WorldWideScience

Sample records for melanoma

  1. Melanoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melanoma is the most serious type of skin cancer. Often the first sign of melanoma is a change in the size, shape, color, or feel of a mole. Most melanomas have a black or black-blue area. Melanoma ...

  2. Melanoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... getting skin cancer: If you tan, stop . Tanning outdoors, using tanning beds, and sitting under sun lamps are not safe. Research shows indoor tanning increases a person's melanoma risk by 75%. And forget ... Spend time outdoors when the sun is less intense . Before 10 ...

  3. Ocular Melanoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... News Ask an Eye M.D. Español Ocular Melanoma Sections What is Ocular Melanoma? Ocular Melanoma Causes ... Melanoma Diagnosis Ocular Melanoma Treatment What is Ocular Melanoma? Aug. 02, 2012 Ocular melanoma (melanoma in or ...

  4. Melanoma genetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Read, Jazlyn; Wadt, Karin A W; Hayward, Nicholas K

    2016-01-01

    Approximately 10% of melanoma cases report a relative affected with melanoma, and a positive family history is associated with an increased risk of developing melanoma. Although the majority of genetic alterations associated with melanoma development are somatic, the underlying presence of...... combined total of approximately 50% of familial melanoma cases, the underlying genetic basis is unexplained for the remainder of high-density melanoma families. Aside from the possibility of extremely rare mutations in a few additional high penetrance genes yet to be discovered, this suggests a likely...... polygenic component to susceptibility, and a unique level of personal melanoma risk influenced by multiple low-risk alleles and genetic modifiers. In addition to conferring a risk of cutaneous melanoma, some 'melanoma' predisposition genes have been linked to other cancers, with cancer clustering observed...

  5. Ocular Melanoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Guidelines Home Remedies for Simple Eye Problems Medical Marijuana for Glaucoma Pregnancy Preventing Eye Injuries ... melanoma (melanoma in or around the eye) is a type of cancer that develops in the cells that produce pigment — ...

  6. Cutaneous melanoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) for malignant melanoma was initiated by Y. Mishima and his associates. Following basic research of 13 years, this team started the first clinical trial of cutaneous melanoma BNCT using 10B-para-boronophenylalanine (BPA) in 1985. Since then, 32 patients have been treated. We developed the following regimen for BNCT of malignant melanoma: 1) 170 - 250 mg/kg of BPA-fructose complex is administered by drip infusion over 3-hours. 2) The minimum dose for melanoma control by single irradiation is assumed to be 25 Gy-eq. 3) The maximum tolerable dose to the skin by single irradiation is assumed to be 18 Gy-eq. 4) As the therapeutic dose, the maximum tolerable dose to the skin itself is chosen. We report the clinical results of two patients with cutaneous melanoma treated by BNCT. We believe that cutaneous melanoma are suitable for BNCT and that the excellent results will have a great impact on patients in QOL. (author)

  7. Malignant Melanoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eshini Perera

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Melanomas are a major cause of premature death from cancer. The gradual decrease in rates of morbidity and mortality has occurred as a result of public health campaigns and improved rates of early diagnosis. Survival of melanoma has increased to over 90%. Management of melanoma involves a number of components: excision, tumor staging, re-excision with negative margins, adjuvant therapies (chemo, radiation or surgery, treatment of stage IV disease, follow-up examination for metastasis, lifestyle modification and counseling. Sentinel lymph node status is an important prognostic factor for survival in patients with a melanoma >1 mm. However, sentinel lymph node biopsies have received partial support due to the limited data regarding the survival advantage of complete lymph node dissection when a micrometastasis is detected in the lymph nodes. Functional mutations in the mitogen-activated pathways are commonly detected in melanomas and these influence the growth control. Therapies that target these pathways are rapidly emerging, and are being shown to increase survival rates in patients. Access to these newer agents can be gained by participation in clinical trials after referral to a multidisciplinary team for staging and re-excision of the scar.

  8. What Does Melanoma Look Like?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Skin Cancer Skin Cancer Screening Research What Does Melanoma Look Like? Melanoma is a type of cancer ... melanoma is itchy, tender, or painful. Photos of Melanoma A large, asymmetrical melanoma with an uneven color ...

  9. Choroidal melanoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choroidal melanoma is the most frequent intraocular tumor in adults. Due to its anatomic location the diagnosis often should be made on the basis of clinical examination and ancillary diagnostic procedures. The choroid melanoma may appear as a visual disturbance, retinal detachment and decrease of visual acuity. The diagnostic methods of choice are: Ultrasonography, Doppler, Ophthalmoscopy and Fluorescein Angiography, Computed Tomography and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and are very useful in evaluating extra ocular extension of the tumor, post treatment local recurrence and differential diagnosis. Ultrasound is the primary method of diagnosis and follow up when a conservative treatment has been used, showing changes in vascularity and echogenicity. Magnetic resonance imaging is very useful in melanotic melanomas because the paramagnetic properties of melanine. They appear as areas of moderately high T1 signal and proton weighted MRI greater than vitreous and hypointensity in T2. The proper interpretation of its clinical presentation and the early use of imaging diagnostic methods allow a correct therapeutic approach and avoid local and distant metastasis which decrease survival time in these patients. (author)

  10. Sinclair swine melanoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinclair(S-1) miniature swine spontaneously develop melanomas which have many biologic and histologic features in common with human superficial spreading melanoma. Host control of this neoplasm was indicated by the high incidence of spontaneous regression, a decrease in tumor development with age and a decrease in progressive growth of the tumor as age of tumor development increases. Immunologic mechanisms were implicated in host control by histologic observation of a mononuclear inflammatory infiltration of tumors which lead to depigmentation and fibrosis. In vitro immunologic studies revealed that leukocytes from melanoma swine were sensitized specifically to a tumor associated antigen like substance present in extracts of cutaneous melanomas and cultured swine melanoma cells and that melanoma swine leukocytes were cytotoxic for swine melanoma cells. Furthermore, these studies suggested the existence of a common cross reactive, melanoma associated antigen shared by human and swine melanomas. Antigenic analyses of swine melanomas with mouse monoclonal antibodies developed to a single swine melanoma cell culture and with rabbit antisera developed to pooled extracts of cutaneous melanomas demonstrated the presence of tumor associated antigens in swine melanoma cell culture and cutaneous melanomas. The failure of mouse monoclonal antibodies to detect antigens in cutaneous melanoma extracts and the failure of rabbit antisera to detect antigens in melanoma cell culture extracts suggested a differential in antigen expression between swine melanoma cells grown in vitro and in vivo

  11. Choroidal melanoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A useful and practical guide is developed to better track to the uveal melanoma, due to its highly malignant character. Melanoma of the uveal tract (choroid, iris, ciliary body) has been the intraocular tumor most frequent in adults. The biopsy has been inaccessible, due to its location; therefore, the diagnostic should be based on clinical examination and the correct utilization of the diagnostic procedures (ultrasound, fluorescent angiography, computed axial tomography and magnetic resonance). The cases are diagnosed in the histological examination of the operatory piece post-enucleation for other causes. Epidemiological research has been key to determine the associated factors and better to understand the mechanisms of onset of the disease. Anatomopathological studies of choroidal melanoma have permitted to know the natural history of the disease. The decrease of the visual acuity, pain or inflammation are presented as a defect in the visual field. Different techniques to diagnose the disease are explained. Ultrasound in mode A and B, computed axial tomography and magnetic resonance are the diagnostic method of election. Ultrasound has been the primary method of diagnostic, giving the size and vascularisation, useful in tracking, when they are treated in shape conservatively, showing changes in echogenicity and less vascularisation as good response to treatment. The treatments of choroidal melanoma are specified. The correct interpretation of the clinical symptoms and early utilization of diagnostic imaging methods, have permitted to establish the adequate therapeutic and to avoid local and distant metastasis. The uveal melanoma, depending on their size and location, traditionally has been treated by enucleation. Data from the literature and authors, have promoted the conservation of the ocular globe, depending on the size of the tumor. Transpupillary thermotherapy has been an available alternative for small tumors in Costa Rica and level of social security. Patients have had the option to keep the ocular globe and even maintain good visual acuity with this therapy. Brachytherapy has been another alternative treatment in tumors of medium size, and can be performed in countries like Colombia and the United States

  12. What Is Melanoma Skin Cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... statistics about melanoma skin cancer? What is melanoma skin cancer? Cancer starts when cells in the body begin ... tumors, but most are not very common. Melanoma skin cancers Melanoma is a cancer that begins in the ...

  13. Radiotherapy of malignant melanoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the last years is increasing clinical evidence to contradict the well-established idea that melanomas are uniformly radiation resistant. Although surgery remains the first choice for most localized melanoma, radiotherapy is an alternative in a small subgroup of patients in whom the surgery was associated with a deformity, for example in lentigo malign melanoma localized on the face, and in melanoma of the UVEA. Adjuvant radiation therapy following lymphadenectomy in node positive melanoma prevents local and regional recurrence. Stereotactic radiosurgery for brain metastases has shown effective local control The radiotherapy is likely to play a greater role in melanoma management. (author)

  14. Primary ovarian malignant melanoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kostov Miloš

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Primary ovarian malignant melanoma is extremely rare. It usually appears in the wall of a dermoid cyst or is associated with another teratomatous component. Metastatic primary malignant melanoma to ovary from a primary melanoma elsewhere is well known and has been often reported especially in autopsy studies. Case report. We presented a case of primary ovarian malignant melanoma in a 45- year old woman, with no evidence of extraovarian primary melanoma nor teratomatous component. The tumor was unilateral, macroscopically on section presented as solid mass, dark brown to black color. Microscopically, tumor cells showed positive immunohistochemical reaction for HMB-45, melan-A and S-100 protein, and negative immunoreactivity for estrogen and progesteron receptors. Conclusion. Differentiate metastatic melanoma from rare primary ovarian malignant melanoma, in some of cases may be a histopathological diagnostic problem. Histopathological diagnosis of primary ovarian malignant melanoma should be confirmed by immunohistochemical analyses and detailed clinical search for an occult primary tumor.

  15. Melanoma International Foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... MD May 09, 2015 Our Awards Melanoma International Foundation Our Mission: To develop personalized strategies with patients ... state of Pennsylvania, certificate #29498 © 2013 Melanoma International Foundation. All Rights Reserved. Privacy Policy | Terms of Use ...

  16. Drugs Approved for Melanoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Ask about Your Treatment Research Drugs Approved for Melanoma This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for melanoma. The list includes generic names and brand names. ...

  17. Melanoma - neck (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This melanoma on the neck is variously colored with a very darkly pigmented area found centrally. It has irregular ... be larger than 0.5 cm. Prognosis in melanoma is best defined by its depth on resection.

  18. Genetics of familial melanoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aoude, Lauren G; Wadt, Karin A W; Pritchard, Antonia L; Hayward, Nicholas K

    2015-01-01

    Twenty years ago, the first familial melanoma susceptibility gene, CDKN2A, was identified. Two years later, another high-penetrance gene, CDK4, was found to be responsible for melanoma development in some families. Progress in identifying new familial melanoma genes was subsequently slow; however...

  19. Clínica del melanoma Clinical manifestations of melanoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Mordoh

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available El melanoma es un tumor maligno originado en los melanocitos, cuya incidencia y mortalidad han aumentado en las últimas décadas. Sus factores de riesgo más importantes son la susceptibilidad genética relacionada con sensibilidad al sol (capacidad para broncearse y tendencia a las quemaduras y con ciertos genes especíLcos; factores ambientales tales como la exposición a la radiación UV, latitud y una combinación de ambos, como la cantidad de nevos. Sus formas clínicas son: melanoma extensivo superLcial (70%, nodular (15-30%, lentigo maligno (10-15% y acrolentiginoso (5%. De todas las características histológicas, el espesor de Brelow (medido en mm desde la granulosa hasta el punto más profundo de penetración tumoral es el predictor de sobrevida más importante. El tratamiento quirúrgico adecuado con 1 cm de margen en aquellos pacientes de bajo riesgo (Breslow Melanoma is a malignant tumor that originates in melanocytes and whose incidence and mortality have increased in the last decades. The most important risk factors are a genetic susceptibility related to sun sensitivity (having tanning capacity and being prone to sunburn and with certain speci1c genes; environmental factors such as exposure to UV radiation, latitude and a combination of both such as the number of nevis. Its clinical forms are: super1cial spreading melanoma (70%, nodular melanoma (15-30%, lentigo maligna melanoma (10-15% and acral lentiginous melanoma (5%. Among all the histological characteristics, Breslow's depth (measured in mm from the granular layer of the epidermis to the deepest point of tumor invasion is the most important predictor for progression free survival. An appropriate surgical treatment with 1-cm margin melanomas in low-risk patients (Breslow < 1 mm cures over 90% of the patients. Thus, early detection of melanoma is an important goal in melanoma treatment.

  20. CDC Vital Signs: Preventing Melanoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Press Kit Read the MMWR Science Clips Preventing Melanoma Communities Play a Vital Role Language: English Español ( ... and use of indoor tanning by minors. Problem Melanoma is increasing. Melanoma skin cancer is common and ...

  1. Surgical Management of Melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koshenkov, Vadim P; Broucek, Joe; Kaufman, Howard L

    2016-01-01

    The surgical management of melanoma has undergone considerable changes over the past several decades, as new strategies and treatments have become available. Surgeons play a pivotal role in all aspects of melanoma care: diagnostic, curative, and palliative. There is a high potential for cure in patients with early-stage melanoma and the selection of an appropriate operation is very important for this reason. Staging the nodal basin has become widespread since the adoption of sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) for the management of melanoma. This operation provides the best prognostic information that is currently available for patients with melanoma. The surgeon plays a central role in the palliation of symptoms resulting from nodal disease and metastases, as melanoma has a propensity to spread to almost any site in the body. PMID:26601862

  2. Decoding Melanoma Metastasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus Bosenberg

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Metastasis accounts for the vast majority of morbidity and mortality associated with melanoma. Evidence suggests melanoma has a predilection for metastasis to particular organs. Experimental analyses have begun to shed light on the mechanisms regulating melanoma metastasis and organ specificity, but these analyses are complicated by observations of metastatic dormancy and dissemination of melanocytes that are not yet fully malignant. Additionally, tumor extrinsic factors in the microenvironment, both at the site of the primary tumor and the site of metastasis, play important roles in mediating the metastatic process. As metastasis research moves forward, paradigms explaining melanoma metastasis as a step-wise process must also reflect the temporal complexity and heterogeneity in progression of this disease. Genetic drivers of melanoma as well as extrinsic regulators of disease spread, particularly those that mediate metastasis to specific organs, must also be incorporated into newer models of melanoma metastasis.

  3. Are all melanomas dangerous?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Carsten; Glud, Martin; Gniadecki, Robert

    2011-01-01

    The increased incidence of cutaneous malignant melanoma, together with only minor changes in mortality, has brought into question the existence of a melanoma epidemic. The discrepancy between incidence and mortality suggests that most newly diagnosed melanomas have indolent behaviour. This review...... summarizes the most recent epidemiological findings regarding the incidence of cutaneous malignant melanoma, mortality, Breslow thickness and clinical stage. Studies published between 2005 and 2010 with more than 2,000 test subjects were included in this review. These studies all report an increase in...... incidence of melanoma during the last few decades, with by far the highest increase in tumours at a very early stage (T1 or IA). Little or no change was seen in mortality. However, increases in both mortality and incidence of thick melanomas were found in the oldest subgroups, especially in men. These...

  4. Clínica del melanoma / Clinical manifestations of melanoma

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ana, Mordoh.

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available El melanoma es un tumor maligno originado en los melanocitos, cuya incidencia y mortalidad han aumentado en las últimas décadas. Sus factores de riesgo más importantes son la susceptibilidad genética relacionada con sensibilidad al sol (capacidad para broncearse y tendencia a las quemaduras) y con c [...] iertos genes especíLcos; factores ambientales tales como la exposición a la radiación UV, latitud y una combinación de ambos, como la cantidad de nevos. Sus formas clínicas son: melanoma extensivo superLcial (70%), nodular (15-30%), lentigo maligno (10-15%) y acrolentiginoso (5%). De todas las características histológicas, el espesor de Brelow (medido en mm desde la granulosa hasta el punto más profundo de penetración tumoral) es el predictor de sobrevida más importante. El tratamiento quirúrgico adecuado con 1 cm de margen en aquellos pacientes de bajo riesgo (Breslow Abstract in english Melanoma is a malignant tumor that originates in melanocytes and whose incidence and mortality have increased in the last decades. The most important risk factors are a genetic susceptibility related to sun sensitivity (having tanning capacity and being prone to sunburn) and with certain speci1c gen [...] es; environmental factors such as exposure to UV radiation, latitude and a combination of both such as the number of nevis. Its clinical forms are: super1cial spreading melanoma (70%), nodular melanoma (15-30%), lentigo maligna melanoma (10-15%) and acral lentiginous melanoma (5%). Among all the histological characteristics, Breslow's depth (measured in mm from the granular layer of the epidermis to the deepest point of tumor invasion) is the most important predictor for progression free survival. An appropriate surgical treatment with 1-cm margin melanomas in low-risk patients (Breslow

  5. Quimiorresistencia del melanoma / Chemoresistance to melanoma

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    María Marcela, Barrio.

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Varias estrategias terapéuticas como la cirugía, radioterapia y quimioterapia están siendo utilizadas para tratar el cáncer. Sin embargo, en el caso del melanoma solamente la cirugía en las etapas tempranas de la enfermedad (estadíos I-II) puede ser curativa en una alta proporción de pacientes. El t [...] ratamiento quimioterápico con dacarbacina (DTIC) así como combinaciones con cisplatino, vinblastina y carmustina resulta ineficaz para eliminar las células de melanoma, ya que sólo se alcanza una respuesta en alrededor del 10% de los pacientes sin prolongar la sobrevida. La quimiorresistencia puede deberse tanto a una falta de respuesta primaria del melanoma como al desarrollo de mecanismos de resistencia adquiridos por el tumor, comúnmente definidos como multi-resistencia a drogas (MDR). En este artículo se analizan los principales mecanismos responsables de dicha resistencia y cómo el conocimiento de los mismos es aplicado al desarrollo de nuevos agentes terapéuticos. Por último, se discuten las recientes estrategias que combinan la quimioterapia con la inmunoterapia (Bioquimioterapia) para optimizar el tratamiento del melanoma metastásico. Abstract in english Several therapeutic strategies such as surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy are being used to treat cancer. However, in the case of melanomas, only surgery during the early stages (stages I-II) of the disease can be curative in a high proportion of patients. Chemotherapy treatment with dacarbazine [...] (DTIC) as well as combinations with cisplatin, vinblastine and carmustine proves to be ineffective to eliminate melanoma cells, since only 10% of patients responded positively without prolonging survival. Chemoresistance can be caused by both a lack of primary response of the melanoma and the development of resistance mechanisms acquired by the tumor usually defined as multi-drug resistance (MDR).The most important mechanisms responsible for such resistance and how the knowledge of those mechanisms is applied to the development of new therapeutic agents are analyzed in this article. Finally, the latest strategies that combine chemotherapy and immunotherapy (Biochemotherapy) to optimize the treatment of metastatic melanoma will be further discussed.

  6. Primary Malignant Rhabdoid Melanoma

    OpenAIRE

    Chung, Bo Young; Ahn, In Su; Cho, Soo Ick; Kim, Hye One; Kim, Kwang Ho; Park, Chun Wook; Lee, Cheol Heon

    2011-01-01

    Melanoma with rhabdoid features is an uncommon variant of malignant melanoma. Here, we describe a rare case of primary rhabdoid malignant melanoma. A 54-year-old man presented with a black tumor measuring 3×4 cm on the right forearm. Histologic sections showed a tumor mass with rhabdoid features composed entirely of polygonal neoplastic cells with eccentric nuclei, prominent nucleoli, and large hyaline cytoplasmic inclusions. The tumor cells were immunoreactive with HMB-45, S100, Fontana-Mass...

  7. Sunburn and malignant melanoma.

    OpenAIRE

    Green, A.; Siskind, V.; C. Bain; Alexander, J.

    1985-01-01

    We investigated the relationship between cutaneous malignant melanoma and multiple sunburns in the Queensland population. Interview data were gathered from 236 case-control pairs concerning their lifetime experience of severe sunburns, their occupational and recreational sun exposure, and their skin type. Excluding the lentigo maligna melanoma subtype, an association between multiple sunburns and melanoma was evident. After controlling for other major risk factors there was a significant dose...

  8. Decoding Melanoma Metastasis

    OpenAIRE

    Marcus Bosenberg; Damsky, William E.; Lara E. Rosenbaum

    2010-01-01

    Metastasis accounts for the vast majority of morbidity and mortality associated with melanoma. Evidence suggests melanoma has a predilection for metastasis to particular organs. Experimental analyses have begun to shed light on the mechanisms regulating melanoma metastasis and organ specificity, but these analyses are complicated by observations of metastatic dormancy and dissemination of melanocytes that are not yet fully malignant. Additionally, tumor extrinsic factors in the microenvironme...

  9. Genetics of familial melanoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aoude, Lauren G; Wadt, Karin A W; Pritchard, Antonia L; Hayward, Nicholas K

    2015-01-01

    Twenty years ago, the first familial melanoma susceptibility gene, CDKN2A, was identified. Two years later, another high-penetrance gene, CDK4, was found to be responsible for melanoma development in some families. Progress in identifying new familial melanoma genes was subsequently slow; however, with the advent of next-generation sequencing, a small number of new high-penetrance genes have recently been uncovered. This approach has identified the lineage-specific oncogene MITF as a susceptibil...

  10. Melanoma Genomics and Immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constantinou, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Over the last decade the molecular characterization of melanoma has progressed. Since a majority of melanoma cases arise from repeated intermittent ultra violet radiation (UVR) exposure, the role of UVR has been evaluated extensively. Recent work has identified two mechanisms in which the carcinogenesis of melanoma may result; Ultra violet radiation has been demonstrated to lead to down regulation in immune responses and result in pyrimidine dimerization. Given these links and more significant immunogenic antigen profile of melanoma, as compared to other malignancies, there has been significant therapeutics breakthroughs based on these molecular pathways. [Full article available at http://rimed.org/rimedicaljournal-2015-11.asp, free with no login]. PMID:26517253

  11. Uveal melanoma: Estimating prognosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swathi Kaliki

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Uveal melanoma is the most common primary malignant tumor of the eye in adults, predominantly found in Caucasians. Local tumor control of uveal melanoma is excellent, yet this malignancy is associated with relatively high mortality secondary to metastasis. Various clinical, histopathological, cytogenetic features and gene expression features help in estimating the prognosis of uveal melanoma. The clinical features associated with poor prognosis in patients with uveal melanoma include older age at presentation, male gender, larger tumor basal diameter and thickness, ciliary body location, diffuse tumor configuration, association with ocular/oculodermal melanocytosis, extraocular tumor extension, and advanced tumor staging by American Joint Committee on Cancer classification. Histopathological features suggestive of poor prognosis include epithelioid cell type, high mitotic activity, higher values of mean diameter of ten largest nucleoli, higher microvascular density, extravascular matrix patterns, tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes, tumor-infiltrating macrophages, higher expression of insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor, and higher expression of human leukocyte antigen Class I and II. Monosomy 3, 1p loss, 6q loss, and 8q and those classified as Class II by gene expression are predictive of poor prognosis of uveal melanoma. In this review, we discuss the prognostic factors of uveal melanoma. A database search was performed on PubMed, using the terms "uvea," "iris," "ciliary body," "choroid," "melanoma," "uveal melanoma" and "prognosis," "metastasis," "genetic testing," "gene expression profiling." Relevant English language articles were extracted, reviewed, and referenced appropriately.

  12. Uveal melanoma: estimating prognosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaliki, Swathi; Shields, Carol L; Shields, Jerry A

    2015-02-01

    Uveal melanoma is the most common primary malignant tumor of the eye in adults, predominantly found in Caucasians. Local tumor control of uveal melanoma is excellent, yet this malignancy is associated with relatively high mortality secondary to metastasis. Various clinical, histopathological, cytogenetic features and gene expression features help in estimating the prognosis of uveal melanoma. The clinical features associated with poor prognosis in patients with uveal melanoma include older age at presentation, male gender, larger tumor basal diameter and thickness, ciliary body location, diffuse tumor configuration, association with ocular/oculodermal melanocytosis, extraocular tumor extension, and advanced tumor staging by American Joint Committee on Cancer classification. Histopathological features suggestive of poor prognosis include epithelioid cell type, high mitotic activity, higher values of mean diameter of ten largest nucleoli, higher microvascular density, extravascular matrix patterns, tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes, tumor-infiltrating macrophages, higher expression of insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor, and higher expression of human leukocyte antigen Class I and II. Monosomy 3, 1p loss, 6q loss, and 8q and those classified as Class II by gene expression are predictive of poor prognosis of uveal melanoma. In this review, we discuss the prognostic factors of uveal melanoma. A database search was performed on PubMed, using the terms "uvea," "iris," "ciliary body," "choroid," "melanoma," "uveal melanoma" and "prognosis," "metastasis," "genetic testing," "gene expression profiling." Relevant English language articles were extracted, reviewed, and referenced appropriately. PMID:25827538

  13. Melanoma of the Skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... embed/s3K9OzLZ9cg?rel=0 SEER Stat Fact Sheets: Melanoma of the Skin Expand All Collapse All Statistics ... 5 Years Or More after Being Diagnosed with Melanoma of the Skin? Relative survival statistics compare the ...

  14. Malignant Melanoma of the Foot

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of the Foot Text Size Print Bookmark Malignant Melanoma of the Foot What is Malignant Melanoma? Melanoma is a cancer that begins in the cells ... produce pigmentation (coloration). It is also called malignant melanoma because it spreads to other areas of the ...

  15. Interleukin-6 and melanoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoejberg, Lise; Bastholt, Lars; Schmidt, Henrik

    2012-01-01

    Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is a pleiotropic immunomodulatory cytokine produced by various types of cells, including melanoma cells. IL-6 plays a major role in the pathogenesis and development of malignancies. It promotes tumour growth by inhibition of apoptosis and induces tumour angiogenesis. IL-6 is...... deregulated in many types of cancers, and increased serum concentration of IL-6 has been correlated with a worse prognosis in patients with different cancers, including melanoma. Several serum cytokines including IL-6 play an important role in the development and progression of melanoma; however, the specific...... biological functions of IL-6 in progression of melanoma are unknown. In this review, we present studies on cell cultures and mouse models and summarize published clinical studies on IL-6 and melanoma....

  16. The morphologic universe of melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaimes, Natalia; Marghoob, Ashfaq A

    2013-10-01

    Differentiating dysplastic nevi from melanoma remains one of the main objectives of dermoscopy. Melanomas tend not to manifest any of the benign patterns described for nevi and instead usually display chaotic dermoscopic morphologies. Melanomas located on the face, chronically sun-damaged skin, volar surfaces, nails, and mucosal surfaces have additional features that can assist in their identification. However, some melanomas lack any defined dermoscopic structures. These so-called featureless melanomas can be identified via digital surveillance. This article reviews the melanoma-specific structures as a function of anatomic location (ie, melanomas on nonglabrous skin, face, volar surfaces, mucosae, and nails). PMID:24075548

  17. Melanoma inhibitory activity in Brazilian patients with cutaneous melanoma

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Macanori, Odashiro; Gunter, Hans Filho; Patricia Rusa, Pereira; Ana Rita Coimbra Motta, Castro; Alcione Cavalheiro, Stief; Elenir Rose Jardim Cury, Pontes; Alexandre Nakao, Odashiro.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract BACKGROUND: Melanoma inhibitory activity is a protein secreted by melanoma cells and has been used as a tumor marker. Increased Melanoma inhibitory activity serum levels are related to metastatic disease or tumor recurrence. Currently there are no studies on Melanoma inhibitory activity and [...] cutaneous melanoma involving Brazilian patients. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the performance and feasibility of measuring Melanoma inhibitory activity levels in Brazilian patients with cutaneous melanoma. METHODS: Blood was obtained from ten patients with proved metastatic cutaneous melanoma (Group 1), 15 patients resected for cutaneous melanoma without metastasis (Group 2) and 5 healthy donors (Group 3). Melanoma inhibitory activity was measured using a commercially available ELISA kit. RESULTS: There was a statistically significant difference of Melanoma inhibitory activity levels between patients with and without metastasis (p=0.002), and between patients with metastasis and healthy donors (p=0.002). There was no difference between patients without metastasis and healthy donors (p=0.443). CONCLUSION: Melanoma inhibitory activity is a tumor marker for cutaneous melanoma and the Melanoma inhibitory activity-ELISA test can be easily performed. Patients with metastasis have increased Melanoma inhibitory activity serum levels when compared to patients without metastasis and healthy donors.

  18. [Not diagnosable malignant melanomas].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuber, H; Lippold, A; Hundeiker, M

    1991-04-01

    Of the 3574 malignant melanomas treated in Hornheide between December 1981 and August 1990 (not including preinvasive cases) 97 were not immediately recognized. These tumours did not look like melanomas. In 72% they were smaller than 10 mm in diameter, and in 20%, smaller than 5 mm. Clark's so often quoted "pencil rule" should no longer be used as an aid to exclusion of invasive melanoma. Localization of the unrecognized melanomas was on the head and neck in 22% of cases. In 37%, the patients were under the age of 40 years. No less than 25% of the patients had multiple melanomas. Many of these melanomas. Many of these melanomas were thin tumours (less than 0.75 mm in 55% and less than 1.5 mm in 77%). This explains why more than 50% of the lesions are described as "macules". The most common incorrect diagnoses were dysplastic naevi (44%) and common (23%) naevi. The most important anamnestic criteria are the patients' own statements about changes in size, colour and shape. These "dynamic" elements must be more carefully observed and documented during process of the clinical diagnosis. PMID:1860796

  19. Characterization of melanoma associated spongiform scleropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alyahya, Ghassan Ayish Jabur; Heegaard, Steffen; Prause, J.U.

    ophthalmology, melanoma associated spongiform scleropathy (MASS), MASS, malignant uveal melanoma, sclera, ciliary body, choroid, histopathology......ophthalmology, melanoma associated spongiform scleropathy (MASS), MASS, malignant uveal melanoma, sclera, ciliary body, choroid, histopathology...

  20. How Is Melanoma Skin Cancer Diagnosed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... How is melanoma skin cancer staged? How is melanoma skin cancer diagnosed? Most melanomas are brought to ... types of biopsies may be needed. Biopsies of melanoma that may have spread Biopsies of areas other ...

  1. Proteomics in uveal melanoma.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ramasamy, Pathma

    2014-01-01

    Uveal melanoma is the most common primary intraocular malignancy in adults, with an incidence of 5-7 per million per year. It is associated with the development of metastasis in about 50% of cases, and 40% of patients with uveal melanoma die of metastatic disease despite successful treatment of the primary tumour. The survival rates at 5, 10 and 15 years are 65%, 50% and 45% respectively. Unlike progress made in many other areas of cancer, uveal melanoma is still poorly understood and survival rates have remained similar over the past 25 years. Recently, advances made in molecular genetics have improved our understanding of this disease and stratification of patients into low risk and high risk for developing metastasis. However, only a limited number of studies have been performed using proteomic methods. This review will give an overview of various proteomic technologies currently employed in life sciences research, and discuss proteomic studies of uveal melanoma.

  2. Sunburn and malignant melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, A.; Siskind, V.; Bain, C.; Alexander, J.

    1985-01-01

    We investigated the relationship between cutaneous malignant melanoma and multiple sunburns in the Queensland population. Interview data were gathered from 236 case-control pairs concerning their lifetime experience of severe sunburns, their occupational and recreational sun exposure, and their skin type. Excluding the lentigo maligna melanoma subtype, an association between multiple sunburns and melanoma was evident. After controlling for other major risk factors there was a significant dose-response relationship (P less than 0.05): the estimated relative risk associated with 2-5 sunburns in life was 1.5, and with 6 or more was 2.4. This observation extends the hitherto circumstantial evidence of a causal relationship between exposure to solar ultraviolet radiation and melanoma, and suggests that precautionary measures could prevent the development of this disease in a proportion of cases in fair-skinned populations. PMID:3970815

  3. Acral Lentiginous Melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goydos, James S; Shoen, Steven L

    2016-01-01

    Acral lentiginous melanoma (ALM) is a rare subtype of melanoma mainly arising on the palms, soles, and nail beds. ALM is the most common subtype of melanoma found in patients of Asian or African descent and tends to more advanced at presentation due to delays in diagnosis. Surgical treatment is difficult owing to the complexity and functional importance of the hands and feet and reconstruction after resection is usually needed. The prognosis for patients with ALM depends on stage of disease and tends to be worse than with other subtypes of melanoma. Newer treatment modalities such as immunotherapies and targeted agents are being tested in patients with advanced ALM with some promising preliminary results. PMID:26601870

  4. Biomarkers in melanoma

    OpenAIRE

    Gogas, H.; Eggermont, A.M.M.; Hauschild, A; Hersey, P; Mohr, P; Schadendorf, D.; Spatz, A; Dummer, R

    2009-01-01

    Biomarkers are tumour- or host-related factors that correlate with tumour biological behaviour and patient prognosis. High-throughput analytical techniques--DNA and RNA microarrays--have identified numerous possible biomarkers, but their relevance to melanoma progression, clinical outcome and the selection of optimal treatment strategies still needs to be established. The review discusses a possible molecular basis for predictive tissue biomarkers such as melanoma thickness, ulceration and mi...

  5. Adjuvant Therapy: Melanoma

    OpenAIRE

    Diwakar Davar; Ahmad Tarhini; Kirkwood, John M.

    2011-01-01

    With an incidence that is increasing at 2–5% per year, cutaneous melanoma is an international scourge that disproportionately targets young individuals. Despite much research, the treatment of advanced disease is still quite challenging. Immunotherapy with high-dose interferon-?2b or interleukin-2 benefits a select group of patients in the adjuvant and metastatic settings, respectively, with significant attendant toxicity. Advances in the biology of malignant melanoma and the role of immunomo...

  6. [Photoimmunology of melanoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubin, F; Agache, P

    1993-01-23

    Several epidemiological studies suggest that exposure to ultraviolet radiation and immunological responsiveness of the host contribute to the etiology of melanoma. In addition, a growing experimental evidence indicates a stimulant effect of ultraviolet radiation and a high immunogenicity of melanocytic tumors. These findings lead to the hypothesis of an ultraviolet-induced alteration of the immune response that decreases the host-resistance to melanoma antigens. PMID:8493207

  7. Primary Anorectal Melanoma: An Update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Carcoforo, M.T Raiji, G.M Palini, M Pedriali, U Maestroni, G Soliani, A Detroia, M.V Zanzi, A.L Manna, J.G Crompton, R.C Langan, A Stojadinovic, I Avital

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The anorectum is a rare anatomic location for primary melanoma. Mucosal melanoma is a distinct biological and clinical entity from the more common cutaneous melanoma. It portrays worse prognosis than cutaneous melanoma, with distant metastases being the overwhelming cause of morbidity and mortality. Surgery is the treatment of choice, but significant controversy exists over the extent of surgical resection. We present an update on the state of the art of anorectal mucosal melanoma. To illustrate the multimodality approach to anorectal melanoma, we present a typical patient.

  8. Radioimmunoscintigraphy in ocular melanoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Malignant choroidal melanoma is one of the most common primary intraocular neoplasms. Despite significant advances in indirect ophthalmology, ultrasound, computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and fluoroescein angiography, choroidal melanomas may be difficult to distinguish from other malignant and non-malignant eye lesions. Radioimmunoscintigraphy (RIS) with 99Tcm-labelled monoclonal antibody F(ab')2 fragments was performed on three patients (2 females, 1 male) who were suspected of having a choroidal melanoma. Patients were injected with 240-420 MBq Technemab-K-1 and scanned 6 and 22 h post-injection. Both planar and single photon emission tomographic (SPET) imaging were performed. RIS was faintly positive in one patient in whom the diagnosis of choroidal melanoma was confirmed by enucleation of the left eye. In the other two patients, immunoscintigraphy was negative. One patient had a benign choroidal haemangioma and the other an amelanotic melanoma. This was confirmed on clinical follow-up. These preliminary results indicate that this procedure may have utility for choroidal melanoma

  9. Propiedades linfangiogénicas del melanoma Lymphagiogenesis in melanomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Paula Roberti

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available El melanoma cutáneo representa el más letal de los cánceres de piel y la alta mortalidad es debida a la formación de metástasis. A través del sistema linfático local, los sitios iniciales de metástasis son comúnmente los ganglios linfáticos regionales. A pesar de que la relevancia clínica de las metástasis a ganglios linfáticos está bien establecida, muy poco se conoce acerca de sus mecanismos moleculares. El descubrimiento de nuevos marcadores de células linfáticas ha permitido en los últimos años comenzar a esclarecer múltiples interrogantes y controversias relacionados con la interacción entre las células tumorales con los vasos linfáticos. Este capítulo tratará la creciente información con la que se cuenta actualmente para comprender la linfangiogénesis en el cáncer, en particular en melanoma, su potencial aplicación en diagnóstico de metástasis, pronóstico de la enfermedad y estrategias terapéuticas.Melanoma skin cancer represents the most deadly of all skin cancers and its high incidence of mortality is due to metastasis. Through the local lymphatic system, the sites of initial metastasis are usually the regional lymph nodes. Despite the clinical relevance of metastasis spreading to lymph nodes is clearly established, not much is known about its molecular mechanisms. The finding of new markers in lymph node cells has made it possible over the last years to start clarifying many questions and controversies related to the interaction between tumour cells and lymph vessels. This chapter deals with the growing information nowadays available to understand lymphagiogenesis in cancer, especially melanoma, its potential application to metastasis diagnosis, disease prognosis and therapeutic strategies.

  10. Propiedades linfangiogénicas del melanoma / Lymphagiogenesis in melanomas

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    María Paula, Roberti.

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available El melanoma cutáneo representa el más letal de los cánceres de piel y la alta mortalidad es debida a la formación de metástasis. A través del sistema linfático local, los sitios iniciales de metástasis son comúnmente los ganglios linfáticos regionales. A pesar de que la relevancia clínica de las met [...] ástasis a ganglios linfáticos está bien establecida, muy poco se conoce acerca de sus mecanismos moleculares. El descubrimiento de nuevos marcadores de células linfáticas ha permitido en los últimos años comenzar a esclarecer múltiples interrogantes y controversias relacionados con la interacción entre las células tumorales con los vasos linfáticos. Este capítulo tratará la creciente información con la que se cuenta actualmente para comprender la linfangiogénesis en el cáncer, en particular en melanoma, su potencial aplicación en diagnóstico de metástasis, pronóstico de la enfermedad y estrategias terapéuticas. Abstract in english Melanoma skin cancer represents the most deadly of all skin cancers and its high incidence of mortality is due to metastasis. Through the local lymphatic system, the sites of initial metastasis are usually the regional lymph nodes. Despite the clinical relevance of metastasis spreading to lymph node [...] s is clearly established, not much is known about its molecular mechanisms. The finding of new markers in lymph node cells has made it possible over the last years to start clarifying many questions and controversies related to the interaction between tumour cells and lymph vessels. This chapter deals with the growing information nowadays available to understand lymphagiogenesis in cancer, especially melanoma, its potential application to metastasis diagnosis, disease prognosis and therapeutic strategies.

  11. Cutaneous malignant melanoma in Scotland.

    OpenAIRE

    Mackie, R.M.; Hunter, J A

    1982-01-01

    In view of the concern over the rising incidence of malignant melanoma in many parts of the world, and the suggestion that emigrants of Scottish and Irish descent have a higher incidence of melanoma in North America and Australia, a Scottish Melanoma Group has been formed to study epidemiological, pathological and therapeutic aspects of the tumour. In 1979, 260 histologically proven primary cutaneous malignant melanomas of the skin presented. This represents an incidence of 5.1/10(5) for Scot...

  12. Clinical applications of melanoma genetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabree, Michele; Patel, Devanshi; Rodgers, Linda

    2014-06-01

    Families that have several relatives with melanoma, multiple primary melanomas in one individual, younger than average ages of melanoma onset, and/or the presence of both pancreatic cancer and melanoma may be suggestive of a hereditary melanoma syndrome and are candidates for genetic counseling and risk assessment. Genetic counseling for hereditary melanoma presents many complexities. Only a minority of hereditary melanoma cases have been attributed to a single genetic factor, CDKN2A. Both the frequency and the penetrance of CDKN2A mutations has been shown to be dependent on multiple factors. The clinical utility of genetic testing for hereditary melanoma families is debatable because CDKN2A status may not impact medical management in patients with melanoma. No standard medical management guidelines exist for families with CDKN2A mutations; however, family history of melanoma and pancreatic cancer may warrant further discussion. Clinicians should discuss the clinical and psychological implications before genetic testing. Genetic counseling and pretest education regarding melanoma risk factors provides an opportunity to increase knowledge and understanding of melanoma risk, while addressing psychological risks and concerns. PMID:24652319

  13. Methods of Melanoma Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leachman, Sancy A; Cassidy, Pamela B; Chen, Suephy C; Curiel, Clara; Geller, Alan; Gareau, Daniel; Pellacani, Giovanni; Grichnik, James M; Malvehy, Josep; North, Jeffrey; Jacques, Steven L; Petrie, Tracy; Puig, Susana; Swetter, Susan M; Tofte, Susan; Weinstock, Martin A

    2016-01-01

    Detection and removal of melanoma, before it has metastasized, dramatically improves prognosis and survival. The purpose of this chapter is to (1) summarize current methods of melanoma detection and (2) review state-of-the-art detection methods and technologies that have the potential to reduce melanoma mortality. Current strategies for the detection of melanoma range from population-based educational campaigns and screening to the use of algorithm-driven imaging technologies and performance of assays that identify markers of transformation. This chapter will begin by describing state-of-the-art methods for educating and increasing awareness of at-risk individuals and for performing comprehensive screening examinations. Standard and advanced photographic methods designed to improve reliability and reproducibility of the clinical examination will also be reviewed. Devices that magnify and/or enhance malignant features of individual melanocytic lesions (and algorithms that are available to interpret the results obtained from these devices) will be compared and contrasted. In vivo confocal microscopy and other cellular-level in vivo technologies will be compared to traditional tissue biopsy, and the role of a noninvasive "optical biopsy" in the clinical setting will be discussed. Finally, cellular and molecular methods that have been applied to the diagnosis of melanoma, such as comparative genomic hybridization (CGH), fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH), and quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR), will be discussed. PMID:26601859

  14. Adjuvant Therapy of Melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davar, Diwakar; Kirkwood, John M

    2016-01-01

    The incidence of melanoma is rapidly increasing, especially in younger female and older male patients. Recent fundamental advances in our knowledge of melanoma tumorigenesis have established roles for inhibitors of the MAPK pathway and regulatory immune checkpoints CTLA-4 and PD-1/PD-L1. However, the majority of patients continue to present with non-metastatic disease-typically managed with surgical resection and adjuvant therapy. High-dose IFN-?2b (HDI) is the main adjuvant therapeutic mainstay in high-risk disease following definitive resection. In this chapter, we review the evidence supporting the use of adjuvant HDI in high-risk melanoma. We also discuss some of the other treatment modalities that have been evaluated including vaccines, chemotherapy, and radiotherapy. PMID:26601863

  15. Radiotherapy of metastasizing melanomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    New clinical and experimental investigations have shown that malignant melanomas are not radioresistant. Their radiosensitivity enables definitely curative radiotherapy with moderately high doses. Success is more dependent on duration of treatment than with other tumors. The position of radiation therapy in primary curative treatment of malignant melanoma should be reconsidered on the basis of these new findings. In the treatment of occult regional metastases irradiation is at least equivalent to lymph-adenectomy unless the diagnosis is decisive. If lymph node metastases are manifest, irradiation should be combined with lymphadenectomy. Irradiation of distant metastases may be given palliatively, especially for the purpose of analgesie. (orig.)

  16. Melanoma brain metastases therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melanoma frequently metastasizes to the central nervous system. Patients with brain metastases have considerable morbidity, poor quality of life and prognosis. For almost 40 years, the treatment had been based primarily on whole brain radiation. In the last decade, new treatment modalities have emerged. Surgery's role has been better defined, radiosurgery has become a new option, and the introduction of new chemotherapeutic agents such as fotemustine with consistent activity in brain metastases has brought a new perspective to the management of these patients. This article intends to review the recent advances in the treatment of brain metastases of melanoma. (author)

  17. Melanoma esofágico primario / Primary esophageal melanoma

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Robin, Rivera Irigoín; Víctor, Aguilar Urbano; Juana, Gonzalo Marín; Cristobal, Albandea Moreno; Francisco, Fernández Pérez; Andrés, Sánchez Cantos.

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available El melanoma esofágico primario (MEP) es una neoplasia extremadamente rara, con menos de 270 casos descritos. Aunque la presentación clínica es similar a cualquier otra neoplasia esofágica, su comportamiento es más agresivo y fatal en la mayoría de los casos. Presentamos dos nuevos casos de MEP diagn [...] osticados mediante endoscopia y estudio anatomopatológico de las biopsias obtenidas, siendo en ambos casos las muestras positivas para HMB-45 y S100, descartando así mismo la presencia de melanoma primario en otra localización. En el primer caso merece destacar la forma de presentación como miosis izquierda sin ptosis palpebral ni enoftalmos, siendo el primer caso descrito con esta manifestación inicial, lamentablemente al momento del diagnóstico fue irresecable, demostrando así mismo por ecoendoscopia afectación de la aorta torácica. El segundo caso a pesar de ser una neoplasia sin extensión locorregional y sometido a esofaguectomía transhiatal presentó múltiples complicaciones postoperatorias falleciendo al decimo noveno día de la intervención. Así mismo se hace una revisión bibliográfica sobre diagnóstico, opciones de tratamiento y pronóstico de esta excepcional neoplasia. Abstract in english Primary Esophageal Melanoma (PEM) is an extremely rare neoplasm, with less than 270 cases described. Although clinical presentation is similar to any other esophageal neoplasm, MEP's behavior is more aggressive and fatal in most cases. We report two new cases of MEP diagnosed through endoscopy and a [...] natomical-pathological analysis of collected biopsies. Both samples were positive for HMB-45 and S100, so the presence of primary melanoma in other location was ruled out. The form of presentation as left miosis with no eyelid ptosis or enophthalmos should be highlighted in the first case, which was described by this early manifestation. Unfortunately, the neoplasm could not be excised when diagnosed because the thoracic artery was found to be affected through echoendoscopy. In the second case, in spite of the fact that the neoplastic extension was only local, and neoplasm was subject to transhiatal esophagectomy, the patient had multiple post-surgical complications and died nineteen days after the surgical procedure. Furthermore, bibliographic review is applied to diagnosis, treatment options, and prognosis of this exceptional neoplasm.

  18. Melanoma acral lentiginoso: revisión bibliográfica / Acral lentiginous melanoma: bibliographic review

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Carlos, Duarte; Héctor, López.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available El melanoma acral lentiginoso es el tipo de melanoma de localización distal más frecuente, suele diagnosticarse en los estadios más avanzados y tiene un comportamiento biológico más agresivo que otros tipos de melanoma, por lo cual son de peor pronóstico. Representa entre el 5 % y el 10 % de los mel [...] anomas malignos y es más frecuente en asiáticos, en la raza negra y en latinoamericanos. El objetivo de este artículo fue hacer una revisión bibliográfica actualizada con el fin de conocer las tasas de incidencia del tumor, los nuevos avances con respecto a los factores de riesgo, biología molecular, diagnóstico y tratamiento, y el desarrollo de nuevos tratamientos en el manejo del melanoma avanzado y metastásico. Abstract in english Acral lentiginous melanomas, the melanomas most commonly found the distal portions of the limbs, have usually reached more advanced stages than other types of melanoma when diagnosed. Their biologic behavior is more aggressive than in other types of melanoma, so that they have a worse prognosis. It [...] represents 5 to 10% of all malignant melanomas, and is more frequently seen among the Asian, African American and Latin population. The objective of this paper was to complete a review of the current literature, in order to establish the rates of incidence, new findings regarding risk factors, molecular biology, diagnosis and treatment, and the development of new target therapies in the management of advanced and metastatic melanomas.

  19. Biomarkers in melanoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gogas, H.; Eggermont, A. M. M.; Hauschild, A.; Hersey, P.; Mohr, P.; Schadendorf, D.; Spatz, A.; Dummer, R.

    2009-01-01

    Biomarkers are tumour- or host-related factors that correlate with tumour biological behaviour and patient prognosis. High-throughput analytical techniques—DNA and RNA microarrays—have identified numerous possible biomarkers, but their relevance to melanoma progression, clinical outcome and the selection of optimal treatment strategies still needs to be established. The review discusses a possible molecular basis for predictive tissue biomarkers such as melanoma thickness, ulceration and mitotic activity, and provides a list of promising new biomarkers identified from tissue microarrays that needs confirmation by independent, prospectively collected clinical data sets. In addition, common predictive serum biomarkers—lactate dehydrogenase, S100B and melanoma-inhibiting activity—as well as selected investigational serum biomarkers such as TA90IC and YKL-40 are also reviewed. A more accurate, therapeutically predictive classification of human melanomas and selection of patient populations that would profit from therapeutic interventions are among the major challenges expected to be addressed in the future. PMID:19617299

  20. Chemotherapy for Melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Melissa A; Schuchter, Lynn M

    2016-01-01

    Prior to the recent therapeutic advances, chemotherapy was the mainstay of treatment options for advanced-stage melanoma. A number of studies have investigated various chemotherapy combinations in order to expand on the clinical responses achieved with single-agent dacarbazine, but these have not demonstrated an improvement in overall survival. Similar objective responses were observed with the combination of carboplatin and paclitaxel as were seen with single-agent dacarbazine. The combination of chemotherapy and immunotherapy, known as biochemotherapy, has shown high clinical responses; however, biochemotherapy has not been shown to improve overall survival and resulted in increased toxicities. In contrast, palliation and long-term responses have been observed with localized treatment with isolated limb perfusion or infusion in limb-isolated disease. Although new, improved therapeutic options exist for first-line management of advanced-stage melanoma, chemotherapy may still be important in the palliative treatment of refractory, progressive, and relapsed melanoma. We review the various chemotherapy options available for use in the treatment and palliation of advanced-stage melanoma, discuss the important clinical trials supporting the treatment recommendations, and focus on the clinical circumstances in which treatment with chemotherapy is useful. PMID:26601864

  1. Melanoma Histology Rules Flowchart

    Science.gov (United States)

    Notes and Examples Flowchart Key Flow Direction Notes and Examples Rule Action Code the numerically higher ICD-O-3 histology code. This is the end of ins truc tions for S ingle Melanoma or Multiple Melanom as Abstrac ted as a Single Primary. Code the histology acc ording to the rule that fits the case.

  2. Radiotherapy of malignant melanoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The role of radiotherapy in the treatment of malignant melanoma is limited, and surgery generally forms the mainstay of medical practice. However, there are some circumstances in which radiotherapy should be considered the treatment of choice. Symptomatic metastatic lesions in bone or brain can effectively be palliated in a substantial proportion of instances. At the current stage of our knowledge, conventionally fractionated treatment of such lesions forms the standard against which other treatments should be measured. In contrast, metastatic lesions to skin or lymph nodes that do not overlie critical normal structures probably are better treated by high-dose-per-fraction techniques. Radiotherapy may play a definitive role in the treatment of lentigo maligna. The precise optimal energy of the beam to be used remains to be defined. Slightly more penetrating radiation appears to be required for lentigo maligna melanomas. Here, too, the optimal energy remains to be defined. The treatment of nonlentigenous melanomas primarily by radiotherapy is unproved in my opinion. Certainly, the data from the Princess Margaret Hospital is exciting, but I believe it must be corroborated by a well-designed trial before it can be accepted without question. Future directions in treatment of malignant melanoma are likely to include further trials of unconventional fractionation and the use of radiosensitizing agents in conjunction with radiotherapy. The time for dermatologists and radiation therapists to cooperate in such studies is at hand

  3. Melanoma Risk Prediction Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Developing statistical models that estimate the probability of developing melanoma cancer over a defined period of time will help clinicians identify individuals at higher risk of specific cancers, allowing for earlier or more frequent screening and counseling of behavioral changes to decrease risk.

  4. Melanoma risk prediction models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolić Jelena

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. The lack of effective therapy for advanced stages of melanoma emphasizes the importance of preventive measures and screenings of population at risk. Identifying individuals at high risk should allow targeted screenings and follow-up involving those who would benefit most. The aim of this study was to identify most significant factors for melanoma prediction in our population and to create prognostic models for identification and differentiation of individuals at risk. Methods. This case-control study included 697 participants (341 patients and 356 controls that underwent extensive interview and skin examination in order to check risk factors for melanoma. Pairwise univariate statistical comparison was used for the coarse selection of the most significant risk factors. These factors were fed into logistic regression (LR and alternating decision trees (ADT prognostic models that were assessed for their usefulness in identification of patients at risk to develop melanoma. Validation of the LR model was done by Hosmer and Lemeshow test, whereas the ADT was validated by 10-fold cross-validation. The achieved sensitivity, specificity, accuracy and AUC for both models were calculated. The melanoma risk score (MRS based on the outcome of the LR model was presented. Results. The LR model showed that the following risk factors were associated with melanoma: sunbeds (OR = 4.018; 95% CI 1.724- 9.366 for those that sometimes used sunbeds, solar damage of the skin (OR = 8.274; 95% CI 2.661-25.730 for those with severe solar damage, hair color (OR = 3.222; 95% CI 1.984-5.231 for light brown/blond hair, the number of common naevi (over 100 naevi had OR = 3.57; 95% CI 1.427-8.931, the number of dysplastic naevi (from 1 to 10 dysplastic naevi OR was 2.672; 95% CI 1.572-4.540; for more than 10 naevi OR was 6.487; 95%; CI 1.993-21.119, Fitzpatricks phototype and the presence of congenital naevi. Red hair, phototype I and large congenital naevi were only present in melanoma patients and thus were strongly associated with melanoma. The percentage of correctly classified subjects in the LR model was 74.9%, sensitivity 71%, specificity 78.7% and AUC 0.805. For the ADT percentage of correctly classified instances was 71.9%, sensitivity 71.9%, specificity 79.4% and AUC 0.808. Conclusion. Application of different models for risk assessment and prediction of melanoma should provide efficient and standardized tool in the hands of clinicians. The presented models offer effective discrimination of individuals at high risk, transparent decision making and real-time implementation suitable for clinical practice. A continuous melanoma database growth would provide for further adjustments and enhancements in model accuracy as well as offering a possibility for successful application of more advanced data mining algorithms.

  5. Radiopharmaceuticals targeting melanoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pham, T.Q.; Berghofer, P.; Liu, X.; Greguric, I.; Dikic, B.; Ballantyne, P.; Mattner, F.; Nguyen, V.; Loc' h, C.; Katsifis, A. [Radiopharmaceuticals Research Institute, Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Menai, N.S.W., Sydney (Australia)

    2008-02-15

    Melanoma is one of the most aggressive cancers known with a high rate of mortality and increasing global incidence. So, the development of radiopharmaceuticals for either diagnostic or therapeutic purposes could make enormous contributions to melanoma patient health care. We have been studying melanoma tumours through several targeting mechanisms including melanin or specific receptor based radiopharmaceuticals Structure activity studies indicate that the substitution patterns on radioiodinated benzamides significantly influence the uptake mechanism from melanin to sigma-receptor binding. Furthermore, the position of the iodine as well as the presence of key functional groups and substituents has resulted in compounds with varying degrees of activity uptake and retention in tumours. From these results, a novel molecule 2-(2-(4-(4-iodo benzyl)piperazin-1-yl)-2-oxo-ethyl)isoindoline- 1,3-dione (M.E.L.037) was synthesized, labelled with iodine-123 and evaluated for application in melanoma tumour scintigraphy and radiotherapy. The tumour imaging potential of {sup 123}IM.E.L.037 was studied in vivo in C.57 B.L./ 6 J female mice bearing the B.16 F.0. murine melanoma tumour and in BALB/c nude mice bearing the A.375 human amelanotic melanoma tumour by biodistribution, competition studies and by SPECT imaging. {sup 123}I-M.E.L.037 exhibited high and rapid uptake in the B.16 F.0 melanoma tumour at 1 h (13 % I.D./g) increasing with time to reach 25 % I.D./g at 6 h. A significant uptake was also observed in the eyes (2% I.D., at 3-6 h p.i.) of black mice. No uptake was observed in the tumour or in the eyes of nude mice bearing the A.375 tumour. Due to high uptake and long retention in the tumour and rapid body clearance, standardized uptake values(S.U.V.) of {sup 123}I-M.E.L.037 were 30 and 60, at 24 and 48 h p.i.,respectively. SPECT imaging of mice bearing the B.16 melanoma indicated the radioactivity was predominately located in the tumour followed by the eyes, while no specific localisation of the radioactivity was noticed in mice bearing A.375 human amelanotic tumour. In competition experiments,uptake of {sup 123}I-M..E.L.037 in brain, lung, heart and kidney, organs known to contain s-receptors, was not significantly different in haloperidol treated animals compared to controls. Therefore,reduction of uptake in tumour and eyes of the pigmented mice bearing the B.16 F.0 tumour suggested that the mechanism of tumour uptake was likely due to an interaction with melanin.These findings suggested that {sup 123}I-M.E.L.037, which displays a rapid and very high tumour uptake, appeared to be a promising imaging agent for detection of most melanoma tumours with the potential for development as a therapeutic agent in melanoma tumour proliferation. (authors)

  6. RARE METASTASES OF MALIGNANT MELANOMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marija Trenki?-Božinovi?

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Melanomas are malignant neoplasms that originate from melanocytes. The most common are on the skin and mucous membranes. Choroidal melanomas are quite different from cutaneous melanomas with regard to presentation, metastases, and treatment. We report two cases of metastatic gastric malignant melanoma of the eye and skin, with reference to the literature. The first patient was a woman aged 23 years, who underwent gastrectomy 22 months after enucleation of the eye due to malignant choroid melanoma. The second patient was a man, 72 years old, who underwent surgery 28 months before because of malignant melanoma of the skin of the forehead. Paraffin sections, 4 ?m thick were stained using a classic method, as well as immunohistochemical DAKO APAAP method, using a specific S - 100 antibody and Melan A antibodies. The stomach is considered a rare place for the development of metastases. Metastases in the stomach are often limited to the submucosal as well as the serousmuscular layer, as noted in one of our patients. Metastatic melanoma of the gastrointestinal tract should be suspected in any patient with a history of malignant melanoma and new gastrointestinal symptoms. Because of the similarity between certain common histopathological types of malignant melanoma, primarily achromatic, and types of primary cancers of the stomach, the following immunohistochemical studies are needed: Melan A and S - 100 protein ( markers of malignant melanoma , as well as mucins: MUC5AC, MUC2 and CDX2 ( markers of different types of primary gastric carcinoma.

  7. Melanoma inhibitor of apoptosis protein is expressed differentially in melanoma and melanocytic naevus, but similarly in primary and metastatic melanomas

    OpenAIRE

    Gong, J.; Chen, N.; Zhou, Q.; Yang, B.; Wang, Y.; Wang, X.

    2005-01-01

    Background: Malignant melanoma is highly resistant to current treatments. The inhibitor of apoptosis protein (IAP) family member, melanoma IAP (ML-IAP), is overexpressed in some melanoma cell lines, rendering them resistant to apoptotic signals. Targeting ML-IAP is a promising approach to treating melanoma. However, the status of ML-IAP expression in human melanoma tissues and the difference in expression between melanoma and melanocytic naevus are not known.

  8. Emergency Surgery for Metastatic Melanoma

    OpenAIRE

    Dimitrios Mantas; Petros Tsaparas; Petros Charalampoudis; Helen Gogas; Gregory Kouraklis

    2014-01-01

    Visceral metastases from malignant melanoma (stage M1c) confer a very poor prognosis, as documented on the most recent revised version of the TNM/AJCC staging system. Emergency surgery for intra-abdominal complications from the disease is rare. We report on our 5-year single institution experience with surgical management of metastatic melanoma to the viscera in the emergent setting. From 2009 to 2013, 14 patients with metastatic melanoma were admitted emergently due to an acute abdomen. Clin...

  9. A Melanoma Molecular Disease Model

    OpenAIRE

    Vidwans, Smruti J.; Flaherty, Keith T.; Fisher, David E.; Tenenbaum, Jay M.; Travers, Michael D.; Shrager, Jeff

    2011-01-01

    While advanced melanoma remains one of the most challenging cancers, recent developments in our understanding of the molecular drivers of this disease have uncovered exciting opportunities to guide personalized therapeutic decisions. Genetic analyses of melanoma have uncovered several key molecular pathways that are involved in disease onset and progression, as well as prognosis. These advances now make it possible to create a “Molecular Disease Model” (MDM) for melanoma that classifies indiv...

  10. Radioembolization and Ipilimumab in Treating Patients With Uveal Melanoma With Liver Metastases

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-22

    Ciliary Body and Choroid Melanoma, Medium/Large Size; Ciliary Body and Choroid Melanoma, Small Size; Extraocular Extension Melanoma; Iris Melanoma; Liver Metastases; Metastatic Intraocular Melanoma; Recurrent Intraocular Melanoma; Stage IV Intraocular Melanoma

  11. Biopsies in uveal melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Midena, Edoardo; Parrozzani, Raffaele

    2012-01-01

    The ability to obtain the proper clinical diagnosis in cases of suspected intraocular tumors has greatly advanced during the past 50 years. The clinical characteristics of most intraocular tumors (size, shape, color, and texture) are detectable by skilled ophthalmoscopic examination and, with the use of adjunctive techniques (mainly ultrasonography), the proper diagnosis can be reached without invasive procedures. Notwithstanding, some intraocular tumors need to be biopsied to obtain a reliable diagnosis. In the cytogenetic era, intraocular tumor management is changing, and tumor-sampling procedures are becoming the main prognostic (and theoretically also diagnostic) tools for uveal melanoma. In spite of the widespread use of biopsies in general surgical practice, in ophthalmic oncology, indications and contraindications for biopsy continue to be under debate. The purpose of this paper is to critically evaluate the role of uveal melanoma biopsy in current clinical practice. PMID:22042015

  12. Los guardianes del melanoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norma Estela Herrera González

    2012-01-01

    autoinmunidad severa. Aunque aún no se conocen los mecanismos por los cuales funcionan estas células, se sabe que secretan citocinas inmunosupresoras y que inhiben la activación y proliferación de células T, con lo cual se pierde respuesta antitumoral. Por tanto, a estas células las hemos llamado "los guardianes del melanoma".

  13. Understanding melanoma stem cells

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, Nicholas; Couts, Kasey L.; Luo, Yuchun; Fujita, Mayumi

    2015-01-01

    Tumors are incredibly diverse and contain many different subpopulations of cells. The cancer stem cell (CSC) subpopulation is responsible for many aspects of tumorigenesis and has been shown to play an important role in melanoma development, progression, drug resistance and metastasis. However, it is becoming clear that tumor cell populations are dynamic and can be influenced by many factors, such as signals from the tumor microenvironment and somatic evolution. This review will present the c...

  14. Treatment of Uveal Melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoushtari, Alexander N; Carvajal, Richard D

    2016-01-01

    Uveal melanoma (UM) comprises approximately 5 % of all melanoma diagnoses in the USA each year. Approximately half of patients with UM eventually develop metastases, most commonly involving the liver. Historically, prognosis for these patients has been poor, with death occurring 6-12 months from the time of metastases. Multiple trials of cytotoxic treatments largely extrapolated from cutaneous melanoma have been ineffective in metastatic UM. Trials of regional hepatic-directed therapy have led to high response rates, but these have yet to be translated into a survival benefit. Recently, it was discovered that the majority of UMs harbor activating mutations in genes encoding one of two G-alpha protein subunits, GNAQ and GNA11. This knowledge has led to the rational development of clinical trials specifically for UM utilizing targeted inhibitors of the activated signaling pathways such as mitogen-activated protein kinase, Akt, and protein kinase C. A recent trial of the oral MEK inhibitor selumetinib was the first to show clinical benefit for any systemic therapy in a randomized fashion. This increasing understanding of the biology of UM offers hope that novel treatments will continue to benefit patients with metastatic disease. PMID:26601868

  15. Principles of Melanoma Staging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boland, Genevieve M; Gershenwald, Jeffrey E

    2016-01-01

    Although now commonplace in contemporary cancer care, the systematic approach to classification of disease-specific cancers into a formalized staging system is a relatively modern concept. Overall, the goals of cancer staging are to characterize the status of cancer at a specific moment in time, risk stratify, facilitate prognostication, and inform clinical decision making. The revisions to the American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) melanoma staging system over time reflect changes in our understanding of the biology of the disease. Since the 1st edition, where tumor thickness was defined anatomically by its relationship to the reticular or papillary dermis (Clark level) as well as tumor thickness (Breslow thickness), there have been significant strides in our use of clinicopathological variables to stratify low- versus high-risk patients. Management of the regional nodal basin has also changed dramatically over time, impacted by techniques such as lymphatic mapping and sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) and changes in pathological evaluation of the regional lymph nodes. Additionally, stratification of distant metastases has evolved as survival outcomes have been shown to vary based upon anatomic site of metastases and serum lactate dehydrogenase levels. The variables in use in the current (7th edition) AJCC staging system are surrogate markers of biology with validated impact of survival outcomes. Going forward, it is likely that these and additional clinicopathological factors will be integrated with molecular and other correlates of melanoma tumor biology to further refine and personalize melanoma staging. PMID:26601861

  16. ADAM15 expression is downregulated in melanoma metastasis compared to primary melanoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ungerer, Christopher; Doberstein, Kai [Pharmazentrum Frankfurt/ZAFES, University Hospital Goethe University Frankfurt, Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Buerger, Claudia; Hardt, Katja; Boehncke, Wolf-Henning [Department of Dermatology, Clinic of the Goethe-University, Theodor-Stern-Kai, Frankfurt (Germany); Boehm, Beate [Division of Rheumatology, Goethe University, Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Pfeilschifter, Josef [Pharmazentrum Frankfurt/ZAFES, University Hospital Goethe University Frankfurt, Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Dummer, Reinhard [Department of Pathology, Institute of Surgical Pathology, University Hospital, Zurich (Switzerland); Mihic-Probst, Daniela [Department of Dermatology, University Hospital Zurich (Switzerland); Gutwein, Paul, E-mail: p.gutwein@med.uni-frankfurt.de [Pharmazentrum Frankfurt/ZAFES, University Hospital Goethe University Frankfurt, Frankfurt am Main (Germany)

    2010-10-22

    Research highlights: {yields} Strong ADAM15 expression is found in normal melanocytes. {yields} ADAM15 expression is significantly downregulated in patients with melanoma metastasis. {yields} TGF-{beta} can downregulate ADAM15 expression in melanoma cells. {yields} Overexpression of ADAM15 in melanoma cells inhibits migration, proliferation and invasion of melanoma cells. {yields} Conclusion: ADAM15 represents an tumor suppressor protein in melanoma. -- Abstract: In a mouse melanoma metastasis model it has been recently shown that ADAM15 overexpression in melanoma cells significantly reduced the number of metastatic nodules on the lung. Unfortunately, the expression of ADAM15 in human melanoma tissue has not been determined so far. In our study, we characterized the expression of ADAM15 in tissue micro-arrays of patients with primary melanoma with melanoma metastasis. ADAM15 was expressed in melanocytes and endothelial cells of benign nevi and melanoma tissue. Importantly, ADAM15 was significantly downregulated in melanoma metastasis compared to primary melanoma. We further demonstrate that IFN-{gamma} and TGF-{beta} downregulate ADAM15 protein levels in melanoma cells. To investigate the role of ADAM15 in melanoma progression, we overexpressed ADAM15 in melanoma cells. Importantly, overexpression of ADAM15 in melanoma cells reduced the migration, invasion and the anchorage dependent and independent cell growth of melanoma cells. In summary, the downregulation of ADAM15 plays an important role in melanoma progression and ADAM15 act as a tumorsuppressor in melanoma.

  17. ADAM15 expression is downregulated in melanoma metastasis compared to primary melanoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research highlights: → Strong ADAM15 expression is found in normal melanocytes. → ADAM15 expression is significantly downregulated in patients with melanoma metastasis. → TGF-β can downregulate ADAM15 expression in melanoma cells. → Overexpression of ADAM15 in melanoma cells inhibits migration, proliferation and invasion of melanoma cells. → Conclusion: ADAM15 represents an tumor suppressor protein in melanoma. -- Abstract: In a mouse melanoma metastasis model it has been recently shown that ADAM15 overexpression in melanoma cells significantly reduced the number of metastatic nodules on the lung. Unfortunately, the expression of ADAM15 in human melanoma tissue has not been determined so far. In our study, we characterized the expression of ADAM15 in tissue micro-arrays of patients with primary melanoma with melanoma metastasis. ADAM15 was expressed in melanocytes and endothelial cells of benign nevi and melanoma tissue. Importantly, ADAM15 was significantly downregulated in melanoma metastasis compared to primary melanoma. We further demonstrate that IFN-γ and TGF-β downregulate ADAM15 protein levels in melanoma cells. To investigate the role of ADAM15 in melanoma progression, we overexpressed ADAM15 in melanoma cells. Importantly, overexpression of ADAM15 in melanoma cells reduced the migration, invasion and the anchorage dependent and independent cell growth of melanoma cells. In summary, the downregulation of ADAM15 plays an important role in melanoma progression and ADAM15 act as a tumorsuppressor in melanoma.

  18. Histopathological findings concerning ocular melanomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costache, Mariana; P?tra?cu, Oana Maria; Dumitru, Adrian; Costache, Diana; Voinea, Liliana Mary; Simionescu, Olga; Sajin, Maria

    2014-01-01

    Ocular melanoma is rare in clinical practice. In this study, we present three cases of ocular melanoma surgically removed in the Department of Ophthalmology of the Emergency University Hospital of Bucharest, Romania, and diagnosed in the Department of Pathology of the same hospital using conventional histopathological techniques and immunohistochemical tests. PMID:25178339

  19. Primary Desmoplastic Melanoma of the Penis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Julia T.; Liss, Michael A.; Wu, William W.; Dash, Atreya; Lu, Di

    2015-01-01

    Desmoplastic melanomas are rare amelanotic melanomas that usually occur on skin with sun exposure. In this report, we present a 72-year-old man who presented with a desmoplastic melanoma of the penis. To our knowledge this represents the first reported case of primary desmoplastic melanoma of the penis. We discuss the pathologic differential and histologic evaluation. PMID:26613063

  20. Oral amelanotic melanoma of the maxilla.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasrollah Saghravanian

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Amelanotic melanoma is a variant of malignant melanoma comprising 2% to 8% of all malignant melanomas. The amelanotic presentation of melanoma in the oral cavity is extremely rare and has been reported only occasionally in the literature. Moreover, the lack of melanin makes these tumors difficult to diagnose than that of pigmented lesions and the prognosis tends to be poorer. Herein, we report an amelanotic melanoma involving the oral mucosa of the maxilla in a 27 year-old male.

  1. Preventing Melanoma PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-06-02

    This 60 second public service announcement is based on the June 2015 CDC Vital Signs report. Skin cancer is the most common form of cancer in the U.S. In 2011, there were more than 65,000 cases of melanoma, the most deadly form of skin cancer. Learn how everyone can help prevent skin cancer.  Created: 6/2/2015 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 6/2/2015.

  2. Melanoma amelanótico en ciego

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ofelia Castillo

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Paciente varón de 73 años que acude a emergencia con anemia severa (Hb 4.9 g/dL, refiriendo un mes con deposiciones oscuras, astenia y pérdida significativa de peso. La evaluación endoscópica alta no encontró lesiones potencialmente sangrantes. Posteriormente se constató la presencia de heces sanguinolentas rojizas tipo enterorragia y se realizó una colonoscopía, en la cual se encontraron dos lesiones elevadas en el ciego: una pedunculada (con sangrado activo rezumante y otra sésil, ambas fueron extirpadas; el estudio de anatomía patológica demostró que correspondían a melanoma amelanótico de ciego. El examen físico no reveló lesiones neoplásicas dérmicas. El sangrado digestivo recurrente obligó a realizar una nueva colonoscopia que demostró una nueva lesión sangrante de ciego. Fue intervenido quirúrgicamente con una cecostomía y extirpación de la lesión cecal. La tomografía demostró metástasis en mediastino y en la cirugía se encontraron implantes metastásicos en hígado e intestino delgado. El paciente continuó tratamiento en oncología médica. Nosotros reportamos el presente caso, por ser la hemorragia digestiva una forma inusual de presentación clínica del melanoma maligno metastásico.

  3. Vacunas en melanoma

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    E., Noris-García; A., Torrella.

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Las vacunas terapéuticas han demostrado ser una de las mejores estrategias de intervención en el sistema inmune para proteger al organismo en contra de la progresión de una amplia variedad de enfermedades, incluyendo el cáncer. En este trabajo ofrecemos una revisión de las principales modalidades de [...] vacunas terapéuticas que se han ensayado clínicamente y han demostrado algún efecto antitumoral. Aunque en la actualidad se están desarrollando varios ensayos clínicos fase III con resultados alentadores, la terapia con vacunas de melanoma es todavía experimental y su efectividad no esta demostrada. Abstract in english Therapeutic vaccines have shown to be among the best practical approaches of immune prevention against the progression of a wide variety of diseases, including cancer. We present in this work the main vaccination modalities that have been evaluated in clinical trials and showed antitumoral effect. A [...] lthough there are many phase III trials with encouraging results, the use of vaccines for melanoma therapy is still in an experimental phase and its effectiveness remains to be established.

  4. Melanoma Lentiginoso Acral

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gloria Andrea Vargas Suaza

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available El melanoma lentiginoso acral (MLA es una variante rápidamente progresiva del melanoma maligno (MM. Constituye el 5-10% de todos los tipos de MM y se presenta con mayor frecuencia en pacientes de raza negra, asiáticos y latinoamericanos. En Colombia el MM se encuentra en aumento, con una incidencia de 3.5/100.000, siendo el MLA una de las variantes más comunes. La edad promedio de presentación es de 58 años, con una tasa de sobrevida menor para las personas de raza negra, asociado a un diagnóstico tardío. EL MLA se localiza en plantas, palmas y región subungueal y en su etiopatología se ha descrito la presencia de mutaciones en genes: 9p21 (p16: 67%, 11q13 (CCND1 (47%, 22q11-q13 (40% y 5p15 (20%. El diagnóstico de MLA, se ha fundamentado clásicamente en la histopatología. Herramientas de diagnóstico como la dermatoscopia, la evaluación del ganglio centinela y la determinación de alteraciones en las proteínas del ciclo celular contribuyen a la detección precoz del MLA y el MM en general.

  5. Animal type melanoma: a report of two cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariângela Esther Alencar Marques

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Dificuldade potencial no diagnóstico histológico de melanomas é a dificuldade em reconhecer variantes pouco frequentes de melanoma. Entre elas, as mais desafiantes incluem exemplos de melanoma desmoplásico, melanoma nevoide, o chamado "melanoma de desvio mínimo", melanomas com proeminente síntese de pigmento ou "melanoma tipo animal" e o nevo azul maligno. Os autores descrevem dois casos de melanoma tipo animal e discute-se a importância do diagnóstico diferencial clinico-histopatológico nesses casos.A potential diagnostic pitfall in the histological assessment of melanomas is the difficulty in recognizing unusual melanoma variants. Among them, the most challenging examples comprise desmoplastic melanomas, nevoid melanomas, the so-called minimal-deviation melanoma, melanomas with prominent pigment synthesis or animal-type melanoma, and the malignant blue nevus. Two cases of animal type melanoma are reported and the importance of clinical-histopathological differential diagnosis is discussed.

  6. Subungual melanoma with osteocartilaginous differentiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giele, H.; Hollowood, K.; Gibbons, C.L.M.H. [Nuffield Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, University of Oxford, Nuffield Orthopaedic Centre, OX3 7LD, Oxford (United Kingdom); Wilson, D.J. [Department of Radiology, University of Oxford, Nuffield Orthopaedic Centre, OX3 7LD, Oxford (United Kingdom); Athanasou, N.A. [Department of Pathology, University of Oxford, Nuffield Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Nuffield Orthopaedic Centre, Windmill Road, Headington, OX3 7LD, Oxford (United Kingdom)

    2003-12-01

    Osteocartilaginous metaplasia is known to occur rarely in melanomas, particularly in subungual melanomas. We present a case of a calcified subungual soft tissue tumour in which biopsy of the lesion showed malignant round and spindle-shaped tumour cells, many of which were associated with the formation of cartilage and osteoid-like material. Subsequent resection showed clear histological evidence of a subungual melanoma. Tumour cells expressed S100, melan-A and neurone-specific enolase but were negative for HMB45. Diagnostic radiological and histological features and the nature of the osteocartilaginous differentiation within this lesion is discussed. (orig.)

  7. Malignant melanoma of the skin

    OpenAIRE

    Armstrong, B. K.; Holman, C. D. J.

    1987-01-01

    Ultra-violet radiation (UVR) in sunlight is thought to be the main cause of malignant melanoma in lightly-pigmented populations. Individuals with fair skin, fair hair, blue eyes and/or a tendency to burn rather than tan when exposed to the sun are at particularly high risk of melanoma and should be given special attention in primary prevention programmes. Intermittent exposure to the sun, as in recreational exposure, may be a more potent cause of melanoma than more continuous exposure. Primar...

  8. Meningeal metastasing of malignant melanomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two woman patients with malignant melanoma of the skin known from their case history and with acutely emerging neurological symptoms were examined both by CT and by MR tomography (both plain and with intravenous contrast medium). The radiologically derived suspicion of meningioma could not be confirmed by intraoperatively performed histological examination. In both cases the patients had meningeal melanoma metastases with low melanin content and without noticeable bleeding into the metastases. MR diagnosis is rendered difficult by the absence of paramagnetic substances typical of melanoma metastases. Hence, if the case history is known, it should be considered whether there is meningeal metastasising with atypical histology. (orig.)

  9. Uveal Melanoma UK National Guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nathan, P; Cohen, V; Coupland, S; Curtis, K; Damato, B; Evans, J; Fenwick, S; Kirkpatrick, L; Li, O; Marshall, E; McGuirk, K; Ottensmeier, C; Pearce, N; Salvi, S; Stedman, B; Szlosarek, P; Turnbull, N

    2015-11-01

    The United Kingdom (UK) uveal melanoma guideline development group used an evidence based systematic approach (Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network (SIGN)) to make recommendations in key areas of uncertainty in the field including: the use and effectiveness of new technologies for prognostication, the appropriate pathway for the surveillance of patients following treatment for primary uveal melanoma, the use and effectiveness of new technologies in the treatment of hepatic recurrence and the use of systemic treatments. The guidelines were sent for international peer review and have been accredited by NICE. A summary of key recommendations is presented. The full documents are available on the Melanoma Focus website. PMID:26278648

  10. Morphogenesis of early stage melanoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatelain, Clément; Amar, Martine Ben

    2015-08-01

    Melanoma early detection is possible by simple skin examination and can insure a high survival probability when successful. However it requires efficient methods for identifying malignant lesions from common moles. This paper provides an overview first of the biological and physical mechanisms controlling melanoma early evolution, and then of the clinical tools available today for detecting melanoma in vivo at an early stage. It highlights the lack of diagnosis methods rationally linking macroscopic observables to the microscopic properties of the tissue, which define the malignancy of the tumor. The possible inputs of multiscale models for improving these methods are shortly discussed.

  11. Amelanotic metastatic cutaneous melanoma / Melanoma metastático amelanótico cutâneo

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Marcela Sena Teixeira, Mendes; Mariana Carvalho, Costa; Ciro Martins, Gomes; Lisley Calixto de, Araújo; Gustavo Henrique Soares, Takano.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A dermatoscopia das lesões melanocíticas tem auxiliado na decisão de biopsiar ou não uma lesão. A utilização desta ferramenta aumentou a sensibilidade e a especificidade do diagnóstico para 89% e 96%, respectivamente. No entanto, a avaliação dermatoscópica de melanomas amelanóticos ou hipomelanótico [...] s, bem como a de metástases cutâneas, pode ser difícil. Ainda falta uma padronização para a análise destas patologias, que se baseia, majoritariamente, no seu padrão vascular. Descreve-se a dermatoscopia de melanoma metastático amelanótico acral. Abstract in english Dermatoscopy of melanocytic lesions has guided the decision of when or not to biopsy a lesion. The use of this tool has increased clinical examination's sensitivity and specificity in 89% and 96% respectively. However, dermatoscopic evaluation of amelanotic or hypomelanotic melanomas, as well as met [...] astases, can be difficult. There is still no standardization for the analysis of these pathologies, which relies mostly on their vascular pattern. We describe the dermatoscopy of acral metastatic amelanotic melanoma.

  12. Melanoma Surveillance in the US: The Economic Burden of Melanoma

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-10-19

    This podcast accompanies the publication of a series of articles on melanoma surveillance in the United States, available in the November supplement edition of the Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology. Dr. Gery Guy, from the CDC’s Division of Cancer Prevention and Control, discusses the economic burden of melanoma.  Created: 10/19/2011 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 10/19/2011.

  13. High accuracy of family history of melanoma in Danish melanoma cases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wadt, Karin A W; Drzewiecki, Krzysztof T; Gerdes, Anne-Marie

    2015-01-01

    The incidence of melanoma in Denmark has immensely increased over the last 10 years making Denmark a high risk country for melanoma. In the last two decades multiple public campaigns have sought to increase the awareness of melanoma. Family history of melanoma is a known major risk factor but...... previous studies have shown that self-reported family history of melanoma is highly inaccurate. These studies are 15 years old and we wanted to examine if a higher awareness of melanoma has increased the accuracy of self-reported family history of melanoma. We examined the family history of 181 melanoma...... probands who reported 199 cases of melanoma in relatives, of which 135 cases where in first degree relatives. We confirmed the diagnosis of melanoma in 77 % of all relatives, and in 83 % of first degree relatives. In 181 probands we validated the negative family history of melanoma in 748 first degree...

  14. Ipilimumab treatment of metastatic melanoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghasemi, Habib; Schmidt, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    Until recently metastatic melanoma was a disease with limited treatment options and a poor prognosis. However, new promising products have been developed. Ipilimumab, a full human anti-cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen-4 antibody, has shown improved survival in several clinical trials and is now a part of the standard treatment options for this disease in Denmark. In this case report we present a 78-year-old man with metastatic melanoma who had complete remission after treatment with ipilimumab.

  15. Cerebral metastases of cutaneous melanoma.

    OpenAIRE

    Gupta, G; Robertson, A. G.; Mackie, R.M.

    1997-01-01

    Cerebral metastases of cutaneous melanoma carry a very poor prognosis. We report our experience of 31 patients who presented with cerebral metastasis of cutaneous melanoma in a 5-year period between mid-1991 and mid-1996. Cerebral metastases were diagnosed on computerized tomography (CT) scan after patients became symptomatic. The overall median survival in our series was 4 months. Seventeen patients (55%) received treatment with radiotherapy and dexamethasone with resolution of their symptom...

  16. Perceived Intra-Family Melanoma Risk Communication

    OpenAIRE

    Loescher, Lois J.; Crist, Janice D.; Siaki, Leilani A.C.L.

    2009-01-01

    Melanoma is a skin cancer that can be deadly. Members of families with a strong history of melanoma have a high risk of melanoma occurrence or recurrence. Enhanced survival in these family members could be influenced by their knowledge of melanoma risk and by simple behaviors to decrease their risk or detect melanoma in its early, most curable, stage. Yet, there is minimal exploration on communication of risk or risk-modifying behaviors in melanoma at-risk families. In this study we described...

  17. An Unusual Case of Desmoplastic Malignant Melanoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javabal, Pandiaraja; Subramanian, Viswanathan

    2015-01-01

    Desmoplastic malignant melanoma is a rare variant of spindle cell melanoma, commonly seen in older adults, on sun-exposed areas. It accounts for 1-4% of all cases of cutaneous melanoma. The common location of the desmoplastic melanoma is the head and neck region, whereas, other sites are less common. Regional lymph node involvement is reported in 0 to 13.7% of the cases, which is less frequent than other cutaneous melanomas. A 75-year-old male presented with an ulceroproliferative growth on the left foot that was diagnosed as desmoplastic melanoma with regional lymph node metastasis and in transit metastasis, with extensive pulmonary metastasis. PMID:25949027

  18. Immunoscintigraphy of malignant melanomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work is part of a multicentric European evaluation of the monoclonal antibody 225.28s targeted against malignant melanoma and its metastases. Twenty-eight patients (12 males, 16 females, mean age: 53 yrs), who had initially been treated by resection of the primary tumour, were included in the study. Twenty-three of the 26 metastases more than 1 cm in diameter were visualized by immunoscintigraphy. The sensitivity of the procedure (88%) is limited however by the small size of the lesions and their depth, as well as by background noise caused by circulating antibodies. Immunoscintigraphy enables non-invasive investigation of the whole body and can detect lesions that other conventional complementary explorations fail to identify

  19. Fulminant metastatic malignant melanoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.M.K. Faheem,

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available A 50-year-old lady presented with complaints of chest pain and cough for the past one month. Right supraclavicular lymphadenopathy, bilateral pleural effusion were present. Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC from the lymph node showed brownish-black pigment laden tumour cells. Review of history subsequently revealed that she had undergone a surgical procedure over the sole of her left foot three years ago of which no records were available. Reexamination of sole of left foot showed a pigmented infiltraling lesion. Pleural biopsy revealed pigmented tumour deposits. The patient was diagnosed to have fulminant metastatic malignant melanoma of left foot with metastasis to cervical lymph nodes and pleura. This case report re-emphasizes the importance of combined approach to ascertain diagnosis early.

  20. Adjuvant Sunitinib or Valproic Acid in High-Risk Patients With Uveal Melanoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-30

    Ciliary Body and Choroid Melanoma, Medium/Large Size; Ciliary Body and Choroid Melanoma, Small Size; Iris Melanoma; Stage I Intraocular Melanoma; Stage IIA Intraocular Melanoma; Stage IIB Intraocular Melanoma; Stage IIIA Intraocular Melanoma; Stage IIIB Intraocular Melanoma; Stage IIIC Intraocular Melanoma

  1. Melanoma Cancer Stem Cells: Markers and Functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parmiani, Giorgio

    2016-01-01

    The discovery of cancer stem cells (CSCs) in human solid tumors has allowed a better understanding of the biology and neoplastic transformation of normal melanocytes, and the possible mechanisms by which melanoma cells acquire tumorigenicity. In this review I summarize the literature findings on the potential biomarkers of melanoma CSCs, their presence in the melanoma cell populations, the interaction with the immune system (with both T and NK cells) and the role of melanoma CSCs in the clinics. Given the extraordinary progress in the therapy of melanoma caused by immune checkpoint antibodies blockade, I discuss how these antibodies can work by the activation of melanoma infiltrating T cells specifically recognizing neo-antigens expressed even by melanoma CSCs. This is the mechanism that can induce a regression of the metastatic melanomas. PMID:26978405

  2. Trabajo de revisión: melanoma Work of revision: melanoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. J. Casariego

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available El melanoma maligno es derivado de células dendríticas (névicas proliferantes progenitoras de lesiones. Son importantes en la histogénesis y en el riesgo de desarrollo del melanoma maligno. Del 30% al 37% de los melanomas malignos del tracto aero-digestivo superior están asociados a una lesión premaligna melanótica. Los hallazgos histopatológicos con técnicas convencionales concuerdan en considerar de valor el tamaño del tumor, las células atípicas, la distribución de las células y los márgenes de la lesión. Avances mayores en inmunología de los tumores, llevan a identificar la interacción célula tumoral- célula T. Han sido identificados y caracterizados molecularmente un número de melanomas asociados a antígenos.Advance malignant melanoma is generated from proliferating dendritic (nevic cell progenitors. They are important on the histogenesis and risk of tumor development. From 30% to 37% from high air-digestic track melanoms, there are associated with premalignant cell dendritic lesions. Histophatological approaches agree in consider size of tumor, atypical cells, distribution of this cells and borders of lesion as valued markers. Major advances in tumor irnmunology, have led to understand tumor cell-T cell interactions. A number of melanom associated antigens have been identified and molecularly characterized.

  3. Photoprotection and prevention of melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks, R

    1999-01-01

    This article summarizes the current position on primary prevention of melanoma, including what is the evidence relating sunlight exposure to the development of melanoma, what forms of photoprotection there are and what are their relative values. There have been increasing incidence and mortality rates due to melanoma in most countries where they are being recorded. The initial approach in many countries has been to develop some form of early detection program in an attempt to diagnose and treat at a curable stage the melanomas that are occurring now. Primary prevention of melanoma is the more long term approach to the problem which many countries are now considering and a number are actively pursuing. Recent concern about stratospheric ozone depletion has contributed to the desire for the primary prevention approach. There are epidemiological data associating the risk of melanoma with increased exposure to sunlight in people with fair skin. They show that it is sunlight exposure in childhood and in doses sufficient to cause sunburn remembered many years later, that is particularly associated with risk of melanoma in adulthood. The exact spectrum of radiation in sunlight which is responsible for these tumours is not known, although the ultraviolet range is believed to be most important, particularly UVB but probably also UVA. The approach to photoprotection is a reduction in the overall exposure to sunlight, not just a single component of it. The natural protection of shade, clothing and hats is promoted as the best protection. Sunscreens have assumed a major component of primary prevention programs based on their convenience of use and also on their widespread promotion by those people who have a commercial interest in them. These products protect predominantly in the UVB range for which there is a sun protection factor (SPF) grading, as well as having some activity in the UVA range (for which there is not yet a satisfactory grading method). PMID:10417449

  4. Peptide-Targeted Radionuclide Therapy for Melanoma

    OpenAIRE

    Miao, Yubin; Quinn, Thomas P

    2008-01-01

    Melanocortin-1 receptor (MC1-R) and melanin are two attractive melanoma-specific targets for peptide-targeted radionuclide therapy for melanoma. Radiolabeled peptides targeting MC1-R/melanin can selectively and specifically target cytotoxic radiation generated from therapeutic radionuclides to melanoma cells for cell killing, while sparing the normal tissues and organs. This review highlights the recent advances of peptide-targeted radionuclide therapy of melanoma targeting MC1R and melanin. ...

  5. Melanoma resistance to photodynamic therapy: new insights

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Ying-Ying; Vecchio, Daniela; Avci, Pinar; Yin, Rui; Garcia-Diaz, Maria; Hamblin, Michael R

    2013-01-01

    Melanoma is the most dangerous form of skin cancer, with a steeply rising incidence and a poor prognosis in its advanced stages. Melanoma is highly resistant to traditional chemotherapy and radiotherapy, although modern targeted therapies such as BRAF inhibitors are showing some promise. Photodynamic therapy (PDT, the combination of photosensitizing dyes and visible light) has been tested for melanoma with some promising results, but melanoma is generally considered to also be resistant to PD...

  6. Isolated malignant melanoma metastasis to the pancreas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Anne K; Krag, Christen; Geertsen, Poul; Jakobsen, Linda P

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY: Malignant melanomas rarely develop isolated pancreatic metastases. We describe a unique patient who is still alive 22 years following an isolated pancreatic melanoma metastasis, and we review the sparse literature in the field.......SUMMARY: Malignant melanomas rarely develop isolated pancreatic metastases. We describe a unique patient who is still alive 22 years following an isolated pancreatic melanoma metastasis, and we review the sparse literature in the field....

  7. The staging of malignant melanoma and the Florida Melanoma Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reintgen, Douglas S; Jakub, James W; Pendas, Solange; Swor, Gray; Giuliano, Rosemary; Shivers, Steve

    2004-03-01

    Lymphatic mapping and sentinel lymph node (SLN) biopsy have changed the standard of care for patients with malignant melanoma, by providing a less morbid procedure to obtain the nodal staging information that is critical for therapeutic decisions. Detailed examination of the SLN identifies patients who have an increased risk for recurrence and death. Patients whose melanoma is upstaged with very sensitive assays based on reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction technology are better targeted for clinical trials or surgical or adjuvant therapies. In the future, melanoma may be "ultrastaged" by examining the SLNs, peripheral blood, and bone marrow. This may improve identification of patients who are surgically cured of their disease and therefore can be spared the side effects of more radical surgery or the toxicities of adjuvant therapy. The lymphatic mapping procedure is the most accurate way to determine the tumor status of the regional lymph nodes. PMID:15023749

  8. Melanoma vaccines: trials and tribulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dillman RO

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Robert O Dillman1,21Hoag Cancer Institute and Hoag Institute for Research and Education, Newport Beach, CA, USA; 2University of California Irvine, Irvine, CA, USAAbstract: Metastatic melanoma has been a target of immunotherapy for more than 4 decades. Three immunotherapeutics have received regulatory approval for treating melanoma: interferon-alpha, interleukin-2, and ipilimumab. The antitumor mechanisms of these products depend on enhancing existing immune responses, including autoimmune effects. The combination of autologous, cytotoxic T-lymphocytes plus high-dose interleukin-2 is a promising patient-specific therapy, but has limited clinical application. Other approaches include vaccines targeting melanoma-associated antigens, and patient-specific vaccines that utilize autologous tumor. Non-patient-specific vaccine approaches target melanocyte differentiation antigens (eg, tyrosinase, Melan-A, gp100, antigens identified by cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (eg, NY-Eso-1, Melan-A/Mart-1, Mage-3, and antigens originally identified by murine monoclonal antibodies (gangliosides, gp97, gp225. Self-renewing cells in tumor cell lines may represent tumor stem cells, but vaccines derived from allogeneic tumor cell lines have yielded disappointing results in randomized trials. Patient-specific vaccines can be derived from bulk autologous tumor or autologous tumor cell lines, and intratumoral injections of immunostimulatory fusion products have shown promise. While technically more complex to manufacture, patient-specific vaccines derived from autologous tumor cell lines have the potential to target tumor stem cells and overcome interpatient tumor cell heterogeneity. This article reviews sources of melanoma-associated antigens, costimulatory agents, and clinical trial results for various melanoma vaccines. Comparing Phase II trials is difficult because of the wide range of vaccine strategies and the differences in study patient populations; therefore, randomized trials are necessary to prove the efficacy of such products. Therapeutic vaccines are more likely to enhance, rather than replace, other anti-melanoma immune therapies. In particular, effective vaccines may be synergistic with products that block T-cell immune checkpoint molecules such as ipilimumab and monoclonal antibodies that interfere with programmed death ligand-receptor interactions.Keywords: melanoma, vaccines, melanoma-associated antigens, melanoma stem cells, dendritic cells, GM-CSF, checkpoint molecules

  9. Emergency surgery for metastatic melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantas, Dimitrios; Tsaparas, Petros; Charalampoudis, Petros; Gogas, Helen; Kouraklis, Gregory

    2014-01-01

    Visceral metastases from malignant melanoma (stage M1c) confer a very poor prognosis, as documented on the most recent revised version of the TNM/AJCC staging system. Emergency surgery for intra-abdominal complications from the disease is rare. We report on our 5-year single institution experience with surgical management of metastatic melanoma to the viscera in the emergent setting. From 2009 to 2013, 14 patients with metastatic melanoma were admitted emergently due to an acute abdomen. Clinical manifestations encompassed intestinal obstruction and bleeding. Surgical procedures involved multiple enterectomies with primary anastomoses in 8 patients, and one patient underwent splenectomy, one adrenalectomy, one right colectomy, one gastric wedge resection, one gastrojejunal anastomosis, and one transanal debulking, respectively. The 30-day mortality was 7 percent. Median follow-up was 14 months. Median overall survival was 14 months. Median disease free survival was 7.5 months. One-year overall survival was 64.2 percent and 2-year overall survival was 14.2 percent. Emergency surgery for metastatic melanoma to the viscera is rare. Elective curative surgery combined with novel cytotoxic systemic therapies is under investigation in an attempt to grant survival benefit in melanoma patients with visceral disease. PMID:25530876

  10. Melanoma stem cells in experimental melanoma are killed by radioimmunotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Introduction: In spite of recently approved B-RAF inhibitors and immunomodulating antibodies, metastatic melanoma has poor prognosis and novel treatments are needed. Melanoma stem cells (MSC) have been implicated in the resistance of this tumor to chemotherapy. Recently we demonstrated in a Phase I clinical trial in patients with metastatic melanoma that radioimmunotherapy (RIT) with 188-Rhenium(188Re)-6D2 antibody to melanin was a safe and effective modality. Here we investigated the interaction of MSC with RIT as a possible mechanism for RIT efficacy. Methods: Mice bearing A2058 melanoma xenografts were treated with either 1.5 mCi 188Re-6D2 antibody, saline, unlabeled 6D2 antibody or 188Re-labeled non-specific IgM. Results: On Day 28 post-treatment the tumor size in the RIT group was 4-times less than in controls (P < 0.001). The tumors were analyzed by immunohistochemistry and FACS for two MSC markers — chemoresistance mediator ABCB5 and H3K4 demethylase JARID1B. There were no significant differences between RIT and control groups in percentage of ABCB5 or JARID1B-positive cells in the tumor population. Our results demonstrate that unlike chemotherapy, which kills tumor cells but leaves behind MSC leading to recurrence, RIT kills MSC at the same rate as the rest of tumor cells. Conclusions: These results have two main implications for melanoma treatment and possibly other cancers. First, the susceptibility of ABCB5 + and JARID1B + cells to RIT in melanoma might be indicative of their susceptibility to antibody-targeted radiation in other cancers where they are present as well. Second, specifically targeting cancer stem cells with radiolabeled antibodies to ABCB5 or JARID1B might help to completely eradicate cancer stem cells in various cancers

  11. High accuracy of family history of melanoma in Danish melanoma cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadt, Karin A W; Drzewiecki, Krzysztof T; Gerdes, Anne-Marie

    2015-12-01

    The incidence of melanoma in Denmark has immensely increased over the last 10 years making Denmark a high risk country for melanoma. In the last two decades multiple public campaigns have sought to increase the awareness of melanoma. Family history of melanoma is a known major risk factor but previous studies have shown that self-reported family history of melanoma is highly inaccurate. These studies are 15 years old and we wanted to examine if a higher awareness of melanoma has increased the accuracy of self-reported family history of melanoma. We examined the family history of 181 melanoma probands who reported 199 cases of melanoma in relatives, of which 135 cases where in first degree relatives. We confirmed the diagnosis of melanoma in 77 % of all relatives, and in 83 % of first degree relatives. In 181 probands we validated the negative family history of melanoma in 748 first degree relatives and found only 1 case of melanoma which was not reported in a 3 case melanoma family. Melanoma patients in Denmark report family history of melanoma in first and second degree relatives with a high level of accuracy with a true positive predictive value between 77 and 87 %. In 99 % of probands reporting a negative family history of melanoma in first degree relatives this information is correct. In clinical practice we recommend that melanoma diagnosis in relatives should be verified if possible, but even unverified reported melanoma cases in relatives should be included in the indication of genetic testing and assessment of melanoma risk in the family. PMID:26094006

  12. CDX-1401 and Poly-ICLC Vaccine Therapy With or Without CDX-301in Treating Patients With Stage IIB-IV Melanoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-10

    Carcinoma of Unknown Primary Origin; Iris Melanoma; Medium/Large Size Posterior Uveal Melanoma; Mucosal Melanoma; Ocular Melanoma With Extraocular Extension; Small Size Posterior Uveal Melanoma; Stage IIB Skin Melanoma; Stage IIB Uveal Melanoma; Stage IIC Skin Melanoma; Stage IIIA Skin Melanoma; Stage IIIA Uveal Melanoma; Stage IIIB Skin Melanoma; Stage IIIB Uveal Melanoma; Stage IIIC Skin Melanoma; Stage IIIC Uveal Melanoma; Stage IV Skin Melanoma; Stage IV Uveal Melanoma

  13. Prognostic stratification of ulcerated melanoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bønnelykke-Behrndtz, Marie L; Schmidt, Henrik; Christensen, Ib Jarle; Damsgaard, Tine E; Møller, Holger J; Bastholt, Lars; Nørgaard, Peter H; Steiniche, Torben

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: For patients with melanoma, ulceration is an important prognostic marker and interestingly also a predictive marker for the response of adjuvant interferon. A consensual definition and accurate assessment of ulceration are therefore crucial for proper staging and clinical management. We...... stratification of ulcerated lesions. METHODS: From H&E-stained sections, the status (presence vs absence), extent (percentage of the total tumor length), and type (infiltrative vs attenuative) of ulceration and epidermal involvement were evaluated from 385 patients with cutaneous melanoma. RESULTS: The presence...... of ulceration (hazard ratio [HR], 1.83), an attenuative type of ulceration (HR, 3.02), and excessive ulceration (HR, 3.57) were independent predictors of poor melanoma-specific survival. Further subdivision of minimal/moderate ulceration showed independent prognostic value only for lesions with...

  14. Quem descobre o melanoma cutâneo / Who discovers the cutaneous melanoma

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Marcus, Maia; Marianne, Basso.

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTO: No Brasil não se sabe quem descobre os casos de melanoma cutâneo. A compreensão dos "modelos de descoberta" poderia servir de base para os programas de educação pública e do profissional de saúde. OBJETIVO: Determinar o papel dos pacientes em encontrar suas próprias lesões. MÉTODOS: Fora [...] m entrevistados 109 pacientes com diagnóstico anterior de melanoma cutâneo, acompanhados na Unidade de Melanoma da Santa Casa de Misericórdia de São Paulo. Outras variáveis foram anotadas para avaliar suas possíveis influências no resultado da descoberta: sexo, idade, estado civil, escolaridade, antecedente familiar de melanoma, localização da lesão primária e conhecimento sobre câncer da pele. RESULTADOS: Dos 109 pacientes, 59 (54%) notaram a própria lesão. Deles, 62% eram mulheres, 51% menores de 60 anos, 90% sem antecedentes familiares de melanoma, 78% negavam conhecimento sobre câncer de pele, 59% eram casados, 52% cursaram apenas a escola primária. Os demais 50 pacientes tiveram sua lesão descoberta em 24% dos casos por profissionais de saúde, 10% pela esposa, 1% pelo marido e 11% por outras pessoas. CONCLUSÃO: 54% dos pacientes notaram sua própria lesão, que em cerca de 25% foi descoberta por leigos. Esses resultados são semelhantes aos da literatura dos países desenvolvidos. A clientela avaliada foi do tipo assistencial, e com esse resultado é possível acreditar que, no Brasil, alguma influência das campanhas públicas de saúde já pode ser notada. Abstract in english BACKGROUND - In Brazil, it is still unknown who first discovers the cases of cutaneous melanoma. The understanding of our “finding patterns” could be used as a basis for public education programs and healthcare professional training. OBJECTIVE - To determine the role of patients in detecting lesions [...] by themselves. METHODS - One hundred and nine patients were interviewed. The patients had a diagnosis of cutaneous melanoma and were regularly seen at the Melanoma Unit of Hospital Santa Casa de Misericórdia, in São Paulo. Other variables were considered to evaluate possible influences in the results: sex, age, marital status, schooling, family history of melanoma, site of the primary lesion and knowledge about skin cancer. RESULTS - Out of 109 interviewed patients, 54% had the lesion detected by themselves. Of those, 62% were female, 51% were aged under 60 years, 90% had no family history of melanoma, 78% had no knowledge about skin cancer, 59% were married and 52% concluded up to primary education. Out of the remaining 50 patients, 24% had their lesions detected by health professionals, 10% by their wives, 1% by their husbands and 11% by other people. CONCLUSION - Fifty-four percent of patients detected the lesion by themselves, and roughly 25% had the lesion detected by a lay person. These results are similar to those reported in the literature of developed countries. The clientele evaluated is attended by public healthcare services and the results lead to the conclusion that some influence of public health campaigns could already be noticed in Brazil.

  15. Melanoma immunoediting by NK cells

    OpenAIRE

    Balsamo, Mirna; Pietra, Gabriella; Vermi, William; Moretta, Lorenzo; Mingari, Maria Cristina; Vitale, Massimo

    2012-01-01

    The immune system can control the early steps of tumor growth, but it may also induce phenotypic/functional changes of malignant cells during tumor progression, favoring immunoescape mechanisms. In a recent study, we revealed how natural killer (NK) cells can participate in such an immunoediting process, by rendering melanoma cells resistant to NK-mediated killing.

  16. Experience of skin melanoma treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It was determined the melanoma appearance frequency depending of age, the susceptibility towards the more malignant clinical course at women, that at men. The pre-operation multi-fractional course by the radiotherapy has been carried out. The cumulated irradiation dose choice of the after-operation course depends on the surgical treatment efficacy

  17. Treatment of Melanoma CNS Metastases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Sekwon; Atkins, Michael B

    2016-01-01

    The discovery of the BRAFV600 mutation and the development of targeted therapies directed against this mutation as well as effective immunotherapies with durable benefits have revolutionized the treatment of patients with melanoma. Nonetheless, the frequent occurrence of brain metastases in patients with advanced melanoma represents a significant obstacle to long-term, high quality survival. The application of stereotactic radiation therapy has provided an opportunity to control brain metastases in the majority of patients with metastatic melanoma reducing the impact of these lesions on morbidity and mortality and enabling patients to receive and potentially benefit from these novel systemic treatments. Encouragingly, several of these novel new therapies have shown antitumor activity against CNS metastases that approach that seen against extracranial disease. As a consequence, several effective treatment options are now available for patients with melanoma brain metastases. With these tools in hand, it is anticipated that further investigation into the optimal sequence and/or combination of systemic therapies and local therapies along with multidisciplinary team practice will continue to improve the outcome of patients with this previously life-limiting disease complication. PMID:26601867

  18. Melanoma early detection and awareness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wainstein, Alberto; Algarra, Salvador Martin; Bastholt, Lars; Cinat, Gabriela; Demidov, Lev; Grob, Jean Jacques; Guo, Jun; Hersey, Peter; Espinosa, Enrique; Schachter, Jacob; Whitaker, Dagmar; Quirt, Ian; Hauschild, Axel; Rutkowski, Piotr

    2014-01-01

    Risk factors for melanoma are well known and have guided plans for primary and secondary prevention. The presentation of the disease, however, varies widely depending on the geographic area, ethnicity, and socioeconomic status. For this reason, many countries have developed specific strategies to...

  19. A challenging case of ocular melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costache, Mariana; Dumitru, Adrian Vasile; P?tra?cu, Oana Maria; Popa-Cherecheanu, Daniela Alina; B?dil?, Patricia; Miu, Jeni C?t?lina; Procop, Alexandru; Popa, Manuela; Tampa, Mircea ?tefan; Sajin, Maria; Simionescu, Olga; Cîrstoiu, Monica Mihaela

    2015-01-01

    Ocular melanoma is a rare malignancy found in clinical practice. In this paper, we present a case of highly aggressive ocular melanoma, which was surgically removed at the Department of Ophthalmology and diagnosed at the Department of Pathology, Emergency University Hospital, Bucharest, Romania, using conventional histopathological techniques. Uveal melanoma, a subset of ocular melanoma, has a distinct behavior in comparison to cutaneous melanoma and has a widely divergent prognosis. Approximately half of patients with ocular melanoma will develop metastatic disease, predominantly with hepatic, pulmonary or cerebral location, over a 10 to 15 years period. No systemic therapy was associated with an evident clinical outcome for patients with advanced disease and overall survival rate remains poor. PMID:26429178

  20. Epidemiología del melanoma cutáneo Epidemiology of cutaneous melanoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R M C Leitner

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Durante las últimas décadas hubo un aumento de la incidencia del melanoma cutáneo en la población caucásica del mundo, aunque este tumor puede afectar a cualquier grupo étnico. En la actualidad se considera a la exposición solar intermitente como un factor de riesgo cierto, en el desarrollo del melanoma cutáneo. La incidencia del melanoma cutáneo en Auckland, Nueva Zelanda, es la mayor del mundo. En Europa, la incidencia y la mortalidad fue creciente hasta que en la década de los 80 se estabilizó. En EEUU también se observó una estabilización de la incidencia. Con respecto a la edad, según la bibliografía consultada la incidencia aumenta a partir de los 20 años; en algunos pacientes con más de 200 nevos y sin pautas de protección solar antes de los 5 años de vida. También se observa aumento de la incidencia en los adultos mayores de 60 años de edad. Con respecto al sexo, en los EEUU y la Argentina es más frecuente en los hombres y en Europa en el sexo femenino.During the last decades there was an increase of incidence of cutaneous melanoma in Caucasian population worldwide, but this tumor can affect any ethnic group. Nowadays, the intermittent solar exposition is a well known predisposing factor. The incidence in Auckland, New Zealand, is the highest in the world. In Europe and in the USA, the incidence and mortality rates decreased until the 80's when it stabilized. Regarding the age of appearance, the incidence increases starting at 20 years of age in patients with more than 200 nevi and without history of sun protection in childhood. There was also an increase in the incidence in adults (>60 y-o. The distribution by sex in USA and Argentina is more frequent in males and in Europe in females.

  1. Malignant melanoma of the mandibular gingiva

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandeep Fauzdar

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Oral malignant melanoma is an infrequent neoplasia making up less than 1% of all melanomas, which exhibits much more aggressive behavior than those found on the skin. We present an aggressive case of oral malignant melanoma located on the mandibular gingiva in a 24-year-old male patient, who developed metastases to not only the regional lymph nodes but also the lungs and liver. The advanced stage of the disease contraindicated any surgical intervention and palliative chemotherapy was planned.

  2. Treating advanced melanoma: current insights and opportunities

    OpenAIRE

    Tronnier M; Mitteldorf C

    2014-01-01

    Michael Tronnier, Christina Mitteldorf Department of Dermatology, Klinikum Hildesheim GmbH, Hildesheim, Germany Abstract: Whereas thin melanomas have an excellent prognosis after sufficient surgical treatment, melanoma disease in advanced stages is still a therapeutic challenge. After decades of frustrating studies, new therapeutic strategies have come up in the past few years. On the one hand, increasing insights into the molecular aberrations in melanoma have led to specific "targeted...

  3. Melanoma of unknown origin: a case series.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kelly, J

    2010-12-01

    The natural history of metastatic melanoma involving lymph nodes, in the absence of a known primary site (cutaneous, ocular or mucosal) has, to date, been poorly defined; and the optimal management of this rare subtype of disease is therefore unclear. Melanomas of unknown primary site (MUP) are estimated to comprise between 3.7 and 6% of all melanomas (Anbari et al. in Cancer 79:1861-1821, 1997).

  4. Persistent Pain After Surgery for Cutaneous Melanoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høimyr, Hilde; von Sperling, Marie Louise; Rokkones, Kristina Asdahl; Stubhaug, Audun; Finnerup, Kenneth; Jensen, Troels Staehelin; Finnerup, Nanna Brix

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVES:: Chronic pain is a well-known complication after surgery, but the prevalence of persistent pain after melanoma surgery is unknown. This study examined the prevalence and predictors of persistent pain after melanoma surgery. METHODS:: Between September 2005 and June 2009, 448 patients underwent surgery for cutaneous melanoma at the Department of Plastic Surgery, Aalborg Hospital. A questionnaire was sent to all 402 survivors, and 350 (87.1%) responded. In addition, all patients with p...

  5. Melanoma M (Zero): Diagnosis and Therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Marco Rastrelli; Mauro Alaibac; Roberto Stramare; Vanna Chiarion Sileni; Maria Cristina Montesco; Antonella Vecchiato; Luca Giovanni Campana; Carlo Riccardo Rossi

    2013-01-01

    This paper reviews the epidemiology, diagnosis, and treatment of M zero cutaneous melanoma including the most recent developments. This review also examined the main risk factors for melanoma. Tumor thickness measured according to Breslow, mitotic rate, ulceration, and growth phase has the greatest predictive value for survival and metastasis. Wide excision of the primary tumor is the only potentially curative treatment for primary melanoma. The sentinel node biopsy must be performed on all p...

  6. Diagnostic Role of Chromosomal Instability in Melanoma

    OpenAIRE

    Nitika Dabas; Diana M. Byrnes; Rosa, Ashley M.; Mark S. Eller; James M. Grichnik

    2012-01-01

    Early diagnosis gives melanoma patients the best chance for long term survival. However discrimination of an early melanoma from an unusual/atypical benign nevus can represent a significant challenge. There are no current pathological markers to definitively define malignant potential in these indeterminate lesions. Thus, there is a need for improved diagnostic tools. Chromosomal instability (CIN) is a hallmark of cancer and is markedly prevalent in melanoma. Advances in genomics have opened ...

  7. Massive nodular melanoma scalp: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Bhagya Lakshmi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Melanoma is responsible for 1% to 2% of all cancer deaths around the world. Nodular melanoma often carries a poor prognosis because of no prodromal radial growth phase, early distant metastasis and significant tumour volume. We present a case of nodular melanoma measuring 20x10x8 cm in 28 year old tribal women. [Int J Res Med Sci 2015; 3(4.000: 1002-1005

  8. A Landscape of Driver Mutations in Melanoma

    OpenAIRE

    Hodis, Eran; Watson, Ian R.; Kryukov, Gregory V; Arold, Stefan T.; Imielinski, Marcin; Theurillat, Jean-Philippe; Nickerson, Elizabeth; Auclair, Daniel; Li, Liren; Place, Chelsea; DiCara, Daniel; Ramos, Alex H.; Lawrence, Michael S; Cibulskis, Kristian; Sivachenko, Andrey

    2012-01-01

    Despite recent insights into melanoma genetics, systematic surveys for driver mutations are challenged by an abundance of passenger mutations caused by carcinogenic ultraviolet (UV) light exposure. We developed a permutation-based framework to address this challenge, employing mutation data from intronic sequences to control for passenger mutational load on a per gene basis. Analysis of large-scale melanoma exome data by this approach discovered six novel melanoma genes (PPP6C, RAC1, SNX31, T...

  9. Treatment Algorithms in Stage IV Melanoma

    OpenAIRE

    Espinosa, Enrique; Grob, Jean-Jacques; Dummer, Reinhard; RUTKOWSKI, PIOTR; Robert, Caroline; Gogas, Helen; Kefford, Richard; Eggermont, Alexander M. M.; Martin Algarra, Salvador; Hauschild, Axel; Schadendorf, Dirk

    2015-01-01

    The molecular classification of melanoma and the advent of new drugs are changing the paradigm of therapy for advanced melanoma. A review of the recent key studies was performed, followed by a discussion in an expert forum. The aim of this review was to generate a therapeutic algorithm for stage IV melanoma. Tumor genotyping for BRAF and/or KIT should be performed before selection of therapy. For most BRAF-mutated melanoma patients and particularly those with a high tumor load, vemurafenib or...

  10. Pediatric Melanoma and Atypical Melanocytic Neoplasms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreeraman Kumar, Radhika; Messina, Jane L; Reed, Damon; Navid, Fariba; Sondak, Vernon K

    2016-01-01

    Melanoma is uncommon in the pediatric age range, but is increasing in frequency and often presents with atypical features compared to the classic ABCDE criteria common to adult melanoma cases. Moreover, many melanocytic neoplasms in childhood pose diagnostic challenges to the pathologist, and sometimes cannot be unequivocally classified as benign nevi or melanoma. This chapter addresses the evaluation and management of pediatric patients with melanoma and atypical melanocytic neoplasms, including the roles of and unresolved questions surrounding sentinel lymph node biopsy, completion lymphadenectomy, adjuvant therapy, and treatment of advanced disease. PMID:26601871

  11. Current status of melanoma chemotherapy and immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czarnetzki, B M; Macher, E; Behrendt, H; Lejeune, F

    1982-01-01

    In the search for an improved prognosis in malignant melanoma after radical surgery, randomized trials arae being conducted examining the results of immunostimulation (BCG or levamisole) with chemotherapy dimethyl - triazeno - imidazole - carboxamide (DTIC) in stage I melanoma. So far, no significant differences between the groups are evident. In stage III melanoma, a series of new agents are being rapidly screened and some appear promising. A closer look at the basic immunopathologic process during the growth of melanomas is might lead to a more effective control of this malignancy. PMID:7036291

  12. Laser radiation therapy of skin melanoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pulsed neodymium laser radiation was used for the treatment of 79 patients with cutaneous melanomas and 19 patients with melanoma metastases to the skin. The patients were followed up from 3 months up to 8 years. During this period local recurrences were detected in 2 cases. Out of 70 patients with cutaneous melanomas, who by the start of the treatment had no metastases in the regional lymph nodes or distant organs, metastases developed in 15 patients (21.4%). There are all reasons to consider pulsed laser radiation an effective means of treatment of some forms of skin melanoma. (orig.)

  13. Primary malignant melanoma of proximal tibia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mootha, Aditya K; Bali, Kamal; Kumar, Vishal; Rawall, Saurabh; Saini, Raghav; Dhillon, Mandeep S

    2012-03-01

    Primary malignant melanoma (clear cell sarcoma) of bone is a very rare neoplasm. Although metastatic melanoma to bone is not uncommon, primary malignant melanoma of bone is extremely uncommon. To date, only nine cases have been reported in the English literature. In this report, we present a case of primary malignant melanoma arising from the medial aspect of the proximal tibia in a 26-year-old woman. We treated the patient with above-knee amputation without any chemotherapy or radiotherapy. At final follow-up of 18 months, the patient was free of disease. PMID:22624252

  14. Secondary prevention of cutaneous malignant melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKie, R M

    1997-08-01

    The incidence of cutaneous malignant melanoma continues to increase in most parts of the world. Survival rates for melanoma patients show a striking difference between those diagnosed with thin primary tumours, and those whose tumours are only 2 mm thicker at the time of excision. This fact together with the poor response rates to current non-surgical therapies makes a clear case for earlier diagnosis and prompt surgical treatment of primary cutaneous malignant melanoma. Campaigns aimed at both early diagnosis (secondary prevention) and also at primary prevention of cutaneous malignant melanoma are discussed and methods of their evaluation considered. PMID:9578431

  15. Eye melanoma ion beam therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conservative treatment of eye melanoma includes brachytherapy with different radioactive sources, transscleral local resection, transpupillary thermotherapy, leaser photocoagulation, and external particle radiotherapy. Proton beam therapy of eye melanoma offers the ideal physical properties to deliver apricise and homogeneous dose distribution within the target volume, with preservation of sensitive normal tissues due to the distal fall-off of the dose beyond the spread-out Bragg peak. Treatment of ocular tumors began on 1978 at National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS). This paper focuses on the irradiation technique and the factors affecting the survival and metastatic rate. Information on local control, enucleation rate, and the visual outcome of those patients are also given. (author)

  16. Neutron capture therapy for melanoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The development of boron-containing compounds which localize selectively in tumor may require a tumor-by-tumor type of approach that exploits any metabolic pathways unique to the particular type of tumor. Melanin-producing melanomas actively transport and metabolize aromatic amino acids for use as precursors in the synthesis of the pigment melanin. It has been shown that the boron-containing amino acid analog p-borono-phenylalanine (BPA) is selectively accumulated in melanoma tissue, producing boron concentrations in tumor that are within the range estimated to be necessary for successful boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT). We report here the results of therapy experiments carried out at the Brookhaven Medical Research Reactor (BMRR). 21 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs

  17. Advances in immunotherapy for melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redman, Jason M; Gibney, Geoffrey T; Atkins, Michael B

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, the introduction and Federal Drug Administration approval of immune checkpoint inhibitor antibodies has dramatically improved the clinical outcomes for patients with advanced melanoma. These antagonist monoclonal antibodies are capable of unleashing dormant or exhausted antitumor immunity, which has led to durable complete and partial responses in a large number of patients. Ipilimumab targets the cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated protein 4 (CTLA-4) receptor. Nivolumab and pembrolizumab target programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) receptors and have proven to be superior to ipilimumab alone. The combination of ipilimumab and nivolumab has yielded higher response rates, greater tumor shrinkage, and longer progression-free survival than either monotherapy alone. As other promising immunotherapies for melanoma proceed through clinical trials, future goals include defining the role of immune checkpoint inhibitors as adjuvant therapy, identifying optimal combination strategies, and developing reliable predictive biomarkers to guide treatment selection for individual patients. PMID:26850630

  18. Cerebral metastases of cutaneous melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, G; Robertson, A G; MacKie, R M

    1997-01-01

    Cerebral metastases of cutaneous melanoma carry a very poor prognosis. We report our experience of 31 patients who presented with cerebral metastasis of cutaneous melanoma in a 5-year period between mid-1991 and mid-1996. Cerebral metastases were diagnosed on computerized tomography (CT) scan after patients became symptomatic. The overall median survival in our series was 4 months. Seventeen patients (55%) received treatment with radiotherapy and dexamethasone with resolution of their symptoms, although median survival remained at 4 months. Six patients (19%) had surgery followed by whole brain radiotherapy, with median survival of 5 months. The remaining eight patients received dexamethasone alone. Data from patients surviving less than 2 months and over 6 months suggest that the poor prognostic factors are the presence of more than one cerebral metastasis and additional extracranial metastases. PMID:9231928

  19. Neutron capture therapy for melanoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coderre, J.A.; Glass, J.D.; Micca, P.; Fairchild, R.G.

    1988-01-01

    The development of boron-containing compounds which localize selectively in tumor may require a tumor-by-tumor type of approach that exploits any metabolic pathways unique to the particular type of tumor. Melanin-producing melanomas actively transport and metabolize aromatic amino acids for use as precursors in the synthesis of the pigment melanin. It has been shown that the boron-containing amino acid analog p-borono-phenylalanine (BPA) is selectively accumulated in melanoma tissue, producing boron concentrations in tumor that are within the range estimated to be necessary for successful boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT). We report here the results of therapy experiments carried out at the Brookhaven Medical Research Reactor (BMRR). 21 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  20. Epibulbar melanoma in a foal

    OpenAIRE

    McMullen, Richard J.; Clode, Alison B.; Pandiri, Arun Kumar R.; Malarkey, David E.; Michau, Tammy Miller; Gilger, Brian C.

    2008-01-01

    A case of epibulbar melanoma in a 6-month-old, gelded, chestnut Hanoverian foal is reported. The location and clinical appearance upon initial presentation led to the tentative diagnosis of staphyloma or a congenital mass of unknown origin. An attempt was made to surgically excise the mass under general anesthesia, but due to its infiltrative nature and intraoperative appearance, most, but not all was removed without compromising the integrity of the globe. Histopathological evaluation reveal...

  1. Clinical radiobiology of malignant melanoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentzen, Søren M; Overgaard, Jens; Thames, H D; Overgaard, Marie; Vejby Hansen, P; von der Maase, Hans; Meder, J

    1989-01-01

    Tumor-control probability (TCP) was analyzed in a series of 121 patients having 239 histologically proven recurrent or metastatic malignant melanomas. These were treated with fractionated radiotherapy with various doses per fraction, total doses, and overall times. Cutaneous lesions (127, 53%) were treated with electron beams, and more deeply seated tumors (112, 47%) with 60Co or 4-8 MV X-rays. The fraction size was highly variable, and this permitted determination of the alpha/beta ratio in the...

  2. Serum-proteomics in melanoma patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The project Serum-proteomics in melanoma patients funded by 'Programma Oncologico Italia-USA' Oncoproteomica has the general aim to collect serum samples from melanoma patients and to analyze the expression profile of several cytokines, in order to identify whether significant differences are evident between patients and controls, or among different patients subgroups with different staging or therapy

  3. Non-subungual melanomas of the hand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, M J; Wikramanayake, R; Thompson, J F; McCarthy, W H

    1992-08-01

    The non-subungual area of the hand is a rare anatomical site for malignant melanoma, lesions in this site comprising only 0.37% of 8,584 cutaneous melanomas in the Sydney Melanoma Unit database. This is approximately the same frequency of melanoma as is found on the subungual region of the hand, which represents a much smaller surface area. Not only is the sub-site distribution on the hand unusual but in addition the histogenetic types of melanoma found on the dorsum of the hand are not those commonly encountered on sun exposed skin. In this study, comparison is made between melanomas occurring on the non-subungual areas of the hand and those on the foot, an anatomically similar surface area. Comparison is also made between melanomas arising on the dorsal non-subungual surface of the hand and those on the face, a region with an equivalent surface area and similar sun exposure. The results of surgical treatment of 31 melanomas of the non-subungual region of the hand are reviewed. PMID:1402273

  4. Malignant melanoma at a scientific laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The general consensus of the seven reviewers is that occupational exposures at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory have not been established as a causal factor for the observed excess of malignant melanoma. Several observations support the impression that some or all of the observed melanoma excess may be attributable to intense surveillance and enhanced detection of early stage melanoma lesions. Since the incidence of melanomas among Laboratory employees has not diminished, an early harvesting effect is unlikely. This suggests the distinct possibility that localized, in situ melanomas that would normally not be detected are being reported, and that in the absence of this enhanced detection, many of these early stage lesions would show little or no clinical progression. This phenomenon would explain the continued high incidence of melanomas in the absence of a physical or chemical inciting cause. A key point in this reasoning is the issue of the rate of growth of early stage melanomas, and this point remains a key question for study. Even if the observed excess cannot be explained by detection bias, the reviewers agree that the Austin and Reynolds' study does not make a convincing case for occupational factors being a cause of the high melanoma incidence. 6 refs

  5. Melanoma Molecular Subtypes: Unifying and Paradoxical Results

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas, Nancy E.; Kanetsky, Peter A.; BEGG, COLIN B.; Conway, Kathleen; Berwick, Marianne

    2010-01-01

    Hacker et al. (in this issue) provide further evidence that molecular subtypes of malignant melanoma may develop along divergent pathways. Hacker et al. did not find an association between somatic BRAF-mutant melanoma and germline melanocortin-1 receptor (MC1R) gene status. We discuss this seeming paradox in light of previous studies showing strong associations.

  6. Update in genetic susceptibility in melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potrony, Miriam; Badenas, Celia; Aguilera, Paula; Puig-Butille, Joan Anton; Carrera, Cristina; Malvehy, Josep; Puig, Susana

    2015-09-01

    Melanoma is the most deadly of the common skin cancers and its incidence is rapidly increasing. Approximately 10% of cases occur in a familial context. To date, cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2A (CDKN2A), which was identified as the first melanoma susceptibility gene more than 20 years ago, is the main high-risk gene for melanoma. A few years later cyclin-dependent kinase 4 (CDK4) was also identified as a melanoma susceptibility gene. The technologic advances have allowed the identification of new genes involved in melanoma susceptibility: Breast cancer 1 (BRCA1) associated protein 1 (BAP1), CXC genes, telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT), protection of telomeres 1 (POT1), ACD and TERF2IP, the latter four being involved in telomere maintenance. Furthermore variants in melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R) and microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF) give a moderately increased risk to develop melanoma. Melanoma genetic counseling is offered to families in order to better understand the disease and the genetic susceptibility of developing it. Genetic counseling often implies genetic testing, although patients can benefit from genetic counseling even when they do not fulfill the criteria for these tests. Genetic testing for melanoma predisposition mutations can be used in clinical practice under adequate selection criteria and giving a valid test interpretation and genetic counseling to the individual. PMID:26488006

  7. Hyperkeratotic Acral Melanoma Mimicking a Common Wart

    OpenAIRE

    Vindigni, Vincenzo; Scarpa, Carlotta; Bassetto, Franco

    2015-01-01

    Acral melanoma is a great pretender; anything but i nfrequently, it adopts clinical faces, simulating skin conditions that make the healthcare provider diagnose it as a benign disease of the palms, soles, and ungual regions. We present a case of a hyperkeratotic acral melanoma that has been misdiagnosed and that has led to an amputation of the thumb.

  8. Malignant melanoma at a scientific laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shy, C.M.; Checkoway, H.; Marshall, E.G.

    1985-11-15

    The general consensus of the seven reviewers is that occupational exposures at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory have not been established as a causal factor for the observed excess of malignant melanoma. Several observations support the impression that some or all of the observed melanoma excess may be attributable to intense surveillance and enhanced detection of early stage melanoma lesions. Since the incidence of melanomas among Laboratory employees has not diminished, an early harvesting effect is unlikely. This suggests the distinct possibility that localized, in situ melanomas that would normally not be detected are being reported, and that in the absence of this enhanced detection, many of these early stage lesions would show little or no clinical progression. This phenomenon would explain the continued high incidence of melanomas in the absence of a physical or chemical inciting cause. A key point in this reasoning is the issue of the rate of growth of early stage melanomas, and this point remains a key question for study. Even if the observed excess cannot be explained by detection bias, the reviewers agree that the Austin and Reynolds' study does not make a convincing case for occupational factors being a cause of the high melanoma incidence. 6 refs.

  9. Ipilimumab for Patients With Advanced Mucosal Melanoma

    OpenAIRE

    Postow, Michael A; Luke, Jason J.; Bluth, Mark J.; Ramaiya, Nikhil; Katherine S. Panageas; Lawrence, Donald P; Ibrahim, Nageatte; Flaherty, Keith T.; Sullivan, Ryan J; Ott, Patrick A.; Callahan, Margaret K.; Harding, James J.; D'Angelo, Sandra P.; Mark A. Dickson; Gary K. Schwartz

    2013-01-01

    This multicenter, retrospective analysis assessed the efficacy and safety of ipilimumab in 33 patients with unresectable or metastatic mucosal melanoma. The study provides evidence that ipilimumab can result in durable antitumor effects in a subset of patients with mucosal melanoma, although the response rate was low.

  10. HIV Drug to Aid Melanoma Therapies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyungsoo; Ronai, Ze'ev A

    2016-03-14

    The HIV1 protease inhibitor nelfinavir is being investigated as a cancer therapeutic. In this issue of Cancer Cell, Smith et al. (2016) report that nelfinavir suppresses MITF expression induced by MAPK pathway inhibition in melanoma cells and sensitizes melanoma cells with NRAS or BRAF plus NRAS mutations to MEK inhibitors. PMID:26977874

  11. Psychosocial care to patients with Malignant Melanoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorup, Charlotte Brun

    Psychosocial care to patients with Malignant Melanoma Intensions: The intension of this project is to link new knowledge with the nurses experience based knowledge within the psychosocial care to patients, who have been diagnosed with Malignant Melanoma (MM), thereby improving the care to this...

  12. Mistletoe in the treatment of malignant melanoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esin Sakallı Çetin

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Malignant melanoma is a malignant neoplasia drives from melanocytes. Malignant melanoma, the most causing death, is seen in the third place at skin cancer. Malignant melanoma shows intrinsic resistance to chemotherapeutic agents and variability in the course of the disease which are distinct features separating from other solid tumors. These features prevent the development and standardization of non-surgical treatment models of malignant melanoma. Although there is a large number of chemotherapeutic agents used in the treatment of metastatic malignant melanoma, it hasn’t been demonstrated the survival advantage of adjuvant treatment with chemotherapeutic agents. Because of the different clinical course of malignant melanoma, the disease is thought to be closely associated with immune system. Therefore, immunomodulatory therapy models were developed. Mistletoe stimulates the immune system by increasing the number and activity of dendritic cells, thus it has been shown to effect on tumor growth and metastasis of malignant melanoma patient. Outlined in this review are the recent developments in the understanding the role of mistletoe as a complementary therapy for malignant melanoma. J Clin Exp Invest 2014; 5 (1: 145-152

  13. Alpha particles for treatment of disseminated melanoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Link, E.M. [London Univ. (United Kingdom)

    2010-11-15

    Invading melanoma spreads to local and unpredictable distant location at the early stages of its development. It is justifiable, therefore to classify the disease as a systemic disorder. This requires a systemic treatment that reaches all melanoma cells irrespective of whether they are singly dispersed and in circulation or already forming solid tumours of various sizes. Targeted radiotherapy affects directly and selectively cancer cells provided an appropriate radionuclide and its carrier are chosen. Melanoma is a pigmented tumour. Methylene blue (MTB) accumulates selectively in melanoma cells due to its exceptionally high affinity to melanin. MTB serves, therefore, as a carrier for radionuclides. {sup 211}At-MTB has proved to be particularly effective in treating disseminated melanoma when administered systemically and, at the same time, non-toxic to normal non-pigmented and pigmented organs. (author)

  14. Alpha particles for treatment of disseminated melanoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Link, E.M. [London University (United Kingdom)

    2010-07-01

    Invading melanoma spreads to local and unpredictable distant location at the early stages of its development. It is justifiable, therefore, to classify the disease as a systemic disorder. This requires a systemic treatment that reaches all melanoma cells irrespective of whether they are singly dispersed and in circulation or already forming solid tumours of various sizes. Targeted radiotherapy affects directly and selectively cancer cells provided an appropriate radionuclide and its carrier are chosen. Melanoma is a pigmented tumour. Methylene blue (MTB)) accumulates selectively in melanoma cells due to its exceptionally high affinity to melanin. MTB serves, therefore, as a carrier for radionuclides. {sup 211}At-MTB has proved to be particularly effective in treating disseminated melanoma when administered systemically and, at the same time, non-toxic to normal non-pigmented and pigmented organs. (authors)

  15. Optic nerve invasion of uveal melanoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindegaard, Jens; Isager, Peter; Prause, Jan Ulrik; Heegaard, Steffen

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the study was to identify the histopathological characteristics associated with the invasion of the optic nerve of uveal melanoma and to evaluate the association between invasion of the optic nerve and survival. In order to achieve this, all uveal melanomas with optic nerve invasion in...... Denmark between 1942 and 2001 were reviewed (n=157). Histopathological characteristics and depth of optic nerve invasion were recorded. The material was compared with a control material from the same period consisting of 85 cases randomly drawn from all choroidal/ciliary body melanomas without optic nerve...... 4) in one case a tumor spread along the inner limiting membrane to the optic nerve through the lamina cribrosa. Invasion of the optic nerve had no impact on all-cause mortality or melanoma-related mortality in multivariate analyses. The majority of melanomas invading the optic nerve are large...

  16. Alpha particles for treatment of disseminated melanoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Invading melanoma spreads to local and unpredictable distant location at the early stages of its development. It is justifiable, therefore to classify the disease as a systemic disorder. This requires a systemic treatment that reaches all melanoma cells irrespective of whether they are singly dispersed and in circulation or already forming solid tumours of various sizes. Targeted radiotherapy affects directly and selectively cancer cells provided an appropriate radionuclide and its carrier are chosen. Melanoma is a pigmented tumour. Methylene blue (MTB) accumulates selectively in melanoma cells due to its exceptionally high affinity to melanin. MTB serves, therefore, as a carrier for radionuclides. 211At-MTB has proved to be particularly effective in treating disseminated melanoma when administered systemically and, at the same time, non-toxic to normal non-pigmented and pigmented organs. (author)

  17. Melanoma Surveillance in the US: Collecting Melanoma Data

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-10-19

    This podcast accompanies the publication of a series of articles on melanoma surveillance in the United States, available in the November supplement edition of the Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology. Dr. Suephy Chen, a dermatologist from Emory University, discusses why the articles are important, as well as the need to increase dermatologists’ awareness of cancer registries and reporting requirements.  Created: 10/19/2011 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 10/19/2011.

  18. Melanoma de corpo ciliar e coróide: relato de caso Choroidal and ciliary body melanoma: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Amaral Fulgêncio da Cunha

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Melanomas oculares correspondem a 5% de todos os melanomas e 85% deles têm origem no trato uveal. Melanoma uveal é o tumor maligno intraocular primário mais comum no adulto. Relatamos neste artigo um caso de melanoma uveal em paciente, sexo feminino, 31 anos, com quadro de fotopsia, hiperemia e baixa da acuidade visual no olho esquerdo com evolução de quatro meses. Apresentava ao exame oftalmológico acuidade visual menor que 20/400, grande massa tumoral na região nasal retroiriana, com deslocamento anterior do cristalino, estreitamento da câmara anterior e descolamento seroso da retina. A ecografia sugeriu tratar-se de grande massa tumoral suspeita de melanoma de coróide com invasão do corpo ciliar. A confirmação diagnóstica foi possível por meio do exame anatomopatológico.Ocular melanomas correspond to 5% of all melanomas and 85% of them have its origin in the uveal tract. Uveal melanoma is the most commom primary intraocular malignant tumor in the adult. In this article, a case of uveal melanoma in a 31 year-old female patient, with photopsia, hyperemia and low visual acuity in the left eye with evolution of 4 months is presented. In the ophthalmologic examination, visual acuity was lower than 20/400, a large tumoral mass was noted at the nasal region behind the iris with anterior lens displacement, anterior chamber narrowing and serous retinal detachment. The ocular echography suggested a large tumoral mass as a choroidal melanoma extending to the ciliary body. The confirmation diagnosis was possible through the histopathologic examination.

  19. Systemic therapy of metastatic melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauschenberg, Ricarda; Garzarolli, Marlene; Dietrich, Ursula; Beissert, Stefan; Meier, Friedegund

    2015-12-01

    For patients with metastatic melanoma, there are currently several effective therapeutic options. The BRAF inhibitors vemurafenib and dabrafenib are characterized by rapid tumor control and high response rates. In combination with one of the two MEK inhibitors trametinib and cobimetinib, they achieve response rates (CR + PR, complete plus partial remissions) of 70 %, while delaying the development of treatment resistance, as well as a median overall survival of > 2 years with tolerable side effects. Showing long-term survival rates of approximately 20 %, the anti-CTLA-4 antibody ipilimumab is the first substance that has led to a significant prolongation of overall survival in patients with metastatic melanoma. However, delayed treatment response and severe immune-mediated side effects may pose limitations to its therapeutic benefit. Usually well tolerated, anti-PD-1 antibody monotherapy using nivolumab and pembrolizumab has yielded response rates (CR + PR) of up to 45 % and one-year survival rates of > 70 %. The combination of ipilimumab and nivolumab has shown response rates of up to 58 % and a median progression-free survival of > 11 months. While this combination is expected to result in a rapid and long-lasting response, this potential benefit comes at the expense of a high level of toxicity. Strategies for treatment sequencing and treatment combinations are currently being investigated in clinical studies. Overall, the prognosis for patients with metastatic melanoma has significantly improved. With long-term survival a possibility, not only acute but also long-term therapeutic side effects must be taken into account. PMID:26612791

  20. Therapy for metastatic melanoma: the past, present, and future

    OpenAIRE

    Finn Laura; Markovic Svetomir N; Joseph Richard W

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Metastatic melanoma is the most aggressive form of skin cancer with a median overall survival of less than one year. Advancements in our understanding of how melanoma evades the immune system as well as the recognition that melanoma is a molecularly heterogeneous disease have led to major improvements in the treatment of patients with metastatic melanoma. In 2011, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved two novel therapies for advanced melanoma: a BRAF inhibitor, vemurafen...

  1. Current management and novel agents for malignant melanoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Byung

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Advanced malignant melanoma remains a challenging cancer. Over the past year, there have been 3 agents approved for treatment of melanoma by Food and Drug Administration. These include pegylated interferon alpha-2b for stage III melanoma, vemurafenib for unresectable or metastatic melanoma with BRAF V600E mutation, and ipilimumab for treatment of unresectable or metastatic melanoma. This review will also update on the development of novel agents, including tyrosine kinase inhibitors and adoptive cellular therapy.

  2. Malignant melanoma of the vagina.

    OpenAIRE

    Rahat ARA; Saw OHNMAR

    2011-01-01

    Carcinoma of the vagina is uncommon and only constitutes two percent of malignant neoplasms of the female genital tract. Malignant melanoma of the vagina is rarer and accounts for only 3.2% of all vaginal cancers. It presumably arises from melanocytes found in the vagina of three percent of normal women. It is a very aggressive tumour and the overall prognosis is poor despite the treatment. We report the case of an 81-year-old woman who presented with per vagina bleeding secondary to a malign...

  3. Surgical aspects of melanoma therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Surgery is still the most important treatment modality to guarantee the highest survival ratio of melanoma patients. The adequacy of the surgical approach is a crucial aspect in face of the initial clinical appearances of the disease. Best results are obtained with the correct treatment of primary melanomas and lymph node metastases. To reach a general consensus on the surreal indications in terms of extension and timing, a large number of randomized trials have been conducted in the last 3 - 4 decades. The rationale behind these trials, even if proposed by different institutions on different continents, has been to find the most conservative surgical approach able to guarantee the same results as those achieved with more aggressive treatment This lay behind the design of trials designed to determine the correct excision margin around primary melanomas in the most important studies. A similar approach has been followed in the preparation of several trials dedicated to the definition of the importance of performing immediate dissection of the locoregional nodes in view of the absence of clinical evidence of metastases. Ever since the sentinel node technique has become the standard treatment in a majority of institutions, the guidelines for the treatment of locoregional nodes have undergone a kind of revolution. In fact the policy of wait and see introduced by the aforementioned trials has been overridden by a more specific and selective even if a more invasive approach to obtain precise information regarding the status of clinically non-invaded locoregional nodes. The sentinel node biopsy technique makes use of a majority of scientific surgical tools, is the most conservative (when compared to elective node dissection), extremely precise and sophisticated and provides crucial data necessary to make decisions regarding the necessity to perform radical surgery, i.e. therapeutic node dissection. Radical lymph node dissection is recommended in case of confirmed regional lymph node metastases. However still little is known of the role of surgery in the treatment of patients with distant metastases and with extra cutaneous melanoma. (authors)

  4. Roads to melanoma: Key pathways and emerging players in melanoma progression and oncogenic signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paluncic, Jasmina; Kovacevic, Zaklina; Jansson, Patric J; Kalinowski, Danuta; Merlot, Angelika M; Huang, Michael L-H; Lok, Hiu Chuen; Sahni, Sumit; Lane, Darius J R; Richardson, Des R

    2016-04-01

    Melanoma has markedly increased worldwide during the past several decades in the Caucasian population and is responsible for 80% of skin cancer deaths. Considering that metastatic melanoma is almost completely resistant to most current therapies and is linked with a poor patient prognosis, it is crucial to further investigate potential molecular targets. Major cell-autonomous drivers in the pathogenesis of this disease include the classical MAPK (i.e., RAS-RAF-MEK-ERK), WNT, and PI3K signaling pathways. These pathways play a major role in defining the progression of melanoma, and some have been the subject of recent pharmacological strategies to treat this belligerent disease. This review describes the latest advances in the understanding of melanoma progression and the major molecular pathways involved. In addition, we discuss the roles of emerging molecular players that are involved in melanoma pathogenesis, including the functional role of the melanoma tumor antigen, p97/MFI2 (melanotransferrin). PMID:26844774

  5. Tyrosinase expression in malignant melanoma, desmoplastic melanoma, and peripheral nerve tumors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boyle, Jenny L; Haupt, Helen M; Stern, Jere B; Multhaupt, Hinke A B

    2002-01-01

    CONTEXT: Pathologists may encounter problems in the differential diagnosis of malignant melanoma, spindle and epithelioid neoplasms of peripheral nerves, and fibrohistiocytic tumors. Tyrosinase has been demonstrated to be a sensitive marker for melanoma. OBJECTIVE: To determine the specificity of...... tyrosinase expression in the differential diagnosis of melanoma, desmoplastic melanoma, and peripheral nerve sheath tumors. DESIGN: Immunoreactivity for tyrosinase, HMB-45 (anti-gp100 protein), S100 protein, CD34, and vimentin was studied in 70 tumors, including 15 melanomas (5 desmoplastic, 4 amelanotic, 6...... 121 degrees C. RESULTS: All melanomas demonstrated positive immunostaining for tyrosinase, HMB-45, and S100 protein. Immunoreactivity for HMB-45 was generally stronger than that for tyrosinase in amelanotic lesions and significantly stronger in 1 of the desmoplastic lesions. The 4 pigmented...

  6. Immunotherapy for advanced melanoma: fulfilling the promise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gogas, Helen; Polyzos, Aristidis; Kirkwood, John

    2013-12-01

    The incidence of melanoma is increasing worldwide and despite early detection and intervention, the number of patients dying from metastatic disease continues to rise. The prognosis of advanced melanoma remains poor, with median survival between 6 and 9 months. Over the past thirty years and despite extensive clinical research, the treatment options for metastatic disease were limited and melanoma is still considered as one of the most therapy-resistant malignancies. Single-agent and combination chemotherapy, hormonal therapy, biochemotherapy, immunotherapy, targeted agent therapy and combination regimes failed to show significant improvement in overall survival. Recent advances and in-depth understanding of the biology of melanoma, have contributed in the development of new agents. Based on the molecular and immunological background of the disease, the new drugs have shown benefit in overall and progression free survival. As the picture of the disease begins to change, oncologists need to alter their approach to melanoma treatment and consider disease biology together with targeted individualized treatment. In this review the authors attempt to offer an insight in present and past melanoma treatment options, with a focus on the recently approved immunotherapeutic agents and the clinical perspectives of these new weapons against metastatic melanoma. PMID:23725878

  7. Automatic differentiation of melanoma from dysplastic nevi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rastgoo, Mojdeh; Garcia, Rafael; Morel, Olivier; Marzani, Franck

    2015-07-01

    Malignant melanoma causes the majority of deaths related to skin cancer. Nevertheless, it is the most treatable one, depending on its early diagnosis. The early prognosis is a challenging task for both clinicians and dermatologist, due to the characteristic similarities of melanoma with other skin lesions such as dysplastic nevi. In the past decades, several computerized lesion analysis algorithms have been proposed by the research community for detection of melanoma. These algorithms mostly focus on differentiating melanoma from benign lesions and few have considered the case of melanoma against dysplastic nevi. In this paper, we consider the most challenging task and propose an automatic framework for differentiation of melanoma from dysplastic nevi. The proposed framework also considers combination and comparison of several texture features beside the well used colour and shape features based on "ABCD" clinical rule in the literature. Focusing on dermoscopy images, we evaluate the performance of the framework using two feature extraction approaches, global and local (bag of words) and three classifiers such as support vector machine, gradient boosting and random forest. Our evaluation revealed the potential of texture features and random forest as an almost independent classifier. Using texture features and random forest for differentiation of melanoma and dysplastic nevi, the framework achieved the highest sensitivity of 98% and specificity of 70%. PMID:25797605

  8. Ellagic acid inhibits melanoma growth in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Daniel Jensen

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Ellagic is a polyphenolic compound with anti-fibrotic and antioxidant properties as well as exhibits antitumor properties against various cancer cells in vitro. There are few studies, however, which examine the effects of ellagic acid on melanoma. In the present study, we observe effects of ellagic acid on melanoma cells in vitro. Three metastatic melanoma cell lines (1205Lu, WM852c and A375 were examined to determine the effects of ellagic acid on melanoma cell viability, cell-cycle, apoptosis, NF-?? activity, and IL-1? & IL-8 secretion. Cell viability assays demonstrated that ellagic acid possesses an inhibitory effect on cell proliferation at concentrations between 25 and 100 µM. In addition, ellagic acid promoted G1 cell cycle arrest, increased levels of apoptosis and decreased synthesis of IL-1? and IL-8 in melanoma cells. Ellagic acid also decreased NF-?? activity, suggesting at least one potential mechanism by which ellagic acid may exert its effects in melanoma cells. Our findings support further investigation into prospective roles for ellagic acid as a therapeutic, adjuvant, or preventive agent for melanoma.

  9. The molecular pathology of cutaneous melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogenrieder, Thomas; Herlyn, Meenhard

    2010-01-01

    Cutaneous melanoma is a highly aggressive cancer with still limited, but increasingly efficacious, standard treatment options. Recent preclinical and clinical findings support the notion that cutaneous melanoma is not one malignant disorder but rather a family of distinct molecular diseases. Incorporation of genetic signatures into the conventional histopathological classification of melanoma already has great implications for the management of cutaneous melanoma. Herein, we review our rapidly growing understanding of the molecular biology of cutaneous melanoma, including the pathogenic roles of the mitogen-associated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway, the phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase [PI3K]/phosphatase and tensin homologue deleted on chromosome 10 [PTEN]/Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin [mTOR])PTEN (phosphatase and tensin homolog) pathway, MET (hepatocyte growth factor), Notch signaling, and other key molecules regulating cell cycle progression and apoptosis. The mutation Val600Glu in the BRAF oncogene (designated BRAF(V600E)) has been associated with clinical benefit from agents that inhibit BRAF(V600E) or MEK (a kinase in the MAPK pathway). Cutaneous melanomas arising from mucosal, acral, chronically sun-damaged surfaces sometimes have oncogenic mutations in KIT, against which several inhibitors have shown clinical efficacy. These findings suggest that prospective genotyping of patients with melanoma, combined with the growing availability of targeted agents, which can be used to rationally exploit these findings, should be used increasingly as we work to develop new and more effective treatments for this devastating disease. PMID:22112480

  10. Interpretation of Melanoma Risk Feedback in First-Degree Relatives of Melanoma Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Hay, Jennifer L; Carlos Baguer; Yuelin Li; Irene Orlow; Marianne Berwick

    2012-01-01

    Little is known about how individuals might interpret brief genetic risk feedback. We examined interpretation and behavioral intentions (sun protection, skin screening) in melanoma first-degree relatives (FDRs) after exposure to brief prototypic melanoma risk feedback. Using a 3 by 2 experimental pre-post design where feedback type (high-risk mutation, gene environment, and nongenetic) and risk level (positive versus negative findings) were systematically varied, 139 melanoma FDRs were random...

  11. Malignant melanoma of the uvea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since February 1984, patients suffering from uveal melanomas can be irradiated with protons (72 MeV) at the Paul Scherrer Institute, Villigen/Switzerland. The selection and preparation of the 660 patients so far treated were carried out at the Lausanne University Eye Clinic. The irradiation is performed in four sessions on four consecutive days, the single dose being 1500 cGy and the total dose 6000 cGy. Sixty per cent of the patients improved or maintained their visual acuity. The rate of local progressions so far amounts to 2,9%. In more than 30% of the patients with a tumour width of more than 15 mm, death due to metastases occurred within five years. The superior functional results increasingly make proton irradiation therapy the method of choice and at the same time widen the indication for conservative treatment. In Europe, proton therapy of uveal melanoma is as of recently also possible in Uppsala and Liverpool. Further irradiation facilities are planned, including the Federal Republic of Germany. (orig.)

  12. [Melanoma immunotherapy: dendritic cell vaccines].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozada-Requena, Ivan; Núñez, César; Aguilar, José Luis

    2015-09-01

    This is a narrative review that shows accessible information to the scientific community about melanoma and immunotherapy. Dendritic cells have the ability to participate in innate and adaptive immunity, but are not unfamiliar to the immune evasion of tumors. Knowing the biology and role has led to generate in vitro several prospects of autologous cell vaccines against diverse types of cancer in humans and animal models. However, given the low efficiency they have shown, we must implement strategies to enhance their natural capacity either through the coexpression of key molecules to activate or reactivate the immune system, in combination with biosimilars or chemotherapeutic drugs. The action of natural products as alternative or adjuvant immunostimulant should not be ruled out. All types of immunotherapy should measure the impact of myeloid suppressor cells, which can attack the immune system and help tumor progression, respectively. This can reduce the activity of cellular vaccines and/or their combinations, that could be the difference between success or not of the immunotherapy. Although for melanoma there exist biosimilars approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), not all have the expected success. Therefore it is necessary to evaluate other strategies including cellular vaccines loaded with tumor antigenic peptides expressed exclusively or antigens from tumor extracts and their respective adjuvants. PMID:26580940

  13. A Zebrafish Model of Uveal Melanoma

    OpenAIRE

    Rose, Kristin

    2015-01-01

    Uveal melanoma is the most common primary intraocular tumor in adults, and is often characterized by poor prognosis and few effective therapeutic options. The typical site of metastasis for uveal melanoma is the liver, and over 80% of patients with metastatic disease will die within one year of metastasis diagnosis. The vast majority of human uveal melanomas contain activating somatic mutations in the GPCR alpha subunits GNAQ or GNA11. To directly observe the in vivo effects of GNA11 Q209L (c...

  14. Tea tree oil might combat melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozzuto, Giuseppina; Colone, Marisa; Toccacieli, Laura; Stringaro, Annarita; Molinari, Agnese

    2011-01-01

    In this study we present new data from experiments focused on the antitumor activity of tea tree oil (TTO), an essential oil distilled from Melaleuca alternifolia. TTO proved to be capable of inhibiting the growth of melanoma cells and of overcoming multidrug resistance (MDR), as we reported in our previous study. Moreover, the survival role of the MDR-marker P-glycoprotein appears to be involved in the mechanism of invasion of melanoma cells. The results reported herein indicate that TTO and its main active component, terpinen-4-ol, can also interfere with the migration and invasion processes of drug-sensitive and drug-resistant melanoma cells. PMID:20560116

  15. Malignant melanoma presenting as bilateral breast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jayalakshmi, S.; Chander, S.; Prasad, R.R.; Saxena, A.K.; Sharma, M.C.; Rath, G.K. [All India Inst. of Medical Sciences, New Delhi (India)

    1997-02-01

    Malignant melanoma presenting initially with disseminated disease is common. However, bilateral breast masses as the initial symptom of malignant melanoma are rare. One such case is described in this paper, together with a review of literature. Clinical investigations revealed a high erythrocyte sedimentation rate. The chest X-ray was normal, ultrasound examination of the abdomen confirmed bilateral masses and the bone scan with {sup 99m}Tc meta diphosphonate showed increased tracer concentration in the D4 and L2 vertebrae. Biopsy form a lump in the breast showed features compatible with malignant melanoma deposit in the breast. 11 refs., 3 figs.

  16. Body CT appearances of metastatic melanoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors reviewed the CT studies and clinical records of 57 patients thought to have metastatic melanoma and sought CT findings that might be characteristic of metastatic melanoma. No pattern of lesion density, homogeneity, necrosis, border definition, hazing of adjacent fat, or calcification was characteristic for melanoma. However, widespread lesions in multiple organs, a combination of subcutaneous and visceral lesions, and large yet clinically silent lesions were common. Small (5mm) abnormalities in the lung, liver, spleen, and subcutaneous fat that might be considered inconsequential often represented early deposits of tumor which were enlarged on subsequent scans

  17. A potential new radiopharmaceutical for melanoma imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the sequence of our studies on radiopharmaceuticals for malignant melanoma detection the results were most promising for the possible use of 125I or 123I - N-(2-diethyl amino ethyl) 4-iodobenzamide. The biodistribution in mice bearing melanoma either human or animal from 4 to 24 hrs. post i.v. injection showed high uptake in tumor tissue together with relatively low uptake in muscle, brain, lung and liver. Scintigraphic images of the tumor obtained at the same times confirmed that melanoma detection was very promising

  18. A modified COMS plaque for iris melanoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel J. Scanderbeg

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Melanoma of the iris is a rare condition compared to posterior ocular tumors and in this case report we presenta 51-year-old female patient with diffuse iris melanoma. Traditional COMS (Collaborative Ocular Melanoma Studyplaques are used at our institution for radiation therapy, so a novel modification of the traditional plaque was requiredto allow better conformance with placement on the cornea. The usual silastic insert was machined to dimensions incompliance with the cornea, placed without incident, and treatment delivered with excellent patient tolerance of themodified plaque.

  19. Plasma 25-Hydroxyvitamin D and Risk of Non-Melanoma and Melanoma Skin Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Afzal, Shoaib; Nordestgaard, Børge G; Bojesen, Stig E

    2013-01-01

    Sun exposure is a major risk factor for skin cancer and is also an important source of vitamin D. We tested the hypothesis that elevated plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OH-vitD) associates with increased risk of non-melanoma and melanoma skin cancer in the general population. We measured plasma 25-OH-vitD in 10,060 white individuals from the Danish general population. During 28 years of follow-up, 590 individuals developed non-melanoma skin cancer and 78 developed melanoma skin cancer. Increasing...

  20. Malignant Melanoma Presenting as Superior Mediastinal Mass without Extrathoracic Primary Melanoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malignant melanoma most commonly occurs in the skin, and other organs are secondarily involved. Malignant melanoma presenting in the mediastinum without an extrathoracic primary is very rare. Authors report a case of malignant melanoma of the superior mediastinum without clinical history of extrathoracic malignant melanoma primarily and discuss its radiologic findings. CT shows lobulated heterogenous enhanced mass. Magnetic resonance shows mild hyperintense mass on T1 and T2-weighted images contained focal hemorrhage and necrosis, and invasion to neural foramen. In addition, positron emission tomography/computed tomography shows high standard uptake values uptake of the mass.

  1. Direct bony invasion of malignant melanoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mula Viswanath

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Malignant melanoma is known to spread by local extention, by the lymphatics by the blood stream. Direct invasion of the bone from a cutaneous melanoma is unknown. Hence, this case is presented in view of its rarity. A 75-year-old Caucasian lady presented with a small papillary lesion in the region of a recurrent chronic cellulitis on the lower third of the lateral aspect of the right leg. Histopathology diagnosed the lesion as locally advanced malignant melanoma. Radiological investigations by X-ray and magnetic resonance imaging revealed malignant infiltration of the tibia in its mid and lower third with two soft tissue metastatic masses adjacent. Histology following amputation confirmed malignant melanoma with cranial resection margin involvement. She underwent a further above-knee amputation followed by chemotherapy. The patient recovered from the amputation but subsequently died 6 months later due to bronchopneumonia from lung metastasis.

  2. Poliosis circumscripta unmasking a scalp melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeo, L; Husain, E; Rajpara, S

    2015-12-01

    A 28-year-old man presented with a 1-year history of a localized patch of grey hair and an underlying darkly pigmented lesion on his right occipital area. Clinical appearance revealed poliosis overlying an asymmetrical plaque with variable degrees of brown pigmentation and white discolouration. Owing to the suspicious nature of the lesion, excision with a 2 mm margin was performed. Histology revealed an invasive melanoma with extensive regression and prominent involvement of multiple hair follicles. Scalp melanoma with associated poliosis is extremely rare, and has only been reported once in the literature to date. There have been two reports in the opthalmology literature regarding eyelash poliosis associated with orbital melanoma. The pathogenesis of poliosis still remains unclear. This is the second reported case of poliosis circmscripta unmasking a scalp melanoma, and highlights the importance of being vigilant when examining patients with poliosis of the scalp. PMID:25546496

  3. Pembrolizumab for Ipilimumab-Resistant Melanoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    KEYNOTE-002 was designed to test the safety and efficacy of two doses of pembrolizumab compared with chemotherapy in patients with ipilimumab-resistant melanoma; interim results show that pembrolizumab improves progression-free survival for these patients

  4. Malignant Melanoma and Melanocortin 1 Receptor

    OpenAIRE

    Rosenkranz, A. A.; Slastnikova, T. A.; Durymanov, M. O.; Sobolev, A.S.

    2013-01-01

    The conventional chemotherapeutic treatment of malignant melanoma still remains poorly efficient in most cases. Thus the use of specific features of these tumors for development of new therapeutic modalities is highly needed. Melanocortin receptor-1 (MC1R) overexpression on the cell surface of the vast majority of human melanomas, making MC1R a valuable marker of these tumors, is one of these features. Naturally, MC1R plays a key role in skin protection against damaging ultraviolet radiation ...

  5. Hippo - hungry, hungry for melanoma invasion

    OpenAIRE

    Sanchez, Ileine M.; Aplin, Andrew E.

    2014-01-01

    The acquisition of invasive properties in melanoma is associated with a high proclivity for metastasis, but the underlying pathways are poorly characterized. The Hippo pathway plays an important role in organ size control and is dysregulated in some types of tumors. The present study, “Pro-invasive activity of the Hippo pathway effectors YAP and TAZ in cutaneous melanoma” by Nallet-Staub et al., provides the first in-depth analysis of expression of the Hippo pathway effectors YAP (yes-associa...

  6. Sun behaviour after cutaneous malignant melanoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Idorn, L W; Datta, P; Heydenreich, J; Philipsen, P A; Wulf, H C

    2013-01-01

    Background? It has been reported that patients with cutaneous malignant melanoma (CMM) can lower their risk of a second primary melanoma by limiting recreational sun exposure. Previous studies based on questionnaires and objective surrogate measurements indicate that before their diagnosis, patients with CMM are exposed to higher ultraviolet radiation (UVR) doses than controls, followed by a reduction after diagnosis. Objectives? In a prospective, observational case-control study, we aimed to as...

  7. Diagnosis and treatment of skin melanoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A successful treatment of melanomas becomes possible in case of their early detection and hospitalization of the patients. Surgical, radiation, cryogenic, laser therapeutic methods and their combinations are applied for melanomas treatment depending on localization and propagation of tumour process. Radiation therapy of primary tumours was undertaken in the pre-operational storage in all cases of their localization on the patient's face because the size of the section of tissues to be cut off after radiation therapy decreases significantly

  8. Primary malignant melanoma of the gall bladder.

    OpenAIRE

    Heath, D I; Womack, C.

    1988-01-01

    A case of primary malignant melanoma of the gall bladder is reported, in which a 29 year old man presented with acute cholecystitis which led to perforation of the gall bladder and biliary peritonitis. To help in the differentiation between primary and secondary malignant melanoma in the gall bladder and to overcome some of the difficulties posed by the clinical identification of what is often a small or relatively inaccessible primary tumour, it is suggested that certain criteria should be f...

  9. The Epidemiology, Prevention, and Detection of Melanoma

    OpenAIRE

    Riker, Adam I.; Zea, Nicolas; Trinh, Tan

    2010-01-01

    We are seeing a record number of newly diagnosed skin cancers worldwide, with the incidence of melanoma increasing at a faster rate than almost all other cancers. As clinicians, we will have, by far, the greatest impact on reducing this incidence through better methods of early detection of melanoma and proven prevention methods and techniques. The medical community must enhance its efforts to increase its training of new health care personnel who are capable of diagnosing and treating this r...

  10. Brachytherapy in the Management of Uveal Melanomas

    OpenAIRE

    Samuray Tuncer

    2014-01-01

    Uveal melanoma is the most common intraocular tumor in adults. Clinical studies have shown similar patient survival rates after treatment of medium-sized melanomas when comparing plaque brachytherapy with radioactive iodine-125 versus enucleation. This finding further emphasizes the importance of this globe-sparing treatment. Brachytherapy is a special local radiotherapy technique that aims to deliver high-dose radiation directly to the tumor by sparing the periocular structures. Bra...

  11. Malignant melanoma in children and adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Berg, Peter

    2003-01-01

    The aim of the work reported in the present thesis was to investigate malignant melanoma in children and adolescents. Through epidemiological studies, we wished to investigate incidence, clinical factors and prognosis and to study the records. Also studied were etiological factors such as phototherapy in newborns and the effect of congenital nevi on the risk of malignant melanoma. Finally a genetic study of this age group was conducted using immunohistochemical analysis. ...

  12. Pathways and therapeutic targets in melanoma

    OpenAIRE

    Shtivelman, Emma; Davies, Michael A.; HWU, PATRICK; Yang, James; Lotem, Michal; Oren, Moshe; Flaherty, Keith T.; Fisher, David E.

    2014-01-01

    This review aims to summarize the current knowledge of molecular pathways and their clinical relevance in melanoma. Metastatic melanoma was a grim diagnosis, but in recent years tremendous advances have been made in treatments. Chemotherapy provided little benefit in these patients, but development of targeted and new immune approaches made radical changes in prognosis. This would not have happened without remarkable advances in understanding the biology of disease and tremendous progress in ...

  13. Immunomodulatory Therapy for Melanoma: Ipilimumab and Beyond

    OpenAIRE

    Callahan, Margaret K.; Postow, Michael A; Wolchok, Jedd D

    2013-01-01

    In 2011, the FDA approved the first new therapy for melanoma in over a decade, ipilimumab (Yervoy). Ipilimumab is a novel antibody that blockscytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 (CTLA-4), a regulatory molecule expressed on activated T cells. Blockade of this important immune checkpoint can lead to durable tumor regression and Phase III studies showed an overall survival benefit for patients with advanced melanoma. During the clinical development of ipilimumab, several unique features ...

  14. Ipilimumab Pharmacotherapy in Patients with Metastatic Melanoma

    OpenAIRE

    Jeter, Joanne M.; Cranmer, Lee D.; Hersh, Evan M

    2012-01-01

    Immune augmentation with ipilimumab, an anti-CTLA-4 monoclonal antibody, has joined the ranks of approved immunologic agents for the treatment of metastatic melanoma. Phase III studies of ipilimumab in metastatic melanoma have demonstrated an overall survival advantage as compared to other approved and investigational therapies. However, the adverse effects associated with this medication are unique and often require management with steroids or other immunosuppressants. In addition, the time ...

  15. Ipilimumab til behandling af metastaserende melanoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghasemi, Habib; Schmidt, Henrik; Stolle, Lars Bjørn

    Until recently metastatic melanoma was a disease with limited treatment options and a poor prognosis. However, new promising products have been developed. Ipilimumab, a full human anti-cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen-4 antibody, has shown improved survival in several clinical trials and is now a...... part of the standard treatment options for this disease in Denmark. In this case report we present a 78-year-old man with metastatic melanoma who had complete remission after treatment with ipilimumab....

  16. A Case of Melanoma Associated Leukoderma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özer Arıcan

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Melanoma associated leukoderma is a rare disease characterized by hypopigmented or depigmented macules, which are usualy localized at distant sites from the primary malignant melonoma. Immunologic response to abnormal melanocytes is thought to be responsible for the physiopathology of the disease. A 34-year- old male patient with a facially localized melanoma associated leukoderma is presented and the clinical features, pathogenesis, differential diagnosis, treatment and follow-up of the disease are discussed with the recent literature.

  17. Primary Mucosal Melanoma: Uncommonly Described Entity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaushal Yadav

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Because of rarity and clinical challenges arising from different anatomic location, our understanding of optimal management of mucosal melanoma remains limited. The most common sites for primary mucosal melanoma are head and neck followed by anorectal, and vulvovaginal regions. Data are limited but improved understanding has led to change in management from more radical excision to conservative surgery with negative margins. We try to summarize available evidences for management this uncommonly described entity.

  18. Novel anti-melanoma treatment: focus on immunotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng-Ze Hao

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Melanoma is an intractable cancer that is aggressive, lethal, and metastatic. The prognosis of advanced melanoma is very poor because it is insensitive to chemotherapy and radiotherapy. The incidence of melanoma has been ascending stably for years worldwide, accompanied by increasing mortality. New approaches to managing this deadly disease are much anticipated to enhance the cure rate and to extend clinical benefits to patients with metastatic melanoma. Due to its high degree of immunogenicity, melanoma could be a good target for immunotherapy, which has been developed for decades and has achieved certain progress. This article provides an overview of immunotherapy for melanoma.

  19. Non-melanoma skin cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Liezel L; Ali, Faisal Rehman; Lear, John T

    2016-02-01

    Non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) comprises basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and squamous cell carcinoma, together with a host of rare tumours. NMSC is the commonest malignancy among Caucasians and its incidence continues to rise annually. Exposure to UV radiation initiates approximately 90% of NMSC, causing malignant transformation of keratinocytes and suppression of the inflammatory response. Risk factors include sun exposure and immunosuppression. There are several subtypes of BCC, although histological overlap is common. Surgery has traditionally been regarded as the 'gold-standard' treatment, offering excellent cure rates and cosmetic results. Other treatment modalities include physical destruction (radiotherapy, curettage and cautery, and cryotherapy), chemical destruction (photodynamic therapy and topical 5-flurouracil) and immunomodulatory therapy (topical imiquimod). The recent development of novel hedgehog pathway inhibitors for high-risk BCC (including oral vismodegib and sonidegib) may represent a paradigm shift towards medical management of NMSC. PMID:26833519

  20. Treatment and outcomes of anorectal melanoma.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Heeney, Anna

    2012-02-01

    INTRODUCTION: anorectal melanoma is an uncommon disease constituting less than 3% of all melanomas. Due to its rarity, there are a lack of randomized control trials regarding appropriate management and current evidence is based mainly on retrospective studies. METHODS: in view of the controversial surgical treatment of anorectal melanoma, we review the most published literature in an attempt to elucidate its typical clinical features along with current thinking with respect to management approaches to this aggressive disease. Using the keywords "anorectal" and "malignant melanoma", a medline search of all articles in English was performed and the relevant articles procured. Additional references were retrieved by cross reference from key articles. RESULTS: anorectal melanoma affects the elderly with a slight preponderance for females. It commonly presents disguised as benign disease with local bleeding or suspicion for haemorrhoidal disease. There is no convincing evidence to indicate that radical resection of primary anorectal melanoma is associated with improvement in local control or survival, and local excision is an acceptable treatment option. CONCLUSION: optimum management depends on several factors and the therapeutic goals should be to lengthen survival and preserve quality-of-life. Given that wide local excision is a more limited intervention with comparable survival it should be considered as the initial treatment choice. Unfortunately prognosis for patients with this disease remains poor despite choice of treatment strategy with overall five year disease-free survival less than twenty percent in most studies.

  1. Mucosal Melanoma: Epidemiology, Biology and Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Kristen R; Mehnert, Janice M

    2016-01-01

    Mucosal melanoma is an exceedingly rare variant of cutaneous melanoma that, due to its rarity, is poorly described and infrequently studied. Primary sites of origin include the head and neck, anorectum and vulvovaginal regions. It is uniquely different from cutaneous melanoma with respect to epidemiology, etiology, pathogenesis and prognosis. The etiology and pathogenesis remain unclear. Unlike cutaneous melanoma, exposure to UV light is not an apparent risk factor. Furthermore, distinct molecular features including a lower incidence of BRAF oncogene mutations but a higher incidence of KIT oncogene mutations suggest divergent genetic etiologies. Mucosal melanomas generally present at a later stage, are more aggressive and carry a worse prognosis regardless of the stage at diagnosis. Establishing standardized treatment guidelines has been challenging due to the rarity of the disease. Early detection provides the best chance at survival but is often difficult due to anatomic location. Surgery remains the primary therapeutic intervention if complete resection is technically feasible given the anatomic location. Radiotherapy may be used to achieve local control when resection is not feasible, or adjuvantly to enhance locoregional control, but most studies have failed to demonstrate an improvement in overall survival. There are no consensus guidelines on the optimal systemic therapy, and regimens are often extrapolated from data based on therapies used to treat advanced cutaneous melanoma. Clinical trials, particularly utilizing newer targeted therapies and immunotherapies, are investigating novel treatment approaches. PMID:26601869

  2. Prognostic factors of primary cutaneus melanoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noveski Lazo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The purpose of this study was to identify tumor characteristics of primary malignant melanoma predictive of sentinel lymph node positive status, and then to determine whether sentinel lymph node status has an impact on recurrence and survival. Material and Methods. A total of 100 patients with primary malignant skin melanoma were analyzed. The prospective melanoma database identified patients with histologically confirmed cutaneus melanoma, clinically negative and clinically positive regional lymph nodes with no evidence of distant disease, who had undergone surgery between April 2001 and May 2012. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to assess factors that predict sentinel lymph node positive status, recurrence and survival. Results. We identified Breslow’s thickness and lymphocytic response as independent predictors of sentinel lymph node status in cutaneous melanoma patients. Sentinel lymph node status was a significant predictor of disease free survival. Conclusion. Despite the limitation, this study confirms Breslow’s thickness and tumor lymphocytic infiltration as two factors predictive of sentinel lymph node metastasis in cutaneous melanoma patients. We also found sentinel lymph node status to be the most significant independent predictor of disease free survival and identified sentinel lymph node status as an important variable to consider when estimating the risk of regional recurrence.

  3. Melanoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... skin cancer is to reduce your exposure to sunlight. Ultraviolet light is most intense between 10 a.m. and ... important facts to help you avoid too much sun exposure: Avoid surfaces that reflect light more, such as water, sand, concrete, and white- ...

  4. Melanoma cutáneo asociado a nevo previo / Cutaneous melanoma associated with previous nevus

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    María P., Gutiérrez; Mónica, Barengo; Claudio, Mainardi; Iliana, Garay; María, Kurpis; Alejandro, Ruiz Lascano.

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available El melanoma maligno es una neoplasia originada en los melanocitos de la piel y otras localizaciones. No existe información en nuestro país acerca de su incidencia y prevalecencia, sí se sabe cuáles son los factores de riesgo más importantes. El melanoma puede originarse de novo o a partir de lesione [...] s melanocíticas previas. La noción de que un nevo melanocítico pueda servir como lesión precursora es sustentada por evidencias clínicas e histológicas. Realizamos en el Hospital Privado de Córdoba un estudio observacional, retrospectivo y analítico. El objetivo de este trabajo fue conocer cuál es la frecuencia de asociación de melanomas malignos que se desarrollan sobre nevos previos. Fueron analizados un total de 134 melanomas. En 32 pacientes (24%), los melanomas estuvieron histológicamente asociados con nevos, con espesores de Breslow mayores de 1 mm el porcentaje de asociación fue de 16.3%, y con Breslow menores de 1 mm, 38.1%. Al evaluar los melanomas en relación a la clasificación de Breslow y Clark, se objetivó que el grupo de melanomas asociados a nevos presentó un espesor de Breslow y niveles de Clark bajos y en el análisis estadístico fueron predictores significativos en la probabilidad de hallar esta asociación (p Abstract in english The malignant melanoma is a neoplasia originated from the melanocytes located in the skin and other locations. Even though there is not information regarding its incidence and prevalence in our country, its most important risk factors are known. The melanoma can originate de novo or from previous me [...] lanocytic lesions. The concept that a melanocytic nevus can serve as a precursor lesion is supported by clinical and histological evidence. An observational, retrospective and analytical study was carried out in the Hospital Privado de Córdoba. The objective was to determine which is the frequency of association of malignant melanomas that develop on previous nevus. A total of 134 melanomas were analyzed. In 32 cases (24%), the melanomas were histologically associated with nevus, in individuals with Breslow's depth bigger than 1 mm the percentage of association was 16.3% while in those exhibiting Breslow smaller than 1 mm the percentage of association was 38.1%. Having evaluated the melanomas in relation to the Breslow and Clark classification, we observed that the nevus associated melanoma group showed less Breslow thickness and low Clark levels, which, by statistical analysis were shown to be significant predictors of the probabilty of finding this association (p

  5. AC-93253 triggers the downregulation of melanoma progression markers and the inhibition of melanoma cell proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karwaciak, Iwona; Gorzkiewicz, Michal; Ryba, Katarzyna; Dastych, Jaroslaw; Pulaski, Lukasz; Ratajewski, Marcin

    2015-07-01

    A major challenge in anti-melanoma therapy is to develop treatments that are effective for advanced melanoma patients. Unfortunately, the currently used regimens are not efficient and have unsatisfactory effects on disease progression, thus increasing the pressure to develop new, profitable drugs and to identify new molecular targets. Here, we show for the first time that AC-93253, a SIRT2 inhibitor, exerts a negative effect on the expression of a set of genes involved in the progression and chemoresistance (e.g., oncogenes, apoptosis-related genes, ABC transporter genes, and cell cycle control genes) of melanoma cells. Furthermore, melanoma cells exposed to AC-93253 and doxorubicin displayed altered biological responses, including apoptosis and proliferation, compared to cells exposed to single treatments. Taken together, we conclude that the usage of AC-93253 in combined therapy could be a promising strategy for melanoma patients. PMID:25912555

  6. Melanoma risk perception and prevention behavior among African-Americans: the minority melanoma paradox

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goldenberg A

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Alina Goldenberg,1 Igor Vujic,2,3 Martina Sanlorenzo,2,4 Susana Ortiz-Urda2 1Department of Internal Medicine/Dermatology, University of California, San Diego, 2Mt Zion Cancer Research Center, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, USA; 3Department of Dermatology, The Rudolfstiftung Hospital, Academic Teaching Hospital, Medical University Vienna, Vienna, Austria; 4Section of Dermatology, Department of Medical Sciences, University of Turin, Turin, Italy Introduction: Melanoma is the most deadly type of skin cancer with 75% of all skin cancer deaths within the US attributed to it. Risk factors for melanoma include ultraviolet exposure, genetic predisposition, and phenotypic characteristics (eg, fair skin and blond hair. Whites have a 27-fold higher incidence of melanoma than African-Americans (AA, but the 5-year survival is 17.8% lower for AA than Whites. It is reported continuously that AA have more advanced melanomas at diagnosis, and overall lower survival rates. This minority melanoma paradox is not well understood or studied. Objective: To explore further, the possible explanations for the difference in melanoma severity and survival in AA within the US. Methods: Qualitative review of the literature. Results: Lack of minority-targeted public education campaigns, low self-risk perception, low self-skin examinations, intrinsic virulence, vitamin D differences, and physician mistrust may play a role in the melanoma survival disparity among AA. Conclusion: Increases in public awareness of melanoma risk among AA through physician and media-guided education, higher index of suspicion among individuals and physicians, and policy changes can help to improve early detection and close the melanoma disparity gap in the future. Keywords: acral, advanced, African-American, disparity, melanoma, survival

  7. Melanoma de corpo ciliar e coróide: relato de caso / Choroidal and ciliary body melanoma: case report

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Aline Amaral Fulgêncio da, Cunha; Nara Helena Teixeira, Rodrigues; Grazziella Acácio e, Almeida; Bruno Carvalho, Picanço; João Agostini, Netto.

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Melanomas oculares correspondem a 5% de todos os melanomas e 85% deles têm origem no trato uveal. Melanoma uveal é o tumor maligno intraocular primário mais comum no adulto. Relatamos neste artigo um caso de melanoma uveal em paciente, sexo feminino, 31 anos, com quadro de fotopsia, hiperemia e baix [...] a da acuidade visual no olho esquerdo com evolução de quatro meses. Apresentava ao exame oftalmológico acuidade visual menor que 20/400, grande massa tumoral na região nasal retroiriana, com deslocamento anterior do cristalino, estreitamento da câmara anterior e descolamento seroso da retina. A ecografia sugeriu tratar-se de grande massa tumoral suspeita de melanoma de coróide com invasão do corpo ciliar. A confirmação diagnóstica foi possível por meio do exame anatomopatológico. Abstract in english Ocular melanomas correspond to 5% of all melanomas and 85% of them have its origin in the uveal tract. Uveal melanoma is the most commom primary intraocular malignant tumor in the adult. In this article, a case of uveal melanoma in a 31 year-old female patient, with photopsia, hyperemia and low visu [...] al acuity in the left eye with evolution of 4 months is presented. In the ophthalmologic examination, visual acuity was lower than 20/400, a large tumoral mass was noted at the nasal region behind the iris with anterior lens displacement, anterior chamber narrowing and serous retinal detachment. The ocular echography suggested a large tumoral mass as a choroidal melanoma extending to the ciliary body. The confirmation diagnosis was possible through the histopathologic examination.

  8. Nail apparatus melanoma: a diagnostic opportunity / Melanoma do aparelho ungueal: uma oportunidade diagnóstica

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ana Maria, Carreño; Sílvia Rocha, Nakajima; Silmara N., Pennini; Renato, Candido Junior; Antonio Pedro Mendes, Schettini.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Melanoma Maligno é uma neoplasia de alta mortalidade, sendo raro o acometimento do aparelho ungueal. Apenas 2/3 dos pacientes procuram atendimento médico devido lesão melanocítica ungueal recente, tornando o diagnóstico tardio e com prognóstico pior que do melanoma cutâneo. Descreve-se um caso de pa [...] ciente sexo feminino, apresentando lesões ulceradas com características clínico-laboratoriais compatíveis com leishmaniose tegumentar americana. No retorno após início do tratamento foi observada melanoníquia longitudinal no primeiro quirodáctilo direito. Realizada biópsia da matriz ungueal com histopatológico compatível com melanoma in situ. Melanoníquia longitudinal não é sinal específico de melanoma. A identificação das lesões suspeitas é importante tarefa dos dermatologistas. O diagnóstico incidental de melanoma ungueal in situ do caso relatado resultou em grande impacto na sobrevida da paciente. Abstract in english Malignant Melanoma is a high mortality neoplasm. The involvement of the nail apparatus is rare, with only 2 out of 3 patients seeking medical attention as the result of recent nail melanocytic lesions. This results in late diagnosis and a prognosis worse than cutaneous melanoma. We report a female, [...] presenting with ulcerative lesions with clinical and laboratory features compatible with leishmaniasis. On return after treatment initiation a longitudinal melanonychia was observed on her first right finger. Biopsy of the nail matrix was performed. Histopathology was compatible with melanoma in situ. Longitudinal melanonychia is not a specific sign for melanoma and it is important that the dermatologist should identify the suspect lesions correctly. The incidental diagnosis of nail melanoma in situ in our case significantly impacted the patient's survival.

  9. Do We Know What Causes Melanoma Skin Cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Topic Can melanoma skin cancer be prevented? Do we know what causes melanoma skin cancer? Although researchers ... genes – the instructions for how our cells function. We usually look like our parents because they are ...

  10. Long-term Survival after Metastatic Childhood Melanoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Anne Kristine; Bybjerg Jensen, Mette

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY: Malignant melanoma in children is very rare and accounts for only 1-3% of all melanomas. A congenital melanocytic nevus depending on the size of the lesion is one of the risk factors for developing childhood melanoma because of the possible malignant transformation. Childhood malignant melanoma is a potentially fatal disease. Surgical excision is the primary treatment of choice for malignant melanoma. Clinicians need to be aware of the possible malignant transformation in children with congenital melanocytic nevus because early diagnosis and treatment improves prognosis. The suspicion of malign melanoma must be in mind when evaluating a pigmented lesion in a pediatric patient. We present a case of a patient born with a congenital nevus diagnosed with metastatic childhood malignant scalp melanoma at the age of 6 years. The patient underwent surgical ablation and reconstruction and has survived 26 years without recurrence, thus representing an uplifting case of long-term survival of childhood melanoma.

  11. Screening for metastatic malignant melanoma of the uvea revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eskelin, Sebastian; Pyrhönen, Seppo; Summanen, Paula; Prause, J.U.; Kivelä, Tero

    ophthalmology, malignant uveal melanoma, metastasis, liver, screening, ultrasonography, X-ray, lactate dehydrogenase, alkaline phosphatase, aminotransferases......ophthalmology, malignant uveal melanoma, metastasis, liver, screening, ultrasonography, X-ray, lactate dehydrogenase, alkaline phosphatase, aminotransferases...

  12. Melanoma Strikes Earlier If Indoor Tanning Begins in Teens

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_156931.html Melanoma Strikes Earlier If Indoor Tanning Begins in Teens: ... age significantly raises a woman's risk of developing melanoma before the age of 50, a new study ...

  13. Role of radiotherapy in melanoma management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In melanoma, radiotherapy has generally been considered as a palliative treatment option indicated only for advanced cases or disseminated disease. In the 70s of the previous century, the technological advances in radiotherapy, linked to rapid development of computer sciences, resulted in restored interest for radiotherapy in melanoma management. Although a fundamental lack of well designed prospective and/or randomized clinical trials critically influenced the integration of radiotherapy into treatment strategies in melanoma, radiotherapy was recently recognized as an indispensable part in the multidisciplinary management of patients with melanoma. Altogether, approximately 23% of melanoma patients should receive at least one course of radiotherapy during the course of the disease. In this review, radiobiological properties of melanoma that govern the decisions for the fractionation patterns used in the treatment of this disease are described. Moreover, the indications for irradiation and the results of pertinent clinical studies from the literature, creating a rationale for the use of radiotherapy in the management of this disease, are reviewed and a brief description of radiotherapy techniques is given. Basic treatment modality in melanoma is surgery. However, whenever surgery is not radical or there are adverse prognostic factors identified on histopathological examination of resected tissue specimen, it needs to be supplemented. Also, in patients with unresectable disease or in those not being suitable for major surgery or who refuse proposed surgical intervention, other effective mode(s) of therapy need to be implemented. From this perspective, supported by clinical experiences and literature results, radiotherapy is a valuable option: it is effective and safe, in curative and palliative setting

  14. MUCOSAL MALIGNANT MELANOMA OF NASOPHARYNX: A CASE REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandrasekhar

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Primary mucosal malignant melanomas of sinonasal tract are uncommon tumors comprising 0.3-2% of all malignant melanomas and 4% of all head and Neck melanomas. We are reporting a rare case of mucosal malignant melanoma in a 45 year old female arising from nasopharynx which was excised completely by trans palatal approach followed by irradiation. This case is being reported because of its isolated involvement of nasopharynx, and early age of presentation.

  15. Subretinal lipid exudation associated with untreated choroidal melanoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C K Minija

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Subretinal lipid exudation in an untreated choroidal melanoma is very rare. It is seen following plaque radiotherapy in choroidal melanoma. There is only one case report of untreated choroidal melanoma with massive lipid exudation in a patient with metastatic hypernephroma. We report here a rare case of untreated choroidal melanoma with lipid exudation. Subretinal exudation that is rarely seen following plaque brachytherapy was noted at the borders of this untreated tumor. Lipid exudation partially resolved following brachytherapy.

  16. Characteristics and Treatment of Cutaneous Melanoma of the Foot

    OpenAIRE

    Nam, Kyung Wook; Bae, Yong Chan; Nam, Soo Bong; Kim,Joo Hyung; Kim, Hoon Soo; Choi, Young Jin

    2016-01-01

    Background In East Asia, the foot is the most common site of cutaneous melanoma. The purpose of this study was to investigate the differences between cutaneous melanoma of the foot and melanomas of other sites. Methods We studied 52 patients who underwent surgical treatment for cutaneous melanoma of the foot from September 2000 to January 2015. Through a retrospective review of their medical records, we collected data relating to their sex, age, histopathological subtype, Clark level, tumor t...

  17. Cystoid macular edema as the initial manifestation of choroidal melanoma

    OpenAIRE

    Garoon, Robert B.; Carol L. Shields; Kaliki, Swathi; Shields, Jerry A.

    2012-01-01

    Uveal melanomas are a common clinical entity that initially present in a variety of ways. Cystoid macular edema is caused by many conditions, but it is rarely associated with uveal melanoma. We report two cases of patients that presented with visually significant cystoid macular edema that was later found to be secondary to choroidal melanoma. We describe the patients’ course and treatment and provide a mechanism for the potential cause of edema in patients with uveal melanoma.

  18. Stress as a Possible Mechanism in Melanoma Progression

    OpenAIRE

    M. Arunachalam; Berti, S.; Moretti, S; Colucci, R.; M. Sanzo

    2010-01-01

    The incidence of melanoma, the most aggressive type of cutaneous malignant tumor, is currently on the rise. Treatment in advanced stages is still unsuccessful compared with other malignant tumors, thus it is important to indentify the key mechanisms responsible for melanoma progression and metastasis. Genetic and molecular components, in particular, that are up- or downregulated in melanoma cells, affect the invasive potential of melanoma. Another possible important cofactor highlighted by re...

  19. Hormonal exposures and the risk of uveal melanoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Behrens, Thomas Flensted; Kaerlev, Linda; Cree, Ian; Lutz, Jean-Michel; Afonso, Noemia; Eriksson, Mikael; Guénel, Pascal; Merletti, Franco; Morales-Suarez-Varela, Maria; Stengrevics, Aivars; Sabroe, Svend; Cyr, Diane; Llopis-González, Agustin; Gorini, Giuseppe; Sharkova, Galina; Hardell, Lennart; Ahrens, Wolfgang

    2010-01-01

    Several studies suggest that hormonal mechanisms may be associated with the development of uveal melanoma. Therefore, the association between the risk of uveal melanoma and exposure to hormonal exposures was investigated in a case-control study from nine European countries.......Several studies suggest that hormonal mechanisms may be associated with the development of uveal melanoma. Therefore, the association between the risk of uveal melanoma and exposure to hormonal exposures was investigated in a case-control study from nine European countries....

  20. Primary melanoma of the esophagus, a diagnostic challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sim, Yirong; Teo, Jonathan Shunming; Iqbal, Jabed; Chan, Weng Hoong

    2015-10-01

    Primary melanoma of the esophagus is a rare condition. Its diagnosis can be challenging, as its presentation is similar to that of other esophageal malignancies, especially when melanin is not evidently expressed in the melanoma. We report a case of esophageal melanoma in a 59-year-old Chinese male, whose histological diagnosis was confirmed from the esophagectomy specimen. PMID:26385307

  1. Cytotoxic T lymphocyte responses against melanocytes and melanoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schwartz Erich J

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vitiligo is a common toxicity associated with immunotherapy for melanoma. Cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs against melanoma commonly target melanoma-associated antigens (MAAs which are also expressed by melanocytes. To uncouple vitiligo from melanoma destruction, it is important to understand if CTLs can respond against melanoma and melanocytes at different levels. Methods To understand the dichotomous role of MAA-specific CTL, we characterized the functional reactivities of established CTL clones directed to MAAs against melanoma and melanocyte cell lines. Results CTL clones generated from melanoma patients were capable of eliciting MHC-restricted, MAA-specific lysis against melanocyte cell lines as well as melanoma cells. Among the tested HLA-A*0201-restricted CTL clones, melanocytes evoked equal to slightly higher degranulation and cytolytic responses as compared to melanoma cells. Moreover, MAA-specific T cells from vaccinated patients responded directly ex vivo to melanoma and melanocytes. Melanoma cells express slightly higher levels of MART-1 and gp100 than melanocytes as measured by quantitative reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR and immunohistochemistry. Conclusions Our data suggest that CTLs respond to melanoma and melanocytes equally in vitro and directly ex vivo.

  2. Clinical Activity of Ipilimumab in Acral Melanoma: A Retrospective Review

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, Douglas B.; Peng, Chengwei; Richard G. Abramson; YE, FEI; Zhao, Shilin; Wolchok, Jedd D; Sosman, Jeffrey A; Carvajal, Richard D.; Ariyan, Charlotte E

    2015-01-01

    This study retrospectively reviewed the demographics, treatment history, and clinical outcomes for all patients with acral melanoma treated with ipilimumab from two academic centers between February 2006 and June 2013. Ipilimumab was found to have activity that appears equivalent to unselected melanoma proving it to be a viable treatment option for this melanoma subpopulation.

  3. Treatment algorithms in stage IV melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinosa, Enrique; Grob, Jean-Jacques; Dummer, Reinhard; Rutkowski, Piotr; Robert, Caroline; Gogas, Helen; Kefford, Richard; Eggermont, Alexander M M; Martin Algarra, Salvador; Hauschild, Axel; Schadendorf, Dirk

    2015-01-01

    The molecular classification of melanoma and the advent of new drugs are changing the paradigm of therapy for advanced melanoma. A review of the recent key studies was performed, followed by a discussion in an expert forum. The aim of this review was to generate a therapeutic algorithm for stage IV melanoma. Tumor genotyping for BRAF and/or KIT should be performed before selection of therapy. For most BRAF-mutated melanoma patients and particularly those with a high tumor load, vemurafenib or other BRAF inhibitors such as dabrafenib are the treatment of choice. KIT inhibitors can be effective in KIT-mutant tumors, especially in those patients with mutations at exons 11 and 13. Ipilimumab is a good option for patients with nontargetable or nondetected mutations and those who progress under therapy with vemurafenib or a KIT inhibitor. There is still a role for conventional chemotherapy either as first-line treatment in BRAF wild-type patients or as salvage therapy in second or third line, or after other treatment modalities. Participation in clinical trials is strongly encouraged, either in first or in subsequent lines. New therapeutic options for advanced melanoma are guided by tumor genotyping. The current therapeutic algorithm includes kinase inhibitors, anti-CTLA4 therapy, immunotherapy, and chemotherapy, depending on the tumor genotype and response to previous treatments. Participation in clinical trials should always be encouraged because the treatment goal is long-term survival and potential cure in a subset of patients. PMID:24413374

  4. Brachytherapy in the Management of Uveal Melanomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuray Tuncer

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Uveal melanoma is the most common intraocular tumor in adults. Clinical studies have shown similar patient survival rates after treatment of medium-sized melanomas when comparing plaque brachytherapy with radioactive iodine-125 versus enucleation. This finding further emphasizes the importance of this globe-sparing treatment. Brachytherapy is a special local radiotherapy technique that aims to deliver high-dose radiation directly to the tumor by sparing the periocular structures. Brachytherapy is still the most widely used treatment for uveal melanoma. Iodine-125 and ruthenium-106 are the most common radioisotopes used in brachytherapy. After brachytherapy, sight-threatening complications occur unavoidably in many patients. Brachytherapy is mostly associated with long-term complications. Radiation retinopathy and cataract formation are the most common treatment-related complications. Brachytherapy provides local tumor control (ocular salvage in about 90% of patients. Adjunctive transpupillary thermotherapy (sandwich therapy improves the control rate of local tumors to 97%. About 10% of patients treated with brachytherapy subsequently require enucleation because of local tumor recurrence or neovascular glaucoma at 5 years of follow-up. Metastatic disease occurs in 10% of patients with medium-sized melanoma at 5-year follow-up. This rate increases to 55% at 10-year follow-up in patients with large melanomas (thickness >8 mm. Thus, it is very important to inform the patients under the light of these data prior to brachytherapy. (Turk J Ophthalmol 2014; 44: Supplement 43-8

  5. Treating advanced melanoma: current insights and opportunities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tronnier M

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Michael Tronnier, Christina Mitteldorf Department of Dermatology, Klinikum Hildesheim GmbH, Hildesheim, Germany Abstract: Whereas thin melanomas have an excellent prognosis after sufficient surgical treatment, melanoma disease in advanced stages is still a therapeutic challenge. After decades of frustrating studies, new therapeutic strategies have come up in the past few years. On the one hand, increasing insights into the molecular aberrations in melanoma have led to specific "targeted" therapies to affect only the mutated tumor cells, as in many other types of cancers. Today there are few "targeted" substances which are already approved and successfully used for single or combination therapy, but many others are under development. While on the other hand, nonpersonalized strategy substances have been developed successfully inducing an immunologic tumor response. Both kinds of therapy have been found to result in an improvement not only of the response rate, but also of the overall survival in metastatic disease, which represents a milestone in melanoma therapy. However, using these therapies there is still much to learn regarding the effects, the side effects, and the limitations of these promising substances. Keywords: melanoma, treatment, targeted therapy, immunotherapy, BRAF, CTLA-4

  6. The epidemiology, prevention, and detection of melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riker, Adam I; Zea, Nicolas; Trinh, Tan

    2010-01-01

    We are seeing a record number of newly diagnosed skin cancers worldwide, with the incidence of melanoma increasing at a faster rate than almost all other cancers. As clinicians, we will have, by far, the greatest impact on reducing this incidence through better methods of early detection of melanoma and proven prevention methods and techniques. The medical community must enhance its efforts to increase its training of new health care personnel who are capable of diagnosing and treating this record number of patients with skin cancer. We must also try to increase the access to our limited number of dermatologists and provide novel ways of patient education such as through skin self-examinations, total body photography, and improved education for our children. By providing easier access to skin examinations, we will increase our chances of detecting melanoma in its earliest and most curable form. The dangers of indoor tanning beds and salons must be transparent to those that use them, focusing on expanding the oversight of such facilities by our local and federal governmental agencies while establishing legislation in several states to further limit their use to our youth, who are especially at high risk for developing melanoma in the future. This review will focus on the epidemiology, prevention, and detection of melanoma. PMID:21603359

  7. Selenium for the Prevention of Cutaneous Melanoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas Grossman

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The role of selenium (Se supplementation in cancer prevention is controversial; effects often depend on the nutritional status of the subject and on the chemical form in which Se is provided. We used a combination of in vitro and in vivo models to study two unique therapeutic windows for intervention in the process of cutaneous melanomagenisis, and to examine the utility of two different chemical forms of Se for prevention and treatment of melanoma. We studied the effects of Se in vitro on UV-induced oxidative stress in melanocytes, and on apoptosis and cell cycle progression in melanoma cells. In vivo, we used the HGF transgenic mouse model of UV-induced melanoma to demonstrate that topical treatment with l-selenomethionine results in a significant delay in the time required for UV-induced melanoma development, but also increases the rate of growth of those tumors once they appear. In a second mouse model, we found that oral administration of high dose methylseleninic acid significantly decreases the size of human melanoma xenografts. Our findings suggest that modestly elevation of selenium levels in the skin might risk acceleration of growth of incipient tumors. Additionally, certain Se compounds administered at very high doses could have utility for the treatment of fully-malignant tumors or prevention of recurrence.

  8. Vemurafenib for the treatment of melanoma.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Jordan, Emmet John

    2012-12-01

    Metastatic melanoma is an aggressive disease resistant to chemotherapy. Recent clinical trials have reported improved survival for two novel agents; ipilimumab, a humanized, IgG1 monoclonal antibody that blocks cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 (CTLA-4) and vemurafenib , a BRAF (v-raf murine sarcoma viral oncogene homolog B1) inhibitor targeting an activating mutation in the serine-threonine-protein kinase BRAF gene. AREAS COVERED: The authors reviewed preclinical and clinical data examining the safety of vemurafenib in melanoma. MEDLINE and EMBASE were searched using the medical subject heading \\'vemurafenib\\' and the following text terms: melanoma, BRAF inhibition, vemurafenib. This review provides the reader with an overview of current data examining the efficacy and safety of vemurafenib in metastatic melanoma. EXPERT OPINION: Vemurafenib is an oral agent licensed for patients with BRAF V600E mutation-positive inoperable and metastatic melanoma. The most common adverse effects observed in Phase III clinical trials were dermatological events, arthralgia and fatigue. Specific dermatological toxicities included development of cutaneous squamous cell cancers and keratoacanthomas. Prolongation of the QT interval was also reported. Regular dermatological assessments and electrocardiograms are recommended. Ongoing trials are examining vemurafenib in both the adjuvant setting and metastatic setting in combination with ipilimumab and MEK inhibitors (mitogen-activated protein kinase\\/extracellular signal-regulated kinase). Understanding and overcoming mechanisms of resistance to BRAF inhibitors is the focus of ongoing research.

  9. Revisiting determinants of prognosis in cutaneous melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Sarah A; Hanniford, Douglas; Hernando, Eva; Osman, Iman

    2015-12-01

    The American Joint Committee on Cancer staging system for cutaneous melanoma is based on primary tumor thickness and the presence of ulceration, mitoses, lymph node spread, and distant metastases as determinants of prognosis. Although this cutaneous melanoma staging system has evolved over time to more accurately reflect patient prognosis, improvements are still needed, because current understanding of the particular factors (genetic mutation, expression alteration, host response, etc) that are critical for predicting patient outcomes is incomplete. Given the clinical and biologic heterogeneity of primary melanomas, new prognostic tools are needed to more precisely identify patients who are most likely to develop advanced disease. Such tools would affect clinical surveillance strategies and aid in patient selection for adjuvant therapy. The authors reviewed the literature on prognostic molecular and immunologic markers in primary cutaneous melanoma, their associations with clinicopathologic and survival outcomes, and their potential for incorporation into current staging models. Overall, the studies considered in this review did not define prognostic markers that could be readily incorporated into the current staging system. Therefore, efforts should be continued in these and other directions to maximize the likelihood of identifying clinically useful prognostic biomarkers for cutaneous melanoma. Cancer 2015;121:4108-4123. © 2015 American Cancer Society. PMID:26308244

  10. A Landscape of Driver Mutations in Melanoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodis, Eran; Watson, Ian R.; Kryukov, Gregory V.; Arold, Stefan T.; Imielinski, Marcin; Theurillat, Jean-Philippe; Nickerson, Elizabeth; Auclair, Daniel; Li, Liren; Place, Chelsea; DiCara, Daniel; Ramos, Alex H.; Lawrence, Michael S.; Cibulskis, Kristian; Sivachenko, Andrey; Voet, Douglas; Saksena, Gordon; Stransky, Nicolas; Onofrio, Robert C.; Winckler, Wendy; Ardlie, Kristin; Wagle, Nikhil; Wargo, Jennifer; Chong, Kelly; Morton, Donald L.; Stemke-Hale, Katherine; Chen, Guo; Noble, Michael; Meyerson, Matthew; Ladbury, John E.; Davies, Michael A.; Gershenwald, Jeffrey E.; Wagner, Stephan N.; Hoon, Dave S.B.; Schadendorf, Dirk; Lander, Eric S.; Gabriel, Stacey B.; Getz, Gad; Garraway, Levi A.; Chin, Lynda

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY Despite recent insights into melanoma genetics, systematic surveys for driver mutations are challenged by an abundance of passenger mutations caused by carcinogenic ultraviolet (UV) light exposure. We developed a permutation-based framework to address this challenge, employing mutation data from intronic sequences to control for passenger mutational load on a per gene basis. Analysis of large-scale melanoma exome data by this approach discovered six novel melanoma genes (PPP6C, RAC1, SNX31, TACC1, STK19 and ARID2), three of which - RAC1, PPP6C and STK19 - harbored recurrent and potentially targetable mutations. Integration with chromosomal copy number data contextualized the landscape of driver mutations, providing oncogenic insights in BRAF- and NRAS-driven melanoma as well as those without known NRAS/BRAF mutations. The landscape also clarified a mutational basis for RB and p53 pathway deregulation in this malignancy. Finally, the spectrum of driver mutations provided unequivocal genomic evidence for a direct mutagenic role of UV light in melanoma pathogenesis. PMID:22817889

  11. Animal-Type Melanoma: A Rare Type of Malignant Melanoma with an Indolent Clinical Behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muna Sabah

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Animal-type melanoma is an exceedingly rare histological variant of melanoma in humans. The name was coined to reflect similar histological features to melanomas in grey horses. We present a case of animal-type melanoma. The neoplastic cells were heavily pigmented with an epithelioid morphology, round nuclei and prominent eosinophilic nucleoli. Only occasional mitotic figures were identified. The tumour cells had diffuse and nodular growth patterns with involvement of the dermis and the subcutaneous tissue. The patient had a “benign cellular blue naevus” excised 9 years earlier from the same site. Review of the previous case revealed heavily pigmented epithelioid cells with similar morphology to the current case. Nuclear pleomorphism was minimal and only a single mitotic figure was present. The lesion extended to the margins of excision. The diagnosis of animal-type melanoma was made on the current case and on the previously misdiagnosed case. Recurrence of this case nine years following incomplete excision further supports the hypothesis that animal-type melanoma is a distinct histological type of malignant melanoma with an indolent clinical course.

  12. Plasma 25-Hydroxyvitamin D and Risk of Non-Melanoma and Melanoma Skin Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Afzal, Shoaib; Nordestgaard, Børge G; Bojesen, Stig E

    2013-01-01

    Sun exposure is a major risk factor for skin cancer and is also an important source of vitamin D. We tested the hypothesis that elevated plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OH-vitD) associates with increased risk of non-melanoma and melanoma skin cancer in the general population. We measured plasma 25......-OH-vitD in 10,060 white individuals from the Danish general population. During 28 years of follow-up, 590 individuals developed non-melanoma skin cancer and 78 developed melanoma skin cancer. Increasing 25-OH-vitD levels, by clinical categories or by seasonally adjusted tertiles, were associated with...... increasing cumulative incidence of non-melanoma skin cancer (trend P=2 × 10(-15) and P=3 × 10(-17)) and melanoma skin cancer (P=0.003 and P=0.001). Multivariable adjusted hazard ratios of non-melanoma skin cancer were 5.04 (95% confidence interval (CI): 2.78-9.16) for 25-OH-vitD 50 vs. 60 years, 25-OH...

  13. A novel function of Junctional Adhesion Molecule-C in mediating melanoma cell metastasis

    OpenAIRE

    Langer, Harald F.; Orlova, Valeria V.; Xie, Changping; Kaul, Sunil; Schneider, Darius; Lonsdorf, Anke S.; Fahrleitner, Manuela; Choi, Eun Young; Dutoit, Vanessa; Pellegrini, Manuela; Grossklaus, Sylvia; Nawroth, Peter P.; Baretton, Gustavo; Santoso, Sentot; Sam T. Hwang

    2011-01-01

    Hematogenous dissemination of melanoma is a life-threatening complication of this malignant tumor. Here, we identified Junctional Adhesion Molecule-C (JAM-C) as a novel player in melanoma metastasis to the lung. JAM-C expression was identified in human and murine melanoma cell lines, in human malignant melanoma, as well as in metastatic melanoma including melanoma lung metastasis. JAM-C expressed on both murine B16 melanoma cells as well as on endothelial cells, promoted the transendothelial ...

  14. Malign melanoma of gall bladder: Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muharrem Battal

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Malign melanom is a disease affecting many organs but rarely seen in gallbladder. Distinction of isolated tumors from primary gallbladder tumors or metastatic disease can not be made in most cases. Mainly the complaints of acute cholecystitis appears. Mostly this clinical condition is not doubted when the primary tumor is not found. In cases with poor prognosis , very few patients benefit from surgery. The role of surgery is limited in malign melanoma of gallbladder because of low experience. Different surgical procedures should be applied to primary gallbladder melanoma and metastatic disease. Patients should be evaluated in a multidisciplinary manner with new therapeutic methods. We report here on an unusual case of gallbladder melanoma that was diagnosed by pathological examination in 46-year-old woman.

  15. Confocal microscopy in the diagnosis of melanoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Apostolovi?-Stojanovi? Milica

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Melanoma is the most deadly form of skin cancer of melanocytic origin. The tumor has a high malignant potential and early metastasis. Prognosis is directly linked to the stage of the disease. Diagnosing thin melanoma at an early stage offers patients their best chance for survival. The crucial innovation in the early recognition of melanoma was the development of in vivo examination of the skin in high-resolution, by confocal microscopy. Confocal microscopy and its modifications provides a “virtual biopsy“, owing to melanosomes and melanin, which are a source of endogenous contrast. Confocal scanning laser microscopy (CSLM provides visualization of microanatomical structures and cellular detail in real time (pigmented keratinocytes, melanocytes, melanosomes and melanophages in the epidermis, dermoepidermal junction and superficial dermis at a resolution equivalent to the resolution of conventional microscopes. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 41002

  16. Bioelectric Applications for Treatment of Melanoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beebe, Stephen J., E-mail: sbeebe@odu.edu; Schoenbach, Karl H.; Heller, Richard [Frank Reidy Research Center for Bioelectrics/Old Dominion University 4211 Monarch Way, Suite 300, Norfolk, Virginia 23508 (United States)

    2010-09-27

    Two new cancer therapies apply bioelectric principles. These methods target tumor structures locally and function by applying millisecond electric fields to deliver plasmid DNA encoding cytokines using electrogene transfer (EGT) or by applying rapid rise-time nanosecond pulsed electric fields (nsPEFs). EGT has been used to locally deliver cytokines such as IL-12 to activate an immune response, resulting in bystander effects. NsPEFs locally induce apoptosis-like effects and affect vascular networks, both promoting tumor demise and restoration of normal vascular homeostasis. EGT with IL-12 is in melanoma clinical trials and nsPEFs are used in models with B16F10 melanoma in vitro and in mice. Applications of bioelectrics, using conventional electroporation and extensions of it, provide effective alternative therapies for melanoma.

  17. Bioelectric Applications for Treatment of Melanoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Heller

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Two new cancer therapies apply bioelectric principles. These methods target tumor structures locally and function by applying millisecond electric fields to deliver plasmid DNA encoding cytokines using electrogene transfer (EGT or by applying rapid rise-time nanosecond pulsed electric fields (nsPEFs. EGT has been used to locally deliver cytokines such as IL-12 to activate an immune response, resulting in bystander effects. NsPEFs locally induce apoptosis-like effects and affect vascular networks, both promoting tumor demise and restoration of normal vascular homeostasis. EGT with IL-12 is in melanoma clinical trials and nsPEFs are used in models with B16F10 melanoma in vitro and in mice. Applications of bioelectrics, using conventional electroporation and extensions of it, provide effective alternative therapies for melanoma.

  18. Control of differentiation of melanoma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To develop the method to induce the appearance of differentiation in amelanotic melanoma, experimental control of differentiation in B-16 melanoma cells of mice was discussed. Human melanoma cells and yellow melanin pigment cells useful for a fundamental study of radiotherapy for cancer were cultured and were differentiated into some lines. Melanotic B-16 cells and amelanotic B-16 cells were irradiated with thermal neutron (neutron: 2.7 x 1012, ?-dose: 32.3 rad) after they were cultured in culture solution containing 10 ?/ml of 10B-dopa for 13 hours. A fine structure 5 hours after the irradiation in one of 5 experimental cases showed aggregated disintegration of melanin pigment particles, markedly deformed and fragmentized nucleus, and structural changes in cell membrane. (Tsunoda, M.)

  19. Historia del melanoma maligno en uruguay

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Julio C, Priario.

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available El melanoma maligno ha cobrado notoriedad últimamente en virtud de presentar un incremento en su incidencia durante las últimas décadas, pero ya se habían registrado casos en el siglo XVIII. Hoy se encuentra en el Museo Hunterian de Londres la pieza operatoria de un paciente operado por John Hunter [...] en 1787. A lo largo del siglo XIX varios autores europeos se ocuparon del tema, lo que nos permite decir que el conocimiento científico comienza allí, encontrándose publicaciones en relación con casos clínicos, alguno de los cuales era seguido de autopsia y también encontramos en esas publicaciones los primeros estudios histológicos que permitieron identificar esta entidad nosológica. El primer caso de melanoma publicado en Uruguay fue realizado por el Dr. Brito Foresti en la Revista Médica del Uruguay hace más de 100 años con la denominación de sarcoma melánico. Pero en la segunda mitad del siglo XX y como consecuencia del rápido crecimiento de la incidencia y mortalidad por melanoma, el conocimiento científico se hizo más preciso. En Uruguay se pudo comprobar que al igual que en los países europeos mediterráneos había un aumento de la incidencia, particularmente en mujeres, lo que fue puesto en evidencia por los estudios de la Comisión Honoraria de Lucha contra el Cáncer. Gran preocupación determinó en las autoridades sanitarias mundiales el alto índice de melanomas en Australia y Nueva Zelanda y el aumento no tan importante en Estados Unidos. Esto originó la creación de Grupos de Estudios Cooperativos de los cuales el WHO Melanoma Programme es el que cuenta con el mayor número de miembros, ya que participan 82 grupos oncológicos de 28 países, estando Uruguay representado por el Hospital de Clínicas "Dr. Manuel Quintela", Facultad de Medicina. De los estudios que realizó este grupo surgieron las pautas fundamentales para el diagnóstico y tratamiento del melanoma. Entre estos se debe señalar: 1) la importancia de la profundidad de la lesión (Breslow); 2) la importancia de la ulceración en el pronóstico y tratamiento; 3) la precisión en cuanto a márgenes de resección; 4) el estudio del ganglio centinela; 5) la valoración de las terapéuticas adyuvantes; 6) la prevención primaria y secundaria; 7) la valoración de los estudios genéticos. En todos estos estudios, Uruguay participó activamente aportando sus casos clínicos. Por otra parte, teniendo en cuenta la acción de la radiación ultravioleta en la patogenia del melanoma, se realizaron estudios de esta radiación y del adelgazamiento de la capa de ozono sobre Uruguay por parte de investigadores de la Facultad de Ciencias y del Instituto Nacional de Meteorología. En el Servicio de Oncología Clínica del Hospital de Clínicas "Dr. Manuel Quintela" funciona desde 1971 la Unidad de Melanoma, constituida por los científicos con cuya colaboración se realiza esta publicación Abstract in english Summary Malignant melanoma is increasingly notorious due to a rise of its incidence in the last decades, but there were cases recorded in the XVIII century. There is a surgical specimen in Hunterian Museum of London from a patient operated by John Hunter in 1787. Many European authors published pape [...] rs in the XIX century. Some of them included autopsy and the first histological studies that allowed the identification of this condition. Dr. Brito Foresti published the first case in the Revista Médica del Uruguay one hundred years ago under the name of melanoma sarcoma. In the second half of the XX century, scientific knowledge of melanoma was more precise as a consequence of its incidence and the growth of mortality rates. In Uruguay, as in many Mediterranean countries, there was an increase of its incidence, particularly in women as it was shown by the Honorary Committee against Cancer (Comisión Honoraria de Lucha Contra el Cáncer). The Hospital de Clínicas ‘Dr. Manuel Quintela’ represents the WHO Melanoma Program in Uruguay, a program that account for 82 cancer groups of 28 countries. This programme

  20. Ensemble approach for differentiation of malignant melanoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rastgoo, Mojdeh; Morel, Olivier; Marzani, Franck; Garcia, Rafael

    2015-04-01

    Melanoma is the deadliest type of skin cancer, yet it is the most treatable kind depending on its early diagnosis. The early prognosis of melanoma is a challenging task for both clinicians and dermatologists. Due to the importance of early diagnosis and in order to assist the dermatologists, we propose an automated framework based on ensemble learning methods and dermoscopy images to differentiate melanoma from dysplastic and benign lesions. The evaluation of our framework on the recent and public dermoscopy benchmark (PH2 dataset) indicates the potential of proposed method. Our evaluation, using only global features, revealed that ensembles such as random forest perform better than single learner. Using random forest ensemble and combination of color and texture features, our framework achieved the highest sensitivity of 94% and specificity of 92%.

  1. Current Research and Development of Chemotherapeutic Agents for Melanoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyaw Minn Hsan

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Cutaneous malignant melanoma is the most lethal form of skin cancer and an increasingly common disease worldwide. It remains one of the most treatment-refractory malignancies. The current treatment options for patients with metastatic melanoma are limited and in most cases non-curative. This review focuses on conventional chemotherapeutic drugs for melanoma treatment, by a single or combinational agent approach, but also summarizes some potential novel phytoagents discovered from dietary vegetables or traditional herbal medicines as alternative options or future medicine for melanoma prevention. We explore the mode of actions of these natural phytoagents against metastatic melanoma.

  2. Exome sequencing identifies recurrent somatic RAC1 mutations in melanoma

    OpenAIRE

    Krauthammer, Michael; Kong, Yong; Ha, Byung Hak; Evans, Perry; Bacchiocchi, Antonella; McCusker, James P; Cheng, Elaine; Davis, Matthew J.; Goh, Gerald; Choi, Murim; Ariyan, Stephan; Narayan, Deepak; Dutton-Regester, Ken; Capatana, Ana; Holman, Edna C.

    2012-01-01

    We characterized the mutational landscape of melanoma, the form of skin cancer with the highest mortality rate, by sequencing the exomes of 147 melanomas. Sun-exposed melanomas had markedly more ultraviolet (UV)-like C>T somatic mutations compared to sun-shielded acral, mucosal and uveal melanomas. Among the newly identified cancer genes was PPP6C, encoding a serine/threonine phosphatase, which harbored mutations that clustered in the active site in 12% of sun-exposed melanomas, exclusively i...

  3. MR imaging of hemorrhagic intracerebral metastatic malignant melanoma: case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malignant melanoma is the third most frequent metastatic lesion to the brain. In MR examination we observe three different images corresponding to three types of the metastasis - non-hemorrhagic melanotic melanoma, non-hemorrhagic amelanotic melanoma, and hemorrhagic melanoma. Three percent to 14 % of all brain metastases are hemorrhagic by MR examinations. In the case of major bleeding the MR image of the metastasis may be covered with that of hematoma. The case report points out problems in a differential diagnosis of a solitary pathologic lesions in the brain of the hypertonic patients six years after the extirpation of the malignant melanoma on the back. (authors)

  4. Stereological estimates of nuclear volume in thin malignant melanomas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Björnhagen, V; Månsson-Brahme, E; Lindholm, J; Mattsson, A; Sørensen, Flemming Brandt

    1998-01-01

    Stereological estimation of nuclear volume was performed in a case control study of 72 malignant melanomas, thickness < or = 0.8 mm and Clark's level II-III. However, stereological measurements could be performed in only 57 thin melanomas due to too sparse cellularity. Thus, 21 thin metastasizing...... melanomas were individually compared with 33 thin non-metastasizing melanomas after individual matching of cases with one or two randomly chosen controls for site of primary tumour, tumour thickness, level of invasion, tumour regression and follow-up. Conditional logistic regression analysis showed no...... significant differences in nuclear volume between metastasizing and non-metastasizing thin malignant melanomas....

  5. Malignant Melanoma Arising in Red Tattoo Ink.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joyce, Cormac Weekes; Duff, Gerald; McKenna, Dermot; Regan, Padraic James

    2015-07-01

    We report the case of a 33-year-old male who presented with a malignant melanoma on his anterior chest wall. The lesion was only found in the red ink pigment of the tattoo, as were several in-transit dermal metastases. Possible explanations include a pre-existing lesion which was seeded with red ink or the possibility of the red ink causing an inflammatory reaction leading to malignant transformation. This is the first reported case of a melanoma developing in the red ink pigment of a multi-colored tattoo. PMID:26217569

  6. Metastatic melanoma and vemurafenib: novel approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramon Andrade De Mello

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Metastatic melanoma (MM presents a treatment challenge to oncologists worldwide. Dacarbazine is the first line chemotherapy treatment for MM, though the overall response rates are very poor. Recently, the v-raf murine sarcoma viral oncogene homolog B1 (BRAF V600 mutation was found to play a main role in MM. This mutation is present in 40-60% of melanoma patients. Vemurafenib is a BRAF kinase inhibitor that showed impressive results in phase I-III trials and was thus recently approved for the treatment of MM. This paper will briefly focus on vemurafenib in the treatment of MM and highlight concerns.

  7. [Epibulbar superficial spreading melanoma (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linnen, H J; Hundeiker, M; Tilkorn, H

    1978-07-01

    A report rarely a case of superficial spreading melanoma of the conjunctiva bulbi in a 40-year-old woman. As this kind of tumor is very found at this site, the unusual localisation rendered the differential diagnosis more difficult and delayed the radical operative therapy. After orbitectomy the patient has been free of local metastatic deposits for two years. She is fully rehabilitated by a good epithetis. The course of diagnosis in our case illustrates the necessity of uniform application of the nomenclature of cutaneous forms of melanomas and naevi in ophthalmology. PMID:692043

  8. A rare case of subungual melanoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesh Verma

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A 51-year-old male presented with blackish discoloration of nails of 10 months duration. Examination revealed black dystrophic left thumb finger nail. Detailed examination showed a mass under the dystrophic nail. Hutchinson sign was positive. Histopathology revealed characteristic features of melanoma. A detailed evaluation revealed no features of local or distant metastasis. The entire lesion was then removed surgically along with disarticulation at the interphalangeal joint. Resection-free margin was confirmed. This case is being reported for the rare occurrence of subungual melanoma in the Indian population and also for presentation with a long history of lesion with no evidence of metastasis.

  9. DNA cell cycle studies in uveal melanoma.

    OpenAIRE

    Char, D H

    1988-01-01

    We analyzed the cell cycling status of a group of irradiated and nonirradiated uveal melanomas using BrdUrd techniques. These data demonstrate that melanomas are relatively slow-growing tumors with a few cells actively cycling at a given time. Radiation has a profound effect on the number of cycling cells (P less than .0001). After treatment with either 20 Gy of pre-enucleation photon or 60 Gy or more of helium ion irradiation, virtually no cells are detected in the synthesis phase of the DNA...

  10. Anorectal melanoma: report of two cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remigio, P A; Der, B K; Forsberg, R T

    1976-01-01

    We have described the clinicopathologic findings in two cases of anorectal melanoma, and extracted the salient features from the medical literature. The disease is rare. Melanoma arises from the anal squamous membrane and very often spreads upward through submucosal planes, producing secondary satelites in the rectum. Trauma from defecation, vast lymphatic and venous systems in the anorectal region, and high invasiveness of the tumor cells eviden;ly account for early distant metastases. Histologically, the neoplastic cells often mimic other cancers. Treatment is surgical, with dismal end results. PMID:1084261

  11. An unusual presentation of recurring metastatic melanoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Rose; Vincent, Kira; Abdelrahman, Abd A.; Krishnan, Mridula; Koppala, Jahnavi

    2016-01-01

    A 53-year-old non-distressed Caucasian female complains of dyspnea and palpitations for 5 days. Past medical history includes Stage IV melanoma with adequate resection 23 years prior. The patient suddenly became increasingly tachycardic in mild respiratory distress while maintaining hemodynamic stability. TTE depicted 10.5 × 7.5 × 9.5 cm3 mass within her left ventricle and a large volume of pericardial effusion, which progressed to cardiac tamponade. Pericardial window was performed. Metastatic involvement should be ruled out for all symptomatic patients with a history of melanoma. PMID:26968788

  12. Sarcoidosis in Melanoma Patients: Case Report and Literature Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beutler, Bryce D., E-mail: brycebeutler@hotmail.com [School of Allied Health Sciences, University of Nevada, Las Vegas, 1060 Wiegand Road, Encinitas, CA 92024 (United States); Cohen, Philip R., E-mail: brycebeutler@hotmail.com [Department of Dermatology, University of California San Diego, 10991 Twinleaf Court, San Diego, CA 92131 (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Sarcoidosis is a systemic inflammatory disease characterized by the development of noncaseating granulomas in multiple organ systems. Many hematologic malignancies and solid tumors, including melanoma, have been associated with sarcoidosis. We describe the clinical and pathologic findings of a 54-year-old man with melanoma-associated sarcoidosis. In addition, we not only review the literature describing characteristics of other melanoma patients with sarcoidosis, but also the features of melanoma patients with antineoplastic therapy-associated sarcoidosis. Sarcoidosis has been described in 80 melanoma patients; sufficient information for analysis was provided in 39 of these individuals. In 43.6% of individuals (17 out of 39), sarcoidosis was directly associated with melanoma; in 56.4% of oncologic patients (22 out of 39), sarcoidosis was induced by antineoplastic therapy that had been administered for the treatment of their metastatic melanoma. The discovery of melanoma preceded the development of sarcoidosis in 12 of the 17 (70.5%) individuals who did not receive systemic treatment. Pulmonary and/or cutaneous manifestations of sarcoidosis were common among both groups of patients. Most patients did not require treatment for sarcoidosis. Melanoma patients—either following antineoplastic therapy or without systemic treatment—may be at an increased risk to develop sarcoidosis. In antineoplastic therapy naive melanoma patients, a common etiologic factor—such as exposure to ultraviolet light—may play a role in their developing melanoma and sarcoidosis.

  13. Epidermotropic metastatic melanoma with perilesional depigmentation in an Indian male

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhavana Doshi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Melanoma is a rare form of cutaneous malignancy encountered in the dark skin population. Epidermotropic metastatic melanoma is a rare form of cutaneous metastatic melanoma which can mimic primary melanoma on histopathology. Hence its differentiation is of immense prognostic importance. The occurrence of rim of depigmentation around the primary cutaneous melanoma has previously been reported to portend a bad prognosis. The occurrence of vitiligo like lesions in patients with metastatic melanoma in comparison has a better prognosis. However the occurrence of depigmentation around the secondaries is rare and its importance is not well known. Hence we wish to report a case of epidermotropic metastatic melanoma with perilesional depigmentation in a 78 year old Indian male.

  14. CLINICAL AND MORPHOLOGICAL CONSIDERATIONS IN CUTANEOUS MALIGNANT MELANOMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doinita Radulescu

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available 278 cases of cutaneous malignant melanoma admitted in „Emergency Clinic Hospital” Iasi between 1996-2006 have been described. Our cases showed that cutaneous malignant melanoma prevailed in females, has the highest incidence in the fourth decade, and is mostly located in lower limbs. Malignant melanoma occured on healthy skin (205 cases, congenital nevus (9 cases, preexisting nevus (29 cases, lentigo maligna (14 cases, and as a subungual form (21 cases. Our cases have been classified as lentigo maligna, superficial spreading melanoma, nodular melanoma and as melanoma arising in a giant congenital nevus. The retrospective comparison of our data reveals that in the evaluation of cutaneous malignant melanoma prognosis clinical parameters, as well as morphological ones, reprezented by Clark’s levels of invasion, Breslow’s thickness, tumour infiltrating lymphocytes, ulceration and vascular invasion, should be considered.

  15. Isolation and Molecular Characterization of Circulating Melanoma Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xi Luo

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Melanoma is an invasive malignancy with a high frequency of blood-borne metastases, but circulating tumor cells (CTCs have not been readily isolated. We adapted microfluidic CTC capture to a tamoxifen-driven B-RAF/PTEN mouse melanoma model. CTCs were detected in all tumor-bearing mice and rapidly declined after B-RAF inhibitor treatment. CTCs were shed early from localized tumors, and a short course of B-RAF inhibition following surgical resection was sufficient to dramatically suppress distant metastases. The large number of CTCs in melanoma-bearing mice enabled a comparison of RNA-sequencing profiles with matched primary tumors. A mouse melanoma CTC-derived signature correlated with invasiveness and cellular motility in human melanoma. CTCs were detected in smaller numbers in patients with metastatic melanoma and declined with successful B-RAF-targeted therapy. Together, the capture and molecular characterization of CTCs provide insight into the hematogenous spread of melanoma.

  16. Long-term Survival after Metastatic Childhood Melanoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Anne Kristine; Bybjerg Jensen, Mette; Krag, Christen

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY: Malignant melanoma in children is very rare and accounts for only 1-3% of all melanomas. A congenital melanocytic nevus depending on the size of the lesion is one of the risk factors for developing childhood melanoma because of the possible malignant transformation. Childhood malignant...... melanoma is a potentially fatal disease. Surgical excision is the primary treatment of choice for malignant melanoma. Clinicians need to be aware of the possible malignant transformation in children with congenital melanocytic nevus because early diagnosis and treatment improves prognosis. The suspicion of...... malign melanoma must be in mind when evaluating a pigmented lesion in a pediatric patient. We present a case of a patient born with a congenital nevus diagnosed with metastatic childhood malignant scalp melanoma at the age of 6 years. The patient underwent surgical ablation and reconstruction and has...

  17. Possibilidade de associação de melanoma e acromegalia / Possibility of an association between melanoma and acromegaly

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Carolina Garcia Soares, Leães; Rafael Loch, Batista; Cristina Micheletto, Dallago; Julia Fernanda Semelmann Pereira, Lima; Miriam da Costa, Oliveira.

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Neoplasias como câncer de próstata, mama e cólon estão relacionadas à acromegalia. Raras vezes foi mencionada a associação com melanoma. Descreve-se caso de paciente com acromegalia no qual foi identificada lesão melanocítica suspeita, com posterior confirmação de melanoma. A excisão cirúrgica da le [...] são levou à cura da neoplasia. Chama-se a atenção para a necessidade de exame cuidadoso da pele de pacientes com acromegalia. Abstract in english Neoplasias such as prostate, breast, and colon cancer are commonly associated with acromegaly. However, the association of the latter with melanoma has been rarely mentioned. We describe the case of a patient with acromegaly in whom a suspicious melanocytic lesion was detected, and later confirmed t [...] o be melanoma by means of biopsy. Surgical excision of the lesion led to the cure of the neoplasia. More attention should be drawn to the need for careful skin examination of patients with acromegaly.

  18. Possibilidade de associação de melanoma e acromegalia Possibility of an association between melanoma and acromegaly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Garcia Soares Leães

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Neoplasias como câncer de próstata, mama e cólon estão relacionadas à acromegalia. Raras vezes foi mencionada a associação com melanoma. Descreve-se caso de paciente com acromegalia no qual foi identificada lesão melanocítica suspeita, com posterior confirmação de melanoma. A excisão cirúrgica da lesão levou à cura da neoplasia. Chama-se a atenção para a necessidade de exame cuidadoso da pele de pacientes com acromegalia.Neoplasias such as prostate, breast, and colon cancer are commonly associated with acromegaly. However, the association of the latter with melanoma has been rarely mentioned. We describe the case of a patient with acromegaly in whom a suspicious melanocytic lesion was detected, and later confirmed to be melanoma by means of biopsy. Surgical excision of the lesion led to the cure of the neoplasia. More attention should be drawn to the need for careful skin examination of patients with acromegaly.

  19. Melanoma nodular en borde de pie / Nodular melanoma on foot edge

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Carlos Alberto, Blanco Córdova.

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: el melanoma cutáneo es un tumor maligno originado en los melanocitos, cuya incidencia y mortalidad han aumentado en las últimas décadas. Es la causa más frecuente de muerte entre las enfermedades cutáneas, y responsable del 75% de éstas. La mayoría se originan en la piel sana, sobre un [...] nevo u otros órganos. Es una tumoración de alta agresividad y con tendencia a la metástasis linfática o hemática. El melanoma nodular representa el 15-35% de estos tumores, afectando áreas de piel fotoprotegidas, con fase de crecimiento vertical, lo cual condiciona su comportamiento tan agresivo y peor pronóstico. Presentación del caso: paciente anciana, con lesión tumoral en pie derecho, asintomática, de cuatro años de evolución, con crecimiento rápido en los últimos tres meses. Se realiza diagnóstico clínico-histopatológico, compatible con melanoma nodular. El tratamiento de elección es la extirpación quirúrgica. Conclusiones: el melanoma nodular es un tumor muy agresivo y la supervivencia depende de un diagnóstico precoz, posibilitando la cura de más del 90% de los casos. Abstract in english Introduction: cutaneous melanoma is a malignant tumor originated from melanocytes, whose incidence and mortality rates have increased in recent decades. It is the most common cause of death among skin diseases, and accounts for its 75%. Most of them originate in healthy skin on a nevus or other orga [...] ns. It is a highly aggressive tumor with a tendency to lymphatic or hematogenous metastases. Nodular melanoma accounts for 15 to 35% of these tumors, affecting photo-protected areas of skin, with vertical growth phase, which determines their behavior as aggressive and its worse prognosis. Case report: old patient with right foot tumor injury, asymptomatic, four years of evolution, with rapid growth in the last three months. Clinical and histopathological diagnosis is made, compatible with nodular melanoma. The treatment of choice is surgical removal. Conclusions: nodular melanoma is a very aggressive tumor and survival depends on early diagnosis, allowing the cure of more than 90% of the cases.

  20. Targeting Melanoma Metastasis and Immunosuppression with a New Mode of Melanoma Inhibitory Activity (MIA) Protein Inhibition

    OpenAIRE

    Schmidt, Jennifer; Riechers, Alexander; Stoll, Raphael; Amann, Thomas; Fink, Florian; Spruss, Thilo; Gronwald, Wolfram; König, Burkhard; Hellerbrand, Claus; Bosserhoff, Anja Katrin

    2012-01-01

    Melanoma is the most aggressive form of skin cancer, with fast progression and early dissemination mediated by the melanoma inhibitory activity (MIA) protein. Here, we discovered that dimerization of MIA is required for functional activity through mutagenesis of MIA which showed the correlation between dimerization and functional activity. We subsequently identified the dodecapeptide AR71, which prevents MIA dimerization and thereby acts as a MIA inhibitor. Two-dimensional nuclear magnetic re...

  1. Possibilidade de associação de melanoma e acromegalia Possibility of an association between melanoma and acromegaly

    OpenAIRE

    Carolina Garcia Soares Leães; Rafael Loch Batista; Cristina Micheletto Dallago; Julia Fernanda Semelmann Pereira Lima; Miriam da Costa Oliveira

    2008-01-01

    Neoplasias como câncer de próstata, mama e cólon estão relacionadas à acromegalia. Raras vezes foi mencionada a associação com melanoma. Descreve-se caso de paciente com acromegalia no qual foi identificada lesão melanocítica suspeita, com posterior confirmação de melanoma. A excisão cirúrgica da lesão levou à cura da neoplasia. Chama-se a atenção para a necessidade de exame cuidadoso da pele de pacientes com acromegalia.Neoplasias such as prostate, breast, and colon cancer are commonly assoc...

  2. Hereditary melanoma: Update on syndromes and management: Emerging melanoma cancer complexes and genetic counseling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soura, Efthymia; Eliades, Philip J; Shannon, Kristen; Stratigos, Alexander J; Tsao, Hensin

    2016-03-01

    Recent advances in cancer genomics have enabled the discovery of many cancer-predisposing genes that are being used to classify new familial melanoma/cancer syndromes. In addition to CDKN2A and CDK4, germline variants in TERT, MITF, and BAP1 have been added to the list of genes harboring melanoma-predisposing mutations. These newer entities may have escaped earlier description in part because of more advanced technologies now being used and in part because of their mixed cancer phenotype as opposed to a melanoma-focused syndrome. Dermatologists should be aware of (and be able to recognize) the clinical signs in high-risk patients in different contexts. Personal and family histories of cancer should always be sought in patients with multiple nevi or a positive history for melanoma, and should be updated annually. Various features that are unique to specific disorders, such as the appearance of melanocytic BAP1-mutated atypical intradermal tumors in cases of BAP1 melanoma syndrome, should also be recognized early. These patients should be offered regular screenings with the use of dermoscopy and total body photography, as needed. More importantly, referral to other specialists may be needed if a risk for internal malignancy is suspected. It is important to have in mind that these patients tend to develop multiple melanomas, along with various internal organ malignancies, often at younger ages; a multidisciplinary approach to their cancer screening and treatment is ideal. PMID:26892651

  3. Melanoma and the Unfolded Protein Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sykes, Erin K; Mactier, Swetlana; Christopherson, Richard I

    2016-01-01

    The UPR (unfolded protein response) has been identified as a key factor in the progression and metastasis of cancers, notably melanoma. Several mediators of the UPR are upregulated in cancers, e.g., high levels of GRP78 (glucose-regulator protein 78 kDa) correlate with progression and poor outcome in melanoma patients. The proliferative burden of cancer induces stress and activates several cellular stress responses. The UPR is a tightly orchestrated stress response that is activated upon the accumulation of unfolded proteins within the ER (endoplasmic reticulum). The UPR is designed to mediate two conflicting outcomtes, recovery and apoptosis. As a result, the UPR initiates a widespread signaling cascade to return the cell to homeostasis and failing to achieve cellular recovery, initiates UPR-induced apoptosis. There is evidence that ER stress and subsequently the UPR promote tumourigenesis and metastasis. The complete role of the UPR has yet to be defined. Understanding how the UPR allows for adaption to stress and thereby assists in cancer progression is important in defining an archetype of melanoma pathology. In addition, elucidation of the mechanisms of the UPR may lead to development of effective treatments of metastatic melanoma. PMID:26927180

  4. Measurement techniques for melanoma: a statistical comparison.

    OpenAIRE

    Calder, C J; Campbell, A. P.; Plastow, S R

    1990-01-01

    Inter- and intra-observer variation in measuring the depth of invasion of malignant melanomas was assessed using three different techniques: eye-piece graticule, stage Vernier, and projection image analysis. Significant variation was found for all methods but was least pronounced with the stage Vernier. It is recommended that this should be the preferred technique for routine use.

  5. Mucosal melanoma of the head and neck

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    7 cases of the upper aerodigestive tract primary mucosal malignant melanoma were observed by the authors. They emphasized that characteristic black pigmentation was rarely seen. Diagnosis was made on a base of the histopathological examination. The combined treatment is the method of choice-radical surgery, followed by radiotherapy. (author)

  6. Primary Malignant Melanoma of the Nasal Cavity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chin-Yew Lin

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available Malignant melanoma is a highly lethal melanocytic neoplasm, usually affecting theskin. Primary malignant melanoma of the nasal cavity is rarely seen. Clinically, mostpatients display initial nonspecific symptoms of unilateral nasal obstruction or epistaxis.The prognosis is generally poor, with a mean survival time of 3.5 years. Extensive localinvasion and distant metastasis to other organs may occur. The usual treatment of choice isradical excision. Radiotherapy and chemotherapy appear to have little effect. We report afatal case of intranasal cavity malignant melanoma in which the patient initially presentedwith blood-tinged sputum, productive cough, and intermittent fever. Preoperative hepaticmetastasis was found. Palliative surgery was performed to excise the nasal cavity tumor.Then, 6 courses of chemotherapy were further administered. Unfortunately, regional cervicalnodal involvement and pancreatic head metastases occurred 1.5 years after the diagnosis.The patient's condition rapidly deteriorated, followed by death. We have chosen to discussthis aggressive condition because of its rarity and also to emphasize the importance of itsearly detection through vigilant attention to nonspecific nasal symptoms. A review of theliterature concerning intranasal malignant melanoma is presented. We further discuss itspossible etiology, site of origin, incidence, clinical presentations, principles of management,and outcome.

  7. CURRENT CONCEPTS IN THERAPY OF UVEAL MELANOMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Detanac Dzenana

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available There has been significant progress made in the diagnosis and treatment of the primary uveal melanoma during the past decades and despite that, survival rate of uveal melanoma patients is still stable. Treatment options for uveal melanoma include phototherapy, brachytherapy, proton beam therapy, stereotactic radiotherapy, local resection, anti-angiogenic therapy, immunotherapy, and enucleation. Genetic analysis of tumors provides us with valuable prognostic information although effective therapies are lacking at this moment. It is not established yet whether prolonged survival is the result of treatment or whether it merely reflects earlier detection of metastases. Also, there are indications that survival after treatment of uveal melanoma probably does not depend on the method of treatment but rather on many clinical, histological and genetic risk factors. New studies are needed to provide a better understanding of of ocular treatment impact on survival in patients whose prognosis can be estimated according to the clinical stage, histological grade and genetic type. Therefore, the patients should be treated in experienced multi-disciplinary teams that must include these patients in clinical trial.

  8. Gamma knife therapy for intraocular melanomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gamma knife radiosurgery developed by Lars Leksell for the treatment of brain tumors is useful for the treatment of uveal melanomas due to its unique physical features. It allows the delivery of a high single dose with minimum involvement of the surrounding tissue. Encouraged by first positive results by Chinela, Zambrano and Bunge we adopted the procedure for the treatment of uveal melanomas. A multi centric trial in accordance with gamma knife procedure is performed in 4 steps: 1. Fixation of the globe with a retrobulbar anaesthetic block. 2. Stereotactic location of the tumor by CT. 3. Calculation of the isodoses. 4. Radiosurgical procedure. Between June 1992 and February 1993 we treated 6 uveal melanomas with the Leksell gamma knife together with the Department of Neurosurgery and the Institute of Radiotherapy. In 5 out of 6 cases gamma knife therapy could stop further tumor growth. In one case of a juxtapapillary melanoma a reduction of tumor height from 8 to 4 mm could be achieved: early side effects like serous retinal detachment resolving spontaneously after 4 months and hemorrhage at the base of the tumor were remarkable in this patient. According to our first encouraging results treatment with the Leksell Gamma Knife seems to be an alternative therapeutic modality in larger tumors or those located at the posterior pole but definite conclusions about the efficiency of this new therapeutic procedure can only be drawn once. A larger number of patients will have been observed after a longer follow up period. (author)

  9. Cutaneous malignant melanoma in Northern Ireland.

    OpenAIRE

    Pedlow, P. J.; Walsh, M. Y.; Patterson, C.C.; Atkinson, R. J.; Lowry, W S

    1997-01-01

    The results of two 5-year studies, for 1974-78 and 1984-88, of cutaneous malignant melanoma (CMM) in Northern Ireland show changes in the presentation of the disease. Although there is some evidence of earlier diagnosis, the rise in incidence has produced an overall increase in the number of cases with advanced disease.

  10. Testing Adjuvant Ipilimumab in Advanced Melanoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this clinical trial, patients with stage III or stage IV melanoma that has been completely resected will be randomly assigned to receive post-surgical treatment with either ipilimumab or high-dose interferon alfa-2b, the current standard of care.

  11. Instantánea del melanoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Información sobre las tendencias de incidencia, mortalidad y financiamiento del NCI sobre el melanoma; así como ejemplos de actividades del NCI y adelantos en la investigación de este tipo de cáncer.

  12. Cerebral MR imaging of malignant melanoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melanoma is the third leading cancer entity to metastasize to the central nervous system (CNS) after lung and breast cancer. This is often an early event in the disease course and limits survival. Metastasis in the CNS is the cause of death in 10-40 % of melanoma patients and the incidence of brain metastasis is even higher (50-75 %). Cerebral metastases are commonly found in the subcortical white matter. The signal characteristics can vary substantially and may change over time due to hemorrhages or the accumulation of melanin and paramagnetic ions. It is not yet clear whether novel targeted therapies (e.g. immunotherapy and kinase inhibitors) alter imaging characteristics. Also immune-related side effects, such as hypophysitis (in approximately 5 % of patients receiving ipilimumab therapy) or granulomatous disease (neurosarcoid) can occur. Melanoma metastases are usually hyperdense in computed tomography (CT). In magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) T2-weighted (T2-w) fluid-attentuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) and T1-w sequences (with and without i.v. contrast) should be obtained. Coronal and axial imaging planes should be scanned to cross-correlate findings. Susceptibility-weighted imaging is a new sensitive method to detect melanoma metastases. Approximately 66 % of melanoma metastases show intratumoral susceptibility signals (ITSS). This sets them apart from other metastases (e.g. lung and breast cancer show less ITSSs, specificity approximately 81-96 %). Diffusion imaging plays no major role in melanoma brain imaging. Susceptibility-weighted imaging increases the sensitivity to detect metastases but lacks specificity. Differentiating metastases, microbleeding or calcification can be impossible. It is controversial how to interpret susceptibility signals without correlative signs on other sequences (differential diagnosis: metastasis, microbleeding and calcification). CNS metastases are common in melanoma. MRI screening starting in stage IIc should be considered even in asymptomatic patients. Stage IV requires quarterly MRI examinations. Melanotic and amelanotic metastases show different MRI characteristics. The differentiation between metastasis and microbleeding can be impossible and might require a follow-up scan. Susceptibility-weighted imaging increases the sensitivity of metastases detection but lacks specificity. It can help to differentiate between different metastatic entities. (orig.)

  13. High nevus counts confer a favorable prognosis in melanoma patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribero, Simone; Davies, John R; Requena, Celia; Carrera, Cristina; Glass, Daniel; Rull, Ramon; Vidal-Sicart, Sergi; Vilalta, Antonio; Alos, Lucia; Soriano, Virtudes; Quaglino, Pietro; Traves, Victor; Newton-Bishop, Julia A; Nagore, Eduardo; Malvehy, Josep; Puig, Susana; Bataille, Veronique

    2015-10-01

    A high number of nevi is the most significant phenotypic risk factor for melanoma and is in part genetically determined. The number of nevi decreases from middle age onward but this senescence can be delayed in patients with melanoma. We investigated the effects of nevus number count on sentinel node status and melanoma survival in a large cohort of melanoma cases. Out of 2,184 melanoma cases, 684 (31.3%) had a high nevus count (>50). High nevus counts were associated with favorable prognostic factors such as lower Breslow thickness, less ulceration and lower mitotic rate, despite adjustment for age. Nevus count was not predictive of sentinel node status. The crude 5- and 10-year melanoma-specific survival rate was higher in melanomas cases with a high nevus count compared to those with a low nevus count (91.2 vs. 86.4% and 87.2 vs. 79%, respectively). The difference in survival remained significant after adjusting for all known melanoma prognostic factors (hazard ratio [HR]?=?0.43, confidence interval [CI]?=?0.21-0.89). The favorable prognostic value of a high nevus count was also seen within the positive sentinel node subgroup of patients (HR?=?0.22, CI?=?0.08-0.60). High nevus count is associated with a better melanoma survival, even in the subgroup of patients with positive sentinel lymph node. This suggests a different biological behavior of melanoma tumors in patients with an excess of nevi. PMID:25809795

  14. Lymphoscintigraphy as a guide to treatment in malignant melanoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Regional node dissection is practiced as a measure of prophylaxis in patients with stage I and II malignant melanoma. Although the drainage pattern of the extremities is obvious, in the head and neck and trunk it may be ambiguous. We have used lymphoscintigraphy to assist in delineating the lymphatic drainage in 22 patients with primary malignant melanoma. Fourteen patients had melanoma in the head and neck region, and eight had melanoma in the trunk region. Based on Clark's classification there were ten level III melanomas, eight level IV melanomas, and two level V melanomas; the levels of the remaining two melanomas were unspecified. Seven melanomas were between 0.76 and 1.5-mm thick, eleven were between 1.51 and 4.0-mm thick, and two were over 4.0-mm thick (the remaining two were unspecified). Regional nodes were clinically negative in 18 patients. The scan distribution was unexpected in 13 patients (59%), and it influenced the surgical procedure in 11 patients (50%). No patient incurred an adverse effect from the scan. We conclude that lymphoscintigraphy may be of value in guiding prophylactic lymph node dissection in melanoma patients

  15. Immunohistochemical Analysis of Collagen IV and Laminin Expression in Spontaneous Melanoma Regression in the Melanoma-Bearing Libechov Minipig

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spontaneous regression (SR) of human melanoma is a rare, well-documented phenomenon that is not still fully understood. Its detailed study cannot be performed in patients due to ethical reasons. Using the Melanoma-bearing Libechov Minipig (MeLiM) animals of various ages (from 3 weeks to 8 months) we implemented a long-term monitoring of melanoma growth and SR. We focused on immunohistochemical detection of two important extracellular matrix proteins, collagen IV and laminin, which are associated with cancer. We showed that SR of melanoma is a highly dynamic process. The expression of collagen IV and laminin correlated with changes in population of melanoma cells. Tumours of 3-week-old animals consisted primarily of melanoma cells with a granular expression of collagen IV and laminin around them. Thereafter, melanoma cells were gradually destroyed and tumour tissue was rebuilt into the connective tissue. Collagen IV expression slightly increased in tumours of 10-week-old pigs showing extracellular fibrous appearance. In tumours of older animals, areas lacking melanoma cells demonstrated a low expression and areas still containing melanoma cells a high expression of both proteins. We considered the age of 10 weeks as a turning point in the transition between tumour growth and SR of the MeLiM melanoma

  16. Ability to self-detect malignant melanoma decreases with age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trolle, L; Henrik-Nielsen, R

    2011-01-01

    The prognosis of malignant melanoma depends on the thickness of the tumour. In this study, we analysed the trends in Breslow thickness in 63 patients referred to our institution, a tertiary dermatology referral centre. The mean thickness of melanoma was 0.31 mm, which was lower than the national average of 1.10 mm. There was a significant trend towards increased melanoma thickness with increasing age, with a rate of 0.24 mm (95% CI 0.12-0.37) for each additional 10 years of age above the age of 20 years. This trend was only apparent in cases of self-diagnosed melanomas; the thickness of tumours diagnosed by a dermatologist did not show any dependence on patient age. As the mortality from melanoma increases with age, this study suggests that dermatologists should include older people in screening programmes for melanoma.

  17. Malignant melanoma showing a rapid response to nivolumab.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsutsumi, Miho; Asai, Jun; Wada, Makoto; Takenaka, Hideya; Katoh, Norito

    2016-02-01

    Malignant melanoma is a highly aggressive skin tumour, with a recent rise in incidence. Nivolumab is a recently developed anti-programmed cell death-1 immune checkpoint inhibitor and its usage has resulted in a significant improvement in the overall survival of patients with metastatic melanomas. We report a case of advanced melanoma that showed a significant and rapid response to nivolumab treatment. The patient displayed multiple melanoma-associated vitiligo prior to treatment; this symptom was theorised to indicate potentially immunoreactive melanoma and the need for nivolumab. In addition, interferon-? was injected prior to nivolumab treatment. The significant rapid response to nivolumab suggested the induction of a marked immune response against melanoma by interferon-?. Therefore, interferon-? could be a useful and effective adjuvant for nivolumab therapy. PMID:25854419

  18. Genetics of familial melanoma : 20 years after CDKN2A

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aoude, Lauren G; Wadt, Karin A W

    2015-01-01

    Twenty years ago, the first familial melanoma susceptibility gene, CDKN2A, was identified. Two years later, another high-penetrance gene, CDK4, was found to be responsible for melanoma development in some families. Progress in identifying new familial melanoma genes was subsequently slow; however, with the advent of next-generation sequencing, a small number of new high-penetrance genes have recently been uncovered. This approach has identified the lineage-specific oncogene MITF as a susceptibility gene both in melanoma families and in the general population, as well as the discovery of telomere maintenance as a key pathway underlying melanoma predisposition. Given these rapid recent advances, this approach seems likely to continue to pay dividends. Here, we review the currently known familial melanoma genes, providing evidence that most additionally confer risk to other cancers, indicating that they are likely general tumour suppressor genes or oncogenes, which has significant implications for surveillance and screening.

  19. Ability to self-detect malignant melanoma decreases with age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trolle, L; Henrik-Nielsen, R; Gniadecki, R

    2011-01-01

    The prognosis of malignant melanoma depends on the thickness of the tumour. In this study, we analysed the trends in Breslow thickness in 63 patients referred to our institution, a tertiary dermatology referral centre. The mean thickness of melanoma was 0.31 mm, which was lower than the national...... average of 1.10 mm. There was a significant trend towards increased melanoma thickness with increasing age, with a rate of 0.24 mm (95% CI 0.12-0.37) for each additional 10 years of age above the age of 20 years. This trend was only apparent in cases of self-diagnosed melanomas; the thickness of tumours...... diagnosed by a dermatologist did not show any dependence on patient age. As the mortality from melanoma increases with age, this study suggests that dermatologists should include older people in screening programmes for melanoma....

  20. DMBT1 expression distinguishes anorectal from cutaneous melanoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helmke, Burkhard Maria; Renner, Marcus; Poustka, Annemarie; Schirmacher, Peter; Mollenhauer, Jan; Kern, Michael André

    2009-01-01

    AIMS: Anorectal melanoma (AM) forms a rare but highly malignant subset of mucosal melanoma with an extremely poor prognosis. Although AMs display histological and immunohistochemical features very similar to cutaneous melanoma (CM), no association exists either with exposure to ultraviolet light or...... malignant brain tumours 1 (DMBT1) in cases of primary anorectal malignant melanoma and CM. METHODS AND RESULTS: Expression analyses of classical immunohistochemical markers (S100, HMB45, Melan A and MiTF) and of the protein DMBT1 were carried out in 27 cases of primary anorectal malignant melanoma and 26...... cases of CM. All AM cases analysed showed expression of at least three of the classical markers for melanoma. However, immunohistochemistry showed 19 out of 27 AM to be positive for DMBT1, which represented a statistically significant difference (P = 0.0009) compared with CM (six out of 26), which more...

  1. Docetaxel in Combination with Dacarbazine in Patients with Advanced Melanoma

    OpenAIRE

    Bafaloukos, D.; Aravantinos, G.; Fountzilas, G.; Stathopoulos, G.; Gogas, H.; Samonis, G; Briasoulis, E.; Mylonakis, N.; Skarlos, D. V.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: The number of agents that are active in patients with metastatic melanoma is limited and cure is not a realistic objective for treatment at this stage. The aim of the study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of new combination regimen cosisting of docetaxel and dacarbazine (DTIC), as first-line chemotherapy, in patients with advanced melanoma. Patients and Methods: Patients with advanced melanoma (including cerebral metastases) were eligible. Docetaxel 80 mg/m2, i.v. over 1 h...

  2. Nivolumab in Previously Untreated Melanoma without BRAF Mutation

    OpenAIRE

    Robert, Caroline; Long, Georgina V.; Brady, Benjamin; Dutriaux, Caroline; Maio, Michele; Mortier, Laurent; Hassel, Jessica C.; RUTKOWSKI, PIOTR; Mcneil, Catriona; Kalinka-Warzocha, Ewa; Savage, Kerry J; Hernberg, Micaela M.; Lebbe, Celeste; Charles, Julie; Mihalcioiu, Catalin

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Nivolumab was associated with higher rates of objective response than chemotherapy in a phase 3 study involving patients with ipilimumab-refractory metastatic melanoma. The use of nivolumab in previously untreated patients with advanced melanoma has not been tested in a phase 3 controlled study. METHODS We randomly assigned 418 previously untreated patients who had metastatic melanoma without a BRAF mutation to receive nivolumab (at a dose of 3 mg per kilogram of body weight every ...

  3. Ambulatory Melanoma Care Patterns in the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Ji, Andrew L.; Michael R. Baze; Scott A. Davis; Feldman, Steven R.; Fleischer, Alan B.

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To examine trends in melanoma visits in the ambulatory care setting. Methods. Data from the National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey (NAMCS) from 1979 to 2010 were used to analyze melanoma visit characteristics including number of visits, age and gender of patients, and physician specialty. These data were compared to US Census population estimates during the same time period. Results. The overall rate of melanoma visits increased (P < 0.0001) at an apparently higher rate than the i...

  4. Nivolumab in previously untreated melanoma without BRAF mutation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Robert, Caroline; Long, Georgina V; Brady, Benjamin; Dutriaux, Caroline; Maio, Michele; Mortier, Laurent; Hassel, Jessica C; Rutkowski, Piotr; McNeil, Catriona; Kalinka-Warzocha, Ewa; Savage, Kerry J; Hernberg, Micaela M; Lebbé, Celeste; Charles, Julie; Mihalcioiu, Catalin; Chiarion-Sileni, Vanna; Mauch, Cornelia; Cognetti, Francesco; Arance, Ana; Schmidt, Henrik; Schadendorf, Dirk; Gogas, Helen; Lundgren-Eriksson, Lotta; Horak, Christine; Sharkey, Brian; Waxman, Ian M; Atkinson, Victoria; Ascierto, Paolo A

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Nivolumab was associated with higher rates of objective response than chemotherapy in a phase 3 study involving patients with ipilimumab-refractory metastatic melanoma. The use of nivolumab in previously untreated patients with advanced melanoma has not been tested in a phase 3 controlled study. METHODS: We randomly assigned 418 previously untreated patients who had metastatic melanoma without a BRAF mutation to receive nivolumab (at a dose of 3 mg per kilogram of body weight every 2...

  5. Effective Treatment of Multiple Unresectable Skin Melanoma Metastases by Electrochemotherapy

    OpenAIRE

    Snoj, Marko; Cemazar, Maja; Slekovec Kolar, Breda; Sersa, Gregor

    2007-01-01

    Multiple unresectable melanoma skin metastases pose a treatment problem, especially in centers where isolated limb perfusion is not available. We report the case of a 59-year-old woman who developed multiple small unresectable cutaneous melanoma metastases on the thigh after her lower limb was amputated. Electrochemotherapy with bleomycin resulted in good local control of the disease, with a complete response of the treated melanoma nodules (224 tumor nodules) after 4 treatment sessions. Comp...

  6. In vitro cellular radiosensitivity of human malignant melanoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The agar diffusion chamber assay was used to construct in vitro radiation cell survival curves for two human malignant melanoma xenografts. Both tumors had survival curves of shoulder-exponential shape with large shoulders (Dq 2.38, 2.92 Gy). Comparison with previous studies of 4 human tumor xenografts in the same system suggests that large shoulders are more common in melanomas than other tumor types. This supports the case for large fraction irradiation in the clinical therapy of melanoma

  7. Associations between environmental factors and incidence of cutaneous melanoma. Review

    OpenAIRE

    Volkovova Katarina; Bilanicova Dagmar; Bartonova Alena; Letašiová Silvia; Dusinska Maria

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Cutaneous melanoma is one of the most serious skin cancers. It is caused by neural crest-derived melanocytes - pigmented cells normally present in the epidermis and, sometimes, in the dermis. Methods We performed a review of current knowledge on the risk factors of cutaneous melanoma. Relevant studies were identified using the PubMed, Science Direct, Medline, Scopus, Scholar Google and ISI Web of Knowledge databases. Results Melanoma incurs a considerable public health bur...

  8. Confirmation of chromosome 9p linkage in familial melanoma

    OpenAIRE

    Nancarrow, Derek J.; Mann, Graham J; Holland, Elizabeth A; Walker, Graeme J; Beaton, Sharon C.; Walters, Marilyn K.; Luxford, Catherine; Palmer, Jane M.; Donald, Jennifer A.; Weber, James L.; Fountain, Jane W.; Kefford, Richard F.; Hayward, Nicholas K.

    1993-01-01

    Malignant melanoma occurs as a familial cancer in 5%–10% of cases where it segregates in a manner consistent with autosomal dominant inheritance. Evidence from cytogenetics, fine-mapping studies of deletions in melanomas, and recent linkage studies supports the location of a human melanoma predisposition gene on the short arm of chromosome 9. We have carried out linkage analysis using the 9p markers IFNA and D9S126 in 26 Australian melanoma kindreds. Multipoint analysis gave a peak lod score ...

  9. Prognosis of thin cutaneous head and neck melanoma (

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, A P; Dahlstrøm, Karin Kjærgaard; Drzewiecki, K T

    1996-01-01

    Thin malignant melanomas, i.e. tumours less than 1 mm, are generally considered to have a good prognosis. The records of 148 patients with thin invasive melanomas located to the head and neck region were reviewed. All patients were followed for the excision of the primary tumour until death, or the...... these 16 patients (75%) died of disseminated melanoma. We conclude that thin head and neck melanomas do not necessarily carry an excellent prognosis. Prognosis is not dependent upon tumour thickness when less than 1.00 mm....

  10. Application of black salve to a thin melanoma that subsequently progressed to metastatic melanoma: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivyer, Graham W; Rosendahl, Cliff

    2014-07-01

    This is a case study of a female patient diagnosed with superficial spreading melanoma who decided to treat the lesion by the application of a preparation known as black salve. Persistence of the melanoma was documented five years later with subsequent evidence of metastatic spread to the regional lymph nodes, lungs, liver, subcutaneous tissues and musculature. A literature search has revealed one other case study of the use of black salve for the treatment of melanoma. PMID:25126466

  11. Application of black salve to a thin melanoma that subsequently progressed to metastatic melanoma: a case study

    OpenAIRE

    Sivyer, Graham W.; Rosendahl, Cliff

    2014-01-01

    This is a case study of a female patient diagnosed with superficial spreading melanoma who decided to treat the lesion by the application of a preparation known as black salve. Persistence of the melanoma was documented five years later with subsequent evidence of metastatic spread to the regional lymph nodes, lungs, liver, subcutaneous tissues and musculature. A literature search has revealed one other case study of the use of black salve for the treatment of melanoma.

  12. Ultraviolet exposure of melanoma cells induces fibroblast activation protein-alpha in fibroblasts: Implications for melanoma invasion

    OpenAIRE

    Wäster, Petra; Rosdahl, Inger; Gilmore, Brendan F.; Seifert, Oliver

    2011-01-01

    Fibroblast activation protein-alpha (FAP-alpha) promotes tumor growth and cell invasiveness through extracellular matrix degradation. How ultraviolet radiation (UVR), the major risk factor for malignant melanoma, influences the expression of FAP-alpha is unknown. We examined the effect of UVR on FAP-alpha expression in melanocytes, keratinocytes and fibroblasts from the skin and in melanoma cells. UVR induces upregulation of FAP-alpha in fibroblasts, melanocytes and primary melanoma cells (PM...

  13. Prenylation Inhibition-Induced Cell Death in Melanoma: Reduced Sensitivity in BRAF Mutant/PTEN Wild-Type Melanoma Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Garay, Tamás; Kenessey, István; Molnár, Eszter; Juhász, Éva; Réti, Andrea; László, Viktória; Rózsás, Anita; Dobos, Judit; Döme, Balázs; Berger, Walter; Klepetko, Walter; Tóvári, József; Tímár, József; Heged?s, Balázs

    2015-01-01

    While targeted therapy brought a new era in the treatment of BRAF mutant melanoma, therapeutic options for non-BRAF mutant cases are still limited. In order to explore the antitumor activity of prenylation inhibition we investigated the response to zoledronic acid treatment in thirteen human melanoma cell lines with known BRAF, NRAS and PTEN mutational status. Effect of zoledronic acid on proliferation, clonogenic potential, apoptosis and migration of melanoma cells as well as the activation ...

  14. [Metastatic melanoma of low Breslow thickness].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hundeiker, M; Lippold, A; Peters, A

    1997-03-01

    We treated 8123 patients with invasive malignant melanoma were treated up to 1995. 2200 had invasive melanomas with less than 0.75 mm Breslow thickness; of these, 45 developed metastases. Three had second primary tumors with greater thickness. One case showed metastasis from another tumor. In two cases the metastases were not ascertained histologically. The remaining 39 cases showed some peculiarities: a greater proportion of late and of internal (as contrasted to regional) metastases. Most of these primary tumors had a Breslow thickness of more than 0.5 mm and were Clark level III or even IV. Male patients and primary tumor sites in the area of head and neck were significantly over-represented. PMID:9182087

  15. Upcoming translational challenges for uveal melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabil, Amirouchene-Angelozzi; Marie, Schoumacher; Marc-Henri, Stern; Nathalie, Cassoux; Laurence, Desjardins; Sophie, Piperno-Neumann; Olivier, Lantz; Sergio, Roman-Roman

    2015-11-01

    The past few years have witnessed major advances in the understanding of the molecular landscape of uveal melanoma (UM). The discovery of a mutational background that is completely different from the one of skin melanoma has granted to UM a stand-alone status. The absence of effective therapy for metastatic disease offers now a chessboard for targeted therapy but at the same time urges preclinical science to develop accordingly, to guide the use of economical resources to the best profit of patients. This review describes the current knowledge on the biology of this disease and discusses the challenges that must be undertaken to translate this knowledge into real benefit for patients. PMID:26505679

  16. Positron emission tomography and malignant melanoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malignant melanoma imaging is important for initial staging and follow-up of the patient. Using positron emission tomography (PET) with 2-Fluoro-2-D-Glucose (FDG) the whole body can be imaged in one session, which is an advantage because of unpredictable pattern of distant metastases. FDG is strongly taken up into melanoma cells. When using a dedicated PET camera a high spatial resolution of 5-7 mm can be reached and, thus, occult metastases can be detected. However, PET gives only little anatomic information. Further. Furthermore, false positive findings due to inflammation, Warthin's tumor and synovitis and false negative findings due to very small metastases (smaller than the resolution of the camera system) or adjacent to regions with high FDG uptake (brain, urinary tract) are possible. FDG PET is more sensitive, more accurate, and more cost-effective than other conventional radiologic techniques and, therefore, can replace morphologic imaging. (author)

  17. Sun behaviour after cutaneous malignant melanoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Idorn, L W; Datta, P; Heydenreich, J; Philipsen, P A; Wulf, H C

    2013-01-01

    Background  It has been reported that patients with cutaneous malignant melanoma (CMM) can lower their risk of a second primary melanoma by limiting recreational sun exposure. Previous studies based on questionnaires and objective surrogate measurements indicate that before their diagnosis......, patients with CMM are exposed to higher ultraviolet radiation (UVR) doses than controls, followed by a reduction after diagnosis. Objectives  In a prospective, observational case-control study, we aimed to assess sun exposure after diagnosis of CMM by objective measurements to substantiate advice about sun...... behaviour. Methods  The study population consisted of 24 patients recently diagnosed with CMM during the 7 months preceding the start of the study; 51 controls who matched these recently diagnosed patients in age, sex, occupation and constitutive skin type; and 29 patients diagnosed with CMM between 12...

  18. Iodine-125 radiation of posterior uveal melanoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Packer, S.

    1987-12-01

    Twenty-eight cases of posterior choroidal melanoma were treated with iodine-125 in gold eye plaques. Eleven cases were located within 3.0 mm of the optic nerve (group A), nine were within 3.0 mm of the fovea (group B), and eight were within 3.0 mm of the optic nerve and fovea (group C). The mean follow-up of group A was 46.3 months; group B, 25.5 months; and group C, 42.7 months. Complications included macular edema, cataract and tumor growth. Visual acuity remained within two lines of that tested preoperatively for 4 of 11 patients in group A, 4 of 9 in group B, and 5 of 8 in group C. These results with iodine-125 suggest it as an appropriate treatment for patients with choroidal melanoma located near optic nerve and/or macula.

  19. Iodine-125 radiation of posterior uveal melanoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Twenty-eight cases of posterior choroidal melanoma were treated with iodine-125 in gold eye plaques. Eleven cases were located within 3.0 mm of the optic nerve (group A), nine were within 3.0 mm of the fovea (group B), and eight were within 3.0 mm of the optic nerve and fovea (group C). The mean follow-up of group A was 46.3 months; group B, 25.5 months; and group C, 42.7 months. Complications included macular edema, cataract and tumor growth. Visual acuity remained within two lines of that tested preoperatively for 4 of 11 patients in group A, 4 of 9 in group B, and 5 of 8 in group C. These results with iodine-125 suggest it as an appropriate treatment for patients with choroidal melanoma located near optic nerve and/or macula

  20. Melanoma maligno em búfalos (Bubalus bubalis albinos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cecília Florisbal Damé

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Descrevem-se melanomas múltiplos em dois búfalos albinos da raça Murrah no Sul do Brasil. Macroscopicamente havia múltiplos tumores enegrecidos no músculo esquelético, pulmões, linfonodos, saco pericárdio, cápsula renal, mediastino e pleura. Microscopicamente foram observadas células epitelióides poliédricas dispostas em ninhos sólidos ou fascículos entrelaçados sustentadas por um estroma colagenoso fino e esparso. O citoplasma era eosinofílico e por vezes continham quantidades variáveis de pigmento de melanina. A taxa de mitose foi baixa. Na imuno-histoquímica houve imunomarcação positiva utilizando anticorpo anti-tirosinase, anti-Melan-A, anti-vimentina, anti-proteína S-100 e antineurofilamento. É possível que o polimorfismo relacionado com o gene da pigmentação em búfalos albinos tenha contribuído para o maior risco de desenvolvimento de melanomas, como foi sugerido em humanos.

  1. Transgenic mouse model for skin malignant melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, M; Takahashi, M; Akhand, A A; Liu, W; Dai, Y; Shimizu, S; Iwamoto, T; Suzuki, H; Nakashima, I

    1998-10-01

    We report here on a novel metallothionein-I (MT)/ret transgenic mouse line in which skin melanosis, benign melanocytic tumor and malignant melanoma metastasizing to distant organs develop stepwise. The process of tumor development and its malignant transformation in this line may resemble that of the human giant congenital melanocytic nevus that is present at birth and that frequently gives rise to malignant melanoma during aging. We observed an increase in the expression level and activity of the ret transgene during the disease progression. That increase in transgene expression accompanied an activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) and c-Jun as well as matrix metalloproteinases. These results suggest that progressive dysregulation of the expression level of the ret transgene might play a crucial role in the malignant transformation of melanocytic tumors developed in the MT/ret transgenic mouse line. PMID:9778055

  2. CDC Vital Signs-Preventing Melanoma

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-06-02

    This podcast is based on the June 2015 CDC Vital Signs report. Skin cancer is the most common form of cancer in the U.S. In 2011, there were more than 65,000 cases of melanoma, the most deadly form of skin cancer. Learn how everyone can help prevent skin cancer.  Created: 6/2/2015 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 6/2/2015.

  3. Readability of online patient resources for melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Ahmed M S; Vargas, Christina R; Koolen, Pieter G L; Chuang, Danielle J; Lin, Samuel J; Lee, Bernard T

    2016-02-01

    Medical information is often difficult for patients to understand. With specialized vocabulary and complex pathophysiology, even well-educated adults have trouble interpreting information about their healthcare. The average American adult reads at a seventh-grade level. In light of the inherent complexity of health information, the American Medical Association and National Institutes of Health have recommended that information for patients should be written at a sixth-grade level. The goal of this study was to evaluate the most commonly used online patient resources about melanoma in the context of these recommendations. A web search for 'melanoma' identified the 10 most-accessed websites. Location filters were disabled and sponsored results were excluded to avoid inadvertent search bias. All relevant, patient-directed articles were downloaded and formatted into plain text. Pictures, videos, links, advertisements, and references were removed. Readability analysis was carried out using 10 established tests, both overall and arranged by parent website for comparison. A total of 130 articles for melanoma information were identified. The overall mean reading grade level was 12.6. All sites exceeded the recommended sixth-grade level. Secondary analysis of articles grouped by website indicated a range of readability across sites from 9.9 (high school freshman) to 14.9 (university sophomore). Online patient resources for melanoma uniformly exceed the recommended reading level and may be too difficult for many Americans to understand. The range of readability among websites may indicate an opportunity for physicians to direct patients to more appropriate resources for their level of health literacy. PMID:26479217

  4. Utility of adjuvant systemic therapy in melanoma

    OpenAIRE

    Eggermont, Alexander,; Testori, Alessandro; Marsden, J.; Hersey, Peter; Quirt, Ian; Petrella, T.; Gogas, Helen; Mackie, R.M.; Hauschild, Axel

    2009-01-01

    The lack of effective drugs in stage IV melanoma has impacted the effectiveness of adjuvant therapies in stage II/III disease. To date, chemotherapy, immunostimulants and vaccines have been used with minimal success. Interferon (IFN) has shown an effect on relapse-free survival (RFS) in several clinical trials; however, without a clinically significant effect on overall survival (OS). A recently conducted meta-analysis demonstrated prolongation of disease-free survival (DFS) in 7% and OS bene...

  5. IFN-? in the Treatment of Melanoma

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmad A Tarhini; Gogas, Helen; Kirkwood, John M

    2012-01-01

    Among the IFNs, IFN-?2 has been the most broadly evaluated clinically. At the molecular level, IFN-a has multiple effects in a variety of malignancies that range from antiangiogenic to potent immunoregulatoiy, differentiation-inducing, antiproliferative, and proapoptotic effects. A multitude of IFN-?2 regimens that may be classified as low dose, intermediate dose, and high dose have been evaluated as adjuvant therapy in melanoma. A durable impact on both relapse-free and overall survival was ...

  6. Insulin resistance in relation to melanoma risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoniadis, Antonios G; Petridou, Eleni Th; Antonopoulos, Constantine N; Dessypris, Nick; Panagopoulou, Paraskevi; Chamberland, John P; Adami, Hans Olov; Gogas, Helen; Mantzoros, Christos S

    2011-12-01

    Obesity, deregulation of adipocytokines, and insulin resistance are interrelated and have been implicated in carcinogenesis. In search of novel risk factors for melanoma, we explored the association of this disease with insulin resistance in a small size, case-control study. Homeostasis Model Assessment for Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR), serum leptin, and adiponectin levels were determined in 55 patients with incident melanoma and 165 age-matched and sex-matched controls. Odds ratios were derived after adjusting for skin type, medical history, sociodemographic, lifestyle, and anthropometric parameters. Among the controls, HOMA-IR correlated positively with BMI (r=0.34; P=0.0001), waist-to-hip ratio (r=0.20; P=0.01) and negatively with serum adiponectin (r=-0.21; P=0.006), whereas the correlation with leptin was essentially null (r=0.09; P=0.27). The mean HOMA-IR was approximately 1.5 times higher in cases than in controls (P=0.05). The established positive association of melanoma with skin type was evident in multiple logistic regression models and so was the association with increasing HOMA-IR quintile (odds ratio for the fifth quintile=3.68; 95% confidence intervals 1.15-11.79, P=0.02). The latter persisted after adjustment for anthropometric variables and adiponectin but was attenuated when leptin was introduced in the model. These findings point to insulin resistance as a potentially independent risk factor for melanoma and need to be confirmed by future larger studies, ideally allowing the control of the directionality of the association. PMID:21946019

  7. Primary Gastric Malignant Melanoma Mimicking Adenocarcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Cho, Jun-Min; Lee, Chang Min; Jang, You-Jin; Park, Sung-Soo; Park, Seong-Heum; Kim, Seung-Joo; Mok, Young-Jae; Kim, Chong-Suk; Lee, Ju-Han; Kim, Jong-Han

    2014-01-01

    We report a case of primary gastric malignant melanoma that was diagnosed after curative resection but initially misdiagnosed as adenocarcinoma. A 68-year-old woman was referred to our department for surgery for gastric adenocarcinoma presenting as a polypoid lesion with central ulceration located in the upper body of the stomach. The preoperative diagnosis was confirmed by endoscopic biopsy. We performed laparoscopic total gastrectomy, and the final pathologic evaluation led to the diagnosis...

  8. / Síndrome de cauda eqüina produzida por melanoma

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    J., Lamartine de Assis; Carlos De, Luccia.

    1951-06-01

    Full Text Available Os autores apresentam um caso de melanoma da cauda eqüina. A evolução foi de, aproximadamente, dois anos, tendo havido, a princípio, dores nos membros inferiores que, depois, adquiriram a forma de ciatalgia bilateral, associada a perturbações sensitivo-motoras e esfinctéricas. Tratava-se, portanto, [...] de uma sindrome de cauda eqüina. 0 paciente foi operado, encontrando-se um tumor escuro, infiltrante da cauda, e que foi diagnosticado, ao exame histopatológico, como melanoma meningeo. Ao tratamento cirúrgico seguiu-se o radioteràpico. Depois de um período de melhora sintomática, o caso evoluiu para a caquexia, tendo-se verificado o falecimento do enfermo 11 meses depois da operação. Não foi feita autópsia, mas a ausência, nos antecedentes, de dados que pudessem sugerir uma possível me-tástase, o exame clínico e a localização do processo fazem pensar no caráter primário do tumor. Abstract in english The authors present a case of melanoma of the cauda equina which evolved during two years, starting with pain in the lower extremities and becoming at length a cauda equina syndrome, with bilateral sciatic pain, motor and sensorial signs and bladder and rectal disturbances. The tumor was only partia [...] lly removed, on account of its infiltrating character. The patient died eleven months later. He had X-ray therapy soon after the operation. Autopsy was not performed but considering the clinical data, the localization and the type of the tumor, authors believe it connected by a primary melanoma of the lombar leptomeninges. A brief review of the literature is made.

  9. Novel Treatments in Development for Melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernatchez, Chantale; Cooper, Zachary A; Wargo, Jennifer A; Hwu, Patrick; Lizée, Gregory

    2016-01-01

    The past several years can be considered a renaissance era in the treatment of metastatic melanoma. Following a 30-year stretch in which oncologists barely put a dent in a very grim overall survival (OS) rate for these patients, things have rapidly changed course with the recent approval of three new melanoma drugs by the FDA. Both oncogene-targeted therapy and immune checkpoint blockade approaches have shown remarkable efficacy in a subset of melanoma patients and have clearly been game-changers in terms of clinical impact. However, most patients still succumb to their disease, and thus, there remains an urgent need to improve upon current therapies. Fortunately, innovations in molecular medicine have led to many silent gains that have greatly increased our understanding of the nature of cancer biology as well as the complex interactions between tumors and the immune system. They have also allowed for the first time a detailed understanding of an individual patient's cancer at the genomic and proteomic level. This information is now starting to be employed at all stages of cancer treatment, including diagnosis, choice of drug therapy, treatment monitoring, and analysis of resistance mechanisms upon recurrence. This new era of personalized medicine will foreseeably lead to paradigm shifts in immunotherapeutic treatment approaches such as individualized cancer vaccines and adoptive transfer of genetically modified T cells. Advances in xenograft technology will also allow for the testing of drug combinations using in vivo models, a truly necessary development as the number of new drugs needing to be tested is predicted to skyrocket in the coming years. This chapter will provide an overview of recent technological developments in cancer research, and how they are expected to impact future diagnosis, monitoring, and development of novel treatments for metastatic melanoma. PMID:26601872

  10. Intramuscular metastasis from malignant melanoma: MR findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshioka, Hirohi; Itai, Yuji; Niitsu, Mamoru [Dept. of Radiology, Institute of Clinical Medicine, University of Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan); Fujiwara, Masachika; Watanabe, Teruo [Department of Pathology, Institute of Clinical Medicine, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba (Japan); Satomi, Hisae; Otsuka, Fujio [Department of Dermatology, Institute of Clinical Medicine, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba (Japan)

    1999-12-01

    We present a rare case of intramuscular metastasis from malignant melanoma. The lesion showed intermediate to high signal intensity on T1-weighted magnetic resonance (MR) images and mixed signal intensities containing high and low signals on T2-weighted images. The signal intensity on T1-weighted images, which is due to the paramagnetic effect of melanin, is a characteristic MR finding of this entity. (orig.)

  11. Hypoxia-Independent Drivers of Melanoma Angiogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Meierjohann, Svenja

    2015-01-01

    Tumor angiogenesis is a process which is traditionally regarded as the tumor’s response to low nutrient supply occurring under hypoxic conditions. However, hypoxia is not a pre-requisite for angiogenesis. The fact that even single tumor cells or small tumor cell aggregates are capable of attracting blood vessels reveals the early metastatic capability of tumor cells. This review sheds light on the hypoxia-independent mechanisms of tumor angiogenesis in melanoma.

  12. Primary melanoma of Meckel's cave: case report

    OpenAIRE

    Falavigna Asdrubal; Borba Luis A. B.; Ferraz Fernando Antonio Patriani; Almeida Giovana Camargo de; Krindges Júnior José Valentim

    2004-01-01

    We present a case of trigeminal neuralgia with cranial normal magnetic resonance image (MRI) and computed tomography. The pain was not relieved by carbamazepine and microvascular decompression surgery was done. After two months the pain was similar to the condition before surgery. At this time, MRI showed an expansive lesion in Meckel's cave that was treated with radical resection by extra-dural approach. The pathologic examination revealed a primary melanoma. The follow-up after six months d...

  13. Small Choroidal Melanoma with Monosomy 3

    OpenAIRE

    Ghassemi Fariba; Shields Carol; Materin Miguel; Shields Jerry

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To report a patient with small juxtapapillary choroidal melanoma with chromosome 3 monosomy treated with I 125 plaque and transpupillary thermotherapy (TTT). A 64-year-old Caucasian male presented with painless blurred vision of the left eye. Ocular examination disclosed a small juxtapapillary choroidal melanocytic tumor with overlying subretinal fluid and orange pigment. Ultrasound showed an elevated choroidal mass of 2 mm thickness with low reflectivity on A-scan and hollowness o...

  14. Mucosal melanomas of the upper aerodigestive tract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mucosal melanoma of the upper aerodigestive tract is a rare disease with a relentless inexorable course. This lesion involved the nasal cavity, maxillary sinus and palate in two cases each all of whom underwent a radical excision. The disease did not respond to radiotherapy in two patients with nasopharyngeal involvement. One other patient died of distant metastasis within five weeks of diagnosis. Despite surgery offering variable disease free periods, the prognosis remains guarded. (author). 20 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  15. Ipilimumab for advanced melanoma: A pharmacologic perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Trinh, Van Anh; Hagen, Brenda

    2013-01-01

    Ipilimumab, a fully human anti-CTLA-4 antibody, has been approved for the treatment of unresectable or metastatic melanoma based on its survival benefit demonstrated in randomized phase III studies. The current approved dosing schedule of ipilimumab is 3?mg/kg as a 90-min intravenous infusion every 3 weeks for a total of 4 doses. The immune-mediated mechanism of action of ipilimumab can result in tumor response patterns that may differ from those observed with conventional chem...

  16. A novel function of Junctional Adhesion Molecule-C in mediating melanoma cell metastasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langer, Harald F.; Orlova, Valeria V.; Xie, Changping; Kaul, Sunil; Schneider, Darius; Lonsdorf, Anke S.; Fahrleitner, Manuela; Choi, Eun Young; Dutoit, Vanessa; Pellegrini, Manuela; Grossklaus, Sylvia; Nawroth, Peter P.; Baretton, Gustavo; Santoso, Sentot; Hwang, Sam T.; Arnold, Bernd; Chavakis, Triantafyllos

    2011-01-01

    Hematogenous dissemination of melanoma is a life-threatening complication of this malignant tumor. Here, we identified Junctional Adhesion Molecule-C (JAM-C) as a novel player in melanoma metastasis to the lung. JAM-C expression was identified in human and murine melanoma cell lines, in human malignant melanoma, as well as in metastatic melanoma including melanoma lung metastasis. JAM-C expressed on both murine B16 melanoma cells as well as on endothelial cells, promoted the transendothelial migration of the melanoma cells. We generated mice with inactivation of JAM-C. JAM-C?/? mice as well as endothelial-specific JAM-C-deficient mice displayed significantly decreased B16 melanoma cell metastasis to the lung, whereas treatment of mice with soluble JAM-C prevented melanoma lung metastasis. Together, JAM-C represents a novel therapeutic target for melanoma metastasis. PMID:21593193

  17. Future perspectives in melanoma research. Meeting report from the "Melanoma Bridge. Napoli, December 2nd-4th 2012".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ascierto, Paolo A; Grimaldi, Antonio M; Acquavella, Nicolas; Borgognoni, Lorenzo; Calabrò, Luana; Cascinelli, Natale; Cesano, Alessandra; Del Vecchio, Michele; Eggermont, Alexander M; Faries, Mark; Ferrone, Soldano; Fox, Bernard A; Gajewski, Thomas F; Galon, Jérôme; Gnjatic, Sacha; Gogas, Helen; Kashani-Sabet, Mohammed; Kaufman, Howard L; Larkin, James; Lo, Roger S; Mantovani, Alberto; Margolin, Kim; Melief, Cornelis; McArthur, Grant; Palmieri, Giuseppe; Puzanov, Igor; Ribas, Antoni; Seliger, Barbara; Sosman, Jeff; Suenaert, Peter; Tarhini, Ahmad A; Trinchieri, Giorgio; Vidal-Vanaclocha, Fernando; Wang, Ena; Ciliberto, Gennaro; Mozzillo, Nicola; Marincola, Francesco M; Thurin, Magdalena

    2013-01-01

    Recent insights into the genetic and somatic aberrations have initiated a new era of rapidly evolving targeted and immune-based treatments for melanoma. After decades of unsuccessful attempts to finding a more effective cure in the treatment of melanoma now we have several drugs active in melanoma. The possibility to use these drugs in combination to improve responses to overcome the resistance, to potentiate the action of immune system with the new immunomodulating antibodies, and identification of biomarkers that can predict the response to a particular therapy represent new concepts and approaches in the clinical management of melanoma. The third "Melanoma Research: "A bridge from Naples to the World" meeting, shortened as "Bridge Melanoma Meeting" took place in Naples, December 2 to 4th, 2012. The four topics of discussion at this meeting were: advances in molecular profiling and novel biomarkers, combination therapies, novel concepts toward integrating biomarkers and therapies into contemporary clinical management of patients with melanoma across the entire spectrum of disease stage, and the knowledge gained from the biology of tumor microenvironment across different tumors as a bridge to impact on prognosis and response to therapy in melanoma. This international congress gathered more than 30 international faculty members who in an interactive atmosphere which stimulated discussion and exchange of their experience regarding the most recent advances in research and clinical management of melanoma patients. PMID:23731854

  18. Cutaneous melanoma: new advances in treatment

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Michele Ceolin, Foletto; Sandra Elisa, Haas.

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Cutaneous melanoma is a challenge to treat. Over the last 30 years, no drug or combination of drugs demonstrated significant impact to improve patient survival. From 1995 to 2000, the use of cytokines such as interferon and interleukin become treatment options. In 2011, new drugs were approved by th [...] e U.S. Food and Drug Administration, including peginterferon alfa-2b for patients with stage III disease, vemurafenib for patients with metastatic melanoma with the BRAF V600E mutation, and ipilimumab, a monoclonal antibody directed to the CTLA-4 T lymphocyte receptor, to combat metastatic melanoma in patients who do not have the BRAF V600E mutation. Both ipilimumab and vemurafenib showed results in terms of overall survival. Other trials with inhibitors of other genes, such as the KIT gene and MEK, are underway in the search for new discoveries. The discovery of new treatments for advanced or metastatic disease aims to relieve symptoms and improve patient quality of life.

  19. Proton beam radiotherapy of iris melanoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To report on outcomes after proton beam radiotherapy of iris melanoma. Methods and Materials: Between 1993 and 2004, 88 patients with iris melanoma received proton beam radiotherapy, with 53.1 Gy in 4 fractions. Results: The patients had a mean age of 52 years and a median follow-up of 2.7 years. The tumors had a median diameter of 4.3 mm, involving more than 2 clock hours of iris in 32% of patients and more than 2 hours of angle in 27%. The ciliary body was involved in 20%. Cataract was present in 13 patients before treatment and subsequently developed in another 18. Cataract had a 4-year rate of 63% and by Cox analysis was related to age (p = 0.05), initial visual loss (p < 0.0001), iris involvement (p < 0.0001), and tumor thickness (p < 0.0001). Glaucoma was present before treatment in 13 patients and developed after treatment in another 3. Three eyes were enucleated, all because of recurrence, which had an actuarial 4-year rate of 3.3% (95% CI 0-8.0%). Conclusions: Proton beam radiotherapy of iris melanoma is well tolerated, the main problems being radiation-cataract, which was treatable, and preexisting glaucoma, which in several patients was difficult to control

  20. Radiotherapy in the management of cutaneous melanoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cutaneous malignant melanoma has long been considered to be relatively radioresistant. Experience at any one center is often limited to a few patients with advanced recurrent or metastatic disease. Survival rates in these patients are understandably dismal, and since tumor volumes are often large, response rates may be low. Increased enthusiasm for the role of radiotherapy in the treatment of malignant melanoma began in the early 1970s when radiobiologists reported that several melanoma cell lines displayed broad-shouldered but relatively low D/sub o/ survival curves. A large capacity to repair and accumulate sublethal damage is thought to account for some of the disappointing clinical results with conventional multifractionated radiotherapy. This led to the use of high dose fraction radiotherapy in the clinic. This chapter includes a review of contemporary clinical experience, especially in reference to the reported effect of time, dose, and fractionation. The experience of three San Francisco radiation oncology departments is also reviewed and compared to the published data

  1. Staging of cutaneous malignant melanoma by CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malignant melanomas are a challenge in radiological imaging diagnostics as they may metastasize into every organ and tissue. Cross-sectional imaging, in particular positron emission tomography computed tomography (PET/CT) and whole body magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), are considered the standards in the staging of melanomas. Because of its excellent availability CT, however, remains a widely employed staging modality. Familiarity with the manifold CT morphology of metastasized melanomas as it is described here is essential when interpreting dedicated CT and in addition useful when interpreting PET/CT results. In individual cases CT can assist in the detection of transient metastases. In the detection of locoregional lymph node metastases CT has a median sensitivity and specificity in meta-analyses of at best 61 % and 97 %, respectively, which is inferior to the performance of ultrasound (96 % and 99 %, respectively). According to meta-analyses, in the assessment of systemic tumor spread CT can detect the majority of metastases with a sensitivity and specificity of 51-63 % and 69-78 %, respectively, which is inferior to MRI and PET/CT. Therefore, if an exact staging is required for critical management decisions, MRI or PET/CT should be employed whenever possible. (orig.)

  2. Persistent Pain After Surgery for Cutaneous Melanoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    HØimyr, Hilde; von Sperling, Marie Louise

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVES:: Chronic pain is a well-known complication after surgery, but the prevalence of persistent pain after melanoma surgery is unknown. This study examined the prevalence and predictors of persistent pain after melanoma surgery. METHODS:: Between September 2005 and June 2009, 448 patients underwent surgery for cutaneous melanoma at the Department of Plastic Surgery, Aalborg Hospital. A questionnaire was sent to all 402 survivors, and 350 (87.1%) responded. In addition, all patients with pain and a control group of sex-matched and age-matched patients without pain were invited to a clinical examination. RESULTS:: Thirty-four patients (9.7%) reported pain in the scar area within the last month, and 8.6% reported chronic pain. The pain was mostly mild with little impact on daily life, but 1.7% reported moderate to severe pain, and 3.4% reported at least moderate impact of pain on daily life. Sensory changes were reported by 108 patients (31.5%); 25% of these had pain compared with 3% of patients with normal sensation [P

  3. Primary cutaneous melanoma: an 18-year study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moris Anger

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Primary cutaneous melanoma still constitutes the main cause of skin cancer death in developed countries, and its incidence in recent years has been increasing in a steady, worrisome manner. OBJECTIVES: This study evaluated the clinical, epidemiological and demographic aspects of this disease, and correlated them with patient prognosis. METHODS: Using epidemiologic and clinical data, we analyzed 84 patients with mild to severe primary cutaneous melanoma treated between 1990 and 2007. Slides containing surgical specimens were analyzed, and new slides were made from archived paraffin sections when necessary. RESULTS: The melanoma incidence was higher in areas of sun exposure, with lesions commonly observed in the trunk for males, and lower limbs for females. In addition to Breslow's thickness and ulceration (p = 0.043 and p 1 mm and 4 mm and the mitotic index (0 when absent or 1 when >1 per mm² allowed the establishment of a prognostic score: if the sum was equal to or over three, nearly all (91.7% patients had systemic disease. The 5-year survival was approximately seventy percent. CONCLUSION: Because American Join Committee of Cancer Staging will update the classification of malignant tumors (TNM staging in the near future, and introduce mitosis as a prognostic factor, our results show the importance of such a feature. Additional studies are necessary to confirm the importance of a prognostic score as proposed herein.

  4. Melanoma maligno. Presentación de un caso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Odalys Peña Pérez

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available El melanoma maligno es una neoplasia de la piel altamente agresiva que en las últimas décadas ha tenido un aumento constante y rápido de su incidencia. Está caracterizado por el crecimiento incontrolado de las células productoras de pigmento que puede afectar los nódulos linfáticos y órganos internos, lo que puede resultar letal. El melanoma se presenta habitualmente en adultos de todos los grupos de edad, con una incidencia máxima entre los 30 y 60 años. En general afecta a ambos sexos de forma similar, aunque en el momento actual parece que la frecuencia en algunos países es ligeramente superior en varones. Al llegar a la consulta externa de dermatología del Hospital General Docente "Dr. Ernesto Guevara de la Serna", una paciente con lesiones en piel de alrededor de un año de evolución, de aspecto polimorfo, localizadas en calcáneo del pie izquierdo, dado por lesión de 8cm x 6cm, irregular, hiperpigmentada y en el centro de aspecto nodular y segregante que inicialmente se realiza biopsia e informa un léntigo maligno; luego se toma otra muestra de la parte nodular segregante donde se le diagnostica un melanoma maligno grado IV en la escala de Clark.

  5. Primary cutaneous melanoma: an 18-year study

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Moris, Anger; Henri, Friedhofer; Marina Fussae, Fukutaki; Marcus Castro, Ferreira; Gilles, Landman.

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Primary cutaneous melanoma still constitutes the main cause of skin cancer death in developed countries, and its incidence in recent years has been increasing in a steady, worrisome manner. OBJECTIVES: This study evaluated the clinical, epidemiological and demographic aspects of this dis [...] ease, and correlated them with patient prognosis. METHODS: Using epidemiologic and clinical data, we analyzed 84 patients with mild to severe primary cutaneous melanoma treated between 1990 and 2007. Slides containing surgical specimens were analyzed, and new slides were made from archived paraffin sections when necessary. RESULTS: The melanoma incidence was higher in areas of sun exposure, with lesions commonly observed in the trunk for males, and lower limbs for females. In addition to Breslow's thickness and ulceration (p = 0.043 and p 1 mm and 4 mm) and the mitotic index (0 when absent or 1 when >1 per mm²) allowed the establishment of a prognostic score: if the sum was equal to or over three, nearly all (91.7%) patients had systemic disease. The 5-year survival was approximately seventy percent. CONCLUSION: Because American Join Committee of Cancer Staging will update the classification of malignant tumors (TNM) staging in the near future, and introduce mitosis as a prognostic factor, our results show the importance of such a feature. Additional studies are necessary to confirm the importance of a prognostic score as proposed herein.

  6. Melanoma growth stimulatory activity: isolation from human melanoma tumors and characterization of tissue distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richmond, A; Thomas, H G

    1988-02-01

    Melanoma growth stimulatory activity (MGSA) is an acid and heat stable, auto-stimulatory growth factor which was first isolated from culture medium conditioned by the Hs294T human melanoma cell line. In this report, we describe the purification of MGSA from acid ethanol extracts of Hs294T tumors grown in nude mice using a series of Bio-Gel P30, reverse phase-high performance liquid chromatography and heparin-sepharose steps. This modified procedure provides a 10-fold improved yield of MGSA over previously published procedures. Purified MGSA-stimulated melanoma cell growth in both 3H-thymidine and cell number assays over a concentration range of 0.06 to 6 ng/ml. The MGSA bioactivity was primarily associated with fractions which exhibited molecular weights of 16 and 13-14 Kd based upon sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Purified platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF), insulin-like growth factor (IGF-1), transforming growth factor-beta (TGF beta), and epidermal growth factor (EGF) in combination with TGF beta did not stimulate 3H-thymidine incorporation in Hs294T cells under the conditions used for MGSA bioassay. Monoclonal antibody to MGSA was used to screen melanoma and benign nevus cultures as well as fixed sectioned tissue for MGSA. The majority of the melanoma cultures were MGSA positive, while most nevus cultures were MGSA negative. However, when fixed sectioned tissue was screened for MGSA immunoreactivity, melanoma tissue was MGSA positive and three-fourths of the benign nevi were MGSA positive. In addition, epidermal keratinocytes and several tissues exhibiting proliferative disorders contained immunoreactive MGSA. These data suggest that MGSA may be a normal regulator of growth and that the microenvironment of the cell may regulate both production of MGSA and response to MGSA. PMID:3356754

  7. Melanoma Surveillance in the US: Melanoma, Ultraviolet Radiation, and Socioeconomic Status

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-10-19

    This podcast accompanies the publication of a series of articles on melanoma surveillance in the United States, available in the November supplement edition of the Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology. Chris Johnson, from the Cancer Data Registry of Idaho, discusses analyses examining the relationship between melanoma and two variables at the county level, ultraviolet radiation and socioeconomic status.  Created: 10/19/2011 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 10/19/2011.

  8. Inherited genetic variants associated with occurrence of multiple primary melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, David C; Orlow, Irene; Kanetsky, Peter A; Luo, Li; Kricker, Anne; Armstrong, Bruce K; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Gruber, Stephen B; Marrett, Loraine D; Gallagher, Richard P; Zanetti, Roberto; Rosso, Stefano; Dwyer, Terence; Sharma, Ajay; La Pilla, Emily; From, Lynn; Busam, Klaus J; Cust, Anne E; Ollila, David W; Begg, Colin B; Berwick, Marianne; Thomas, Nancy E

    2015-06-01

    Recent studies, including genome-wide association studies, have identified several putative low-penetrance susceptibility loci for melanoma. We sought to determine their generalizability to genetic predisposition for multiple primary melanoma in the international population-based Genes, Environment, and Melanoma (GEM) Study. GEM is a case-control study of 1,206 incident cases of multiple primary melanoma and 2,469 incident first primary melanoma participants as the control group. We investigated the odds of developing multiple primary melanoma for 47 SNPs from 21 distinct genetic regions previously reported to be associated with melanoma. ORs and 95% confidence intervals were determined using logistic regression models adjusted for baseline features (age, sex, age by sex interaction, and study center). We investigated univariable models and built multivariable models to assess independent effects of SNPs. Eleven SNPs in 6 gene neighborhoods (TERT/CLPTM1L, TYRP1, MTAP, TYR, NCOA6, and MX2) and a PARP1 haplotype were associated with multiple primary melanoma. In a multivariable model that included only the most statistically significant findings from univariable modeling and adjusted for pigmentary phenotype, back nevi, and baseline features, we found TERT/CLPTM1L rs401681 (P = 0.004), TYRP1 rs2733832 (P = 0.006), MTAP rs1335510 (P = 0.0005), TYR rs10830253 (P = 0.003), and MX2 rs45430 (P = 0.008) to be significantly associated with multiple primary melanoma, while NCOA6 rs4911442 approached significance (P = 0.06). The GEM Study provides additional evidence for the relevance of these genetic regions to melanoma risk and estimates the magnitude of the observed genetic effect on development of subsequent primary melanoma. PMID:25837821

  9. Mucosal melanoma of the head and neck

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: 1) To determine the incidence of regional recurrence in patients with mucosal melanomas of the head and neck who receive no elective neck treatment 2) To quantitate the incidence of distant metastases 3) To assess whether radiation therapy can improve the local control outcome in patients with mucosal melanoma Materials and Methods: Between 1961-1995, 40 previously untreated patients with mucosal melanoma of the head and neck were treated with surgery +/- radiotherapy at M. D. Anderson Cancer Center. The median age was 62 years (range, 23-82). There were 14 females and 26 males. Primary tumor sites were: oral cavity (OC)-16, nasal cavity and paranasal sinus (NC/PNS)- 22, and pharynx-2. Staging, using the AJCC classification for epithelial carcinomas, was as follows: T1-21, T2-8, T3-5, T4-5, TX-1. Thirty-seven patients presented without clinical adenopathy; 3 patients had N2b disease. Treatment of the primary tumor included surgery alone (S) -20 and surgery and postoperative radiotherapy (S+X) - 20. Only 3 patients had a neck dissection. 90% of the S patients were stage T1-2 versus 55% of the S+X patients. Eight patients received 30 Gy in 5 fractions, 11 were given 60 Gy in 30 fractions, and one patient received 72 Gy in 36 fractions. Results: The table shows the 5-yr. actuarial rates of local control, distant metastases, disease-free survival, and overall survival for all patients, and also stratified by treatment and site of disease. Patients who underwent S + X had a higher 5-year local control rate and disease-free survival than patients who were treated with surgery alone (p = ns). The 5-year local control rate for patients with NC/PNS was 43%, compared to 84% for OC patients (p= 0.08). For 33 patients who had no clinical adenopathy and who did not receive elective neck treatment, the 5-year actuarial regional failure rate was 39%; the 5-year regional failure rate for OC patients and NC/PNS patients was 58% and 28%, respectively. For patients with early stage (T1+T2) primary tumors who received no elective neck treatment, the 5-year regional failure rate was 36%. Conclusions: Despite having more advanced staged primary tumors, patients with mucosal melanoma who received radiotherapy had a higher local control rate than patients who were treated with surgery alone. Therefore, we recommend that all patients with NC/PNS melanomas, and patients with unfavorable OC primary tumors (>4 cm or close or positive margins) receive postoperative radiotherapy. Patients with mucosal melanoma have a high incidence of regional failure and should underego elective neck treatment. The high incidence of distant metastases warrants assessment of systemic therapy in patients with mucosal melanoma

  10. MelanomaDB: a Web Tool for Integrative Analysis of Melanoma Genomic Information to Identify Disease-Associated Molecular Pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CristinGregorPrint

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Despite on-going research, metastatic melanoma survival rates remain low and treatment options are limited. Researchers can now access a rapidly growing amount of molecular and clinical information about melanoma. This information is becoming difficult to assemble and interpret due to its dispersed nature, yet as it grows it becomes increasingly valuable for understanding melanoma. Integration of this information into a comprehensive resource to aid rational experimental design and patient stratification is needed. As an initial step in this direction, we have assembled a web-accessible melanoma database, MelanomaDB, which incorporates clinical and molecular data from publically available sources, which will be regularly updated as new information becomes available. This database allows complex links to be drawn between many different aspects of melanoma biology: genetic changes (e.g. mutations in individual melanomas revealed by DNA sequencing, associations between gene expression and patient survival, data concerning drug targets, biomarkers, druggability and clinical trials, as well as our own statistical analysis of relationships between molecular pathways and clinical parameters that have been produced using these data sets. The database is freely available at http://genesetdb.auckland.ac.nz/melanomadb/about.html . A subset of the information in the database can also be accessed through a freely available web application in the Illumina genomic cloud computing platform BaseSpace at http://www.biomatters.com/apps/melanoma-profiler-for-research . This illustrates dysregulation of specific signalling pathways, both across 310 exome-sequenced melanomas and in individual tumours and identifies novel features about the distribution of somatic variants in melanoma. We suggest that this database can provide a context in which to interpret the tumour molecular profiles of individual melanoma patients relative to biological information and available drug therapies.

  11. Pigmented Mammary Paget Disease Misdiagnosed as Malignant Melanoma

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Ji Hye; Kim, Tae Hyung; Kim, Soo-Chan; Kim, You Chan; Roh, Mi Ryung

    2014-01-01

    Pigmented mammary Paget disease is a very rare clinicopathologic variant of mammary Paget disease. Diagnosis is often difficult because its clinical and histological features are very similar to those of malignant melanoma. Herein, we report a case of pigmented mammary Paget disease misdiagnosed as malignant melanoma.

  12. The role of ultraviolet light in the origin of melanomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study described in this report enters into a number of possible functions of UV radiation in the arising of melanomas. From the results it turns out that UV radiation probably does not induce melanomas directly, which pleads for a more direct function of UV radiation possibly via suppression of the defence system against tumour cells. (H.W.). 20 refs

  13. Successful Treatment of Lower Eyelid Melanoma in Situ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew A. Gassman, MD

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Summary: We present a brief literature review of the topical immune-modulating medication Imiquimod. The treatment of periorbital melanoma in situ typically requires surgical resection. Here we discuss a case of lower eyelid melanoma in situ successfully treated non-operatively with Imiquimod.

  14. Fluorescence angiography of iris in malignant uveal melanoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fluorescence angiography of the iris was performed in 12 eyes with malignant uveal melanoma. Tumors localized in front of the equator, without respect to their cellular types, caused secondary fluoroangiographic changes in the iris corresponding to the location of these tumors. The character and degree of changes corresponded to the mechanical effect of the malignant melanoma. (author). 8 figs., 3 tabs., 10 refs

  15. Metastatic Malignant Melanoma in an alpaca (Vicugna pacos)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malignant melanoma in a 7-year old, intact male alpaca with a chronic, non-healing wound on the left nares, weight loss and inappetance is described. Malignant melanoma was diagnosed in punch biopsy specimens from a mass on the maxilla associated with the non-healing wound and from a mass in the su...

  16. Update on Thin Melanoma: Outcome of an International Workshop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihic-Probst, Daniela; Shea, Chris; Duncan, Lyn; de la Fouchardiere, Arnaud; Landman, Gilles; Landsberg, Jennifer; Ven den Oord, Joost; Lowe, Lori; Cook, Martin G; Jung Yun, Sook; Clarke, Loren; Messina, Jane; Elder, David E; Barnhill, Raymond L

    2016-01-01

    The following communication summarizes the proceedings of a 1-day Workshop of the International Melanoma Pathology Study Group, which was devoted to thin melanoma. The definitions and histologic criteria for thin melanoma were reviewed. The principal differential diagnostic problems mentioned included the distinction of thin melanoma from nevi, especially from nevi of special site, irritated nevi, inflamed and regressing nevi, and dysplastic nevi. Histologic criteria for this analysis were discussed and the importance of clinico-pathologic correlation, especially in acral sites, was emphasized. Criteria for the minimal definition of invasion were also discussed. In addition, a new technique of m-RNA expression profiling with 14 genes was presented and facilitated the distinction of thin melanomas from nevus in histologically obvious cases. However, for particular nevi, it was not obvious why the results indicated a malignant lesion. Despite many molecular and other ancillary investigations, Breslow thickness remains the most important prognostic factor in thin melanoma. The prognostic significance of radial (horizontal) and vertical growth phases, Clark level, regression, and mitotic rate were also discussed. Because of the increasing frequency of thin melanomas, there is a great need to develop more refined predictors of thin melanomas with worse clinical outcome. PMID:26645459

  17. The Nodal Location of Metastases in Melanoma Sentinel Lymph Nodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riber-Hansen, Rikke; Nyengaard, Jens; Hamilton-Dutoit, Stephen; Steiniche, Torben

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The design of melanoma sentinel lymph node (SLN) histologic protocols is based on the premise that most metastases are found in the central parts of the nodes, but the evidence for this belief has never been thoroughly tested. METHODS: The nodal location of melanoma metastases in 149...

  18. Prevalence of left-sided melanomas in an Irish population.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    de Blacam, C

    2011-04-17

    BACKGROUND: A predominance of melanomas on the left side of the body has recently been described. No associations between tumour laterality and gender, age or anatomical site have been identified. AIM: The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of left-sided melanomas in an Irish population and to examine potential associations with various patient and tumour characteristics. METHODS: A retrospective chart review of patients with cutaneous melanoma who were treated over a 10-year period was carried out. Lateral distribution of melanoma on either side of the body was compared using χ(2) analysis and evaluated by gender, age group, anatomic location, histologic subtype and Breslow depth. RESULTS: More melanomas occurred on the left side (57%, P = 0.015), and this finding was particularly significant in females. For both genders combined, there were no statistically significant differences in laterality by age group, anatomic location, type of melanoma and Breslow depth. There were significantly more superficial spreading melanomas on the left side in both men and women. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates a predominance of left-sided melanomas in Irish patients. While a number of demographic and molecular associations have been proposed, further research is required to fully explain this phenomenon.

  19. Prevalence of left-sided melanomas in an Irish population.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    de Blacam, C

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: A predominance of melanomas on the left side of the body has recently been described. No associations between tumour laterality and gender, age or anatomical site have been identified. AIM: The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of left-sided melanomas in an Irish population and to examine potential associations with various patient and tumour characteristics. METHODS: A retrospective chart review of patients with cutaneous melanoma who were treated over a 10-year period was carried out. Lateral distribution of melanoma on either side of the body was compared using chi(2) analysis and evaluated by gender, age group, anatomic location, histologic subtype and Breslow depth. RESULTS: More melanomas occurred on the left side (57%, P = 0.015), and this finding was particularly significant in females. For both genders combined, there were no statistically significant differences in laterality by age group, anatomic location, type of melanoma and Breslow depth. There were significantly more superficial spreading melanomas on the left side in both men and women. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates a predominance of left-sided melanomas in Irish patients. While a number of demographic and molecular associations have been proposed, further research is required to fully explain this phenomenon.

  20. Comparative analysis of methods of preinvasive melanoma diagnostics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kozlov S.V.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses one of the problems of oncology — skin melanoma. The research objective is to study and to compare diagnostic methods of preinvasive melanoma including fluorescence diagnosis, dermatoscopy and microwave radiometry. Materials and Methods: The survey has used dermatoscope of Heine Delta 20 Company, the unit RTM-01-RES and the instrument of fluorescent diagnostics «Spectrum-Cluster.» The results suggest the possibility of early detection of melanoma with the use of dermatoscopy. The method may be applied to radiometry screening study. Fluorescence diagnostics is effective for the differential diagnosis of melanoma and melanocytic nevi. In conclusion it has been proved the need for an integrated approach to the diagnostics of melanoma of skin, depending on the different clinical situations.

  1. Radiotherapy of primary human melanomas - experiences and suggestions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We treated 60 invasive primary human melanomas by soft X-rays. In 23 additional cases radiotherapy was applied after total excision of a primary melanoma. Only in two cases was a tumor observed in the field of irradiation during the follow-up period: A recurrence of a primary melanoma and a skin metastasis. Radioresistance cannot be unequivocally assumed in either case. Since deeply situated in-transit metastases cannot be destroyed by soft X-rays in spite of our good results we regard radiotherapy of invasive primary melanomas as a second choice treatment to be administered if impaired general health, excessive tumor growth in certain localisations or refusal of the patient to not allow a major operation. Nodular parts of primary melanomas should be excised before radiotherapy to obtain material for histopathological confirmation of the diagnosis and to determine the thickness of the tumor. X-rays of lower hardness can subsequently be applied. (orig.)

  2. Adjuvant medical treatment options for cutaneous malignant melanoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banu ÖZTÜRK

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Patients with early-stage malignant melanoma can be cured with surgical resection with or without adjuvant therapy. Prognosis is still poor in the patients with metastatic melanoma. Treatment options are limited. Lymph node involvement and Breslow tumor thickness are the most important prognostic factors. There have been many trials in the adjuvant setting of malignant melanoma due to the poor prognosis of metastatic disease. High-risk node-negative patients and node-positive patients are candidates for systemic adjuvant therapy following surgery. Different treatment modalities have been widely investigated for the adjuvant treatment in high-risk melanoma patients. Stage III (locoregional metastasis and stage II (Breslow thickness >1.5 mm patients are included in adjuvant melanoma trials. The rationale for adjuvant therapy is summarized in this review, and the roles of interferon, interleukin (high-intermediate-low dose, chemotherapy, vaccines, colony stimulating factors, and combination therapies (biochemotherapy, combined immunotherapy, immunochemotherapy are discussed.

  3. Therapy for metastatic melanoma: the past, present, and future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Finn Laura

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Metastatic melanoma is the most aggressive form of skin cancer with a median overall survival of less than one year. Advancements in our understanding of how melanoma evades the immune system as well as the recognition that melanoma is a molecularly heterogeneous disease have led to major improvements in the treatment of patients with metastatic melanoma. In 2011, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA approved two novel therapies for advanced melanoma: a BRAF inhibitor, vemurafenib, and an immune stimulatory agent, ipilimumab. The success of these agents has injected excitement and hope into patients and clinicians and, while these therapies have their limitations, they will likely provide excellent building blocks for the next generation of therapies. In this review we will discuss the advantages and limitations of the two new approved agents, current clinical trials designed to overcome these limitations, and future clinical trials that we feel hold the most promise.

  4. Targeted agents for the treatment of metastatic melanoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monzon JG

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Jose G Monzon, Janet DanceyNCIC Clinical Trials Group, Kingston, Ontario, CanadaAbstract: In the last year, the armamentarium of melanoma therapeutics has radically changed. Recent discoveries in melanoma biology and immunology have led to novel therapeutics targeting known oncogenes and immunotherapeutic antibodies. Phase III clinical trials of these agents have reported measurable and meaningful benefits to patients with metastatic disease. In this article, we review recent findings and discuss their significance in melanoma therapy. As our understanding of melanoma biology grows, this initial therapeutic success may be enhanced through the use of molecular markers to select patients, and new targeted immunotherapies in sequential or combination drug regimens.Keywords: metastatic melanoma, ipilimumab, vemurafenib, antitumor

  5. Malignant melanoma of the oral cavity: Report of two cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Munde

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Primary malignant melanoma is a rare and aggressive neoplasm that originates from the proliferation of melanocytes. Although, it comprises 1.3% of all cancers, malignant melanoma of the oral cavity accounts for only 0.2-8% of all reported melanomas and occurs approximately 4 times more frequently in the oral mucosa of the upper jaw, usually on the palate or alveolar gingivae. Most of the mucosal melanomas are usually asymptomatic in early stages, and presents as pigmented patch or a mass delaying the diagnosis until symptoms of swelling, ulceration, bleeding, or loosening of teeth are noted. The prognosis is extremely poor, especially in advanced stages. Therefore, any pigmented lesion of undetermined origin should always be biopsied. We herewith report of two cases of oral malignant melanoma in a 60 and 75-year-old female.

  6. Dissection of T-cell antigen specificity in human melanoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Rikke Sick; Albæk Thrue, Charlotte; Junker, Niels; Skou, Rikke Birgitte Lyngaa; Donia, Marco; Ellebæk, Eva; Svane, Inge Marie; Schumacher, Ton N; Thor Straten, Per; Hadrup, Sine Reker

    2012-01-01

    Tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL) isolated from melanoma patients and expanded in vitro by interleukin (IL)-2 treatment can elicit therapeutic response after adoptive transfer, but the antigen specificities of the T cells transferred have not been determined. By compiling all known melanoma......-associated antigens and applying a novel technology for high-throughput analysis of T-cell responses, we dissected the composition of melanoma-restricted T-cell responses in 63 TIL cultures. T-cell reactivity screens against 175 melanoma-associated epitopes detected 90 responses against 18 different epitopes...... from different fragments of resected melanoma lesions. In summary, our findings provide an initial definition of T-cell populations contributing to tumor recognition in TILs although the specificity of many tumor-reactive TILs remains undefined....

  7. POLE mutations in families predisposed to cutaneous melanoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aoude, Lauren G; Heitzer, Ellen; Johansson, Peter; Gartside, Michael; Wadt, Karin; Pritchard, Antonia L; Palmer, Jane M; Symmons, Judith; Gerdes, Anne-Marie; Montgomery, Grant W; Martin, Nicholas G; Tomlinson, Ian; Kearsey, Stephen; Hayward, Nicholas K

    2015-01-01

    Germline mutations in the exonuclease domain of POLE have been shown to predispose to colorectal cancers and adenomas. POLE is an enzyme involved in DNA repair and chromosomal DNA replication. In order to assess whether such mutations might also predispose to cutaneous melanoma, we interrogated...... whole-genome and exome data from probands of 34 melanoma families lacking pathogenic mutations in known high penetrance melanoma susceptibility genes: CDKN2A, CDK4, BAP1, TERT, POT1, ACD and TERF2IP. We found a novel germline mutation, POLE p.(Trp347Cys), in a 7-case cutaneous melanoma family....... Functional assays in S. pombe showed that this mutation led to an increased DNA mutation rate comparable to that seen with a Pol ε mutant with no exonuclease activity. We then performed targeted sequencing of POLE in 1243 cutaneous melanoma cases and found that a further ten probands had novel or rare...

  8. Treatment with levodopa and risk for malignant melanoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Jørgen H; Tangerud, Karina; Wermuth, Lene; Frederiksen, Kirsten; Friis, S.

    2007-01-01

    A large follow-up study in Denmark of 14,088 patients in whom Parkinson's disease was diagnosed at hospital showed a twofold higher incidence of malignant melanoma in these patients than in the general population. In a nested case-control study of 45 patients with malignant melanoma, 97 patients...... malignant melanoma in a subgroup of patients with a probable diagnosis of idiopathic Parkinson's disease as compared with other patients. There was apparently no effect of levodopa on the risk for malignant melanoma as indicated by an odds ratio of 1.0 (95% confidence interval, 0.8-1.3) per 1,000 g...... cumulative intake of the drug. We conclude that the increased rate of malignant melanoma observed in patients treated at hospital for Parkinson's disease is restricted to those with idiopathic Parkinson's disease, however, unrelated to the treatment with levodopa. (c) 2007 Movement Disorder Society....

  9. Dermatologia comparativa: dermatoscopia em melanoma cutâneo Comparative dermatology: dermatoscopy of cutaneous melanoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otávio Sérgio Lopes

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Os autores apresentam imagens de dermatoscopia em uma fruta (manga-rosa, contaminada pela antracnose, mostrando sua semelhança com o melanoma extensivo superficial.The authors present images from a dermatoscopy performed in a fruit (mango that was contaminated by anthracnosis, showing its similarity to superficial spreading melanona.

  10. Dermatologia comparativa: dermatoscopia em melanoma cutâneo Comparative dermatology: dermatoscopy of cutaneous melanoma

    OpenAIRE

    Otávio Sérgio Lopes; Edílson Pinheiro Egito

    2008-01-01

    Os autores apresentam imagens de dermatoscopia em uma fruta (manga-rosa), contaminada pela antracnose, mostrando sua semelhança com o melanoma extensivo superficial.The authors present images from a dermatoscopy performed in a fruit (mango) that was contaminated by anthracnosis, showing its similarity to superficial spreading melanona.

  11. Sebocyte-like cell primary cutaneous melanoma: a rare cytologic variant of malignant melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina-Ruiz, Ana M; Ortiz-Reina, Sebastián; Carranza, Carmen; Kutzner, Heinz; Requena, Luis

    2015-11-01

    Although rising incidence rates of cutaneous melanoma have been observed during the last 4 decades in white populations worldwide, the sebocyte-like cell variant has been described only twice in the literature to date. In our case, a 64-year-old man presented for evaluation of a changing pigmented lesion on the left upper back. Excision of the lesion revealed an invasive melanoma with a Breslow depth of 3.3 mm. Microscopic sections showed a predominantly dermal-based tumor composed of sheets and nests of enlarged epithelioid melanocytes, most of which showed an uncommon phenotype with multivacuolated cytoplasms and scalloped nuclei, features that gave them a strong resemblance to mature sebocytes. The lesional cells expressed S100 protein, Melan-A, and p16, whereas adipophilin was positive only within the sebocyte-like component of the neoplasm and showed focal nonspecific staining. The patient's sentinel lymph node biopsy was positive for micrometastases, although a subsequent position emission tomography scan was unremarkable. Sebocyte-like melanocytes are a rare distinctive type of melanocytes that can be found mostly in benign but also in malignant melanocytic lesions. They usually present focally within the lesions and, therefore, do not represent a diagnostic problem in nevus or primary cutaneous melanoma. However, when sebocyte-like melanocytes are the main cellular component of a melanocytic lesion or when they are found in the context of metastatic melanoma, they may create a potential diagnostic pitfall; for this reason, awareness of this cell type is important. PMID:25830719

  12. Melanoma de coroides: presentación de un caso / Choroidal melanoma: a case presentation

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Aymed, Rodríguez Pargas; Leonor, Gallardo Roca; Iris, Chávez Pardo; Xiomara, Borrego Lastre.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Fundamento: los melanomas de coroides son considerados los tumores malignos más frecuentes en el adulto, aparece generalmente entre la sexta y séptima década de la vida y se diagnostica a través de la oftalmoscopia, la biomiscroscopia, el ultrasonido y la angiografía fluoresceínica. Su forma de pres [...] entación puede ser en su variante nodular o difusa la malignidad depende del tamaño del tumor, la localización, extensión extra escleral, tipo histológico, entre otros factores. La causa de muerte por esta enfermedad suele ocurrir por metástasis hepática. Objetivo: evitar el diagnóstico tardío del melanoma ocular. Caso clínico: se presenta el caso de una paciente femenina de 50 años de edad que acudió al centro oftalmológico del Hospital Universitario Manuel Ascunce Domenech, por disminución lenta de la agudeza visual del ojo derecho, detectándose al examen oftalmológico la presencia de una masa tumoral de color pardo que ocupaba la hemiretina superior, lo cual se corroboró con la observación de el ultrasonido ocular, por lo que se decidió proceder a la enucleación del globo ocular debido a las características del mismo. El estudio histopatológico confirmó la presencia de un melanoma de coroides de células tipo mixtas con infiltración a cuerpo ciliar. Los resultados del examen físico general, hematológico e imagenológico fueron negativos, descartándose la presencia de metástasis. Abstract in english Background: choroidal melanoma is considered the most common malignant tumor in adults. It usually appears between the sixth and seventh decade of life and it is diagnosed by ophthalmoscopy, biomiscroscopy, ultrasound and fluorescein angiography. Choroidal melanoma presentation may be in its nodular [...] or diffuse variant; malignancy depends on the size of tumor, location, extrascleral extension, histological type, among other factors. The cause of death from this disease usually occurs by hepatic metastases. Objective: to avoid late diagnosis of ocular melanoma. Case presentation: a 50-year-old-female patient presented with slow decrease of visual acuity in the right eye. The eye test detected the presence of a brown tumor mass occupying the upper hemiretina, which was corroborated with the observation of ocular ultrasound. It was decided to enucleate the eyeball due to its characteristics. Histopathological examination confirmed the presence of a choroidal melanoma of mixed cell type with ciliary body infiltration. Results of physical, hematological and imaging examination were negative, ruling out the presence of metastasis.

  13. Clinicopathological characteristics, diagnosis and treatment of melanoma in Serbia: The Melanoma Focus Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kandolf-Sekulovi? Lidija

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Treatment options for metastatic melanoma in Serbia are limited due to the lack of newly approved biologic agents and the lack of clinical studies. Also, there is a paucity of data regarding the treatment approaches in different tertiary centers and efficacy of available chemotherapy protocols. The aim of this study was to obtain more detailed data about treatment protocols in Serbia based on structured survey in tertiary oncology centers. Methods. Data about the melanoma patients treated in 2011 were analyzed from hospital databases in 6 referent oncology centers in Serbia, based on the structured survey, with the focus on metastatic melanoma patients (unresectable stage IIIC and IV. Results. A total of 986 (79-315 in different centers patients were treated, with 320 (32.45% newly diagnosed patients. There were 317 patients in stage IIIC/IV, 77/317 aged 60 years. At initial diagnosis 12.5% of patients were in stage III and 4.5% in stage IV. The most common type was superficial spreading melanoma (50-66%, followed by nodular melanoma (23.5-50%. Apart from the regional and distant lymph node metastases, the most frequent organs involved in stage IV disease were distant skin and soft tissues (12-55%, lungs (19-55.5%, liver (10-60%, and bones (3-10%. The first line therapy in stage IV metastatic melanoma was dacarbazine (DTIC dimethyl-triazeno-imidozole-carboxamide in 61-93% of the patients, while the second line varied between the centers. Disease control (complete response + partial response + stable disease was achieved in 25.7% of the patients treated with the first line chemotherapy and 23.1% of the patients treated with the second line therapy, but the duration of response was short, in first-line therapy 6.66 ± 3.36 months (median 6.75 months. More than 90% of patients were treated outside the clinical trials. Conclusion. Based on this survey, there is a large unmet need for the new treatment options for metastatic melanoma in Serbia. The development of national guidelines, and greater involvement in international clinical studies could lead to widening of treatment options for this chemotherapy resistant disease.

  14. Isolated limb infusion chemotherapy for melanoma: an overview of early experience at the Adelaide Melanoma Unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giles MH

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Mitchell H Giles,1 Brendon J Coventry2 1Adelaide Melanoma Unit, 2Discipline of Surgery, The University of Adelaide, Royal Adelaide Hospital Adelaide, SA, Australia Background: Isolated limb infusion (ILI using cytotoxic agents has been demonstrated to be an effective and less invasive alternative modality than isolated limb perfusion for the treatment of melanoma localized to a limb. Percutaneous catheters were inserted into the axial artery and vein of the affected limb while using a pneumatic cuff to restrict limb vascular flow proximally to "isolate" the limb from the body and enable delivery of high-dose intra-arterial chemotherapy selectively to the limb. The ILI technique was developed at the Sydney Melanoma Unit (now renamed the Melanoma Institute Australia, and only a few other centers have reported separate results. We report our early results using the ILI technique for management of locally recurrent surgically nonresectable melanoma. Methods and results: Twenty-eight ILI procedures were performed in 20 patients treated with one or more procedures between 1997 and 2007. Patient parameters and clinical responses were evaluated. The median follow-up duration was 15.9 months after the first ILI, with an overall response rate after one or more infusions of 70%, of which 35% were complete responders and 35% were partial responders, with a further 20% showing stable disease, giving a "clinically significant" response rate of 90%. After one ILI (n = 20, the overall response rate was 70%, with 20% complete responders and 50% partial responders, and 20% with stable disease. Low limb toxicities were generally observed, and no amputations were required. Conclusion: ILI chemotherapy is a useful technique, which can be readily repeated for control of melanoma in the limb. It is generally well tolerated, and is capable of achieving a cure, delayed progression, or effective palliation in selected cases. The longest survivors in this series were 8 and 10 years from the last ILI. Keywords: metastatic melanoma, melphalan, actinomycin-D, regional therapy, intra-arterial infusion

  15. Intention to Obtain Genetic Testing for Melanoma among Individuals at Low to Moderate Risk for Hereditary Melanoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vadaparampil, Susan T.; Azzarello, Lora; Pickard, Jennifer; Jacobsen, Paul B.

    2007-01-01

    Background: Melanoma is a serious skin cancer that has been on the rise in the United States. Some genetic component is apparent. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to identify demographic, clinical, attitudinal, and health belief factors associated with intention to obtain genetic testing for hereditary melanoma among unaffected first-degree…

  16. Accessibility to air travel correlates strongly with increasing melanoma incidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agredano, Yolanda Z; Chan, Joanna L; Kimball, Ranch C; Kimball, Alexa B

    2006-02-01

    As the cost of air travel has decreased substantially in the USA and Europe over the past few decades, leisure travel to vacation destinations during the winter months has expanded significantly. This trend has probably increased the incidence of significant ultraviolet radiation exposure and sunburn in a broader population who could not previously afford this kind of travel. The purpose of this study was to analyse the correlation between increasing accessibility to air travel and melanoma incidence. This ecological study surveyed air travel patterns and melanoma incidence over the past three decades. Melanoma age-adjusted incidence was obtained from the United States Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results 9 Registry Database, 1975-2000, and the Cancer Registry of Norway, 1965-2000. United States mean inflation-adjusted airfare prices for four airports linked to leisure destinations (Miami, Los Angeles, San Diego, Phoenix) were compared with melanoma incidence. Parallel analyses were performed using annual domestic passenger-kilometres and melanoma incidence in Norway. Declining United States leisure-specific airfares corresponded strongly with increasing melanoma incidence (r = 0.96, r = 0.92, P airfare and melanoma diagnosis strengthened the association (r = 0.98, r = 0.96, P < 0.001). Longer time lags could not be modelled due to data limitations. Data from Norway similarly showed that increasing air passenger mileage corresponded strongly with increasing melanoma incidence. Although correlation does not equate to causality, the very strong relationship between increasing access to air travel and melanoma incidence suggests that changes in recreational patterns may be contributing significantly to the public health problem of melanoma. PMID:16432460

  17. Melanomas: radiobiology and role of radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose/Objective: This course will review the radiobiology of malignant melanoma (MM) and the clinical use of radiation therapy for metastatic melanoma and selected primary sites. The course will emphasize the scientific principles underlying the clinical treatment of MM. Introduction: The incidence of malignant melanoma has one of the fastest growth rates in the world. In 1991, there were 32,000 cases and 7,000 deaths from MM in the United States. By the year 2000, one of every 90 Americans will develop MM. Wide local excision is the treatment of choice for Stage I-II cutaneous MM. Five-year survival rates depend on (a) sex: female-63%, male-40%; (b) tumor thickness: t 4 mm-25%; (c) location: extremity-60%, trunk-41%; and (d) regional lymph node status: negative-77%, positive-31%. Despite adequate surgery, 45-50% of all MM patients will develop metastatic disease. Radiobiology: Both the multi-target model: S = 1-(1-e-D/Do)n and the linear quadratic mode: -In(S) = alpha x D + beta x D2 predict a possible benefit for high dose per fraction (> 400 cGy) radiation therapy for some MM cell lines. The extrapolation number (n) varies from 1-100 for MM compared to other mammalian cells with n=2-4. The alpha/beta ratios for a variety of MM cell lines vary from 1 to 33. Other radiobiologic factors (repair of potentially lethal damage, hypoxia, reoxygenation, and repopulation) predict a wide variety of clinical responses to different time-dose prescriptions including high dose per fraction (> 400 cGy), low dose per fraction (200-300 cGy), or b.i.d. therapy. Based on a review of the radiobiology of MM, no single therapeutic strategy emerges which could be expected to be successful for all tumors. Time-Dose Prescriptions: A review of the retrospective and prospective clinical trials evaluating various time-dose prescriptions for MM reveals: (1) MM is a radiosensitive tumor over a wide range of diverse time-dose prescriptions; and (2) The high clinical response rates to a diverse range of time-dose prescriptions are consistent with the wide diversity and complexity of the radiobiological data for MM. RT for Metastatic Melanoma: RT is the single most effective therapy for local palliation of metastatic disease. Complete response (CR) rates range from 24-75% and overall response (OR) rates are 59-98% with RT compared with CR rates of 3-10% and OR rates of only 15-36% with either chemotherapy or immunotherapy. Achieving a CR is important even for patients with metastatic disease. Five-year survival for patients with metastatic disease who achieve a CR is 49% compared to a 5-year survival of only 3% for patients who do not achieve a CR. RT for Primary Tumors: RT is effective therapy for selected primary sites including uveal melanoma and non-cutaneous, non-ocular mucosal MM. The RT results for ocular melanoma and non-cutaneous, non-ocular mucosal MM are superior to surgery. In addition, post-operative RT for residual microscopic/macroscopic disease following primary surgery produces long term local control rates of 75-88%. It is likely that radiation therapy is being under-utilized in current oncology practice

  18. Identification of genes associated with melanoma metastasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Tao; Wang, Hongyi; Wang, Yang; Zhang, Yu; Hui, Qiang; Tao, Kai

    2015-11-01

    The aims of the study were to identify the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between primary melanomas and metastasis melanomas (MMs), and to investigate the mechanisms of MMs. The microarray data GSE8401 including 31 primary melanomas and 52 MMs were downloaded from Gene Expression Omnibus. DEGs were identified using the Linear Models for Microarray Data package. The functional and pathway enrichment analyses were performed for DEGs. Identification of transcription factors, tumor-associated genes (TAGs), and tumor suppressor genes (TSGs) were performed with the TRANSFAC, TAG, and TSGene databases, respectively. A protein-protein interaction network was constructed using Search Tool for the Retrieval of Interacting Genes. The modules construction and analysis was performed using Molecular Complex Detection and Gene Cluster with Literature Profiles, respectively. In total, 1004 upregulated and 1008 downregulated DEGs were identified. The upregulated DEGs, such as CDK1, BRCA1, MAD2L1, and PCNA, were significantly enriched in cell cycles, DNA replication, and mismatch repair. The downregulated DEGs, such as COLIAL, COL4A5, COL18A1, and LAMC2, were enriched in cell adhesion and extracellular matrix-receptor interaction. BRCA1 was identified as a transcription factor and TSG, and COL18A1 and LAMC2 were identified as a TSG and TAG, respectively. The upregulated DEGs had higher degrees in the protein-protein interaction network and module, such as PCNA, CDK1, and MAD2L1, and the heat map showed they were clustered in the functions of cell cycle and division. These results may demonstrate the potential roles of DEGs such as CDK1, BRCA1, COL18A1, and LAMC2 in the mechanism of MM. PMID:26678934

  19. Carbon ion radiotherapy for uveal melanoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the applicability of carbon ion beams in the treatment of choroidal melanoma, with regard to normal tissue morbidity and local tumor control. Between January 2001 and August 2006, 67 patients with locally advanced or unfavorable-site choroidal melanoma were enrolled in a phase I/II clinical trial of carbon-ion radiotherapy (C-ion RT) at the National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS). Primary endpoint of this study was normal tissue morbidity and secondary endpoints were local tumor control and patient survival. Fifty-nine of the patients were followed up for more than 6 months and analyzed. Twenty-three patients (39%) developed neovascular glaucoma (NVG) and 3 of them underwent enucleation because of the eye pain due to elevated intraocular pressure. The incidence of neovascular glaucoma was dependent on tumor size and site. Five patients had died by the date of analysis, 3 of distant metastasis and 2 of intercurrent diseases. All patients but one, who developed marginal recurrence, were controlled locally. Eight patients developed distant metastasis, 5 in the liver and 3 in the lung. Three-year overall survival, disease-free survival, and local control rates were 87.1%, 81.6%, and 98.0%, respectively. No apparent dose-response relationship was observed either in tumor control or in normal tissue morbidity with the dose range applied. C-ion RT can be applied to choroidal melanoma with an acceptable morbidity and sufficient anti-tumor effect, even in tumors of unfavorable size or site. (author)

  20. Nivolumab: A Review in Advanced Melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Lesley J

    2015-08-01

    An improved understanding of cancer genetics and immune regulatory pathways, including those associated with evasion of immune surveillance by tumours, has culminated in the development of several targeted therapies. One such strategy that acts to negate evasion of immune surveillance by tumours is inhibition of the programmed cell death receptor-1 (PD-1) checkpoint pathway. Intravenous nivolumab (Opdivo(®)), a PD-1 checkpoint inhibitor, is approved or in pre-registration in various countries for use in adult patients with advanced melanoma, with the recommended monotherapy dosage being a 60-min infusion of 3 mg/kg once every 2 weeks. In well-designed multinational trials, as monotherapy or in combination with ipilimumab (a cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4 checkpoint inhibitor), nivolumab significantly improved clinical outcomes and had a manageable tolerability profile in adult patients with advanced melanoma with or without BRAF mutations. Nivolumab monotherapy was associated with a higher objective response rate (ORR) than chemotherapy in treatment-experienced patients and a higher ORR and prolonged progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival than dacarbazine in treatment-naive patients. In combination with ipilimumab, nivolumab was associated with an improved ORR and prolonged PFS compared with ipilimumab monotherapy in treatment-naive patients. In addition, nivolumab monotherapy significantly prolonged PFS and improved ORRs compared with ipilimumab monotherapy. The optimal combination regimen for immune checkpoint inhibitors remains to be fully elucidated, with various combination regimens and different sequences of individual immunotherapies currently being investigated in ongoing clinical trials. Given the significant improvements in outcomes associated with nivolumab in clinical trials, nivolumab monotherapy or combination therapy is a valuable first-line or subsequent treatment option for adult patients with unresectable or metastatic melanoma, irrespective of BRAF mutation status. PMID:26220912

  1. Melanoma and intravascular coagulation disseminated fulminant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clinical discoveries, imaginological and pathological of a 54 year-old woman, with pruritus, ulceration and bled intermittent in dorsal nevus, located in the region left sub-scapular. The biopsy demonstrated the presence of malign melanoma. Two months after having carried out the procedure the reappearance of the tumoral lesion it was documented on the same area by what was practiced wide local resection; the report was compatible with recidivate melanoma, later on (four weeks after the second surgical intervention), she noticed the presence of conglomerate left axillary ganglion of quick growth for metastatic melanoma. To the moment of the initial evaluation, it founded a mass axillary left, of 10 x 6 cm, associated to local swelling and to slight functional limitation for the active and passive mobility of the extremity. It decided to carry out new surgical resection that demonstrated persistence tumoral in the deep borders and commitment in 1 of 9 ganglions for metastasis, associated to reaction inflammatory chronicle. It began treatment adjuvant with interferon alpha 2b with appropriate tolerance and poor answer. In June of the same year it presented progressive dyspnoea, for what decided to suspend the immune-therapy and to begin dacarbacina with palliative intention, also, she received radiotherapy on the left axilla and temozolamida. In March of 2004, it entered to the service of urgencies to present scheme of 8 days of evolution characterized by the presence of progressive asymmetric edema of the left inferior member, associated to functional limitation for the march, with pain during the bipedestation and appearance of multiple lesions nodular hyper-pigmented in the previous thorax and in the face

  2. Lessons learned from the Sunbelt Melanoma Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMasters, Kelly M; Noyes, R Dirk; Reintgen, Douglas S; Goydos, James S; Beitsch, Peter D; Davidson, B Scott; Sussman, Jeffrey J; Gershenwald, Jeffrey E; Ross, Merrick I

    2004-07-01

    The Sunbelt Melanoma Trial is an ongoing multicenter prospective randomized trial that involves 79 centers and over 3600 patients from across the United States and Canada. This is one of the first large randomized studies to incorporate molecular staging using reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). While the results related to the primary endpoints of the study are not yet available, several analyses have shed light on many aspects of sentinel lymph node (SLN) biopsy and melanoma prognostic factors. In particular, we have developed a practical definition of sentinel nodes based on the degree of radioactivity. We have established the low rate of postoperative complications associated with SLN biopsy as compared to complete lymph node dissection. We have identified factors that predict the presence of SLN metastases. In contrast, we have been unable to identify factors that indicate a low risk of non-sentinel node metastases in patients with a positive sentinel node, suggesting that completion lymphadenectomy is appropriate for such patients. We have further established the value of identifying interval or in-transit sentinel nodes, which can be the only site of nodal metastasis. We have evaluated the particular challenges associated with SLN biopsy of head and neck melanomas, have evaluated the patterns of early recurrence, and have identified an interesting correlation between increasing patient age and a number of prognostic factors. Future analyses will evaluate the benefit of early therapeutic lymphadenectomy and early institution of adjuvant interferon alfa-2b therapy, as well as the validity of molecular staging. PMID:15221928

  3. In vitro effect of progesterone on human melanoma (BLM) cell growth

    OpenAIRE

    Ramaraj, Pandurangan; James L. Cox

    2014-01-01

    Epidemiological data suggest there is a female sex advantage in melanoma skin cancer. Female sex hormones have been attributed to this protection. There has been no experimental evidence to link female sex hormones directly with melanoma protection until our recently published work on mouse melanoma (B16F10) cells. Our recently published work showed that progesterone significantly inhibited mouse melanoma cell growth in vitro. This study was extended to human melanoma (BLM) cells. Research wo...

  4. Nevi, family history and fair skin increase the risk of second primary melanoma

    OpenAIRE

    Siskind, Victor; Hughes, Maria Celia B; Palmer, Jane; Symmons, Judy; Aitken, Joanne F.; Martin, Nicholas G.; Hayward, Nicholas K; Whiteman, David C

    2010-01-01

    While risk factors for primary cutaneous melanoma are well defined, relatively little is known about predictors for second primary melanoma. Given the rising incidence of this cancer, coupled with improvements in survival, there is a prevalent and growing pool of patients at risk of second primary melanomas. To identify the predictors of second primary melanoma, we followed a cohort of 1083 Queensland patients diagnosed with incident melanoma between 1982-90 and who completed a baseline quest...

  5. Personalized Prediction of Germline CDKN2A Mutations and Cancer Risk in Hereditary Melanoma

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Wenyi; Niendorf, Kristin B.; Patel, Devanshi; Blackford, Amanda; Marroni, Fabio; Sober, Arthur J; Parmigiani, Giovanni; Tsao, Hensin

    2010-01-01

    Personalized cancer risk assessment remains an essential imperative in post-genomic cancer medicine. In hereditary melanoma, germline CDKN2A mutations have been reproducibly identified in melanoma-prone kindreds worldwide. However, genetic risk counseling for hereditary melanoma remains clinically challenging. To address this challenge, we developed and validated MelaPRO: an algorithm that provides germline CDKN2A mutation probabilities and melanoma risk to individuals from melanoma-prone fam...

  6. MERTK controls melanoma cell migration and survival and differentially regulates cell behavior relative to AXL

    OpenAIRE

    Tworkoski, Kathryn A.; Platt, James T.; Bacchiocchi, Antonella; Bosenberg, Marcus; Boggon, Titus J; Stern, David F.

    2013-01-01

    The receptor tyrosine kinase AXL regulates melanoma cell proliferation and migration. We now demonstrate that AXL and the related kinase MERTK are alternately expressed in melanoma and are associated with different transcriptional signatures. MERTK-positive melanoma cells are more proliferative and less migratory than AXL-positive melanoma cells and overexpression of AXL increases cell motility relative to MERTK. MERTK is expressed in up to 50% of melanoma cells and shRNA-mediated knockdown o...

  7. Lack of GNAQ and GNA11 germ-line mutations in familial melanoma pedigrees with uveal melanoma or blue nevi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JasonEzraHawkes

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Approximately 10% of melanoma cases are familial, but only 25-40% of familial melanoma cases can be attributed to germ-line mutations in the CDKN2A - the most significant high-risk melanoma susceptibility locus identified to date. The pathogenic mutation(s in most of the remaining familial melanoma pedigrees have not yet been identified. The most common mutations in nevi and sporadic melanoma are found in BRAF and NRAS, both of which result in constitutive activation of the MAPK pathway. However, these mutations are not found in uveal melanomas or the intradermal melanocytic proliferations known as blue nevi. Rather, multiple studies report a strong association between these lesions and somatic mutations in Guanine nucleotide-binding protein G(q subunit alpha (GNAQ, Guanine nucleotide-binding protein G(q subunit alpha-11 (GNA11 and BRCA1 associated protein-1 (BAP1. Recently, germ-line mutations in BAP1, the gene encoding a tumor suppressing deubiquitinating enzyme, have been associated with predisposition to a variety of cancers including uveal melanoma, but no studies have examined the association of germ-line mutations in GNAQ and GNA11 with uveal melanoma and blue nevi. We have now done so by sequencing exon 5 of both of these genes in 13 unique familial melanoma pedigrees, members of which have had either uveal or cutaneous melanoma and/or blue nevi. Germ-line DNA from a total of 22 individuals was used for sequencing; however no deleterious mutations were detected. Nevertheless, such candidate gene studies and the discovery of novel germ-line mutations associated with an increased MM susceptibility can lead to a better understanding of the pathways involved in melanocyte transformation, formulation of risk assessment, and the development of specific drug therapies.

  8. Radiation sensitivity of the malignant melanoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Based on case histories of 67 patients with malignant melanomas (14 primary tumors and 53 metastases to the lymph nodes) who underwent sole irradiation, the correlation between the total dose needed for a local healing and the period of treatment has been investigated. It appeared that excessively high doses are not necessary for healing. A dose of about 5,500 rd in 35 days is regarded as sufficient. In long-term treatment, however, the total dose has to be increased more than, for example, with squamous cell carcinoma. (orig.)

  9. A CASE OF LIMBAL MALIGNANT MELANOMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hansa H

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Conjunctival malignant melanoma is a rare pigmented tumor occurring during fifth and sixth decade typically involving limbus with high recurrence rate . A 65 yr male presented with complaints of slowly growing dark colored swelling in his left eye since 2 months . No systemic complaints . A black mass was seen on limbus with lobulated appearance . On USG ocular coats were normal . UBM shows 8*5 mm mass . Excision of mass was done and biopsy confirmed diagnosis . Mass excision was supplemented with cryotherapy . Now patient i s cosmetically and visually satisfied .

  10. Primary melanoma of Meckel's cave: case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falavigna, Asdrubal; Borba, Luis A B; Ferraz, Fernando Antonio Patriani; Almeida, Giovana Camargo de; Krindges Júnior, José Valentim

    2004-06-01

    We present a case of trigeminal neuralgia with cranial normal magnetic resonance image (MRI) and computed tomography. The pain was not relieved by carbamazepine and microvascular decompression surgery was done. After two months the pain was similar to the condition before surgery. At this time, MRI showed an expansive lesion in Meckel's cave that was treated with radical resection by extra-dural approach. The pathologic examination revealed a primary melanoma. The follow-up after six months did not show abnormalities. PMID:15235745

  11. POLE mutations in families predisposed to cutaneous melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoude, Lauren G; Heitzer, Ellen; Johansson, Peter; Gartside, Michael; Wadt, Karin; Pritchard, Antonia L; Palmer, Jane M; Symmons, Judith; Gerdes, Anne-Marie; Montgomery, Grant W; Martin, Nicholas G; Tomlinson, Ian; Kearsey, Stephen; Hayward, Nicholas K

    2015-12-01

    Germline mutations in the exonuclease domain of POLE have been shown to predispose to colorectal cancers and adenomas. POLE is an enzyme involved in DNA repair and chromosomal DNA replication. In order to assess whether such mutations might also predispose to cutaneous melanoma, we interrogated whole-genome and exome data from probands of 34 melanoma families lacking pathogenic mutations in known high penetrance melanoma susceptibility genes: CDKN2A, CDK4, BAP1, TERT, POT1, ACD and TERF2IP. We found a novel germline mutation, POLE p.(Trp347Cys), in a 7-case cutaneous melanoma family. Functional assays in S. pombe showed that this mutation led to an increased DNA mutation rate comparable to that seen with a Pol ? mutant with no exonuclease activity. We then performed targeted sequencing of POLE in 1243 cutaneous melanoma cases and found that a further ten probands had novel or rare variants in the exonuclease domain of POLE. Although this frequency is not significantly higher than that in unselected Caucasian controls, we observed multiple cancer types in the melanoma families, suggesting that some germline POLE mutations may predispose to a broad spectrum of cancers, including melanoma. In addition, we found the first mutation outside the exonuclease domain, p.(Gln520Arg), in a family with an extensive history of colorectal cancer. PMID:26251183

  12. Cyclic AMP (cAMP) signaling in melanocytes and melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Carlos Iván; Setaluri, Vijayasaradhi

    2014-12-01

    G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs), which include melanocortin-1 receptor (MC1R), play a crucial role in melanocytes development, proliferation and differentiation. Activation of the MC1R by the ?-melanocyte stimulating hormone (?-MSH) leads to the activation of the cAMP signaling pathway that is mainly associated with differentiation and pigment production. Some MC1R polymorphisms produce cAMP signaling impairment and pigmentary phenotypes such as the red head color and fair skin phenotype (RHC) that is usually associated with higher risk for melanoma development. Despite its importance in melanocyte biology, the role of cAMP signaling cutaneous melanoma is not well understood. Melanoma is primarily driven by mutations in the components of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) pathway. Increasing evidence, however, now suggests that cAMP signaling also plays an important role in melanoma even though genetic alterations in components of this pathway are note commonly found in melanoma. Here we review these new roles for cAMP in melanoma including its contribution to the notorious treatment resistance of melanoma. PMID:25017568

  13. Solar elastosis and cutaneous melanoma: a site-specific analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kvaskoff, Marina; Pandeya, Nirmala; Green, Adèle C; Perry, Susan; Baxter, Catherine; Davis, Marcia B; Mortimore, Rohan; Westacott, Lorraine; Wood, Dominic; Triscott, Joe; Williamson, Richard; Whiteman, David C

    2015-06-15

    Cutaneous melanomas are postulated to arise through at least two causal pathways, namely the "chronic sun exposure" and "nevus" pathways. While chronic sun exposure probably causes many head/neck melanomas, its role at other sites is unclear. In a population-based, case-case comparison study conducted in Brisbane, Australia, we determined the prevalence and epidemiologic correlates of chronic solar damage in skin adjacent to invasive, incident melanomas on the trunk (n = 418) or head/neck (n = 92) among patients aged 18-79 in 2007-2010. Participants self-reported information about environmental and phenotypic factors, and a dermatologist counted nevi and actinic keratoses. Dermatopathologists assessed solar elastosis adjacent to each melanoma using a four-point scale (nil, mild, moderate, marked), and noted the presence or absence of adjacent neval remnants. We measured associations between various factors and solar elastosis using polytomous logistic regression. Marked or moderate solar elastosis was observed in 10% and 27%, respectively, of trunk melanomas, and 60% and 17%, respectively, of head/neck melanomas. At both sites, marked elastosis was positively associated with age (p(trend) ?tanning skin (OR = 0.29, 95% CI = 0.08-1.11) and high nevus counts (OR = 0.08, 95% CI = 0.01-0.66). Mostly similar associations were observed with moderate solar elastosis. About one in three trunk melanomas in Queensland have evidence of moderate-to-marked sun damage, and they differ in risk associations from those without. PMID:25403328

  14. Exome sequencing identifies recurrent somatic RAC1 mutations in melanoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krauthammer, Michael; Kong, Yong; Ha, Byung Hak; Evans, Perry; Bacchiocchi, Antonella; McCusker, James P.; Cheng, Elaine; Davis, Matthew J.; Goh, Gerald; Choi, Murim; Ariyan, Stephan; Narayan, Deepak; Dutton-Regester, Ken; Capatana, Ana; Holman, Edna C.; Bosenberg, Marcus; Sznol, Mario; Kluger, Harriet M.; Brash, Douglas E.; Stern, David F.; Materin, Miguel A.; Lo, Roger S.; Mane, Shrikant; Ma, Shuangge; Kidd, Kenneth K.; Hayward, Nicholas K.; Lifton, Richard P.; Schlessinger, Joseph; Boggon, Titus J.; Halaban, Ruth (Yale-MED); (UCLA); (Queens)

    2012-10-11

    We characterized the mutational landscape of melanoma, the form of skin cancer with the highest mortality rate, by sequencing the exomes of 147 melanomas. Sun-exposed melanomas had markedly more ultraviolet (UV)-like C>T somatic mutations compared to sun-shielded acral, mucosal and uveal melanomas. Among the newly identified cancer genes was PPP6C, encoding a serine/threonine phosphatase, which harbored mutations that clustered in the active site in 12% of sun-exposed melanomas, exclusively in tumors with mutations in BRAF or NRAS. Notably, we identified a recurrent UV-signature, an activating mutation in RAC1 in 9.2% of sun-exposed melanomas. This activating mutation, the third most frequent in our cohort of sun-exposed melanoma after those of BRAF and NRAS, changes Pro29 to serine (RAC1{sup P29S}) in the highly conserved switch I domain. Crystal structures, and biochemical and functional studies of RAC1{sup P29S} showed that the alteration releases the conformational restraint conferred by the conserved proline, causes an increased binding of the protein to downstream effectors, and promotes melanocyte proliferation and migration. These findings raise the possibility that pharmacological inhibition of downstream effectors of RAC1 signaling could be of therapeutic benefit.

  15. AKT1 Activation Promotes Development of Melanoma Metastases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph H. Cho

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Metastases are the major cause of melanoma-related mortality. Previous studies implicating aberrant AKT signaling in human melanoma metastases led us to evaluate the effect of activated AKT1 expression in non-metastatic BRAFV600E/Cdkn2aNull mouse melanomas in vivo. Expression of activated AKT1 resulted in highly metastatic melanomas with lung and brain metastases in 67% and 17% of our mice, respectively. Silencing of PTEN in BRAFV600E/Cdkn2aNull melanomas cooperated with activated AKT1, resulting in decreased tumor latency and the development of lung and brain metastases in nearly 80% of tumor-bearing mice. These data demonstrate that AKT1 activation is sufficient to elicit lung and brain metastases in this context and reveal that activation of AKT1 is distinct from PTEN silencing in metastatic melanoma progression. These findings advance our knowledge of the mechanisms driving melanoma metastasis and may provide valuable insights for clinical management of this disease.

  16. Modeling tandem AAG8-MEK inhibition in melanoma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drug resistance presents a challenge to the treatment of cancer patients, especially for melanomas, most of which are caused by the hyperactivation of MAPK signaling pathway. Innate or acquired drug-resistant relapse calls for the investigation of the resistant mechanisms and new anti-cancer drugs to provide implications for the ultimate goal of curative therapy. Aging-associated gene 8 (AAG8, encoded by the SIGMAR1 gene) is a chaperone protein profoundly elaborated in neurology. However, roles of AAG8 in carcinogenesis remain unclear. Herein, we discover AAG8 antagonists as new MEK inhibitors in melanoma cells and propose a novel drug combination strategy for melanoma therapy by presenting the experimental evidences. We report that specific antagonism of AAG8, efficiently suppresses melanoma cell growth and migration through, at least in part, the inactivation of the RAS-CRAF-MEK signaling pathway. We further demonstrate that melanoma cells that are resistant to AAG8 antagonist harbor refractory CRAF-MEK activity. MEK acts as a central mediator for anti-cancer effects and also for the resistance mechanism, leading to our proposal of tandem AAG8-MEK inhibition in melanoma cells. Combination of AAG8 antagonist and very low concentration of a MEK inhibitor synergistically restricts the growth of drug-resistant cells. These data collectively pinpoint AAG8 as a potential target and delineate a promising drug combination strategy for melanoma therapy

  17. Classical and molecular genetics of malignant melanoma and dysplastic naevi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors conclude that the prevailing concept of monogenic autosomaldominant inheritance of dysplastic naevi and familial melanoma is not compatible with the principles of formal (Mendelian) genetics. The concept of polygenic inheritance offers instead a sound basis to explain familial aggregation of dysplastic naevi and melanoma. The various genes involved have not yet been identified at the molecular level. The recent advances made possible by modern DNA technology have given us a new view of carcinogenesis. In human malignant melanoma, chromosomes 1, 6, 7 are of particular interest and oncogenes located on these chromosomes may be involved with the initiation, promotion and progression of melanoma. Carcinogenesis is viewed as a multistep process and even tumour initiation requires the input of at least two independent oncogenes. Molecular genetics thus adds an important argument for the existence of a polygenic predisposition to melanoma. The concept of polygenic inheritance is not restricted to familial melanoma, but implies that all melanomas basically share the same predisposition and are due to similar genetic mechanisms. In some patients an inherited genetic predisposition is of great importance, whereas in others (the majority) environmental factors (e.g. UV-light-induced mutations) will be the cause of initial steps in the malignant transformation. The concept of polygenic inheritance has consequences for the management of our patients. In contrast to simple Mendelian inheritance, the risk for dysplastic naevi and melanoma is not constantly 50%, but increases with the number of family members already affected. Persons belonging to families with more that 2 affected close relatives should be considered at high risk regardless of the dysplastic naevus status. Strict surveillance of this patient group is warranted for melanoma prevention

  18. Metastatic melanoma – a review of current and future drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago Rodrigues Velho

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Melanoma is one of the most aggressive cancers, and it is estimated that 76,250 men and women will be diagnosed with melanoma of the skin in the USA in 2012. Over the last few decades many drugs have been developed but only in 2011 have new drugs demonstrated an impact on survival in metastatic melanoma.Methods: A systematic search of literature was conducted, and studies providing data on the effectiveness of current and/or future drugs used in the treatment of metastatic melanoma were selected for review. This review discusses the advantages and limitations of these agents, evaluating past, current and future clinical trials designed to overcome such limitations.Results: To date, there are four drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration for melanoma (dacarbazine, interleukin-2, ipilimumab and vemurafenib. Despite efforts to develop new drugs, few of them have demonstrated any clinical benefits. Approved in 1975, dacarbazine remains the gold standard in chemotherapy, although ipilimumab and vemurafenib have raised many hopes in the last few years. Combining dacarbazine or other chemotherapy agents with new pharmacological agents may be a new way to achieve better clinical responses in patients with metastatic melanoma.Discussion: Advances in the molecular knowledge of melanoma have led to major improvements in the treatment of patients with metastatic melanoma, providing new targets and insights. However, heterogeneity amongst study populations, different approaches to treatment and the different melanoma types and localisations included in the trials makes their comparison difficult. New studies focusing on drugs developed in recent decades are warranted

  19. Early detection of melanoma metastases with radioiodinated methylene blue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melanin synthesised in melanoma cells presents a unique target to which the treatment can be selectively addressed, provided the pigment is recognised by a suitable drug. Methylene blue (MTB) possesses a high affinity for melanin and, therefore, accumulates preferentially in melanoma cells. Since not directly toxic to the tumour, MTB serves as a carrier for radioisotopes and, once taken up by melanoma cells, acts as a selectively localised source of radiation. Hence, radioderivatives of the compound can be used for both diagnosis and therapy of disseminated melanoma. Eleven patients with confirmed metastatic melanoma and one with a recent local recurrence were studied using radioiodinated (iodine-123 or iodine-131) MTB and a gamma camera. Biopsies of cutaneous lesions were taken to determine directly the compound uptake in tumours. This first clinical investigation concerning the diagnostic potential of radioiodinated MTB in patients with disseminated melanoma confirmed the existence of approximately 80% of internal lesions previously identified by routine methods and, additionally, enabled detection of unknown secondaries in 6 of 12 patients studied. There were no false-positive gamma camera images regardless of whether 123I or 131I was used. 131I proved to be more suitable than 123I for detecting melanoma metastases with radioiodinated MTB. Hazy images of the lesions treated with external beam radiation and/or some drugs suggest that initial radio- and chemotherapy might affect MTB uptake in melanoma metastases and reduce the clarity of the scintigrams obtained from a gamma camera. However, small, untreated internal lesions that cannot be visualised easily with the standard diagnostic methods are revealed with 131I-MTB regardless of their localisation. It is concluded that use of radioiodinated MTB in conjunction with gamma camera or positron emission tomographic imaging might prove to be a useful and accessible tool for the detection of early melanoma dissemination. (orig.)

  20. Radioimmunoscintigraphy of human malignant melanoma. I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The novel RG-12 monoclonal antibody (MoAb) recognizing a high-molecular-weight antigen of human melanoma cells was radioiodinated and its biodistribution and tumor imaging was determined in immunosuppressed mice bearing xenografted human malignant melanoma HMB-2. Control and tumor-bearing mice were injected with 6 ?g of 125I-labeled RG-12 IgG (8.9 MBq 125I-IgG/animal). Clearance of the MoAb from plasma had a mean half life of 20.6 hours. At day 2 after injection, radiolabeled RG-12 IgG localized in the tumor was 1.43% of the injected dose bound per gram tissue (ID/g), whereas the localization in the healthy kidney was below 0.5%. Tumor to tissue ratio of MoAb accumulation was low for hepatic tissue (1.25) but high for spleen (3.30) and kidney (3.25). Scanning with a gamma camera localized tumor mass in the right kidney and implanted peritoneal metastases. (author). 3 figs., 1 tab., 9 refs

  1. IFN-? in the treatment of melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarhini, Ahmad A; Gogas, Helen; Kirkwood, John M

    2012-10-15

    Among the IFNs, IFN-?2 has been the most broadly evaluated clinically. At the molecular level, IFN-? has multiple effects in a variety of malignancies that range from antiangiogenic to potent immunoregulatory, differentiation-inducing, antiproliferative, and proapoptotic effects. A multitude of IFN-?2 regimens that may be classified as low dose, intermediate dose, and high dose have been evaluated as adjuvant therapy in melanoma. A durable impact on both relapse-free and overall survival was seen only with the regimen utilizing high-dose IFN-?2b tested in the Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group and intergroup trials E1684, E1690, and E1694 as adjuvant therapy for high-risk surgically resected melanoma (stage IIB or III). Adjuvant pegylated IFN-?2b has also been evaluated at maximally tolerable doses compared with the observation group in the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer trial 18991 and has shown relapse-free survival benefits in patients with microscopic nodal disease. PMID:23042723

  2. Desmoplastic neurotropic melanoma: A diagnostic trap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rabia Bozdo?an Arpac?

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Desmoplastic neurotropic melanoma (DNM is known as a rare variety of cutaneous melanoma. The authors defined the term ‘neurotropic’ which is used to refer to the associated nevre infiltration or neural differentiation. 74-year-old female applied to a plastic surgery clinic with one year history of a nodule on the left infraorbital skin. The lesion was excised by the surgeons and was sent to the pathology department.. The tumor with spindle cells in a scar like stroma was detected microscopically and diagnosed as a ‘dermatofibroma’. Eight months after surgery a deep-seated nodule recurred at the same place. This nodule was re-excised. In this sample, we saw hypercellularity, atypical mitoses and nerve infiltration of the spindle tumor cells having strong positive staining with S-100 protein and negative staining with HMB-45, so the ultimate diagnosis was DNM. The differential diagnosis of this lesion includes many benign and malignant entities. This is crucial because of the potential for recurrence and metastasis of the lesion.

  3. GdNCT of spontaneous canine melanoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effectiveness of GdNCT has been studied in dogs with spontaneous melanoma of the mucousmembrane of the oral cavity patients on the NCT base at the IRT MEPhI reactor. The control group with melanomas was treated with neutrons. Fourteen canine patients were selected in the Clinic of Experimental Therapy affiliated with the RCRC RAMS. The calculation of doses has shown that the total dose of energy release depending on Gd concentration in the target can be several times higher than the dose produced by the reactor neutron beam. The calculations were carried out using the diffusion pharmacokinetic model. The gadolinium drug dipentast was administered intratumorally immediately prior to irradiation. The tumor size was estimated by measuring it in three projections. The tumor was irradiated for 60-90 minutes with a thermal neutron flux of 0.7x109 n/cm2s. The dose on tumor was 80-120 Gy, on surrounding tissues - 12-15 Gy. The treatment plan included immunotherapy with Roncoleikin in a dose of (15-10)x103 IE/kg. The results of GdNCT are still under observation. The results conform to those obtained by us earlier in cell cultures and inoculated experimental tumors. GdNCT is also effective in combination with immunotherapy. (author)

  4. Pembrolizumab: A Review in Advanced Melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deeks, Emma D

    2016-03-01

    Pembrolizumab (Keytruda(®)) is a humanized monoclonal antibody against programmed death receptor-1 (PD-1), a key immunoinhibitory checkpoint protein implicated in down-regulating anti-tumour immune responses. This intravenous drug is indicated for the treatment of advanced (unresectable or metastatic) melanoma, on the basis of its clinical benefit in this setting in the phase I KEYNOTE 001 trial (expansion cohorts) and the phase II and III trials, KEYNOTE 002 and 006. These studies were conducted in ipilimumab-naïve and/or ipilimumab-experienced patients and assessed varying pembrolizumab regimens administered every 2 or 3 weeks, all of which helped to determine the recommended dosage of 2 mg/kg every 3 weeks. In the trials with active comparator arms, pembrolizumab regimens significantly improved progression-free survival (PFS), overall survival (OS) and overall response rates (ORR) relative to ipilimumab in ipilimumab-naïve patients (KEYNOTE 006), and significantly improved PFS and ORR, but not OS (although OS data are immature), relative to chemotherapy in ipilimumab-refractory patients, who had also received BRAF/MEK inhibitor therapy if BRAF-mutation positive (KEYNOTE 002). Pembrolizumab has an acceptable tolerability profile, with immune-related adverse events that are generally manageable/reversible. Thus, pembrolizumab is a valuable treatment option for patients with advanced melanoma, including those who have progressed on ipilimumab and BRAF/MEK inhibitors. PMID:26846323

  5. Ultraviolet radiation and cutaneous malignant melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moan, Johan Emilian; Baturaite, Zivile; Dahlback, Arne; Porojnicu, Alina Carmen

    2014-01-01

    Essential features of the epidemiology and photobiology of cutaneous malignant melanoma (CMM) in Norway were studied in comparison with data from countries at lower latitudes. Arguments for and against a relationship between ultraviolet radiation (UV) from sun and artificial light and CMM are discussed. Our data indicate that UV is a carcinogen for CMM and that intermittent exposures are notably melanomagenic. This hypothesis was supported both by latitude gradients, by time trends and by changing patterns of tumor density on different body localizations. However, even though UV radiation generates CMM, it may also have a protective action and/or an action that improves prognosis. There appears to be no, or even an inverse latitude gradient for CMM arising on non-UV exposed body localizations (uveal melanoma, CMMs arising in the vulva, perianal/anorectal regions, etc.). Furthermore, CMM prognosis was gradually improved over all years of increasing incidence (up to 1990), but during the past 20 years, incidence rates stabilized and prognosis was not improved significantly. Comparisons of skin cancer data from Norway, Australia and New Zealand indicate that squamous cell carcinoma and basal cell carcinoma are mainly related to annual solar UVB fluences, while UVA fluences play a larger role of CMM. PMID:25207376

  6. Radiation therapy of intracranial malignant melanoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sixty-four consecutive patients with intracranial malignant melanoma were irradiated between January 1980-March 1994. The long-term results of the irradiation were analyzed. Four patients with intended radiation therapy interrupted were excluded from the survival analysis. The remaining sixty were divided into groups using the total dose of 40 Gy and normalized total dose at 3 Gy (NTD3Gy) with 30 Gy as cutpoints. These subgroups did not differ markedly as to sex, age, KPS, single vs. multiple metastases, extracranial disease, surgical intervention on brain, prior chemo and/or immunotherapy. Those with higher total doses to the tumour area had significantly better (P = 0.0006) survival. The median survival of the whole group was 4.1 months and those with NTD3Gy > 30 Gy survived the median time of 9.6 months, whereas those with NTD3Gy ? 30 Gy had a median survival of 2.1 months. The survival difference existed also after the exclusion of those with previous craniotomy (median survival 11.9 months) and was 1.9 vs. 8.3 months when NTD3Gy > 30 Gy was the cutpoint between the groups. In a multivariate analysis, the NTD3Gy turned out to be the most significant prognostic factor (P < 0.0001). The results reveal that the total dose of radiotherapy in the treatment of cerebral metastases of malignant melanoma might have a greater impact on patients' prognosis than previously considered

  7. Prognostic Significance of Melanoma Differentiation and Trans-Differentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nityanand Maddodi

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Cutaneous malignant melanomas share a number of molecular attributes such as limitless replicative potential that define capabilities acquired by most malignancies. Accordingly, much effort has been focused on evaluating and validating protein markers related to these capabilities to function as melanoma prognostic markers. However, a few studies have also highlighted the prognostic value of markers that define melanocytic differentiation and the plasticity of melanoma cells to trans-differentiate along several other cellular pathways. Here, we provide a comprehensive review and evaluation of the prognostic significance of melanocyte-lineage markers such as MITF and melanogenic proteins, as well as markers of vascular epithelial and neuronal differentiation.

  8. Orbital amelanotic melanoma in xeroderma pigmentosum: A rare association

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amitava, Abadan K; Mehdi, Ghazala; Sharma, Rajeev; Alam, Mohammad S

    2008-01-01

    Xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) is an autosomal recessive genetic disorder of DNA repair in which the body?s normal ability to repair damage caused by ultraviolet light is deficient. This leads to a 1000-fold increased risk of cutaneous and ocular neoplasms. Ocular neoplasms occurring in XP in order of frequency are squamous cell carcinoma, basal cell carcinoma and melanoma. Malignant melanomas occur at an early age in patients with XP. We report a case of XP with massive orbital melanoma in an eight-year-old boy which is unique due to its amelanotic presentation confirmed histopathologically. PMID:18711275

  9. Radiosensitivity of malignant melanomas. Part I. Experimental studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Human and hamster melanoma cells were irradiated in vitro with single and fractionated doses of ?-rays. Except for a tendency to high extrapolation numbers, survival curves did not show particular radioresistance. D2-D1 was between 220 and 300 rad. Regrowth delay after split dose irradiation to the hypoxic Harding-Passey melanoma in vivo yielded a D2-D1 of 700 rad. While the tumor control dose for 50% (TCD-50) was within normal range (4,400 rad) Harding-Passey melanomas regressed very slowly after irradiation and often took months to clear away

  10. BRAF V600E MUTATIONS IN METASTATIC MELANOMA - CASE REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Ini?

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The treatment of metastatic melanoma represents a challenge. Vemurafenib, a selective BRAF kinase inhibitor, is a new medicine against carcinoma. Recently, it has been shown that it raises the survival rate among patients with metastatic melanoma who have BRAFV600mutation. This work will discuss new approaches to the treatment of patients with metastatic melanoma, who have been proved to have BRAF V600 mutation and we will present the case of a female patient with whom the clinical study with Vemurafenib has been started.

  11. Meningeal metastasing of malignant melanomas. Meningeale Metastasierung maligner Melanome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gogoll, M.; Langer, M.; Hosten, N. (Klinikum Rudolf Virchow, Berlin (Germany, F.R.). Radiologische Klinik und Poliklinik)

    1989-08-01

    Two woman patients with malignant melanoma of the skin known from their case history and with acutely emerging neurological symptoms were examined both by CT and by MR tomography (both plain and with intravenous contrast medium). The radiologically derived suspicion of meningioma could not be confirmed by intraoperatively performed histological examination. In both cases the patients had meningeal melanoma metastases with low melanin content and without noticeable bleeding into the metastases. MR diagnosis is rendered difficult by the absence of paramagnetic substances typical of melanoma metastases. Hence, if the case history is known, it should be considered whether there is meningeal metastasising with atypical histology. (orig.).

  12. Umbilical Plugoma Mimics Melanoma Metastasis on FDG PET/CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alabed, Yazan Z; Sakellis, Christopher

    2015-10-01

    An 84-year-old man with history of left forehead melanoma was found on a restaging F-FDG PET/CT scan with hypermetabolic lung nodules and a mildly FDG-avid soft tissue nodule posterior to the umbilicus. Biopsy of a right lower lobe nodule revealed metastatic melanoma. Follow-up posttreatment PET/CT scan showed complete resolution of lung nodules and unchanged FDG uptake at the level of the umbilicus. Review of the patient's medical history revealed a remote history of umbilical hernia repair. We present a case of postsurgical plugoma mimicking the appearance of melanoma metastasis on FDG PET/CT. PMID:26164172

  13. Clinical assessment of I-123-IMP scintigraphy in malignant melanoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We evaluated the value of I-123-IMP scintigraphy in cases of malignant melanoma, 26 scans were obtained from 22 patients. Of the 24 lesions of pathologically proven melanoma, 16 (66.7%) were detected by I-123-IMP scan while 15 (62.5%) were detected by Ga-67 citrate scan. All of the IMP scans obtained 24 hours after injection more clearly demonstrated the lesions than those obtained 3 hours. I-123-IMP whole body scan reliably revealed the extent of malignant melanoma, and is valuable in clinical management. (author)

  14. VULVAR MELANOMA- A CASE REPORT AND SHORT LITERATURE REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surekha Tayade

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Malignant melanomas of the vulva and vagina are rare tumors located in areas of the body not exposed to ultraviolet radiation. It  is the second most common vulvar malignancy but represents less than 1% of all melanomas. Because the overall prognosis is poor, it represents a significant issue in women’s health. Because of the inherent difficulty in performing large studies of vulvar melanoma, many questions about the biology, etiology, risk factors, and optimal management remain unanswered. Research for vulvar cancer is ongoing. We are presenting here a case report and short literature review of the case.

  15. Sentinel node biopsy for melanoma: a study of 241 patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chakera, Annette Hougaard; Drzewiecki, Krzysztof Tadeusz; Jakobsen, Annika Loft; Juhl, Birgitte Ravn

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the sentinel node biopsy (SNB) technique for melanoma using both radiocolloid and blue dye in 241 clinically N0 patients with melanomas >1.0 mm, or thinner lesions exhibiting regression/ulceration. We showed that an increase in injected radioactivity increased...... nine haematoxylin and eosin (HE)-negatives, all of which were found by immunohistochemistry. The false negative rate for the SNB procedure was 4% (2/55). The complication rate was 6% after SNB and 29% after complete node dissection. In conclusion, SN status is a strong prognostic factor in melanoma...

  16. Spontaneous regression of metastases from melanoma: review of the literature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kalialis, Louise Vennegaard; Drzewiecki, Krzysztof T; Klyver, Helle

    2009-01-01

    Regression of metastatic melanoma is a rare event, and review of the literature reveals a total of 76 reported cases since 1866. The proposed mechanisms include immunologic, endocrine, inflammatory and metastatic tumour nutritional factors. We conclude from this review that although the precise...... mechanisms remain unknown, some event must trigger the immune system to produce a stronger than normal response that results in regression of the melanoma metastases. Immunologic studies of patients with regression may disclose the underlying mechanisms and lead to new therapies of disseminated melanoma....

  17. Surgery and radiotherapy in the treatment of cutaneous melanoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Testori, A; Rutkowski, P; Marsden, J; Bastholt, L; Chiarion-Sileni, V; Hauschild, A; Eggermont, A M M

    Adequate surgical management of primary melanoma and regional lymph node metastasis, and rarely distant metastasis, is the only established curative treatment. Surgical management of primary melanomas consists of excisions with 1-2 cm margins and primary closure. The recommended method of biopsy is...... on individual circumstances. Radiotherapy is indicated as a treatment option in select patients with lentigo maligna melanoma and as an adjuvant in select patients with regional metastatic disease. Radiotherapy is also indicated for palliation, especially in bone and brain metastases....

  18. The Nodal Location of Metastases in Melanoma Sentinel Lymph Nodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riber-Hansen, Rikke; Nyengaard, Jens; Hamilton-Dutoit, Stephen; Steiniche, Torben

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The design of melanoma sentinel lymph node (SLN) histologic protocols is based on the premise that most metastases are found in the central parts of the nodes, but the evidence for this belief has never been thoroughly tested. METHODS: The nodal location of melanoma metastases in 149...... were 77%, 79%, and 78%, respectively. No difference in either the mean volume or the maximum diameter of the metastases located exclusively outside the central and the peripheral protocols was found (volume: 0.036 vs. 0.031 mm and diameter: 0.320 vs. 0.332 mm). CONCLUSIONS: In SLNs, melanoma metastases...

  19. Population-based, Case-Control-Family Design to Investigate Genetic and Environmental Influences on Melanoma Risk: Australian Melanoma Family Study

    OpenAIRE

    Cust, Anne E.; Schmid, Helen; Maskiell, Judith A.; Jetann, Jodie; Ferguson, Megan; Holland, Elizabeth A.; Agha-Hamilton, Chantelle; Jenkins, Mark A.; Kelly, John; Kefford, Richard F.; Giles, Graham G; Bruce K Armstrong; Aitken, Joanne F.; Hopper, John L; Mann, Graham J.

    2009-01-01

    Discovering and understanding genetic risk factors for melanoma and their interactions with phenotype, sun exposure, and other risk factors could lead to new strategies for melanoma control. This paper describes the Australian Melanoma Family Study, which uses a multicenter, population-based, case-control-family design. From 2001 to 2005, the authors recruited 1,164 probands including 629 cases with histopathologically confirmed, first-primary cutaneous melanoma diagnosed before age 40 years,...

  20. Development of a tissue array for primary melanoma with long-term follow-up: discovering melanoma cell adhesion molecule as an important prognostic marker.

    OpenAIRE

    Pacifico, MD; Grover, R; Richman, PI; Daley, FM; Buffa, F; Wilson, GD

    2005-01-01

    Refining current prognostic capability is essential for improving the management of melanoma. This study was undertaken to develop a tumor array for the rapid assessment of novel prognostic markers in a series of specimens from melanoma patients with 7- to 10-year follow-up. A melanoma database of 120 patients with archival specimens was created after histopathological review of original specimens. A tissue array was developed allowing 480 biopsy samples from the 120 primary melanoma specimen...

  1. Melanoma "in situ" tratado con Imiquimod Melanoma in situ treated with Imiquimod

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RE Achenbach

    Full Text Available Comunicamos un caso con dos melanomas "in situ", en un varón de 86 años, localizados en ambos lados de la cara con alto riesgo quirúrgico, quien fuera tratado con imiquimod al 5% una vez al día durante dos meses; los resultados hasta el momento, clínicos e histológicos han sido satisfactorios.A 86 years-old man with two melanomas "in situ" at both sides of his face, treated with imiquimod 5% are presented. The patient has a cardiovascular high risk due to isquemic heart disease, for that reason we start the treatment with imiquimod once a day for two months. The clinical and histological response was good and a follow up will be as long as we can.

  2. Noninvasive and label-free detection of circulating melanoma cells by in vivo photoacoustic flow cytometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ping; Liu, Rongrong; Niu, Zhenyu; Suo, Yuanzhen; He, Hao; Wei, Xunbin

    2015-03-01

    Melanoma is a malignant tumor of melanocytes. Circulating melanoma cell has high light absorption due to melanin highly contained in melanoma cells. This property is employed for the detection of circulating melanoma cell by in vivo photoacoustic flow cytometry (PAFC). PAFC is based on photoacoustic effect. Compared to in vivo flow cytometry based on fluorescence, PAFC can employ high melanin content of melanoma cells as endogenous biomarkers to detect circulating melanoma cells in vivo. In our research, we developed in vitro experiments to prove the ability of PAFC system of detecting PA signals from melanoma cells. For in vivo experiments, we constructed a model of melanoma tumor bearing mice by inoculating highly metastatic murine melanoma cancer cells B16F10 with subcutaneous injection. PA signals were detected in the blood vessels of mouse ears in vivo. By counting circulating melanoma cells termly, we obtained the number variation of circulating melanoma cells as melanoma metastasized. Those results show that PAFC is a noninvasive and label-free method to detect melanoma metastases in blood or lymph circulation. Our PAFC system is an efficient tool to monitor melanoma metastases, cancer recurrence and therapeutic efficacy.

  3. Metastasizing oral melanoma in a cow Melanoma oral metastático em uma vaca

    OpenAIRE

    Marilene de Farias Brito; Ticiana Nascimento França; Flávia Figueiraujo Jabour; Josilene Nascimento Seixas; Gisele Braziliano de Andrade; Laura Iglesias Oliveira; Paulo Vargas Peixoto

    2009-01-01

    A malignant dendritic melanoma of the oral cavity with metastases widely spread in a cow is described. The clinicopathological manifestations, developed during a two-year period, was characterized by the difficulty in mastication and swallowing, progressive weight loss, weakness and profuse sialorrhea. At the necropsy, an ulcerated black mass was found at the left jaw projecting into the oral cavity. The tumor reached the chin, inferior lip and tongue. Metastases were detected within the tong...

  4. Primary melanoma of Meckel's cave: case report Melanoma primário do cavo de Meckel: relato de caso

    OpenAIRE

    Asdrubal Falavigna; Luis A. B. Borba; Fernando Antonio Patriani Ferraz; Giovana Camargo de Almeida; José Valentim Krindges Júnior

    2004-01-01

    We present a case of trigeminal neuralgia with cranial normal magnetic resonance image (MRI) and computed tomography. The pain was not relieved by carbamazepine and microvascular decompression surgery was done. After two months the pain was similar to the condition before surgery. At this time, MRI showed an expansive lesion in Meckel's cave that was treated with radical resection by extra-dural approach. The pathologic examination revealed a primary melanoma. The follow-up after six months d...

  5. Melanoma early detection and awareness : how countries developing melanoma awareness programs could benefit from melanoma-proficient countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wainstein, Alberto; Algarra, Salvador Martin

    2014-01-01

    Risk factors for melanoma are well known and have guided plans for primary and secondary prevention. The presentation of the disease, however, varies widely depending on the geographic area, ethnicity, and socioeconomic status. For this reason, many countries have developed specific strategies to increase public awareness and favor early diagnosis. Awareness campaigns, doctor education, and screening of high-risk subjects have all contributed to improve disease outcome in developed countries. The role of primary care physicians is particularly relevant in this regard. Developing countries are trying to implement similar measures. Future efforts to further improve the efficacy of preventive strategies should focus on populations that usually escape campaigns, such as elderly men and people with low socioeconomic status. Fast-growing tumors also require specific attention.

  6. Cytologic features of metastatic and recurrent melanoma in patients with primary cutaneous desmoplastic melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murali, Rajmohan; Loughman, Noel T; McKenzie, Paul R; Watson, Geoffrey F; Thompson, John F; Scolyer, Richard A

    2008-11-01

    Desmoplastic melanoma (DM) is a rare subtype of melanoma characterized by malignant spindle cells associated with prominent fibrocollagenous stroma. Primary melanomas may be entirely desmoplastic ("pure" DM) or exhibit a desmoplastic component admixed with a nondesmoplastic component ("combined" DM). The cytologic features of only 5 cases of DM have been reported previously. Fine-needle biopsy (FNB) specimens from 20 recurrent or metastatic lesions in patients with cutaneous DM and 20 recurrent or metastatic lesions from patients with primary cutaneous non-DM were examined and compared. FNB specimens of patients with DM were less cellular (P = .009) and less often exhibited intranuclear cytoplasmic invaginations (P = .008) and mitotic figures (P = .006) than specimens from patients with non-DM. "Combined" DMs were more commonly composed of epithelioid cells (P = .017) and less often contained bizarre/giant tumor cells (P = .010) than did "pure" DMs. Recurrent and metastatic DM has a range of cytologic appearances. Awareness of the cytologic features and careful clinicopathologic correlation will assist in accurate FNB diagnosis. PMID:18854263

  7. Malignant melanoma of the lung: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouarssani, Aziz; Atoini, Fouad; Reda, Rafik; Lhou, Fatima Ait; Rguibi, Mustapha Idrissi

    2012-01-01

    Primary melanoma of the lung is an extremely rare pathological entity and sparsely reported in the literature. A 68-year-old man was admitted with 3 months history of cough, sputum production, dyspnea, hemoptysis and chest pain. The chest radiography demonstrated bilateral mass lesion and thoracal computerized (CT) showed a bilateral tissu mass with left parietal invasion. Bronchoscopy revealed a large polypoidal tumor arising from the left lower lobe bronchus, histology at bronchial biopsy revealed a malignant melanoma. Surgical biopsy of the left parietal mass was confirmed by invasive malignant melanoma. Primary melanoma of the lung represents a rare pathological entity; careful interpretation of histopathological information in correlation with all other findings from clinical studies can establish a diagnosis. PMID:22655102

  8. Clinical utility of nivolumab in the treatment of advanced melanoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asmar R

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Ramsey Asmar,1 Jessica Yang,1 Richard D Carvajal1,2 1Department of Medicine, College of Physicians and Surgeons, 2Herbert Irving Comprehensive Cancer Center, Columbia University, New York, NY, USA Abstract: Melanomas are highly immunogenic tumors that evade the immune system by exploiting innate checkpoint pathways, rendering effector T-cells anergic. The immunotherapeutic approach of checkpoint inhibition can restore and invigorate endogenous antitumor T-cell responses and has become an important treatment option for patients with advanced melanoma. The CTLA-4 inhibitor ipilimumab and the PD-1 inhibitors nivolumab and pembrolizumab have been shown to induce durable responses and improve overall survival in metastatic, refractory melanoma. Optimization and validation of pretreatment biomarkers to predict response to these agents is a crucial area of ongoing research. Combination immunotherapy has recently demonstrated superior response rates compared to monotherapy; further investigation is needed to refine combinatorial strategies. Keywords: nivolumab, immune checkpoint inhibitors, PD-1, melanoma

  9. Study Questions Link Between Multiple Moles, Risk for Melanoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... moles, according to a team led by Alan Geller of the Harvard School of Public Health in ... JAMA Dermatology . Speaking in a journal news release, Geller said that the study suggests that melanomas are ...

  10. IL8 and Cathepsin B as Melanoma Serum Biomarkers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaowei Xu

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Melanoma accounts for only a small portion of skin cancer but it is associated with high mortality. Melanoma serum biomarkers that may aid early diagnosis or guide therapy are needed clinically. However, studies of serum biomarkers have often been hampered by the serum interference that causes false readouts in immunological tests. Here we show that, after using a special buffer to eliminate the serum interference, IL-8 and cathepsin B levels were significantly elevated in melanoma patients (p < 0.05. More importantly, the combination of IL-8 and cathepsin B were also studied as a prognosis marker for melanoma mortality. Our study provides a novel approach to examine serum biomarkers.

  11. Nivolumab for Metastatic Melanoma without a BRAF Mutation

    Science.gov (United States)

    A summary of results from an international phase III trial show that nivolumab (Opdivo®) improves overall survival compared with the chemotherapy drug dacarbazine in patients with metastatic melanoma whose tumors do not have a mutation in the BRAF gene.

  12. Malignant melanomas of the meninges (MR and CT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malignant melanoma of the meninges is a rare neoplasm derived from melanocytes of the cranial or spinal meninges. Histologically classified as grade IV tumours, malignant melanoma may present either as a diffuse meningeal neoplasm, first described by Virchow in 1859, or as a circumscribed tumour attached to the meninges. Although diagnosis is rarely established prior to surgery or autopsy, MR and CT may provide indispensable information probably leading to earlier diagnosis. In 4 patients, diagnosis of a primary meningeal melanoma was based on MR and CT findings and histology. Histology was obtained in 3 cases by surgery, in one patient by autopsy and showed a melanotic and an amelanotic malignant melanoma in 2 patients each. Autopsy was carried out in 3 cases after survival of 4, 5, and 18 months; in a single case, the follow-up period is almost 3 years. (orig.)

  13. Primary malignant melanoma of the small intestine - A case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Small bowel neoplasmas are very rare and can be found in 1-2% of all gastrointestinal tumors. Most of them have metastatic origin. Malignant melanoma is the most common tumor metastatic to the GI tract. Primary malignant melanomas arising from the small intestine are very rare but there are some case reports in the literature. Some authors stated that melanomas are never primary in the intestinal tract. Others try to explain the primary etiology. The most famous theory for its origin is the APUD cell concept. When a small bowel tumor is suspected, enteroclysis is the most useful imaging study. Herein we report the case of a primary malignant melanoma of the small bowel. (orig.)

  14. Tissue Resources for Clinical Use and Marker Studies in Melanoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curry, Jonathan L.; Davies, Michael A.; Calderone, Tiffany L.; Nathanson, Katherine; Prieto, Victor G.; Gershenwald, Jeffrey E.

    2016-01-01

    The adequate procurement and preservation of high-quality tissue specimens from patients with melanoma is a critical clinical issue as patients’ tumor samples are now used not only for pathological diagnosis but are also necessary to determine the molecular signature of the tumor to stratify patients who may benefit from targeted melanoma therapy. Tissue resources available for physicians and investigators include formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue and frozen tissue, either preserved in optimal cutting temperature (OCT) media or snap frozen. Properly preserved tissue may be used to evaluate melanoma biomarkers by immunohistochemistry (IHC) with tissue microarray (TMA) technology, to perform genetic and genomic analyses, and for other types of translational research in melanoma. PMID:24259006

  15. Melanoma conjuntival multifocal recidivado originado de nevus pigmentado preexistente

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Leandro Pereira

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available O melanoma conjuntival multifocal recidivado originado de nevus preexistente é extremamente raro, ocorrendo em uma pessoa para cinco milhões de habitantes. Seu estudo é de extrema relevância, devido sua potencial letalidade. Este estudo objetiva descrever um caso de melanoma conjuntival multifocal recidivado proveniente de nevus pigmentado preexistente ocorrido em Patos de Minas, MG. Este é um estudo de caso com revisão de literatura. O diagnóstico histopatológico e o estadiamento precoce da lesão conjuntival é de fundamental importância para designar a conduta frente ao paciente. O procedimento terapêutico mais utilizado nos dias atuais é a excisão cirúrgica com crioterapia adjuvante associada à mitomicina C. O prognóstico do melanoma conjuntival multifocal recidivado originado de nevus preexistente é o pior dentre todos os melanomas oculares, apresentando alta taxa de mortalidade, 12% a 20% em 5 anos e 30% em 10 anos de desenvolvimento patológico.

  16. Primary malignant melanoma of the vagina: a case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, Ji Young; Kim, Do Kang; Lee, Eun Hee [College of Medicine, Catholic Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jun Sang [College of Medicine, Chungnam National Univ., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-09-01

    A primary malignant melanoma of the vagina is a very rare gynecological malignant tumor. Its clinical behavior is more aggressive than that of cutaneous and vulvar melanomas. We present a case of a large sized primary melanoma of the lower third of the vagina, with a cervical lesion, in a 58-year-old postmenopausal woman. The patient was treated with conventional external radiation therapy and intracavitary radiotherapy (lCR), without surgical treatment. Although the primary lesion showed a partial response, the patient died of extensive metastases, which were found 4.5 months after the initial diagnosis. We suggest that shortening the treatment period, such as hypofractionated radiation therapy and surgical removal, and various systemic therapies for preventing early distant metastasis, are appropriate treatments for a primary malignant melanoma of the vagina, with a large tumor size.

  17. Genome-Wide Scan Reveals Mutation Associated with Melanoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 1999 Spotlight on Research 2012 July 2012 (historical) Genome-Wide Scan Reveals Mutation Associated with Melanoma A ... out to see if a technology called whole genome sequencing would help them find other genetic risk ...

  18. BRAF and beyond: Tailoring strategies for the individual melanoma patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Jarkowski

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Until recently, options for therapy in metastatic melanoma were limited. The understanding of immune check-point blockade and the discovery of molecular pathways involving driver mutations like BRAF has transformed the therapeutic landscape in this disease. Ipilimumab was the first drug shown to improve survival while vemurafenib demonstrated rapid responses never seen before in melanoma. Drugs from these classes and others are now in advanced stages of development and primed to positively impact patient survival in an incremental fashion. In this review, we highlight some of the developments during this renaissance in melanoma therapy and discuss agents of promise. Clinical challenges we face include individualizing therapy for patients, overcoming resistance to molecularly targeted therapy and developing rationale combinations or sequences of drugs. A concerted bench and bedside effort in this direction will undoubtedly keep melanoma in the forefront in an era of personalized medicine.

  19. Combined Nivolumab and Ipilimumab or Monotherapy in Untreated Melanoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larkin, James; Chiarion-Sileni, Vanna; Gonzalez, Rene; Grob, Jean Jacques; Cowey, C Lance; Lao, Christopher D; Schadendorf, Dirk; Dummer, Reinhard; Smylie, Michael; Rutkowski, Piotr; Ferrucci, Pier F; Hill, Andrew; Wagstaff, John; Carlino, Matteo S; Haanen, John B; Maio, Michele; Marquez-Rodas, Ivan; McArthur, Grant A; Ascierto, Paolo A; Long, Georgina V; Callahan, Margaret K; Postow, Michael A; Grossmann, Kenneth; Sznol, Mario; Dreno, Brigitte; Bastholt, Lars; Yang, Arvin; Rollin, Linda M; Horak, Christine; Hodi, F Stephen; Wolchok, Jedd D

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Nivolumab (a programmed death 1 [PD-1] checkpoint inhibitor) and ipilimumab (a cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 [CTLA-4] checkpoint inhibitor) have been shown to have complementary activity in metastatic melanoma. In this randomized, double-blind, phase 3 study, nivolumab...... alone or nivolumab plus ipilimumab was compared with ipilimumab alone in patients with metastatic melanoma. METHODS: We assigned, in a 1:1:1 ratio, 945 previously untreated patients with unresectable stage III or IV melanoma to nivolumab alone, nivolumab plus ipilimumab, or ipilimumab alone. Progression...... metastatic melanoma, nivolumab alone or combined with ipilimumab resulted in significantly longer progression-free survival than ipilimumab alone. In patients with PD-L1-negative tumors, the combination of PD-1 and CTLA-4 blockade was more effective than either agent alone. (Funded by Bristol-Myers Squibb...

  20. Methods to Improve Adoptive T-Cell Therapy for Melanoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Donia, Marco; Hansen, Morten; Sendrup, Sarah L; Iversen, Trine Zeeberg; Ellebæk, Eva; Andersen, Mads H; Straten, Per Thor; Svane, Inge Marie

    2013-01-01

    Further development of adoptive T-cell therapy (ACT) with autologous tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) has the potential to markedly change the long-term prognosis of patients with metastatic melanoma, and modifications of the original protocol that can improve its clinical efficacy are highly...... desirable. In this study, we demonstrated that a high in vitro tumor reactivity of infusion products was associated with clinical responses upon adoptive transfer. In addition, we systematically characterized the responses of a series of TIL products to relevant autologous short term-cultured melanoma cell...... lines from 12 patients. We provide evidence that antitumor reactivity of both CD8(+) and CD4(+) T cells could be enhanced in most TIL products by autologous melanoma sensitization by pretreatment with low-dose IFN-γ. IFN-γ selectively enhanced responses to tumor-associated antigens other than melanoma...

  1. MicroRNAs in the pathogenesis of malignant melanoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glud, M; Gniadecki, R

    2013-01-01

    Cutaneous malignant melanoma is the most aggressive and lethal form of skin cancer. Over the past decades, its incidence has been increasing by 3-8% per year in western countries while mortality has stabilized. Melanoma is a heterogenous disease and can be subclassified based on distinct clinical...... characteristics, histopathological features and mutation patterns within NRAS and BRAF genes. Recent data indicate that microRNAs (miRNAs) are involved in the pathogenesis of malignant melanoma. MiRNAs are small, non-coding, regulatory RNA molecules expressed in a tissue and cell specific manner and are known to...... play a crucial role in cell homeostasis and carcinogenesis. MiRNAs might prove to be powerful cancer biomarkers and future therapeutic targets. In this review, we focused on the miRNA involvement in four molecular pathways known to be deregulated in malignant melanoma, including the RAS...

  2. Germline TERT promoter mutations are rare in familial melanoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harland, Mark; Petljak, Mia; Robles-Espinoza, Carla Daniela; Ding, Zhihao; Gruis, Nelleke A; van Doorn, Remco; Pooley, Karen A; Dunning, Alison M; Aoude, Lauren G; Wadt, Karin A W; Gerdes, Anne-Marie; Brown, Kevin M; Hayward, Nicholas K; Newton-Bishop, Julia A; Adams, David J; Bishop, D Timothy

    2016-01-01

    Germline CDKN2A mutations occur in 40 % of 3-or-more case melanoma families while mutations of CDK4, BAP1, and genes involved in telomere function (ACD, TERF2IP, POT1), have also been implicated in melanomagenesis. Mutation of the promoter of the telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) gene (c.-57...... T>G variant) has been reported in one family. We tested for the TERT promoter variant in 675 multicase families wild-type for the known high penetrance familial melanoma genes, 1863 UK population-based melanoma cases and 529 controls. Germline lymphocyte telomere length was estimated in carriers....... The c.-57 T>G TERT promoter variant was identified in one 7-case family with multiple primaries and early age of onset (earliest, 15 years) but not among population cases or controls. One family member had multiple primary melanomas, basal cell carcinomas and a bladder tumour. The blood leukocyte...

  3. Nucleotide excision repair deficiency in melanoma in response to UVA

    OpenAIRE

    Murray, Heather C.; Maltby, Vicki E.; Smith, Doug W; Bowden, Nikola A

    2016-01-01

    Background The causative link between UV exposure and melanoma development is well known, however the mechanistic relationship remains incompletely characterised. UVA and UVB components of sunlight are implicated in melanomagenesis; however the majority of studies have focused on the effects of UVB and UVC light. Interestingly, melanoma tumour sequencing has revealed an overrepresentation of mutations signature of unrepaired UV-induced DNA damage. Repair of UVA-induced DNA damage is thought t...

  4. The roles of Microphthalmia Transcription Factor and pigmentation in melanoma

    OpenAIRE

    Hsiao, Jennifer J; Fisher, David E.

    2014-01-01

    MITF and pigmentation play important roles in both normal melanocyte and transformed melanoma cell biology. MITF is regulated by many pathways and it also regulates many targets, some of which are still being discovered and functionally validated. MITF is involved in a wide range of processes in melanocytes, including pigment synthesis and lineage survival. Pigmentation itself plays an important role as the interface between genetic and environmental factors that contribute to melanoma.

  5. New challenges in endpoints for drug development in advanced melanoma

    OpenAIRE

    Ribas, Antoni; Hersey, Peter; Middleton, Mark R.; Gogas, Helen; Flaherty, Keith T.; Sondak, Vernon K; Kirkwood, John M

    2011-01-01

    During the past three decades, the field of clinical research for the treatment of advanced melanoma lacked significant advances. Available drugs had low antitumor activity and no proven benefit in overall survival. Recently, new drugs developed based on an in-depth understanding of the biology of this disease have demonstrated significant benefit, with ipilimumab and vemurafenib having recently shown a positive impact in overall survival in patients with metastatic melanoma leading to approv...

  6. Oral malignant melanoma: A case report with review of literature

    OpenAIRE

    Manigandan, T.; Sagar, G. Vikram; Amudhan, A.; Hemalatha, V.T.; Babu, N. Aravinda

    2014-01-01

    Oral mucosal melanoma is a rare malignancy with the tendency to metastasize and locally invade tissues more readily than other malignant tumor of the oral cavity. It occurs approximately four times more frequently in the oral mucosa of the upper jaw usually on the palate or alveolar gingiva. The chameleonic presentation of malignant melanoma, its asymptomatic condition, rarity of the lesion, poor prognosis and the necessity of a highly specialized treatment are factors that should be seriousl...

  7. The role of the Hippo pathway in melanocytes and melanoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BruceCharlesBaguley

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The Hippo signalling pathway comprises a series of cytoplasmic tumour suppressor proteins including Merlin and the Lats1/2 and MST1/2 kinases, and is thought to play a critical role in determining the sizes of organs and tissues. The Hippo pathway is regulated upstream by extracellular mechanosensory signalling arising from cell shape and polarity, as well as by a variety of extracellular signalling molecules. When active, the pathway maintains the transcriptional activators YAP and TAZ in phosphorylated forms in the cytoplasm, preventing cell proliferation. When the Hippo pathway is inactivated, YAP and TAZ are translocated to the nucleus and induce the expression of a variety of proteins concerned with entry into the cell division cycle, such as cyclin D1 and Fox M1, as well as the inhibition of apoptosis. The failure of the Hippo pathway has been implicated in the development of many different types of cancer but there is limited information available as to its involvement in melanoma. We hypothesise here firstly that the Hippo pathway is involved in maintaining density of cutaneous melanocytes on the basement membrane at the junction of the epidermis and the dermis, and secondly, that its function is disturbed in melanoma. We have analysed a series of 23 low passage human melanoma lines as well as in cultures of normal melanocytes, and find that melanocytes, as well as all melanoma cell lines examined express TAZ. Melanocytes and most melanoma lines also express YAP. E-cadherin, an upstream regulator of the Hippo pathway, and Axl, a receptor tyrosine kinase regulated by the Hippo pathway, are expressed in melanocytes and in several melanoma cell lines. These observations, together with published evidence for the presence of Merlin, Lats1/2 and MST1/2 in melanocytes and melanoma cells, support the hypothesis that the Hippo pathway is an important component of melanocyte and melanoma behaviour.

  8. A Case of Pediatric Melanoma: Treatment Considerations in Advanced Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albino, Frank P.; Wood, Benjamin C.; Oh, Albert; Rogers, Gary F.

    2015-01-01

    Summary: We document a 3-year-old healthy African American girl who developed malignant melanoma on her lower extremity. The clinical appearance offered little indication of the lesion’s severity (T4), and only the history of de novo presentation and disproportionate growth raised clinical suspicion. This case report highlights the subtle clinical findings of this condition and presents controversies related to surgical management of pediatric melanoma. PMID:26090292

  9. Radiosensitivity of malignant melanomas. Part II. Clinical studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forty-four lymph node or skin metastases of malignant melanomas received definite radiotherapy. Twenty were locally controlled for 2 or more years. Local control rate increased with dose. TCD-50 was about 1800 ret. The effectiveness of radiotherapy was more dependent on overall treatment time than on fraction size or number of fractions. Radiotherapy is suggested to decrease the high rate of locoregional failure of surgery of nodular melanomas in the foot and face

  10. Vertical growth phase and positive sentinel node in thin melanoma

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira Filho R.S.; Ferreira L.M.; Biasi L.J.; Enokihara M.M.S.S.; Paiva G.R.; Wagner J

    2003-01-01

    Sentinel node (SN) status is the most important prognostic factor for localized melanoma. Usually, patients with Breslow thickness of less than 1.0 mm are not included in SN protocols. However, the literature presents a rate ranging from 3 to 7% of nodal recurrence in thin melanoma. Ulceration, regression and high mitotic rate have been considered to be indications for an SN biopsy. The metastatic potential of the vertical growth phase is uncertain. To correlate pathological features in thin ...

  11. Insights in tumorigenesis and metastasis of uveal melanoma

    OpenAIRE

    Notting, Irene Christa

    2009-01-01

    For a long time enucleation has been the treatment of choice for uveal melanoma. New treatment modalities have been developed e.g. transscleral thermotherapy (TTT), proton beam radiation, stereotactic radiotherapy and ruthenium application 1-3 . These treatment options offer a better chance to spare the eye. Despite new treatment options, the overall survival of patients treated for uveal melanoma did not improve. Ultimately, most patients die of metastatic disease. Therefore, there is need f...

  12. Metronidazol in combined therapy of malignant skin melanoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Analysis of immediate, early and 3-year delayed radiation effects of combined therapy of 91 patients with malignant skin melanoma, who received metronidazole as radiosensibilizator and intensive large-fraction preoperative remote radiotherapy with 6-10 MeV fast electrons and postoperative supporting multicourse polychemotherapy, is presented. It is shown that for 3 years of posttherapy obsrevations the patients had no recurrences of melanoma

  13. Metastasis of choroidal melanoma to the orbit. Imaging contribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choroidal melanoma is characterized by an unpredictable clinical course, during which metastatic disease may occur after a prolonged disease-free interval. However, metastases to orbit are quite rare; there have been only 6 reported cases in the literature. We report well documented examples of metastases to the orbit from a melanoma of the choroid first diagnosed 8 years earlier. MR imaging is accurate in determining the exact location of lesions and their nature owing to the paramagnetic properties of melanin. (authors)

  14. A case of unusual metastasis of melanoma of conjunctiva

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M. Andreychenko

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This article describes a clinical case of melanoma of conjunctiva of the upper eyelid of a woman born in 1911. The patient had received a course of external radiotherapy of the primary tumor and plaque brachytherapy tumor recurrences (at 1 and 6 years from the start of treatment. However, after 7 years from the start of treatment, against the background of local remission, the patient had conjunctival melanoma metastasis was found in the choroid of the contralateral eye.

  15. The Potential of Triterpenoids in the Treatment of Melanoma.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šarek, J.; Kvasnica, Miroslav; Vlk, M.; Urban, M.; Dzubak, P.; Hajduch, M.

    Rijeka : InTech, 2011 - (Murph, M.), s. 125-158 ISBN 978-953-307-293-7 Grant ostatní: GA ?R(CZ) GA305/09/1216; GA ?R(CZ) GP301/09/P433 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : triterpene * melanoma * lupane * cancer Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry http://www.intechopen.com/articles/show/title/the-potential-of-triterpenoids-in-the-treatment-of-melanoma

  16. Rhabdomyosarcoma and late malignant melanoma of the orbit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forty-five years following surgical excision and radiation for a childhood rhabdomyosarcoma of the left orbit, a patient with primary lymphedema developed an ipsilateral malignant melanoma of the anterior orbital tissue. This was excised, but a metastasis of the melanoma occurred in the contralateral upper lid. This is the first case report of treated rhabdomyosarcoma of the orbit followed by a second primary tumor occurring in the field of radiation

  17. Isolation and Molecular Characterization of Circulating Melanoma Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Luo, Xi; Mitra, Devarati; Sullivan, Ryan J; Wittner, Ben S; Kimura, Anya M.; Pan, Shiwei; Hoang, Mai P.; Brannigan, Brian W; Lawrence, Donald P.; Flaherty, Keith T.; Sequist, Lecia V.; McMahon, Martin; Bosenberg, Marcus W.; Stott, Shannon L; Ting, David T.

    2014-01-01

    Melanoma is an invasive malignancy with a high frequency of blood-borne metastases, but circulating tumor cells (CTCs) have not been readily isolated. We adapted microfluidic CTC capture to a tamoxifen-driven B-RAF/PTEN mouse melanoma model. CTCs were detected in all tumor-bearing mice, rapidly declining after B-RAF inhibitor treatment. CTCs were shed early from localized tumors and a short course of B-RAF inhibition following surgical resection was sufficient to dramatically suppress distant...

  18. Predicting outcome in melanoma: where are we now?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Jennings, L

    2009-09-01

    Melanoma incidence continues to rise in most countries. This is of grave concern, given the mortality rate in a relatively young population. Current staging tools are limited in their ability to predict accurately those at risk of metastatic disease, relapse and treatment failure. This overview comprehensively reviews relevant literature, with the focus on the last 5 years, and discusses the current state of traditional and emerging novel methods of staging for melanoma and their effect on prognosis in this population.

  19. The role of spectrophotometry in the diagnosis of melanoma

    OpenAIRE

    Ascierto Paolo A; Palla Marco; Ayala Fabrizio; De Michele Ileana; Caracò Corrado; Daponte Antonio; Simeone Ester; Mori Stefano; Del Giudice Maurizio; Satriano Rocco A; Vozza Antonio; Palmieri Giuseppe; Mozzillo Nicola

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Spectrophotometry (SPT) could represent a promising technique for the diagnosis of cutaneous melanoma (CM) at earlier stages of the disease. Starting from our experience, we further assessed the role of SPT in CM early detection. Methods During a health campaign for malignant melanoma at National Cancer Institute of Naples, we identified a subset of 54 lesions to be addressed to surgical excision and histological examination. Before surgery, all patients were investigated ...

  20. Thyroid autoimmunity and ophthalmopathy related to melanoma biologic therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Min, Le; Vaidya, Anand; Becker, Carolyn

    2010-01-01

    Ipilimumab is a fully human monoclonal antibody against Cytotoxic TLymphocyte Antigen 4 (CTLA-4). CTLA-4 negatively regulates immune cell activation. In patients with metastatic melanoma, ipilimumab increases survival time and induces complete remission in some patients. However, immune related adverse events including endocrinopathies have been reported. Bevacizumab, an angiogenesis inhibitor, has been used in combination with ipilimumab in patients with advanced melanoma. Here, we report th...

  1. Concurrent radiation therapy and ipilimumab immunotherapy for patients with melanoma

    OpenAIRE

    Barker, Christopher A.; Postow, Michael A; Khan, Shaheer A.; Beal, Kathryn; Parhar, Preeti K.; Yamada, Yoshiya; Lee, Nancy Y.; Wolchok, Jedd D

    2013-01-01

    Ipilimumab and radiation therapy (RT) are commonly used to treat unresectable and metastatic melanoma. Results from preclinical studies and case reports suggest a biologic interaction between these two treatments. To understand the clinical implications of the interaction, we performed a retrospective study reviewing records of patients treated with ipilimumab and RT for melanoma at our institution between 2005 and 2011. The review included details of treatment, response, adverse events (AEs)...

  2. Bevacizumab plus Ipilimumab in Patients with Metastatic Melanoma

    OpenAIRE

    Hodi, F Stephen; Lawrence, Donald; Lezcano, Cecilia; Wu, Xinqi; Jun ZHOU; Sasada, Tetsuro; Zeng, Wanyong; Giobbie-Hurder, Anita; Atkins, Michael B; Ibrahim, Nageatte; Friedlander, Philip; Flaherty, Keith T.; Murphy, George F.; Rodig, Scott; Velazquez, Elsa F.

    2014-01-01

    Ipilimumab improves survival in advanced melanoma and can induce immune-mediated tumor vasculopathy. Besides promoting angiogenesis, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) suppresses dendritic cell maturation and modulates lymphocyte endothelial trafficking. This study investigated the combination of CTLA-4 blockade with ipilimumab and VEGF inhibition with bevacizumab. Patients with metastatic melanoma were treated in four dosing cohorts of ipilimumab (3 or 10 mg/kg) four doses at 3-week i...

  3. Combined Nivolumab and Ipilimumab or monotherapy in untreated melanoma

    OpenAIRE

    Larkin, James; Chiarion-Sileni, Vanna; Gonzalez, Rene; Grob, Jean Jacques; Cowey, C Lance; Lao, Christopher D; Schadendorf, Dirk; Dummer, Reinhard; Smylie, Michael; RUTKOWSKI, PIOTR; Ferrucci, Pier F; Hill, Andrew; Wagstaff, John; Carlino, Matteo S.; Haanen, John B.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Nivolumab (a programmed death 1 [PD-1] checkpoint inhibitor) and ipilimumab (a cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 [CTLA-4] checkpoint inhibitor) have been shown to have complementary activity in metastatic melanoma. In this randomized, double-blind, phase 3 study, nivolumab alone or nivolumab plus ipilimumab was compared with ipilimumab alone in patients with metastatic melanoma. METHODS: We assigned, in a 1:1:1 ratio, 945 previously untreated patients with unresectabl...

  4. Ipilimumab and radiation therapy for melanoma brain metastases

    OpenAIRE

    Silk, Ann W; Bassetti, Michael F.; West, Brady T; Tsien, Christina I; Lao, Christopher D

    2013-01-01

    Ipilimumab, an antibody that enhances T-cell activation, may augment immunogenicity of tumor cells that are injured by radiation therapy. We hypothesized that patients with melanoma brain metastasis treated with both ipilimumab and radiotherapy would have improved overall survival, and that the sequence of treatments may affect disease control in the brain. We analyzed the clinical and radiographic records of melanoma patients with brain metastases who were treated with whole brain radiation ...

  5. Ipilimumab: An Anti-CTLA-4 Antibody for Metastatic Melanoma

    OpenAIRE

    Lipson, Evan J; Drake, Charles G.

    2011-01-01

    Ipilimumab (MDX-010, Yervoy; Bristol-Myers Squibb), a fully human monoclonal antibody against CTL antigen 4 (CTLA-4), was recently approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for the treatment of metastatic melanoma. In both early- and late-phase trials, ipilimumab has shown consistent activity against melanoma. For example, in a randomized phase III trial that enrolled patients with previously treated metastatic disease, ipilimumab, with or without a peptide vaccine, improved ove...

  6. Biomarkers on melanoma patient T Cells associated with ipilimumab treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Wang Wenshi; Yu Daohai; Sarnaik Amod A; Yu Bin; Hall Maclean; Morelli Dawn; Zhang Yonghong; Zhao Xiuhua; Weber Jeffrey S

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Ipilimumab induces long-lasting clinical responses in a minority of patients with metastatic melanoma. To better understand the mechanism(s) of action and to identify novel biomarkers associated with the clinical benefit and toxicity of ipilimumab, baseline characteristics and changes in CD4+ and CD8+ T cells from melanoma patients receiving ipilimumab were characterized by gene profiling and flow cytometry. Methods Microarray analysis of flow-cytometry purified CD4+ and C...

  7. Molecular and genetic diversity in the metastatic process of melanoma

    OpenAIRE

    Harbst, Katja; Lauss, Martin; Cirenajwis, Helena; Winter, Christof; Howlin, Jillian; Törngren, Therese; Kvist, Anders; Nodin, Björn; Olsson, Eleonor; Häkkinen, Jari; Jirström, Karin; Staaf, Johan; Lundgren, Lotta; Olsson, Håkan; Ingvar, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Diversity between metastatic melanoma tumours in individual patients is known; however, the molecular and genetic differences remain unclear. To examine the molecular and genetic differences between metastatic tumours, we performed gene-expression profiling of 63 melanoma tumours obtained from 28 patients (two or three tumours/patient), followed by analysis of their mutational landscape, using targeted deep sequencing of 1697 cancer genes and DNA copy number analysis. Gene-expression signatur...

  8. Surgery and radiotherapy in the treatment of cutaneous melanoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Testori, A; Rutkowski, P; Marsden, J; Bastholt, L; Chiarion-Sileni, V; Hauschild, A; Eggermont, A M M

    2009-01-01

    Adequate surgical management of primary melanoma and regional lymph node metastasis, and rarely distant metastasis, is the only established curative treatment. Surgical management of primary melanomas consists of excisions with 1-2 cm margins and primary closure. The recommended method of biopsy is excisional biopsy with a 2 mm margin and a small amount of subcutaneous fat. In specific situations (very large lesions or certain anatomical areas), full-thickness incisional or punch biopsy may be a...

  9. Antiangiogenic Metargidin Peptide (AMEP) Gene Therapy in Disseminated Melanoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spanggaard, Iben; Gehl, Julie

    2015-01-01

    Gene delivery by electroporation is an efficient method for transfecting genes into various tissues including tumors. Here we present the treatment protocol used in a phase 1 study on gene electrotransfer of plasmid DNA encoding an antiangiogenic peptide into cutaneous melanoma.......Gene delivery by electroporation is an efficient method for transfecting genes into various tissues including tumors. Here we present the treatment protocol used in a phase 1 study on gene electrotransfer of plasmid DNA encoding an antiangiogenic peptide into cutaneous melanoma....

  10. Social Network Analysis of an Online Melanoma Discussion Group

    OpenAIRE

    Durant, Kathleen T.; McCray, Alexa T; Safran, Charles

    2010-01-01

    We have developed tools to explore social networks that share information in medical forums to better understand the unmet informational needs of patients and family members facing cancer treatments. We define metrics that demonstrate members discussing interleukin-2 receive a stronger response from the melanoma discussion group than a typical topic. The interleukin-2 network has a different topology than the melanoma network, has a higher density, and its members are more likely to have a hi...

  11. Melanocytes, melanocyte stem cells, and melanoma stem cells

    OpenAIRE

    Lang, Deborah; Mascarenhas, Joseph B.; Shea, Christopher R.

    2013-01-01

    Melanocyte stem cells differ greatly from melanoma stem cells; the former provide pigmented cells during normal tissue homeostasis and repair, while the latter play an active role in a lethal form of cancer. These two cell types share several features and can be studied by similar methods. Aspects held in common by both melanocyte stem cells and melanoma stem cells include their expression of shared biochemical markers, a system of similar molecular signals necessary for their maintenance, an...

  12. Anorectal melanoma - histopathological and immunohistochemical features and treatment / Melanoma anorretal - diagnósticos histopatológico e imunohistoquímico e tratamento

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Geraldo Magela Gomes da, Cruz; José de Souza, Andrade Filho; Gil, Patrus; Sinara Mônica de Oliveira, Leite; Ilson Geraldo da, Silva; Ricardo Guimarães, Teixeira; Áurea Cassia Gualberto, Braga; Renata Magali Ribeiro Silluzio, Ferreira.

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Os melanomas anorretais (ARM) devem ser caracterizados pela localização (anal, retal e anorretal), coloração, dimensão, forma e mobilidade. Microscopicamente, por tipos de melanócitos, graduação da pigmentação melânica, alterações juncionais sob o epitélio escamoso, índice mitótico atípico, atipias [...] celulares e citoplasmáticas, infiltrado inflamatório, invasões vascular e perineural, linfonodo sentinela e penetração parietal. Devem ser estadiados pelos critérios American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) e/ou TNM Classification of Malignant Tumours (TNM). Como as células do ARM são variáveis, isto torna difícil o diagnóstico diferencial com outros tumores da região anorretal. Assim, faz-se necessária a realização de IHC. Apresentamos uma série de 14 pacientes, nos quais foram refeitos exames histológicos e realizados IHCs com vários marcadores, firmando corretamente o diagnóstico. Os trabalhos mostram que a cirurgia mais racional é a excisão local alargada (ELA) em casos de doença localizada e ressecção abdominoperineal do reto (APR) para lesões avançadas. Independente da técnica, a sobrevida de cinco anos é inferior a 35%; a sobrevida média não ultrapassa 26 meses; o tempo livre de doença é inferior a 10 meses; e a sobrevida global não ultrapassa é de 32 meses. Não há correlação entre melhora dos resultados com qualquer tratamento adjuvante. As terapias-alvo para doença metastática começam a apresentar resultados animadores, ainda inconclusivos. Abstract in english Anorectal melanomas should be characterized by location (anal, rectal and anorectal), color, size, shape and mobility and microscopically, by melanocyte subtypes, grade of melanin pigmentation, junctional changes in the squamous epithelium, atypical mitotic index, cellular atypia, inflammatory infil [...] trate, vascular and perineural invasion, sentinel lymph node, and anorectal parietal penetration. Anorectal melanomas must be staged by American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) and/or TNM Classification of Malignant Tumours (TNM) criteria. As melanocytes can present with several shapes, sometimes the differential diagnosis with other tumors in this region may be difficult. Because of this, immunohistochemistry is mandatory to attain a precise diagnosis. This study is a report of 14 patients with anorectal melanoma, in whom histological examinations were remade and immunohistochemistry was performed with several markers for melanocytes and for other tumor cells of the anorectal region, properly establishing the diagnosis. The most rational surgery is the extended local resection, when the disease is restricted to the area or the abdominoperineal resection to advanced lesions. Regardless of the technique used, the results are always poor. The authors deny any efficacy of current radio and/or chemotherapy as part of treatment of anorectal melanoma. Target-therapy for metastatic disease has been considered a good strategy, but the results are still inconclusive.

  13. Amelanotic malignant melanoma with multiple secondaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banerjee Santanu

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A 37-year-old female presented with a fungating cauliflower-like growth over the right inguinal region with fracture of the right distal femur. Clinical examination revealed an asthenic individual and showed a large fungating protuberant mass over right inguinal region and right knee. Investigations revealed pancytopenia, massive splenomegaly with right iliac lymphadenopathy on ultrasonography of abdomen and a soft tissue mass over upper end of femur and fracture of distal femur on radiological examination. CT scan showed multiple deposits in the lungs with splenomegaly and lymphadenopathy. Fine needle aspiration cytology showed poorly cohesive cellular aspirate with spindle and round cell population with no pigment. Biopsy showed replacement of the dermis by coalescent nests of malignant melanocytes. S-100 antigen was found to be positive. The patient was diagnosed as a case of amelanotic malignant melanoma in Stage III disease and treated with general measures, stabilization of the fracture site followed by oncological management.

  14. I-125 plaque therapy for choroidal melanoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fifty-eight patients have been treated for a chorodial melanoma using an I-125 plaque with a mean follow-up of 43.7 months (range, 15 - 100 mo). The average apical tumor dose was 8.468 cGy with a dose rate of 71 cGy. Tumors in 52 (89%) patients are controlled locally (two were replaqued). There are 46 (79%) NED; seven have died of distant disease and five of other causes. Complications include cataracts (14), angiopathy (four), vitreous homorrhage (five), and neovascular glaucoma (four). Even though 44 patients had posterior tumors (with 25 patients having lesions < 3.0 mm from the optic nerve), no one had optic nerve atrophy

  15. Management of primary melanoma of the female urogenital tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piura, Benjamin

    2008-10-01

    Primary melanoma of the urogenital tract in women is rare, but biologically aggressive. They usually affect elderly women and account for less than 10% of all cancer of the urogenital tract in women and less than 10% of all melanoma diagnosed in women. Tumours originate from melanocytes that are present in the urogenital mucosal epithelium of about 3% of women. Tumour staging can be challenging; however, the American Joint Committee on Cancer melanoma staging system has been recommended for use in vulvar and vaginal melanoma. Surgery is the treatment of choice; less-extensive surgery can be a sensible approach because satisfactory locoregional control might be obtained from wide local excision and radiotherapy, without the morbidity and disfigurement associated with radical surgery. Complete regional lymphadenectomy does not seem necessary if a sentinel lymph-node biopsy sample is negative; however, this decision should be made with caution. Various chemotherapy and biotherapy (ie, immunotherapy and biological-response modifiers) regimens have been used in advanced or metastatic melanoma. However, the role of chemotherapy for women with urogenital-tract melanoma has not been established, and biotherapy methods presented to date have been anecdotal. PMID:19071254

  16. Genetically-engineered Newcastle Disease Virus for malignant melanoma therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamarin, Dmitriy; Vigil, Adam; Kelly, Kaitlyn; García-Sastre, Adolfo; Fong, Yuman

    2010-01-01

    SUMMARY Despite the advances in cancer therapies in the past century, malignant melanoma continues to present a significant clinical challenge due to lack of chemotherapeutic response. Systemic therapy with immunostimulatory agents such as interferon and interleukin-2 (IL-2) has shown some promise, though each is associated with significant side effects. Over the past 50 years, oncolytic Newcastle Disease Virus (NDV) has emerged as an alternative candidate for cancer therapy. The establishment of reverse-genetics systems for the virus has allowed us to further manipulate the virus to enhance its oncolytic activity. Introduction of immunomodulatory molecules, especially IL-2, into the NDV genome was shown to enhance the oncolytic potential of the virus in a murine syngeneic colon carcinoma model. We hypothesize that a recombinant NDV expressing IL-2 would be an effective agent for therapy of malignant melanoma. We show that recombinant NDV possesses a strong cytolytic activity against multiple melanoma cell lines, and is effective in clearing established syngeneic melanoma tumors in mice. Moreover, introduction of murine IL-2 into NDV significantly enhanced its activity against syngeneic melanomas, resulting in increased overall animal survival and generation of anti-tumor immunity. These findings warrant further investigations of IL-2-expressing NDV as an anti-melanoma agent in humans. PMID:19242529

  17. Using risk factors for detection and prognostication of uveal melanoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pukhraj Rishi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The early detection of malignancy, particularly uveal melanoma, is crucial in protecting visual acuity, salvaging the eye, and preventing metastasis. Risk factors for early detection of uveal melanoma have been clearly delineated in the literature and allow identification of melanoma when it is tiny and simulates a nevus. These factors include thickness >2 mm, presence of subretinal fluid (SRF, symptoms, the orange pigment, margin near optic disc, acoustic hollowness, surrounding halo, and absence of drusen. The importance of early detection is realized when one considers melanoma thickness, as each millimeter increase in melanoma thickness imparts 5% increased risk for metastatic disease. Newer imaging modalities like enhanced depth imaging optical coherence tomography and fundus autoflouroscence facilitate in detection of SRF and orange pigment. Additional molecular biomarkers and cytological features have been identified which can predict the clinical behavior of a small melanocytic lesion. Features that suggest a poor prognosis include higher blood levels of tyrosinase m-RNA, vascular endothelial growth factor, insulin-like growth factor; monosomy 3 and gains in chromosome 8. Management of uveal melanoma includes enucleation (for large, local eye wall resection, brachytherapy, charged particle irradiation, and thermotherapy (for small to medium tumors. Although the role of a good clinical evaluation cannot be underestimated, it is advisable to evaluate the various radiological, molecular, and cytological features, to enhance the accuracy of early diagnosis and improved prognosis.

  18. Survival analysis in patients with malignant melanoma in Yazd

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammd Ebrahimzade Ardakani

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Malignant melanoma is a rare and most malignant type of skin cancer which is originated from melanocytes. It is capable of infiltrating into interior organs and could cause mortality. The aim of this study is to analyze the survival of patients with malignant melanoma according to their age, gender, mitosis count, tumor thickness, level of lymphocyte infiltration, tumor location and the stage of the tumor. Methods: This is a descriptive-analytical study which has been done on, the data of 61 patients with malignant melanoma registered in pathology laboratory of Shahid Sadoughi hospital, Yazd. A questionnaire was used to collect the data via phone call, examining pathology slides and reviewing patients information. Results: The average survival time was 61.09±6.12 months.The mean age of the patients was 67.9±6.0 with the range of 18 to 89 years. Stage ? had the best and stage ??? and V? had the worst prognosis. The best survival rate was seen in malignant melanomas located on trunk, head and neck. Malignant melanoma of extremities had the worst prognosis. There was a statistically significant relationship between survival rate and stage (P=0.033 as well as the location of the tumor (P=0.0421. Conclusion: The survival of patients with malignant melanoma in Yazd had a statistically significant relationship with stage and the location of tumor but there was no significant relationship with mitosis count, gender, age, tumor depth and lymphocyte infiltration.

  19. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging study of uveal melanoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To study CT and MRI findings of uveal melanoma and detect the most appropriate MRI scanning sequences. Materials and methods: A series of MRI scanning sequences were performed in 15 cases, and CT was performed in 11 cases. MRI and CT findings were compared with pathologic, operative and clinical findings. Results: Of 11 cases receiving CT scanning, 9 displayed iso-density masses with respect to extraocular muscles. The other two tumors were too small to be demonstrated. Fourteen cases of melanoma showed characteristic MR appearances with hyperintense signal with respect to the vitreous on T1-weighted images and hypointense with respect to the vitreous on T2-weighted images. One case of iris melanoma only 3 mm in height was not demonstrated on T1-weighted images, but was displayed hypointense signal on T2-weighted images. Eleven cases associated with retinal detachment showed high intensity signal on T1- and T2-weighted images and could not be distinguished from melanoma. Postcontrast T1-weighted images with fat suppression technique were found to be the most helpful in detecting and delineating small melanomas less than 5 mm as well as distinguishing them from retinal detachment. Conclusion: MRI was superior to ultrasound or CT. Collaborative diagnosis including clinical, ultrasonographic, CT and MRI examinations is the best for ocular melanoma

  20. Sentinel lymph node biopsy in local recurrence of cutaneous melanoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Locally recurrent disease in patients with melanoma is usually defined as cutaneous or subcutaneous arising within 5 cm of the primary site after complete excision of the primary lesion. It may represent residual disease not excised with the primary tumor or the outgrowth of the satellite lesions, which are common with melanoma. Lymphatic mapping and sentinel lymph node (SLN) biopsy is highly accurate in staging nodal basins at risk of regional metastases in primary melanoma patients and identifies those who may benefit from earlier lymphadenectomy. Our purpose was to evaluate the efficacy of sentinel lymph node mapping and biopsy in local recurrence of cutaneous melanoma when the primary lesion was less than 1.0mm thick. Three patients with local recurrence of cutaneous melanoma underwent sentinel lymph node mapping and biopsy. All patients underwent preoperative lymphoscintigraphy to identify the lymphatic basin and the site of the sentinel node. All patients subsequently underwent intra-operative lymphatic mapping and selective lymph node biopsy with vital blue dye and hand-held gamma probe. Excised SLN were analysed by conventional histological staining (H and E) and immunohistochemical staining. In all patients the lymphatic mapping and sentinel lymph node biopsy was successful. The SLN biopsy was negative in two patients and positive in one who underwent therapeutic lymph node dissection. Our results indicate that the SLN mapping and biopsy is also possible in patients having local recurrence of cutaneous melanoma. Although long-term results are not available, early results are promising. (author)

  1. Melanoma can control development of metastasis - Fact or myth?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Čabrijan, Leo; Batinac, Tanja; Lipozenčić, Jasna

    2016-04-01

    The malignant melanoma spreading process cannot explain occurrence of metastases several years following local surgical therapy of primary malignancy. But, this complex process of delayed metastases is still challenging and not completely understood. We hypotheses that melanoma metastases occur early in disease, probably at the same time with the occurrence of the primary melanoma. We suggest that dissemination of metastatic "seed cells" occur at an early stage of the disease together with the development of primary melanoma and cannot be detected by standard diagnostic methods. These cells are masked between healthy cells and have the potential to proceed in true metastasis following the activation triggered by signal from primary tumor or other source. Other possibility includes the existence of two different genes, one responsible for development of primary melanoma, and the other with a roll in development of metastases. We believe that future investigation should be directed toward better understanding of mechanisms involved in metastases development keeping in mind that melanoma behavior is irrational and defies logical thinking. PMID:26968912

  2. Halofuginone inhibits the establishment and progression of melanoma bone metastases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juárez, Patricia; Mohammad, Khalid S; Yin, Juan Juan; Fournier, Pierrick G J; McKenna, Ryan C; Davis, Holly W; Peng, Xiang H; Niewolna, Maria; Javelaud, Delphine; Chirgwin, John M; Mauviel, Alain; Guise, Theresa A

    2012-12-01

    TGF-β derived from bone fuels melanoma bone metastases by inducing tumor secretion of prometastatic factors that act on bone cells to change the skeletal microenvironment. Halofuginone is a plant alkaloid derivative that blocks TGF-β signaling with antiangiogenic and antiproliferative properties. Here, we show for the first time that halofuginone therapy decreases development and progression of bone metastasis caused by melanoma cells through the inhibition of TGF-β signaling. Halofuginone treatment of human melanoma cells inhibited cell proliferation, phosphorylation of SMAD proteins in response to TGF-β, and TGF-β-induced SMAD-driven transcription. In addition, halofuginone reduced expression of TGF-β target genes that enhance bone metastases, including PTHrP, CTGF, CXCR4, and IL11. Also, cell apoptosis was increased in response to halofuginone. In nude mice inoculated with 1205 Lu melanoma cells, a preventive protocol with halofuginone inhibited bone metastasis. The beneficial effects of halofuginone treatment were comparable with those observed with other anti-TGF-β strategies, including systemic administration of SD208, a small-molecule inhibitor of TGF-β receptor I kinase, or forced overexpression of Smad7, a negative regulator of TGF-β signaling. Furthermore, mice with established bone metastases treated with halofuginone had significantly less osteolysis than mice receiving placebo assessed by radiography. Thus, halofuginone is also effective in reducing the progression of melanoma bone metastases. Moreover, halofuginone treatment reduced melanoma metastasis to the brain, showing the potential of this novel treatment against cancer metastasis. PMID:23002206

  3. Future perspectives in melanoma research: meeting report from the “Melanoma Bridge”, Napoli, December 5th-8th 2013

    OpenAIRE

    Ascierto, Paolo A.; Grimaldi, Antonio M; Anderson, Ana Carrizosa; Bifulco, Carlo; Cochran, Alistair; Garbe, Claus; Eggermont, Alexander M.; Faries, Mark; Ferrone, Soldano; Gershenwald, Jeffrey E.; Gajewski, Thomas F.; Halaban, Ruth; Hodi, F Stephen; Kefford, Richard; Kirkwood, John M.

    2014-01-01

    The fourth “Melanoma Bridge Meeting” took place in Naples, December 5 to 8th, 2013. The four topics discussed at this meeting were: Diagnosis and New Procedures, Molecular Advances and Combination Therapies, News in Immunotherapy, and Tumor Microenvironment and Biomarkers.

  4. Predisposición hereditaria de padecer melanoma en familias uruguayas. Resultados preliminares

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Alejandra, Larre Borges García; Malena, Scarone; Lucía, Delgado; Jimena, Núñez; Mercedes, Laporte; Graciela, Fernández; Carlos, Bazzano; Miguel, Martínez Asuaga.

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Resumo O melanoma cutâneo é o tipo de câncer cuja incidência apresenta a maior taxa de crescimento no mundo. Apesar dos tratamentos caros empregados em seu diagnóstico y tratamento sua taxa de mortalidade não diminui. Pode apresentar-se de duas formas: esporádica e hereditária. Esta última inclui in [...] divíduos com risco alto de desenvolver, sendo que sua freqüência varia segundo a população estudada. O objetivo geral deste trabalho é contribuir ao conhecimento da predisposição hereditária de desenvolver melanoma no Uruguai. Utilizando um formulário de triagem foram identificadas 14 famílias com risco alto de desenvolver melanoma hereditário. Dezessete pacientes integrantes destas famílias deram seu consentimento informado para pesquisar mutações na linha germinal em CDKN2A e CDK4. A detecção de alterações genéticas foi feita utilizando PCR-SSCP (Polymerase Chain Reaction-Single Stranded Conformational Polymorphism). Os fragmentos com um padrão de bandas de SSCP atípicos foram analisados por sequenciação. Foram identificadas duas mutações: uma no exon 2 de CDKN2A (E88X) em dois pacientes familiares em primeiro grau portadores de melanomas múltiplos e síndrome familiar de nevos atípicos (SFNA) e com história familiar de melanoma e câncer de pâncreas. Esta mutação da linha germinal ainda não tinha sido descrita em famílias com melanoma. A outra mutação identificada (G101W) é uma das mais freqüentes em todo o mundo. Ambas mutações foram identificadas em pacientes com SFNA e múltiplos melanomas em suas famílias. A freqüência de mutações encontrada está de acordo com a descrita em estudos anteriores que utilizaram critérios de seleção semelhantes. Abstract in spanish El melanoma cutáneo es el cáncer cuya incidencia presenta la mayor tasa de crecimiento en el mundo. Su tasa de mortalidad no ha disminuido pese a las terapias costosas empleadas para su diagnóstico y tratamiento. Puede presentarse bajo dos formas: esporádica y hereditaria. Esta última incluye a indi [...] viduos con alto riesgo de desarrollar melanoma, variando su frecuencia según la población estudiada. El objetivo general del presente trabajo es contribuir al conocimiento de la predisposición hereditaria de padecer melanoma en Uruguay. Mediante la aplicación de un formulario de tamizaje se identificaron 14 familias con alto riesgo de padecer melanoma hereditario. Diecisiete pacientes integrantes de ellas dieron su consentimiento informado para investigar mutaciones de línea germinal en CDKN2A y CDK4. La detección de cambios genéticos se realizó mediante PCR-SSCP (Polymerase Chain Reaction - Single Stranded Conformational Polymorphism). Los fragmentos con un patrón de bandas de SSCP atípicos fueron analizados mediante secuenciación. Se identificaron dos mutaciones: una en el exón 2 de CDKN2A (E88X) en dos pacientes familiares de primer grado portadoras de melanomas múltiples y síndrome familiar de nevos atípicos (SFNA) y con historia familiar de melanoma y cáncer de páncreas. Esta mutación de línea germinal no ha sido descripta previamente en familias con melanoma. La otra mutación identificada (G101W) es una de las más frecuentes a nivel mundial. Ambas mutaciones fueron identificadas en pacientes con SFNA y múltiples melanomas en sus familias. La frecuencia de mutaciones encontrada concuerda con la documentada en estudios previos que utilizaron criterios de selección similares

  5. Malignant melanoma: clinical presentation, report of a case (Clínica de presentación de melanoma maligno: a propósito de un caso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carpio-Deheza Gonzalo

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, there is not frequently the appearance of primary melanoma, because it has a difficult diagnosis. It has different ways of presentation and symptomatology, especially, when you cannot know if they come from melanoma or from a different organ with metastasis. Melanoma has an aggressive behavior and it has not a Standard Treatment Protocol, all of this involves a bad prognostic. Pleural affectation is present in 15 % of patients with malignant melanoma and thoracic metastasis. In this investigation we present the case of 58 years old masculine patient with an inguinal tumor of three years of evolution, narrow mediastinum with pulmonary metastasis and an unknown primary tumor, as pathologic personal history. The last one is diagnosed like primary malignant melanoma, after a lot of biopsies (with atypia as results and inmunohistological chemistry studies. –RESUMEN: La aparición de melanomas primarios, si bien en nuestros días no son tan infrecuentes en presentación, pero aún sigue sin dilucidarse sus formas de presentación y sintomatología, mas si la clínica de presentación es por el órgano metastatizado. La agresividad de esta entidad y la ausencia de protocolos de tratamiento estandarizado, hacen que el pronóstico sea infausto. En el melanoma maligno, la afectación pleural ocurre en el 15 % de los pacientes con metástasis torácicas. En el presente trabajo presentamos un caso: Paciente masculino, de 58 años, con antecedentes de presentación de tumor inguinal de tres años de evolución, estrechamiento de mediastino con metástasis pulmonares, con tumor primario desconocido. El cual es diagnosticado como Melanoma Maligno Primario, post-biopsia y estudio Inmunohistoquímico del mismo (después de habérsele realizado varias biopsias, con resultados de atipia, no pudiéndose determinar la estirpe del mismo.

  6. Melanoma differentiation associated gene-7/interleukin-24 (mda-7/IL-24): novel gene therapeutic for metastatic melanoma

    OpenAIRE

    Fisher, Paul B; SARKAR, DEVANAND; LEBEDEVA, IRINA V.; EMDAD, LUNI; GUPTA, PANKAJ; Sauane, Moira; Su, Zao-zhong; Grant, Steven; Dent, Paul; CURIEL, DAVID T.; Senzer, Neil; Nemunaitis, John

    2006-01-01

    A potentially less toxic approach for cancer therapy comprises induction of tumor cells to lose growth potential irreversibly and terminally differentiate. Combining this scheme termed ‘differentiation therapy of cancer’ with subtraction hybridization to human melanoma cells resulted in the cloning of melanoma differentiation associated (mda) genes displaying elevated expression as a consequence of induction of terminal differentiation. One originally novel gene, mda-7, was found to display e...

  7. Malignant melanoma of the cerebello-pontine angle region Melanoma maligno da região do ângulo ponto-cerebelar

    OpenAIRE

    F. Menezes Braga; Oswaldo I. Tella Jr; Adelmo Ferreira Ceme F. Jordy

    1989-01-01

    A case of malignant melanoma in the cerebello-pontine angle region is presented in a 72 years old female patient, who had neurological examination and CT scan suggestive of acoustic neuroma. The surgical finding and the histological examination provided the diagnosis. As a primary focus was not found on clinical examination and although autopsy was not carried out, there is a possibility of the diagnosis being a primary malignant melanoma in CNS. This specific location for this kind of tumor ...

  8. Prospective study of melanoma in the Paris Region in 2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Introduction: Melanoma remains an important public health problem because of its increasing incidence and its responsibility for the deaths of young individuals. A first study was carried out by the P.E.T.R.I. association in 1994 to estimate the incidence of melanoma in the Paris region. A second one was carried out in 2004, with the same methodology, to estimate the increase of melanoma incidence in the Paris region and the main clinical and histological characteristics of these cancers, comparing to 1994 data. Methodology: Every pathologist of the region has been contacted to fill a questionnaire for each primary cutaneous melanoma excised between January 1. and December 31. 2004, from patients living in the Paris region (departments 75, 77, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95). The information requested included melanoma characteristics (localisation, type, Breslow thickness, Clark level, regression signs, pre existence of a nevus) and demographic data (age, sex, zip code of residence). Results: 98 % of pathologists in the region agree to participate in the study. They send 1453 questionnaires, among them 160 were excluded (double, non cutaneous melanoma, secondary lesion, non resident in the region, diagnoses out of the inclusion dates, biopsy followed by exeresis). The analyse included 1293 lesions in 1269 patients. More than 2/3 of diagnoses were confirmed by 2 laboratories and 10 laboratories (on 98) reported 86 % of the diagnoses. Incidence:The crude incidence of melanoma in the Paris region during 2004 was 11.4 cases per 100 000 inhabitants, by sex:11.1 per 100 000 males and 12.4 cases per 100 000 females. The sex ratio men/women was 0.82. The crude incidence of invasive melanoma (Clark 2 to 5) was 8,9 cases per 100 000 inhabitants, 9,2 per 100 000 women and 8,6 per 100 000 men, with a sex ratio men/women of 0,93. Demographic characteristics: Melanoma diagnosis was more often in women (54.9 %) than in men (45.1 %). The patients mean age was 59.3 years (S.D.: 17.3). The mean age according to sex was different (p=0.02). It was 58.2 years (S.D.: 18.0) for women and 60.6 years (S.D.: 16.4) for men. Two diagnoses were done in children ( ≤15 years old). Clinical characteristics: The proportion of in situ melanoma was higher among women (23.6%) than among men (18.6%) p=0.03. The site was known for 1258 cases: 30.0% were on the trunk, 24.5% on the legs (excluding the feet), 12.8% on the arms (excluding the hands), 5.0% on the feet, 0.5% on the hands, 0.3% on the nails (hands and feet), 0.1% on the extern. Most frequently localizations are legs and arms for women (46 % of lesions), trunk for men (42 % of lesions), face and neck for both men and women (21 % of lesions). The type distribution of lesions was: 72 % superficial spreading melanoma (S.S.M.); 9 % nodular melanoma and 13 % invasive melanoma arising on melanosis of Dubreuilh (Tables 1). Clark levels distribution was as follow : 21 % level 1; 28 % level 2; 23 % level 3; 23 % level 4 and 5 % level 5. Men had more often a level 4 or 5 than women (34 % vs. 23 %). Mean Breslow thickness was 1.73 mm (max 38 mm), higher in men than in women (2,02 vs. 1,46). Around 52 % of lesions was ≤0.75 mm and 21 % more was > 0.75 and ≤1.5 mm. Comparison 1994-2004: The incidence of melanoma in the Paris region increases slowly in 10 years: from 9.9 per 100 000 in 1994 to 11.4 cases per 100 000 inhabitants in 2004 for all melanomas and from 8.6 to 8.9 for invasive melanomas. But it is a crude incidence, more analysis are needed to study the population ageing. In this region, the increase was not multiplied by two in these ten years as it was in the past. Median age increases more than 10 years for each sex from 1994 to 2004: 49 years to 61 for men; 44 years to 58 for women. Clinical characteristics change in 10 years, with increase of melanoma arising on melanosis of Dubreuilh and nodular melanomas, and a decrease of S.S.M.. Sites of melanoma change with more face and neck localisation (from 10 to 21 %) and less trunk localisation (from 37% to 30%) and legs localisation (from 32 % to 24%). Melanoma are more often diagnosed at in situ stage but they are also more frequently diagnosed at a advanced stage (Table 2). Bibliography: Baccard M., Havard S., Souques M. et le Groupe Melanome de PETRI. Etude prospective de l incidence du melanome dans la region Ile de France en 1994. Annales de Dermatologie et de Venereologie, 1995, 122: S142-143. Baccard M., Havard S., Souques M. and the PETRI Melanoma Group. Prospective study of the incidence of melanoma in Paris region in 1994. Melanoma Research, 1997, 7: 335-338. (authors)

  9. A cystic amelanotic melanoma metastasis to the brain: case report / Metástasis cerebral de un melanoma amelanótico quístico

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    B., Cemil; H., Emmez; N., Oztanir; N., Tokgoz; F., Dogulu.

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Que sepamos, la formación quística de un melanoma intracraneal es rara y sólo se han descrito 15 casos de melanoma intracraneal amilanocítico. Se observó una masa amarillenta en el lóbulo frontal. El contenido del quiste consistía en un hematoma antiguo, con líquido xantocrómico tejido necrótico que [...] se evacuó, con resección total de la pared del quiste. No se encontró ninguna pigmentación anormal en la pared ni en el tejido cerebral adyacente. Las imágenes de los melanomas metastásicos son muy peculiares, debido a la presencia de melanina y a la propensión a la hemorragia. Ambos, hemorragia y melanina pueden producir hiperseñal en T1 e hiposeñal en T2. Abstract in english As far as we know, cyst formation in intracranial melanoma is rare, and only 15 cases of intracranial amelanotic melanoma have been reported until now. A yellowish mass was observed in the frontal lobe. The content of the cyst consisted of old hematoma, xanthochromic fluid and necrotic tissue, was e [...] vacuated and the cyst wall was totally resected. No abnormal pigmentation was noted in the cyst wall and surrounding brain tissue. The imaging features of metastatic melanomas are distinctive due to the presence of melanin and the propensity for hemorrhage. Both hemorrhage and melanin can produce T1-weighted hyperintensity and T2-weighted signal intensity loss.

  10. Melanoma differentiation associated gene-7/interleukin-24 (mda-7/IL-24): Novel gene therapeutic for metastatic melanoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A potentially less toxic approach for cancer therapy comprises induction of tumor cells to lose growth potential irreversibly and terminally differentiate. Combining this scheme termed 'differentiation therapy of cancer' with subtraction hybridization to human melanoma cells resulted in the cloning of melanoma differentiation associated (mda) genes displaying elevated expression as a consequence of induction of terminal differentiation. One originally novel gene, mda-7, was found to display elevated expression in normal melanocytes and nevi with progressive loss of expression as a consequence of melanoma development and progression to metastasis. Based on structure, biochemical properties and chromosomal location, mda-7 has now been reclassified as interleukin (IL)-24, a member of the expanding IL-10 family of cytokines. In vitro cell culture and in vivo animal studies indicate that mda-7/IL-24 selectively induces programmed cell death (apoptosis) in multiple human cancers (including melanomas), without harming normal cells, and promotes profound anti-tumor activity in nude mice containing human tumor xenografts. Based on these remarkable properties, a Phase I clinical trial was conducted to test the safety of administration of mda-7/IL-24 by a replication incompetent adenovirus (Ad.mda-7; INGN 241) in patients with advanced solid cancers including melanoma. mda-7/IL-24 was found to be safe and to promote significant clinical activity, particularly in the context of patients with metastatic melanoma. These results provide an impetus for further clinical studies and document a central paradigm of cancer therapy, namely translation of basic science from the 'bench to the bedside.'

  11. Targeted alpha therapy for melanoma : from bench to bedside

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The control of metastatic melanoma remains an elusive objective. Targeted alpha therapy (TAT) offers a new approach to the control of micrometastases and regression of tumours. The alpha emitting immunoconjugate (AIC) against malignant melanoma has been prepared by chelating Bi-213 to the anti-melanoma antibody 9.2.27, and injected locally at 2 d post-inoculation of 1.5 million melanoma cells, or intralesionally into skin tumours. Human subjects receive 50μCi intralesional dose, escalating to 1 mCi. The clearances from the tumour, kidneys and bladder are monitored by a NaI detector that detects the 440 keV gamma ray. Blood samples and tumour photographs are taken at O. 2 and 4 weeks; tumours are excised at 4 weeks. Isolated cancer cells and preangiogenic cell clusters in mice can be eliminated with 25 μCi local AIC injection, and intra-lesional injections of 100 μCi are sufficient to completely regress melanomas with volumes up to 300 mm3 without side-effects. Systemic TAT with a single administration is less effective with 100% growth delay of tumours observed, and ∼20% complete inhibition. The clinical TAT trial for recurrent subcutaneous melanoma has been approved by the NSW Radiation Advisory Committee and the SES Human Ethics Committee. In a world first phase 1 study, the first 5 subjects have been treated by intralesional injection, 3 at 50 μCi, and 2 at 150 μCi. All subjects having unchanged blood profiles at 2 and 4 weeks post-therapy. Tumour volumes appear little changed. However, histology of a 3 cm melanoma shows that almost complete cell kill occurred at 150 μCi, with only a few small cell clusters surviving. Local TAT inhibits tumourogenesis and intralesional TAT completely regresses melanoma in mice. Intralesional TAT for melanoma in human subjects is non-toxic so far and appears to be a promising modality. The ultimate objective is to apply systemic TAT for the control of melanoma micrometastases. Copyright (2001) Australasian College of Physical Scientists and Engineers in Medicine

  12. Caracterización clínica e histopatológica de melanomas malignos de piel / Biopsy-based clinical and histopathological characterization of cutaneous malignant melanoma

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Lindsay, Chacón-Garita; Manuel, Moreira-Carvajal.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Antecedentes: la incidencia del melanoma cutáneo ha venido en aumento en las últimas décadas, convirtiéndose en causa importante de muerte a nivel mundial. El objetivo es determinar la incidencia y caracterizar los melanomas con base en los resultados de las biopsias del Servicio de Patología del Ho [...] spital San Rafael de Alajuela. Métodos: se realizó la revisión histopatológica de cada una de las biopsias diagnosticadas como melanoma maligno de piel, con tinciones de hematoxilina y eosina, en el periodo comprendido de enero de 2009 a diciembre de 2012, para determinar sus características histopatológicas. Se obtuvieron frecuencias simples de todas las variables y medidas de tendencia central y dispersión para las variables cuantitativas. Resultados: se diagnosticó en este periodo un total de 28 melanomas malignos de piel, 16 corresponden a pacientes de sexo masculino. La edad promedio de presentación es 57,0 años y las localizaciones más frecuentes fueron espalda y cara. El melanoma de extensión superficial fue el tipo histológico predominante. En 15 de los casos se encontró invasión de tipo vertical. El 21,1% de los casos presentó un nivel de Clark III, y el grosor de Breslow varió en un rango de 0,20mm a 8,00mm. La morfología celular predominante fue la epiteloide. Otras variables histopatológicas como conteo mitótico, invasión vascular, ulceración o invasión perineural, fueron menos encontradas. Conclusiones: el melanoma maligno se presenta predominantemente en pacientes de sexo masculino, en la quinta década de la vida, principalmente en la espalda y la cara. El tipo histológico más frecuente es el melanoma maligno de extensión superficial. Abstract in english Background: The incidence of cutaneous melanoma has increased in recent decades, becoming a major cause of death worldwide. The objective was to characterize melanomas histologically and to determine the incidence based on the results of the biopsies of the Pathology Department of the San Rafael de [...] Alajuela Hospital. Methods: We conducted a review of each of the biopsies diagnosed as cutaneous melanoma with hematoxylin and eosin from January 2009 until December 2012 to determine their histological features. Simple frequencies were obtained for all variables and measures of central tendency and dispersion for the qualitative variables. Results: A total of 28 cutaneous malignant melanomas were diagnosed, of which 16 occurred in male patients. The average age at presentation was 57.0 years and the most frequent location was Melanomas malignos / Chacón-Garita y Moreira-Carvajal the back and face. The superficial spreading melanoma is the predominant histologic type. In 15 cases, vertical invasion was found. In 21.1% of the cases the patients had Clark level III and Breslow thickness ranged from 0.20 to 8.00 mm. The predominant type was epithelioid cell morphology. Other histopathological variables such as mitotic count, vascular invasion, perineural invasion or ulceration were less frequently found. Conclusions: Malignant melanoma occurs predominantly in male patients in their fifth decade of life; mainly in back and face. The most common histological type was superficial spreading melanoma.

  13. [Differential diagnosis of malignant melanomas of the head and neck region].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellner, J; Jundt, G; Hundeiker, M; Nakajima, T

    1984-01-01

    The diagnosis of malignant melanoma in the head and neck region is often difficult. Electron microscopy and immunhistochemistry can facilitate the pathological investigation of amelanotic malignant melanoma. PMID:6700325

  14. Association between choroidal pigmentation and posterior uveal melanoma in a white population

    OpenAIRE

    Harbour, J W; Brantley, M A; Hollingsworth, H.; Gordon, M.

    2004-01-01

    Background/aims: It is well known that light skin pigmentation is a risk factor for cutaneous melanoma. The aim of this study was to investigate the analogous association between choroidal pigmentation and posterior uveal melanoma.

  15. Successful BNCT for patients with cutaneous and mucosal melanomas. Report of 4 cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since 2003 we have conducted BNCT clinical trials on melanomas at the Kyoto University Research Reactor (KUR) and Japan Research Reactor No.4 (JRR-4). We report 4 patients given BNCT for malignant melanomas: 2 with superficial spreading types on the heel, 1 with mucosal melanoma in the nasal cavity, and 1 with a melanoma on the vulva and in the vagina. The two cutaneous melanomas and the nasal cavity mucosal melanoma showed a complete response (CR) by 6 months after BNCT. The residual melanoma showed a partial response (PR) by 3 months after treatment and no regrowth since then. Although two patients experienced normal-tissue damage that exceeded the tolerance level, all the participants were cured within a few months of treatment. BNCT was shown to be a promising treatment for mucosal, as well as for cutaneous, melanomas. (author)

  16. Exacerbation of psoriasis induced by interferon-alpha treatment for melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tas, Faruk; Atsu, Nilhan

    2016-03-01

    Interferon-alpha is one of the major immune modulating agents used in current oncology practice, including melanoma. We present a case of psoriasis exacerbation induced by INF-? in a patient with melanoma. PMID:25799214

  17. Melanoma Metastásico: a Propósito de un Caso / Metastatic melanoma: A case report

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Dasyl, Martínez; Rossy, Martínez; Nereida, Duarte; Pablo, Ramírez; Gabriela, Vera.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available El melanoma maligno es un tumor que se origina de los melanocitos de la piel o en menor frecuencia de las mucosas (oral, anal o genital). También se ha descrito en vagina, leptomeninges y globo ocular.1,3,4 La edad de presentación oscila entre los 40 y 60 años, aunque puede presentarse a cualquier e [...] dad. Su desarrollo está influenciado por factores genéticos y ambientales.2,3 En los últimos años ha existido un crecimiento exponencial en los casos de esta patología. Representa la primera causa de muerte por cáncer de piel y tiene un comportamiento biológico que determina el pronóstico. Presenta dos fases de crecimiento, una intraepidérmica y otra intradérmica, en la que tiene capacidad de producir metástasis (las cuales ocurren durante los tres primeros años de la lesión inicial) como resultado de la invasión de la membrana basal, la migración hacia el torrente sanguíneo o a la circulación linfática, la cual representa más del 50% de la vía de diseminación.1,3,4 El método diagnóstico de elección es la extirpación y estudio histológico de una lesión sospechosa. Se presenta el caso de paciente masculino de 45 años, que consultó por dolor abdominal de aparición insidiosa en epigastrio irradiado a hipocondrio derecho, urente, de fuerte intensidad. Concomitantemente alzas térmicas de predominio nocturno y náuseas. Como antecedente refiere enucleación de globo ocular derecho por tumor cuya histología fue compatible con melanoma. Ultrasonido abdominal reportó imágenes compatibles con metástasis hepáticas, de las cuales se toma biopsia que concluye: Melanoma metastásico. Endoscopia digestiva superior: en cuerpo bajo, cara anterior se aprecia lesión de bordes irregulares, coloración negruzca, discretamente elevada, cuya biopsia fue negativa para malignidad. Se presenta el caso debido al mal pronóstico de esta patología y a lo poco frecuente de esta forma de presentación. Abstract in english Malignant melanoma is a tumor that arises from melanocytes of the skin or mucous less frequently (oral, anal or genital). It has also been described in vagina, leptomeninges and eyeball.1,3,4 The age of onset is between 40 and 60, but it may occur at any age. Its development is influenced by genetic [...] and environmental factors.2.3 In recent years there has been an exponential growth in cases of this disease. Is the leading cause of death from skin cancer and has a biological behavior that determines the outcome. It has two phases of growth, intraepidermal and intradermal, which is capable of producing metastases (which occur during the first three years of the initial injury) as a result of the invasion of the basement membrane, migration into the bloodstream or lymphatic circulation, which represents more than 50% of the route of dissemination.1,3,4 The diagnostic method of choice is the removal and histological examination of a suspicious lesion. A case of a male patient aged 45, who consulted for strong epigastrical pain of insidious onset radiating to right upper quadrant. Concomitantly fever and nausea. As regards history right eyeball enucleation due to a tumor whose histology was compatible with melanoma. Abdominal ultrasound reported images suggestive of liver metastases, which biopsy was reported as: Metastatic melanoma. Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy: low gastric body lesion is seen with irregular edges, color blackish, slightly elevated, whose biopsy was negative for malignancy. This case is reported due to the poor prognosis of this disease and the uncommonless of this presentation.

  18. Sentinel lymph node biopsy for conjunctival malignant melanoma: surgical techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wainstein AJA

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Alberto JA Wainstein,1,2 Ana P Drummond-Lage,1 Milhem JM Kansaon,2 Gustavo O Bretas,2 Rodrigo F Almeida,3 Ana LF Gloria,3 Ana RP Figueiredo3 1Faculty of Medical Sciences of Minas Gerais, 2Oncad Surgical Oncology, 3Ophthalmology Department, Federal University of Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, Brazil Background: The purpose of this report is to examine the viability and safety of preoperative lymphoscintigraphy and radio guided sentinel lymph node (SLN biopsy for conjunctival melanoma, and to identify the best technique to perform this procedure.Methods: Three patients diagnosed with malignant melanoma of the conjunctiva underwent lymphoscintigraphy and SLN biopsy using a dual technique comprising isosulfan blue dye and technetium Tc 99m sulfur colloid. Each patient was anesthetized and the conjunctival melanoma was excised. SLNs were localized by a gamma probe, identified according to radioactivity and sentinel blue printing, and dissected, along with drainage of the associated lymphatic basins. The SLNs were evaluated by a pathologist using hematoxylin-eosin staining following serial sectioning and immunohistochemistry using a triple melanoma cocktail (S-100, Melan-A, and HMB-45 antigens.Results: Two SLNs were stained in the jugular chain during preoperative lymphoscintigraphy in the first patient, two SLNs were identified in the preauricular and submandibular areas in the second patient, and two SLNs were identified in the submandibular and parotid areas in the third patient. All lymph nodes identified by lymphoscintigraphy were dissected and identified at surgery with 100% accuracy in all three patients. All SLNs were histologically and immunohistochemically negative. Patients had good cosmetic and functional results, and maintained their visual acuity and ocular motility.Conclusion: Patients with conjunctival melanoma can undergo preoperative lymphoscintigraphy and SLN biopsy safely using radioactive technetium and isosulfan blue dye. Keywords: ocular melanoma, sentinel lymph node biopsy, lymphoscintigraphy, conjunctival melanoma

  19. Comparative study of angio genesis radiopharmaceuticals for melanoma detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Early diagnosis and treatment of melanoma, a cutaneous tumor with a serious prognosis, is extremely important for optimal clinical outcome. Phage display peptide libraries are a useful screening resource for identifying bioactive peptides that interact with cancer targets. The aim of this study was the evaluation of two technetium-99m tracers for angio genesis detection in melanoma model, using cyclic peguilated pentapeptide with RGD and NGR motifs conjugated with bifunctional chelator MAG3. The conjugated peptides (10 μL of a μg/μL solution) were labeled with technetium-99m using a sodium tartrate buffer. Radiochemical evaluation was done by ITLC and confirmed by HPLC. Partition coefficient was determined and internalization assays were performed in two melanoma cells (B16F10 and SKMEL28). Biodistribution evaluation of the tracers was done in healthy animals at different times and also in mice bearing the tumor cells at 120 min post injection. Blocking studies were also conducted by co-injection of cold peptides. The conjugated showed the same profile in many evaluations. They were radiolabeled with high radiochemical purity (>97%). Both were hydrophilic, with preferential renal excretion. Tumor uptake was higher for human melanoma cells than for murinic melanoma cells, specially for 99mTc-MAG3-PEG8-c(RGDyK) (7.85±±2.34 %ID/g) at 120 min post injection. The performance of 99mTc-MAG3-PEG8-c(RGDyk) was much better than NGR tracer concerning human melanoma uptake and might be considered in future investigations focusing radiotracers for melanoma diagnosis. (author)

  20. MiR-21: an environmental driver of malignant melanoma?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melnik, Bodo C

    2015-01-01

    Since the mid-1950's, melanoma incidence has been rising steadily in industrialized Caucasian populations, thereby pointing to the pivotal involvement of environmental factors in melanomagenesis. Recent evidence underlines the crucial role of microRNA (miR) signaling in cancer initiation and progression. Increased miR-21 expression has been observed during the transition from a benign melanocytic lesion to malignant melanoma, exhibiting highest expression of miR-21. Notably, common BRAF and NRAS mutations in cutaneous melanoma are associated with increased miR-21 expression. MiR-21 is an oncomiR that affects critical target genes of malignant melanoma, resulting in sustained proliferation (PTEN, PI3K, Sprouty, PDCD4, FOXO1, TIPE2, p53, cyclin D1), evasion from apoptosis (FOXO1, FBXO11, APAF1, TIMP3, TIPE2), genetic instability (MSH2, FBXO11, hTERT), increased oxidative stress (FOXO1), angiogenesis (PTEN, HIF1?, TIMP3), invasion and metastasis (APAF1, PTEN, PDCD4, TIMP3). The purpose of this review is to provide translational evidence for major environmental and individual factors that increase the risk of melanoma, such as UV irradiation, chemical noxes, air pollution, smoking, chronic inflammation, Western nutrition, obesity, sedentary lifestyle and higher age, which are associated with increased miR-21 signaling. Exosomal miR-21 induced by extrinsic and intrinsic stimuli may be superimposed on mutation-induced miR-21 pathways of melanoma cells. Thus, oncogenic miR-21 signaling may be the converging point of intrinsic and extrinsic stimuli driving melanomagenesis. Future strategies of melanoma treatment and prevention should thus aim at reducing the burden of miR-21 signal transduction. PMID:26116372

  1. Treatment of cutaneous melanoma: current approaches and future prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alain P Algazi

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Alain P Algazi1, Christopher W Soon2, Adil I Daud11Department of Medicine, Division of Hematology and Oncology, 2Department of Dermatology, University of California, San Francisco San Francisco, CA, USAAbstract: Melanoma is the most aggressive and deadly type of skin cancer. Surgical resection with or without lymph node sampling is the standard of care for primary cutaneous melanoma. Adjuvant therapy decisions may be informed by careful consideration of prognostic factors. High-dose adjuvant interferon alpha-2b increases disease-free survival and may modestly improve overall survival. Less toxic alternatives for adjuvant therapy are currently under study. External beam radiation therapy is an option for nodal beds where the risk of local recurrence is very high. In-transit melanoma metastases may be treated locally with surgery, immunotherapy, radiation, or heated limb perfusion. For metastatic melanoma, the options include chemotherapy or immunotherapy; targeted anti-BRAF and anti-KIT therapy is under active investigation. Standard chemotherapy yields objective tumor responses in approximately 10%–20% of patients, and sustained remissions are uncommon. Immunotherapy with high-dose interleukin-2 yields objective tumor responses in a minority of patients; however, some of these responses may be durable. Identification of activating mutations of BRAF, NRAS, c-KIT, and GNAQ in distinct clinical subtypes of melanoma suggest that these are molecularly distinct. Emerging data from clinical trials suggest that substantial improvements in the standard of care for melanoma may be possible.Keywords: melanoma, resection, immune modulation, small molecule kinase inhibitors, chemotherapy, clinical trials

  2. Phenotypic and Functional Characteristics of Blood Natural Killer Cells from Melanoma Patients at Different Clinical Stages

    OpenAIRE

    Fregni, Giulia; Messaoudene, Meriem; Fourmentraux-Neves, Emmanuelle; Mazouz-Dorval, Sarra; Chanal, Johan; Maubec, Eve; Marinho, Eduardo; Scheer-Senyarich, Isabelle; Cremer, Isabelle; Avril, Marie-Françoise; Caignard, Anne

    2013-01-01

    Melanomas are aggressive skin tumors characterized by high metastatic potential. Immunotherapy is a valuable alternative for metastatic melanoma patients resistant to chemotherapy. Natural Killer (NK) cells are efficient anti-tumor cytotoxic effectors. We previously showed that blood NK cells from stage IV metastatic melanoma patients display decreased NK receptors and that chemotherapy modifies the functional status of blood NK cells. To investigate the role of NK cells along melanoma progre...

  3. New Perspectives on the Role of Vitiligo in Immune Responses to Melanoma

    OpenAIRE

    Byrne, Katelyn T.; Turk, Mary Jo

    2011-01-01

    Melanoma-associated vitiligo is the best-studied example of the linkage between tumor immunity and autoimmunity. Although vitiligo is an independent positive prognostic factor for melanoma patients, the autoimmune destruction of melanocytes was long thought to be merely a side effect of robust anti-tumor immunity. However, new data reveal a key role for vitiligo in supporting T cell responses to melanoma. This research perspective reviews the history of melanoma-associated vitiligo in patient...

  4. Cerebral Melanoma Metastases: A Critical Review on Diagnostic Methods and Therapeutic Options

    OpenAIRE

    Goulart, Carlos R.; Mattei, Tobias Alecio; Ramina, Ricardo

    2011-01-01

    Malignant melanoma represents the third most common cause for cerebral metastases after breast and lung cancer. Central nervous system (CNS) metastases occur in 10 to 40% of patients with melanoma. Most of the symptoms of CNS melanoma metastases are unspecific and depend on localization of the lesion. All patients with new neurological signs and a previous primary melanoma lesion must be investigated. Although primary diagnosis may rely on computed tomography scan, magnetic resonance images a...

  5. Side Effects and Toxicities of Targeted Therapies in Stage IV Melanoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ascierto, Paolo A; Bastholt, Lars; Hersey, Peter; Cinat, Gabriela; Eggermont, Alexander M; Hauschild, Axel; Espinosa, Enrique; Robert, Caroline

    2013-01-01

    As the incidence of melanoma continues to increase worldwide, the search for new therapies for advanced (stage IV) melanoma brings with it new patterns of toxicity to contend with. This review covers the toxicity profiles of new treatments for advanced melanoma currently in development. Therefore, the latest literature on melanoma treatment was surveyed for data on reported toxicities. The new types of treatments can be roughly divided into targeted tyrosine kinase inhibitors and immunomodulatin...

  6. Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy in Head and Neck Melanoma: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Martin Corsten

    2014-01-01

    The incidence of melanoma in the United States continues to rise. Head and neck melanomas comprise approximately 20% of all primary cutaneous melanomas. Sentinel lymph node (SLN) biopsy (SLNB) has become the standard of care for staging in melanoma. It has a number of advantages, including the addition of prognostic information, accurate staging, and the potential to add completion lymph node dissection (CLND) or adjuvant therapy when indicated. Furthermore, it may allow for the identificatio...

  7. MALIGNANT MELANOMA WITH MULTIPLE METASTASES ON THE SMALL BOWEL - CASE REPORT

    OpenAIRE

    V.T. Grigorean; M.A. Iacobini; Popescu, M.; C.M. Neac?u; A-R. Stoian; Corina Roxana Buf; Violeta Elena Radu; Aurelia Mihaela Sandu

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Malignant melanomas often cause intestinal metastasis.Metastases of malignant melanoma are the most common secondary tumors of the gastrointestinal tract.The incidence of intestinal metastasis of malignant melanomas is 1.5-4.4% in clinical studies, reaching upto 35.6-58% in necroptic studies. AIM: We present a clinical case of multiple metastases to the smallbowel with point of departure right retroauricular malignant melanoma. METHODS: Patient T.I., 76years old, is admitted in ou...

  8. Effects of BRAF mutations and BRAF inhibition on immune responses to melanoma

    OpenAIRE

    Ilieva, Kristina M.; Correa, Isabel; Josephs, Debra H.; Karagiannis, Panagiotis; Egbuniwe, Isioma U; Cafferkey, Michiala J.; Spicer, James F.; Harries, Mark; Nestle, Frank O; Lacy, Katie E; Karagiannis, Sophia N

    2014-01-01

    Malignant melanoma is associated with poor clinical prognosis; however, novel molecular and immune therapies are now improving patient outcomes. Almost 50% of melanomas harbor targetable activating mutations of BRAF which promote RAS-RAF-MEK-ERK pathway activation and melanoma proliferation. Recent evidence also indicates that melanomas bearing mutant BRAF may also have altered immune responses, suggesting additional avenues for treatment of this patient group. The small molecule inhibitors s...

  9. Combination chemotherapy for choroidal melanoma: ex vivo sensitivity to treosulfan with gemcitabine or Cytosine arabinoside

    OpenAIRE

    Neale, M. H.; Myatt, N; Cree, I. A.; Kurbacher, C. M.; Foss, A J E; J. L. Hungerford; Plowman, P N

    1999-01-01

    Treatment of choroidal melanoma by chemotherapy is usually unsuccessful, with response rates of less than 1% reported for dacarbazine (DTIC)-containing regimens which show 20% or more response rates in skin melanoma. Recently, we reported the activity of several cytotoxic agents against primary choroidal melanoma in an ATP-based tumour chemosensitivity assay (ATP-TCA). In this study, we have used the same method to examine the sensitivity of choroidal melanoma to combinations suggested by our...

  10. A pooled analysis of 10 case–control studies of melanoma and oral contraceptive use

    OpenAIRE

    Karagas, M R; Stukel, T A; Dykes, J.; Miglionico, J; Greene, M A; Carey, M; Armstrong, B; Elwood, J. M.; Gallagher, R. P.; Green, A; Holly, E. A.; Kirkpatrick, C S; Mack, T; Østerlind, A; Rosso, S.

    2002-01-01

    Data regarding the effects of oral contraceptive use on women's risk of melanoma have been difficult to resolve. We undertook a pooled analysis of all case–control studies of melanoma in women completed as of July 1994 for which electronic data were available on oral contraceptive use along with other melanoma risk factors such as hair colour, sun sensitivity, family history of melanoma and sun exposure. Using the original data from each investigation (a total of 2391 cases and 3199 controls)...

  11. Delayed but Complete Response following Oral Temozolomide Treatment in Melanoma Leptomeningeal Carcinomatosis

    OpenAIRE

    Hottinger, Andreas F.; Favet, Laurence; Pache, Jean-Claude; Martin, Jean-Baptiste; Dietrich, Pierre-Yves

    2011-01-01

    Isolated leptomeningeal recurrence of melanoma is rare, occurring in 2% of patients with central nervous system involvement secondary to melanoma. The optimal treatment of leptomeningeal carcinomatosis (LMC) in melanoma has not yet been determined and remains a major challenge. We report a melanoma patient who presented with isolated LMC in the form of a new-onset weakness of the lower limbs, paresthesia of the left hand and foot, lumbago and headache. A lumbar puncture and spinal MRI confirm...

  12. Profile of ipilimumab and its role in the treatment of metastatic melanoma

    OpenAIRE

    Patel SP; Woodman SE

    2011-01-01

    Sapna P Patel, Scott E WoodmanMelanoma Medical Oncology Department, University of Texas, MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX, USAAbstract: Melanoma is an immunogenic cancer. However, the ability of the immune system to eradicate melanoma tumors is affected by intrinsic negative regulatory mechanisms. Multiple immune-modulatory therapies are currently being developed to optimize the immune response to melanoma tumors. Two recent Phase III studies using the monoclonal antibody ipilimumab, wh...

  13. Checkpoint Modulation in Melanoma: An Update on Ipilimumab and Future Directions

    OpenAIRE

    Page, David B.; Postow, Michael A; Callahan, Margaret K.; Wolchok, Jedd D

    2013-01-01

    Ipilimumab, an anti-cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4 antibody, was the first therapy demonstrated to improve overall survival in melanoma. Since ipilimumab’s approval by the FDA in 2011, a wealth of data have amassed, helping clinicians to optimize its use. We have learned how to mitigate the adverse effects of ipilimumab, identified its effects in melanoma subpopulations such as those with brain metastases, uveal melanoma, and mucosal melanoma, discovered potential biomarkers of activity, an...

  14. Clinical response in Japanese metastatic melanoma patients treated with peptide cocktail-pulsed dendritic cells

    OpenAIRE

    Takesako Kazutoh; Nukaya Ikuei; Kawashima Ichiro; Yamazaki Naoya; Yamamoto Akifumi; Hotate Yukie; Shimada Makiko; Inoue Naoki; Tanosaki Ryuji; Akiyama Yasuto; Maruyama Kouji; Takaue Yoichi; Yamaguchi Ken

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Background Metastatic, chemotherapy-resistant melanoma is an intractable cancer with a very poor prognosis. As to immunotherapy targeting metastatic melanoma, HLA-A2+ patients were mainly enrolled in the study in Western countries. However, HLA-A24+ melanoma patients-oriented immunotherapy has not been fully investigated. In the present study, we investigated the effect of dendritic cell (DC)-based immunotherapy on metastatic melanoma patients with HLA-A2 or A24 genotype. Methods Nin...

  15. Termoterapia transpupilar em melanoma maligno da coróide / Transpupillary thermotherapy for malignant choroidal melanoma

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Martha M. Motomo, Chojniak; Tércio, Guia; Fausto, Uno; Clélia Maria, Erwenne.

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Vários métodos vem sendo utilizados para o tratamento dos melanomas da coróide. A proposta deste trabalho preliminar é avaliar a eficácia da termoterapia transpupilar (TTT) como tratamento primário de melanomas da coróide pequenos. Métodos: Foi realizado um trabalho prospectivo e não-rando [...] mizado para avaliar os aspectos clínicos, resposta do tumor, complicações e resultados visuais de pacientes portadores de melanomas da coróide pequenos (até 4,0 mm de espessura e 12 mm de diâmetro basal) tratados por termoterapia transpupilar utilizando-se sucessivas aplicações de laser diodo contínuo de 810 nm. Resultados: Foram tratados 11 pacientes portadores de melanomas da coróide pequenos. O tumor era único e pigmentado em 100% dos casos. Crescimento documentado esteve presente em 5 pacientes (45,45%) previamente ao tratamento e fatores de risco para crescimento ou metástase estavam presentes em todos os pacientes. O tempo de seguimento destes pacientes a partir do tratamento foi em média de 5,72 meses (3 - 8 meses). Foram utilizadas 3 sessões de laser em 5 pacientes (45,45%) e 4 sessões em 6 pacientes (64,64%). As lesões apresentavam, por ocasião do diagnóstico, uma espessura média de 2,65 mm (1,85-3,86 mm), com maior diâmetro basal médio de 7,98 mm (4,2-11,33 mm). Após o tratamento, a espessura média foi de 1,83 mm (0,98-2,93 mm) e o maior diâmetro basal médio foi de 6,59 mm (3,81 mm -10,67 mm). Das lesões tratadas, 100% apresentaram diminuição da altura e do máximo diâmetro basal, tendo sido a diminuição média da espessura de 0,89 mm e do máximo diâmetro basal de 1,39 mm. A acuidade visual manteve-se inalterada em 5 casos (45,45%) e piorou após o tratamento em 6 casos (54,54%). Ocorreram complicações em 9 casos, tendo sido considerada complicação grave 1 caso de descolamento parcial da retina (9,09%); as outras complicações foram consideradas leves: pequenas hemorragias intra-retinianas em 7 pacientes (63,63%), vitreite associada a tênues membranas vítreas em 1 paciente (9,09%) e quemose associada a edema palpebral em 1 paciente (9,09%). Controle tumoral local com conservação do globo ocular foi observado durante este pequeno tempo de seguimento em 100% dos pacientes tratados. Por ocasião da "última revisão", 100% dos pacientes estavam vivos e sem doença metastática. Conclusão: Este estudo preliminar sugere que a termoterapia transpupilar apresenta-se como um método efetivo e seguro para o tratamento de selecionados melanomas pequenos da coróide. Para melhor avaliação é necessário tempo de seguimento prolongado. Abstract in english Purpose: Several methods have been used for treatment of choroidal melanoma. The purpose of this preliminary paper is to evaluate the effectiveness of transpupillary thermo- therapy (TTT) as a primary treatment of small choroidal melanomas. Methods: This is a prospective nonrandomized study evaluati [...] ng clinical aspects, tumor response, complications and visual outcome in patients presenting small choroidal melanomas (up to 4.0 mm thick and 12 mm base diameter) treated with TTT over 810 nm laser diode applications. Results: There were 11 patients treated with trans-pupillary thermotherapy, all of them presenting pig-mented small choroidal melanomas. Growth previous to treatment was documented in 5 patients and risk factors for growth or metastatic disease was present in all the patients. After treatment the patients were followed for 3 to 8 months (mean 5.7 months). Three laser sessions were used in 5 pa-tients and 4 sessions in 6 patients. The lesions presented at the beginning of the treatment a mean thickness of 2.7 mm, with a mean larger base diameter of 7.8 mm. All the lesions responded to treatment and presented decrease of thickness and base diameters. After transpupillary thermotherapy, the lesions' mean thickness was 1.8 mm and the mean larger base diameter was 6.7 mm. The mean reduction in thickness was 0.9 mm and the mean decrease in larger base diameter was 1.4 mm. The visual acuit

  16. Serum level of vitamin D3 in cutaneous melanoma / Nível sérico de vitamina D3 em portadores de melanoma cutâneo

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Renato Santos de, Oliveira Filho; Daniel Arcuschin de, Oliveira; Vitor Augusto Melão, Martinho; Célia Beatriz Gianotti, Antoneli; Ludmilla Altino de Lima, Marcussi; Carlos Eduardo dos Santos, Ferreira.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo Comparar o nível de vitamina D3 em portadores de melanoma, em atividade de doença ou não, com os valores de referência e com pacientes de um hospital geral. Métodos Os níveis séricos de vitamina D3 foram dosados em portadores de melanoma cu [...] tâneo entre 22 a 80 anos, de ambos os sexos, de janeiro de 2010 a dezembro de 2013. As amostras do grupo dos pacientes gerais foram processadas no Hospital Israelita Albert Einstein (grupo controle). A análise dos dados foi realizada utilizando o software Statistica. Resultados Foram estudados 100 pacientes, sendo 54 homens, com média de idade 54,67 anos, e 95 brancos. Desses 100 pacientes, 17 apresentavam doença em atividade. A média dos níveis de vitamina D3 nos 100 pacientes foi inferior ao nível considerado suficiente, porém acima da média do grupo controle. A deficiência de vitamina D3 apresentou distribuição semelhante nos dois grupos com melanoma (em atividade de doença ou não). Conclusão Os níveis de vitamina D3 nos pacientes com melanoma foram superiores aos dos pacientes gerais e inferiores aos de referência. Se os valores de referência estão adequados, grande parte da população apresenta níveis insuficientes de vitamina D3, incluindo os portadores de melanoma, ou tal padrão precisa ser reavaliado. Não houve diferença dos níveis de vitamina D3 entre portadores de melanoma com ou sem atividade. Estudos relacionando vitamina D e melanoma devem ser aprofundados. Abstract in english Objective To compare the level of vitamin D3 in cutaneous melanoma patients, with or without disease activity, with reference values and with patients from a general hospital. Methods The serum levels of vitamin D3 were measured in cutaneous melanoma pati [...] ents, aged 20 to 88 years, both genders, from January 2010 to December 2013. The samples from the general group were processed at Hospital Israelita Albert Einstein (control group). Data analysis was performed using the Statistics software. Results A total of 100 patients were studied, 54 of them men, with mean age of 54.67 years, and 95 Caucasian. Out of these 100 patients, 17 had active disease. The average levels of vitamin D3 in the melanoma patients were lower than the level considered sufficient, but above the average of the control group. Both groups (with or without active disease) of patients showed a similar distribution of vitamin D3 deficiency. Conclusion Vitamin D3 levels in melanoma patients were higher than those of general patients and lower than the reference level. If the reference values are appropriate, a large part of the population had insufficient levels of vitamin D, including those with melanoma, or else, this standard needs to be reevaluated. No difference in vitamin D3 levels was found among melanoma patients with or without active disease. More comprehensive research is needed to assess the relation between vitamin D and melanoma.

  17. New strategies for melanoma immunotherapy: How to overcome immunosuppression in the tumor microenvironment

    OpenAIRE

    Umansky, Viktor

    2012-01-01

    Using ret transgenic mouse model of spontaneous melanoma, we showed an accumulation of melanoma antigen-specific memory T cells. However, their antitumor effects could be blocked by myeloid-derived suppressor cells, tolerogenic dendritic cells and regulatory T cells. We suggest that effective melanoma immunotherapy should include the neutralization of immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment.

  18. New strategies for melanoma immunotherapy: How to overcome immunosuppression in the tumor microenvironment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umansky, Viktor

    2012-08-01

    Using ret transgenic mouse model of spontaneous melanoma, we showed an accumulation of melanoma antigen-specific memory T cells. However, their antitumor effects could be blocked by myeloid-derived suppressor cells, tolerogenic dendritic cells and regulatory T cells. We suggest that effective melanoma immunotherapy should include the neutralization of immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment. PMID:22934276

  19. Melanoma of the penis with scintigraphically-guided sentinel node biopsy

    OpenAIRE

    Tu, William H.; Johnson, Denise; Gill, Harcharan

    2010-01-01

    Melanoma of the penis is an uncommon cancer. We present the case of a 73-year-old male with penile melanoma and non palpable lymph nodes. Lymphoscintigraphy was applied to locate the sentinel lymph nodes for dissection. His lymph nodes were negative for melanoma and he has been disease-free for 1 year with careful surveillance.

  20. Primary Oral Malignant Melanoma: Two Case Reports and Review of Literature

    OpenAIRE

    Neeraj Sharma

    2012-01-01

    Primary malignant melanoma of the oral cavity is a rare neoplasm. The tumors tend to metastasize or locally invade tissue more readily than other malignant tumors in the oral region. The survival of patients with mucosal melanomas is less than for those with cutaneous melanomas. Tumor size and metastases are related to the prognosis of the disease. Early detection, therefore, is important.