man of Chinese descent presented with a painless nodular lesion that had been present on his right forearm for the previous 3 months. A single, well-defined, dome-shaped, firm nodule with a central keratin plug surrounded by erythema was noted. Keratoacanthoma with secondary bacterial infection was suspected and the patient underwent an excision biopsy. Biopsy of the nodule and immunohistochemical staining supported a diagnosis of nodular malignant melanoma. It should be noted b...

  2. Small Choroidal Melanoma with Monosomy 3

    OpenAIRE

    Ghassemi Fariba; Shields Carol; Materin Miguel; Shields Jerry

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To report a patient with small juxtapapillary choroidal melanoma with chromosome 3 monosomy treated with I 125 plaque and transpupillary thermotherapy (TTT). A 64-year-old Caucasian male presented with painless blurred vision of the left eye. Ocular examination disclosed a small juxtapapillary choroidal melanocytic tumor with overlying subretinal fluid and orange pigment. Ultrasound showed an elevated choroidal mass of 2 mm thickness with low reflectivity on A-scan and hollowness o...

  3. Ipilimumab for advanced melanoma: A pharmacologic perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Trinh, Van Anh; Hagen, Brenda

    2013-01-01

    Ipilimumab, a fully human anti-CTLA-4 antibody, has been approved for the treatment of unresectable or metastatic melanoma based on its survival benefit demonstrated in randomized phase III studies. The current approved dosing schedule of ipilimumab is 3?mg/kg as a 90-min intravenous infusion every 3 weeks for a total of 4 doses. The immune-mediated mechanism of action of ipilimumab can result in tumor response patterns that may differ from those observed with conventional chem...

  4. Intramuscular metastasis from malignant melanoma: MR findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshioka, Hirohi; Itai, Yuji; Niitsu, Mamoru [Dept. of Radiology, Institute of Clinical Medicine, University of Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Fujiwara, Masachika; Watanabe, Teruo [Department of Pathology, Institute of Clinical Medicine, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba (Japan); Satomi, Hisae; Otsuka, Fujio [Department of Dermatology, Institute of Clinical Medicine, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba (Japan)

    1999-12-01

    We present a rare case of intramuscular metastasis from malignant melanoma. The lesion showed intermediate to high signal intensity on T1-weighted magnetic resonance (MR) images and mixed signal intensities containing high and low signals on T2-weighted images. The signal intensity on T1-weighted images, which is due to the paramagnetic effect of melanin, is a characteristic MR finding of this entity. (orig.)

  5. Readability of online patient resources for melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Ahmed M S; Vargas, Christina R; Koolen, Pieter G L; Chuang, Danielle J; Lin, Samuel J; Lee, Bernard T

    2016-02-01

    Medical information is often difficult for patients to understand. With specialized vocabulary and complex pathophysiology, even well-educated adults have trouble interpreting information about their healthcare. The average American adult reads at a seventh-grade level. In light of the inherent complexity of health information, the American Medical Association and National Institutes of Health have recommended that information for patients should be written at a sixth-grade level. The goal of this study was to evaluate the most commonly used online patient resources about melanoma in the context of these recommendations. A web search for 'melanoma' identified the 10 most-accessed websites. Location filters were disabled and sponsored results were excluded to avoid inadvertent search bias. All relevant, patient-directed articles were downloaded and formatted into plain text. Pictures, videos, links, advertisements, and references were removed. Readability analysis was carried out using 10 established tests, both overall and arranged by parent website for comparison. A total of 130 articles for melanoma information were identified. The overall mean reading grade level was 12.6. All sites exceeded the recommended sixth-grade level. Secondary analysis of articles grouped by website indicated a range of readability across sites from 9.9 (high school freshman) to 14.9 (university sophomore). Online patient resources for melanoma uniformly exceed the recommended reading level and may be too difficult for many Americans to understand. The range of readability among websites may indicate an opportunity for physicians to direct patients to more appropriate resources for their level of health literacy. PMID:26479217

  6. Utility of adjuvant systemic therapy in melanoma

    OpenAIRE

    Eggermont, Alexander,; Testori, Alessandro; Marsden, J.; Hersey, Peter; Quirt, Ian; Petrella, T.; Gogas, Helen; Mackie, R.M.; Hauschild, Axel

    2009-01-01

    The lack of effective drugs in stage IV melanoma has impacted the effectiveness of adjuvant therapies in stage II/III disease. To date, chemotherapy, immunostimulants and vaccines have been used with minimal success. Interferon (IFN) has shown an effect on relapse-free survival (RFS) in several clinical trials; however, without a clinically significant effect on overall survival (OS). A recently conducted meta-analysis demonstrated prolongation of disease-free survival (DFS) in 7% and OS bene...

  7. IFN-? in the Treatment of Melanoma

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmad A Tarhini; Gogas, Helen; Kirkwood, John M

    2012-01-01

    Among the IFNs, IFN-?2 has been the most broadly evaluated clinically. At the molecular level, IFN-a has multiple effects in a variety of malignancies that range from antiangiogenic to potent immunoregulatoiy, differentiation-inducing, antiproliferative, and proapoptotic effects. A multitude of IFN-?2 regimens that may be classified as low dose, intermediate dose, and high dose have been evaluated as adjuvant therapy in melanoma. A durable impact on both relapse-free and overall survival was ...

  8. Insulin resistance in relation to melanoma risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoniadis, Antonios G; Petridou, Eleni Th; Antonopoulos, Constantine N; Dessypris, Nick; Panagopoulou, Paraskevi; Chamberland, John P; Adami, Hans Olov; Gogas, Helen; Mantzoros, Christos S

    2011-12-01

    Obesity, deregulation of adipocytokines, and insulin resistance are interrelated and have been implicated in carcinogenesis. In search of novel risk factors for melanoma, we explored the association of this disease with insulin resistance in a small size, case-control study. Homeostasis Model Assessment for Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR), serum leptin, and adiponectin levels were determined in 55 patients with incident melanoma and 165 age-matched and sex-matched controls. Odds ratios were derived after adjusting for skin type, medical history, sociodemographic, lifestyle, and anthropometric parameters. Among the controls, HOMA-IR correlated positively with BMI (r=0.34; P=0.0001), waist-to-hip ratio (r=0.20; P=0.01) and negatively with serum adiponectin (r=-0.21; P=0.006), whereas the correlation with leptin was essentially null (r=0.09; P=0.27). The mean HOMA-IR was approximately 1.5 times higher in cases than in controls (P=0.05). The established positive association of melanoma with skin type was evident in multiple logistic regression models and so was the association with increasing HOMA-IR quintile (odds ratio for the fifth quintile=3.68; 95% confidence intervals 1.15-11.79, P=0.02). The latter persisted after adjustment for anthropometric variables and adiponectin but was attenuated when leptin was introduced in the model. These findings point to insulin resistance as a potentially independent risk factor for melanoma and need to be confirmed by future larger studies, ideally allowing the control of the directionality of the association. PMID:21946019

  9. Primary melanoma of Meckel's cave: case report

    OpenAIRE

    Falavigna Asdrubal; Borba Luis A. B.; Ferraz Fernando Antonio Patriani; Almeida Giovana Camargo de; Krindges Júnior José Valentim

    2004-01-01

    We present a case of trigeminal neuralgia with cranial normal magnetic resonance image (MRI) and computed tomography. The pain was not relieved by carbamazepine and microvascular decompression surgery was done. After two months the pain was similar to the condition before surgery. At this time, MRI showed an expansive lesion in Meckel's cave that was treated with radical resection by extra-dural approach. The pathologic examination revealed a primary melanoma. The follow-up after six months d...

  10. Novel Treatments in Development for Melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernatchez, Chantale; Cooper, Zachary A; Wargo, Jennifer A; Hwu, Patrick; Lizée, Gregory

    2016-01-01

    The past several years can be considered a renaissance era in the treatment of metastatic melanoma. Following a 30-year stretch in which oncologists barely put a dent in a very grim overall survival (OS) rate for these patients, things have rapidly changed course with the recent approval of three new melanoma drugs by the FDA. Both oncogene-targeted therapy and immune checkpoint blockade approaches have shown remarkable efficacy in a subset of melanoma patients and have clearly been game-changers in terms of clinical impact. However, most patients still succumb to their disease, and thus, there remains an urgent need to improve upon current therapies. Fortunately, innovations in molecular medicine have led to many silent gains that have greatly increased our understanding of the nature of cancer biology as well as the complex interactions between tumors and the immune system. They have also allowed for the first time a detailed understanding of an individual patient's cancer at the genomic and proteomic level. This information is now starting to be employed at all stages of cancer treatment, including diagnosis, choice of drug therapy, treatment monitoring, and analysis of resistance mechanisms upon recurrence. This new era of personalized medicine will foreseeably lead to paradigm shifts in immunotherapeutic treatment approaches such as individualized cancer vaccines and adoptive transfer of genetically modified T cells. Advances in xenograft technology will also allow for the testing of drug combinations using in vivo models, a truly necessary development as the number of new drugs needing to be tested is predicted to skyrocket in the coming years. This chapter will provide an overview of recent technological developments in cancer research, and how they are expected to impact future diagnosis, monitoring, and development of novel treatments for metastatic melanoma. PMID:26601872

  11. Hypoxia-Independent Drivers of Melanoma Angiogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Meierjohann, Svenja

    2015-01-01

    Tumor angiogenesis is a process which is traditionally regarded as the tumor’s response to low nutrient supply occurring under hypoxic conditions. However, hypoxia is not a pre-requisite for angiogenesis. The fact that even single tumor cells or small tumor cell aggregates are capable of attracting blood vessels reveals the early metastatic capability of tumor cells. This review sheds light on the hypoxia-independent mechanisms of tumor angiogenesis in melanoma.

  12. Melanoma de corpo ciliar e coróide: relato de caso Choroidal and ciliary body melanoma: case report

    OpenAIRE

    Aline Amaral Fulgêncio da Cunha; Nara Helena Teixeira Rodrigues; Grazziella Acácio e Almeida; Bruno Carvalho Picanço; João Agostini Netto

    2010-01-01

    Melanomas oculares correspondem a 5% de todos os melanomas e 85% deles têm origem no trato uveal. Melanoma uveal é o tumor maligno intraocular primário mais comum no adulto. Relatamos neste artigo um caso de melanoma uveal em paciente, sexo feminino, 31 anos, com quadro de fotopsia, hiperemia e baixa da acuidade visual no olho esquerdo com evolução de quatro meses. Apresentava ao exame oftalmológico acuidade visual menor que 20/400, grande massa tumoral na região nasal retroiriana, com desloc...

  13. Future perspectives in melanoma research. Meeting report from the "Melanoma Bridge. Napoli, December 2nd-4th 2012".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ascierto, Paolo A; Grimaldi, Antonio M; Acquavella, Nicolas; Borgognoni, Lorenzo; Calabrò, Luana; Cascinelli, Natale; Cesano, Alessandra; Del Vecchio, Michele; Eggermont, Alexander M; Faries, Mark; Ferrone, Soldano; Fox, Bernard A; Gajewski, Thomas F; Galon, Jérôme; Gnjatic, Sacha; Gogas, Helen; Kashani-Sabet, Mohammed; Kaufman, Howard L; Larkin, James; Lo, Roger S; Mantovani, Alberto; Margolin, Kim; Melief, Cornelis; McArthur, Grant; Palmieri, Giuseppe; Puzanov, Igor; Ribas, Antoni; Seliger, Barbara; Sosman, Jeff; Suenaert, Peter; Tarhini, Ahmad A; Trinchieri, Giorgio; Vidal-Vanaclocha, Fernando; Wang, Ena; Ciliberto, Gennaro; Mozzillo, Nicola; Marincola, Francesco M; Thurin, Magdalena

    2013-01-01

    Recent insights into the genetic and somatic aberrations have initiated a new era of rapidly evolving targeted and immune-based treatments for melanoma. After decades of unsuccessful attempts to finding a more effective cure in the treatment of melanoma now we have several drugs active in melanoma. The possibility to use these drugs in combination to improve responses to overcome the resistance, to potentiate the action of immune system with the new immunomodulating antibodies, and identification of biomarkers that can predict the response to a particular therapy represent new concepts and approaches in the clinical management of melanoma. The third "Melanoma Research: "A bridge from Naples to the World" meeting, shortened as "Bridge Melanoma Meeting" took place in Naples, December 2 to 4th, 2012. The four topics of discussion at this meeting were: advances in molecular profiling and novel biomarkers, combination therapies, novel concepts toward integrating biomarkers and therapies into contemporary clinical management of patients with melanoma across the entire spectrum of disease stage, and the knowledge gained from the biology of tumor microenvironment across different tumors as a bridge to impact on prognosis and response to therapy in melanoma. This international congress gathered more than 30 international faculty members who in an interactive atmosphere which stimulated discussion and exchange of their experience regarding the most recent advances in research and clinical management of melanoma patients. PMID:23731854

  14. Inbreeding and Melanoma in Lipizzan Horses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ino Curik

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between inbreeding and melanoma status (graded from 0 to 4 was analysed by various regression models. Analysed data referred to 296 grey Lipizzan horses originating from five state-owned studs (Austria, Croatia, Hungary, Slovakia and Slovenia and with average inbreeding coefficient (F=0.107 calculated from extremely informative pedigrees (98% and 76% of horses had completely full pedigree in generation 10 and 20, respectively. In all regression models, in addition, the effects of stud (fixed and age (covariate were included. When all data were treated as one population, the estimates from linear and ancestral inbreeding models were not significant. Total inbreeding effect estimates (at F=0.125 and Fa=0.57 were 0.26 and 0.30 for the ancestral inbreeding and linear regression models, respectively. Heterogeneity among state-owned studs in inbreeding effects was also tested for both models and weak statistical significance was obtained for the interaction model with ancestral inbreeding (P=0.049. However, observed effect in the model with interaction was not consistent, did not yield in better model fitting and the obtained significance is probably just a statistical artefact. In general, although some indications about the relationship between ancestral inbreeding and melanoma were present, inbreeding does not appear to be a factor that substantially influences the expression of melanoma in Lipizzan horses.

  15. Proton beam radiotherapy of iris melanoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To report on outcomes after proton beam radiotherapy of iris melanoma. Methods and Materials: Between 1993 and 2004, 88 patients with iris melanoma received proton beam radiotherapy, with 53.1 Gy in 4 fractions. Results: The patients had a mean age of 52 years and a median follow-up of 2.7 years. The tumors had a median diameter of 4.3 mm, involving more than 2 clock hours of iris in 32% of patients and more than 2 hours of angle in 27%. The ciliary body was involved in 20%. Cataract was present in 13 patients before treatment and subsequently developed in another 18. Cataract had a 4-year rate of 63% and by Cox analysis was related to age (p = 0.05), initial visual loss (p < 0.0001), iris involvement (p < 0.0001), and tumor thickness (p < 0.0001). Glaucoma was present before treatment in 13 patients and developed after treatment in another 3. Three eyes were enucleated, all because of recurrence, which had an actuarial 4-year rate of 3.3% (95% CI 0-8.0%). Conclusions: Proton beam radiotherapy of iris melanoma is well tolerated, the main problems being radiation-cataract, which was treatable, and preexisting glaucoma, which in several patients was difficult to control

  16. Positron emission tomography of choroidal melanoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finger, P.T.; D`Arienso, P.; Moshfeghi, D.; Packer, S.; Perry, H.D. [North Shore University Hospital, Manhasset, NY (United States); Czechonska, G. [General Hospital, Warsaw (Poland); Dhawan, V. [Department of Neurology, North Shore University Hospital - Cornell University Medical College, Manhasset, New York (United States); Margouleff, D. [Department of Nuclear Medicine, North Shore University Hospital - Cornell University Medical College, Manhasset, New York (United States)

    1996-12-31

    We used positron emission tomography (PET) as an aid in determining whether an enlarging choroidal melanoma was viable after ophthalmic plaque thermoradiotherapy. Radioactively labelled glucose (18-F fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG)) was injected into our patient for scanning. The PET evaluation revealed no evidence of increased 18F-FDG uptake in the region of the choroidal melanoma. This result supported our clinical decision to observe for continued tumor enlargement prior to re-treatment. PET offers the potential to determine whether a tumor is viable after treatment. PET has used injectable radioactive metabolites to image metabolically active tissues. Thus, clinical applications of PET have focused on its` ability to determine whether tumors were metabolically active before and after treatment. Since each patients tumor will likely differ in sensitivity to treatment, PET may offer a better end point to therapy. After radiotherapy of uveal melanoma, local control has been defined as cessation of growth or reduction in tumor size as documented by ophthalmoscopy and/or ultrasonography. If a cancer has been documented to enlarge in anatomic size, it has been considered viable. Post-treatment tumor enlargement can also be caused by radiation induced vasculopathy with hemorrhage, exudation and edema within the tumor. A physiologic assay of tissue function as provided by PET may offer a better method to differentiate the causes of post-treatment tumor enlargement. (author) 5 refs, 2 figs

  17. Positron emission tomography of choroidal melanoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We used positron emission tomography (PET) as an aid in determining whether an enlarging choroidal melanoma was viable after ophthalmic plaque thermoradiotherapy. Radioactively labelled glucose (18-F fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG)) was injected into our patient for scanning. The PET evaluation revealed no evidence of increased 18F-FDG uptake in the region of the choroidal melanoma. This result supported our clinical decision to observe for continued tumor enlargement prior to re-treatment. PET offers the potential to determine whether a tumor is viable after treatment. PET has used injectable radioactive metabolites to image metabolically active tissues. Thus, clinical applications of PET have focused on its' ability to determine whether tumors were metabolically active before and after treatment. Since each patients tumor will likely differ in sensitivity to treatment, PET may offer a better end point to therapy. After radiotherapy of uveal melanoma, local control has been defined as cessation of growth or reduction in tumor size as documented by ophthalmoscopy and/or ultrasonography. If a cancer has been documented to enlarge in anatomic size, it has been considered viable. Post-treatment tumor enlargement can also be caused by radiation induced vasculopathy with hemorrhage, exudation and edema within the tumor. A physiologic assay of tissue function as provided by PET may offer a better method to differentiate the causes of post-treatment tumor enlargement. (author)

  18. Staging of cutaneous malignant melanoma by CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malignant melanomas are a challenge in radiological imaging diagnostics as they may metastasize into every organ and tissue. Cross-sectional imaging, in particular positron emission tomography computed tomography (PET/CT) and whole body magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), are considered the standards in the staging of melanomas. Because of its excellent availability CT, however, remains a widely employed staging modality. Familiarity with the manifold CT morphology of metastasized melanomas as it is described here is essential when interpreting dedicated CT and in addition useful when interpreting PET/CT results. In individual cases CT can assist in the detection of transient metastases. In the detection of locoregional lymph node metastases CT has a median sensitivity and specificity in meta-analyses of at best 61 % and 97 %, respectively, which is inferior to the performance of ultrasound (96 % and 99 %, respectively). According to meta-analyses, in the assessment of systemic tumor spread CT can detect the majority of metastases with a sensitivity and specificity of 51-63 % and 69-78 %, respectively, which is inferior to MRI and PET/CT. Therefore, if an exact staging is required for critical management decisions, MRI or PET/CT should be employed whenever possible. (orig.)

  19. Melanoma maligno. Presentación de un caso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Odalys Peña Pérez

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available El melanoma maligno es una neoplasia de la piel altamente agresiva que en las últimas décadas ha tenido un aumento constante y rápido de su incidencia. Está caracterizado por el crecimiento incontrolado de las células productoras de pigmento que puede afectar los nódulos linfáticos y órganos internos, lo que puede resultar letal. El melanoma se presenta habitualmente en adultos de todos los grupos de edad, con una incidencia máxima entre los 30 y 60 años. En general afecta a ambos sexos de forma similar, aunque en el momento actual parece que la frecuencia en algunos países es ligeramente superior en varones. Al llegar a la consulta externa de dermatología del Hospital General Docente "Dr. Ernesto Guevara de la Serna", una paciente con lesiones en piel de alrededor de un año de evolución, de aspecto polimorfo, localizadas en calcáneo del pie izquierdo, dado por lesión de 8cm x 6cm, irregular, hiperpigmentada y en el centro de aspecto nodular y segregante que inicialmente se realiza biopsia e informa un léntigo maligno; luego se toma otra muestra de la parte nodular segregante donde se le diagnostica un melanoma maligno grado IV en la escala de Clark.

  20. Primary cutaneous melanoma: an 18-year study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moris Anger

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Primary cutaneous melanoma still constitutes the main cause of skin cancer death in developed countries, and its incidence in recent years has been increasing in a steady, worrisome manner. OBJECTIVES: This study evaluated the clinical, epidemiological and demographic aspects of this disease, and correlated them with patient prognosis. METHODS: Using epidemiologic and clinical data, we analyzed 84 patients with mild to severe primary cutaneous melanoma treated between 1990 and 2007. Slides containing surgical specimens were analyzed, and new slides were made from archived paraffin sections when necessary. RESULTS: The melanoma incidence was higher in areas of sun exposure, with lesions commonly observed in the trunk for males, and lower limbs for females. In addition to Breslow's thickness and ulceration (p = 0.043 and p 1 mm and 4 mm and the mitotic index (0 when absent or 1 when >1 per mm² allowed the establishment of a prognostic score: if the sum was equal to or over three, nearly all (91.7% patients had systemic disease. The 5-year survival was approximately seventy percent. CONCLUSION: Because American Join Committee of Cancer Staging will update the classification of malignant tumors (TNM staging in the near future, and introduce mitosis as a prognostic factor, our results show the importance of such a feature. Additional studies are necessary to confirm the importance of a prognostic score as proposed herein.

  1. Symmetry Extraction in High Sensitivity Melanoma Diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elyoenai Guerra-Segura

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Melanoma diagnosis depends on the experience of doctors. Symmetry is one of the most important factors to measure, since asymmetry shows an uncontrolled growth of cells, leading to melanoma cancer. A system for melanoma detection in diagnosing melanocytic diseases with high sensitivity is proposed here. Two different sets of features are extracted based on the importance of the ABCD rule and symmetry evaluation to develop a new architecture. Support Vector Machines are used to classify the extracted sets by using both an alternative labeling method and a structure divided into two different classifiers which prioritize sensitivity. Although feature extraction is based on former works, the novelty lies in the importance given to symmetry and the proposed architecture, which combines two different feature sets to obtain a high sensitivity, prioritizing the medical aspect of diagnosis. In particular, a database provided by Hospital Universitario de Gran Canaria Doctor Negrín was tested, obtaining a sensitivity of 100% and a specificity of 66.66% using a leave-one-out validation method. These results show that 66.66% of biopsies would be avoided if this system is applied to lesions which are difficult to classify by doctors.

  2. The Role of Intralesional Therapies in Melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwala, Sanjiv S

    2016-05-01

    The US Food and Drug Administration has been rapidly approving new checkpoint inhibitors and targeted therapies for melanoma and other tumors. Recently, it approved the first intralesional therapy, talimogene laherparepvec (T-VEC), for the treatment of metastatic melanoma lesions in the skin and lymph nodes. Several other intralesional therapies (PV-10, interleukin-12 electroporation, coxsackievirus A21 [CVA21]) are entering later-stage testing. Locally injected agents have clearly shown their ability to produce local responses that can be durable. The possibility that they also stimulate a regional and even systemic immune response is exciting, as this potential effect may have utility in combination regimens; such regimens are an area of active research. Favorable responses with minimal toxicities in monotherapy trials have led to the first melanoma studies of T-VEC in combination with the cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 inhibitor ipilimumab and, separately, with the programmed death 1-blocking antibody pembrolizumab. Studies of PV-10 with pembrolizumab and of CVA21 with pembrolizumab are also being initiated. Preliminary analyses of the results of the first combination trials, which show higher response rates than with either agent alone, offer some optimism that these locoregional therapies will find application-as treatment for patients who cannot tolerate systemic immunotherapies, to alleviate locoregional morbidity, and perhaps even to "prime" the immune system. PMID:27188674

  3. Gamma knife radiosurgery for uveal melanoma ineligible for brachytherapy by the Collaborative Ocular Melanoma Study criteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola G Ghazi

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Nicola G Ghazi1, Christopher S Ketcherside1, Jason Sheehan2, Brian P Conway11Department of Ophthalmology and 2Neurosurgery, University of Virginia Health System, Charlottesville, VA, USAPurpose: To report outcomes of Gamma Knife radiosurgery (GKRS in treating uveal melanoma lesions ineligible for standard brachytherapy.Methods: A retrospective interventional case series of uveal melanoma patients treated with GKRS between 1996 and 2004 was performed. The main outcome measures were local tumor control, metastasis, and death.Results: Four patients with uveal melanoma treated with GKS were identified. Three tumors involved the ciliary body and one was macular with its border within 2 mm of the optic disc. Adequate globe stabilization was achieved by retrobulbar anesthesia in all cases. Pretreatment mean visual acuity was 20/30. Tumor volume as determined by magnetic resonance imaging ranged from 0.05 to 0.30 cc. Ultrasonographic greatest tumor diameter and height ranged from 11 to 18 mm (mean 14.5 mm and 2.9 to 4.5 mm (mean 3.6 mm, respectively. The peripheral dose varied from 16.5 to 30 Gray. Local tumor control was achieved in all cases over a follow up period of 6 to 96 months. Mean final visual acuity was 20/50. One eye was enucleated for neovascular glaucoma and one patient died from liver and lung metastasis.Conclusions: GKRS for uveal melanoma appears to be safe and effective. The metastasis and mortality rates appear to be comparable to those following brachytherapy and enucleation. Moreover, local tumor control and enucleation rates are similar to those following brachytherapy. The findings in this small series suggest a role for GKRS in the treatment of selected cases of uveal melanomas.Keywords: gamma knife radiosurgery, radiation therapy, uveal melanoma

  4. Melanoma growth stimulatory activity: isolation from human melanoma tumors and characterization of tissue distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richmond, A; Thomas, H G

    1988-02-01

    Melanoma growth stimulatory activity (MGSA) is an acid and heat stable, auto-stimulatory growth factor which was first isolated from culture medium conditioned by the Hs294T human melanoma cell line. In this report, we describe the purification of MGSA from acid ethanol extracts of Hs294T tumors grown in nude mice using a series of Bio-Gel P30, reverse phase-high performance liquid chromatography and heparin-sepharose steps. This modified procedure provides a 10-fold improved yield of MGSA over previously published procedures. Purified MGSA-stimulated melanoma cell growth in both 3H-thymidine and cell number assays over a concentration range of 0.06 to 6 ng/ml. The MGSA bioactivity was primarily associated with fractions which exhibited molecular weights of 16 and 13-14 Kd based upon sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Purified platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF), insulin-like growth factor (IGF-1), transforming growth factor-beta (TGF beta), and epidermal growth factor (EGF) in combination with TGF beta did not stimulate 3H-thymidine incorporation in Hs294T cells under the conditions used for MGSA bioassay. Monoclonal antibody to MGSA was used to screen melanoma and benign nevus cultures as well as fixed sectioned tissue for MGSA. The majority of the melanoma cultures were MGSA positive, while most nevus cultures were MGSA negative. However, when fixed sectioned tissue was screened for MGSA immunoreactivity, melanoma tissue was MGSA positive and three-fourths of the benign nevi were MGSA positive. In addition, epidermal keratinocytes and several tissues exhibiting proliferative disorders contained immunoreactive MGSA. These data suggest that MGSA may be a normal regulator of growth and that the microenvironment of the cell may regulate both production of MGSA and response to MGSA. PMID:3356754

  5. Melanoma Surveillance in the US: Melanoma, Ultraviolet Radiation, and Socioeconomic Status

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-10-19

    This podcast accompanies the publication of a series of articles on melanoma surveillance in the United States, available in the November supplement edition of the Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology. Chris Johnson, from the Cancer Data Registry of Idaho, discusses analyses examining the relationship between melanoma and two variables at the county level, ultraviolet radiation and socioeconomic status.  Created: 10/19/2011 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 10/19/2011.

  6. Melanoma primario del esófago Primary esophageal melanoma. Report of one case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RIMSKY ÁLVAREZ U

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available El melanoma primario maligno del esófago es extremadamente raro y menos de 300 casos han sido publicados hasta el momento. Aunque la resección quirúrgica ha sido considerada como la mejor opción, el pronóstico es muy pobre. Se presenta a un paciente de 70 años a quien se le realizó una esofagogastroscopía por disfagia y epigastralgia de 6 meses de evolución. No había antecedentes de melanoma cutáneo. El examen demostró una masa polipoidea pigmentada de 5 cm de diámetro en el tercio inferior del esófago, que la biopsia informó como melanoma maligno. Se realizó una esofagectomía transhiatal y el estómago fue reemplazado por un tubo gástrico isoperistáltico con una anastomosis esofagogástrica cervical. El estudio de la pieza operatorio demostró un tumor polipoideo de 5,5 cm, con pigmentación negra. El estudio histológico demostró que el tumor correspondía a un melanoma maligno primario del esófago. Los márgenes de resección oral y caudal estaban libres de tumor. No recibió terapia adyuvante complementaria y a los 3 meses de la intervención había signos clínicos e imagenológicos de recurrencia de la enfermedad.Primary malignant melanoma of the esophagus is an extremely rare tumor. Less than 300 cases have been published worldwide. Although surgical excision is the best possible therapeutic option, the prognosis is poor. We report a 70 years oíd man, who underwent an esophagoscopy due to a 6-months history of dysphagia and upper abdominal discomfort. There was no history of previous cutaneous melanoma. A polypoid and pigmented mass (of 5 cm diameter almost completely occluding the lumen in the lower fhird of the esophagus, was found. The histological diagnosis of the initial biopsy was melanoma. Transhiatal esophagectomy was performed and the esophagus was replaced by an isoperistaltic gastric tube with cervical esophageal anastomosis. The excised specimen showed a polypoid tumor with black pigmentation of 5.5 cm. The diagnosis of pathological and immunohistochemical studies was a primary esophageal malignant melanoma. The resection margins of esophagus were free of tumor. He received no postoperative adjuvant therapy and signs of recurrence were observed 3 months after the operation.

  7. Inherited genetic variants associated with occurrence of multiple primary melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, David C; Orlow, Irene; Kanetsky, Peter A; Luo, Li; Kricker, Anne; Armstrong, Bruce K; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Gruber, Stephen B; Marrett, Loraine D; Gallagher, Richard P; Zanetti, Roberto; Rosso, Stefano; Dwyer, Terence; Sharma, Ajay; La Pilla, Emily; From, Lynn; Busam, Klaus J; Cust, Anne E; Ollila, David W; Begg, Colin B; Berwick, Marianne; Thomas, Nancy E

    2015-06-01

    Recent studies, including genome-wide association studies, have identified several putative low-penetrance susceptibility loci for melanoma. We sought to determine their generalizability to genetic predisposition for multiple primary melanoma in the international population-based Genes, Environment, and Melanoma (GEM) Study. GEM is a case-control study of 1,206 incident cases of multiple primary melanoma and 2,469 incident first primary melanoma participants as the control group. We investigated the odds of developing multiple primary melanoma for 47 SNPs from 21 distinct genetic regions previously reported to be associated with melanoma. ORs and 95% confidence intervals were determined using logistic regression models adjusted for baseline features (age, sex, age by sex interaction, and study center). We investigated univariable models and built multivariable models to assess independent effects of SNPs. Eleven SNPs in 6 gene neighborhoods (TERT/CLPTM1L, TYRP1, MTAP, TYR, NCOA6, and MX2) and a PARP1 haplotype were associated with multiple primary melanoma. In a multivariable model that included only the most statistically significant findings from univariable modeling and adjusted for pigmentary phenotype, back nevi, and baseline features, we found TERT/CLPTM1L rs401681 (P = 0.004), TYRP1 rs2733832 (P = 0.006), MTAP rs1335510 (P = 0.0005), TYR rs10830253 (P = 0.003), and MX2 rs45430 (P = 0.008) to be significantly associated with multiple primary melanoma, while NCOA6 rs4911442 approached significance (P = 0.06). The GEM Study provides additional evidence for the relevance of these genetic regions to melanoma risk and estimates the magnitude of the observed genetic effect on development of subsequent primary melanoma. PMID:25837821

  8. Metastatic melanoma of the stomach Melanoma metastático do estômago

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Eustáquio Rocha

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Metastatic melanoma of the stomach is a relatively rare entity with an unusual diagnosis during life. Surgery is the treatment of choice once it alleviates the symptoms in over 90% of the cases and increases the long-term survival. CASE REPORT: A 50y woman had presented a dark spot in the ungual bed of her right-hand thumb for two years, evolving into ulceration and bleeding. The biopsy diagnosed ungual malanocytic neoplasia compatible with lentiginous melanoma confirmed by immunohistochemistry, which presented positive pigmented HMB-45 cells. After an year and a half, the patient developed metastasis of the melanoma on her left thigh and extensive ulcerated lesion in the small gastric curvature, whose biopsy was compatible with metastatic melanoma of the stomach. The hemogram found discrete anemia (Hb: 11.1 and Ht: 33% and LDH: 333 U/L. The patient underwent total gastrectomy with reconstruction in Roux-en-Y. There was a good evolution and on the 6th post-operative day, she was discharged home. At present, in the 12th month of follow up, the patient remains without complaints, with full relief of symptoms and all normal control exams. CONCLUSION: Surgical management should always be considered for the metastatic melanoma of the gastrointestinal tract, since the procedure shows low morbidity and mortality, besides providing relief of symptoms with the improvement of the quality of life and increase in the long-term survival.INTRODUCTION: O melanoma metastático do estômago é entidade relativamente rara e de diagnóstico incomum em vida. A cirurgia é o tratamento de escolha, pois alivia os sintomas em mais de 90% dos casos e aumenta a sobrevida a longo prazo. OBJETIVO: Relatar um caso de melanoma metastático do estômago, submetida à ressecção curativa e que evoluiu sem sinais de doença residual. RELATO DO CASO: Mulher de 50 anos apresentou mancha escura em leito ungueal de dedo polegar de mão direita há dois anos, evoluindo com ulceração e sangramento. A biópsia diagnosticou neoplasia melanocítica ungueal compatíveis com melanoma lentiginoso e confirmado pela imunohistoquímica que apresentou células pigmentadas HMB-45 positivas. Após um ano e meio a paciente evoluiu com metástase de melanoma em coxa esquerda e extensa lesão escavada em pequena curvatura gástrica, cuja biopsia foi compatível com melanoma metastático do estômago. Hemograma com discreta anemia (Hb: 11,1 e Ht: 33% e LDH: 333 U/L. A paciente foi submetida à gastrectomia total com reconstrução em Y de Roux. Houve boa evolução e no 6º dia de pós-operatório teve alta hospitalar. Atualmente, no 12º mês de seguimento, a paciente permanece sem queixas, com alívio completo dos sintomas e com todos os exames de controle normais. CONCLUSÃO: O tratamento cirúrgico deve ser sempre considerado no melanoma metastático do trato gastrointestinal, pois o procedimento possui baixa morbidade e mortalidade, além de proporcionar alívio dos sintomas com melhora da qualidade de vida e aumento da sobrevida a longo prazo.

  9. Mucosal melanoma of the head and neck

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: 1) To determine the incidence of regional recurrence in patients with mucosal melanomas of the head and neck who receive no elective neck treatment 2) To quantitate the incidence of distant metastases 3) To assess whether radiation therapy can improve the local control outcome in patients with mucosal melanoma Materials and Methods: Between 1961-1995, 40 previously untreated patients with mucosal melanoma of the head and neck were treated with surgery +/- radiotherapy at M. D. Anderson Cancer Center. The median age was 62 years (range, 23-82). There were 14 females and 26 males. Primary tumor sites were: oral cavity (OC)-16, nasal cavity and paranasal sinus (NC/PNS)- 22, and pharynx-2. Staging, using the AJCC classification for epithelial carcinomas, was as follows: T1-21, T2-8, T3-5, T4-5, TX-1. Thirty-seven patients presented without clinical adenopathy; 3 patients had N2b disease. Treatment of the primary tumor included surgery alone (S) -20 and surgery and postoperative radiotherapy (S+X) - 20. Only 3 patients had a neck dissection. 90% of the S patients were stage T1-2 versus 55% of the S+X patients. Eight patients received 30 Gy in 5 fractions, 11 were given 60 Gy in 30 fractions, and one patient received 72 Gy in 36 fractions. Results: The table shows the 5-yr. actuarial rates of local control, distant metastases, disease-free survival, and overall survival for all patients, and also stratified by treatment and site of disease. Patients who underwent S + X had a higher 5-year local control rate and disease-free survival than patients who were treated with surgery alone (p = ns). The 5-year local control rate for patients with NC/PNS was 43%, compared to 84% for OC patients (p= 0.08). For 33 patients who had no clinical adenopathy and who did not receive elective neck treatment, the 5-year actuarial regional failure rate was 39%; the 5-year regional failure rate for OC patients and NC/PNS patients was 58% and 28%, respectively. For patients with early stage (T1+T2) primary tumors who received no elective neck treatment, the 5-year regional failure rate was 36%. Conclusions: Despite having more advanced staged primary tumors, patients with mucosal melanoma who received radiotherapy had a higher local control rate than patients who were treated with surgery alone. Therefore, we recommend that all patients with NC/PNS melanomas, and patients with unfavorable OC primary tumors (>4 cm or close or positive margins) receive postoperative radiotherapy. Patients with mucosal melanoma have a high incidence of regional failure and should underego elective neck treatment. The high incidence of distant metastases warrants assessment of systemic therapy in patients with mucosal melanoma

  10. MelanomaDB: a Web Tool for Integrative Analysis of Melanoma Genomic Information to Identify Disease-Associated Molecular Pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CristinGregorPrint

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Despite on-going research, metastatic melanoma survival rates remain low and treatment options are limited. Researchers can now access a rapidly growing amount of molecular and clinical information about melanoma. This information is becoming difficult to assemble and interpret due to its dispersed nature, yet as it grows it becomes increasingly valuable for understanding melanoma. Integration of this information into a comprehensive resource to aid rational experimental design and patient stratification is needed. As an initial step in this direction, we have assembled a web-accessible melanoma database, MelanomaDB, which incorporates clinical and molecular data from publically available sources, which will be regularly updated as new information becomes available. This database allows complex links to be drawn between many different aspects of melanoma biology: genetic changes (e.g. mutations in individual melanomas revealed by DNA sequencing, associations between gene expression and patient survival, data concerning drug targets, biomarkers, druggability and clinical trials, as well as our own statistical analysis of relationships between molecular pathways and clinical parameters that have been produced using these data sets. The database is freely available at http://genesetdb.auckland.ac.nz/melanomadb/about.html . A subset of the information in the database can also be accessed through a freely available web application in the Illumina genomic cloud computing platform BaseSpace at http://www.biomatters.com/apps/melanoma-profiler-for-research . This illustrates dysregulation of specific signalling pathways, both across 310 exome-sequenced melanomas and in individual tumours and identifies novel features about the distribution of somatic variants in melanoma. We suggest that this database can provide a context in which to interpret the tumour molecular profiles of individual melanoma patients relative to biological information and available drug therapies.

  11. Stereological estimates of nuclear volume in thin malignant melanomas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Björnhagen, V; Månsson-Brahme, E; Lindholm, J; Mattsson, A; Sørensen, Flemming Brandt

    1998-01-01

    melanomas were individually compared with 33 thin non-metastasizing melanomas after individual matching of cases with one or two randomly chosen controls for site of primary tumour, tumour thickness, level of invasion, tumour regression and follow-up. Conditional logistic regression analysis showed no...

  12. Pigmented Mammary Paget Disease Misdiagnosed as Malignant Melanoma

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Ji Hye; Kim, Tae Hyung; Kim, Soo-Chan; Kim, You Chan; Roh, Mi Ryung

    2014-01-01

    Pigmented mammary Paget disease is a very rare clinicopathologic variant of mammary Paget disease. Diagnosis is often difficult because its clinical and histological features are very similar to those of malignant melanoma. Herein, we report a case of pigmented mammary Paget disease misdiagnosed as malignant melanoma.

  13. Palladium-109 labeled anti-melanoma monoclonal antibodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, S.C.; Fawwaz, R.A.; Ferrone, S.

    1984-04-30

    The invention consists of new monoclonal antibodies labelled with Palladium 109, a beta-emitting radionuclide, the method of preparing this material, and its use in the radiotherapy of melanoma. The antibodies are chelate-conjugated and demonstrate a high uptake in melanomas. (ACR)

  14. Prognosis of thin cutaneous head and neck melanoma (

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, A P; Dahlstrøm, Karin Kjærgaard; Drzewiecki, K T

    1996-01-01

    Thin malignant melanomas, i.e. tumours less than 1 mm, are generally considered to have a good prognosis. The records of 148 patients with thin invasive melanomas located to the head and neck region were reviewed. All patients were followed for the excision of the primary tumour until death, or the...

  15. Long-term Survival after Metastatic Childhood Melanoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Anne Kristine; Bybjerg Jensen, Mette; Krag, Christen

    2014-01-01

    malign melanoma must be in mind when evaluating a pigmented lesion in a pediatric patient. We present a case of a patient born with a congenital nevus diagnosed with metastatic childhood malignant scalp melanoma at the age of 6 years. The patient underwent surgical ablation and reconstruction and has...

  16. Update on Thin Melanoma: Outcome of an International Workshop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihic-Probst, Daniela; Shea, Chris; Duncan, Lyn; de la Fouchardiere, Arnaud; Landman, Gilles; Landsberg, Jennifer; Ven den Oord, Joost; Lowe, Lori; Cook, Martin G; Jung Yun, Sook; Clarke, Loren; Messina, Jane; Elder, David E; Barnhill, Raymond L

    2016-01-01

    The following communication summarizes the proceedings of a 1-day Workshop of the International Melanoma Pathology Study Group, which was devoted to thin melanoma. The definitions and histologic criteria for thin melanoma were reviewed. The principal differential diagnostic problems mentioned included the distinction of thin melanoma from nevi, especially from nevi of special site, irritated nevi, inflamed and regressing nevi, and dysplastic nevi. Histologic criteria for this analysis were discussed and the importance of clinico-pathologic correlation, especially in acral sites, was emphasized. Criteria for the minimal definition of invasion were also discussed. In addition, a new technique of m-RNA expression profiling with 14 genes was presented and facilitated the distinction of thin melanomas from nevus in histologically obvious cases. However, for particular nevi, it was not obvious why the results indicated a malignant lesion. Despite many molecular and other ancillary investigations, Breslow thickness remains the most important prognostic factor in thin melanoma. The prognostic significance of radial (horizontal) and vertical growth phases, Clark level, regression, and mitotic rate were also discussed. Because of the increasing frequency of thin melanomas, there is a great need to develop more refined predictors of thin melanomas with worse clinical outcome. PMID:26645459

  17. Melanoma in Organ Transplant Recipients: Incidence, Outcomes and Management Considerations

    OpenAIRE

    Ali, Faisal R; John T. Lear

    2012-01-01

    The incidence of melanoma continues to increase year on year. With better surgical techniques and medical management, greater numbers of organ transplants are being performed annually with much longer graft survival. The authors review our current understanding of the incidence of melanoma amongst organ transplant recipients, outcomes compared to the immunocompetent population, and management strategies in this burgeoning group.

  18. Prevalence of left-sided melanomas in an Irish population.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    de Blacam, C

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: A predominance of melanomas on the left side of the body has recently been described. No associations between tumour laterality and gender, age or anatomical site have been identified. AIM: The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of left-sided melanomas in an Irish population and to examine potential associations with various patient and tumour characteristics. METHODS: A retrospective chart review of patients with cutaneous melanoma who were treated over a 10-year period was carried out. Lateral distribution of melanoma on either side of the body was compared using chi(2) analysis and evaluated by gender, age group, anatomic location, histologic subtype and Breslow depth. RESULTS: More melanomas occurred on the left side (57%, P = 0.015), and this finding was particularly significant in females. For both genders combined, there were no statistically significant differences in laterality by age group, anatomic location, type of melanoma and Breslow depth. There were significantly more superficial spreading melanomas on the left side in both men and women. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates a predominance of left-sided melanomas in Irish patients. While a number of demographic and molecular associations have been proposed, further research is required to fully explain this phenomenon.

  19. Fluorescence angiography of iris in malignant uveal melanoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fluorescence angiography of the iris was performed in 12 eyes with malignant uveal melanoma. Tumors localized in front of the equator, without respect to their cellular types, caused secondary fluoroangiographic changes in the iris corresponding to the location of these tumors. The character and degree of changes corresponded to the mechanical effect of the malignant melanoma. (author). 8 figs., 3 tabs., 10 refs

  20. DMBT1 expression distinguishes anorectal from cutaneous melanoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helmke, Burkhard Maria; Renner, Marcus; Poustka, Annemarie; Schirmacher, Peter; Mollenhauer, Jan; Kern, Michael André

    2009-01-01

    malignant brain tumours 1 (DMBT1) in cases of primary anorectal malignant melanoma and CM. METHODS AND RESULTS: Expression analyses of classical immunohistochemical markers (S100, HMB45, Melan A and MiTF) and of the protein DMBT1 were carried out in 27 cases of primary anorectal malignant melanoma and 26...

  1. Prevalence of left-sided melanomas in an Irish population.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    de Blacam, C

    2011-04-17

    BACKGROUND: A predominance of melanomas on the left side of the body has recently been described. No associations between tumour laterality and gender, age or anatomical site have been identified. AIM: The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of left-sided melanomas in an Irish population and to examine potential associations with various patient and tumour characteristics. METHODS: A retrospective chart review of patients with cutaneous melanoma who were treated over a 10-year period was carried out. Lateral distribution of melanoma on either side of the body was compared using χ(2) analysis and evaluated by gender, age group, anatomic location, histologic subtype and Breslow depth. RESULTS: More melanomas occurred on the left side (57%, P = 0.015), and this finding was particularly significant in females. For both genders combined, there were no statistically significant differences in laterality by age group, anatomic location, type of melanoma and Breslow depth. There were significantly more superficial spreading melanomas on the left side in both men and women. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates a predominance of left-sided melanomas in Irish patients. While a number of demographic and molecular associations have been proposed, further research is required to fully explain this phenomenon.

  2. Role of UV irradiation in aetiopathogenesis of malignant melanoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    UV irradiation has multiple effects on skin including erythema, immunosuppression and the induction of keratinocyte-derived skin cancers and cutaneous malignant melanoma. Cutaneous malignant melanoma, which arises from damage to the melanocytes, the pigment cells of the skin, is the most lethal of the skin cancers, known for its intractability to current therapies. Cutaneous malignant melanoma is associated in epidemiological studies with sun exposure of susceptible populations, especially children. In this review, we summarize the experimental information available on the role of UV radiation in melanoma and give an overview of a new melanoma model. Neonatally irradiated with UV, HGF/SF (hepatocyte growth factor/scatter factor) transgenic mice with age develop melanoma which recapitulates the aetiology, the histopathology and molecular pathogenesis of human disease. We also describe the role of melanin in the process of skin carcinogenesis. Melanin is the basic skin pigment present also in most types of melanoma. Studies on animal models for melanoma, especially HGF/SF transgenic mice, may help not only in understanding this lethal disease but also help to prevent it. (authors)

  3. Melanoma prevention: are we doing enough? A Canadian perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Joshua, A.M.

    2012-01-01

    Melanoma is the most dangerous form of skin cancer, and its incidence is increasing significantly among Canadians. In parallel with the rising incidence and morbidity, the financial burden caused by this disease will continue to increase dramatically for the government and for individuals alike. More concerted effort to raise awareness of melanoma in Canada is therefore needed.

  4. The Nodal Location of Metastases in Melanoma Sentinel Lymph Nodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riber-Hansen, Rikke; Nyengaard, Jens; Hamilton-Dutoit, Stephen; Steiniche, Torben

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The design of melanoma sentinel lymph node (SLN) histologic protocols is based on the premise that most metastases are found in the central parts of the nodes, but the evidence for this belief has never been thoroughly tested. METHODS: The nodal location of melanoma metastases in 149...

  5. Similar nucleotide excision repair capacity in melanocytes and melanoma cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaddameedhi, Shobhan; Kemp, Michael G.; Reardon, Joyce T.; Shields, Janiel M.; Smith-Roe, Stephanie L.; Kaufmann, William K.; Sancar, Aziz

    2010-01-01

    Sunlight UV exposure produces DNA photoproducts in skin that are repaired solely by nucleotide excision repair in humans. A significant fraction of melanomas are thought to result from UV-induced DNA damage that escapes repair, however, little evidence is available regarding the functional capacity of normal human melanocytes, malignant melanoma cells and metastatic melanoma cells to repair UV-induced photoproducts in DNA. In this study, we measured nucleotide excision repair in both normal melanocytes and a panel of melanoma cell lines. Our results show that in 11 of 12 melanoma cell lines tested, UV photoproduct repair occurred as efficiently as in primary melanocytes. Importantly, repair capacity was not affected by mutation in the N-Ras or B-Raf oncogenes, nor was a difference observed between a highly metastatic melanoma cell line (A375SM) or its parental line (A375P). Lastly, we found that while p53 status contributed to photoproduct removal efficiency its role did not appear to be mediated by enhanced expression or activity of DNA binding protein DDB2. We concluded that melanoma cells retain capacity for nucleotide excision repair, the loss of which probably does not commonly contribute to melanoma progression. PMID:20501836

  6. Malignant melanoma of the oral cavity: Report of two cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Munde

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Primary malignant melanoma is a rare and aggressive neoplasm that originates from the proliferation of melanocytes. Although, it comprises 1.3% of all cancers, malignant melanoma of the oral cavity accounts for only 0.2-8% of all reported melanomas and occurs approximately 4 times more frequently in the oral mucosa of the upper jaw, usually on the palate or alveolar gingivae. Most of the mucosal melanomas are usually asymptomatic in early stages, and presents as pigmented patch or a mass delaying the diagnosis until symptoms of swelling, ulceration, bleeding, or loosening of teeth are noted. The prognosis is extremely poor, especially in advanced stages. Therefore, any pigmented lesion of undetermined origin should always be biopsied. We herewith report of two cases of oral malignant melanoma in a 60 and 75-year-old female.

  7. Therapy for metastatic melanoma: the past, present, and future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Finn Laura

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Metastatic melanoma is the most aggressive form of skin cancer with a median overall survival of less than one year. Advancements in our understanding of how melanoma evades the immune system as well as the recognition that melanoma is a molecularly heterogeneous disease have led to major improvements in the treatment of patients with metastatic melanoma. In 2011, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA approved two novel therapies for advanced melanoma: a BRAF inhibitor, vemurafenib, and an immune stimulatory agent, ipilimumab. The success of these agents has injected excitement and hope into patients and clinicians and, while these therapies have their limitations, they will likely provide excellent building blocks for the next generation of therapies. In this review we will discuss the advantages and limitations of the two new approved agents, current clinical trials designed to overcome these limitations, and future clinical trials that we feel hold the most promise.

  8. Targeted agents for the treatment of metastatic melanoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monzon JG

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Jose G Monzon, Janet DanceyNCIC Clinical Trials Group, Kingston, Ontario, CanadaAbstract: In the last year, the armamentarium of melanoma therapeutics has radically changed. Recent discoveries in melanoma biology and immunology have led to novel therapeutics targeting known oncogenes and immunotherapeutic antibodies. Phase III clinical trials of these agents have reported measurable and meaningful benefits to patients with metastatic disease. In this article, we review recent findings and discuss their significance in melanoma therapy. As our understanding of melanoma biology grows, this initial therapeutic success may be enhanced through the use of molecular markers to select patients, and new targeted immunotherapies in sequential or combination drug regimens.Keywords: metastatic melanoma, ipilimumab, vemurafenib, antitumor

  9. POLE mutations in families predisposed to cutaneous melanoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aoude, Lauren G; Heitzer, Ellen; Johansson, Peter; Gartside, Michael; Wadt, Karin; Pritchard, Antonia L; Palmer, Jane M; Symmons, Judith; Gerdes, Anne-Marie; Montgomery, Grant W; Martin, Nicholas G; Tomlinson, Ian; Kearsey, Stephen; Hayward, Nicholas K

    2015-01-01

    Germline mutations in the exonuclease domain of POLE have been shown to predispose to colorectal cancers and adenomas. POLE is an enzyme involved in DNA repair and chromosomal DNA replication. In order to assess whether such mutations might also predispose to cutaneous melanoma, we interrogated...... whole-genome and exome data from probands of 34 melanoma families lacking pathogenic mutations in known high penetrance melanoma susceptibility genes: CDKN2A, CDK4, BAP1, TERT, POT1, ACD and TERF2IP. We found a novel germline mutation, POLE p.(Trp347Cys), in a 7-case cutaneous melanoma family....... Functional assays in S. pombe showed that this mutation led to an increased DNA mutation rate comparable to that seen with a Pol ε mutant with no exonuclease activity. We then performed targeted sequencing of POLE in 1243 cutaneous melanoma cases and found that a further ten probands had novel or rare...

  10. Adjuvant medical treatment options for cutaneous malignant melanoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banu ÖZTÜRK

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Patients with early-stage malignant melanoma can be cured with surgical resection with or without adjuvant therapy. Prognosis is still poor in the patients with metastatic melanoma. Treatment options are limited. Lymph node involvement and Breslow tumor thickness are the most important prognostic factors. There have been many trials in the adjuvant setting of malignant melanoma due to the poor prognosis of metastatic disease. High-risk node-negative patients and node-positive patients are candidates for systemic adjuvant therapy following surgery. Different treatment modalities have been widely investigated for the adjuvant treatment in high-risk melanoma patients. Stage III (locoregional metastasis and stage II (Breslow thickness >1.5 mm patients are included in adjuvant melanoma trials. The rationale for adjuvant therapy is summarized in this review, and the roles of interferon, interleukin (high-intermediate-low dose, chemotherapy, vaccines, colony stimulating factors, and combination therapies (biochemotherapy, combined immunotherapy, immunochemotherapy are discussed.

  11. Molecular targets in melanoma: time for `ethnic personalization'

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morita, Shane Y; Markovic, Svetomir N

    2016-01-01

    Worldwide, the incidence of melanoma continues to rise. Although not the most common cutaneous malignancy, it is the most lethal. Until recently, while other oncologic patients benefited from the nuances of targeted therapy, those afflicted with melanoma lacked that option. In 2011, the US FDA approved an oral agent that targets the BRAF oncogene. As this information is promising, it is essential that other populations (in addition to Caucasians) are examined, in order to further comprehend the biology of melanoma. Recent studies profiling various ethnicities, including Asians, have provided novel data with respect to the molecular characterization (c-KIT, BRAF, NRAS) of melanoma. It is hopeful that the management of melanoma will be universally applicable to all ethnic groups. PMID:22594895

  12. Dissection of T-cell antigen specificity in human melanoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Rikke Sick; Albæk Thrue, Charlotte; Junker, Niels; Skou, Rikke Birgitte Lyngaa; Donia, Marco; Ellebæk, Eva; Svane, Inge Marie; Schumacher, Ton N; Thor Straten, Per; Hadrup, Sine Reker

    2012-01-01

    Tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL) isolated from melanoma patients and expanded in vitro by interleukin (IL)-2 treatment can elicit therapeutic response after adoptive transfer, but the antigen specificities of the T cells transferred have not been determined. By compiling all known melanoma......-associated antigens and applying a novel technology for high-throughput analysis of T-cell responses, we dissected the composition of melanoma-restricted T-cell responses in 63 TIL cultures. T-cell reactivity screens against 175 melanoma-associated epitopes detected 90 responses against 18 different epitopes...... from different fragments of resected melanoma lesions. In summary, our findings provide an initial definition of T-cell populations contributing to tumor recognition in TILs although the specificity of many tumor-reactive TILs remains undefined....

  13. Treatment with levodopa and risk for malignant melanoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Jørgen H; Tangerud, Karina; Wermuth, Lene; Frederiksen, Kirsten; Friis, S.

    2007-01-01

    A large follow-up study in Denmark of 14,088 patients in whom Parkinson's disease was diagnosed at hospital showed a twofold higher incidence of malignant melanoma in these patients than in the general population. In a nested case-control study of 45 patients with malignant melanoma, 97 patients...... malignant melanoma in a subgroup of patients with a probable diagnosis of idiopathic Parkinson's disease as compared with other patients. There was apparently no effect of levodopa on the risk for malignant melanoma as indicated by an odds ratio of 1.0 (95% confidence interval, 0.8-1.3) per 1,000 g...... cumulative intake of the drug. We conclude that the increased rate of malignant melanoma observed in patients treated at hospital for Parkinson's disease is restricted to those with idiopathic Parkinson's disease, however, unrelated to the treatment with levodopa. (c) 2007 Movement Disorder Society....

  14. Dermatologia comparativa: dermatoscopia em melanoma cutâneo Comparative dermatology: dermatoscopy of cutaneous melanoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otávio Sérgio Lopes

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Os autores apresentam imagens de dermatoscopia em uma fruta (manga-rosa, contaminada pela antracnose, mostrando sua semelhança com o melanoma extensivo superficial.The authors present images from a dermatoscopy performed in a fruit (mango that was contaminated by anthracnosis, showing its similarity to superficial spreading melanona.

  15. Sebocyte-like cell primary cutaneous melanoma: a rare cytologic variant of malignant melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina-Ruiz, Ana M; Ortiz-Reina, Sebastián; Carranza, Carmen; Kutzner, Heinz; Requena, Luis

    2015-11-01

    Although rising incidence rates of cutaneous melanoma have been observed during the last 4 decades in white populations worldwide, the sebocyte-like cell variant has been described only twice in the literature to date. In our case, a 64-year-old man presented for evaluation of a changing pigmented lesion on the left upper back. Excision of the lesion revealed an invasive melanoma with a Breslow depth of 3.3 mm. Microscopic sections showed a predominantly dermal-based tumor composed of sheets and nests of enlarged epithelioid melanocytes, most of which showed an uncommon phenotype with multivacuolated cytoplasms and scalloped nuclei, features that gave them a strong resemblance to mature sebocytes. The lesional cells expressed S100 protein, Melan-A, and p16, whereas adipophilin was positive only within the sebocyte-like component of the neoplasm and showed focal nonspecific staining. The patient's sentinel lymph node biopsy was positive for micrometastases, although a subsequent position emission tomography scan was unremarkable. Sebocyte-like melanocytes are a rare distinctive type of melanocytes that can be found mostly in benign but also in malignant melanocytic lesions. They usually present focally within the lesions and, therefore, do not represent a diagnostic problem in nevus or primary cutaneous melanoma. However, when sebocyte-like melanocytes are the main cellular component of a melanocytic lesion or when they are found in the context of metastatic melanoma, they may create a potential diagnostic pitfall; for this reason, awareness of this cell type is important. PMID:25830719

  16. Clinicopathological characteristics, diagnosis and treatment of melanoma in Serbia: The Melanoma Focus Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kandolf-Sekulovi? Lidija

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Treatment options for metastatic melanoma in Serbia are limited due to the lack of newly approved biologic agents and the lack of clinical studies. Also, there is a paucity of data regarding the treatment approaches in different tertiary centers and efficacy of available chemotherapy protocols. The aim of this study was to obtain more detailed data about treatment protocols in Serbia based on structured survey in tertiary oncology centers. Methods. Data about the melanoma patients treated in 2011 were analyzed from hospital databases in 6 referent oncology centers in Serbia, based on the structured survey, with the focus on metastatic melanoma patients (unresectable stage IIIC and IV. Results. A total of 986 (79-315 in different centers patients were treated, with 320 (32.45% newly diagnosed patients. There were 317 patients in stage IIIC/IV, 77/317 aged 60 years. At initial diagnosis 12.5% of patients were in stage III and 4.5% in stage IV. The most common type was superficial spreading melanoma (50-66%, followed by nodular melanoma (23.5-50%. Apart from the regional and distant lymph node metastases, the most frequent organs involved in stage IV disease were distant skin and soft tissues (12-55%, lungs (19-55.5%, liver (10-60%, and bones (3-10%. The first line therapy in stage IV metastatic melanoma was dacarbazine (DTIC dimethyl-triazeno-imidozole-carboxamide in 61-93% of the patients, while the second line varied between the centers. Disease control (complete response + partial response + stable disease was achieved in 25.7% of the patients treated with the first line chemotherapy and 23.1% of the patients treated with the second line therapy, but the duration of response was short, in first-line therapy 6.66 ± 3.36 months (median 6.75 months. More than 90% of patients were treated outside the clinical trials. Conclusion. Based on this survey, there is a large unmet need for the new treatment options for metastatic melanoma in Serbia. The development of national guidelines, and greater involvement in international clinical studies could lead to widening of treatment options for this chemotherapy resistant disease.

  17. Melanoma de coroides: presentación de un caso / Choroidal melanoma: a case presentation

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Aymed, Rodríguez Pargas; Leonor, Gallardo Roca; Iris, Chávez Pardo; Xiomara, Borrego Lastre.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Fundamento: los melanomas de coroides son considerados los tumores malignos más frecuentes en el adulto, aparece generalmente entre la sexta y séptima década de la vida y se diagnostica a través de la oftalmoscopia, la biomiscroscopia, el ultrasonido y la angiografía fluoresceínica. Su forma de pres [...] entación puede ser en su variante nodular o difusa la malignidad depende del tamaño del tumor, la localización, extensión extra escleral, tipo histológico, entre otros factores. La causa de muerte por esta enfermedad suele ocurrir por metástasis hepática. Objetivo: evitar el diagnóstico tardío del melanoma ocular. Caso clínico: se presenta el caso de una paciente femenina de 50 años de edad que acudió al centro oftalmológico del Hospital Universitario Manuel Ascunce Domenech, por disminución lenta de la agudeza visual del ojo derecho, detectándose al examen oftalmológico la presencia de una masa tumoral de color pardo que ocupaba la hemiretina superior, lo cual se corroboró con la observación de el ultrasonido ocular, por lo que se decidió proceder a la enucleación del globo ocular debido a las características del mismo. El estudio histopatológico confirmó la presencia de un melanoma de coroides de células tipo mixtas con infiltración a cuerpo ciliar. Los resultados del examen físico general, hematológico e imagenológico fueron negativos, descartándose la presencia de metástasis. Abstract in english Background: choroidal melanoma is considered the most common malignant tumor in adults. It usually appears between the sixth and seventh decade of life and it is diagnosed by ophthalmoscopy, biomiscroscopy, ultrasound and fluorescein angiography. Choroidal melanoma presentation may be in its nodular [...] or diffuse variant; malignancy depends on the size of tumor, location, extrascleral extension, histological type, among other factors. The cause of death from this disease usually occurs by hepatic metastases. Objective: to avoid late diagnosis of ocular melanoma. Case presentation: a 50-year-old-female patient presented with slow decrease of visual acuity in the right eye. The eye test detected the presence of a brown tumor mass occupying the upper hemiretina, which was corroborated with the observation of ocular ultrasound. It was decided to enucleate the eyeball due to its characteristics. Histopathological examination confirmed the presence of a choroidal melanoma of mixed cell type with ciliary body infiltration. Results of physical, hematological and imaging examination were negative, ruling out the presence of metastasis.

  18. Isolated limb infusion chemotherapy for melanoma: an overview of early experience at the Adelaide Melanoma Unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giles MH

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Mitchell H Giles,1 Brendon J Coventry2 1Adelaide Melanoma Unit, 2Discipline of Surgery, The University of Adelaide, Royal Adelaide Hospital Adelaide, SA, Australia Background: Isolated limb infusion (ILI using cytotoxic agents has been demonstrated to be an effective and less invasive alternative modality than isolated limb perfusion for the treatment of melanoma localized to a limb. Percutaneous catheters were inserted into the axial artery and vein of the affected limb while using a pneumatic cuff to restrict limb vascular flow proximally to "isolate" the limb from the body and enable delivery of high-dose intra-arterial chemotherapy selectively to the limb. The ILI technique was developed at the Sydney Melanoma Unit (now renamed the Melanoma Institute Australia, and only a few other centers have reported separate results. We report our early results using the ILI technique for management of locally recurrent surgically nonresectable melanoma. Methods and results: Twenty-eight ILI procedures were performed in 20 patients treated with one or more procedures between 1997 and 2007. Patient parameters and clinical responses were evaluated. The median follow-up duration was 15.9 months after the first ILI, with an overall response rate after one or more infusions of 70%, of which 35% were complete responders and 35% were partial responders, with a further 20% showing stable disease, giving a "clinically significant" response rate of 90%. After one ILI (n = 20, the overall response rate was 70%, with 20% complete responders and 50% partial responders, and 20% with stable disease. Low limb toxicities were generally observed, and no amputations were required. Conclusion: ILI chemotherapy is a useful technique, which can be readily repeated for control of melanoma in the limb. It is generally well tolerated, and is capable of achieving a cure, delayed progression, or effective palliation in selected cases. The longest survivors in this series were 8 and 10 years from the last ILI. Keywords: metastatic melanoma, melphalan, actinomycin-D, regional therapy, intra-arterial infusion

  19. Intention to Obtain Genetic Testing for Melanoma among Individuals at Low to Moderate Risk for Hereditary Melanoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vadaparampil, Susan T.; Azzarello, Lora; Pickard, Jennifer; Jacobsen, Paul B.

    2007-01-01

    Background: Melanoma is a serious skin cancer that has been on the rise in the United States. Some genetic component is apparent. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to identify demographic, clinical, attitudinal, and health belief factors associated with intention to obtain genetic testing for hereditary melanoma among unaffected first-degree…

  20. Current status and perspectives of treatment of disseminated melanoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melanoma is considered to be one of the most malignant human neoplasms, characterized by a steadily increasing morbidity rate, which remains a challenge for modem oncology. Despite the significant progress in prevention, diagnosis and molecular biology, the practical use of this knowledge is still limited and surgery remains the main method of treatment. A particularly unfavorable clinical course is observed in patients with metastatic melanoma. Median survival in stage IV melanoma is 6-10 months, 2-year survival is less than 10%, and 5-year survival does not exceed 5%. Despite efforts aimed at developing new strategies which would improve survival, the results have not changed for more than two decades. This is related to the limited number of cytostatic drugs available for systemic melanoma treatment and the relative resistance of melanoma cells to most therapeutic agents. In clinical practice, the most widely used drug is dacarbazine, with the highest, but still unsatisfactory, response rate reaching some 20%. The lack of effective therapies calls for the exploration of different therapeutic paths, both medical and surgical. Some hopes of new modalities are associated with the theory of melanoma immunogenicity. Currently it is believed that immuno modulation may be the solution for effective treatment of melanoma and it should be noted that new drugs, scheduled to be registered by the FDA for the treatment of metastatic melanoma, are immune system stimulating agents. Although targeted therapies are still not a standard of treatment and their use is mainly limited to clinical trials, they appear to be the future of effective treatment of metastatic melanoma. In this review we present the current methods of treatment of metastatic melanoma. (authors)

  1. Trabajo de revisión: melanoma Work of revision: melanoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. J. Casariego

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available El melanoma maligno es derivado de células dendríticas (névicas proliferantes progenitoras de lesiones. Son importantes en la histogénesis y en el riesgo de desarrollo del melanoma maligno. Del 30% al 37% de los melanomas malignos del tracto aero-digestivo superior están asociados a una lesión premaligna melanótica. Los hallazgos histopatológicos con técnicas convencionales concuerdan en considerar de valor el tamaño del tumor, las células atípicas, la distribución de las células y los márgenes de la lesión. Avances mayores en inmunología de los tumores, llevan a identificar la interacción célula tumoral- célula T. Han sido identificados y caracterizados molecularmente un número de melanomas asociados a antígenos.Advance malignant melanoma is generated from proliferating dendritic (nevic cell progenitors. They are important on the histogenesis and risk of tumor development. From 30% to 37% from high air-digestic track melanoms, there are associated with premalignant cell dendritic lesions. Histophatological approaches agree in consider size of tumor, atypical cells, distribution of this cells and borders of lesion as valued markers. Major advances in tumor irnmunology, have led to understand tumor cell-T cell interactions. A number of melanom associated antigens have been identified and molecularly characterized.

  2. Melanomas: radiobiology and role of radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose/Objective: This course will review the radiobiology of malignant melanoma (MM) and the clinical use of radiation therapy for metastatic melanoma and selected primary sites. The course will emphasize the scientific principles underlying the clinical treatment of MM. Introduction: The incidence of malignant melanoma has one of the fastest growth rates in the world. In 1991, there were 32,000 cases and 7,000 deaths from MM in the United States. By the year 2000, one of every 90 Americans will develop MM. Wide local excision is the treatment of choice for Stage I-II cutaneous MM. Five-year survival rates depend on (a) sex: female-63%, male-40%; (b) tumor thickness: t 4 mm-25%; (c) location: extremity-60%, trunk-41%; and (d) regional lymph node status: negative-77%, positive-31%. Despite adequate surgery, 45-50% of all MM patients will develop metastatic disease. Radiobiology: Both the multi-target model: S = 1-(1-e-D/Do)n and the linear quadratic mode: -In(S) = alpha x D + beta x D2 predict a possible benefit for high dose per fraction (> 400 cGy) radiation therapy for some MM cell lines. The extrapolation number (n) varies from 1-100 for MM compared to other mammalian cells with n=2-4. The alpha/beta ratios for a variety of MM cell lines vary from 1 to 33. Other radiobiologic factors (repair of potentially lethal damage, hypoxia, reoxygenation, and repopulation) predict a wide variety of clinical responses to different time-dose prescriptions including high dose per fraction (> 400 cGy), low dose per fraction (200-300 cGy), or b.i.d. therapy. Based on a review of the radiobiology of MM, no single therapeutic strategy emerges which could be expected to be successful for all tumors. Time-Dose Prescriptions: A review of the retrospective and prospective clinical trials evaluating various time-dose prescriptions for MM reveals: (1) MM is a radiosensitive tumor over a wide range of diverse time-dose prescriptions; and (2) The high clinical response rates to a diverse range of time-dose prescriptions are consistent with the wide diversity and complexity of the radiobiological data for MM. RT for Metastatic Melanoma: RT is the single most effective therapy for local palliation of metastatic disease. Complete response (CR) rates range from 24-75% and overall response (OR) rates are 59-98% with RT compared with CR rates of 3-10% and OR rates of only 15-36% with either chemotherapy or immunotherapy. Achieving a CR is important even for patients with metastatic disease. Five-year survival for patients with metastatic disease who achieve a CR is 49% compared to a 5-year survival of only 3% for patients who do not achieve a CR. RT for Primary Tumors: RT is effective therapy for selected primary sites including uveal melanoma and non-cutaneous, non-ocular mucosal MM. The RT results for ocular melanoma and non-cutaneous, non-ocular mucosal MM are superior to surgery. In addition, post-operative RT for residual microscopic/macroscopic disease following primary surgery produces long term local control rates of 75-88%. It is likely that radiation therapy is being under-utilized in current oncology practice

  3. Identification of genes associated with melanoma metastasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Tao; Wang, Hongyi; Wang, Yang; Zhang, Yu; Hui, Qiang; Tao, Kai

    2015-11-01

    The aims of the study were to identify the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between primary melanomas and metastasis melanomas (MMs), and to investigate the mechanisms of MMs. The microarray data GSE8401 including 31 primary melanomas and 52 MMs were downloaded from Gene Expression Omnibus. DEGs were identified using the Linear Models for Microarray Data package. The functional and pathway enrichment analyses were performed for DEGs. Identification of transcription factors, tumor-associated genes (TAGs), and tumor suppressor genes (TSGs) were performed with the TRANSFAC, TAG, and TSGene databases, respectively. A protein-protein interaction network was constructed using Search Tool for the Retrieval of Interacting Genes. The modules construction and analysis was performed using Molecular Complex Detection and Gene Cluster with Literature Profiles, respectively. In total, 1004 upregulated and 1008 downregulated DEGs were identified. The upregulated DEGs, such as CDK1, BRCA1, MAD2L1, and PCNA, were significantly enriched in cell cycles, DNA replication, and mismatch repair. The downregulated DEGs, such as COLIAL, COL4A5, COL18A1, and LAMC2, were enriched in cell adhesion and extracellular matrix-receptor interaction. BRCA1 was identified as a transcription factor and TSG, and COL18A1 and LAMC2 were identified as a TSG and TAG, respectively. The upregulated DEGs had higher degrees in the protein-protein interaction network and module, such as PCNA, CDK1, and MAD2L1, and the heat map showed they were clustered in the functions of cell cycle and division. These results may demonstrate the potential roles of DEGs such as CDK1, BRCA1, COL18A1, and LAMC2 in the mechanism of MM. PMID:26678934

  4. Lessons learned from the Sunbelt Melanoma Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMasters, Kelly M; Noyes, R Dirk; Reintgen, Douglas S; Goydos, James S; Beitsch, Peter D; Davidson, B Scott; Sussman, Jeffrey J; Gershenwald, Jeffrey E; Ross, Merrick I

    2004-07-01

    The Sunbelt Melanoma Trial is an ongoing multicenter prospective randomized trial that involves 79 centers and over 3600 patients from across the United States and Canada. This is one of the first large randomized studies to incorporate molecular staging using reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). While the results related to the primary endpoints of the study are not yet available, several analyses have shed light on many aspects of sentinel lymph node (SLN) biopsy and melanoma prognostic factors. In particular, we have developed a practical definition of sentinel nodes based on the degree of radioactivity. We have established the low rate of postoperative complications associated with SLN biopsy as compared to complete lymph node dissection. We have identified factors that predict the presence of SLN metastases. In contrast, we have been unable to identify factors that indicate a low risk of non-sentinel node metastases in patients with a positive sentinel node, suggesting that completion lymphadenectomy is appropriate for such patients. We have further established the value of identifying interval or in-transit sentinel nodes, which can be the only site of nodal metastasis. We have evaluated the particular challenges associated with SLN biopsy of head and neck melanomas, have evaluated the patterns of early recurrence, and have identified an interesting correlation between increasing patient age and a number of prognostic factors. Future analyses will evaluate the benefit of early therapeutic lymphadenectomy and early institution of adjuvant interferon alfa-2b therapy, as well as the validity of molecular staging. PMID:15221928

  5. Carbon ion radiotherapy for uveal melanoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the applicability of carbon ion beams in the treatment of choroidal melanoma, with regard to normal tissue morbidity and local tumor control. Between January 2001 and August 2006, 67 patients with locally advanced or unfavorable-site choroidal melanoma were enrolled in a phase I/II clinical trial of carbon-ion radiotherapy (C-ion RT) at the National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS). Primary endpoint of this study was normal tissue morbidity and secondary endpoints were local tumor control and patient survival. Fifty-nine of the patients were followed up for more than 6 months and analyzed. Twenty-three patients (39%) developed neovascular glaucoma (NVG) and 3 of them underwent enucleation because of the eye pain due to elevated intraocular pressure. The incidence of neovascular glaucoma was dependent on tumor size and site. Five patients had died by the date of analysis, 3 of distant metastasis and 2 of intercurrent diseases. All patients but one, who developed marginal recurrence, were controlled locally. Eight patients developed distant metastasis, 5 in the liver and 3 in the lung. Three-year overall survival, disease-free survival, and local control rates were 87.1%, 81.6%, and 98.0%, respectively. No apparent dose-response relationship was observed either in tumor control or in normal tissue morbidity with the dose range applied. C-ion RT can be applied to choroidal melanoma with an acceptable morbidity and sufficient anti-tumor effect, even in tumors of unfavorable size or site. (author)

  6. Melanoma and intravascular coagulation disseminated fulminant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clinical discoveries, imaginological and pathological of a 54 year-old woman, with pruritus, ulceration and bled intermittent in dorsal nevus, located in the region left sub-scapular. The biopsy demonstrated the presence of malign melanoma. Two months after having carried out the procedure the reappearance of the tumoral lesion it was documented on the same area by what was practiced wide local resection; the report was compatible with recidivate melanoma, later on (four weeks after the second surgical intervention), she noticed the presence of conglomerate left axillary ganglion of quick growth for metastatic melanoma. To the moment of the initial evaluation, it founded a mass axillary left, of 10 x 6 cm, associated to local swelling and to slight functional limitation for the active and passive mobility of the extremity. It decided to carry out new surgical resection that demonstrated persistence tumoral in the deep borders and commitment in 1 of 9 ganglions for metastasis, associated to reaction inflammatory chronicle. It began treatment adjuvant with interferon alpha 2b with appropriate tolerance and poor answer. In June of the same year it presented progressive dyspnoea, for what decided to suspend the immune-therapy and to begin dacarbacina with palliative intention, also, she received radiotherapy on the left axilla and temozolamida. In March of 2004, it entered to the service of urgencies to present scheme of 8 days of evolution characterized by the presence of progressive asymmetric edema of the left inferior member, associated to functional limitation for the march, with pain during the bipedestation and appearance of multiple lesions nodular hyper-pigmented in the previous thorax and in the face

  7. Nevi, family history and fair skin increase the risk of second primary melanoma

    OpenAIRE

    Siskind, Victor; Hughes, Maria Celia B; Palmer, Jane; Symmons, Judy; Aitken, Joanne F.; Martin, Nicholas G.; Hayward, Nicholas K; Whiteman, David C

    2010-01-01

    While risk factors for primary cutaneous melanoma are well defined, relatively little is known about predictors for second primary melanoma. Given the rising incidence of this cancer, coupled with improvements in survival, there is a prevalent and growing pool of patients at risk of second primary melanomas. To identify the predictors of second primary melanoma, we followed a cohort of 1083 Queensland patients diagnosed with incident melanoma between 1982-90 and who completed a baseline quest...

  8. Regional growth of different human melanomas as metastases in the brain of nude mice.

    OpenAIRE

    Schackert, G; PRICE, J. E.; Zhang, R. D.; Bucana, C. D.; Itoh, K.(Department of Physics, University of Tokyo, 113-0033, Tokyo, Japan); Fidler, I J

    1990-01-01

    Cells from eight different human melanomas and two murine melanomas were injected into the internal carotid artery of anesthetized nude mice. Although all were injected by the same route, particular melanomas produced lesions in different regions of the brain. Two melanoma cell lines isolated originally from brain metastases in patients produced metastases predominantly in the brain parenchyma. In contrast, melanoma cells from subcutaneous or lymph node metastases produced more lesions in the...

  9. Prenylation inhibition-induced cell death in melanoma: reduced sensitivity in BRAF mutant/PTEN wild-type melanoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garay, Tamás; Kenessey, István; Molnár, Eszter; Juhász, Éva; Réti, Andrea; László, Viktória; Rózsás, Anita; Dobos, Judit; Döme, Balázs; Berger, Walter; Klepetko, Walter; Tóvári, József; Tímár, József; Hegedűs, Balázs

    2015-01-01

    While targeted therapy brought a new era in the treatment of BRAF mutant melanoma, therapeutic options for non-BRAF mutant cases are still limited. In order to explore the antitumor activity of prenylation inhibition we investigated the response to zoledronic acid treatment in thirteen human melanoma cell lines with known BRAF, NRAS and PTEN mutational status. Effect of zoledronic acid on proliferation, clonogenic potential, apoptosis and migration of melanoma cells as well as the activation of downstream elements of the RAS/RAF pathway were investigated in vitro with SRB, TUNEL and PARP cleavage assays and videomicroscopy and immunoblot measurements, respectively. Subcutaneous and spleen-to-liver colonization xenograft mouse models were used to evaluate the influence of zoledronic acid treatment on primary and disseminated tumor growth of melanoma cells in vivo. Zoledronic acid more efficiently decreased short-term in vitro viability in NRAS mutant cells when compared to BRAF mutant and BRAF/NRAS wild-type cells. In line with this finding, following treatment decreased activation of ribosomal protein S6 was found in NRAS mutant cells. Zoledronic acid demonstrated no significant synergism in cell viability inhibition or apoptosis induction with cisplatin or DTIC treatment in vitro. Importantly, zoledronic acid could inhibit clonogenic growth in the majority of melanoma cell lines except in the three BRAF mutant but PTEN wild-type melanoma lines. A similar pattern was observed in apoptosis induction experiments. In vivo zoledronic acid did not inhibit the subcutaneous growth or spleen-to-liver colonization of melanoma cells. Altogether our data demonstrates that prenylation inhibition may be a novel therapeutic approach in NRAS mutant melanoma. Nevertheless, we also demonstrated that therapeutic sensitivity might be influenced by the PTEN status of BRAF mutant melanoma cells. However, further investigations are needed to identify drugs that have appropriate pharmacological properties to efficiently target prenylation in melanoma cells. PMID:25646931

  10. Lack of GNAQ and GNA11 germ-line mutations in familial melanoma pedigrees with uveal melanoma or blue nevi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JasonEzraHawkes

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Approximately 10% of melanoma cases are familial, but only 25-40% of familial melanoma cases can be attributed to germ-line mutations in the CDKN2A - the most significant high-risk melanoma susceptibility locus identified to date. The pathogenic mutation(s in most of the remaining familial melanoma pedigrees have not yet been identified. The most common mutations in nevi and sporadic melanoma are found in BRAF and NRAS, both of which result in constitutive activation of the MAPK pathway. However, these mutations are not found in uveal melanomas or the intradermal melanocytic proliferations known as blue nevi. Rather, multiple studies report a strong association between these lesions and somatic mutations in Guanine nucleotide-binding protein G(q subunit alpha (GNAQ, Guanine nucleotide-binding protein G(q subunit alpha-11 (GNA11 and BRCA1 associated protein-1 (BAP1. Recently, germ-line mutations in BAP1, the gene encoding a tumor suppressing deubiquitinating enzyme, have been associated with predisposition to a variety of cancers including uveal melanoma, but no studies have examined the association of germ-line mutations in GNAQ and GNA11 with uveal melanoma and blue nevi. We have now done so by sequencing exon 5 of both of these genes in 13 unique familial melanoma pedigrees, members of which have had either uveal or cutaneous melanoma and/or blue nevi. Germ-line DNA from a total of 22 individuals was used for sequencing; however no deleterious mutations were detected. Nevertheless, such candidate gene studies and the discovery of novel germ-line mutations associated with an increased MM susceptibility can lead to a better understanding of the pathways involved in melanocyte transformation, formulation of risk assessment, and the development of specific drug therapies.

  11. Melanoma de corpo ciliar e coróide: relato de caso Choroidal and ciliary body melanoma: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Amaral Fulgêncio da Cunha

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Melanomas oculares correspondem a 5% de todos os melanomas e 85% deles têm origem no trato uveal. Melanoma uveal é o tumor maligno intraocular primário mais comum no adulto. Relatamos neste artigo um caso de melanoma uveal em paciente, sexo feminino, 31 anos, com quadro de fotopsia, hiperemia e baixa da acuidade visual no olho esquerdo com evolução de quatro meses. Apresentava ao exame oftalmológico acuidade visual menor que 20/400, grande massa tumoral na região nasal retroiriana, com deslocamento anterior do cristalino, estreitamento da câmara anterior e descolamento seroso da retina. A ecografia sugeriu tratar-se de grande massa tumoral suspeita de melanoma de coróide com invasão do corpo ciliar. A confirmação diagnóstica foi possível por meio do exame anatomopatológico.Ocular melanomas correspond to 5% of all melanomas and 85% of them have its origin in the uveal tract. Uveal melanoma is the most commom primary intraocular malignant tumor in the adult. In this article, a case of uveal melanoma in a 31 year-old female patient, with photopsia, hyperemia and low visual acuity in the left eye with evolution of 4 months is presented. In the ophthalmologic examination, visual acuity was lower than 20/400, a large tumoral mass was noted at the nasal region behind the iris with anterior lens displacement, anterior chamber narrowing and serous retinal detachment. The ocular echography suggested a large tumoral mass as a choroidal melanoma extending to the ciliary body. The confirmation diagnosis was possible through the histopathologic examination.

  12. Novel alpha-MSH peptide analogs for melanoma targeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flook, Adam Michael

    Skin cancer is the one of the most diagnosed cancers in the United States with increasing incidence over the past two decades. There are three major forms of skin cancer but melanoma is the deadliest. It is estimated that 76,690 new diagnoses of melanoma and 9,480 deaths will occur in 2013. Melanoma accounts for approximately 1.6% of all cancer related deaths and is the 5 th leading diagnosed cancer in the United States. The mean survival rate of patients diagnosed with metastatic melanoma is six months, with five year survival rates of less than 5%. In this project, we describe the design and characterization of novel melanoma-targeting peptide analogs for use in diagnostic imaging of both primary and metastatic melanoma lesions. Novel alpha-MSH peptide conjugates were designed to target the melanocortin-1 receptor present and over-expressed on melanoma cells. These peptides were synthesized and their in-vitro melanocortin-1 receptor binding affinities were established in murine melanoma cells. Once binding affinities were determined, the peptides were radiolabeled with 99mTc utilizing a novel direct radiolabeling technique developed in our laboratory. The peptides were purified via reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatography and in-vivo melanoma targeting and pharmacokinetic properties were determined in B16/F1 melanoma-bearing female C57BL/6 mice. Biodistribution and SPECT/CT imaging studies were performed with the promising 99m Tc-labeled peptide conjugates. All alpha-MSH peptide conjugates tested showed low nanomolar binding affinity for the melanocortin-1 receptor. All peptides were readily radiolabeld with 99mTc with greater than 95% radiochemical purity. All 99mTc-labeled peptides displayed high specific in-vivo melanoma tumor uptake while maintaining low normal organ accumulation, and were excreted through the urinary system in a timely fashion. In addition, all tested 99mTc-labeld alpha-MSH peptides demonstrated clear visualization of in-vivo tumor lesions with SPECT/CT. While all peptides exhibited high melanoma uptake, extremely high non-specific renal uptake was of concern. After synthesis of alpha-MSH peptide conjugates containing a different amino acid linker, renal uptake was drastically reduced and a lead compound had emerged, showing favorable in-vivo melanoma targeting and uptake properties with limited amounts of non-specific renal accumulation.

  13. Melanoma screening: A plan for improving early detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shellenberger, Richard; Nabhan, Mohammed; Kakaraparthi, Sweta

    2016-05-01

    Malignant melanoma ranks fifth in the number of new cases annually in the United States (US). Despite increasing incidence and lack of recent improvement in mortality, national melanoma screening guidelines are currently not in existence. Our purpose was to review the evidence regarding screening whole-body skin examinations for early detection and a possible mortality benefit for malignant melanoma. Data sources for our review were MEDLINE Complete, PubMed, Cochrane Library, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, and ClinicalTrials.gov. Study selection included: epidemiologic data from the US and European cancer surveillance registries, population-based case-control screening trials, computer-simulated Markov model trials, and survey trials. Studies were limited to those published in the English language. Data was extracted using a dual extraction method. Data from studies have shown that the mortality of malignant melanoma is highly predicated on the tumor thickness at the time of diagnosis. Our data review is in support of the implementation of whole-body skin examinations, performed by primary care physicians, for the purpose of early detection of melanoma. A large national population-based, case-control, skin cancer screening trial in Germany has shown a reduction in melanoma-specific mortality. In conclusion, our review of the evidence supports physicians performed whole-body skin examination can lead to the detection of earlier stage melanomas as well as to a reduction in disease-specific mortality. We found a paucity of randomized trials to be a limitation of screening studies for many cancers, including melanoma. To improve screening rates and early detection of malignant melanoma, we propose making skin cancer education part of the curriculum in US primary care residency programs to become the genesis for widespread melanoma screening. Our study had no funding. Key messages Malignant melanoma is the fifth leading cancer in the United States (US). In the US and many countries worldwide, the incidence and mortality rates have not declined despite advances seen in the detection and treatment of many cancers. Whole-body skin examination is non-invasive and has shown to be cost effective. There is evidence supporting a mortality benefit using routine, widespread skin cancer examinations. Primary care physicians have been shown to effectively use skin cancer examination for early detection and reduced melanoma mortality. The majority of US primary care residents are inadequately trained in skin cancer examination. There is a possible survival advantage and cost effectiveness for melanoma screening. PMID:26911192

  14. Radiation sensitivity of the malignant melanoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Based on case histories of 67 patients with malignant melanomas (14 primary tumors and 53 metastases to the lymph nodes) who underwent sole irradiation, the correlation between the total dose needed for a local healing and the period of treatment has been investigated. It appeared that excessively high doses are not necessary for healing. A dose of about 5,500 rd in 35 days is regarded as sufficient. In long-term treatment, however, the total dose has to be increased more than, for example, with squamous cell carcinoma. (orig.)

  15. Primary melanoma of Meckel's cave: case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falavigna, Asdrubal; Borba, Luis A B; Ferraz, Fernando Antonio Patriani; Almeida, Giovana Camargo de; Krindges Júnior, José Valentim

    2004-06-01

    We present a case of trigeminal neuralgia with cranial normal magnetic resonance image (MRI) and computed tomography. The pain was not relieved by carbamazepine and microvascular decompression surgery was done. After two months the pain was similar to the condition before surgery. At this time, MRI showed an expansive lesion in Meckel's cave that was treated with radical resection by extra-dural approach. The pathologic examination revealed a primary melanoma. The follow-up after six months did not show abnormalities. PMID:15235745

  16. Modeling tandem AAG8-MEK inhibition in melanoma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drug resistance presents a challenge to the treatment of cancer patients, especially for melanomas, most of which are caused by the hyperactivation of MAPK signaling pathway. Innate or acquired drug-resistant relapse calls for the investigation of the resistant mechanisms and new anti-cancer drugs to provide implications for the ultimate goal of curative therapy. Aging-associated gene 8 (AAG8, encoded by the SIGMAR1 gene) is a chaperone protein profoundly elaborated in neurology. However, roles of AAG8 in carcinogenesis remain unclear. Herein, we discover AAG8 antagonists as new MEK inhibitors in melanoma cells and propose a novel drug combination strategy for melanoma therapy by presenting the experimental evidences. We report that specific antagonism of AAG8, efficiently suppresses melanoma cell growth and migration through, at least in part, the inactivation of the RAS-CRAF-MEK signaling pathway. We further demonstrate that melanoma cells that are resistant to AAG8 antagonist harbor refractory CRAF-MEK activity. MEK acts as a central mediator for anti-cancer effects and also for the resistance mechanism, leading to our proposal of tandem AAG8-MEK inhibition in melanoma cells. Combination of AAG8 antagonist and very low concentration of a MEK inhibitor synergistically restricts the growth of drug-resistant cells. These data collectively pinpoint AAG8 as a potential target and delineate a promising drug combination strategy for melanoma therapy

  17. AKT1 Activation Promotes Development of Melanoma Metastases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph H. Cho

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Metastases are the major cause of melanoma-related mortality. Previous studies implicating aberrant AKT signaling in human melanoma metastases led us to evaluate the effect of activated AKT1 expression in non-metastatic BRAFV600E/Cdkn2aNull mouse melanomas in vivo. Expression of activated AKT1 resulted in highly metastatic melanomas with lung and brain metastases in 67% and 17% of our mice, respectively. Silencing of PTEN in BRAFV600E/Cdkn2aNull melanomas cooperated with activated AKT1, resulting in decreased tumor latency and the development of lung and brain metastases in nearly 80% of tumor-bearing mice. These data demonstrate that AKT1 activation is sufficient to elicit lung and brain metastases in this context and reveal that activation of AKT1 is distinct from PTEN silencing in metastatic melanoma progression. These findings advance our knowledge of the mechanisms driving melanoma metastasis and may provide valuable insights for clinical management of this disease.

  18. Normal human melanocyte homeostasis as a paradigm for understanding melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haass, Nikolas K; Herlyn, Meenhard

    2005-11-01

    Melanocytes, after cell division, separate and migrate along the basement membrane; they extend their dendrites and establish multiple contacts with keratinocytes. Once adhesion is established, keratinocytes control melanocyte growth and expression of cell surface receptors. Most melanomas arise within the epidermis (melanoma in situ) and then invade across the basement membrane. These melanoma cells escape from control by keratinocytes through five major mechanisms: (1) downregulation of receptors important for communication with keratinocytes such as E-cadherin, P-cadherin, and desmoglein, which is achieved through growth factors such as hepatocyte growth factor, platelet-derived growth factor, and endothelin-1 produced by fibroblasts or keratinocytes; (2) upregulation of receptors and signaling molecules important for melanoma cell-melanoma cell and melanoma cell-fibroblast interactions such as N-cadherin, Mel-CAM, and zonula occludens protein-1; (3) deregulation of morphogens such as Notch receptors and their ligands; (4) loss of anchorage to the basement membrane because of an altered expression of cell-matrix adhesion molecules; (5) increased elaboration of metal-loproteinases. Thus, investigating normal melanocyte homeostasis helps us to better define how melanoma cells escape the microenvironment created by epidermal keratinocytes and how they develop new cellular partners in fibroblasts and endothelial cells, which support their growth and invasion. PMID:16358819

  19. Exome sequencing identifies recurrent somatic RAC1 mutations in melanoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krauthammer, Michael; Kong, Yong; Ha, Byung Hak; Evans, Perry; Bacchiocchi, Antonella; McCusker, James P.; Cheng, Elaine; Davis, Matthew J.; Goh, Gerald; Choi, Murim; Ariyan, Stephan; Narayan, Deepak; Dutton-Regester, Ken; Capatana, Ana; Holman, Edna C.; Bosenberg, Marcus; Sznol, Mario; Kluger, Harriet M.; Brash, Douglas E.; Stern, David F.; Materin, Miguel A.; Lo, Roger S.; Mane, Shrikant; Ma, Shuangge; Kidd, Kenneth K.; Hayward, Nicholas K.; Lifton, Richard P.; Schlessinger, Joseph; Boggon, Titus J.; Halaban, Ruth (Yale-MED); (UCLA); (Queens)

    2012-10-11

    We characterized the mutational landscape of melanoma, the form of skin cancer with the highest mortality rate, by sequencing the exomes of 147 melanomas. Sun-exposed melanomas had markedly more ultraviolet (UV)-like C>T somatic mutations compared to sun-shielded acral, mucosal and uveal melanomas. Among the newly identified cancer genes was PPP6C, encoding a serine/threonine phosphatase, which harbored mutations that clustered in the active site in 12% of sun-exposed melanomas, exclusively in tumors with mutations in BRAF or NRAS. Notably, we identified a recurrent UV-signature, an activating mutation in RAC1 in 9.2% of sun-exposed melanomas. This activating mutation, the third most frequent in our cohort of sun-exposed melanoma after those of BRAF and NRAS, changes Pro29 to serine (RAC1{sup P29S}) in the highly conserved switch I domain. Crystal structures, and biochemical and functional studies of RAC1{sup P29S} showed that the alteration releases the conformational restraint conferred by the conserved proline, causes an increased binding of the protein to downstream effectors, and promotes melanocyte proliferation and migration. These findings raise the possibility that pharmacological inhibition of downstream effectors of RAC1 signaling could be of therapeutic benefit.

  20. High nevus counts confer a favorable prognosis in melanoma patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, John R.; Requena, Celia; Carrera, Cristina; Glass, Daniel; Rull, Ramon; Vidal‐Sicart, Sergi; Vilalta, Antonio; Alos, Lucia; Soriano, Virtudes; Quaglino, Pietro; Traves, Victor; Newton‐Bishop, Julia A.; Nagore, Eduardo; Malvehy, Josep; Puig, Susana; Bataille, Veronique

    2015-01-01

    A high number of nevi is the most significant phenotypic risk factor for melanoma and is in part genetically determined. The number of nevi decreases from middle age onward but this senescence can be delayed in patients with melanoma. We investigated the effects of nevus number count on sentinel node status and melanoma survival in a large cohort of melanoma cases. Out of 2,184 melanoma cases, 684 (31.3%) had a high nevus count (>50). High nevus counts were associated with favorable prognostic factors such as lower Breslow thickness, less ulceration and lower mitotic rate, despite adjustment for age. Nevus count was not predictive of sentinel node status. The crude 5‐ and 10‐year melanoma‐specific survival rate was higher in melanomas cases with a high nevus count compared to those with a low nevus count (91.2 vs. 86.4% and 87.2 vs. 79%, respectively). The difference in survival remained significant after adjusting for all known melanoma prognostic factors (hazard ratio [HR] = 0.43, confidence interval [CI] = 0.21–0.89). The favorable prognostic value of a high nevus count was also seen within the positive sentinel node subgroup of patients (HR = 0.22, CI = 0.08–0.60). High nevus count is associated with a better melanoma survival, even in the subgroup of patients with positive sentinel lymph node. This suggests a different biological behavior of melanoma tumors in patients with an excess of nevi. PMID:25809795

  1. Metastatic melanoma – a review of current and future drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago Rodrigues Velho

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Melanoma is one of the most aggressive cancers, and it is estimated that 76,250 men and women will be diagnosed with melanoma of the skin in the USA in 2012. Over the last few decades many drugs have been developed but only in 2011 have new drugs demonstrated an impact on survival in metastatic melanoma.Methods: A systematic search of literature was conducted, and studies providing data on the effectiveness of current and/or future drugs used in the treatment of metastatic melanoma were selected for review. This review discusses the advantages and limitations of these agents, evaluating past, current and future clinical trials designed to overcome such limitations.Results: To date, there are four drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration for melanoma (dacarbazine, interleukin-2, ipilimumab and vemurafenib. Despite efforts to develop new drugs, few of them have demonstrated any clinical benefits. Approved in 1975, dacarbazine remains the gold standard in chemotherapy, although ipilimumab and vemurafenib have raised many hopes in the last few years. Combining dacarbazine or other chemotherapy agents with new pharmacological agents may be a new way to achieve better clinical responses in patients with metastatic melanoma.Discussion: Advances in the molecular knowledge of melanoma have led to major improvements in the treatment of patients with metastatic melanoma, providing new targets and insights. However, heterogeneity amongst study populations, different approaches to treatment and the different melanoma types and localisations included in the trials makes their comparison difficult. New studies focusing on drugs developed in recent decades are warranted

  2. The role of the hippo pathway in melanocytes and melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ji Eun; Finlay, Graeme J; Baguley, Bruce C

    2013-01-01

    The Hippo signaling pathway comprises a series of cytoplasmic tumor suppressor proteins including Merlin and the Lats1/2 and MST1/2 kinases, and is thought to play a critical role in determining the sizes of organs and tissues. The Hippo pathway is regulated upstream by extracellular mechanosensory signaling arising from cell shape and polarity, as well as by a variety of extracellular signaling molecules. When active, the pathway maintains the transcriptional activators Yes-associated protein (YAP) and TAZ in phosphorylated forms in the cytoplasm, preventing cell proliferation. When the Hippo pathway is inactivated, YAP and TAZ are translocated to the nucleus and induce the expression of a variety of proteins concerned with entry into the cell division cycle, such as cyclin D1 and Fox M1, as well as the inhibition of apoptosis. The failure of the Hippo pathway has been implicated in the development of many different types of cancer but there is limited information available as to its involvement in melanoma. We hypothesize here firstly that the Hippo pathway is involved in maintaining density of cutaneous melanocytes on the basement membrane at the junction of the epidermis and the dermis, and secondly, that its function is disturbed in melanoma. We have analyzed a series of 23 low passage human melanoma lines as well as cultured normal melanoma, and find that melanocytes, as well as all melanoma cell lines examined express TAZ. Melanocytes and most melanoma lines also express YAP. E-cadherin, an upstream regulator of the Hippo pathway, and Axl, a receptor tyrosine kinase regulated by the Hippo pathway, are expressed in melanocytes and in several melanoma cell lines. These observations, together with published evidence for the presence of Merlin, Lats1/2, and MST1/2 in melanocytes and melanoma cells, support the hypothesis that the Hippo pathway is an important component of melanocyte and melanoma behavior. PMID:23720711

  3. Early detection of melanoma metastases with radioiodinated methylene blue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melanin synthesised in melanoma cells presents a unique target to which the treatment can be selectively addressed, provided the pigment is recognised by a suitable drug. Methylene blue (MTB) possesses a high affinity for melanin and, therefore, accumulates preferentially in melanoma cells. Since not directly toxic to the tumour, MTB serves as a carrier for radioisotopes and, once taken up by melanoma cells, acts as a selectively localised source of radiation. Hence, radioderivatives of the compound can be used for both diagnosis and therapy of disseminated melanoma. Eleven patients with confirmed metastatic melanoma and one with a recent local recurrence were studied using radioiodinated (iodine-123 or iodine-131) MTB and a gamma camera. Biopsies of cutaneous lesions were taken to determine directly the compound uptake in tumours. This first clinical investigation concerning the diagnostic potential of radioiodinated MTB in patients with disseminated melanoma confirmed the existence of approximately 80% of internal lesions previously identified by routine methods and, additionally, enabled detection of unknown secondaries in 6 of 12 patients studied. There were no false-positive gamma camera images regardless of whether 123I or 131I was used. 131I proved to be more suitable than 123I for detecting melanoma metastases with radioiodinated MTB. Hazy images of the lesions treated with external beam radiation and/or some drugs suggest that initial radio- and chemotherapy might affect MTB uptake in melanoma metastases and reduce the clarity of the scintigrams obtained from a gamma camera. However, small, untreated internal lesions that cannot be visualised easily with the standard diagnostic methods are revealed with 131I-MTB regardless of their localisation. It is concluded that use of radioiodinated MTB in conjunction with gamma camera or positron emission tomographic imaging might prove to be a useful and accessible tool for the detection of early melanoma dissemination. (orig.)

  4. Pembrolizumab: A Review in Advanced Melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deeks, Emma D

    2016-03-01

    Pembrolizumab (Keytruda(®)) is a humanized monoclonal antibody against programmed death receptor-1 (PD-1), a key immunoinhibitory checkpoint protein implicated in down-regulating anti-tumour immune responses. This intravenous drug is indicated for the treatment of advanced (unresectable or metastatic) melanoma, on the basis of its clinical benefit in this setting in the phase I KEYNOTE 001 trial (expansion cohorts) and the phase II and III trials, KEYNOTE 002 and 006. These studies were conducted in ipilimumab-naïve and/or ipilimumab-experienced patients and assessed varying pembrolizumab regimens administered every 2 or 3 weeks, all of which helped to determine the recommended dosage of 2 mg/kg every 3 weeks. In the trials with active comparator arms, pembrolizumab regimens significantly improved progression-free survival (PFS), overall survival (OS) and overall response rates (ORR) relative to ipilimumab in ipilimumab-naïve patients (KEYNOTE 006), and significantly improved PFS and ORR, but not OS (although OS data are immature), relative to chemotherapy in ipilimumab-refractory patients, who had also received BRAF/MEK inhibitor therapy if BRAF-mutation positive (KEYNOTE 002). Pembrolizumab has an acceptable tolerability profile, with immune-related adverse events that are generally manageable/reversible. Thus, pembrolizumab is a valuable treatment option for patients with advanced melanoma, including those who have progressed on ipilimumab and BRAF/MEK inhibitors. PMID:26846323

  5. GdNCT of spontaneous canine melanoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effectiveness of GdNCT has been studied in dogs with spontaneous melanoma of the mucousmembrane of the oral cavity patients on the NCT base at the IRT MEPhI reactor. The control group with melanomas was treated with neutrons. Fourteen canine patients were selected in the Clinic of Experimental Therapy affiliated with the RCRC RAMS. The calculation of doses has shown that the total dose of energy release depending on Gd concentration in the target can be several times higher than the dose produced by the reactor neutron beam. The calculations were carried out using the diffusion pharmacokinetic model. The gadolinium drug dipentast was administered intratumorally immediately prior to irradiation. The tumor size was estimated by measuring it in three projections. The tumor was irradiated for 60-90 minutes with a thermal neutron flux of 0.7x109 n/cm2s. The dose on tumor was 80-120 Gy, on surrounding tissues - 12-15 Gy. The treatment plan included immunotherapy with Roncoleikin in a dose of (15-10)x103 IE/kg. The results of GdNCT are still under observation. The results conform to those obtained by us earlier in cell cultures and inoculated experimental tumors. GdNCT is also effective in combination with immunotherapy. (author)

  6. Radioimmunoscintigraphy of human malignant melanoma. I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The novel RG-12 monoclonal antibody (MoAb) recognizing a high-molecular-weight antigen of human melanoma cells was radioiodinated and its biodistribution and tumor imaging was determined in immunosuppressed mice bearing xenografted human malignant melanoma HMB-2. Control and tumor-bearing mice were injected with 6 ?g of 125I-labeled RG-12 IgG (8.9 MBq 125I-IgG/animal). Clearance of the MoAb from plasma had a mean half life of 20.6 hours. At day 2 after injection, radiolabeled RG-12 IgG localized in the tumor was 1.43% of the injected dose bound per gram tissue (ID/g), whereas the localization in the healthy kidney was below 0.5%. Tumor to tissue ratio of MoAb accumulation was low for hepatic tissue (1.25) but high for spleen (3.30) and kidney (3.25). Scanning with a gamma camera localized tumor mass in the right kidney and implanted peritoneal metastases. (author). 3 figs., 1 tab., 9 refs

  7. Ultraviolet radiation and cutaneous malignant melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moan, Johan Emilian; Baturaite, Zivile; Dahlback, Arne; Porojnicu, Alina Carmen

    2014-01-01

    Essential features of the epidemiology and photobiology of cutaneous malignant melanoma (CMM) in Norway were studied in comparison with data from countries at lower latitudes. Arguments for and against a relationship between ultraviolet radiation (UV) from sun and artificial light and CMM are discussed. Our data indicate that UV is a carcinogen for CMM and that intermittent exposures are notably melanomagenic. This hypothesis was supported both by latitude gradients, by time trends and by changing patterns of tumor density on different body localizations. However, even though UV radiation generates CMM, it may also have a protective action and/or an action that improves prognosis. There appears to be no, or even an inverse latitude gradient for CMM arising on non-UV exposed body localizations (uveal melanoma, CMMs arising in the vulva, perianal/anorectal regions, etc.). Furthermore, CMM prognosis was gradually improved over all years of increasing incidence (up to 1990), but during the past 20 years, incidence rates stabilized and prognosis was not improved significantly. Comparisons of skin cancer data from Norway, Australia and New Zealand indicate that squamous cell carcinoma and basal cell carcinoma are mainly related to annual solar UVB fluences, while UVA fluences play a larger role of CMM. PMID:25207376

  8. Desmoplastic neurotropic melanoma: A diagnostic trap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rabia Bozdoğan Arpacı

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Desmoplastic neurotropic melanoma (DNM is known as a rare variety of cutaneous melanoma. The authors defined the term ‘neurotropic’ which is used to refer to the associated nevre infiltration or neural differentiation. 74-year-old female applied to a plastic surgery clinic with one year history of a nodule on the left infraorbital skin. The lesion was excised by the surgeons and was sent to the pathology department.. The tumor with spindle cells in a scar like stroma was detected microscopically and diagnosed as a ‘dermatofibroma’. Eight months after surgery a deep-seated nodule recurred at the same place. This nodule was re-excised. In this sample, we saw hypercellularity, atypical mitoses and nerve infiltration of the spindle tumor cells having strong positive staining with S-100 protein and negative staining with HMB-45, so the ultimate diagnosis was DNM. The differential diagnosis of this lesion includes many benign and malignant entities. This is crucial because of the potential for recurrence and metastasis of the lesion.

  9. Melanoma esofágico primario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robin Rivera Irigoín

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available El melanoma esofágico primario (MEP es una neoplasia extremadamente rara, con menos de 270 casos descritos. Aunque la presentación clínica es similar a cualquier otra neoplasia esofágica, su comportamiento es más agresivo y fatal en la mayoría de los casos. Presentamos dos nuevos casos de MEP diagnosticados mediante endoscopia y estudio anatomopatológico de las biopsias obtenidas, siendo en ambos casos las muestras positivas para HMB-45 y S100, descartando así mismo la presencia de melanoma primario en otra localización. En el primer caso merece destacar la forma de presentación como miosis izquierda sin ptosis palpebral ni enoftalmos, siendo el primer caso descrito con esta manifestación inicial, lamentablemente al momento del diagnóstico fue irresecable, demostrando así mismo por ecoendoscopia afectación de la aorta torácica. El segundo caso a pesar de ser una neoplasia sin extensión locorregional y sometido a esofaguectomía transhiatal presentó múltiples complicaciones postoperatorias falleciendo al decimo noveno día de la intervención. Así mismo se hace una revisión bibliográfica sobre diagnóstico, opciones de tratamiento y pronóstico de esta excepcional neoplasia.

  10. IFN-? in the treatment of melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarhini, Ahmad A; Gogas, Helen; Kirkwood, John M

    2012-10-15

    Among the IFNs, IFN-?2 has been the most broadly evaluated clinically. At the molecular level, IFN-? has multiple effects in a variety of malignancies that range from antiangiogenic to potent immunoregulatory, differentiation-inducing, antiproliferative, and proapoptotic effects. A multitude of IFN-?2 regimens that may be classified as low dose, intermediate dose, and high dose have been evaluated as adjuvant therapy in melanoma. A durable impact on both relapse-free and overall survival was seen only with the regimen utilizing high-dose IFN-?2b tested in the Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group and intergroup trials E1684, E1690, and E1694 as adjuvant therapy for high-risk surgically resected melanoma (stage IIB or III). Adjuvant pegylated IFN-?2b has also been evaluated at maximally tolerable doses compared with the observation group in the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer trial 18991 and has shown relapse-free survival benefits in patients with microscopic nodal disease. PMID:23042723

  11. Radiation therapy of intracranial malignant melanoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sixty-four consecutive patients with intracranial malignant melanoma were irradiated between January 1980-March 1994. The long-term results of the irradiation were analyzed. Four patients with intended radiation therapy interrupted were excluded from the survival analysis. The remaining sixty were divided into groups using the total dose of 40 Gy and normalized total dose at 3 Gy (NTD3Gy) with 30 Gy as cutpoints. These subgroups did not differ markedly as to sex, age, KPS, single vs. multiple metastases, extracranial disease, surgical intervention on brain, prior chemo and/or immunotherapy. Those with higher total doses to the tumour area had significantly better (P = 0.0006) survival. The median survival of the whole group was 4.1 months and those with NTD3Gy > 30 Gy survived the median time of 9.6 months, whereas those with NTD3Gy ? 30 Gy had a median survival of 2.1 months. The survival difference existed also after the exclusion of those with previous craniotomy (median survival 11.9 months) and was 1.9 vs. 8.3 months when NTD3Gy > 30 Gy was the cutpoint between the groups. In a multivariate analysis, the NTD3Gy turned out to be the most significant prognostic factor (P < 0.0001). The results reveal that the total dose of radiotherapy in the treatment of cerebral metastases of malignant melanoma might have a greater impact on patients' prognosis than previously considered

  12. Prognostic Significance of Melanoma Differentiation and Trans-Differentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nityanand Maddodi

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Cutaneous malignant melanomas share a number of molecular attributes such as limitless replicative potential that define capabilities acquired by most malignancies. Accordingly, much effort has been focused on evaluating and validating protein markers related to these capabilities to function as melanoma prognostic markers. However, a few studies have also highlighted the prognostic value of markers that define melanocytic differentiation and the plasticity of melanoma cells to trans-differentiate along several other cellular pathways. Here, we provide a comprehensive review and evaluation of the prognostic significance of melanocyte-lineage markers such as MITF and melanogenic proteins, as well as markers of vascular epithelial and neuronal differentiation.

  13. Radiosensitivity of malignant melanomas. Part I. Experimental studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Human and hamster melanoma cells were irradiated in vitro with single and fractionated doses of ?-rays. Except for a tendency to high extrapolation numbers, survival curves did not show particular radioresistance. D2-D1 was between 220 and 300 rad. Regrowth delay after split dose irradiation to the hypoxic Harding-Passey melanoma in vivo yielded a D2-D1 of 700 rad. While the tumor control dose for 50% (TCD-50) was within normal range (4,400 rad) Harding-Passey melanomas regressed very slowly after irradiation and often took months to clear away

  14. Umbilical Plugoma Mimics Melanoma Metastasis on FDG PET/CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alabed, Yazan Z; Sakellis, Christopher

    2015-10-01

    An 84-year-old man with history of left forehead melanoma was found on a restaging F-FDG PET/CT scan with hypermetabolic lung nodules and a mildly FDG-avid soft tissue nodule posterior to the umbilicus. Biopsy of a right lower lobe nodule revealed metastatic melanoma. Follow-up posttreatment PET/CT scan showed complete resolution of lung nodules and unchanged FDG uptake at the level of the umbilicus. Review of the patient's medical history revealed a remote history of umbilical hernia repair. We present a case of postsurgical plugoma mimicking the appearance of melanoma metastasis on FDG PET/CT. PMID:26164172

  15. Sentinel node biopsy for melanoma: a study of 241 patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chakera, Annette Hougaard; Drzewiecki, Krzysztof Tadeusz; Jakobsen, Annika Loft; Juhl, Birgitte Ravn

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the sentinel node biopsy (SNB) technique for melanoma using both radiocolloid and blue dye in 241 clinically N0 patients with melanomas >1.0 mm, or thinner lesions exhibiting regression/ulceration. We showed that an increase in injected radioactivity increased...... nine haematoxylin and eosin (HE)-negatives, all of which were found by immunohistochemistry. The false negative rate for the SNB procedure was 4% (2/55). The complication rate was 6% after SNB and 29% after complete node dissection. In conclusion, SN status is a strong prognostic factor in melanoma...

  16. Spontaneous regression of metastases from melanoma: review of the literature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kalialis, Louise Vennegaard; Drzewiecki, Krzysztof T; Klyver, Helle

    2009-01-01

    Regression of metastatic melanoma is a rare event, and review of the literature reveals a total of 76 reported cases since 1866. The proposed mechanisms include immunologic, endocrine, inflammatory and metastatic tumour nutritional factors. We conclude from this review that although the precise...... mechanisms remain unknown, some event must trigger the immune system to produce a stronger than normal response that results in regression of the melanoma metastases. Immunologic studies of patients with regression may disclose the underlying mechanisms and lead to new therapies of disseminated melanoma....

  17. The Nodal Location of Metastases in Melanoma Sentinel Lymph Nodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riber-Hansen, Rikke; Nyengaard, Jens; Hamilton-Dutoit, Stephen; Steiniche, Torben

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The design of melanoma sentinel lymph node (SLN) histologic protocols is based on the premise that most metastases are found in the central parts of the nodes, but the evidence for this belief has never been thoroughly tested. METHODS: The nodal location of melanoma metastases in 149...... were 77%, 79%, and 78%, respectively. No difference in either the mean volume or the maximum diameter of the metastases located exclusively outside the central and the peripheral protocols was found (volume: 0.036 vs. 0.031 mm and diameter: 0.320 vs. 0.332 mm). CONCLUSIONS: In SLNs, melanoma metastases...

  18. Prognostic Significance of Melanoma Differentiation and Trans-Differentiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maddodi, Nityanand; Setaluri, Vijayasaradhi, E-mail: setaluri@wisc.edu [Department of Dermatology, University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, 1300 University Avenue, B25, Madison WI 53706 (United States)

    2010-05-26

    Cutaneous malignant melanomas share a number of molecular attributes such as limitless replicative potential that define capabilities acquired by most malignancies. Accordingly, much effort has been focused on evaluating and validating protein markers related to these capabilities to function as melanoma prognostic markers. However, a few studies have also highlighted the prognostic value of markers that define melanocytic differentiation and the plasticity of melanoma cells to trans-differentiate along several other cellular pathways. Here, we provide a comprehensive review and evaluation of the prognostic significance of melanocyte-lineage markers such as MITF and melanogenic proteins, as well as markers of vascular epithelial and neuronal differentiation.

  19. Population-based, Case-Control-Family Design to Investigate Genetic and Environmental Influences on Melanoma Risk: Australian Melanoma Family Study

    OpenAIRE

    Cust, Anne E.; Schmid, Helen; Maskiell, Judith A.; Jetann, Jodie; Ferguson, Megan; Holland, Elizabeth A.; Agha-Hamilton, Chantelle; Jenkins, Mark A.; Kelly, John; Kefford, Richard F.; Giles, Graham G; Bruce K Armstrong; Aitken, Joanne F.; Hopper, John L; Mann, Graham J.

    2009-01-01

    Discovering and understanding genetic risk factors for melanoma and their interactions with phenotype, sun exposure, and other risk factors could lead to new strategies for melanoma control. This paper describes the Australian Melanoma Family Study, which uses a multicenter, population-based, case-control-family design. From 2001 to 2005, the authors recruited 1,164 probands including 629 cases with histopathologically confirmed, first-primary cutaneous melanoma diagnosed before age 40 years,...

  20. Melanoma "in situ" tratado con Imiquimod Melanoma in situ treated with Imiquimod

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RE Achenbach

    Full Text Available Comunicamos un caso con dos melanomas "in situ", en un varón de 86 años, localizados en ambos lados de la cara con alto riesgo quirúrgico, quien fuera tratado con imiquimod al 5% una vez al día durante dos meses; los resultados hasta el momento, clínicos e histológicos han sido satisfactorios.A 86 years-old man with two melanomas "in situ" at both sides of his face, treated with imiquimod 5% are presented. The patient has a cardiovascular high risk due to isquemic heart disease, for that reason we start the treatment with imiquimod once a day for two months. The clinical and histological response was good and a follow up will be as long as we can.

  1. Metastasizing oral melanoma in a cow Melanoma oral metastático em uma vaca

    OpenAIRE

    Marilene Farias Brito; Ticiana Nascimento França; Flávia Figueiraujo Jabour; Josilene Nascimento Seixas; Gisele Braziliano de Andrade; Laura Iglesias Oliveira; Paulo Vargas Peixoto

    2009-01-01

    A malignant dendritic melanoma of the oral cavity with metastases widely spread in a cow is described. The clinicopathological manifestations, developed during a two-year period, was characterized by the difficulty in mastication and swallowing, progressive weight loss, weakness and profuse sialorrhea. At the necropsy, an ulcerated black mass was found at the left jaw projecting into the oral cavity. The tumor reached the chin, inferior lip and tongue. Metastases were detected within the tong...

  2. Primary melanoma of Meckel's cave: case report Melanoma primário do cavo de Meckel: relato de caso

    OpenAIRE

    Asdrubal Falavigna; Luis A. B. Borba; Fernando Antonio Patriani Ferraz; Giovana Camargo de Almeida; José Valentim Krindges Júnior

    2004-01-01

    We present a case of trigeminal neuralgia with cranial normal magnetic resonance image (MRI) and computed tomography. The pain was not relieved by carbamazepine and microvascular decompression surgery was done. After two months the pain was similar to the condition before surgery. At this time, MRI showed an expansive lesion in Meckel's cave that was treated with radical resection by extra-dural approach. The pathologic examination revealed a primary melanoma. The follow-up after six months d...

  3. Malignant melanoma of the lung: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouarssani, Aziz; Atoini, Fouad; Reda, Rafik; Lhou, Fatima Ait; Rguibi, Mustapha Idrissi

    2012-01-01

    Primary melanoma of the lung is an extremely rare pathological entity and sparsely reported in the literature. A 68-year-old man was admitted with 3 months history of cough, sputum production, dyspnea, hemoptysis and chest pain. The chest radiography demonstrated bilateral mass lesion and thoracal computerized (CT) showed a bilateral tissu mass with left parietal invasion. Bronchoscopy revealed a large polypoidal tumor arising from the left lower lobe bronchus, histology at bronchial biopsy revealed a malignant melanoma. Surgical biopsy of the left parietal mass was confirmed by invasive malignant melanoma. Primary melanoma of the lung represents a rare pathological entity; careful interpretation of histopathological information in correlation with all other findings from clinical studies can establish a diagnosis. PMID:22655102

  4. Kinase fusions are frequent in Spitz tumours and spitzoid melanomas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiesner, Thomas; He, Jie; Yelensky, Roman; Esteve-Puig, Rosaura; Botton, Thomas; Yeh, Iwei; Lipson, Doron; Otto, Geoff; Brennan, Kristina; Murali, Rajmohan; Garrido, Maria; Miller, Vincent A.; Ross, Jeffrey S.; Berger, Michael F.; Sparatta, Alyssa; Palmedo, Gabriele; Cerroni, Lorenzo; Busam, Klaus J.; Kutzner, Heinz; Cronin, Maureen T.; Stephens, Philip J.; Bastian, Boris C.

    2014-01-01

    Spitzoid neoplasms are a group of melanocytic tumours with distinctive histopathological features. They include benign tumours (Spitz naevi), malignant tumours (spitzoid melanomas) and tumours with borderline histopathological features and uncertain clinical outcome (atypical Spitz tumours). Their genetic underpinnings are poorly understood, and alterations in common melanoma-associated oncogenes are typically absent. Here we show that spitzoid neoplasms harbour kinase fusions of ROS1 (17%), NTRK1 (16%), ALK (10%), BRAF (5%) and RET (3%) in a mutually exclusive pattern. The chimeric proteins are constitutively active, stimulate oncogenic signalling pathways, are tumourigenic and are found in the entire biologic spectrum of spitzoid neoplasms, including 55% of Spitz naevi, 56% of atypical Spitz tumours and 39% of spitzoid melanomas. Kinase inhibitors suppress the oncogenic signalling of the fusion proteins in vitro. In summary, kinase fusions account for the majority of oncogenic aberrations in spitzoid neoplasms and may serve as therapeutic targets for metastatic spitzoid melanomas.

  5. Nivolumab for Metastatic Melanoma without a BRAF Mutation

    Science.gov (United States)

    A summary of results from an international phase III trial show that nivolumab (Opdivo®) improves overall survival compared with the chemotherapy drug dacarbazine in patients with metastatic melanoma whose tumors do not have a mutation in the BRAF gene.

  6. Surgery and radiotherapy in the treatment of cutaneous melanoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Testori, A; Rutkowski, P; Marsden, J; Bastholt, L; Chiarion-Sileni, V; Hauschild, A; Eggermont, A M M

    on individual circumstances. Radiotherapy is indicated as a treatment option in select patients with lentigo maligna melanoma and as an adjuvant in select patients with regional metastatic disease. Radiotherapy is also indicated for palliation, especially in bone and brain metastases....

  7. New Therapies Offer Valuable Options for Patients with Melanoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two phase III clinical trials of new therapies for patients with metastatic melanoma presented in June at the 2011 ASCO conference confirmed that vemurafenib and ipilimumab (Yervoy™) offer valuable new options for the disease.

  8. Do We Know What Causes Melanoma Skin Cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Scientists reason that this could eventually lead to cancer. Many other gene changes have been found in melanoma cells as well. Some of these have proven to be good targets for drugs to help treat this disease. For example, about ...

  9. BRAF and beyond: Tailoring strategies for the individual melanoma patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Jarkowski

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Until recently, options for therapy in metastatic melanoma were limited. The understanding of immune check-point blockade and the discovery of molecular pathways involving driver mutations like BRAF has transformed the therapeutic landscape in this disease. Ipilimumab was the first drug shown to improve survival while vemurafenib demonstrated rapid responses never seen before in melanoma. Drugs from these classes and others are now in advanced stages of development and primed to positively impact patient survival in an incremental fashion. In this review, we highlight some of the developments during this renaissance in melanoma therapy and discuss agents of promise. Clinical challenges we face include individualizing therapy for patients, overcoming resistance to molecularly targeted therapy and developing rationale combinations or sequences of drugs. A concerted bench and bedside effort in this direction will undoubtedly keep melanoma in the forefront in an era of personalized medicine.

  10. Clinical utility of nivolumab in the treatment of advanced melanoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asmar R

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Ramsey Asmar,1 Jessica Yang,1 Richard D Carvajal1,2 1Department of Medicine, College of Physicians and Surgeons, 2Herbert Irving Comprehensive Cancer Center, Columbia University, New York, NY, USA Abstract: Melanomas are highly immunogenic tumors that evade the immune system by exploiting innate checkpoint pathways, rendering effector T-cells anergic. The immunotherapeutic approach of checkpoint inhibition can restore and invigorate endogenous antitumor T-cell responses and has become an important treatment option for patients with advanced melanoma. The CTLA-4 inhibitor ipilimumab and the PD-1 inhibitors nivolumab and pembrolizumab have been shown to induce durable responses and improve overall survival in metastatic, refractory melanoma. Optimization and validation of pretreatment biomarkers to predict response to these agents is a crucial area of ongoing research. Combination immunotherapy has recently demonstrated superior response rates compared to monotherapy; further investigation is needed to refine combinatorial strategies. Keywords: nivolumab, immune checkpoint inhibitors, PD-1, melanoma

  11. The role of cadherin/catenin complex in malignant melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonitsis, N; Batistatou, A; Karantima, S; Charalabopoulos, K

    2006-09-01

    In the present review article the role of cadherin/catenin complex in cases of malignant melanoma is discussed in some detail. Cadherins represent the most important superfamily of adhesion molecules with epithelial E-cadherin being the most studied. Its role in normal state as well as in cancer invasion and metastasis and some other pathologies is crucial. E-cadherin expression is altered in malignant melanomas and its downregulation or absence is associated with melanoma invasion and metastasis potential. A shift from E-cadherin expression to neural N-cadherin expression in melanocytes is also detected in malignant melanomas formation. In addition, a discussion regarding the role of placental P-cadherin and vascular endothelial VE-cadherin as well as the recently identified molecule of dysadherin, is attempted in brief. PMID:17080010

  12. Study Questions Link Between Multiple Moles, Risk for Melanoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... moles, according to a team led by Alan Geller of the Harvard School of Public Health in ... JAMA Dermatology . Speaking in a journal news release, Geller said that the study suggests that melanomas are ...

  13. Genome-Wide Scan Reveals Mutation Associated with Melanoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 1999 Spotlight on Research 2012 July 2012 (historical) Genome-Wide Scan Reveals Mutation Associated with Melanoma A ... out to see if a technology called whole genome sequencing would help them find other genetic risk ...

  14. Recent patents on melanoma with focus on genetic strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gramiccia, Talia; Saraceno, Rosita; Stefani, Alessandro D; Chimenti, Sergio

    2008-06-01

    Recent advances in molecular biology have enhanced the understanding of the pathology of melanocytic lesions. Several targetable pathways, responsible for survival and apoptosis resistance in melanoma cells, have been described and current research has focused on mechanism inactivating these pathways. However, the therapeutic resistance of malignant melanoma remains the main limit that cast the poor prognosis of cutaneous melanoma. Current advances in high-resolution genome-wide technologies, as well as gene-specific mutational analysis, in conjunction with genetic and phenotypic analyses, improved animal models, may ultimately help to better define the seminal molecular events contributing to disease pathogenesis and ultimately identify more effective therapeutic targets. The focus of this review is to summarize the emerging patents in the treatment and diagnosis of melanoma related to the latest genetic models and bio-molecular discoveries. PMID:18673127

  15. Tissue Resources for Clinical Use and Marker Studies in Melanoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curry, Jonathan L.; Davies, Michael A.; Calderone, Tiffany L.; Nathanson, Katherine; Prieto, Victor G.; Gershenwald, Jeffrey E.

    2016-01-01

    The adequate procurement and preservation of high-quality tissue specimens from patients with melanoma is a critical clinical issue as patients’ tumor samples are now used not only for pathological diagnosis but are also necessary to determine the molecular signature of the tumor to stratify patients who may benefit from targeted melanoma therapy. Tissue resources available for physicians and investigators include formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue and frozen tissue, either preserved in optimal cutting temperature (OCT) media or snap frozen. Properly preserved tissue may be used to evaluate melanoma biomarkers by immunohistochemistry (IHC) with tissue microarray (TMA) technology, to perform genetic and genomic analyses, and for other types of translational research in melanoma. PMID:24259006

  16. Primary malignant melanoma of the vagina: a case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, Ji Young; Kim, Do Kang; Lee, Eun Hee [College of Medicine, Catholic Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jun Sang [College of Medicine, Chungnam National Univ., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-09-01

    A primary malignant melanoma of the vagina is a very rare gynecological malignant tumor. Its clinical behavior is more aggressive than that of cutaneous and vulvar melanomas. We present a case of a large sized primary melanoma of the lower third of the vagina, with a cervical lesion, in a 58-year-old postmenopausal woman. The patient was treated with conventional external radiation therapy and intracavitary radiotherapy (lCR), without surgical treatment. Although the primary lesion showed a partial response, the patient died of extensive metastases, which were found 4.5 months after the initial diagnosis. We suggest that shortening the treatment period, such as hypofractionated radiation therapy and surgical removal, and various systemic therapies for preventing early distant metastasis, are appropriate treatments for a primary malignant melanoma of the vagina, with a large tumor size.

  17. Primary malignant melanoma of the vagina: a case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A primary malignant melanoma of the vagina is a very rare gynecological malignant tumor. Its clinical behavior is more aggressive than that of cutaneous and vulvar melanomas. We present a case of a large sized primary melanoma of the lower third of the vagina, with a cervical lesion, in a 58-year-old postmenopausal woman. The patient was treated with conventional external radiation therapy and intracavitary radiotherapy (lCR), without surgical treatment. Although the primary lesion showed a partial response, the patient died of extensive metastases, which were found 4.5 months after the initial diagnosis. We suggest that shortening the treatment period, such as hypofractionated radiation therapy and surgical removal, and various systemic therapies for preventing early distant metastasis, are appropriate treatments for a primary malignant melanoma of the vagina, with a large tumor size

  18. Malignant melanomas of the meninges (MR and CT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malignant melanoma of the meninges is a rare neoplasm derived from melanocytes of the cranial or spinal meninges. Histologically classified as grade IV tumours, malignant melanoma may present either as a diffuse meningeal neoplasm, first described by Virchow in 1859, or as a circumscribed tumour attached to the meninges. Although diagnosis is rarely established prior to surgery or autopsy, MR and CT may provide indispensable information probably leading to earlier diagnosis. In 4 patients, diagnosis of a primary meningeal melanoma was based on MR and CT findings and histology. Histology was obtained in 3 cases by surgery, in one patient by autopsy and showed a melanotic and an amelanotic malignant melanoma in 2 patients each. Autopsy was carried out in 3 cases after survival of 4, 5, and 18 months; in a single case, the follow-up period is almost 3 years. (orig.)

  19. Submandibular Metastatic Melanoma with unknown origin. A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassani A

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract :     Introduction: The origin of metastatic Melanoma is unknown in approximately 5-10% of the patients. Various suggestions have been made for the primary origin of this lesion. In this article, a rare case of metastatic Melanoma is reported in submandibular area.     Case presentation: A 20 year-old woman was referred with a cystic lump in the submandibular area. She reported a pigmented macule on her lip that was completely regressed at the time of clinical evaluation. Excisional biopsy showed the lesion to be Metastatic Melanoma. The diagnosis was confirmed by Immuno-histochemcial staining for HMB45 and S100 markers. The patient is reported to be free of disease in four-year follow up based on the clinical as well as Para clinical evaluation.     Conclusion : Total excision of the solitary lesion is suggested in patients with metastatic Melanoma with unknown origin and regression of the primary lesion.

  20. Combined Nivolumab and Ipilimumab or Monotherapy in Untreated Melanoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larkin, James; Chiarion-Sileni, Vanna; Gonzalez, Rene; Grob, Jean Jacques; Cowey, C Lance; Lao, Christopher D; Schadendorf, Dirk; Dummer, Reinhard; Smylie, Michael; Rutkowski, Piotr; Ferrucci, Pier F; Hill, Andrew; Wagstaff, John; Carlino, Matteo S; Haanen, John B; Maio, Michele; Marquez-Rodas, Ivan; McArthur, Grant A; Ascierto, Paolo A; Long, Georgina V; Callahan, Margaret K; Postow, Michael A; Grossmann, Kenneth; Sznol, Mario; Dreno, Brigitte; Bastholt, Lars; Yang, Arvin; Rollin, Linda M; Horak, Christine; Hodi, F Stephen; Wolchok, Jedd D

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Nivolumab (a programmed death 1 [PD-1] checkpoint inhibitor) and ipilimumab (a cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 [CTLA-4] checkpoint inhibitor) have been shown to have complementary activity in metastatic melanoma. In this randomized, double-blind, phase 3 study, nivolumab...... alone or nivolumab plus ipilimumab was compared with ipilimumab alone in patients with metastatic melanoma. METHODS: We assigned, in a 1:1:1 ratio, 945 previously untreated patients with unresectable stage III or IV melanoma to nivolumab alone, nivolumab plus ipilimumab, or ipilimumab alone. Progression...... metastatic melanoma, nivolumab alone or combined with ipilimumab resulted in significantly longer progression-free survival than ipilimumab alone. In patients with PD-L1-negative tumors, the combination of PD-1 and CTLA-4 blockade was more effective than either agent alone. (Funded by Bristol-Myers Squibb...

  1. MicroRNAs in the pathogenesis of malignant melanoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glud, M; Gniadecki, R

    2013-01-01

    Cutaneous malignant melanoma is the most aggressive and lethal form of skin cancer. Over the past decades, its incidence has been increasing by 3-8% per year in western countries while mortality has stabilized. Melanoma is a heterogenous disease and can be subclassified based on distinct clinical...... characteristics, histopathological features and mutation patterns within NRAS and BRAF genes. Recent data indicate that microRNAs (miRNAs) are involved in the pathogenesis of malignant melanoma. MiRNAs are small, non-coding, regulatory RNA molecules expressed in a tissue and cell specific manner and are known to...... play a crucial role in cell homeostasis and carcinogenesis. MiRNAs might prove to be powerful cancer biomarkers and future therapeutic targets. In this review, we focused on the miRNA involvement in four molecular pathways known to be deregulated in malignant melanoma, including the RAS...

  2. IL8 and Cathepsin B as Melanoma Serum Biomarkers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaowei Xu

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Melanoma accounts for only a small portion of skin cancer but it is associated with high mortality. Melanoma serum biomarkers that may aid early diagnosis or guide therapy are needed clinically. However, studies of serum biomarkers have often been hampered by the serum interference that causes false readouts in immunological tests. Here we show that, after using a special buffer to eliminate the serum interference, IL-8 and cathepsin B levels were significantly elevated in melanoma patients (p < 0.05. More importantly, the combination of IL-8 and cathepsin B were also studied as a prognosis marker for melanoma mortality. Our study provides a novel approach to examine serum biomarkers.

  3. A Global Review of Melanoma Follow-up Guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trotter, Shannon C; Sroa, Novie; Winkelmann, Richard R; Olencki, Thomas; Bechtel, Mark

    2013-09-01

    Early detection of a melanoma recurrence is a major concern for the clinician. However, the follow-up care of melanoma patients lacks a uniform approach. Different dermatological and oncological organizations have developed their own strategies of follow-up management that vary by specialty and methods of screening for recurrence. Some areas of controversy in the follow-up care of melanoma patients include providers of care, use of staging versus Breslow depth to determine follow-up, the role of imaging and laboratory tests, frequency and duration of physical exams, and psychological well-being. Studies have evaluated these aspects of follow-up management, but no consensus exists. However, it is essential for clinicians to collaborate between specialties for an effective, evidence-based approach to melanoma clinical follow-up care. PMID:24062870

  4. Kinase fusions are frequent in Spitz tumors and spitzoid melanomas

    OpenAIRE

    Wiesner, Thomas; He, Jie; Yelensky, Roman; Esteve-Puig, Rosaura; Botton, Thomas; Yeh, Iwei; Lipson, Doron; Otto, Geoff; Brennan, Kristina; Murali, Rajmohan; Garrido, Maria; Miller, Vincent A; Jeffrey S Ross; Berger, Michael F; Sparatta, Alyssa

    2014-01-01

    Spitzoid neoplasms are a group of melanocytic tumors with distinctive histopathologic features. They include benign tumors (Spitz nevi), malignant tumors (spitzoid melanomas), and tumors with borderline histopathologic features and uncertain clinical outcome (atypical Spitz tumors). Their genetic underpinnings are poorly understood, and alterations in common melanoma-associated oncogenes are typically absent. Here we show that spitzoid neoplasms harbor kinase fusions of ROS1 (17%), NTRK1 (16%...

  5. Psychosocial Care Needs of Melanoma Survivors: Are They Being Met?

    OpenAIRE

    Fischbeck, Sabine; Imruck, Barbara H; Blettner, Maria; Weyer, Veronika; Binder, Harald; Zeissig, Sylke R.; Emrich, Katharina; Friedrich-Mai, Peter; Beutel, Manfred E.

    2015-01-01

    Patients who have survived malignant melanoma for more than five years may lack the opportunity to talk about their burden. As a consequence their psychosocial care needs remain undetected and available supportive interventions may not be utilised. Therefore, the psychosocial burden of this patient group needs to be assessed using specific screening instruments. The aim of this study was to investigate the psychosocial burden of long-term melanoma survivors, their psychosocial care needs and ...

  6. Nucleotide excision repair deficiency in melanoma in response to UVA

    OpenAIRE

    Murray, Heather C.; Maltby, Vicki E.; Smith, Doug W; Bowden, Nikola A

    2016-01-01

    Background The causative link between UV exposure and melanoma development is well known, however the mechanistic relationship remains incompletely characterised. UVA and UVB components of sunlight are implicated in melanomagenesis; however the majority of studies have focused on the effects of UVB and UVC light. Interestingly, melanoma tumour sequencing has revealed an overrepresentation of mutations signature of unrepaired UV-induced DNA damage. Repair of UVA-induced DNA damage is thought t...

  7. Molecular and genetic diversity in the metastatic process of melanoma

    OpenAIRE

    Harbst, Katja; Lauss, Martin; Cirenajwis, Helena; Winter, Christof; Howlin, Jillian; Törngren, Therese; Kvist, Anders; Nodin, Björn; Olsson, Eleonor; Häkkinen, Jari; Jirström, Karin; Staaf, Johan; Lundgren, Lotta; Olsson, Håkan; Ingvar, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Diversity between metastatic melanoma tumours in individual patients is known; however, the molecular and genetic differences remain unclear. To examine the molecular and genetic differences between metastatic tumours, we performed gene-expression profiling of 63 melanoma tumours obtained from 28 patients (two or three tumours/patient), followed by analysis of their mutational landscape, using targeted deep sequencing of 1697 cancer genes and DNA copy number analysis. Gene-expression signatur...

  8. Thyroid autoimmunity and ophthalmopathy related to melanoma biologic therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Min, Le; Vaidya, Anand; Becker, Carolyn

    2010-01-01

    Ipilimumab is a fully human monoclonal antibody against Cytotoxic TLymphocyte Antigen 4 (CTLA-4). CTLA-4 negatively regulates immune cell activation. In patients with metastatic melanoma, ipilimumab increases survival time and induces complete remission in some patients. However, immune related adverse events including endocrinopathies have been reported. Bevacizumab, an angiogenesis inhibitor, has been used in combination with ipilimumab in patients with advanced melanoma. Here, we report th...

  9. Concurrent radiation therapy and ipilimumab immunotherapy for patients with melanoma

    OpenAIRE

    Barker, Christopher A.; Postow, Michael A; Khan, Shaheer A.; Beal, Kathryn; Parhar, Preeti K.; Yamada, Yoshiya; Lee, Nancy Y.; Wolchok, Jedd D

    2013-01-01

    Ipilimumab and radiation therapy (RT) are commonly used to treat unresectable and metastatic melanoma. Results from preclinical studies and case reports suggest a biologic interaction between these two treatments. To understand the clinical implications of the interaction, we performed a retrospective study reviewing records of patients treated with ipilimumab and RT for melanoma at our institution between 2005 and 2011. The review included details of treatment, response, adverse events (AEs)...

  10. Bevacizumab plus Ipilimumab in Patients with Metastatic Melanoma

    OpenAIRE

    Hodi, F Stephen; Lawrence, Donald; Lezcano, Cecilia; Wu, Xinqi; Jun ZHOU; Sasada, Tetsuro; Zeng, Wanyong; Giobbie-Hurder, Anita; Atkins, Michael B; Ibrahim, Nageatte; Friedlander, Philip; Flaherty, Keith T.; Murphy, George F.; Rodig, Scott; Velazquez, Elsa F.

    2014-01-01

    Ipilimumab improves survival in advanced melanoma and can induce immune-mediated tumor vasculopathy. Besides promoting angiogenesis, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) suppresses dendritic cell maturation and modulates lymphocyte endothelial trafficking. This study investigated the combination of CTLA-4 blockade with ipilimumab and VEGF inhibition with bevacizumab. Patients with metastatic melanoma were treated in four dosing cohorts of ipilimumab (3 or 10 mg/kg) four doses at 3-week i...

  11. Combined Nivolumab and Ipilimumab or monotherapy in untreated melanoma

    OpenAIRE

    Larkin, James; Chiarion-Sileni, Vanna; Gonzalez, Rene; Grob, Jean Jacques; Cowey, C Lance; Lao, Christopher D; Schadendorf, Dirk; Dummer, Reinhard; Smylie, Michael; RUTKOWSKI, PIOTR; Ferrucci, Pier F; Hill, Andrew; Wagstaff, John; Carlino, Matteo S.; Haanen, John B.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Nivolumab (a programmed death 1 [PD-1] checkpoint inhibitor) and ipilimumab (a cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 [CTLA-4] checkpoint inhibitor) have been shown to have complementary activity in metastatic melanoma. In this randomized, double-blind, phase 3 study, nivolumab alone or nivolumab plus ipilimumab was compared with ipilimumab alone in patients with metastatic melanoma. METHODS: We assigned, in a 1:1:1 ratio, 945 previously untreated patients with unresectabl...

  12. Ipilimumab and radiation therapy for melanoma brain metastases

    OpenAIRE

    Silk, Ann W; Bassetti, Michael F.; West, Brady T; Tsien, Christina I; Lao, Christopher D

    2013-01-01

    Ipilimumab, an antibody that enhances T-cell activation, may augment immunogenicity of tumor cells that are injured by radiation therapy. We hypothesized that patients with melanoma brain metastasis treated with both ipilimumab and radiotherapy would have improved overall survival, and that the sequence of treatments may affect disease control in the brain. We analyzed the clinical and radiographic records of melanoma patients with brain metastases who were treated with whole brain radiation ...

  13. Ipilimumab: An Anti-CTLA-4 Antibody for Metastatic Melanoma

    OpenAIRE

    Lipson, Evan J; Drake, Charles G.

    2011-01-01

    Ipilimumab (MDX-010, Yervoy; Bristol-Myers Squibb), a fully human monoclonal antibody against CTL antigen 4 (CTLA-4), was recently approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for the treatment of metastatic melanoma. In both early- and late-phase trials, ipilimumab has shown consistent activity against melanoma. For example, in a randomized phase III trial that enrolled patients with previously treated metastatic disease, ipilimumab, with or without a peptide vaccine, improved ove...

  14. Biomarkers on melanoma patient T Cells associated with ipilimumab treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Wang Wenshi; Yu Daohai; Sarnaik Amod A; Yu Bin; Hall Maclean; Morelli Dawn; Zhang Yonghong; Zhao Xiuhua; Weber Jeffrey S

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Ipilimumab induces long-lasting clinical responses in a minority of patients with metastatic melanoma. To better understand the mechanism(s) of action and to identify novel biomarkers associated with the clinical benefit and toxicity of ipilimumab, baseline characteristics and changes in CD4+ and CD8+ T cells from melanoma patients receiving ipilimumab were characterized by gene profiling and flow cytometry. Methods Microarray analysis of flow-cytometry purified CD4+ and C...

  15. Evaluation of Molecular Markers of Mesenchymal Phenotype in Melanoma

    OpenAIRE

    Mikesh, Leann M.; Kumar, Manish; Erdag, Gulsun; Hogan, Kevin T.; Molhoek, Kerrington R; Mayo, Marty W.; Slingluff, Craig L

    2010-01-01

    Epithelial to mesenchymal transition is a developmental process allowing epithelial cells to dedifferentiate into cells displaying mesenchymal phenotypes. The pathological role of EMT has been implicated in invasion and metastasis for numerous carcinomas, yet limited data exist addressing whether mesenchymal transition (MT) occurs in malignant melanoma cells. Our group developed an in vitro 3D culture system to address MT in melanoma cells upon TGF-β/TNF-α treatment. Loss of E-cadherin is one...

  16. The role of the Hippo pathway in melanocytes and melanoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BruceCharlesBaguley

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The Hippo signalling pathway comprises a series of cytoplasmic tumour suppressor proteins including Merlin and the Lats1/2 and MST1/2 kinases, and is thought to play a critical role in determining the sizes of organs and tissues. The Hippo pathway is regulated upstream by extracellular mechanosensory signalling arising from cell shape and polarity, as well as by a variety of extracellular signalling molecules. When active, the pathway maintains the transcriptional activators YAP and TAZ in phosphorylated forms in the cytoplasm, preventing cell proliferation. When the Hippo pathway is inactivated, YAP and TAZ are translocated to the nucleus and induce the expression of a variety of proteins concerned with entry into the cell division cycle, such as cyclin D1 and Fox M1, as well as the inhibition of apoptosis. The failure of the Hippo pathway has been implicated in the development of many different types of cancer but there is limited information available as to its involvement in melanoma. We hypothesise here firstly that the Hippo pathway is involved in maintaining density of cutaneous melanocytes on the basement membrane at the junction of the epidermis and the dermis, and secondly, that its function is disturbed in melanoma. We have analysed a series of 23 low passage human melanoma lines as well as in cultures of normal melanocytes, and find that melanocytes, as well as all melanoma cell lines examined express TAZ. Melanocytes and most melanoma lines also express YAP. E-cadherin, an upstream regulator of the Hippo pathway, and Axl, a receptor tyrosine kinase regulated by the Hippo pathway, are expressed in melanocytes and in several melanoma cell lines. These observations, together with published evidence for the presence of Merlin, Lats1/2 and MST1/2 in melanocytes and melanoma cells, support the hypothesis that the Hippo pathway is an important component of melanocyte and melanoma behaviour.

  17. Fluorescent lights, ultraviolet lamps, and risk of cutaneous melanoma.

    OpenAIRE

    Swerdlow, A. J.; English, J. S.; MacKie, R.M.; O'Doherty, C. J.; Hunter, J A; Clark, J.; Hole, D J

    1988-01-01

    Exposure to solar radiation is increasingly being associated with a risk of cutaneous melanoma, and some risk has also been attributed to exposure to fluorescent lights. The risk of cutaneous melanoma associated with exposure to some sources of artificial ultraviolet radiation was examined in a case-control study in a Scottish population with fairly low exposure to natural ultraviolet radiation. The risk was not significantly or consistently raised for exposure to fluorescent lights at home o...

  18. A Case of Pediatric Melanoma: Treatment Considerations in Advanced Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albino, Frank P.; Wood, Benjamin C.; Oh, Albert; Rogers, Gary F.

    2015-01-01

    Summary: We document a 3-year-old healthy African American girl who developed malignant melanoma on her lower extremity. The clinical appearance offered little indication of the lesion’s severity (T4), and only the history of de novo presentation and disproportionate growth raised clinical suspicion. This case report highlights the subtle clinical findings of this condition and presents controversies related to surgical management of pediatric melanoma. PMID:26090292

  19. Radiosensitivity of malignant melanomas. Part II. Clinical studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forty-four lymph node or skin metastases of malignant melanomas received definite radiotherapy. Twenty were locally controlled for 2 or more years. Local control rate increased with dose. TCD-50 was about 1800 ret. The effectiveness of radiotherapy was more dependent on overall treatment time than on fraction size or number of fractions. Radiotherapy is suggested to decrease the high rate of locoregional failure of surgery of nodular melanomas in the foot and face

  20. Predicting outcome in melanoma: where are we now?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Jennings, L

    2009-09-01

    Melanoma incidence continues to rise in most countries. This is of grave concern, given the mortality rate in a relatively young population. Current staging tools are limited in their ability to predict accurately those at risk of metastatic disease, relapse and treatment failure. This overview comprehensively reviews relevant literature, with the focus on the last 5 years, and discusses the current state of traditional and emerging novel methods of staging for melanoma and their effect on prognosis in this population.

  1. Metronidazol in combined therapy of malignant skin melanoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Analysis of immediate, early and 3-year delayed radiation effects of combined therapy of 91 patients with malignant skin melanoma, who received metronidazole as radiosensibilizator and intensive large-fraction preoperative remote radiotherapy with 6-10 MeV fast electrons and postoperative supporting multicourse polychemotherapy, is presented. It is shown that for 3 years of posttherapy obsrevations the patients had no recurrences of melanoma

  2. Spontaneous regression of metastases from malignant melanoma: a case report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kalialis, Louise V; Drzewiecki, Krzysztof T; Mohammadi, Mahin; Mehlsen, Anne-Birgitte; Klyver, Helle

    2008-01-01

    therapy, which is considered inadequate to exert a significant influence on neoplastic disease. The incidence of spontaneous regression of metastases from malignant melanoma is approximately one per 400 patients, and possible mechanisms include immunologic, endocrine, inflammatory and tumour nutritional...... factors. Our patient engaged in alternative therapies and was taking a number of different dietary supplements, none of which can be medically recommended, but the combination of which possibly strengthened the immune system and thereby the host defense against the melanoma metastases....

  3. Role of primary care in the prevention of malignant melanoma.

    OpenAIRE

    JOHNSON, N; Mant, D.; Newton, J.; Yudkin, P.L.

    1994-01-01

    One of the targets for health in the United Kingdom is the reduction in the year-on-year increase in the incidence of skin cancer. Most of the mortality associated with skin cancer is attributable to malignant melanoma. One possible way to reduce the incidence of malignant melanoma is to develop a strategy for prevention based in primary care. This paper considers the arguments for and against three possible strategies: giving general advice; identifying patients at high risk; and undertaking...

  4. A Brief History of Melanoma: From Mummies to Mutations

    OpenAIRE

    Rebecca, Vito W.; Sondak, Vernon K; Smalley, Keiran S M

    2012-01-01

    The recent years have seen melanoma research undergo a renaissance. What was once viewed, at least in the metastatic setting, as an intractable and untreatable disease is now revealing its molecular weaknesses. 2011 was a landmark year for melanoma therapy with two new agents, the anti-CTLA4 antibody ipilimumab and the BRAF inhibitor vemurafenib, shown to confer a survival benefit in randomized phase III clinical trials. Forgotten in the recent flurry of interest that has accompanied the deve...

  5. Vertical growth phase and positive sentinel node in thin melanoma

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira Filho R.S.; Ferreira L.M.; Biasi L.J.; Enokihara M.M.S.S.; Paiva G.R.; Wagner J

    2003-01-01

    Sentinel node (SN) status is the most important prognostic factor for localized melanoma. Usually, patients with Breslow thickness of less than 1.0 mm are not included in SN protocols. However, the literature presents a rate ranging from 3 to 7% of nodal recurrence in thin melanoma. Ulceration, regression and high mitotic rate have been considered to be indications for an SN biopsy. The metastatic potential of the vertical growth phase is uncertain. To correlate pathological features in thin ...

  6. The Potential of Triterpenoids in the Treatment of Melanoma

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Å arek, J.; Kvasnica, Miroslav; Vlk, M.; Urban, M.; Dzubak, P.; Hajduch, M.

    Rijeka : InTech, 2011 - (Murph, M.), s. 125-158 ISBN 978-953-307-293-7 Grant ostatní: GA ČR(CZ) GA305/09/1216; GA ČR(CZ) GP301/09/P433 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : triterpene * melanoma * lupane * cancer Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry http://www.intechopen.com/articles/show/title/the-potential-of-triterpenoids-in-the-treatment-of-melanoma

  7. New challenges in endpoints for drug development in advanced melanoma

    OpenAIRE

    Ribas, Antoni; Hersey, Peter; Middleton, Mark R.; Gogas, Helen; Flaherty, Keith T.; Sondak, Vernon K; Kirkwood, John M

    2011-01-01

    During the past three decades, the field of clinical research for the treatment of advanced melanoma lacked significant advances. Available drugs had low antitumor activity and no proven benefit in overall survival. Recently, new drugs developed based on an in-depth understanding of the biology of this disease have demonstrated significant benefit, with ipilimumab and vemurafenib having recently shown a positive impact in overall survival in patients with metastatic melanoma leading to approv...

  8. A Case of Pediatric Melanoma: Treatment Considerations in Advanced Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Albino, Frank P; Wood, Benjamin C.; Oh, Albert; Rogers, Gary F.; Sauerhammer, Tina

    2015-01-01

    Summary: We document a 3-year-old healthy African American girl who developed malignant melanoma on her lower extremity. The clinical appearance offered little indication of the lesion’s severity (T4), and only the history of de novo presentation and disproportionate growth raised clinical suspicion. This case report highlights the subtle clinical findings of this condition and presents controversies related to surgical management of pediatric melanoma.

  9. Malignant melanoma of the vagina: CT and MR findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report CT and MR findings in two cases of primary malignant melanoma of the vagina, one arising from cervicovaginal junction mimicking squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix and the other one recurring at vagina after resection. Two cases of malignant melanoma had high-attenuation on CT and high signal intensity on T1-weighted MR images and enhanced well after gadopentetate dimeglumine administration

  10. The roles of Microphthalmia Transcription Factor and pigmentation in melanoma

    OpenAIRE

    Hsiao, Jennifer J; Fisher, David E.

    2014-01-01

    MITF and pigmentation play important roles in both normal melanocyte and transformed melanoma cell biology. MITF is regulated by many pathways and it also regulates many targets, some of which are still being discovered and functionally validated. MITF is involved in a wide range of processes in melanocytes, including pigment synthesis and lineage survival. Pigmentation itself plays an important role as the interface between genetic and environmental factors that contribute to melanoma.

  11. A case of unusual metastasis of melanoma of conjunctiva

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M. Andreychenko

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This article describes a clinical case of melanoma of conjunctiva of the upper eyelid of a woman born in 1911. The patient had received a course of external radiotherapy of the primary tumor and plaque brachytherapy tumor recurrences (at 1 and 6 years from the start of treatment. However, after 7 years from the start of treatment, against the background of local remission, the patient had conjunctival melanoma metastasis was found in the choroid of the contralateral eye.

  12. Melanocytes, melanocyte stem cells, and melanoma stem cells

    OpenAIRE

    Lang, Deborah; Mascarenhas, Joseph B.; Shea, Christopher R.

    2013-01-01

    Melanocyte stem cells differ greatly from melanoma stem cells; the former provide pigmented cells during normal tissue homeostasis and repair, while the latter play an active role in a lethal form of cancer. These two cell types share several features and can be studied by similar methods. Aspects held in common by both melanocyte stem cells and melanoma stem cells include their expression of shared biochemical markers, a system of similar molecular signals necessary for their maintenance, an...

  13. Insights in tumorigenesis and metastasis of uveal melanoma

    OpenAIRE

    Notting, Irene Christa

    2009-01-01

    For a long time enucleation has been the treatment of choice for uveal melanoma. New treatment modalities have been developed e.g. transscleral thermotherapy (TTT), proton beam radiation, stereotactic radiotherapy and ruthenium application 1-3 . These treatment options offer a better chance to spare the eye. Despite new treatment options, the overall survival of patients treated for uveal melanoma did not improve. Ultimately, most patients die of metastatic disease. Therefore, there is need f...

  14. Adhesion molecules in melanoma--more than just superglue?

    OpenAIRE

    Mason, M.D.; Allman, R.; Quibell, M

    1996-01-01

    Malignant melanoma is increasing in incidence, and, though early lesions are readily treatable, systemic therapy for metastatic disease remains disappointing. Integrins are a family of cell-surface molecules that mediate adhesion between the cell and the extracellular matrix. One member of the integrin family, the alpha v beta 3 integrin, is associated with progression of melanomas, in that the most malignant cells express the highest levels of alpha v beta 3. Like many members of the integri...

  15. Glutamate and asparagine cataplerosis underlie glutamine addiction in melanoma

    OpenAIRE

    Ratnikov, Boris; Aza-Blanc, Pedro; Ronai, Ze'ev A.; Smith1, Jeffrey W.; Osterman, Andrei L; Scott, David A.

    2015-01-01

    Glutamine dependence is a prominent feature of cancer metabolism, and here we show that melanoma cells, irrespective of their oncogenic background, depend on glutamine for growth. A quantitative audit of how carbon from glutamine is used showed that TCA-cycle-derived glutamate is, in most melanoma cells, the major glutamine-derived cataplerotic output and product of glutaminolysis. In the absence of glutamine, TCA cycle metabolites were liable to depletion through aminotransferase-mediated α-...

  16. Immunophenotyping of melanomas for tyrosinase: implications for vaccine development.

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Y.T.; Stockert, E; Tsang, S.; Coplan, K A; Old, L. J.

    1995-01-01

    Tyrosinase (EC 1.14.18.1), the key enzyme in melanin synthesis, has been shown to be one of the targets for cytotoxic T-cell recognition in melanoma patients. To develop serological reagents useful for immunophenotyping melanoma for tyrosinase, human tyrosinase cDNA was expressed in an Escherichia coli expression vector. The purified recombinant tyrosinase was used to generate mouse monoclonal and rabbit polyclonal antibodies. The prototype monoclonal antibody, T311, recognized a cluster of p...

  17. Nivolumab plus ipilimumab in the treatment of advanced melanoma

    OpenAIRE

    Tsai, Katy K; Adil I Daud

    2015-01-01

    Advanced melanoma has historically been a difficult disease to treat due to few effective systemic treatment options. However, over the past few years, scientific advancements in immune checkpoint inhibition have resulted in several novel approaches that have changed front-line management of advanced melanoma. Despite these exciting developments, there remains room for improvement in treatment outcomes. Combination immunotherapy, in particular combined cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated protei...

  18. I-125 plaque therapy for choroidal melanoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fifty-eight patients have been treated for a chorodial melanoma using an I-125 plaque with a mean follow-up of 43.7 months (range, 15 - 100 mo). The average apical tumor dose was 8.468 cGy with a dose rate of 71 cGy. Tumors in 52 (89%) patients are controlled locally (two were replaqued). There are 46 (79%) NED; seven have died of distant disease and five of other causes. Complications include cataracts (14), angiopathy (four), vitreous homorrhage (five), and neovascular glaucoma (four). Even though 44 patients had posterior tumors (with 25 patients having lesions < 3.0 mm from the optic nerve), no one had optic nerve atrophy

  19. Melanoma detection algorithm based on feature fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barata, Catarina; Emre Celebi, M; Marques, Jorge S

    2015-08-01

    A Computer Aided-Diagnosis (CAD) System for melanoma diagnosis usually makes use of different types of features to characterize the lesions. The features are often combined into a single vector that can belong to a high dimensional space (early fusion). However, it is not clear if this is the optimal strategy and works on other fields have shown that early fusion has some limitations. In this work, we address this issue and investigate which is the best approach to combine different features comparing early and late fusion. Experiments carried on the datasets PH2 (single source) and EDRA (multi source) show that late fusion performs better, leading to classification scores of Sensitivity = 98% and Specificity = 90% (PH(2)) and Sensitivity = 83% and Specificity = 76% (EDRA). PMID:26736837

  20. Amelanotic malignant melanoma with multiple secondaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banerjee Santanu

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A 37-year-old female presented with a fungating cauliflower-like growth over the right inguinal region with fracture of the right distal femur. Clinical examination revealed an asthenic individual and showed a large fungating protuberant mass over right inguinal region and right knee. Investigations revealed pancytopenia, massive splenomegaly with right iliac lymphadenopathy on ultrasonography of abdomen and a soft tissue mass over upper end of femur and fracture of distal femur on radiological examination. CT scan showed multiple deposits in the lungs with splenomegaly and lymphadenopathy. Fine needle aspiration cytology showed poorly cohesive cellular aspirate with spindle and round cell population with no pigment. Biopsy showed replacement of the dermis by coalescent nests of malignant melanocytes. S-100 antigen was found to be positive. The patient was diagnosed as a case of amelanotic malignant melanoma in Stage III disease and treated with general measures, stabilization of the fracture site followed by oncological management.

  1. Management of primary melanoma of the female urogenital tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piura, Benjamin

    2008-10-01

    Primary melanoma of the urogenital tract in women is rare, but biologically aggressive. They usually affect elderly women and account for less than 10% of all cancer of the urogenital tract in women and less than 10% of all melanoma diagnosed in women. Tumours originate from melanocytes that are present in the urogenital mucosal epithelium of about 3% of women. Tumour staging can be challenging; however, the American Joint Committee on Cancer melanoma staging system has been recommended for use in vulvar and vaginal melanoma. Surgery is the treatment of choice; less-extensive surgery can be a sensible approach because satisfactory locoregional control might be obtained from wide local excision and radiotherapy, without the morbidity and disfigurement associated with radical surgery. Complete regional lymphadenectomy does not seem necessary if a sentinel lymph-node biopsy sample is negative; however, this decision should be made with caution. Various chemotherapy and biotherapy (ie, immunotherapy and biological-response modifiers) regimens have been used in advanced or metastatic melanoma. However, the role of chemotherapy for women with urogenital-tract melanoma has not been established, and biotherapy methods presented to date have been anecdotal. PMID:19071254

  2. Pronounced peptide selectivity for melanoma through tryptophan end-tagging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duong, Dinh Thuy; Singh, Shalini; Bagheri, Mojtaba; Verma, Navin Kumar; Schmidtchen, Artur; Malmsten, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Effects of oligotryptophan end-tagging on the uptake of arginine-rich peptides into melanoma cells was investigated under various conditions and compared to that into non-malignant keratinocytes, fibroblasts, and erythrocytes, also monitoring resulting cell toxicity. In parallel, biophysical studies on peptide binding to, and destabilization of, model lipid membranes provided mechanistic insight into the origin of the selectivity between melanoma and non-malignant cells. Collectively, the results demonstrate that W-tagging represents a powerful way to increase selective peptide internalization in melanoma cells, resulting in toxicity against these, but not against the non-malignant cells. These effects were shown to be due to increased peptide adsorption to the outer membrane in melanoma cells, caused by the presence of anionic lipids such as phosphatidylserine and ganglioside GM1, and to peptide effects on mitochondria membranes and resulting apoptosis. In addition, the possibility of using W-tagged peptides for targeted uptake of nanoparticles/drug carriers in melanoma was demonstrated, as was the possibility to open up the outer membrane of melanoma cells in order to facilitate uptake of low Mw anticancer drugs, here demonstrated for doxorubicin. PMID:27117225

  3. Using risk factors for detection and prognostication of uveal melanoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pukhraj Rishi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The early detection of malignancy, particularly uveal melanoma, is crucial in protecting visual acuity, salvaging the eye, and preventing metastasis. Risk factors for early detection of uveal melanoma have been clearly delineated in the literature and allow identification of melanoma when it is tiny and simulates a nevus. These factors include thickness >2 mm, presence of subretinal fluid (SRF, symptoms, the orange pigment, margin near optic disc, acoustic hollowness, surrounding halo, and absence of drusen. The importance of early detection is realized when one considers melanoma thickness, as each millimeter increase in melanoma thickness imparts 5% increased risk for metastatic disease. Newer imaging modalities like enhanced depth imaging optical coherence tomography and fundus autoflouroscence facilitate in detection of SRF and orange pigment. Additional molecular biomarkers and cytological features have been identified which can predict the clinical behavior of a small melanocytic lesion. Features that suggest a poor prognosis include higher blood levels of tyrosinase m-RNA, vascular endothelial growth factor, insulin-like growth factor; monosomy 3 and gains in chromosome 8. Management of uveal melanoma includes enucleation (for large, local eye wall resection, brachytherapy, charged particle irradiation, and thermotherapy (for small to medium tumors. Although the role of a good clinical evaluation cannot be underestimated, it is advisable to evaluate the various radiological, molecular, and cytological features, to enhance the accuracy of early diagnosis and improved prognosis.

  4. Photodynamic therapy for melanoma: efficacy and immunologic effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avci, Pinar; Gupta, Gaurav K.; Kawakubo, Masayoshi; Hamblin, Michael R.

    2014-02-01

    Malignant melanoma is one of the fastest growing cancers and if it cannot be completely surgically removed the prognosis is bleak. Melanomas are known to be particularly resistant to both chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Various types of immunotherapy have however been investigated with mixed reports of success. Photodynamic therapy (PDT) has also been tested against melanoma, again with mixed effects as the melanin pigment is thought to act as both an optical shield and as an antioxidant. We have been investigating PDT against malignant melanoma in mouse models. We have compared B16F10 melanoma syngenic to C57BL/6 mice and S91 Cloudman melanoma syngenic to DBA2 mice. We have tested the hypothesis that S91 will respond better than B16 because of higher expression of immunocritical molecules such as MHC-1, tyrosinase, tyrosinase related protein-2 gp100, and intercellular adhesion molecule-1. Some of these molecules can act as tumor rejection antigens that can be recognized by antigen-specific cytotoxic CD8 T cells that have been stimulated by PDT. Moreover it is possible that DBA2 mice are intrinsically better able to mount an anti-tumor immune response than C57BL/6 mice. We are also studying intratumoral injection of photosensitzers such as benzoporphyrin monoacid ring A and comparing this route with the more usual route of intravenous administration.

  5. Treatment of cutaneous melanoma: current approaches and future prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melanoma is the most aggressive and deadly type of skin cancer. Surgical resection with or without lymph node sampling is the standard of care for primary cutaneous melanoma. Adjuvant therapy decisions may be informed by careful consideration of prognostic factors. High-dose adjuvant interferon alpha-2b increases disease-free survival and may modestly improve overall survival. Less toxic alternatives for adjuvant therapy are currently under study. External beam radiation therapy is an option for nodal beds where the risk of local recurrence is very high. In-transit melanoma metastases may be treated locally with surgery, immunotherapy, radiation, or heated limb perfusion. For metastatic melanoma, the options include chemotherapy or immunotherapy; targeted anti-BRAF and anti-KIT therapy is under active investigation. Standard chemotherapy yields objective tumor responses in approximately 10%–20% of patients, and sustained remissions are uncommon. Immunotherapy with high-dose interleukin-2 yields objective tumor responses in a minority of patients; however, some of these responses may be durable. Identification of activating mutations of BRAF, NRAS, c-KIT, and GNAQ in distinct clinical subtypes of melanoma suggest that these are molecularly distinct. Emerging data from clinical trials suggest that substantial improvements in the standard of care for melanoma may be possible

  6. H-cadherin expression reduces invasion of malignant melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuphal, Silke; Martyn, Adam C; Pedley, Julie; Crowther, Lisa M; Bonazzi, Vanessa F; Parsons, Peter G; Bosserhoff, Anja K; Hayward, Nicholas K; Boyle, Glen M

    2009-06-01

    Melanocytic behavior, survival, and proliferation are regulated through a complex system of cell-cell adhesion molecules. Pathologic changes leading to development of malignant melanoma, upset the delicate homeostatic balance between melanocytes and keratinocytes and can lead to altered expression of cell-cell adhesion and cell-cell communication molecules. Malignant transformation of melanocytes frequently coincides with loss of E-cadherin expression. We now show loss of another member of the superfamily of classical cadherins, H-cadherin (CDH13), which may be involved in the development of malignant melanoma. The provided data show that H-cadherin expression is lost in nearly 80% of the analyzed melanoma cell lines. Knockdown of H-cadherin using siRNA increases invasive capacity in melanocytes. Functional assays show that the re-expression of H-cadherin decreases migration and invasion capacity, as well as anchorage-independent growth in comparison to control melanoma cells. Furthermore, melanoma cells, which re-express H-cadherin via stable transfection show a reduction in rate of tumor growth in a nu/nu mouse tumor model in comparison to the parental control transfected cell lines. Our study presents for the first time the down-regulation of H-cadherin in malignant melanomas and its possible functional relevance in maintenance healthy skin architecture. PMID:19368692

  7. Adhesion, migration and communication in melanocytes and melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haass, Nikolas K; Smalley, Keiran S M; Li, Ling; Herlyn, Meenhard

    2005-06-01

    Under normal conditions, homeostasis determines whether a cell remains quiescent, proliferates, differentiates, or undergoes apoptosis. In this state of homeostasis, keratinocytes control melanocyte growth and behaviour through a complex system of paracrine growth factors and cell-cell adhesion molecules. Alteration of this delicate homeostatic balance and can lead to altered expression of cell-cell adhesion and cell communication molecules and to the development of melanoma. Melanoma cells escape from this control by keratinocytes through three major mechanisms: (1) down-regulation of receptors important for communication with keratinocytes such as E-cadherin, P-cadherin, desmoglein and connexins, which is achieved through growth factors produced by fibroblasts or keratinocytes; (2) up-regulation of receptors and signalling molecules not found on melanocytes but important for melanoma-melanoma and melanoma-fibroblast interactions such as N-cadherin, Mel-CAM, and zonula occludens protein-1 (ZO-1); (3) loss of anchorage to the basement membrane because of an altered expression of the extracellular-matrix binding integrin family. In the current review, we describe the alterations in cell-cell adhesion and communication associated with melanoma development and progression, and discuss how a greater understanding of these processes may aid the future therapy of this disease. PMID:15892711

  8. Halofuginone inhibits the establishment and progression of melanoma bone metastases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juárez, Patricia; Mohammad, Khalid S; Yin, Juan Juan; Fournier, Pierrick G J; McKenna, Ryan C; Davis, Holly W; Peng, Xiang H; Niewolna, Maria; Javelaud, Delphine; Chirgwin, John M; Mauviel, Alain; Guise, Theresa A

    2012-12-01

    TGF-β derived from bone fuels melanoma bone metastases by inducing tumor secretion of prometastatic factors that act on bone cells to change the skeletal microenvironment. Halofuginone is a plant alkaloid derivative that blocks TGF-β signaling with antiangiogenic and antiproliferative properties. Here, we show for the first time that halofuginone therapy decreases development and progression of bone metastasis caused by melanoma cells through the inhibition of TGF-β signaling. Halofuginone treatment of human melanoma cells inhibited cell proliferation, phosphorylation of SMAD proteins in response to TGF-β, and TGF-β-induced SMAD-driven transcription. In addition, halofuginone reduced expression of TGF-β target genes that enhance bone metastases, including PTHrP, CTGF, CXCR4, and IL11. Also, cell apoptosis was increased in response to halofuginone. In nude mice inoculated with 1205 Lu melanoma cells, a preventive protocol with halofuginone inhibited bone metastasis. The beneficial effects of halofuginone treatment were comparable with those observed with other anti-TGF-β strategies, including systemic administration of SD208, a small-molecule inhibitor of TGF-β receptor I kinase, or forced overexpression of Smad7, a negative regulator of TGF-β signaling. Furthermore, mice with established bone metastases treated with halofuginone had significantly less osteolysis than mice receiving placebo assessed by radiography. Thus, halofuginone is also effective in reducing the progression of melanoma bone metastases. Moreover, halofuginone treatment reduced melanoma metastasis to the brain, showing the potential of this novel treatment against cancer metastasis. PMID:23002206

  9. Dietary Antioxidants and Melanoma: Evidence from Cohort and Intervention Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miura, Kyoko; Green, Adèle C

    2015-01-01

    Melanoma is the most serious form of skin cancer affecting mostly people of Caucasian origin and is associated with high exposure to solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation. Antioxidants in the diet are thought to prevent UV-induced DNA damage and oxidative stress and laboratory-based studies have shown that high antioxidant intakes inhibit melanoma development. Corresponding epidemiological evidence is inconsistent, however. We therefore reviewed results from prospective observational studies and randomized controlled trials (RCTs) to clarify whether consumption of antioxidant vitamin C, E (tocopherol), and A (retinol), carotenoids and selenium, as food, supplements, or both, or high fruit and vegetable intake, reduce the incidence of cutaneous melanoma. A total of 9 studies (2 cohort, 1 nested case-control, 6 RCTs) were included. Neither antioxidant nutrients, individually or combined, nor fruit and vegetable intake showed any strong and significant associations with melanoma, though the number of relevant studies was limited and several had methodological shortcomings. In particular, melanoma was not a primary disease outcome in any of the RCTs and therefore, none adequately accounted for potential confounding by sun exposure. In conclusion, available evidence is currently inadequate to assess possible beneficial effects of antioxidant intake on melanoma risk. PMID:26147450

  10. Melanoma can control development of metastasis - Fact or myth?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Čabrijan, Leo; Batinac, Tanja; Lipozenčić, Jasna

    2016-04-01

    The malignant melanoma spreading process cannot explain occurrence of metastases several years following local surgical therapy of primary malignancy. But, this complex process of delayed metastases is still challenging and not completely understood. We hypotheses that melanoma metastases occur early in disease, probably at the same time with the occurrence of the primary melanoma. We suggest that dissemination of metastatic "seed cells" occur at an early stage of the disease together with the development of primary melanoma and cannot be detected by standard diagnostic methods. These cells are masked between healthy cells and have the potential to proceed in true metastasis following the activation triggered by signal from primary tumor or other source. Other possibility includes the existence of two different genes, one responsible for development of primary melanoma, and the other with a roll in development of metastases. We believe that future investigation should be directed toward better understanding of mechanisms involved in metastases development keeping in mind that melanoma behavior is irrational and defies logical thinking. PMID:26968912

  11. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging study of uveal melanoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To study CT and MRI findings of uveal melanoma and detect the most appropriate MRI scanning sequences. Materials and methods: A series of MRI scanning sequences were performed in 15 cases, and CT was performed in 11 cases. MRI and CT findings were compared with pathologic, operative and clinical findings. Results: Of 11 cases receiving CT scanning, 9 displayed iso-density masses with respect to extraocular muscles. The other two tumors were too small to be demonstrated. Fourteen cases of melanoma showed characteristic MR appearances with hyperintense signal with respect to the vitreous on T1-weighted images and hypointense with respect to the vitreous on T2-weighted images. One case of iris melanoma only 3 mm in height was not demonstrated on T1-weighted images, but was displayed hypointense signal on T2-weighted images. Eleven cases associated with retinal detachment showed high intensity signal on T1- and T2-weighted images and could not be distinguished from melanoma. Postcontrast T1-weighted images with fat suppression technique were found to be the most helpful in detecting and delineating small melanomas less than 5 mm as well as distinguishing them from retinal detachment. Conclusion: MRI was superior to ultrasound or CT. Collaborative diagnosis including clinical, ultrasonographic, CT and MRI examinations is the best for ocular melanoma

  12. Sentinel lymph node biopsy in local recurrence of cutaneous melanoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Locally recurrent disease in patients with melanoma is usually defined as cutaneous or subcutaneous arising within 5 cm of the primary site after complete excision of the primary lesion. It may represent residual disease not excised with the primary tumor or the outgrowth of the satellite lesions, which are common with melanoma. Lymphatic mapping and sentinel lymph node (SLN) biopsy is highly accurate in staging nodal basins at risk of regional metastases in primary melanoma patients and identifies those who may benefit from earlier lymphadenectomy. Our purpose was to evaluate the efficacy of sentinel lymph node mapping and biopsy in local recurrence of cutaneous melanoma when the primary lesion was less than 1.0mm thick. Three patients with local recurrence of cutaneous melanoma underwent sentinel lymph node mapping and biopsy. All patients underwent preoperative lymphoscintigraphy to identify the lymphatic basin and the site of the sentinel node. All patients subsequently underwent intra-operative lymphatic mapping and selective lymph node biopsy with vital blue dye and hand-held gamma probe. Excised SLN were analysed by conventional histological staining (H and E) and immunohistochemical staining. In all patients the lymphatic mapping and sentinel lymph node biopsy was successful. The SLN biopsy was negative in two patients and positive in one who underwent therapeutic lymph node dissection. Our results indicate that the SLN mapping and biopsy is also possible in patients having local recurrence of cutaneous melanoma. Although long-term results are not available, early results are promising. (author)

  13. Melanoma amelanótico en ciego

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ofelia Castillo

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Paciente varón de 73 años que acude a emergencia con anemia severa (Hb 4.9 g/dL, refiriendo un mes con deposiciones oscuras, astenia y pérdida significativa de peso. La evaluación endoscópica alta no encontró lesiones potencialmente sangrantes. Posteriormente se constató la presencia de heces sanguinolentas rojizas tipo enterorragia y se realizó una colonoscopía, en la cual se encontraron dos lesiones elevadas en el ciego: una pedunculada (con sangrado activo rezumante y otra sésil, ambas fueron extirpadas; el estudio de anatomía patológica demostró que correspondían a melanoma amelanótico de ciego. El examen físico no reveló lesiones neoplásicas dérmicas. El sangrado digestivo recurrente obligó a realizar una nueva colonoscopia que demostró una nueva lesión sangrante de ciego. Fue intervenido quirúrgicamente con una cecostomía y extirpación de la lesión cecal. La tomografía demostró metástasis en mediastino y en la cirugía se encontraron implantes metastásicos en hígado e intestino delgado. El paciente continuó tratamiento en oncología médica. Nosotros reportamos el presente caso, por ser la hemorragia digestiva una forma inusual de presentación clínica del melanoma maligno metastásico.

  14. Increased mortality for pregnancy-associated melanoma: systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrom, L; Olsen, C; Knight, L; Khosrotehrani, K; Green, A C

    2015-08-01

    Among women, pregnancy-associated melanomas may have a poorer prognosis than other melanomas, but evidence is inconsistent. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to assess the effect on melanoma outcome of a coinciding pregnancy. The objective of the study was to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of risk of death from, or recurrence of, pregnancy-associated melanomas compared with other melanomas in women of reproductive age. Cochrane (1996-2013), MEDLINE (1950-2013), EMBASE (1966-2013), CINAHL (1982-2013), and PUBMED (1951-2013) databases were searched for studies assessing the risk of death and recurrence in pregnancy-associated melanomas. Eligible studies investigated melanoma outcomes in women with pregnancy-associated melanomas (diagnosed during pregnancy or in 12 months following pregnancy), included a comparison group and reported measures of risk of melanoma death or disease-free survival. Eligible study designs were cohort studies of women of childbearing age with confirmed diagnoses of cutaneous melanoma. Individual study effect estimates were pooled using the weighted average method. Studies that did not report a quantitative estimate were summarized narratively. Of 304 citations identified, 14 studies met the inclusion criteria, with assessed outcomes being melanoma death (7), recurrence (3), or both (4). Pooled estimates of mortality risk from four studies showed increased risk of melanoma death after adjustment for patient age and stage of melanoma (pHR 1.56, 95% CI 1.23-1.99) for pregnancy-associated melanoma compared with other melanomas. Based on limited quantitative evidence, pregnancy-associated melanomas appear to have poorer outcomes than other melanomas. PMID:25690106

  15. Prospective study of melanoma in the Paris Region in 2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Introduction: Melanoma remains an important public health problem because of its increasing incidence and its responsibility for the deaths of young individuals. A first study was carried out by the P.E.T.R.I. association in 1994 to estimate the incidence of melanoma in the Paris region. A second one was carried out in 2004, with the same methodology, to estimate the increase of melanoma incidence in the Paris region and the main clinical and histological characteristics of these cancers, comparing to 1994 data. Methodology: Every pathologist of the region has been contacted to fill a questionnaire for each primary cutaneous melanoma excised between January 1. and December 31. 2004, from patients living in the Paris region (departments 75, 77, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95). The information requested included melanoma characteristics (localisation, type, Breslow thickness, Clark level, regression signs, pre existence of a nevus) and demographic data (age, sex, zip code of residence). Results: 98 % of pathologists in the region agree to participate in the study. They send 1453 questionnaires, among them 160 were excluded (double, non cutaneous melanoma, secondary lesion, non resident in the region, diagnoses out of the inclusion dates, biopsy followed by exeresis). The analyse included 1293 lesions in 1269 patients. More than 2/3 of diagnoses were confirmed by 2 laboratories and 10 laboratories (on 98) reported 86 % of the diagnoses. Incidence:The crude incidence of melanoma in the Paris region during 2004 was 11.4 cases per 100 000 inhabitants, by sex:11.1 per 100 000 males and 12.4 cases per 100 000 females. The sex ratio men/women was 0.82. The crude incidence of invasive melanoma (Clark 2 to 5) was 8,9 cases per 100 000 inhabitants, 9,2 per 100 000 women and 8,6 per 100 000 men, with a sex ratio men/women of 0,93. Demographic characteristics: Melanoma diagnosis was more often in women (54.9 %) than in men (45.1 %). The patients mean age was 59.3 years (S.D.: 17.3). The mean age according to sex was different (p=0.02). It was 58.2 years (S.D.: 18.0) for women and 60.6 years (S.D.: 16.4) for men. Two diagnoses were done in children ( ≤15 years old). Clinical characteristics: The proportion of in situ melanoma was higher among women (23.6%) than among men (18.6%) p=0.03. The site was known for 1258 cases: 30.0% were on the trunk, 24.5% on the legs (excluding the feet), 12.8% on the arms (excluding the hands), 5.0% on the feet, 0.5% on the hands, 0.3% on the nails (hands and feet), 0.1% on the extern. Most frequently localizations are legs and arms for women (46 % of lesions), trunk for men (42 % of lesions), face and neck for both men and women (21 % of lesions). The type distribution of lesions was: 72 % superficial spreading melanoma (S.S.M.); 9 % nodular melanoma and 13 % invasive melanoma arising on melanosis of Dubreuilh (Tables 1). Clark levels distribution was as follow : 21 % level 1; 28 % level 2; 23 % level 3; 23 % level 4 and 5 % level 5. Men had more often a level 4 or 5 than women (34 % vs. 23 %). Mean Breslow thickness was 1.73 mm (max 38 mm), higher in men than in women (2,02 vs. 1,46). Around 52 % of lesions was ≤0.75 mm and 21 % more was > 0.75 and ≤1.5 mm. Comparison 1994-2004: The incidence of melanoma in the Paris region increases slowly in 10 years: from 9.9 per 100 000 in 1994 to 11.4 cases per 100 000 inhabitants in 2004 for all melanomas and from 8.6 to 8.9 for invasive melanomas. But it is a crude incidence, more analysis are needed to study the population ageing. In this region, the increase was not multiplied by two in these ten years as it was in the past. Median age increases more than 10 years for each sex from 1994 to 2004: 49 years to 61 for men; 44 years to 58 for women. Clinical characteristics change in 10 years, with increase of melanoma arising on melanosis of Dubreuilh and nodular melanomas, and a decrease of S.S.M.. Sites of melanoma change with more face and neck localisation (from 10 to 21 %) and less trunk localisation (from 37% to 30%) and legs localisation (from 32 % to 24%). Melanoma are more often diagnosed at in situ stage but they are also more frequently diagnosed at a advanced stage (Table 2). Bibliography: Baccard M., Havard S., Souques M. et le Groupe Melanome de PETRI. Etude prospective de l incidence du melanome dans la region Ile de France en 1994. Annales de Dermatologie et de Venereologie, 1995, 122: S142-143. Baccard M., Havard S., Souques M. and the PETRI Melanoma Group. Prospective study of the incidence of melanoma in Paris region in 1994. Melanoma Research, 1997, 7: 335-338. (authors)

  16. Melanoma differentiation associated gene-7/interleukin-24 (mda-7/IL-24): Novel gene therapeutic for metastatic melanoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A potentially less toxic approach for cancer therapy comprises induction of tumor cells to lose growth potential irreversibly and terminally differentiate. Combining this scheme termed 'differentiation therapy of cancer' with subtraction hybridization to human melanoma cells resulted in the cloning of melanoma differentiation associated (mda) genes displaying elevated expression as a consequence of induction of terminal differentiation. One originally novel gene, mda-7, was found to display elevated expression in normal melanocytes and nevi with progressive loss of expression as a consequence of melanoma development and progression to metastasis. Based on structure, biochemical properties and chromosomal location, mda-7 has now been reclassified as interleukin (IL)-24, a member of the expanding IL-10 family of cytokines. In vitro cell culture and in vivo animal studies indicate that mda-7/IL-24 selectively induces programmed cell death (apoptosis) in multiple human cancers (including melanomas), without harming normal cells, and promotes profound anti-tumor activity in nude mice containing human tumor xenografts. Based on these remarkable properties, a Phase I clinical trial was conducted to test the safety of administration of mda-7/IL-24 by a replication incompetent adenovirus (Ad.mda-7; INGN 241) in patients with advanced solid cancers including melanoma. mda-7/IL-24 was found to be safe and to promote significant clinical activity, particularly in the context of patients with metastatic melanoma. These results provide an impetus for further clinical studies and document a central paradigm of cancer therapy, namely translation of basic science from the 'bench to the bedside.'

  17. Targeted alpha therapy for melanoma : from bench to bedside

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The control of metastatic melanoma remains an elusive objective. Targeted alpha therapy (TAT) offers a new approach to the control of micrometastases and regression of tumours. The alpha emitting immunoconjugate (AIC) against malignant melanoma has been prepared by chelating Bi-213 to the anti-melanoma antibody 9.2.27, and injected locally at 2 d post-inoculation of 1.5 million melanoma cells, or intralesionally into skin tumours. Human subjects receive 50μCi intralesional dose, escalating to 1 mCi. The clearances from the tumour, kidneys and bladder are monitored by a NaI detector that detects the 440 keV gamma ray. Blood samples and tumour photographs are taken at O. 2 and 4 weeks; tumours are excised at 4 weeks. Isolated cancer cells and preangiogenic cell clusters in mice can be eliminated with 25 μCi local AIC injection, and intra-lesional injections of 100 μCi are sufficient to completely regress melanomas with volumes up to 300 mm3 without side-effects. Systemic TAT with a single administration is less effective with 100% growth delay of tumours observed, and ∼20% complete inhibition. The clinical TAT trial for recurrent subcutaneous melanoma has been approved by the NSW Radiation Advisory Committee and the SES Human Ethics Committee. In a world first phase 1 study, the first 5 subjects have been treated by intralesional injection, 3 at 50 μCi, and 2 at 150 μCi. All subjects having unchanged blood profiles at 2 and 4 weeks post-therapy. Tumour volumes appear little changed. However, histology of a 3 cm melanoma shows that almost complete cell kill occurred at 150 μCi, with only a few small cell clusters surviving. Local TAT inhibits tumourogenesis and intralesional TAT completely regresses melanoma in mice. Intralesional TAT for melanoma in human subjects is non-toxic so far and appears to be a promising modality. The ultimate objective is to apply systemic TAT for the control of melanoma micrometastases. Copyright (2001) Australasian College of Physical Scientists and Engineers in Medicine

  18. Termoterapia transpupilar em melanoma maligno da coróide Transpupillary thermotherapy for malignant choroidal melanoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha M. Motomo Chojniak

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Vários métodos vem sendo utilizados para o tratamento dos melanomas da coróide. A proposta deste trabalho preliminar é avaliar a eficácia da termoterapia transpupilar (TTT como tratamento primário de melanomas da coróide pequenos. Métodos: Foi realizado um trabalho prospectivo e não-randomizado para avaliar os aspectos clínicos, resposta do tumor, complicações e resultados visuais de pacientes portadores de melanomas da coróide pequenos (até 4,0 mm de espessura e 12 mm de diâmetro basal tratados por termoterapia transpupilar utilizando-se sucessivas aplicações de laser diodo contínuo de 810 nm. Resultados: Foram tratados 11 pacientes portadores de melanomas da coróide pequenos. O tumor era único e pigmentado em 100% dos casos. Crescimento documentado esteve presente em 5 pacientes (45,45% previamente ao tratamento e fatores de risco para crescimento ou metástase estavam presentes em todos os pacientes. O tempo de seguimento destes pacientes a partir do tratamento foi em média de 5,72 meses (3 - 8 meses. Foram utilizadas 3 sessões de laser em 5 pacientes (45,45% e 4 sessões em 6 pacientes (64,64%. As lesões apresentavam, por ocasião do diagnóstico, uma espessura média de 2,65 mm (1,85-3,86 mm, com maior diâmetro basal médio de 7,98 mm (4,2-11,33 mm. Após o tratamento, a espessura média foi de 1,83 mm (0,98-2,93 mm e o maior diâmetro basal médio foi de 6,59 mm (3,81 mm -10,67 mm. Das lesões tratadas, 100% apresentaram diminuição da altura e do máximo diâmetro basal, tendo sido a diminuição média da espessura de 0,89 mm e do máximo diâmetro basal de 1,39 mm. A acuidade visual manteve-se inalterada em 5 casos (45,45% e piorou após o tratamento em 6 casos (54,54%. Ocorreram complicações em 9 casos, tendo sido considerada complicação grave 1 caso de descolamento parcial da retina (9,09%; as outras complicações foram consideradas leves: pequenas hemorragias intra-retinianas em 7 pacientes (63,63%, vitreite associada a tênues membranas vítreas em 1 paciente (9,09% e quemose associada a edema palpebral em 1 paciente (9,09%. Controle tumoral local com conservação do globo ocular foi observado durante este pequeno tempo de seguimento em 100% dos pacientes tratados. Por ocasião da "última revisão", 100% dos pacientes estavam vivos e sem doença metastática. Conclusão: Este estudo preliminar sugere que a termoterapia transpupilar apresenta-se como um método efetivo e seguro para o tratamento de selecionados melanomas pequenos da coróide. Para melhor avaliação é necessário tempo de seguimento prolongado.Purpose: Several methods have been used for treatment of choroidal melanoma. The purpose of this preliminary paper is to evaluate the effectiveness of transpupillary thermo- therapy (TTT as a primary treatment of small choroidal melanomas. Methods: This is a prospective nonrandomized study evaluating clinical aspects, tumor response, complications and visual outcome in patients presenting small choroidal melanomas (up to 4.0 mm thick and 12 mm base diameter treated with TTT over 810 nm laser diode applications. Results: There were 11 patients treated with trans-pupillary thermotherapy, all of them presenting pig-mented small choroidal melanomas. Growth previous to treatment was documented in 5 patients and risk factors for growth or metastatic disease was present in all the patients. After treatment the patients were followed for 3 to 8 months (mean 5.7 months. Three laser sessions were used in 5 pa-tients and 4 sessions in 6 patients. The lesions presented at the beginning of the treatment a mean thickness of 2.7 mm, with a mean larger base diameter of 7.8 mm. All the lesions responded to treatment and presented decrease of thickness and base diameters. After transpupillary thermotherapy, the lesions' mean thickness was 1.8 mm and the mean larger base diameter was 6.7 mm. The mean reduction in thickness was 0.9 mm and the mean decrease in larger base diameter was 1.4 mm. The visual acuity remained unaffected in 5 cases and worsened after treatment in 6 cases. Nine patients presented compli- cations. A major complication occurred in a single patient who presented retinal detachment. Minor compli-cations were observed as follows: small retinal hemorrhages (7 patients, vitreous inflammation associated with tenuous vitreous membranes (1 patient and conjunctiva and eyelid edema (1 patient. Local tumor control and conservation of the eyeball was accomplished in all the patients; they are all alive without evidence of metastatic disease in this initial follow-up period. Conclusion: This preliminary study suggests that the transpupillary thermotherapy is a promi-sing, effective and safe method for treatment of selected small choroidal melanomas. Further studies with longer follow-up period are necessary to better evaluate this treatment.

  19. Successful BNCT for patients with cutaneous and mucosal melanomas. Report of 4 cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since 2003 we have conducted BNCT clinical trials on melanomas at the Kyoto University Research Reactor (KUR) and Japan Research Reactor No.4 (JRR-4). We report 4 patients given BNCT for malignant melanomas: 2 with superficial spreading types on the heel, 1 with mucosal melanoma in the nasal cavity, and 1 with a melanoma on the vulva and in the vagina. The two cutaneous melanomas and the nasal cavity mucosal melanoma showed a complete response (CR) by 6 months after BNCT. The residual melanoma showed a partial response (PR) by 3 months after treatment and no regrowth since then. Although two patients experienced normal-tissue damage that exceeded the tolerance level, all the participants were cured within a few months of treatment. BNCT was shown to be a promising treatment for mucosal, as well as for cutaneous, melanomas. (author)

  20. Exacerbation of psoriasis induced by interferon-alpha treatment for melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tas, Faruk; Atsu, Nilhan

    2016-03-01

    Interferon-alpha is one of the major immune modulating agents used in current oncology practice, including melanoma. We present a case of psoriasis exacerbation induced by INF-? in a patient with melanoma. PMID:25799214

  1. Cutaneous malignant melanoma show geographic and socioeconomic disparities in stage at diagnosis and excess mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strömberg, Ulf; Peterson, Stefan; Holmberg, Erik; Holmén, Anders; Persson, Bertil; Sandberg, Carin; Nilbert, Mef

    Background Preventive measures are needed to counteract the increasing burden of cutaneous malignant melanoma (CMM). As a basis for rational melanoma prevention, we investigated geographic differences and impact from socioeconomic factors related to incidence, clinical stage at diagnosis and outc...

  2. Association between choroidal pigmentation and posterior uveal melanoma in a white population

    OpenAIRE

    Harbour, J W; Brantley, M A; Hollingsworth, H.; Gordon, M.

    2004-01-01

    Background/aims: It is well known that light skin pigmentation is a risk factor for cutaneous melanoma. The aim of this study was to investigate the analogous association between choroidal pigmentation and posterior uveal melanoma.

  3. Comparative study of angio genesis radiopharmaceuticals for melanoma detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Early diagnosis and treatment of melanoma, a cutaneous tumor with a serious prognosis, is extremely important for optimal clinical outcome. Phage display peptide libraries are a useful screening resource for identifying bioactive peptides that interact with cancer targets. The aim of this study was the evaluation of two technetium-99m tracers for angio genesis detection in melanoma model, using cyclic peguilated pentapeptide with RGD and NGR motifs conjugated with bifunctional chelator MAG3. The conjugated peptides (10 μL of a μg/μL solution) were labeled with technetium-99m using a sodium tartrate buffer. Radiochemical evaluation was done by ITLC and confirmed by HPLC. Partition coefficient was determined and internalization assays were performed in two melanoma cells (B16F10 and SKMEL28). Biodistribution evaluation of the tracers was done in healthy animals at different times and also in mice bearing the tumor cells at 120 min post injection. Blocking studies were also conducted by co-injection of cold peptides. The conjugated showed the same profile in many evaluations. They were radiolabeled with high radiochemical purity (>97%). Both were hydrophilic, with preferential renal excretion. Tumor uptake was higher for human melanoma cells than for murinic melanoma cells, specially for 99mTc-MAG3-PEG8-c(RGDyK) (7.85±±2.34 %ID/g) at 120 min post injection. The performance of 99mTc-MAG3-PEG8-c(RGDyk) was much better than NGR tracer concerning human melanoma uptake and might be considered in future investigations focusing radiotracers for melanoma diagnosis. (author)

  4. Specificity of growth inhibition of melanoma by 4-hydroxyanisole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An experimental study using human melanoma (NEL-MI), rat hepatoma (Fu5-5), and human kidney (293-31) cell lines was undertaken in order to evaluate the antitumor activity of 4-hydroxyanisole (4-OHA) in vitro. Prior reports have indicated highly specific antitumor activity of 4-OHA against melanoma cells in vitro. This specific antitumor activity has been proposed to be due to the oxidation of 4-OHA by tyrosinase to cytotoxic oxidation products. Dose-dependent cytotoxicity was observed when cells were cultured for 72 h in the presence of 4-OHA. At 100 microM, 4-OHA produced growth inhibition of 62%, 32%, and 55% in melanoma, hepatoma, and kidney cell lines, respectively. No effect was seen at 10 microM 4-OHA. 1,000 microM 4-OHA produced 100% kill. Tyrosinase activity was detected only in melanoma cells. The effect of 100 microM 4-OHA on the incorporation of 3H DNA precursors in melanoma, hepatoma, and kidney cells was also studied. Thymidine incorporation was inhibited in all three cell lines at the lowest cell density tested, with the greatest inhibition seen on melanoma cells. As cell density increased, the effect of 4-OHA on thymidine incorporation decreased. With respect to RNA synthesis, 4-OHA significantly reduced the incorporation of uridine in all three cell lines, with the greatest effect in melanoma cells. Cell density also affected the inhibition of uridine incorporation, but to a lesser extent than that observed on thymidine incorporation. The effect of 4-OHA on leucine incorporation was modest and uninfluenced by cell density. Thus, cytotoxicity of 4-OHA may involve two different mechanisms

  5. Treatment of cutaneous melanoma: current approaches and future prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alain P Algazi

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Alain P Algazi1, Christopher W Soon2, Adil I Daud11Department of Medicine, Division of Hematology and Oncology, 2Department of Dermatology, University of California, San Francisco San Francisco, CA, USAAbstract: Melanoma is the most aggressive and deadly type of skin cancer. Surgical resection with or without lymph node sampling is the standard of care for primary cutaneous melanoma. Adjuvant therapy decisions may be informed by careful consideration of prognostic factors. High-dose adjuvant interferon alpha-2b increases disease-free survival and may modestly improve overall survival. Less toxic alternatives for adjuvant therapy are currently under study. External beam radiation therapy is an option for nodal beds where the risk of local recurrence is very high. In-transit melanoma metastases may be treated locally with surgery, immunotherapy, radiation, or heated limb perfusion. For metastatic melanoma, the options include chemotherapy or immunotherapy; targeted anti-BRAF and anti-KIT therapy is under active investigation. Standard chemotherapy yields objective tumor responses in approximately 10%–20% of patients, and sustained remissions are uncommon. Immunotherapy with high-dose interleukin-2 yields objective tumor responses in a minority of patients; however, some of these responses may be durable. Identification of activating mutations of BRAF, NRAS, c-KIT, and GNAQ in distinct clinical subtypes of melanoma suggest that these are molecularly distinct. Emerging data from clinical trials suggest that substantial improvements in the standard of care for melanoma may be possible.Keywords: melanoma, resection, immune modulation, small molecule kinase inhibitors, chemotherapy, clinical trials

  6. Sentinel lymph node biopsy for conjunctival malignant melanoma: surgical techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wainstein AJA

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Alberto JA Wainstein,1,2 Ana P Drummond-Lage,1 Milhem JM Kansaon,2 Gustavo O Bretas,2 Rodrigo F Almeida,3 Ana LF Gloria,3 Ana RP Figueiredo3 1Faculty of Medical Sciences of Minas Gerais, 2Oncad Surgical Oncology, 3Ophthalmology Department, Federal University of Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, Brazil Background: The purpose of this report is to examine the viability and safety of preoperative lymphoscintigraphy and radio guided sentinel lymph node (SLN biopsy for conjunctival melanoma, and to identify the best technique to perform this procedure.Methods: Three patients diagnosed with malignant melanoma of the conjunctiva underwent lymphoscintigraphy and SLN biopsy using a dual technique comprising isosulfan blue dye and technetium Tc 99m sulfur colloid. Each patient was anesthetized and the conjunctival melanoma was excised. SLNs were localized by a gamma probe, identified according to radioactivity and sentinel blue printing, and dissected, along with drainage of the associated lymphatic basins. The SLNs were evaluated by a pathologist using hematoxylin-eosin staining following serial sectioning and immunohistochemistry using a triple melanoma cocktail (S-100, Melan-A, and HMB-45 antigens.Results: Two SLNs were stained in the jugular chain during preoperative lymphoscintigraphy in the first patient, two SLNs were identified in the preauricular and submandibular areas in the second patient, and two SLNs were identified in the submandibular and parotid areas in the third patient. All lymph nodes identified by lymphoscintigraphy were dissected and identified at surgery with 100% accuracy in all three patients. All SLNs were histologically and immunohistochemically negative. Patients had good cosmetic and functional results, and maintained their visual acuity and ocular motility.Conclusion: Patients with conjunctival melanoma can undergo preoperative lymphoscintigraphy and SLN biopsy safely using radioactive technetium and isosulfan blue dye. Keywords: ocular melanoma, sentinel lymph node biopsy, lymphoscintigraphy, conjunctival melanoma

  7. Frequency and Characteristics of Familial Melanoma in Spain: The FAM-GEM-1 Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Márquez-Rodas, Iván; Martín González, Manuel; Nagore, Eduardo; Gómez-Fernández, Cristina; Avilés-Izquierdo, Jose Antonio; Maldonado-Seral, Cayetana; Soriano, Virtudes; Majem-Tarruella, Margarita; Palomar, Virginia; Maseda, Rocio; Martín-Carnicero, Alfonso; Puertolas, Teresa; Godoy, Elena; Cerezuela, Pablo; Ochoa de Olza, Maria; Campos, Begoña; Perez-Ruiz, Elisabeth; Soria, Ainara; Gil-Arnaiz, Irene; Gonzalez-Cao, Maria; Galvez, Elisa; Arance, Ana; Belon, Joaquin; de la Cruz-Merino, Luis; Martín-Algarra, Salvador

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Familial history of melanoma is a well-known risk factor for the disease, and 7% melanoma patients were reported to have a family history of melanoma. Data relating to the frequency and clinical and pathological characteristics of both familial and non-familial melanoma in Spain have been published, but these only include patients from specific areas of Spain and do not represent the data for the whole of Spain. Patients and methods An observational study conducted by the Spanish Group of Melanoma (GEM) analyzed the family history of patients diagnosed with melanoma between 2011 and 2013 in the dermatology and oncology departments. Results In all, 1047 patients were analyzed, and 69 (6.6%) fulfilled criteria for classical familial melanoma (two or more first-degree relatives diagnosed with melanoma). Taking into account other risk factors for familial melanoma, such as multiple melanoma, pancreatic cancer in the family or second-degree relatives with melanoma, the number of patients fulfilling the criteria increased to 165 (15.8%). Using a univariate analysis, we determined that a Breslow index of less than 1 mm, negative mitosis, multiple melanoma, and a history of sunburns in childhood were more frequent in familial melanoma patients, but a multivariate analysis revealed no differences in any pathological or clinical factor between the two groups. Conclusions Similar to that observed in other countries, familial melanoma accounts for 6.6% of melanoma diagnoses in Spain. Although no differences in the multivariate analysis were found, some better prognosis factors, such as Breslow index, seem more frequent in familial melanoma, which reflect a better early detection marker and/or a different biological behavior. PMID:25874698

  8. Cerebral Melanoma Metastases: A Critical Review on Diagnostic Methods and Therapeutic Options

    OpenAIRE

    Goulart, Carlos R.; Mattei, Tobias Alecio; Ramina, Ricardo

    2011-01-01

    Malignant melanoma represents the third most common cause for cerebral metastases after breast and lung cancer. Central nervous system (CNS) metastases occur in 10 to 40% of patients with melanoma. Most of the symptoms of CNS melanoma metastases are unspecific and depend on localization of the lesion. All patients with new neurological signs and a previous primary melanoma lesion must be investigated. Although primary diagnosis may rely on computed tomography scan, magnetic resonance images a...

  9. Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy in Head and Neck Melanoma: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Martin Corsten

    2014-01-01

    The incidence of melanoma in the United States continues to rise. Head and neck melanomas comprise approximately 20% of all primary cutaneous melanomas. Sentinel lymph node (SLN) biopsy (SLNB) has become the standard of care for staging in melanoma. It has a number of advantages, including the addition of prognostic information, accurate staging, and the potential to add completion lymph node dissection (CLND) or adjuvant therapy when indicated. Furthermore, it may allow for the identificatio...

  10. Delayed but Complete Response following Oral Temozolomide Treatment in Melanoma Leptomeningeal Carcinomatosis

    OpenAIRE

    Andreas F. Hottinger; Favet, Laurence; Pache, Jean-Claude; Martin, Jean-Baptiste; Dietrich, Pierre-Yves

    2011-01-01

    Isolated leptomeningeal recurrence of melanoma is rare, occurring in 2% of patients with central nervous system involvement secondary to melanoma. The optimal treatment of leptomeningeal carcinomatosis (LMC) in melanoma has not yet been determined and remains a major challenge. We report a melanoma patient who presented with isolated LMC in the form of a new-onset weakness of the lower limbs, paresthesia of the left hand and foot, lumbago and headache. A lumbar puncture and spinal MRI confirm...

  11. Clonal analysis of cytotoxic and regulatory T cell responses against human melanoma

    OpenAIRE

    1989-01-01

    T cell-mediated immune response against autologous melanoma cells was analyzed, at population and clonal levels, in 31 patients with recurrent and/or metastatic disease. Fresh PBL and lymph node lymphocytes (LNL) from melanoma-involved nodes were not cytotoxic against the respective melanoma cells. When activated in in vitro coculture (IVC) against the autologous melanoma cells in the presence of IL-2, a majority of the activated PBL and LNL became cytotoxic against the autologous targets. Th...

  12. Seminal vesicle metastasis of cutaneous malignant melanoma: An unusual and challenging presentation

    OpenAIRE

    Foahom Kamwa, Alain D.; Mateus, Christine; Thanigasalam, Ruban; Boulay-Coletta, Isabelle; Duchatelle, Véronique; Triller, Marie; Robert, Caroline; Baumert, Hervé

    2015-01-01

    Malignant melanoma is a tumour, which usually involves skin melanocytes. Involvement of the male genitourinary (GU) system by melanoma is an uncommon and challenging diagnosis. We report the first case of seminal vesicle metastasis from a primary cutaneous melanoma in a 58-year-old man, with hemospermia as the only clinical sign. This case highlights the role of multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging, as a more sensitive assessment to early detect metastatic melanoma in the GU system. The...

  13. Profile of ipilimumab and its role in the treatment of metastatic melanoma

    OpenAIRE

    Patel SP; Woodman SE

    2011-01-01

    Sapna P Patel, Scott E WoodmanMelanoma Medical Oncology Department, University of Texas, MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX, USAAbstract: Melanoma is an immunogenic cancer. However, the ability of the immune system to eradicate melanoma tumors is affected by intrinsic negative regulatory mechanisms. Multiple immune-modulatory therapies are currently being developed to optimize the immune response to melanoma tumors. Two recent Phase III studies using the monoclonal antibody ipilimumab, wh...

  14. Checkpoint Modulation in Melanoma: An Update on Ipilimumab and Future Directions

    OpenAIRE

    Page, David B.; Postow, Michael A; Callahan, Margaret K.; Wolchok, Jedd D

    2013-01-01

    Ipilimumab, an anti-cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4 antibody, was the first therapy demonstrated to improve overall survival in melanoma. Since ipilimumab’s approval by the FDA in 2011, a wealth of data have amassed, helping clinicians to optimize its use. We have learned how to mitigate the adverse effects of ipilimumab, identified its effects in melanoma subpopulations such as those with brain metastases, uveal melanoma, and mucosal melanoma, discovered potential biomarkers of activity, an...

  15. Phenotypic and Functional Characteristics of Blood Natural Killer Cells from Melanoma Patients at Different Clinical Stages

    OpenAIRE

    Fregni, Giulia; Messaoudene, Meriem; Fourmentraux-Neves, Emmanuelle; Mazouz-Dorval, Sarra; Chanal, Johan; Maubec, Eve; Marinho, Eduardo; Scheer-Senyarich, Isabelle; Cremer, Isabelle; Avril, Marie-Françoise; Caignard, Anne

    2013-01-01

    Melanomas are aggressive skin tumors characterized by high metastatic potential. Immunotherapy is a valuable alternative for metastatic melanoma patients resistant to chemotherapy. Natural Killer (NK) cells are efficient anti-tumor cytotoxic effectors. We previously showed that blood NK cells from stage IV metastatic melanoma patients display decreased NK receptors and that chemotherapy modifies the functional status of blood NK cells. To investigate the role of NK cells along melanoma progre...

  16. Effects of BRAF mutations and BRAF inhibition on immune responses to melanoma

    OpenAIRE

    Ilieva, Kristina M.; Correa, Isabel; Josephs, Debra H.; Karagiannis, Panagiotis; Egbuniwe, Isioma U; Cafferkey, Michiala J.; Spicer, James F.; Harries, Mark; Nestle, Frank O; Lacy, Katie E; Karagiannis, Sophia N

    2014-01-01

    Malignant melanoma is associated with poor clinical prognosis; however, novel molecular and immune therapies are now improving patient outcomes. Almost 50% of melanomas harbor targetable activating mutations of BRAF which promote RAS-RAF-MEK-ERK pathway activation and melanoma proliferation. Recent evidence also indicates that melanomas bearing mutant BRAF may also have altered immune responses, suggesting additional avenues for treatment of this patient group. The small molecule inhibitors s...

  17. New Perspectives on the Role of Vitiligo in Immune Responses to Melanoma

    OpenAIRE

    Byrne, Katelyn T.; Turk, Mary Jo

    2011-01-01

    Melanoma-associated vitiligo is the best-studied example of the linkage between tumor immunity and autoimmunity. Although vitiligo is an independent positive prognostic factor for melanoma patients, the autoimmune destruction of melanocytes was long thought to be merely a side effect of robust anti-tumor immunity. However, new data reveal a key role for vitiligo in supporting T cell responses to melanoma. This research perspective reviews the history of melanoma-associated vitiligo in patient...

  18. A multi-marker assay to distinguish malignant melanomas from benign nevi

    OpenAIRE

    Kashani-Sabet, Mohammed; Rangel, Javier; Torabian, Sima; Nosrati, Mehdi; Simko, Jeff; Jablons, David M.; Moore, Dan H.; Haqq, Chris; Miller, James R; Sagebiel, Richard W.

    2009-01-01

    The histopathological diagnosis of melanoma can be challenging. No currently used molecular markers accurately distinguish between nevus and melanoma. Recent transcriptome analyses have shown the differential expression of several genes in melanoma progression. Here, we describe a multi-marker diagnostic assay using 5 markers (ARPC2, FN1, RGS1, SPP1, and WNT2) overexpressed in melanomas. Immunohistochemical marker expression was analyzed in 693 melanocytic neoplasms comprising a training set ...

  19. A novel recurrent mutation in MITF predisposes to familial and sporadic melanoma

    OpenAIRE

    YOKOYAMA, SATORU; Woods, Susan L.; Boyle, Glen M.; Aoude, Lauren G.; MacGregor, Stuart; Zismann, Victoria; Gartside, Michael; Cust, Anne E.; Haq, Rizwan; Harland, Mark; Taylor, John C; Duffy, David L.; Holohan, Kelly; Dutton-Regester, Ken; Palmer, Jane M

    2011-01-01

    So far, two familial melanoma genes have been identified, accounting for a minority of genetic risk in families. Mutations in CDKN2A account for approximately 40% of familial cases1, and predisposing mutations in CDK4 have been reported in a very small number of melanoma kindreds2. To identify other familial melanoma genes, here we conducted whole-genome sequencing of probands from several melanoma families, identifying one individual carrying a novel germline variant (coding DNA sequence c.G...

  20. Clinical response in Japanese metastatic melanoma patients treated with peptide cocktail-pulsed dendritic cells

    OpenAIRE

    Takesako Kazutoh; Nukaya Ikuei; Kawashima Ichiro; Yamazaki Naoya; Yamamoto Akifumi; Hotate Yukie; Shimada Makiko; Inoue Naoki; Tanosaki Ryuji; Akiyama Yasuto; Maruyama Kouji; Takaue Yoichi; Yamaguchi Ken

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Background Metastatic, chemotherapy-resistant melanoma is an intractable cancer with a very poor prognosis. As to immunotherapy targeting metastatic melanoma, HLA-A2+ patients were mainly enrolled in the study in Western countries. However, HLA-A24+ melanoma patients-oriented immunotherapy has not been fully investigated. In the present study, we investigated the effect of dendritic cell (DC)-based immunotherapy on metastatic melanoma patients with HLA-A2 or A24 genotype. Methods Nin...

  1. DNA methylation Profiles in Primary Cutaneous Melanomas are Associated with Clinically Significant Pathologic Features

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas, Nancy E.; Slater, Nathaniel A.; Edmiston, Sharon N.; Zhou, Xin; Kuan, Pei-Fen; Groben, Pamela A; Carson, Craig C.; Hao, Honglin; Parrish, Eloise; Moschos, Stergios J; Berwick, Marianne; Ollila, David W.; Conway, Kathleen

    2014-01-01

    DNA methylation studies have elucidated a methylation signature distinguishing primary melanomas from benign nevi and provided new insights about genes that may be important in melanoma development. However, it is unclear whether methylation differences among primary melanomas are related to tumor pathologic features with known clinical significance. We utilized the Illumina Golden Gate Cancer Panel array to investigate the methylation profiles of 47 primary cutaneous melanomas...

  2. Termoterapia transpupilar em melanoma maligno da coróide / Transpupillary thermotherapy for malignant choroidal melanoma

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Martha M. Motomo, Chojniak; Tércio, Guia; Fausto, Uno; Clélia Maria, Erwenne.

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Vários métodos vem sendo utilizados para o tratamento dos melanomas da coróide. A proposta deste trabalho preliminar é avaliar a eficácia da termoterapia transpupilar (TTT) como tratamento primário de melanomas da coróide pequenos. Métodos: Foi realizado um trabalho prospectivo e não-rando [...] mizado para avaliar os aspectos clínicos, resposta do tumor, complicações e resultados visuais de pacientes portadores de melanomas da coróide pequenos (até 4,0 mm de espessura e 12 mm de diâmetro basal) tratados por termoterapia transpupilar utilizando-se sucessivas aplicações de laser diodo contínuo de 810 nm. Resultados: Foram tratados 11 pacientes portadores de melanomas da coróide pequenos. O tumor era único e pigmentado em 100% dos casos. Crescimento documentado esteve presente em 5 pacientes (45,45%) previamente ao tratamento e fatores de risco para crescimento ou metástase estavam presentes em todos os pacientes. O tempo de seguimento destes pacientes a partir do tratamento foi em média de 5,72 meses (3 - 8 meses). Foram utilizadas 3 sessões de laser em 5 pacientes (45,45%) e 4 sessões em 6 pacientes (64,64%). As lesões apresentavam, por ocasião do diagnóstico, uma espessura média de 2,65 mm (1,85-3,86 mm), com maior diâmetro basal médio de 7,98 mm (4,2-11,33 mm). Após o tratamento, a espessura média foi de 1,83 mm (0,98-2,93 mm) e o maior diâmetro basal médio foi de 6,59 mm (3,81 mm -10,67 mm). Das lesões tratadas, 100% apresentaram diminuição da altura e do máximo diâmetro basal, tendo sido a diminuição média da espessura de 0,89 mm e do máximo diâmetro basal de 1,39 mm. A acuidade visual manteve-se inalterada em 5 casos (45,45%) e piorou após o tratamento em 6 casos (54,54%). Ocorreram complicações em 9 casos, tendo sido considerada complicação grave 1 caso de descolamento parcial da retina (9,09%); as outras complicações foram consideradas leves: pequenas hemorragias intra-retinianas em 7 pacientes (63,63%), vitreite associada a tênues membranas vítreas em 1 paciente (9,09%) e quemose associada a edema palpebral em 1 paciente (9,09%). Controle tumoral local com conservação do globo ocular foi observado durante este pequeno tempo de seguimento em 100% dos pacientes tratados. Por ocasião da "última revisão", 100% dos pacientes estavam vivos e sem doença metastática. Conclusão: Este estudo preliminar sugere que a termoterapia transpupilar apresenta-se como um método efetivo e seguro para o tratamento de selecionados melanomas pequenos da coróide. Para melhor avaliação é necessário tempo de seguimento prolongado. Abstract in english Purpose: Several methods have been used for treatment of choroidal melanoma. The purpose of this preliminary paper is to evaluate the effectiveness of transpupillary thermo- therapy (TTT) as a primary treatment of small choroidal melanomas. Methods: This is a prospective nonrandomized study evaluati [...] ng clinical aspects, tumor response, complications and visual outcome in patients presenting small choroidal melanomas (up to 4.0 mm thick and 12 mm base diameter) treated with TTT over 810 nm laser diode applications. Results: There were 11 patients treated with trans-pupillary thermotherapy, all of them presenting pig-mented small choroidal melanomas. Growth previous to treatment was documented in 5 patients and risk factors for growth or metastatic disease was present in all the patients. After treatment the patients were followed for 3 to 8 months (mean 5.7 months). Three laser sessions were used in 5 pa-tients and 4 sessions in 6 patients. The lesions presented at the beginning of the treatment a mean thickness of 2.7 mm, with a mean larger base diameter of 7.8 mm. All the lesions responded to treatment and presented decrease of thickness and base diameters. After transpupillary thermotherapy, the lesions' mean thickness was 1.8 mm and the mean larger base diameter was 6.7 mm. The mean reduction in thickness was 0.9 mm and the mean decrease in larger base diameter was 1.4 mm. The visual acuit

  3. Epidemiología del melanoma cutáneo Epidemiology of cutaneous melanoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R M C Leitner

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Durante las últimas décadas hubo un aumento de la incidencia del melanoma cutáneo en la población caucásica del mundo, aunque este tumor puede afectar a cualquier grupo étnico. En la actualidad se considera a la exposición solar intermitente como un factor de riesgo cierto, en el desarrollo del melanoma cutáneo. La incidencia del melanoma cutáneo en Auckland, Nueva Zelanda, es la mayor del mundo. En Europa, la incidencia y la mortalidad fue creciente hasta que en la década de los 80 se estabilizó. En EEUU también se observó una estabilización de la incidencia. Con respecto a la edad, según la bibliografía consultada la incidencia aumenta a partir de los 20 años; en algunos pacientes con más de 200 nevos y sin pautas de protección solar antes de los 5 años de vida. También se observa aumento de la incidencia en los adultos mayores de 60 años de edad. Con respecto al sexo, en los EEUU y la Argentina es más frecuente en los hombres y en Europa en el sexo femenino.During the last decades there was an increase of incidence of cutaneous melanoma in Caucasian population worldwide, but this tumor can affect any ethnic group. Nowadays, the intermittent solar exposition is a well known predisposing factor. The incidence in Auckland, New Zealand, is the highest in the world. In Europe and in the USA, the incidence and mortality rates decreased until the 80's when it stabilized. Regarding the age of appearance, the incidence increases starting at 20 years of age in patients with more than 200 nevi and without history of sun protection in childhood. There was also an increase in the incidence in adults (>60 y-o. The distribution by sex in USA and Argentina is more frequent in males and in Europe in females.

  4. Serum level of vitamin D3 in cutaneous melanoma / Nível sérico de vitamina D3 em portadores de melanoma cutâneo

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Renato Santos de, Oliveira Filho; Daniel Arcuschin de, Oliveira; Vitor Augusto Melão, Martinho; Célia Beatriz Gianotti, Antoneli; Ludmilla Altino de Lima, Marcussi; Carlos Eduardo dos Santos, Ferreira.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo Comparar o nível de vitamina D3 em portadores de melanoma, em atividade de doença ou não, com os valores de referência e com pacientes de um hospital geral. Métodos Os níveis séricos de vitamina D3 foram dosados em portadores de melanoma cu [...] tâneo entre 22 a 80 anos, de ambos os sexos, de janeiro de 2010 a dezembro de 2013. As amostras do grupo dos pacientes gerais foram processadas no Hospital Israelita Albert Einstein (grupo controle). A análise dos dados foi realizada utilizando o software Statistica. Resultados Foram estudados 100 pacientes, sendo 54 homens, com média de idade 54,67 anos, e 95 brancos. Desses 100 pacientes, 17 apresentavam doença em atividade. A média dos níveis de vitamina D3 nos 100 pacientes foi inferior ao nível considerado suficiente, porém acima da média do grupo controle. A deficiência de vitamina D3 apresentou distribuição semelhante nos dois grupos com melanoma (em atividade de doença ou não). Conclusão Os níveis de vitamina D3 nos pacientes com melanoma foram superiores aos dos pacientes gerais e inferiores aos de referência. Se os valores de referência estão adequados, grande parte da população apresenta níveis insuficientes de vitamina D3, incluindo os portadores de melanoma, ou tal padrão precisa ser reavaliado. Não houve diferença dos níveis de vitamina D3 entre portadores de melanoma com ou sem atividade. Estudos relacionando vitamina D e melanoma devem ser aprofundados. Abstract in english Objective To compare the level of vitamin D3 in cutaneous melanoma patients, with or without disease activity, with reference values and with patients from a general hospital. Methods The serum levels of vitamin D3 were measured in cutaneous melanoma pati [...] ents, aged 20 to 88 years, both genders, from January 2010 to December 2013. The samples from the general group were processed at Hospital Israelita Albert Einstein (control group). Data analysis was performed using the Statistics software. Results A total of 100 patients were studied, 54 of them men, with mean age of 54.67 years, and 95 Caucasian. Out of these 100 patients, 17 had active disease. The average levels of vitamin D3 in the melanoma patients were lower than the level considered sufficient, but above the average of the control group. Both groups (with or without active disease) of patients showed a similar distribution of vitamin D3 deficiency. Conclusion Vitamin D3 levels in melanoma patients were higher than those of general patients and lower than the reference level. If the reference values are appropriate, a large part of the population had insufficient levels of vitamin D, including those with melanoma, or else, this standard needs to be reevaluated. No difference in vitamin D3 levels was found among melanoma patients with or without active disease. More comprehensive research is needed to assess the relation between vitamin D and melanoma.

  5. Radiosensitivity of Human Melanoma Cell Lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergoc, R. M.; Medina, V.; Cricco, G.; Mohamed, N.; Martin, G.; Nunez, M.; Croci, M.; Crescenti, E. J.; Rivera, E. S.

    2004-07-01

    Cutaneous melanoma is a skin cancer resulting from the malign transformation of skin-pigment cells, the melanocytes. The radiotherapy, alone or in combination with other treatment, is an important therapy for this disease. the objective of this paper was to determine in vitro the radiosensitivity of two human melanoma cell lines with different metastatic capability: WM35 and MI/15, and to study the effect of drugs on radiobiological parameters. The Survival Curves were adjusted to the mathematical Linear-quadratic model using GrapsPad Prism software. Cells were seeded in RPMI medium (3000-3500 cells/flask), in triplicate and irradiated 24 h later. The irradiation was performed using an IBL 437C H Type equipment (189 TBq, 7.7 Gy/min) calibrated with a TLD 700 dosimeter. The range of Doses covered from 0 to 10 Gy and the colonies formed were counted at day 7th post-irradiation. Results obtained were: for WM35, {alpha}=0.37{+-}0.07 Gy''-1 and {beta}=0.06{+-}0.02 Gy''-2, for M1/15m {alpha}=0.47{+-}0.03 Gy''-1 and {beta}=0.06{+-}0.01 Gy''-2. The {alpha}/{beta} values WM35: {alpha}/{beta} values WM35: {alpha}/{beta}=6.07 Gy and M1/15: {alpha}/{beta}{sub 7}.33 Gy were similar, independently of their metastatic capabillity and indicate that both lines exhibit high radioresistance. Microscopic observation of irradiated cells showed multinuclear cells with few morphologic changes non-compatible with apoptosis. By means of specific fluorescent dyes and flow cytometry analysis we determined the intracellular levels of the radicals superoxide and hydrogen peroxide and their modulation in response to ionizing radiation. The results showed a marked decreased in H{sub 2}O{sub 2} intracellular levels with a simultaneous increase in superoxide that will be part of a mechanism responsible for induction of cell radioresistance. This response triggered by irradiated cells could not be abrogated by different treatments like histamine or the combination of oligo elements plus phospholipase. (Author) 19 refs.

  6. Melanoma of the penis with scintigraphically-guided sentinel node biopsy

    OpenAIRE

    Tu, William H.; Johnson, Denise; Gill, Harcharan

    2010-01-01

    Melanoma of the penis is an uncommon cancer. We present the case of a 73-year-old male with penile melanoma and non palpable lymph nodes. Lymphoscintigraphy was applied to locate the sentinel lymph nodes for dissection. His lymph nodes were negative for melanoma and he has been disease-free for 1 year with careful surveillance.

  7. Giant Scalp Melanoma: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

    OpenAIRE

    Ching, Jessica A.; Gould, Lisa

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Among malignant melanoma lesions, those occurring on the scalp and neck have a particularly poor prognosis. In this case report, we present the largest melanoma of the head and neck and one of the largest melanomas of any anatomic site reported in the literature to date.

  8. Screening Program Reduced Melanoma Mortality at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 1984-1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, MD, J S; II, PhD, D; MD, PhD, M

    2006-10-12

    Worldwide incidence of cutaneous malignant melanoma has increased substantially, and no screening program has yet demonstrated reduction in mortality. We evaluated the education, self examination and targeted screening campaign at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) from its beginning in July 1984 through 1996. The thickness and crude incidence of melanoma from the years before the campaign were compared to those obtained during the 13 years of screening. Melanoma mortality during the 13-year period was based on a National Death Index search. Expected yearly deaths from melanoma among LLNL employees were calculated by using California mortality data matched by age, sex, and race/ethnicity and adjusted to exclude deaths from melanoma diagnosed before the program began or before employment at LLNL. After the program began, crude incidence of melanoma thicker than 0.75 mm decreased from 18 to 4 cases per 100,000 person-years (p = 0.02), while melanoma less than 0.75mm remained stable and in situ melanoma increased substantially. No eligible melanoma deaths occurred among LLNL employees during the screening period compared with a calculated 3.39 expected deaths (p = 0.034). Education, self examination and selective screening for melanoma at LLNL significantly decreased incidence of melanoma thicker than 0.75 mm and reduced the melanoma-related mortality rate to zero. This significant decrease in mortality rate persisted for at least 3 yr after employees retired or otherwise left the laboratory.

  9. Increased incidence of melanoma in situ in Denmark from 1997 to 2011

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toender, Anita; Kjær, Susanne K; Jensen, Allan; Nielsen, Anita Tønder

    2014-01-01

    The incidence of malignant melanoma has increased markedly among white populations in the recent decades. This may suggest that the incidence of melanoma in situ (MIS), the precursor of malignant melanoma, has also increased; however, few studies have assessed the incidence of MIS drawing on larg...

  10. Primary melanoma of the central nervous system : report of a case and review of the literature.

    OpenAIRE

    Singhal S; Singh K.; Fernandes P.; Sharma S.; Chander S; Rath G; Bose S.

    1991-01-01

    Primary melanoma of the meninges, a rare CNS tumor, is presented. Criteria for diagnosing a primary CNS melanoma are elucidated. Literature is reviewed in this context. The histogenesis of tumor, problem of occult primary melanoma and the role of CT scan and CSF cytology in early diagnosis have also been highlighted.

  11. Comparative study of angio genesis radiopharmaceuticals for melanoma detection; Estudo comparativo de radiofarmacos para angiogenese na deteccao de melanoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Erica Aparecida de

    2011-07-01

    Early diagnosis and treatment of melanoma, a cutaneous tumor with a serious prognosis, is extremely important for optimal clinical outcome. Phage display peptide libraries are a useful screening resource for identifying bioactive peptides that interact with cancer targets. The aim of this study was the evaluation of two technetium-99m tracers for angio genesis detection in melanoma model, using cyclic peguilated pentapeptide with RGD and NGR motifs conjugated with bifunctional chelator MAG3. The conjugated peptides (10 {mu}L of a {mu}g/{mu}L solution) were labeled with technetium-99m using a sodium tartrate buffer. Radiochemical evaluation was done by ITLC and confirmed by HPLC. Partition coefficient was determined and internalization assays were performed in two melanoma cells (B16F10 and SKMEL28). Biodistribution evaluation of the tracers was done in healthy animals at different times and also in mice bearing the tumor cells at 120 min post injection. Blocking studies were also conducted by co-injection of cold peptides. The conjugated showed the same profile in many evaluations. They were radiolabeled with high radiochemical purity (>97%). Both were hydrophilic, with preferential renal excretion. Tumor uptake was higher for human melanoma cells than for murinic melanoma cells, specially for {sup 99m}Tc-MAG3-PEG{sub 8}-c(RGDyK) (7.85{+-}{+-}2.34 %ID/g) at 120 min post injection. The performance of {sup 99m}Tc-MAG{sub 3}-PEG{sub 8}-c(RGDyk) was much better than NGR tracer concerning human melanoma uptake and might be considered in future investigations focusing radiotracers for melanoma diagnosis. (author)

  12. Applications of nanotechnology for melanoma treatment, diagnosis, and theranostics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen J

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Jiezhong Chen,1,2 Renfu Shao,3 Xu Dong Zhang,4 Chen Chen1 1School of Biomedical Sciences, University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD, Australia; 2Faculty of Science, Medicine and Health, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, NSW, Australia; 3GeneCology Research Centre, School of Science, Education and Engineering, University of the Sunshine Coast, Maroochydore, QLD, Australia; 4School of Medicine and Public Health, University of Newcastle, Newcastle, NSW, Australia Abstract: Melanoma is the most aggressive type of skin cancer and has very high rates of mortality. An early stage melanoma can be surgically removed, with a survival rate of 99%. However, metastasized melanoma is difficult to cure. The 5-year survival rates for patients with metastasized melanoma are still below 20%. Metastasized melanoma is currently treated by chemotherapy, targeted therapy, immunotherapy and radiotherapy. The outcome of most of the current therapies is far from optimistic. Although melanoma patients with a mutation in the oncogene v-Raf murine sarcoma viral oncogene homolog B1 (BRAF have an initially higher positive response rate to targeted therapy, the majority develop acquired drug resistance after 6 months of the therapy. To increase treatment efficacy, early diagnosis, more potent pharmacological agents, and more effective delivery systems are urgently needed. Nanotechnology has been extensively studied for melanoma treatment and diagnosis, to decrease drug resistance, increase therapeutic efficacy, and reduce side effects. In this review, we summarize the recent progress on the development of various nanoparticles for melanoma treatment and diagnosis. Several common nanoparticles, including liposome, polymersomes, dendrimers, carbon-based nanoparticles, and human albumin, have been used to deliver chemotherapeutic agents, and small interfering ribonucleic acids (siRNAs against signaling molecules have also been tested for the treatment of melanoma. Indeed, several nanoparticle-delivered drugs have been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration and are currently in clinical trials. The application of nanoparticles could produce side effects, which will need to be reduced so that nanoparticle-delivered drugs can be safely applied in the clinical setting. Keywords: metastasis, early detection, nanoparticle-delivered, PI3K/Akt

  13. LFA-1 and ICAM-1 expression induced during melanoma-endothelial cell co-culture favors the transendothelial migration of melanoma cell lines in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patients with metastatic melanoma have a poor median rate of survival. It is therefore necessary to increase our knowledge about melanoma cell dissemination which includes extravasation, where cancer cells cross the endothelial barrier. Extravasation is well understood during travelling of white blood cells, and involves integrins such as LFA-1 (composed of two chains, CD11a and CD18) expressed by T cells, while ICAM-1 is induced during inflammation by endothelial cells. Although melanoma cell lines cross endothelial cell barriers, they do not express LFA-1. We therefore hypothesized that melanoma-endothelial cell co-culture might induce the LFA-1/ICAM ligand/receptor couple during melanoma transmigration. A transwell approach has been used as well as blocking antibodies against CD11a, CD18 and ICAM-1. Data were analyzed with an epifluorescence microscope. Fluorescence intensity was quantified with the ImageJ software. We show here that HUVEC-conditioned medium induce cell-surface expression of LFA-1 on melanoma cell lines. Similarly melanoma-conditioned medium activates ICAM-1 expression in endothelial cells. Accordingly blocking antibodies of ICAM-1, CD11a or CD18 strongly decrease melanoma transmigration. We therefore demonstrate that melanoma cells can cross endothelial monolayers in vitro due to the induction of ICAM-1 and LFA-1 occurring during the co-culture of melanoma and endothelial cells. Our data further suggest a role of LFA-1 and ICAM-1 in the formation of melanoma cell clumps enhancing tumor cell transmigration. Melanoma-endothelial cell co-culture induces LFA-1 and ICAM-1 expression, thereby favoring in vitro melanoma trans-migration

  14. LFA-1 and ICAM-1 expression induced during melanoma-endothelial cell co-culture favors the transendothelial migration of melanoma cell lines in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghislin Stephanie

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Patients with metastatic melanoma have a poor median rate of survival. It is therefore necessary to increase our knowledge about melanoma cell dissemination which includes extravasation, where cancer cells cross the endothelial barrier. Extravasation is well understood during travelling of white blood cells, and involves integrins such as LFA-1 (composed of two chains, CD11a and CD18 expressed by T cells, while ICAM-1 is induced during inflammation by endothelial cells. Although melanoma cell lines cross endothelial cell barriers, they do not express LFA-1. We therefore hypothesized that melanoma-endothelial cell co-culture might induce the LFA-1/ICAM ligand/receptor couple during melanoma transmigration. Methods A transwell approach has been used as well as blocking antibodies against CD11a, CD18 and ICAM-1. Data were analyzed with an epifluorescence microscope. Fluorescence intensity was quantified with the ImageJ software. Results We show here that HUVEC-conditioned medium induce cell-surface expression of LFA-1 on melanoma cell lines. Similarly melanoma-conditioned medium activates ICAM-1 expression in endothelial cells. Accordingly blocking antibodies of ICAM-1, CD11a or CD18 strongly decrease melanoma transmigration. We therefore demonstrate that melanoma cells can cross endothelial monolayers in vitro due to the induction of ICAM-1 and LFA-1 occurring during the co-culture of melanoma and endothelial cells. Our data further suggest a role of LFA-1 and ICAM-1 in the formation of melanoma cell clumps enhancing tumor cell transmigration. Conclusion Melanoma-endothelial cell co-culture induces LFA-1 and ICAM-1 expression, thereby favoring in vitro melanoma trans-migration.

  15. Synchronous high-risk melanoma and lymphoid neoplasia.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cahill, R A

    2012-02-03

    Large population-based studies have shown a significant association between melanoma and lymphoid neoplasia, particularly non-Hodgkin\\'s lymphoma (NHL) and chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL), that is independent of any treatment received for the initial tumour. This study examines the presentation, diagnosis, treatment and progress of three patients who developed advanced melanoma concurrently with a lymphoid neoplasm (one NHL, two CLLs), in order to illustrate their association, discuss common aetiological factors and examine possible therapeutic options. As it is the melanoma rather than the lymphoid neoplasm that represents the bigger threat to overall survival, initial treatment should be targeted towards this cancer. However, because of the interplay between the diseases and the possible side-effects of the various treatments, the choice of adjuvant therapy requires careful consideration. Immunosuppression associated with chemotherapy may permit a more aggressive course for the melanoma, while locoregional radiotherapy is contraindicated following lymph node dissections. As immunotherapy is of benefit in the treatment of melanoma and has also been recently shown to be effective in the management of lymphoid neoplasia, we instituted interferon-alpha as adjuvant therapy for these patients, thereby utilizing a single agent to treat the dual pathologies. The three patients have now been followed-up for 6 months without evidence of disease recurrence or progression.

  16. Molecular and genetic diversity in the metastatic process of melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harbst, Katja; Lauss, Martin; Cirenajwis, Helena; Winter, Christof; Howlin, Jillian; Törngren, Therese; Kvist, Anders; Nodin, Björn; Olsson, Eleonor; Häkkinen, Jari; Jirström, Karin; Staaf, Johan; Lundgren, Lotta; Olsson, Håkan; Ingvar, Christian; Gruvberger-Saal, Sofia K; Saal, Lao H; Jönsson, Göran

    2014-05-01

    Diversity between metastatic melanoma tumours in individual patients is known; however, the molecular and genetic differences remain unclear. To examine the molecular and genetic differences between metastatic tumours, we performed gene-expression profiling of 63 melanoma tumours obtained from 28 patients (two or three tumours/patient), followed by analysis of their mutational landscape, using targeted deep sequencing of 1697 cancer genes and DNA copy number analysis. Gene-expression signatures revealed discordant phenotypes between tumour lesions within a patient in 50% of the cases. In 18 of 22 patients (where matched normal tissue was available), we found that the multiple lesions within a patient were genetically divergent, with one or more melanoma tumours harbouring 'private' somatic mutations. In one case, the distant subcutaneous metastasis of one patient occurring 3 months after an earlier regional lymph node metastasis had acquired 37 new coding sequence mutations, including mutations in PTEN and CDH1. However, BRAF and NRAS mutations, when present in the first metastasis, were always preserved in subsequent metastases. The patterns of nucleotide substitutions found in this study indicate an influence of UV radiation but possibly also DNA alkylating agents. Our results clearly demonstrate that metastatic melanoma is a molecularly highly heterogeneous disease that continues to progress throughout its clinical course. The private aberrations observed on a background of shared aberrations within a patient provide evidence of continued evolution of individual tumours following divergence from a common parental clone, and might have implications for personalized medicine strategies in melanoma treatment. PMID:24399611

  17. Exosomes bearing HLA-G are released by melanoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riteau, Béatrice; Faure, Florence; Menier, Catherine; Viel, Sophie; Carosella, Edgardo D; Amigorena, Sèbastian; Rouas-Freiss, Nathalie

    2003-11-01

    Tumor cells release membrane vesicles, named exosomes, capable of specific cytotoxic T-lymphocyte activation by transferring tumor antigens to dendritic cells. By contrast, the nonclassical human leucocyte antigen (HLA)-G class I molecule displays immunotolerant properties and can be ectopically expressed by tumor cells, thereby allowing their escape from immunosurveillance. We describe here that a melanoma cell line, named Fon, established from an HLA-G-positive melanoma biopsy, spontaneously expressed high levels of the HLA-G1 membrane-bound isoform. Exosomes released by Fon cells were purified and analyzed both for their density on sucrose gradient and their protein composition by Western blotting and flow cytometry. Besides the expression of well-described proteins such as Lamp-2, notably, these melanoma-derived exosomes bore HLA-G1. In addition, exosomes harboring HLA-G1 were secreted by the HLA-G-negative M8 melanoma cells transfected with the HLA-G1 cDNA. Thus, the presence of tolerogenic HLA-G molecules on melanoma-derived exosomes may provide a novel way for tumors to modulate host's immune response. PMID:14602237

  18. Primary Malignant Melanoma of the Lung: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karagianni Evangelia

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Primary melanoma of the lung is an extremely rare pathological entity and sparsely reported in the literature. Case presentation A case of primary malignant melanoma of the lung in a 41-year-old female is reported. The clinical, radiological and histopathological features are discussed. The initial symptom was cough, whereas the chest radiography showed a round opacity of the right lung. The computed tomography of the chest revealed a well-demarcated mass lesion in the right upper lobe. Endobronchial mass causing obstruction of the upper lobar bronchus was the bronchoscopic finding. Patient underwent pneumonectomy. A diagnosis of melanoma was confirmed postoperatively after the immunohistochemistry. Primary nature of the tumour in the lung results from the demonstration of characteristic junctional pattern of melanoma cells beneath the bronchial epithelium on histopathology, and from exclusion of other potential primary sites in the clinical, paraclinical and laboratory examination. Conclusions Primary melanoma of the lung represents a rare pathological entity. Careful interpretation of histopathological information in correlation with all other findings from clinical and paraclinical studies can establish a diagnosis. Follow-up is necessary in order to diagnose potential dissemination or secondary sites of the disease. Due to the small number of cases reported in the literature, there is no experience on the management and the prognosis of the disease, but surgical resection remains the cornerstone of the treatment.

  19. Temporal and spatial melanoma trends in Austria: an ecological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haluza, Daniela; Simic, Stana; Moshammer, Hanns

    2014-01-01

    Annual solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR) is mostly determined by latitude and altitude. Over the last decades, increasing UVR ground levels have been observed. Exposure to UVR is associated with a life-time risk to develop melanoma, a malign skin cancer. Thus, we hypothesized that melanoma incidence in Austria is associated with altitude of place of living and time of diagnosis. We investigated this hypothesis in an ecological study by district and year for Austrian melanoma incidence (1990-2010) and mortality (1970-2011) data. As expected, incidence rates increased with altitude (about 2% per 10 m) and year (about 2%). Additionally, melanoma incidence rates were about 50% higher in urban than in rural districts. In contrast, mortality rates decreased with altitude (for males: 0.4% per 10 m, for women: 0.7% per 10 m, respectively). The observed discrepancy between incidence and mortality data could partly be explained by melanoma diagnosis at earlier tumor stage in districts with higher altitude. Possible reasons for this finding include higher awareness of patients, better diagnostic performance of medical professionals working at higher altitudes, or slower tumor growth due to protective effects of sun light-associated vitamin D synthesis. PMID:24398911

  20. Temporal and Spatial Melanoma Trends in Austria: An Ecological Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Haluza

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Annual solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR is mostly determined by latitude and altitude. Over the last decades, increasing UVR ground levels have been observed. Exposure to UVR is associated with a life-time risk to develop melanoma, a malign skin cancer. Thus, we hypothesized that melanoma incidence in Austria is associated with altitude of place of living and time of diagnosis. We investigated this hypothesis in an ecological study by district and year for Austrian melanoma incidence (1990–2010 and mortality (1970–2011 data. As expected, incidence rates increased with altitude (about 2% per 10 m and year (about 2%. Additionally, melanoma incidence rates were about 50% higher in urban than in rural districts. In contrast, mortality rates decreased with altitude (for males: 0.4% per 10 m, for women: 0.7% per 10 m, respectively. The observed discrepancy between incidence and mortality data could partly be explained by melanoma diagnosis at earlier tumor stage in districts with higher altitude. Possible reasons for this finding include higher awareness of patients, better diagnostic performance of medical professionals working at higher altitudes, or slower tumor growth due to protective effects of sun light-associated vitamin D synthesis.