WorldWideScience

Sample records for melanoma

  1. Melanoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the elderly. It is most common in sun-damaged skin on the face, neck, and arms. The abnormal ... with: A family history of melanoma Severely sun-damaged skin Lots of moles on their skin A skin ...

  2. Iris melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Evita; Margo, Curtis E

    2008-02-01

    The iris is the least common site of primary uveal melanoma. The prognosis of iris melanoma is better than that of melanoma of the ciliary body and choroid, but the reason for this difference is unclear. One possible explanation is that iris melanoma is smaller than its posterior segment counterparts at the time of diagnosis. Most iris melanomas are spindle cell types, according to a modified Callender classification system. There is evidence that the proliferation of melanocytes of the anterior iris surface (iris plaque) and diffuse stromal invasion may be risk factors for local recurrence and metastasis, respectively. PMID:18251588

  3. Anal Melanoma

    OpenAIRE

    Singer, Marc; Mutch, Matthew G.

    2006-01-01

    Anal melanoma is rare and aggressive malignancy. Patients commonly present with advanced, even metastatic disease. Unlike cutaneous melanoma, anal melanoma has no known risk factors. Surgical excision remains the cornerstone of therapy. There are no long-term survivors of stage II or III disease; therefore, early diagnosis and treatment remain crucial. There are no trials definitively proving abdominal perineal resection (APR) or wide local excision (WLE) to yield superior long-term survival....

  4. Choroidal melanoma

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, Parul; Singh, Abhishek

    2012-01-01

    Choroidal melanoma is the most common primary intra-ocular malignant tumor and second most common site of ten malignant melanoma sites in the body. Current diagnosis of choroidal melanoma is based on both the clinical experience of the specialist and modern diagnostic techniques such as indirect ophthalmoscopy, A- and B-ultrasonography scans, fundus fluorescein angiography, and transillumination. Invasive studies such as fine needle aspiration cytology can have significant morbidity and shoul...

  5. Ocular melanoma.

    OpenAIRE

    Tullo, A. B.; Dodd, C. L.; Noble, J. L.; Owens, S.; Rao, H.

    1990-01-01

    Ocular melanomas comprise uveal and conjunctival sub-types, which are very different from each other. A large majority of uveal melanomas involve the choroid, with less than 10% being confined to the ciliary body and iris. They tend to metastasize haematogenously, almost always involving the liver. Therapeutic methods include various forms of radiotherapy, surgical resection and phototherapy, which are often used in combination. Conjunctival melanomas show many similarities to their cutaneous...

  6. Management of advanced melanoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book presents papers on the subject of management of advanced melanoma. The topics covered are: non-investigational cytotoxic agents; high-dosage chemotherapy in antologous bone marrow transplantation; Radiotherapy of melanomas; hyperthermia; ureal melanoma; surgical treatment of recurrent a metastatic melanoma; role of interferons in management of melanoma and molecular genetics of melanoma

  7. Iris melanomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geisse, L J; Robertson, D M

    1985-06-15

    Most iris tumors behave benignly, reflecting their small size and the high proportion of nevi and spindle A melanomas. Of 1,043 reported iris melanomas, 31 metastasized (3%). Metastasis from a spindle A melanoma is not known to occur despite documented growth and local recurrence after excision. If known spindle A melanomas are excluded from all reported spindle cell tumors of the iris, the rate of metastasis for spindle cell tumors is 2.6%. Mixed-cell melanomas have a metastasis rate of 10.5% and epithelioid melanomas a rate of 6.9%. The interval between the histologic diagnosis and death from metastases ranged from three months to 12 years, with an average of 6.5 years. Five- and ten-year mortality rates for different cell types cannot be ascertained. Iris angiography may be useful in defining the limits of tumor involvement but is of uncertain value in differentiating benignancy from malignancy. Of the 31 cases with metastases, 21 included information on the type of surgical procedure used to obtain the histologic diagnosis. In 13 of the 21 cases (62%), the tumors were initially involved with either incomplete excision or inadvertent transection before enucleation. PMID:4014387

  8. Melanoma Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horsch, Alexander

    The chapter deals with the diagnosis of the malignant melanoma of the skin. This aggressive type of cancer with steadily growing incidence in white populations can hundred percent be cured if it is detected in an early stage. Imaging techniques, in particular dermoscopy, have contributed significantly to improvement of diagnostic accuracy in clinical settings, achieving sensitivities for melanoma experts of beyond 95% at specificities of 90% and more. Automatic computer analysis of dermoscopy images has, in preliminary studies, achieved classification rates comparable to those of experts. However, the diagnosis of melanoma requires a lot of training and experience, and at the time being, average numbers of lesions excised per histology-proven melanoma are around 30, a number which clearly is too high. Further improvements in computer dermoscopy systems and their competent use in clinical settings certainly have the potential to support efforts of improving this situation. In the chapter, medical basics, current state of melanoma diagnosis, image analysis methods, commercial dermoscopy systems, evaluation of systems, and methods and future directions are presented.

  9. Malignant Melanoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eshini Perera

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Melanomas are a major cause of premature death from cancer. The gradual decrease in rates of morbidity and mortality has occurred as a result of public health campaigns and improved rates of early diagnosis. Survival of melanoma has increased to over 90%. Management of melanoma involves a number of components: excision, tumor staging, re-excision with negative margins, adjuvant therapies (chemo, radiation or surgery, treatment of stage IV disease, follow-up examination for metastasis, lifestyle modification and counseling. Sentinel lymph node status is an important prognostic factor for survival in patients with a melanoma >1 mm. However, sentinel lymph node biopsies have received partial support due to the limited data regarding the survival advantage of complete lymph node dissection when a micrometastasis is detected in the lymph nodes. Functional mutations in the mitogen-activated pathways are commonly detected in melanomas and these influence the growth control. Therapies that target these pathways are rapidly emerging, and are being shown to increase survival rates in patients. Access to these newer agents can be gained by participation in clinical trials after referral to a multidisciplinary team for staging and re-excision of the scar.

  10. What Is Melanoma Skin Cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... statistics about melanoma skin cancer? What is melanoma skin cancer? Melanoma is a cancer that starts in a ... tumors, but most are not very common. Melanoma skin cancers Melanoma is a cancer that begins in the ...

  11. Choroidal melanoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A useful and practical guide is developed to better track to the uveal melanoma, due to its highly malignant character. Melanoma of the uveal tract (choroid, iris, ciliary body) has been the intraocular tumor most frequent in adults. The biopsy has been inaccessible, due to its location; therefore, the diagnostic should be based on clinical examination and the correct utilization of the diagnostic procedures (ultrasound, fluorescent angiography, computed axial tomography and magnetic resonance). The cases are diagnosed in the histological examination of the operatory piece post-enucleation for other causes. Epidemiological research has been key to determine the associated factors and better to understand the mechanisms of onset of the disease. Anatomopathological studies of choroidal melanoma have permitted to know the natural history of the disease. The decrease of the visual acuity, pain or inflammation are presented as a defect in the visual field. Different techniques to diagnose the disease are explained. Ultrasound in mode A and B, computed axial tomography and magnetic resonance are the diagnostic method of election. Ultrasound has been the primary method of diagnostic, giving the size and vascularisation, useful in tracking, when they are treated in shape conservatively, showing changes in echogenicity and less vascularisation as good response to treatment. The treatments of choroidal melanoma are specified. The correct interpretation of the clinical symptoms and early utilization of diagnostic imaging methods, have permitted to establish the adequate therapeutic and to avoid local and distant metastasis. The uveal melanoma, depending on their size and location, traditionally has been treated by enucleation. Data from the literature and authors, have promoted the conservation of the ocular globe, depending on the size of the tumor. Transpupillary thermotherapy has been an available alternative for small tumors in Costa Rica and level of social security. Patients have had the option to keep the ocular globe and even maintain good visual acuity with this therapy. Brachytherapy has been another alternative treatment in tumors of medium size, and can be performed in countries like Colombia and the United States

  12. Malicious masquerade: myxoid melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hitchcock, M G; White, W L

    1998-08-01

    The morphological spectrum of malignant melanoma is broad. Unusual stromal changes can distract pathologists from the correct diagnosis. Fibroblastic, chondroid, osteoid, and myxoid stroma have been documented in melanomas. Myxoid melanoma is problematic--introducing carcinomas and soft tissue sarcomas into the differential diagnosis. This review examines the clinicopathologic aspects of myxoid malignant melanoma, with emphasis on its differential diagnosis. PMID:9711669

  13. Skin cancer and melanoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this chapter, the author discusses various types of non-melanoma malignant skin cancer, as well as malignant melanoma. Non-melanoma skin cancer, such as basal cell and squamous cell carcinomas, occasionally metastasize, but only late in the course of the disease. On the other hand, even relatively small primary melanomas tend to disseminate to regional lymph nodes and to distant sites. The author presents various treatment plans, including radiation therapy. Cutaneous melanomas have been considered relatively radioresistant. This is the rationale for the use of large fraction radiation therapy in the treatment of melanomas with the fraction sizes varying from 4--8 Gy

  14. Melanoma of the Skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 0 SEER Stat Fact Sheets: Melanoma of the Skin Expand All Collapse All Statistics at a Glance ... More after Being Diagnosed with Melanoma of the Skin? Relative survival statistics compare the survival of patients ...

  15. Melanoma International Foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... MD July 16, 2012 Our Awards Melanoma International Foundation Our Mission: To develop personalized strategies with patients ... state of Pennsylvania, certificate #29498 © 2013 Melanoma International Foundation. All Rights Reserved. Privacy Policy | Terms of Use ...

  16. Primary ovarian malignant melanoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kostov Miloš

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Primary ovarian malignant melanoma is extremely rare. It usually appears in the wall of a dermoid cyst or is associated with another teratomatous component. Metastatic primary malignant melanoma to ovary from a primary melanoma elsewhere is well known and has been often reported especially in autopsy studies. Case report. We presented a case of primary ovarian malignant melanoma in a 45- year old woman, with no evidence of extraovarian primary melanoma nor teratomatous component. The tumor was unilateral, macroscopically on section presented as solid mass, dark brown to black color. Microscopically, tumor cells showed positive immunohistochemical reaction for HMB-45, melan-A and S-100 protein, and negative immunoreactivity for estrogen and progesteron receptors. Conclusion. Differentiate metastatic melanoma from rare primary ovarian malignant melanoma, in some of cases may be a histopathological diagnostic problem. Histopathological diagnosis of primary ovarian malignant melanoma should be confirmed by immunohistochemical analyses and detailed clinical search for an occult primary tumor.

  17. Melanoma in Immunosuppressed Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Kubica, Agnieszka W.; Brewer, Jerry D.

    2012-01-01

    The immunogenic characteristics of malignant melanoma are intriguing. To date, multiple studies exist regarding the immunogenicity of melanoma. In this article, we summarize data in the literature on the role of immunosuppression in melanoma and discuss several immunocompromised patient populations in detail. A comprehensive PubMed search was conducted with no date limitation. The following search terms were used: melanoma in combination with immunosuppression, immunocompromised, genetics, an...

  18. Clínica del melanoma Clinical manifestations of melanoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Mordoh

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available El melanoma es un tumor maligno originado en los melanocitos, cuya incidencia y mortalidad han aumentado en las últimas décadas. Sus factores de riesgo más importantes son la susceptibilidad genética relacionada con sensibilidad al sol (capacidad para broncearse y tendencia a las quemaduras y con ciertos genes especíLcos; factores ambientales tales como la exposición a la radiación UV, latitud y una combinación de ambos, como la cantidad de nevos. Sus formas clínicas son: melanoma extensivo superLcial (70%, nodular (15-30%, lentigo maligno (10-15% y acrolentiginoso (5%. De todas las características histológicas, el espesor de Brelow (medido en mm desde la granulosa hasta el punto más profundo de penetración tumoral es el predictor de sobrevida más importante. El tratamiento quirúrgico adecuado con 1 cm de margen en aquellos pacientes de bajo riesgo (Breslow Melanoma is a malignant tumor that originates in melanocytes and whose incidence and mortality have increased in the last decades. The most important risk factors are a genetic susceptibility related to sun sensitivity (having tanning capacity and being prone to sunburn and with certain speci1c genes; environmental factors such as exposure to UV radiation, latitude and a combination of both such as the number of nevis. Its clinical forms are: super1cial spreading melanoma (70%, nodular melanoma (15-30%, lentigo maligna melanoma (10-15% and acral lentiginous melanoma (5%. Among all the histological characteristics, Breslow's depth (measured in mm from the granular layer of the epidermis to the deepest point of tumor invasion is the most important predictor for progression free survival. An appropriate surgical treatment with 1-cm margin melanomas in low-risk patients (Breslow < 1 mm cures over 90% of the patients. Thus, early detection of melanoma is an important goal in melanoma treatment.

  19. Malignant Melanoma of the Foot

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Melanoma of the Foot Text Size Print Bookmark Malignant Melanoma of the Foot What is Malignant Melanoma? Melanoma is a cancer that begins in ... that produce pigmentation (coloration). It is also called malignant melanoma because it spreads to other areas of ...

  20. Gamma-Secretase/Notch Signalling Pathway Inhibitor RO4929097 in Treating Patients With Stage IV Melanoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-09

    Acral Lentiginous Malignant Melanoma; Lentigo Maligna Malignant Melanoma; Nodular Malignant Melanoma; Recurrent Melanoma; Solar Radiation-related Skin Melanoma; Stage IV Melanoma; Superficial Spreading Malignant Melanoma

  1. The misdiagnosis of malignant melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant-Kels, J M; Bason, E T; Grin, C M

    1999-04-01

    Despite the increasing awareness of malignant melanoma over the last 40 years, clinical diagnostic accuracy remains disappointing. Malignant melanoma can masquerade clinically as benign lesions (false negatives), and benign pigmented lesions can clinically simulate malignant melanoma (false positives). Histologic examination of pigmented lesions is therefore important to ensure proper diagnosis and treatment. We review many of the published reports of benign lesions mimicking melanoma and melanoma masquerading as other entities as well as present additional cases of clinical misdiagnoses of melanoma. PMID:10188671

  2. Decoding Melanoma Metastasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus Bosenberg

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Metastasis accounts for the vast majority of morbidity and mortality associated with melanoma. Evidence suggests melanoma has a predilection for metastasis to particular organs. Experimental analyses have begun to shed light on the mechanisms regulating melanoma metastasis and organ specificity, but these analyses are complicated by observations of metastatic dormancy and dissemination of melanocytes that are not yet fully malignant. Additionally, tumor extrinsic factors in the microenvironment, both at the site of the primary tumor and the site of metastasis, play important roles in mediating the metastatic process. As metastasis research moves forward, paradigms explaining melanoma metastasis as a step-wise process must also reflect the temporal complexity and heterogeneity in progression of this disease. Genetic drivers of melanoma as well as extrinsic regulators of disease spread, particularly those that mediate metastasis to specific organs, must also be incorporated into newer models of melanoma metastasis.

  3. Quimiorresistencia del melanoma Chemoresistance to melanoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Marcela Barrio

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Varias estrategias terapéuticas como la cirugía, radioterapia y quimioterapia están siendo utilizadas para tratar el cáncer. Sin embargo, en el caso del melanoma solamente la cirugía en las etapas tempranas de la enfermedad (estadíos I-II puede ser curativa en una alta proporción de pacientes. El tratamiento quimioterápico con dacarbacina (DTIC así como combinaciones con cisplatino, vinblastina y carmustina resulta ineficaz para eliminar las células de melanoma, ya que sólo se alcanza una respuesta en alrededor del 10% de los pacientes sin prolongar la sobrevida. La quimiorresistencia puede deberse tanto a una falta de respuesta primaria del melanoma como al desarrollo de mecanismos de resistencia adquiridos por el tumor, comúnmente definidos como multi-resistencia a drogas (MDR. En este artículo se analizan los principales mecanismos responsables de dicha resistencia y cómo el conocimiento de los mismos es aplicado al desarrollo de nuevos agentes terapéuticos. Por último, se discuten las recientes estrategias que combinan la quimioterapia con la inmunoterapia (Bioquimioterapia para optimizar el tratamiento del melanoma metastásico.Several therapeutic strategies such as surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy are being used to treat cancer. However, in the case of melanomas, only surgery during the early stages (stages I-II of the disease can be curative in a high proportion of patients. Chemotherapy treatment with dacarbazine (DTIC as well as combinations with cisplatin, vinblastine and carmustine proves to be ineffective to eliminate melanoma cells, since only 10% of patients responded positively without prolonging survival. Chemoresistance can be caused by both a lack of primary response of the melanoma and the development of resistance mechanisms acquired by the tumor usually defined as multi-drug resistance (MDR.The most important mechanisms responsible for such resistance and how the knowledge of those mechanisms is applied to the development of new therapeutic agents are analyzed in this article. Finally, the latest strategies that combine chemotherapy and immunotherapy (Biochemotherapy to optimize the treatment of metastatic melanoma will be further discussed.

  4. Quimiorresistencia del melanoma / Chemoresistance to melanoma

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    María Marcela, Barrio.

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Varias estrategias terapéuticas como la cirugía, radioterapia y quimioterapia están siendo utilizadas para tratar el cáncer. Sin embargo, en el caso del melanoma solamente la cirugía en las etapas tempranas de la enfermedad (estadíos I-II) puede ser curativa en una alta proporción de pacientes. El t [...] ratamiento quimioterápico con dacarbacina (DTIC) así como combinaciones con cisplatino, vinblastina y carmustina resulta ineficaz para eliminar las células de melanoma, ya que sólo se alcanza una respuesta en alrededor del 10% de los pacientes sin prolongar la sobrevida. La quimiorresistencia puede deberse tanto a una falta de respuesta primaria del melanoma como al desarrollo de mecanismos de resistencia adquiridos por el tumor, comúnmente definidos como multi-resistencia a drogas (MDR). En este artículo se analizan los principales mecanismos responsables de dicha resistencia y cómo el conocimiento de los mismos es aplicado al desarrollo de nuevos agentes terapéuticos. Por último, se discuten las recientes estrategias que combinan la quimioterapia con la inmunoterapia (Bioquimioterapia) para optimizar el tratamiento del melanoma metastásico. Abstract in english Several therapeutic strategies such as surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy are being used to treat cancer. However, in the case of melanomas, only surgery during the early stages (stages I-II) of the disease can be curative in a high proportion of patients. Chemotherapy treatment with dacarbazine [...] (DTIC) as well as combinations with cisplatin, vinblastine and carmustine proves to be ineffective to eliminate melanoma cells, since only 10% of patients responded positively without prolonging survival. Chemoresistance can be caused by both a lack of primary response of the melanoma and the development of resistance mechanisms acquired by the tumor usually defined as multi-drug resistance (MDR).The most important mechanisms responsible for such resistance and how the knowledge of those mechanisms is applied to the development of new therapeutic agents are analyzed in this article. Finally, the latest strategies that combine chemotherapy and immunotherapy (Biochemotherapy) to optimize the treatment of metastatic melanoma will be further discussed.

  5. Clínica del melanoma / Clinical manifestations of melanoma

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ana, Mordoh.

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Argentina | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El melanoma es un tumor maligno originado en los melanocitos, cuya incidencia y mortalidad han aumentado en las últimas décadas. Sus factores de riesgo más importantes son la susceptibilidad genética relacionada con sensibilidad al sol (capacidad para broncearse y tendencia a las quemaduras) y con c [...] iertos genes especíLcos; factores ambientales tales como la exposición a la radiación UV, latitud y una combinación de ambos, como la cantidad de nevos. Sus formas clínicas son: melanoma extensivo superLcial (70%), nodular (15-30%), lentigo maligno (10-15%) y acrolentiginoso (5%). De todas las características histológicas, el espesor de Brelow (medido en mm desde la granulosa hasta el punto más profundo de penetración tumoral) es el predictor de sobrevida más importante. El tratamiento quirúrgico adecuado con 1 cm de margen en aquellos pacientes de bajo riesgo (Breslow Abstract in english Melanoma is a malignant tumor that originates in melanocytes and whose incidence and mortality have increased in the last decades. The most important risk factors are a genetic susceptibility related to sun sensitivity (having tanning capacity and being prone to sunburn) and with certain speci1c gen [...] es; environmental factors such as exposure to UV radiation, latitude and a combination of both such as the number of nevis. Its clinical forms are: super1cial spreading melanoma (70%), nodular melanoma (15-30%), lentigo maligna melanoma (10-15%) and acral lentiginous melanoma (5%). Among all the histological characteristics, Breslow's depth (measured in mm from the granular layer of the epidermis to the deepest point of tumor invasion) is the most important predictor for progression free survival. An appropriate surgical treatment with 1-cm margin melanomas in low-risk patients (Breslow

  6. Adjuvant Treatment of Melanoma

    OpenAIRE

    Moreno Nogueira, J. A.; Valero Arbizu, M.; Amp Xe Rez Temprano, R. P.

    2013-01-01

    Melanomas represent 4% of all malignant tumors of the skin, yet account for 80% of deaths from skin cancer.While in the early stages patients can be successfully treated with surgical resection, metastatic melanoma prognosis is dismal. Several oncogenes have been identified in melanoma as BRAF, NRAS, c-Kit, and GNA11 GNAQ, each capable of activating MAPK pathway that increases cell proliferation and promotes angiogenesis, although NRAS and c-Kit also activate PI3 kinase pathway, including bei...

  7. Staging of cutaneous melanoma

    OpenAIRE

    Mohr, P.; Eggermont, A. M. M.; Hauschild, A.; Buzaid, A.

    2009-01-01

    The American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) staging of cutaneous melanoma is a continuously evolving system. The identification of increasingly more accurate prognostic factors has led to major changes in melanoma staging over the years, and the current system described in this review will likely be modified in the near future. Likewise, application of new imaging techniques has also changed the staging work-up of patients with cutaneous melanoma. Chest and abdominal computed tomography (CT...

  8. Dermoscopy on subungual melanoma 

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gra?yna Kami?ska-Winciorek

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Subungual melanoma is a rare, but one of the diagnostically most difficult variants of melanoma. Unfortunately, due to its late detection, lack of an early reaction from the patient and diagnosis in advanced stages, subungual melanoma is deemed as a prognostically unfavorable variant of this malignancy. Diagnosis of subungual melanoma is very difficult to establish merely on the basis of clinical examination due to the resemblance of subungual hematoma to melanocytic nevus, fungal or bacterial infections. Dermoscopy seems to be the ideal diagnostic tool in the differential diagnosis of this life-threatening disease. Aims. To describe the basic aspects of dermoscopy of subungual melanoma and other conditions involving the nails. Methods. Review of medical database PubMed for the literature of the last 10 years on the dermoscopic patterns of subungual melanoma and other subungual diseases. Results. We collate the fundamental rules of performing dermoscopy in subungual melanoma, as well as basic dermoscopic features and diagnostic algorithms of selected subungual lesions requiring differentiation from melanoma. Conclusions. Dermoscopy is a safe, easily repeatable diagnostic method, and the knowledge of basic dermoscopic patterns of developing melanoma in subungual localization, along with the differential diagnosis of other diseases within the nail plate, will help not only dermatologists, but also the professionals of other specialties, such as surgeons, oncologists, orthopedists, and also general practitioners.

  9. Primary melanoma of testis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katiyar R

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Primary melanoma of testis is extremely rare and even the existence of such an entity is questioned. We present the case of a 60-year-old man with primary malignant melanoma in the testis. We report this case to emphasize the need for awareness of the possibility of the testis being the primary site in the patient with a melanoma and to underline the necessity of meticulous investigation of suspicious lesions of the testis in patients with or without a past history of malignant melanoma.

  10. Unusual variants of malignant melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magro, Cynthia M; Crowson, A Neil; Mihm, Martin C

    2006-02-01

    A potential diagnostic pitfall in the histologic assessment of melanoma is the inability to recognize unusual melanoma variants. Of these, the more treacherous examples include the desmoplastic melanoma, the nevoid melanoma, the so-called 'minimal-deviation melanoma,' melanoma with prominent pigment synthesis or 'animal-type melanoma,' and the malignant blue nevus. Also problematic are the unusual phenotypic profiles seen in vertical growth phase melanomas; these include those tumors whose morphological peculiarities mimic cancers of nonmelanocytic lineage and those melanomas that express aberrant antigenic profiles not commonly associated with a melanocytic histogenesis. Metaplastic change in melanoma, balloon cell melanoma, signet-ring cell melanoma, myxoid melanoma, small cell melanoma and rhabdoid melanoma all have the potential to mimic metastatic and primary neoplasms of different lineage derivations. Abnormal immunohistochemical expression of CD 34, cytokeratins, epithelial membrane antigen, and smooth muscle markers as well as the deficient expression of S100 protein and melanocyte lineage-specific markers such as GP100 protein (ie HMB-45 antibody) and A103 (ie Melan-A) also present confusing diagnostic challenges. In this review, we will discuss in some detail certain of these novel clinicopathologic types of melanoma, as well as the abnormal phenotypic expressions seen in vertical growth phase melanoma. PMID:16446716

  11. Malignant melanoma (metastatic)

    OpenAIRE

    Larkin, James; Gore, Martin

    2008-01-01

    There are 8100 new cases of malignant melanoma and 1800 deaths a year in the UK, largely as a result of metastatic disease. The median survival of people with metastatic melanoma is 6 to 9 months after diagnosis, with 10% of people alive at 5 years.Chemotherapy is given with palliative rather than curative intent for metastatic disease.

  12. Metastatic melanoma of mesentery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A case of malignant melanoma metastatic to small bowel mesentery in an old female is reported. Her primary malignant melanoma of nasal mucosa was already treated. She presented with intestinal obstruction, underwent surgical excision of the tumour and was tumour-free postoperatively. (author)

  13. Uveal melanoma: Estimating prognosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaliki, Swathi; Shields, Carol L; Shields, Jerry A

    2015-02-01

    Uveal melanoma is the most common primary malignant tumor of the eye in adults, predominantly found in Caucasians. Local tumor control of uveal melanoma is excellent, yet this malignancy is associated with relatively high mortality secondary to metastasis. Various clinical, histopathological, cytogenetic features and gene expression features help in estimating the prognosis of uveal melanoma. The clinical features associated with poor prognosis in patients with uveal melanoma include older age at presentation, male gender, larger tumor basal diameter and thickness, ciliary body location, diffuse tumor configuration, association with ocular/oculodermal melanocytosis, extraocular tumor extension, and advanced tumor staging by American Joint Committee on Cancer classification. Histopathological features suggestive of poor prognosis include epithelioid cell type, high mitotic activity, higher values of mean diameter of ten largest nucleoli, higher microvascular density, extravascular matrix patterns, tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes, tumor-infiltrating macrophages, higher expression of insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor, and higher expression of human leukocyte antigen Class I and II. Monosomy 3, 1p loss, 6q loss, and 8q and those classified as Class II by gene expression are predictive of poor prognosis of uveal melanoma. In this review, we discuss the prognostic factors of uveal melanoma. A database search was performed on PubMed, using the terms "uvea," "iris," "ciliary body," "choroid," "melanoma," "uveal melanoma" and "prognosis," "metastasis," "genetic testing," "gene expression profiling." Relevant English language articles were extracted, reviewed, and referenced appropriately. PMID:25827538

  14. Melanoma do aparelho ungueal Nail apparatus melanoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignez Regina dos Santos Muri Mendonça

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available O melanoma do aparelho ungueal é apresentação relativamente rara dessa neoplasia, muitas vezes diagnosticada como nevo juncional, hematoma subungueal ou mesmo onicomicose. Esse fato leva a um atraso no diagnóstico e, conseqüentemente, na instituição da terapêutica específica, contribuindo para agravar o prognóstico de uma doença que por si só já é muito agressiva. Os autores relatam um caso de melanoma no primeiro quirodáctilo esquerdo de uma paciente negra com evolução de um ano, ressaltando a importância de avaliar certos critérios clínicos para obter o diagnóstico em fases mais precoces da doença.Nail apparatus melanoma is a rare presentation of melanoma and may be misdiagnosed as junctional nevus, subungual hematoma or onychomycosis. This fact often leads initially to inappropriate treatment and significant delays in appropriately managing such an aggressive disease. The authors report a case of melanoma on the left thumb of a black patient evolving for a year. Emphasis was placed on the importance of assessing certain clinical characteristics in order to reach an early diagnosis.

  15. Melanoma do aparelho ungueal / Nail apparatus melanoma

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ignez Regina dos Santos Muri, Mendonça; Bernard Kawa, Kac; Renata Teixeira da, Silva; Letícia Pereira, Spinelli; Renata Rodrigues, Orofino; Janine Ribeiro, França.

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available O melanoma do aparelho ungueal é apresentação relativamente rara dessa neoplasia, muitas vezes diagnosticada como nevo juncional, hematoma subungueal ou mesmo onicomicose. Esse fato leva a um atraso no diagnóstico e, conseqüentemente, na instituição da terapêutica específica, contribuindo para agrav [...] ar o prognóstico de uma doença que por si só já é muito agressiva. Os autores relatam um caso de melanoma no primeiro quirodáctilo esquerdo de uma paciente negra com evolução de um ano, ressaltando a importância de avaliar certos critérios clínicos para obter o diagnóstico em fases mais precoces da doença. Abstract in english Nail apparatus melanoma is a rare presentation of melanoma and may be misdiagnosed as junctional nevus, subungual hematoma or onychomycosis. This fact often leads initially to inappropriate treatment and significant delays in appropriately managing such an aggressive disease. The authors report a ca [...] se of melanoma on the left thumb of a black patient evolving for a year. Emphasis was placed on the importance of assessing certain clinical characteristics in order to reach an early diagnosis.

  16. Amelanotic melanoma of the tongue

    OpenAIRE

    Venugopal, M.; Renuka, Iv; Bala, G. Saila; Seshaiah, N.

    2013-01-01

    Malignant melanoma of the oral cavity is a rare lesion, with an incidence of about 0.2% to 0.8% of all melanomas. Melanoma of tongue is still rarer and represents less than 2% of oro-nasal melanoma cases. We report a rare case of amelanotic melanoma of the tongue in a young man. The importance of consideration of melanoma in the differential diagnosis of oral cavity lesions is discussed since mucosal melanoma carries a bad prognosis and early diagnosis is vital.

  17. [Immunotherapy of melanomas].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmer, L; Vaubel, J; Schadendorf, D

    2012-12-01

    Even early clinical studies showed that adjuvant chemotherapy achieved no therapeutic benefit for melanomas so that in the current guidelines its use is only recommended within the framework of clinical studies. For over 30 years interferons have been used in the adjuvant treatment of primary high risk melanomas as well as in the treatment of metastasized melanomas. They function in an antiviral, immune modulating and antitumor fashion. Direct and indirect effects on tumor cells could be demonstrated for interferons. In Europe low dosage interferon therapy is approved and has become widely established for stage II melanomas, whereas in the USA high dosage therapy for stage III and since March 2011 therapy with pegylated interferon in stage III are also approved. In this article the most important study results will be dealt with in detail. In summary, according to the current study situation therapy with interferon should be offered especially to patients with ulcerated primary melanoma and microscopic lymph node infiltration. Many attempts have been made in the last decades to positively influence the survival time of distant metastasized melanoma by systemic therapy. The recent development of the antibody ipilimumab against cytotoxic T-lymphocyte protein 4 (CTLA-4) could show for the first time a survival advantage in the therapy of melanoma patients in advance stage disease. The licensing of ipilimumab has meant that there is now a new standard available for the second line therapy of malignant melanoma which will be included in the guidelines on therapy of malignant melanoma. A further interesting option for adjuvant therapy is currently vaccination with the recombinant melanoma-associated protein 3 (MAGE-A3) protein in combination with the adjuvant AS015. PMID:23097082

  18. Head and Neck Melanoma

    OpenAIRE

    Shashanka, R.; Smitha, B. R.

    2012-01-01

    The incidence of malignant melanoma appears to be increasing at an alarming rate throughout the world over the past 30–40 years and continues to increase in the United States, Canada, Australia, Asia, and Europe. The behavior of head and neck melanoma is aggressive, and it has an overall poorer prognosis than that of other skin sites. The authors review the published literature and text books, intending to give an overall picture of malignant melanomas of the head and neck and a special emp...

  19. [Dermal chondroid melanoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katenkamp, K; Henke, R-P; Katenkamp, D

    2005-03-01

    This case describes the history of disease of a 53-year old man, who has been treated for a putative recurrent nailbed granuloma of the right big toe since 1996. In 2000 an enlarged inguinal lymph node was excised. The light microscopic examination showed a metastasis of a malignant melanoma. In 2003 we received a tumor of the right big toe for histopathological examination. The histological and immunohistochemical results proved a dermal chondroid melanoma. This extremely rare variant of malignant melanoma occurs particularly in subungual location and is possibly related to a previous trauma. We discuss the spectrum of differential diagnoses and the importance of immunohistochemistry. PMID:15657682

  20. Primary Anorectal Melanoma: An Update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Carcoforo, M.T Raiji, G.M Palini, M Pedriali, U Maestroni, G Soliani, A Detroia, M.V Zanzi, A.L Manna, J.G Crompton, R.C Langan, A Stojadinovic, I Avital

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The anorectum is a rare anatomic location for primary melanoma. Mucosal melanoma is a distinct biological and clinical entity from the more common cutaneous melanoma. It portrays worse prognosis than cutaneous melanoma, with distant metastases being the overwhelming cause of morbidity and mortality. Surgery is the treatment of choice, but significant controversy exists over the extent of surgical resection. We present an update on the state of the art of anorectal mucosal melanoma. To illustrate the multimodality approach to anorectal melanoma, we present a typical patient.

  1. Genetics of melanoma

    OpenAIRE

    Wangari-talbot, Janet; Chen, Suzie

    2013-01-01

    Genomic variation is a trend observed in various human diseases including cancer. Genetic studies have set out to understand how and why these variations result in cancer, why some populations are pre-disposed to the disease, and also how genetics affect drug responses. The melanoma incidence has been increasing at an alarming rate worldwide. The burden posed by melanoma has made it a necessity to understand the fundamental signaling pathways involved in this deadly disease. Signaling cascade...

  2. Metastatic melanoma and pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolin Borislava L.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Pregnancy after complete treatment of metastatic melanoma is an extremely rare event. We presented a case of a skin melanoma patient with lung and liver metastases who was treated by combined immunochemotherapy for the period of two years. A year and a half after the successful treatment, which resulted a complete remission of metastatic lesions she got pregnant and delivered a healthy baby girl.

  3. Propiedades linfangiogénicas del melanoma Lymphagiogenesis in melanomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Paula Roberti

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available El melanoma cutáneo representa el más letal de los cánceres de piel y la alta mortalidad es debida a la formación de metástasis. A través del sistema linfático local, los sitios iniciales de metástasis son comúnmente los ganglios linfáticos regionales. A pesar de que la relevancia clínica de las metástasis a ganglios linfáticos está bien establecida, muy poco se conoce acerca de sus mecanismos moleculares. El descubrimiento de nuevos marcadores de células linfáticas ha permitido en los últimos años comenzar a esclarecer múltiples interrogantes y controversias relacionados con la interacción entre las células tumorales con los vasos linfáticos. Este capítulo tratará la creciente información con la que se cuenta actualmente para comprender la linfangiogénesis en el cáncer, en particular en melanoma, su potencial aplicación en diagnóstico de metástasis, pronóstico de la enfermedad y estrategias terapéuticas.Melanoma skin cancer represents the most deadly of all skin cancers and its high incidence of mortality is due to metastasis. Through the local lymphatic system, the sites of initial metastasis are usually the regional lymph nodes. Despite the clinical relevance of metastasis spreading to lymph nodes is clearly established, not much is known about its molecular mechanisms. The finding of new markers in lymph node cells has made it possible over the last years to start clarifying many questions and controversies related to the interaction between tumour cells and lymph vessels. This chapter deals with the growing information nowadays available to understand lymphagiogenesis in cancer, especially melanoma, its potential application to metastasis diagnosis, disease prognosis and therapeutic strategies.

  4. Cell metastasis in Melanoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick A. Ott

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Cutaneous melanoma stands out as a model disease on which to study tumor progression and metastasis for several reasons. If undetected or diagnosed late, melanoma is a highly invasive tumor and almost invariably leads to metastatic spread. It tends to metastasize at a time when the tumor burden is low compared to other cancers, which is evident by the size (thickness of the primary tumor being measured in millimeters. The fact that the majority of the almost 70,000 new melanomas diagnosed in the United States every year are detected when they are still curable, is presumably largely owed to its prominent site of origin, the skin. As a consequence, tissue from early stages of tumor development is relatively easily available for analysis, allowing for the investigation of the whole spectrum of tumor progression and the metastatic process in humans.It is somewhat surprising that comparative genomic approaches to date have not yet consistently identified gene signatures reflecting genes or gene sets that are associated with metastasis or prognosis of melanoma. Nevertheless, tremendous progress has been made in recent years identifying mechanisms leading to metastasis in melanoma. In this review, we highlight some of the key molecules and pathways that have been discovered as drivers of metastatic progression in this disease.

  5. Immunoscintigraphy in ocular melanoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Immunoscintigraphy (IS) of malignant tumors has become an encouraging tool in nuclear medicine. Early diagnosis of small lesions is mandatory for successful cancer therapy generally. The scintigraphic detectability of small lesions (2 fragments of the anti-melanoma monoclonal antibody 225.28S; this antibody recognizes the high-molecular-weight melanoma-associated antigen. No adverse effects were observed. In terms of true positive results, Single Photon Emission CT proved to be superior compared to planar scans (81 versus 46 percent true positive results). (author). 30 refs

  6. Congenital uveal malignant melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pukrushpan, Parnchat; Tulvatana, Wasee; Pittayapongpat, Rosana

    2014-04-01

    We report the clinical and pathological findings of a rare case of congenital uveal melanoma. A 7-week-old girl presented with history of a black area at the inner corner of her left eye since birth. Examination revealed an enlarged globe with an area of visible uveal pigment nasal to the cornea, an iris mass, and shallow anterior chamber in the left eye. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed an intraocular mass. Enucleation was performed when the girl was 2 months of age. Pathologic examination confirmed a malignant melanoma epithelioid cell type with extraocular extension. She was treated with chemotherapy and subtotal exenteration. PMID:24698625

  7. Melanoma e inmunidad / Melanoma and immunity

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    María Marcela, Barrio.

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Argentina | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish La teoría de la inmunovigilancia postula que el sistema inmune es capaz de detectar células cancerosas reconociendo sus características particulares y eliminarlas previniendo la progresión del cáncer. Sin embargo, dicho proceso no es absolutamente eficaz, identificándose tres etapas propuestas para [...] explicar la aparición de los tumores: en la primera (Eliminación) el sistema inmune es capaz de destruir células neoplásicas básicamente mediante efectores de la inmunidad innata; en la fase de Equilibrio, se inducen efectores específicos que reconocen y destruyen al tumor pero también se genera una presión de selección sobre las células tumorales generando variantes neoplásicas mutadas. Por último, en la etapa de Escape, las variantes del tumor que sobreviven se vuelven resistentes al reconocimiento y/o eliminación por los efectores inmunes y el tumor crece. En este artículo se presentan los principales antígenos (Ags) asociados al melanoma, las diversas estrategias terapéuticas que utilizan a estos Ags como blanco para inducir inmunidad, así como la existencia de los mecanismos de escape tumoral en el melanoma. Se analizan las evidencias más recientes acerca de cómo el microambiente tumoral condiciona la efectividad de la inmunidad celular específica evidenciando la necesidad actual de explorar terapias que combinen la acción de efectores de la inmunidad innata y la específica antitumoral, a la vez que modulen el microambiente tumoral para favorecer su acción. Abstract in english The immunosurveillance theory states that the immune system is capable of detecting cancer cells recognizing their particular characteristics and of eliminating them to prevent cancer progression. However, such process is not completely effective. Three stages proposed to explain the emergence of tu [...] mors can be identified in the process: in the first stage (Elimination) the immune system is capable of destroying neoplasic cells basically by means of innate immunity effectors; in the second (Equilibrium) stage, specific effectors that recognize and destroy the tumor are induced, but on the other hand, selection pressure is generated on tumor cells, originating mutated neoplasic variants. Finally, in the Escape stage, the tumor variants that survive become more resistant to identification and /or elimination by the immune effectors and consequently the tumor grows. The main melanoma-associated Ags, the various therapeutical strategies using these Ags as targets to induce immunity, as well as the existence of tumor escape mechanisms in the melanoma will be introduced in this chapter. Furthermore, the latest evidence on how tumor microenvironment determines the effectiveness of specific cell immunity will be analyzed, proving the present need of exploring therapies that both combine the action of innate immunity effectors and the anti-tumor specific effectors, and modulate the tumor microenvironment to favour its actions.

  8. Melanoma amelanótico en ciego / Cecal amelanotic melanoma

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ofelia, Castillo; Oscar, Frisancho; Americo, Palomino.

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Peru | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Paciente varón de 73 años que acude a emergencia con anemia severa (Hb 4.9 g/dL), refiriendo un mes con deposiciones oscuras, astenia y pérdida significativa de peso. La evaluación endoscópica alta no encontró lesiones potencialmente sangrantes. Posteriormente se constató la presencia de heces sangu [...] inolentas rojizas tipo enterorragia y se realizó una colonoscopía, en la cual se encontraron dos lesiones elevadas en el ciego: una pedunculada (con sangrado activo rezumante) y otra sésil, ambas fueron extirpadas; el estudio de anatomía patológica demostró que correspondían a melanoma amelanótico de ciego. El examen físico no reveló lesiones neoplásicas dérmicas. El sangrado digestivo recurrente obligó a realizar una nueva colonoscopia que demostró una nueva lesión sangrante de ciego. Fue intervenido quirúrgicamente con una cecostomía y extirpación de la lesión cecal. La tomografía demostró metástasis en mediastino y en la cirugía se encontraron implantes metastásicos en hígado e intestino delgado. El paciente continuó tratamiento en oncología médica. Nosotros reportamos el presente caso, por ser la hemorragia digestiva una forma inusual de presentación clínica del melanoma maligno metastásico. Abstract in english A 73 year old male patient who presented to emergency with severe anemia (Hb 4.9 g / dL), referring to a month with dark stools, fatigue and significant weight loss. The high endoscopic evaluation found no potentially bleeding lesions. Subsequently, we confirmed the presence of red blood in stools, [...] like enterorrhagia and underwent a colonoscopy, in which two elevated lesions were found in the cecum: a pedunculated (with active bleeding, oozing) and other sessile; both were removed. the pathology showed that corresponded to amelanotic melanoma in cecal region. Physical examination revealed no malignant skin lesions. Recurrent gastrointestinal bleeding forced to make another colonoscopy that showed new bleeding lesion of the cecum. He was operated with a cecostomy and cecal excision of the lesion.. The tomography scan showed metastases in mediastinum and surgical implants were found in liver metastases and small intestine. The patient continued treatment in medical oncology. We report this case, because gastrointestinal bleeding is an unusual clinical presentation of malignant melanoma.

  9. Melanoma esofágico primario / Primary esophageal melanoma

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Robin, Rivera Irigoín; Víctor, Aguilar Urbano; Juana, Gonzalo Marín; Cristobal, Albandea Moreno; Francisco, Fernández Pérez; Andrés, Sánchez Cantos.

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available El melanoma esofágico primario (MEP) es una neoplasia extremadamente rara, con menos de 270 casos descritos. Aunque la presentación clínica es similar a cualquier otra neoplasia esofágica, su comportamiento es más agresivo y fatal en la mayoría de los casos. Presentamos dos nuevos casos de MEP diagn [...] osticados mediante endoscopia y estudio anatomopatológico de las biopsias obtenidas, siendo en ambos casos las muestras positivas para HMB-45 y S100, descartando así mismo la presencia de melanoma primario en otra localización. En el primer caso merece destacar la forma de presentación como miosis izquierda sin ptosis palpebral ni enoftalmos, siendo el primer caso descrito con esta manifestación inicial, lamentablemente al momento del diagnóstico fue irresecable, demostrando así mismo por ecoendoscopia afectación de la aorta torácica. El segundo caso a pesar de ser una neoplasia sin extensión locorregional y sometido a esofaguectomía transhiatal presentó múltiples complicaciones postoperatorias falleciendo al decimo noveno día de la intervención. Así mismo se hace una revisión bibliográfica sobre diagnóstico, opciones de tratamiento y pronóstico de esta excepcional neoplasia. Abstract in english Primary Esophageal Melanoma (PEM) is an extremely rare neoplasm, with less than 270 cases described. Although clinical presentation is similar to any other esophageal neoplasm, MEP's behavior is more aggressive and fatal in most cases. We report two new cases of MEP diagnosed through endoscopy and a [...] natomical-pathological analysis of collected biopsies. Both samples were positive for HMB-45 and S100, so the presence of primary melanoma in other location was ruled out. The form of presentation as left miosis with no eyelid ptosis or enophthalmos should be highlighted in the first case, which was described by this early manifestation. Unfortunately, the neoplasm could not be excised when diagnosed because the thoracic artery was found to be affected through echoendoscopy. In the second case, in spite of the fact that the neoplastic extension was only local, and neoplasm was subject to transhiatal esophagectomy, the patient had multiple post-surgical complications and died nineteen days after the surgical procedure. Furthermore, bibliographic review is applied to diagnosis, treatment options, and prognosis of this exceptional neoplasm.

  10. Melanoma e inmunidad Melanoma and immunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Marcela Barrio

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available La teoría de la inmunovigilancia postula que el sistema inmune es capaz de detectar células cancerosas reconociendo sus características particulares y eliminarlas previniendo la progresión del cáncer. Sin embargo, dicho proceso no es absolutamente eficaz, identificándose tres etapas propuestas para explicar la aparición de los tumores: en la primera (Eliminación el sistema inmune es capaz de destruir células neoplásicas básicamente mediante efectores de la inmunidad innata; en la fase de Equilibrio, se inducen efectores específicos que reconocen y destruyen al tumor pero también se genera una presión de selección sobre las células tumorales generando variantes neoplásicas mutadas. Por último, en la etapa de Escape, las variantes del tumor que sobreviven se vuelven resistentes al reconocimiento y/o eliminación por los efectores inmunes y el tumor crece. En este artículo se presentan los principales antígenos (Ags asociados al melanoma, las diversas estrategias terapéuticas que utilizan a estos Ags como blanco para inducir inmunidad, así como la existencia de los mecanismos de escape tumoral en el melanoma. Se analizan las evidencias más recientes acerca de cómo el microambiente tumoral condiciona la efectividad de la inmunidad celular específica evidenciando la necesidad actual de explorar terapias que combinen la acción de efectores de la inmunidad innata y la específica antitumoral, a la vez que modulen el microambiente tumoral para favorecer su acción.The immunosurveillance theory states that the immune system is capable of detecting cancer cells recognizing their particular characteristics and of eliminating them to prevent cancer progression. However, such process is not completely effective. Three stages proposed to explain the emergence of tumors can be identified in the process: in the first stage (Elimination the immune system is capable of destroying neoplasic cells basically by means of innate immunity effectors; in the second (Equilibrium stage, specific effectors that recognize and destroy the tumor are induced, but on the other hand, selection pressure is generated on tumor cells, originating mutated neoplasic variants. Finally, in the Escape stage, the tumor variants that survive become more resistant to identification and /or elimination by the immune effectors and consequently the tumor grows. The main melanoma-associated Ags, the various therapeutical strategies using these Ags as targets to induce immunity, as well as the existence of tumor escape mechanisms in the melanoma will be introduced in this chapter. Furthermore, the latest evidence on how tumor microenvironment determines the effectiveness of specific cell immunity will be analyzed, proving the present need of exploring therapies that both combine the action of innate immunity effectors and the anti-tumor specific effectors, and modulate the tumor microenvironment to favour its actions.

  11. Melanoma acral lentiginoso: revisión bibliográfica / Acral lentiginous melanoma: bibliographic review

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Carlos, Duarte; Héctor, López.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available El melanoma acral lentiginoso es el tipo de melanoma de localización distal más frecuente, suele diagnosticarse en los estadios más avanzados y tiene un comportamiento biológico más agresivo que otros tipos de melanoma, por lo cual son de peor pronóstico. Representa entre el 5 % y el 10 % de los mel [...] anomas malignos y es más frecuente en asiáticos, en la raza negra y en latinoamericanos. El objetivo de este artículo fue hacer una revisión bibliográfica actualizada con el fin de conocer las tasas de incidencia del tumor, los nuevos avances con respecto a los factores de riesgo, biología molecular, diagnóstico y tratamiento, y el desarrollo de nuevos tratamientos en el manejo del melanoma avanzado y metastásico. Abstract in english Acral lentiginous melanomas, the melanomas most commonly found the distal portions of the limbs, have usually reached more advanced stages than other types of melanoma when diagnosed. Their biologic behavior is more aggressive than in other types of melanoma, so that they have a worse prognosis. It [...] represents 5 to 10% of all malignant melanomas, and is more frequently seen among the Asian, African American and Latin population. The objective of this paper was to complete a review of the current literature, in order to establish the rates of incidence, new findings regarding risk factors, molecular biology, diagnosis and treatment, and the development of new target therapies in the management of advanced and metastatic melanomas.

  12. Radiotherapy of malignant melanoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The role of radiotherapy in the treatment of malignant melanoma is limited, and surgery generally forms the mainstay of medical practice. However, there are some circumstances in which radiotherapy should be considered the treatment of choice. Symptomatic metastatic lesions in bone or brain can effectively be palliated in a substantial proportion of instances. At the current stage of our knowledge, conventionally fractionated treatment of such lesions forms the standard against which other treatments should be measured. In contrast, metastatic lesions to skin or lymph nodes that do not overlie critical normal structures probably are better treated by high-dose-per-fraction techniques. Radiotherapy may play a definitive role in the treatment of lentigo maligna. The precise optimal energy of the beam to be used remains to be defined. Slightly more penetrating radiation appears to be required for lentigo maligna melanomas. Here, too, the optimal energy remains to be defined. The treatment of nonlentigenous melanomas primarily by radiotherapy is unproved in my opinion. Certainly, the data from the Princess Margaret Hospital is exciting, but I believe it must be corroborated by a well-designed trial before it can be accepted without question. Future directions in treatment of malignant melanoma are likely to include further trials of unconventional fractionation and the use of radiosensitizing agents in conjunction with radiotherapy. The time for dermatologists and radiatiy. The time for dermatologists and radiation therapists to cooperate in such studies is at hand

  13. Spice Blocks Melanoma Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Science Teacher, 2005

    2005-01-01

    Curcumin, the pungent yellow spice found in both turmeric and curry powders, blocks a key biological pathway needed for development of melanoma and other cancers, according to a study that appears in the journal Cancer. Researchers from The University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center demonstrate how curcumin stops laboratory strains of…

  14. Radiopharmaceuticals targeting melanoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melanoma is one of the most aggressive cancers known with a high rate of mortality and increasing global incidence. So, the development of radiopharmaceuticals for either diagnostic or therapeutic purposes could make enormous contributions to melanoma patient health care. We have been studying melanoma tumours through several targeting mechanisms including melanin or specific receptor based radiopharmaceuticals Structure activity studies indicate that the substitution patterns on radioiodinated benzamides significantly influence the uptake mechanism from melanin to sigma-receptor binding. Furthermore, the position of the iodine as well as the presence of key functional groups and substituents has resulted in compounds with varying degrees of activity uptake and retention in tumours. From these results, a novel molecule 2-(2-(4-(4-iodo benzyl)piperazin-1-yl)-2-oxo-ethyl)isoindoline- 1,3-dione (M.E.L.037) was synthesized, labelled with iodine-123 and evaluated for application in melanoma tumour scintigraphy and radiotherapy. The tumour imaging potential of 123IM.E.L.037 was studied in vivo in C.57 B.L./ 6 J female mice bearing the B.16 F.0. murine melanoma tumour and in BALB/c nude mice bearing the A.375 human amelanotic melanoma tumour by biodistribution, competition studies and by SPECT imaging. 123I-M.E.L.037 exhibited high and rapid uptake in the B.16 F.0 melanoma tumour at 1 h (13 % I.D./g) increasing with time to reach 25 % I.D./g at 6 h. A swith time to reach 25 % I.D./g at 6 h. A significant uptake was also observed in the eyes (2% I.D., at 3-6 h p.i.) of black mice. No uptake was observed in the tumour or in the eyes of nude mice bearing the A.375 tumour. Due to high uptake and long retention in the tumour and rapid body clearance, standardized uptake values(S.U.V.) of 123I-M.E.L.037 were 30 and 60, at 24 and 48 h p.i.,respectively. SPECT imaging of mice bearing the B.16 melanoma indicated the radioactivity was predominately located in the tumour followed by the eyes, while no specific localisation of the radioactivity was noticed in mice bearing A.375 human amelanotic tumour. In competition experiments,uptake of 123I-M..E.L.037 in brain, lung, heart and kidney, organs known to contain s-receptors, was not significantly different in haloperidol treated animals compared to controls. Therefore,reduction of uptake in tumour and eyes of the pigmented mice bearing the B.16 F.0 tumour suggested that the mechanism of tumour uptake was likely due to an interaction with melanin.These findings suggested that 123I-M.E.L.037, which displays a rapid and very high tumour uptake, appeared to be a promising imaging agent for detection of most melanoma tumours with the potential for development as a therapeutic agent in melanoma tumour proliferation. (authors)

  15. Radiopharmaceuticals targeting melanoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pham, T.Q.; Berghofer, P.; Liu, X.; Greguric, I.; Dikic, B.; Ballantyne, P.; Mattner, F.; Nguyen, V.; Loc' h, C.; Katsifis, A. [Radiopharmaceuticals Research Institute, Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Menai, N.S.W., Sydney (Australia)

    2008-02-15

    Melanoma is one of the most aggressive cancers known with a high rate of mortality and increasing global incidence. So, the development of radiopharmaceuticals for either diagnostic or therapeutic purposes could make enormous contributions to melanoma patient health care. We have been studying melanoma tumours through several targeting mechanisms including melanin or specific receptor based radiopharmaceuticals Structure activity studies indicate that the substitution patterns on radioiodinated benzamides significantly influence the uptake mechanism from melanin to sigma-receptor binding. Furthermore, the position of the iodine as well as the presence of key functional groups and substituents has resulted in compounds with varying degrees of activity uptake and retention in tumours. From these results, a novel molecule 2-(2-(4-(4-iodo benzyl)piperazin-1-yl)-2-oxo-ethyl)isoindoline- 1,3-dione (M.E.L.037) was synthesized, labelled with iodine-123 and evaluated for application in melanoma tumour scintigraphy and radiotherapy. The tumour imaging potential of {sup 123}IM.E.L.037 was studied in vivo in C.57 B.L./ 6 J female mice bearing the B.16 F.0. murine melanoma tumour and in BALB/c nude mice bearing the A.375 human amelanotic melanoma tumour by biodistribution, competition studies and by SPECT imaging. {sup 123}I-M.E.L.037 exhibited high and rapid uptake in the B.16 F.0 melanoma tumour at 1 h (13 % I.D./g) increasing with time to reach 25 % I.D./g at 6 h. A significant uptake was also observed in the eyes (2% I.D., at 3-6 h p.i.) of black mice. No uptake was observed in the tumour or in the eyes of nude mice bearing the A.375 tumour. Due to high uptake and long retention in the tumour and rapid body clearance, standardized uptake values(S.U.V.) of {sup 123}I-M.E.L.037 were 30 and 60, at 24 and 48 h p.i.,respectively. SPECT imaging of mice bearing the B.16 melanoma indicated the radioactivity was predominately located in the tumour followed by the eyes, while no specific localisation of the radioactivity was noticed in mice bearing A.375 human amelanotic tumour. In competition experiments,uptake of {sup 123}I-M..E.L.037 in brain, lung, heart and kidney, organs known to contain s-receptors, was not significantly different in haloperidol treated animals compared to controls. Therefore,reduction of uptake in tumour and eyes of the pigmented mice bearing the B.16 F.0 tumour suggested that the mechanism of tumour uptake was likely due to an interaction with melanin.These findings suggested that {sup 123}I-M.E.L.037, which displays a rapid and very high tumour uptake, appeared to be a promising imaging agent for detection of most melanoma tumours with the potential for development as a therapeutic agent in melanoma tumour proliferation. (authors)

  16. Understanding Signaling Cascades in Melanoma

    OpenAIRE

    Lopez-bergami, Pablo; Fitchman, Boris; Ronai, Ze’ev

    2007-01-01

    Understanding regulatory pathways involved in melanoma development and progression has advanced significantly in recent years. It is now appreciated that melanoma is the result of complex changes in multiple signaling pathways that affect growth control, metabolism, motility and the ability to escape cell death programs. Here we review the major signaling pathways currently known to be deregulated in melanoma with an implication to its development and progression. Among these pathways are Ras...

  17. Multidrug resistance in ocular melanoma.

    OpenAIRE

    Mcnamara, M.; Clynes, M.; Dunne, B.; Nicamhlaoibh, R.; Lee, W. R.; Barnes, C.; Kennedy, S. M.

    1996-01-01

    AIMS/BACKGROUND: Metastatic disease in patients with ocular melanoma is resistant to chemotherapy. One of the main mechanisms of modulating multidrug resistance is the expression of the multidrug resistance gene 1 (MDR1) product (p-glycoprotein) by tumour cells. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the frequency of expression of the MDR1 gene in ocular melanoma whose primary treatment was surgical excision or enucleation. METHODS: Twelve recent ocular melanomas were received fresh, snap ...

  18. Metastatic melanoma of the heart.

    OpenAIRE

    Bernengo, Maria Grazia; Savoia, Paola; Fierro, Maria Teresa

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Malignant melanoma has an unpredictable biologic behavior and is the neoplasm with the greatest propensity for cardiac involvement. Although relatively frequent at autopsy, cardiac metastases are rarely identified antemortem. METHODS: We reviewed 2,810 patients with histologically confirmed malignant melanoma, who were diagnosed and followed up by our clinic. Clinical, histological, and imaging data are presented. RESULTS: Five cases of metastatic melanoma of the heart were identi...

  19. Malignant melanoma in transgenic mice.

    OpenAIRE

    Bradl, M.; Klein-szanto, A.; Porter, S.; Mintz, B.

    1991-01-01

    Ocular and cutaneous melanomas arose in new inbred lines of transgenic mice having an integrated recombinant gene comprised of the tyrosinase promoter, expressed in pigment cells, and the simian virus 40 early-region transforming sequences. The tumors were hypomelanotic and were histopathologically similar to corresponding human melanomas. Eye melanomas often originated at a young age, chiefly from the retinal pigment epithelium, also from the choroid, and rarely from the ciliary body. The ey...

  20. CT Findings of Metastatic Melanoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melanoma is a rare tumor of the skin; however, it has the highest mortality rate among these neoplasms, and its incidence continues to increase. Malignant melanoma can metastasize to any part of the body, and the lymph nodes and lungs are the sites most commonly affected. Imaging findings of some of these metastases and of the organs involved are quite characteristic. This article discusses some of the fairly typical imaging findings and locations of metastases to multiple organs in malignant melanoma.

  1. Primary pineal malignant melanoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cesar La Cruz Pelea

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Primary pineal malignant melanoma is a rare entity, with only thirteen cases reported in the world literature to date. We report a case of a 70-year-old man, who consulted with gait disturbance of six months duration, associated in the last month with dizziness, visual abnormalities and diplopia. No other additional melanocytic lesions were found elsewhere. The magnetic resonance showed a 25 mm expansive mass in the pineal gland that was associated with hydrocephaly, ventricular and transependimary oedema. The lesion was partially excised by a supracerebellar infratentorial approach. The histological examination revealed a melanoma. The patient received radiation therapy, but died of disease 16 weeks later. We herein review the literature on this rare tumour and comment on its clinical, radiological and histopathological features and differential diagnosis.

  2. Nodular amelanotic melanoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nalamwar Rashmi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of 65-year-old male patient who presented with multiple erythematous papules coalescing to form a nodular mass over posterior aspect of right thigh of six months duration. His general and systemic examinations were within normal range except for right inguinal lymphadenopathy. Biopsy from the lesion was done, which showed diffuse infiltrate of nests of atypical melanocytes extending upto reticular dermis. Malignant cells were positive for S100 and human melanin black 45(HMB 45. Hence, a diagnosis of amelanotic melanoma (AM - Clarke level IV and TNM stage III was reached. MRI of involved leg showed fungating soft tissue mass in the posterolateral aspect of right thigh and metastatic right inguinal adenopathy. Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC from the right inguinal nodes confirmed metastasis of melanoma. The patient was referred to oncosurgery department for further management.

  3. Targeted therapy in melanoma

    OpenAIRE

    Hussein Tawbi; Neelima Nimmagadda

    2009-01-01

    Hussein Tawbi, Neelima NimmagaddaUniversity of Pittsburgh Cancer Institute and the University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburg, PA, USAAbstract: Malignant melanoma is a highly lethal disease unless detected early. Single-agent chemotherapy is well tolerated but is associated with very low response rates. Combination chemotherapy and biochemotherapy may improve objective response rates but do not prolong survival and are associated with greater toxicity. Immunotherapeutic approaches...

  4. Subungual amelanotic malignant melanoma.

    OpenAIRE

    Ozer Arican; Sezai Sasmaz; Coban, Yusuf K.; Harun Ciralik

    2006-01-01

    ABSTRACT We report a 61-year-old, male patient complaining from prolonged lesion on his great toe that has been previously treated surgically. Histopathological examination of toenail specimen revealed the presence of nests of atypical tumor cells that led to the diagnosis of amelanotic malignant melanoma. Four years ago, he was diagnosed as gout due to extreme erythema and edema in the same toe. He has been taken to surgical treatment and chemotherapy and is still undergoing. As this dise...

  5. Chemoprevention of Melanoma

    OpenAIRE

    Madhunapantula, Subbarao V.; Robertson, Gavin P.

    2012-01-01

    Despite advances in drug discovery programs and molecular approaches for identifying the drug targets, incidence and mortality rates due to melanoma continues to rise at an alarming rate. Existing preventive strategies generally involve mole screening followed by surgical removal of the benign nevi and abnormal moles. However, due to lack of effective programs for screening and disease recurrence after surgical resection there is a need for better chemopreventive agents. Although sunscreens h...

  6. Targeted therapy in melanoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussein Tawbi

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Hussein Tawbi, Neelima NimmagaddaUniversity of Pittsburgh Cancer Institute and the University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburg, PA, USAAbstract: Malignant melanoma is a highly lethal disease unless detected early. Single-agent chemotherapy is well tolerated but is associated with very low response rates. Combination chemotherapy and biochemotherapy may improve objective response rates but do not prolong survival and are associated with greater toxicity. Immunotherapeutic approaches such as high-dose interleukin-2 are associated with durable responses in a small percentage of patients, but are impractical for many patients due to accessibility and toxicity issues. Elucidations of the molecular mechanisms of carcinogenesis in melanoma have expanded the horizon of opportunity to alter the natural history of the disease. Multiple signal transduction pathways seem to be aberrant and drugs that target them have been and continue to be in development. In this review we present data on the most promising targeted agents in development, including B-raf inhibitors and other signal transduction inhibitors, oligonucleotides, proteasome inhibitors, as well as inhibitors of angiogenesis. Most agents are in early phase trials although some have already reached phase III evaluation. As knowledge and experience with targeted therapy advance, new challenges appear to be arising particularly in terms of resistance and appropriate patient selection.Keywords: targeted therapy, metastatic melanoma, sorafenib, oblimersen, bevacizumab 

  7. Radiotherapy of malignant melanomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study is made of 46 patients with cutaneous and mucoseous malignant melanoma treated in the Department of Radiotherapy of. A.C. Camargo Hospital - Fundacao Antonio Prudente - Sao Paulo - Brazil, from 1960 to 1973. Radiotherapy was employed as a radical procedure in 9 patients, as a, remissive procedure in 10 and as an adjuvant pre-or post-operative therapeutic in 22 patients. Six patients were submitted to actnic hipophysectomy. One out of the cases submitted to radical radiotherapy showed complete response and six patients partial response. Seven out of the ten cases treated with paliative intention did not show symptomatology after radiotherapy that led them to treatment. Under the ever-existing conflict of the clinical literature and experimentation, it is found that there had not been estabilished a definite concept concerning radiosensibility of malignant melanomas yet. The different response to the radiation-therapy from one case to another makes the local prognostic unsafe. It is concluded that the role of radiotherapy has not been perfectly estabilished in the therapeutic approach of malignant melanoma and that prospective studies are needed to situate radiotherapy in the treatment of this disease. (Author)

  8. Contralateral orbital melanoma 28 years following enucleation for choroidal melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connolly, Gregory; Wladis, Edward; Masselam, Kathryn; Weinberg, David A

    2007-12-01

    A 79-year-old man underwent right enucleation for a choroidal melanoma. Twenty eight years later he presented with a nine month history of progressive left proptosis. Orbital imaging revealed a large left lateral orbital mass, extending back to the orbital apex, which was found on subtotal resection to represent an orbital melanoma. Skin survey was negative, and the prior right choroidal melanoma was the most likely metastatic source. He underwent radiotherapy of the residual tumor at the left orbital apex, as well as radiotherapy of small liver and lung nodules felt to likely represent metastatic melanoma. Five years later, he was still alive and well, with no further tumor demonstrable in the orbit, lung or liver. This case demonstrates the indolence and favorable prognosis of some orbital melanomas. We discuss some hypotheses that may explain such tumor behavior. While melanoma is often considered a highly malignant and lethal tumor, some melanomas are characterized by a more benign course. In addition, certain melanomas may respond to radiotherapy. PMID:18097971

  9. ADAM15 expression is downregulated in melanoma metastasis compared to primary melanoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ungerer, Christopher; Doberstein, Kai [Pharmazentrum Frankfurt/ZAFES, University Hospital Goethe University Frankfurt, Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Buerger, Claudia; Hardt, Katja; Boehncke, Wolf-Henning [Department of Dermatology, Clinic of the Goethe-University, Theodor-Stern-Kai, Frankfurt (Germany); Boehm, Beate [Division of Rheumatology, Goethe University, Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Pfeilschifter, Josef [Pharmazentrum Frankfurt/ZAFES, University Hospital Goethe University Frankfurt, Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Dummer, Reinhard [Department of Pathology, Institute of Surgical Pathology, University Hospital, Zurich (Switzerland); Mihic-Probst, Daniela [Department of Dermatology, University Hospital Zurich (Switzerland); Gutwein, Paul, E-mail: p.gutwein@med.uni-frankfurt.de [Pharmazentrum Frankfurt/ZAFES, University Hospital Goethe University Frankfurt, Frankfurt am Main (Germany)

    2010-10-22

    Research highlights: {yields} Strong ADAM15 expression is found in normal melanocytes. {yields} ADAM15 expression is significantly downregulated in patients with melanoma metastasis. {yields} TGF-{beta} can downregulate ADAM15 expression in melanoma cells. {yields} Overexpression of ADAM15 in melanoma cells inhibits migration, proliferation and invasion of melanoma cells. {yields} Conclusion: ADAM15 represents an tumor suppressor protein in melanoma. -- Abstract: In a mouse melanoma metastasis model it has been recently shown that ADAM15 overexpression in melanoma cells significantly reduced the number of metastatic nodules on the lung. Unfortunately, the expression of ADAM15 in human melanoma tissue has not been determined so far. In our study, we characterized the expression of ADAM15 in tissue micro-arrays of patients with primary melanoma with melanoma metastasis. ADAM15 was expressed in melanocytes and endothelial cells of benign nevi and melanoma tissue. Importantly, ADAM15 was significantly downregulated in melanoma metastasis compared to primary melanoma. We further demonstrate that IFN-{gamma} and TGF-{beta} downregulate ADAM15 protein levels in melanoma cells. To investigate the role of ADAM15 in melanoma progression, we overexpressed ADAM15 in melanoma cells. Importantly, overexpression of ADAM15 in melanoma cells reduced the migration, invasion and the anchorage dependent and independent cell growth of melanoma cells. In summary, the downregulation of ADAM15 plays an important role in melanoma progression and ADAM15 act as a tumorsuppressor in melanoma.

  10. ADAM15 expression is downregulated in melanoma metastasis compared to primary melanoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research highlights: ? Strong ADAM15 expression is found in normal melanocytes. ? ADAM15 expression is significantly downregulated in patients with melanoma metastasis. ? TGF-? can downregulate ADAM15 expression in melanoma cells. ? Overexpression of ADAM15 in melanoma cells inhibits migration, proliferation and invasion of melanoma cells. ? Conclusion: ADAM15 represents an tumor suppressor protein in melanoma. -- Abstract: In a mouse melanoma metastasis model it has been recently shown that ADAM15 overexpression in melanoma cells significantly reduced the number of metastatic nodules on the lung. Unfortunately, the expression of ADAM15 in human melanoma tissue has not been determined so far. In our study, we characterized the expression of ADAM15 in tissue micro-arrays of patients with primary melanoma with melanoma metastasis. ADAM15 was expressed in melanocytes and endothelial cells of benign nevi and melanoma tissue. Importantly, ADAM15 was significantly downregulated in melanoma metastasis compared to primary melanoma. We further demonstrate that IFN-? and TGF-? downregulate ADAM15 protein levels in melanoma cells. To investigate the role of ADAM15 in melanoma progression, we overexpressed ADAM15 in melanoma cells. Importantly, overexpression of ADAM15 in melanoma cells reduced the migration, invasion and the anchorage dependent and independent cell growth of melanoma cells. In summary, the downregulation of ADAM15 plays an important role in melanoma progression and ADAM15 act as a tumorsuppressor in melanoma.

  11. Radiation biology of malignant melanoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The survival curves for melanoma cells exposed to single radiation doses in vitro and the specific growth delays for melanoma xenografts irradiated with single doses in vivo were found to differ considerably among individual cell lines and tumours. In fact, the differences could be almost as large as the largest differences observed among cell lines and xenografts from tumours of different histology with very different clinical radiocurability. Moreover, radiobiologic parameters that may have significant influence on tumour response to fractionated irradiation, e.g. growth rate, hypoxic fraction, reoxygenation ability, PLD-repair capacity and contact repair capacity, were found to differ greatly in magnitude among individual melanomas. This review therefore concludes that malignant melanoma is a tumour type that is very heterogeneous in radioresponsiveness, i.e. malignant melanomas should no longer be considered to be radiation resistant in general. The values of the ?/? ratio derived from cell survival curves for melanoma cells irradiated in vitro and melanoma xenografts irradiated in vivo were found to cover a wide range relative to those for acutely and late responding normal tissues. Although these ?/? ratios are no more than estimates of the effective ?/? ratios in a clinical situation, they still indicated that hyperfractionation may be beneficial in the treatment of some melanomas, whereas others may be more efficiently treated by use of conventional frac treated by use of conventional fractionation regimes, either based on 2 Gy or higher doses per fraction. Consequently, optimum radiation therapy of malignant melanoma will probably require an individualized treatment strategy. In vitro assays for prediction of radiocurability and choice of treatment strategy for individual melanoma patients seem therefore highly warranted. (orig.)

  12. Brachytherapy of choroidal melanomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a compilation of nine reported series consisting of 2,024 enucleations, the five- and ten-year survivals following surgery were 63% and 43%, respectively. The 25-year survival has been reported to be 40%. In 1974 at Wills Eye Hospital and Hahnemann University, the cobalt-60 plaques technique was introduced. During the following years, other radioactive isotopes were introduced including irridium-192, iodine-125, ruthenium-106/rhodium-106 and more recently palladium-103. At the present time, iodine-125 is the most widely used radionuclide. Until now, 302 patients treated with plaque brachytherapy showed an actuarial survival of 77% and 67.8% at five and eight years, respectively. There was no significant survival difference when compared with a similar group of patients undergoing enucleation. Other retrospective studies show similar excellent results. In spite of these convincing results, the decision making process in management melanoma remains unsettled primarily due to the absence of prospective randomized trials. Because of this, the Collaborative Ocular Melanoma Study was initiated. From the standpoint of toxicity, the data are available on ocular radiation toxicity. In an analysis of 77 patients from the Wills Eye Hospital with pretreatment visual acuities of 20/25 or better, it was noted that 90% of patients who had received less than 500 Gy to the fovea retained visual acuity of 20/200 or better while only 52% of patients receiving more than 5,000 Gy to thatients receiving more than 5,000 Gy to the fovea had vision of 20/200 or better. A serious late effect of radioactivity plaque treatment is scleral necrosis which may require repair or enucleation even in the absence of tumor progression. Enucleation may be necessary in approximately 10% of patients. We conclude that malignant melanoma of the uvea can be safely treated with radioactive plaques. (orig./MG)

  13. The radioresponsiveness of melanoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The variability of malignant melanoma in its response to irradiation is well documented. Recent radiobiological studies suggest that high individual dose and low total fraction regimens will enhance the responsiveness of this tumor to irradiation. The experience of the Ellis Fischel State Cancer Hospital and the Cancer Research Center, Columbia, Missouri was reviewed with particular attention to such radiotherapeutic regimens. Of 41 lesions in 27 patients, the overall response rate to irradiation was 37%. When regimens using more than 400 cGy per fraction were analyzed, a 67% response rate was noted. Complete response and small volume of tumor correlated significantly (p = 0.008) with long-term survival

  14. Melanoma Lentiginoso Acral

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gloria Andrea Vargas Suaza

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available El melanoma lentiginoso acral (MLA es una variante rápidamente progresiva del melanoma maligno (MM. Constituye el 5-10% de todos los tipos de MM y se presenta con mayor frecuencia en pacientes de raza negra, asiáticos y latinoamericanos. En Colombia el MM se encuentra en aumento, con una incidencia de 3.5/100.000, siendo el MLA una de las variantes más comunes. La edad promedio de presentación es de 58 años, con una tasa de sobrevida menor para las personas de raza negra, asociado a un diagnóstico tardío. EL MLA se localiza en plantas, palmas y región subungueal y en su etiopatología se ha descrito la presencia de mutaciones en genes: 9p21 (p16: 67%, 11q13 (CCND1 (47%, 22q11-q13 (40% y 5p15 (20%. El diagnóstico de MLA, se ha fundamentado clásicamente en la histopatología. Herramientas de diagnóstico como la dermatoscopia, la evaluación del ganglio centinela y la determinación de alteraciones en las proteínas del ciclo celular contribuyen a la detección precoz del MLA y el MM en general.

  15. [Cecal amelanotic melanoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, Ofelia; Frisancho, Oscar; Palomino, Americo

    2010-01-01

    A 73 year old male patient who presented to emergency with severe anemia (Hb 4.9 g /dL), referring to a month with dark stools, fatigue and significant weight loss. The high endoscopic evaluation found no potentially bleeding lesions. Subsequently, we confirmed the presence of red blood in stools, like enterorrhagia and underwent a colonoscopy, in which two elevated lesions were found in the cecum: a pedunculated (with active bleeding, oozing) and other sessile; both were removed. the pathology showed that corresponded to amelanotic melanoma in cecal region. Physical examination revealed no malignant skin lesions. Recurrent gastrointestinal bleeding forced to make another colonoscopy that showed new bleeding lesion of the cecum. He was operated with a cecostomy and cecal excision of the lesion.. The tomography scan showed metastases in mediastinum and surgical implants were found in liver metastases and small intestine. The patient continued treatment in medical oncology. We report this case, because gastrointestinal bleeding is an unusual clinical presentation of malignant melanoma. PMID:21263766

  16. Radiofrequency ablation in metastatic melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shashank, Arridh; Shehata, Mena; Morris, David L; Thompson, John F

    2014-03-01

    Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) is a minimally invasive therapy that has, until recently, received limited attention in the management of metastatic melanoma. RFA is well described in the management of primary malignancies of the liver, however limited data are available on its application to metastatic deposits of melanoma occurring in the lung, liver, or adrenal glands. This article explores the basic principles of RFA, its safety, efficacy, and application to metastatic malignancies of the lung, liver and adrenal glands, with particular emphasis on melanoma. Previously published results are reviewed, and we report a small additional series of patients with liver and lung metastases treated in Sydney using RFA. PMID:24375239

  17. Melanoma Surveillance in the US: The Economic Burden of Melanoma

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-10-19

    This podcast accompanies the publication of a series of articles on melanoma surveillance in the United States, available in the November supplement edition of the Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology. Dr. Gery Guy, from the CDCâ??s Division of Cancer Prevention and Control, discusses the economic burden of melanoma.  Created: 10/19/2011 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 10/19/2011.

  18. Orbital metastasis from cutaneous melanoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samer Elsherbiny

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of a metastatic cutaneous melanoma to the orbit. A 60-year-old Caucasian male presented with a 2-day history of left-sided ocular pain, lid swelling and chemosis. Initially, this was treated as conjunctivitis with no signs of improvement. Four days later, the patient developed left proptosis, mechanical ptosis, left esotropia and diplopia. Computed tomography scan of the orbit demonstrated marked thickening of the lateral rectus muscle. The patient was treated as pseudotumor. Subsequent biopsy revealed malignant cutaneous melanoma. The patient had a history of cutaneous melanoma excised 15 years previously. Further imaging showed advanced metastatic disease in the brain, the lung and the liver. The patient passed away five months after initial presentation. Cutaneous melanoma metastasizing to the orbit has poor prognosis. Patients often have advanced disease at the time of presentation and orbital metastases may be the initial sign. A detailed history is paramount in making timely diagnosis.

  19. The classification of cutaneous melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Lyn McDivitt

    2009-06-01

    Forty years ago, a clinical and histological classification scheme and prognostic factors were described for cutaneous melanoma. This scheme included the subtypes superficial spreading, nodular and lentigo maligna, and prognostic factors including tumor thickness, ulceration, and mitotic activity. There have been some tweaks to the classification scheme, but these basic findings form the foundation for melanoma diagnosis and staging today. Currently, no molecular marker or target has proved reliably useful in the staging or treatment of melanoma. Measurement with a simple ruler serves as the basis for the staging of primary cutaneous melanoma, while the recognition of primary tumor mitotic activity and ulceration also remain significant factors. Recently, mutational analysis has revealed a correlation of activating mutations with the morphological descriptors from decades ago. Future classification schemes may have more power in predicting response to therapy by integrating specific genomic and intra-tumoral expression profiles with histologic findings. PMID:19464599

  20. Melanoma: Diagnosis, Treatment, and Outcome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... meetings archive Derm Exam Prep Course Epiphanies in Dermatology Legislative Conference Education and quality care AAD professional education Online Learning Center Clinical guidelines PQRS DataDerm State melanoma ...

  1. Iris melanoma: pathology, prognosis and surgical intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starr, Oliver D; Patel, Dipika V; Allen, Jonathan P; McGhee, Charles N J

    2004-06-01

    A case of an iris melanoma in a 58-year-old woman is described. The clinical and pathological findings are discussed, highlighting the correlations between histopathology and prognosis for iris melanoma, which differ markedly from choroidal melanoma. The mixed cellular pathology of this iris melanoma (containing both spindle B cells and epithelioid cells) carries a higher metastatic rate than tumours composed exclusively of either. This contrasts with choroidal melanoma, where the presence of epithelioid cells is the strongest pathological marker for a poor prognosis. The ocular outcome that can be achieved with local surgical excision of a well-delineated iris melanoma that does not involve the angle is discussed. PMID:15180843

  2. Vaccine therapy in melanoma today

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolin Borislava L.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Melanoma is the most significant malignant tumor of the melanocyte system. It is characterized by a high malignant potential and an outstanding possibility for giving metastasis. Despite all investigations and progress concerning molecular genetics and immunology melanoma is a therapeutic problem even today. Vaccines are being developed with an intention not only to prevent but also to cure the disease, and the most important aim of clinical trails is to develop corresponding antitumor immunotherapy based on vaccine.

  3. Nanoparticles for Uveal Melanoma Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Sheng; Zhou, Jun; Hu, Zhibing; Nair, Ashwin; Tang, Liping

    2008-01-01

    Chemotherapy is a common treatment for uveal melanoma. Rapid clearance of injected drug from the vitreous, necessitates repeated injections in to the eye. We have investigated the use of hydrogel particles to deliver chemotherapeutic drugs to the uveal melanoma site. Fluorescent dye-labeled nano- and micro-particles were injected intravenously into the animal. Particle accumulation in the uveal tissue was studied. The nanoparticles showed a much higher accumulation in the uveal tissue than th...

  4. [The developments in melanoma diagnostics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liszkay, Gabriella

    2015-03-11

    The continuously increasing incidence of melanoma and new developments in the therapy of metastatic disease require accurate diagnosis in all stages of melanoma. This study overviews the development of diagnostics tools in recent years/decades that are used in everyday medical practice such as optical diagnostic tools utilized for diagnosing primary tumors, sentinel lymph node biopsy, developments in molecular diagnostics, as well as the role of PET/CT in imaging techniques. PMID:25763916

  5. Molecular biology of malignant melanoma

    OpenAIRE

    Pons, Mar; Manchen?o-corvo, Pablo; Marti?n-duque, Pilar; Quintanilla, Miguel

    2008-01-01

    The incidence of melanoma has increased more rapidly than any other type of cancer. In this review, we summarize the most important genetic alterations that contribute to the development of malignant melanoma. Our knowledge of the genetic and biological events involved in the genesis and progression of this disease has been benefited from the evolvement of a wealth of genetically engineered animal models. Hopefully, the understanding generated by all these studies will contribute to develop n...

  6. Duodenal metastases from melanoma malignum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The melanoma malignum metastasises in the gastrointestinal tract are often asymptomatic. The diagnostics in their more frequent intestinal localization is mainly a priority of the imaging radiological methods, which give the opportunity for selective surgical interventions, aimed at increasing the life expectancy of the patients. The duodenal localization of the melanoma metastasis is even rarer, but also gives the possibility for additional endoscopic diagnostics and biopsy. Nevertheless, the possibilities for surgical resection at that topic are very restricted. (authors)

  7. Oral contraceptives and malignant melanoma.

    OpenAIRE

    Hannaford, P. C.; Villard-mackintosh, L.; Vessey, M. P.; Kay, C. R.

    1991-01-01

    Several studies have suggested that prolonged use of oral contraceptives may increase a woman's risk of developing malignant melanoma. In the Royal College of General Practitioners' Oral Contraception Study, 31 cases of malignant melanoma (code 172--International Classification of Diseases, 8th Revision) have been reported among ever-users and 27 cases among never-users. The risk ratio (RR) (indirectly standardised for age, parity, social class and smoking) was 0.92 (95% confidence interval (...

  8. Immunoscintigraphy of malignant melanomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work is part of a multicentric European evaluation of the monoclonal antibody 225.28s targeted against malignant melanoma and its metastases. Twenty-eight patients (12 males, 16 females, mean age: 53 yrs), who had initially been treated by resection of the primary tumour, were included in the study. Twenty-three of the 26 metastases more than 1 cm in diameter were visualized by immunoscintigraphy. The sensitivity of the procedure (88%) is limited however by the small size of the lesions and their depth, as well as by background noise caused by circulating antibodies. Immunoscintigraphy enables non-invasive investigation of the whole body and can detect lesions that other conventional complementary explorations fail to identify

  9. Melanoma maligno conjuntival Malignant melanoma of the conjunctiva

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Amorim Novais

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: Os tumores melanocíticos conjuntivais compreendem lesões que podem variar desde lesões benignas como os nevos conjuntivais, lesões pré-cancerosas como melanose adquirida primária com atipia até o melanoma maligno conjuntival. O reconhecimento das características clinicas destas lesões e seu diagnóstico preciso permitem o tratamento adequado, contribuindo para a redução da morbidade e mortalidade associados ao melanoma de conjuntiva. OBJETIVO: Revisão das características clinicas, diagnóstico e modalidades de tratamento clínico e cirúrgico das lesões precursoras (Nevos e melanose adquirida primária e do maligno conjuntival. MÉTODOS: Revisão de literatura através de pesquisa no banco de dados MEDLINE, PUBMED, LILACS e SciELO no período de 1980 a 2011. As palavras-chave utilizadas, individualmente ou em conjunto, foram: "conjunctival melanoma", "primary acquired melanosis", "nevi", "treatment", "chemotherapy", "recurrence", "metastasis" e "mortality". RESULTADO: Características clínicas que permitem o diagnóstico do melanoma conjuntival e sua diferenciação de outras lesões pigmentadas conjuntivais foram consideradas. O estadiamento clínico e patológico, assim como modalidades de tratamento para o melanoma maligno foram revisadas. CONCLUSÕES: Pacientes portadores de lesões pigmentadas conjuntivais devem ser avaliados por um oftalmologista especialista. A história oftalmológica, a história familiar de melanoma, e características clínicas da lesão necessitam de cuidadosa avaliação, incluindo-se a determinação do risco de malignidade. A documentação fotográfica deve ser realizada. O tratamento clínico e planejamento cirúrgico devem ser baseados na suspeita clinica. A análise histopatológica por patologista experiente é fundamental para orientação do tratamento e para identificação de fatores prognósticos, principalmente em casos de doença maligna.INTRODUCTION: Melanocytic tumors comprise a wide range of lesions. These lesions can be nevi, primary acquired melanosis with or without atypia or malignant as conjunctival melanoma. Early recognition of the clinical features allows precise diagnosis and adequate intervention, reducing the rates of metastatic disease and mortality associated with conjunctival melanoma. PURPOSE: To review clinical features, diagnosis, clinical and surgical treatment modalities of the different precursor pigmented lesions (Nevi and primary acquired melanosis and malignant melanoma. METHODS: Literature review was performed accessing the database of MEDLINE, PUBMED, LILACS e SciELO between 1980 and 2011. The keywords used, individually or combined, were: conjunctival melanoma, primary acquired melanosis, nevi, treatment, chemotherapy, recurrence, metastasis e mortality. RESULTS: Relevant clinical information for the diagnosis of malignant melanoma and differentiation from other pigmented conjunctival lesions were accessed. Clinical and pathological features and different modalities of treatment for malignant melanoma have been reviewed. CONCLUSIONS: Patients presenting with a pigmented conjunctival lesion should be evaluated by an experienced ophthalmologist. Ocular history, family history of melanoma, and clinical features of the lesion need careful assessment and malignancy risk evaluation. Digital photo documentation should be performed. Clinical or surgical planning should be done based on the clinical suspicion. Careful histopathology analysis is required for treatment orientation and prognostic factors identification, mainly in cases of malignancy.

  10. Melanoma maligno conjuntival / Malignant melanoma of the conjunctiva

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Gustavo Amorim, Novais; Carol Lynn, Karp.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: Os tumores melanocíticos conjuntivais compreendem lesões que podem variar desde lesões benignas como os nevos conjuntivais, lesões pré-cancerosas como melanose adquirida primária com atipia até o melanoma maligno conjuntival. O reconhecimento das características clinicas destas lesões e [...] seu diagnóstico preciso permitem o tratamento adequado, contribuindo para a redução da morbidade e mortalidade associados ao melanoma de conjuntiva. OBJETIVO: Revisão das características clinicas, diagnóstico e modalidades de tratamento clínico e cirúrgico das lesões precursoras (Nevos e melanose adquirida primária) e do maligno conjuntival. MÉTODOS: Revisão de literatura através de pesquisa no banco de dados MEDLINE, PUBMED, LILACS e SciELO no período de 1980 a 2011. As palavras-chave utilizadas, individualmente ou em conjunto, foram: "conjunctival melanoma", "primary acquired melanosis", "nevi", "treatment", "chemotherapy", "recurrence", "metastasis" e "mortality". RESULTADO: Características clínicas que permitem o diagnóstico do melanoma conjuntival e sua diferenciação de outras lesões pigmentadas conjuntivais foram consideradas. O estadiamento clínico e patológico, assim como modalidades de tratamento para o melanoma maligno foram revisadas. CONCLUSÕES: Pacientes portadores de lesões pigmentadas conjuntivais devem ser avaliados por um oftalmologista especialista. A história oftalmológica, a história familiar de melanoma, e características clínicas da lesão necessitam de cuidadosa avaliação, incluindo-se a determinação do risco de malignidade. A documentação fotográfica deve ser realizada. O tratamento clínico e planejamento cirúrgico devem ser baseados na suspeita clinica. A análise histopatológica por patologista experiente é fundamental para orientação do tratamento e para identificação de fatores prognósticos, principalmente em casos de doença maligna. Abstract in english INTRODUCTION: Melanocytic tumors comprise a wide range of lesions. These lesions can be nevi, primary acquired melanosis with or without atypia or malignant as conjunctival melanoma. Early recognition of the clinical features allows precise diagnosis and adequate intervention, reducing the rates of [...] metastatic disease and mortality associated with conjunctival melanoma. PURPOSE: To review clinical features, diagnosis, clinical and surgical treatment modalities of the different precursor pigmented lesions (Nevi and primary acquired melanosis) and malignant melanoma. METHODS: Literature review was performed accessing the database of MEDLINE, PUBMED, LILACS e SciELO between 1980 and 2011. The keywords used, individually or combined, were: conjunctival melanoma, primary acquired melanosis, nevi, treatment, chemotherapy, recurrence, metastasis e mortality. RESULTS: Relevant clinical information for the diagnosis of malignant melanoma and differentiation from other pigmented conjunctival lesions were accessed. Clinical and pathological features and different modalities of treatment for malignant melanoma have been reviewed. CONCLUSIONS: Patients presenting with a pigmented conjunctival lesion should be evaluated by an experienced ophthalmologist. Ocular history, family history of melanoma, and clinical features of the lesion need careful assessment and malignancy risk evaluation. Digital photo documentation should be performed. Clinical or surgical planning should be done based on the clinical suspicion. Careful histopathology analysis is required for treatment orientation and prognostic factors identification, mainly in cases of malignancy.

  11. Trabajo de revisión: melanoma Work of revision: melanoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. J. Casariego

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available El melanoma maligno es derivado de células dendríticas (névicas proliferantes progenitoras de lesiones. Son importantes en la histogénesis y en el riesgo de desarrollo del melanoma maligno. Del 30% al 37% de los melanomas malignos del tracto aero-digestivo superior están asociados a una lesión premaligna melanótica. Los hallazgos histopatológicos con técnicas convencionales concuerdan en considerar de valor el tamaño del tumor, las células atípicas, la distribución de las células y los márgenes de la lesión. Avances mayores en inmunología de los tumores, llevan a identificar la interacción célula tumoral- célula T. Han sido identificados y caracterizados molecularmente un número de melanomas asociados a antígenos.Advance malignant melanoma is generated from proliferating dendritic (nevic cell progenitors. They are important on the histogenesis and risk of tumor development. From 30% to 37% from high air-digestic track melanoms, there are associated with premalignant cell dendritic lesions. Histophatological approaches agree in consider size of tumor, atypical cells, distribution of this cells and borders of lesion as valued markers. Major advances in tumor irnmunology, have led to understand tumor cell-T cell interactions. A number of melanom associated antigens have been identified and molecularly characterized.

  12. Polypoid melanoma and superficial spreading melanoma different subtypes in the same lesion

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Renato Shintani, Hikawa; Eliza Sayuri, Kanehisa; Mílvia Maria Simões e Silva, Enokihara; Mauro Yoshiaki, Enokihara; Sérgio Henrique, Hirata.

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Melanoma is a malignant melanocytic neoplasm with high mortality rate, and steadily and universally increasing incidence rates. Polypoid melanoma is considered an exophytic variant of the nodular subtype. The incidence of polypoid melanoma is extremely variable, most likely because of the different [...] criteria used for its characterization. We presented a rare case of polypoid melanoma and superficial spreading melanoma in the same lesion.

  13. Particularities of melanoma in Romania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Malignant tumor from melanocytic origin, cutaneous melanoma is the most aggressive cutaneous cancer. The particularities of melanoma in Romania are: 1. the increasing number of cases in a geographic area dominated by the third cutaneous phototype; 2. the high level of T, represented by high levels of Breslow and Clark invasion markers; 3. the lack of a National Melanoma Register; 4. the lymph node sentinel biopsy technique introduction is the present focus; this allows an appropriate N affiliation; 5. the increasing of sanitary education in order to clinical and dermoscopical follow-up of atypical moles and the study of risk factors for melanoma; 6. the creation of a melanoma local guide. The survival prognosis could be improved by: a) the early detection in 'in situ' stage of melanoma and b) the correct TNM and/or EORTC affiliation of the case, in order to achieve an appropriate treatment. Sentinel lymph node detection and biopsy offers a new area in the evaluation of cancer spread by detecting micrometastases and performing a complete regional evaluation of the disease. The presence or absence of the metastases in the regional lymph nodes is one of the most important factors in the survival of patients with primary cutaneous melanoma. Early diagnosis of regional lymph node metastases enables the identification of those patients who are candidates for adjuvant therapy and early therapeutic lymph node dissection. At the same time, the sentinel node biopsy p the same time, the sentinel node biopsy procedure represents a sensitive staging method. The paper presents some of gold standard diagnosis cases, dermoscopy and routine HE examination, selected from a total of 356 cases. (author)

  14. Principles of surgical treatment of malignant melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimbrough, Charles W; McMasters, Kelly M; Davis, Eric G

    2014-10-01

    Although melanoma represents less than 5% of all skin cancers, it is responsible for the bulk of skin cancer-related deaths. Nevertheless, despite this aggressive reputation, most patients with cutaneous melanoma will be surgically cured of their disease. Early detection allows for curative resection, and 5-year survival for all stages of melanoma is 91%. This review outlines the surgical treatment of melanoma, including principles of wide local excision and management of the regional lymph nodes. PMID:25245962

  15. Peptide-Targeted Radionuclide Therapy for Melanoma

    OpenAIRE

    Miao, Yubin; Quinn, Thomas P.

    2008-01-01

    Melanocortin-1 receptor (MC1-R) and melanin are two attractive melanoma-specific targets for peptide-targeted radionuclide therapy for melanoma. Radiolabeled peptides targeting MC1-R/melanin can selectively and specifically target cytotoxic radiation generated from therapeutic radionuclides to melanoma cells for cell killing, while sparing the normal tissues and organs. This review highlights the recent advances of peptide-targeted radionuclide therapy of melanoma targeting MC1R and melanin. ...

  16. Melanoma vaccines: trials and tribulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dillman RO

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Robert O Dillman1,21Hoag Cancer Institute and Hoag Institute for Research and Education, Newport Beach, CA, USA; 2University of California Irvine, Irvine, CA, USAAbstract: Metastatic melanoma has been a target of immunotherapy for more than 4 decades. Three immunotherapeutics have received regulatory approval for treating melanoma: interferon-alpha, interleukin-2, and ipilimumab. The antitumor mechanisms of these products depend on enhancing existing immune responses, including autoimmune effects. The combination of autologous, cytotoxic T-lymphocytes plus high-dose interleukin-2 is a promising patient-specific therapy, but has limited clinical application. Other approaches include vaccines targeting melanoma-associated antigens, and patient-specific vaccines that utilize autologous tumor. Non-patient-specific vaccine approaches target melanocyte differentiation antigens (eg, tyrosinase, Melan-A, gp100, antigens identified by cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (eg, NY-Eso-1, Melan-A/Mart-1, Mage-3, and antigens originally identified by murine monoclonal antibodies (gangliosides, gp97, gp225. Self-renewing cells in tumor cell lines may represent tumor stem cells, but vaccines derived from allogeneic tumor cell lines have yielded disappointing results in randomized trials. Patient-specific vaccines can be derived from bulk autologous tumor or autologous tumor cell lines, and intratumoral injections of immunostimulatory fusion products have shown promise. While technically more complex to manufacture, patient-specific vaccines derived from autologous tumor cell lines have the potential to target tumor stem cells and overcome interpatient tumor cell heterogeneity. This article reviews sources of melanoma-associated antigens, costimulatory agents, and clinical trial results for various melanoma vaccines. Comparing Phase II trials is difficult because of the wide range of vaccine strategies and the differences in study patient populations; therefore, randomized trials are necessary to prove the efficacy of such products. Therapeutic vaccines are more likely to enhance, rather than replace, other anti-melanoma immune therapies. In particular, effective vaccines may be synergistic with products that block T-cell immune checkpoint molecules such as ipilimumab and monoclonal antibodies that interfere with programmed death ligand-receptor interactions.Keywords: melanoma, vaccines, melanoma-associated antigens, melanoma stem cells, dendritic cells, GM-CSF, checkpoint molecules

  17. CDX-1401 and Poly-ICLC Vaccine Therapy With or Without CDX-301in Treating Patients With Stage IIB-IV Melanoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-19

    Carcinoma of Unknown Primary Origin; Iris Melanoma; Medium/Large Size Posterior Uveal Melanoma; Mucosal Melanoma; Ocular Melanoma With Extraocular Extension; Small Size Posterior Uveal Melanoma; Stage IIB Skin Melanoma; Stage IIB Uveal Melanoma; Stage IIC Skin Melanoma; Stage IIIA Skin Melanoma; Stage IIIA Uveal Melanoma; Stage IIIB Skin Melanoma; Stage IIIB Uveal Melanoma; Stage IIIC Skin Melanoma; Stage IIIC Uveal Melanoma; Stage IV Skin Melanoma; Stage IV Uveal Melanoma

  18. MR imaging of malignant melanomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We reviewed MR images of eight primary dermal malignant melanomas and 15 metastatic lesions in 12 patients and we correlated the findings with surgical and/or clinical findings. Signal intensity equivalent to that of subcutaneous fat was seen in 10 of 19 homogeneous lesions on T1 weighted images, which confirmed the paramagnetic property of the malignant melanoma. The surgical specimen of the primary lesions did not show significant intratumoral hemorrhage. This suggests that the paramagnetic property was present in the melanoma cells. However, low signal intensity on T2 WI which was reportedly characteristic to head and neck melanomas was observed only in three metastatic lesions, suggesting that lesions contained parts of hemorrhage or tissue degeneration. All the other lesions showed signal intensity equivalent to, or higher than that of subcutaneous fat. The long T2 values were supposed to be due to high water concentration in the lesions. MRI diagnosis of the extension of the primary lesions well correlated with the surgical findings. Three lesions were contained within the dermis and two had bone invasion. MRI proved to be useful in preoperative evaluation of the primary dermal malignant melanomas and assessment of the metastatic lesions. (author)

  19. Melanoma stem cells in experimental melanoma are killed by radioimmunotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Introduction: In spite of recently approved B-RAF inhibitors and immunomodulating antibodies, metastatic melanoma has poor prognosis and novel treatments are needed. Melanoma stem cells (MSC) have been implicated in the resistance of this tumor to chemotherapy. Recently we demonstrated in a Phase I clinical trial in patients with metastatic melanoma that radioimmunotherapy (RIT) with 188-Rhenium(188Re)-6D2 antibody to melanin was a safe and effective modality. Here we investigated the interaction of MSC with RIT as a possible mechanism for RIT efficacy. Methods: Mice bearing A2058 melanoma xenografts were treated with either 1.5 mCi 188Re-6D2 antibody, saline, unlabeled 6D2 antibody or 188Re-labeled non-specific IgM. Results: On Day 28 post-treatment the tumor size in the RIT group was 4-times less than in controls (P < 0.001). The tumors were analyzed by immunohistochemistry and FACS for two MSC markers — chemoresistance mediator ABCB5 and H3K4 demethylase JARID1B. There were no significant differences between RIT and control groups in percentage of ABCB5 or JARID1B-positive cells in the tumor population. Our results demonstrate that unlike chemotherapy, which kills tumor cells but leaves behind MSC leading to recurrence, RIT kills MSC at the same rate as the rest of tumor cells. Conclusions: These results have two main implications for melanoma treatment and possibly other cancers. First, the susceptibility of ABCB5 + and JARID1B + cells to RIT in melanoma might be indicative of their susceptibility to antibody-targeted radiation in other cancers where they are present as well. Second, specifically targeting cancer stem cells with radiolabeled antibodies to ABCB5 or JARID1B might help to completely eradicate cancer stem cells in various cancers

  20. Surgical management of melanoma: an EORTC Melanoma Group survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Testori, A; Soteldo, J; Powell, B; Sales, F; Borgognoni, L; Rutkowski, P; Lejeune, F; van Leeuwen, PAM; Eggermont, A

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: The objective of the article is to explore the surgical practices and views in the treatment of melanoma within members and non-members of the EORTC Melanoma Group (MG) during the years 2003–2005. Methods: An e-mail questionnaire (see appendix) developed within the EORTC MG was sent to all melanoma units (MUs) of the EORTC (180) and to selected international centres between 2003 and 2005. The questionnaire investigated the different practices regarding surgical management of melanoma patients at all stages. Results: A total of 75 questionnaires were returned from centres in Europe (70), Israel (3), Australia (1) and the United States (1). Resection margins on primary melanoma vary according to AJCC 2002 staging. Sixty three of 75 MUs perform Sentinel node biopsy. Modified radical neck dissection is performed in 82% of MUs for macrometastases and in 80% of MUs for micrometastases. Most MUs surveyed perform all three levels of Berg axillary dissection whether for macrometastases (79%) or micrometastases (62%). An ilio inguinal-obturator dissection is proposed with macrometastases (41% of MUs), whereas 33% of MUs perform a pelvic dissection only if the Cloquet node is positive. Twenty five of 75 MUs perform an isolated limb perfusion with a therapeutic indication; three also as an adjuvant. The majority of MUs perform surgery for distant metastases including superficial (53 of 75 [71%]) or solitary visceral metastases (52 of 75[69%]) or for palliation (58 of 75[77%]). Conclusion: The adequacy of surgery appears to be the most important milestone in the therapeutic approach of melanoma. Even if surgery is fundamental in the different stages of the disease, there is quite a variability concerning the extension of the surgical treatment related to primary and lymphnodal disease. Phase III randomised trials have shown that wide margins, elective lymph node dissections, and prophylactic isolated limb perfusions have not improved survival and cannot be considered the standard of care in the routine management of primary melanoma. The surgical subgroup of the EORTC Melanoma Group is developing a new version of the surgical survey questionnaire including new treatment modalities like isolated limb infusion and electrochemotherapy, which were not frequently in use some years ago, to obtain new data to be compared to the nearly ten-year-old data. PMID:23589724

  1. Variations in gastrointestinal melanoma metastases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 10 patients with gastrointestinal metastases from cutaneous malignant melanoma, metastases to the stomach were found in 2, the small bowel in 9, and the large bowel in 3. Gastric metastases typically appeared as target lesions. However, the morphology of secondary melanoma deposits to the small and large intestine varied significantly, target lesions being only one possible manifestation. Less common appearances of gut metastases were found in 4 patients. One presented atypically with matted loops of distal ileum resulting in prolonged stasis of barium in the affected areas. In 3 patients, infiltrative and stenotic lesions were found in the distal ileum, terminal ileum and cecum. One stenotic lesion of the distal ileum was accompanied by multiple small polypoid lesions more proximally, and the cecal lesion was ulcerated. Six of the patients presented with polypoid and, occasionally, ulcerated and multiple secondary melanoma deposits. Possible causes for variations in morphology are discussed. (orig.)

  2. Metastatic melanoma of the stomach / Melanoma metastático do estômago

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Marcelo Eustáquio, Rocha; Gilberto Pedro, Rodrigues; Samir Almeida, Borges; Fernando Gusmão, Santiago.

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese INTRODUCTION: O melanoma metastático do estômago é entidade relativamente rara e de diagnóstico incomum em vida. A cirurgia é o tratamento de escolha, pois alivia os sintomas em mais de 90% dos casos e aumenta a sobrevida a longo prazo. OBJETIVO: Relatar um caso de melanoma metastático do estômago, [...] submetida à ressecção curativa e que evoluiu sem sinais de doença residual. RELATO DO CASO: Mulher de 50 anos apresentou mancha escura em leito ungueal de dedo polegar de mão direita há dois anos, evoluindo com ulceração e sangramento. A biópsia diagnosticou neoplasia melanocítica ungueal compatíveis com melanoma lentiginoso e confirmado pela imunohistoquímica que apresentou células pigmentadas HMB-45 positivas. Após um ano e meio a paciente evoluiu com metástase de melanoma em coxa esquerda e extensa lesão escavada em pequena curvatura gástrica, cuja biopsia foi compatível com melanoma metastático do estômago. Hemograma com discreta anemia (Hb: 11,1 e Ht: 33%) e LDH: 333 U/L. A paciente foi submetida à gastrectomia total com reconstrução em Y de Roux. Houve boa evolução e no 6º dia de pós-operatório teve alta hospitalar. Atualmente, no 12º mês de seguimento, a paciente permanece sem queixas, com alívio completo dos sintomas e com todos os exames de controle normais. CONCLUSÃO: O tratamento cirúrgico deve ser sempre considerado no melanoma metastático do trato gastrointestinal, pois o procedimento possui baixa morbidade e mortalidade, além de proporcionar alívio dos sintomas com melhora da qualidade de vida e aumento da sobrevida a longo prazo. Abstract in english BACKGROUND: Metastatic melanoma of the stomach is a relatively rare entity with an unusual diagnosis during life. Surgery is the treatment of choice once it alleviates the symptoms in over 90% of the cases and increases the long-term survival. CASE REPORT: A 50y woman had presented a dark spot in th [...] e ungual bed of her right-hand thumb for two years, evolving into ulceration and bleeding. The biopsy diagnosed ungual malanocytic neoplasia compatible with lentiginous melanoma confirmed by immunohistochemistry, which presented positive pigmented HMB-45 cells. After an year and a half, the patient developed metastasis of the melanoma on her left thigh and extensive ulcerated lesion in the small gastric curvature, whose biopsy was compatible with metastatic melanoma of the stomach. The hemogram found discrete anemia (Hb: 11.1 and Ht: 33%) and LDH: 333 U/L. The patient underwent total gastrectomy with reconstruction in Roux-en-Y. There was a good evolution and on the 6th post-operative day, she was discharged home. At present, in the 12th month of follow up, the patient remains without complaints, with full relief of symptoms and all normal control exams. CONCLUSION: Surgical management should always be considered for the metastatic melanoma of the gastrointestinal tract, since the procedure shows low morbidity and mortality, besides providing relief of symptoms with the improvement of the quality of life and increase in the long-term survival.

  3. Metastatic melanoma of the stomach Melanoma metastático do estômago

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Eustáquio Rocha

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Metastatic melanoma of the stomach is a relatively rare entity with an unusual diagnosis during life. Surgery is the treatment of choice once it alleviates the symptoms in over 90% of the cases and increases the long-term survival. CASE REPORT: A 50y woman had presented a dark spot in the ungual bed of her right-hand thumb for two years, evolving into ulceration and bleeding. The biopsy diagnosed ungual malanocytic neoplasia compatible with lentiginous melanoma confirmed by immunohistochemistry, which presented positive pigmented HMB-45 cells. After an year and a half, the patient developed metastasis of the melanoma on her left thigh and extensive ulcerated lesion in the small gastric curvature, whose biopsy was compatible with metastatic melanoma of the stomach. The hemogram found discrete anemia (Hb: 11.1 and Ht: 33% and LDH: 333 U/L. The patient underwent total gastrectomy with reconstruction in Roux-en-Y. There was a good evolution and on the 6th post-operative day, she was discharged home. At present, in the 12th month of follow up, the patient remains without complaints, with full relief of symptoms and all normal control exams. CONCLUSION: Surgical management should always be considered for the metastatic melanoma of the gastrointestinal tract, since the procedure shows low morbidity and mortality, besides providing relief of symptoms with the improvement of the quality of life and increase in the long-term survival.INTRODUCTION: O melanoma metastático do estômago é entidade relativamente rara e de diagnóstico incomum em vida. A cirurgia é o tratamento de escolha, pois alivia os sintomas em mais de 90% dos casos e aumenta a sobrevida a longo prazo. OBJETIVO: Relatar um caso de melanoma metastático do estômago, submetida à ressecção curativa e que evoluiu sem sinais de doença residual. RELATO DO CASO: Mulher de 50 anos apresentou mancha escura em leito ungueal de dedo polegar de mão direita há dois anos, evoluindo com ulceração e sangramento. A biópsia diagnosticou neoplasia melanocítica ungueal compatíveis com melanoma lentiginoso e confirmado pela imunohistoquímica que apresentou células pigmentadas HMB-45 positivas. Após um ano e meio a paciente evoluiu com metástase de melanoma em coxa esquerda e extensa lesão escavada em pequena curvatura gástrica, cuja biopsia foi compatível com melanoma metastático do estômago. Hemograma com discreta anemia (Hb: 11,1 e Ht: 33% e LDH: 333 U/L. A paciente foi submetida à gastrectomia total com reconstrução em Y de Roux. Houve boa evolução e no 6º dia de pós-operatório teve alta hospitalar. Atualmente, no 12º mês de seguimento, a paciente permanece sem queixas, com alívio completo dos sintomas e com todos os exames de controle normais. CONCLUSÃO: O tratamento cirúrgico deve ser sempre considerado no melanoma metastático do trato gastrointestinal, pois o procedimento possui baixa morbidade e mortalidade, além de proporcionar alívio dos sintomas com melhora da qualidade de vida e aumento da sobrevida a longo prazo.

  4. Amelanotic metastatic cutaneous melanoma / Melanoma metastático amelanótico cutâneo

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Marcela Sena Teixeira, Mendes; Mariana Carvalho, Costa; Ciro Martins, Gomes; Lisley Calixto de, Araújo; Gustavo Henrique Soares, Takano.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese A dermatoscopia das lesões melanocíticas tem auxiliado na decisão de biopsiar ou não uma lesão. A utilização desta ferramenta aumentou a sensibilidade e a especificidade do diagnóstico para 89% e 96%, respectivamente. No entanto, a avaliação dermatoscópica de melanomas amelanóticos ou hipomelanótico [...] s, bem como a de metástases cutâneas, pode ser difícil. Ainda falta uma padronização para a análise destas patologias, que se baseia, majoritariamente, no seu padrão vascular. Descreve-se a dermatoscopia de melanoma metastático amelanótico acral. Abstract in english Dermatoscopy of melanocytic lesions has guided the decision of when or not to biopsy a lesion. The use of this tool has increased clinical examination's sensitivity and specificity in 89% and 96% respectively. However, dermatoscopic evaluation of amelanotic or hypomelanotic melanomas, as well as met [...] astases, can be difficult. There is still no standardization for the analysis of these pathologies, which relies mostly on their vascular pattern. We describe the dermatoscopy of acral metastatic amelanotic melanoma.

  5. Breast Metastasis From a Melanoma

    OpenAIRE

    Al Samaraee, Ahmad; Khout, Hazem; Barakat, Tarig; Fasih, Tarannum

    2012-01-01

    Benign and primary malignant breast tumors are quite common, but secondary tumors in the breast from metastatic malignancies are rare. Nevertheless, metastasis to the breast must be considered in any patient with a known primary malignant tumor history who presents with a breast lump. We report a case of a premenopausal woman diagnosed with a metastatic melanoma in her breast.

  6. Malignant melanomas of the iris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batio?lu, F; Günalp, I

    1998-01-01

    The recognition of iris melanoma is important because a number of benign lesions clinically resemble these tumors. In this article, the epidemiological, clinical and histopathological features, treatment modalities, and prognosis of 41 iris melanoma patients, seen between 1964 and 1996 were evaluated. Of the patients, 20 were men and 21 women. Their mean age was 44.6 years. After determining the size, localization, and extension of the tumor, the management of choice was observation in 9, sector iridectomy in 15, iridocyclectomy in 6 and enucleation in 11 of the patients. During the follow-up, enucleation was also required in 6 and iridocyclectomy in 1 of the 7 patients who were in the observation or sector iridectomy group initially. Histopathologic examination revealed spindle cell in 27, mixed cell in 6 and epithelioid cell type melanomas in 2 of the 35 cases who underwent iridectomy, iridocyclectomy, and/or enucleation. The mean follow-up was 3.2 years and the mortality rate was found to be 2.4% during this period. One patient who died of metastases had epithelioid cell type melanoma. PMID:9749868

  7. Metastatic malignant melanoma affecting stomach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eivazi-Ziaei, Jamal; Esmaili, Heidarali

    2014-01-01

    Malignant melanoma has been reported to affect all organs of the human body with the metastasis. Stomach metastases are quite rare in cases of the most commonly reported primaries including, melanoma and breast, and lung carcinomas. This report involves, a 56-year-old man suffering from melanoma of the lower extremity that developed into gastric, pulmonary, and brain metastases. The patient who experienced epigastric pain with suspicious melanoma was referred to undergo endoscopy. A black and white ulcer with dimensions of 1 × 1.5 cm and a mass of 1 × 2 cm mass were found at D1 and lesser curvature. Physical examination revealed a 2 × 3 cm black lesion at his right heel. Pathologic examination provided multiple pieces of creamy soft-tissue measuring 0.3 × 0.2 × 0.1 cm showing pigmented tumor cells in lamina propria. Staining biopsy samples with anti-HMB-45 and Fontana demonstrated a higher degree of positivity in tumor cells. The patient was admitted to the hospital, but unfortunately his general conditions were deteriorated and he developed convulsion and deceased four days after admission. PMID:25313770

  8. Cutaneous melanoma in solid organ transplant patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, I; Piaserico, S; Belloni-Fortina, A; Alaibac, M

    2014-08-01

    Solid organ transplant patients are at greatly increased risk of developing a wide variety of skin cancers, particularly epithelial skin cancers. On the other hand, it is well known that an intact immune system limits the development of benign melanocytic lesions. The eruptive nevi phenomenon, which we can observe in solid organ transplant recipients, is indicative of the relationship between melanocyte proliferation and immune system. Regression of melanocytic nevi after restoration of complete immune responsiveness is a further clinical example the role of immunosurveillance on melanocyte proliferation. However, melanoma incidence in organ transplant recipients appears only 2-3 folds higher than in general population. To this regard, organ transplant recipients who develop de novo melanomas thicker than 2mm seem to have a significantly worse outcome with a greatly increased risk of dying of metastatic melanoma, whereas those who develop a ?2 mm thickness melanoma seem to have a prognosis similar to that of the general population. Furthermore, there is no evidence supporting an increased risk of melanoma recurrences after transplant in patients with a history of low-risk melanoma. Melanoma is also one of the most frequent and lethal donor-derived malignancies suggesting that a history of invasive melanoma should be considered an absolute contraindication to donation. The aim of this review is to investigate the relationship between immunosuppression and melanoma and to discuss its clinical implications for the management of transplant-associated melanoma. PMID:25068225

  9. S100 immunophenotypes of uveal melanomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kan-Mitchell, J; Rao, N; Albert, D M; Van Eldik, L J; Taylor, C R

    1990-08-01

    To determine whether ocular melanomas are immunophenotypically identical to cutaneous melanomas, 34 primary and metastatic choroidal melanomas representing all major histotypes defined by the Callender's classification, plus one melanoma of the iris and one conjunctival melanoma, were subjected to a panel of immunostains designed to distinguish anaplastic biopsies of cutaneous melanomas from carcinomas and lymphomas. All ocular melanomas were found to express the intermediate filament vimentin but not keratin, and all but 2 were melanotic by immunostaining. Thirty-three of 34 (97%) choroidal melanomas were strongly stained with a rabbit polyclonal antibody (P-S100) developed against the S100 protein family. In contrast, none of 14 spindle cell type primary lesions was stained with a monoclonal antibody (MAB-079) specific for both S100 alpha and S100 beta, the best-characterized S100 polypeptides. Furthermore, only 2 of 5 epithelioid and 3 of 10 mixed-cell-type melanomas were weakly reactive. Overall, 14.7% (5 of 29) were stained. In comparison, MAB079 stained 85% of all cutaneous melanomas. Five metastases of choroidal melanomas (spindle B, epithelioid, and mixed cell types) from different organ sites also were stained by P-S100 but not by MAB079. These findings were corroborated by immunostaining with another monoclonal antibody (MAB4D4) specific for S100 beta. Differential staining by the polyclonal but not the monoclonal antibodies suggests the possible presence of a variant S100 polypeptide(s) in choroidal melanomas. Since S100 alpha, S100 beta, and related proteins appear to be physiologically important, additional studies of these S100 proteins may shed light on the etiology or pathology of choroidal melanomas. PMID:1696942

  10. Conduta para o melanoma cutâneo Management of cutaneous melanoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto J. A. Wainstein

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available A incidência do melanoma cutâneo vem aumentando significativamente de 1:1500 em 1935 para cerca de 1:75 no ano 2000. Contudo, atribuído a um diagnóstico cada vez mais precoce, têm-se observado uma melhora da sobrevida em cinco anos com diminuição da taxa de mortalidade geral entre 70 a 80% desde a década de 30. É o câncer mais prevalente na faixa etária entre 25 e 35 anos nos EUA. O Brasil ocupa a 15º posição com relação à incidência do tumor no mundo. O estadiamento inicial é baseado na pesquisa de sinais e sintomas que podem indicar doença metastática. Especial atenção deve ser dada à palpação de linfonodos regionais. A espessura e a ulceração são os principais fatores de risco independentes, em pacientes com melanoma primário com linfonodos livres. Já naqueles com metástases linfonodais, a presença de ulceração, de metástase detectada macroscopicamente e o número de linfonodos acometidos, são os principais índices de impacto na sobrevida. Pacientes com metástases para o pulmão possuem melhor prognóstico no primeiro ano de sobrevida em comparação àqueles com metástases para outros órgãos. A dosagem de DHL é fator prognóstico poderoso, sendo incluída no último estadiamento publicado, em pacientes com estádio IV da doença. A pesquisa do linfonodo sentinela já é técnica incorporada à conduta de pacientes com melanoma com reconhecido impacto no estadiamento, prognóstico e programação terapêutica. Devido à falta de padronização para o tratamento do melanoma, muitos pacientes ainda evoluem com um prognóstico reservado devido a uma conduta inicial inadequada. Os tratamentos vêm mudando significativamente e a proposta deste trabalho visa apresentar uma revisão com ênfase nas condutas preconizadas para o melanoma.The incidence of melanoma is increasing by 1:1500 in 1935 to 1:75 in 2000. However, there is five-year survival improvement with decrease in mortality due to early diagnosis. Initial staging is based on signs and symptoms showing metastatic disease. Special care should be taken at lymphatic examination. The two most powerful independent prognostic variables are tumor thickness and ulceration. In patients with nodal metastasis, the three most powerful prognostic factors are number of positive nodes, tumor burden and the presence or absence of ulceration of primary lesion. Great differences exist in survival between patients with melanoma metastasis in visceral sites and those with metastasis in no visceral sites. Patients with lung as the only site of visceral metastasis had a better survival compared with other visceral sites. In many large series high DHL level has been shown to be a consistent, independent, and powerful prognostic factor in patients with stage IV disease. The lack of treatment pattern in melanoma has lead some patients to a bad prognosis because an error in the initial approach. The analysis of the sentinel lymph node techniques was included in the staging and therapeutics decision of melanoma patient. Treatment has changed during the years and the purpose of this paper is present a review reinforcing conducts, based on literature.

  11. Primary cilium depletion typifies cutaneous melanoma in situ and malignant melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jinah; Dabiri, Salma; Seeley, E Scott

    2011-01-01

    Cutaneous melanoma is a lethal malignancy that arises spontaneously or via in situ precursor neoplasms. While melanoma in situ and locally invasive malignant melanoma can be cured surgically, these lesions can sometimes be difficult to distinguish from melanocytic nevi. Thus, the identification of histolopathologic or molecular features that distinguish these biologically distinct lesions would represent an important advance. To this end, we determined the abundance of melanocytic primary cilia in a series of 62 cases composed of typical cutaneous melanocytic nevi, melanoma in situ, invasive melanoma, and metastatic melanoma. Primary cilia are sensory organelles that modulate developmental and adaptive signaling and notably, are substantially depleted from the neoplastic epithelium of pancreatic carcinoma at a stage equivalent to melanoma in situ. In this series, we find that while nearly all melanocytes in 22 melanocytic nevi possessed a primary cilium, a near-complete loss of this organelle was observed in 16 cases of melanoma in situ, in 16 unequivocal primary invasive melanomas, and in 8 metastatic tumors, each associated with a cutaneous primary lesion. These findings suggest that the primary cilium may be used to segregate cutaneous invasive melanoma and melanoma in situ from melanocytic nevi. Moreover, they place the loss of an organelle known to regulate oncogenic signaling at an early stage of melanoma development. PMID:22096570

  12. Primary malignant melanoma of the esophagus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jora, Charu; Pankaj, Promila; Verma, Ritu; Jain, Anjali; Belho, Ethel S

    2015-01-01

    Primary malignant melanoma most commonly originates from the skin; other less common extra cutaneous sites include squamous mucous membranes, uvea, retina, leptomeninges, genitourinary tract, digestive tract, biliary tract, and upper respiratory tract. Primary melanoma of the gastrointestinal tract is exceedingly rare. We are reporting a histo-pathologically proven rare case of primary malignant melanoma of the esophagus and its findings on fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography and computed tomography. PMID:25829739

  13. Direct bony invasion of malignant melanoma

    OpenAIRE

    Mula Viswanath; Mandal Adhip; Britton Edward; Shanker Vaidyanathan

    2009-01-01

    Malignant melanoma is known to spread by local extention, by the lymphatics by the blood stream. Direct invasion of the bone from a cutaneous melanoma is unknown. Hence, this case is presented in view of its rarity. A 75-year-old Caucasian lady presented with a small papillary lesion in the region of a recurrent chronic cellulitis on the lower third of the lateral aspect of the right leg. Histopathology diagnosed the lesion as locally advanced malignant melanoma. Radiological investigations b...

  14. Cutaneous Melanoma: Taiwan Experience and Literature Review

    OpenAIRE

    John Wen-Cheng Chang

    2010-01-01

    Malignant melanoma is a rare disease in Taiwan with anincidence rate of 0.65/100,000. Excessive exposure to ultravioletradiation is not associated with most Taiwanese melanomacases. Acral lentiginous melanoma comprises 58% of cutaneousmelanoma. Advanced disease is seen in 50% of cases.Surgery, including resection of the primary melanoma, sentinellymph nodes that may harbor microscopic metastasis, clinicallyabnormal lymph nodes, and selected distant metastases, isthe most important treatment. ...

  15. Comedo-like openings in melanoma

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Bruno Simão dos, Santos; Lucia Helena Soares, Ribeiro; Eloisa Leis, Ayres; Enoi Aparecida Guedes, Vilar.

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english We describe a case of melanoma with the presence of comedo-like openings at dermoscopy. These structures, typical of seborrheic keratosis, represent an uncommon finding in melanoma. We emphasize the importance of searching for specific dermoscopic criteria for melanocytic lesions during the examinat [...] ion of a pigmented lesion, despite possible observations of characteristic structures of non-melanocytic lesions, in order to increase the accuracy in the diagnosis of melanoma.

  16. Dermoscopic and clinical features of trunk melanomas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emiroglu, Nazan; Hofmann-Wellenhof, Rainer

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Malignant melanomas account for 5% of all skin cancers and usually have a fatal clinical course. Additionally, the incidence of melanoma increases more rapidly than in any other cancer, and this has been attributed to the development of highly sensitive diagnostic techniques, mainly dermoscopy, which allows for early diagnosis. The phenotypic manifestations of gene/environment interactions, environmental factor and genetic factors may determine subtypes and anatomic localization of melanoma. Histopathologic subtypes, risk factors, and thickness of the skin are different in trunk melanomas. Aim To determine the frequency of dermatoscopic features in trunk melanomas. This study also investigates dermoscopic features according to the diameter of lesions. Material and methods Seventy-one trunk melanomas were included. Their dermoscopic and clinical images, histopathological and clinical data were assessed. The relations between the diameter, Breslow thickness and dermoscopic characteristics were evaluated. Results The most common dermoscopic findings of trunk melanomas were the multicomponent pattern (55 patients, 77.5%), asymmetry (62 patients; 87.3%), blue-gray veil (59 patients, 83.1%), and color variety (56 patients, 78.8%). When dermoscopic findings were compared, a multicomponent pattern (p = 0.03), milky-red areas (p = 0.001), blue-gray veils (p = 0.023), and regression structures (p = 0.037) were more common in large melanomas than in small melanomas. Conclusions The most common dermoscopic findings of trunk melanomas were the multicomponent pattern, asymmetry and blue-gray veil, color variety. The multicomponent pattern, milky-red areas, blue-gray veils, regression structures were statistically significant dermoscopic features in a group of large-diameter melanomas, compared to small melanomas. PMID:25610350

  17. Melanoma of unknown origin: a case series.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kelly, J

    2010-12-01

    The natural history of metastatic melanoma involving lymph nodes, in the absence of a known primary site (cutaneous, ocular or mucosal) has, to date, been poorly defined; and the optimal management of this rare subtype of disease is therefore unclear. Melanomas of unknown primary site (MUP) are estimated to comprise between 3.7 and 6% of all melanomas (Anbari et al. in Cancer 79:1861-1821, 1997).

  18. Confocal microscopy in the diagnosis of melanoma

    OpenAIRE

    Apostolovi?-Stojanovi? Milica; Dobrosavljevi?-Vukojevi? Danijela; La?kovi? Vesna; Stojanovi? A.; Markovi? I.; Džodi? R.

    2013-01-01

    Melanoma is the most deadly form of skin cancer of melanocytic origin. The tumor has a high malignant potential and early metastasis. Prognosis is directly linked to the stage of the disease. Diagnosing thin melanoma at an early stage offers patients their best chance for survival. The crucial innovation in the early recognition of melanoma was the development of in vivo examination of the skin in high-resolution, by confocal microscopy. Confocal microscopy and its modifications provide...

  19. Melanoma biomarkers: Vox clamantis in deserto (Review)

    OpenAIRE

    Al-shaer, Mays; Gollapudi, Divya; Papageorgio, Chris

    2010-01-01

    Detecting malignant melanoma at an early stage, monitoring therapy, predicting recurrence and identifying patients at risk for metastasis continue to be a challenging and demanding objective. The last two decades have witnessed innovations in the field of melanoma biomarkers. However, global agreement concerning monitoring and early detection has yet to be reached. This is a review of the current literature regarding melanoma biomarkers including demographic, clinical, pathological and molecu...

  20. From Melanocyte to Metastatic Malignant Melanoma

    OpenAIRE

    Bizhan Bandarchi; Linglei Ma; Roya Navab; Arun Seth; Golnar Rasty

    2010-01-01

    Malignant melanoma is one of the most aggressive malignancies in human and is responsible for almost 60% of lethal skin tumors. Its incidence has been increasing in white population in the past two decades. There is a complex interaction of environmental (exogenous) and endogenous, including genetic, risk factors in developing malignant melanoma. 8–12% of familial melanomas occur in a familial setting related to mutation of the CDKN2A gene that encodes p16. The aim of ...

  1. Epidemiología del melanoma cutáneo Epidemiology of cutaneous melanoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R M C Leitner

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Durante las últimas décadas hubo un aumento de la incidencia del melanoma cutáneo en la población caucásica del mundo, aunque este tumor puede afectar a cualquier grupo étnico. En la actualidad se considera a la exposición solar intermitente como un factor de riesgo cierto, en el desarrollo del melanoma cutáneo. La incidencia del melanoma cutáneo en Auckland, Nueva Zelanda, es la mayor del mundo. En Europa, la incidencia y la mortalidad fue creciente hasta que en la década de los 80 se estabilizó. En EEUU también se observó una estabilización de la incidencia. Con respecto a la edad, según la bibliografía consultada la incidencia aumenta a partir de los 20 años; en algunos pacientes con más de 200 nevos y sin pautas de protección solar antes de los 5 años de vida. También se observa aumento de la incidencia en los adultos mayores de 60 años de edad. Con respecto al sexo, en los EEUU y la Argentina es más frecuente en los hombres y en Europa en el sexo femenino.During the last decades there was an increase of incidence of cutaneous melanoma in Caucasian population worldwide, but this tumor can affect any ethnic group. Nowadays, the intermittent solar exposition is a well known predisposing factor. The incidence in Auckland, New Zealand, is the highest in the world. In Europe and in the USA, the incidence and mortality rates decreased until the 80's when it stabilized. Regarding the age of appearance, the incidence increases starting at 20 years of age in patients with more than 200 nevi and without history of sun protection in childhood. There was also an increase in the incidence in adults (>60 y-o. The distribution by sex in USA and Argentina is more frequent in males and in Europe in females.

  2. Molecular characterization of novel melanoma cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanna, P; Maida, I; Turpin Sevilla, M C; Susca, F C; Filotico, R; Arciuli, M; Cassano, N; Vena, G A; Cicero, R; Guida, G

    2011-01-01

    We isolated two novel cell lines from different types of sporadic human malignant melanoma: the hmel1 line was obtained from a melanoma skin metastasis and the hmel9 cell line from a primary superficial spreading melanoma. The karyotype and pigmentation parameters were assessed in these cell lines. Cytogenetic analysis in early stages of culture revealed that both cell lines had chromosome instability and simultaneous growth of heteroploid subpopulations. The molecular analysis of some genes involved in melanoma showed that both cell lines harbor BRAF mutations. The unpigmented hmel1 and the pigmented hmel9 lines were found to express the tyrosinase gene. The tyrosine hydroxylase activity was detectable only in hmel9 cells and practically absent in the hmel1 cell line. This activity was found to be correlated with the relative tyrosinase protein amount in both melanoma cell lines. The biological behaviour in the two melanoma cell lines, derived from two different types of melanoma lesions displaying distinct clinical and histopathological features, confirms the heterogeneous characteristics of sporadic melanoma. Similarities and/or differences between cell lines extracted from different melanoma cases could be useful in the future for diagnostic, prognostic and therapeutic purposes. PMID:21880213

  3. KIT in melanoma: many shades of gray.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slipicevic, Ana; Herlyn, Meenhard

    2015-02-01

    Activating mutations in KIT have been identified in melanomas of acral and mucosal types and in those arising in chronically sun-damaged skin. Until now, KIT has been considered an oncogenic driver and a potential therapeutic target. However, data presented by Dhal et al. show that in cutaneous melanomas the KIT promoter is a target for hypermethylation, leading to its downregulation. Their observations suggest that signaling pathways downstream of KIT may have distinct and opposing roles in the pathogenesis of melanoma subtypes. This will have important implications for the use of KIT inhibitors in treating melanomas. PMID:25573046

  4. Giant melanoacanthoma mimicking malignant melanoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shankar Vikas

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Melanoacanthoma denotes a rare variant of pigmented seborrheic keratosis. A 65-year-old male farmer had pigmented, verrucous, itchy, highly painful, progressively growing irregularly oval plaque on left side of lower back for the past five years. The indurated lesion, measuring maximum diameter 10 cm ? 5 cm, had no discharge, bleeding, ulceration, or associated lymphadenopathy. Dermoscopy showed regular pigmentary network and cribiform pattern of ridges without any feature of malignant melanoma. Histopathology showed well-defined islands of basaloid cells interspersed with large and richly dendritic melanocytes. The lesion was totally excised followed by skin grafting. Our patient was unique in its massive size and clinical resemblance with malignant melanoma. The diagnosis was confirmed by dermoscopy and skin biopsy.

  5. Eye melanoma ion beam therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conservative treatment of eye melanoma includes brachytherapy with different radioactive sources, transscleral local resection, transpupillary thermotherapy, leaser photocoagulation, and external particle radiotherapy. Proton beam therapy of eye melanoma offers the ideal physical properties to deliver apricise and homogeneous dose distribution within the target volume, with preservation of sensitive normal tissues due to the distal fall-off of the dose beyond the spread-out Bragg peak. Treatment of ocular tumors began on 1978 at National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS). This paper focuses on the irradiation technique and the factors affecting the survival and metastatic rate. Information on local control, enucleation rate, and the visual outcome of those patients are also given. (author)

  6. Primary chondroid melanoma of the nasal skin: a rare melanoma variant at a previously undocumented site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slavik, Tomas; Hannah, Marius; Schroder, Ralph A

    2007-05-01

    Heterologous differentiation is exceedingly rare in melanoma. Only four cases of melanoma demonstrating exclusive cartilaginous differentiation have been documented, all having occurred on the lower extremity. We report a chondroid melanoma involving the nasal skin and presenting clinically as a basal cell carcinoma. Both Melan-A and microphthalmia transcription factor protein immunoperoxidase stains were positive in our case, demonstrating the potential utility of these two stains in chondroid melanoma. We also provide a succinct review of the literature on this rare melanoma variant. PMID:17448201

  7. Orbital metastasis from cutaneous melanoma

    OpenAIRE

    Samer Elsherbiny; Parveen Abdullah; Peter Cikatricis; Loukia Tsierkezou

    2012-01-01

    We report a case of a metastatic cutaneous melanoma to the orbit. A 60-year-old Caucasian male presented with a 2-day history of left-sided ocular pain, lid swelling and chemosis. Initially, this was treated as conjunctivitis with no signs of improvement. Four days later, the patient developed left proptosis, mechanical ptosis, left esotropia and diplopia. Computed tomography scan of the orbit demonstrated marked thickening of the lateral rectus muscle. The patient was treated as pseudotumor....

  8. Telomerase expression in uveal melanoma

    OpenAIRE

    Heine, B.; Coupland, S.; Kneiff, S.; Demel, G.; Bornfeld, N.; Hummel, M.; Stein, H.

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND/AIMS—Accumulating evidence indicates that telomerase activity is repressed in normal human somatic cells but reactivated in cancers and immortal cells, suggesting that activation of telomerase activity has a role in carcinogenesis and immortalisation. To date, telomerase in uveal melanoma and, whether, it may have a role in the development or progression of these tumours has not been described. The expression patterns and the activity of telomerase were investigated in 14 uveal ...

  9. Cancer stem cells in melanoma

    OpenAIRE

    Regenbrecht, C.; Welte, Y.; Hugel, R.; Trefzer, U.; Losch, Fo; Adjaye, J.; Walden, P.

    2008-01-01

    The identification of cancer stem cells in various malignancies led to the hypothesis that these cells have the exclusive ability of self-renewal, contribute to the plasticity of the tumours and may be the cause for ineffective cancer therapies. Several markers of melanoma stem cells have been described in recent studies including CD133, CD166, Nestin and BMI-1. Further studies are necessary to identify, better define and understand the origin and function of cancer stem cells. If confirmed t...

  10. Melanoma and satellite blue papule

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, André; Arzberger, Edith; Massone, Cesare; Zalaudek, Iris; Fink-Puches, Regina; Hofmann-Wellenhof, Rainer

    2014-01-01

    The colors that are seen in dermoscopy depend on the anatomic level of the skin at which the chromophores are seen. Blue color can be found in a variety of melanocytic and nonmelanocytic lesions. An 89-year-old man presented with a 3-year history of a slow-growing, hyperpigmented patch located on the distal third of the right arm. Dermoscopy showed an atypical network, irregularly distributed globules, pigmented internal streaks and a milky-red area. Based on these findings a diagnosis of slow-growing malignant melanoma was made. Simultaneously, a well-defined blue papule was seen on the proximal third of the same arm. Dermoscopy disclosed a homogeneous blue pattern. After clinical and dermoscopic correlation our differential diagnosis for this blue lesion included cutaneous melanoma metastasis, blue nevus and foreign body reaction. The patient recalled its onset 75 years ago after a grenade explosion. We also discuss the blue lesion appearance under reflectance confocal microscopy and high-definition optical coherence tomography. Histopathological examination after excision of the hyperpigmented patch and blue papule revealed a melanoma in situ and a foreign body reaction, respectively. The diagnostic evaluation of a blue lesion should always rely on the integration of all data, especially clinical and dermoscopic features. Other non-invasive techniques, like reflectance confocal microscopy and high-definition optical coherence tomography can also be important aids for its differential diagnosis. PMID:25126462

  11. Melanoma and satellite blue papule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, André; Arzberger, Edith; Massone, Cesare; Zalaudek, Iris; Fink-Puches, Regina; Hofmann-Wellenhof, Rainer

    2014-07-01

    The colors that are seen in dermoscopy depend on the anatomic level of the skin at which the chromophores are seen. Blue color can be found in a variety of melanocytic and nonmelanocytic lesions. An 89-year-old man presented with a 3-year history of a slow-growing, hyperpigmented patch located on the distal third of the right arm. Dermoscopy showed an atypical network, irregularly distributed globules, pigmented internal streaks and a milky-red area. Based on these findings a diagnosis of slow-growing malignant melanoma was made. Simultaneously, a well-defined blue papule was seen on the proximal third of the same arm. Dermoscopy disclosed a homogeneous blue pattern. After clinical and dermoscopic correlation our differential diagnosis for this blue lesion included cutaneous melanoma metastasis, blue nevus and foreign body reaction. The patient recalled its onset 75 years ago after a grenade explosion. We also discuss the blue lesion appearance under reflectance confocal microscopy and high-definition optical coherence tomography. Histopathological examination after excision of the hyperpigmented patch and blue papule revealed a melanoma in situ and a foreign body reaction, respectively. The diagnostic evaluation of a blue lesion should always rely on the integration of all data, especially clinical and dermoscopic features. Other non-invasive techniques, like reflectance confocal microscopy and high-definition optical coherence tomography can also be important aids for its differential diagnosis. PMID:25126462

  12. Malignant melanoma at a scientific laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shy, C.M.; Checkoway, H.; Marshall, E.G.

    1985-11-15

    The general consensus of the seven reviewers is that occupational exposures at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory have not been established as a causal factor for the observed excess of malignant melanoma. Several observations support the impression that some or all of the observed melanoma excess may be attributable to intense surveillance and enhanced detection of early stage melanoma lesions. Since the incidence of melanomas among Laboratory employees has not diminished, an early harvesting effect is unlikely. This suggests the distinct possibility that localized, in situ melanomas that would normally not be detected are being reported, and that in the absence of this enhanced detection, many of these early stage lesions would show little or no clinical progression. This phenomenon would explain the continued high incidence of melanomas in the absence of a physical or chemical inciting cause. A key point in this reasoning is the issue of the rate of growth of early stage melanomas, and this point remains a key question for study. Even if the observed excess cannot be explained by detection bias, the reviewers agree that the Austin and Reynolds' study does not make a convincing case for occupational factors being a cause of the high melanoma incidence. 6 refs.

  13. Serum-proteomics in melanoma patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The project Serum-proteomics in melanoma patients funded by 'Programma Oncologico Italia-USA' Oncoproteomica has the general aim to collect serum samples from melanoma patients and to analyze the expression profile of several cytokines, in order to identify whether significant differences are evident between patients and controls, or among different patients subgroups with different staging or therapy

  14. Malignant melanoma at a scientific laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The general consensus of the seven reviewers is that occupational exposures at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory have not been established as a causal factor for the observed excess of malignant melanoma. Several observations support the impression that some or all of the observed melanoma excess may be attributable to intense surveillance and enhanced detection of early stage melanoma lesions. Since the incidence of melanomas among Laboratory employees has not diminished, an early harvesting effect is unlikely. This suggests the distinct possibility that localized, in situ melanomas that would normally not be detected are being reported, and that in the absence of this enhanced detection, many of these early stage lesions would show little or no clinical progression. This phenomenon would explain the continued high incidence of melanomas in the absence of a physical or chemical inciting cause. A key point in this reasoning is the issue of the rate of growth of early stage melanomas, and this point remains a key question for study. Even if the observed excess cannot be explained by detection bias, the reviewers agree that the Austin and Reynolds' study does not make a convincing case for occupational factors being a cause of the high melanoma incidence. 6 refs

  15. Mistletoe in the treatment of malignant melanoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esin Sakall? Çetin

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Malignant melanoma is a malignant neoplasia drives from melanocytes. Malignant melanoma, the most causing death, is seen in the third place at skin cancer. Malignant melanoma shows intrinsic resistance to chemotherapeutic agents and variability in the course of the disease which are distinct features separating from other solid tumors. These features prevent the development and standardization of non-surgical treatment models of malignant melanoma. Although there is a large number of chemotherapeutic agents used in the treatment of metastatic malignant melanoma, it hasn’t been demonstrated the survival advantage of adjuvant treatment with chemotherapeutic agents. Because of the different clinical course of malignant melanoma, the disease is thought to be closely associated with immune system. Therefore, immunomodulatory therapy models were developed. Mistletoe stimulates the immune system by increasing the number and activity of dendritic cells, thus it has been shown to effect on tumor growth and metastasis of malignant melanoma patient. Outlined in this review are the recent developments in the understanding the role of mistletoe as a complementary therapy for malignant melanoma. J Clin Exp Invest 2014; 5 (1: 145-152

  16. Oral and Cutaneous Melanoma: Similarities and Differences

    OpenAIRE

    Moreira, Rafaela Nogueira; Santos, Cassio Roberto Rocha; Lima, Nadia Lages; Verli, Flaviana Dornela; Marinho, Sandra Aparecida

    2010-01-01

    Melanomas are malignant lesions stemming from the disorganized proliferation of melanocytes. This condition is more common on skin, but may also be detected in mucosa, such as in the oral cavity. The aim of the present study was to report similarities and differences between oral and cutaneous melanoma.

  17. Hyperdense Endobronchial Mass - A Rare Manifestation of Metastatic Melanoma

    OpenAIRE

    Chung, Chul Y.; Likhari, Gauruv S.; Zarrin-khameh, Neda; Nachiappan, Arun C.

    2014-01-01

    Parenchymal lung metastases are common in malignant melanoma. However, endobronchial metastatic melanoma is uncommon. In this report, we describe a patient with a hyperdense endobronchial mass diagnosed as a melanoma metastasis. We review the imaging findings of pulmonary metastatic melanoma and discuss the differential diagnosis of an endobronchial mass in adults.

  18. From Melanocyte to Metastatic Malignant Melanoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bizhan Bandarchi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Malignant melanoma is one of the most aggressive malignancies in human and is responsible for almost 60% of lethal skin tumors. Its incidence has been increasing in white population in the past two decades. There is a complex interaction of environmental (exogenous and endogenous, including genetic, risk factors in developing malignant melanoma. 8–12% of familial melanomas occur in a familial setting related to mutation of the CDKN2A gene that encodes p16. The aim of this is to briefly review the microanatomy and physiology of the melanocytes, epidemiology, risk factors, clinical presentation, historical classification and histopathology and, more in details, the most recent discoveries in biology and genetics of malignant melanoma. At the end, the final version of 2009 AJCC malignant melanoma staging and classification is presented.

  19. Alpha particles for treatment of disseminated melanoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Link, E.M. [London University (United Kingdom)

    2010-07-01

    Invading melanoma spreads to local and unpredictable distant location at the early stages of its development. It is justifiable, therefore, to classify the disease as a systemic disorder. This requires a systemic treatment that reaches all melanoma cells irrespective of whether they are singly dispersed and in circulation or already forming solid tumours of various sizes. Targeted radiotherapy affects directly and selectively cancer cells provided an appropriate radionuclide and its carrier are chosen. Melanoma is a pigmented tumour. Methylene blue (MTB)) accumulates selectively in melanoma cells due to its exceptionally high affinity to melanin. MTB serves, therefore, as a carrier for radionuclides. {sup 211}At-MTB has proved to be particularly effective in treating disseminated melanoma when administered systemically and, at the same time, non-toxic to normal non-pigmented and pigmented organs. (authors)

  20. Alpha particles for treatment of disseminated melanoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Link, E.M. [London Univ. (United Kingdom)

    2010-11-15

    Invading melanoma spreads to local and unpredictable distant location at the early stages of its development. It is justifiable, therefore to classify the disease as a systemic disorder. This requires a systemic treatment that reaches all melanoma cells irrespective of whether they are singly dispersed and in circulation or already forming solid tumours of various sizes. Targeted radiotherapy affects directly and selectively cancer cells provided an appropriate radionuclide and its carrier are chosen. Melanoma is a pigmented tumour. Methylene blue (MTB) accumulates selectively in melanoma cells due to its exceptionally high affinity to melanin. MTB serves, therefore, as a carrier for radionuclides. {sup 211}At-MTB has proved to be particularly effective in treating disseminated melanoma when administered systemically and, at the same time, non-toxic to normal non-pigmented and pigmented organs. (author)

  1. Beyond BRAF: where next for melanoma therapy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedorenko, I V; Gibney, G T; Sondak, V K; Smalley, K S M

    2015-01-20

    In recent years, melanoma has become a poster-child for the development of oncogene-directed targeted therapies. This approach, which has been exemplified by the development of small-molecule BRAF inhibitors and the BRAF/MEK inhibitor combination for BRAF-mutant melanoma, has brought new hope to patients. Despite these successes, treatment failure seems near inevitable in the majority of cases—even in individuals treated with the BRAF/MEK inhibitor doublet. In the current review, we discuss the future of combination strategies for patients with BRAF-mutant melanoma as well as the emerging therapeutic options for patients with NRAS-mutant and BRAF/NRAS-wild-type melanoma. We also outline some of the newest developments in the in-depth personalisation of therapy that should allow melanoma treatment to continue shaping the field precision cancer medicine. PMID:25180764

  2. Melanoma Surveillance in the US: Collecting Melanoma Data

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-10-19

    This podcast accompanies the publication of a series of articles on melanoma surveillance in the United States, available in the November supplement edition of the Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology. Dr. Suephy Chen, a dermatologist from Emory University, discusses why the articles are important, as well as the need to increase dermatologistsâ?? awareness of cancer registries and reporting requirements.  Created: 10/19/2011 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 10/19/2011.

  3. SOX10 promotes melanoma cell invasion by regulating melanoma inhibitory activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graf, Saskia A; Busch, Christian; Bosserhoff, Anja-Katrin; Besch, Robert; Berking, Carola

    2014-08-01

    The transcription factor SOX10 (SRY (sex determining region Y)-box 10) has a key role in the embryonic development of melanocytes. Recently, it has been suggested that SOX10 is highly relevant for melanoma development and survival. However, the distinct functions and downstream targets of SOX10 in melanoma remain widely unknown. In this study, we inhibited SOX10 via RNA interference in different human melanoma cell lines and found a significantly reduced invasion capacity in vitro and in the chick embryo model. At later time points, SOX10 inhibition reduced proliferation and induced cell death. We identified melanoma inhibitory activity (MIA) as a direct target gene of SOX10, which is an essential protein for melanoma cell migration and invasion. Expression levels of SOX10 and MIA strictly correlated in melanoma cell lines, and SOX10 inhibition reduced MIA expression and promoter activity. Direct binding of SOX10 to the MIA promoter was demonstrated by electrophoretic mobility shift assay and chromatin immunoprecipitation. Ectopic expression of MIA in SOX10-inhibited melanoma cells restored the invasion capacity, supporting the hypothesis that MIA is responsible for SOX10-mediated melanoma cell invasion. Our data provide evidence for a critical role of SOX10 in melanoma cell invasion through the regulation of MIA and highlight its role as a therapeutic target in melanoma. PMID:24608986

  4. Epidermotropic chondroid metastasis of melanoma: report of a case of metastatic melanoma with previously unreported morphological features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piana, Simonetta; Valli, Riccardo; Ricci, Cinzia

    2009-05-01

    A potential diagnostic pitfall in the management of patients with melanoma is the inability to recognize metastatic melanoma, especially if it shows unusual features. We describe a case of multiple epidermotropic metastatic melanoma, which finally recurred with an extensive chondroid differentiation. To our knowledge, this is the first description of a case of epidermotropic chondroid metastatic melanoma. PMID:19384075

  5. Current management and novel agents for malignant melanoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Byung

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Advanced malignant melanoma remains a challenging cancer. Over the past year, there have been 3 agents approved for treatment of melanoma by Food and Drug Administration. These include pegylated interferon alpha-2b for stage III melanoma, vemurafenib for unresectable or metastatic melanoma with BRAF V600E mutation, and ipilimumab for treatment of unresectable or metastatic melanoma. This review will also update on the development of novel agents, including tyrosine kinase inhibitors and adoptive cellular therapy.

  6. Melanoma susceptibility genes and risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marzuka-Alcalá, Alexander; Gabree, Michele Jacobs; Tsao, Hensin

    2014-01-01

    Familial melanoma accounts for approximately a tenth of all melanoma cases. The most commonly known melanoma susceptibility gene is the highly penetrant CDKN2A (p16INK4a) locus, which is transmitted in an autosomal dominant fashion and accounts for approximately 20-50 % of familial melanoma cases. Mutated p16INK4a shows impaired capacity to inhibit the cyclin D1-CDK4 complex, allowing for unchecked cell cycle progression. Mutations in the second protein coded by CDKN2A, p14ARF, are much less common and result in proteasomal degradation of p53 with subsequent accumulation of DNA damage as the cell progresses through the cell cycle without a functional p53-mediated DNA damage response. Mutations in CDK4 that impair the inhibitory interaction with p16INK4a also increase melanoma risk but these mutations are extremely rare. Genes of the melanin biosynthetic pathway, including MC1R and MITF, have also been implicated in melanomagenesis. MC1R variants were traditionally thought to increase risk for melanoma secondary to intensified UV-mediated DNA damage in the setting of absent photoprotective eumelanin. Accumulation of pheomelanin, which appears to have a carcinogenic effect regardless of UV exposure, may be a more likely mechanism. Impaired SUMOylation of the E318K variant of MITF results in increased transcription of genes that confer melanocytes with a pro-malignant phenotype. Mutations in the tumor suppressor BAP1 enhance the metastatic potential of uveal melanoma and predispose to cutaneous/ocular melanoma, atypical melanocytic tumors, and other internal malignancies (COMMON syndrome). Genome-wide association studies have identified numerous low-risk alleles. Although several melanoma susceptibility genes have been identified, risk assessment tools have been developed only for the most common gene implicated with hereditary melanoma, CDKN2A. MelaPRO, a validated model that relies on Mendelian inheritance and Bayesian probability theories, estimates carrier probability for CDKN2A and future risk of melanoma taking into account a patient's family and past medical history of melanoma. Genetic testing for CDKN2A mutations is currently available but the Melanoma Genetics Consortium recommends offering such testing to patients only in the context of research protocols because clinical utility is uncertain. PMID:24258989

  7. Targeted drug for uveal melanoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Researchers from Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center presented findings at the annual meeting of the American Society for Clinical Oncology from a study testing the experimental drug selumetinib as a treatment for patients with metastatic uveal melanoma. This treatment more than doubled the time to progression when compared with chemotherapy. Many patients receiving selumetinib experienced tumor shrinkage, making selumetinib the first systemic therapy ever to benefit patients with this cancer. The findings are potentially practice changing for a disease that has previously had no known effective therapy.

  8. Cancer stem cells in melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regenbrecht, C; Welte, Y; Hugel, R; Trefzer, U; Losch, F O; Adjaye, J; Walden, P

    2008-01-01

    The identification of cancer stem cells in various malignancies led to the hypothesis that these cells have the exclusive ability of self-renewal, contribute to the plasticity of the tumours and may be the cause for ineffective cancer therapies. Several markers of melanoma stem cells have been described in recent studies including CD133, CD166, Nestin and BMI-1. Further studies are necessary to identify, better define and understand the origin and function of cancer stem cells. If confirmed that cancer stem cells play an important role in malignancy, therapeutic strategies may need to be redirected towards these cells to circumvent the failure of conventional therapies. PMID:22275987

  9. Evolving concepts in melanoma classification and their relevance to multidisciplinary melanoma patient care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scolyer, Richard A; Long, Georgina V; Thompson, John F

    2011-04-01

    In the initial period after melanoma was recognised as a disease entity in the early 1800's, it was subclassified on the basis of its presumed origin (from a precursor naevus, from a melanocytic precursor lesion acquired during adult life or in previously blemish-fee skin). In 1967 the eminent American pathologist, Dr Wallace Clark, proposed a histogenetic classification for melanoma in which the disease was subdivided predominantly on the basis of histopathological features of the intra-epidermal component of the tumour adjacent to any dermal invasive component. The subtypes were superficial spreading melanoma (SSM), lentigo maligna melanoma (LMM) and nodular melanoma (NM). Whilst additional entities, including acral lentiginous melanoma, mucosal melanoma, desmoplastic melanoma and naevoid melanoma have since been recognised, SSM, LMM and NM remain in the latest (2006) version of the WHO melanoma classification. Clark's histogenetic classification has been criticised because the criteria upon which it is based include clinical features (such as the site of the melanoma) and non-tumourous histopathological features (such as the character of the associated epidermis and the degree of solar elastosis) and also because of overlap in defining features, lack of an independent association with patient outcome and minimal relevance as a determinant of clinical management. However, such criticisms fail to acknowledge its importance in highlighting the myriad of clinical and histological guises of melanoma, which if not recognized by clinicians and pathologists will inevitably lead to a delay in diagnosis and a concomitant adverse clinical outcome. Recently, mutually exclusive oncogenic mutations in melanomas involving NRAS (15-20%), BRAF (50%), CKIT (2%), and GNAQ/GNA11 (50% of uveal melanomas) have been identified. This might herald the beginning of a new molecular classification of melanoma in which the biologically distinct subsets share a common oncogenic mechanism, behave clinically in a similar fashion and require similar clinical management. These discoveries are already being successfully exploited as therapeutic targets in clinical trials of metastatic melanoma patients with promising activity. Whilst there remains much to be discovered in this rapidly evolving field, there is already great optimism that more rational and effective therapies for melanoma patients will soon be widely available. PMID:21482206

  10. Polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemistry frequently detect occult melanoma cells in regional lymph nodes of melanoma patients.

    OpenAIRE

    Hatta, N.; Takata, M.; Takehara, K.; Ohara, K.

    1998-01-01

    AIMS: To evaluate immunohistochemistry and reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for melanoma associated antigens (MAA) in detecting occult melanoma cells in lymph nodes which were missed on routine pathology. METHODS: Occult melanoma cells were sought in 436 lymph nodes from 32 patients with cutaneous melanoma of the lower extremities by immunohistochemistry using the melanoma specific antibody HMB-45. The detection sensitivity of routine histology, immunohistochemistry, a...

  11. Wavelengths effective in induction of malignant melanoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is generally agreed that sunlight exposure is one of the etiologic agents in malignant melanoma of fair-skinned individuals. However, the wavelengths responsible for tumorigenesis are not known, although DNA is assumed to be the target because individuals defective in the repair of UV damage to DNA are several thousandfold more prone to the disease than the average population. Heavily pigmented back-cross hybrids of the genus Xiphophorus (platyfish and swordtails) are very sensitive to melanoma induction by single exposures to UV. The authors irradiated groups of five 6-day-old fish with narrow wavelength bands at 302, 313, 365, 405, and 436 nm and score the irradiated animals for melanomas 4 months later. They used several exposures at each wavelength to obtain estimates of the sensitivity for melanoma induction as a function of exposure and wavelength. The action spectrum (sensitivity per incident photon as a function of wavelength) for melanoma induction shows appreciable sensitivity at 365, 405, and probably 436 nm, suggesting that wavelengths not absorbed directly in DNA are effective in induction. They interpret the results as indicating that light energy absorbed in melanin is effective in inducing melanomas in this animal model and that, in natural sunlight, 90-95% of melanoma induction may be attributed to wavelengths >320 nm-the UV-A and visible spectral regions. 25 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  12. Molecular targeted therapies in metastatic melanoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chakraborty R

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Rima Chakraborty,1 Carilyn N Wieland,2 Nneka I Comfere2 1University of Missouri-Kansas City Medical School, Kansas City, MO, 2Departments of Dermatology and Laboratory Medicine and Pathology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA Abstract: The advent of personalized medicine has ushered in a new era for cancer therapy with a significant impact on the management of advanced melanoma. Molecular targeted therapies have shown promise in the management of various malignancies, including melanoma, with lower toxicity profiles and better overall survival as compared with conventional therapy. The discovery of BRAF mutations in melanoma led to the development of BRAF inhibitors for the treatment of advanced melanoma. However, growing concerns over drug resistance to molecular targeted therapies including BRAF inhibitors, have spurred efforts to elucidate additional molecular targets for the treatment of advanced melanoma. In this review, we discuss the known molecular aberrations in melanoma, current and novel targeted approaches in its treatment, and drug resistance patterns. Keywords: BRAF inhibitors, metastatic melanoma, personalized medicine

  13. Stage-specific prognostic biomarkers in melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yabin; Lu, Jing; Chen, Guangdi; Ardekani, Gholamreza Safaee; Rotte, Anand; Martinka, Magdalena; Xu, Xuezhu; McElwee, Kevin J; Zhang, Guohong; Zhou, Youwen

    2015-02-28

    The melanoma staging system proposed by the American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) (which classifies melanoma patients into four clinical stages) is currently the most widely used tool for melanoma prognostication, and clinical management decision making by clinicians. However, multiple studies have shown that melanomas within specific AJCC Stages can exhibit varying progression and clinical outcomes. Thus, additional information, such as that provided by biomarkers is needed to assist in identifying the patients at risk of disease progression.Having previously found six independent prognostic biomarkers in melanoma, including BRAF, MMP2, p27, Dicer, Fbw7 and Tip60, our group has gone on to investigate if these markers are useful in risk stratification of melanoma patients in individual AJCC stages. First, we performed Kaplan-Meier survival and Cox proportional multivariate analyses comparing prognostication power of these markers in 254 melanoma patients for whom the expression levels were known, identifying the best performing markers as candidates for stage-specific melanoma markers. We then verified the results by incorporating an additional independent cohort (87 patients) and in a combined cohort (341 patients).Our data indicate that BRAF and MMP2 are optimal prognostic biomarkers for AJCC Stages I and II, respectively (P = 0.010, 0.000, Log-rank test); whereas p27 emerged as a good marker for AJCC Stages III/IV (0.018, 0.046, respectively, log-rank test). Thus, our study has identified stage-specific biomarkers in melanoma, a finding which may assist clinicians in designing improved personalized therapeutic modalities. PMID:25784655

  14. Primary Cilium Depletion Typifies Cutaneous Melanoma In Situ and Malignant Melanoma

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Jinah; Dabiri, Salma; Seeley, E. Scott

    2011-01-01

    Cutaneous melanoma is a lethal malignancy that arises spontaneously or via in situ precursor neoplasms. While melanoma in situ and locally invasive malignant melanoma can be cured surgically, these lesions can sometimes be difficult to distinguish from melanocytic nevi. Thus, the identification of histolopathologic or molecular features that distinguish these biologically distinct lesions would represent an important advance. To this end, we determined the abundance of melanocytic primary cil...

  15. Melanoma de coroides en melanosis óculi Choroidal melanoma in ocular melanosis

    OpenAIRE

    Lo?pez Caballero, C.; Ma, Saornil A?lvarez; Blanco Mateos, G.; Jm, Frutos Baraja; Lo?pez Lara, F.; Gonza?lez Sansegundo, C.

    2003-01-01

    Casos clínicos: Se presentan cuatro casos de pacientes con signos clínicos de melanosis óculi. En todos se diagnosticó melanoma de coroides. Tres acudieron con disminución de visión en ojo afecto y fueron enucleados por presentar tumores grandes y activos. En el cuarto caso el melanoma fue descubierto en una revisión rutinaria y se pudo aplicar un tratamiento conservador con braquiterapia con I125. Discusión: La melanosis óculi está infravalorada como factor de riesgo para melanoma ...

  16. Micropthalmia Transcription Factor (MITF) as a diagnostic marker for metastatic melanomas negative for other melanoma markers

    OpenAIRE

    Guo, Ruifeng; Franco-palacios, Maria; Russell, Madison; Goddard, Lindsey; Hassell, Lewis; Gillies, Elizabeth; Fung, Kar-ming

    2013-01-01

    Metastatic malignant melanoma has a wide spectrum of histopathologic patterns and often lacks melanin pigment. Without a known primary tumor, the diagnosis of metastatic malignant melanoma relies on a combination of morphology and immunohistochemical profile. Infrequently, commonly used markers for melanoma (S100, HMB45, Melan-A and Tyrosinase A) are negative. These cases pose critical diagnostic challenges. Recent studies show that Microphthalmia Transcription Factor (MITF) has high sensitiv...

  17. Immunoscintigraphy of cutaneous malignant melanoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors give a critical review on their experience with radioimmunoscintigraphy of cutaneous malignant melanoma. The clinical interest of this approach stems from the possibility to obtain new information on the lesion that is not obtainable by the other methods used. However this is only feasible if the technique can be applied in clinical practice in a simple and save way. To fulfill these requirements the experiments included: preliminary evaluation of the immunological characteristics of the chosen antigen-antibody system with special regard to the antigen expression in melanoma and in normal tissue; preparation of immunoreagents suitable for administration in patients, labeled with different radionuclides; study of the bio-distribution of the whole MoAb and its fragments labeled with different radionuclides; evaluation of tumor uptake; optimization of a protocol to perform examinations in clinical practice; evaluation of the results obtained in a limited series of patients using different radionuclides; extension of the evaluation to a large number of patients in different nuclear medicine centers using the most suitable compounds obtained; evaluation of the clinical utility of this method by means of prospective trials. (author). 28 refs.; 4 figs.; 5 tabs

  18. Pathological and prognostic features of uveal melanomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLean, Ian W; Saraiva, Vinicius S; Burnier, Miguel N

    2004-06-01

    Uveal melanomas may arise in the iris, ciliary body or choroid. Choroidal melanomas are the most common and usually display a discoid, collar-button or mushroom-shaped growth pattern. Uveal melanomas are composed of spindle and epithelioid cells and are classified histopathologically as either spindle-cell-type or mixed-cell-type tumours. The most important factors predicting clinical behaviour and underlying biology are cell type, cytomorphometric features, largest tumour dimension, scleral invasion and mitotic figures. Other valuable prognostic factors are tumour-infiltrating lymphocytes and macrophages, and the presence of vascular loops. PMID:15327098

  19. Body CT appearances of metastatic melanoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors reviewed the CT studies and clinical records of 57 patients thought to have metastatic melanoma and sought CT findings that might be characteristic of metastatic melanoma. No pattern of lesion density, homogeneity, necrosis, border definition, hazing of adjacent fat, or calcification was characteristic for melanoma. However, widespread lesions in multiple organs, a combination of subcutaneous and visceral lesions, and large yet clinically silent lesions were common. Small (5mm) abnormalities in the lung, liver, spleen, and subcutaneous fat that might be considered inconsequential often represented early deposits of tumor which were enlarged on subsequent scans

  20. Circulating Tumor Cells and Melanoma Progression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiaowei; Zhong, Jiang F.

    2014-01-01

    Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) are cancer cells shed from either a primary tumor or its metastases that circulate in the peripheral blood. CTCs are potential seeds for metastases, and analyses of CTCs may allow earlier detection of metastasis-capable malignancy, monitoring for tumor recurrence, and accurate prognostication. Studies on CTCs have focused mainly on the detection of epithelial cancer cells. In this issue, De Giorgi et al. show that CTCs can be detected in melanoma patients using a filtration method, and that a higher percentage of patients with metastatic melanoma have detectable CTCs than do patients with primary melanoma. PMID:20842140

  1. Experimental boron neutron capture therapy for melanoma: Systemic delivery of boron to melanotic and amelanotic melanoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The boron-containing melanin precursor analogue p-boronophenylalanine (BPA) has previously been shown to selectively deliver boron to pigmented murine melanomas when administered in a single intragastric dose. If boron neutron capture therapy is to become a clinically useful method of radiation therapy for human malignant melanoma, the boron carrier must be capable of delivering useful amounts of boron to remote tumor sites (metastases) and to poorly pigmented melanomas. The authors have now determined the ability of BPA to accumulate in several nonpigmented melanoma models including human melanoma xenografts in nude mice. The absolute amount of boron in the nonpigmented melanomas was about 50% of the observed in the pigmented counterparts but was still selectively concentrated in the tumor relative to normal tissues in amounts sufficient for effective neutron capture therapy. Single intragastric doses of BPA resulted in selective localization of boron in the amelanotic Greene melanoma carried in the anterior chamber of the rabbit eye and in a pigmented murine melanoma growing in the lungs. The ratio of the boron concentration in these tumors to the boron concentration in the immediately adjacent normal tissue was in the range of 3:1 to 4:1. These distribution studies support the proposal that boron neutron capture therapy may be useful as a regional therapy for malignant melanoma

  2. Metástases cutâneas em melanoma de coróide / Cutaneous metastasis in choroidal melanoma

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Fabricio Lopes da, Fonseca; Suzana, Matayoshi.

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available A ocorrência de metástases do melanoma de coróide é frequente na doença avançada, acometendo principalmente fígado, pulmões e sistema nervoso central. Relatamos um caso de melanoma de coróide com metástases cutâneas, por se tratar de acometimento raro, mesmo em casos avançados da doença. [...] Abstract in english Metastasis in choroidal melanoma is frequent on advanced diseases, involving mainly the liver, lungs and central nervous system. We report a case of cutaneous metastasis in choroidal melanoma because is an unusual condition, even in advanced disease. [...

  3. Cutaneous Melanoma: Taiwan Experience and Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Wen-Cheng Chang

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Malignant melanoma is a rare disease in Taiwan with anincidence rate of 0.65/100,000. Excessive exposure to ultravioletradiation is not associated with most Taiwanese melanomacases. Acral lentiginous melanoma comprises 58% of cutaneousmelanoma. Advanced disease is seen in 50% of cases.Surgery, including resection of the primary melanoma, sentinellymph nodes that may harbor microscopic metastasis, clinicallyabnormal lymph nodes, and selected distant metastases, isthe most important treatment. Lymphatic mapping and sentinellymph node biopsy has changed the clinical stage in 22.2% ofour patients. Adjuvant high-dose interferon significantly prolongsprogression-free survival. However, its use in Taiwan islimited by its substantial toxicity. The prognosis of metastaticdisease remains poor with a median survival of 12 months. Inthe past, chemotherapy alone was the most common treatmentmodality for metastatic disease. Recently biochemotherapy hasbeen more commonly utilized to treat patients with metastatic melanoma.

  4. Direct bony invasion of malignant melanoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mula Viswanath

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Malignant melanoma is known to spread by local extention, by the lymphatics by the blood stream. Direct invasion of the bone from a cutaneous melanoma is unknown. Hence, this case is presented in view of its rarity. A 75-year-old Caucasian lady presented with a small papillary lesion in the region of a recurrent chronic cellulitis on the lower third of the lateral aspect of the right leg. Histopathology diagnosed the lesion as locally advanced malignant melanoma. Radiological investigations by X-ray and magnetic resonance imaging revealed malignant infiltration of the tibia in its mid and lower third with two soft tissue metastatic masses adjacent. Histology following amputation confirmed malignant melanoma with cranial resection margin involvement. She underwent a further above-knee amputation followed by chemotherapy. The patient recovered from the amputation but subsequently died 6 months later due to bronchopneumonia from lung metastasis.

  5. Oral malignant melanoma--an unusual presentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Priya Sara; Babu, Gogineni Subhas; Anusha, Rangare Laxman; Shetty, Shishir

    2012-06-01

    Malignant melanoma is the least common but most deadly of all primary skin cancers. Oral malignant melanoma is a rare aggressive neoplasm usually seen in middle aged persons. This malignancy is more frequently seen on the hard palate and gingiva. Oral melanomas are associated with very poor prognosis because of the tendency to metastasise or invade tissues locally more readily than other malignant tumours of the oral cavity especially in the case of a geriatric patient. The surgical approach, combined with the chemotherapy, is the first choice treatment. This report highlights a case report of 71-year-old female patient diagnosed and treated surgically for an oral malignant melanoma of the pedunculated variety affecting the hard palate and gingiva with review of literature. PMID:22612841

  6. Malignant melanoma with metastasis into the capitate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metastases to the hand and wrist are rare, with fewer than 200 cases reported in the literature. Phalanges are more commonly involved than metacarpal and wrist. The lung, breast and kidneys are the more common sites of primary lesions than metastasize in the hand. We present an exceptional case of melanoma that metastasized to the capitate. Melanoma can give bone metastases, but we are not aware of reports of this tumour metastatising to the carpal bones. In our knowledge, we have only found a report of metastases in the capitate, a clear-cell sarcoma of the right foot, a tumour close to melanoma with some cytogenetic differences. Hand metastases in a patient who is suffered melanoma should be ruled out if a lytic aggressive lesion appears on x-ray film or positive technetium bone scan is demonstrated

  7. Iris melanoma seeding through a trabeculectomy site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossniklaus, H E; Brown, R H; Stulting, R D; Blasberg, R D

    1990-09-01

    A 59-year-old man who had previously undergone a trabeculectomy in his right eye was examined because of an enlarging pigmented lesion of the inferior portion of the iris. A fine-needle aspiration biopsy of aqueous fluid revealed spindle cells and epithelioid malignant melanoma cells. The eye was enucleated, and subsequent histopathologic examination demonstrated a mixed spindle cell and epithelioid cell melanoma of the inferior portion of the iris with seeding of melanoma cells into the conjunctival filtering bleb via the trabeculectomy site. This case illustrates the usefulness of fine-needle aspiration biopsy in the evaluation of pigmented iris lesions and illustrates that iris melanoma can seed through a trabeculectomy site. PMID:2400348

  8. Novel anti-melanoma treatment: focus on immunotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng-Ze Hao

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Melanoma is an intractable cancer that is aggressive, lethal, and metastatic. The prognosis of advanced melanoma is very poor because it is insensitive to chemotherapy and radiotherapy. The incidence of melanoma has been ascending stably for years worldwide, accompanied by increasing mortality. New approaches to managing this deadly disease are much anticipated to enhance the cure rate and to extend clinical benefits to patients with metastatic melanoma. Due to its high degree of immunogenicity, melanoma could be a good target for immunotherapy, which has been developed for decades and has achieved certain progress. This article provides an overview of immunotherapy for melanoma.

  9. Spitzoid Melanoma: A Ten Year-Old Boy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I??l K?l?nç Karaarslan

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Spitzoid melanoma is a rare variant of melanoma, in which the clinical and histopathologic diagnoses are difficult. Data on the features of Spitzoid melanoma in children is limited in the literature, since melanoma is rarely seen in childhood. Here, we report a 10 year-old child with a Spitzoid melanoma. By the means of this case, it has been emphasized that melanoma should be considered in the differential diagnosis of vascular lesions even seen in childhood, unless the clinical and dermoscopic features are characteristic for an entity. (Journal of Current Pediatrics 2008; 6: 127-9

  10. Three Cases of Scalp Melanomas Discovered by Hairdressers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillemer, Brendan B. L.; Pugliano-Mauro, Melissa A.; Ferris, Laura K.

    2013-01-01

    Studies have demonstrated that patients are able to identify melanoma in many cases. A limitation to using self-examination as a means of melanoma detection is the fact that in certain areas of the body, such as the scalp, self-examination is difficult to adequately perform. This may be one of the reasons why scalp melanomas carry a worse prognosis than melanomas detected in other areas of the body. The authors present three cases of scalp melanomas that were detected by the patient’s hairdressers and suggest that with minimal training, hairdressers could become a valuable resource in assisting dermatologists in the early diagnosis of scalp melanoma. PMID:24003349

  11. Malignant melanoma of the bladder: A case report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayar, Hamide; Erdogan, Seyda; Adamhasan, Fulya; Gurbuz, Esma; Inci, Mehmet Fatih

    2014-01-01

    Primary malignant melanoma of the bladder is very rare. Rather than being a primary lesion, malignant melanomas of the bladder are more commonly metastatic lesions. The histopathological appearance largely does not differ from that of melanoma at other body sites. It is often difficult to discriminate whether a bladder melanoma is primary or metastatic. Therefore, a careful review of histological features and performing necessary immunohistochemical staining procedures for S-100 protein and HMB-45 are very important in achieving a correct diagnosis. We report a case of hypomelanotic malignant melanoma of the bladder. Despite the variety of therapies available for primary melanomas of the bladder, the prognosis is still poor. PMID:24454603

  12. Liver Metastases of Unknown Primary: Malignant Melanoma

    OpenAIRE

    Ozgur Bostanci; Kinyas Kartal; Muharrem Battal

    2014-01-01

    According to the National Cancer Institute's (NCI) data, the increase in the number of patients diagnosed with malignant melanoma was found to be at a higher rate than the current increase in all other types of cancer (Jemal et al., 2008). Early diagnosis, appropriate surgical treatment, and chemotherapy have positive impacts on the course of the disease but despite these developments on the treatment, current prognosis of metastatic malignant melanoma prognosis is still extremely poor. Life ...

  13. Ipilimumab Pharmacotherapy in Patients with Metastatic Melanoma

    OpenAIRE

    Jeter, Joanne M.; Cranmer, Lee D.; Hersh, Evan M.

    2012-01-01

    Immune augmentation with ipilimumab, an anti-CTLA-4 monoclonal antibody, has joined the ranks of approved immunologic agents for the treatment of metastatic melanoma. Phase III studies of ipilimumab in metastatic melanoma have demonstrated an overall survival advantage as compared to other approved and investigational therapies. However, the adverse effects associated with this medication are unique and often require management with steroids or other immunosuppressants. In addition, the time ...

  14. Targeting Brain Metastases in Patients with Melanoma

    OpenAIRE

    Dionysis Papadatos-Pastos; Aspasia Soultati; Mark Harries

    2013-01-01

    Patients with brain metastases from malignant melanoma historically have a very poor outcome. Surgery and radiotherapy can be used, but for the majority of patients the disease will progress quickly. In the recent past, patients with brain metastases derived only minimal benefit from cytotoxic chemotherapy. Novel therapies that have been shown to be superior to chemotherapy in metastatic melanoma have made their way in clinic and data regarding their use in patients with treated or untreated ...

  15. Second primary oral melanoma: A rare presentation

    OpenAIRE

    Nayak, Meghanand T.; Singh, Anjali; Mathur, Rm; Wadhwani, Puneet

    2012-01-01

    Melanomas are neoplasms of melanocytic origin. They are aggressive neoplasms with an unpredictable behavior, and can involve virtually any organ of the body. Oral melanomas are very rare and have an extremely poor prognosis. Early diagnosis and prompt treatment is the key to reduce the morbidity and mortality. A second primary tumor is a new primary tumor developing in a person with a history of tumor, in a new site or tissue and subsequent to the initial tumor. Patients with previous history...

  16. A Case of Melanoma Associated Leukoderma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özer Ar?can

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Melanoma associated leukoderma is a rare disease characterized by hypopigmented or depigmented macules, which are usualy localized at distant sites from the primary malignant melonoma. Immunologic response to abnormal melanocytes is thought to be responsible for the physiopathology of the disease. A 34-year- old male patient with a facially localized melanoma associated leukoderma is presented and the clinical features, pathogenesis, differential diagnosis, treatment and follow-up of the disease are discussed with the recent literature.

  17. Proton beam radiotherapy of uveal melanoma

    OpenAIRE

    Damato, Bertil; Kacperek, Andrzej; Errington, Doug; Heimann, Heinrich

    2013-01-01

    Proton beam radiotherapy of uveal melanoma can be administered as primary treatment, as salvage therapy for recurrent tumor, and as neoadjuvant therapy prior to surgical resection. The physical properties of proton beams make it possible to deliver high-doses of radiation to the tumor with relative sparing of adjacent tissues. This form of therapy is effective for a wider range of uveal melanoma than any other modality, providing exceptionally-high rates of local tumor control. This is partic...

  18. Ocular malignant melanoma in South African blacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, B; Abrahams, C; Cole, G C; Proctor, N S

    1981-10-01

    The incidence of primary ocular malignant melanoma in blacks during the last 25 years in a large part of the Transvaal Province of South Africa is reported. Only 8 cases were diagnosed, 1 uveal, 4 conjunctival, and 3 orbital. During this same period 153 cases of primary ocular malignant melanoma were diagnosed in whites. The rarity of these tumours among blacks is stressed and the reasons for this infrequent incidence discussed. PMID:7317325

  19. Malignant melanoma showing smooth muscle differentiation.

    OpenAIRE

    Banerjee, S. S.; Bishop, P. W.; Nicholson, C. M.; Eyden, B. P.

    1996-01-01

    A unique case of a metastatic non-desmoplastic sarcomatoid malignant melanoma in an axillary lymph node showing smooth muscle differentiation in a 54 year old woman is described. The tumour cells exhibited alpha-smooth muscle actin, HHF-35 and desmin positivity but were negative for S100 protein and HMB-45. Ultrastructural examination revealed smooth muscle phenotype and there was no evidence of myofibroblastic differentiation, a feature described previously in desmoplastic melanomas.

  20. Treatment and outcomes of anorectal melanoma.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Heeney, Anna

    2012-02-01

    INTRODUCTION: anorectal melanoma is an uncommon disease constituting less than 3% of all melanomas. Due to its rarity, there are a lack of randomized control trials regarding appropriate management and current evidence is based mainly on retrospective studies. METHODS: in view of the controversial surgical treatment of anorectal melanoma, we review the most published literature in an attempt to elucidate its typical clinical features along with current thinking with respect to management approaches to this aggressive disease. Using the keywords "anorectal" and "malignant melanoma", a medline search of all articles in English was performed and the relevant articles procured. Additional references were retrieved by cross reference from key articles. RESULTS: anorectal melanoma affects the elderly with a slight preponderance for females. It commonly presents disguised as benign disease with local bleeding or suspicion for haemorrhoidal disease. There is no convincing evidence to indicate that radical resection of primary anorectal melanoma is associated with improvement in local control or survival, and local excision is an acceptable treatment option. CONCLUSION: optimum management depends on several factors and the therapeutic goals should be to lengthen survival and preserve quality-of-life. Given that wide local excision is a more limited intervention with comparable survival it should be considered as the initial treatment choice. Unfortunately prognosis for patients with this disease remains poor despite choice of treatment strategy with overall five year disease-free survival less than twenty percent in most studies.

  1. Radioimmunodetection and radioimmunotherapy of malignant melanoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioimmunodetection utilizing monoclonal antibodies to various melanoma-associated surface antigens has been studied by several investigators during the past ten years. In the early trials, antibodies were labeled with 131I or 111In, but now 99mTc is almost exclusively used because of its more favorable energy for gamma camera imaging. Excellent specificity has been achieved in most studies, whereas sensitivity has been less good. In a recent European multicenter study on 493 patients sensitivity was 79% and specificity 96%. In this largest study on melanoma so far performed many previously unknown metastatic deposits were identified indicating that radioimmunodetection has a role in the management of metastatic disease. The clinical utility of immunoscintigraphy in localization of regional lymph node metastases has been documented in several investigations in recent years, indicating that this method can be used in the preoperative evaluation of patients. Radioimmunodetection has also been successfully used in the differential diagnosis of ocular lesions. However, conclusive evidence of improved patient outcome resulting from the earlier detection of melanoma lesions by immunoscintigraphy is still lacking. Anti-melanoma antibodies labeled with alpha- and beta-emitting isotopes are potential therapeutic agents, but so far there is little clinical experience with radioimmunotherapy of metastatic melanoma. (orig.)c melanoma. (orig.)

  2. Dedifferentiation potential of iris melanomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bechrakis, N E; Lee, W R

    1991-01-01

    A histopathological study was conducted on four cases in which a diffuse iris melanoma presented with glaucoma. Drainage surgery was performed on three eyes for medically non-responsive raised intraocular pressure, and all cases eventually (within 2-7 years) required enucleation for secondary glaucoma. In the iridectomy specimens the tumour melanocytes were small, uniform in size and spindle shaped, while in the enucleation specimens the tumour cells were epitheliod and pleomorphic. The dedifferentiated tumour in the enucleated eyes spread extensively within the anterior chamber and anterior uvea. In three cases there was evidence of intrascleral spread. However, none of the patients has died from metastatic disease in the follow-up period of 2-6 years since enucleation. PMID:1794785

  3. Intraocular melanoma in a horse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, J; Young, S

    1979-09-01

    Sudden unilateral blindness occurred in a 7-year-old grey gelding Quarterhorse. Ophthalmoscopy revealed a pigmented mass arising from the nasal ciliary body of the right eye and extending around the posterior surface of the lens, and there were pigmented particles in the vitreous. Examination of the enucleated globe showed a circumscribed, black, dense and symmetrically ovoid mass with sessile attachment to the nasal ciliary region and extension to posterior lens capsule, vitreous and along the vitreal face of the detached retina to the optic papilla. The mass was composed of heavily pigmented, plump, polyhedral cells that invaded the vitreous and the inner limiting membrane of peripapillary retina and optic papilla. It was considered to be a primary, malignant, intraocular melanoma arising from a large uveal nevus. PMID:473483

  4. Melanoma tumors frequently acquire LRP2/megalin expression, which modulates melanoma cell proliferation and survival rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Rikke K; Hammer, Katrine; Hager, Henrik; Christensen, Julie N; Ludvigsen, Maja; Honoré, Bent; Thomsen, Mai-Britt H; Madsen, Mette

    2015-05-01

    We show that the multiligand receptor megalin, known to mediate uptake and trafficking of nutrients and signaling molecules, is frequently expressed in malignant melanoma samples. Expression of megalin-encoding mRNA was investigated in 65 samples of nevi, melanomas, and melanoma metastases and was observed in more than 60% of the malignant samples, while only in 20% of the benign counterparts. Megalin expression in nevus and melanoma samples was additionally investigated by immunohistochemistry, which confirmed our mRNA-based observations. We furthermore show that a panel of tumor-derived melanoma cell lines express LRP2/megalin endogenously. In these cells, megalin is internalized from the cell surface and localizes extensively to intracellular vesicles, confirming receptor activity and pointing toward association with the endocytic apparatus. Groundbreaking, our results indicate that sustained megalin expression in melanoma cells is crucial for cell maintenance, as siRNA-mediated reduction in melanoma cell expression of LRP2/megalin significantly decreases melanoma cell proliferation and survival rates. PMID:25585665

  5. Melanoma--clinical, dermatoscopical, and histopathological morphological characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Situm, Mirna; Buljan, Marija; Koli?, Maja; Vu?i?, Majda

    2014-04-01

    Melanoma is one of the most malignant skin tumors with constantly rising incidence worldwide, especially in fair-skinned populations. Melanoma is usually diagnosed at the average age 50, but, nowadays is also diagnosed more frequently in younger adults, and very rarely in childhood. There is no unique or specific clinical presentation of a melanoma. The clinical presentation of melanomas varies depending on the anatomic localization and the type of growth, i.e., the histopathological type of the cancer. There are four major histopathological types of melanoma--superficial spreading melanoma, nodular melanoma, lentigo maligna melanoma, and acral lentiginous melanoma. Although dermatoscopy is a very useful tool in early melanoma detection, dermatoscopical features of melanomas are also variable. Therefore, experience and education in dermatoscopy is crucial in the evaluation of skin tumors. Differential diagnosis of melanomas includes a wide range of benign and malignant skin lesions, due to their clinical presentation and resemblance to various dermatological entities. In this review we present the most important aspects of clinical, dermatoscopical, and histopathological features of melanomas. PMID:24813835

  6. Melanoma cutáneo asociado a nevo previo / Cutaneous melanoma associated with previous nevus

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    María P., Gutiérrez; Mónica, Barengo; Claudio, Mainardi; Iliana, Garay; María, Kurpis; Alejandro, Ruiz Lascano.

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Argentina | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El melanoma maligno es una neoplasia originada en los melanocitos de la piel y otras localizaciones. No existe información en nuestro país acerca de su incidencia y prevalecencia, sí se sabe cuáles son los factores de riesgo más importantes. El melanoma puede originarse de novo o a partir de lesione [...] s melanocíticas previas. La noción de que un nevo melanocítico pueda servir como lesión precursora es sustentada por evidencias clínicas e histológicas. Realizamos en el Hospital Privado de Córdoba un estudio observacional, retrospectivo y analítico. El objetivo de este trabajo fue conocer cuál es la frecuencia de asociación de melanomas malignos que se desarrollan sobre nevos previos. Fueron analizados un total de 134 melanomas. En 32 pacientes (24%), los melanomas estuvieron histológicamente asociados con nevos, con espesores de Breslow mayores de 1 mm el porcentaje de asociación fue de 16.3%, y con Breslow menores de 1 mm, 38.1%. Al evaluar los melanomas en relación a la clasificación de Breslow y Clark, se objetivó que el grupo de melanomas asociados a nevos presentó un espesor de Breslow y niveles de Clark bajos y en el análisis estadístico fueron predictores significativos en la probabilidad de hallar esta asociación (p Abstract in english The malignant melanoma is a neoplasia originated from the melanocytes located in the skin and other locations. Even though there is not information regarding its incidence and prevalence in our country, its most important risk factors are known. The melanoma can originate de novo or from previous me [...] lanocytic lesions. The concept that a melanocytic nevus can serve as a precursor lesion is supported by clinical and histological evidence. An observational, retrospective and analytical study was carried out in the Hospital Privado de Córdoba. The objective was to determine which is the frequency of association of malignant melanomas that develop on previous nevus. A total of 134 melanomas were analyzed. In 32 cases (24%), the melanomas were histologically associated with nevus, in individuals with Breslow's depth bigger than 1 mm the percentage of association was 16.3% while in those exhibiting Breslow smaller than 1 mm the percentage of association was 38.1%. Having evaluated the melanomas in relation to the Breslow and Clark classification, we observed that the nevus associated melanoma group showed less Breslow thickness and low Clark levels, which, by statistical analysis were shown to be significant predictors of the probabilty of finding this association (p

  7. Parthenolide enhances dacarbazine activity against melanoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koprowska, Kamila; Hartman, Mariusz L; Sztiller-Sikorska, Malgorzata; Czyz, Malgorzata E

    2013-09-01

    Dacarbazine induces a clinical response only in 15% of melanoma patients. New treatment strategies may involve combinations of drugs with different modes of action to target the tumor heterogeneity. We aimed to determine whether the combined treatment of heterogeneous melanoma cell populations in vitro with the alkylating agent dacarbazine and the nuclear factor-?B inhibitor parthenolide could be more effective than either drug alone. A panel of melanoma cell lines, including highly heterogeneous populations derived from surgical specimens, was treated with dacarbazine and parthenolide. The effect of drugs on the viable cell number was examined using an acid phosphatase activity assay, and the combination effect was determined by median-effect analysis. Cell death and cell-cycle arrest were assessed by flow cytometry. Gene expression was measured by real-time PCR and changes in the protein levels were evaluated by western blotting. Secretion of vascular endothelial growth factor and interleukin-8 was determined using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The self-renewing capacity was assessed using a clonogenic assay. Dacarbazine was less effective in heterogeneous melanoma populations than in the A375 cell line. Parthenolide and dacarbazine synergistically reduced the viable cell numbers. Both drugs induced cell-cycle arrest and apoptotic cell death. Importantly, parthenolide abrogated the baseline and dacarbazine-induced vascular endothelial growth factor secretion from melanoma cells in heterogeneous populations, whereas interleukin-8 secretion was not significantly affected by either drug. Parthenolide eradicated melanoma cells with self-renewing capacity also in cultures simultaneously treated with dacarbazine. The combination of parthenolide and dacarbazine might be considered as a new therapeutic modality against metastatic melanoma. PMID:23797801

  8. Novel anti-melanoma treatment: focus on immunotherapy

    OpenAIRE

    Hao, Meng-ze; Zhou, Wen-ya; Du, Xiao-ling; Chen, Ke-xin; Wang, Guo-wen; Yang, Yun; Yang, Ji-long

    2014-01-01

    Melanoma is an intractable cancer that is aggressive, lethal, and metastatic. The prognosis of advanced melanoma is very poor because it is insensitive to chemotherapy and radiotherapy. The incidence of melanoma has been ascending stably for years worldwide, accompanied by increasing mortality. New approaches to managing this deadly disease are much anticipated to enhance the cure rate and to extend clinical benefits to patients with metastatic melanoma. Due to its high degree of immunogenici...

  9. Optimal Management of Metastatic Melanoma: Current Strategies and Future Directions

    OpenAIRE

    Batus, Marta; Waheed, Salman; Ruby, Carl; Petersen, Lindsay; Bines, Steven D.; Kaufman, Howard L.

    2013-01-01

    Melanoma is increasing in incidence and remains a major public health threat. Although the disease may be curable when identified early, advanced melanoma is characterized by widespread metastatic disease and a median survival of less than 10 months. In recent years, however, major advances in our understanding of the molecular nature of melanoma and the interaction of melanoma cells with the immune system have resulted in several new therapeutic strategies that are showing significant clinic...

  10. Dermoscopy of Scalp Melanoma: Report of Three Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonella Tosti

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Scalp melanoma is rare and often late-discovered because of its unusual position. As a consequence, its prognosis is poorer than melanoma on other body sites and only few clinical reports about its dermoscopic pattern have been published. In this paper, we report three clinical cases of scalp melanoma with photographic documentation and dermoscopic images, in order to improve the early detection of scalp melanoma.

  11. Loss of S100 antigenicity in metastatic melanoma

    OpenAIRE

    Aisner, Dara L.; Maker, Ajay; Rosenberg, Steven A.; Berman, David M.

    2005-01-01

    Melanoma is a highly malignant disease that may initially present as a poorly differentiated metastatic tumor. Therefore, the S100 immunostain, immunoreactive in 96% to 99% of melanoma, is used to evaluate poorly differentiated malignant tumors. To develop criteria for correctly diagnosing S100-negative melanomas, we studied the immunohistochemical profile of 1553 patients enrolled in ongoing National Cancer Institute clinical trials for melanoma. Seventeen patients (1%) had metastatic melano...

  12. Primary bilateral malignant melanoma of the lower limbs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonello Baldo

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Malignant melanoma is the eighth most common cancer in European women. Its incidence is increasing rapidly and it has been demonstrated that this is related to sun exposure. Although few cases of bilateral uveal or choroidal melanoma are described in literature, there are no cases reporting bilateral cutaneous malignant melanoma. We report a singular case of a 43-year-old woman with two primary bilateral melanomas localized on the flexural surface of both legs.

  13. Ocular Melanoma Metastasizing to Intra-Abdominal Lymph Nodes

    OpenAIRE

    David Aranovich; Karen Meir; Lotem, Michal M.; Liat Appelbaum; Hadar Merhav

    2013-01-01

    Background. Visceral metastatic spread of ocular melanoma most commonly occurs via hematogenous route to the liver. Lymphatic spread of ocular melanoma into abdominal lymph nodes has not been reported previously. Case Presentation. A 47-year-old man with a history of ocular melanoma presented with a soft tissue mass on CT scan. The mass encased the portal structures of the hepaticoduodenal ligament. Image-guided biopsy revealed it to be a metastatic melanoma to lymph nodes. The patient underw...

  14. Cartilaginous melanoma: case report and review of the literature*

    OpenAIRE

    Joana Devesa, Parente; Labareda, Jose? Manuel Pereira Da Silva; Ba?rtolo, Elvira Augusta Felgueira Leonardo Fernandes; Santos, Maria Fernanda Sachse Pinto Fonseca; Do Vale, Esmeralda Maria Seco

    2013-01-01

    Malignant melanoma can present a variety of histopathological patterns. Cartilaginous change in the absence of osteogenic differentiation is extremely rare in malignant melanoma, being among the least frequent of the wide range of melanoma histologic patterns. We report a case of a 47-year-old woman with a subungual nodule on her right great toe for many years. Histopathological examination of the lesion led to a diagnosis of malignant melanoma with cartilaginous differentiation devoid of con...

  15. Ex Vivo Derived Primary Melanoma Cells: Implications for Immunotherapeutic Vaccines

    OpenAIRE

    Suriano, Robert; Rajoria, Shilpi; L George, Andrea; Geliebter, Jan; Wallack, Marc; Tiwari, Raj K.

    2013-01-01

    Transformation of the pigment producing melanocytes into melanoma is a complex multi-step process involving the enhanced expression of various antigens considered as immunotherapeutic targets. Significant progress in melanoma research has been made over the years and has resulted in the identification of various antigens over expressed in melanoma as well as advances in immunotherapeutic treatments, which focus on modulating the immune systems response to melanoma. Despite these advances, inc...

  16. [Ciliary body melanoma in a black patient: a case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fournié, P; Donnio, A; Richer, R; Perichon, J-Y; Merle, H

    2003-03-01

    Uveal melanomas are rare in the black population. We report the case of an 81-year-old black man who presented a ciliary body melanoma of the left eye. Ophthalmological examination revealed a mass arising from the ciliary body and choroid. Diagnosis of ciliary body melanoma, made from clinical examination and ocular ultrasound, may be difficult in some cases due to its similarity to other eye tumors. Uveal melanomas mainly affect Caucasians but they are not unknown in blacks. PMID:12746607

  17. Malignant melanoma of the bladder: A case report

    OpenAIRE

    Sayar, Hamide; Erdogan, Seyda; Adamhasan, Fulya; Gurbuz, Esma; Inci, Mehmet Fatih

    2014-01-01

    Primary malignant melanoma of the bladder is very rare. Rather than being a primary lesion, malignant melanomas of the bladder are more commonly metastatic lesions. The histopathological appearance largely does not differ from that of melanoma at other body sites. It is often difficult to discriminate whether a bladder melanoma is primary or metastatic. Therefore, a careful review of histological features and performing necessary immunohistochemical staining procedures for S-100 protein and H...

  18. Immunotherapy of metastatic melanoma by reversal of immune suppression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biggs, M.W.; Eiselein, J.E.

    1997-01-01

    Beginning with the observation that the human enteorvirus, Poliovirus Sabin 1, will lyse human melanoma cells in culture, clinical trials involving two patients with advance melanoma were performed. Parenteral injection of the viable Poliovirus into cutaneous melanoma metastases followed in 24 hours by oral administration of cyclophosphamide. The results of these two trials are described.

  19. Cytotoxic T lymphocyte responses against melanocytes and melanoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schwartz Erich J

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vitiligo is a common toxicity associated with immunotherapy for melanoma. Cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs against melanoma commonly target melanoma-associated antigens (MAAs which are also expressed by melanocytes. To uncouple vitiligo from melanoma destruction, it is important to understand if CTLs can respond against melanoma and melanocytes at different levels. Methods To understand the dichotomous role of MAA-specific CTL, we characterized the functional reactivities of established CTL clones directed to MAAs against melanoma and melanocyte cell lines. Results CTL clones generated from melanoma patients were capable of eliciting MHC-restricted, MAA-specific lysis against melanocyte cell lines as well as melanoma cells. Among the tested HLA-A*0201-restricted CTL clones, melanocytes evoked equal to slightly higher degranulation and cytolytic responses as compared to melanoma cells. Moreover, MAA-specific T cells from vaccinated patients responded directly ex vivo to melanoma and melanocytes. Melanoma cells express slightly higher levels of MART-1 and gp100 than melanocytes as measured by quantitative reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR and immunohistochemistry. Conclusions Our data suggest that CTLs respond to melanoma and melanocytes equally in vitro and directly ex vivo.

  20. [Recurrence of a malignant melanoma of the iris (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bujara, K

    1980-01-01

    A 64-year-old patient with a spindle-cell melanoma of the iris, which was removed by iridocyclectomy and tectonic corneal graft, developed 5 years later a recurrence of the tumor. The histology of the primary tumor showed a spindle-cell melanoma, the recurrence a mixed-cell melanoma. Such recurrences are rare. PMID:7443190

  1. Solar radiation and malignant melanoma of the skin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several observations suggest that a majority of cases of malignant melanoma of the skin are linked to sun exposure. Evidence includes higher occurrence of melanoma on anatomic areas heavily exposed during recreation, development of melanoma more frequently in lightly pigmented persons, and correlation of melanoma incidence and mortality with proximity to the equator. The role of the sun exposure in the pathogenesis of melanoma remains unclear, however. Many cases of melanoma may be related to heavy doses of solar radiation received during recreation. Chronic sun exposure is not so clearly linked to the development of melanoma (except in the uncommon lentigo maligna variety). Sunspot cycles have been associated with changes in melanoma incidence; an excess of melanoma cases has been observed every 9 to 12 years after peak sunspot activity. These excess cases may be caused by more intense exposure to solar ultraviolet radiation during sunspot maxima, perhaps related to changes in the stratospheric ozone layer. These epidemiologic and clinical clues suggest that many cases of melanoma are related to sun exposure triggering the appearance of clinically evident melanoma. In this regard, solar radiation behaves as a cocarcinogen or promoter, rather than a dose-dependent carcinogen. These observations also suggest that other factors may be involved in the pathogenesis of melanoma, e.g., nevi, heredity, or exposure to chemical carcinogensgens

  2. Expression Profiling of Galectin-3-Depleted Melanoma Cells Reveals its Major Role in Melanoma Cell Plasticity and Vasculogenic Mimicry

    OpenAIRE

    Mourad-zeidan, Alexandra A.; Melnikova, Vladislava O.; Wang, Hua; Raz, Avraham; Bar-eli, Menashe

    2008-01-01

    Galectin-3 (Gal-3) is a ?-galactoside-binding protein that is involved in cancer progression and metastasis. Using a progressive human melanoma tissue microarray, we previously demonstrated that melanocytes accumulate Gal-3 during the progression from benign to dysplastic nevi to melanoma and further to metastatic melanoma. Herein, we show that silencing of Gal-3 expression with small hairpin RNA results in a loss of tumorigenic and metastatic potential of melanoma cells. In vitro, Gal-3 sil...

  3. Cartilaginous melanoma: case report and review of the literature Melanoma cartilagíneo: caso clínico e revisão da literatura

    OpenAIRE

    Parente Joana Devesa; José Manuel Pereira da Silva Labareda; Elvira Augusta Felgueira Leonardo Fernandes Bártolo; Maria Fernanda Sachse Pinto Fonseca Santos; Esmeralda Maria Seco do Vale

    2013-01-01

    Malignant melanoma can present a variety of histopathological patterns. Cartilaginous change in the absence of osteogenic differentiation is extremely rare in malignant melanoma, being among the least frequent of the wide range of melanoma histologic patterns. We report a case of a 47-year-old woman with a subungual nodule on her right great toe for many years. Histopathological examination of the lesion led to a diagnosis of malignant melanoma with cartilaginous differentiation devoid of con...

  4. MIA (melanoma inhibitory activity) promoter mediated tissue-specific suicide gene therapy of malignant melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoensiegel, Frank; Paschen, Annette; Sieger, Stephanie; Eskerski, Helmut; Mier, Walter; Rothfels, Heike; Kleinschmidt, Juergen; Schadendorf, Dirk; Haberkorn, Uwe

    2004-06-01

    Suicide gene therapy of malignant melanoma essentially requires efficient gene transfer and highly selective therapeutic gene expression. To achieve this, recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV) particles were constructed containing the tissue-specific promoter of the human melanoma inhibitory activity (hMIA) gene combined with four copies of the enhancer element of the murine tyrosinase gene. Three melanoma and one cervix carcinoma cell line were infected with rAAV particles carrying a reporter gene under control of the enhancer/hMIA promoter in order to determine transcriptional activity and specificity of this system. Viral particles containing the enhancer/hMIA promoter mediated reporter gene activity only in melanoma cells, whereas infection with a cytomegalovirus (CMV)-based promoter construct induced unspecific gene expression. Correspondingly, transient transduction with viral particles bearing the HSVtk gene under the control of the enhancer/MIA promoter elements followed by treatment with ganciclovir (GCV) resulted in growth inhibition only in melanoma cells, whereas the CMV promoter-based construct induced unspecific cytotoxicity. In vivo experiments in nude mice demonstrated that tumors originating from human melanoma cells disappeared after stable, but not transient transduction with vectors bearing the HSVtk gene under the control of the enhancer/hMIA promoter in response to GCV application. In face of higher transduction efficiency, these rAAV particles might therefore be a useful tool for suicide gene therapy of malignant melanoma. PMID:15118759

  5. Cure of malignant melanoma by single thermal neutron capture treatment using melanoma-seeking compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since not only malignant melanomas but also many kinds of human cancers, for example thyroid cancer and squamous cell carcinoma, synthesize their specific protein, much attention has been paid to the establishment of selective thermal neutron capture treatment of malignant melanoma as a prototype of such cancer cells. This paper presents 10B chlorpromazine compounds and 10B1-para-boronophenylalanine (10B1-BPA) as tumor-seeking 10B compounds which themselves possess selective affinity for the specific metabolic activity of the target cancer cells. An overview of the following studies on the effects of 10B1-BPA in the thermal neutron capture treatment of melanoma is provided: 1) in vitro studies on specific enhanced melanoma cell killing effects of 10B1-BPA; 2) in vivo studies on therapeutic effects of 10B1-BPA using melanoma-bearing hamsters; and 3) preclinical therapeutic experiments using spontaneously occurring malignant melanoma in Duroc pig skin, including experiments in which melanoma was successfully cured. (Namekawa, K.)

  6. Deregulation of protein methylation in melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limm, Katharina; Ott, Corinna; Wallner, Susanne; Mueller, Daniel W; Oefner, Peter; Hellerbrand, Claus; Bosserhoff, Anja-Katrin

    2013-04-01

    Loss of methylthioadenosine phosphorylase (MTAP) expression and a concomitant accumulation of 5'-methyl-thioadenosine (MTA) characterise several tumour entities including malignant melanoma. MTA affects cellular signalling, proliferation and migration not only of cancer but also surrounding cells including lymphocytes and stromal fibroblasts. The mode of action of MTA is still not known. Interestingly, MTA is a known potent inhibitor of protein arginine methyltransferases (PRMTs) and is used as a tool in studying activity and impact of PRMTs. This study aimed at analysing PRMTs in melanoma and the potential impact of MTA on tumourigenesis. Our findings demonstrate that expression of PRMT4/CARM1 and PRMT6 is deregulated in melanoma, whereas expression of the remaining PRMTs stays unchanged. General PRMT activity and, consequently, symmetric and asymmetric protein methylation are reduced significantly in melanoma cells and tissues. This is due to a loss of MTAP expression and accumulation of MTA. Reduction of protein methylation by MTA affects cell signalling and leads, for example, to an activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) activity. The effects of endogeneous MTA on PRMTs as presented in this study can strongly support the migratory and invasive phenotype of melanoma cells. PMID:23265702

  7. Vemurafenib for the treatment of melanoma.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Jordan, Emmet John

    2012-12-01

    Metastatic melanoma is an aggressive disease resistant to chemotherapy. Recent clinical trials have reported improved survival for two novel agents; ipilimumab, a humanized, IgG1 monoclonal antibody that blocks cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 (CTLA-4) and vemurafenib , a BRAF (v-raf murine sarcoma viral oncogene homolog B1) inhibitor targeting an activating mutation in the serine-threonine-protein kinase BRAF gene. AREAS COVERED: The authors reviewed preclinical and clinical data examining the safety of vemurafenib in melanoma. MEDLINE and EMBASE were searched using the medical subject heading \\'vemurafenib\\' and the following text terms: melanoma, BRAF inhibition, vemurafenib. This review provides the reader with an overview of current data examining the efficacy and safety of vemurafenib in metastatic melanoma. EXPERT OPINION: Vemurafenib is an oral agent licensed for patients with BRAF V600E mutation-positive inoperable and metastatic melanoma. The most common adverse effects observed in Phase III clinical trials were dermatological events, arthralgia and fatigue. Specific dermatological toxicities included development of cutaneous squamous cell cancers and keratoacanthomas. Prolongation of the QT interval was also reported. Regular dermatological assessments and electrocardiograms are recommended. Ongoing trials are examining vemurafenib in both the adjuvant setting and metastatic setting in combination with ipilimumab and MEK inhibitors (mitogen-activated protein kinase\\/extracellular signal-regulated kinase). Understanding and overcoming mechanisms of resistance to BRAF inhibitors is the focus of ongoing research.

  8. Cost-effectiveness of therapies for melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Karissa M; McPherson, Emily; Osenenko, Katherine; Vergidis, Joanna; Levy, Adrian R; Peacock, Stuart

    2015-04-01

    Melanoma presents an important burden worldwide. Until recently, the prognosis for unresectable and metastatic melanoma was poor, with 10% of metastatic melanoma patients surviving for 2 years. The introduction of newer therapies including ipilimumab, vemurafenib, dabrafenib and trametinib improved progression-free survival, with additional benefits anticipated from the forthcoming class of programmed cell death 1 inhibitors. Cost of therapy and resulting cost-effectiveness is an important factor in determining patient access to specific treatments. The objective of this study was to review the published evidence regarding cost-effectiveness of melanoma therapies and provide an overview of the relative cost-effectiveness of available therapies by disease stage. For earlier-stage disease, IFN-? has been found to be cost-effective, although its clinical benefits have not been well established. For unresectable and metastatic melanoma, newer therapies provide benefits over standard-of-care chemotherapy, but comprehensive analyses will need to be conducted to determine the most cost-effective therapy. PMID:25703441

  9. Anti-angiogenic therapy in uveal melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    el Filali, Mariam; van der Velden, Pieter A; Luyten, Gregorius P M; Jager, Martine J

    2012-01-01

    For several decades, targeting of tumor-related vessels has been regarded as a potential anticancer therapy. Such anti-angiogenic therapy is based on the assumption that a tumor cannot grow beyond the limits of diffusion (about 1-2 mm) of oxygen and nutrients from capillaries, unless angiogenesis takes place. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) plays a key role in angiogenesis, regulating vasopermeability as well as the proliferation and migration of endothelial cells. In several types of cancer (colon carcinoma, soft tissue sarcomas and gastric cancer), serum VEGF levels are a marker for disease stage and an indicator of metastasis. VEGF levels are significantly elevated in uveal melanoma patients with metastatic disease compared to patients without metastases. Anti-angiogenic therapy, such as bevacizumab, is currently used for the treatment of metastases of several malignancies. Anti-angiogenic therapy has not yet been tested for the treatment of primary uveal melanoma or related metastatic disease. Clinicians, however, have a broad experience with anti-angiogenic agents in patients with uveal melanoma by treating the complications of radiation therapy. We will discuss tumor angiogenic processes and related molecular pathways in uveal melanoma. The role of VEGF and the potential use of current commercially and experimentally available anti-angiogenic drugs for the treatment of primary uveal melanoma and/or metastatic disease will be explained below. PMID:22042017

  10. Treating advanced melanoma: current insights and opportunities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tronnier M

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Michael Tronnier, Christina Mitteldorf Department of Dermatology, Klinikum Hildesheim GmbH, Hildesheim, Germany Abstract: Whereas thin melanomas have an excellent prognosis after sufficient surgical treatment, melanoma disease in advanced stages is still a therapeutic challenge. After decades of frustrating studies, new therapeutic strategies have come up in the past few years. On the one hand, increasing insights into the molecular aberrations in melanoma have led to specific "targeted" therapies to affect only the mutated tumor cells, as in many other types of cancers. Today there are few "targeted" substances which are already approved and successfully used for single or combination therapy, but many others are under development. While on the other hand, nonpersonalized strategy substances have been developed successfully inducing an immunologic tumor response. Both kinds of therapy have been found to result in an improvement not only of the response rate, but also of the overall survival in metastatic disease, which represents a milestone in melanoma therapy. However, using these therapies there is still much to learn regarding the effects, the side effects, and the limitations of these promising substances. Keywords: melanoma, treatment, targeted therapy, immunotherapy, BRAF, CTLA-4

  11. A review of novel therapies for melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimkhani, Chante; Gonzalez, Rene; Dellavalle, Robert P

    2014-08-01

    This review summarizes results from major recent trials regarding novel therapeutic agents in melanoma. The topics discussed include targeted therapy with BRAF (V-RAF murine sarcoma viral oncogene homolog B) inhibitors (vemurafenib and dabrafenib), MEK (mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase) inhibitors (trametinib), bcr-abl/c-kit/PDGF-R inhibitors (imatinib), and angiogenesis inhibitors (bevacizumab and aflibercept), as well as immunotherapy with anti-CTLA-4 (anti-cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen-4) antibodies (ipilimumab), anti-PD (anti-programmed death receptor) antibodies (nivolumab and lambrolizumab), and anti-PD-L (anti-programmed death ligand) antibodies. Various combinations of these agents, as well as adjunctive GM-CSF (granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor), T-VEC (talimogene laherparepvec) oncolytic viruses, and novel chemotherapeutic agents, are also described. Despite the tremendous advances that these novel treatments have created, optimal therapeutic agent selection remains a highly individualized decision. Melanoma therapy has vastly progressed since the days when dacarbazine was the sole option for advanced melanoma patients. The molecular understanding of melanoma pathogenesis has yielded a brighter future for advanced melanoma patients. PMID:24928310

  12. Synthesis and antiproliferative activity of thiazolidine analogs for melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei; Lu, Yan; Wang, Zhao; Dalton, James T; Miller, Duane D

    2007-08-01

    We have previously described 2-aryl-thiazolidine-4-carboxylic acid amides as a novel class of antiproliferative agents for prostate cancer. Screening these compounds with melanoma cell lines revealed that several of them have potent antiproliferative activity and selectivity against melanoma. To further improve the potency and selectivity, we synthesized a new series of analogs and tested them in two melanoma cell lines and fibroblast cells (negative controls). Comparison of anticancer effects of these compounds with a standard chemotherapeutic agent, sorafenib, showed that they are very effective in killing melanoma cells with low micromolar to nanomolar antiproliferative activity and provide us a new lead for developing potential drugs for melanoma. PMID:17561392

  13. MR imaging of hemorrhagic intracerebral metastatic malignant melanoma: case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malignant melanoma is the third most frequent metastatic lesion to the brain. In MR examination we observe three different images corresponding to three types of the metastasis - non-hemorrhagic melanotic melanoma, non-hemorrhagic amelanotic melanoma, and hemorrhagic melanoma. Three percent to 14 % of all brain metastases are hemorrhagic by MR examinations. In the case of major bleeding the MR image of the metastasis may be covered with that of hematoma. The case report points out problems in a differential diagnosis of a solitary pathologic lesions in the brain of the hypertonic patients six years after the extirpation of the malignant melanoma on the back. (authors)

  14. Melanoma of the Hand: Current Practice and New Frontiers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Brad Turner

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Melanoma of the hand represents a complicated clinical entity. Anatomic features of the hand create challenges in successful management of melanoma not encountered elsewhere in the body. The objectives of this article are to outline current standards for managing melanoma of the hand including diagnosis, surgical, and chemotherapeutic management. Particular emphasis will be placed on currently debated topics of the role of sentinel lymph node biopsy, the role of Mohs micrographic surgery, tissue sparing management of subungual melanoma, and the consideration of melanoma of the hand as a distinct entity based on clinical and molecular studies.

  15. Malign melanoma of gall bladder: Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muharrem Battal

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Malign melanom is a disease affecting many organs but rarely seen in gallbladder. Distinction of isolated tumors from primary gallbladder tumors or metastatic disease can not be made in most cases. Mainly the complaints of acute cholecystitis appears. Mostly this clinical condition is not doubted when the primary tumor is not found. In cases with poor prognosis , very few patients benefit from surgery. The role of surgery is limited in malign melanoma of gallbladder because of low experience. Different surgical procedures should be applied to primary gallbladder melanoma and metastatic disease. Patients should be evaluated in a multidisciplinary manner with new therapeutic methods. We report here on an unusual case of gallbladder melanoma that was diagnosed by pathological examination in 46-year-old woman.

  16. The biology and management of uveal melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Takami; Han, Fei; Yamamoto, Akira

    2008-09-01

    Uveal melanoma is the most common primary intraocular malignancy in adults. Overall mortality rate remains high because of the frequent development of metastatic disease, especially hepatic metastasis. While traditional systemic chemotherapies provide only marginal benefit to patients, local treatments for hepatic metastases, such as immunoembolization, have improved patient prognoses. Progress has also been made in identifying potential targets in the pathways involved in apoptosis, proliferation, invasion, metastasis, and angiogenesis of uveal melanoma. Among these pathways, the c-Kit, c-Met, and IGF-1R signal pathways and the PTEN-related PI3K-Akt pathway are the most important targets. Clinical trials using blockades of these pathways in conjunction with strategies to facilitate apoptosis is a direction for future clinical trials. Application of these approaches in the adjuvant setting after primary therapy for high-risk uveal melanoma patients is also a future consideration to improve the clinical outcome of this disease. PMID:18706273

  17. Role of nuclear medicine in melanoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoefnagel, C.A. [Department of Nuclear Medicine, The Netherlands Cancer Institute, Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    1998-11-01

    Melanoma is a malignant tumour of the melanocytes presenting characteristic metabolic and biological features, which remains a difficult and important issue in oncology. As a functional modality, nuclear medicine offers a variety of possibilities to assist in the clinical management of this disease. A brief survey of currently available techniques is presented for the diagnosis, staging and follow up, either by organ imaging or by using a great spectrum of tumour-seeking radiopharmaceuticals. The role of lymphoscintigraphy in melanoma is emphasized, as well as the supportive role of nuclear medicine in the surgical theater, enabling selective lymph node dissection by the sentinel node procedure and high dose regional chemotherapy by isolated limb perfusion. Although hardly used for metastatic melanoma so far, with all its tumour-seeking approaches nuclear medicine holds a therapeutic potential for this disease as well. (orig.) With 4 figs., 2 tabs., 47 refs.

  18. Role of nuclear medicine in melanoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melanoma is a malignant tumour of the melanocytes presenting characteristic metabolic and biological features, which remains a difficult and important issue in oncology. As a functional modality, nuclear medicine offers a variety of possibilities to assist in the clinical management of this disease. A brief survey of currently available techniques is presented for the diagnosis, staging and follow up, either by organ imaging or by using a great spectrum of tumour-seeking radiopharmaceuticals. The role of lymphoscintigraphy in melanoma is emphasized, as well as the supportive role of nuclear medicine in the surgical theater, enabling selective lymph node dissection by the sentinel node procedure and high dose regional chemotherapy by isolated limb perfusion. Although hardly used for metastatic melanoma so far, with all its tumour-seeking approaches nuclear medicine holds a therapeutic potential for this disease as well. (orig.)

  19. Confocal microscopy in the diagnosis of melanoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Apostolovi?-Stojanovi? Milica

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Melanoma is the most deadly form of skin cancer of melanocytic origin. The tumor has a high malignant potential and early metastasis. Prognosis is directly linked to the stage of the disease. Diagnosing thin melanoma at an early stage offers patients their best chance for survival. The crucial innovation in the early recognition of melanoma was the development of in vivo examination of the skin in high-resolution, by confocal microscopy. Confocal microscopy and its modifications provides a “virtual biopsy“, owing to melanosomes and melanin, which are a source of endogenous contrast. Confocal scanning laser microscopy (CSLM provides visualization of microanatomical structures and cellular detail in real time (pigmented keratinocytes, melanocytes, melanosomes and melanophages in the epidermis, dermoepidermal junction and superficial dermis at a resolution equivalent to the resolution of conventional microscopes. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 41002

  20. Malignant melanoma in children: imaging spectrum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective. The objective of this study was to investigate the role of diagnostic imaging in detecting unsuspected metastatic disease in children with malignant melanoma. This has not been well studied previously. Materials and methods. We correlated imaging findings of 33 children diagnosed with melanoma with the level of invasion and clinical stage of disease. Results. Clinically undetectable metastases were identified in eight patients (25 %), four of whom had multiple metastases. All eight patients had deep lesions (Clark's level IV or V) or unknown primary sites of disease. Conclusion. Children with thick melanomas and those with unknown site of primary tumors are at increased risk of having clinically unsuspected metastases and should undergo CT of the chest, abdomen, and local-regional nodal basins at diagnosis to determine disease extent. (orig.). With 8 figs

  1. Malignant melanoma and fluorescent lighting: current status

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The incidence of malignant melanoma has increased significantly in recent decades and attempts have been made to relate this increase to a higher personal exposure to ultraviolet radiation. In 1982 an epidemiological study of almost 300 Australian women with malignant melanoma suggested that exposure to fluorescent light at work was associated with a doubling of the melanoma risk. In the intervening years several other epidemiological studies have been published and their conflicting results will be reviewed. The Australian Radiation Laboratory has made spectral irradiance measurements of different fluorescent lamps and has calculated the biological effectiveness of the emission. Exposure from these artificial sources is compared with the potential exposures to solar radiation. The possibility of these lamps causing adverse health effects in humans is discussed. 25 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs

  2. Primary Gastric Malignant Melanoma Mimicking Adenocarcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Jun-Min; Lee, Chang Min; Jang, You-Jin; Park, Sung-Soo; Park, Seong-Heum; Kim, Seung-Joo; Mok, Young-Jae; Kim, Chong-Suk; Lee, Ju-Han

    2014-01-01

    We report a case of primary gastric malignant melanoma that was diagnosed after curative resection but initially misdiagnosed as adenocarcinoma. A 68-year-old woman was referred to our department for surgery for gastric adenocarcinoma presenting as a polypoid lesion with central ulceration located in the upper body of the stomach. The preoperative diagnosis was confirmed by endoscopic biopsy. We performed laparoscopic total gastrectomy, and the final pathologic evaluation led to the diagnosis of primary gastric malignant melanoma without a primary lesion detected in the body. To the best of our knowledge, primary gastric malignant melanoma is extremely rare, and this is the first case reported in our country. According to the literature, it has aggressive biologic activity compared with adenocarcinoma, and curative resection is the only promising treatment strategy. In our case, the patient received an early diagnosis and underwent curative gastrectomy with radical lymphadenectomy, and no recurrence was noted for about two years. PMID:25580362

  3. Control of differentiation of melanoma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To develop the method to induce the appearance of differentiation in amelanotic melanoma, experimental control of differentiation in B-16 melanoma cells of mice was discussed. Human melanoma cells and yellow melanin pigment cells useful for a fundamental study of radiotherapy for cancer were cultured and were differentiated into some lines. Melanotic B-16 cells and amelanotic B-16 cells were irradiated with thermal neutron (neutron: 2.7 x 1012, ?-dose: 32.3 rad) after they were cultured in culture solution containing 10 ?/ml of 10B-dopa for 13 hours. A fine structure 5 hours after the irradiation in one of 5 experimental cases showed aggregated disintegration of melanin pigment particles, markedly deformed and fragmentized nucleus, and structural changes in cell membrane. (Tsunoda, M.)

  4. Malignant melanoma of the oral cavity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebenezer Jagadish

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Oral malignant melanoma is a rare disease. The common sites of its occurrence are the palate and gingiva with the maxillary arch being affected 80% of the time. Because of their presence at relatively obscure areas in the oral cavity, most of the malignant melanomas of the oral cavity are diagnosed at a late stage. These lesions are associated with poor prognosis. The dental clinician must therefore carefully examine the head, neck, and oral cavity, and any pigmented lesion that may exhibit growth potential must be biopsied. This article describes a case of malignant melanoma that was present in the oral cavity and briefly reviews the relevant literature that explains the nature of this lesion.

  5. Small choroidal melanoma with monosomy 3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghassemi Fariba

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To report a patient with small juxtapapillary choroidal melanoma with chromosome 3 monosomy treated with I 125 plaque and transpupillary thermotherapy (TTT. A 64-year-old Caucasian male presented with painless blurred vision of the left eye. Ocular examination disclosed a small juxtapapillary choroidal melanocytic tumor with overlying subretinal fluid and orange pigment. Ultrasound showed an elevated choroidal mass of 2 mm thickness with low reflectivity on A-scan and hollowness on B scan, consistent with a small choroidal melanoma. The patient was treated with plaque I 125 radiotherapy combined with one session of TTT. Genetic testing of the tumor cells obtained by fine needle aspiration biopsy showed chromosome 3 monosomy. At 1 year after treatment, the tumor was regressed with resolution of subretinal fluid and 20/40 visual acuity. A small choroidal melanoma can manifest monosomy of chromosome 3, a known predictive factor for the development of systemic metastasis.

  6. Proton beam radiotherapy of uveal melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damato, Bertil; Kacperek, Andrzej; Errington, Doug; Heimann, Heinrich

    2013-07-01

    Proton beam radiotherapy of uveal melanoma can be administered as primary treatment, as salvage therapy for recurrent tumor, and as neoadjuvant therapy prior to surgical resection. The physical properties of proton beams make it possible to deliver high-doses of radiation to the tumor with relative sparing of adjacent tissues. This form of therapy is effective for a wider range of uveal melanoma than any other modality, providing exceptionally-high rates of local tumor control. This is particularly the case with diffuse iris melanomas, many of which are unresectable. The chances of survival, ocular conservation, visual preservation and avoidance of iatrogenic morbidity depend greatly on the tumor size, location and extent. When treating any side-effects and/or complications, it is helpful to consider whether these are the result of collateral damage or persistence of the irradiated tumor ('toxic tumor syndrome'). PMID:24227980

  7. Oral mucosal melanoma: a malignant trap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skoulakis Charalambos E

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Oral mucosal melanomas are highly malignant tumors. The 'chameleonic' presentation of a mainly asymptomatic condition, the rarity of these lesions, the poor prognosis and the necessity of a highly specialized treatment are factors that should be seriously considered by the involved health provider. We present the case of a 75-year-old man who was referred to the Ear, Nose and Throat department. His symptoms were voice alteration and saliva drooling, progressively worsening during the last few weeks. The absence of pain was the reason for the delay of seeking medical care. The diagnosis was an oversized oral melanoma. This is an example of how the time of diagnosis and the evolution of a disease could be seriously influenced by patient's behavior. Melanomas arising from oral mucosa have poor prognosis unless they are discovered and treated early. The vigilance of the physicians is necessary to have success in this difficult task.

  8. Melanoma biomolecules: independently identified but functionally intertwined

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DanielleErinDye

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The majority of patients diagnosed with melanoma present with thin lesions and generally these patients have a good prognosis. However, 5% of patients with early melanoma (< 1mm thick will have recurrence and die within 10 years, despite no evidence of local or metastatic spread at the time of diagnosis. Thus, there is a need for additional prognostic markers to help identify those patients that may be at risk of recurrent disease. Many studies and several meta-analyses have compared gene and protein expression in melanocytes, naevi, primary and metastatic melanoma in an attempt to find informative prognostic markers for these patients. However, although a large number of putative biomarkers have been described, few of these molecules are informative when used in isolation. The best approach is likely to involve a combination of molecules. We believe one approach could be to analyze the expression of a group of interacting proteins that regulate different aspects of the metastatic pathway. This is because a primary lesion expressing proteins involved in multiple stages of metastasis may be more likely to lead to secondary disease than one that does not. This review focuses on five putative biomarkers - melanoma cell adhesion molecule (MCAM, galectin-3 (gal-3, matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP-2, chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan 4 (CSPG4 and paired box 3 (PAX3. The goal is to provide context around what is known about the contribution of these biomarkers to melanoma biology and metastasis. Although each of these molecules have been independently identified as likely biomarkers, it is clear from our analyses that each are closely linked with each other, with intertwined roles in melanoma biology.

  9. Amelanotic malignant melanoma presenting as malignant schwannoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schadendorf, D; Haas, N; Worm, M; Ostmeier, H; Kohlmus, C; Gottschalk, J; Algermissen, B; Jautzke, G; Czarnetzki, B M

    1993-11-01

    A 78-year-old woman presented with a 14-month history of a nodule on the sole of her left foot. It had been increasing in size, and had become ulcerated. Histological, immunochemical and ultrastructural studies of the primary tumour revealed melanocytic and Schwannian characteristics, and posed diagnostic difficulties. The final diagnosis of a malignant melanoma with Schwannian differentiation was established on the basis of the clinical course, with the development of metastases in the subcutis, lymph nodes, liver and brain, as well as a shift in differentiation of the metastases towards cells containing giant melanosomes, typical of melanoma. PMID:8251363

  10. Metastatic melanoma and vemurafenib: novel approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramon Andrade De Mello

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Metastatic melanoma (MM presents a treatment challenge to oncologists worldwide. Dacarbazine is the first line chemotherapy treatment for MM, though the overall response rates are very poor. Recently, the v-raf murine sarcoma viral oncogene homolog B1 (BRAF V600 mutation was found to play a main role in MM. This mutation is present in 40-60% of melanoma patients. Vemurafenib is a BRAF kinase inhibitor that showed impressive results in phase I-III trials and was thus recently approved for the treatment of MM. This paper will briefly focus on vemurafenib in the treatment of MM and highlight concerns.

  11. Metastatic melanoma and vemurafenib: novel approaches

    OpenAIRE

    Ramon Andrade de Mello

    2012-01-01

    Metastatic melanoma (MM) presents a treatment challenge to oncologists worldwide. Dacarbazine is the first line chemotherapy treatment for MM, though the overall response rates are very poor. Recently, the v-raf murine sarcoma viral oncogene homolog B1 (BRAF) V600 mutation was found to play a main role in MM. This mutation is present in 40-60% of melanoma patients. Vemurafenib is a BRAF kinase inhibitor that showed impressive results in phase I-III trials and was thus recently approved for th...

  12. Coexistence of Amelanotic Melanoma and Liposarcoma

    OpenAIRE

    Jeong, Taek Jo; Lee, Eun Ju; Haw, Sik; Shin, Min Kyung; Haw, Choong Rim

    2009-01-01

    An amelanotic malignant melanoma is characterized by little or no pigment. It is frequently misdiagnosed because it is a rare entity in general, and because of its unusual clinical features. Liposarcoma is one of the most common adult soft tissue sarcomas. We encountered a case of amelanotic melanoma with a concurrent liposarcoma. A 68-year-old man presented with a single, 1.5×1.5 cm round erythematous, eroded nodule on the left heel. A biopsy specimen showed atypical, pleomorphic tumor cell...

  13. Researchers discover new mutations driving malignant melanoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two new mutations that collectively occur in 71 percent of malignant melanoma tumors have been discovered in what scientists call the "dark matter" of the cancer genome, where cancer-related mutations haven't been previously found. Reporting their findings in the Jan. 24 issue of Science Express, the researchers from Dana-Farber Cancer Institute and the Broad Institute said the highly "recurrent" mutations – occurring in the tumors of many people – may be the most common mutations in melanoma cells found to date.

  14. [Nevus of Ota and choroid melanoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terheyden, P; Rickert, S; Kämpgen, E; Münnich, S; Hofmann, U B; Bröcker, E B; Becker, J C

    2001-09-01

    A 59-year-old patient presented with metastatic uveal melanoma that developed in a nevus of Ota. The nevus of Ota or oculodermal melanocytosis contains an increased number of dermal melanocytes in the distribution of the ophthalmic and maxillary divisions of the trigeminal nerve. Malignant transformation arising in a nevus of Ota may occur in all anatomical sites influenced by the nevus. Most often the choroid is involved. Although the nevus of Ota is rare in Caucasians, associated melanoma is more common than in Asians or black people. The dermatologist should be aware of this problem and aim at an interdisciplinary management of these patients. PMID:11572072

  15. Gastric metastasis from sphenoid sinus melanoma: A case report

    Science.gov (United States)

    ZHAO, LIANJUN; YAN, JING; LI, LI; WEI, JIA; LI, LIN; QIAN, XIAOPING; LIU, BAORUI; ZOU, ZHENGYUN

    2015-01-01

    Clinical reports of primary sphenoid sinus melanoma and isolated gastric metastatic melanoma are rare. Thus, to the best of our knowledge, the present study reports the first case of isolated gastric metastasis from a sphenoid sinus melanoma. The aim of the present study was to discuss the clinicopathological and radiographic characteristics, the treatment strategy and the prognosis of sphenoid sinus metastatic malignant melanoma of the stomach. Although almost 60% of patients who succumb to melanoma exhibit gastrointestinal metastases at autopsy, antemortem diagnosis is uncommon; this is predominantly due to gastric metastatic melanoma presenting with non-specific symptoms similar to other common gastrointestinal diseases. Gastrectomy may prolong overall survival and improve the quality of life for gastric metastatic melanoma patients, and the present case emphasizes the importance of palliative surgery in such cases. PMID:25624889

  16. Cartilaginous melanoma: case report and review of the literature*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joana Devesa, Parente; Labareda, José Manuel Pereira da Silva; Bártolo, Elvira Augusta Felgueira Leonardo Fernandes; Santos, Maria Fernanda Sachse Pinto Fonseca; do Vale, Esmeralda Maria Seco

    2013-01-01

    Malignant melanoma can present a variety of histopathological patterns. Cartilaginous change in the absence of osteogenic differentiation is extremely rare in malignant melanoma, being among the least frequent of the wide range of melanoma histologic patterns. We report a case of a 47-year-old woman with a subungual nodule on her right great toe for many years. Histopathological examination of the lesion led to a diagnosis of malignant melanoma with cartilaginous differentiation devoid of concomitant osseous areas. It would appear that this unusual form of melanoma has a predilection for acral location, particularly the subungual region. Malignant melanoma with chondroid stroma should therefore be considered in the differential diagnosis of cartilaginous lesions of the toes and fingers. Careful examination of the overlying epidermis and identification of an in situ component of melanoma may be necessary in order to establish the correct diagnosis. PMID:23793189

  17. Cartilaginous melanoma: case report and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joana Devesa, Parente; Labareda, José Manuel Pereira da Silva; Bártolo, Elvira Augusta Felgueira Leonardo Fernandes; Santos, Maria Fernanda Sachse Pinto Fonseca; Vale, Esmeralda Maria Seco do

    2013-01-01

    Malignant melanoma can present a variety of histopathological patterns. Cartilaginous change in the absence of osteogenic differentiation is extremely rare in malignant melanoma, being among the least frequent of the wide range of melanoma histologic patterns. We report a case of a 47-year-old woman with a subungual nodule on her right great toe for many years. Histopathological examination of the lesion led to a diagnosis of malignant melanoma with cartilaginous differentiation devoid of concomitant osseous areas. It would appear that this unusual form of melanoma has a predilection for acral location, particularly the subungual region. Malignant melanoma with chondroid stroma should therefore be considered in the differential diagnosis of cartilaginous lesions of the toes and fingers. Careful examination of the overlying epidermis and identification of an in situ component of melanoma may be necessary in order to establish the correct diagnosis. PMID:23793189

  18. Isolation and Molecular Characterization of Circulating Melanoma Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xi Luo

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Melanoma is an invasive malignancy with a high frequency of blood-borne metastases, but circulating tumor cells (CTCs have not been readily isolated. We adapted microfluidic CTC capture to a tamoxifen-driven B-RAF/PTEN mouse melanoma model. CTCs were detected in all tumor-bearing mice and rapidly declined after B-RAF inhibitor treatment. CTCs were shed early from localized tumors, and a short course of B-RAF inhibition following surgical resection was sufficient to dramatically suppress distant metastases. The large number of CTCs in melanoma-bearing mice enabled a comparison of RNA-sequencing profiles with matched primary tumors. A mouse melanoma CTC-derived signature correlated with invasiveness and cellular motility in human melanoma. CTCs were detected in smaller numbers in patients with metastatic melanoma and declined with successful B-RAF-targeted therapy. Together, the capture and molecular characterization of CTCs provide insight into the hematogenous spread of melanoma.

  19. MMP19 is upregulated during melanoma progression and increases invasion of melanoma cells.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Muller, M.; Beck, Inken; Gadesmann, J.; Karschuk, N.; Paschen, A.; Proksch, E.; Djonov, V.; Reiss, K.; Sedlá?ek, Radislav

    2010-01-01

    Ro?. 23, ?. 4 (2010), s. 511-521. ISSN 0893-3952 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520514 Keywords : melanoma * invasion * matrix metalloproteinase Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 4.176, year: 2010

  20. Possibilidade de associação de melanoma e acromegalia Possibility of an association between melanoma and acromegaly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Garcia Soares Leães

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Neoplasias como câncer de próstata, mama e cólon estão relacionadas à acromegalia. Raras vezes foi mencionada a associação com melanoma. Descreve-se caso de paciente com acromegalia no qual foi identificada lesão melanocítica suspeita, com posterior confirmação de melanoma. A excisão cirúrgica da lesão levou à cura da neoplasia. Chama-se a atenção para a necessidade de exame cuidadoso da pele de pacientes com acromegalia.Neoplasias such as prostate, breast, and colon cancer are commonly associated with acromegaly. However, the association of the latter with melanoma has been rarely mentioned. We describe the case of a patient with acromegaly in whom a suspicious melanocytic lesion was detected, and later confirmed to be melanoma by means of biopsy. Surgical excision of the lesion led to the cure of the neoplasia. More attention should be drawn to the need for careful skin examination of patients with acromegaly.

  1. Possibilidade de associação de melanoma e acromegalia / Possibility of an association between melanoma and acromegaly

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Carolina Garcia Soares, Leães; Rafael Loch, Batista; Cristina Micheletto, Dallago; Julia Fernanda Semelmann Pereira, Lima; Miriam da Costa, Oliveira.

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Neoplasias como câncer de próstata, mama e cólon estão relacionadas à acromegalia. Raras vezes foi mencionada a associação com melanoma. Descreve-se caso de paciente com acromegalia no qual foi identificada lesão melanocítica suspeita, com posterior confirmação de melanoma. A excisão cirúrgica da le [...] são levou à cura da neoplasia. Chama-se a atenção para a necessidade de exame cuidadoso da pele de pacientes com acromegalia. Abstract in english Neoplasias such as prostate, breast, and colon cancer are commonly associated with acromegaly. However, the association of the latter with melanoma has been rarely mentioned. We describe the case of a patient with acromegaly in whom a suspicious melanocytic lesion was detected, and later confirmed t [...] o be melanoma by means of biopsy. Surgical excision of the lesion led to the cure of the neoplasia. More attention should be drawn to the need for careful skin examination of patients with acromegaly.

  2. Pathogenesis, diagnosis and management of primary melanoma of the colon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imam Ayesha

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Melanomas within the alimentary tract are usually metastatic in origin. On the other hand, primary melanomas of the gastrointestinal tract are relatively uncommon. There are several published reports of melanomas occurring in the esophagus, stomach, small bowel, and anorectum. The occurrence of primary melanoma of the colon has, however, only been rarely reported. The optimum modus operandi for the management of primary colonic melanoma remains nebulous due to the limited number of reports in literature. Methods A comprehensive search of Medline, Cochrane and Highwire was performed using the following keywords: 'melanoma', 'malignant melanoma', 'primary melanoma', 'colon', 'gastrointestinal tract', 'alimentary tract', 'digestive tract', and 'large bowel'. All patients with primary melanoma localized to the colon were included in the review. Patients with metastatic melanomas to the gastrointestinal (GI tract and primary melanomas localized to the GI tract in anatomic locations other than colon were excluded. Results There have been only 12 reported cases of primary melanoma of the colon to date. The average age of patients on presentation was 60.4 years without any significant gender predilection. Right colon (33% and cecum (33% were the most common sites for the occurrence of primary colonic melanoma while abdominal pain (58% and weight loss (50% were the most common presenting complaints. Colonoscopy is the most reliable diagnostic investigation and offers the additional advantage of obtaining tissue for diagnosis. S-100 and HMB-45 are highly sensitive and specific for the diagnosis of this malignancy. For primary colonic melanomas that have not metastasized to any distant parts of the body, surgical resection with wide margins appears to be the treatment of choice. Although the management was individualized in every case, most of the authors preferred traditional hemicolectomy as the favored surgical approach. Chemotherapeutic agents including interferons, cytokines, biological agents and radiation therapy for brain metastases have been reported as adjuvant and palliative options while considering malignant melanomas in general. The average recurrence-free interval was 2.59 years. Nine of the 12 reports documented follow-up in their patients. Two of these 9 (22.2% patients died. Conclusions Primary melanoma of the colon is a rare clinical entity. Whenever a seemingly primary melanoma is detected in an atypical location such as the colon, it is prudent to conduct a thorough clinical investigation to consider the possibility of metastatic disease. Further studies are needed to document the long term follow-up, survival advantage and safety of the management approaches employed in patients with primary colonic melanoma. Based on current data, surgical resection appears to be appropriate management for primary colonic melanomas; unless the disease has metastasized to distant sites where surgery may have a limited palliative role.

  3. Melanoma Surveillance in the US: Melanoma, Ultraviolet Radiation, and Socioeconomic Status

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-10-19

    This podcast accompanies the publication of a series of articles on melanoma surveillance in the United States, available in the November supplement edition of the Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology. Chris Johnson, from the Cancer Data Registry of Idaho, discusses analyses examining the relationship between melanoma and two variables at the county level, ultraviolet radiation and socioeconomic status.  Created: 10/19/2011 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 10/19/2011.

  4. Isolated limb infusion chemotherapy for melanoma: an overview of early experience at the Adelaide Melanoma Unit

    OpenAIRE

    Mh, Giles; Bj, Coventry

    2013-01-01

    Mitchell H Giles,1 Brendon J Coventry2 1Adelaide Melanoma Unit, 2Discipline of Surgery, The University of Adelaide, Royal Adelaide Hospital Adelaide, SA, Australia Background: Isolated limb infusion (ILI) using cytotoxic agents has been demonstrated to be an effective and less invasive alternative modality than isolated limb perfusion for the treatment of melanoma localized to a limb. Percutaneous catheters were inserted into the axial artery and vein of the affected limb while using a pneuma...

  5. Possibilidade de associação de melanoma e acromegalia Possibility of an association between melanoma and acromegaly

    OpenAIRE

    Carolina Garcia Soares Leães; Rafael Loch Batista; Cristina Micheletto Dallago; Julia Fernanda Semelmann Pereira Lima; Miriam da Costa Oliveira

    2008-01-01

    Neoplasias como câncer de próstata, mama e cólon estão relacionadas à acromegalia. Raras vezes foi mencionada a associação com melanoma. Descreve-se caso de paciente com acromegalia no qual foi identificada lesão melanocítica suspeita, com posterior confirmação de melanoma. A excisão cirúrgica da lesão levou à cura da neoplasia. Chama-se a atenção para a necessidade de exame cuidadoso da pele de pacientes com acromegalia.Neoplasias such as prostate, breast, and colon cancer a...

  6. UV wavelength-dependent DNA damage and human non-melanoma and melanoma skin cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Pfeifer, Gerd P.; Besaratinia, Ahmad

    2011-01-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) irradiation from the sun has been epidemiologically and mechanistically linked to skin cancer, a spectrum of diseases of rising incidence in many human populations. Both non-melanoma and melanoma skin cancers are associated with sunlight exposure. In this review, we discuss the UV wavelength-dependent formation of the major UV-induced DNA damage products, their repair and mutagenicity and their potential involvement in sunlight-associated skin cancers. We emphasize the major ...

  7. Melanoma de coroides en melanosis óculi Choroidal melanoma in ocular melanosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C López Caballero

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available Casos clínicos: Se presentan cuatro casos de pacientes con signos clínicos de melanosis óculi. En todos se diagnosticó melanoma de coroides. Tres acudieron con disminución de visión en ojo afecto y fueron enucleados por presentar tumores grandes y activos. En el cuarto caso el melanoma fue descubierto en una revisión rutinaria y se pudo aplicar un tratamiento conservador con braquiterapia con I125. Discusión: La melanosis óculi está infravalorada como factor de riesgo para melanoma y glaucoma. Es necesaria una revisión oftalmológica cada 6 ó 12 meses para la detección precoz de enfermedades de alto riesgo en estos pacientes.Cases: We present four cases of ocular melanosis. Choroidal melanoma was detected in all of them. Three eyes had decreased visual acuity and were enucleated because of their large, active tumours. In the fourth case the melanoma was detected in a routine examination and we were able to apply a preserving treatment with I125 brachytherapy. Discussion: Melanosis oculi is often underestimated as a risk factor for uveal melanoma and glaucoma. Ophthalmic surveillance, every 6 or 12 months is important, in patients with ocular melanocytosis for early detection of high risk diseases.

  8. Melanoma involved in specific uptake of chlorpromazine (10B carrier) into melanoma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Interrelationship between melanosome and uptake of chlorpromazine (CPZ) into various melanoma cells (B16M-line, W line) having different capacity to produce melanosome and into macrophages feeding various amounts of melanosome was studied. The uptake of CPZ into melanoma cells was well correlated with the capacity to produce melanosome. The uptake of CPZ into macrophages containing melanosome increased according to feeding time and the concentration of melanosome. However, there was not a difference between the uptake of CPZ into macrophages containing latex particles and that into control cells. This fact clarified that promotion of the uptake of CPZ into macrophages containing melanosome depended on specific nature of intracellular melanosome. Therefore, specific uptake of CPZ into melanoma cells was thought to be determined initially by intracellular melanosome. These facts suggested that molecular hybrid of 10B and CPZ such as 10B12-CPZ was effective to melanotic melanoma and was ineffective to amelanotic melanoma. It will be possible to accumulate molecular hybrid of 10B and BPZ in tumors by feeding melanosome and perform thermal neutron capture treatment, if tumors excepting melanoma posses the capacity to feed melanosome. (Tsunoda, M.)

  9. Cartilaginous melanoma: case report and review of the literature / Melanoma cartilagineo: caso clinico e revisao da literatura

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Parente, Joana Devesa; Jose Manuel Pereira da Silva, Labareda; Elvira Augusta Felgueira Leonardo Fernandes, Bartolo; Maria Fernanda Sachse Pinto Fonseca, Santos; Esmeralda Maria Seco do, Vale.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese O melanoma maligno pode apresentar uma grande variedade de padrões histopatológicos. A presença de diferenciação cartilagínea, na ausência de diferenciação osteogénica, é extremamente rara no melanoma maligno. O melanoma cartilagíneo está entre os padrões histológicos menos frequentes. Relatamos um [...] caso de uma doente do sexo feminino de 47 anos de idade com um nódulo subungueal no 1º dedo do pé direito com muitos anos de evolução. O exame histopatológico da lesão revelou melanoma cartilagíneo, sem áreas de diferenciação osteogénica. Esta variante de melanoma parece ter predileção pela extremidades, sobretudo pela região subungueal. Assim, o melanoma maligno com diferenciação condróide, deve ser tido em consideração no diagnóstico diferencial de lesões acrais cartilagíneas. A observação cuidadosa da epiderme e a identificação de um componente do melanoma in situ podem ser necessários para estabelecer um diagnóstico correto. Abstract in english Malignant melanoma can present a variety of histopathological patterns. Cartilaginous change in the absence of osteogenic differentiation is extremely rare in malignant melanoma, being among the least frequent of the wide range of melanoma histologic patterns. We report a case of a 47-year-old woman [...] with a subungual nodule on her right great toe for many years. Histopathological examination of the lesion led to a diagnosis of malignant melanoma with cartilaginous differentiation devoid of concomitant osseous areas. It would appear that this unusual form of melanoma has a predilection for acral location, particularly the subungual region. Malignant melanoma with chondroid stroma should therefore be considered in the differential diagnosis of cartilaginous lesions of the toes and fingers. Careful examination of the overlying epidermis and identification of an in situ component of melanoma may be necessary in order to establish the correct diagnosis.

  10. Cartilaginous melanoma: case report and review of the literature Melanoma cartilagíneo: caso clínico e revisão da literatura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parente Joana Devesa

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Malignant melanoma can present a variety of histopathological patterns. Cartilaginous change in the absence of osteogenic differentiation is extremely rare in malignant melanoma, being among the least frequent of the wide range of melanoma histologic patterns. We report a case of a 47-year-old woman with a subungual nodule on her right great toe for many years. Histopathological examination of the lesion led to a diagnosis of malignant melanoma with cartilaginous differentiation devoid of concomitant osseous areas. It would appear that this unusual form of melanoma has a predilection for acral location, particularly the subungual region. Malignant melanoma with chondroid stroma should therefore be considered in the differential diagnosis of cartilaginous lesions of the toes and fingers. Careful examination of the overlying epidermis and identification of an in situ component of melanoma may be necessary in order to establish the correct diagnosis.O melanoma maligno pode apresentar uma grande variedade de padrões histopatológicos. A presença de diferenciação cartilagínea, na ausência de diferenciação osteogénica, é extremamente rara no melanoma maligno. O melanoma cartilagíneo está entre os padrões histológicos menos frequentes. Relatamos um caso de uma doente do sexo feminino de 47 anos de idade com um nódulo subungueal no 1º dedo do pé direito com muitos anos de evolução. O exame histopatológico da lesão revelou melanoma cartilagíneo, sem áreas de diferenciação osteogénica. Esta variante de melanoma parece ter predileção pela extremidades, sobretudo pela região subungueal. Assim, o melanoma maligno com diferenciação condróide, deve ser tido em consideração no diagnóstico diferencial de lesões acrais cartilagíneas. A observação cuidadosa da epiderme e a identificação de um componente do melanoma in situ podem ser necessários para estabelecer um diagnóstico correto.

  11. Can Coffee Protect You from Melanoma?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... risk. The study only uncovered an association between coffee consumption and melanoma risk; it didn't prove a ... of the people in the study drank caffeinated coffee, which made it difficult to fully analyze the health benefits of decaf. There could be other compounds ...

  12. Infected epithelial inclusion cyst simulating conjunctival melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeanniton, Chaneve; Finger, Paul T; Leung, Ella; McCormick, Steven A; Chin, Kimberly; Milman, Tatyana

    2013-01-01

    There are several pigmented nonneoplastic lesions that can clinically simulate melanocytic tumors. The authors report an unusual conjunctival epithelial inclusion cyst that contained luminal bacterial colonies, hemorrhage, and epithelial debris. Clinical appearance convincingly simulated a melanoma. The clinical and histopathologic features of this lesion are discussed. PMID:23303133

  13. Melanoma developed during pregnancy - A case report*

    OpenAIRE

    Mestnik, Natalia Cammarosano; Afonso, Joa?o Paulo Junqueira Magalha?es; Enokihara, Milvia Maria Simo?es E. Silva; Enokihara, Mauro Yoshiaki; Porro, Adriana Maria; Hirata, Se?rgio Henrique

    2014-01-01

    We describe a case of plantar interdigital cutaneous melanoma in a 22-year-old woman who reported changes in a pigmented lesion during pregnancy. Diagnosis was late and evolution unfavourable. The purpose of this report is to draw the attention of dermatologists to the need for careful regular examination of melanocytic lesions in pregnant women, not ignoring possible changes as always physiological.

  14. Primary Malignant Melanoma of the Nasal Cavity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chin-Yew Lin

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available Malignant melanoma is a highly lethal melanocytic neoplasm, usually affecting theskin. Primary malignant melanoma of the nasal cavity is rarely seen. Clinically, mostpatients display initial nonspecific symptoms of unilateral nasal obstruction or epistaxis.The prognosis is generally poor, with a mean survival time of 3.5 years. Extensive localinvasion and distant metastasis to other organs may occur. The usual treatment of choice isradical excision. Radiotherapy and chemotherapy appear to have little effect. We report afatal case of intranasal cavity malignant melanoma in which the patient initially presentedwith blood-tinged sputum, productive cough, and intermittent fever. Preoperative hepaticmetastasis was found. Palliative surgery was performed to excise the nasal cavity tumor.Then, 6 courses of chemotherapy were further administered. Unfortunately, regional cervicalnodal involvement and pancreatic head metastases occurred 1.5 years after the diagnosis.The patient's condition rapidly deteriorated, followed by death. We have chosen to discussthis aggressive condition because of its rarity and also to emphasize the importance of itsearly detection through vigilant attention to nonspecific nasal symptoms. A review of theliterature concerning intranasal malignant melanoma is presented. We further discuss itspossible etiology, site of origin, incidence, clinical presentations, principles of management,and outcome.

  15. Ciliary body melanoma with optic nerve invasion.

    OpenAIRE

    Al-haddab, S.; Hidayat, A.; Tabbara, K. F.

    1990-01-01

    A case of melanoma of the ciliary body is presented. Initially the patient was diagnosed and treated for uveitis, but following CT scanning and ultrasound a tumour was detected and the eye enucleated. Histopathologically it was found that the tumour had invaded the optic nerve head, apparently via Cloquet's canal.

  16. Radiotherapy in the cerebral metastatic malignant melanoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A retrospective analysis of 21 patients with cerebral metastasis from malignant melanoma was done. Two groups of patients were defined: patients receiving cranial radiation therapy with total dose higher than 20 Gy with or without other Kinds of therapy and patients not irradiated. (M.A.C.)

  17. Melanoma vaccines, revisited: a review, update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elias, E G; Sharma, B K

    2014-12-01

    Melanoma vaccines are usually administered after surgical resection of the tumor with the hope of eradicating the micrometastases, in high-risk patients. As we previously reported, most of the melanoma vaccines failed to show any major impact on the disease, except for the autologous whole cell vaccine. This can be explained by the heterogeneous nature of cutaneous melanoma that expresses various levels of melanoma antigens, peptides and has various genetic profiles among different patients. From an immunological point of view, it is illogic to eliminate the tumor and its specific antigens then apply allogenic type of therapy and expect a tumor response. Therefore, it is more logical is to utilize the tumor site as a source for the tumor-specific antigens. In the meantime, patients with in-transit metastases can give us an excellent opportunity to evaluate the local and systemic effects of intralesional (intratumoral) therapy, and various agents have been utilized with equivocal results. On the other hand, intralesional administration of 2 cytokines seemed to process the tumor antigens and activates thymic-derived lymphocytes (T cells). This can induce an antitumor immune response in vivo, i.e., autoimmunization (auto-vaccination), specific to each patient, and overcome tumor heterogeneity regardless to its antigenic or genetic profiles. PMID:25077889

  18. Circulating tumor cells in melanoma patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clawson, Gary A; Kimchi, Eric; Patrick, Susan D; Xin, Ping; Harouaka, Ramdane; Zheng, Siyang; Berg, Arthur; Schell, Todd; Staveley-O'Carroll, Kevin F; Neves, Rogerio I; Mosca, Paul J; Thiboutot, Diane

    2012-01-01

    Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) are of recognized importance for diagnosis and prognosis of cancer patients. With melanoma, most studies do not show any clear relationship between CTC levels and stage of disease. Here, CTCs were enriched (?400X) from blood of melanoma patients using a simple centrifugation device (OncoQuick), and 4 melanocyte target RNAs (TYR, MLANA, MITF, and MIF) were quantified using QPCR. Approximately one-third of melanoma patients had elevated MIF and MLANA transcripts (pobserved analogous results, with most captured CTCs staining for both CD-45/KRT markers (and for the monocyte differentiation marker CD-14). Our results suggest that immature melanocyte-related cells (expressing TYR and MITF RNA) may circulate in healthy controls, although they are not readily detectable without considerable enrichment. Further, as early-stage melanomas develop, immature melanocyte migration into the blood is somehow curtailed, whereas a significant proportion of patients develop elevated CTC levels (based on MIF and MLANA RNAs). The nature of the captured CTCs is consistent with literature describing leukocyte/macrophage-tumor cell fusion hybrids, and their role in metastatic progression. PMID:22829910

  19. Current management of posterior uveal melanomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper will discuss the present indications for radiotherapy in managing melanocytic tumors of the choroid, based on more than 1000 cases of choroidal and ciliary body melanomas and a similar number of choroidal nevi. This is compared with other therapeutic techniques. (Auth.)

  20. Follicular malignant melanoma: primary follicular or folliculotropic?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machan, Salma; El Shabrawi-Caelen, Laila; Nikolay, Eva; Kerl, Helmut; Requena, Luis; Cerroni, Lorenzo

    2015-01-01

    Follicular malignant melanoma (FMM) is a rare variant of melanoma arising on sun-damaged skin of elderly patients. It is characterized histopathologically by a prominent involvement of 1 or 2 adjacent hair follicles. The authors report 3 new cases of FMM (M:F = 2:1; age range, 23-67 years; median age, 50 years) located on the scalp, cheek, and upper back. Complete effacement of the hair follicle, replaced by neoplastic melanocytes, was observed in 1 case. The interfollicular epidermis and adventitial dermis were involved in all 3 cases. Our series shows that FMM is not restricted to elderly patients but may arise also in young individuals without association with chronic sun damage. FMM should be distinguished from folliculotropic metastases of melanoma and from atypical melanocytic nevi. Although the histopathological features and the term FMM may suggest a derivation from melanocytes of the hair follicle, the exact origin of neoplastic cells is yet unclear, and at least some of these cases may represent folliculotropic examples of primary epidermal malignant melanoma. PMID:24614208

  1. The melanoma epidemic: res ipsa loquitur.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beddingfield, Frederick C

    2003-01-01

    Many have debated whether or not we are in the midst of a melanoma epidemic. Some facts are clear and helpful to this debate, while others are less clear. The incidence and mortality of melanoma have increased over the last several decades, but the incidence has risen faster than the mortality. The incidence has risen 3%-7% on average over several decades and even more rapidly among Caucasian men and the elderly. In the U.S., the incidence in men is higher than in women after the age of 40, and the difference between men and women increases from age 40 until the end of life. The incidence in the U.S. has risen most rapidly among in situ and localized lesions, but distant and regional disease have increased as well. Among localized disease, in the U.S. from 1988-1997, all stages increased by comparable amounts. This strongly argues against the idea that the increase in incidence of melanoma is only due to early detection of thin lesions or biologically benign lesions, at least during the time period studied. On the other hand, early detection of thin lesions may well account for lower increases in mortality than incidence and improvements in survival. Survival has increased from approximately 60% in the 1960s to 89% in recent years. Improvements in survival appear to be related to earlier diagnosis, rather than an improvement in survival of a given stage. Studies consistently point to a major role for UV light exposure as the most important risk factor for those individuals with a phenotypic susceptibility. Public health efforts aim at primary and secondary prevention strategies. Primary prevention strategies attempt to prevent people from developing melanoma, primarily through avoiding exposure to UV light. There is a particular emphasis on avoidance of UV light exposure in childhood and young adulthood, when it appears the risk is greatest. When strict avoidance cannot be adhered to, sunscreens have been logically recommended. Secondary prevention strategies include screening campaigns and educational campaigns. Many of these strategies appear promising but require further rigorous testing. The melanoma epidemic has arisen for a variety of reasons including: a true increase in melanomas of malignant behavior, a particularly high increase in localized and in situ lesions, and an increase in the number of biopsies performed, which may have resulted in an increased detection of less aggressive lesions. The contribution of possible changes in the diagnostic criteria for melanoma to the increased incidence remains unknown. PMID:14530499

  2. BAP1 Has a Survival Role in Cutaneous Melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Raj; Taylor, Michael; Miao, Benchun; Ji, Zhenyu; Njauw, Jenny C-N; Jönsson, Göran; Frederick, Dennie T; Tsao, Hensin

    2015-04-01

    Although the pattern of BAP1 inactivation in ocular melanoma specimens and in the BAP1 cutaneous melanoma (CM)/ocular melanoma predisposition syndrome suggests a tumor suppressor function, the specific role of this gene in the pathogenesis of CM is not fully understood. We thus set out to characterize BAP1 in CM and discovered an unexpected pro-survival effect of this protein. Tissue and cell lines analysis showed that BAP1 expression was maintained, rather than lost, in primary melanomas compared with nevi and normal skin. Genetic depletion of BAP1 in melanoma cells reduced proliferation and colony-forming capability, induced apoptosis, and inhibited melanoma tumor growth in vivo. On the molecular level, suppression of BAP1 led to a concomitant drop in the protein levels of survivin, a member of anti-apoptotic proteins and a known mediator of melanoma survival. Restoration of survivin in melanoma cells partially rescued the growth-retarding effects of BAP1 loss. In contrast to melanoma cells, stable overexpression of BAP1 into immortalized but non-transformed melanocytes did suppress proliferation and reduce survivin. Taken together, these studies demonstrate that BAP1 may have a growth-sustaining role in melanoma cells, but that its impact on ubiquitination underpins a complex physiology, which is context and cell dependent. PMID:25521456

  3. Importance of glycolysis and oxidative phosphorylation in advanced melanoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ho Jonhan

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Serum lactate dehydrogenase (LDH is a prognostic factor for patients with stage IV melanoma. To gain insights into the biology underlying this prognostic factor, we analyzed total serum LDH, serum LDH isoenzymes, and serum lactate in up to 49 patients with metastatic melanoma. Our data demonstrate that high serum LDH is associated with a significant increase in LDH isoenzymes 3 and 4, and a decrease in LDH isoenzymes 1 and 2. Since LDH isoenzymes play a role in both glycolysis and oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS, we subsequently determined using tissue microarray (TMA analysis that the levels of proteins associated with mitochondrial function, lactate metabolism, and regulators of glycolysis were all elevated in advanced melanomas compared with nevic melanocytes. To investigate whether in advanced melanoma, the glycolysis and OXPHOS pathways might be linked, we determined expression of the monocarboxylate transporters (MCT 1 and 4. Analysis of a nevus-to-melanoma progression TMA revealed that MCT4, and to a lesser extend MCT1, were elevated with progression to advanced melanoma. Further analysis of human melanoma specimens using the Seahorse XF24 extracellular flux analyzer indicated that metastatic melanoma tumors derived a large fraction of energy from OXPHOS. Taken together, these findings suggest that in stage IV melanomas with normal serum LDH, glycolysis and OXPHOS may provide metabolic symbiosis within the same tumor, whereas in stage IV melanomas with high serum LDH glycolysis is the principle source of energy.

  4. Dermoscopic features of thin melanomas: a comparative study of melanoma in situ and invasive melanomas smaller than or equal to 1mm / Caracteristicas dermatoscopicas de melanomas finos: estudo comparativo entre melanomas in situ e melanomas invasivos menores ou iguais a 1mm

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Vanessa Priscilla Martins da, Silva; Juliana Kida, Ikino; Mariana Mazzochi, Sens; Daniel Holthausen, Nunes; Gabriella, Di Giunta.

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTOS: A dermatoscopia propicia o diagnóstico mais precoce do melanoma. A estimativa préoperatória da espessura de Breslow através da dermatoscopia poderia ser útil no planejamento da conduta cirúrgica e seleção dos pacientes para a biópsia de linfonodo sentinela. OBJETIVOS: Este estudo [...] objetiva descrever as características dermatoscópicas encontradas em melanomas finos e comparar melanomas in situ com melanomas invasivos menores ou iguais a 1 mm. MÉTODOS: Trata-se de estudo observacional, retrospectivo, no qual avaliouse o registro fotográfico da dermatoscopia de 41 melanomas finos. Três observadores avaliaram em conjunto 14 critérios dermatoscópicos. RESULTADOS: Dentre os melanomas finos, os critérios mais encontrados foram: presença de assimetria nos dois eixos em 95% (39 casos), 3 ou mais cores em 80,4% (33 casos), pontos ou glóbulos atípicos em 58,5% (24 casos) e rede atípica ou estrias radiadas em 53,6% (22 casos). O grupo dos melanomas invasivos apresentou com maior frequência e significância estatística (p Abstract in english BACKGROUND: Dermoscopy allows the early detection of melanomas. The preoperative determination of Breslow index by dermoscopy could be useful in planning the surgical approach and in selecting patients for sentinel lymph node biopsy. OBJECTIVES: This study aims at describing the dermoscopic fe [...] atures of thin melanomas and comparing melanomas in situ with invasive melanomas less than or equal to 1 mm thick. METHODS: This was an observational retrospective study in which the dermoscopy photographs of 41 thin melanomas were evaluated. Three observers evaluated together 14 dermoscopic criteria. RESULTS: Among thin melanomas, the most frequent criteria were presence of asymmetry in two axes in 95% of cases (39 cases), 3 or more colors in 80.4% of cases (33 cases), atypical dots or globules in 58.5% of cases (24 cases) and atypical network or streaks in 53.6% of cases (22 cases). The group of invasive melanomas presented with a higher frequency and statistical significance (p

  5. Ion channel phenotype of melanoma cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, D H; Lepple-Wienhues, A; Cahalan, M D

    1997-01-01

    Melanoma cells are transformed melanocytes of neural crest origin. K+ channel blockers have been reported to inhibit melanoma cell proliferation. We used whole-cell recording to characterize ion channels in four different human melanoma cell lines (C8161, C832C, C8146, and SK28). Protocols were used to identify voltage-gated (KV), Ca2+-activated (KCa), and inwardly rectifying (KIR) K+ channels; swelling-sensitive Cl- channels (Clswell); voltage-gated Ca2+ channels (CaV) and Ca2+ channels activated by depletion of intracellular Ca2+ stores (CRAC); and voltage-gated Na+ channels (NaV). The presence of Ca2+ channels activated by intracellular store depletion was further tested using thapsigargin to elicit a rise in [Ca2+]i. The expression of K+ channels varied widely between different cell lines and was also influenced by culture conditions. KIR channels were found in all cell lines, but with varying abundance. Whole-cell conductance levels for KIR differed between C8161 (100 pS/pF) and SK28 (360 pS/pF). KCa channels in C8161 cells were blocked by 10 nm apamin, but were unaffected by charybdotoxin (CTX). KCa channels in C8146 and SK28 cells were sensitive to CTX (Kd = 4 nm), but were unaffected by apamin. KV channels, found only in C8146 cells, activated at approximately -20 mV and showed use dependence. All melanoma lines tested expressed CRAC channels and a novel Clswell channel. Clswell current developed at 30 pS/sec when the cells were bathed in 80% Ringer solution, and was strongly outwardly rectifying (4:1 in symmetrical Cl-). We conclude that different melanoma cell lines express a diversity of ion channel types. PMID:9002422

  6. Optic nerve invasion of uveal melanoma.

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindegaard, Jens; Isager, Peter

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the study was to identify the histopathological characteristics associated with the invasion of the optic nerve of uveal melanoma and to evaluate the association between invasion of the optic nerve and survival. In order to achieve this, all uveal melanomas with optic nerve invasion in Denmark between 1942 and 2001 were reviewed (n=157). Histopathological characteristics and depth of optic nerve invasion were recorded. The material was compared with a control material from the same period consisting of 85 cases randomly drawn from all choroidal/ciliary body melanomas without optic nerve invasion. Prelaminar/laminar optic nerve invasion was in multivariate analysis associated with focal retinal invasion, neovascularization of the chamber angle, and scleral invasion. Postlaminar invasion was further associated with non-spindle cell type and rupture of the inner limiting membrane of the retina. The optic nerve was invaded in four different ways: 1) by tumor extension from the neuroretina through the lamina cribrosa; 2) by direct extension into the optic nerve head between Bruch's membrane and the border tissue of Elschnig; 3) by direct invasion through the border tissue of Elschnig; and 4) in one case a tumor spread along the inner limiting membrane to the optic nerve through the lamina cribrosa. Invasion of the optic nerve had no impact on all-cause mortality or melanoma-related mortality in multivariate analyses. The majority of melanomas invading the optic nerve are large juxtapapillary tumors invading the optic nerve because of simple proximity to the nerve. A neurotropic subtype invades the optic nerve and retina in a diffuse fashion unrelated to tumor size or location. Udgivelsesdato: 2007-Jan

  7. Primary Malignant Melanoma in the Pineal Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Yong-Kil

    2014-01-01

    A 59-year-old male patient had 5-month history of gait disturbance and memory impairment. His initial brain computed tomography scan showed 3.5×2.8 cm sized mass with high density in the pineal region. The tumor was hypointense on T2 weighted magnetic resonance images and hyperintense on T1 weighted magnetic resonance images with heterogenous enhancement of central portion. The tumor was totally removed via the occipital transtentorial approach. Black mass was observed in the operation field, and after surgery, histopathological examination confirmed the diagnosis of malignant melanoma. Whole spine magnetic resonance images and whole body 18-fluoro-deoxyglucose positron emission tomography could not demonstrate the primary site of this melanoma. Scrupulous physical examination of his skin and mucosa was done and dark pigmented lesion on his left leg was found, but additional studies including magnetic resonance images and skin biopsy showed negative finding. As a result, final diagnosis of primary pineal malignant melanoma was made. He underwent treatment with the whole brain radiotherapy and extended local boost irradiation without chemotherapy. His preoperative symptoms were disappeared, and no other specific neurological deficits were founded. His follow-up image studies showed no recurrence or distant metastasis until 26 weeks after surgery. Primary pineal malignant melanomas are extremely rare intracranial tumors, and only 17 cases have been reported since 1899. The most recent case report showed favorable outcome by subtotal tumor resection followed by whole brain and extended local irradiation without chemotherapy. Our case is another result to prove that total tumor resection with radiotherapy can be the current optimal treatment for primary malignant melanoma in the pineal region. PMID:25628812

  8. Polymorphisms of the BRAF gene predispose males to malignant melanoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meyer Peter

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The incidence of malignant melanoma has rapidly increased in recent years. Evidence points to the role of inheritance in melanoma development, but specific genetic risk factors are not well understood. Recent reports indicate a high prevalence of somatic mutations of the BRAF gene in melanomas and melanocytic nevi. Here we report that germ-line single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in BRAF are significantly associated with melanoma in German males, but not females. At-risk haplotypes of BRAF are shown. Based upon their frequencies, we estimate that BRAF could account for a proportion attributable risk of developing melanoma of 4% in the German population. The causal variant has yet to be determined. The burden of disease associated with this variant is greater than that associated with the major melanoma susceptibility locus CDKN2A, which has an estimated attributable risk of less than 1%.

  9. Ability to self-detect malignant melanoma decreases with age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trolle, L; Henrik-Nielsen, R; Gniadecki, R

    2011-07-01

    The prognosis of malignant melanoma depends on the thickness of the tumour. In this study, we analysed the trends in Breslow thickness in 63 patients referred to our institution, a tertiary dermatology referral centre. The mean thickness of melanoma was 0.31 mm, which was lower than the national average of 1.10 mm. There was a significant trend towards increased melanoma thickness with increasing age, with a rate of 0.24 mm (95% CI 0.12-0.37) for each additional 10 years of age above the age of 20 years. This trend was only apparent in cases of self-diagnosed melanomas; the thickness of tumours diagnosed by a dermatologist did not show any dependence on patient age. As the mortality from melanoma increases with age, this study suggests that dermatologists should include older people in screening programmes for melanoma. PMID:21418284

  10. Ability to self-detect malignant melanoma decreases with age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trolle, L; Henrik-Nielsen, R

    2011-01-01

    The prognosis of malignant melanoma depends on the thickness of the tumour. In this study, we analysed the trends in Breslow thickness in 63 patients referred to our institution, a tertiary dermatology referral centre. The mean thickness of melanoma was 0.31 mm, which was lower than the national average of 1.10 mm. There was a significant trend towards increased melanoma thickness with increasing age, with a rate of 0.24 mm (95% CI 0.12-0.37) for each additional 10 years of age above the age of 20 years. This trend was only apparent in cases of self-diagnosed melanomas; the thickness of tumours diagnosed by a dermatologist did not show any dependence on patient age. As the mortality from melanoma increases with age, this study suggests that dermatologists should include older people in screening programmes for melanoma.

  11. Brief questions highlight the need for melanoma information campaigns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foote, Janet A; Poole, Catherine M

    2013-12-01

    Melanoma awareness was briefly assessed at walk/runs held simultaneously in Philadelphia PA, Phoenix AZ, and Seattle WA. Of the participants, 75 % (1521) answered short questions during event registration. Among 1,036 respondents aged 14 years and older, 66 % reported knowing melanoma warning signs. Significantly more respondents with melanoma family history reported having a physician-administered skin exam and knowing warning signs. More than one third of walk/run participants reported no definitive melanoma warning sign knowledge. Self-reported melanoma awareness and detection indices were lowest among Phoenix participants; the event city with the greatest annual sun exposure. Educational efforts for melanoma awareness are critically needed. Selected results of this project were presented in a poster forum at the 2006 Congress for Epidemiology meeting held in Seattle, WA (June 2006). PMID:23996205

  12. Multiple primary melanoma: epidemiological and prognostic implications; analysis of 36 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buljan, Marija; Situm, Mirna; Bolanca, Zeljana; Zivkovi?, Maja Vurnek; Mihi?, Liborija Lugovi?

    2010-04-01

    Patients who are already diagnosed with cutaneous melanoma are at increased risk of developing another primary melanoma. The occurrence of multiple primary melanoma is a rare phenomenon, varying in frequency, with an estimated incidence ranging from 0.2% to 8.6%. The authors are presenting data on the patients with multiple primary melanoma from the Croatian Referral Melanoma Centre. The clinical, histological and epidemiological characteristics of 36 (3.6%) patients, identified from 991 patients with histologically confirmed melanoma, are analyzed in this study. Twenty-eight of the patients (78%) had two primary melanomas, six had three melanomas (16.7%) and two (5,6%) had four melanomas. Diagnosis was established synchronously in 11 patients (30%) and, in the rest of the patients, time interval between the diagnosis of the first and second melanoma varied from 1 month to the longest interval of 16 years. However, the majority of subsequent melanomas were removed within 2 years of the initial operation. The mean Breslow's thickness of the first melanoma was significantly higher than the mean Breslow's thickness of the second primary melanoma. The proportion of in situ to invasive melanomas was greater for the second melanomas compared with the first melanomas. Therefore, we emphasize the importance of regular follow-up as well as the education in regular self--skin examinations in melanoma patients in order to detect subsequent primary melanomas in the early phase. PMID:21302712

  13. Melanoma acrolentiginoso: um desafio ao diagnóstico precoce / Acral lentiginous melanoma: a challenge for early diagnosis

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Marcus, Maia; Carla, Russo; Nelson, Ferrari; Manoel Carlos S. de A., Ribeiro.

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese FUNDAMENTOS: As características do melanoma acrolentiginoso (MAL) diagnosticado no Brasil são pouco estudadas. OBJETIVOS: Avaliar as características do MAL diagnosticado na Unidade de Melanoma da Santa Casa de São Paulo - UMSC, comparando essa manifestação com outros subtipos e verificar se as possí [...] veis diferenças entre eles teriam importância na determinação do diagnóstico, tratamento e prognóstico. MÉTODO: A Casuística da UMSC foi subdividida em dois grupos, um de melanoma acrolentiginoso (MAL) e outro de melanoma não acrolentiginoso (NAL), que foram comparados quanto a sexo, cor, idade, espessura e nível de invasão da lesão primária, estadiamento, tempo decorrido entre a percepção do tumor e o atendimento pelo médico. RESULTADOS: A casuística correspondente ao MAL mostrou freqüência significativa de pacientes não brancos, com faixa etária mais elevada, com a lesão primária em média, mais espessa e ulcerada. Não ocorreram diferenças significativas quanto ao sexo e estadiamento, bem como com relação ao tempo decorrido entre perceber a neoplasia e procurar o médico. CONCLUSÕES: O MAL diagnosticado na UMSC ocorre, principalmente, em pacientes que normalmente não são alertados para câncer da pele (não brancos) e pertencem a uma faixa etária mais elevada (portanto, do ponto de vista teórico, poderiam estar menos atentos ao início da doença). A maioria apresentou lesão espessa e ulcerada, conseqüentemente de maior risco para metástases. Essa forma de câncer é desconhecida do público em geral e mesmo por boa parcela da classe médica. Abstract in english BACKGROUND: The characteristics of acral lentiginous melanoma diagnosed in Brazil have been subject to few studies. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the characteristics of acral lentiginous melanoma diagnosed at the Melanoma Unit of Santa Casa Hospital of Sao Paulo, to compare them with the other melanoma su [...] btypes and to verify whether the possible differences between them are important in the determination of the diagnosis, treatment and prognosis. METHOD: Patients were divided into acral lentiginous melanoma and non-acral lentiginous melanoma groups and compared in reference to sex, color, age, depth and level of invasion of the primary lesion, stage, time between perceiving the tumor and seeking medical assistance. RESULTS: The cases of acral lentiginous melanoma were significantly more frequent among non-whites and the elderly, with the primary lesion, on average deeper and ulcerated, without significant differences in the sex, stage or the time elapsed between noticing the neoplasia and seeking the physician. CONCLUSIONS: Acral lentiginous melanoma diagnosed at the Melanoma Unit of Santa Casa Hospital of Sao Paulo, occurred mainly: in patients: who had not been advised about skin cancer (non-whites) and patients who are elderly and therefore, theoretically, could be less liable to notice the onset of the disease. The majority also presented deeper and ulcerated lesions and consequently with a higher risk of metastasis. This kind of cancer is unknown to the public in general and even to a large number of physicians.

  14. Immunotoxins: A Promising Treatment Modality for Metastatic Melanoma?

    OpenAIRE

    Risberg, Karianne; Fodstad, Øystein; Andersson, Yvonne

    2010-01-01

    The incidence of melanoma is rising in the Western population, and melanoma is the most aggressive form of skin cancer with a very poor prognosis once it has progressed to metastatic stages. Patients with stage IV melanoma (metastases to distant lymph nodes and other areas of the body) are treated with the chemotherapeutic drug dacarbazine (DTIC). However, fewer than 5% of the patients treated with DTIC sustain long-term complete responses; hence, DTIC is administered with palliative purposes...

  15. Dabrafenib for treatment of BRAF-mutant melanoma

    OpenAIRE

    Kainthla R; Kb, Kim; Gs, Falchook

    2013-01-01

    Radhika Kainthla,1 Kevin B Kim,2 Gerald S Falchook31Department of Internal Medicine, Baylor College of Medicine, 2Department of Melanoma Medical Oncology, 3Department of Investigational Cancer Therapeutics, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX, USAAbstract: Melanoma has the highest mortality of all the skin cancer subtypes. Historically, chemotherapy and immunologic therapies have yielded only modest results in the treatment of metastatic melanoma. The discovery of p...

  16. Regression of metastatic melanoma by targeting cancer stem cells

    OpenAIRE

    Schlaak, Max; Schmidt, Patrick; Bangard, Christopher; Kurschat, Peter; Mauch, Cornelia; Abken, Hinrich

    2012-01-01

    Current therapeutic regimens attempt to eliminate all malignant cells of a melanoma lesion. Pre-clinical data, however, indicate that melanoma is maintained by a minor subset of cancer cells, which are characterized by CD20 expression. We attempted to eliminate those cells in a progressing, chemotherapy-refractory metastatic melanoma patient by lesional injections of the anti-CD20 therapeutic antibody rituximab and concomitant dacarbazine treatment, which was ineffective as monotherapy. Altho...

  17. Clinical significance of BRAF mutations in metastatic melanoma

    OpenAIRE

    Chang, David Z.; Panageas, Katherine S.; Osman, Iman; Polsky, David; Busam, Klaus; Chapman, Paul B.

    2004-01-01

    Forty to eighty percent of melanoma tumors have activating mutations in BRAF although the clinical importance of these mutations is not clear. We previously reported an analysis of BRAF mutations in metastatic melanoma samples from 68 patients. In this study, we correlated patient baseline characteristics, prognostic factors, and/or clinical outcomes with the presence of BRAF mutations. No significant differences were observed in age, gender, location of primary melanoma, stage at the diagnos...

  18. Selection criteria for genetic assessment of patients with familial melanoma

    OpenAIRE

    Leachman, Sancy A.; Carucci, John; Kohlmann, Wendy; Banks, Kimberly C.; Asgari, Maryam M.; Bergman, Wilma; Bianchi-scarra?, Giovanna; Brentnall, Teresa; Bressac-de Paillerets, Brigitte; Bruno, William; Curiel-lewandrowski, Clara; Snoo, Femke A.; Debniak, Tadeusz; Demierre, Marie-france; Elder, David

    2009-01-01

    Approximately 5% to 10% of melanoma may be hereditary in nature, and about 2% of melanoma can be specifically attributed to pathogenic germline mutations in cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2A (CDKN2A). To appropriately identify the small proportion of patients who benefit most from referral to a genetics specialist for consideration of genetic testing for CDKN2A, we have reviewed available published studies of CDKN2A mutation analysis in cohorts with invasive, cutaneous melanoma and found v...

  19. Melanoma of the Hand: Current Practice and New Frontiers

    OpenAIRE

    John Brad Turner; Brian Rinker

    2014-01-01

    Melanoma of the hand represents a complicated clinical entity. Anatomic features of the hand create challenges in successful management of melanoma not encountered elsewhere in the body. The objectives of this article are to outline current standards for managing melanoma of the hand including diagnosis, surgical, and chemotherapeutic management. Particular emphasis will be placed on currently debated topics of the role of sentinel lymph node biopsy, the role of Mohs micrographic surgery, tis...

  20. Embryonic signaling in melanoma: potential for diagnosis and therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Strizzi, Luigi; Hardy, Katharine M.; Kirsammer, Gina T.; Gerami, Pedram; Hendrix, Mary J. C.

    2011-01-01

    As the frequency of melanoma diagnosis increases, current treatment strategies are still struggling to significantly impact patient survival. Some promise has been shown in treating certain melanomas by targeting activated signaling pathways resulting from specific mutations in proteins, such as in BRAF and NRAS. Recently, the identification of embryonic signaling pathways in melanomas has helped us better understand certain biological characteristics, such as cellular heterogeneity and pheno...

  1. Radioimmunodetection of human melanoma with monoclonal antibodies and Fab fragments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Disseminated malignant melanoma is an aggressive tumor. Multiple therapeutic strategies have been attempted, unfortunately, the response rate of disseminated melanoma to therapy is invariably poor, independent of modality of treatment. The authors are evaluating a new diagnostic and therapeutic strategy consisting of the use of radiolabeled monoclonal antibody (MoAb) and its fragments directed against p97, a melanoma-associated antigen, as a vehicle for localization and selective delivery of high-dose radiation. (Auth.)

  2. Melanoma lentiginoso acral: una variante de melanoma maligno de especial interés en Colombia / Acral lentiginous melanoma: a variant of malignant melanoma of special interest in Colombia

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Lina María, Colmenares Roldán; Margarita, Velásquez Lopera; Gloria Andrea, Vargas Suaza.

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Colombia | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish El melanoma lentiginoso acral (MLA) es una variante rápidamente progresiva del melanoma maligno (MM). Constituye el 5-10% de los MM y se presenta con mayor frecuencia en pacientes de raza negra, asiáticos y latinoamericanos. En Colombia, la frecuencia de MM se encuentra en aumento y el MLA es una de [...] las variantes más comunes (14,7% de todos los melanomas). La edad promedio de presentación es de 58 años, con una tasa de supervivencia menor para las personas de raza negra, asociada al diagnóstico tardío. EL MLA se localiza en las plantas, palmas y regiones subungueales y en su etiopatología se ha descrito la presencia de mutaciones en varios genes: 9p21 p16: (67%), 11q13 (CCND1) (47%), 22q11-q13 (40%) y 5p15 (20%). El diagnóstico de MLA se ha fundamentado clásicamente en la histopatología; sin embargo, otros métodos como la dermatoscopia, la evaluación del ganglio centinela y la detección de alteraciones en las proteínas del ciclo celular pueden contribuir al diagnóstico precoz y a mejorar el pronóstico tanto del MLA como del MM en general. Abstract in english Acral lentiginous melanoma (ALM) is a rapidly progressive variant of malignant melanoma (MM). It constitutes 5-10% of all cases of MM and its prevalence is higher in blacks, Asians and Latin Americans. In Colombia, the incidence of MM is increasing and ALM is one of its most common variants (14.7% o [...] f all melanoma cases). The mean age at presentation of the disease is 58 years, and the survival rate is lower in black people, partly due to delayed diagnoses. ALM is located in the soles, palms and subungual regions. Mutations in several genes have been described in the pathogenesis of ALM, namely: 9p21 (p16: 67%), 11q13 (CCND1) (47%), 22q11-q13 (40%) and 5p15 (20%). The diagnosis of ALM has been traditionally based on histopathology; however, other diagnostic tools such as dermoscopy, evaluation of the sentinel lymph node and detection of alterations in proteins that control the cell cycle, may contribute to earlier diagnoses and, consequently, improve the prognosis of both ALM and MM.

  3. Melanoma Screening by Means of Complete Skin Exams for All Patients in a Dermatology Practice Reduces the Thickness of Primary Melanomas at Diagnosis

    OpenAIRE

    Chiaravalloti, Anthony J.; Laduca, Jeffrey R.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Previous studies have shown that dermatologists detect thinner melanomas than both non-dermatologists and patients in high incidence areas. The authors report depths of melanomas in a central New York practice where the incidence is low, hypothesizing that incidental melanomas detected by a dermatologist will be thinner than melanomas that are part of the chief complaint. Design: A retrospective chart review examining melanoma depth to determine the importance of universal full ski...

  4. Treatment of metastatic malignant melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atallah, Ehab; Flaherty, Lawrence

    2005-05-01

    The rapid increase in incidence of malignant melanoma has not been associated with better therapeutic options over the years. Single-agent chemotherapy or immunotherapy remain the treatments of choice when systemic therapy is offered. Dacarbazine (DTIC) is the chemotherapy of choice with a response rate of 16%. Other chemotherapies, including cisplatinum, paclitaxel, docetaxel and the DTIC analogue temozolomide, have shown activity in this disease. Based on their single-agent activity, several combination chemotherapies have been investigated with preliminary results that appeared promising. However, in randomized phase III trials the two most active chemotherapy combination regimens, cisplatin, vinblastine, and DTIC (CVD) and the Dartmouth regimen (DTIC, cisplatin, bischloroethylnitrosourea , and tamoxifen), did not prove to be superior to single-agent DTIC for overall survival. Immunotherapy with either interleukin (IL)-2 or interferon (IFN) has demonstrated response rates of 10% to 15% in appropriately selected patients. In patients who achieve a complete response, responses can be of greater durability than those with chemotherapy. However, IL-2 and IFN administration are associated with multiple side effects, and only physicians experienced in the management of such therapies should administer them. The potential benefit of combining chemotherapy with immunotherapy has led to multiple phase II trials of biochemotherapy that appeared to be associated with higher response rates and longer median survivals. However, several phase III trials have been completed that have not consistently demonstrated an improvement in either response rates or overall survival, and these approaches to therapy cannot be routinely recommended outside the context of a clinical trial. The surgical resection of isolated metastatic disease has demonstrated an important palliative benefit in those patients who present with solitary single-organ disease with the exception of the liver. Radiation has an important role in the palliative management of brain metastasis and symptomatic bony metastasis. Both stereotactic radiosurgery and whole brain radiotherapy have been used alone and in combination to benefit patients in this troubling clinical circumstance. Isolated limb perfusion and a newer technique, isolated limb infusion have demonstrated high response rates for those uncommon patients who develop recurrent disease isolated to a limb. In our opinion, if complete metastasectomy is not feasible and in the absence of brain metastases, single-agent IL-2 is a good initial treatment choice in appropriately selected patients. Single-agent chemotherapy with DTIC is the treatment of choice for patients who are not candidates for IL-2. Adoptive immunotherapy combining nonmyeloablative chemotherapy with high-dose IL-2 is a potentially promising therapeutic strategy under investigation. Targeted therapy is also an area of promising development as single agents, in combination, and combined with chemotherapy. The latter will be the focus of at least one upcoming cooperative group phase III trial. PMID:15869730

  5. [Melanoma: from molecular studies to the treatment breakthrough].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imianitov, E N

    2013-01-01

    Melanoma holds a leading position in the mortality from skin tumors. Standard treatment of metastatic melanoma allows tumor remission to be achieved only in a small subset of patients. Studies on melanoma molecular pathogenesis led to the identification of several causative genetic events and, consequently, to the development of novel targeted drugs. More than a half of melanomas contain amine acid substitutions in serine-threonine kinase BRAF. Clinical trials involving specific BRAF inhibitors--vemurafenib and dabrafenib--demonstrated high efficacy of these agents towards BRAF-mutated melanoma. MEK inhibitors may show activity against both BRAF--and NRAS-driven tumors. Mucosal and acral melanomas frequently contain mutation in KIT receptor and can be successfully treated by imatinib. There are novel therapeutic monoclonal antibodies targeted against immunosuppressive molecules CTLA4, PD-1 and PD-L1. In some instances these drugs allow to obtain exceptionally prolonged responses. Whole genome sequencing led to the identification of new melanoma genes, e.g. GRIN2A, TRRAP, PREX2, RAC1, STK19, PPP6C, etc. Molecular testing, especially BRAF mutation analysis, has become a mandatory part of melanoma diagnosis. Nevertheless, despite the revolution in melanoma treatment, the prevention of excessive ultraviolet exposure, cancer awareness and early diagnosis remain the main tools for the management of this disease. PMID:24341237

  6. Ultraviolet radiation and melanoma mortality in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White male and female melanoma mortality rates for the period 1950 to 1969 for 18 US counties have been examined to clarify the importance of received ultraviolet radiation as a factor in melanoma mortality. Although latitude and received ultraviolet radiation were correlated at the 0.01 significance level, no significant correlation was found between melanoma mortality in white males or females and ultraviolet radiation. This suggests that factors other than received ultraviolet radiation may play a role in melanoma mortality, particularly in the 18 counties studied

  7. Primary malignant melanoma of the esophagus: a case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Primary malignant melanoma of the esophagus is extremely rare, with less than 200 cases reported in the literature. However, primary malignant melanoma is an aggressive tumor. We report a case of primary esophageal malignant melanoma that presented with a large polypoid mass in the lower esophagus, and subsequently showed multiple metastatic nodules in the subcutaneous layer, skin and retroperitoneum. Primary malignant melanoma should be included in the differential diagnosis of a polypoid esophageal mass, especially in cases where metastases to unexpected areas occur or in cases of unexpected metastatic patterns

  8. Malignant melanoma cure by selective thermal neutron capture therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thermal neutrons are easily absorbed by the nonradioactive isotope 10B, resulting in the emission of alpha particles and lithium atoms, which release an energy of 2.33 MeV for up to a 14-?m-diam melanoma cell. Thus, if 10B can be selectively accumulated in melanoma, it can be destroyed without injury to the surrounding normal tissues by concentrating high linear energy transfer particles. The authors have synthesized seven melanoma-seeking 10B compounds, two of which, 10B12-chlorpromazine(10B12-CPZ) and 10B1-p-boronophenylalanine(10B1-BPA), are found to be highly effective. The enhanced melanoma-killing effect of the 10B compounds is found by in vitro radiobiological analysis. A chemical assay and alpha-track analysis 28 h after systemic administration to melanoma-bearing hamsters reveals a 10B melanoma/blood ratio of 11.5 and a melanoma/liver ratio of 15. Establishment of a clinical therapeutic method for curing human melanoma without failure is underway by correlating biophysical, biochemical, biological, and therapeutic data analysis. Recently, the authors have also been working to develop neutron capture therapy using 10B-monoclonal antibodies for melanoma and were able to make some 10B conjugates with the specific m259-0 antibody

  9. The current status of somatostatin receptors in malignant melanoma.

    OpenAIRE

    Fletcher, W. S.; Lum, S. S.; Nance, R. W.; Pommier, R. F.; O Dorisio, M. S.

    1997-01-01

    On the basis that melanomas are of neural crest origin and might contain somatostatin receptors, the authors utilized 111In Pentetreotide (OctreoScan) to image 16 melanoma patients with known sites of disease. Twelve of 16 patients were positive with 38 percent imaging all sites. No lesion less than 1.5 cm imaged nor did one ocular and one amelanotic melanoma. Of the five described somatostatin receptors, OctreoScan binds only 2 and 5 suggesting that not all melanomas contain those receptors....

  10. Primary malignant melanoma of the penis with secondary to adrenal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, M R; Siddique, M I; Joarder, A I; Ahmed, S U; Karim, S S; Hossain, M J

    2015-01-01

    Primary malignant melanoma of penis with secondaries to the adrenal gland is rare. Here we report a case of malignant melanoma of penis in a 60 years old man who presented with intermittent gross, episodic haematuria of 11 months duration and a hard indurated pigmented fungating lesion over the glans penis. Following an initial tissue biopsy from the penile growth which revealed malignant melanoma the patient underwent partial Panectomy. Few days after recovery the patient underwent laparotomy and incisional biopsy from adrenal mass revealed metastatic malignant melanoma histopathologically. PMID:25725691

  11. Genome-wide methylated CpG island profiles of melanoma cells reveal a melanoma coregulation network

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Jian-liang; Mazar, Joseph; Zhong, Cuncong; Faulkner, Geoffrey J.; Govindarajan, Subramaniam S.; Zhang, Zhan; Dinger, Marcel E.; Meredith, Gavin; Adams, Christopher; Zhang, Shaojie; Mattick, John S.; Ray, Animesh; Perera, Ranjan J.

    2013-01-01

    Metastatic melanoma is a malignant cancer with generally poor prognosis, with no targeted chemotherapy. To identify epigenetic changes related to melanoma, we have determined genome-wide methylated CpG island distributions by next-generation sequencing. Melanoma chromosomes tend to be differentially methylated over short CpG island tracts. CpG islands in the upstream regulatory regions of many coding and noncoding RNA genes, including, for example, TERC, which encodes the telomerase RNA, exhi...

  12. Distinct patterns of DNA copy number alterations associate with BRAF mutations in melanomas and melanoma derived cell lines

    OpenAIRE

    Greshock, J.; Nathanson, K.; Medina, A.; Ward, M. R.; Herlyn, M.; Weber, B. L.; Zaks, T. Z.

    2009-01-01

    A majority of malignant melanomas harbor an oncogenic mutation in either BRAF or NRAS. If BRAF and NRAS transform melanoma cells by a similar mechanism, then additional genetic aberrations would be similar (or random). Alternatively, distinct mutation-associated changes would suggest the existence of unique cooperating requirements for each mutation group. We first analyzed a panel of 52 melanoma cell lines (n= 35, 11, 6 for BRAF*, NRAS*, and BRAF/NRASwt/wt respectively) by array-based compar...

  13. Evaluation of variants of melanoma-associated antigen genes and mRNA transcripts in melanomas of dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stell, Anneliese J; Dobson, Jane M; Scase, Timothy J; Catchpole, Brian

    2009-12-01

    OBJECTIVE-To characterize variability in melanoma-associated antigen (MAA) genes and gene expression in melanomas of dogs. ANIMALS-18 dogs with malignant melanomas and 8 healthy control dogs. PROCEDURES-cDNA was prepared from malignant melanoma biopsy specimens and from pigmented oral mucocutaneous tissues of healthy control dogs. Genomic DNA was extracted from poorly pigmented melanomas. A PCR assay was performed by use of Melan-A, SILV, or tyrosinase-specific primers. RESULTS-Splice variants of Melan-A and SILV were identified in malignant melanomas and also in healthy pigmented tissues, whereas a tyrosinase splice variant was detected in melanoma tissues only. A short interspersed nuclear element (SINE) insertion mutation was identified in the SILV gene in 1 of 10 poorly pigmented melanomas. Six novel exonic single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs; 3 synonymous and 3 nonsynonymous) were detected in the tyrosinase gene, and 1 nonsynonymous exonic SNP was detected in the SILV gene. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE-Variants of MAA mRNA were detected in malignant melanoma tissues of dogs. The importance of MAA alternative transcripts expressed in melanomas and normal pigmented tissues was unclear, but they may have represented a means of regulating melanin synthesis. The tyrosinase splice variant was detected only in melanomas and could potentially be a tumor-specific target for immunotherapy. A SILV SINE insertion mutation was identified in a melanoma from a Great Dane, a breed known to carry this mutation (associated with merle coat color). The nonsynonymous SNPs detected in tyrosinase and SILV transcripts did not appear to affect tumor pigmentation. PMID:19951123

  14. A primary amelanotic melanoma of the vagina, diagnosed by immunohistochemical staining with HMB-45, which recurred as a pigmented melanoma

    OpenAIRE

    Oguri, H.; Izumiya, C.; Maeda, N.; Fukaya, T.; Moriki, T.

    2004-01-01

    Usually, malignant melanoma is readily diagnosed by the presence of melanin granules. Although amelanotic melanoma contains a few melanin granules, it is often difficult to differentiate from non-epithelial malignant tumours. This report describes a case of amelanotic melanoma of the vagina, which was originally suspected to be a non-epithelial malignant tumour, but was subsequently correctly diagnosed by immunohistochemical staining with the HMB-45 antibody and for the S-100 protein. A light...

  15. Amelanotic melanoma presenting with cervical lymphadenopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karnwal, Abhishek; Hadjihannas, Edward; Sherif, Ali; Grumett, Simon; Karnwal, Sudha; Mathews, John

    2009-01-01

    We present a rare case of an amelanotic melanoma of unknown primary presenting with cervical lymphadenopathy. A 20-year-old man presented with large left sided neck lump, associated dysphagia and weight loss. Examination revealed a hard mass in the left posterior triangle of neck and sacral sensory loss. Fine needle aspiration cytology of the mass suggested a poorly differentiated carcinoma. Computed tomography showed a left sided, 8×13 cm cervical mass with liver, lung and bony metastases. Histological examination of the lymph nodal mass confirmed the diagnosis of a metastatic amelanotic melanoma. The patient was treated with glucocorticoids, radiation therapy for the sacral bony deposit, and chemotherapy. Despite an initial reduction of his target lesions, his condition subsequently deteriorated and he died 4 months after diagnosis. PMID:21686931

  16. Fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy for choroidal melanoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stereotactic radiotherapy used for the treatment of choroidal melanoma made use of a 6-MeV linac with built-in multileaf collimators and a simple plastic head mold. The latter provided excellent head and ocular immobilization. The system resulted in highly localized dose distributions with a maximum 2-mm targeting error during fractionated treatments. Based on these techniques, sixteen patients with choroidal melanoma have so far been treated. Majority of patients received a total dose of 48 Gy in 8 fractions. Fourteen patients who presented with small- to moderate-sized tumors have remained free of relapse or major complications during the follow-up period of 3-42 months. Two patients who presented with an extensive tumor eventually required enucleation after irradiation. Technical precision required for stereotactic radiotherapy and reproducibility for fractionation appear adequate. Encouraging preliminary results justify further studies to evaluate its efficacy as an alternative to other conventional therapeutic approaches

  17. The delicate balance of melanoma immunotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyorki, David E; Callahan, Margaret; Wolchok, Jedd D; Ariyan, Charlotte E

    2013-01-01

    The strategy of immune modulation for the treatment of cancer is being refined with the introduction of multiple new therapeutic agents into the clinic. Melanoma is a disease where many of these agents have demonstrated efficacy. The mechanisms of action of these agents exploit the counter-regulatory mechanisms of the immune response. However, these agents are also associated with immune-related adverse events (IRAEs), which represent tissue-specific inflammatory responses. These IRAEs highlight the delicate balance of immunologic homeostasis and, with some interventions, may occur more frequently in patients who sustain a therapeutic response. This review will discuss melanoma immunogenicity and immunotherapy. Furthermore, the spectrum and distinction between a reversible immune adverse event and autoimmunity will be highlighted. PMID:25505953

  18. Plasma 25-Hydroxyvitamin D and Risk of Non-Melanoma and Melanoma Skin Cancer : A Prospective Cohort Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Afzal, Shoaib; Nordestgaard, BØrge G

    2013-01-01

    Sun exposure is a major risk factor for skin cancer and is also an important source of vitamin D. We tested the hypothesis that elevated plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OH-vitD) associates with increased risk of non-melanoma and melanoma skin cancer in the general population. We measured plasma 25-OH-vitD in 10,060 white individuals from the Danish general population. During 28 years of follow-up, 590 individuals developed non-melanoma skin cancer and 78 developed melanoma skin cancer. Increasing 25-OH-vitD levels, by clinical categories or by seasonally adjusted tertiles, were associated with increasing cumulative incidence of non-melanoma skin cancer (trend P=2 × 10(-15) and P=3 × 10(-17)) and melanoma skin cancer (P=0.003 and P=0.001). Multivariable adjusted hazard ratios of non-melanoma skin cancer were 5.04 (95% confidence interval (CI): 2.78-9.16) for 25-OH-vitD ?50 vs. 60 years, 25-OH-vitD winter levels ?50?nmol?l(-1), and performing outdoor exercise. In conclusion, we show that increasing levels of 25-OH-vitD are associated with increased risk of non-melanoma and melanoma skin cancer.Journal of Investigative Dermatology advance online publication, 29 November 2012; doi:10.1038/jid.2012.395.

  19. Study of melanoma invasion by FTIR spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Y.; Sulé-Suso, J.; Sockalingum, G. D.

    2008-02-01

    Compared to other forms of skin cancer, a malignant melanoma has a high risk of spreading to other parts of the body. Melanoma invasion is a complex process involving changes in cell-extracellular matrix (ECM) interaction and cell-cell interactions. To fully understand the factors which control the invasion process, a human skin model system was reconstructed. HBL (a commercially available cell line) melanoma cells were seeded on a skin model with and without the presence of keratinocytes and/or fibroblasts. After 14 days culture, the skin specimens were fixed, parafin embedded and cut into 7 µm sections. The de-parafinised sections were investigated by synchrotron Fourier transformed infrared (FTIR) microspectroscopy to study skin cell invasion behaviour. The advantage of using FTIR is its ability to obtain the fingerprint information of the invading cells in terms of protein secondary structure in comparison to non-invading cells and the concentration of the enzyme (matrix-metalloproteinase) which digests protein matrix, near the invading cells. With aid of the spectral mapping images, it is possible to pinpoint the cells in non-invasion and invasion area and analyse the respective spectra. It has been observed that the protein bands in cells and matrix shifted between non-invasive and invasive cells in the reconstructed skin model. We hypothesise that by careful analysis of the FTIR data and validation by other models, FTIR studies can reveal information on which type of cells and proteins are involved in melanoma invasion. Thus, it is possible to trace the cell invasion path by mapping the spectra along the interface of cell layer and matrix body by FTIR spectroscopy.

  20. Update on the Epidemiology of Melanoma

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Steven T.; Geller, Alan C.; Tsao, Hensin

    2013-01-01

    Cutaneous malignant melanoma (CMM) has been increasing steadily in incidence over the past 30 years. Recent studies have explored associations between CMM and varying physiologic risk factors, such as nevi or hair and eye color, in addition to historical features such as a personal history of nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC), childhood cancers, Parkinson’s Disease, hormone exposure and family history of CMM. Genome-wide association studies have also uncovered many genetic determinants of CMM ...

  1. Malign melanoma of gall bladder: Case report

    OpenAIRE

    Muharrem Battal; Sabahattin Destek; Mine Güllüo?lu; O?uzhan Karatepe; Bora Koç; Osman Bilgin Gülçiçek

    2009-01-01

    Malign melanom is a disease affecting many organs but rarely seen in gallbladder. Distinction of isolated tumors from primary gallbladder tumors or metastatic disease can not be made in most cases. Mainly the complaints of acute cholecystitis appears. Mostly this clinical condition is not doubted when the primary tumor is not found. In cases with poor prognosis , very few patients benefit from surgery. The role of surgery is limited in malign melanoma of gallbladder because of low experience....

  2. Metastatic Melanoma Presenting as Polymorphic Ventricular Tachycardia

    OpenAIRE

    Sharma, Jyoti; Brunson, Jonathan Matthew; Memon, Nada; Khakoo, Aarif Y.

    2012-01-01

    A 41-year-old woman with metastatic melanoma was admitted to the hospital because of syncopal episodes, which had developed after the administration of an experimental chemotherapy agent that targeted Notch signaling, as part of a phase I clinical trial. Cardiac monitoring revealed recurrent episodes of polymorphic ventricular tachycardia correlating with the patient's syncope. Investigations into the cause of the arrhythmia led to the discovery of metastatic lesions within the left ventricul...

  3. Treatment of Metastatic Melanoma: An Overview

    OpenAIRE

    Bhatia, Shailender; Tykodi, Scott S.; Thompson, John A.

    2009-01-01

    The 10-year survival rate for patients with metastatic melanoma is less than 10%. Although surgery and radiation therapy have a role in the treatment of metastatic disease, systemic therapy is the mainstay of treatment for most patients. Single-agent chemotherapy is well tolerated but is associated with response rates of only 5% to 20%. Combination chemotherapy and biochemotherapy may improve objective response rates but do not extend survival and are associated with greater toxicity. Immunot...

  4. Amelanotic melanoma presenting with cervical lymphadenopathy

    OpenAIRE

    Karnwal, Abhishek; Hadjihannas, Edward; Sherif, Ali; Grumett, Simon; Karnwal, Sudha; Mathews, John

    2009-01-01

    We present a rare case of an amelanotic melanoma of unknown primary presenting with cervical lymphadenopathy. A 20-year-old man presented with large left sided neck lump, associated dysphagia and weight loss. Examination revealed a hard mass in the left posterior triangle of neck and sacral sensory loss. Fine needle aspiration cytology of the mass suggested a poorly differentiated carcinoma. Computed tomography showed a left sided, 8×13 cm cervical mass with liver, lung and bony metastases. ...

  5. Knowledge-based treatment in uveal melanoma

    OpenAIRE

    Filali, Mariam El

    2012-01-01

    Uveal melanoma (UM) is a disease with many faces: ophthalmologists treat the primary tumor, but the patient faces the problem of developing metastases, which are often deadly after a short period. Recent insight, indicates the need for knowledge-based treatment of UM. The ‘pseudohypoxic’ and tumor promoting effects of bevacizumab as described in this thesis is especially relevant. Bevacizumab is frequently used off-label to treat macular edema in UM patients suffering of radiation r...

  6. Melanoma developed during pregnancy - A case report

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Natalia Cammarosano, Mestnik; Joao Paulo Junqueira Magalhaes, Afonso; Milvia Maria Simoes e Silva, Enokihara; Mauro Yoshiaki, Enokihara; Adriana Maria, Porro; Sergio Henrique, Hirata.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english We describe a case of plantar interdigital cutaneous melanoma in a 22-year-old woman who reported changes in a pigmented lesion during pregnancy. Diagnosis was late and evolution unfavourable. The purpose of this report is to draw the attention of dermatologists to the need for careful regular exami [...] nation of melanocytic lesions in pregnant women, not ignoring possible changes as always physiological.

  7. Primary Gastric Malignant Melanoma Mimicking Adenocarcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Cho, Jun-min; Lee, Chang Min; Jang, You-jin; Park, Sung-soo; Park, Seong-heum; Kim, Seung-joo; Mok, Young-jae; Kim, Chong-suk; Lee, Ju-han; Kim, Jong-han

    2014-01-01

    We report a case of primary gastric malignant melanoma that was diagnosed after curative resection but initially misdiagnosed as adenocarcinoma. A 68-year-old woman was referred to our department for surgery for gastric adenocarcinoma presenting as a polypoid lesion with central ulceration located in the upper body of the stomach. The preoperative diagnosis was confirmed by endoscopic biopsy. We performed laparoscopic total gastrectomy, and the final pathologic evaluation led to the diagnosis...

  8. Identification of cells initiating human melanomas

    OpenAIRE

    Schatton, Tobias; Murphy, George F.; Frank, Natasha Y.; Yamaura, Kazuhiro; Waaga-gasser, Ana Maria; Gasser, Martin; Zhan, Qian; Jordan, Stefan; Duncan, Lyn M.; Weishaupt, Carsten; Fuhlbrigge, Robert C.; Kupper, Thomas S.; Sayegh, Mohamed H.; Frank, Markus H.

    2008-01-01

    Tumour-initiating cells capable of self-renewal and differentiation, which are responsible for tumour growth, have been identified in human haematological malignancies1,2 and solid cancers3–6. If such minority populations are associated with tumour progression in human patients, specific targeting of tumour-initiating cells could be a strategy to eradicate cancers currently resistant to systemic therapy. Here we identify a subpopulation enriched for human malignant-melanoma-initiating cells...

  9. Identification of cells initiating human melanomas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schatton, Tobias; Murphy, George F.; Frank, Natasha Y.; Yamaura, Kazuhiro; Waaga-Gasser, Ana Maria; Gasser, Martin; Zhan, Qian; Jordan, Stefan; Duncan, Lyn M.; Weishaupt, Carsten; Fuhlbrigge, Robert C.; Kupper, Thomas S.; Sayegh, Mohamed H.; Frank, Markus H.

    2012-01-01

    Tumour-initiating cells capable of self-renewal and differentiation, which are responsible for tumour growth, have been identified in human haematological malignancies1,2 and solid cancers3–6. If such minority populations are associated with tumour progression in human patients, specific targeting of tumour-initiating cells could be a strategy to eradicate cancers currently resistant to systemic therapy. Here we identify a subpopulation enriched for human malignant-melanoma-initiating cells (MMIC) defined by expression of the chemoresistance mediator ABCB5 (refs 7, 8) and show that specific targeting of this tumorigenic minority population inhibits tumour growth. ABCB5+ tumour cells detected in human melanoma patients show a primitive molecular phenotype and correlate with clinical melanoma progression. In serial human-to-mouse xenotransplantation experiments, ABCB5+ melanoma cells possess greater tumorigenic capacity than ABCB5? bulk populations and re-establish clinical tumour heterogeneity. In vivo genetic lineage tracking demonstrates a specific capacity of ABCB5+ sub-populations for self-renewal and differentiation, because ABCB5+ cancer cells generate both ABCB5+ and ABCB5? progeny, whereas ABCB5? tumour populations give rise, at lower rates, exclusively to ABCB5? cells. In an initial proof-of-principle analysis, designed to test the hypothesis that MMIC are also required for growth of established tumours, systemic administration of a monoclonal antibody directed at ABCB5, shown to be capable of inducing antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity in ABCB5+ MMIC, exerted tumour-inhibitory effects. Identification of tumour-initiating cells with enhanced abundance in more advanced disease but susceptibility to specific targeting through a defining chemoresistance determinant has important implications for cancer therapy. PMID:18202660

  10. Malignant melanoma: social status and outdoor work.

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, J. A.; Strickland, D.

    1980-01-01

    The incidence of, and mortality from, malignant melanoma of skin in whites are strongly influenced by socio-economic conditions. Professional and administrative workers have the highest rates of all. Clerks and salesmen have higher rates than skilled manual workers, who have higher rates than unskilled workers. Women, when classified by the occupation of their husbands, show a similar relationship to social status. The biases of incidence data from systems of cancer registration, and mortalit...

  11. Oral mucosal melanoma: a malignant trap

    OpenAIRE

    Skoulakis Charalambos E; Malandrakis Stylianos G; Koutsopoulos Anastassios V; Drivas Emmanouil I; Kyrmizakis Dionysios E; Symvoulakis Emmanouil K; Bizakis John G

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Oral mucosal melanomas are highly malignant tumors. The 'chameleonic' presentation of a mainly asymptomatic condition, the rarity of these lesions, the poor prognosis and the necessity of a highly specialized treatment are factors that should be seriously considered by the involved health provider. We present the case of a 75-year-old man who was referred to the Ear, Nose and Throat department. His symptoms were voice alteration and saliva drooling, progressively worsening during the...

  12. Pathology of Sentinel Lymph Nodes for Melanoma

    OpenAIRE

    Cook, M. G.; Di Palma, S.

    2008-01-01

    As a concept sentinel lymph node biopsy seems attractive in that it attempts to identify the first lymph node, rather than the nearest node, draining a particular anatomic area where a tumour has arisen. Pathological assessment can then indicate whether metastases are present and the procedure is either a strong prognostic indicator or possibly therapeutic in itself. These comments apply to any tumour type, but with melanoma the pathological procedure is more problematic and any bene...

  13. Dematiaceous fungi mimicking a conjunctival melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moss, Hart B; Fowler, W Craig; Schell, Wiley A; Perfect, John R; Zedek, Dan C

    2013-01-01

    An 85-year-old, immunocompetent man was referred to the authors due to the presence of an enlarging, pigmented mass of the conjunctiva concerning for a conjunctival melanoma. Wide excision of the mass revealed a pigmented or "dematiaceous" fungus. He was treated with topical natamycin, and the lesion healed well without any evidence of recurrence. Dematiaceous fungi should be considered in the differential for pigmented conjunctival lesions. PMID:23250331

  14. Microwave plaque thermoradiotherapy for choroidal melanoma.

    OpenAIRE

    Finger, P. T.

    1992-01-01

    Microwave thermoradiotherapy was used as a primary treatment for 44 patients with choroidal melanoma. An episcleral dish-shaped microwave antenna was placed beneath the tumour at the time of plaque brachytherapy. While temperatures were measured at the sclera, the tumour's apex was targeted to receive a minimum of 42 degrees C for 45 minutes. In addition, the patients received full or reduced doses of plaque radiotherapy. No patients have been lost to follow-up. Two eyes have been enucleated:...

  15. Intramuscular metastasis from malignant melanoma: MR findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present a rare case of intramuscular metastasis from malignant melanoma. The lesion showed intermediate to high signal intensity on T1-weighted magnetic resonance (MR) images and mixed signal intensities containing high and low signals on T2-weighted images. The signal intensity on T1-weighted images, which is due to the paramagnetic effect of melanin, is a characteristic MR finding of this entity. (orig.)

  16. Combined treatment of uveal melanoma liver metastases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brasiuniene B

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Uveal melanoma (UM is the most prevalent intraocular malignant tumor in the Western world. The prognosis of survival in the presence of metastatic disease is 2-7 months, depending on the treatment applied. This article presents a case of metastatic UM with successful complex treatment of liver metastases. A 49-year old female, underwent removal of the right eyeball in 1996 due to a histologically confirmed uveal melanoma. After 11 years, CT revealed a mass in the left kidney and multiple metastases in the liver. After left nephrectomy, 6 chemotherapy courses with dacarbazine were performed. The increasing liver metastases were observed. Additional 4 intraarterial (i/a chemotherapy courses were administered using cisplatin, doxorubicin, fluorouracil, and interferon alfa. After few courses increase in CTC Grade 4 liver transaminases was seen. A partial response was observed, and in December 2008 the patient underwent surgery removing all liver metastases by 7 wedge or atypical resections. All margins were tumor-free. 21 months after liver resections and 14 years since diagnosis, the patient is alive without evidence of disease. Successful treatment of metastatic uveal melanoma was due to a timely application of a combination of several treatment methods and good prognostic factors of the patient.

  17. Melanoma of the rectum: A rare entity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PM van Schaik, MF Ernst, HA Meijer, K Bosscha

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available A 41-year-old man presented with a 6-mo history of changed defecation and rectal bleeding. A 3-cm polypoid tumor of the lower rectum was found at rectosigmoidoscopy, which proved to be a leiomyosarcoma upon biopsy. Dissemination studies did not show any metastases. He was underwent to an abdomino-perineal resection (APR. Histopathology of the specimen showed a melanoma (S-100 stain positive. Two years after the resection, metastases in the abdomen and right lung were found. He died one and half years later. Primary anorectal melanoma is a rare and very aggressive disorder. According to current data, one should always perform a S-100 stain when anorectal sarcoma is suspected. A positive S-100 stain suggests the tumour to be most likely a melanoma. Subsequently, thorough dissemination studies need to be performed. Depending on the outcome of the dissemination studies, a surgical resection has to be performed. Nowadays, a sphincter-saving local excision combined with adjuvant loco-regional radiotherapy should be preferred in case of small tumors. The same loco-regional control is achieved with less “loss of function” compared to non-sphincter saving surgery. Only in the case of large and obstructing tumors an abdomino-perineal resection is the treatment of choice.

  18. Primary cutaneous melanoma: an 18-year study

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Moris, Anger; Henri, Friedhofer; Marina Fussae, Fukutaki; Marcus Castro, Ferreira; Gilles, Landman.

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Primary cutaneous melanoma still constitutes the main cause of skin cancer death in developed countries, and its incidence in recent years has been increasing in a steady, worrisome manner. OBJECTIVES: This study evaluated the clinical, epidemiological and demographic aspects of this dis [...] ease, and correlated them with patient prognosis. METHODS: Using epidemiologic and clinical data, we analyzed 84 patients with mild to severe primary cutaneous melanoma treated between 1990 and 2007. Slides containing surgical specimens were analyzed, and new slides were made from archived paraffin sections when necessary. RESULTS: The melanoma incidence was higher in areas of sun exposure, with lesions commonly observed in the trunk for males, and lower limbs for females. In addition to Breslow's thickness and ulceration (p = 0.043 and p 1 mm and 4 mm) and the mitotic index (0 when absent or 1 when >1 per mm²) allowed the establishment of a prognostic score: if the sum was equal to or over three, nearly all (91.7%) patients had systemic disease. The 5-year survival was approximately seventy percent. CONCLUSION: Because American Join Committee of Cancer Staging will update the classification of malignant tumors (TNM) staging in the near future, and introduce mitosis as a prognostic factor, our results show the importance of such a feature. Additional studies are necessary to confirm the importance of a prognostic score as proposed herein.

  19. Ectopic lymphoid structures in primary cutaneous melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladányi, Andrea; Sebestyén, Tímea; Mohos, Anita; Liszkay, Gabriella; Somlai, Beáta; Tóth, Erika; Tímár, József

    2014-10-01

    Ectopic lymphoid structures have been described in several tumor types including metastatic lesions, but not primary tumors, of patients with melanoma. Here we present evidence of B-cell follicles in primary cutaneous melanomas, being present in 39 of 147 cases (27 %). B-cell clusters were associated with T lymphocytes, most of which belonging to CD45RO(+) memory T cells. A network of CD21(+) follicular dendritic cells was demonstrated in 8 of 22 cases studied (36 %). MECA-79(+) HEV-like venules were observed in the neighborhood of the follicles in the majority of cases, however, their presence was not confined to tumors hosting ectopic lymphoid structures. The appearance of B-cell aggregates did not show association with the outcome of the disease, although a trend for their higher prevalence was observed in thicker tumors. Our results show that neogenesis of lymphoid structures does occur in primary melanomas, albeit with lower frequency compared to that reported in metastases. PMID:24781762

  20. Primary cutaneous melanoma: an 18-year study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moris Anger

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Primary cutaneous melanoma still constitutes the main cause of skin cancer death in developed countries, and its incidence in recent years has been increasing in a steady, worrisome manner. OBJECTIVES: This study evaluated the clinical, epidemiological and demographic aspects of this disease, and correlated them with patient prognosis. METHODS: Using epidemiologic and clinical data, we analyzed 84 patients with mild to severe primary cutaneous melanoma treated between 1990 and 2007. Slides containing surgical specimens were analyzed, and new slides were made from archived paraffin sections when necessary. RESULTS: The melanoma incidence was higher in areas of sun exposure, with lesions commonly observed in the trunk for males, and lower limbs for females. In addition to Breslow's thickness and ulceration (p = 0.043 and p 1 mm and 4 mm and the mitotic index (0 when absent or 1 when >1 per mm² allowed the establishment of a prognostic score: if the sum was equal to or over three, nearly all (91.7% patients had systemic disease. The 5-year survival was approximately seventy percent. CONCLUSION: Because American Join Committee of Cancer Staging will update the classification of malignant tumors (TNM staging in the near future, and introduce mitosis as a prognostic factor, our results show the importance of such a feature. Additional studies are necessary to confirm the importance of a prognostic score as proposed herein.

  1. Radiotherapy in the management of cutaneous melanoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cutaneous malignant melanoma has long been considered to be relatively radioresistant. Experience at any one center is often limited to a few patients with advanced recurrent or metastatic disease. Survival rates in these patients are understandably dismal, and since tumor volumes are often large, response rates may be low. Increased enthusiasm for the role of radiotherapy in the treatment of malignant melanoma began in the early 1970s when radiobiologists reported that several melanoma cell lines displayed broad-shouldered but relatively low D/sub o/ survival curves. A large capacity to repair and accumulate sublethal damage is thought to account for some of the disappointing clinical results with conventional multifractionated radiotherapy. This led to the use of high dose fraction radiotherapy in the clinic. This chapter includes a review of contemporary clinical experience, especially in reference to the reported effect of time, dose, and fractionation. The experience of three San Francisco radiation oncology departments is also reviewed and compared to the published data

  2. Cutaneous melanoma: new advances in treatment

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Michele Ceolin, Foletto; Sandra Elisa, Haas.

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in english Cutaneous melanoma is a challenge to treat. Over the last 30 years, no drug or combination of drugs demonstrated significant impact to improve patient survival. From 1995 to 2000, the use of cytokines such as interferon and interleukin become treatment options. In 2011, new drugs were approved by th [...] e U.S. Food and Drug Administration, including peginterferon alfa-2b for patients with stage III disease, vemurafenib for patients with metastatic melanoma with the BRAF V600E mutation, and ipilimumab, a monoclonal antibody directed to the CTLA-4 T lymphocyte receptor, to combat metastatic melanoma in patients who do not have the BRAF V600E mutation. Both ipilimumab and vemurafenib showed results in terms of overall survival. Other trials with inhibitors of other genes, such as the KIT gene and MEK, are underway in the search for new discoveries. The discovery of new treatments for advanced or metastatic disease aims to relieve symptoms and improve patient quality of life.

  3. Proton beam radiotherapy of iris melanoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To report on outcomes after proton beam radiotherapy of iris melanoma. Methods and Materials: Between 1993 and 2004, 88 patients with iris melanoma received proton beam radiotherapy, with 53.1 Gy in 4 fractions. Results: The patients had a mean age of 52 years and a median follow-up of 2.7 years. The tumors had a median diameter of 4.3 mm, involving more than 2 clock hours of iris in 32% of patients and more than 2 hours of angle in 27%. The ciliary body was involved in 20%. Cataract was present in 13 patients before treatment and subsequently developed in another 18. Cataract had a 4-year rate of 63% and by Cox analysis was related to age (p = 0.05), initial visual loss (p < 0.0001), iris involvement (p < 0.0001), and tumor thickness (p < 0.0001). Glaucoma was present before treatment in 13 patients and developed after treatment in another 3. Three eyes were enucleated, all because of recurrence, which had an actuarial 4-year rate of 3.3% (95% CI 0-8.0%). Conclusions: Proton beam radiotherapy of iris melanoma is well tolerated, the main problems being radiation-cataract, which was treatable, and preexisting glaucoma, which in several patients was difficult to control

  4. Malignant melanoma and melanocortin 1 receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenkranz, A A; Slastnikova, T A; Durymanov, M O; Sobolev, A S

    2013-11-01

    The conventional chemotherapeutic treatment of malignant melanoma still remains poorly efficient in most cases. Thus the use of specific features of these tumors for development of new therapeutic modalities is highly needed. Melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R) overexpression on the cell surface of the vast majority of human melanomas, making MC1R a valuable marker of these tumors, is one of these features. Naturally, MC1R plays a key role in skin protection against damaging ultraviolet radiation by regulating eumelanin production. MC1R activation is involved in regulation of melanocyte cell division. This article reviews the peculiarities of regulation and expression of MC1R, melanocytes, and melanoma cells, along with the possible connection of MC1R with signaling pathways regulating proliferation of tumor cells. MC1R is a cell surface endocytic receptor, thus considered perspective for diagnostics and targeted drug delivery. A number of new therapeutic approaches that utilize MC1R, including endoradiotherapy with Auger electron and ?- and ?-particle emitters, photodynamic therapy, and gene therapy are now being developed. PMID:24460937

  5. Persistent Pain After Surgery for Cutaneous Melanoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    HØimyr, Hilde; von Sperling, Marie Louise

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVES:: Chronic pain is a well-known complication after surgery, but the prevalence of persistent pain after melanoma surgery is unknown. This study examined the prevalence and predictors of persistent pain after melanoma surgery. METHODS:: Between September 2005 and June 2009, 448 patients underwent surgery for cutaneous melanoma at the Department of Plastic Surgery, Aalborg Hospital. A questionnaire was sent to all 402 survivors, and 350 (87.1%) responded. In addition, all patients with pain and a control group of sex-matched and age-matched patients without pain were invited to a clinical examination. RESULTS:: Thirty-four patients (9.7%) reported pain in the scar area within the last month, and 8.6% reported chronic pain. The pain was mostly mild with little impact on daily life, but 1.7% reported moderate to severe pain, and 3.4% reported at least moderate impact of pain on daily life. Sensory changes were reported by 108 patients (31.5%); 25% of these had pain compared with 3% of patients with normal sensation [P

  6. Melanoma de iris con invasión al ángulo camerular / Iris melanoma invading the camerular angle

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Leticia, Verona Ugando; Beatriz, Landrián Iglesias; Naysa, Padierne González; Raquel, Delgado Moya; Yamilet, Leiva González.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Los melanomas uveales son los tumores intraoculares primarios más frecuentes, con una incidencia de 8/1 000 000 al año en la raza blanca. Específicamente el melanoma de iris representa entre 5 y 7 % de los melanomas malignos de la úvea. Estos tumores pueden ser amelánicos o pigmentados y por lo gene [...] ral muy vascularizados. Se presenta un paciente de 18 años con antecedentes de salud, que fue atendido en el cuerpo de guardia de oftalmología refiriendo dolor ocular y disminución brusca de la visión del ojo derecho. En el examen físico se constató hipertensión ocular marcada, hifema de 2 mm, y edema corneal. Este cuadro cedió con tratamiento y permitió observar una tumoración del iris que invadía el ángulo iridocorneal, muy vascularizada. Por esto se realizaron exámenes en busca de tumores a otros niveles, y finalmente una biopsia por aspiración con aguja fina. Se concluye el caso con el diagnóstico de un melanoma de iris con invasión a cuerpo ciliar. El paciente se remite para tratamiento quirúrgico al Instituto Nacional de Oncología y Radiobiología. Abstract in english Uveal melanomas are the most frequent primary uveal tumors, having an incidence of 8/1 000 000 a year in Caucasian people. Specifically, iris Melanoma represents 5 to 7 % of the uveal malignant melanomas and they may be amelanic or pigmented, generally very vascularized. An eighteen years old male p [...] atient with a history of health problems was presented, who had been seen at the Ophthalmological Emergency Service because of eye pain and sudden visual reduction in his right eye. In the physical exam, a marked ocular hypertension was confirmed as well as a 2 mm hyphema and corneal edema. These conditions were overcome with treatment and afterwards, there was observed iris tumoration invading the iridocorneal angle. Some complementary studies were carried out to search further tumors at other levels and finally a fine needle aspiration biopsy was performed. The diagnosis was amelanic Iris Melanoma invading the ciliary body. The patient was referred for surgical treatment at the National Institute of Oncology and Radiology.

  7. Neoplasias múltiples en pacientes afectos de melanoma de úvea Multiple neoplasms in patients with uveal melanoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.M. Caminal

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Estudiar la prevalencia de neoplasias múltiples en pacientes afectos de melanoma de úvea en nuestro medio y relacionarlo con la supervivencia. Método: Para ello se ha realizado un estudio prospectivo longitudinal de prevalencia de múltiples neoplasias en pacientes diagnosticados de melanoma de úvea entre los años 1984-2005. Se han analizado entre otras las variables clínicas: edad, sexo, fecha de diagnóstico, ojo afecto, origen y tamaño tumoral, clasificación según el COMS (Collaborative Ocular Melanoma Study, fecha del último control, tiempo de seguimiento, presencia de otras neoplasias, estado sistémico actual, fecha y causa de muerte. Resultados: Se han estudiado 305 pacientes afectos de melanoma de úvea en la Unidad de Oncologia Ocular de nuestro centro. 24 pacientes (7,9% presentaron en su historia médica una o más neoplasias malignas. Excluyendo las neoplasias cutáneas de origen en células basales, esta proporción fue del 7,2% (22 pacientes. No se ha encontrado diferencias estadísticamente significativas entre la edad de presentación, sexo y la localización del melanoma (cuerpo ciliar o coroides y la presencia o no de segundas neoplasias. Cuando se analizó la proporción de pacientes con enfermedad metastásica (tanto vivos como muertos que no han presentado una segunda neoplasia (14,3%, respecto de aquellos que si la presentaron (40,9%, mediante el test de Chi-cuadrado, se encontró una relación estadísticamente significativa con una p=0,004. Conclusiones: En nuestra población de estudio, se ha observado un porcentaje de segundas neoplasias similar al descrito en otras series internacionales. No se ha encontrado una mayor proporción de segundas neoplasias según el sexo, la edad, la localización tumoral. Así como tampoco se ha observado una mayor frecuencia de determinadas segundas neoplasias. Pero sí que se ha evidenciado una mayor predisposición a desarrollar enfermedad metastásica, en los pacientes que han presentado segundas neoplasias, por lo que en estos pacientes se debe incrementar el seguimiento sistémico.Purpose: To study the prevalence of multiple neoplasms in patients affected by uveal melanoma in Spain and to relate these with survival. Method: We carried out a longitudinal prospective study of the prevalence of multiple neoplasms in patients diagnosed to have a uveal melanoma during the years 1984-2005. The data has been analysed for the following variables: age, sex, date of diagnosis, affected eye, origin and tumoral size, classification according to COMS (Collaborative Ocular Melanoma Study, time of follow-up, presence of other neoplasms, current clinical state, date and cause of death. Results: Three hundred and five patients affected by uveal melanoma have been studied in the Ocular Oncology Unit of our institution; 24 patients (7.9% had evidence in their medical reports of one or more additional neoplasms. Excluding cutaneous neoplasms originating in basal cells, this number reduced to 22 patients (7.2%. We did not find any statistically significant differences among the presentation age, sex or localization of the melanoma (ciliary body or choroid and the presence or absence of a second neoplasm. When we analysed the proportion of patients with metastatic disease (both alive and dead who presented with a second neoplasm (40.9%, we found a statistically significant relationship between these variables (Chi-square test, p=0.004. Conclusions: We have observed a percentage of second neoplasms similar to that described in other international studies. We did not find a larger proportion with a second neoplasm according to the sex, age, or tumoral localization, nor did we observe a higher frequency of any particular second neoplasm. We have defined a relationship between metastasic uveal melanoma, and the development of a second neoplasm, which clearly indicates a need for increased systemic follow-up in such patients.

  8. Loss of XRCC1 confers a metastatic phenotype to melanoma cells and is associated with poor survival in patients with melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhandaru, Madhuri; Martinka, Magdalena; Li, Gang; Rotte, Anand

    2014-05-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) radiation-induced DNA damage and genomic instability is one of the leading causes for melanoma. X-ray repair cross-complementary protein 1, XRCC1, plays a critically important role in base excision repair pathway. This study was therefore performed to analyze the correlation between XRCC1 expression, melanoma progression, and patient survival. Using a tissue microarray with a total of 119 patients with melanoma, we demonstrate that loss of XRCC1 expression is associated with the progression of disease from dysplastic nevi to primary melanoma and to metastatic melanoma. We found that the loss of XRCC1 was correlated with the progression of melanoma from AJCC stage II to stage III and with worse overall and disease-specific 5-yr and 10-yr survival of patients with melanoma. Furthermore, we also illustrate the inhibitory effect of XRCC1 on melanoma cell invasion and migration, which are the regulatory events in melanoma metastasis. PMID:24410901

  9. Anti-proliferative and proapoptotic effects of (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate on human melanoma: possible implications for the chemoprevention of melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nihal, Minakshi; Ahmad, Nihal; Mukhtar, Hasan; Wood, Gary S

    2005-04-20

    Melanoma accounts for only about 4% of all skin cancer cases but most of skin cancer-related deaths. Standard systemic therapies such as interferon (IFN) have not been adequately effective in the management of melanoma. Therefore, novel approaches are needed for prevention and treatment of this disease. Chemoprevention by naturally occurring agents present in food and beverages has shown benefits in certain cancers including nonmelanoma skin cancers. Here, employing 2 human melanoma cell lines (A-375 amelanotic malignant melanoma and Hs-294T metastatic melanoma) and normal human epidermal melanocytes (NHEM), we studied the antiproliferative effects of epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), the major polyphenolic antioxidant present in green tea. EGCG treatment was found to result in a dose-dependent decrease in the viability and growth of both melanoma cell lines. Interestingly, at similar EGCG concentrations, the normal melanocytes were not affected. EGCG treatment of the melanoma cell lines resulted in decreased cell proliferation (as assessed by Ki-67 and PCNA protein levels) and induction of apoptosis (as assessed cleavage of PARP, TUNEL assay and JC-1 assay). EGCG also significantly inhibited the colony formation ability of the melanoma cells studied. EGCG treatment of melanoma cells resulted in a downmodulation of anti-apoptotic protein Bcl2, upregulation of proapoptotic Bax and activation of caspases -3, -7 and -9. Furthermore, our data demonstrated that EGCG treatment resulted in a significant, dose-dependent decrease in cyclin D1 and cdk2 protein levels and induction of cyclin kinase inhibitors (ckis) p16INK4a, p21WAF1/CIP1 and p27KIP1. Our data suggest that EGCG causes significant induction of cell cycle arrest and apoptosis of melanoma cells that is mediated via modulations in the cki-cyclin-cdk network and Bcl2 family proteins. Thus, EGCG, alone or in conjunction with current therapies, could be useful for the management of melanoma. PMID:15609335

  10. Remission of an Intracardiac Melanoma Metastasis after Tremelimumab Therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Spethmann, Sebastian; Trefzer, Uwe; Knebel, Fabian

    2014-01-01

    Tremelimumab is a fully human monoclonal antibody specific for human cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated antigen 4. Administration of tremelimumab to patients with locally advanced and metastatic melanoma has resulted in a subset of patients with durable objective tumour regressions. Our echocardiographic images impressively show the effects of this new antibody in a patient with cardiac metastatic malignant melanoma.

  11. Systemic Therapy of Non-Resectable Metastatic Melanoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azadeh Orouji

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available In advanced metastatic melanoma (non-resectable stage III/IV, the prognosis still remains poor, with median survival times between six and twelve months. Systemic therapeutic approaches for metastatic melanoma include chemotherapy, immunotherapy, immunochemotherapy, small molecules and targeted therapy. In this review, we will focus on the various treatment modalities as well as new agents used for targeted therapy.

  12. Systemic Therapy of Non-Resectable Metastatic Melanoma

    OpenAIRE

    Azadeh Orouji; Sergij Goerdt; Jochen Utikal

    2010-01-01

    In advanced metastatic melanoma (non-resectable stage III/IV), the prognosis still remains poor, with median survival times between six and twelve months. Systemic therapeutic approaches for metastatic melanoma include chemotherapy, immunotherapy, immunochemotherapy, small molecules and targeted therapy. In this review, we will focus on the various treatment modalities as well as new agents used for targeted therapy.

  13. Integrating BRAF/MEK inhibitors into combination therapy for melanoma

    OpenAIRE

    Smalley, K. S. M.; Flaherty, K. T.

    2009-01-01

    The discovery of BRAF mutations in melanoma has not yet translated into clinical success, suggesting that BRAF/MEK inhibitors will need to be combined with other agents. In the current review, we discuss other pathways likely to be important for melanoma progression and suggest possible drug combinations for future clinical testing.

  14. Epac1 promotes melanoma metastasis via modification of heparan sulfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baljinnyam, Erdene; Umemura, Masanari; De Lorenzo, Mariana S; Iwatsubo, Mizuka; Chen, Suzie; Goydos, James S; Iwatsubo, Kousaku

    2011-08-01

    Our previous report suggested the potential role of the exchange protein directly activated by cyclic AMP (Epac) in melanoma metastasis via heparan sulfate (HS)-mediated cell migration. In order to obtain conclusive evidence that Epac1 plays a critical role in modification of HS and melanoma metastasis, we extensively investigated expression and function of Epac1 in human melanoma samples and cell lines. We have found that, in human melanoma tissue microarray, protein expression of Epac1 was higher in metastatic melanoma than in primary melanoma. In addition, expression of Epac1 positively correlated with that of N-sulfated HS, and N-deacetylase/N-sulfotransferase-1 (NDST-1), an enzyme that increases N-sulfation of HS. Further, an Epac agonist increased, but ablation of Epac1 decreased, expressions of NDST-1, N-sulfated HS, and cell migration in various melanoma cell lines. Finally, C8161 cells with stable knockdown of Epac1 showed a decrease in cell migration, and metastasis in mice. These data suggest that Epac1 plays a critical role in melanoma metastasis presumably because of modification of HS. PMID:21539721

  15. Pigmented mammary paget disease misdiagnosed as malignant melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ji Hye; Kim, Tae Hyung; Kim, Soo-Chan; Kim, You Chan; Roh, Mi Ryung

    2014-12-01

    Pigmented mammary Paget disease is a very rare clinicopathologic variant of mammary Paget disease. Diagnosis is often difficult because its clinical and histological features are very similar to those of malignant melanoma. Herein, we report a case of pigmented mammary Paget disease misdiagnosed as malignant melanoma. PMID:25473229

  16. Pigmented Mammary Paget Disease Misdiagnosed as Malignant Melanoma

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Ji Hye; Kim, Tae Hyung; Kim, Soo-chan; Kim, You Chan; Roh, Mi Ryung

    2014-01-01

    Pigmented mammary Paget disease is a very rare clinicopathologic variant of mammary Paget disease. Diagnosis is often difficult because its clinical and histological features are very similar to those of malignant melanoma. Herein, we report a case of pigmented mammary Paget disease misdiagnosed as malignant melanoma.

  17. Melanoma in Organ Transplant Recipients: Incidence, Outcomes and Management Considerations

    OpenAIRE

    Ali, Faisal R.; Lear, John T.

    2012-01-01

    The incidence of melanoma continues to increase year on year. With better surgical techniques and medical management, greater numbers of organ transplants are being performed annually with much longer graft survival. The authors review our current understanding of the incidence of melanoma amongst organ transplant recipients, outcomes compared to the immunocompetent population, and management strategies in this burgeoning group.

  18. Prevalence of left-sided melanomas in an Irish population.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    de Blacam, C

    2011-04-17

    BACKGROUND: A predominance of melanomas on the left side of the body has recently been described. No associations between tumour laterality and gender, age or anatomical site have been identified. AIM: The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of left-sided melanomas in an Irish population and to examine potential associations with various patient and tumour characteristics. METHODS: A retrospective chart review of patients with cutaneous melanoma who were treated over a 10-year period was carried out. Lateral distribution of melanoma on either side of the body was compared using ?(2) analysis and evaluated by gender, age group, anatomic location, histologic subtype and Breslow depth. RESULTS: More melanomas occurred on the left side (57%, P = 0.015), and this finding was particularly significant in females. For both genders combined, there were no statistically significant differences in laterality by age group, anatomic location, type of melanoma and Breslow depth. There were significantly more superficial spreading melanomas on the left side in both men and women. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates a predominance of left-sided melanomas in Irish patients. While a number of demographic and molecular associations have been proposed, further research is required to fully explain this phenomenon.

  19. Isolation and Molecular Characterization of Circulating Melanoma Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Xi; Mitra, Devarati; Sullivan, Ryan J.; Wittner, Ben S.; Kimura, Anya M.; Pan, Shiwei; Hoang, Mai P.; Brannigan, Brian W.; Lawrence, Donald P.; Flaherty, Keith T.; Sequist, Lecia V.; McMahon, Martin; Bosenberg, Marcus W.; Stott, Shannon L.; Ting, David T.; Ramaswamy, Sridhar; Toner, Mehmet; Fisher, David E.; Maheswaran, Shyamala; Haber, Daniel A.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Melanoma is an invasive malignancy with a high frequency of blood-borne metastases, but circulating tumor cells (CTCs) have not been readily isolated. We adapted microfluidic CTC capture to a tamoxifen-driven B-RAF/PTEN mouse melanoma model. CTCs were detected in all tumor-bearing mice, rapidly declining after B-RAF inhibitor treatment. CTCs were shed early from localized tumors and a short course of B-RAF inhibition following surgical resection was sufficient to dramatically suppress distant metastases. The large number of CTCs in melanoma-bearing mice enabled comparison of RNA sequencing profiles with the matched primary tumor. A mouse melanoma CTC-derived signature correlated with invasiveness and cellular motility in human melanoma. In patients with metastatic melanoma, CTCs were detected in smaller numbers in patients with metastatic melanoma and declined with successful B-RAF targeted therapy. Together, the capture of CTCs and their molecular characterization provide insight into the hematogenous spread of melanoma. PMID:24746818

  20. Prevalence of left-sided melanomas in an Irish population.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    de Blacam, C

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: A predominance of melanomas on the left side of the body has recently been described. No associations between tumour laterality and gender, age or anatomical site have been identified. AIM: The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of left-sided melanomas in an Irish population and to examine potential associations with various patient and tumour characteristics. METHODS: A retrospective chart review of patients with cutaneous melanoma who were treated over a 10-year period was carried out. Lateral distribution of melanoma on either side of the body was compared using chi(2) analysis and evaluated by gender, age group, anatomic location, histologic subtype and Breslow depth. RESULTS: More melanomas occurred on the left side (57%, P = 0.015), and this finding was particularly significant in females. For both genders combined, there were no statistically significant differences in laterality by age group, anatomic location, type of melanoma and Breslow depth. There were significantly more superficial spreading melanomas on the left side in both men and women. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates a predominance of left-sided melanomas in Irish patients. While a number of demographic and molecular associations have been proposed, further research is required to fully explain this phenomenon.

  1. Lunares comunes, nevos displásicos y el riesgo de melanoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoja informativa que trata de los lunares y de cómo algunos de ellos pueden relacionarse con el melanoma, el cual es el tipo más grave de cáncer de piel. La hoja informativa incluye fotos de las diferencias entre los lunares y el cáncer y habla de los factores de riesgo para el melanoma.

  2. Role of UV irradiation in aetiopathogenesis of malignant melanoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    UV irradiation has multiple effects on skin including erythema, immunosuppression and the induction of keratinocyte-derived skin cancers and cutaneous malignant melanoma. Cutaneous malignant melanoma, which arises from damage to the melanocytes, the pigment cells of the skin, is the most lethal of the skin cancers, known for its intractability to current therapies. Cutaneous malignant melanoma is associated in epidemiological studies with sun exposure of susceptible populations, especially children. In this review, we summarize the experimental information available on the role of UV radiation in melanoma and give an overview of a new melanoma model. Neonatally irradiated with UV, HGF/SF (hepatocyte growth factor/scatter factor) transgenic mice with age develop melanoma which recapitulates the aetiology, the histopathology and molecular pathogenesis of human disease. We also describe the role of melanin in the process of skin carcinogenesis. Melanin is the basic skin pigment present also in most types of melanoma. Studies on animal models for melanoma, especially HGF/SF transgenic mice, may help not only in understanding this lethal disease but also help to prevent it. (authors)

  3. Common Moles, Atypical Moles (Dysplastic Nevi), and Risk of Melanoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... than 50 common moles (see Question 3) Sunlight : Sunlight is a source of UV radiation , which causes skin damage that can lead to melanoma and other skin ... for people to protect their skin from the sun. Sunlamps and ... cause skin damage and melanoma. Health care providers strongly encourage people, ...

  4. Hormonal exposures and the risk of uveal melanoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Behrens, Thomas Flensted; Kaerlev, Linda

    2010-01-01

    Several studies suggest that hormonal mechanisms may be associated with the development of uveal melanoma. Therefore, the association between the risk of uveal melanoma and exposure to hormonal exposures was investigated in a case-control study from nine European countries.

  5. Metastatic Malignant Melanoma in an alpaca (Vicugna pacos)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malignant melanoma in a 7-year old, intact male alpaca with a chronic, non-healing wound on the left nares, weight loss and inappetance is described. Malignant melanoma was diagnosed in punch biopsy specimens from a mass on the maxilla associated with the non-healing wound and from a mass in the su...

  6. Adjuvant medical treatment options for cutaneous malignant melanoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banu ÖZTÜRK

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Patients with early-stage malignant melanoma can be cured with surgical resection with or without adjuvant therapy. Prognosis is still poor in the patients with metastatic melanoma. Treatment options are limited. Lymph node involvement and Breslow tumor thickness are the most important prognostic factors. There have been many trials in the adjuvant setting of malignant melanoma due to the poor prognosis of metastatic disease. High-risk node-negative patients and node-positive patients are candidates for systemic adjuvant therapy following surgery. Different treatment modalities have been widely investigated for the adjuvant treatment in high-risk melanoma patients. Stage III (locoregional metastasis and stage II (Breslow thickness >1.5 mm patients are included in adjuvant melanoma trials. The rationale for adjuvant therapy is summarized in this review, and the roles of interferon, interleukin (high-intermediate-low dose, chemotherapy, vaccines, colony stimulating factors, and combination therapies (biochemotherapy, combined immunotherapy, immunochemotherapy are discussed.

  7. Comparative analysis of methods of preinvasive melanoma diagnostics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kozlov S.V.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses one of the problems of oncology — skin melanoma. The research objective is to study and to compare diagnostic methods of preinvasive melanoma including fluorescence diagnosis, dermatoscopy and microwave radiometry. Materials and Methods: The survey has used dermatoscope of Heine Delta 20 Company, the unit RTM-01-RES and the instrument of fluorescent diagnostics «Spectrum-Cluster.» The results suggest the possibility of early detection of melanoma with the use of dermatoscopy. The method may be applied to radiometry screening study. Fluorescence diagnostics is effective for the differential diagnosis of melanoma and melanocytic nevi. In conclusion it has been proved the need for an integrated approach to the diagnostics of melanoma of skin, depending on the different clinical situations.

  8. Time-resolved fluorescence lifetime for cutaneous melanoma detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pires, Layla; Nogueira, Marcelo Saito; Pratavieira, Sebastião; Moriyama, Lilian Tan; Kurachi, Cristina

    2014-01-01

    Melanoma is the most aggressive skin cancer type. It is characterized by pigmented lesions with high tissue invasion and metastatic potential. The early detection of melanoma is extremely important to improve patient prognosis and survival rate, since it can progress to the deadly metastatic stage. Presently, the melanoma diagnosis is based on the clinical analysis of the macroscopic lesion characteristics such as shape, color, borders following the ABCD rules. The aim of this study is to evaluate the time-resolved fluorescence lifetime of NADH and FAD molecules to detect cutaneous melanoma in an experimental in vivo model. Forty-two lesions were analyzed and the data was classified using linear discriminant analysis, a sensitivity of 99.4%, specificity of 97.4% and accuracy of 98.4% were achieved. These results show the potential of this fluorescence spectroscopy for melanoma detection. PMID:25401022

  9. A clinical trial of fast neutron therapy for malignant melanoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fifty-four patients with malignant melanoma of the skin or the head and neck underwent fast neutron therapy between November 1975 and March 1983. Of these patients, 21 patients with melanoma of the skin and 12 patients with melanoma of the head and neck were chosen as subjects for this study. Of the 21 patients with skin lesions, complete regression was seen in 2 patients undergoing fast neutron therapy alone and in 17 patients undergoing fast neutron therapy combined with salvage surgery. A cumulative five-year survival rate was 47 %. Preoperative fast neutron therapy is a promising method used in the treatment of malignant melanoma. Two of 12 patients with advanced melanoma of the head and neck were long-term survivors. Fast neutron-induced skin damage was seen in one of the 33 patients. (Namekawa, K.)

  10. Malignant melanoma in elderly patients: biological, surgical and medical issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Alessia E; Ferraù, Francesco; Antonelli, Giovanna; Priolo, Domenico; McCubrey, James A; Libra, Massimo

    2015-01-01

    Malignant melanoma is an aggressive tumor with a poor prognosis for patients with advanced disease. Over the last decades, its incidence and mortality has increased in elderly population, impacting significantly on healthcare costs, considering the increase in average age of the world population. Older age is recognized as an independent poor prognostic factor for melanoma, but the scientific community now is wondering if elderly melanoma patients have worse outcome because they are not receiving the same treatment as their younger counterparts. This article summarizes current data on elderly melanoma prevention and early detection and its subsequent management, underling the differences observed between older and younger patients. It also describes age-associated alterations in immunity and how these may impact on anti-melanoma response. PMID:25248282

  11. Iris melanoma in children: Current approach to management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, John P; Fung, Adrian T; Shields, Jerry A; Shields, Carol L

    2013-01-01

    Iris melanoma usually affects middle aged, Caucasian patients with light colored eyes. Pediatric iris melanoma is rare. A 15-year-old Caucasian male presented with 1-month history of a brown nodule in the inferotemporal aspect of his left eye. Iris nevus was diagnosed, and the patient was observed. Nearly 2 years later the lesion had grown in basal diameter and thickness, and the tumor was excised by partial lamellar scleral flap and sector iridectomy. Histopathology confirmed spindle cell iris melanoma. Two years post-operatively, tumor recurrence with anterior chamber angle involvement and secondary glaucoma developed. He was then treated with custom designed Iodine(125) plaque radiotherapy. This case demonstrates the recurrence of iris melanoma despite proper initial surgical management, and outlines current management options for pediatric iris melanoma. PMID:23772128

  12. Increased iofetamine I 123 brain uptake in metastatic melanoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Four of five patients with brain metastases from melanoma had increased lofetamine I 123 uptake in the region of the tumor deposits. A comparison group of five patients with melanoma with no clinical or radiologic evidence of brain involvement and 46 of 47 patients without malignant melanoma but with known brain tumors of other histologic types had normal or decreased iofetamine I 123 brain uptake in the region of the tumor. An exception was one patient whose metastatic small cell lung cancer to the brain showed focally increased uptake. These findings suggest that certain brain tumors such as melanoma are capable of selectively binding iofetamine I 123 because of specific chemical properties of the radiopharmaceutical. Increased uptake of iofetamine I 123 in brain lesions in a patient at risk for metastatic melanoma may be a useful aid to differential diagnosis

  13. Multi-institute study finds uncommon BRAF melanoma mutation

    Science.gov (United States)

    An uncommon mutation of the BRAF gene in melanoma patients has been found to respond to MEK inhibitor drugs, providing a rationale for routine screening and therapy in melanoma patients who harbor the BRAF L597 mutation. Mutations in BRAF V600E or KIT are common in about 40 percent to 50 percent of melanomas, and drugs that block or inhibit BRAF V600E were recently approved for treatment of melanoma patients with these mutations. However, there has been no effective treatment for patients with wildtype (WT) melanoma that is negative for these driver mutations. This study included researchers from the Vanderbilt-Ingram Cancer Center, UCLA Jonsson Comprehensive Cancer Center, and Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center.

  14. Therapy for metastatic melanoma: the past, present, and future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Finn Laura

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Metastatic melanoma is the most aggressive form of skin cancer with a median overall survival of less than one year. Advancements in our understanding of how melanoma evades the immune system as well as the recognition that melanoma is a molecularly heterogeneous disease have led to major improvements in the treatment of patients with metastatic melanoma. In 2011, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA approved two novel therapies for advanced melanoma: a BRAF inhibitor, vemurafenib, and an immune stimulatory agent, ipilimumab. The success of these agents has injected excitement and hope into patients and clinicians and, while these therapies have their limitations, they will likely provide excellent building blocks for the next generation of therapies. In this review we will discuss the advantages and limitations of the two new approved agents, current clinical trials designed to overcome these limitations, and future clinical trials that we feel hold the most promise.

  15. More skin, more sun, more tan, more melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Caroline; Murzaku, Era Caterina; Penn, Lauren; Abbasi, Naheed R; Davis, Paula D; Berwick, Marianne; Polsky, David

    2014-11-01

    Although personal melanoma risk factors are well established, the contribution of socioeconomic factors, including clothing styles, social norms, medical paradigms, perceptions of tanned skin, economic trends, and travel patterns, to melanoma incidence has not been fully explored. We analyzed artwork, advertisements, fashion trends, and data regarding leisure-time activities to estimate historical changes in UV skin exposure. We used data from national cancer registries to compare melanoma incidence rates with estimated skin exposure and found that they rose in parallel. Although firm conclusions about melanoma causation cannot be made in an analysis such as this, we provide a cross-disciplinary, historical framework in which to consider public health and educational measures that may ultimately help reverse melanoma incidence trends. PMID:25211764

  16. Primary malignant melanoma of the liver: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Gong, Yan-Hong Li, Jian-Ye Zhao, Xu-Xia Wang, Shao-Jun Zhu, Wei Zhang

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Primary malignant melanoma of the liver is an exceedingly rare tumor. Only 12 cases have been reported in the worldwide literature. We present a case of isolated malignant melanoma of the liver occurring in a 36-year-old Chinese male patient. Comprehensive dermatologic and ophthalmologic examinations revealed no evidence of a cutaneous or ocular primary lesion. Other lesions in brain, respiratory tract, lung, gastrointestinal tract and anus, were not demonstrated by serial position emission tomography (PET. Microscopic examination of the resected specimen revealed a malignant melanoma, which was confirmed by immunohistochemical staining for HMB-45, S-100 protein, melanoma-pan and vimentin. Moreover, electron microscopy demonstrated melanosomes in tumor cell cytoplasm. Our case shows that primary malignant melanoma may occur in the liver and should be considered when the histopathological appearance is not typical for other hepatic neoplasm.

  17. Dermatologia comparativa: dermatoscopia em melanoma cutâneo Comparative dermatology: dermatoscopy of cutaneous melanoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otávio Sérgio Lopes

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Os autores apresentam imagens de dermatoscopia em uma fruta (manga-rosa, contaminada pela antracnose, mostrando sua semelhança com o melanoma extensivo superficial.The authors present images from a dermatoscopy performed in a fruit (mango that was contaminated by anthracnosis, showing its similarity to superficial spreading melanona.

  18. A Texture Based Pattern Recognition Approach to Distinguish Melanoma from Non-Melanoma Cells in Histopathological Tissue Microarray Sections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rexhepaj, Elton; Agnarsdóttir, Margrét; Bergman, Julia; Edqvist, Per-Henrik; Bergqvist, Michael; Uhlén, Mathias; Gallagher, William M.; Lundberg, Emma; Ponten, Fredrik

    2013-01-01

    Aims Immunohistochemistry is a routine practice in clinical cancer diagnostics and also an established technology for tissue-based research regarding biomarker discovery efforts. Tedious manual assessment of immunohistochemically stained tissue needs to be fully automated to take full advantage of the potential for high throughput analyses enabled by tissue microarrays and digital pathology. Such automated tools also need to be reproducible for different experimental conditions and biomarker targets. In this study we present a novel supervised melanoma specific pattern recognition approach that is fully automated and quantitative. Methods and Results Melanoma samples were immunostained for the melanocyte specific target, Melan-A. Images representing immunostained melanoma tissue were then digitally processed to segment regions of interest, highlighting Melan-A positive and negative areas. Color deconvolution was applied to each region of interest to separate the channel containing the immunohistochemistry signal from the hematoxylin counterstaining channel. A support vector machine melanoma classification model was learned from a discovery melanoma patient cohort (n?=?264) and subsequently validated on an independent cohort of melanoma patient tissue sample images (n?=?157). Conclusion Here we propose a novel method that takes advantage of utilizing an immuhistochemical marker highlighting melanocytes to fully automate the learning of a general melanoma cell classification model. The presented method can be applied on any protein of interest and thus provides a tool for quantification of immunohistochemistry-based protein expression in melanoma. PMID:23690928

  19. Intention to Obtain Genetic Testing for Melanoma among Individuals at Low to Moderate Risk for Hereditary Melanoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vadaparampil, Susan T.; Azzarello, Lora; Pickard, Jennifer; Jacobsen, Paul B.

    2007-01-01

    Background: Melanoma is a serious skin cancer that has been on the rise in the United States. Some genetic component is apparent. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to identify demographic, clinical, attitudinal, and health belief factors associated with intention to obtain genetic testing for hereditary melanoma among unaffected first-degree…

  20. Current status and perspectives of treatment of disseminated melanoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melanoma is considered to be one of the most malignant human neoplasms, characterized by a steadily increasing morbidity rate, which remains a challenge for modem oncology. Despite the significant progress in prevention, diagnosis and molecular biology, the practical use of this knowledge is still limited and surgery remains the main method of treatment. A particularly unfavorable clinical course is observed in patients with metastatic melanoma. Median survival in stage IV melanoma is 6-10 months, 2-year survival is less than 10%, and 5-year survival does not exceed 5%. Despite efforts aimed at developing new strategies which would improve survival, the results have not changed for more than two decades. This is related to the limited number of cytostatic drugs available for systemic melanoma treatment and the relative resistance of melanoma cells to most therapeutic agents. In clinical practice, the most widely used drug is dacarbazine, with the highest, but still unsatisfactory, response rate reaching some 20%. The lack of effective therapies calls for the exploration of different therapeutic paths, both medical and surgical. Some hopes of new modalities are associated with the theory of melanoma immunogenicity. Currently it is believed that immuno modulation may be the solution for effective treatment of melanoma and it should be noted that new drugs, scheduled to be registered by the FDA for the treatment of metastatic melanoma, are immune system stimulating agentanoma, are immune system stimulating agents. Although targeted therapies are still not a standard of treatment and their use is mainly limited to clinical trials, they appear to be the future of effective treatment of metastatic melanoma. In this review we present the current methods of treatment of metastatic melanoma. (authors)

  1. Clinicopathological characteristics, diagnosis and treatment of melanoma in Serbia: The Melanoma Focus Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kandolf-Sekulovi? Lidija

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Treatment options for metastatic melanoma in Serbia are limited due to the lack of newly approved biologic agents and the lack of clinical studies. Also, there is a paucity of data regarding the treatment approaches in different tertiary centers and efficacy of available chemotherapy protocols. The aim of this study was to obtain more detailed data about treatment protocols in Serbia based on structured survey in tertiary oncology centers. Methods. Data about the melanoma patients treated in 2011 were analyzed from hospital databases in 6 referent oncology centers in Serbia, based on the structured survey, with the focus on metastatic melanoma patients (unresectable stage IIIC and IV. Results. A total of 986 (79-315 in different centers patients were treated, with 320 (32.45% newly diagnosed patients. There were 317 patients in stage IIIC/IV, 77/317 aged 60 years. At initial diagnosis 12.5% of patients were in stage III and 4.5% in stage IV. The most common type was superficial spreading melanoma (50-66%, followed by nodular melanoma (23.5-50%. Apart from the regional and distant lymph node metastases, the most frequent organs involved in stage IV disease were distant skin and soft tissues (12-55%, lungs (19-55.5%, liver (10-60%, and bones (3-10%. The first line therapy in stage IV metastatic melanoma was dacarbazine (DTIC dimethyl-triazeno-imidozole-carboxamide in 61-93% of the patients, while the second line varied between the centers. Disease control (complete response + partial response + stable disease was achieved in 25.7% of the patients treated with the first line chemotherapy and 23.1% of the patients treated with the second line therapy, but the duration of response was short, in first-line therapy 6.66 ± 3.36 months (median 6.75 months. More than 90% of patients were treated outside the clinical trials. Conclusion. Based on this survey, there is a large unmet need for the new treatment options for metastatic melanoma in Serbia. The development of national guidelines, and greater involvement in international clinical studies could lead to widening of treatment options for this chemotherapy resistant disease.

  2. Isolated limb infusion chemotherapy for melanoma: an overview of early experience at the Adelaide Melanoma Unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giles MH

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Mitchell H Giles,1 Brendon J Coventry2 1Adelaide Melanoma Unit, 2Discipline of Surgery, The University of Adelaide, Royal Adelaide Hospital Adelaide, SA, Australia Background: Isolated limb infusion (ILI using cytotoxic agents has been demonstrated to be an effective and less invasive alternative modality than isolated limb perfusion for the treatment of melanoma localized to a limb. Percutaneous catheters were inserted into the axial artery and vein of the affected limb while using a pneumatic cuff to restrict limb vascular flow proximally to "isolate" the limb from the body and enable delivery of high-dose intra-arterial chemotherapy selectively to the limb. The ILI technique was developed at the Sydney Melanoma Unit (now renamed the Melanoma Institute Australia, and only a few other centers have reported separate results. We report our early results using the ILI technique for management of locally recurrent surgically nonresectable melanoma. Methods and results: Twenty-eight ILI procedures were performed in 20 patients treated with one or more procedures between 1997 and 2007. Patient parameters and clinical responses were evaluated. The median follow-up duration was 15.9 months after the first ILI, with an overall response rate after one or more infusions of 70%, of which 35% were complete responders and 35% were partial responders, with a further 20% showing stable disease, giving a "clinically significant" response rate of 90%. After one ILI (n = 20, the overall response rate was 70%, with 20% complete responders and 50% partial responders, and 20% with stable disease. Low limb toxicities were generally observed, and no amputations were required. Conclusion: ILI chemotherapy is a useful technique, which can be readily repeated for control of melanoma in the limb. It is generally well tolerated, and is capable of achieving a cure, delayed progression, or effective palliation in selected cases. The longest survivors in this series were 8 and 10 years from the last ILI. Keywords: metastatic melanoma, melphalan, actinomycin-D, regional therapy, intra-arterial infusion

  3. Melanoma de coroides: presentación de un caso / Choroidal melanoma: a case presentation

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Aymed, Rodríguez Pargas; Leonor, Gallardo Roca; Iris, Chávez Pardo; Xiomara, Borrego Lastre.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Cuba | Language: Spanish Abstract in spanish Fundamento: los melanomas de coroides son considerados los tumores malignos más frecuentes en el adulto, aparece generalmente entre la sexta y séptima década de la vida y se diagnostica a través de la oftalmoscopia, la biomiscroscopia, el ultrasonido y la angiografía fluoresceínica. Su forma de pres [...] entación puede ser en su variante nodular o difusa la malignidad depende del tamaño del tumor, la localización, extensión extra escleral, tipo histológico, entre otros factores. La causa de muerte por esta enfermedad suele ocurrir por metástasis hepática. Objetivo: evitar el diagnóstico tardío del melanoma ocular. Caso clínico: se presenta el caso de una paciente femenina de 50 años de edad que acudió al centro oftalmológico del Hospital Universitario Manuel Ascunce Domenech, por disminución lenta de la agudeza visual del ojo derecho, detectándose al examen oftalmológico la presencia de una masa tumoral de color pardo que ocupaba la hemiretina superior, lo cual se corroboró con la observación de el ultrasonido ocular, por lo que se decidió proceder a la enucleación del globo ocular debido a las características del mismo. El estudio histopatológico confirmó la presencia de un melanoma de coroides de células tipo mixtas con infiltración a cuerpo ciliar. Los resultados del examen físico general, hematológico e imagenológico fueron negativos, descartándose la presencia de metástasis. Abstract in english Background: choroidal melanoma is considered the most common malignant tumor in adults. It usually appears between the sixth and seventh decade of life and it is diagnosed by ophthalmoscopy, biomiscroscopy, ultrasound and fluorescein angiography. Choroidal melanoma presentation may be in its nodular [...] or diffuse variant; malignancy depends on the size of tumor, location, extrascleral extension, histological type, among other factors. The cause of death from this disease usually occurs by hepatic metastases. Objective: to avoid late diagnosis of ocular melanoma. Case presentation: a 50-year-old-female patient presented with slow decrease of visual acuity in the right eye. The eye test detected the presence of a brown tumor mass occupying the upper hemiretina, which was corroborated with the observation of ocular ultrasound. It was decided to enucleate the eyeball due to its characteristics. Histopathological examination confirmed the presence of a choroidal melanoma of mixed cell type with ciliary body infiltration. Results of physical, hematological and imaging examination were negative, ruling out the presence of metastasis.

  4. Anal melanoma: a rare, but catastrophic tumor / Melanoma anal: tumor raro, mas catastrófico

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Andréa da Costa, Veloso; Jaime Coelho Carlos, Magno; José Antonio Dias da Cunha e, Silva.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: O melanoma maligno do canal anal é uma doença rara e agressiva, em que o diagnóstico precoce se torna difícil. Apresenta-se sem sintomas específicos, levando ao diagnóstico tardio e em fase avançada. O prognóstico é ruim e frequentemente relacionado a metástases a distância, bem como à [...] ausência de resposta à rádio e à quimioterapia. A cirurgia permanece como terapia de escolha, no entanto a melhor abordagem ainda é controversa. Considerando não haver benefício na sobrevida da amputação abdômino-aerineal do aeto (AAPR), a excisão local ampla deve ser considerada o tratamento de escolha. MÉTODOS: São nove casos de melanoma anorretal tratados no serviço de coloproctologia do Hospital Naval Marcílio Dias (HNMD) de 1977 a 2006. RESULTADOS: Foram diagnosticados oito mulheres e um homem, com média de idade de 69 anos (41 - 85). A queixa mais frequente foi o sangramento anal. A excisão local ampla foi realizada em sete pacientes. A sobrevida média foi de 24 meses. CONCLUSÃO: O melanoma anorretal continua desafiante. Todos os esforços devem ser feitos para o diagnóstico precoce, tornando assim possível realizar a excisão local com margens negativas. A AAPR ainda é uma opção factível para tumores avançados ou quando o esfíncter anal está comprometido. Abstract in english INTRODUCTION: Malignant melanoma of the anal canal is a rare and aggressive disease, which early diagnosis is difficult. Its presentation with no specific symptoms leads to a late diagnosis at an advanced stage. The prognosis of anorectal malignant melanoma is poor and frequently related to distant [...] metastasis and absence of response of chemoradiotherapy. Surgery remains the mainstay of therapy; otherwise, the best approach is controversial. Considering no survival benefits for APR, wide local excision should be considered as the treatment of choice. METHODS: This report collects nine cases of anorectal melanoma treated at our division from 1977 to 2006, as well as a review of the literature. RESULTS: There were eight females and one male, of medium age 69 years (range: 41-85 years). Most frequent presentation was bleeding. Wide Local Excision (WLE) was performed in seven of them. Mean survival was 24 months, and six of them died on account of metastatic disease. CONCLUSION: Anorectal melanoma remains challenging. Efforts should be taken to early diagnosis, and wide local excision with negative margins is the preferred treatment. Abdominoperineal resection (APR) is a reasonable option for bulky tumors or when the sphincter is invaded.

  5. eIF4E Is an Adverse Prognostic Marker of Melanoma Patient Survival by Increasing Melanoma Cell Invasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khosravi, Shahram; Tam, Kevin J; Ardekani, Gholamreza S; Martinka, Magdalena; McElwee, Kevin J; Ong, Christopher J

    2015-05-01

    Human cutaneous melanoma is a devastating skin cancer because of its invasive nature and high metastatic potential. We used tissue microarray to study the role of human eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E (eIF4E) in melanoma progression in 448 melanocytic lesions and found that high eIF4E expression was significantly increased in primary melanomas compared with dysplastic nevi (PBCL2 expression, and an increase in cleaved PARP and cleaved caspase-3 expression and chemosensitivity. Taken together, our data suggest that the eIF4E may promote melanoma cell invasion and metastasis, and may also serve as a promising prognostic marker and a potential therapeutic target for melanoma. PMID:25562667

  6. Melanomas: radiobiology and role of radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose/Objective: This course will review the radiobiology of malignant melanoma (MM) and the clinical use of radiation therapy for metastatic melanoma and selected primary sites. The course will emphasize the scientific principles underlying the clinical treatment of MM. Introduction: The incidence of malignant melanoma has one of the fastest growth rates in the world. In 1991, there were 32,000 cases and 7,000 deaths from MM in the United States. By the year 2000, one of every 90 Americans will develop MM. Wide local excision is the treatment of choice for Stage I-II cutaneous MM. Five-year survival rates depend on (a) sex: female-63%, male-40%; (b) tumor thickness: t 4 mm-25%; (c) location: extremity-60%, trunk-41%; and (d) regional lymph node status: negative-77%, positive-31%. Despite adequate surgery, 45-50% of all MM patients will develop metastatic disease. Radiobiology: Both the multi-target model: S = 1-(1-e-D/Do)n and the linear quadratic mode: -In(S) = alpha x D + beta x D2 predict a possible benefit for high dose per fraction (> 400 cGy) radiation therapy for some MM cell lines. The extrapolation number (n) varies from 1-100 for MM compared to other mammalian cells with n=2-4. The alpha/beta ratios for a variety of MM cell lines vary from 1 to 33. Other radiobiologic factors (repair of potentially lethal damage, hypoxia, reoxygenation, and repopulation) predict a wide variety of clinical responses to different time-dose prescriptions ises to different time-dose prescriptions including high dose per fraction (> 400 cGy), low dose per fraction (200-300 cGy), or b.i.d. therapy. Based on a review of the radiobiology of MM, no single therapeutic strategy emerges which could be expected to be successful for all tumors. Time-Dose Prescriptions: A review of the retrospective and prospective clinical trials evaluating various time-dose prescriptions for MM reveals: (1) MM is a radiosensitive tumor over a wide range of diverse time-dose prescriptions; and (2) The high clinical response rates to a diverse range of time-dose prescriptions are consistent with the wide diversity and complexity of the radiobiological data for MM. RT for Metastatic Melanoma: RT is the single most effective therapy for local palliation of metastatic disease. Complete response (CR) rates range from 24-75% and overall response (OR) rates are 59-98% with RT compared with CR rates of 3-10% and OR rates of only 15-36% with either chemotherapy or immunotherapy. Achieving a CR is important even for patients with metastatic disease. Five-year survival for patients with metastatic disease who achieve a CR is 49% compared to a 5-year survival of only 3% for patients who do not achieve a CR. RT for Primary Tumors: RT is effective therapy for selected primary sites including uveal melanoma and non-cutaneous, non-ocular mucosal MM. The RT results for ocular melanoma and non-cutaneous, non-ocular mucosal MM are superior to surgery. In addition, post-operative RT for residual microscopic/macroscopic disease following primary surgery produces long term local control rates of 75-88%. It is likely that radiation therapy is being under-utilized in current oncology practice

  7. Prenylation inhibition-induced cell death in melanoma: reduced sensitivity in BRAF mutant/PTEN wild-type melanoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garay, Tamás; Kenessey, István; Molnár, Eszter; Juhász, Éva; Réti, Andrea; László, Viktória; Rózsás, Anita; Dobos, Judit; Döme, Balázs; Berger, Walter; Klepetko, Walter; Tóvári, József; Tímár, József; Heged?s, Balázs

    2015-01-01

    While targeted therapy brought a new era in the treatment of BRAF mutant melanoma, therapeutic options for non-BRAF mutant cases are still limited. In order to explore the antitumor activity of prenylation inhibition we investigated the response to zoledronic acid treatment in thirteen human melanoma cell lines with known BRAF, NRAS and PTEN mutational status. Effect of zoledronic acid on proliferation, clonogenic potential, apoptosis and migration of melanoma cells as well as the activation of downstream elements of the RAS/RAF pathway were investigated in vitro with SRB, TUNEL and PARP cleavage assays and videomicroscopy and immunoblot measurements, respectively. Subcutaneous and spleen-to-liver colonization xenograft mouse models were used to evaluate the influence of zoledronic acid treatment on primary and disseminated tumor growth of melanoma cells in vivo. Zoledronic acid more efficiently decreased short-term in vitro viability in NRAS mutant cells when compared to BRAF mutant and BRAF/NRAS wild-type cells. In line with this finding, following treatment decreased activation of ribosomal protein S6 was found in NRAS mutant cells. Zoledronic acid demonstrated no significant synergism in cell viability inhibition or apoptosis induction with cisplatin or DTIC treatment in vitro. Importantly, zoledronic acid could inhibit clonogenic growth in the majority of melanoma cell lines except in the three BRAF mutant but PTEN wild-type melanoma lines. A similar pattern was observed in apoptosis induction experiments. In vivo zoledronic acid did not inhibit the subcutaneous growth or spleen-to-liver colonization of melanoma cells. Altogether our data demonstrates that prenylation inhibition may be a novel therapeutic approach in NRAS mutant melanoma. Nevertheless, we also demonstrated that therapeutic sensitivity might be influenced by the PTEN status of BRAF mutant melanoma cells. However, further investigations are needed to identify drugs that have appropriate pharmacological properties to efficiently target prenylation in melanoma cells. PMID:25646931

  8. Novel alpha-MSH peptide analogs for melanoma targeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flook, Adam Michael

    Skin cancer is the one of the most diagnosed cancers in the United States with increasing incidence over the past two decades. There are three major forms of skin cancer but melanoma is the deadliest. It is estimated that 76,690 new diagnoses of melanoma and 9,480 deaths will occur in 2013. Melanoma accounts for approximately 1.6% of all cancer related deaths and is the 5 th leading diagnosed cancer in the United States. The mean survival rate of patients diagnosed with metastatic melanoma is six months, with five year survival rates of less than 5%. In this project, we describe the design and characterization of novel melanoma-targeting peptide analogs for use in diagnostic imaging of both primary and metastatic melanoma lesions. Novel alpha-MSH peptide conjugates were designed to target the melanocortin-1 receptor present and over-expressed on melanoma cells. These peptides were synthesized and their in-vitro melanocortin-1 receptor binding affinities were established in murine melanoma cells. Once binding affinities were determined, the peptides were radiolabeled with 99mTc utilizing a novel direct radiolabeling technique developed in our laboratory. The peptides were purified via reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatography and in-vivo melanoma targeting and pharmacokinetic properties were determined in B16/F1 melanoma-bearing female C57BL/6 mice. Biodistribution and SPECT/CT imaging studies were performed with the promising 99m Tc-labeled peptide conjugates. All alpha-MSH peptide conjugates tested showed low nanomolar binding affinity for the melanocortin-1 receptor. All peptides were readily radiolabeld with 99mTc with greater than 95% radiochemical purity. All 99mTc-labeled peptides displayed high specific in-vivo melanoma tumor uptake while maintaining low normal organ accumulation, and were excreted through the urinary system in a timely fashion. In addition, all tested 99mTc-labeld alpha-MSH peptides demonstrated clear visualization of in-vivo tumor lesions with SPECT/CT. While all peptides exhibited high melanoma uptake, extremely high non-specific renal uptake was of concern. After synthesis of alpha-MSH peptide conjugates containing a different amino acid linker, renal uptake was drastically reduced and a lead compound had emerged, showing favorable in-vivo melanoma targeting and uptake properties with limited amounts of non-specific renal accumulation.

  9. Melanoma and intravascular coagulation disseminated fulminant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clinical discoveries, imaginological and pathological of a 54 year-old woman, with pruritus, ulceration and bled intermittent in dorsal nevus, located in the region left sub-scapular. The biopsy demonstrated the presence of malign melanoma. Two months after having carried out the procedure the reappearance of the tumoral lesion it was documented on the same area by what was practiced wide local resection; the report was compatible with recidivate melanoma, later on (four weeks after the second surgical intervention), she noticed the presence of conglomerate left axillary ganglion of quick growth for metastatic melanoma. To the moment of the initial evaluation, it founded a mass axillary left, of 10 x 6 cm, associated to local swelling and to slight functional limitation for the active and passive mobility of the extremity. It decided to carry out new surgical resection that demonstrated persistence tumoral in the deep borders and commitment in 1 of 9 ganglions for metastasis, associated to reaction inflammatory chronicle. It began treatment adjuvant with interferon alpha 2b with appropriate tolerance and poor answer. In June of the same year it presented progressive dyspnoea, for what decided to suspend the immune-therapy and to begin dacarbacina with palliative intention, also, she received radiotherapy on the left axilla and temozolamida. In March of 2004, it entered to the service of urgencies to present scheme of 8 days of evolution characterized by the presence o evolution characterized by the presence of progressive asymmetric edema of the left inferior member, associated to functional limitation for the march, with pain during the bipedestation and appearance of multiple lesions nodular hyper-pigmented in the previous thorax and in the face

  10. Purification of melanoma growth stimulatory activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Hs0294 human malignant melanoma cell line produces a monolayer mitogen that stimulates the serum free growth of low-density cultures of Hs0294 cells. This report describes the purification of that mitogen, termed MGSA for melanoma growth stimulatory activity, from serum-free conditioned medium from the Hs0294 cultures. MGSA has been purified from acetic acid extracts of lyophilized conditioned medium by gel filtration, reverse-phase high-pressure liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC), and preparative electrophoresis, resulting in a >400,000-fold purification. MGSA bioactivity resides in acid- and heat-stable polypeptides of high and low molecular weight. However, the majority of the activity is reproducibly associated with the ?16-kd moiety eluting from RP-HPLC at ?35% acetonitrile. Reduction with dithiothreitol or B-mercaptoethanol results in a loss of biological activity but does not convert the 24-28-kd moieties to the 125I-MGSA that has been purified by preparative electrophoresis (16 kd) specifically binds to Hs0294 melanoma cells and retains 100% of the growth-stimulatory activity. The 16-kd MGSA stimulates the proliferation of Hs0294 cells at concentrations of 0.3-30 pM. Purified MGSA does not enable anchorage-independent growth of normal rat kidney (NRK) cells and is therefore different from the previously described transforming growth factors. The amino acid composition of MGSA differs from that of other previously descris from that of other previously described growth factors. These data demonstrate that MGSA represents a separate class of growth factors with biological and biochemical properties different from other growth factors

  11. Radiotherapy in the management of malignant melanoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We performed a retrospective analysis of 45 patients with malignant melanoma who were treated with radiation therapy at the University of Illinois and Mercy Hospitals, Chicago, between 1962 and 1978. Thirty-nine patients received 69 courses of radiation therapy for metastatic disease, six patients received radiotherapy with curative intent for localized lesions. We analyzed some of the factors governing the response to radiation therapy. Although most of the patients were treated with conventional daily fractions, their response seemed comparable to that reported by other investigators using large fractions. Until the issue of optimum fraction size is settled by a comparative trial, our experience indicates that conventional fractionation may be equally effective

  12. Amelanotic malignant melanoma of the cervical oesophagus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramaswamy, Balakrishnan; Bhandarkar, Ajay M; Venkitachalam, Shruti; Trivedi, Shivangi

    2014-01-01

    We report the case of a young woman who presented with progressive dysphagia and swelling in the anterior aspect of the neck of short duration. On evaluation, she was diagnosed with amelanotic malignant melanoma of the cervical oesophagus. She underwent total laryngopharyngo-oesophagectomy with gastric transposition with bilateral modified radical neck dissection with feeding jejunostomy and a permanent tracheostomy with postoperative combined chemoradiation therapy. However, in spite of aggressive treatment, the patient expired 8 months after initial presentation with distant metastasis. PMID:24729119

  13. Pleckstrin homology domain-interacting protein (PHIP) as a marker and mediator of melanoma metastasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Semir, David; Nosrati, Mehdi; Bezrookove, Vladimir; Dar, Altaf A.; Federman, Scot; Bienvenu, Geraldine; Venna, Suraj; Rangel, Javier; Climent, Joan; Meyer Tamgüney, Tanja M.; Thummala, Suresh; Tong, Schuyler; Leong, Stanley P. L.; Haqq, Chris; Billings, Paul; Miller, James R.; Sagebiel, Richard W.; Debs, Robert; Kashani-Sabet, Mohammed

    2012-01-01

    Although melanomas with mutant v-Raf murine sarcoma viral oncogene homolog B1 (BRAF) can now be effectively targeted, there is no molecular target for most melanomas expressing wild-type BRAF. Here, we show that the activation of Pleckstrin homology domain-interacting protein (PHIP), promotes melanoma metastasis, can be used to classify a subset of primary melanomas, and is a prognostic biomarker for melanoma. Systemic, plasmid-based shRNA targeting of Phip inhibited the metastatic progression of melanoma, whereas stable suppression of Phip in melanoma cell lines suppressed metastatic potential and prolonged the survival of tumor-bearing mice. The human PHIP gene resides on 6q14.1, and although 6q loss has been observed in melanoma, the PHIP locus was preserved in melanoma cell lines and patient samples, and its overexpression was an independent adverse predictor of survival in melanoma patients. In addition, a high proportion of PHIP-overexpressing melanomas harbored increased PHIP copy number. PHIP-overexpressing melanomas include tumors with wild-type BRAF, neuroblastoma RAS viral (v-ras) oncogene homolog, and phosphatase and tensin homolog, demonstrating PHIP activation in triple-negative melanoma. These results describe previously unreported roles for PHIP in predicting and promoting melanoma metastasis, and in the molecular classification of melanoma. PMID:22511720

  14. Stress as a Possible Mechanism in Melanoma Progression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Arunachalam

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of melanoma, the most aggressive type of cutaneous malignant tumor, is currently on the rise. Treatment in advanced stages is still unsuccessful compared with other malignant tumors, thus it is important to indentify the key mechanisms responsible for melanoma progression and metastasis. Genetic and molecular components, in particular, that are up- or downregulated in melanoma cells, affect the invasive potential of melanoma. Another possible important cofactor highlighted by recent studies is chronic stress, involving environmental and psychological factors, which can be an important cofactor in not only cancer progression in general but also in melanoma spreading. The negative effects of chronic stress have been evaluated epidemiologically in patients with breast and prostate cancer. In particular, the effects of stress mediators, namely, catecholamines have been studied on various human malignancies, including melanoma and have highlighted a significant increase of progression-related molecules. As such, this could be the starting point for a new approach in the treatment of advanced melanoma, in which the negative effects of stress are reduced or blocked.

  15. Primary acquired melanosis of the conjunctiva is melanoma in situ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerman, A B; Sood, R; Koenig, M

    1991-03-01

    This essay places the concept of "primary acquired melanosis" of the conjunctiva in historical perspective and shows that it and its analogs, namely, lentigo-melanosis (Hutchinson), melanotic freckle (Hutchinson), melanose circonscrite precancereuse (Dubrueilh), melanotische precancerose (Miescher), lentigo maligna (Clark), precancerous melanosis (Reese), benign, precancerous, and cancerous melanosis (Zimmerman), atypical melanocytic hyperplasia (Silver et al.), and benign acquired melanosis (Zimmerman), are synonyms for melanoma in situ. The issue is not merely semantic or philosophical; it is urgently practical. If a clinician takes literally the meaning of a lesion designated "benign melanosis" and considers it to be benign, rather than the malignant melanoma that it actually is, a patient who bears that flat pigmented lesion may one day die of metastasis from an elevated sequella of it. The same is true of "primary acquired melanosis," which is not simply a condition of blackening by melanin, but a flat melanoma that, if not removed completely, may give rise one day to metastases that cause death. To avoid such misconstructions, we advocate naming melanomas in all organs "melanoma" and those that are confined to epithelial structures "melanoma in situ." Euphemisms like lentigo maligna and primary acquired melanosis are evasions of the diagnosis of melanoma, and use of them may be harmful. For that reason, they should be eschewed. PMID:2047386

  16. Exome sequencing identifies recurrent somatic RAC1 mutations in melanoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krauthammer, Michael; Kong, Yong; Ha, Byung Hak; Evans, Perry; Bacchiocchi, Antonella; McCusker, James P.; Cheng, Elaine; Davis, Matthew J.; Goh, Gerald; Choi, Murim; Ariyan, Stephan; Narayan, Deepak; Dutton-Regester, Ken; Capatana, Ana; Holman, Edna C.; Bosenberg, Marcus; Sznol, Mario; Kluger, Harriet M.; Brash, Douglas E.; Stern, David F.; Materin, Miguel A.; Lo, Roger S.; Mane, Shrikant; Ma, Shuangge; Kidd, Kenneth K.; Hayward, Nicholas K.; Lifton, Richard P.; Schlessinger, Joseph; Boggon, Titus J.; Halaban, Ruth (Yale-MED); (UCLA); (Queens)

    2012-10-11

    We characterized the mutational landscape of melanoma, the form of skin cancer with the highest mortality rate, by sequencing the exomes of 147 melanomas. Sun-exposed melanomas had markedly more ultraviolet (UV)-like C>T somatic mutations compared to sun-shielded acral, mucosal and uveal melanomas. Among the newly identified cancer genes was PPP6C, encoding a serine/threonine phosphatase, which harbored mutations that clustered in the active site in 12% of sun-exposed melanomas, exclusively in tumors with mutations in BRAF or NRAS. Notably, we identified a recurrent UV-signature, an activating mutation in RAC1 in 9.2% of sun-exposed melanomas. This activating mutation, the third most frequent in our cohort of sun-exposed melanoma after those of BRAF and NRAS, changes Pro29 to serine (RAC1{sup P29S}) in the highly conserved switch I domain. Crystal structures, and biochemical and functional studies of RAC1{sup P29S} showed that the alteration releases the conformational restraint conferred by the conserved proline, causes an increased binding of the protein to downstream effectors, and promotes melanocyte proliferation and migration. These findings raise the possibility that pharmacological inhibition of downstream effectors of RAC1 signaling could be of therapeutic benefit.

  17. Embryonic signaling in melanoma: potential for diagnosis and therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strizzi, Luigi; Hardy, Katharine M; Kirsammer, Gina T; Gerami, Pedram; Hendrix, Mary J C

    2011-06-01

    As the frequency of melanoma diagnosis increases, current treatment strategies are still struggling to significantly impact patient survival. Some promise has been shown in treating certain melanomas by targeting activated signaling pathways resulting from specific mutations in proteins, such as BRAF and NRAS. Recently, the identification of embryonic signaling pathways in melanoma has helped us better understand certain biological characteristics, such as cellular heterogeneity and phenotypic plasticity, and has provided novel insight pertinent to diagnosis and therapy. For instance, our studies have shown that the TGF-? family member, Nodal, is expressed in melanoma and is responsible, at least in part, for tumor cell plasticity and aggressiveness. Since the majority of normal adult tissues do not express Nodal, we reason that this embryonic morphogen could be used to identify and target aggressive melanoma cells. We have also identified that molecular cross-talk between the Notch and Nodal pathways may represent a mechanism responsible for the overexpression of Nodal in melanoma. Further exploitation of the relationship between embryonic signaling pathways and cancer pathogenesis could lead to novel approaches for diagnosis and therapy in cancers, such as melanoma. PMID:21464823

  18. Linfonodo sentinela em melanoma de criança: relato de caso / Sentinel lymph node in children with melanoma: case report

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Renato Santos de, Oliveira Filho; Geruza Rezende, Paiva; Lydia M., Ferreira; Marcos Chaves de Arruda, Alves; Ivan Dunshee A.O., Santos; Milvia M.S.S., Enokihara.

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: Portuguese Abstract in portuguese Objetivo: apresentar um caso de melanoma cutâneo na infância, submetido à biópsia de linfonodo sentinela. Descrição: criança de 12 anos de idade, portadora da síndrome do nevo displásico, desenvolveu melanoma em dorso. A biópsia excisional revelou melanoma (Breslow = 1,5 mm), sendo submetida a trata [...] mento cirúrgico da lesão, com ampliação de margem de 2cm e biópsia de linfonodo sentinela. O exame anatomopatológico não mostrou doença residual. O exame do linfonodo sentinela não mostrou metástases ao exame histopatológico por hematoxilina eosina, nem à imunohistoquímica (S100 e HMB45). No entanto, a pesquisa de RNA mensageiro da tirosinase por RT-PCR se mostrou positiva. A paciente não mostrou sinais de metástase ou recidiva local nestes doze meses iniciais de seguimento. Comentários: o melanoma é raro em crianças, corresponde a menos de 1% dos tumores da infância. Inúmeros trabalhos mostram o aumento da incidência mundial do melanoma. Em cerca de 70%, se originam de nevos melanocíticos pré-existentes, e nos 30% restantes, eles surgem de novo. Dada a agressividade do melanoma, a sobrevida depende do diagnóstico precoce. A biópsia do linfonodo sentinela tem contribuído na decisão de se realizar ou não a linfadenectomia completa, e alguns autores já estão utilizando a mesma em crianças. Abstract in english Objective: to present a case of a child who was subjected to sentinel lymph node biopsy for cutaneous melanoma. Description: a 12 year-old child with Dysplastic Nevus Syndrome developed melanoma on the lumbar region. The excision biopsy revealed a melanoma with depth of 1.5 mm. The patient was submi [...] tted to amplification of the margins 2 cm in all directions and the sentinel node was also excised. The histopathological exam did not show residual disease. Sentinel on exam did not show metastases either under hematoxylin-eosin stain or immunohistochemistry (S-100 and HMB45). Therefore, RT-PCR for tyrosinase mRNA was positive. The patient has been followed for twelve months without evidence of recurrence. Comments: childhood melanoma is rare, corresponding to less than 1% of malignant tumors in children. Data point to a worldwide increase in its incidence. Melanoma occurs in melanocytic lesions in 70% and in the remaining 30% it occurs de novo. Melanoma is very aggressive, so the survival depends on an early diagnosis. Sentinel lymph node biopsy has selected patients to complete lymphadenectomy. Some authors have been using this technique in childhood melanoma.

  19. Metastatic melanoma – a review of current and future drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago Rodrigues Velho

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Melanoma is one of the most aggressive cancers, and it is estimated that 76,250 men and women will be diagnosed with melanoma of the skin in the USA in 2012. Over the last few decades many drugs have been developed but only in 2011 have new drugs demonstrated an impact on survival in metastatic melanoma.Methods: A systematic search of literature was conducted, and studies providing data on the effectiveness of current and/or future drugs used in the treatment of metastatic melanoma were selected for review. This review discusses the advantages and limitations of these agents, evaluating past, current and future clinical trials designed to overcome such limitations.Results: To date, there are four drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration for melanoma (dacarbazine, interleukin-2, ipilimumab and vemurafenib. Despite efforts to develop new drugs, few of them have demonstrated any clinical benefits. Approved in 1975, dacarbazine remains the gold standard in chemotherapy, although ipilimumab and vemurafenib have raised many hopes in the last few years. Combining dacarbazine or other chemotherapy agents with new pharmacological agents may be a new way to achieve better clinical responses in patients with metastatic melanoma.Discussion: Advances in the molecular knowledge of melanoma have led to major improvements in the treatment of patients with metastatic melanoma, providing new targets and insights. However, heterogeneity amongst study populations, different approaches to treatment and the different melanoma types and localisations included in the trials makes their comparison difficult. New studies focusing on drugs developed in recent decades are warranted

  20. Early detection of melanoma metastases with radioiodinated methylene blue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melanin synthesised in melanoma cells presents a unique target to which the treatment can be selectively addressed, provided the pigment is recognised by a suitable drug. Methylene blue (MTB) possesses a high affinity for melanin and, therefore, accumulates preferentially in melanoma cells. Since not directly toxic to the tumour, MTB serves as a carrier for radioisotopes and, once taken up by melanoma cells, acts as a selectively localised source of radiation. Hence, radioderivatives of the compound can be used for both diagnosis and therapy of disseminated melanoma. Eleven patients with confirmed metastatic melanoma and one with a recent local recurrence were studied using radioiodinated (iodine-123 or iodine-131) MTB and a gamma camera. Biopsies of cutaneous lesions were taken to determine directly the compound uptake in tumours. This first clinical investigation concerning the diagnostic potential of radioiodinated MTB in patients with disseminated melanoma confirmed the existence of approximately 80% of internal lesions previously identified by routine methods and, additionally, enabled detection of unknown secondaries in 6 of 12 patients studied. There were no false-positive gamma camera images regardless of whether 123I or 131I was used. 131I proved to be more suitable than 123I for detecting melanoma metastases with radioiodinated MTB. Hazy images of the lesions treated with external beam radiation and/or some drugs sxternal beam radiation and/or some drugs suggest that initial radio- and chemotherapy might affect MTB uptake in melanoma metastases and reduce the clarity of the scintigrams obtained from a gamma camera. However, small, untreated internal lesions that cannot be visualised easily with the standard diagnostic methods are revealed with 131I-MTB regardless of their localisation. It is concluded that use of radioiodinated MTB in conjunction with gamma camera or positron emission tomographic imaging might prove to be a useful and accessible tool for the detection of early melanoma dissemination. (orig.)

  1. Early detection of melanoma metastases with radioiodinated methylene blue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Link, E.M. [Department of Molecular Pathology, University College London Medical School (United Kingdom); Blower, P.J. [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Kent and Canterbury Hospital, Canterbury (United Kingdom); Costa, D.C.; Lui, D.; Ell, P.J. [Institute of Nuclear Medicine, University College London Medical School (United Kingdom); Lane, D.M. [Department of Clinical Oncology, Royal Free Hospital School of Medicine, London (United Kingdom); Brown, R.S.D.; Spittle, M.F. [Meyerstein Institute of Oncology, Middlesex Hospital, University College London Hospitals, Mortimer Street, London W1N 8AA (United Kingdom)

    1998-09-01

    Melanin synthesised in melanoma cells presents a unique target to which the treatment can be selectively addressed, provided the pigment is recognised by a suitable drug. Methylene blue (MTB) possesses a high affinity for melanin and, therefore, accumulates preferentially in melanoma cells. Since not directly toxic to the tumour, MTB serves as a carrier for radioisotopes and, once taken up by melanoma cells, acts as a selectively localised source of radiation. Hence, radioderivatives of the compound can be used for both diagnosis and therapy of disseminated melanoma. Eleven patients with confirmed metastatic melanoma and one with a recent local recurrence were studied using radioiodinated (iodine-123 or iodine-131) MTB and a gamma camera. Biopsies of cutaneous lesions were taken to determine directly the compound uptake in tumours. This first clinical investigation concerning the diagnostic potential of radioiodinated MTB in patients with disseminated melanoma confirmed the existence of approximately 80% of internal lesions previously identified by routine methods and, additionally, enabled detection of unknown secondaries in 6 of 12 patients studied. There were no false-positive gamma camera images regardless of whether {sup 123}I or {sup 131}I was used. {sup 131}I proved to be more suitable than {sup 123}I for detecting melanoma metastases with radioiodinated MTB. Hazy images of the lesions treated with external beam radiation and/or some drugs suggest that initial radio- and chemotherapy might affect MTB uptake in melanoma metastases and reduce the clarity of the scintigrams obtained from a gamma camera. However, small, untreated internal lesions that cannot be visualised easily with the standard diagnostic methods are revealed with {sup 131}I-MTB regardless of their localisation. It is concluded that use of radioiodinated MTB in conjunction with gamma camera or positron emission tomographic imaging might prove to be a useful and accessible tool for the detection of early melanoma dissemination. (orig.) With 5 figs., 3 tabs., 22 refs.

  2. Coffee, tea, and melanoma risk among postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Haotian; Reeves, Katherine W; Qian, Jing; Sturgeon, Susan R

    2014-10-16

    Laboratory research suggests that components in coffee and tea may have anticarcinogenic effects. Some epidemiologic studies have reported that women who consume coffee and tea have a lower risk for melanoma. We assessed coffee, tea, and melanoma risk prospectively in the Women's Health Initiative - Observational Study cohort of 66?484 postmenopausal women, followed for an average of 7.7 years. Coffee and tea intakes were measured through self-administered questionnaires at baseline and at year 3 of follow-up. Self-reported incident melanomas were adjudicated using medical records. Cox proportional hazard models were used to estimate risk, adjusting for covariates, with person-time accumulation until melanoma diagnosis (n=398), death, loss to follow-up, or through 2005. Daily coffee [hazard ratio (HR)=0.87, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.68-1.12] and tea (HR=1.03, 95% CI 0.81-1.31) intakes were not significantly associated with melanoma risk compared with nondaily intake of each beverage. No significant trends were observed between melanoma risk and increasing intakes of coffee (P for trend=0.38) or tea (P for trend=0.22). Women who reported daily coffee intake at both baseline and year 3 had a significantly decreased risk compared with women who reported nondaily intake at both time points (HR=0.68, 95% CI 0.48-0.97). Consistent daily tea intake was not associated with decreased melanoma risk. Overall, there is no strong evidence that increasing coffee or tea consumption can lead to a lower melanoma risk. We observed a decrease in melanoma risk among long-term coffee drinkers, but the lack of consistency in the results by dose and type cautioned against overinterpretation of the results. PMID:25325307

  3. Psychosocial care to patients with Malignant Melanoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorup, Charlotte Brun

    Psychosocial care to patients with Malignant Melanoma Intensions: The intension of this project is to link new knowledge with the nurses experience based knowledge within the psychosocial care to patients, who have been diagnosed with Malignant Melanoma (MM), thereby improving the care to this group of patients. Background: MM is the type of cancer, which over the past 50 years has increased the most in newly discovered cases, and is the most aggressive type of skin cancer. The statement above shows that this group of patients will increase in the future. It is therefore important to elaborate the care to these patients. Method: In 2007 the nurses from our ward gained experience from the psychosocial care to these patients. These experiences are a starting point to the study of literature the group has made. A group of five nurses have from this literature study, substantiated the psychosocial perspective. Results: After the literature review, the psychosocial aspects have been divided into five mainareas: 1. Diagnosis, hospitalisation, and treatment 2. The body with cancer 3. Psychological 4. Social 5. Existential/spiritual Primary results show that patients with MM in general respond in the same way as other patients with cancer. As nurses, we experience that these patients stand out, is it because they find it very difficult to understand the severity of the disease; possibly due to the lack of knowledge of MM in the population. Perspectives: From the project we want to prepare clinical guidelines, these are expected to be finished and implemented during 2010.

  4. Early melanoma diagnosis with mobile imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do, Thanh-Toan; Zhou, Yiren; Zheng, Haitian; Cheung, Ngai-Man; Koh, Dawn

    2014-01-01

    We research a mobile imaging system for early diagnosis of melanoma. Different from previous work, we focus on smartphone-captured images, and propose a detection system that runs entirely on the smartphone. Smartphone-captured images taken under loosely-controlled conditions introduce new challenges for melanoma detection, while processing performed on the smartphone is subject to computation and memory constraints. To address these challenges, we propose to localize the skin lesion by combining fast skin detection and fusion of two fast segmentation results. We propose new features to capture color variation and border irregularity which are useful for smartphone-captured images. We also propose a new feature selection criterion to select a small set of good features used in the final lightweight system. Our evaluation confirms the effectiveness of proposed algorithms and features. In addition, we present our system prototype which computes selected visual features from a user-captured skin lesion image, and analyzes them to estimate the likelihood of malignance, all on an off-the-shelf smartphone. PMID:25571546

  5. Melanoma: actualización en su enfoque y tratamiento

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Luis Gaviria

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available El melanoma es un cáncer de piel que se ha convertido rápidamente en un problema importante de salud en muchos países, lo cual se refleja en un aumento en su incidencia. El entendimiento de los aspectos fisiopatológicos fundamentales del melanoma es crucial para el diagnóstico precoz y el desarrollo de un esquema de manejo adecuado. Actualmente, la profundidad de la lesión es considerado el factor pronóstico más importante, pues de ella depende la necesidad de practicar ganglio centinela, la estadificación del tumor y, por consiguiente, el manejo quirúrgico y la terapia adyuvante. Esta revisión del tema fue realizado por la Unidad de Cirugía Plástica del Hospital Universitario San Ignacio, mediante la revisión de la literatura de múltiples ensayos clínicos, metanálisis y estudio de las guías de manejo del Instituto Nacional de Cancerología de Colombia y el Instituto Nacional de Cáncer de USA, con el fin de establecer unas pautas de manejo multidisciplinario acorde a lo publicado a nivel internacional y así, unificar el tratamiento de esta patología.

  6. GdNCT of spontaneous canine melanoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effectiveness of GdNCT has been studied in dogs with spontaneous melanoma of the mucousmembrane of the oral cavity patients on the NCT base at the IRT MEPhI reactor. The control group with melanomas was treated with neutrons. Fourteen canine patients were selected in the Clinic of Experimental Therapy affiliated with the RCRC RAMS. The calculation of doses has shown that the total dose of energy release depending on Gd concentration in the target can be several times higher than the dose produced by the reactor neutron beam. The calculations were carried out using the diffusion pharmacokinetic model. The gadolinium drug dipentast was administered intratumorally immediately prior to irradiation. The tumor size was estimated by measuring it in three projections. The tumor was irradiated for 60-90 minutes with a thermal neutron flux of 0.7x109 n/cm2s. The dose on tumor was 80-120 Gy, on surrounding tissues - 12-15 Gy. The treatment plan included immunotherapy with Roncoleikin in a dose of (15-10)x103 IE/kg. The results of GdNCT are still under observation. The results conform to those obtained by us earlier in cell cultures and inoculated experimental tumors. GdNCT is also effective in combination with immunotherapy. (author)

  7. Radioimmunoscintigraphy of human malignant melanoma. I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The novel RG-12 monoclonal antibody (MoAb) recognizing a high-molecular-weight antigen of human melanoma cells was radioiodinated and its biodistribution and tumor imaging was determined in immunosuppressed mice bearing xenografted human malignant melanoma HMB-2. Control and tumor-bearing mice were injected with 6 ?g of 125I-labeled RG-12 IgG (8.9 MBq 125I-IgG/animal). Clearance of the MoAb from plasma had a mean half life of 20.6 hours. At day 2 after injection, radiolabeled RG-12 IgG localized in the tumor was 1.43% of the injected dose bound per gram tissue (ID/g), whereas the localization in the healthy kidney was below 0.5%. Tumor to tissue ratio of MoAb accumulation was low for hepatic tissue (1.25) but high for spleen (3.30) and kidney (3.25). Scanning with a gamma camera localized tumor mass in the right kidney and implanted peritoneal metastases. (author). 3 figs., 1 tab., 9 refs

  8. Alteration of melanoma melanogenesis by phenotypic modifiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, H; Horikoshi, T; Wakamatsu, K; Ito, S; Parsons, P G

    1992-11-01

    Human melanoma cells (MM96E) were incubated with a phenotypic modifier (L-ethionine) to compare its effects on phenotypic expression with those induced by sodium butyrate and dimethyl sulfoxide. In contrast to the latter agents, L-ethionine (8mM) failed to arrest the cell cycle at the G1 phase or to inhibit colony formation ability after 48 hr incubation. Tyrosinase activity changed in parallel with 5-S-cysteinyldopa (5-S-CD) content during treatment with sodium butyrate or dimethyl sulfoxide. Tyrosinase was inhibited in L-ethionine-treated cells, probably because of metabolism of L-ethionine to sulfhydryl compounds; this remains to be clarified. Gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase activity changed inversely with tyrosinase activity after sodium butyrate or dimethyl sulfoxide incubation, whereas L-ethionine did not significantly alter the enzyme activity. In addition, only sodium butyrate induced alkaline phosphatase activity. L-ethionine was less effective than sodium butyrate or dimethyl sulfoxide in inhibiting expression of the B8G3 melanosomal antigen, as determined by Western blotting. These results suggest that phenotypic modifiers (differentiation inducers) affect melanoma cells in various ways and that melanogenesis therefore reflects only one aspect of differentiation in pigment cells. PMID:1363429

  9. Population-based, Case-Control-Family Design to Investigate Genetic and Environmental Influences on Melanoma Risk: Australian Melanoma Family Study

    OpenAIRE

    Cust, Anne E.; Schmid, Helen; Maskiell, Judith A.; Jetann, Jodie; Ferguson, Megan; Holland, Elizabeth A.; Agha-hamilton, Chantelle; Jenkins, Mark A.; Kelly, John; Kefford, Richard F.; Giles, Graham G.; Armstrong, Bruce K.; Aitken, Joanne F.; Hopper, John L.; Mann, Graham J.

    2009-01-01

    Discovering and understanding genetic risk factors for melanoma and their interactions with phenotype, sun exposure, and other risk factors could lead to new strategies for melanoma control. This paper describes the Australian Melanoma Family Study, which uses a multicenter, population-based, case-control-family design. From 2001 to 2005, the authors recruited 1,164 probands including 629 cases with histopathologically confirmed, first-primary cutaneous melanoma diagnosed before age 40 years,...

  10. Population-based incidence of vulvar and vaginal melanoma in various races and ethnic groups with comparisons to other site-specific melanomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Dan-Ning; Yu, Guo-Pei; McCormick, Steven A

    2010-04-01

    Little is known on the difference in the incidence of vulvar and vaginal melanomas in various racial/ethnic groups. Population-based incidence of these melanomas in Asian and Hispanic individuals is almost unknown. Using 1992-2005 data provided by the National Cancer Institute's Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program, we calculated age-adjusted incidence rates of vulvar and vaginal melanomas in various racial/ethnic groups. From 1992 to 2005, there were 324 vulvar melanomas and 125 vaginal melanomas diagnosed in this group. The annual age-adjusted incidence rates (per million female population) of vulvar and vaginal melanomas in the different racial/ethnic groups was 0.87 (Blacks), 0.75 (American-Indian), 1.03 (Asians and Pacific Islanders), 1.22 (Hispanics), and 1.90 (non-Hispanic Whites). The overall white/black incidence ratio in vulvar and vaginal melanomas was 3.14 : 1 and 1.02 : 1, respectively; which is much less than that of cutaneous melanoma (13 : 1-17 : 1) and uveal melanoma (18 : 1) and is similar to that of conjunctival melanoma (2.6 : 1) and other mucosal melanomas (2.1 : 1-2.3 : 1). The low racial difference in vulvar and vaginal melanomas (as well as conjunctival and other mucosal melanomas) may be determined by their microenvironment factors (all originate from mucosa or semi-mucosa tissues). The incidence of vulvar and vaginal melanomas has does not increased in recent decades or toward the south (more sun exposure), indicating that ultraviolet radiation is not a causative factor in these melanomas. The slight decrease of incidence of vulvar melanoma in dark pigmented individuals may be related to the biochemical protective effects of melanin (as an antioxidant) rather than their photo-screen effects. PMID:20147857

  11. Monoclonal anti-melanoma antibodies and their possible clinical use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cell surface antigens of human melanoma, as defined by monoclonal antibodies, are discussed and in particular the three antigens p97, a GD3 ganglioside and a proteoglycan. The potential diagnostic uses of antibodies to melanoma antigens are reviewed including in vitro diagnosis by immuno-histology, in vitro diagnosis by serum assays and in vivo diagnosis by tumour imaging using radioactively labelled antibodies. The potential therapeutic uses of monoclonal antibodies to melanoma antigens are also reviewed including targets for antibody therapy, the use of antibodies alone, radiolabelled antibodies, antibody-toxin conjugates, antibody-drug conjugates, anti-idiotypic antibodies and vaccines. (UK)

  12. From genes to drugs: targeted strategies for melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flaherty, Keith T; Hodi, F Stephen; Fisher, David E

    2012-05-01

    The past decade has revealed that melanoma is comprised of multiple subclasses that can be categorized on the basis of key features, including the clinical stage of disease, the oncogenic molecular 'drivers', the anatomical location or the behaviour of the primary lesion and the expression of specific biomarkers. Although exercises in subclassification are not new in oncology, progress in this area has produced both conceptual and clinical breakthroughs, which, for melanoma, are unprecedented in the modern history of the disease. This Review focuses on these recent striking advances in the strategy of molecularly targeted approaches to the therapy of melanoma in humans. PMID:22475929

  13. [Metastatic malignant melanoma of the oesophagus: case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubóczki, Zsolt; Lóránd, Agnes; Zs Tóth, Endre; Plótár, Vanda; Liszkay, Gabriella; Mészáros, Péter; Vörös, Attila

    2014-06-01

    We report a case of metastatic malignant melanoma in the oesophagus. 13 years after the wide excision of primary skin melanoma, we found a polypoid tumor in the upper third of the oesophagus. Biopsy result was melanoma malignum. After negative staging we performed transhiatal oesophagectomy with gastric conduit and cervical anastomosis. Metastatic nature of the oesophageal tumor was proven by histology. After uneventful postoperative course, the patient received adjuvant dacarbazine treatment. The patient was is in good condition, and disease free on the 18 month follow-up. PMID:24873768

  14. Metastatic melanoma – a review of current and future drugs

    OpenAIRE

    Tiago Rodrigues Velho

    2012-01-01

    Background: Melanoma is one of the most aggressive cancers, and it is estimated that 76,250 men and women will be diagnosed with melanoma of the skin in the USA in 2012. Over the last few decades many drugs have been developed but only in 2011 have new drugs demonstrated an impact on survival in metastatic melanoma.Methods: A systematic search of literature was conducted, and studies providing data on the effectiveness of current and/or future drugs used in the treatment of metastatic melanom...

  15. Multimethod imaging, staging, and spectrum of manifestations of metastatic melanoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patnana, M.; Bronstein, Y.; Szklaruk, J.; Bedi, D.G. [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Hwu, W.-J. [Department of Melanoma Medical Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Gershenwald, J.E. [Department of Surgical Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Prieto, V.G. [Department of Pathology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Ng, C.S., E-mail: cng@mdanderson.or [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States)

    2011-03-15

    The incidence of melanoma has been steadily increasing. Imaging plays an important role in tumour assessment as metastatic melanoma can involve multiple organs. Computed tomography (CT) is currently the most widely used technique for tumour staging, surveillance and assessment of therapeutic response, but ultrasound, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and positron-emission tomography (PET)-CT also play important roles in the imaging of this tumour. In this article, we review the pathways of spread, staging according to the recently updated TNM classification, pathology, typical and atypical imaging features at common and uncommon sites, and treatment of metastatic melanoma.

  16. Prognostic Significance of Melanoma Differentiation and Trans-Differentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nityanand Maddodi

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Cutaneous malignant melanomas share a number of molecular attributes such as limitless replicative potential that define capabilities acquired by most malignancies. Accordingly, much effort has been focused on evaluating and validating protein markers related to these capabilities to function as melanoma prognostic markers. However, a few studies have also highlighted the prognostic value of markers that define melanocytic differentiation and the plasticity of melanoma cells to trans-differentiate along several other cellular pathways. Here, we provide a comprehensive review and evaluation of the prognostic significance of melanocyte-lineage markers such as MITF and melanogenic proteins, as well as markers of vascular epithelial and neuronal differentiation.

  17. BRAF V600E MUTATIONS IN METASTATIC MELANOMA - CASE REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Ini?

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The treatment of metastatic melanoma represents a challenge. Vemurafenib, a selective BRAF kinase inhibitor, is a new medicine against carcinoma. Recently, it has been shown that it raises the survival rate among patients with metastatic melanoma who have BRAFV600mutation. This work will discuss new approaches to the treatment of patients with metastatic melanoma, who have been proved to have BRAF V600 mutation and we will present the case of a female patient with whom the clinical study with Vemurafenib has been started.

  18. B-Raf specific antibody responses in melanoma patients

    OpenAIRE

    Vetter Claudia S; Heimbach Veronika; Potapenko Tamara; Becker Jürgen C; Fensterle Joachim; Bröcker Eva B; Rapp Ulf R

    2004-01-01

    Abstract Background Mutations of the BRAF gene are the most common genetic alteration in melanoma. Moreover, BRAF mutations are already present in benign nevi. Being overexpressed and mutated, B-Raf is a potential target for the immune system and as this mutation seems to be an early event, a humoral immune response against this antigen might serve as a diagnostic tool for detection of high risk patients. Methods 372 sera of 148 stage IV melanoma patients and 119 sera of non-melanoma patients...

  19. Melanoma: criteria for histological diagnosis and its reporting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metcalf, J S

    1996-12-01

    The diagnosis of malignant melanoma requires clinical recognition of suspect lesions, biopsy, and histologic examination. Histological features which serve to distinguish malignant melanoma from their benign counterparts can be found in both the epidermis and dermis. The intraepidermal component of a common acquired nevus usually consists of more or less uniform theques of melanocytes located at or near the tips of rete ridges. Most melanomas are characterized by less orderly intraepidermal growth with areas in which melanocytes lose their nesting characteristics and are distributed more diffusely, sometimes replacing the basal keratinocytes by confluent growth and sometimes by invading upwards either as single cells or small nests into the upper reaches of the epidermis. Nested melanocytes can be found along the basal layer in malignant melanoma, but these nests are usually quite variable in size and location with respect to the tips of the rete ridges, and they are often irregularly distributed along the breadth of the lesion. The dermal component of malignant melanoma usually shows little tendency towards maturation, unlike that of benign nevi. Mitotic figures are unusual to find in the dermal component of common acquired nevi. When they are present, the possibility of melanoma should be considered. Other cytological features can also be useful in the diagnosis of malignant melanoma, particularly when there is marked cytological atypia; however, in some lesions, the cytological changes are not so pronounced and correct diagnosis depends on evaluation of growth pattern. While distinguishing between melanoma and atypical moles can be difficult, problems also arise in distinguishing melanoma from other neoplastic processes. The most common differential diagnosis includes melanoma, paget's disease, and pagetoid Bowen's disease. Desmoplastic melanoma is frequently difficult to distinguish from spindle cell squamous cell carcinoma and atypical fibroxanthoma. Histochemical and immunocytochemical stains are useful in resolving these problems. The pathology report of a melanoma should include the diagnosis, the maximum thickness of the tumor, the adequacy of the surgical margins (if the lesion has been excised), the presence or absence of ulceration, tumor regression, angiolymphatic invasion, and satellitosis. The inclusion of patients in treatment protocols may require additional information such as the host response of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes, mitotic index, and Clark's level of invasion. PMID:8970588

  20. Fine structure of tapioca melanoma of the iris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddad, R; Konrad, K; Stur, M

    1985-11-15

    A case of a tapioca melanoma of the iris is studied by light and electron microscopy. Nodular elevations of the tumour were composed of spindle B- and epitheloid cells and of what appeared to be intermediate types. Tiny structures scattered over the entire tumour consisted of smaller epitheloid cells, many of which were found around superficial tumour vessels. Evidently, tapioca melanoma of the iris does not represent any specific histopathological entity. Tapioca melanoma of the iris is a low-grade malignant, locally aggressive tumour with a chronic clinical course. PMID:4075959

  1. Transpupillary thermotherapy as primary treatment for small choroidal melanomas.

    OpenAIRE

    Robertson, D. M.; Buettner, H.; Bennett, S. R.

    1999-01-01

    PURPOSE: To report short-term follow-up of eyes containing small choroidal melanomas that were treated with transpupillary thermotherapy (TTT). METHODS: Twenty eyes with suspected small choroidal melanomas were treated with TTT using infrared light delivered from the diode laser. RESULTS: The age of patients ranged from 26 to 82 years. In 14, there was documented growth of the melanoma prior to TTT. Tumor thicknesses ranged from less than 1 to 3.2 mm. Seven tumors were treated more than once....

  2. A case of primary choroidal malignant melanoma in a cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourguet, Aurélie; Piccicuto, Virginie; Donzel, Elise; Carlus, Marine; Chahory, Sabine

    2014-11-16

    This report describes the clinical presentation, diagnosis, histological lesions, and prognosis of a primary choroidal malignant melanoma in a 15-year-old cat. The animal was presented for unilateral blindness. On ocular examination, a raised pigmented mass protruding from the posterior pole into the vitreous body was observed by diffuse transillumination and indirect ophthalmoscopy. Ocular ultrasound and computer tomography (CT) scan confirmed localization of the tumor to the posterior segment. The diagnosis of primary choroidal melanoma was confirmed by histopathology after enucleation. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of a feline malignant melanoma with a primary choroidal localization without iris involvement. PMID:25399839

  3. Chromosomal copy number changes supporting the classification of lentiginous junctional melanoma of the elderly as a subtype of melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Marissa D; Mirzabeigi, Marjan; Gerami, Pedram

    2009-09-01

    Recently the term lentiginous melanoma of the elderly has been suggested for a pattern of melanocytic neoplasia characterized by frequent occurrence in elderly patients, broad lentiginous growth pattern, with poorly cohesive nesting, suprabasilar extension of melanocytes and moderate cytological atypia. However, there are limited reported cases with follow-up information to confirm the malignant nature of these neoplasms. Using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) targeting chromosomal loci that are frequently found to have copy number changes in melanoma, we evaluated cases of lentiginous junctional melanoma of the elderly in order to compare with the frequencies and patterns of chromosomal aberrations identified in other subtypes of melanoma. Previous studies have shown that by using a FISH assay targeting 6p25, 6q23, 11q13 and CEP6 with previously validated criteria, one could discriminate benign nevi from melanoma with high sensitivity and specificity. In this study, 16 of 19 cases (84%) showed sufficient copy number changes in one of the targeted chromosomal loci to meet FISH criteria for melanoma. A total of 17 control cases of lentiginous junctional nevi tested negative for all criteria. These findings support the classification of this pattern of melanocytic neoplasia as a subtype of melanoma. PMID:19543247

  4. Feline melanoma: a comparative study of ocular, oral, and dermal neoplasms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patnaik, A K; Mooney, S

    1988-03-01

    Melanomas diagnosed in 29 cats over an 11 year period included 19 ocular (16 intraocular, three palpebral), five oral, and five dermal melanomas. Intraocular melanomas involved the ciliary body and iris in 12; the whole eye was involved in four. The average age of cats with intraocular melanomas was 11 years; the female : male ratio was 9 : 7. Histologically, eight intraocular tumors were mixed, six were epithelioid, and two were spindle cell. Ten of 16 cats (62.5%) with intraocular melanomas were killed because of the tumor at a mean of 156 days; four are living with no evidence of disease (average, 255 days). The mean time of death in cats with palpebral melanoma was 409 days. Metastasis occurred in 63% of cats with intraocular melanoma and all cats with palpebral melanoma. Four cats with oral melanoma were killed at a mean of 61 days; all had metastasis. Of five cats with cutaneous melanoma, one was killed with metastasis at 90 days; three cats were alive without evidence of recurrence or metastasis greater than 365 days after surgery. Results of this study indicate that in the cat, ocular melanomas are more common than oral and dermal melanomas, and ocular and oral melanomas are more malignant than dermal melanomas, with higher rates of mortality and metastasis. PMID:3363787

  5. Melanoma "in situ" tratado con Imiquimod Melanoma in situ treated with Imiquimod

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RE Achenbach

    Full Text Available Comunicamos un caso con dos melanomas "in situ", en un varón de 86 años, localizados en ambos lados de la cara con alto riesgo quirúrgico, quien fuera tratado con imiquimod al 5% una vez al día durante dos meses; los resultados hasta el momento, clínicos e histológicos han sido satisfactorios.A 86 years-old man with two melanomas "in situ" at both sides of his face, treated with imiquimod 5% are presented. The patient has a cardiovascular high risk due to isquemic heart disease, for that reason we start the treatment with imiquimod once a day for two months. The clinical and histological response was good and a follow up will be as long as we can.

  6. Melanoma "in situ" tratado con Imiquimod / Melanoma in situ treated with Imiquimod

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    RE, Achenbach; M, Dutto; S, Dupuy; CA, Maggi; C, Grecco; A, Acevedo; GF, Sánchez.

    2012-12-30

    Full Text Available Comunicamos un caso con dos melanomas "in situ", en un varón de 86 años, localizados en ambos lados de la cara con alto riesgo quirúrgico, quien fuera tratado con imiquimod al 5% una vez al día durante dos meses; los resultados hasta el momento, clínicos e histológicos han sido satisfactorios. [...] Abstract in english A 86 years-old man with two melanomas "in situ" at both sides of his face, treated with imiquimod 5% are presented. The patient has a cardiovascular high risk due to isquemic heart disease, for that reason we start the treatment with imiquimod once a day for two months. The clinical and histological [...] response was good and a follow up will be as long as we can.

  7. Metastasizing oral melanoma in a cow / Melanoma oral metastático em uma vaca

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Marilene de Farias, Brito; Ticiana Nascimento, França; Flávia Figueiraujo, Jabour; Josilene Nascimento, Seixas; Gisele Braziliano, Andrade; Laura Iglesias, Oliveira; Paulo Vargas, Peixoto.

    1236-12-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese Neste trabalho, descreve-se um caso de melanoma dendrítico maligno da cavidade oral em uma vaca, com metástases amplamente disseminadas. A evolução clínica foi de dois anos, e o quadro clínico-patológico caracterizou-se por dificuldade na mastigação e deglutição, perda de peso progressiva, fraqueza [...] e sialorréia profusa. À necropsia, uma massa enegrecida e ulcerada foi encontrada na mandíbula esquerda e projetava-se para a cavidade oral. O tumor envolvia principalmente a porção cranial do ramo horizontal esquerdo da mandíbula e alcançou o mento, o lábio inferior, a gengiva e a língua. Metástases foram detectadas na língua, na glândula parótida, nos linfonodos, na traquéia, na tireóide, na pleura, nos pulmões, no coração, no peritônio, no omento e na serosa dos pré-estômagos e do abomaso, do fígado e da íntima de alguns vasos hepáticos, da glândula mamária e das fáscias e dos músculos do membro posterior esquerdo. Histologicamente o tumor primário e as metástases eram do tipo dendrítico. Não encontramos referências a melanomas primários de mandíbula com metástases em bovinos. Abstract in english A malignant dendritic melanoma of the oral cavity with metastases widely spread in a cow is described. The clinicopathological manifestations, developed during a two-year period, was characterized by the difficulty in mastication and swallowing, progressive weight loss, weakness and profuse sialorrh [...] ea. At the necropsy, an ulcerated black mass was found at the left jaw projecting into the oral cavity. The tumor reached the chin, inferior lip and tongue. Metastases were detected within the tongue, parotid gland, lymph nodes, trachea, thyroid, pleura, lungs, heart, peritoneum, omentum, and serosal membranes of the forestomach and abomasum, liver, and intima of some hepatic vessels, mammary gland, and muscles and fasciae of the left hind leg. No reference to metastasizing oral dendritic melanoma in the oral cavity of the cattle has been mentioned in the literature.

  8. Melanoma maligno anaplásico em um eqüino Anaplastic malignant melanoma in a horse

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel Ricardo Rissi; Rafael Almeida Fighera; Luiz Francisco Irigoyen; Flavio Desessards De Lacorte; Claudio Severo Lombardo Barros

    2008-01-01

    Descreve-se um caso de melanoma maligno anaplásico em uma égua Crioula, tordilha, com 10 anos de idade, com histórico clínico de apatia, perda de peso progressiva, febre, anorexia e dispnéia. Múltiplas massas pigmentadas e não-pigmentadas, bem delimitadas ou infiltrativas, foram observadas no tecido subcutâneo e em vários órgãos. Histologicamente o neoplasma era composto de populações de células fusiformes, redondas ou poliédricas e, menos freqüentemente, de células multinucl...

  9. Melanomas metastáticos intracranianos: análise de 13 casos Malignant melanoma brain metastases: analysis of 13 cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Flávio Mattos Araújo

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available Os autores apresentam análise retrospectiva de 13 pacientes com o diagnóstico de melanoma metástico intracerebral. A lesão primária foi detectada em 9 pacientes. A idade dos pacientes variou entre 28 e 84 anos. O tempo transcorrido entre o diagnóstico da lesão primária e a metástase cerebral variou entre 6 e 60 meses. Todos os pacientes foram submetidos a craniotomia, com remoção da lesão. A mortalidade nos primeiros 30 dias foi zero. A sobrevida dos pacientes variou entre 2 e 55 meses. O tempo médio de sobrevida de todo o grupo foi 14 meses. Embora o tratamento cirúrgico não seja curativo, a sobrevida é significativamente prolongada. Os critérios para a indicação da cirurgia, radioterapia e quimioterapia são discutidos.The authors present a retrospective review of 13 patients with the diagnostic of intracranial metastatic malignant melanoma. Their ages ranged from 28 to 84 years. The time interval from diagnosis of primary tumor to development of cerebral metastases ranged from 6 to 60 months. There was preoperative evidence of extracranial disease in 9 patients. All patients underwent craniotomy, and the 30-day mortality was zero. The patients survived 2 to 55 months after surgery. Medium survival time for all patients was 14 months. The excision of metastatic melanoma from the brain, although not curative, may increase survival in patients with this metastatic cancer. The criteria for consideration of surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy are discussed.

  10. Melanomas metastáticos intracranianos: análise de 13 casos / Malignant melanoma brain metastases: analysis of 13 cases

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    João Flávio Mattos, Araújo; Alexander, Sperlescu; Eduardo Barros, Melacci; Roque José, Balbo.

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available Os autores apresentam análise retrospectiva de 13 pacientes com o diagnóstico de melanoma metástico intracerebral. A lesão primária foi detectada em 9 pacientes. A idade dos pacientes variou entre 28 e 84 anos. O tempo transcorrido entre o diagnóstico da lesão primária e a metástase cerebral variou [...] entre 6 e 60 meses. Todos os pacientes foram submetidos a craniotomia, com remoção da lesão. A mortalidade nos primeiros 30 dias foi zero. A sobrevida dos pacientes variou entre 2 e 55 meses. O tempo médio de sobrevida de todo o grupo foi 14 meses. Embora o tratamento cirúrgico não seja curativo, a sobrevida é significativamente prolongada. Os critérios para a indicação da cirurgia, radioterapia e quimioterapia são discutidos. Abstract in english The authors present a retrospective review of 13 patients with the diagnostic of intracranial metastatic malignant melanoma. Their ages ranged from 28 to 84 years. The time interval from diagnosis of primary tumor to development of cerebral metastases ranged from 6 to 60 months. There was preoperati [...] ve evidence of extracranial disease in 9 patients. All patients underwent craniotomy, and the 30-day mortality was zero. The patients survived 2 to 55 months after surgery. Medium survival time for all patients was 14 months. The excision of metastatic melanoma from the brain, although not curative, may increase survival in patients with this metastatic cancer. The criteria for consideration of surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy are discussed.

  11. Bullous melanoma: a rare variant of melanoma causing practical problems in determination of tumor thickness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woltsche, Nora M; Cota, Carlo; Fink-Puches, Regina; Requena, Luis; Cerroni, Lorenzo

    2015-02-01

    : Bullous melanoma represents a rare variant of melanoma characterized by variably large subepidermal, basilar, or suprabasilar blisters. We present 7 cases of bullous melanoma (M:F = 4:3; median age, 57 years; age range, 38-86) located on the heel (n = 2), foot (n = 2), arm (n = 2), and back (n = 1). In 5/7 cases, the bulla was due to dyscohesiveness of basilar or suprabasilar melanocytes with subsequent acantholytic features simulating pemphigus vulgaris or Hailey-Hailey disease, whereas in the last 2 cases a subepidermal bulla without clear-cut relation to the melanocytic complexes was observed. Direct and indirect immunfluorescence studies performed in 4 patients on skin near the original surgical scar (including those with subepidermal bullae) were negative. Measurement of the Breslow index in all 7 cases was affected by the presence of the bulla, and in 5 of them, the TNM classification was different depending on the method of measurement (with or without the bulla). We suggest that the Breslow index in these cases should be measured detracting the thickness of the bulla from the total thickness, but follow-up data on larger numbers of patients are necessary to establish whether the presence of bullous features has any prognostic implication. PMID:25079203

  12. Lentiginous melanoma: a histologic pattern of melanoma to be distinguished from lentiginous nevus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Roy; Page, Robert N; Googe, Paul B; Mihm, Martin C

    2005-10-01

    Atypical lentiginous melanocytic proliferations in elderly patients continue to pose a diagnostic dilemma with lesions variably categorized as dysplastic nevus, atypical junctional nevus, melanoma in situ (early or evolving) and premalignant melanosis. We present pigmented lesions from 16 patients (seven male and nine female) and with the exception of one case, all were older than 50 years of age. The anatomical sites included trunk (7), head and neck (6) and upper extremity (3). The clinical diagnosis was variable and included lentigo maligna, atypical nevus, pigmented basal cell carcinoma, seborrheic keratosis and lentigo. The initial biopsies mimicked lentiginous nevus or dysplastic nevus and were characterized by a lentiginous proliferation of melanocytes at the dermoepidermal junction both as single cells and as small nests with areas of confluent growth, extending to the edges of the biopsy. The retiform epidermis was maintained and pagetoid spread of melanocytes was not prominent in hematoxylin- and eosin- stained sections. Dermal fibrosis was variably present and the melanocytic proliferation demonstrated cytological atypia. The subsequent re-excisions demonstrated similar atypical melanocytic proliferation occurring over a broad area flanking the prior biopsy sites. The diagnosis of melanoma was more easily recognized in the complete excision specimens. Immunohistochemical stains for Mitf and Mart-1 highlighted the extent of the basalar melanocytic proliferation as well as foci of pagetoid spread by melanocytes. Familiarity with this pattern of early melanoma should facilitate proper classification of lentiginous melanocytic proliferations in biopsies from older adults. PMID:15976811

  13. Melanoma de mucosa intraoral: ¿enfermedad local o sistémica? / Oral mucosal melanoma: a local or systemic disease?

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Lorena, Pingarrón Martín; Javier, González Martín-Moro; Chun-Yue, Ma; Zhi-Wei, Yu; Chen-Ping, Zhang.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Realizar una revisión de la situación actual en el tratamiento del melanoma de mucosa oral (MMO). Describir el protocolo de tratamiento que haya demostrado mejores resultados dada la experiencia y los estudios realizados por la institución de referencia. Material y métodos: Los autores rea [...] lizan una amplia revisión de la literatura abordando las nuevas líneas terapéuticas de investigación. Resultados: Descripción del protocolo de tratamiento que siguen en uno de los centros con mayor cáustica en la literatura internacional. Conclusiones: El MMO es una neoplasia maligna poco frecuente, con etiología y patogenia desconocida y un pronóstico infausto. El tratamiento debe basarse en un diagnóstico temprano y un abordaje multidisciplinar. Abstract in english Objective: To review the current situation in the treatment of oral mucosal melanoma. To describe the treatment protocol that has shown better results, given the experience and studies by the reference institution. Methods: The authors conducted an extensive review of the literature addressing the n [...] ew lines of therapeutic research. Results: Description of the treatment regimen followed at one of the most experienced centers in the international literature. Conclusions: Oral mucosal melanoma is a rare malignancy with an unknown etiology and pathogenesis and poor prognosis. Treatment should be centered on early diagnosis and a multidisciplinary approach.

  14. Melanoma early detection and awareness : how countries developing melanoma awareness programs could benefit from melanoma-proficient countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wainstein, Alberto; Algarra, Salvador Martin

    2014-01-01

    Risk factors for melanoma are well known and have guided plans for primary and secondary prevention. The presentation of the disease, however, varies widely depending on the geographic area, ethnicity, and socioeconomic status. For this reason, many countries have developed specific strategies to increase public awareness and favor early diagnosis. Awareness campaigns, doctor education, and screening of high-risk subjects have all contributed to improve disease outcome in developed countries. The role of primary care physicians is particularly relevant in this regard. Developing countries are trying to implement similar measures. Future efforts to further improve the efficacy of preventive strategies should focus on populations that usually escape campaigns, such as elderly men and people with low socioeconomic status. Fast-growing tumors also require specific attention.

  15. Primary intracranial malignant melanoma: A rare casewith review of literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suranagi, Vijayalaxmi V; Maste, Praful; Malur, Prakash R

    2015-01-01

    We present a rare case of the primary intracranial melanoma in the right parafalcine frontal region in a 65-year-old male. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging showed a Space occupying lesion in the right parafalcine frontal region with necrosis, vasogenic edema and mass effect. A rather well-defined, dark brown-black tumor was totally removed and histologically diagnosed as malignant melanoma. The patient improved after surgery. In our case, no systemic melanomas were found in close clinical examinations, there was a single nodular tumor attached to the leptomeninges and a favorable outcome was obtained by surgical treatment alone. Primary central nervous system melanomas have rarely been reported, and this case is reported for its rarity. PMID:25767575

  16. What's New in Research and Treatment of Melanoma Skin Cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... What’s new in research and treatment of melanoma skin cancer? Research into the causes , prevention , and treatment of ... them to be treated differently. Public education Most skin cancers can be prevented . The best way to reduce ...

  17. Primary Melanoma of the Vagina Treated by Imatinib: Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karima Oualla

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Melanoma of the vagina is a rare lesion. It results from the malignant transformation of ectopic melanocytes occurring in post-menopause. The CKIT is expressed in 36% of cases in addition to melanoma markers. Prognosis is poor especially for inoperable and disseminated forms despite systemic therapy. Treatment with Imatinib is an option in cases of metastatic mucosal melanoma with CKIT mutation or amplification. We report the case of post-menopausal women, treated at Hassan II University Hospital, diagnosed with metastatic melanoma of the vagina, that didn’t respond to first line of chemotherapy, and received Imatinib as second line of treatment, with good clinical response and durable stability at radiological assessment.

  18. A role for topical 5-fluorouracil therapy in melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, R F; Krementz, E T; Litwin, M S

    1988-08-01

    Topical 5-fluorouracil (Efudex) has been shown to be of great value in the treatment of skin cancers, Marjolin ulcers, and advanced squamous cell carcinoma of the mouth and esophagus. It has been advocated for use on patients with melanocytic dysplasia and lentigo maligna melanoma. This report confirms the use of topical 5-FU for lentigo maligna melanoma and melanocytic dysplasia. In melanomas with poor prognosis, preoperative treatment with topical 5-FU converts the cellular infiltrate from acute inflammatory cells to round cells which have been shown to be T-cells. We believe this preoperative stimulation of the patients' own immune reaction to the tumor may be of great significance in improving the surgical results for melanomas with a poor prognosis. PMID:3045424

  19. Fewer U.S. Children Getting Melanoma: Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Fewer U.S. Children Getting Melanoma: Study Researchers credit better education ... Disclaimers Copyright Privacy Accessibility Quality Guidelines Viewers Players U.S. National Library of Medicine 8600 Rockville Pike, Bethesda, ...

  20. Genome-Wide Scan Reveals Mutation Associated with Melanoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 2000 1999 Spotlight on Research 2012 July 2012 Genome-Wide Scan Reveals Mutation Associated with Melanoma A ... out to see if a technology called whole genome sequencing would help them find other genetic risk ...

  1. Primary malignant melanoma of the vagina: a case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A primary malignant melanoma of the vagina is a very rare gynecological malignant tumor. Its clinical behavior is more aggressive than that of cutaneous and vulvar melanomas. We present a case of a large sized primary melanoma of the lower third of the vagina, with a cervical lesion, in a 58-year-old postmenopausal woman. The patient was treated with conventional external radiation therapy and intracavitary radiotherapy (lCR), without surgical treatment. Although the primary lesion showed a partial response, the patient died of extensive metastases, which were found 4.5 months after the initial diagnosis. We suggest that shortening the treatment period, such as hypofractionated radiation therapy and surgical removal, and various systemic therapies for preventing early distant metastasis, are appropriate treatments for a primary malignant melanoma of the vagina, with a large tumor size

  2. MPH Melanoma Rules: Breeze Training Transcript: Mar 2 07

    Science.gov (United States)

    NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH NATIONAL CANCER INSTITUTE SURVEILLANCE, EPIDEMIOLOGY AND END RESULTS (SEER) PROGRAM 2007 Multiple Primary and Histology Coding Rules Breeze Session-Melanoma Rules March 2, 2007 SLIDE ONE Hello and welcome to the malignant

  3. MPH Melanoma Practicum: Breeze Training Transcript: Mar 9 07

    Science.gov (United States)

    NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH NATIONAL CANCER INSTITUTE SURVEILLANCE, EPIDEMIOLOGY AND END RESULTS (SEER) PROGRAM 2007 Multiple Primary and Histology Coding Rules Breeze Sessions Melanoma Rules Practicum March 9, 2007 INTRODUCTION Hello and welcome

  4. ASCO 2011: setting new standards in malignant melanoma and myelofibrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gertrud Lenzen, MD

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The 2011 ASCO Annual Meeting, held on 3–7 June in Chicago, USA, included several landmark trials in malignant melanoma and myelofibrosis. This summary details some of the more interesting and relevant submissions.

  5. Metastatic melanoma in the older patient: special considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegde, Upendra P; Grant-Kels, Jane M

    2013-01-01

    Cancer is a disease of older age where genomic instability, impaired DNA repair, and weakened immune surveillance against cancer are recognized to play a causative role. Because the incidence of melanoma is increasing at a very fast pace in the elderly and there is a rapid expansion of the aging population, a large number of elderly patients with metastatic melanoma will be encountered in clinical practice. As a result, significant burden is expected to be placed on health care resources as effective treatment of this condition is sought. Because melanoma is an immunogenic tumor and promising immune-based treatments have acquired approval for treatment of metastatic melanoma, their successful use in elderly patients will require knowledge about aging and associated alterations in immune function. The spotlight will likely remain on antitumor immunity, its regulation and quality, and the profiles of the cytokines that shape the tumor microenvironment. PMID:23608450

  6. Malignant melanoma of the iris: recurrence after 19 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, A M

    1985-11-01

    Late recurrences of malignant melanoma of the iris are rarely reported. The case of a patient who had apparently had a spindle and nevoid cell melanoma totally excised from his iris is presented. Two and a half years later he sustained blunt trauma and developed retinal detachment in the same eye. The eye became phthisic after two unsuccessful attempts to repair the detachment. Seventeen years later he was seen with discomfort in the eye and was found to have a ruptured globe with prolapse of dark jelly-like material. Pathologic study revealed this to be recurrent spindle-B melanoma. This case, along with two similar cases from the literature, emphasizes that iris melanomas can recur many years after the original excision and that long-term follow-up is indicated. PMID:4083664

  7. Plesiotherapy for non-melanoma skin cancer: Innovating to overcome!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ray Amitabh

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The non-surgical management of non-melanoma skin cancers is an area requiring clinical investigation. Radiotherapy has a role in treatment for a defined subset of patients. Aims: The application of radiotherapy is subject to availability of proper equipment, non-availability of which precludes appropriate radiotherapy in most centers in third world countries. Materials and Methods: The introduction of innovations is needed to circumvent this. Plesiotherapy is such a mode of therapy for non-melanoma skin cancer. Results: In this paper we present successful management of a cohort of non-melanoma skin cancer patients with plesiotherapy using stepping source 192 Ir HDR source. Conclusions: Plesiothrapy is an effective mode of therapy for non-melanoma skin cancer.

  8. Primary malignant melanoma of the small intestine - A case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Small bowel neoplasmas are very rare and can be found in 1-2% of all gastrointestinal tumors. Most of them have metastatic origin. Malignant melanoma is the most common tumor metastatic to the GI tract. Primary malignant melanomas arising from the small intestine are very rare but there are some case reports in the literature. Some authors stated that melanomas are never primary in the intestinal tract. Others try to explain the primary etiology. The most famous theory for its origin is the APUD cell concept. When a small bowel tumor is suspected, enteroclysis is the most useful imaging study. Herein we report the case of a primary malignant melanoma of the small bowel. (orig.)

  9. Metastatic malignant melanoma of the esophagus: a case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report documents the 4th case in the world literature of a malignant melanoma metastatic to the esophagus. The value of gallium scanning in the evaluation of known cancer patients is exemplified by this patient

  10. Regression of posterior uveal melanomas following cobalt-60 plaque radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method has been devised for evaluating the rate and extent of regression of the first 100 consecutive patients with a posterior uveal melanoma that had been managed by Cobalt-60 plaque radiotherapy at Wills Eye Hospital. It was found that the average posterior uveal melanoma in the series did not regress rapidly to a flat, depigmented scar but shrank slowly and persisted as a residual mass approximately 50% of the thickness of the original tumor at 54 months following Cobalt-60 plaque radiotherapy. The authors also found that the rate and extent of regression of the tumors in patients who subsequently developed metastatic melanoma were not appreciably different from the rate and extent of regression of the tumors in patients who remained well systemically. These observations indicate that the rate and extent of regression of posterior uveal melanomas following Cobalt-60 plaque radiotherapy are poor indicators of the prognosis of the affected patients for subsequent development of clinical metastatic disease

  11. Primary intracranial malignant melanoma: A rare casewith review of literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suranagi, Vijayalaxmi V.; Maste, Praful; Malur, Prakash R.

    2015-01-01

    We present a rare case of the primary intracranial melanoma in the right parafalcine frontal region in a 65-year-old male. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging showed a Space occupying lesion in the right parafalcine frontal region with necrosis, vasogenic edema and mass effect. A rather well-defined, dark brown-black tumor was totally removed and histologically diagnosed as malignant melanoma. The patient improved after surgery. In our case, no systemic melanomas were found in close clinical examinations, there was a single nodular tumor attached to the leptomeninges and a favorable outcome was obtained by surgical treatment alone. Primary central nervous system melanomas have rarely been reported, and this case is reported for its rarity.

  12. Malignant melanoma of the mandibular gingiva: A rare occurrence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reddy BVR

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Primary mucosal malignant melanoma of the oral cavity is a rare tumor. It accounts for only 0.2-8% of all malignant melanomas. This malignancy commonly affects male subjects and is more frequently seen on the hard palate and maxillary gingiva. The peak age for diagnosis of oral melanoma is between 55 and 65 years. A biopsy is required to establish a diagnosis. Ablative surgery with tumor-free margins remains the treatment of choice. It has a much poorer prognosis than its counterpart on the skin. Here, we present a case of malignant melanoma of the mandibular lingual gingiva in a 55-year-old male patient. Immunohistochemistry and special stains were conducted for confirmatory diagnosis.

  13. Wnt Signaling Pathway and its Significance for Melanoma Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.V. Gnuchev

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Melanoma is characterized by its high metastatic propensity. Melanoma metastasis is associated with an activation of signaling pathways that are responsible for embryogenesis. Wnt signaling pathway is considered as one of the key signaling cascades, whose aberrant activation results in melanoma development. Wnt signaling includes a complex network of intracellular interactions. Its ligands are able to initiate at least three signal transduction pathways: canonical and two noncanonical. According to modern views, canonical branch of Wnt signaling pathway is involved in cell proliferation and differentiation. Noncanonical Wnt signaling pathways, on the contrary, control cytoskeleton organization and cell motility. Currently, canonical and noncanonical Wnt signaling cascades are supposed to affect different stages of tumor progression. Canonical Wnt signaling pathway contributes to melanoma formation, while noncanonical branches of Wnt signal transduction are involved in metastasis.

  14. Molecular studies in different types of melanoma tumors - correlations to clinical data

    OpenAIRE

    Zebary, Abdlsattar

    2013-01-01

    Approximately 90% of melanomas arise from skin sites (known as cutaneous malignant melanoma; CMM), whereas the non-cutaneous melanoma (mucosal and ocular melanomas) are rare, accounting for about 10%. Familial melanoma accounts for up to 10% of patients diagnosed with CMM. Both genetics (e.g. CDKN2A and CDK4 germline mutations, as well as polymorphisms in MC1R and other genes) and environmental factors (ultraviolet radiation) contribute to the induction of melanoma. The MAPK and the PI3K are ...

  15. RUNX2 is overexpressed in melanoma cells and mediates their migration and invasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boregowda, Rajeev K; Olabisi, Oyenike O; Abushahba, Walid; Jeong, Byeong-Seon; Haenssen, Keneshia K; Chen, Wenjin; Chekmareva, Marina; Lasfar, Ahmed; Foran, David J; Goydos, James S; Cohen-Solal, Karine A

    2014-06-28

    In the present study, we investigated the role of the transcription factor RUNX2 in melanomagenesis. We demonstrated that the expression of transcriptionally active RUNX2 was increased in melanoma cell lines as compared with human melanocytes. Using a melanoma tissue microarray, we showed that RUNX2 levels were higher in melanoma cells as compared with nevic melanocytes. RUNX2 knockdown in melanoma cell lines significantly decreased Focal Adhesion Kinase expression, and inhibited their cell growth, migration and invasion ability. Finally, the pro-hormone cholecalciferol reduced RUNX2 transcriptional activity and decreased migration of melanoma cells, further suggesting a role of RUNX2 in melanoma cell migration. PMID:24657655

  16. A Case Report of Malignant Melanoma of the Sphenoid Sinus

    OpenAIRE

    Hiroki Sato; Ray Motohashi; Minoru Endo; Kiyoaki Tsukahara; Kazuhiro Nakamura

    2013-01-01

    Malignant melanoma of the sphenoid sinus is a very rare disease, and only 6 cases have previously been reported. The present case involved a 74-year-old woman who was examined for visual disturbance of the left eye. Computed tomography revealed a soft tissue shadow, but only mucosal hypertrophy was found on opening the sphenoid sinus under general anesthesia. One month postoperatively, visual disturbance of the right eye and paresis of cranial nerve III appeared. Malignant melanoma was diagno...

  17. Mortality from cutaneous melanoma: evidence for contrasting trends between populations

    OpenAIRE

    Severi, G.; Giles, G. G.; Robertson, C.; Boyle, P.; Autier, P.

    2000-01-01

    In recent years several reports have been published concerning trends in melanoma mortality in different countries, some of which have indicated that rates are beginning to fall. Many of these reports, however, have been based on small populations and have used different forms of statistical analysis. Our objective was to analyse systematically to what degree the epidemic of melanoma mortality had evolved similarly in different populations and whether there were any divergent trends that migh...

  18. Hyperthermia increases the metastatic potential of murine melanoma

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira-filho, R. S.; Bevilacqua, R. G.; Chammas, R.

    1997-01-01

    Hyperthermia, either alone or combined with radio-, immuno- or chemotherapy, can control tumor growth, but its effect on metastasis is still controversial. In the present study, we investigated the influence of hyperthermia on the metastatic potential of B16-F10 murine melanoma cells. Incubation of melanoma cells at 43ºC for 30 min led to a significant decrease in cell viability. About half of the cells survived the acute exposure to heat. These thermoresistant cells displayed a longer lag p...

  19. Prospects for non-immunological molecular therapeutics in melanoma

    OpenAIRE

    Eustace, Alex J.; Mahgoub, Thamir; Tryfanopoulos, Dimitrios; O Donovan, Norma; Crown, John

    2010-01-01

    In 2006 there were 60,000 new cases of cutaneous melanoma in the European Union and 13,000 deaths (www.europeancancerleagues.org). Currently available systemic treatment options for metastatic melanoma, including both cytotoxic and immunologic therapies, produce low rates of response and have modest survival impact. Therefore, there is an urgent need for effective novel therapies. Molecularly targeted treatments have demonstrated efficacy in certain cancers e.g. in HER2-positive breast canc...

  20. Treatment of cutaneous melanoma: current approaches and future prospects

    OpenAIRE

    Algazi, Alain P.; Soon, Christopher W.; Daud, Adil I.

    2010-01-01

    Alain P Algazi1, Christopher W Soon2, Adil I Daud11Department of Medicine, Division of Hematology and Oncology, 2Department of Dermatology, University of California, San Francisco San Francisco, CA, USAAbstract: Melanoma is the most aggressive and deadly type of skin cancer. Surgical resection with or without lymph node sampling is the standard of care for primary cutaneous melanoma. Adjuvant therapy decisions may be informed by careful consideration of prognostic factors. High-dose adjuvant ...

  1. Angiogenesis and melanoma - from basic science to clinical trials

    OpenAIRE

    Emmett, Maxine Sylvia; Dewing, Daemon; Pritchard-jones, Rowan Oliver

    2011-01-01

    The effective management of malignant melanoma has remained centred around the surgeon. The arrival of anti-angiogenic agents as the ‘fourth’ cancer treatment joining the ranks of surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy has been a source of renewed hope. This article provides an up-to-date review of the focus, state and rationale of clinical trials of anti-angiogenic therapies in metastatic malignant melanoma. Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) is by no means the only target, althou...

  2. Targeting angiogenesis for the treatment of advanced melanoma

    OpenAIRE

    Helena Linardou; Bafaloukos, Dimitrios J.

    2011-01-01

    Metastatic melanoma (MM) carries a dismal prognosis, as it is largely resistant to conventional chemotherapy, bio-chemotherapy and immunotherapy. The search for new effective treatments is an unquestionable priority in MM. A wealth of novel therapies have been currently tested in oncology and MM represents an attractive model for investigation. The process of angiogenesis is crucial for the establishment and progression of most solid tumors including melanoma. As the mechanisms of angiogenesi...

  3. Oral malignant melanoma: A case report with review of literature

    OpenAIRE

    Manigandan, T.; Sagar, G. Vikram; Amudhan, A.; Hemalatha, V. T.; Babu, N. Aravinda

    2014-01-01

    Oral mucosal melanoma is a rare malignancy with the tendency to metastasize and locally invade tissues more readily than other malignant tumor of the oral cavity. It occurs approximately four times more frequently in the oral mucosa of the upper jaw usually on the palate or alveolar gingiva. The chameleonic presentation of malignant melanoma, its asymptomatic condition, rarity of the lesion, poor prognosis and the necessity of a highly specialized treatment are factors that should be seriousl...

  4. The Potential of Triterpenoids in the Treatment of Melanoma.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šarek, J.; Kvasnica, Miroslav; Vlk, M.; Urban, M.; Dzubak, P.; Hajduch, M.

    Rijeka : InTech, 2011 - (Murph, M.), s. 125-158 ISBN 978-953-307-293-7 Grant ostatní: GA ?R(CZ) GA305/09/1216; GA ?R(CZ) GP301/09/P433 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : triterpene * melanoma * lupane * cancer Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry http://www.intechopen.com/articles/show/title/the-potential-of- triterpenoids -in-the-treatment-of-melanoma

  5. Melanocytes, melanocyte stem cells, and melanoma stem cells

    OpenAIRE

    Lang, Deborah; Mascarenhas, Joseph B.; Shea, Christopher R.

    2013-01-01

    Melanocyte stem cells differ greatly from melanoma stem cells; the former provide pigmented cells during normal tissue homeostasis and repair, while the latter play an active role in a lethal form of cancer. These two cell types share several features and can be studied by similar methods. Aspects held in common by both melanocyte stem cells and melanoma stem cells include their expression of shared biochemical markers, a system of similar molecular signals necessary for their maintenance, an...

  6. The role of the Hippo pathway in melanocytes and melanoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BruceCharlesBaguley

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The Hippo signalling pathway comprises a series of cytoplasmic tumour suppressor proteins including Merlin and the Lats1/2 and MST1/2 kinases, and is thought to play a critical role in determining the sizes of organs and tissues. The Hippo pathway is regulated upstream by extracellular mechanosensory signalling arising from cell shape and polarity, as well as by a variety of extracellular signalling molecules. When active, the pathway maintains the transcriptional activators YAP and TAZ in phosphorylated forms in the cytoplasm, preventing cell proliferation. When the Hippo pathway is inactivated, YAP and TAZ are translocated to the nucleus and induce the expression of a variety of proteins concerned with entry into the cell division cycle, such as cyclin D1 and Fox M1, as well as the inhibition of apoptosis. The failure of the Hippo pathway has been implicated in the development of many different types of cancer but there is limited information available as to its involvement in melanoma. We hypothesise here firstly that the Hippo pathway is involved in maintaining density of cutaneous melanocytes on the basement membrane at the junction of the epidermis and the dermis, and secondly, that its function is disturbed in melanoma. We have analysed a series of 23 low passage human melanoma lines as well as in cultures of normal melanocytes, and find that melanocytes, as well as all melanoma cell lines examined express TAZ. Melanocytes and most melanoma lines also express YAP. E-cadherin, an upstream regulator of the Hippo pathway, and Axl, a receptor tyrosine kinase regulated by the Hippo pathway, are expressed in melanocytes and in several melanoma cell lines. These observations, together with published evidence for the presence of Merlin, Lats1/2 and MST1/2 in melanocytes and melanoma cells, support the hypothesis that the Hippo pathway is an important component of melanocyte and melanoma behaviour.

  7. Anorectal melanoma. Case report and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olinici, C D; Muntean, Ioana Lucia; Resiga, Liliana; Cri?an, Doini?a

    2007-01-01

    We report a case of primary anorectal melanoma, a very rare malignant tumor in this localization. The patient, a 57-year-old female, complained for one year of symptoms, which were attributed to hemorrhoids. An abdomino-perineal resection was performed. Pathologic examination revealed an anorectal melanoma with numerous lymph node metastases and an unusual metastatic deposit in a uterine leiomyoma. The pathogenesis, pathology, principles of treatment and prognosis of this entity are briefly discussed. PMID:17914500

  8. Oral contraceptive use and risk of melanoma in premenopausal women

    OpenAIRE

    Feskanich, D.; Hunter, D. J.; Willett, W. C.; Spiegelman, D.; Stampfer, M. J.; Colditz, G. A.

    1999-01-01

    Melanoma has been increasing in white populations. Incidence rates rise steeply in women until about age 50, suggesting oestrogen as a possible risk factor. Oestrogens can increase melanocyte count and melanin content and cause hyperpigmentation of the skin. We examined prospectively the association between oral contraceptive (OC) use and diagnoses of superficial spreading and nodular melanoma among 183 693 premenopausal white women in the Nurses’ Health Study (NHS) and the Nurses’ Health...

  9. Projections of Incidence, Prevalence and Mortality from Melanoma in Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Milagros Bernal; Souza, Dyego L. B.; German Gomez; Gomez, Francisco J.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The incidence and mortality rates for cutaneous melanoma (CM) have increased markedly in the last few years. As such, the aim of this study was to forecast their progression in Spain up until 2022. Design: A prospective epidemiological study using the Miamod technique. The primary data source was the mortality statistics released by the National Statistics Institute. Study selection: The MIAMOD method was used. Data extraction: Cases of death due to general and melanoma-related mo...

  10. A Brief History of Melanoma: From Mummies to Mutations

    OpenAIRE

    Rebecca, Vito W.; Sondak, Vernon K.; Smalley, Keiran S. M.

    2012-01-01

    The recent years have seen melanoma research undergo a renaissance. What was once viewed, at least in the metastatic setting, as an intractable and untreatable disease is now revealing its molecular weaknesses. 2011 was a landmark year for melanoma therapy with two new agents, the anti-CTLA4 antibody ipilimumab and the BRAF inhibitor vemurafenib, shown to confer a survival benefit in randomized phase III clinical trials. Forgotten in the recent flurry of interest that has accompanied the deve...

  11. BRAF in Melanoma: Pathogenesis, Diagnosis, Inhibition, and Resistance

    OpenAIRE

    Sullivan, Ryan J.; Flaherty, Keith T.

    2011-01-01

    Since the initial discovery that a subset of patients with cutaneous melanoma harbor BRAF mutations, substantial research has been focused on determining the pathologic consequences of BRAF mutations, optimizing diagnostic techniques to identify these mutations, and developing therapeutic interventions to inhibit the function of this target in mutation-bearing tumors. Recently, advances have been made which are revolutionizing the standard of care for patients with BRAF mutant melanoma. This ...

  12. Assaying Wnt5A-mediated Invasion in Melanoma Cells

    OpenAIRE

    O Connell, Michael P.; French, Amanda D.; Leotlela, Poloko D.; Weeraratna, Ashani T.

    2008-01-01

    Wnt5A has been implicated in melanoma metastasis, and the progression of other cancers including pancreatic, gastric, prostate and lung cancers. Assays to test motility and invasion include both in vivo assays, and in vitro assays. The former assays include the use of tail vein or footpad injections of metastatic cells, and are often laborious and expensive. In vitro invasion assays provide quick readouts that can help to establish conditions that either activate or inhibit melanoma cell moti...

  13. Sinonasal melanoma arising from conjunctival primary acquired melanosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shehata, Mark; Gombos, Dan; Bishop, John; Zafereo, Mark Edwin

    2015-01-01

    A 66-year-old woman was treated with excision and cryotherapy for recurrent primary acquired melanosis (PAM) with atypia of the right conjunctiva. Four years later, she developed a melanoma of the ipsilateral inferior turbinate and nasolacrimal duct. She was treated with right medial maxillectomy and postoperative radiation therapy. This is the first reported case of conjunctival PAM resulting in delayed progression to melanoma in the nasolacrimal duct and sinonasal cavity. PMID:25694640

  14. Treatment of KIT-mutated metastatic mucosal melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kevin B; Alrwas, Anas

    2014-09-01

    Mucosal melanoma is a rare, aggressive histologic subtype of malignant melanoma, and prognosis for patients with metastatic mucosal melanoma is very poor. In general, conventional cytotoxic agents alone or in combination with immunologic drugs have limited clinical benefit. Advances in molecular analytic techniques have helped researchers discover genetic aberrations in KIT, a receptor tyrosine kinase, in nearly 40% of patients with mucosal melanoma. Preclinical studies have demonstrated that hot-spot mutations, mostly substitutions in exons 11 and 13, result in constitutive activation of KIT and its downstream signal transduction pathways, such as the MEK/ERK, PI3K/AKT and JAK/STAT pathways. KIT inhibitors, most notably imatinib, have shown promising clinical activity in KIT-mutant advanced melanoma, including mucosal melanoma, with clinical response rates exceeding 35% in patients with hot-spot mutations in exon 11 or 13 and/or a high mutant/wild-type allelic ratio. However, the duration of disease control is rather short in general, and treatment with KIT inhibitors as single agents is not optimal. Well-designed mechanistic studies aimed at assessing molecular differences between various KIT mutations or other aberrations and mechanisms of resistance are urgently needed to improve KIT-targeting therapy for melanoma. In addition, with availability of checkpoint inhibitors, such as anti-CTLA4 and/or anti-PD-1 antibodies, immunotherapies using those inhibitors alone or in combinations of such immunotherapies with KIT inhibitors may lead to more effective therapeutic regimens. This review discusses the rationale for KIT inhibitor therapy in patients with metastatic mucosal melanoma and the findings of preclinical and clinical studies of KIT inhibitors in this patient population. PMID:25841461

  15. Cytokines and Growth Factors Expressed by Human Cutaneous Melanoma

    OpenAIRE

    Elias, Elias G.; Hasskamp, Joanne H.; Sharma, Bhuvnesh K.

    2010-01-01

    Cytokines and growth factors have biologic effects that could stimulate tumor growth, invasion and angiogenesis. The incidence of 24 factors was investigated in 25 cultured human melanoma cell lines and in 62 fixed tissues at different stages of the disease. Over 80% of the human melanoma cell lines expressed TGF-?, IL-8, IL-6, VEGF, PDGF-AA and OPN. Significantly higher TGF-?, IGF-1 and IL-15 were determined in primary lesions compared to distant metastases by immunohistochemistry. Illustr...

  16. Predicting outcome in melanoma: where are we now?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Jennings, L

    2009-09-01

    Melanoma incidence continues to rise in most countries. This is of grave concern, given the mortality rate in a relatively young population. Current staging tools are limited in their ability to predict accurately those at risk of metastatic disease, relapse and treatment failure. This overview comprehensively reviews relevant literature, with the focus on the last 5 years, and discusses the current state of traditional and emerging novel methods of staging for melanoma and their effect on prognosis in this population.

  17. Does Melanoma Begin in a Melanocyte Stem Cell?

    OpenAIRE

    Hoerter, James D.; Patrick Bradley; Alexandria Casillas; Danielle Chambers; Brandon Weiswasser; Lauren Clements; Sarah Gilbert; Albert Jiao

    2012-01-01

    What is the cellular origin of melanoma? What role do melanocyte stem cells (MSC) and other melanocyte precursors play in the development of melanoma? Are MSCs and other latent melanocyte precursors more susceptible to solar radiation? These and many other questions can be very effectively addressed using the zebrafish model. Zebrafish have a robust regenerative capability, permitting the study of how MSCs are regulated and recruited at specific times and places to generate the pigment patter...

  18. Engineering nanomedicines for improved melanoma therapy: progress and promises

    OpenAIRE

    Bei, Di; Meng, Jianing; Youan, Bi-botti C.

    2010-01-01

    Once metastatic, melanoma remains one of the most aggressive and morbid malignancies. Moreover, in past decades, the overall survival for advanced unresectable melanoma exhibited a constancy of poor prognosis. Low response rates and serious adverse effects have been characteristic of standard therapy based on a combination of chemotherapeutic agents or immunotherapy with IL-2. For example, the chemotherapy including dacarbazine, carmustin, cisplatin and tamoxifen is known as ‘Dartmouth regi...

  19. Cancer researchers translate new laboratory findings to enhance melanoma treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Translational researchers from UCLA’s Jonsson Comprehensive Cancer Center (JCCC) have published results of two back-to-back studies in the journal Cancer Discovery that provide critical insights into two key areas of how tumors resist BRAF inhibitors: the key cell-signaling pathways BRAF-mutant melanoma cells use to learn how to become resistant to inhibitor drugs, and how the limited focus of BRAF inhibitors allows melanoma cells to evolve and develop drug resistance.

  20. [Difficulties in the evaluation of melanoma recurrences following iridocyclectomy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lommatzsch, P K; Bauke, G

    1985-08-01

    Report on a 30-year-old male patient suffering from malignant melanoma (spindle-cell type A) of the iris and ciliary body who developed pigmentation within the scar tissue, diagnosed as melanoma recurrence, 2 years after iridocyclectomy. Therefore, enbloc excision was performed 5 years after the first tumor excision. Histologic examination revealed no tumor cells, only melanophagocytosis and local proliferation of lens epithelium in the form of Wedl bladder cells. PMID:4057909

  1. Iris melanoma in children: Current approach to management

    OpenAIRE

    Mclaughlin, John P.; Fung, Adrian T.; Shields, Jerry A.; Shields, Carol L.

    2013-01-01

    Iris melanoma usually affects middle aged, Caucasian patients with light colored eyes. Pediatric iris melanoma is rare. A 15-year-old Caucasian male presented with 1-month history of a brown nodule in the inferotemporal aspect of his left eye. Iris nevus was diagnosed, and the patient was observed. Nearly 2 years later the lesion had grown in basal diameter and thickness, and the tumor was excised by partial lamellar scleral flap and sector iridectomy. Histopathology confirmed spindle cell ir...

  2. CT of abdominal and retroperitoneal metastatic malignant melanoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This exhibit is based on CT studies of more than 40 patients with metastatic malignant melanoma, including a group evaluated before and after interleukin-2 therapy. It is known that up to 75% of patients with Clark level 5 melanoma have abdominal metastases. The number and location of metastases will be related to initial staging of neoplasms. Intraabdominal and retroperitoneal lesions are illustrated. Common and uncommon manifestations are shown

  3. Rhabdomyosarcoma and late malignant melanoma of the orbit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leff, S.R.; Henkind, P.

    1983-10-01

    Forty-five years following surgical excision and radiation for a childhood rhabdomyosarcoma of the left orbit, a patient with primary lymphedema developed an ipsilateral malignant melanoma of the anterior orbital tissue. This was excised, but a metastasis of the melanoma occurred in the contralateral upper lid. This is the first case report of treated rhabdomyosarcoma of the orbit followed by a second primary tumor occurring in the field of radiation.

  4. Proteomic Analyses of the Xiphophorus Gordon-Kosswig Melanoma Model

    OpenAIRE

    Perez, Amy N.; Oehlers, Lee; Heater, Shelia J.; Booth, Rachell E.; Walter, Ronald B.; David, Wendi M.

    2011-01-01

    Interspecies hybridization between the platyfish X. maculatus Jp 163 A, and the swordtail X. helleri (Sarabia), generates F1 hybrids with pronounced melanin pigmentation. Backcrossing of F1 hybrids with the X. helleri parent results in 25% of progeny that will spontaneously develop melanoma. We have applied proteomic methods to this Gordon-Kosswig (G-K) melanoma model to identify candidate proteins that exhibit modulated expression in fin tissue due to interspecies hybridization and progressi...

  5. Adjuvant radiation therapy in metastatic lymph nodes from melanoma

    OpenAIRE

    Penel Nicolas; Mortier Laurent; Mirabel Xavier; Dewas Sylvain; Bibault Jean-Emmanuel; Vanseymortier Luc; Lartigau Eric

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Purpose To analyze the outcome after adjuvant radiation therapy with standard fractionation regimen in metastatic lymph nodes (LN) from cutaneous melanoma. Patients and methods 86 successive patients (57 men) were treated for locally advanced melanoma in our institution. 60 patients (69%) underwent LN dissection followed by radiation therapy (RT), while 26 patients (31%) had no radiotherapy. Results The median number of resected LN was 12 (1 to 36) with 2 metastases (1 to 28). Median...

  6. DCEG Scientists Identify New Gene Mutation Related to Familial Melanoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scientists have identified a rare inherited mutation in a gene that can increase the risk of familial melanoma, according to a study that appeared online in Nature Genetics on March 30, 2014. Although the finding does not offer immediate benefit to patients, variation in the Protection of Telomeres-1 (POT1) gene provides additional clues as to the origins of melanoma and may open new avenues in prevention and treatment research. Read the full NCI Benchmarks blog post about this study.

  7. [The clinical and anatomicopathological aspects in malignant choroid melanoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefan, C

    1996-01-01

    Choroidal malignant melanoma is the most frequently among the intraocular malignant tumors, and its incidence is getting hier. Clinical aspects (stadialisation, clinical forms) are strictly corelated with the anatompathological aspects (macroscopic exam, clasic histology, optic microscopy, electronic microscopy, TEM or scanning-SEM). Prognose and survival of malignant melanoma, depends on the histological form and on others microscopic changes. The results are integrated in a schema of conservative, complex, codifical, sequental treatement. PMID:8717076

  8. Targeting protein-trafficking pathways alters melanoma treatment sensitivity

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Zhi-ming; Chinen, Milka; Chang, Philip J.; Xie, Tong; Zhong, Lily; Demetriou, Stephanie; Patel, Mira P.; Scherzer, Rebecca; Sviderskaya, Elena V.; Bennett, Dorothy C.; Millhauser, Glenn L.; Oh, Dennis H.; Cleaver, James E.; Wei, Maria L.

    2011-01-01

    Protein-trafficking pathways are targeted here in human melanoma cells using methods independent of oncogene mutational status, and the ability to up-regulate and down-regulate tumor treatment sensitivity is demonstrated. Sensitivity of melanoma cells to cis-diaminedichloroplatinum II (cDDP, cis-platin), carboplatin, dacarbazine, or temozolomide together with velaparib, an inhibitor of poly (ADP ribose) polymerase 1, is increased by up to 10-fold by targeting genes that regulate both protein ...

  9. Ciliary body malignant melanoma in a black child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, J C; Stannard, C; Bowen, R M

    1991-01-01

    Uveal malignant melanoma is uncommon both in children and in black patients. There has been only one previous report of this type of tumor occurring in a black child. This paper presents the case history of a 5-year-old black girl who presented with a mass arising from the ciliary body and choroid. This was found to be a malignant melanoma on histological examination. The difficulties in diagnosis are discussed and the histological features presented. PMID:2019958

  10. Insights in tumorigenesis and metastasis of uveal melanoma

    OpenAIRE

    Notting, Irene Christa

    2009-01-01

    For a long time enucleation has been the treatment of choice for uveal melanoma. New treatment modalities have been developed e.g. transscleral thermotherapy (TTT), proton beam radiation, stereotactic radiotherapy and ruthenium application 1-3 . These treatment options offer a better chance to spare the eye. Despite new treatment options, the overall survival of patients treated for uveal melanoma did not improve. Ultimately, most patients die of metastatic disease. Therefore, there is need f...

  11. Immunophenotyping of melanomas for tyrosinase: implications for vaccine development.

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Y. T.; Stockert, E.; Tsang, S.; Coplan, K. A.; Old, L. J.

    1995-01-01

    Tyrosinase (EC 1.14.18.1), the key enzyme in melanin synthesis, has been shown to be one of the targets for cytotoxic T-cell recognition in melanoma patients. To develop serological reagents useful for immunophenotyping melanoma for tyrosinase, human tyrosinase cDNA was expressed in an Escherichia coli expression vector. The purified recombinant tyrosinase was used to generate mouse monoclonal and rabbit polyclonal antibodies. The prototype monoclonal antibody, T311, recognized a cluster of p...

  12. Metastatic ovarian malignant melanoma with no obvious primary

    OpenAIRE

    Ate? Karateke; Niyazi Tu?; Davut ?ahin

    2011-01-01

    The differential diagnosis of metastatic ovarian malignant melanoma from primary ovarian tumors is a significant challenge, particularly if there is no obvious primary site. A 39-year-old patient with bilateral ovarian malignant melanoma presented as stage IV primary ovarian tumor, with metastases in the omentum and spleen. She underwent a total abdominal hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oopherectomy with infracolic omentectomy and splenectomy. The diagnosis on examination of frozen secti...

  13. Melanoma of the Urinary Bladder: A Review of the Literature

    OpenAIRE

    Anthony Kodzo-Grey Venyo

    2014-01-01

    Background. Melanomas of the urinary bladder and urethra are rare. Aims. To review the literature on the disease. Methods. Various Internet databases were used to identify reported cases of the disease. Results. Less than 30 cases of primary melanoma of the urinary bladder and urethra have been reported in the literature and they have been associated with melanosis and commonly with metastases. The lesions may be primary or metastatic with no gender preference. The diagnostic features inclu...

  14. Anorectal melanoma - histopathological and immunohistochemical features and treatment / Melanoma anorretal - diagnósticos histopatológico e imunohistoquímico e tratamento

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Geraldo Magela Gomes da, Cruz; José de Souza, Andrade Filho; Gil, Patrus; Sinara Mônica de Oliveira, Leite; Ilson Geraldo da, Silva; Ricardo Guimarães, Teixeira; Áurea Cassia Gualberto, Braga; Renata Magali Ribeiro Silluzio, Ferreira.

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Os melanomas anorretais (ARM) devem ser caracterizados pela localização (anal, retal e anorretal), coloração, dimensão, forma e mobilidade. Microscopicamente, por tipos de melanócitos, graduação da pigmentação melânica, alterações juncionais sob o epitélio escamoso, índice mitótico atípico, atipias [...] celulares e citoplasmáticas, infiltrado inflamatório, invasões vascular e perineural, linfonodo sentinela e penetração parietal. Devem ser estadiados pelos critérios American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) e/ou TNM Classification of Malignant Tumours (TNM). Como as células do ARM são variáveis, isto torna difícil o diagnóstico diferencial com outros tumores da região anorretal. Assim, faz-se necessária a realização de IHC. Apresentamos uma série de 14 pacientes, nos quais foram refeitos exames histológicos e realizados IHCs com vários marcadores, firmando corretamente o diagnóstico. Os trabalhos mostram que a cirurgia mais racional é a excisão local alargada (ELA) em casos de doença localizada e ressecção abdominoperineal do reto (APR) para lesões avançadas. Independente da técnica, a sobrevida de cinco anos é inferior a 35%; a sobrevida média não ultrapassa 26 meses; o tempo livre de doença é inferior a 10 meses; e a sobrevida global não ultrapassa é de 32 meses. Não há correlação entre melhora dos resultados com qualquer tratamento adjuvante. As terapias-alvo para doença metastática começam a apresentar resultados animadores, ainda inconclusivos. Abstract in english Anorectal melanomas should be characterized by location (anal, rectal and anorectal), color, size, shape and mobility and microscopically, by melanocyte subtypes, grade of melanin pigmentation, junctional changes in the squamous epithelium, atypical mitotic index, cellular atypia, inflammatory infil [...] trate, vascular and perineural invasion, sentinel lymph node, and anorectal parietal penetration. Anorectal melanomas must be staged by American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) and/or TNM Classification of Malignant Tumours (TNM) criteria. As melanocytes can present with several shapes, sometimes the differential diagnosis with other tumors in this region may be difficult. Because of this, immunohistochemistry is mandatory to attain a precise diagnosis. This study is a report of 14 patients with anorectal melanoma, in whom histological examinations were remade and immunohistochemistry was performed with several markers for melanocytes and for other tumor cells of the anorectal region, properly establishing the diagnosis. The most rational surgery is the extended local resection, when the disease is restricted to the area or the abdominoperineal resection to advanced lesions. Regardless of the technique used, the results are always poor. The authors deny any efficacy of current radio and/or chemotherapy as part of treatment of anorectal melanoma. Target-therapy for metastatic disease has been considered a good strategy, but the results are still inconclusive.

  15. MR imaging of mucocutaneous malignant melanoma in head and neck

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuwata, Yoichiro; Miki, Yukio; Sano, Akira (Tenri Hospital, Nara (Japan)) (and others)

    1990-08-01

    MR imaging was performed in three patients with mucocutaneous malignant melanoma of the head and neck, and surgical specimens were investigated in MR-pathological correlation. Two of 3 cases were revealed to be melanotic melanoma; one arised in the maxillary sinus, and another in the bulbar conjunctiva. The remaining one was amelanotic melanoma originated in the nasal cavity. Two cases of melanotic melanoma showed different intensity on T1WI according to the melanin concentration; the more the melanin-producing process existed, the higher intensity in the tumor was shown. On T2WI there were also some differences in signal intensity; the case having more concentration of melanin changed lower partially in the areas where very high intensity was noted on T1WI, while another case remained unchanged. These findings are based on the inherent paramagnetic effect mostly compatible with the previous reports. On the other hand, the amelanotic melanoma was demonstrated as an intermediate intensity both on T1- and T2WI. Because of the higher incidence of hemorrhage in/around the tumor, it is an important diagnostic clue to this tumor, as in our case of amelanotic type. On reviewing the three cases, we consider that MR imaging offers a useful adjunct in the diagnosis of malignant melanoma. (author).

  16. MR imaging of mucocutaneous malignant melanoma in head and neck

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MR imaging was performed in three patients with mucocutaneous malignant melanoma of the head and neck, and surgical specimens were investigated in MR-pathological correlation. Two of 3 cases were revealed to be melanotic melanoma; one arised in the maxillary sinus, and another in the bulbar conjunctiva. The remaining one was amelanotic melanoma originated in the nasal cavity. Two cases of melanotic melanoma showed different intensity on T1WI according to the melanin concentration; the more the melanin-producing process existed, the higher intensity in the tumor was shown. On T2WI there were also some differences in signal intensity; the case having more concentration of melanin changed lower partially in the areas where very high intensity was noted on T1WI, while another case remained unchanged. These findings are based on the inherent paramagnetic effect mostly compatible with the previous reports. On the other hand, the amelanotic melanoma was demonstrated as an intermediate intensity both on T1- and T2WI. Because of the higher incidence of hemorrhage in/around the tumor, it is an important diagnostic clue to this tumor, as in our case of amelanotic type. On reviewing the three cases, we consider that MR imaging offers a useful adjunct in the diagnosis of malignant melanoma. (author)

  17. A novel attenuated replication-competent adenovirus for melanoma therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter, I; Graf, C; Dummer, R; Schaffner, W; Greber, U F; Hemmi, S

    2003-04-01

    To generate a replication-competent adenovirus (Ad) with specificity for melanoma, we constructed a tissue-specific promoter restricting E1A expression to melanoma cells. The combination of four copies of a mouse tyrosinase enhancer element (TE) fused to the human tyrosinase promoter (TP) yielded up to 2000-fold higher luciferase reporter activity in tyrosinase-expressing melanoma cells than in nonmelanoma cells. Insertion of the composite TETP construct upstream of the E1A gene was combined with deleting as far as possible the intertwined endogenous Ad enhancer/promoter (EP). The resulting AdDeltaEP-TETP vector, also deleted for the E3 region, was found to replicate in tyrosinase-positive melanoma cells, such as SK-Mel23 as efficiently as wild-type Ad5, but at a more than 50-fold reduced level in nonmelanoma tumour cells and primary human cells. Injection of AdDeltaEP-TETP into xenotransplanted melanomas, but not into HeLa-derived tumours led to long-lasting tumour regression in nude mice. This AdDeltaEP-TETP virus might be useful for the treatment of accessible lesions in advanced melanoma patients. PMID:12646858

  18. Aire deficiency promotes TRP-1-specific immune rejection of melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Meng-Lei; Nagavalli, Anil; Su, Maureen A

    2013-04-01

    The thymic transcription factor autoimmune regulator (Aire) prevents autoimmunity in part by promoting expression of tissue-specific self-antigens, which include many cancer antigens. For example, AIRE-deficient patients are predisposed to vitiligo, an autoimmune disease of melanocytes that is often triggered by efficacious immunotherapies against melanoma. Therefore, we hypothesized that Aire deficiency in mice may elevate immune responses to cancer and provide insights into how such responses might be triggered. In this study, we show that Aire deficiency decreases thymic expression of TRP-1 (TYRP1), which is a self-antigen in melanocytes and a cancer antigen in melanomas. Aire deficiency resulted in defective negative selection of TRP-1-specific T cells without affecting thymic numbers of regulatory T cells. Aire-deficient mice displayed elevated T-cell immune responses that were associated with suppression of melanoma outgrowth. Furthermore, transplantation of Aire-deficient thymic stroma was sufficient to confer more effective immune rejection of melanoma in an otherwise Aire wild-type host. Together, our work showed how Aire deficiency can enhance immune responses against melanoma and how manipulating TRP-1-specific T-cell negative selection may offer a logical strategy to enhance immune rejection of melanoma. PMID:23370329

  19. Lycorine hydrochloride inhibits metastatic melanoma cell-dominant vasculogenic mimicry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ruifang; Cao, Zhifei; Tu, Jian; Pan, Yanyan; Shang, Bingxue; Zhang, Gaochuan; Bao, Meimei; Zhang, Shasha; Yang, Ping; Zhou, Quansheng

    2012-09-01

    Melanoma cells actively participate in tumor angiogenesis and vasculogenic mimicry. However, anti-angiogenic therapy in patients with melanoma has not shown a significant survival gain. Thus, new anti-melanoma angiogenic and vasculogenic drugs are highly desired. Using the metastatic melanoma cell line C8161 as a model, we explored melanoma vasculogenic inhibitors and found that lycorine hydrochloride (LH) effectively suppressed C8161 cell-dominant formation of capillary-like tubes in vitro and generation of tumor blood vessels in vivo with low toxicity. Mechanistic studies revealed that LH markedly hindered expression of VE-cadherin in C8161 cells, but did not affect expression of six other important angiogenic and vasculogenic genes. Luciferase assays showed that LH significantly impeded promoter activity of the VE-cadherin gene in a dose-dependent manner. Together, these data suggest that LH inhibits melanoma C8161 cell-dominant vasculogenic mimicry by reducing VE-cadherin gene expression and diminishing cell surface exposure of the protein. PMID:22781316

  20. Feasibility study of fluorine-18 labeled dopa for melanoma imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feasibility of fluorine-18 labeled L-dopa for melanoma imaging was investigated. In B16 melanoma-bearing mice given 2-[18]Ffluoro-L-dopa, the radioactivity in the B16 decreased for the first 60 min and then remained constant, while all other tissues investigated decreased with time. High tumor uptake ratios for all other tissues except for the pancreas were obtained at 120 min. 6-[18F]Fluoro-L-dopa showed a similar tissue distribution. However, the B16 uptake was about half that value for the 2-fluoro analogue. A higher incorporation rate of 2-[18F]fluoro-L-dopa into the acid-precipitable fraction of the melanoma also showed that the 2-[18F]fluoro-L-dopa was a preferable melanin precursor. Among the four kinds of non-melanoma tumors in mice or rats three tumours showed an uptake of 2-[18F]fluoro-L-dopa similar to the B16 at 60 min. However, larger melanoma-to-tissue uptake ratios were observed when compared to non-melanoma tumors. (author)

  1. Identifying individuals at high risk of melanoma: a simple tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortes, Cristina; Mastroeni, Simona; Bakos, Lucio; Antonelli, Gianluca; Alessandroni, Livia; Pilla, Maria Antonietta; Alotto, Massimo; Zappalà, Alba; Manoorannparampill, Thomas; Bonamigo, Renan; Pasquini, Paolo; Melchi, Franco

    2010-09-01

    Simple and reliable tools for identifying patients at high risk for melanoma with preventive measures have important public health implications. An individual risk score for cutaneous melanoma was constructed and externally validated. With the summary coefficients of the risk factors for cutaneous melanoma, derived from a meta-analysis, a melanoma risk score was tested in an Italian population and externally validated in a Brazilian population. Common nevi, skin and hair color, freckles, and sunburns in childhood were the variables included in the final predictive model. The discriminatory ability of the models was assessed by the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve. The performance of the model was also evaluated by conducting an external validation. The area under the curve (AUC) of the candidate model was 0.79 (95% confidence interval: 0.75-0.82). The same model, when applied in the Brazilian population, presented an AUC of 0.79 (95% confidence interval: 0.70-0.86). At the cut-off level of 3 and more, 89 and 80% of the melanoma cases were correctly classified as 'at risk for melanoma' in the Italian and in the Brazilian populations, respectively. The risk model is a simple tool that identifies patients for preventive measures and may be used with reasonable confidence in different populations. The risk model may help family doctors in referring patients to dermatological clinics and thus improve early diagnosis. PMID:20520559

  2. Nestin depletion induces melanoma matrix metalloproteinases and invasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chung-Wei; Zhan, Qian; Lezcano, Cecilia; Frank, Markus H; Huang, John; Larson, Allison R; Lin, Jennifer Y; Wan, Marilyn T; Lin, Ping-I; Ma, Jie; Kleffel, Sonja; Schatton, Tobias; Lian, Christine G; Murphy, George F

    2014-12-01

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are key biological mediators of processes as diverse as wound healing, embryogenesis, and cancer progression. Although MMPs may be induced through multiple signaling pathways, the precise mechanisms for their regulation in cancer are incompletely understood. Because cytoskeletal changes are known to accompany MMP expression, we sought to examine the potential role of the poorly understood cytoskeletal protein, nestin, in modulating melanoma MMPs. Nestin knockdown (KD) upregulated the expression of specific MMPs and MMP-dependent invasion both through extracellular matrix barriers in vitro and in peritumoral connective tissue of xenografts in vivo. The development of three-dimensional melanospheres that in vitro partially recapitulate noninvasive tumorigenic melanoma growth was inhibited by nestin KD, although ECM invasion by aberrant melanospheres that did form was enhanced. Mechanistically, nestin KD-dependent melanoma invasion was associated with intracellular redistribution of phosphorylated focal adhesion kinase and increased melanoma cell responsiveness to transforming growth factor-beta, both implicated in pathways of melanoma invasion. The results suggest that the heretofore poorly understood intermediate filament, nestin, may serve as a novel mediator of MMPs critical to melanoma virulence. PMID:25365206

  3. Dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI of ocular melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xuyuan; Asbach, Patrick; Willerding, Gregor; Dulce, Miriam; Xu, Ke; Taupitz, Matthias; Hamm, Bernd; Erb-Eigner, Katharina

    2015-04-01

    Dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI is used for the assessment of microvasculature in several tumours. We aimed to assess the contrast signal enhancement characteristics of ocular melanoma. Forty patients with ocular melanoma were prospectively investigated with ocular MRI including dynamic contrast-enhanced sequences over a 13-month period. A region-of-interest analysis of the images was carried out to calculate signal enhancement characteristics after a contrast injection. Clinical follow-up data such as extraocular spread and development of liver metastasis were compared with the signal enhancement characteristics of the ocular melanoma. In 39 patients (98%), the ocular melanomas showed an early strong signal enhancement after contrast injection, resulting in a mean time of maximum enhancement of 49?s. Clinical follow-up was available in 28 patients (70%) and indicated that the peak signal intensity was significantly increased (P=0.039) in patients who developed extraocular spread or liver metastasis at a later stage. Ocular melanoma shows signal enhancement characteristics of hypervascular neoplasms. This study provides baseline curve pattern data that may be useful for assessing changes in vascularity, for example during therapy response. Furthermore, the study showed that a strong signal enhancement of the ocular melanoma might be linked to a less favourable prognosis. PMID:25714038

  4. Melanoma and ionizing radiation: is there a causal relationship?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fink, Christopher A; Bates, Michael N

    2005-11-01

    This review was initiated in response to concerns that ionizing radiation could be a cause of melanoma. Studies presenting the relative risks for melanoma after external ionizing radiation exposure were in seven categories: (1) The Canadian Radiation Dose Registry, (2) nuclear industry workers, (3) subjects near nuclear test blasts, (4) survivors of the atomic bombings of Japan, (5) airline pilots and cabin attendants, (6) recipients of medical radiation, and (7) radiological technicians. Relative risks for leukemia in each of the studies were used to confirm the likelihood of exposure to ionizing radiation. When studies within a category were compatible, meta-analytic methods were used to obtain combined estimates of the relative risk, and a meta-regression analysis of melanoma relative risk compared to leukemia relative risk was used to examine consistency across exposure categories. Generally, exposure categories with elevated relative risks of leukemia had proportionately elevated relative risks of melanoma. This suggests that people exposed to ionizing radiation may be at increased risk of developing melanoma, although alternative explanations are possible. Future epidemiological studies of ionizing radiation effects should include melanoma as an outcome of interest. PMID:16238450

  5. Plasmacytoid Melanoma of the Urinary Bladder and Lymph Nodes with Immunohistochemical Expression of Plasma Cell Markers Revealing Primary Esophageal Melanoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charfi, Slim; Ellouze, Sameh; Mnif, Hela; Amouri, Ali; Khabir, Abdelmajid; Sellami-Boudawara, Tahya

    2012-01-01

    Plasmacytoid variant of melanoma is reported in only rare cases. We present the case of a 54-years-old man admitted for enlarged lymph nodes in the lumbar region. Initial diagnosis of plasmablastic lymphoma/plasma cell myeloma was considered. At our institute, a bladder polyp was removed. Microscopic exam demonstrated dense plasmacytoid cells infiltration with pigment deposits. Immunohistochemical study showed strong expression of HMB45, Melan A, and vimentin. There was focal positivity with S100 protein and CD138/syndecan-1. The diagnosis of metastatic plasmacytoid melanoma was finally established. Clinical exam revealed an esophageal melanoma with melanosis supporting its primary location. Although rarely, melanoma especially plasmacytoid variant may express plasma cell markers which may lead to erroneous diagnosis of plasma cell proliferation. Careful morphological examination for melanin pigment and the use of panel of melanocytic markers are helpful for diagnosis. PMID:23133774

  6. Red hair may increase melanoma risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    A person’s skin pigment, which determines hair color and skin tone, is influenced by the melanocortin-1 (MC1R) gene receptor. For the population’s 1 to 2 percent of redheads, a mutation in MC1R accounts for their red hair color and typical light skin. Now researchers from Harvard Medical School (a component of the Dana-Farber Cancer Institute) have discovered that the same MC1R mutation responsible for the red-hair phenotype also promotes an important cancer-causing pathway. The new findings, reported online August 22 in the journal Molecular Cell, help to explain the molecular mechanisms that underlie redheads’ well-known risk of developing melanoma, providing new insights for treating and preventing this dangerous type of skin cancer.

  7. Amelanotic malignant melanoma with multiple secondaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banerjee Santanu

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A 37-year-old female presented with a fungating cauliflower-like growth over the right inguinal region with fracture of the right distal femur. Clinical examination revealed an asthenic individual and showed a large fungating protuberant mass over right inguinal region and right knee. Investigations revealed pancytopenia, massive splenomegaly with right iliac lymphadenopathy on ultrasonography of abdomen and a soft tissue mass over upper end of femur and fracture of distal femur on radiological examination. CT scan showed multiple deposits in the lungs with splenomegaly and lymphadenopathy. Fine needle aspiration cytology showed poorly cohesive cellular aspirate with spindle and round cell population with no pigment. Biopsy showed replacement of the dermis by coalescent nests of malignant melanocytes. S-100 antigen was found to be positive. The patient was diagnosed as a case of amelanotic malignant melanoma in Stage III disease and treated with general measures, stabilization of the fracture site followed by oncological management.

  8. Update on the Epidemiology of Melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Steven T; Geller, Alan C; Tsao, Hensin

    2013-03-01

    Cutaneous malignant melanoma (CMM) has been increasing steadily in incidence over the past 30 years. Recent studies have explored associations between CMM and varying physiologic risk factors, such as nevi or hair and eye color, in addition to historical features such as a personal history of nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC), childhood cancers, Parkinson's Disease, hormone exposure and family history of CMM. Genome-wide association studies have also uncovered many genetic determinants of CMM risk. Ultimately, ultraviolet (UV) radiation exposure remains the most important modifiable risk factor for CMM. Organ transplant recipients, and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory usage may also play a role. While risk factors are important to identify, effective campaigns to reduce the burden of disease through early detection and prevention are essential. We present detailed data regarding these facets of care for the CMM patient, and provide an update on the epidemiology of CMM. PMID:23580930

  9. Human periostin gene expression in normal tissues, tumors and melanoma: evidences for periostin production by both stromal and melanoma cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Baren Nicolas

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recently, periostin (POSTN, a gene encoding a protein with similarity to the fasciclin family and involved in cell survival and angiogenesis, has emerged as a promising marker for tumor progression in various types of human cancers. There is some controversy regarding both POSTN expression levels and the nature of periostin-producing cells within tumors. In this study, we used quantitative RT-PCR to assess periostin gene expression in normal tissues, primary cell cultures, tumor tissues and tumor cell lines. Results Periostin expression levels are highly variable in both normal tissues and tumors and strong POSTN overexpression is mostly detected in tumors from pancreas and liver. POSTN is not expressed in blood cancers. In melanoma samples, average periostin expression is not increased in primary tumors whereas POSTN overexpression was detected in about 60% of melanoma metastatic tumors in the liver or lymph nodes. Identification of the cellular source of periostin production in melanoma metastases -cancer cells or stroma- was assessed by comparing periostin expression in 23 newly-established melanoma cell lines and matched tumors. In contrast to the reduction by more than 99% of COL6A3 stromal marker mRNA in all cell lines, significant POSTN transcription was maintained in some melanoma cell lines, suggesting that both stromal cells and melanoma cells express periostin. The high level of periostin expression in primary cultures of skin fibroblasts suggests that fibroblasts may contribute for a large part to periostin production in melanoma-associated stroma. On the other hand, periostin expression in melanoma cells is probably acquired during the tumorigenic process as 1 normal melanocytes do not express POSTN and 2 melanoma cells from distinct metastases of the same patient were associated with very different levels of periostin expression. Conclusion Our comparative analysis suggests that, although periostin overexpression is clearly detected in some cancers, it is not a general feature of tumors. In melanoma, our study identifies both stromal and melanoma cells as sources of periostin production and correlates POSTN expression levels with increased primary tumor thickness and metastatic process development.

  10. B-lymphocytes from melanoma patients and normal individuals react with melanoma cells but also with irrelevant antigens.

    OpenAIRE

    Damato, B. E.; Campbell, A. M.; Mcguire, B. J.; Lee, W. R.; Foulds, W. S.

    1988-01-01

    Peripheral B-lymphocytes of 13 patients with uveal melanoma and of 5 healthy individuals were transformed with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). The reactivity of these transformed cells with autologous or allogeneic melanoma cells and lymphocytes was measured by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Antigens which are neither self nor common environmental antigens (i.e., plant protoplasts, schistosome antigen and keyhole limpet haemocyanin) were used for controls. Lymphocyte reactivity with...

  11. Melanoma conjuntival multifocal recidivado originado de nevus pigmentado preexistente / Recurrent multifocal conjunctival melanoma originated from preexisting pigmented nevus

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Marcos Leandro, Pereira; Dulcídio de Barros, Moreira Júnior.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available O melanoma conjuntival multifocal recidivado originado de nevus preexistente é extremamente raro, ocorrendo em uma pessoa para cinco milhões de habitantes. Seu estudo é de extrema relevância, devido sua potencial letalidade. Este estudo objetiva descrever um caso de melanoma conjuntival multifocal r [...] ecidivado proveniente de nevus pigmentado preexistente ocorrido em Patos de Minas, MG. Este é um estudo de caso com revisão de literatura. O diagnóstico histopatológico e o estadiamento precoce da lesão conjuntival é de fundamental importância para designar a conduta frente ao paciente. O procedimento terapêutico mais utilizado nos dias atuais é a excisão cirúrgica com crioterapia adjuvante associada à mitomicina C. O prognóstico do melanoma conjuntival multifocal recidivado originado de nevus preexistente é o pior dentre todos os melanomas oculares, apresentando alta taxa de mortalidade, 12% a 20% em 5 anos e 30% em 10 anos de desenvolvimento patológico. Abstract in english Recurrent multifocal conjunctival melanoma originated from preexisting nevus is extremely rare: it occurs in one out of five million individuals. The investigation of this disease is extremely important due to its potential lethality. Thus, this study aims to describe a case of recurrent multifocal [...] conjunctival melanoma originated from preexisting pigmented nevus, which occurred in the city of Patos de Minas, state of Minas Gerais. This is a case study and literature review. Histopathological diagnosis and early staging of the conjunctival lesion is a key element on how to approach the patient. The treatment procedure most commonly used today is surgical excision with adjuvant cryotherapy and mitomycin C. The prognosis of recurrent multifocal conjunctival melanoma originated from preexisting nevus is the worst of all ocular melanomas, with high mortality rate: 12% to 20% within 5 years and 30% within 10 years of pathological development.

  12. Melanoma differentiation associated gene-7/interleukin-24 (mda-7/IL-24): novel gene therapeutic for metastatic melanoma

    OpenAIRE

    Fisher, Paul B.; Sarkar, Devanand; Lebedeva, Irina V.; Emdad, Luni; Gupta, Pankaj; Sauane, Moira; Su, Zao-zhong; Grant, Steven; Dent, Paul; Curiel, David T.; Senzer, Neil; Nemunaitis, John

    2006-01-01

    A potentially less toxic approach for cancer therapy comprises induction of tumor cells to lose growth potential irreversibly and terminally differentiate. Combining this scheme termed ‘differentiation therapy of cancer’ with subtraction hybridization to human melanoma cells resulted in the cloning of melanoma differentiation associated (mda) genes displaying elevated expression as a consequence of induction of terminal differentiation. One originally novel gene, mda-7, was found to displ...

  13. A melanoma-specific VH antibody cloned from a fusion phage library of a vaccinated melanoma patient.

    OpenAIRE

    Cai, X.; Garen, A.

    1996-01-01

    The human antimelanoma antibody V86 was cloned from a single-chain Fv molecule (scFv) fusion phage library displaying the heavy chain variable domain (VH) and light chain variable domain (VL.) repertoire of a melanoma patient immunized with genetically-modified autologous tumor cells. Previous ELISA tests for binding of the V86 fusion phage to a panel of human metastatic melanoma and carcinoma cell lines and primary cultures of normal melanocytes, endothelial, and fibroblast cells showed that...

  14. Dermoscopic clues in the diagnosis of amelanotic and hypomelanotic malignant melanoma Pistas dermatoscópicas no diagnóstico de melanoma maligno amelanótico e hipomelanótico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Bissacotti Steglich

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The clinical identification of amelanotic malignant melanoma (AMM and hypomelanotic malignant melanoma (HMM becomes difficult due to the lack of pigmentation and to the diverse clinical presentations. Dermoscopy is very useful in these cases, increasing the level of suspicion of malignancy. We report 4 cases of amelanotic malignant melanoma and hypomelanotic malignant melanoma with characteristic dermoscopic findings. Dermoscopy under polarized light demonstrates vascular polymorphism, globules and milky-red areas, in addition to chrysalis and multiple blue-gray dots.A identificação clínica de melanoma maligno amelanótico e hipomelanótico torna-se difícil devido à falta de pigmentação e às diversas apresentações desse tipo de tumor. A dermatoscopia é muito útil nestes casos, aumentando o grau de suspeição de malignidade. Relatamos 4 casos de melanoma maligno amelanótico e melanoma maligno hipomelanótico com achados dermatoscópicos característicos. A dermatoscopia com luz polarizada demonstra polimorfismo vascular, glóbulos e áreas vermelholeitosas, assim como crisálides e múltiplos pontos azul-acinzentados.

  15. A cystic amelanotic melanoma metastasis to the brain: case report / Metástasis cerebral de un melanoma amelanótico quístico

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    B., Cemil; H., Emmez; N., Oztanir; N., Tokgoz; F., Dogulu.

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Spain | Language: English Abstract in spanish Que sepamos, la formación quística de un melanoma intracraneal es rara y sólo se han descrito 15 casos de melanoma intracraneal amilanocítico. Se observó una masa amarillenta en el lóbulo frontal. El contenido del quiste consistía en un hematoma antiguo, con líquido xantocrómico tejido necrótico que [...] se evacuó, con resección total de la pared del quiste. No se encontró ninguna pigmentación anormal en la pared ni en el tejido cerebral adyacente. Las imágenes de los melanomas metastásicos son muy peculiares, debido a la presencia de melanina y a la propensión a la hemorragia. Ambos, hemorragia y melanina pueden producir hiperseñal en T1 e hiposeñal en T2. Abstract in english As far as we know, cyst formation in intracranial melanoma is rare, and only 15 cases of intracranial amelanotic melanoma have been reported until now. A yellowish mass was observed in the frontal lobe. The content of the cyst consisted of old hematoma, xanthochromic fluid and necrotic tissue, was e [...] vacuated and the cyst wall was totally resected. No abnormal pigmentation was noted in the cyst wall and surrounding brain tissue. The imaging features of metastatic melanomas are distinctive due to the presence of melanin and the propensity for hemorrhage. Both hemorrhage and melanin can produce T1-weighted hyperintensity and T2-weighted signal intensity loss.

  16. Constitutive expression and costimulatory function of LIGHT/TNFSF14 on human melanoma cells and melanoma-derived microvesicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortarini, Roberta; Scarito, Alessia; Nonaka, Daisuke; Zanon, Marina; Bersani, Ilaria; Montaldi, Elisabetta; Pennacchioli, Elisabetta; Patuzzo, Roberto; Santinami, Mario; Anichini, Andrea

    2005-04-15

    Neoplastic cells are thought to have defective expression of costimulatory molecules. However, in this study, we show that human melanoma cells express LIGHT/TNFSF14, a ligand of herpesvirus entry mediator on T cells and of lymphotoxin beta receptor on stromal cells. In vitro, melanoma cells stained for LIGHT in the intracellular compartment, with weak or negative cell surface expression. However, LIGHT was expressed on tumor-derived microvesicles released from melanoma cells. In vivo, LIGHT was found in metastatic lesions, and the extent of lymphotoxin beta receptor expression on the stromal cells was significantly associated with a "brisk" T-cell infiltrate in the neoplastic tissue. In the lesions with a brisk T-cell infiltrate, stromal cells surrounding the tumor also stained for the T-cell attractant chemokine CCL21. The intratumoral T lymphocytes frequently expressed herpesvirus entry mediator and were characterized by a differentiated phenotype. Coculture of lymphocytes with LIGHT(+) melanoma-derived microvesicles or even with LIGHT(+) melanoma cells in the presence of interleukin-2 costimulated LIGHT-dependent CD3(+)CD8(+) T-cell proliferation. However, lymphocyte coculture with LIGHT(+) microvesicles in the presence of interleukin-2 was also associated with an apoptotic response as documented by increased binding of Annexin V by CD3(+)CD8(+) T cells. These data suggest that LIGHT constitutively expressed in human melanoma cells and microvesicles may contribute to regulate T-cell responses to tumor cells. PMID:15833878

  17. Genome-wide methylated CpG island profiles of melanoma cells reveal a melanoma coregulation network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jian-Liang; Mazar, Joseph; Zhong, Cuncong; Faulkner, Geoffrey J; Govindarajan, Subramaniam S; Zhang, Zhan; Dinger, Marcel E; Meredith, Gavin; Adams, Christopher; Zhang, Shaojie; Mattick, John S; Ray, Animesh; Perera, Ranjan J

    2013-01-01

    Metastatic melanoma is a malignant cancer with generally poor prognosis, with no targeted chemotherapy. To identify epigenetic changes related to melanoma, we have determined genome-wide methylated CpG island distributions by next-generation sequencing. Melanoma chromosomes tend to be differentially methylated over short CpG island tracts. CpG islands in the upstream regulatory regions of many coding and noncoding RNA genes, including, for example, TERC, which encodes the telomerase RNA, exhibit extensive hypermethylation, whereas several repeated elements, such as LINE 2, and several LTR elements, are hypomethylated in advanced stage melanoma cell lines. By using CpG island demethylation profiles, and by integrating these data with RNA-seq data obtained from melanoma cells, we have identified a co-expression network of differentially methylated genes with significance for cancer related functions. Focused assays of melanoma patient tissue samples for CpG island methylation near the noncoding RNA gene SNORD-10 demonstrated high specificity. PMID:24129253

  18. Correlation of histopathological patterns in cutaneous melanoma with BRAF mutations / Correlação de padrões histopatológicos de melanomas cutâneos com mutações BRAF

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Juliana Elizabeth, Jung; Jorge Eduardo Fouto, Matias; Norbert, Blödorn-Schlicht; Thomas M., Falk; Almut, Böer.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available SciELO Brazil | Language: English Abstract in portuguese INTRODUÇÃO: Mutações do gene BRAF localizado no cromossomo 7q são as mais frequentemente encontradas em melanomas cutâneos (60%-80%). O único estudo que correlacionou padrões histopatológicos de melanomas cutâneos com a presença de mutações BRAF foi realizado por Viros et al., em 2008, que observara [...] m que características morfológicas de melanomas estavam associadas a mutações BRAF. OBJETIVOS: Correlacionar padrões histopatológicos de melanomas cutâneos com a presença de mutações BRAF, a fim de confirmar os achados de Viros et al. MÉTODOS: Espécimes em parafina de 20 casos de melanomas cutâneos primários com mutações BRAF e 20 casos sem mutações foram avaliados independentemente por dois dermatologistas sem o conhecimento da presença ou não das mutações. Os padrões analisados foram formação de "ninhos", circunscrição, presença de melanócitos isolados na lesão, tamanho e forma das células neoplásicas e pigmentação das células tumorais. RESULTADOS: A formação de "ninhos" foi a variável com o maior poder de determinação para melanomas com mutações BRAF para ambos os observadores (r = 0,46; p = 0,04). CONCLUSÃO: Não foi possível confirmar nenhum valor preditivo em relação ao status mutacional de um melanoma para os padrões histológicos circunscrição e presença de melanócitos isolados na lesão, bem como para características citológicas. Dificuldades na interpretação de alguns critérios histológicos foram demonstradas pela variação da concordância entre os observadores. É difícil afirmar se alterações genéticas como as mutações BRAF podem servir como biomarcadores para a classificação de melanomas. Abstract in english INTRODUCTION: Mutations on BRAF gene located on chromosome 7q are the most frequently found in cutaneous melanomas (60%-80%). The only study correlating histopathological patterns of cutaneous melanomas with the presence of BRAF mutations was undertaken by Viros et al. in 2008. The authors observed [...] that morphological features of melanomas are associated with BRAF mutations. OBJECTIVES: To correlate histopathological patterns in cutaneous melanoma with the presence of BRAF mutations in order to corroborate the results of the study performed by Viros et al. METHODS: Paraffin embedded surgical specimens of 20 primary cutaneous melanomas with BRAF mutation and 20 specimens without BRAF mutation were evaluated independently by two dermatologists that carried out a blind experiment. The features analyzed were nesting, circumscription, presence of isolated melanocytes in the lesion, size and shape of neoplastic cells, and tumor cell pigmentation. RESULTS: "Nesting" was the most prevalent variable for the determination of melanomas with BRAF mutations according to both observers (r = 0.46; p = 0.04). CONCLUSION: As far as mutational status is concerned, it was not possible to confirm any predictive value for histopathological patterns such as circumscription, presence of isolated melanocytes in the lesion and cytological features. Difficulties in the interpretation of some histological criteria were demonstrated by the variation in the observers' conclusions. It is difficult to state if genetic alterations such as BRAF mutations may serve as biomarkers for melanoma classification.

  19. Successful BNCT for patients with cutaneous and mucosal melanomas. Report of 4 cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since 2003 we have conducted BNCT clinical trials on melanomas at the Kyoto University Research Reactor (KUR) and Japan Research Reactor No.4 (JRR-4). We report 4 patients given BNCT for malignant melanomas: 2 with superficial spreading types on the heel, 1 with mucosal melanoma in the nasal cavity, and 1 with a melanoma on the vulva and in the vagina. The two cutaneous melanomas and the nasal cavity mucosal melanoma showed a complete response (CR) by 6 months after BNCT. The residual melanoma showed a partial response (PR) by 3 months after treatment and no regrowth since then. Although two patients experienced normal-tissue damage that exceeded the tolerance level, all the participants were cured within a few months of treatment. BNCT was shown to be a promising treatment for mucosal, as well as for cutaneous, melanomas. (author)

  20. Electroretinography and electrooculography before and after ?-irradiation of patients suffering from choroidal melanoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Systematic electrophysiological studies of melanomas of the choroid after radiotherapy are lacking completely. Electroretinograms and electrooculograms were derived before and after radiotherapy of patients suffering from intraocular melanoma. The results obtained were evaluated statistically by multidimensional analysis of variance. (author)