WorldWideScience

Sample records for melanoma

  1. Melanoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... may be melanoma is the ABCDE checklist: A – Asymmetry: One half of the mole does not look ... 276. PMID: 16050450. Last Updated: 12 Feb 2009 Information for other ages: Table of Contents: Overview Who's ...

  2. Melanoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... melanoma if you: Have fair skin, blue or green eyes, or red or blond hair Live in sunny climates or at high altitudes Spent a lot of time in high levels of strong sunlight because of a job or other activities Have had one or more ...

  3. Melanoma genetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Read, Jazlyn; Wadt, Karin A W; Hayward, Nicholas K

    2015-01-01

    Approximately 10% of melanoma cases report a relative affected with melanoma, and a positive family history is associated with an increased risk of developing melanoma. Although the majority of genetic alterations associated with melanoma development are somatic, the underlying presence of heritable melanoma risk genes is an important component of disease occurrence. Susceptibility for some families is due to mutation in one of the known high penetrance melanoma predisposition genes: CDKN2A, CDK...

  4. Ocular Melanoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Guidelines Home Remedies for Simple Eye Problems Medical Marijuana for Glaucoma Pregnancy Preventing Eye Injuries ... melanoma (melanoma in or around the eye) is a type of cancer that develops in the cells that produce pigment — ...

  5. Ocular melanoma

    OpenAIRE

    Damato, Bertil E; Coupland, Sarah E.

    2012-01-01

    Ocular melanomas comprise uveal and conjunctival sub-types, which are very different from each other. A large majority of uveal melanomas involve the choroid, with less than 10% being confined to the ciliary body and iris. They tend to metastasize haematogenously, almost always involving the liver. Therapeutic methods include various forms of radiotherapy, surgical resection and phototherapy, which are often used in combination. Conjunctival melanomas show many similarities to their cutaneous...

  6. Malignant Melanoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eshini Perera

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Melanomas are a major cause of premature death from cancer. The gradual decrease in rates of morbidity and mortality has occurred as a result of public health campaigns and improved rates of early diagnosis. Survival of melanoma has increased to over 90%. Management of melanoma involves a number of components: excision, tumor staging, re-excision with negative margins, adjuvant therapies (chemo, radiation or surgery, treatment of stage IV disease, follow-up examination for metastasis, lifestyle modification and counseling. Sentinel lymph node status is an important prognostic factor for survival in patients with a melanoma >1 mm. However, sentinel lymph node biopsies have received partial support due to the limited data regarding the survival advantage of complete lymph node dissection when a micrometastasis is detected in the lymph nodes. Functional mutations in the mitogen-activated pathways are commonly detected in melanomas and these influence the growth control. Therapies that target these pathways are rapidly emerging, and are being shown to increase survival rates in patients. Access to these newer agents can be gained by participation in clinical trials after referral to a multidisciplinary team for staging and re-excision of the scar.

  7. General Information about Melanoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Skin Cancer Screening Research Melanoma Treatment (PDQ®) General Information About Melanoma Key Points Melanoma is a disease ... the PDQ Adult Treatment Editorial Board . Clinical Trial Information A clinical trial is a study to answer ...

  8. Melanoma International Foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Forum Webinars Surgical Management of Melanoma: A 2015 Primer Presented by Jeffrey Gershenwald, MD May 19, 2015 ... Rights Reserved. Privacy Policy | Terms of Use Toll-free: 866-463-6663 International: 610-942-3432 Melanoma ...

  9. Clínica del melanoma Clinical manifestations of melanoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Mordoh

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available El melanoma es un tumor maligno originado en los melanocitos, cuya incidencia y mortalidad han aumentado en las últimas décadas. Sus factores de riesgo más importantes son la susceptibilidad genética relacionada con sensibilidad al sol (capacidad para broncearse y tendencia a las quemaduras y con ciertos genes especíLcos; factores ambientales tales como la exposición a la radiación UV, latitud y una combinación de ambos, como la cantidad de nevos. Sus formas clínicas son: melanoma extensivo superLcial (70%, nodular (15-30%, lentigo maligno (10-15% y acrolentiginoso (5%. De todas las características histológicas, el espesor de Brelow (medido en mm desde la granulosa hasta el punto más profundo de penetración tumoral es el predictor de sobrevida más importante. El tratamiento quirúrgico adecuado con 1 cm de margen en aquellos pacientes de bajo riesgo (Breslow Melanoma is a malignant tumor that originates in melanocytes and whose incidence and mortality have increased in the last decades. The most important risk factors are a genetic susceptibility related to sun sensitivity (having tanning capacity and being prone to sunburn and with certain speci1c genes; environmental factors such as exposure to UV radiation, latitude and a combination of both such as the number of nevis. Its clinical forms are: super1cial spreading melanoma (70%, nodular melanoma (15-30%, lentigo maligna melanoma (10-15% and acral lentiginous melanoma (5%. Among all the histological characteristics, Breslow's depth (measured in mm from the granular layer of the epidermis to the deepest point of tumor invasion is the most important predictor for progression free survival. An appropriate surgical treatment with 1-cm margin melanomas in low-risk patients (Breslow < 1 mm cures over 90% of the patients. Thus, early detection of melanoma is an important goal in melanoma treatment.

  10. VEGF Trap in Treating Patients With Recurrent Stage III or Stage IV Melanoma That Cannot Be Removed by Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-02-02

    Ciliary Body and Choroid Melanoma, Medium/Large Size; Extraocular Extension Melanoma; Iris Melanoma; Metastatic Intraocular Melanoma; Recurrent Intraocular Melanoma; Recurrent Melanoma; Stage III Melanoma; Stage IV Melanoma

  11. Surgical Management of Melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koshenkov, Vadim P; Broucek, Joe; Kaufman, Howard L

    2016-01-01

    The surgical management of melanoma has undergone considerable changes over the past several decades, as new strategies and treatments have become available. Surgeons play a pivotal role in all aspects of melanoma care: diagnostic, curative, and palliative. There is a high potential for cure in patients with early-stage melanoma and the selection of an appropriate operation is very important for this reason. Staging the nodal basin has become widespread since the adoption of sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) for the management of melanoma. This operation provides the best prognostic information that is currently available for patients with melanoma. The surgeon plays a central role in the palliation of symptoms resulting from nodal disease and metastases, as melanoma has a propensity to spread to almost any site in the body. PMID:26601862

  12. Decoding Melanoma Metastasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus Bosenberg

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Metastasis accounts for the vast majority of morbidity and mortality associated with melanoma. Evidence suggests melanoma has a predilection for metastasis to particular organs. Experimental analyses have begun to shed light on the mechanisms regulating melanoma metastasis and organ specificity, but these analyses are complicated by observations of metastatic dormancy and dissemination of melanocytes that are not yet fully malignant. Additionally, tumor extrinsic factors in the microenvironment, both at the site of the primary tumor and the site of metastasis, play important roles in mediating the metastatic process. As metastasis research moves forward, paradigms explaining melanoma metastasis as a step-wise process must also reflect the temporal complexity and heterogeneity in progression of this disease. Genetic drivers of melanoma as well as extrinsic regulators of disease spread, particularly those that mediate metastasis to specific organs, must also be incorporated into newer models of melanoma metastasis.

  13. Clínica del melanoma / Clinical manifestations of melanoma

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ana, Mordoh.

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available El melanoma es un tumor maligno originado en los melanocitos, cuya incidencia y mortalidad han aumentado en las últimas décadas. Sus factores de riesgo más importantes son la susceptibilidad genética relacionada con sensibilidad al sol (capacidad para broncearse y tendencia a las quemaduras) y con c [...] iertos genes especíLcos; factores ambientales tales como la exposición a la radiación UV, latitud y una combinación de ambos, como la cantidad de nevos. Sus formas clínicas son: melanoma extensivo superLcial (70%), nodular (15-30%), lentigo maligno (10-15%) y acrolentiginoso (5%). De todas las características histológicas, el espesor de Brelow (medido en mm desde la granulosa hasta el punto más profundo de penetración tumoral) es el predictor de sobrevida más importante. El tratamiento quirúrgico adecuado con 1 cm de margen en aquellos pacientes de bajo riesgo (Breslow Abstract in english Melanoma is a malignant tumor that originates in melanocytes and whose incidence and mortality have increased in the last decades. The most important risk factors are a genetic susceptibility related to sun sensitivity (having tanning capacity and being prone to sunburn) and with certain speci1c gen [...] es; environmental factors such as exposure to UV radiation, latitude and a combination of both such as the number of nevis. Its clinical forms are: super1cial spreading melanoma (70%), nodular melanoma (15-30%), lentigo maligna melanoma (10-15%) and acral lentiginous melanoma (5%). Among all the histological characteristics, Breslow's depth (measured in mm from the granular layer of the epidermis to the deepest point of tumor invasion) is the most important predictor for progression free survival. An appropriate surgical treatment with 1-cm margin melanomas in low-risk patients (Breslow

  14. Quimiorresistencia del melanoma Chemoresistance to melanoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Marcela Barrio

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Varias estrategias terapéuticas como la cirugía, radioterapia y quimioterapia están siendo utilizadas para tratar el cáncer. Sin embargo, en el caso del melanoma solamente la cirugía en las etapas tempranas de la enfermedad (estadíos I-II puede ser curativa en una alta proporción de pacientes. El tratamiento quimioterápico con dacarbacina (DTIC así como combinaciones con cisplatino, vinblastina y carmustina resulta ineficaz para eliminar las células de melanoma, ya que sólo se alcanza una respuesta en alrededor del 10% de los pacientes sin prolongar la sobrevida. La quimiorresistencia puede deberse tanto a una falta de respuesta primaria del melanoma como al desarrollo de mecanismos de resistencia adquiridos por el tumor, comúnmente definidos como multi-resistencia a drogas (MDR. En este artículo se analizan los principales mecanismos responsables de dicha resistencia y cómo el conocimiento de los mismos es aplicado al desarrollo de nuevos agentes terapéuticos. Por último, se discuten las recientes estrategias que combinan la quimioterapia con la inmunoterapia (Bioquimioterapia para optimizar el tratamiento del melanoma metastásico.Several therapeutic strategies such as surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy are being used to treat cancer. However, in the case of melanomas, only surgery during the early stages (stages I-II of the disease can be curative in a high proportion of patients. Chemotherapy treatment with dacarbazine (DTIC as well as combinations with cisplatin, vinblastine and carmustine proves to be ineffective to eliminate melanoma cells, since only 10% of patients responded positively without prolonging survival. Chemoresistance can be caused by both a lack of primary response of the melanoma and the development of resistance mechanisms acquired by the tumor usually defined as multi-drug resistance (MDR.The most important mechanisms responsible for such resistance and how the knowledge of those mechanisms is applied to the development of new therapeutic agents are analyzed in this article. Finally, the latest strategies that combine chemotherapy and immunotherapy (Biochemotherapy to optimize the treatment of metastatic melanoma will be further discussed.

  15. Quimiorresistencia del melanoma / Chemoresistance to melanoma

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    María Marcela, Barrio.

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Varias estrategias terapéuticas como la cirugía, radioterapia y quimioterapia están siendo utilizadas para tratar el cáncer. Sin embargo, en el caso del melanoma solamente la cirugía en las etapas tempranas de la enfermedad (estadíos I-II) puede ser curativa en una alta proporción de pacientes. El t [...] ratamiento quimioterápico con dacarbacina (DTIC) así como combinaciones con cisplatino, vinblastina y carmustina resulta ineficaz para eliminar las células de melanoma, ya que sólo se alcanza una respuesta en alrededor del 10% de los pacientes sin prolongar la sobrevida. La quimiorresistencia puede deberse tanto a una falta de respuesta primaria del melanoma como al desarrollo de mecanismos de resistencia adquiridos por el tumor, comúnmente definidos como multi-resistencia a drogas (MDR). En este artículo se analizan los principales mecanismos responsables de dicha resistencia y cómo el conocimiento de los mismos es aplicado al desarrollo de nuevos agentes terapéuticos. Por último, se discuten las recientes estrategias que combinan la quimioterapia con la inmunoterapia (Bioquimioterapia) para optimizar el tratamiento del melanoma metastásico. Abstract in english Several therapeutic strategies such as surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy are being used to treat cancer. However, in the case of melanomas, only surgery during the early stages (stages I-II) of the disease can be curative in a high proportion of patients. Chemotherapy treatment with dacarbazine [...] (DTIC) as well as combinations with cisplatin, vinblastine and carmustine proves to be ineffective to eliminate melanoma cells, since only 10% of patients responded positively without prolonging survival. Chemoresistance can be caused by both a lack of primary response of the melanoma and the development of resistance mechanisms acquired by the tumor usually defined as multi-drug resistance (MDR).The most important mechanisms responsible for such resistance and how the knowledge of those mechanisms is applied to the development of new therapeutic agents are analyzed in this article. Finally, the latest strategies that combine chemotherapy and immunotherapy (Biochemotherapy) to optimize the treatment of metastatic melanoma will be further discussed.

  16. Primary Malignant Rhabdoid Melanoma

    OpenAIRE

    Chung, Bo Young; Ahn, In Su; Cho, Soo Ick; Kim, Hye One; Kim, Kwang Ho; Park, Chun Wook; Lee, Cheol Heon

    2011-01-01

    Melanoma with rhabdoid features is an uncommon variant of malignant melanoma. Here, we describe a rare case of primary rhabdoid malignant melanoma. A 54-year-old man presented with a black tumor measuring 3×4 cm on the right forearm. Histologic sections showed a tumor mass with rhabdoid features composed entirely of polygonal neoplastic cells with eccentric nuclei, prominent nucleoli, and large hyaline cytoplasmic inclusions. The tumor cells were immunoreactive with HMB-45, S100, Fontana-Mass...

  17. Decoding Melanoma Metastasis

    OpenAIRE

    Marcus Bosenberg; Damsky, William E.; Lara E. Rosenbaum

    2010-01-01

    Metastasis accounts for the vast majority of morbidity and mortality associated with melanoma. Evidence suggests melanoma has a predilection for metastasis to particular organs. Experimental analyses have begun to shed light on the mechanisms regulating melanoma metastasis and organ specificity, but these analyses are complicated by observations of metastatic dormancy and dissemination of melanocytes that are not yet fully malignant. Additionally, tumor extrinsic factors in the microenvironme...

  18. Genetics of familial melanoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aoude, Lauren G; Wadt, Karin A W; Pritchard, Antonia L; Hayward, Nicholas K

    2015-01-01

    Twenty years ago, the first familial melanoma susceptibility gene, CDKN2A, was identified. Two years later, another high-penetrance gene, CDK4, was found to be responsible for melanoma development in some families. Progress in identifying new familial melanoma genes was subsequently slow; however, with the advent of next-generation sequencing, a small number of new high-penetrance genes have recently been uncovered. This approach has identified the lineage-specific oncogene MITF as a susceptibil...

  19. Melanoma Genomics and Immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constantinou, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Over the last decade the molecular characterization of melanoma has progressed. Since a majority of melanoma cases arise from repeated intermittent ultra violet radiation (UVR) exposure, the role of UVR has been evaluated extensively. Recent work has identified two mechanisms in which the carcinogenesis of melanoma may result; Ultra violet radiation has been demonstrated to lead to down regulation in immune responses and result in pyrimidine dimerization. Given these links and more significant immunogenic antigen profile of melanoma, as compared to other malignancies, there has been significant therapeutics breakthroughs based on these molecular pathways. [Full article available at http://rimed.org/rimedicaljournal-2015-11.asp, free with no login]. PMID:26517253

  20. Uveal melanoma: Estimating prognosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swathi Kaliki

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Uveal melanoma is the most common primary malignant tumor of the eye in adults, predominantly found in Caucasians. Local tumor control of uveal melanoma is excellent, yet this malignancy is associated with relatively high mortality secondary to metastasis. Various clinical, histopathological, cytogenetic features and gene expression features help in estimating the prognosis of uveal melanoma. The clinical features associated with poor prognosis in patients with uveal melanoma include older age at presentation, male gender, larger tumor basal diameter and thickness, ciliary body location, diffuse tumor configuration, association with ocular/oculodermal melanocytosis, extraocular tumor extension, and advanced tumor staging by American Joint Committee on Cancer classification. Histopathological features suggestive of poor prognosis include epithelioid cell type, high mitotic activity, higher values of mean diameter of ten largest nucleoli, higher microvascular density, extravascular matrix patterns, tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes, tumor-infiltrating macrophages, higher expression of insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor, and higher expression of human leukocyte antigen Class I and II. Monosomy 3, 1p loss, 6q loss, and 8q and those classified as Class II by gene expression are predictive of poor prognosis of uveal melanoma. In this review, we discuss the prognostic factors of uveal melanoma. A database search was performed on PubMed, using the terms "uvea," "iris," "ciliary body," "choroid," "melanoma," "uveal melanoma" and "prognosis," "metastasis," "genetic testing," "gene expression profiling." Relevant English language articles were extracted, reviewed, and referenced appropriately.

  1. Melanoma do aparelho ungueal / Nail apparatus melanoma

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ignez Regina dos Santos Muri, Mendonça; Bernard Kawa, Kac; Renata Teixeira da, Silva; Letícia Pereira, Spinelli; Renata Rodrigues, Orofino; Janine Ribeiro, França.

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available O melanoma do aparelho ungueal é apresentação relativamente rara dessa neoplasia, muitas vezes diagnosticada como nevo juncional, hematoma subungueal ou mesmo onicomicose. Esse fato leva a um atraso no diagnóstico e, conseqüentemente, na instituição da terapêutica específica, contribuindo para agrav [...] ar o prognóstico de uma doença que por si só já é muito agressiva. Os autores relatam um caso de melanoma no primeiro quirodáctilo esquerdo de uma paciente negra com evolução de um ano, ressaltando a importância de avaliar certos critérios clínicos para obter o diagnóstico em fases mais precoces da doença. Abstract in english Nail apparatus melanoma is a rare presentation of melanoma and may be misdiagnosed as junctional nevus, subungual hematoma or onychomycosis. This fact often leads initially to inappropriate treatment and significant delays in appropriately managing such an aggressive disease. The authors report a ca [...] se of melanoma on the left thumb of a black patient evolving for a year. Emphasis was placed on the importance of assessing certain clinical characteristics in order to reach an early diagnosis.

  2. Melanoma inhibitory activity in Brazilian patients with cutaneous melanoma

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Macanori, Odashiro; Gunter, Hans Filho; Patricia Rusa, Pereira; Ana Rita Coimbra Motta, Castro; Alcione Cavalheiro, Stief; Elenir Rose Jardim Cury, Pontes; Alexandre Nakao, Odashiro.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract BACKGROUND: Melanoma inhibitory activity is a protein secreted by melanoma cells and has been used as a tumor marker. Increased Melanoma inhibitory activity serum levels are related to metastatic disease or tumor recurrence. Currently there are no studies on Melanoma inhibitory activity and [...] cutaneous melanoma involving Brazilian patients. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the performance and feasibility of measuring Melanoma inhibitory activity levels in Brazilian patients with cutaneous melanoma. METHODS: Blood was obtained from ten patients with proved metastatic cutaneous melanoma (Group 1), 15 patients resected for cutaneous melanoma without metastasis (Group 2) and 5 healthy donors (Group 3). Melanoma inhibitory activity was measured using a commercially available ELISA kit. RESULTS: There was a statistically significant difference of Melanoma inhibitory activity levels between patients with and without metastasis (p=0.002), and between patients with metastasis and healthy donors (p=0.002). There was no difference between patients without metastasis and healthy donors (p=0.443). CONCLUSION: Melanoma inhibitory activity is a tumor marker for cutaneous melanoma and the Melanoma inhibitory activity-ELISA test can be easily performed. Patients with metastasis have increased Melanoma inhibitory activity serum levels when compared to patients without metastasis and healthy donors.

  3. Um Melanoma “mascarado” Melanoma disfrazado A disguised Melanoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elias Ribeiro

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available O melanoma é um tumor que se desenvolve como resultado da transformação maligna dos melanócitos, estimando-se a sua incidência global em 132.000 casos/ano. Este relato de caso reporta-se a um doente do sexo masculino com 70 anos, história de Diabetes Mellitus tipo 2 há dez anos e psoríase vulgar extensa há seis anos. Em aproximadamente um ano, este desenvolveu lesão ulcerada da região plantar do pé direito, que ao exame histológico revelou melanoma maligno, ulcerado, nível V de Clark, com 5,6 mm de espessura (Breslow. Foi submetido à exérese cirúrgica da lesão e biópsia de gânglio sentinela que foi negativa. O estadiamento inicial revelou evolução avançada do tumor primário (TNM IIC. Exames imagiológicos detetaram metastização gástrica, reclassificando a doença num estádio TNM IV. O melanoma maligno pode ser de difícil diagnóstico como se pode constatar neste caso em que uma ulceração plantar foi avaliada tardiamente, atrasando o diagnóstico de uma neoplasia grave e com elevada taxa de mortalidade. El melanoma es un tumor que se desarrolla como resultado de la transformación maligna de los melanocitos, estimándose su incidencia global en 132,000 casos/año. Este informe presenta a un paciente de sexo masculino de 70 años, con antecedentes de Diabetes Mellitus tipo 2 desde hace diez años y psoriasis vulgar extensa desde hace seis años. En aproximadamente un año el paciente desarrolló una lesión ulcerada en la región plantar del pie derecho, el examen histológico reveló un melanoma maligno, ulcerado, nivel V de Clark, de 5.6 mm de espesor (Breslow. Después de una escisión quirúrgica de la lesión, se realizó una biopsia de ganglio centinela que fue negativa. Las conclusiones iniciales revelaron una evolución avanzada del tumor primario (TNM IIC. Exámenes radiológicos detectaron una metástasis gástrica, reclasificando la enfermedad en una etapa TNM IV. El melanoma maligno puede ser de difícil diagnóstico, como se puede ver en este caso en que una úlcera en la planta del pie fue diagnosticada muy tarde, atrasando el diagnóstico de una neoplasia grave y de elevada tasa de mortalidad. Melanoma is a tumor that develops as a result of the malignant transformation of the melanocytes. There is a worldwide estimate of 132,000 new cases per year. This case study presents a 70-year-old male person with history of Diabetes Mellitus type 2 for 10 years and extensive psoriasis vulgaris for 6 years. The patient developed an ulcerated lesion in the plantar region of the right foot in one-year time period. The histological examination revealed an ulcerated malignant melanoma, Clark level V, 5.6 mm thick (Breslow. The lesion was surgically removed and the sentinel lymph node biopsy was negative. Initial conclusions revealed an advanced state of evolution of the primary tumor (TNM IIC. CAT scan detected gastric metastasis, reclassifying the illness as a TNM IV stage. Malignant melanoma may be difficult to diagnose, as it was possible to observe in this case study, where a foot ulcer was late diagnosed, delaying the diagnosis of a severe neoplasia with high mortality rate.

  4. [Not diagnosable malignant melanomas].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuber, H; Lippold, A; Hundeiker, M

    1991-04-01

    Of the 3574 malignant melanomas treated in Hornheide between December 1981 and August 1990 (not including preinvasive cases) 97 were not immediately recognized. These tumours did not look like melanomas. In 72% they were smaller than 10 mm in diameter, and in 20%, smaller than 5 mm. Clark's so often quoted "pencil rule" should no longer be used as an aid to exclusion of invasive melanoma. Localization of the unrecognized melanomas was on the head and neck in 22% of cases. In 37%, the patients were under the age of 40 years. No less than 25% of the patients had multiple melanomas. Many of these melanomas. Many of these melanomas were thin tumours (less than 0.75 mm in 55% and less than 1.5 mm in 77%). This explains why more than 50% of the lesions are described as "macules". The most common incorrect diagnoses were dysplastic naevi (44%) and common (23%) naevi. The most important anamnestic criteria are the patients' own statements about changes in size, colour and shape. These "dynamic" elements must be more carefully observed and documented during process of the clinical diagnosis. PMID:1860796

  5. Peptides in melanoma therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mocellin, Simone

    2012-01-01

    Peptides derived from tumor associated antigens can be utilized to elicit a therapeutically effective immune response against melanoma in experimental models. However, patient vaccination with peptides - although it is often followed by the induction of melanoma- specific T lymphocytes - is rarely associated with tumor response of clinical relevance. In this review I summarize the principles of peptide design as well as the results so far obtained in the clinical setting while treating cutaneous melanoma by means of this active immunotherapy strategy. I also discuss some immunological and methodological issues that might be helpful for the successful development of peptide-based vaccines. PMID:22236128

  6. Intravital Microscopy for Identifying Tumor Vessels in Patients With Stage IA-IV Melanoma That is Being Removed by Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-16

    Recurrent Melanoma; Stage IA Skin Melanoma; Stage IB Skin Melanoma; Stage IIA Skin Melanoma; Stage IIB Skin Melanoma; Stage IIC Skin Melanoma; Stage IIIA Skin Melanoma; Stage IIIB Skin Melanoma; Stage IIIC Skin Melanoma; Stage IV Skin Melanoma

  7. Acral Lentiginous Melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goydos, James S; Shoen, Steven L

    2016-01-01

    Acral lentiginous melanoma (ALM) is a rare subtype of melanoma mainly arising on the palms, soles, and nail beds. ALM is the most common subtype of melanoma found in patients of Asian or African descent and tends to more advanced at presentation due to delays in diagnosis. Surgical treatment is difficult owing to the complexity and functional importance of the hands and feet and reconstruction after resection is usually needed. The prognosis for patients with ALM depends on stage of disease and tends to be worse than with other subtypes of melanoma. Newer treatment modalities such as immunotherapies and targeted agents are being tested in patients with advanced ALM with some promising preliminary results. PMID:26601870

  8. Melanoma: Signs and Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Psoriatic arthritis Q - T U - W Health and beauty For kids About dermatology A to Z: The ... of tan, brown or black, or is sometimes white, red, or blue. D = Diameter Melanomas usually greater ...

  9. Proteomics in uveal melanoma.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ramasamy, Pathma

    2014-01-01

    Uveal melanoma is the most common primary intraocular malignancy in adults, with an incidence of 5-7 per million per year. It is associated with the development of metastasis in about 50% of cases, and 40% of patients with uveal melanoma die of metastatic disease despite successful treatment of the primary tumour. The survival rates at 5, 10 and 15 years are 65%, 50% and 45% respectively. Unlike progress made in many other areas of cancer, uveal melanoma is still poorly understood and survival rates have remained similar over the past 25 years. Recently, advances made in molecular genetics have improved our understanding of this disease and stratification of patients into low risk and high risk for developing metastasis. However, only a limited number of studies have been performed using proteomic methods. This review will give an overview of various proteomic technologies currently employed in life sciences research, and discuss proteomic studies of uveal melanoma.

  10. Primary Anorectal Melanoma: An Update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Carcoforo, M.T Raiji, G.M Palini, M Pedriali, U Maestroni, G Soliani, A Detroia, M.V Zanzi, A.L Manna, J.G Crompton, R.C Langan, A Stojadinovic, I Avital

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The anorectum is a rare anatomic location for primary melanoma. Mucosal melanoma is a distinct biological and clinical entity from the more common cutaneous melanoma. It portrays worse prognosis than cutaneous melanoma, with distant metastases being the overwhelming cause of morbidity and mortality. Surgery is the treatment of choice, but significant controversy exists over the extent of surgical resection. We present an update on the state of the art of anorectal mucosal melanoma. To illustrate the multimodality approach to anorectal melanoma, we present a typical patient.

  11. Adjuvant Therapy: Melanoma

    OpenAIRE

    Diwakar Davar; Ahmad Tarhini; Kirkwood, John M.

    2011-01-01

    With an incidence that is increasing at 2–5% per year, cutaneous melanoma is an international scourge that disproportionately targets young individuals. Despite much research, the treatment of advanced disease is still quite challenging. Immunotherapy with high-dose interferon-?2b or interleukin-2 benefits a select group of patients in the adjuvant and metastatic settings, respectively, with significant attendant toxicity. Advances in the biology of malignant melanoma and the role of immunomo...

  12. Propiedades linfangiogénicas del melanoma Lymphagiogenesis in melanomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Paula Roberti

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available El melanoma cutáneo representa el más letal de los cánceres de piel y la alta mortalidad es debida a la formación de metástasis. A través del sistema linfático local, los sitios iniciales de metástasis son comúnmente los ganglios linfáticos regionales. A pesar de que la relevancia clínica de las metástasis a ganglios linfáticos está bien establecida, muy poco se conoce acerca de sus mecanismos moleculares. El descubrimiento de nuevos marcadores de células linfáticas ha permitido en los últimos años comenzar a esclarecer múltiples interrogantes y controversias relacionados con la interacción entre las células tumorales con los vasos linfáticos. Este capítulo tratará la creciente información con la que se cuenta actualmente para comprender la linfangiogénesis en el cáncer, en particular en melanoma, su potencial aplicación en diagnóstico de metástasis, pronóstico de la enfermedad y estrategias terapéuticas.Melanoma skin cancer represents the most deadly of all skin cancers and its high incidence of mortality is due to metastasis. Through the local lymphatic system, the sites of initial metastasis are usually the regional lymph nodes. Despite the clinical relevance of metastasis spreading to lymph nodes is clearly established, not much is known about its molecular mechanisms. The finding of new markers in lymph node cells has made it possible over the last years to start clarifying many questions and controversies related to the interaction between tumour cells and lymph vessels. This chapter deals with the growing information nowadays available to understand lymphagiogenesis in cancer, especially melanoma, its potential application to metastasis diagnosis, disease prognosis and therapeutic strategies.

  13. Propiedades linfangiogénicas del melanoma / Lymphagiogenesis in melanomas

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    María Paula, Roberti.

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available El melanoma cutáneo representa el más letal de los cánceres de piel y la alta mortalidad es debida a la formación de metástasis. A través del sistema linfático local, los sitios iniciales de metástasis son comúnmente los ganglios linfáticos regionales. A pesar de que la relevancia clínica de las met [...] ástasis a ganglios linfáticos está bien establecida, muy poco se conoce acerca de sus mecanismos moleculares. El descubrimiento de nuevos marcadores de células linfáticas ha permitido en los últimos años comenzar a esclarecer múltiples interrogantes y controversias relacionados con la interacción entre las células tumorales con los vasos linfáticos. Este capítulo tratará la creciente información con la que se cuenta actualmente para comprender la linfangiogénesis en el cáncer, en particular en melanoma, su potencial aplicación en diagnóstico de metástasis, pronóstico de la enfermedad y estrategias terapéuticas. Abstract in english Melanoma skin cancer represents the most deadly of all skin cancers and its high incidence of mortality is due to metastasis. Through the local lymphatic system, the sites of initial metastasis are usually the regional lymph nodes. Despite the clinical relevance of metastasis spreading to lymph node [...] s is clearly established, not much is known about its molecular mechanisms. The finding of new markers in lymph node cells has made it possible over the last years to start clarifying many questions and controversies related to the interaction between tumour cells and lymph vessels. This chapter deals with the growing information nowadays available to understand lymphagiogenesis in cancer, especially melanoma, its potential application to metastasis diagnosis, disease prognosis and therapeutic strategies.

  14. Methods of Melanoma Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leachman, Sancy A; Cassidy, Pamela B; Chen, Suephy C; Curiel, Clara; Geller, Alan; Gareau, Daniel; Pellacani, Giovanni; Grichnik, James M; Malvehy, Josep; North, Jeffrey; Jacques, Steven L; Petrie, Tracy; Puig, Susana; Swetter, Susan M; Tofte, Susan; Weinstock, Martin A

    2016-01-01

    Detection and removal of melanoma, before it has metastasized, dramatically improves prognosis and survival. The purpose of this chapter is to (1) summarize current methods of melanoma detection and (2) review state-of-the-art detection methods and technologies that have the potential to reduce melanoma mortality. Current strategies for the detection of melanoma range from population-based educational campaigns and screening to the use of algorithm-driven imaging technologies and performance of assays that identify markers of transformation. This chapter will begin by describing state-of-the-art methods for educating and increasing awareness of at-risk individuals and for performing comprehensive screening examinations. Standard and advanced photographic methods designed to improve reliability and reproducibility of the clinical examination will also be reviewed. Devices that magnify and/or enhance malignant features of individual melanocytic lesions (and algorithms that are available to interpret the results obtained from these devices) will be compared and contrasted. In vivo confocal microscopy and other cellular-level in vivo technologies will be compared to traditional tissue biopsy, and the role of a noninvasive "optical biopsy" in the clinical setting will be discussed. Finally, cellular and molecular methods that have been applied to the diagnosis of melanoma, such as comparative genomic hybridization (CGH), fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH), and quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR), will be discussed. PMID:26601859

  15. Adjuvant Therapy of Melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davar, Diwakar; Kirkwood, John M

    2016-01-01

    The incidence of melanoma is rapidly increasing, especially in younger female and older male patients. Recent fundamental advances in our knowledge of melanoma tumorigenesis have established roles for inhibitors of the MAPK pathway and regulatory immune checkpoints CTLA-4 and PD-1/PD-L1. However, the majority of patients continue to present with non-metastatic disease-typically managed with surgical resection and adjuvant therapy. High-dose IFN-?2b (HDI) is the main adjuvant therapeutic mainstay in high-risk disease following definitive resection. In this chapter, we review the evidence supporting the use of adjuvant HDI in high-risk melanoma. We also discuss some of the other treatment modalities that have been evaluated including vaccines, chemotherapy, and radiotherapy. PMID:26601863

  16. Radiotherapy of metastasizing melanomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    New clinical and experimental investigations have shown that malignant melanomas are not radioresistant. Their radiosensitivity enables definitely curative radiotherapy with moderately high doses. Success is more dependent on duration of treatment than with other tumors. The position of radiation therapy in primary curative treatment of malignant melanoma should be reconsidered on the basis of these new findings. In the treatment of occult regional metastases irradiation is at least equivalent to lymph-adenectomy unless the diagnosis is decisive. If lymph node metastases are manifest, irradiation should be combined with lymphadenectomy. Irradiation of distant metastases may be given palliatively, especially for the purpose of analgesie. (orig.)

  17. Melanoma esofágico primario / Primary esophageal melanoma

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Robin, Rivera Irigoín; Víctor, Aguilar Urbano; Juana, Gonzalo Marín; Cristobal, Albandea Moreno; Francisco, Fernández Pérez; Andrés, Sánchez Cantos.

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available El melanoma esofágico primario (MEP) es una neoplasia extremadamente rara, con menos de 270 casos descritos. Aunque la presentación clínica es similar a cualquier otra neoplasia esofágica, su comportamiento es más agresivo y fatal en la mayoría de los casos. Presentamos dos nuevos casos de MEP diagn [...] osticados mediante endoscopia y estudio anatomopatológico de las biopsias obtenidas, siendo en ambos casos las muestras positivas para HMB-45 y S100, descartando así mismo la presencia de melanoma primario en otra localización. En el primer caso merece destacar la forma de presentación como miosis izquierda sin ptosis palpebral ni enoftalmos, siendo el primer caso descrito con esta manifestación inicial, lamentablemente al momento del diagnóstico fue irresecable, demostrando así mismo por ecoendoscopia afectación de la aorta torácica. El segundo caso a pesar de ser una neoplasia sin extensión locorregional y sometido a esofaguectomía transhiatal presentó múltiples complicaciones postoperatorias falleciendo al decimo noveno día de la intervención. Así mismo se hace una revisión bibliográfica sobre diagnóstico, opciones de tratamiento y pronóstico de esta excepcional neoplasia. Abstract in english Primary Esophageal Melanoma (PEM) is an extremely rare neoplasm, with less than 270 cases described. Although clinical presentation is similar to any other esophageal neoplasm, MEP's behavior is more aggressive and fatal in most cases. We report two new cases of MEP diagnosed through endoscopy and a [...] natomical-pathological analysis of collected biopsies. Both samples were positive for HMB-45 and S100, so the presence of primary melanoma in other location was ruled out. The form of presentation as left miosis with no eyelid ptosis or enophthalmos should be highlighted in the first case, which was described by this early manifestation. Unfortunately, the neoplasm could not be excised when diagnosed because the thoracic artery was found to be affected through echoendoscopy. In the second case, in spite of the fact that the neoplastic extension was only local, and neoplasm was subject to transhiatal esophagectomy, the patient had multiple post-surgical complications and died nineteen days after the surgical procedure. Furthermore, bibliographic review is applied to diagnosis, treatment options, and prognosis of this exceptional neoplasm.

  18. Melanoma acral lentiginoso: revisión bibliográfica / Acral lentiginous melanoma: bibliographic review

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Carlos, Duarte; Héctor, López.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available El melanoma acral lentiginoso es el tipo de melanoma de localización distal más frecuente, suele diagnosticarse en los estadios más avanzados y tiene un comportamiento biológico más agresivo que otros tipos de melanoma, por lo cual son de peor pronóstico. Representa entre el 5 % y el 10 % de los mel [...] anomas malignos y es más frecuente en asiáticos, en la raza negra y en latinoamericanos. El objetivo de este artículo fue hacer una revisión bibliográfica actualizada con el fin de conocer las tasas de incidencia del tumor, los nuevos avances con respecto a los factores de riesgo, biología molecular, diagnóstico y tratamiento, y el desarrollo de nuevos tratamientos en el manejo del melanoma avanzado y metastásico. Abstract in english Acral lentiginous melanomas, the melanomas most commonly found the distal portions of the limbs, have usually reached more advanced stages than other types of melanoma when diagnosed. Their biologic behavior is more aggressive than in other types of melanoma, so that they have a worse prognosis. It [...] represents 5 to 10% of all malignant melanomas, and is more frequently seen among the Asian, African American and Latin population. The objective of this paper was to complete a review of the current literature, in order to establish the rates of incidence, new findings regarding risk factors, molecular biology, diagnosis and treatment, and the development of new target therapies in the management of advanced and metastatic melanomas.

  19. Spice Blocks Melanoma Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Science Teacher, 2005

    2005-01-01

    Curcumin, the pungent yellow spice found in both turmeric and curry powders, blocks a key biological pathway needed for development of melanoma and other cancers, according to a study that appears in the journal Cancer. Researchers from The University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center demonstrate how curcumin stops laboratory strains of…

  20. Chemotherapy for Melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Melissa A; Schuchter, Lynn M

    2016-01-01

    Prior to the recent therapeutic advances, chemotherapy was the mainstay of treatment options for advanced-stage melanoma. A number of studies have investigated various chemotherapy combinations in order to expand on the clinical responses achieved with single-agent dacarbazine, but these have not demonstrated an improvement in overall survival. Similar objective responses were observed with the combination of carboplatin and paclitaxel as were seen with single-agent dacarbazine. The combination of chemotherapy and immunotherapy, known as biochemotherapy, has shown high clinical responses; however, biochemotherapy has not been shown to improve overall survival and resulted in increased toxicities. In contrast, palliation and long-term responses have been observed with localized treatment with isolated limb perfusion or infusion in limb-isolated disease. Although new, improved therapeutic options exist for first-line management of advanced-stage melanoma, chemotherapy may still be important in the palliative treatment of refractory, progressive, and relapsed melanoma. We review the various chemotherapy options available for use in the treatment and palliation of advanced-stage melanoma, discuss the important clinical trials supporting the treatment recommendations, and focus on the clinical circumstances in which treatment with chemotherapy is useful. PMID:26601864

  1. Melanoma Histology Rules Flowchart

    Science.gov (United States)

    Notes and Examples Flowchart Key Flow Direction Notes and Examples Rule Action Code the numerically higher ICD-O-3 histology code. This is the end of ins truc tions for S ingle Melanoma or Multiple Melanom as Abstrac ted as a Single Primary. Code the histology acc ording to the rule that fits the case.

  2. Los guardianes del melanoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norma Estela Herrera Gonz\\u00E1lez

    2012-01-01

    autoinmunidad severa. Aunque aún no se conocen los mecanismos por los cuales funcionan estas células, se sabe que secretan citocinas inmunosupresoras y que inhiben la activación y proliferación de células T, con lo cual se pierde respuesta antitumoral. Por tanto, a estas células las hemos llamado "los guardianes del melanoma".

  3. Radiotherapy of malignant melanoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The role of radiotherapy in the treatment of malignant melanoma is limited, and surgery generally forms the mainstay of medical practice. However, there are some circumstances in which radiotherapy should be considered the treatment of choice. Symptomatic metastatic lesions in bone or brain can effectively be palliated in a substantial proportion of instances. At the current stage of our knowledge, conventionally fractionated treatment of such lesions forms the standard against which other treatments should be measured. In contrast, metastatic lesions to skin or lymph nodes that do not overlie critical normal structures probably are better treated by high-dose-per-fraction techniques. Radiotherapy may play a definitive role in the treatment of lentigo maligna. The precise optimal energy of the beam to be used remains to be defined. Slightly more penetrating radiation appears to be required for lentigo maligna melanomas. Here, too, the optimal energy remains to be defined. The treatment of nonlentigenous melanomas primarily by radiotherapy is unproved in my opinion. Certainly, the data from the Princess Margaret Hospital is exciting, but I believe it must be corroborated by a well-designed trial before it can be accepted without question. Future directions in treatment of malignant melanoma are likely to include further trials of unconventional fractionation and the use of radiosensitizing agents in conjunction with radiotherapy. The time for dermatologists and radiation therapists to cooperate in such studies is at hand

  4. Radiopharmaceuticals targeting melanoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pham, T.Q.; Berghofer, P.; Liu, X.; Greguric, I.; Dikic, B.; Ballantyne, P.; Mattner, F.; Nguyen, V.; Loc' h, C.; Katsifis, A. [Radiopharmaceuticals Research Institute, Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Menai, N.S.W., Sydney (Australia)

    2008-02-15

    Melanoma is one of the most aggressive cancers known with a high rate of mortality and increasing global incidence. So, the development of radiopharmaceuticals for either diagnostic or therapeutic purposes could make enormous contributions to melanoma patient health care. We have been studying melanoma tumours through several targeting mechanisms including melanin or specific receptor based radiopharmaceuticals Structure activity studies indicate that the substitution patterns on radioiodinated benzamides significantly influence the uptake mechanism from melanin to sigma-receptor binding. Furthermore, the position of the iodine as well as the presence of key functional groups and substituents has resulted in compounds with varying degrees of activity uptake and retention in tumours. From these results, a novel molecule 2-(2-(4-(4-iodo benzyl)piperazin-1-yl)-2-oxo-ethyl)isoindoline- 1,3-dione (M.E.L.037) was synthesized, labelled with iodine-123 and evaluated for application in melanoma tumour scintigraphy and radiotherapy. The tumour imaging potential of {sup 123}IM.E.L.037 was studied in vivo in C.57 B.L./ 6 J female mice bearing the B.16 F.0. murine melanoma tumour and in BALB/c nude mice bearing the A.375 human amelanotic melanoma tumour by biodistribution, competition studies and by SPECT imaging. {sup 123}I-M.E.L.037 exhibited high and rapid uptake in the B.16 F.0 melanoma tumour at 1 h (13 % I.D./g) increasing with time to reach 25 % I.D./g at 6 h. A significant uptake was also observed in the eyes (2% I.D., at 3-6 h p.i.) of black mice. No uptake was observed in the tumour or in the eyes of nude mice bearing the A.375 tumour. Due to high uptake and long retention in the tumour and rapid body clearance, standardized uptake values(S.U.V.) of {sup 123}I-M.E.L.037 were 30 and 60, at 24 and 48 h p.i.,respectively. SPECT imaging of mice bearing the B.16 melanoma indicated the radioactivity was predominately located in the tumour followed by the eyes, while no specific localisation of the radioactivity was noticed in mice bearing A.375 human amelanotic tumour. In competition experiments,uptake of {sup 123}I-M..E.L.037 in brain, lung, heart and kidney, organs known to contain s-receptors, was not significantly different in haloperidol treated animals compared to controls. Therefore,reduction of uptake in tumour and eyes of the pigmented mice bearing the B.16 F.0 tumour suggested that the mechanism of tumour uptake was likely due to an interaction with melanin.These findings suggested that {sup 123}I-M.E.L.037, which displays a rapid and very high tumour uptake, appeared to be a promising imaging agent for detection of most melanoma tumours with the potential for development as a therapeutic agent in melanoma tumour proliferation. (authors)

  5. Radioembolization and Ipilimumab in Treating Patients With Uveal Melanoma With Liver Metastases

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-22

    Ciliary Body and Choroid Melanoma, Medium/Large Size; Ciliary Body and Choroid Melanoma, Small Size; Extraocular Extension Melanoma; Iris Melanoma; Liver Metastases; Metastatic Intraocular Melanoma; Recurrent Intraocular Melanoma; Stage IV Intraocular Melanoma

  6. Metastatic melanoma of the heart.

    OpenAIRE

    BERNENGO, Maria Grazia; SAVOIA, Paola; FIERRO, Maria Teresa

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Malignant melanoma has an unpredictable biologic behavior and is the neoplasm with the greatest propensity for cardiac involvement. Although relatively frequent at autopsy, cardiac metastases are rarely identified antemortem. METHODS: We reviewed 2,810 patients with histologically confirmed malignant melanoma, who were diagnosed and followed up by our clinic. Clinical, histological, and imaging data are presented. RESULTS: Five cases of metastatic melanoma of the heart were identi...

  7. A Melanoma Molecular Disease Model

    OpenAIRE

    Vidwans, Smruti J.; Flaherty, Keith T.; Fisher, David E.; Tenenbaum, Jay M.; Travers, Michael D.; Shrager, Jeff

    2011-01-01

    While advanced melanoma remains one of the most challenging cancers, recent developments in our understanding of the molecular drivers of this disease have uncovered exciting opportunities to guide personalized therapeutic decisions. Genetic analyses of melanoma have uncovered several key molecular pathways that are involved in disease onset and progression, as well as prognosis. These advances now make it possible to create a “Molecular Disease Model” (MDM) for melanoma that classifies indiv...

  8. Temozolomide for Treating Malignant Melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Rong-Hua; Hou, Xiao-Yang; Yang, Chun-Sheng; Liu, Wen-Lou; Tang, Jian-Qin; Liu, Yan-Qun; Jiang, Guan

    2015-09-01

    Melanoma is one of the most malignant forms of skin cancer; with a rapidly increasing prevalence. Early-stage melanoma is curable, but advanced metastatic melanoma is almost always fatal, and patients with such advanced disease have short median survival. Surgery and radiotherapy play a limited role in the treatment of metastatic melanoma. Rather, chemotherapy remains the mainstay of treatment, although other approaches, including biotherapy and gene therapy, have been attempted. The authors hereby, evaluated the use of temozolomide (TMZ) for treating metastatic melanoma compared to dacarbazine (DTIC), the effectiveness of TMZ for treating brain metastases, as well as TMZ resistance and how the efficacy of TMZ in malignant melanoma can be increased. Two chemotherapeutic regimens are commonly used for palliative treatment of malignant melanoma: intravenous administration of DTIC and oral administration of the alkylating agent temozolomide (TMZ). Compared to DTIC, TMZ is very well tolerated and has an advantage in terms of improving the quality of life of patients with metastatic melanoma. While the prognosis is currently unpromising, chemotherapy plays a palliative role for patients with metastatic melanoma. The toxicity of treatment regimens based on DTIC and TMZ do not differ significantly, although TMZ is costlier. These findings provide a reference for future researchers via a comprehensive analysis of the relevant literature. PMID:26374366

  9. Biopsies in uveal melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Midena, Edoardo; Parrozzani, Raffaele

    2012-01-01

    The ability to obtain the proper clinical diagnosis in cases of suspected intraocular tumors has greatly advanced during the past 50 years. The clinical characteristics of most intraocular tumors (size, shape, color, and texture) are detectable by skilled ophthalmoscopic examination and, with the use of adjunctive techniques (mainly ultrasonography), the proper diagnosis can be reached without invasive procedures. Notwithstanding, some intraocular tumors need to be biopsied to obtain a reliable diagnosis. In the cytogenetic era, intraocular tumor management is changing, and tumor-sampling procedures are becoming the main prognostic (and theoretically also diagnostic) tools for uveal melanoma. In spite of the widespread use of biopsies in general surgical practice, in ophthalmic oncology, indications and contraindications for biopsy continue to be under debate. The purpose of this paper is to critically evaluate the role of uveal melanoma biopsy in current clinical practice. PMID:22042015

  10. Primary pineal malignant melanoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oderay Mabel Cedeño Díaz

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Primary pineal malignant melanoma is a rare entity, with only thirteen cases reported in the world literature to date. We report a case of a 70-year-old man, who consulted with gait disturbance of six months duration, associated in the last month with dizziness, visual abnormalities and diplopia. No other additional melanocytic lesions were found elsewhere. The magnetic resonance showed a 25 mm expansive mass in the pineal gland that was associated with hydrocephaly, ventricular and transependimary oedema. The lesion was partially excised by a supracerebellar infratentorial approach. The histological examination revealed a melanoma. The patient received radiation therapy, but died of disease 16 weeks later. We herein review the literature on this rare tumour and comment on its clinical, radiological and histopathological features and differential diagnosis.

  11. Primary pineal malignant melanoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cedeño Diaz, Oderay Mabel; Leal, Roberto García; La Cruz Pelea, Cesar

    2011-01-01

    Primary pineal malignant melanoma is a rare entity, with only thirteen cases reported in the world literature to date. We report a case of a 70-year-old man, who consulted with gait disturbance of six months duration, associated in the last month with dizziness, visual abnormalities and diplopia. No other additional melanocytic lesions were found elsewhere. The magnetic resonance showed a 25 mm expansive mass in the pineal gland that was associated with hydrocephaly, ventricular and transependimary oedema. The lesion was partially excised by a supracerebellar infratentorial approach. The histological examination revealed a melanoma. The patient received radiation therapy, but died of disease 16 weeks later. We herein review the literature on this rare tumour and comment on its clinical, radiological and histopathological features and differential diagnosis. PMID:24765293

  12. Primary pineal malignant melanoma

    OpenAIRE

    Cesar La Cruz Pelea; Oderay Mabel Cedeño Díaz; Roberto Garcia Leal

    2011-01-01

    Primary pineal malignant melanoma is a rare entity, with only thirteen cases reported in the world literature to date. We report a case of a 70-year-old man, who consulted with gait disturbance of six months duration, associated in the last month with dizziness, visual abnormalities and diplopia. No other additional melanocytic lesions were found elsewhere. The magnetic resonance showed a 25 mm expansive mass in the pineal gland that was associated with hydrocephaly, ventricular and transepen...

  13. Preventing Melanoma PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-06-02

    This 60 second public service announcement is based on the June 2015 CDC Vital Signs report. Skin cancer is the most common form of cancer in the U.S. In 2011, there were more than 65,000 cases of melanoma, the most deadly form of skin cancer. Learn how everyone can help prevent skin cancer.  Created: 6/2/2015 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 6/2/2015.

  14. Principles of Melanoma Staging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boland, Genevieve M; Gershenwald, Jeffrey E

    2016-01-01

    Although now commonplace in contemporary cancer care, the systematic approach to classification of disease-specific cancers into a formalized staging system is a relatively modern concept. Overall, the goals of cancer staging are to characterize the status of cancer at a specific moment in time, risk stratify, facilitate prognostication, and inform clinical decision making. The revisions to the American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) melanoma staging system over time reflect changes in our understanding of the biology of the disease. Since the 1st edition, where tumor thickness was defined anatomically by its relationship to the reticular or papillary dermis (Clark level) as well as tumor thickness (Breslow thickness), there have been significant strides in our use of clinicopathological variables to stratify low- versus high-risk patients. Management of the regional nodal basin has also changed dramatically over time, impacted by techniques such as lymphatic mapping and sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) and changes in pathological evaluation of the regional lymph nodes. Additionally, stratification of distant metastases has evolved as survival outcomes have been shown to vary based upon anatomic site of metastases and serum lactate dehydrogenase levels. The variables in use in the current (7th edition) AJCC staging system are surrogate markers of biology with validated impact of survival outcomes. Going forward, it is likely that these and additional clinicopathological factors will be integrated with molecular and other correlates of melanoma tumor biology to further refine and personalize melanoma staging. PMID:26601861

  15. Treatment of Uveal Melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoushtari, Alexander N; Carvajal, Richard D

    2016-01-01

    Uveal melanoma (UM) comprises approximately 5 % of all melanoma diagnoses in the USA each year. Approximately half of patients with UM eventually develop metastases, most commonly involving the liver. Historically, prognosis for these patients has been poor, with death occurring 6-12 months from the time of metastases. Multiple trials of cytotoxic treatments largely extrapolated from cutaneous melanoma have been ineffective in metastatic UM. Trials of regional hepatic-directed therapy have led to high response rates, but these have yet to be translated into a survival benefit. Recently, it was discovered that the majority of UMs harbor activating mutations in genes encoding one of two G-alpha protein subunits, GNAQ and GNA11. This knowledge has led to the rational development of clinical trials specifically for UM utilizing targeted inhibitors of the activated signaling pathways such as mitogen-activated protein kinase, Akt, and protein kinase C. A recent trial of the oral MEK inhibitor selumetinib was the first to show clinical benefit for any systemic therapy in a randomized fashion. This increasing understanding of the biology of UM offers hope that novel treatments will continue to benefit patients with metastatic disease. PMID:26601868

  16. A disguised Melanoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudia Sofia Rego

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Melanoma is a tumor that develops as a result of the malignant transformation of the melanocytes. There is a worldwide estimate of 132,000 new cases per year. This case study presents a 70-year-old male person with history of Diabetes Mellitus type 2 for 10 years and extensive psoriasis vulgaris for 6 years. The patient developed an ulcerated lesion in the plantar region of the right foot in one-year time period. The histological examination revealed an ulcerated malignant melanoma, Clark level V, 5.6 mm thick (Breslow. The lesion was surgically removed and the sentinel lymph node biopsy was negative. Initial conclusions revealed an advanced state of evolution of the primary tumor (TNM IIC. CAT scan detected gastric metastasis, reclassifying the illness as a TNM IV stage. Malignant melanoma may be difficult to diagnose, as it was possible to observe in this case study, where a foot ulcer was late diagnosed, delaying the diagnosis of a severe neoplasia with high mortality rate.

  17. ADAM15 expression is downregulated in melanoma metastasis compared to primary melanoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ungerer, Christopher; Doberstein, Kai [Pharmazentrum Frankfurt/ZAFES, University Hospital Goethe University Frankfurt, Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Buerger, Claudia; Hardt, Katja; Boehncke, Wolf-Henning [Department of Dermatology, Clinic of the Goethe-University, Theodor-Stern-Kai, Frankfurt (Germany); Boehm, Beate [Division of Rheumatology, Goethe University, Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Pfeilschifter, Josef [Pharmazentrum Frankfurt/ZAFES, University Hospital Goethe University Frankfurt, Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Dummer, Reinhard [Department of Pathology, Institute of Surgical Pathology, University Hospital, Zurich (Switzerland); Mihic-Probst, Daniela [Department of Dermatology, University Hospital Zurich (Switzerland); Gutwein, Paul, E-mail: p.gutwein@med.uni-frankfurt.de [Pharmazentrum Frankfurt/ZAFES, University Hospital Goethe University Frankfurt, Frankfurt am Main (Germany)

    2010-10-22

    Research highlights: {yields} Strong ADAM15 expression is found in normal melanocytes. {yields} ADAM15 expression is significantly downregulated in patients with melanoma metastasis. {yields} TGF-{beta} can downregulate ADAM15 expression in melanoma cells. {yields} Overexpression of ADAM15 in melanoma cells inhibits migration, proliferation and invasion of melanoma cells. {yields} Conclusion: ADAM15 represents an tumor suppressor protein in melanoma. -- Abstract: In a mouse melanoma metastasis model it has been recently shown that ADAM15 overexpression in melanoma cells significantly reduced the number of metastatic nodules on the lung. Unfortunately, the expression of ADAM15 in human melanoma tissue has not been determined so far. In our study, we characterized the expression of ADAM15 in tissue micro-arrays of patients with primary melanoma with melanoma metastasis. ADAM15 was expressed in melanocytes and endothelial cells of benign nevi and melanoma tissue. Importantly, ADAM15 was significantly downregulated in melanoma metastasis compared to primary melanoma. We further demonstrate that IFN-{gamma} and TGF-{beta} downregulate ADAM15 protein levels in melanoma cells. To investigate the role of ADAM15 in melanoma progression, we overexpressed ADAM15 in melanoma cells. Importantly, overexpression of ADAM15 in melanoma cells reduced the migration, invasion and the anchorage dependent and independent cell growth of melanoma cells. In summary, the downregulation of ADAM15 plays an important role in melanoma progression and ADAM15 act as a tumorsuppressor in melanoma.

  18. ADAM15 expression is downregulated in melanoma metastasis compared to primary melanoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research highlights: ? Strong ADAM15 expression is found in normal melanocytes. ? ADAM15 expression is significantly downregulated in patients with melanoma metastasis. ? TGF-? can downregulate ADAM15 expression in melanoma cells. ? Overexpression of ADAM15 in melanoma cells inhibits migration, proliferation and invasion of melanoma cells. ? Conclusion: ADAM15 represents an tumor suppressor protein in melanoma. -- Abstract: In a mouse melanoma metastasis model it has been recently shown that ADAM15 overexpression in melanoma cells significantly reduced the number of metastatic nodules on the lung. Unfortunately, the expression of ADAM15 in human melanoma tissue has not been determined so far. In our study, we characterized the expression of ADAM15 in tissue micro-arrays of patients with primary melanoma with melanoma metastasis. ADAM15 was expressed in melanocytes and endothelial cells of benign nevi and melanoma tissue. Importantly, ADAM15 was significantly downregulated in melanoma metastasis compared to primary melanoma. We further demonstrate that IFN-? and TGF-? downregulate ADAM15 protein levels in melanoma cells. To investigate the role of ADAM15 in melanoma progression, we overexpressed ADAM15 in melanoma cells. Importantly, overexpression of ADAM15 in melanoma cells reduced the migration, invasion and the anchorage dependent and independent cell growth of melanoma cells. In summary, the downregulation of ADAM15 plays an important role in melanoma progression and ADAM15 act as a tumorsuppressor in melanoma.

  19. Primary Desmoplastic Melanoma of the Penis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Julia T.; Liss, Michael A.; Wu, William W.; Dash, Atreya; Lu, Di

    2015-01-01

    Desmoplastic melanomas are rare amelanotic melanomas that usually occur on skin with sun exposure. In this report, we present a 72-year-old man who presented with a desmoplastic melanoma of the penis. To our knowledge this represents the first reported case of primary desmoplastic melanoma of the penis. We discuss the pathologic differential and histologic evaluation. PMID:26613063

  20. Oral amelanotic melanoma of the maxilla.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasrollah Saghravanian

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Amelanotic melanoma is a variant of malignant melanoma comprising 2% to 8% of all malignant melanomas. The amelanotic presentation of melanoma in the oral cavity is extremely rare and has been reported only occasionally in the literature. Moreover, the lack of melanin makes these tumors difficult to diagnose than that of pigmented lesions and the prognosis tends to be poorer. Herein, we report an amelanotic melanoma involving the oral mucosa of the maxilla in a 27 year-old male.

  1. Animal type melanoma: a report of two cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariângela Esther Alencar Marques

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Dificuldade potencial no diagnóstico histológico de melanomas é a dificuldade em reconhecer variantes pouco frequentes de melanoma. Entre elas, as mais desafiantes incluem exemplos de melanoma desmoplásico, melanoma nevoide, o chamado "melanoma de desvio mínimo", melanomas com proeminente síntese de pigmento ou "melanoma tipo animal" e o nevo azul maligno. Os autores descrevem dois casos de melanoma tipo animal e discute-se a importância do diagnóstico diferencial clinico-histopatológico nesses casos.A potential diagnostic pitfall in the histological assessment of melanomas is the difficulty in recognizing unusual melanoma variants. Among them, the most challenging examples comprise desmoplastic melanomas, nevoid melanomas, the so-called minimal-deviation melanoma, melanomas with prominent pigment synthesis or animal-type melanoma, and the malignant blue nevus. Two cases of animal type melanoma are reported and the importance of clinical-histopathological differential diagnosis is discussed.

  2. Vacunas en melanoma

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    E., Noris-García; A., Torrella.

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Las vacunas terapéuticas han demostrado ser una de las mejores estrategias de intervención en el sistema inmune para proteger al organismo en contra de la progresión de una amplia variedad de enfermedades, incluyendo el cáncer. En este trabajo ofrecemos una revisión de las principales modalidades de [...] vacunas terapéuticas que se han ensayado clínicamente y han demostrado algún efecto antitumoral. Aunque en la actualidad se están desarrollando varios ensayos clínicos fase III con resultados alentadores, la terapia con vacunas de melanoma es todavía experimental y su efectividad no esta demostrada. Abstract in english Therapeutic vaccines have shown to be among the best practical approaches of immune prevention against the progression of a wide variety of diseases, including cancer. We present in this work the main vaccination modalities that have been evaluated in clinical trials and showed antitumoral effect. A [...] lthough there are many phase III trials with encouraging results, the use of vaccines for melanoma therapy is still in an experimental phase and its effectiveness remains to be established.

  3. Melanoma Lentiginoso Acral

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gloria Andrea Vargas Suaza

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available El melanoma lentiginoso acral (MLA es una variante rápidamente progresiva del melanoma maligno (MM. Constituye el 5-10% de todos los tipos de MM y se presenta con mayor frecuencia en pacientes de raza negra, asiáticos y latinoamericanos. En Colombia el MM se encuentra en aumento, con una incidencia de 3.5/100.000, siendo el MLA una de las variantes más comunes. La edad promedio de presentación es de 58 años, con una tasa de sobrevida menor para las personas de raza negra, asociado a un diagnóstico tardío. EL MLA se localiza en plantas, palmas y región subungueal y en su etiopatología se ha descrito la presencia de mutaciones en genes: 9p21 (p16: 67%, 11q13 (CCND1 (47%, 22q11-q13 (40% y 5p15 (20%. El diagnóstico de MLA, se ha fundamentado clásicamente en la histopatología. Herramientas de diagnóstico como la dermatoscopia, la evaluación del ganglio centinela y la determinación de alteraciones en las proteínas del ciclo celular contribuyen a la detección precoz del MLA y el MM en general.

  4. Malignant melanoma of the skin

    OpenAIRE

    Armstrong, B. K.; Holman, C. D. J.

    1987-01-01

    Ultra-violet radiation (UVR) in sunlight is thought to be the main cause of malignant melanoma in lightly-pigmented populations. Individuals with fair skin, fair hair, blue eyes and/or a tendency to burn rather than tan when exposed to the sun are at particularly high risk of melanoma and should be given special attention in primary prevention programmes. Intermittent exposure to the sun, as in recreational exposure, may be a more potent cause of melanoma than more continuous exposure. Primar...

  5. Meningeal metastasing of malignant melanomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two woman patients with malignant melanoma of the skin known from their case history and with acutely emerging neurological symptoms were examined both by CT and by MR tomography (both plain and with intravenous contrast medium). The radiologically derived suspicion of meningioma could not be confirmed by intraoperatively performed histological examination. In both cases the patients had meningeal melanoma metastases with low melanin content and without noticeable bleeding into the metastases. MR diagnosis is rendered difficult by the absence of paramagnetic substances typical of melanoma metastases. Hence, if the case history is known, it should be considered whether there is meningeal metastasising with atypical histology. (orig.)

  6. Morphogenesis of early stage melanoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatelain, Clément; Amar, Martine Ben

    2015-08-01

    Melanoma early detection is possible by simple skin examination and can insure a high survival probability when successful. However it requires efficient methods for identifying malignant lesions from common moles. This paper provides an overview first of the biological and physical mechanisms controlling melanoma early evolution, and then of the clinical tools available today for detecting melanoma in vivo at an early stage. It highlights the lack of diagnosis methods rationally linking macroscopic observables to the microscopic properties of the tissue, which define the malignancy of the tumor. The possible inputs of multiscale models for improving these methods are shortly discussed.

  7. Amelanotic metastatic cutaneous melanoma / Melanoma metastático amelanótico cutâneo

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Marcela Sena Teixeira, Mendes; Mariana Carvalho, Costa; Ciro Martins, Gomes; Lisley Calixto de, Araújo; Gustavo Henrique Soares, Takano.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A dermatoscopia das lesões melanocíticas tem auxiliado na decisão de biopsiar ou não uma lesão. A utilização desta ferramenta aumentou a sensibilidade e a especificidade do diagnóstico para 89% e 96%, respectivamente. No entanto, a avaliação dermatoscópica de melanomas amelanóticos ou hipomelanótico [...] s, bem como a de metástases cutâneas, pode ser difícil. Ainda falta uma padronização para a análise destas patologias, que se baseia, majoritariamente, no seu padrão vascular. Descreve-se a dermatoscopia de melanoma metastático amelanótico acral. Abstract in english Dermatoscopy of melanocytic lesions has guided the decision of when or not to biopsy a lesion. The use of this tool has increased clinical examination's sensitivity and specificity in 89% and 96% respectively. However, dermatoscopic evaluation of amelanotic or hypomelanotic melanomas, as well as met [...] astases, can be difficult. There is still no standardization for the analysis of these pathologies, which relies mostly on their vascular pattern. We describe the dermatoscopy of acral metastatic amelanotic melanoma.

  8. Melanoma Surveillance in the US: The Economic Burden of Melanoma

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-10-19

    This podcast accompanies the publication of a series of articles on melanoma surveillance in the United States, available in the November supplement edition of the Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology. Dr. Gery Guy, from the CDCâ??s Division of Cancer Prevention and Control, discusses the economic burden of melanoma.  Created: 10/19/2011 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 10/19/2011.

  9. Perceived Intra-Family Melanoma Risk Communication

    OpenAIRE

    Loescher, Lois J.; Crist, Janice D.; Siaki, Leilani A.C.L.

    2009-01-01

    Melanoma is a skin cancer that can be deadly. Members of families with a strong history of melanoma have a high risk of melanoma occurrence or recurrence. Enhanced survival in these family members could be influenced by their knowledge of melanoma risk and by simple behaviors to decrease their risk or detect melanoma in its early, most curable, stage. Yet, there is minimal exploration on communication of risk or risk-modifying behaviors in melanoma at-risk families. In this study we described...

  10. An Unusual Case of Desmoplastic Malignant Melanoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javabal, Pandiaraja; Subramanian, Viswanathan

    2015-01-01

    Desmoplastic malignant melanoma is a rare variant of spindle cell melanoma, commonly seen in older adults, on sun-exposed areas. It accounts for 1-4% of all cases of cutaneous melanoma. The common location of the desmoplastic melanoma is the head and neck region, whereas, other sites are less common. Regional lymph node involvement is reported in 0 to 13.7% of the cases, which is less frequent than other cutaneous melanomas. A 75-year-old male presented with an ulceroproliferative growth on the left foot that was diagnosed as desmoplastic melanoma with regional lymph node metastasis and in transit metastasis, with extensive pulmonary metastasis. PMID:25949027

  11. Ipilimumab treatment of metastatic melanoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghasemi, Habib; Schmidt, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    Until recently metastatic melanoma was a disease with limited treatment options and a poor prognosis. However, new promising products have been developed. Ipilimumab, a full human anti-cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen-4 antibody, has shown improved survival in several clinical trials and is now a part of the standard treatment options for this disease in Denmark. In this case report we present a 78-year-old man with metastatic melanoma who had complete remission after treatment with ipilimumab.

  12. Adjuvant Sunitinib or Valproic Acid in High-Risk Patients With Uveal Melanoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-30

    Ciliary Body and Choroid Melanoma, Medium/Large Size; Ciliary Body and Choroid Melanoma, Small Size; Iris Melanoma; Stage I Intraocular Melanoma; Stage IIA Intraocular Melanoma; Stage IIB Intraocular Melanoma; Stage IIIA Intraocular Melanoma; Stage IIIB Intraocular Melanoma; Stage IIIC Intraocular Melanoma

  13. Fulminant metastatic malignant melanoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.M.K. Faheem,

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available A 50-year-old lady presented with complaints of chest pain and cough for the past one month. Right supraclavicular lymphadenopathy, bilateral pleural effusion were present. Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC from the lymph node showed brownish-black pigment laden tumour cells. Review of history subsequently revealed that she had undergone a surgical procedure over the sole of her left foot three years ago of which no records were available. Reexamination of sole of left foot showed a pigmented infiltraling lesion. Pleural biopsy revealed pigmented tumour deposits. The patient was diagnosed to have fulminant metastatic malignant melanoma of left foot with metastasis to cervical lymph nodes and pleura. This case report re-emphasizes the importance of combined approach to ascertain diagnosis early.

  14. Immunoscintigraphy of malignant melanomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work is part of a multicentric European evaluation of the monoclonal antibody 225.28s targeted against malignant melanoma and its metastases. Twenty-eight patients (12 males, 16 females, mean age: 53 yrs), who had initially been treated by resection of the primary tumour, were included in the study. Twenty-three of the 26 metastases more than 1 cm in diameter were visualized by immunoscintigraphy. The sensitivity of the procedure (88%) is limited however by the small size of the lesions and their depth, as well as by background noise caused by circulating antibodies. Immunoscintigraphy enables non-invasive investigation of the whole body and can detect lesions that other conventional complementary explorations fail to identify

  15. Isolated malignant melanoma metastasis to the pancreas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Anne K; Krag, Christen; Geertsen, Poul; Jakobsen, Linda P

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY: Malignant melanomas rarely develop isolated pancreatic metastases. We describe a unique patient who is still alive 22 years following an isolated pancreatic melanoma metastasis, and we review the sparse literature in the field.

  16. Polypoid melanoma and superficial spreading melanoma different subtypes in the same lesion

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Renato Shintani, Hikawa; Eliza Sayuri, Kanehisa; Mílvia Maria Simões e Silva, Enokihara; Mauro Yoshiaki, Enokihara; Sérgio Henrique, Hirata.

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Melanoma is a malignant melanocytic neoplasm with high mortality rate, and steadily and universally increasing incidence rates. Polypoid melanoma is considered an exophytic variant of the nodular subtype. The incidence of polypoid melanoma is extremely variable, most likely because of the different [...] criteria used for its characterization. We presented a rare case of polypoid melanoma and superficial spreading melanoma in the same lesion.

  17. Peptide-Targeted Radionuclide Therapy for Melanoma

    OpenAIRE

    Miao, Yubin; Quinn, Thomas P

    2008-01-01

    Melanocortin-1 receptor (MC1-R) and melanin are two attractive melanoma-specific targets for peptide-targeted radionuclide therapy for melanoma. Radiolabeled peptides targeting MC1-R/melanin can selectively and specifically target cytotoxic radiation generated from therapeutic radionuclides to melanoma cells for cell killing, while sparing the normal tissues and organs. This review highlights the recent advances of peptide-targeted radionuclide therapy of melanoma targeting MC1R and melanin. ...

  18. Melanoma resistance to photodynamic therapy: new insights

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Ying-Ying; Vecchio, Daniela; Avci, Pinar; Yin, Rui; Garcia-Diaz, Maria; Hamblin, Michael R

    2013-01-01

    Melanoma is the most dangerous form of skin cancer, with a steeply rising incidence and a poor prognosis in its advanced stages. Melanoma is highly resistant to traditional chemotherapy and radiotherapy, although modern targeted therapies such as BRAF inhibitors are showing some promise. Photodynamic therapy (PDT, the combination of photosensitizing dyes and visible light) has been tested for melanoma with some promising results, but melanoma is generally considered to also be resistant to PD...

  19. Melanoma vaccines: trials and tribulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dillman RO

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Robert O Dillman1,21Hoag Cancer Institute and Hoag Institute for Research and Education, Newport Beach, CA, USA; 2University of California Irvine, Irvine, CA, USAAbstract: Metastatic melanoma has been a target of immunotherapy for more than 4 decades. Three immunotherapeutics have received regulatory approval for treating melanoma: interferon-alpha, interleukin-2, and ipilimumab. The antitumor mechanisms of these products depend on enhancing existing immune responses, including autoimmune effects. The combination of autologous, cytotoxic T-lymphocytes plus high-dose interleukin-2 is a promising patient-specific therapy, but has limited clinical application. Other approaches include vaccines targeting melanoma-associated antigens, and patient-specific vaccines that utilize autologous tumor. Non-patient-specific vaccine approaches target melanocyte differentiation antigens (eg, tyrosinase, Melan-A, gp100, antigens identified by cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (eg, NY-Eso-1, Melan-A/Mart-1, Mage-3, and antigens originally identified by murine monoclonal antibodies (gangliosides, gp97, gp225. Self-renewing cells in tumor cell lines may represent tumor stem cells, but vaccines derived from allogeneic tumor cell lines have yielded disappointing results in randomized trials. Patient-specific vaccines can be derived from bulk autologous tumor or autologous tumor cell lines, and intratumoral injections of immunostimulatory fusion products have shown promise. While technically more complex to manufacture, patient-specific vaccines derived from autologous tumor cell lines have the potential to target tumor stem cells and overcome interpatient tumor cell heterogeneity. This article reviews sources of melanoma-associated antigens, costimulatory agents, and clinical trial results for various melanoma vaccines. Comparing Phase II trials is difficult because of the wide range of vaccine strategies and the differences in study patient populations; therefore, randomized trials are necessary to prove the efficacy of such products. Therapeutic vaccines are more likely to enhance, rather than replace, other anti-melanoma immune therapies. In particular, effective vaccines may be synergistic with products that block T-cell immune checkpoint molecules such as ipilimumab and monoclonal antibodies that interfere with programmed death ligand-receptor interactions.Keywords: melanoma, vaccines, melanoma-associated antigens, melanoma stem cells, dendritic cells, GM-CSF, checkpoint molecules

  20. Melanoma stem cells in experimental melanoma are killed by radioimmunotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Introduction: In spite of recently approved B-RAF inhibitors and immunomodulating antibodies, metastatic melanoma has poor prognosis and novel treatments are needed. Melanoma stem cells (MSC) have been implicated in the resistance of this tumor to chemotherapy. Recently we demonstrated in a Phase I clinical trial in patients with metastatic melanoma that radioimmunotherapy (RIT) with 188-Rhenium(188Re)-6D2 antibody to melanin was a safe and effective modality. Here we investigated the interaction of MSC with RIT as a possible mechanism for RIT efficacy. Methods: Mice bearing A2058 melanoma xenografts were treated with either 1.5 mCi 188Re-6D2 antibody, saline, unlabeled 6D2 antibody or 188Re-labeled non-specific IgM. Results: On Day 28 post-treatment the tumor size in the RIT group was 4-times less than in controls (P < 0.001). The tumors were analyzed by immunohistochemistry and FACS for two MSC markers — chemoresistance mediator ABCB5 and H3K4 demethylase JARID1B. There were no significant differences between RIT and control groups in percentage of ABCB5 or JARID1B-positive cells in the tumor population. Our results demonstrate that unlike chemotherapy, which kills tumor cells but leaves behind MSC leading to recurrence, RIT kills MSC at the same rate as the rest of tumor cells. Conclusions: These results have two main implications for melanoma treatment and possibly other cancers. First, the susceptibility of ABCB5 + and JARID1B + cells to RIT in melanoma might be indicative of their susceptibility to antibody-targeted radiation in other cancers where they are present as well. Second, specifically targeting cancer stem cells with radiolabeled antibodies to ABCB5 or JARID1B might help to completely eradicate cancer stem cells in various cancers

  1. High accuracy of family history of melanoma in Danish melanoma cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadt, Karin A W; Drzewiecki, Krzysztof T; Gerdes, Anne-Marie

    2015-12-01

    The incidence of melanoma in Denmark has immensely increased over the last 10 years making Denmark a high risk country for melanoma. In the last two decades multiple public campaigns have sought to increase the awareness of melanoma. Family history of melanoma is a known major risk factor but previous studies have shown that self-reported family history of melanoma is highly inaccurate. These studies are 15 years old and we wanted to examine if a higher awareness of melanoma has increased the accuracy of self-reported family history of melanoma. We examined the family history of 181 melanoma probands who reported 199 cases of melanoma in relatives, of which 135 cases where in first degree relatives. We confirmed the diagnosis of melanoma in 77 % of all relatives, and in 83 % of first degree relatives. In 181 probands we validated the negative family history of melanoma in 748 first degree relatives and found only 1 case of melanoma which was not reported in a 3 case melanoma family. Melanoma patients in Denmark report family history of melanoma in first and second degree relatives with a high level of accuracy with a true positive predictive value between 77 and 87 %. In 99 % of probands reporting a negative family history of melanoma in first degree relatives this information is correct. In clinical practice we recommend that melanoma diagnosis in relatives should be verified if possible, but even unverified reported melanoma cases in relatives should be included in the indication of genetic testing and assessment of melanoma risk in the family. PMID:26094006

  2. Malignant melanoma of the lung: case series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chabowski, Mariusz; G?uszczyk-Ferenc, Bo?ena; Wodzi?ska, Agnieszka; Muszczy?ska-Bernhard, Beata; Szuba, Andrzej; Janczak, Dariusz

    2015-01-01

    Extracutaneous locations of primary malignant melanoma are rare. In the respiratory system most melanomas present as metastatic tumors. For the diagnosis of primary lung melanoma, strict histopathological and clinical criteria should be met. In this paper we present three cases of malignant melanoma which showed in the respiratory system. The first 2 case studies present primary lung melanomas, while the last one shows late lung metastasis of tumor originated from vaginal mucosa. The treatment of choice for localized disease as well as single metastasis is surgical excision. PMID:26336485

  3. Malignant melanoma of the vagina.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahat ARA

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Carcinoma of the vagina is uncommon and only constitutes two percent of malignant neoplasms of the female genital tract. Malignant melanoma of the vagina is rarer and accounts for only 3.2% of all vaginal cancers. It presumably arises from melanocytes found in the vagina of three percent of normal women. It is a very aggressive tumour and the overall prognosis is poor despite the treatment. We report the case of an 81-year-old woman who presented with per vagina bleeding secondary to a malignant melanoma of the vagina. She was treated with radiotherapy as her disease was locally extensive and she was not a candidate for pelvis exenteration. This is the first recorded case of malignant melanoma to be diagnosed in Brunei Darussalam.

  4. Experience of skin melanoma treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It was determined the melanoma appearance frequency depending of age, the susceptibility towards the more malignant clinical course at women, that at men. The pre-operation multi-fractional course by the radiotherapy has been carried out. The cumulated irradiation dose choice of the after-operation course depends on the surgical treatment efficacy

  5. Melanoma immunoediting by NK cells

    OpenAIRE

    Balsamo, Mirna; Pietra, Gabriella; Vermi, William; Moretta, Lorenzo; Mingari, Maria Cristina; Vitale, Massimo

    2012-01-01

    The immune system can control the early steps of tumor growth, but it may also induce phenotypic/functional changes of malignant cells during tumor progression, favoring immunoescape mechanisms. In a recent study, we revealed how natural killer (NK) cells can participate in such an immunoediting process, by rendering melanoma cells resistant to NK-mediated killing.

  6. Treatment of Melanoma CNS Metastases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Sekwon; Atkins, Michael B

    2016-01-01

    The discovery of the BRAFV600 mutation and the development of targeted therapies directed against this mutation as well as effective immunotherapies with durable benefits have revolutionized the treatment of patients with melanoma. Nonetheless, the frequent occurrence of brain metastases in patients with advanced melanoma represents a significant obstacle to long-term, high quality survival. The application of stereotactic radiation therapy has provided an opportunity to control brain metastases in the majority of patients with metastatic melanoma reducing the impact of these lesions on morbidity and mortality and enabling patients to receive and potentially benefit from these novel systemic treatments. Encouragingly, several of these novel new therapies have shown antitumor activity against CNS metastases that approach that seen against extracranial disease. As a consequence, several effective treatment options are now available for patients with melanoma brain metastases. With these tools in hand, it is anticipated that further investigation into the optimal sequence and/or combination of systemic therapies and local therapies along with multidisciplinary team practice will continue to improve the outcome of patients with this previously life-limiting disease complication. PMID:26601867

  7. Tyrosinase expression in malignant melanoma, desmoplastic melanoma, and peripheral nerve tumors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boyle, Jenny L; Haupt, Helen M; Stern, Jere B; Multhaupt, Hinke A B

    2002-01-01

    CONTEXT: Pathologists may encounter problems in the differential diagnosis of malignant melanoma, spindle and epithelioid neoplasms of peripheral nerves, and fibrohistiocytic tumors. Tyrosinase has been demonstrated to be a sensitive marker for melanoma. OBJECTIVE: To determine the specificity of tyrosinase expression in the differential diagnosis of melanoma, desmoplastic melanoma, and peripheral nerve sheath tumors. DESIGN: Immunoreactivity for tyrosinase, HMB-45 (anti-gp100 protein), S100 pro...

  8. Selecting patients for KIT inhibition in melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvajal, Richard D; Hamid, Omid; Antonescu, Cristina R

    2014-01-01

    For many years, melanoma has been regarded as a single disease in terms of therapeutic considerations. The more recent identification of multiple molecular mechanisms underlying the development, progression, and prognosis of melanoma has led to a new paradigm for the management of this disease, has created new therapeutic opportunities, and has led to improved clinical outcomes. Such advances, however, are dependent upon methods that can reproducibly identify key molecular alterations within an individual tumor, define clinically relevant genetic subgroups of disease, and permit improved patient selection for targeted therapies.Melanomas harboring genetic alterations of KIT have been demonstrated to constitute one such molecular subgroup of disease. In this chapter, we will discuss the biology of KIT in melanoma, review the rationale for and clinical data regarding KIT inhibition in melanomas harboring activating alterations of KIT, propose guidelines for the selection of patients for KIT inhibitor therapy, and, finally, present laboratory methods for KIT assessment in melanoma. PMID:24258978

  9. Comedo-like openings in melanoma

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Bruno Simão dos, Santos; Lucia Helena Soares, Ribeiro; Eloisa Leis, Ayres; Enoi Aparecida Guedes, Vilar.

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available We describe a case of melanoma with the presence of comedo-like openings at dermoscopy. These structures, typical of seborrheic keratosis, represent an uncommon finding in melanoma. We emphasize the importance of searching for specific dermoscopic criteria for melanocytic lesions during the examinat [...] ion of a pigmented lesion, despite possible observations of characteristic structures of non-melanocytic lesions, in order to increase the accuracy in the diagnosis of melanoma.

  10. Melanoma of unknown origin: a case series.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kelly, J

    2010-12-01

    The natural history of metastatic melanoma involving lymph nodes, in the absence of a known primary site (cutaneous, ocular or mucosal) has, to date, been poorly defined; and the optimal management of this rare subtype of disease is therefore unclear. Melanomas of unknown primary site (MUP) are estimated to comprise between 3.7 and 6% of all melanomas (Anbari et al. in Cancer 79:1861-1821, 1997).

  11. Massive nodular melanoma scalp: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Bhagya Lakshmi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Melanoma is responsible for 1% to 2% of all cancer deaths around the world. Nodular melanoma often carries a poor prognosis because of no prodromal radial growth phase, early distant metastasis and significant tumour volume. We present a case of nodular melanoma measuring 20x10x8 cm in 28 year old tribal women. [Int J Res Med Sci 2015; 3(4.000: 1002-1005

  12. Treating advanced melanoma: current insights and opportunities

    OpenAIRE

    Tronnier M; Mitteldorf C

    2014-01-01

    Michael Tronnier, Christina Mitteldorf Department of Dermatology, Klinikum Hildesheim GmbH, Hildesheim, Germany Abstract: Whereas thin melanomas have an excellent prognosis after sufficient surgical treatment, melanoma disease in advanced stages is still a therapeutic challenge. After decades of frustrating studies, new therapeutic strategies have come up in the past few years. On the one hand, increasing insights into the molecular aberrations in melanoma have led to specific "targeted...

  13. Persistent Pain After Surgery for Cutaneous Melanoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høimyr, Hilde; von Sperling, Marie Louise; Rokkones, Kristina Asdahl; Stubhaug, Audun; Finnerup, Kenneth; Jensen, Troels Staehelin; Finnerup, Nanna Brix

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVES:: Chronic pain is a well-known complication after surgery, but the prevalence of persistent pain after melanoma surgery is unknown. This study examined the prevalence and predictors of persistent pain after melanoma surgery. METHODS:: Between September 2005 and June 2009, 448 patients underwent surgery for cutaneous melanoma at the Department of Plastic Surgery, Aalborg Hospital. A questionnaire was sent to all 402 survivors, and 350 (87.1%) responded. In addition, all patients with p...

  14. Melanoma M (Zero): Diagnosis and Therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Marco Rastrelli; Mauro Alaibac; Roberto Stramare; Vanna Chiarion Sileni; Maria Cristina Montesco; Antonella Vecchiato; Luca Giovanni Campana; Carlo Riccardo Rossi

    2013-01-01

    This paper reviews the epidemiology, diagnosis, and treatment of M zero cutaneous melanoma including the most recent developments. This review also examined the main risk factors for melanoma. Tumor thickness measured according to Breslow, mitotic rate, ulceration, and growth phase has the greatest predictive value for survival and metastasis. Wide excision of the primary tumor is the only potentially curative treatment for primary melanoma. The sentinel node biopsy must be performed on all p...

  15. Primary rectal melanoma - a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somak Das

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The most common site for malignant melanoma is skin, then eye and third is anorectal region. Primary anorectal malignant melanoma is still very uncommon. It is usually very aggressive and presents with altered bowel habit and rectal bleeding. Proctoscopy shows non-pigmented or lightly pigmented polypoid lesion. Histopathology is confirmatory. Early radical excision is mandatory. A 56 year-old female was presented with malignant melanoma of the lower third of rectum. We report this case for its rarity.

  16. Diagnostic Role of Chromosomal Instability in Melanoma

    OpenAIRE

    Nitika Dabas; Diana M. Byrnes; Rosa, Ashley M.; Mark S. Eller; James M. Grichnik

    2012-01-01

    Early diagnosis gives melanoma patients the best chance for long term survival. However discrimination of an early melanoma from an unusual/atypical benign nevus can represent a significant challenge. There are no current pathological markers to definitively define malignant potential in these indeterminate lesions. Thus, there is a need for improved diagnostic tools. Chromosomal instability (CIN) is a hallmark of cancer and is markedly prevalent in melanoma. Advances in genomics have opened ...

  17. A Landscape of Driver Mutations in Melanoma

    OpenAIRE

    Hodis, Eran; Watson, Ian R.; Kryukov, Gregory V; Arold, Stefan T.; Imielinski, Marcin; Theurillat, Jean-Philippe; Nickerson, Elizabeth; Auclair, Daniel; Li, Liren; Place, Chelsea; DiCara, Daniel; Ramos, Alex H.; Lawrence, Michael S; Cibulskis, Kristian; Sivachenko, Andrey

    2012-01-01

    Despite recent insights into melanoma genetics, systematic surveys for driver mutations are challenged by an abundance of passenger mutations caused by carcinogenic ultraviolet (UV) light exposure. We developed a permutation-based framework to address this challenge, employing mutation data from intronic sequences to control for passenger mutational load on a per gene basis. Analysis of large-scale melanoma exome data by this approach discovered six novel melanoma genes (PPP6C, RAC1, SNX31, T...

  18. Epidemiología del melanoma cutáneo Epidemiology of cutaneous melanoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R M C Leitner

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Durante las últimas décadas hubo un aumento de la incidencia del melanoma cutáneo en la población caucásica del mundo, aunque este tumor puede afectar a cualquier grupo étnico. En la actualidad se considera a la exposición solar intermitente como un factor de riesgo cierto, en el desarrollo del melanoma cutáneo. La incidencia del melanoma cutáneo en Auckland, Nueva Zelanda, es la mayor del mundo. En Europa, la incidencia y la mortalidad fue creciente hasta que en la década de los 80 se estabilizó. En EEUU también se observó una estabilización de la incidencia. Con respecto a la edad, según la bibliografía consultada la incidencia aumenta a partir de los 20 años; en algunos pacientes con más de 200 nevos y sin pautas de protección solar antes de los 5 años de vida. También se observa aumento de la incidencia en los adultos mayores de 60 años de edad. Con respecto al sexo, en los EEUU y la Argentina es más frecuente en los hombres y en Europa en el sexo femenino.During the last decades there was an increase of incidence of cutaneous melanoma in Caucasian population worldwide, but this tumor can affect any ethnic group. Nowadays, the intermittent solar exposition is a well known predisposing factor. The incidence in Auckland, New Zealand, is the highest in the world. In Europe and in the USA, the incidence and mortality rates decreased until the 80's when it stabilized. Regarding the age of appearance, the incidence increases starting at 20 years of age in patients with more than 200 nevi and without history of sun protection in childhood. There was also an increase in the incidence in adults (>60 y-o. The distribution by sex in USA and Argentina is more frequent in males and in Europe in females.

  19. Perceived Intra-Family Melanoma Risk Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loescher, Lois J.; Crist, Janice D.; Siaki, Leilani A.C.L.

    2010-01-01

    Melanoma is a skin cancer that can be deadly. Members of families with a strong history of melanoma have a high risk of melanoma occurrence or recurrence. Enhanced survival in these family members could be influenced by their knowledge of melanoma risk and by simple behaviors to decrease their risk or detect melanoma in its early, most curable, stage. Yet, there is minimal exploration on communication of risk or risk-modifying behaviors in melanoma at-risk families. In this study we described perceived intra-family communication of melanoma risk. Using a qualitative descriptive approach, we examined in-depth interviews with 22 members of eight families having two or more cases of melanoma. We identified four major themes: (1) Awareness and understanding of risk, (2) Families facilitate and hinder communication, (3) Promoting melanoma prevention and detection in the family, and (4) An obligation to tell others. We discuss these findings in the context of extant knowledge of cancer risk communication in families at high risk for other cancers, impediments to cancer risk communication, remaining gaps in knowledge of this phenomenon, suggestions for hypothesis-driven research, and clinical implications that are applicable to these and other at-risk families. PMID:19295423

  20. Pediatric Melanoma and Atypical Melanocytic Neoplasms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreeraman Kumar, Radhika; Messina, Jane L; Reed, Damon; Navid, Fariba; Sondak, Vernon K

    2016-01-01

    Melanoma is uncommon in the pediatric age range, but is increasing in frequency and often presents with atypical features compared to the classic ABCDE criteria common to adult melanoma cases. Moreover, many melanocytic neoplasms in childhood pose diagnostic challenges to the pathologist, and sometimes cannot be unequivocally classified as benign nevi or melanoma. This chapter addresses the evaluation and management of pediatric patients with melanoma and atypical melanocytic neoplasms, including the roles of and unresolved questions surrounding sentinel lymph node biopsy, completion lymphadenectomy, adjuvant therapy, and treatment of advanced disease. PMID:26601871

  1. Melanoma in non-caucasian populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stubblefield, Jonathan; Kelly, Brent

    2014-10-01

    Melanoma is the most dangerous form of skin cancer and the sixth leading cause of malignancy in the United States. Non-Caucasians have a decreased overall incidence of melanoma, but African Americans and other ethnic groups often have more advanced disease at initial diagnosis and higher mortality rates than Caucasian populations. Patients with more darkly pigmented skin have a higher percentage of acral lentiginous melanoma, which presents on the palms, soles, and subungual sites and carries specific genetic alterations. Increased awareness of melanoma presentation in pigmented skin may help reduce disparities between ethnic groups. PMID:25245971

  2. Primary malignant melanoma of proximal tibia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mootha, Aditya K; Bali, Kamal; Kumar, Vishal; Rawall, Saurabh; Saini, Raghav; Dhillon, Mandeep S

    2012-03-01

    Primary malignant melanoma (clear cell sarcoma) of bone is a very rare neoplasm. Although metastatic melanoma to bone is not uncommon, primary malignant melanoma of bone is extremely uncommon. To date, only nine cases have been reported in the English literature. In this report, we present a case of primary malignant melanoma arising from the medial aspect of the proximal tibia in a 26-year-old woman. We treated the patient with above-knee amputation without any chemotherapy or radiotherapy. At final follow-up of 18 months, the patient was free of disease. PMID:22624252

  3. Neutron capture therapy for melanoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The development of boron-containing compounds which localize selectively in tumor may require a tumor-by-tumor type of approach that exploits any metabolic pathways unique to the particular type of tumor. Melanin-producing melanomas actively transport and metabolize aromatic amino acids for use as precursors in the synthesis of the pigment melanin. It has been shown that the boron-containing amino acid analog p-borono-phenylalanine (BPA) is selectively accumulated in melanoma tissue, producing boron concentrations in tumor that are within the range estimated to be necessary for successful boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT). We report here the results of therapy experiments carried out at the Brookhaven Medical Research Reactor (BMRR). 21 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs

  4. Eye melanoma ion beam therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conservative treatment of eye melanoma includes brachytherapy with different radioactive sources, transscleral local resection, transpupillary thermotherapy, leaser photocoagulation, and external particle radiotherapy. Proton beam therapy of eye melanoma offers the ideal physical properties to deliver apricise and homogeneous dose distribution within the target volume, with preservation of sensitive normal tissues due to the distal fall-off of the dose beyond the spread-out Bragg peak. Treatment of ocular tumors began on 1978 at National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS). This paper focuses on the irradiation technique and the factors affecting the survival and metastatic rate. Information on local control, enucleation rate, and the visual outcome of those patients are also given. (author)

  5. Epibulbar melanoma in a foal

    OpenAIRE

    McMullen, Richard J.; Clode, Alison B.; Pandiri, Arun Kumar R.; Malarkey, David E.; Michau, Tammy Miller; Gilger, Brian C.

    2008-01-01

    A case of epibulbar melanoma in a 6-month-old, gelded, chestnut Hanoverian foal is reported. The location and clinical appearance upon initial presentation led to the tentative diagnosis of staphyloma or a congenital mass of unknown origin. An attempt was made to surgically excise the mass under general anesthesia, but due to its infiltrative nature and intraoperative appearance, most, but not all was removed without compromising the integrity of the globe. Histopathological evaluation reveal...

  6. Foramen magnum metastatic malignant melanoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pai S

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The foramen magnum as a site for brain metastasis is extremely rare. We report the case of a 24-year-old male who presented with features of increased intracranial pressure and lower cranial nerve palsies. Imaging revealed a foramen magnum tumor with extension up to the cerebellar vermis superiorly and into the spinal canal inferiorly (craniospinal mass with mild obstructive hydrocephalus. A malignant melanoma was completely excised. The patient continued to be tumor-free 24 months later.

  7. Clinical radiobiology of malignant melanoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentzen, Søren M; Overgaard, Jens; Thames, H D; Overgaard, Marie; Vejby Hansen, P; von der Maase, Hans; Meder, J

    1989-01-01

    Tumor-control probability (TCP) was analyzed in a series of 121 patients having 239 histologically proven recurrent or metastatic malignant melanomas. These were treated with fractionated radiotherapy with various doses per fraction, total doses, and overall times. Cutaneous lesions (127, 53%) were treated with electron beams, and more deeply seated tumors (112, 47%) with 60Co or 4-8 MV X-rays. The fraction size was highly variable, and this permitted determination of the alpha/beta ratio in the...

  8. Non-subungual melanomas of the hand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, M J; Wikramanayake, R; Thompson, J F; McCarthy, W H

    1992-08-01

    The non-subungual area of the hand is a rare anatomical site for malignant melanoma, lesions in this site comprising only 0.37% of 8,584 cutaneous melanomas in the Sydney Melanoma Unit database. This is approximately the same frequency of melanoma as is found on the subungual region of the hand, which represents a much smaller surface area. Not only is the sub-site distribution on the hand unusual but in addition the histogenetic types of melanoma found on the dorsum of the hand are not those commonly encountered on sun exposed skin. In this study, comparison is made between melanomas occurring on the non-subungual areas of the hand and those on the foot, an anatomically similar surface area. Comparison is also made between melanomas arising on the dorsal non-subungual surface of the hand and those on the face, a region with an equivalent surface area and similar sun exposure. The results of surgical treatment of 31 melanomas of the non-subungual region of the hand are reviewed. PMID:1402273

  9. Malignant melanoma at a scientific laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shy, C.M.; Checkoway, H.; Marshall, E.G.

    1985-11-15

    The general consensus of the seven reviewers is that occupational exposures at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory have not been established as a causal factor for the observed excess of malignant melanoma. Several observations support the impression that some or all of the observed melanoma excess may be attributable to intense surveillance and enhanced detection of early stage melanoma lesions. Since the incidence of melanomas among Laboratory employees has not diminished, an early harvesting effect is unlikely. This suggests the distinct possibility that localized, in situ melanomas that would normally not be detected are being reported, and that in the absence of this enhanced detection, many of these early stage lesions would show little or no clinical progression. This phenomenon would explain the continued high incidence of melanomas in the absence of a physical or chemical inciting cause. A key point in this reasoning is the issue of the rate of growth of early stage melanomas, and this point remains a key question for study. Even if the observed excess cannot be explained by detection bias, the reviewers agree that the Austin and Reynolds' study does not make a convincing case for occupational factors being a cause of the high melanoma incidence. 6 refs.

  10. Melanoma molecular subtypes: unifying and paradoxical results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Nancy E; Kanetsky, Peter A; Begg, Colin B; Conway, Kathleen; Berwick, Marianne

    2010-01-01

    In this issue, Hacker and colleagues provide further evidence that molecular subtypes of malignant melanoma may develop along divergent pathways. The authors did not find an association between somatic BRAF-mutant melanoma and germline melanocortin-1 receptor (MC1R) gene status. We discuss this seeming paradox in light of previous studies demonstrating strong associations. PMID:20010862

  11. Melanoma Molecular Subtypes: Unifying and Paradoxical Results

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas, Nancy E.; Kanetsky, Peter A.; BEGG, COLIN B.; Conway, Kathleen; Berwick, Marianne

    2010-01-01

    Hacker et al. (in this issue) provide further evidence that molecular subtypes of malignant melanoma may develop along divergent pathways. Hacker et al. did not find an association between somatic BRAF-mutant melanoma and germline melanocortin-1 receptor (MC1R) gene status. We discuss this seeming paradox in light of previous studies showing strong associations.

  12. Update in genetic susceptibility in melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potrony, Miriam; Badenas, Celia; Aguilera, Paula; Puig-Butille, Joan Anton; Carrera, Cristina; Malvehy, Josep; Puig, Susana

    2015-09-01

    Melanoma is the most deadly of the common skin cancers and its incidence is rapidly increasing. Approximately 10% of cases occur in a familial context. To date, cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2A (CDKN2A), which was identified as the first melanoma susceptibility gene more than 20 years ago, is the main high-risk gene for melanoma. A few years later cyclin-dependent kinase 4 (CDK4) was also identified as a melanoma susceptibility gene. The technologic advances have allowed the identification of new genes involved in melanoma susceptibility: Breast cancer 1 (BRCA1) associated protein 1 (BAP1), CXC genes, telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT), protection of telomeres 1 (POT1), ACD and TERF2IP, the latter four being involved in telomere maintenance. Furthermore variants in melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R) and microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF) give a moderately increased risk to develop melanoma. Melanoma genetic counseling is offered to families in order to better understand the disease and the genetic susceptibility of developing it. Genetic counseling often implies genetic testing, although patients can benefit from genetic counseling even when they do not fulfill the criteria for these tests. Genetic testing for melanoma predisposition mutations can be used in clinical practice under adequate selection criteria and giving a valid test interpretation and genetic counseling to the individual. PMID:26488006

  13. Malignant melanoma at a scientific laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The general consensus of the seven reviewers is that occupational exposures at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory have not been established as a causal factor for the observed excess of malignant melanoma. Several observations support the impression that some or all of the observed melanoma excess may be attributable to intense surveillance and enhanced detection of early stage melanoma lesions. Since the incidence of melanomas among Laboratory employees has not diminished, an early harvesting effect is unlikely. This suggests the distinct possibility that localized, in situ melanomas that would normally not be detected are being reported, and that in the absence of this enhanced detection, many of these early stage lesions would show little or no clinical progression. This phenomenon would explain the continued high incidence of melanomas in the absence of a physical or chemical inciting cause. A key point in this reasoning is the issue of the rate of growth of early stage melanomas, and this point remains a key question for study. Even if the observed excess cannot be explained by detection bias, the reviewers agree that the Austin and Reynolds' study does not make a convincing case for occupational factors being a cause of the high melanoma incidence. 6 refs

  14. Mistletoe in the treatment of malignant melanoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esin Sakall? Çetin

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Malignant melanoma is a malignant neoplasia drives from melanocytes. Malignant melanoma, the most causing death, is seen in the third place at skin cancer. Malignant melanoma shows intrinsic resistance to chemotherapeutic agents and variability in the course of the disease which are distinct features separating from other solid tumors. These features prevent the development and standardization of non-surgical treatment models of malignant melanoma. Although there is a large number of chemotherapeutic agents used in the treatment of metastatic malignant melanoma, it hasn’t been demonstrated the survival advantage of adjuvant treatment with chemotherapeutic agents. Because of the different clinical course of malignant melanoma, the disease is thought to be closely associated with immune system. Therefore, immunomodulatory therapy models were developed. Mistletoe stimulates the immune system by increasing the number and activity of dendritic cells, thus it has been shown to effect on tumor growth and metastasis of malignant melanoma patient. Outlined in this review are the recent developments in the understanding the role of mistletoe as a complementary therapy for malignant melanoma. J Clin Exp Invest 2014; 5 (1: 145-152

  15. Ipilimumab for Patients With Advanced Mucosal Melanoma

    OpenAIRE

    Postow, Michael A.; Luke, Jason J; Bluth, Mark J.; Ramaiya, Nikhil; Panageas, Katherine S.; Lawrence, Donald P.; Ibrahim, Nageatte; Flaherty, Keith T.; Sullivan, Ryan J; Ott, Patrick A; Callahan, Margaret K.; Harding, James J.; D'Angelo, Sandra P.; Dickson, Mark A; Schwartz, Gary K

    2013-01-01

    This multicenter, retrospective analysis assessed the efficacy and safety of ipilimumab in 33 patients with unresectable or metastatic mucosal melanoma. The study provides evidence that ipilimumab can result in durable antitumor effects in a subset of patients with mucosal melanoma, although the response rate was low.

  16. Hyperkeratotic Acral Melanoma Mimicking a Common Wart

    OpenAIRE

    Vindigni, Vincenzo; Scarpa, Carlotta; Bassetto, Franco

    2015-01-01

    Acral melanoma is a great pretender; anything but i nfrequently, it adopts clinical faces, simulating skin conditions that make the healthcare provider diagnose it as a benign disease of the palms, soles, and ungual regions. We present a case of a hyperkeratotic acral melanoma that has been misdiagnosed and that has led to an amputation of the thumb.

  17. Alpha particles for treatment of disseminated melanoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Link, E.M. [London Univ. (United Kingdom)

    2010-11-15

    Invading melanoma spreads to local and unpredictable distant location at the early stages of its development. It is justifiable, therefore to classify the disease as a systemic disorder. This requires a systemic treatment that reaches all melanoma cells irrespective of whether they are singly dispersed and in circulation or already forming solid tumours of various sizes. Targeted radiotherapy affects directly and selectively cancer cells provided an appropriate radionuclide and its carrier are chosen. Melanoma is a pigmented tumour. Methylene blue (MTB) accumulates selectively in melanoma cells due to its exceptionally high affinity to melanin. MTB serves, therefore, as a carrier for radionuclides. {sup 211}At-MTB has proved to be particularly effective in treating disseminated melanoma when administered systemically and, at the same time, non-toxic to normal non-pigmented and pigmented organs. (author)

  18. Alpha particles for treatment of disseminated melanoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Link, E.M. [London University (United Kingdom)

    2010-07-01

    Invading melanoma spreads to local and unpredictable distant location at the early stages of its development. It is justifiable, therefore, to classify the disease as a systemic disorder. This requires a systemic treatment that reaches all melanoma cells irrespective of whether they are singly dispersed and in circulation or already forming solid tumours of various sizes. Targeted radiotherapy affects directly and selectively cancer cells provided an appropriate radionuclide and its carrier are chosen. Melanoma is a pigmented tumour. Methylene blue (MTB)) accumulates selectively in melanoma cells due to its exceptionally high affinity to melanin. MTB serves, therefore, as a carrier for radionuclides. {sup 211}At-MTB has proved to be particularly effective in treating disseminated melanoma when administered systemically and, at the same time, non-toxic to normal non-pigmented and pigmented organs. (authors)

  19. Melanoma Surveillance in the US: Collecting Melanoma Data

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-10-19

    This podcast accompanies the publication of a series of articles on melanoma surveillance in the United States, available in the November supplement edition of the Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology. Dr. Suephy Chen, a dermatologist from Emory University, discusses why the articles are important, as well as the need to increase dermatologistsâ?? awareness of cancer registries and reporting requirements.  Created: 10/19/2011 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 10/19/2011.

  20. Melanoma de corpo ciliar e coróide: relato de caso Choroidal and ciliary body melanoma: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Amaral Fulgêncio da Cunha

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Melanomas oculares correspondem a 5% de todos os melanomas e 85% deles têm origem no trato uveal. Melanoma uveal é o tumor maligno intraocular primário mais comum no adulto. Relatamos neste artigo um caso de melanoma uveal em paciente, sexo feminino, 31 anos, com quadro de fotopsia, hiperemia e baixa da acuidade visual no olho esquerdo com evolução de quatro meses. Apresentava ao exame oftalmológico acuidade visual menor que 20/400, grande massa tumoral na região nasal retroiriana, com deslocamento anterior do cristalino, estreitamento da câmara anterior e descolamento seroso da retina. A ecografia sugeriu tratar-se de grande massa tumoral suspeita de melanoma de coróide com invasão do corpo ciliar. A confirmação diagnóstica foi possível por meio do exame anatomopatológico.Ocular melanomas correspond to 5% of all melanomas and 85% of them have its origin in the uveal tract. Uveal melanoma is the most commom primary intraocular malignant tumor in the adult. In this article, a case of uveal melanoma in a 31 year-old female patient, with photopsia, hyperemia and low visual acuity in the left eye with evolution of 4 months is presented. In the ophthalmologic examination, visual acuity was lower than 20/400, a large tumoral mass was noted at the nasal region behind the iris with anterior lens displacement, anterior chamber narrowing and serous retinal detachment. The ocular echography suggested a large tumoral mass as a choroidal melanoma extending to the ciliary body. The confirmation diagnosis was possible through the histopathologic examination.

  1. Therapy for metastatic melanoma: the past, present, and future

    OpenAIRE

    Finn Laura; Markovic Svetomir N; Joseph Richard W

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Metastatic melanoma is the most aggressive form of skin cancer with a median overall survival of less than one year. Advancements in our understanding of how melanoma evades the immune system as well as the recognition that melanoma is a molecularly heterogeneous disease have led to major improvements in the treatment of patients with metastatic melanoma. In 2011, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved two novel therapies for advanced melanoma: a BRAF inhibitor, vemurafen...

  2. Current management and novel agents for malignant melanoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Byung

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Advanced malignant melanoma remains a challenging cancer. Over the past year, there have been 3 agents approved for treatment of melanoma by Food and Drug Administration. These include pegylated interferon alpha-2b for stage III melanoma, vemurafenib for unresectable or metastatic melanoma with BRAF V600E mutation, and ipilimumab for treatment of unresectable or metastatic melanoma. This review will also update on the development of novel agents, including tyrosine kinase inhibitors and adoptive cellular therapy.

  3. Surgical aspects of melanoma therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Surgery is still the most important treatment modality to guarantee the highest survival ratio of melanoma patients. The adequacy of the surgical approach is a crucial aspect in face of the initial clinical appearances of the disease. Best results are obtained with the correct treatment of primary melanomas and lymph node metastases. To reach a general consensus on the surreal indications in terms of extension and timing, a large number of randomized trials have been conducted in the last 3 - 4 decades. The rationale behind these trials, even if proposed by different institutions on different continents, has been to find the most conservative surgical approach able to guarantee the same results as those achieved with more aggressive treatment This lay behind the design of trials designed to determine the correct excision margin around primary melanomas in the most important studies. A similar approach has been followed in the preparation of several trials dedicated to the definition of the importance of performing immediate dissection of the locoregional nodes in view of the absence of clinical evidence of metastases. Ever since the sentinel node technique has become the standard treatment in a majority of institutions, the guidelines for the treatment of locoregional nodes have undergone a kind of revolution. In fact the policy of wait and see introduced by the aforementioned trials has been overridden by a more specific and selective even if a more invasive approach to obtain precise information regarding the status of clinically non-invaded locoregional nodes. The sentinel node biopsy technique makes use of a majority of scientific surgical tools, is the most conservative (when compared to elective node dissection), extremely precise and sophisticated and provides crucial data necessary to make decisions regarding the necessity to perform radical surgery, i.e. therapeutic node dissection. Radical lymph node dissection is recommended in case of confirmed regional lymph node metastases. However still little is known of the role of surgery in the treatment of patients with distant metastases and with extra cutaneous melanoma. (authors)

  4. What's new in melanoma? Combination!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ascierto, Paolo A; Marincola, Francesco M; Atkins, Michael B

    2015-01-01

    Melanoma was again a focus of attention at the 2015 American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) Annual Meeting, in particular the use of combination treatment strategies involving immunotherapies and/or targeted agents. New data on targeted therapies confirmed previous findings, with combined BRAF inhibitor (vemurafenib) plus MEK inhibitor (cobimetinib) improving progression-free survival (PFS) compared to vemurafenib monotherapy in patients with BRAFV600 mutation-positive tumors (CoBRIM trial). Positive results were also seen with combined dabrafenib and trametinib in patients with BRAF V600E/K metastatic melanoma and encorafenib plus binimetinib in BRAFV600-mutant cutaneous melanoma. Even more interesting news centered on the use of combination immunotherapy, in particular the randomized, double-blind CheckMate 067 study in which median PFS with nivolumab plus ipilimumab was 11.5 months, compared to 2.9 months with ipilimumab alone (HR 0.42) and 6.9 months with nivolumab alone (HR 0.57). Of interest, in patients with ?5% PD-L1 expression, median PFS was 14 months with the combination or with nivolumab alone compared with 3.9 months in the ipilimumab group, while in the PD-L1 negative cohort, the combination remained superior to both monotherapies. Given that combination therapy was accompanied by a high occurrence of side-effects, this raises the suggestion that combination therapy might be reserved for PD-L1 negative patients only, with PD-L1 positive patients achieving the same benefit from nivolumab monotherapy. However, overall survival data are awaited and the equivalence of single agent to the combination remains unconvincing. Interesting data were also reported on the combination of T-VEC (talimogene laherparepvec) with ipilimumab, and the anti-PD-1 agent MEDI4736 (durvolumab) combined with dabrafenib plus trametinib. Emerging data also suggested that predictive markers based on immunoprofiling and mismatch repair deficiency may be of clinical use. In conclusion, the use of combination approaches to treat patients with melanoma, as well as other cancers, is no longer a just a wish for the future but is today a clinical reality with a rapidly growing evidence-base. Moreover, the most exciting consideration is that this is far from the end of the story, but rather a fantastic introduction. PMID:26141621

  5. Malignant melanoma of the vagina.

    OpenAIRE

    Rahat ARA; Saw OHNMAR

    2011-01-01

    Carcinoma of the vagina is uncommon and only constitutes two percent of malignant neoplasms of the female genital tract. Malignant melanoma of the vagina is rarer and accounts for only 3.2% of all vaginal cancers. It presumably arises from melanocytes found in the vagina of three percent of normal women. It is a very aggressive tumour and the overall prognosis is poor despite the treatment. We report the case of an 81-year-old woman who presented with per vagina bleeding secondary to a malign...

  6. IRF5 gene polymorphisms in melanoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uccellini Lorenzo

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Interferon regulatory factor (IRF-5 is a transcription factor involved in type I interferon signaling whose germ line variants have been associated with autoimmune pathogenesis. Since relationships have been observed between development of autoimmunity and responsiveness of melanoma to several types of immunotherapy, we tested whether polymorphisms of IRF5 are associated with responsiveness of melanoma to adoptive therapy with tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs. Methods 140 TILs were genotyped for four single nucleotide polymorphisms (rs10954213, rs11770589, rs6953165, rs2004640 and one insertion-deletion in the IRF5 gene by sequencing. Gene-expression profile of the TILs, 112 parental melanoma metastases (MM and 9 cell lines derived from some metastases were assessed by Affymetrix Human Gene ST 1.0 array. Results Lack of A allele in rs10954213 (G?>?A was associated with non-response (p?in vitro between cell lines carrying or not the A allele could be applied to the transcriptional profile of 112 melanoma metastases to predict their responsiveness to therapy, suggesting that IRF5 genotype may influence immune responsiveness by affecting the intrinsic biology of melanoma. Conclusions This study is the first to analyze associations between melanoma immune responsiveness and IRF5 polymorphism. The results support a common genetic basis which may underline the development of autoimmunity and melanoma immune responsiveness.

  7. The molecular pathology of cutaneous melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogenrieder, Thomas; Herlyn, Meenhard

    2010-01-01

    Cutaneous melanoma is a highly aggressive cancer with still limited, but increasingly efficacious, standard treatment options. Recent preclinical and clinical findings support the notion that cutaneous melanoma is not one malignant disorder but rather a family of distinct molecular diseases. Incorporation of genetic signatures into the conventional histopathological classification of melanoma already has great implications for the management of cutaneous melanoma. Herein, we review our rapidly growing understanding of the molecular biology of cutaneous melanoma, including the pathogenic roles of the mitogen-associated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway, the phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase [PI3K]/phosphatase and tensin homologue deleted on chromosome 10 [PTEN]/Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin [mTOR])PTEN (phosphatase and tensin homolog) pathway, MET (hepatocyte growth factor), Notch signaling, and other key molecules regulating cell cycle progression and apoptosis. The mutation Val600Glu in the BRAF oncogene (designated BRAF(V600E)) has been associated with clinical benefit from agents that inhibit BRAF(V600E) or MEK (a kinase in the MAPK pathway). Cutaneous melanomas arising from mucosal, acral, chronically sun-damaged surfaces sometimes have oncogenic mutations in KIT, against which several inhibitors have shown clinical efficacy. These findings suggest that prospective genotyping of patients with melanoma, combined with the growing availability of targeted agents, which can be used to rationally exploit these findings, should be used increasingly as we work to develop new and more effective treatments for this devastating disease. PMID:22112480

  8. Molecular targeted therapies in metastatic melanoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chakraborty R

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Rima Chakraborty,1 Carilyn N Wieland,2 Nneka I Comfere2 1University of Missouri-Kansas City Medical School, Kansas City, MO, 2Departments of Dermatology and Laboratory Medicine and Pathology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA Abstract: The advent of personalized medicine has ushered in a new era for cancer therapy with a significant impact on the management of advanced melanoma. Molecular targeted therapies have shown promise in the management of various malignancies, including melanoma, with lower toxicity profiles and better overall survival as compared with conventional therapy. The discovery of BRAF mutations in melanoma led to the development of BRAF inhibitors for the treatment of advanced melanoma. However, growing concerns over drug resistance to molecular targeted therapies including BRAF inhibitors, have spurred efforts to elucidate additional molecular targets for the treatment of advanced melanoma. In this review, we discuss the known molecular aberrations in melanoma, current and novel targeted approaches in its treatment, and drug resistance patterns. Keywords: BRAF inhibitors, metastatic melanoma, personalized medicine

  9. Interpretation of Melanoma Risk Feedback in First-Degree Relatives of Melanoma Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Hay, Jennifer L; Carlos Baguer; Yuelin Li; Irene Orlow; Marianne Berwick

    2012-01-01

    Little is known about how individuals might interpret brief genetic risk feedback. We examined interpretation and behavioral intentions (sun protection, skin screening) in melanoma first-degree relatives (FDRs) after exposure to brief prototypic melanoma risk feedback. Using a 3 by 2 experimental pre-post design where feedback type (high-risk mutation, gene environment, and nongenetic) and risk level (positive versus negative findings) were systematically varied, 139 melanoma FDRs were random...

  10. Malignant melanoma of the uvea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since February 1984, patients suffering from uveal melanomas can be irradiated with protons (72 MeV) at the Paul Scherrer Institute, Villigen/Switzerland. The selection and preparation of the 660 patients so far treated were carried out at the Lausanne University Eye Clinic. The irradiation is performed in four sessions on four consecutive days, the single dose being 1500 cGy and the total dose 6000 cGy. Sixty per cent of the patients improved or maintained their visual acuity. The rate of local progressions so far amounts to 2,9%. In more than 30% of the patients with a tumour width of more than 15 mm, death due to metastases occurred within five years. The superior functional results increasingly make proton irradiation therapy the method of choice and at the same time widen the indication for conservative treatment. In Europe, proton therapy of uveal melanoma is as of recently also possible in Uppsala and Liverpool. Further irradiation facilities are planned, including the Federal Republic of Germany. (orig.)

  11. [Melanoma immunotherapy: dendritic cell vaccines].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozada-Requena, Ivan; Núñez, César; Aguilar, José Luis

    2015-09-01

    This is a narrative review that shows accessible information to the scientific community about melanoma and immunotherapy. Dendritic cells have the ability to participate in innate and adaptive immunity, but are not unfamiliar to the immune evasion of tumors. Knowing the biology and role has led to generate in vitro several prospects of autologous cell vaccines against diverse types of cancer in humans and animal models. However, given the low efficiency they have shown, we must implement strategies to enhance their natural capacity either through the coexpression of key molecules to activate or reactivate the immune system, in combination with biosimilars or chemotherapeutic drugs. The action of natural products as alternative or adjuvant immunostimulant should not be ruled out. All types of immunotherapy should measure the impact of myeloid suppressor cells, which can attack the immune system and help tumor progression, respectively. This can reduce the activity of cellular vaccines and/or their combinations, that could be the difference between success or not of the immunotherapy. Although for melanoma there exist biosimilars approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), not all have the expected success. Therefore it is necessary to evaluate other strategies including cellular vaccines loaded with tumor antigenic peptides expressed exclusively or antigens from tumor extracts and their respective adjuvants. PMID:26580940

  12. Tea tree oil might combat melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozzuto, Giuseppina; Colone, Marisa; Toccacieli, Laura; Stringaro, Annarita; Molinari, Agnese

    2011-01-01

    In this study we present new data from experiments focused on the antitumor activity of tea tree oil (TTO), an essential oil distilled from Melaleuca alternifolia. TTO proved to be capable of inhibiting the growth of melanoma cells and of overcoming multidrug resistance (MDR), as we reported in our previous study. Moreover, the survival role of the MDR-marker P-glycoprotein appears to be involved in the mechanism of invasion of melanoma cells. The results reported herein indicate that TTO and its main active component, terpinen-4-ol, can also interfere with the migration and invasion processes of drug-sensitive and drug-resistant melanoma cells. PMID:20560116

  13. Body CT appearances of metastatic melanoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors reviewed the CT studies and clinical records of 57 patients thought to have metastatic melanoma and sought CT findings that might be characteristic of metastatic melanoma. No pattern of lesion density, homogeneity, necrosis, border definition, hazing of adjacent fat, or calcification was characteristic for melanoma. However, widespread lesions in multiple organs, a combination of subcutaneous and visceral lesions, and large yet clinically silent lesions were common. Small (5mm) abnormalities in the lung, liver, spleen, and subcutaneous fat that might be considered inconsequential often represented early deposits of tumor which were enlarged on subsequent scans

  14. A potential new radiopharmaceutical for melanoma imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the sequence of our studies on radiopharmaceuticals for malignant melanoma detection the results were most promising for the possible use of 125I or 123I - N-(2-diethyl amino ethyl) 4-iodobenzamide. The biodistribution in mice bearing melanoma either human or animal from 4 to 24 hrs. post i.v. injection showed high uptake in tumor tissue together with relatively low uptake in muscle, brain, lung and liver. Scintigraphic images of the tumor obtained at the same times confirmed that melanoma detection was very promising

  15. Plasma 25-Hydroxyvitamin D and Risk of Non-Melanoma and Melanoma Skin Cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Afzal, Shoaib; Nordestgaard, Børge G; Bojesen, Stig E

    2013-01-01

    Sun exposure is a major risk factor for skin cancer and is also an important source of vitamin D. We tested the hypothesis that elevated plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OH-vitD) associates with increased risk of non-melanoma and melanoma skin cancer in the general population. We measured plasma 25-OH-vitD in 10,060 white individuals from the Danish general population. During 28 years of follow-up, 590 individuals developed non-melanoma skin cancer and 78 developed melanoma skin cancer. Increasing...

  16. Malignant melanoma with metastasis into the capitate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metastases to the hand and wrist are rare, with fewer than 200 cases reported in the literature. Phalanges are more commonly involved than metacarpal and wrist. The lung, breast and kidneys are the more common sites of primary lesions than metastasize in the hand. We present an exceptional case of melanoma that metastasized to the capitate. Melanoma can give bone metastases, but we are not aware of reports of this tumour metastatising to the carpal bones. In our knowledge, we have only found a report of metastases in the capitate, a clear-cell sarcoma of the right foot, a tumour close to melanoma with some cytogenetic differences. Hand metastases in a patient who is suffered melanoma should be ruled out if a lytic aggressive lesion appears on x-ray film or positive technetium bone scan is demonstrated

  17. Malignant melanoma with metastasis into the capitate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomas, Xavier [Radiology Department (CDIC), Hospital Clinic, Institut d' Investigacio Biomedica August Pi i Sunyer (IDIBAPS), Facultat de Medicina, Universitat de Barcelona, Villarroel 170, Barcelona 08036 (Spain)]. E-mail: 22812xtb@comb.es; Conill, Carles [Radiotherapy Department (ICMHO), Hospital Clinic, Institut d' Investigacio Biomedica August Pi i Sunyer (IDIBAPS), Facultat de Medicina, Universitat de Barcelona, Villarroel 170, Barcelona 08036 (Spain); Combalia, Andreu [Orthopaedics Department (ICEMEQ), Hospital Clinic, Institut d' Investigacio Biomedica August Pi i Sunyer (IDIBAPS), Facultat de Medicina, Universitat de Barcelona, Villarroel 170, Barcelona 08036 (Spain); Pomes, Jaume [Radiology Department (CDIC), Hospital Clinic, Institut d' Investigacio Biomedica August Pi i Sunyer (IDIBAPS), Facultat de Medicina, Universitat de Barcelona, Villarroel 170, Barcelona 08036 (Spain); Castel, Teresa [Dermatology Department (ICMiD), Hospital Clinic, Institut d' Investigacio Biomedica August Pi i Sunyer (IDIBAPS), Facultat de Medicina, Universitat de Barcelona, Villarroel 170, Barcelona 08036 (Spain); Nicolau, Carlos [Radiology Department (CDIC), Hospital Clinic, Institut d' Investigacio Biomedica August Pi i Sunyer (IDIBAPS), Facultat de Medicina, Universitat de Barcelona, Villarroel 170, Barcelona 08036 (Spain)

    2005-12-15

    Metastases to the hand and wrist are rare, with fewer than 200 cases reported in the literature. Phalanges are more commonly involved than metacarpal and wrist. The lung, breast and kidneys are the more common sites of primary lesions than metastasize in the hand. We present an exceptional case of melanoma that metastasized to the capitate. Melanoma can give bone metastases, but we are not aware of reports of this tumour metastatising to the carpal bones. In our knowledge, we have only found a report of metastases in the capitate, a clear-cell sarcoma of the right foot, a tumour close to melanoma with some cytogenetic differences. Hand metastases in a patient who is suffered melanoma should be ruled out if a lytic aggressive lesion appears on x-ray film or positive technetium bone scan is demonstrated.

  18. How Is Melanoma Skin Cancer Diagnosed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... skin. Sometimes a thin layer of alcohol or oil is used with this instrument. The doctor may ... medicine doctor injects a small amount of a radioactive substance into the area of the melanoma. After ...

  19. Evolving treatment options for melanoma brain metastases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajithkumar, Thankamma; Parkinson, Christine; Fife, Kate; Corrie, Pippa; Jefferies, Sarah

    2015-10-01

    Melanoma is a leading cause of lost productivity due to premature cancer mortality. Melanoma frequently spreads to the brain and is associated with rapid deterioration in quality and quantity of life. Until now, treatment options have been restricted to surgery and radiotherapy, although neither modality has been well studied in clinical trials. However, the new immune checkpoint inhibitors and molecularly targeted agents that have been introduced for treatment of metastatic melanoma are active against brain metastases and offer new opportunities to improve disease outcomes. New challenges arise, including how to integrate or sequence multiple treatment modalities, and current practice varies widely. In this Review, we summarise evidence for the treatment of melanoma brain metastases, and discuss the rationale and evidence for combination modalities, highlighting areas for future research. PMID:26433822

  20. Novel anti-melanoma treatment: focus on immunotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng-Ze Hao

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Melanoma is an intractable cancer that is aggressive, lethal, and metastatic. The prognosis of advanced melanoma is very poor because it is insensitive to chemotherapy and radiotherapy. The incidence of melanoma has been ascending stably for years worldwide, accompanied by increasing mortality. New approaches to managing this deadly disease are much anticipated to enhance the cure rate and to extend clinical benefits to patients with metastatic melanoma. Due to its high degree of immunogenicity, melanoma could be a good target for immunotherapy, which has been developed for decades and has achieved certain progress. This article provides an overview of immunotherapy for melanoma.

  1. Choroidal melanoma metastasizing to maxillofacial bones

    OpenAIRE

    Mathews Anitha; Prakash Om; Pandey Manoj; Nayak Nileena; Ramachandran Krishnankutty

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background Melanomas are malignant neoplasm of melanocytic origin, commonly seen on skin and various mucous membranes. Melanomas are the commonest intraocular malignant tumour in the adults. Case presentation A 50-year-old female presented with complains of painless progressive swelling in right cheek region of two months duration. Examination revealed a 6 × 4 cm bony hard swelling in right zygomatic region near and below lateral canthus of right eye with loss of vision. Investigatio...

  2. Hippo - hungry, hungry for melanoma invasion

    OpenAIRE

    Sanchez, Ileine M.; Aplin, Andrew E.

    2014-01-01

    The acquisition of invasive properties in melanoma is associated with a high proclivity for metastasis, but the underlying pathways are poorly characterized. The Hippo pathway plays an important role in organ size control and is dysregulated in some types of tumors. The present study, “Pro-invasive activity of the Hippo pathway effectors YAP and TAZ in cutaneous melanoma” by Nallet-Staub et al., provides the first in-depth analysis of expression of the Hippo pathway effectors YAP (yes-associa...

  3. Malignant melanoma in children and adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Berg, Peter

    2003-01-01

    The aim of the work reported in the present thesis was to investigate malignant melanoma in children and adolescents. Through epidemiological studies, we wished to investigate incidence, clinical factors and prognosis and to study the records. Also studied were etiological factors such as phototherapy in newborns and the effect of congenital nevi on the risk of malignant melanoma. Finally a genetic study of this age group was conducted using immunohistochemical analysis. ...

  4. The Epidemiology, Prevention, and Detection of Melanoma

    OpenAIRE

    Riker, Adam I.; Zea, Nicolas; Trinh, Tan

    2010-01-01

    We are seeing a record number of newly diagnosed skin cancers worldwide, with the incidence of melanoma increasing at a faster rate than almost all other cancers. As clinicians, we will have, by far, the greatest impact on reducing this incidence through better methods of early detection of melanoma and proven prevention methods and techniques. The medical community must enhance its efforts to increase its training of new health care personnel who are capable of diagnosing and treating this r...

  5. Sun behaviour after cutaneous malignant melanoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Idorn, L W; Datta, P; Heydenreich, J; Philipsen, P A; Wulf, H C

    2013-01-01

    Background? It has been reported that patients with cutaneous malignant melanoma (CMM) can lower their risk of a second primary melanoma by limiting recreational sun exposure. Previous studies based on questionnaires and objective surrogate measurements indicate that before their diagnosis, patients with CMM are exposed to higher ultraviolet radiation (UVR) doses than controls, followed by a reduction after diagnosis. Objectives? In a prospective, observational case-control study, we aimed to as...

  6. Primary malignant melanoma of the gall bladder.

    OpenAIRE

    Heath, D I; Womack, C.

    1988-01-01

    A case of primary malignant melanoma of the gall bladder is reported, in which a 29 year old man presented with acute cholecystitis which led to perforation of the gall bladder and biliary peritonitis. To help in the differentiation between primary and secondary malignant melanoma in the gall bladder and to overcome some of the difficulties posed by the clinical identification of what is often a small or relatively inaccessible primary tumour, it is suggested that certain criteria should be f...

  7. Malignant Melanoma and Melanocortin 1 Receptor

    OpenAIRE

    Rosenkranz, A. A.; Slastnikova, T. A.; Durymanov, M. O.; Sobolev, A.S.

    2013-01-01

    The conventional chemotherapeutic treatment of malignant melanoma still remains poorly efficient in most cases. Thus the use of specific features of these tumors for development of new therapeutic modalities is highly needed. Melanocortin receptor-1 (MC1R) overexpression on the cell surface of the vast majority of human melanomas, making MC1R a valuable marker of these tumors, is one of these features. Naturally, MC1R plays a key role in skin protection against damaging ultraviolet radiation ...

  8. Immunomodulatory Therapy for Melanoma: Ipilimumab and Beyond

    OpenAIRE

    Callahan, Margaret K.; Postow, Michael A.; Wolchok, Jedd D

    2013-01-01

    In 2011, the FDA approved the first new therapy for melanoma in over a decade, ipilimumab (Yervoy). Ipilimumab is a novel antibody that blockscytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 (CTLA-4), a regulatory molecule expressed on activated T cells. Blockade of this important immune checkpoint can lead to durable tumor regression and Phase III studies showed an overall survival benefit for patients with advanced melanoma. During the clinical development of ipilimumab, several unique features ...

  9. Ipilimumab Pharmacotherapy in Patients with Metastatic Melanoma

    OpenAIRE

    Joanne M. Jeter; Lee D. Cranmer; Evan M. Hersh

    2012-01-01

    Immune augmentation with ipilimumab, an anti-CTLA-4 monoclonal antibody, has joined the ranks of approved immunologic agents for the treatment of metastatic melanoma. Phase III studies of ipilimumab in metastatic melanoma have demonstrated an overall survival advantage as compared to other approved and investigational therapies. However, the adverse effects associated with this medication are unique and often require management with steroids or other immunosuppressants. In addition, the time ...

  10. A Case of Melanoma Associated Leukoderma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özer Ar?can

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Melanoma associated leukoderma is a rare disease characterized by hypopigmented or depigmented macules, which are usualy localized at distant sites from the primary malignant melonoma. Immunologic response to abnormal melanocytes is thought to be responsible for the physiopathology of the disease. A 34-year- old male patient with a facially localized melanoma associated leukoderma is presented and the clinical features, pathogenesis, differential diagnosis, treatment and follow-up of the disease are discussed with the recent literature.

  11. Pathways and therapeutic targets in melanoma

    OpenAIRE

    Shtivelman, Emma; Davies, Michael A.; HWU, PATRICK; Yang, James; Lotem, Michal; Oren, Moshe; Flaherty, Keith T.; Fisher, David E.

    2014-01-01

    This review aims to summarize the current knowledge of molecular pathways and their clinical relevance in melanoma. Metastatic melanoma was a grim diagnosis, but in recent years tremendous advances have been made in treatments. Chemotherapy provided little benefit in these patients, but development of targeted and new immune approaches made radical changes in prognosis. This would not have happened without remarkable advances in understanding the biology of disease and tremendous progress in ...

  12. Mucosal Melanoma: Epidemiology, Biology and Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Kristen R; Mehnert, Janice M

    2016-01-01

    Mucosal melanoma is an exceedingly rare variant of cutaneous melanoma that, due to its rarity, is poorly described and infrequently studied. Primary sites of origin include the head and neck, anorectum and vulvovaginal regions. It is uniquely different from cutaneous melanoma with respect to epidemiology, etiology, pathogenesis and prognosis. The etiology and pathogenesis remain unclear. Unlike cutaneous melanoma, exposure to UV light is not an apparent risk factor. Furthermore, distinct molecular features including a lower incidence of BRAF oncogene mutations but a higher incidence of KIT oncogene mutations suggest divergent genetic etiologies. Mucosal melanomas generally present at a later stage, are more aggressive and carry a worse prognosis regardless of the stage at diagnosis. Establishing standardized treatment guidelines has been challenging due to the rarity of the disease. Early detection provides the best chance at survival but is often difficult due to anatomic location. Surgery remains the primary therapeutic intervention if complete resection is technically feasible given the anatomic location. Radiotherapy may be used to achieve local control when resection is not feasible, or adjuvantly to enhance locoregional control, but most studies have failed to demonstrate an improvement in overall survival. There are no consensus guidelines on the optimal systemic therapy, and regimens are often extrapolated from data based on therapies used to treat advanced cutaneous melanoma. Clinical trials, particularly utilizing newer targeted therapies and immunotherapies, are investigating novel treatment approaches. PMID:26601869

  13. Prognostic factors of primary cutaneus melanoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noveski Lazo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The purpose of this study was to identify tumor characteristics of primary malignant melanoma predictive of sentinel lymph node positive status, and then to determine whether sentinel lymph node status has an impact on recurrence and survival. Material and Methods. A total of 100 patients with primary malignant skin melanoma were analyzed. The prospective melanoma database identified patients with histologically confirmed cutaneus melanoma, clinically negative and clinically positive regional lymph nodes with no evidence of distant disease, who had undergone surgery between April 2001 and May 2012. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to assess factors that predict sentinel lymph node positive status, recurrence and survival. Results. We identified Breslow’s thickness and lymphocytic response as independent predictors of sentinel lymph node status in cutaneous melanoma patients. Sentinel lymph node status was a significant predictor of disease free survival. Conclusion. Despite the limitation, this study confirms Breslow’s thickness and tumor lymphocytic infiltration as two factors predictive of sentinel lymph node metastasis in cutaneous melanoma patients. We also found sentinel lymph node status to be the most significant independent predictor of disease free survival and identified sentinel lymph node status as an important variable to consider when estimating the risk of regional recurrence.

  14. Treatment and outcomes of anorectal melanoma.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Heeney, Anna

    2012-02-01

    INTRODUCTION: anorectal melanoma is an uncommon disease constituting less than 3% of all melanomas. Due to its rarity, there are a lack of randomized control trials regarding appropriate management and current evidence is based mainly on retrospective studies. METHODS: in view of the controversial surgical treatment of anorectal melanoma, we review the most published literature in an attempt to elucidate its typical clinical features along with current thinking with respect to management approaches to this aggressive disease. Using the keywords "anorectal" and "malignant melanoma", a medline search of all articles in English was performed and the relevant articles procured. Additional references were retrieved by cross reference from key articles. RESULTS: anorectal melanoma affects the elderly with a slight preponderance for females. It commonly presents disguised as benign disease with local bleeding or suspicion for haemorrhoidal disease. There is no convincing evidence to indicate that radical resection of primary anorectal melanoma is associated with improvement in local control or survival, and local excision is an acceptable treatment option. CONCLUSION: optimum management depends on several factors and the therapeutic goals should be to lengthen survival and preserve quality-of-life. Given that wide local excision is a more limited intervention with comparable survival it should be considered as the initial treatment choice. Unfortunately prognosis for patients with this disease remains poor despite choice of treatment strategy with overall five year disease-free survival less than twenty percent in most studies.

  15. Melanoma cutáneo asociado a nevo previo / Cutaneous melanoma associated with previous nevus

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    María P., Gutiérrez; Mónica, Barengo; Claudio, Mainardi; Iliana, Garay; María, Kurpis; Alejandro, Ruiz Lascano.

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available El melanoma maligno es una neoplasia originada en los melanocitos de la piel y otras localizaciones. No existe información en nuestro país acerca de su incidencia y prevalecencia, sí se sabe cuáles son los factores de riesgo más importantes. El melanoma puede originarse de novo o a partir de lesione [...] s melanocíticas previas. La noción de que un nevo melanocítico pueda servir como lesión precursora es sustentada por evidencias clínicas e histológicas. Realizamos en el Hospital Privado de Córdoba un estudio observacional, retrospectivo y analítico. El objetivo de este trabajo fue conocer cuál es la frecuencia de asociación de melanomas malignos que se desarrollan sobre nevos previos. Fueron analizados un total de 134 melanomas. En 32 pacientes (24%), los melanomas estuvieron histológicamente asociados con nevos, con espesores de Breslow mayores de 1 mm el porcentaje de asociación fue de 16.3%, y con Breslow menores de 1 mm, 38.1%. Al evaluar los melanomas en relación a la clasificación de Breslow y Clark, se objetivó que el grupo de melanomas asociados a nevos presentó un espesor de Breslow y niveles de Clark bajos y en el análisis estadístico fueron predictores significativos en la probabilidad de hallar esta asociación (p Abstract in english The malignant melanoma is a neoplasia originated from the melanocytes located in the skin and other locations. Even though there is not information regarding its incidence and prevalence in our country, its most important risk factors are known. The melanoma can originate de novo or from previous me [...] lanocytic lesions. The concept that a melanocytic nevus can serve as a precursor lesion is supported by clinical and histological evidence. An observational, retrospective and analytical study was carried out in the Hospital Privado de Córdoba. The objective was to determine which is the frequency of association of malignant melanomas that develop on previous nevus. A total of 134 melanomas were analyzed. In 32 cases (24%), the melanomas were histologically associated with nevus, in individuals with Breslow's depth bigger than 1 mm the percentage of association was 16.3% while in those exhibiting Breslow smaller than 1 mm the percentage of association was 38.1%. Having evaluated the melanomas in relation to the Breslow and Clark classification, we observed that the nevus associated melanoma group showed less Breslow thickness and low Clark levels, which, by statistical analysis were shown to be significant predictors of the probabilty of finding this association (p

  16. Melanoma risk perception and prevention behavior among African-Americans: the minority melanoma paradox

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goldenberg A

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Alina Goldenberg,1 Igor Vujic,2,3 Martina Sanlorenzo,2,4 Susana Ortiz-Urda2 1Department of Internal Medicine/Dermatology, University of California, San Diego, 2Mt Zion Cancer Research Center, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, USA; 3Department of Dermatology, The Rudolfstiftung Hospital, Academic Teaching Hospital, Medical University Vienna, Vienna, Austria; 4Section of Dermatology, Department of Medical Sciences, University of Turin, Turin, Italy Introduction: Melanoma is the most deadly type of skin cancer with 75% of all skin cancer deaths within the US attributed to it. Risk factors for melanoma include ultraviolet exposure, genetic predisposition, and phenotypic characteristics (eg, fair skin and blond hair. Whites have a 27-fold higher incidence of melanoma than African-Americans (AA, but the 5-year survival is 17.8% lower for AA than Whites. It is reported continuously that AA have more advanced melanomas at diagnosis, and overall lower survival rates. This minority melanoma paradox is not well understood or studied. Objective: To explore further, the possible explanations for the difference in melanoma severity and survival in AA within the US. Methods: Qualitative review of the literature. Results: Lack of minority-targeted public education campaigns, low self-risk perception, low self-skin examinations, intrinsic virulence, vitamin D differences, and physician mistrust may play a role in the melanoma survival disparity among AA. Conclusion: Increases in public awareness of melanoma risk among AA through physician and media-guided education, higher index of suspicion among individuals and physicians, and policy changes can help to improve early detection and close the melanoma disparity gap in the future. Keywords: acral, advanced, African-American, disparity, melanoma, survival

  17. Melanoma de corpo ciliar e coróide: relato de caso / Choroidal and ciliary body melanoma: case report

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Aline Amaral Fulgêncio da, Cunha; Nara Helena Teixeira, Rodrigues; Grazziella Acácio e, Almeida; Bruno Carvalho, Picanço; João Agostini, Netto.

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Melanomas oculares correspondem a 5% de todos os melanomas e 85% deles têm origem no trato uveal. Melanoma uveal é o tumor maligno intraocular primário mais comum no adulto. Relatamos neste artigo um caso de melanoma uveal em paciente, sexo feminino, 31 anos, com quadro de fotopsia, hiperemia e baix [...] a da acuidade visual no olho esquerdo com evolução de quatro meses. Apresentava ao exame oftalmológico acuidade visual menor que 20/400, grande massa tumoral na região nasal retroiriana, com deslocamento anterior do cristalino, estreitamento da câmara anterior e descolamento seroso da retina. A ecografia sugeriu tratar-se de grande massa tumoral suspeita de melanoma de coróide com invasão do corpo ciliar. A confirmação diagnóstica foi possível por meio do exame anatomopatológico. Abstract in english Ocular melanomas correspond to 5% of all melanomas and 85% of them have its origin in the uveal tract. Uveal melanoma is the most commom primary intraocular malignant tumor in the adult. In this article, a case of uveal melanoma in a 31 year-old female patient, with photopsia, hyperemia and low visu [...] al acuity in the left eye with evolution of 4 months is presented. In the ophthalmologic examination, visual acuity was lower than 20/400, a large tumoral mass was noted at the nasal region behind the iris with anterior lens displacement, anterior chamber narrowing and serous retinal detachment. The ocular echography suggested a large tumoral mass as a choroidal melanoma extending to the ciliary body. The confirmation diagnosis was possible through the histopathologic examination.

  18. Nail apparatus melanoma: a diagnostic opportunity / Melanoma do aparelho ungueal: uma oportunidade diagnóstica

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ana Maria, Carreño; Sílvia Rocha, Nakajima; Silmara N., Pennini; Renato, Candido Junior; Antonio Pedro Mendes, Schettini.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Melanoma Maligno é uma neoplasia de alta mortalidade, sendo raro o acometimento do aparelho ungueal. Apenas 2/3 dos pacientes procuram atendimento médico devido lesão melanocítica ungueal recente, tornando o diagnóstico tardio e com prognóstico pior que do melanoma cutâneo. Descreve-se um caso de pa [...] ciente sexo feminino, apresentando lesões ulceradas com características clínico-laboratoriais compatíveis com leishmaniose tegumentar americana. No retorno após início do tratamento foi observada melanoníquia longitudinal no primeiro quirodáctilo direito. Realizada biópsia da matriz ungueal com histopatológico compatível com melanoma in situ. Melanoníquia longitudinal não é sinal específico de melanoma. A identificação das lesões suspeitas é importante tarefa dos dermatologistas. O diagnóstico incidental de melanoma ungueal in situ do caso relatado resultou em grande impacto na sobrevida da paciente. Abstract in english Malignant Melanoma is a high mortality neoplasm. The involvement of the nail apparatus is rare, with only 2 out of 3 patients seeking medical attention as the result of recent nail melanocytic lesions. This results in late diagnosis and a prognosis worse than cutaneous melanoma. We report a female, [...] presenting with ulcerative lesions with clinical and laboratory features compatible with leishmaniasis. On return after treatment initiation a longitudinal melanonychia was observed on her first right finger. Biopsy of the nail matrix was performed. Histopathology was compatible with melanoma in situ. Longitudinal melanonychia is not a specific sign for melanoma and it is important that the dermatologist should identify the suspect lesions correctly. The incidental diagnosis of nail melanoma in situ in our case significantly impacted the patient's survival.

  19. Do We Know What Causes Melanoma Skin Cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Topic Can melanoma skin cancer be prevented? Do we know what causes melanoma skin cancer? Although researchers ... genes – the instructions for how our cells function. We usually look like our parents because they are ...

  20. Long-term Survival after Metastatic Childhood Melanoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Anne Kristine; Bybjerg Jensen, Mette

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY: Malignant melanoma in children is very rare and accounts for only 1-3% of all melanomas. A congenital melanocytic nevus depending on the size of the lesion is one of the risk factors for developing childhood melanoma because of the possible malignant transformation. Childhood malignant melanoma is a potentially fatal disease. Surgical excision is the primary treatment of choice for malignant melanoma. Clinicians need to be aware of the possible malignant transformation in children with congenital melanocytic nevus because early diagnosis and treatment improves prognosis. The suspicion of malign melanoma must be in mind when evaluating a pigmented lesion in a pediatric patient. We present a case of a patient born with a congenital nevus diagnosed with metastatic childhood malignant scalp melanoma at the age of 6 years. The patient underwent surgical ablation and reconstruction and has survived 26 years without recurrence, thus representing an uplifting case of long-term survival of childhood melanoma.

  1. Role of radiotherapy in melanoma management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In melanoma, radiotherapy has generally been considered as a palliative treatment option indicated only for advanced cases or disseminated disease. In the 70s of the previous century, the technological advances in radiotherapy, linked to rapid development of computer sciences, resulted in restored interest for radiotherapy in melanoma management. Although a fundamental lack of well designed prospective and/or randomized clinical trials critically influenced the integration of radiotherapy into treatment strategies in melanoma, radiotherapy was recently recognized as an indispensable part in the multidisciplinary management of patients with melanoma. Altogether, approximately 23% of melanoma patients should receive at least one course of radiotherapy during the course of the disease. In this review, radiobiological properties of melanoma that govern the decisions for the fractionation patterns used in the treatment of this disease are described. Moreover, the indications for irradiation and the results of pertinent clinical studies from the literature, creating a rationale for the use of radiotherapy in the management of this disease, are reviewed and a brief description of radiotherapy techniques is given. Basic treatment modality in melanoma is surgery. However, whenever surgery is not radical or there are adverse prognostic factors identified on histopathological examination of resected tissue specimen, it needs to be supplemented. Also, in patients with unresectable disease or in those not being suitable for major surgery or who refuse proposed surgical intervention, other effective mode(s) of therapy need to be implemented. From this perspective, supported by clinical experiences and literature results, radiotherapy is a valuable option: it is effective and safe, in curative and palliative setting

  2. Amelanotic Acral Melanoma Associated with KIT Mutation and Vitiligo

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Young Jee; Lee, Jee-Bum; Kim, Seong-Jin; Lee, Seung-Chul; Won, Young Ho; Yun, Sook Jung

    2015-01-01

    Amelanotic acral melanoma is rare and difficult to diagnose, both clinically and pathologically. KIT mutations are frequently found in acral melanomas and are considered a risk factor for poor prognosis. The presence of vitiligo in melanoma has been reported, and KIT is thought to be partly responsible for the dysfunction and loss of melanocytes observed in vitiligo. We report a case of amelanotic subungual melanoma with multiple metastases that was associated with KIT mutation and vitiligo. ...

  3. Cystoid macular edema as the initial manifestation of choroidal melanoma

    OpenAIRE

    Garoon, Robert B.; Carol L. Shields; Kaliki, Swathi; Shields, Jerry A.

    2012-01-01

    Uveal melanomas are a common clinical entity that initially present in a variety of ways. Cystoid macular edema is caused by many conditions, but it is rarely associated with uveal melanoma. We report two cases of patients that presented with visually significant cystoid macular edema that was later found to be secondary to choroidal melanoma. We describe the patients’ course and treatment and provide a mechanism for the potential cause of edema in patients with uveal melanoma.

  4. Subretinal lipid exudation associated with untreated choroidal melanoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C K Minija

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Subretinal lipid exudation in an untreated choroidal melanoma is very rare. It is seen following plaque radiotherapy in choroidal melanoma. There is only one case report of untreated choroidal melanoma with massive lipid exudation in a patient with metastatic hypernephroma. We report here a rare case of untreated choroidal melanoma with lipid exudation. Subretinal exudation that is rarely seen following plaque brachytherapy was noted at the borders of this untreated tumor. Lipid exudation partially resolved following brachytherapy.

  5. Stress as a Possible Mechanism in Melanoma Progression

    OpenAIRE

    M. Arunachalam; Berti, S.; Moretti, S; Colucci, R.; M. Sanzo

    2010-01-01

    The incidence of melanoma, the most aggressive type of cutaneous malignant tumor, is currently on the rise. Treatment in advanced stages is still unsuccessful compared with other malignant tumors, thus it is important to indentify the key mechanisms responsible for melanoma progression and metastasis. Genetic and molecular components, in particular, that are up- or downregulated in melanoma cells, affect the invasive potential of melanoma. Another possible important cofactor highlighted by re...

  6. Primary melanoma of the esophagus, a diagnostic challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sim, Yirong; Teo, Jonathan Shunming; Iqbal, Jabed; Chan, Weng Hoong

    2015-10-01

    Primary melanoma of the esophagus is a rare condition. Its diagnosis can be challenging, as its presentation is similar to that of other esophageal malignancies, especially when melanin is not evidently expressed in the melanoma. We report a case of esophageal melanoma in a 59-year-old Chinese male, whose histological diagnosis was confirmed from the esophagectomy specimen. PMID:26385307

  7. Indium-111 labeled anti-melanoma monoclonal antibodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, S.C.; Fawwaz, R.A.; Ferrone, S.

    1984-04-30

    A monoclonal antibody to a high molecular weight melanoma-associated antigen was chelated and radiolabeled with indium-111. This material shows high affinity for melanoma and thus can be used in the detection, localization and imaging of melanoma. 1 figure.

  8. Cytotoxic T lymphocyte responses against melanocytes and melanoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schwartz Erich J

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vitiligo is a common toxicity associated with immunotherapy for melanoma. Cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs against melanoma commonly target melanoma-associated antigens (MAAs which are also expressed by melanocytes. To uncouple vitiligo from melanoma destruction, it is important to understand if CTLs can respond against melanoma and melanocytes at different levels. Methods To understand the dichotomous role of MAA-specific CTL, we characterized the functional reactivities of established CTL clones directed to MAAs against melanoma and melanocyte cell lines. Results CTL clones generated from melanoma patients were capable of eliciting MHC-restricted, MAA-specific lysis against melanocyte cell lines as well as melanoma cells. Among the tested HLA-A*0201-restricted CTL clones, melanocytes evoked equal to slightly higher degranulation and cytolytic responses as compared to melanoma cells. Moreover, MAA-specific T cells from vaccinated patients responded directly ex vivo to melanoma and melanocytes. Melanoma cells express slightly higher levels of MART-1 and gp100 than melanocytes as measured by quantitative reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR and immunohistochemistry. Conclusions Our data suggest that CTLs respond to melanoma and melanocytes equally in vitro and directly ex vivo.

  9. A novel function of Junctional Adhesion Molecule-C in mediating melanoma cell metastasis

    OpenAIRE

    Langer, Harald F.; Orlova, Valeria V.; Xie, Changping; Kaul, Sunil; Schneider, Darius; Lonsdorf, Anke S.; Fahrleitner, Manuela; Choi, Eun Young; Dutoit, Vanessa; Pellegrini, Manuela; Grossklaus, Sylvia; Nawroth, Peter P.; Baretton, Gustavo; Santoso, Sentot; Sam T. Hwang

    2011-01-01

    Hematogenous dissemination of melanoma is a life-threatening complication of this malignant tumor. Here, we identified Junctional Adhesion Molecule-C (JAM-C) as a novel player in melanoma metastasis to the lung. JAM-C expression was identified in human and murine melanoma cell lines, in human malignant melanoma, as well as in metastatic melanoma including melanoma lung metastasis. JAM-C expressed on both murine B16 melanoma cells as well as on endothelial cells, promoted the transendothelial ...

  10. Animal-Type Melanoma: A Rare Type of Malignant Melanoma with an Indolent Clinical Behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muna Sabah

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Animal-type melanoma is an exceedingly rare histological variant of melanoma in humans. The name was coined to reflect similar histological features to melanomas in grey horses. We present a case of animal-type melanoma. The neoplastic cells were heavily pigmented with an epithelioid morphology, round nuclei and prominent eosinophilic nucleoli. Only occasional mitotic figures were identified. The tumour cells had diffuse and nodular growth patterns with involvement of the dermis and the subcutaneous tissue. The patient had a “benign cellular blue naevus” excised 9 years earlier from the same site. Review of the previous case revealed heavily pigmented epithelioid cells with similar morphology to the current case. Nuclear pleomorphism was minimal and only a single mitotic figure was present. The lesion extended to the margins of excision. The diagnosis of animal-type melanoma was made on the current case and on the previously misdiagnosed case. Recurrence of this case nine years following incomplete excision further supports the hypothesis that animal-type melanoma is a distinct histological type of malignant melanoma with an indolent clinical course.

  11. The epidemiology, prevention, and detection of melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riker, Adam I; Zea, Nicolas; Trinh, Tan

    2010-01-01

    We are seeing a record number of newly diagnosed skin cancers worldwide, with the incidence of melanoma increasing at a faster rate than almost all other cancers. As clinicians, we will have, by far, the greatest impact on reducing this incidence through better methods of early detection of melanoma and proven prevention methods and techniques. The medical community must enhance its efforts to increase its training of new health care personnel who are capable of diagnosing and treating this record number of patients with skin cancer. We must also try to increase the access to our limited number of dermatologists and provide novel ways of patient education such as through skin self-examinations, total body photography, and improved education for our children. By providing easier access to skin examinations, we will increase our chances of detecting melanoma in its earliest and most curable form. The dangers of indoor tanning beds and salons must be transparent to those that use them, focusing on expanding the oversight of such facilities by our local and federal governmental agencies while establishing legislation in several states to further limit their use to our youth, who are especially at high risk for developing melanoma in the future. This review will focus on the epidemiology, prevention, and detection of melanoma. PMID:21603359

  12. Treating advanced melanoma: current insights and opportunities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tronnier M

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Michael Tronnier, Christina Mitteldorf Department of Dermatology, Klinikum Hildesheim GmbH, Hildesheim, Germany Abstract: Whereas thin melanomas have an excellent prognosis after sufficient surgical treatment, melanoma disease in advanced stages is still a therapeutic challenge. After decades of frustrating studies, new therapeutic strategies have come up in the past few years. On the one hand, increasing insights into the molecular aberrations in melanoma have led to specific "targeted" therapies to affect only the mutated tumor cells, as in many other types of cancers. Today there are few "targeted" substances which are already approved and successfully used for single or combination therapy, but many others are under development. While on the other hand, nonpersonalized strategy substances have been developed successfully inducing an immunologic tumor response. Both kinds of therapy have been found to result in an improvement not only of the response rate, but also of the overall survival in metastatic disease, which represents a milestone in melanoma therapy. However, using these therapies there is still much to learn regarding the effects, the side effects, and the limitations of these promising substances. Keywords: melanoma, treatment, targeted therapy, immunotherapy, BRAF, CTLA-4

  13. Brachytherapy in the Management of Uveal Melanomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuray Tuncer

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Uveal melanoma is the most common intraocular tumor in adults. Clinical studies have shown similar patient survival rates after treatment of medium-sized melanomas when comparing plaque brachytherapy with radioactive iodine-125 versus enucleation. This finding further emphasizes the importance of this globe-sparing treatment. Brachytherapy is a special local radiotherapy technique that aims to deliver high-dose radiation directly to the tumor by sparing the periocular structures. Brachytherapy is still the most widely used treatment for uveal melanoma. Iodine-125 and ruthenium-106 are the most common radioisotopes used in brachytherapy. After brachytherapy, sight-threatening complications occur unavoidably in many patients. Brachytherapy is mostly associated with long-term complications. Radiation retinopathy and cataract formation are the most common treatment-related complications. Brachytherapy provides local tumor control (ocular salvage in about 90% of patients. Adjunctive transpupillary thermotherapy (sandwich therapy improves the control rate of local tumors to 97%. About 10% of patients treated with brachytherapy subsequently require enucleation because of local tumor recurrence or neovascular glaucoma at 5 years of follow-up. Metastatic disease occurs in 10% of patients with medium-sized melanoma at 5-year follow-up. This rate increases to 55% at 10-year follow-up in patients with large melanomas (thickness >8 mm. Thus, it is very important to inform the patients under the light of these data prior to brachytherapy. (Turk J Ophthalmol 2014; 44: Supplement 43-8

  14. A Landscape of Driver Mutations in Melanoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodis, Eran; Watson, Ian R.; Kryukov, Gregory V.; Arold, Stefan T.; Imielinski, Marcin; Theurillat, Jean-Philippe; Nickerson, Elizabeth; Auclair, Daniel; Li, Liren; Place, Chelsea; DiCara, Daniel; Ramos, Alex H.; Lawrence, Michael S.; Cibulskis, Kristian; Sivachenko, Andrey; Voet, Douglas; Saksena, Gordon; Stransky, Nicolas; Onofrio, Robert C.; Winckler, Wendy; Ardlie, Kristin; Wagle, Nikhil; Wargo, Jennifer; Chong, Kelly; Morton, Donald L.; Stemke-Hale, Katherine; Chen, Guo; Noble, Michael; Meyerson, Matthew; Ladbury, John E.; Davies, Michael A.; Gershenwald, Jeffrey E.; Wagner, Stephan N.; Hoon, Dave S.B.; Schadendorf, Dirk; Lander, Eric S.; Gabriel, Stacey B.; Getz, Gad; Garraway, Levi A.; Chin, Lynda

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY Despite recent insights into melanoma genetics, systematic surveys for driver mutations are challenged by an abundance of passenger mutations caused by carcinogenic ultraviolet (UV) light exposure. We developed a permutation-based framework to address this challenge, employing mutation data from intronic sequences to control for passenger mutational load on a per gene basis. Analysis of large-scale melanoma exome data by this approach discovered six novel melanoma genes (PPP6C, RAC1, SNX31, TACC1, STK19 and ARID2), three of which - RAC1, PPP6C and STK19 - harbored recurrent and potentially targetable mutations. Integration with chromosomal copy number data contextualized the landscape of driver mutations, providing oncogenic insights in BRAF- and NRAS-driven melanoma as well as those without known NRAS/BRAF mutations. The landscape also clarified a mutational basis for RB and p53 pathway deregulation in this malignancy. Finally, the spectrum of driver mutations provided unequivocal genomic evidence for a direct mutagenic role of UV light in melanoma pathogenesis. PMID:22817889

  15. Antioxidants can increase melanoma metastasis in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Gal, Kristell; Ibrahim, Mohamed X; Wiel, Clotilde; Sayin, Volkan I; Akula, Murali K; Karlsson, Christin; Dalin, Martin G; Akyürek, Levent M; Lindahl, Per; Nilsson, Jonas; Bergo, Martin O

    2015-10-01

    Antioxidants in the diet and supplements are widely used to protect against cancer, but clinical trials with antioxidants do not support this concept. Some trials show that antioxidants actually increase cancer risk and a study in mice showed that antioxidants accelerate the progression of primary lung tumors. However, little is known about the impact of antioxidant supplementation on the progression of other types of cancer, including malignant melanoma. We show that administration of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) increases lymph node metastases in an endogenous mouse model of malignant melanoma but has no impact on the number and size of primary tumors. Similarly, NAC and the soluble vitamin E analog Trolox markedly increased the migration and invasive properties of human malignant melanoma cells but did not affect their proliferation. Both antioxidants increased the ratio between reduced and oxidized glutathione in melanoma cells and in lymph node metastases, and the increased migration depended on new glutathione synthesis. Furthermore, both NAC and Trolox increased the activation of the small guanosine triphosphatase (GTPase) RHOA, and blocking downstream RHOA signaling abolished antioxidant-induced migration. These results demonstrate that antioxidants and the glutathione system play a previously unappreciated role in malignant melanoma progression. PMID:26446958

  16. Revisiting determinants of prognosis in cutaneous melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Sarah A; Hanniford, Douglas; Hernando, Eva; Osman, Iman

    2015-12-01

    The American Joint Committee on Cancer staging system for cutaneous melanoma is based on primary tumor thickness and the presence of ulceration, mitoses, lymph node spread, and distant metastases as determinants of prognosis. Although this cutaneous melanoma staging system has evolved over time to more accurately reflect patient prognosis, improvements are still needed, because current understanding of the particular factors (genetic mutation, expression alteration, host response, etc) that are critical for predicting patient outcomes is incomplete. Given the clinical and biologic heterogeneity of primary melanomas, new prognostic tools are needed to more precisely identify patients who are most likely to develop advanced disease. Such tools would affect clinical surveillance strategies and aid in patient selection for adjuvant therapy. The authors reviewed the literature on prognostic molecular and immunologic markers in primary cutaneous melanoma, their associations with clinicopathologic and survival outcomes, and their potential for incorporation into current staging models. Overall, the studies considered in this review did not define prognostic markers that could be readily incorporated into the current staging system. Therefore, efforts should be continued in these and other directions to maximize the likelihood of identifying clinically useful prognostic biomarkers for cutaneous melanoma. Cancer 2015;121:4108-4123. © 2015 American Cancer Society. PMID:26308244

  17. Vemurafenib for the treatment of melanoma.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Jordan, Emmet John

    2012-12-01

    Metastatic melanoma is an aggressive disease resistant to chemotherapy. Recent clinical trials have reported improved survival for two novel agents; ipilimumab, a humanized, IgG1 monoclonal antibody that blocks cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 (CTLA-4) and vemurafenib , a BRAF (v-raf murine sarcoma viral oncogene homolog B1) inhibitor targeting an activating mutation in the serine-threonine-protein kinase BRAF gene. AREAS COVERED: The authors reviewed preclinical and clinical data examining the safety of vemurafenib in melanoma. MEDLINE and EMBASE were searched using the medical subject heading \\'vemurafenib\\' and the following text terms: melanoma, BRAF inhibition, vemurafenib. This review provides the reader with an overview of current data examining the efficacy and safety of vemurafenib in metastatic melanoma. EXPERT OPINION: Vemurafenib is an oral agent licensed for patients with BRAF V600E mutation-positive inoperable and metastatic melanoma. The most common adverse effects observed in Phase III clinical trials were dermatological events, arthralgia and fatigue. Specific dermatological toxicities included development of cutaneous squamous cell cancers and keratoacanthomas. Prolongation of the QT interval was also reported. Regular dermatological assessments and electrocardiograms are recommended. Ongoing trials are examining vemurafenib in both the adjuvant setting and metastatic setting in combination with ipilimumab and MEK inhibitors (mitogen-activated protein kinase\\/extracellular signal-regulated kinase). Understanding and overcoming mechanisms of resistance to BRAF inhibitors is the focus of ongoing research.

  18. Melanoma of the Hand: Current Practice and New Frontiers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Brad Turner

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Melanoma of the hand represents a complicated clinical entity. Anatomic features of the hand create challenges in successful management of melanoma not encountered elsewhere in the body. The objectives of this article are to outline current standards for managing melanoma of the hand including diagnosis, surgical, and chemotherapeutic management. Particular emphasis will be placed on currently debated topics of the role of sentinel lymph node biopsy, the role of Mohs micrographic surgery, tissue sparing management of subungual melanoma, and the consideration of melanoma of the hand as a distinct entity based on clinical and molecular studies.

  19. Current Research and Development of Chemotherapeutic Agents for Melanoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyaw Minn Hsan

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Cutaneous malignant melanoma is the most lethal form of skin cancer and an increasingly common disease worldwide. It remains one of the most treatment-refractory malignancies. The current treatment options for patients with metastatic melanoma are limited and in most cases non-curative. This review focuses on conventional chemotherapeutic drugs for melanoma treatment, by a single or combinational agent approach, but also summarizes some potential novel phytoagents discovered from dietary vegetables or traditional herbal medicines as alternative options or future medicine for melanoma prevention. We explore the mode of actions of these natural phytoagents against metastatic melanoma.

  20. Exome sequencing identifies recurrent somatic RAC1 mutations in melanoma

    OpenAIRE

    Krauthammer, Michael; Kong, Yong; Ha, Byung Hak; Evans, Perry; Bacchiocchi, Antonella; McCusker, James P; Cheng, Elaine; Davis, Matthew J.; Goh, Gerald; Choi, Murim; Ariyan, Stephan; Narayan, Deepak; Dutton-Regester, Ken; Capatana, Ana; Holman, Edna C.

    2012-01-01

    We characterized the mutational landscape of melanoma, the form of skin cancer with the highest mortality rate, by sequencing the exomes of 147 melanomas. Sun-exposed melanomas had markedly more ultraviolet (UV)-like C>T somatic mutations compared to sun-shielded acral, mucosal and uveal melanomas. Among the newly identified cancer genes was PPP6C, encoding a serine/threonine phosphatase, which harbored mutations that clustered in the active site in 12% of sun-exposed melanomas, exclusively i...

  1. Confocal microscopy in the diagnosis of melanoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Apostolovi?-Stojanovi? Milica

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Melanoma is the most deadly form of skin cancer of melanocytic origin. The tumor has a high malignant potential and early metastasis. Prognosis is directly linked to the stage of the disease. Diagnosing thin melanoma at an early stage offers patients their best chance for survival. The crucial innovation in the early recognition of melanoma was the development of in vivo examination of the skin in high-resolution, by confocal microscopy. Confocal microscopy and its modifications provides a “virtual biopsy“, owing to melanosomes and melanin, which are a source of endogenous contrast. Confocal scanning laser microscopy (CSLM provides visualization of microanatomical structures and cellular detail in real time (pigmented keratinocytes, melanocytes, melanosomes and melanophages in the epidermis, dermoepidermal junction and superficial dermis at a resolution equivalent to the resolution of conventional microscopes. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 41002

  2. Control of differentiation of melanoma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To develop the method to induce the appearance of differentiation in amelanotic melanoma, experimental control of differentiation in B-16 melanoma cells of mice was discussed. Human melanoma cells and yellow melanin pigment cells useful for a fundamental study of radiotherapy for cancer were cultured and were differentiated into some lines. Melanotic B-16 cells and amelanotic B-16 cells were irradiated with thermal neutron (neutron: 2.7 x 1012, ?-dose: 32.3 rad) after they were cultured in culture solution containing 10 ?/ml of 10B-dopa for 13 hours. A fine structure 5 hours after the irradiation in one of 5 experimental cases showed aggregated disintegration of melanin pigment particles, markedly deformed and fragmentized nucleus, and structural changes in cell membrane. (Tsunoda, M.)

  3. Ensemble approach for differentiation of malignant melanoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rastgoo, Mojdeh; Morel, Olivier; Marzani, Franck; Garcia, Rafael

    2015-04-01

    Melanoma is the deadliest type of skin cancer, yet it is the most treatable kind depending on its early diagnosis. The early prognosis of melanoma is a challenging task for both clinicians and dermatologists. Due to the importance of early diagnosis and in order to assist the dermatologists, we propose an automated framework based on ensemble learning methods and dermoscopy images to differentiate melanoma from dysplastic and benign lesions. The evaluation of our framework on the recent and public dermoscopy benchmark (PH2 dataset) indicates the potential of proposed method. Our evaluation, using only global features, revealed that ensembles such as random forest perform better than single learner. Using random forest ensemble and combination of color and texture features, our framework achieved the highest sensitivity of 94% and specificity of 92%.

  4. Bioelectric Applications for Treatment of Melanoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Heller

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Two new cancer therapies apply bioelectric principles. These methods target tumor structures locally and function by applying millisecond electric fields to deliver plasmid DNA encoding cytokines using electrogene transfer (EGT or by applying rapid rise-time nanosecond pulsed electric fields (nsPEFs. EGT has been used to locally deliver cytokines such as IL-12 to activate an immune response, resulting in bystander effects. NsPEFs locally induce apoptosis-like effects and affect vascular networks, both promoting tumor demise and restoration of normal vascular homeostasis. EGT with IL-12 is in melanoma clinical trials and nsPEFs are used in models with B16F10 melanoma in vitro and in mice. Applications of bioelectrics, using conventional electroporation and extensions of it, provide effective alternative therapies for melanoma.

  5. Historia del melanoma maligno en uruguay

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Julio C, Priario.

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available El melanoma maligno ha cobrado notoriedad últimamente en virtud de presentar un incremento en su incidencia durante las últimas décadas, pero ya se habían registrado casos en el siglo XVIII. Hoy se encuentra en el Museo Hunterian de Londres la pieza operatoria de un paciente operado por John Hunter [...] en 1787. A lo largo del siglo XIX varios autores europeos se ocuparon del tema, lo que nos permite decir que el conocimiento científico comienza allí, encontrándose publicaciones en relación con casos clínicos, alguno de los cuales era seguido de autopsia y también encontramos en esas publicaciones los primeros estudios histológicos que permitieron identificar esta entidad nosológica. El primer caso de melanoma publicado en Uruguay fue realizado por el Dr. Brito Foresti en la Revista Médica del Uruguay hace más de 100 años con la denominación de sarcoma melánico. Pero en la segunda mitad del siglo XX y como consecuencia del rápido crecimiento de la incidencia y mortalidad por melanoma, el conocimiento científico se hizo más preciso. En Uruguay se pudo comprobar que al igual que en los países europeos mediterráneos había un aumento de la incidencia, particularmente en mujeres, lo que fue puesto en evidencia por los estudios de la Comisión Honoraria de Lucha contra el Cáncer. Gran preocupación determinó en las autoridades sanitarias mundiales el alto índice de melanomas en Australia y Nueva Zelanda y el aumento no tan importante en Estados Unidos. Esto originó la creación de Grupos de Estudios Cooperativos de los cuales el WHO Melanoma Programme es el que cuenta con el mayor número de miembros, ya que participan 82 grupos oncológicos de 28 países, estando Uruguay representado por el Hospital de Clínicas "Dr. Manuel Quintela", Facultad de Medicina. De los estudios que realizó este grupo surgieron las pautas fundamentales para el diagnóstico y tratamiento del melanoma. Entre estos se debe señalar: 1) la importancia de la profundidad de la lesión (Breslow); 2) la importancia de la ulceración en el pronóstico y tratamiento; 3) la precisión en cuanto a márgenes de resección; 4) el estudio del ganglio centinela; 5) la valoración de las terapéuticas adyuvantes; 6) la prevención primaria y secundaria; 7) la valoración de los estudios genéticos. En todos estos estudios, Uruguay participó activamente aportando sus casos clínicos. Por otra parte, teniendo en cuenta la acción de la radiación ultravioleta en la patogenia del melanoma, se realizaron estudios de esta radiación y del adelgazamiento de la capa de ozono sobre Uruguay por parte de investigadores de la Facultad de Ciencias y del Instituto Nacional de Meteorología. En el Servicio de Oncología Clínica del Hospital de Clínicas "Dr. Manuel Quintela" funciona desde 1971 la Unidad de Melanoma, constituida por los científicos con cuya colaboración se realiza esta publicación Abstract in english Summary Malignant melanoma is increasingly notorious due to a rise of its incidence in the last decades, but there were cases recorded in the XVIII century. There is a surgical specimen in Hunterian Museum of London from a patient operated by John Hunter in 1787. Many European authors published pape [...] rs in the XIX century. Some of them included autopsy and the first histological studies that allowed the identification of this condition. Dr. Brito Foresti published the first case in the Revista Médica del Uruguay one hundred years ago under the name of melanoma sarcoma. In the second half of the XX century, scientific knowledge of melanoma was more precise as a consequence of its incidence and the growth of mortality rates. In Uruguay, as in many Mediterranean countries, there was an increase of its incidence, particularly in women as it was shown by the Honorary Committee against Cancer (Comisión Honoraria de Lucha Contra el Cáncer). The Hospital de Clínicas ‘Dr. Manuel Quintela’ represents the WHO Melanoma Program in Uruguay, a program that account for 82 cancer groups of 28 countries. This programme

  6. Circumventing melanoma chemoresistance by targeting DNA repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mocellin, S; Bertazza, L; Benna, C; Pilati, P

    2012-01-01

    Available evidence demonstrates that the DNA repair machinery is involved in melanoma resistance to chemotherapeutics. Furhtermore, preclinical findings suggest that interfering with DNA repair could increase chemosensitivity of melanoma cells. However, the clinical implementation of these principles is still in its infancy and no such strategy is currently proven to be effective in patients with advanced melanoma. Since the molecular mechanisms governing the relationship between chemoresistance and DNA repair are not fully elucidated, more basic and translational research is needed to understand the reasons for the failures and to identify novel targets. In this review we summarize the experimental and clinical findings that are fostering the research in this promising field of oncology. PMID:22788765

  7. [Epibulbar superficial spreading melanoma (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linnen, H J; Hundeiker, M; Tilkorn, H

    1978-07-01

    A report rarely a case of superficial spreading melanoma of the conjunctiva bulbi in a 40-year-old woman. As this kind of tumor is very found at this site, the unusual localisation rendered the differential diagnosis more difficult and delayed the radical operative therapy. After orbitectomy the patient has been free of local metastatic deposits for two years. She is fully rehabilitated by a good epithetis. The course of diagnosis in our case illustrates the necessity of uniform application of the nomenclature of cutaneous forms of melanomas and naevi in ophthalmology. PMID:692043

  8. Malignant Melanoma Arising in Red Tattoo Ink.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joyce, Cormac Weekes; Duff, Gerald; McKenna, Dermot; Regan, Padraic James

    2015-07-01

    We report the case of a 33-year-old male who presented with a malignant melanoma on his anterior chest wall. The lesion was only found in the red ink pigment of the tattoo, as were several in-transit dermal metastases. Possible explanations include a pre-existing lesion which was seeded with red ink or the possibility of the red ink causing an inflammatory reaction leading to malignant transformation. This is the first reported case of a melanoma developing in the red ink pigment of a multi-colored tattoo. PMID:26217569

  9. Nevoid malignant melanoma in an albino woman

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binesh, F; Akhavan, A; Navabii, H

    2010-01-01

    Albinism is a disorder of hypopigmentation affecting the skin, hair and eyes. Ultraviolet light induced cutaneous tumours are common in patients with albinism due to reduced or absent protection from melanin, with squamous cell carcinoma being the most common. Although non-melanomatous skin cancers are more frequent in patients with albinism, dysplastic nevi and melanoma present a greater diagnostic challenge in this group because of their hypopigmented appearance. Here the authors report a case of nevoid malignant melanoma in a patient who had type 1A oculocutaneous albinism. PMID:22802236

  10. DNA cell cycle studies in uveal melanoma.

    OpenAIRE

    Char, D H

    1988-01-01

    We analyzed the cell cycling status of a group of irradiated and nonirradiated uveal melanomas using BrdUrd techniques. These data demonstrate that melanomas are relatively slow-growing tumors with a few cells actively cycling at a given time. Radiation has a profound effect on the number of cycling cells (P less than .0001). After treatment with either 20 Gy of pre-enucleation photon or 60 Gy or more of helium ion irradiation, virtually no cells are detected in the synthesis phase of the DNA...

  11. Síndrome de cauda eqüina produzida por melanoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Lamartine de Assis

    1951-06-01

    Full Text Available The authors present a case of melanoma of the cauda equina which evolved during two years, starting with pain in the lower extremities and becoming at length a cauda equina syndrome, with bilateral sciatic pain, motor and sensorial signs and bladder and rectal disturbances. The tumor was only partially removed, on account of its infiltrating character. The patient died eleven months later. He had X-ray therapy soon after the operation. Autopsy was not performed but considering the clinical data, the localization and the type of the tumor, authors believe it connected by a primary melanoma of the lombar leptomeninges. A brief review of the literature is made.

  12. Epidermotropic metastatic melanoma with perilesional depigmentation in an Indian male

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhavana Doshi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Melanoma is a rare form of cutaneous malignancy encountered in the dark skin population. Epidermotropic metastatic melanoma is a rare form of cutaneous metastatic melanoma which can mimic primary melanoma on histopathology. Hence its differentiation is of immense prognostic importance. The occurrence of rim of depigmentation around the primary cutaneous melanoma has previously been reported to portend a bad prognosis. The occurrence of vitiligo like lesions in patients with metastatic melanoma in comparison has a better prognosis. However the occurrence of depigmentation around the secondaries is rare and its importance is not well known. Hence we wish to report a case of epidermotropic metastatic melanoma with perilesional depigmentation in a 78 year old Indian male.

  13. Isolation and Molecular Characterization of Circulating Melanoma Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xi Luo

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Melanoma is an invasive malignancy with a high frequency of blood-borne metastases, but circulating tumor cells (CTCs have not been readily isolated. We adapted microfluidic CTC capture to a tamoxifen-driven B-RAF/PTEN mouse melanoma model. CTCs were detected in all tumor-bearing mice and rapidly declined after B-RAF inhibitor treatment. CTCs were shed early from localized tumors, and a short course of B-RAF inhibition following surgical resection was sufficient to dramatically suppress distant metastases. The large number of CTCs in melanoma-bearing mice enabled a comparison of RNA-sequencing profiles with matched primary tumors. A mouse melanoma CTC-derived signature correlated with invasiveness and cellular motility in human melanoma. CTCs were detected in smaller numbers in patients with metastatic melanoma and declined with successful B-RAF-targeted therapy. Together, the capture and molecular characterization of CTCs provide insight into the hematogenous spread of melanoma.

  14. Possibilidade de associação de melanoma e acromegalia / Possibility of an association between melanoma and acromegaly

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Carolina Garcia Soares, Leães; Rafael Loch, Batista; Cristina Micheletto, Dallago; Julia Fernanda Semelmann Pereira, Lima; Miriam da Costa, Oliveira.

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Neoplasias como câncer de próstata, mama e cólon estão relacionadas à acromegalia. Raras vezes foi mencionada a associação com melanoma. Descreve-se caso de paciente com acromegalia no qual foi identificada lesão melanocítica suspeita, com posterior confirmação de melanoma. A excisão cirúrgica da le [...] são levou à cura da neoplasia. Chama-se a atenção para a necessidade de exame cuidadoso da pele de pacientes com acromegalia. Abstract in english Neoplasias such as prostate, breast, and colon cancer are commonly associated with acromegaly. However, the association of the latter with melanoma has been rarely mentioned. We describe the case of a patient with acromegaly in whom a suspicious melanocytic lesion was detected, and later confirmed t [...] o be melanoma by means of biopsy. Surgical excision of the lesion led to the cure of the neoplasia. More attention should be drawn to the need for careful skin examination of patients with acromegaly.

  15. MMP19 is upregulated during melanoma progression and increases invasion of melanoma cells.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Muller, M.; Beck, Inken; Gadesmann, J.; Karschuk, N.; Paschen, A.; Proksch, E.; Djonov, V.; Reiss, K.; Sedlá?ek, Radislav

    2010-01-01

    Ro?. 23, ?. 4 (2010), s. 511-521. ISSN 0893-3952 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520514 Keywords : melanoma * invasion * matrix metalloproteinase Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 4.176, year: 2010

  16. Possibilidade de associação de melanoma e acromegalia Possibility of an association between melanoma and acromegaly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Garcia Soares Leães

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Neoplasias como câncer de próstata, mama e cólon estão relacionadas à acromegalia. Raras vezes foi mencionada a associação com melanoma. Descreve-se caso de paciente com acromegalia no qual foi identificada lesão melanocítica suspeita, com posterior confirmação de melanoma. A excisão cirúrgica da lesão levou à cura da neoplasia. Chama-se a atenção para a necessidade de exame cuidadoso da pele de pacientes com acromegalia.Neoplasias such as prostate, breast, and colon cancer are commonly associated with acromegaly. However, the association of the latter with melanoma has been rarely mentioned. We describe the case of a patient with acromegaly in whom a suspicious melanocytic lesion was detected, and later confirmed to be melanoma by means of biopsy. Surgical excision of the lesion led to the cure of the neoplasia. More attention should be drawn to the need for careful skin examination of patients with acromegaly.

  17. Pathogenesis, diagnosis and management of primary melanoma of the colon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imam Ayesha

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Melanomas within the alimentary tract are usually metastatic in origin. On the other hand, primary melanomas of the gastrointestinal tract are relatively uncommon. There are several published reports of melanomas occurring in the esophagus, stomach, small bowel, and anorectum. The occurrence of primary melanoma of the colon has, however, only been rarely reported. The optimum modus operandi for the management of primary colonic melanoma remains nebulous due to the limited number of reports in literature. Methods A comprehensive search of Medline, Cochrane and Highwire was performed using the following keywords: 'melanoma', 'malignant melanoma', 'primary melanoma', 'colon', 'gastrointestinal tract', 'alimentary tract', 'digestive tract', and 'large bowel'. All patients with primary melanoma localized to the colon were included in the review. Patients with metastatic melanomas to the gastrointestinal (GI tract and primary melanomas localized to the GI tract in anatomic locations other than colon were excluded. Results There have been only 12 reported cases of primary melanoma of the colon to date. The average age of patients on presentation was 60.4 years without any significant gender predilection. Right colon (33% and cecum (33% were the most common sites for the occurrence of primary colonic melanoma while abdominal pain (58% and weight loss (50% were the most common presenting complaints. Colonoscopy is the most reliable diagnostic investigation and offers the additional advantage of obtaining tissue for diagnosis. S-100 and HMB-45 are highly sensitive and specific for the diagnosis of this malignancy. For primary colonic melanomas that have not metastasized to any distant parts of the body, surgical resection with wide margins appears to be the treatment of choice. Although the management was individualized in every case, most of the authors preferred traditional hemicolectomy as the favored surgical approach. Chemotherapeutic agents including interferons, cytokines, biological agents and radiation therapy for brain metastases have been reported as adjuvant and palliative options while considering malignant melanomas in general. The average recurrence-free interval was 2.59 years. Nine of the 12 reports documented follow-up in their patients. Two of these 9 (22.2% patients died. Conclusions Primary melanoma of the colon is a rare clinical entity. Whenever a seemingly primary melanoma is detected in an atypical location such as the colon, it is prudent to conduct a thorough clinical investigation to consider the possibility of metastatic disease. Further studies are needed to document the long term follow-up, survival advantage and safety of the management approaches employed in patients with primary colonic melanoma. Based on current data, surgical resection appears to be appropriate management for primary colonic melanomas; unless the disease has metastasized to distant sites where surgery may have a limited palliative role.

  18. Melanoma Surveillance in the US: Melanoma, Ultraviolet Radiation, and Socioeconomic Status

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-10-19

    This podcast accompanies the publication of a series of articles on melanoma surveillance in the United States, available in the November supplement edition of the Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology. Chris Johnson, from the Cancer Data Registry of Idaho, discusses analyses examining the relationship between melanoma and two variables at the county level, ultraviolet radiation and socioeconomic status.  Created: 10/19/2011 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 10/19/2011.

  19. Melanoma nodular en borde de pie / Nodular melanoma on foot edge

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Carlos Alberto, Blanco Córdova.

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: el melanoma cutáneo es un tumor maligno originado en los melanocitos, cuya incidencia y mortalidad han aumentado en las últimas décadas. Es la causa más frecuente de muerte entre las enfermedades cutáneas, y responsable del 75% de éstas. La mayoría se originan en la piel sana, sobre un [...] nevo u otros órganos. Es una tumoración de alta agresividad y con tendencia a la metástasis linfática o hemática. El melanoma nodular representa el 15-35% de estos tumores, afectando áreas de piel fotoprotegidas, con fase de crecimiento vertical, lo cual condiciona su comportamiento tan agresivo y peor pronóstico. Presentación del caso: paciente anciana, con lesión tumoral en pie derecho, asintomática, de cuatro años de evolución, con crecimiento rápido en los últimos tres meses. Se realiza diagnóstico clínico-histopatológico, compatible con melanoma nodular. El tratamiento de elección es la extirpación quirúrgica. Conclusiones: el melanoma nodular es un tumor muy agresivo y la supervivencia depende de un diagnóstico precoz, posibilitando la cura de más del 90% de los casos. Abstract in english Introduction: cutaneous melanoma is a malignant tumor originated from melanocytes, whose incidence and mortality rates have increased in recent decades. It is the most common cause of death among skin diseases, and accounts for its 75%. Most of them originate in healthy skin on a nevus or other orga [...] ns. It is a highly aggressive tumor with a tendency to lymphatic or hematogenous metastases. Nodular melanoma accounts for 15 to 35% of these tumors, affecting photo-protected areas of skin, with vertical growth phase, which determines their behavior as aggressive and its worse prognosis. Case report: old patient with right foot tumor injury, asymptomatic, four years of evolution, with rapid growth in the last three months. Clinical and histopathological diagnosis is made, compatible with nodular melanoma. The treatment of choice is surgical removal. Conclusions: nodular melanoma is a very aggressive tumor and survival depends on early diagnosis, allowing the cure of more than 90% of the cases.

  20. Possibilidade de associação de melanoma e acromegalia Possibility of an association between melanoma and acromegaly

    OpenAIRE

    Carolina Garcia Soares Leães; Rafael Loch Batista; Cristina Micheletto Dallago; Julia Fernanda Semelmann Pereira Lima; Miriam da Costa Oliveira

    2008-01-01

    Neoplasias como câncer de próstata, mama e cólon estão relacionadas à acromegalia. Raras vezes foi mencionada a associação com melanoma. Descreve-se caso de paciente com acromegalia no qual foi identificada lesão melanocítica suspeita, com posterior confirmação de melanoma. A excisão cirúrgica da lesão levou à cura da neoplasia. Chama-se a atenção para a necessidade de exame cuidadoso da pele de pacientes com acromegalia.Neoplasias such as prostate, breast, and colon cancer are commonly assoc...

  1. Testing Adjuvant Ipilimumab in Advanced Melanoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this clinical trial, patients with stage III or stage IV melanoma that has been completely resected will be randomly assigned to receive post-surgical treatment with either ipilimumab or high-dose interferon alfa-2b, the current standard of care.

  2. CURRENT CONCEPTS IN THERAPY OF UVEAL MELANOMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Detanac Dzenana

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available There has been significant progress made in the diagnosis and treatment of the primary uveal melanoma during the past decades and despite that, survival rate of uveal melanoma patients is still stable. Treatment options for uveal melanoma include phototherapy, brachytherapy, proton beam therapy, stereotactic radiotherapy, local resection, anti-angiogenic therapy, immunotherapy, and enucleation. Genetic analysis of tumors provides us with valuable prognostic information although effective therapies are lacking at this moment. It is not established yet whether prolonged survival is the result of treatment or whether it merely reflects earlier detection of metastases. Also, there are indications that survival after treatment of uveal melanoma probably does not depend on the method of treatment but rather on many clinical, histological and genetic risk factors. New studies are needed to provide a better understanding of of ocular treatment impact on survival in patients whose prognosis can be estimated according to the clinical stage, histological grade and genetic type. Therefore, the patients should be treated in experienced multi-disciplinary teams that must include these patients in clinical trial.

  3. Measurement techniques for melanoma: a statistical comparison.

    OpenAIRE

    Calder, C J; Campbell, A. P.; Plastow, S R

    1990-01-01

    Inter- and intra-observer variation in measuring the depth of invasion of malignant melanomas was assessed using three different techniques: eye-piece graticule, stage Vernier, and projection image analysis. Significant variation was found for all methods but was least pronounced with the stage Vernier. It is recommended that this should be the preferred technique for routine use.

  4. Gamma knife therapy for intraocular melanomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gamma knife radiosurgery developed by Lars Leksell for the treatment of brain tumors is useful for the treatment of uveal melanomas due to its unique physical features. It allows the delivery of a high single dose with minimum involvement of the surrounding tissue. Encouraged by first positive results by Chinela, Zambrano and Bunge we adopted the procedure for the treatment of uveal melanomas. A multi centric trial in accordance with gamma knife procedure is performed in 4 steps: 1. Fixation of the globe with a retrobulbar anaesthetic block. 2. Stereotactic location of the tumor by CT. 3. Calculation of the isodoses. 4. Radiosurgical procedure. Between June 1992 and February 1993 we treated 6 uveal melanomas with the Leksell gamma knife together with the Department of Neurosurgery and the Institute of Radiotherapy. In 5 out of 6 cases gamma knife therapy could stop further tumor growth. In one case of a juxtapapillary melanoma a reduction of tumor height from 8 to 4 mm could be achieved: early side effects like serous retinal detachment resolving spontaneously after 4 months and hemorrhage at the base of the tumor were remarkable in this patient. According to our first encouraging results treatment with the Leksell Gamma Knife seems to be an alternative therapeutic modality in larger tumors or those located at the posterior pole but definite conclusions about the efficiency of this new therapeutic procedure can only be drawn once. A larger number of patients will have been observed after a longer follow up period. (author)

  5. Cutaneous malignant melanoma in Northern Ireland.

    OpenAIRE

    Pedlow, P. J.; Walsh, M. Y.; Patterson, C.C.; Atkinson, R. J.; Lowry, W S

    1997-01-01

    The results of two 5-year studies, for 1974-78 and 1984-88, of cutaneous malignant melanoma (CMM) in Northern Ireland show changes in the presentation of the disease. Although there is some evidence of earlier diagnosis, the rise in incidence has produced an overall increase in the number of cases with advanced disease.

  6. Cerebral MR imaging of malignant melanoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melanoma is the third leading cancer entity to metastasize to the central nervous system (CNS) after lung and breast cancer. This is often an early event in the disease course and limits survival. Metastasis in the CNS is the cause of death in 10-40 % of melanoma patients and the incidence of brain metastasis is even higher (50-75 %). Cerebral metastases are commonly found in the subcortical white matter. The signal characteristics can vary substantially and may change over time due to hemorrhages or the accumulation of melanin and paramagnetic ions. It is not yet clear whether novel targeted therapies (e.g. immunotherapy and kinase inhibitors) alter imaging characteristics. Also immune-related side effects, such as hypophysitis (in approximately 5 % of patients receiving ipilimumab therapy) or granulomatous disease (neurosarcoid) can occur. Melanoma metastases are usually hyperdense in computed tomography (CT). In magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) T2-weighted (T2-w) fluid-attentuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) and T1-w sequences (with and without i.v. contrast) should be obtained. Coronal and axial imaging planes should be scanned to cross-correlate findings. Susceptibility-weighted imaging is a new sensitive method to detect melanoma metastases. Approximately 66 % of melanoma metastases show intratumoral susceptibility signals (ITSS). This sets them apart from other metastases (e.g. lung and breast cancer show less ITSSs, specificity approximately 81-96 %). Diffusion imaging plays no major role in melanoma brain imaging. Susceptibility-weighted imaging increases the sensitivity to detect metastases but lacks specificity. Differentiating metastases, microbleeding or calcification can be impossible. It is controversial how to interpret susceptibility signals without correlative signs on other sequences (differential diagnosis: metastasis, microbleeding and calcification). CNS metastases are common in melanoma. MRI screening starting in stage IIc should be considered even in asymptomatic patients. Stage IV requires quarterly MRI examinations. Melanotic and amelanotic metastases show different MRI characteristics. The differentiation between metastasis and microbleeding can be impossible and might require a follow-up scan. Susceptibility-weighted imaging increases the sensitivity of metastases detection but lacks specificity. It can help to differentiate between different metastatic entities. (orig.)

  7. Lymphoscintigraphy as a guide to treatment in malignant melanoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Regional node dissection is practiced as a measure of prophylaxis in patients with stage I and II malignant melanoma. Although the drainage pattern of the extremities is obvious, in the head and neck and trunk it may be ambiguous. We have used lymphoscintigraphy to assist in delineating the lymphatic drainage in 22 patients with primary malignant melanoma. Fourteen patients had melanoma in the head and neck region, and eight had melanoma in the trunk region. Based on Clark's classification there were ten level III melanomas, eight level IV melanomas, and two level V melanomas; the levels of the remaining two melanomas were unspecified. Seven melanomas were between 0.76 and 1.5-mm thick, eleven were between 1.51 and 4.0-mm thick, and two were over 4.0-mm thick (the remaining two were unspecified). Regional nodes were clinically negative in 18 patients. The scan distribution was unexpected in 13 patients (59%), and it influenced the surgical procedure in 11 patients (50%). No patient incurred an adverse effect from the scan. We conclude that lymphoscintigraphy may be of value in guiding prophylactic lymph node dissection in melanoma patients

  8. High nevus counts confer a favorable prognosis in melanoma patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribero, Simone; Davies, John R; Requena, Celia; Carrera, Cristina; Glass, Daniel; Rull, Ramon; Vidal-Sicart, Sergi; Vilalta, Antonio; Alos, Lucia; Soriano, Virtudes; Quaglino, Pietro; Traves, Victor; Newton-Bishop, Julia A; Nagore, Eduardo; Malvehy, Josep; Puig, Susana; Bataille, Veronique

    2015-10-01

    A high number of nevi is the most significant phenotypic risk factor for melanoma and is in part genetically determined. The number of nevi decreases from middle age onward but this senescence can be delayed in patients with melanoma. We investigated the effects of nevus number count on sentinel node status and melanoma survival in a large cohort of melanoma cases. Out of 2,184 melanoma cases, 684 (31.3%) had a high nevus count (>50). High nevus counts were associated with favorable prognostic factors such as lower Breslow thickness, less ulceration and lower mitotic rate, despite adjustment for age. Nevus count was not predictive of sentinel node status. The crude 5- and 10-year melanoma-specific survival rate was higher in melanomas cases with a high nevus count compared to those with a low nevus count (91.2 vs. 86.4% and 87.2 vs. 79%, respectively). The difference in survival remained significant after adjusting for all known melanoma prognostic factors (hazard ratio [HR]?=?0.43, confidence interval [CI]?=?0.21-0.89). The favorable prognostic value of a high nevus count was also seen within the positive sentinel node subgroup of patients (HR?=?0.22, CI?=?0.08-0.60). High nevus count is associated with a better melanoma survival, even in the subgroup of patients with positive sentinel lymph node. This suggests a different biological behavior of melanoma tumors in patients with an excess of nevi. PMID:25809795

  9. Importance of glycolysis and oxidative phosphorylation in advanced melanoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ho Jonhan

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Serum lactate dehydrogenase (LDH is a prognostic factor for patients with stage IV melanoma. To gain insights into the biology underlying this prognostic factor, we analyzed total serum LDH, serum LDH isoenzymes, and serum lactate in up to 49 patients with metastatic melanoma. Our data demonstrate that high serum LDH is associated with a significant increase in LDH isoenzymes 3 and 4, and a decrease in LDH isoenzymes 1 and 2. Since LDH isoenzymes play a role in both glycolysis and oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS, we subsequently determined using tissue microarray (TMA analysis that the levels of proteins associated with mitochondrial function, lactate metabolism, and regulators of glycolysis were all elevated in advanced melanomas compared with nevic melanocytes. To investigate whether in advanced melanoma, the glycolysis and OXPHOS pathways might be linked, we determined expression of the monocarboxylate transporters (MCT 1 and 4. Analysis of a nevus-to-melanoma progression TMA revealed that MCT4, and to a lesser extend MCT1, were elevated with progression to advanced melanoma. Further analysis of human melanoma specimens using the Seahorse XF24 extracellular flux analyzer indicated that metastatic melanoma tumors derived a large fraction of energy from OXPHOS. Taken together, these findings suggest that in stage IV melanomas with normal serum LDH, glycolysis and OXPHOS may provide metabolic symbiosis within the same tumor, whereas in stage IV melanomas with high serum LDH glycolysis is the principle source of energy.

  10. Dermoscopic features of thin melanomas: a comparative study of melanoma in situ and invasive melanomas smaller than or equal to 1mm / Caracteristicas dermatoscopicas de melanomas finos: estudo comparativo entre melanomas in situ e melanomas invasivos menores ou iguais a 1mm

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Vanessa Priscilla Martins da, Silva; Juliana Kida, Ikino; Mariana Mazzochi, Sens; Daniel Holthausen, Nunes; Gabriella, Di Giunta.

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTOS: A dermatoscopia propicia o diagnóstico mais precoce do melanoma. A estimativa préoperatória da espessura de Breslow através da dermatoscopia poderia ser útil no planejamento da conduta cirúrgica e seleção dos pacientes para a biópsia de linfonodo sentinela. OBJETIVOS: Este estudo [...] objetiva descrever as características dermatoscópicas encontradas em melanomas finos e comparar melanomas in situ com melanomas invasivos menores ou iguais a 1 mm. MÉTODOS: Trata-se de estudo observacional, retrospectivo, no qual avaliouse o registro fotográfico da dermatoscopia de 41 melanomas finos. Três observadores avaliaram em conjunto 14 critérios dermatoscópicos. RESULTADOS: Dentre os melanomas finos, os critérios mais encontrados foram: presença de assimetria nos dois eixos em 95% (39 casos), 3 ou mais cores em 80,4% (33 casos), pontos ou glóbulos atípicos em 58,5% (24 casos) e rede atípica ou estrias radiadas em 53,6% (22 casos). O grupo dos melanomas invasivos apresentou com maior frequência e significância estatística (p Abstract in english BACKGROUND: Dermoscopy allows the early detection of melanomas. The preoperative determination of Breslow index by dermoscopy could be useful in planning the surgical approach and in selecting patients for sentinel lymph node biopsy. OBJECTIVES: This study aims at describing the dermoscopic fe [...] atures of thin melanomas and comparing melanomas in situ with invasive melanomas less than or equal to 1 mm thick. METHODS: This was an observational retrospective study in which the dermoscopy photographs of 41 thin melanomas were evaluated. Three observers evaluated together 14 dermoscopic criteria. RESULTS: Among thin melanomas, the most frequent criteria were presence of asymmetry in two axes in 95% of cases (39 cases), 3 or more colors in 80.4% of cases (33 cases), atypical dots or globules in 58.5% of cases (24 cases) and atypical network or streaks in 53.6% of cases (22 cases). The group of invasive melanomas presented with a higher frequency and statistical significance (p

  11. Primary Malignant Melanoma in the Pineal Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Yong-Kil

    2014-01-01

    A 59-year-old male patient had 5-month history of gait disturbance and memory impairment. His initial brain computed tomography scan showed 3.5×2.8 cm sized mass with high density in the pineal region. The tumor was hypointense on T2 weighted magnetic resonance images and hyperintense on T1 weighted magnetic resonance images with heterogenous enhancement of central portion. The tumor was totally removed via the occipital transtentorial approach. Black mass was observed in the operation field, and after surgery, histopathological examination confirmed the diagnosis of malignant melanoma. Whole spine magnetic resonance images and whole body 18-fluoro-deoxyglucose positron emission tomography could not demonstrate the primary site of this melanoma. Scrupulous physical examination of his skin and mucosa was done and dark pigmented lesion on his left leg was found, but additional studies including magnetic resonance images and skin biopsy showed negative finding. As a result, final diagnosis of primary pineal malignant melanoma was made. He underwent treatment with the whole brain radiotherapy and extended local boost irradiation without chemotherapy. His preoperative symptoms were disappeared, and no other specific neurological deficits were founded. His follow-up image studies showed no recurrence or distant metastasis until 26 weeks after surgery. Primary pineal malignant melanomas are extremely rare intracranial tumors, and only 17 cases have been reported since 1899. The most recent case report showed favorable outcome by subtotal tumor resection followed by whole brain and extended local irradiation without chemotherapy. Our case is another result to prove that total tumor resection with radiotherapy can be the current optimal treatment for primary malignant melanoma in the pineal region. PMID:25628812

  12. Ability to self-detect malignant melanoma decreases with age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trolle, L; Henrik-Nielsen, R

    2011-01-01

    The prognosis of malignant melanoma depends on the thickness of the tumour. In this study, we analysed the trends in Breslow thickness in 63 patients referred to our institution, a tertiary dermatology referral centre. The mean thickness of melanoma was 0.31 mm, which was lower than the national average of 1.10 mm. There was a significant trend towards increased melanoma thickness with increasing age, with a rate of 0.24 mm (95% CI 0.12-0.37) for each additional 10 years of age above the age of 20 years. This trend was only apparent in cases of self-diagnosed melanomas; the thickness of tumours diagnosed by a dermatologist did not show any dependence on patient age. As the mortality from melanoma increases with age, this study suggests that dermatologists should include older people in screening programmes for melanoma.

  13. Genetics of familial melanoma : 20 years after CDKN2A

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aoude, Lauren G; Wadt, Karin A W

    2015-01-01

    Twenty years ago, the first familial melanoma susceptibility gene, CDKN2A, was identified. Two years later, another high-penetrance gene, CDK4, was found to be responsible for melanoma development in some families. Progress in identifying new familial melanoma genes was subsequently slow; however, with the advent of next-generation sequencing, a small number of new high-penetrance genes have recently been uncovered. This approach has identified the lineage-specific oncogene MITF as a susceptibility gene both in melanoma families and in the general population, as well as the discovery of telomere maintenance as a key pathway underlying melanoma predisposition. Given these rapid recent advances, this approach seems likely to continue to pay dividends. Here, we review the currently known familial melanoma genes, providing evidence that most additionally confer risk to other cancers, indicating that they are likely general tumour suppressor genes or oncogenes, which has significant implications for surveillance and screening.

  14. Treated Choroidal Melanoma with Late Metastases to the Contralateral Orbit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia George

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Choroidal melanoma is the commonest adult primary intraocular tumour,1 and usual sites of secondary spread are to liver, bone and lung. Although delayed recurrence of ipsilateral orbital melanoma is well documented, metastasis to the contralateral orbit is a rarely encountered phenomenon. We describe a case of metastatic spread to the contralateral orbit in a patient 12 years after proton beam radiotherapy of choroidal melanoma.

  15. Treated Choroidal Melanoma with Late Metastases to the Contralateral Orbit

    OpenAIRE

    Sonia George; Cooke, Carole A.; Gerald F. Mc Ginnity; Steve White; Laksmi Venkatraman

    2009-01-01

    Choroidal melanoma is the commonest adult primary intraocular tumour,1 and usual sites of secondary spread are to liver, bone and lung. Although delayed recurrence of ipsilateral orbital melanoma is well documented, metastasis to the contralateral orbit is a rarely encountered phenomenon. We describe a case of metastatic spread to the contralateral orbit in a patient 12 years after proton beam radiotherapy of choroidal melanoma.

  16. Melanoma of the Hand: Current Practice and New Frontiers

    OpenAIRE

    John Brad Turner; Brian Rinker

    2014-01-01

    Melanoma of the hand represents a complicated clinical entity. Anatomic features of the hand create challenges in successful management of melanoma not encountered elsewhere in the body. The objectives of this article are to outline current standards for managing melanoma of the hand including diagnosis, surgical, and chemotherapeutic management. Particular emphasis will be placed on currently debated topics of the role of sentinel lymph node biopsy, the role of Mohs micrographic surgery, tis...

  17. Investigation of female survival benefit in metastatic melanoma

    OpenAIRE

    Richardson, B; Price, A.; Wagner, M.; Williams, V.; Lorigan, P; Browne, S; Miller, J G; Neil, S Mac

    1999-01-01

    Epidemiological studies show female survival benefit in advanced metastatic melanoma. In investigating a possible mechanism for this female survival benefit, we have previously reported that the female steroid 17?-oestradiol significantly reduces invasion of a human melanoma cell line (A375-SM cells) and ocular melanoma cells through fibronectin. Neither cell type was found to possess oestrogen receptor-?. The aim of the current study was to obtain further information on the extent to which p...

  18. Nivolumab in previously untreated melanoma without BRAF mutation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Robert, Caroline; Long, Georgina V; Brady, Benjamin; Dutriaux, Caroline; Maio, Michele; Mortier, Laurent; Hassel, Jessica C; Rutkowski, Piotr; McNeil, Catriona; Kalinka-Warzocha, Ewa; Savage, Kerry J; Hernberg, Micaela M; Lebbé, Celeste; Charles, Julie; Mihalcioiu, Catalin; Chiarion-Sileni, Vanna; Mauch, Cornelia; Cognetti, Francesco; Arance, Ana; Schmidt, Henrik; Schadendorf, Dirk; Gogas, Helen; Lundgren-Eriksson, Lotta; Horak, Christine; Sharkey, Brian; Waxman, Ian M; Atkinson, Victoria; Ascierto, Paolo A

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Nivolumab was associated with higher rates of objective response than chemotherapy in a phase 3 study involving patients with ipilimumab-refractory metastatic melanoma. The use of nivolumab in previously untreated patients with advanced melanoma has not been tested in a phase 3 controlled study. METHODS: We randomly assigned 418 previously untreated patients who had metastatic melanoma without a BRAF mutation to receive nivolumab (at a dose of 3 mg per kilogram of body weight every 2...

  19. Ambulatory Melanoma Care Patterns in the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Ji, Andrew L.; Michael R. Baze; Scott A. Davis; Feldman, Steven R.; Fleischer, Alan B.

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To examine trends in melanoma visits in the ambulatory care setting. Methods. Data from the National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey (NAMCS) from 1979 to 2010 were used to analyze melanoma visit characteristics including number of visits, age and gender of patients, and physician specialty. These data were compared to US Census population estimates during the same time period. Results. The overall rate of melanoma visits increased (P < 0.0001) at an apparently higher rate than the i...

  20. In vitro cellular radiosensitivity of human malignant melanoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The agar diffusion chamber assay was used to construct in vitro radiation cell survival curves for two human malignant melanoma xenografts. Both tumors had survival curves of shoulder-exponential shape with large shoulders (Dq 2.38, 2.92 Gy). Comparison with previous studies of 4 human tumor xenografts in the same system suggests that large shoulders are more common in melanomas than other tumor types. This supports the case for large fraction irradiation in the clinical therapy of melanoma

  1. Immunotoxins: A Promising Treatment Modality for Metastatic Melanoma?

    OpenAIRE

    Risberg, Karianne; Fodstad, Øystein; Andersson, Yvonne

    2010-01-01

    The incidence of melanoma is rising in the Western population, and melanoma is the most aggressive form of skin cancer with a very poor prognosis once it has progressed to metastatic stages. Patients with stage IV melanoma (metastases to distant lymph nodes and other areas of the body) are treated with the chemotherapeutic drug dacarbazine (DTIC). However, fewer than 5% of the patients treated with DTIC sustain long-term complete responses; hence, DTIC is administered with palliative purposes...

  2. Docetaxel in Combination with Dacarbazine in Patients with Advanced Melanoma

    OpenAIRE

    Bafaloukos, D; Aravantinos, G; Fountzilas, G; G. Stathopoulos; Gogas, H.; Samonis, G.; Briasoulis, E; Mylonakis, N.; Skarlos, D. V.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: The number of agents that are active in patients with metastatic melanoma is limited and cure is not a realistic objective for treatment at this stage. The aim of the study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of new combination regimen cosisting of docetaxel and dacarbazine (DTIC), as first-line chemotherapy, in patients with advanced melanoma. Patients and Methods: Patients with advanced melanoma (including cerebral metastases) were eligible. Docetaxel 80 mg/m2, i.v. over 1 h...

  3. Radioimmunodetection of human melanoma with monoclonal antibodies and Fab fragments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Disseminated malignant melanoma is an aggressive tumor. Multiple therapeutic strategies have been attempted, unfortunately, the response rate of disseminated melanoma to therapy is invariably poor, independent of modality of treatment. The authors are evaluating a new diagnostic and therapeutic strategy consisting of the use of radiolabeled monoclonal antibody (MoAb) and its fragments directed against p97, a melanoma-associated antigen, as a vehicle for localization and selective delivery of high-dose radiation. (Auth.)

  4. Effective Treatment of Multiple Unresectable Skin Melanoma Metastases by Electrochemotherapy

    OpenAIRE

    Snoj, Marko; Cemazar, Maja; Slekovec Kolar, Breda; Sersa, Gregor

    2007-01-01

    Multiple unresectable melanoma skin metastases pose a treatment problem, especially in centers where isolated limb perfusion is not available. We report the case of a 59-year-old woman who developed multiple small unresectable cutaneous melanoma metastases on the thigh after her lower limb was amputated. Electrochemotherapy with bleomycin resulted in good local control of the disease, with a complete response of the treated melanoma nodules (224 tumor nodules) after 4 treatment sessions. Comp...

  5. Confirmation of chromosome 9p linkage in familial melanoma

    OpenAIRE

    Nancarrow, Derek J.; Mann, Graham J; Holland, Elizabeth A; Walker, Graeme J; Beaton, Sharon C.; Walters, Marilyn K.; Luxford, Catherine; Palmer, Jane M.; Donald, Jennifer A.; Weber, James L.; Fountain, Jane W.; Kefford, Richard F.; Hayward, Nicholas K.

    1993-01-01

    Malignant melanoma occurs as a familial cancer in 5%–10% of cases where it segregates in a manner consistent with autosomal dominant inheritance. Evidence from cytogenetics, fine-mapping studies of deletions in melanomas, and recent linkage studies supports the location of a human melanoma predisposition gene on the short arm of chromosome 9. We have carried out linkage analysis using the 9p markers IFNA and D9S126 in 26 Australian melanoma kindreds. Multipoint analysis gave a peak lod score ...

  6. Application of black salve to a thin melanoma that subsequently progressed to metastatic melanoma: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivyer, Graham W; Rosendahl, Cliff

    2014-07-01

    This is a case study of a female patient diagnosed with superficial spreading melanoma who decided to treat the lesion by the application of a preparation known as black salve. Persistence of the melanoma was documented five years later with subsequent evidence of metastatic spread to the regional lymph nodes, lungs, liver, subcutaneous tissues and musculature. A literature search has revealed one other case study of the use of black salve for the treatment of melanoma. PMID:25126466

  7. Application of black salve to a thin melanoma that subsequently progressed to metastatic melanoma: a case study

    OpenAIRE

    Sivyer, Graham W.; Rosendahl, Cliff

    2014-01-01

    This is a case study of a female patient diagnosed with superficial spreading melanoma who decided to treat the lesion by the application of a preparation known as black salve. Persistence of the melanoma was documented five years later with subsequent evidence of metastatic spread to the regional lymph nodes, lungs, liver, subcutaneous tissues and musculature. A literature search has revealed one other case study of the use of black salve for the treatment of melanoma.

  8. Prenylation Inhibition-Induced Cell Death in Melanoma: Reduced Sensitivity in BRAF Mutant/PTEN Wild-Type Melanoma Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Garay, Tamás; Kenessey, István; Molnár, Eszter; Juhász, Éva; Réti, Andrea; László, Viktória; Rózsás, Anita; Dobos, Judit; Döme, Balázs; Berger, Walter; Klepetko, Walter; Tóvári, József; Tímár, József; Heged?s, Balázs

    2015-01-01

    While targeted therapy brought a new era in the treatment of BRAF mutant melanoma, therapeutic options for non-BRAF mutant cases are still limited. In order to explore the antitumor activity of prenylation inhibition we investigated the response to zoledronic acid treatment in thirteen human melanoma cell lines with known BRAF, NRAS and PTEN mutational status. Effect of zoledronic acid on proliferation, clonogenic potential, apoptosis and migration of melanoma cells as well as the activation ...

  9. MelanomaDB: A Web Tool for Integrative Analysis of Melanoma Genomic Information to Identify Disease-Associated Molecular Pathways

    OpenAIRE

    Trevarton, Alexander J.; Mann, Michael B.; Knapp, Christoph; ARAKI, HIROMITSU; Wren, Jonathan D.; Stones-Havas, Steven; Black, Michael A.; Print, Cristin G

    2013-01-01

    Despite on-going research, metastatic melanoma survival rates remain low and treatment options are limited. Researchers can now access a rapidly growing amount of molecular and clinical information about melanoma. This information is becoming difficult to assemble and interpret due to its dispersed nature, yet as it grows it becomes increasingly valuable for understanding melanoma. Integration of this information into a comprehensive resource to aid rational experimental design and patient st...

  10. MelanomaDB: a Web Tool for Integrative Analysis of Melanoma Genomic Information to Identify Disease-Associated Molecular Pathways

    OpenAIRE

    CristinGregorPrint; AlexanderJosephTrevarton; MichaelMann; HiromitsuAraki; JonathanDanielWren; StevenStones-Havas; MikBlack; adasdsaSSAsaSa

    2013-01-01

    Despite on-going research, metastatic melanoma survival rates remain low and treatment options are limited. Researchers can now access a rapidly growing amount of molecular and clinical information about melanoma. This information is becoming difficult to assemble and interpret due to its dispersed nature, yet as it grows it becomes increasingly valuable for understanding melanoma. Integration of this information into a comprehensive resource to aid rational experimental design and patient st...

  11. A novel function of Junctional Adhesion Molecule-C in mediating melanoma cell metastasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langer, Harald F.; Orlova, Valeria V.; Xie, Changping; Kaul, Sunil; Schneider, Darius; Lonsdorf, Anke S.; Fahrleitner, Manuela; Choi, Eun Young; Dutoit, Vanessa; Pellegrini, Manuela; Grossklaus, Sylvia; Nawroth, Peter P.; Baretton, Gustavo; Santoso, Sentot; Hwang, Sam T.; Arnold, Bernd; Chavakis, Triantafyllos

    2011-01-01

    Hematogenous dissemination of melanoma is a life-threatening complication of this malignant tumor. Here, we identified Junctional Adhesion Molecule-C (JAM-C) as a novel player in melanoma metastasis to the lung. JAM-C expression was identified in human and murine melanoma cell lines, in human malignant melanoma, as well as in metastatic melanoma including melanoma lung metastasis. JAM-C expressed on both murine B16 melanoma cells as well as on endothelial cells, promoted the transendothelial migration of the melanoma cells. We generated mice with inactivation of JAM-C. JAM-C?/? mice as well as endothelial-specific JAM-C-deficient mice displayed significantly decreased B16 melanoma cell metastasis to the lung, whereas treatment of mice with soluble JAM-C prevented melanoma lung metastasis. Together, JAM-C represents a novel therapeutic target for melanoma metastasis. PMID:21593193

  12. [Metastatic melanoma of low Breslow thickness].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hundeiker, M; Lippold, A; Peters, A

    1997-03-01

    We treated 8123 patients with invasive malignant melanoma were treated up to 1995. 2200 had invasive melanomas with less than 0.75 mm Breslow thickness; of these, 45 developed metastases. Three had second primary tumors with greater thickness. One case showed metastasis from another tumor. In two cases the metastases were not ascertained histologically. The remaining 39 cases showed some peculiarities: a greater proportion of late and of internal (as contrasted to regional) metastases. Most of these primary tumors had a Breslow thickness of more than 0.5 mm and were Clark level III or even IV. Male patients and primary tumor sites in the area of head and neck were significantly over-represented. PMID:9182087

  13. Upcoming translational challenges for uveal melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabil, Amirouchene-Angelozzi; Marie, Schoumacher; Marc-Henri, Stern; Nathalie, Cassoux; Laurence, Desjardins; Sophie, Piperno-Neumann; Olivier, Lantz; Sergio, Roman-Roman

    2015-11-01

    The past few years have witnessed major advances in the understanding of the molecular landscape of uveal melanoma (UM). The discovery of a mutational background that is completely different from the one of skin melanoma has granted to UM a stand-alone status. The absence of effective therapy for metastatic disease offers now a chessboard for targeted therapy but at the same time urges preclinical science to develop accordingly, to guide the use of economical resources to the best profit of patients. This review describes the current knowledge on the biology of this disease and discusses the challenges that must be undertaken to translate this knowledge into real benefit for patients. PMID:26505679

  14. Iodine-125 radiation of posterior uveal melanoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Packer, S.

    1987-12-01

    Twenty-eight cases of posterior choroidal melanoma were treated with iodine-125 in gold eye plaques. Eleven cases were located within 3.0 mm of the optic nerve (group A), nine were within 3.0 mm of the fovea (group B), and eight were within 3.0 mm of the optic nerve and fovea (group C). The mean follow-up of group A was 46.3 months; group B, 25.5 months; and group C, 42.7 months. Complications included macular edema, cataract and tumor growth. Visual acuity remained within two lines of that tested preoperatively for 4 of 11 patients in group A, 4 of 9 in group B, and 5 of 8 in group C. These results with iodine-125 suggest it as an appropriate treatment for patients with choroidal melanoma located near optic nerve and/or macula.

  15. Iodine-125 radiation of posterior uveal melanoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Twenty-eight cases of posterior choroidal melanoma were treated with iodine-125 in gold eye plaques. Eleven cases were located within 3.0 mm of the optic nerve (group A), nine were within 3.0 mm of the fovea (group B), and eight were within 3.0 mm of the optic nerve and fovea (group C). The mean follow-up of group A was 46.3 months; group B, 25.5 months; and group C, 42.7 months. Complications included macular edema, cataract and tumor growth. Visual acuity remained within two lines of that tested preoperatively for 4 of 11 patients in group A, 4 of 9 in group B, and 5 of 8 in group C. These results with iodine-125 suggest it as an appropriate treatment for patients with choroidal melanoma located near optic nerve and/or macula

  16. Transgenic mouse model for skin malignant melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, M; Takahashi, M; Akhand, A A; Liu, W; Dai, Y; Shimizu, S; Iwamoto, T; Suzuki, H; Nakashima, I

    1998-10-01

    We report here on a novel metallothionein-I (MT)/ret transgenic mouse line in which skin melanosis, benign melanocytic tumor and malignant melanoma metastasizing to distant organs develop stepwise. The process of tumor development and its malignant transformation in this line may resemble that of the human giant congenital melanocytic nevus that is present at birth and that frequently gives rise to malignant melanoma during aging. We observed an increase in the expression level and activity of the ret transgene during the disease progression. That increase in transgene expression accompanied an activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) and c-Jun as well as matrix metalloproteinases. These results suggest that progressive dysregulation of the expression level of the ret transgene might play a crucial role in the malignant transformation of melanocytic tumors developed in the MT/ret transgenic mouse line. PMID:9778055

  17. Positron emission tomography and malignant melanoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malignant melanoma imaging is important for initial staging and follow-up of the patient. Using positron emission tomography (PET) with 2-Fluoro-2-D-Glucose (FDG) the whole body can be imaged in one session, which is an advantage because of unpredictable pattern of distant metastases. FDG is strongly taken up into melanoma cells. When using a dedicated PET camera a high spatial resolution of 5-7 mm can be reached and, thus, occult metastases can be detected. However, PET gives only little anatomic information. Further. Furthermore, false positive findings due to inflammation, Warthin's tumor and synovitis and false negative findings due to very small metastases (smaller than the resolution of the camera system) or adjacent to regions with high FDG uptake (brain, urinary tract) are possible. FDG PET is more sensitive, more accurate, and more cost-effective than other conventional radiologic techniques and, therefore, can replace morphologic imaging. (author)

  18. Melanoma maligno em búfalos (Bubalus bubalis albinos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cecília Florisbal Damé

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Descrevem-se melanomas múltiplos em dois búfalos albinos da raça Murrah no Sul do Brasil. Macroscopicamente havia múltiplos tumores enegrecidos no músculo esquelético, pulmões, linfonodos, saco pericárdio, cápsula renal, mediastino e pleura. Microscopicamente foram observadas células epitelióides poliédricas dispostas em ninhos sólidos ou fascículos entrelaçados sustentadas por um estroma colagenoso fino e esparso. O citoplasma era eosinofílico e por vezes continham quantidades variáveis de pigmento de melanina. A taxa de mitose foi baixa. Na imuno-histoquímica houve imunomarcação positiva utilizando anticorpo anti-tirosinase, anti-Melan-A, anti-vimentina, anti-proteína S-100 e antineurofilamento. É possível que o polimorfismo relacionado com o gene da pigmentação em búfalos albinos tenha contribuído para o maior risco de desenvolvimento de melanomas, como foi sugerido em humanos.

  19. Plasma 25-Hydroxyvitamin D and Risk of Non-Melanoma and Melanoma Skin Cancer : A Prospective Cohort Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Afzal, Shoaib; Nordestgaard, BØrge G

    2013-01-01

    Sun exposure is a major risk factor for skin cancer and is also an important source of vitamin D. We tested the hypothesis that elevated plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OH-vitD) associates with increased risk of non-melanoma and melanoma skin cancer in the general population. We measured plasma 25-OH-vitD in 10,060 white individuals from the Danish general population. During 28 years of follow-up, 590 individuals developed non-melanoma skin cancer and 78 developed melanoma skin cancer. Increasing 25-OH-vitD levels, by clinical categories or by seasonally adjusted tertiles, were associated with increasing cumulative incidence of non-melanoma skin cancer (trend P=2 × 10(-15) and P=3 × 10(-17)) and melanoma skin cancer (P=0.003 and P=0.001). Multivariable adjusted hazard ratios of non-melanoma skin cancer were 5.04 (95% confidence interval (CI): 2.78-9.16) for 25-OH-vitD ?50 vs. 60 years, 25-OH-vitD winter levels ?50?nmol?l(-1), and performing outdoor exercise. In conclusion, we show that increasing levels of 25-OH-vitD are associated with increased risk of non-melanoma and melanoma skin cancer.Journal of Investigative Dermatology advance online publication, 29 November 2012; doi:10.1038/jid.2012.395.

  20. Melanoma developed during pregnancy - A case report

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Natalia Cammarosano, Mestnik; Joao Paulo Junqueira Magalhaes, Afonso; Milvia Maria Simoes e Silva, Enokihara; Mauro Yoshiaki, Enokihara; Adriana Maria, Porro; Sergio Henrique, Hirata.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe a case of plantar interdigital cutaneous melanoma in a 22-year-old woman who reported changes in a pigmented lesion during pregnancy. Diagnosis was late and evolution unfavourable. The purpose of this report is to draw the attention of dermatologists to the need for careful regular exami [...] nation of melanocytic lesions in pregnant women, not ignoring possible changes as always physiological.

  1. Primary Gastric Malignant Melanoma Mimicking Adenocarcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Cho, Jun-Min; Lee, Chang Min; Jang, You-Jin; Park, Sung-Soo; Park, Seong-Heum; Kim, Seung-Joo; Mok, Young-Jae; Kim, Chong-Suk; Lee, Ju-Han; Kim, Jong-Han

    2014-01-01

    We report a case of primary gastric malignant melanoma that was diagnosed after curative resection but initially misdiagnosed as adenocarcinoma. A 68-year-old woman was referred to our department for surgery for gastric adenocarcinoma presenting as a polypoid lesion with central ulceration located in the upper body of the stomach. The preoperative diagnosis was confirmed by endoscopic biopsy. We performed laparoscopic total gastrectomy, and the final pathologic evaluation led to the diagnosis...

  2. Nevoid malignant melanoma in an albino woman

    OpenAIRE

    Binesh, F; A Akhavan; Navabii, H

    2010-01-01

    Albinism is a disorder of hypopigmentation affecting the skin, hair and eyes. Ultraviolet light induced cutaneous tumours are common in patients with albinism due to reduced or absent protection from melanin, with squamous cell carcinoma being the most common. Although non-melanomatous skin cancers are more frequent in patients with albinism, dysplastic nevi and melanoma present a greater diagnostic challenge in this group because of their hypopigmented appearance. Here the authors report a c...

  3. / Síndrome de cauda eqüina produzida por melanoma

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    J., Lamartine de Assis; Carlos De, Luccia.

    1951-06-01

    Full Text Available Os autores apresentam um caso de melanoma da cauda eqüina. A evolução foi de, aproximadamente, dois anos, tendo havido, a princípio, dores nos membros inferiores que, depois, adquiriram a forma de ciatalgia bilateral, associada a perturbações sensitivo-motoras e esfinctéricas. Tratava-se, portanto, [...] de uma sindrome de cauda eqüina. 0 paciente foi operado, encontrando-se um tumor escuro, infiltrante da cauda, e que foi diagnosticado, ao exame histopatológico, como melanoma meningeo. Ao tratamento cirúrgico seguiu-se o radioteràpico. Depois de um período de melhora sintomática, o caso evoluiu para a caquexia, tendo-se verificado o falecimento do enfermo 11 meses depois da operação. Não foi feita autópsia, mas a ausência, nos antecedentes, de dados que pudessem sugerir uma possível me-tástase, o exame clínico e a localização do processo fazem pensar no caráter primário do tumor. Abstract in english The authors present a case of melanoma of the cauda equina which evolved during two years, starting with pain in the lower extremities and becoming at length a cauda equina syndrome, with bilateral sciatic pain, motor and sensorial signs and bladder and rectal disturbances. The tumor was only partia [...] lly removed, on account of its infiltrating character. The patient died eleven months later. He had X-ray therapy soon after the operation. Autopsy was not performed but considering the clinical data, the localization and the type of the tumor, authors believe it connected by a primary melanoma of the lombar leptomeninges. A brief review of the literature is made.

  4. CDC Vital Signs-Preventing Melanoma

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-06-02

    This podcast is based on the June 2015 CDC Vital Signs report. Skin cancer is the most common form of cancer in the U.S. In 2011, there were more than 65,000 cases of melanoma, the most deadly form of skin cancer. Learn how everyone can help prevent skin cancer.  Created: 6/2/2015 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 6/2/2015.

  5. Ipilimumab for advanced melanoma: A pharmacologic perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Trinh, Van Anh; Hagen, Brenda

    2013-01-01

    Ipilimumab, a fully human anti-CTLA-4 antibody, has been approved for the treatment of unresectable or metastatic melanoma based on its survival benefit demonstrated in randomized phase III studies. The current approved dosing schedule of ipilimumab is 3?mg/kg as a 90-min intravenous infusion every 3 weeks for a total of 4 doses. The immune-mediated mechanism of action of ipilimumab can result in tumor response patterns that may differ from those observed with conventional chem...

  6. Update on the Epidemiology of Melanoma

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Steven T.; Alan C. Geller; Tsao, Hensin

    2013-01-01

    Cutaneous malignant melanoma (CMM) has been increasing steadily in incidence over the past 30 years. Recent studies have explored associations between CMM and varying physiologic risk factors, such as nevi or hair and eye color, in addition to historical features such as a personal history of nonmelanoma skin cancer (NMSC), childhood cancers, Parkinson’s Disease, hormone exposure and family history of CMM. Genome-wide association studies have also uncovered many genetic determinants of CMM ri...

  7. Malignant Melanoma and Its Stromal Nonimmune Microecosystem

    OpenAIRE

    Gérald E. Piérard; Claudine Piérard-Franchimont; Philippe Delvenne

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, rapid advances were reached in the understanding of a series of biologic signals influencing cutaneous malignant melanoma (CMM) cells. CMM is in close contact with a peculiar dermal extracellular matrix (ECM). Stromal cells store and release various structural ECM components. The impact on CMM growth and progression is mediated through strong and long-lasting effects of ECM products. This paper summarizes some peculiar aspects of the peri-CMM stroma showing intracytoplasmic l...

  8. Worldwide Increasing Incidences of Cutaneous Malignant Melanoma

    OpenAIRE

    Godar, Dianne E.

    2011-01-01

    The incidence of cutaneous malignant melanoma (CMM) has been increasing at a steady rate in fair-skinned populations around the world for decades. Scientists are not certain why CMM has been steadily increasing, but strong, intermittent UVB (290–320?nm) exposures, especially sunburn episodes, probably initiate, CMM, while UVA (321–400?nm) passing through glass windows in offices and cars probably promotes it. The CMM incidence may be increasing at an exponential rate around the world, but it ...

  9. Novel Treatments in Development for Melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernatchez, Chantale; Cooper, Zachary A; Wargo, Jennifer A; Hwu, Patrick; Lizée, Gregory

    2016-01-01

    The past several years can be considered a renaissance era in the treatment of metastatic melanoma. Following a 30-year stretch in which oncologists barely put a dent in a very grim overall survival (OS) rate for these patients, things have rapidly changed course with the recent approval of three new melanoma drugs by the FDA. Both oncogene-targeted therapy and immune checkpoint blockade approaches have shown remarkable efficacy in a subset of melanoma patients and have clearly been game-changers in terms of clinical impact. However, most patients still succumb to their disease, and thus, there remains an urgent need to improve upon current therapies. Fortunately, innovations in molecular medicine have led to many silent gains that have greatly increased our understanding of the nature of cancer biology as well as the complex interactions between tumors and the immune system. They have also allowed for the first time a detailed understanding of an individual patient's cancer at the genomic and proteomic level. This information is now starting to be employed at all stages of cancer treatment, including diagnosis, choice of drug therapy, treatment monitoring, and analysis of resistance mechanisms upon recurrence. This new era of personalized medicine will foreseeably lead to paradigm shifts in immunotherapeutic treatment approaches such as individualized cancer vaccines and adoptive transfer of genetically modified T cells. Advances in xenograft technology will also allow for the testing of drug combinations using in vivo models, a truly necessary development as the number of new drugs needing to be tested is predicted to skyrocket in the coming years. This chapter will provide an overview of recent technological developments in cancer research, and how they are expected to impact future diagnosis, monitoring, and development of novel treatments for metastatic melanoma. PMID:26601872

  10. Gamma knife radiosurgery for uveal melanoma ineligible for brachytherapy by the Collaborative Ocular Melanoma Study criteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola G Ghazi

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Nicola G Ghazi1, Christopher S Ketcherside1, Jason Sheehan2, Brian P Conway11Department of Ophthalmology and 2Neurosurgery, University of Virginia Health System, Charlottesville, VA, USAPurpose: To report outcomes of Gamma Knife radiosurgery (GKRS in treating uveal melanoma lesions ineligible for standard brachytherapy.Methods: A retrospective interventional case series of uveal melanoma patients treated with GKRS between 1996 and 2004 was performed. The main outcome measures were local tumor control, metastasis, and death.Results: Four patients with uveal melanoma treated with GKS were identified. Three tumors involved the ciliary body and one was macular with its border within 2 mm of the optic disc. Adequate globe stabilization was achieved by retrobulbar anesthesia in all cases. Pretreatment mean visual acuity was 20/30. Tumor volume as determined by magnetic resonance imaging ranged from 0.05 to 0.30 cc. Ultrasonographic greatest tumor diameter and height ranged from 11 to 18 mm (mean 14.5 mm and 2.9 to 4.5 mm (mean 3.6 mm, respectively. The peripheral dose varied from 16.5 to 30 Gray. Local tumor control was achieved in all cases over a follow up period of 6 to 96 months. Mean final visual acuity was 20/50. One eye was enucleated for neovascular glaucoma and one patient died from liver and lung metastasis.Conclusions: GKRS for uveal melanoma appears to be safe and effective. The metastasis and mortality rates appear to be comparable to those following brachytherapy and enucleation. Moreover, local tumor control and enucleation rates are similar to those following brachytherapy. The findings in this small series suggest a role for GKRS in the treatment of selected cases of uveal melanomas.Keywords: gamma knife radiosurgery, radiation therapy, uveal melanoma

  11. Primary cutaneous melanoma: an 18-year study

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Moris, Anger; Henri, Friedhofer; Marina Fussae, Fukutaki; Marcus Castro, Ferreira; Gilles, Landman.

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Primary cutaneous melanoma still constitutes the main cause of skin cancer death in developed countries, and its incidence in recent years has been increasing in a steady, worrisome manner. OBJECTIVES: This study evaluated the clinical, epidemiological and demographic aspects of this dis [...] ease, and correlated them with patient prognosis. METHODS: Using epidemiologic and clinical data, we analyzed 84 patients with mild to severe primary cutaneous melanoma treated between 1990 and 2007. Slides containing surgical specimens were analyzed, and new slides were made from archived paraffin sections when necessary. RESULTS: The melanoma incidence was higher in areas of sun exposure, with lesions commonly observed in the trunk for males, and lower limbs for females. In addition to Breslow's thickness and ulceration (p = 0.043 and p 1 mm and 4 mm) and the mitotic index (0 when absent or 1 when >1 per mm²) allowed the establishment of a prognostic score: if the sum was equal to or over three, nearly all (91.7%) patients had systemic disease. The 5-year survival was approximately seventy percent. CONCLUSION: Because American Join Committee of Cancer Staging will update the classification of malignant tumors (TNM) staging in the near future, and introduce mitosis as a prognostic factor, our results show the importance of such a feature. Additional studies are necessary to confirm the importance of a prognostic score as proposed herein.

  12. Primary cutaneous melanoma: an 18-year study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moris Anger

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Primary cutaneous melanoma still constitutes the main cause of skin cancer death in developed countries, and its incidence in recent years has been increasing in a steady, worrisome manner. OBJECTIVES: This study evaluated the clinical, epidemiological and demographic aspects of this disease, and correlated them with patient prognosis. METHODS: Using epidemiologic and clinical data, we analyzed 84 patients with mild to severe primary cutaneous melanoma treated between 1990 and 2007. Slides containing surgical specimens were analyzed, and new slides were made from archived paraffin sections when necessary. RESULTS: The melanoma incidence was higher in areas of sun exposure, with lesions commonly observed in the trunk for males, and lower limbs for females. In addition to Breslow's thickness and ulceration (p = 0.043 and p 1 mm and 4 mm and the mitotic index (0 when absent or 1 when >1 per mm² allowed the establishment of a prognostic score: if the sum was equal to or over three, nearly all (91.7% patients had systemic disease. The 5-year survival was approximately seventy percent. CONCLUSION: Because American Join Committee of Cancer Staging will update the classification of malignant tumors (TNM staging in the near future, and introduce mitosis as a prognostic factor, our results show the importance of such a feature. Additional studies are necessary to confirm the importance of a prognostic score as proposed herein.

  13. Proton beam irradiation for ocular melanoma, 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seventy MeV Proton beam irradiation (beam range:38 mm in the water) was applied for the treatment of 6 patients of ocular melanoma between October 1985 and July 1986 at National Institute of Radiological Sciences(NIRS). The Proton beam has more localized and uniform dose distributions than the electron beams, leading to increased delivery of the dose to tumors with out excess exposure to adjacent normal tissues. Since the accurate treatment planning was necessary for the Proton beam therapy, various studies concerned with the diagnosis of tumor localization using X-CT, MRI or ultrasonography and with the methods for fixation of the body or target using holder or plastic shell were performed. The diagnosis of ocular melanoma was established in the all cases through clinical examinations, such as indirect ophthalmoscopy, fundus photography, fluorescein angiography, ultrasonography and so on. The narrow horizontal Proton beam(10 ? 24 mm diameter) was straightly irradiated to the tumor, through the several thicked bolus, avoiding an exposure to the lens. The dose of 30 ? 60 Gy/3 ? 5 fractions/3 ? 5 weeks (TDF 90 ? 150) was prescribed. Although the follow up studies in order to estimate the tumor response and the complications are not enough to long to evaluate the results, we believe that Proton beam irradiation is considered to be an excellent therapy for the management of ocular melanomas, alternative to enucleation of affected eye. (author)

  14. Cutaneous melanoma: new advances in treatment

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Michele Ceolin, Foletto; Sandra Elisa, Haas.

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Cutaneous melanoma is a challenge to treat. Over the last 30 years, no drug or combination of drugs demonstrated significant impact to improve patient survival. From 1995 to 2000, the use of cytokines such as interferon and interleukin become treatment options. In 2011, new drugs were approved by th [...] e U.S. Food and Drug Administration, including peginterferon alfa-2b for patients with stage III disease, vemurafenib for patients with metastatic melanoma with the BRAF V600E mutation, and ipilimumab, a monoclonal antibody directed to the CTLA-4 T lymphocyte receptor, to combat metastatic melanoma in patients who do not have the BRAF V600E mutation. Both ipilimumab and vemurafenib showed results in terms of overall survival. Other trials with inhibitors of other genes, such as the KIT gene and MEK, are underway in the search for new discoveries. The discovery of new treatments for advanced or metastatic disease aims to relieve symptoms and improve patient quality of life.

  15. Proton beam radiotherapy of iris melanoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To report on outcomes after proton beam radiotherapy of iris melanoma. Methods and Materials: Between 1993 and 2004, 88 patients with iris melanoma received proton beam radiotherapy, with 53.1 Gy in 4 fractions. Results: The patients had a mean age of 52 years and a median follow-up of 2.7 years. The tumors had a median diameter of 4.3 mm, involving more than 2 clock hours of iris in 32% of patients and more than 2 hours of angle in 27%. The ciliary body was involved in 20%. Cataract was present in 13 patients before treatment and subsequently developed in another 18. Cataract had a 4-year rate of 63% and by Cox analysis was related to age (p = 0.05), initial visual loss (p < 0.0001), iris involvement (p < 0.0001), and tumor thickness (p < 0.0001). Glaucoma was present before treatment in 13 patients and developed after treatment in another 3. Three eyes were enucleated, all because of recurrence, which had an actuarial 4-year rate of 3.3% (95% CI 0-8.0%). Conclusions: Proton beam radiotherapy of iris melanoma is well tolerated, the main problems being radiation-cataract, which was treatable, and preexisting glaucoma, which in several patients was difficult to control

  16. Staging of cutaneous malignant melanoma by CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malignant melanomas are a challenge in radiological imaging diagnostics as they may metastasize into every organ and tissue. Cross-sectional imaging, in particular positron emission tomography computed tomography (PET/CT) and whole body magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), are considered the standards in the staging of melanomas. Because of its excellent availability CT, however, remains a widely employed staging modality. Familiarity with the manifold CT morphology of metastasized melanomas as it is described here is essential when interpreting dedicated CT and in addition useful when interpreting PET/CT results. In individual cases CT can assist in the detection of transient metastases. In the detection of locoregional lymph node metastases CT has a median sensitivity and specificity in meta-analyses of at best 61 % and 97 %, respectively, which is inferior to the performance of ultrasound (96 % and 99 %, respectively). According to meta-analyses, in the assessment of systemic tumor spread CT can detect the majority of metastases with a sensitivity and specificity of 51-63 % and 69-78 %, respectively, which is inferior to MRI and PET/CT. Therefore, if an exact staging is required for critical management decisions, MRI or PET/CT should be employed whenever possible. (orig.)

  17. Persistent Pain After Surgery for Cutaneous Melanoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    HØimyr, Hilde; von Sperling, Marie Louise

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVES:: Chronic pain is a well-known complication after surgery, but the prevalence of persistent pain after melanoma surgery is unknown. This study examined the prevalence and predictors of persistent pain after melanoma surgery. METHODS:: Between September 2005 and June 2009, 448 patients underwent surgery for cutaneous melanoma at the Department of Plastic Surgery, Aalborg Hospital. A questionnaire was sent to all 402 survivors, and 350 (87.1%) responded. In addition, all patients with pain and a control group of sex-matched and age-matched patients without pain were invited to a clinical examination. RESULTS:: Thirty-four patients (9.7%) reported pain in the scar area within the last month, and 8.6% reported chronic pain. The pain was mostly mild with little impact on daily life, but 1.7% reported moderate to severe pain, and 3.4% reported at least moderate impact of pain on daily life. Sensory changes were reported by 108 patients (31.5%); 25% of these had pain compared with 3% of patients with normal sensation [P

  18. MelanomaDB: a Web Tool for Integrative Analysis of Melanoma Genomic Information to Identify Disease-Associated Molecular Pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CristinGregorPrint

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Despite on-going research, metastatic melanoma survival rates remain low and treatment options are limited. Researchers can now access a rapidly growing amount of molecular and clinical information about melanoma. This information is becoming difficult to assemble and interpret due to its dispersed nature, yet as it grows it becomes increasingly valuable for understanding melanoma. Integration of this information into a comprehensive resource to aid rational experimental design and patient stratification is needed. As an initial step in this direction, we have assembled a web-accessible melanoma database, MelanomaDB, which incorporates clinical and molecular data from publically available sources, which will be regularly updated as new information becomes available. This database allows complex links to be drawn between many different aspects of melanoma biology: genetic changes (e.g. mutations in individual melanomas revealed by DNA sequencing, associations between gene expression and patient survival, data concerning drug targets, biomarkers, druggability and clinical trials, as well as our own statistical analysis of relationships between molecular pathways and clinical parameters that have been produced using these data sets. The database is freely available at http://genesetdb.auckland.ac.nz/melanomadb/about.html . A subset of the information in the database can also be accessed through a freely available web application in the Illumina genomic cloud computing platform BaseSpace at http://www.biomatters.com/apps/melanoma-profiler-for-research . This illustrates dysregulation of specific signalling pathways, both across 310 exome-sequenced melanomas and in individual tumours and identifies novel features about the distribution of somatic variants in melanoma. We suggest that this database can provide a context in which to interpret the tumour molecular profiles of individual melanoma patients relative to biological information and available drug therapies.

  19. Melanoma in Organ Transplant Recipients: Incidence, Outcomes and Management Considerations

    OpenAIRE

    Ali, Faisal R; Lear, John T.

    2012-01-01

    The incidence of melanoma continues to increase year on year. With better surgical techniques and medical management, greater numbers of organ transplants are being performed annually with much longer graft survival. The authors review our current understanding of the incidence of melanoma amongst organ transplant recipients, outcomes compared to the immunocompetent population, and management strategies in this burgeoning group.

  20. Successful Treatment of Lower Eyelid Melanoma in Situ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew A. Gassman, MD

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Summary: We present a brief literature review of the topical immune-modulating medication Imiquimod. The treatment of periorbital melanoma in situ typically requires surgical resection. Here we discuss a case of lower eyelid melanoma in situ successfully treated non-operatively with Imiquimod.

  1. The role of ultraviolet light in the origin of melanomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study described in this report enters into a number of possible functions of UV radiation in the arising of melanomas. From the results it turns out that UV radiation probably does not induce melanomas directly, which pleads for a more direct function of UV radiation possibly via suppression of the defence system against tumour cells. (H.W.). 20 refs

  2. Metastatic Malignant Melanoma in an alpaca (Vicugna pacos)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malignant melanoma in a 7-year old, intact male alpaca with a chronic, non-healing wound on the left nares, weight loss and inappetance is described. Malignant melanoma was diagnosed in punch biopsy specimens from a mass on the maxilla associated with the non-healing wound and from a mass in the su...

  3. Pigmented Mammary Paget Disease Misdiagnosed as Malignant Melanoma

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Ji Hye; Kim, Tae Hyung; Kim, Soo-Chan; Kim, You Chan; Roh, Mi Ryung

    2014-01-01

    Pigmented mammary Paget disease is a very rare clinicopathologic variant of mammary Paget disease. Diagnosis is often difficult because its clinical and histological features are very similar to those of malignant melanoma. Herein, we report a case of pigmented mammary Paget disease misdiagnosed as malignant melanoma.

  4. Malignant melanoma of the tongue following low-dose radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalemeris, G.C.; Rosenfeld, L.; Gray, G.F. Jr.; Glick, A.D.

    1985-03-01

    A 47-year-old man had a spindly malignant melanoma of the tongue many years after low-dose radiation therapy for lichen planus. To our knowledge, only 12 melanomas of the tongue have been reported previously, and in none of these was radiation documented.

  5. Lunares comunes, nevos displásicos y el riesgo de melanoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoja informativa que trata de los lunares y de cómo algunos de ellos pueden relacionarse con el melanoma, el cual es el tipo más grave de cáncer de piel. La hoja informativa incluye fotos de las diferencias entre los lunares y el cáncer y habla de los factores de riesgo para el melanoma.

  6. Prevalence of left-sided melanomas in an Irish population.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    de Blacam, C

    2011-04-17

    BACKGROUND: A predominance of melanomas on the left side of the body has recently been described. No associations between tumour laterality and gender, age or anatomical site have been identified. AIM: The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of left-sided melanomas in an Irish population and to examine potential associations with various patient and tumour characteristics. METHODS: A retrospective chart review of patients with cutaneous melanoma who were treated over a 10-year period was carried out. Lateral distribution of melanoma on either side of the body was compared using ?(2) analysis and evaluated by gender, age group, anatomic location, histologic subtype and Breslow depth. RESULTS: More melanomas occurred on the left side (57%, P = 0.015), and this finding was particularly significant in females. For both genders combined, there were no statistically significant differences in laterality by age group, anatomic location, type of melanoma and Breslow depth. There were significantly more superficial spreading melanomas on the left side in both men and women. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates a predominance of left-sided melanomas in Irish patients. While a number of demographic and molecular associations have been proposed, further research is required to fully explain this phenomenon.

  7. Prevalence of left-sided melanomas in an Irish population.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    de Blacam, C

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: A predominance of melanomas on the left side of the body has recently been described. No associations between tumour laterality and gender, age or anatomical site have been identified. AIM: The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of left-sided melanomas in an Irish population and to examine potential associations with various patient and tumour characteristics. METHODS: A retrospective chart review of patients with cutaneous melanoma who were treated over a 10-year period was carried out. Lateral distribution of melanoma on either side of the body was compared using chi(2) analysis and evaluated by gender, age group, anatomic location, histologic subtype and Breslow depth. RESULTS: More melanomas occurred on the left side (57%, P = 0.015), and this finding was particularly significant in females. For both genders combined, there were no statistically significant differences in laterality by age group, anatomic location, type of melanoma and Breslow depth. There were significantly more superficial spreading melanomas on the left side in both men and women. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates a predominance of left-sided melanomas in Irish patients. While a number of demographic and molecular associations have been proposed, further research is required to fully explain this phenomenon.

  8. Comparative analysis of methods of preinvasive melanoma diagnostics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kozlov S.V.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses one of the problems of oncology — skin melanoma. The research objective is to study and to compare diagnostic methods of preinvasive melanoma including fluorescence diagnosis, dermatoscopy and microwave radiometry. Materials and Methods: The survey has used dermatoscope of Heine Delta 20 Company, the unit RTM-01-RES and the instrument of fluorescent diagnostics «Spectrum-Cluster.» The results suggest the possibility of early detection of melanoma with the use of dermatoscopy. The method may be applied to radiometry screening study. Fluorescence diagnostics is effective for the differential diagnosis of melanoma and melanocytic nevi. In conclusion it has been proved the need for an integrated approach to the diagnostics of melanoma of skin, depending on the different clinical situations.

  9. Malignant melanoma of the oral cavity: Report of two cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Munde

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Primary malignant melanoma is a rare and aggressive neoplasm that originates from the proliferation of melanocytes. Although, it comprises 1.3% of all cancers, malignant melanoma of the oral cavity accounts for only 0.2-8% of all reported melanomas and occurs approximately 4 times more frequently in the oral mucosa of the upper jaw, usually on the palate or alveolar gingivae. Most of the mucosal melanomas are usually asymptomatic in early stages, and presents as pigmented patch or a mass delaying the diagnosis until symptoms of swelling, ulceration, bleeding, or loosening of teeth are noted. The prognosis is extremely poor, especially in advanced stages. Therefore, any pigmented lesion of undetermined origin should always be biopsied. We herewith report of two cases of oral malignant melanoma in a 60 and 75-year-old female.

  10. Radiotherapy of primary human melanomas - experiences and suggestions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We treated 60 invasive primary human melanomas by soft X-rays. In 23 additional cases radiotherapy was applied after total excision of a primary melanoma. Only in two cases was a tumor observed in the field of irradiation during the follow-up period: A recurrence of a primary melanoma and a skin metastasis. Radioresistance cannot be unequivocally assumed in either case. Since deeply situated in-transit metastases cannot be destroyed by soft X-rays in spite of our good results we regard radiotherapy of invasive primary melanomas as a second choice treatment to be administered if impaired general health, excessive tumor growth in certain localisations or refusal of the patient to not allow a major operation. Nodular parts of primary melanomas should be excised before radiotherapy to obtain material for histopathological confirmation of the diagnosis and to determine the thickness of the tumor. X-rays of lower hardness can subsequently be applied. (orig.)

  11. Targeted agents for the treatment of metastatic melanoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monzon JG

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Jose G Monzon, Janet DanceyNCIC Clinical Trials Group, Kingston, Ontario, CanadaAbstract: In the last year, the armamentarium of melanoma therapeutics has radically changed. Recent discoveries in melanoma biology and immunology have led to novel therapeutics targeting known oncogenes and immunotherapeutic antibodies. Phase III clinical trials of these agents have reported measurable and meaningful benefits to patients with metastatic disease. In this article, we review recent findings and discuss their significance in melanoma therapy. As our understanding of melanoma biology grows, this initial therapeutic success may be enhanced through the use of molecular markers to select patients, and new targeted immunotherapies in sequential or combination drug regimens.Keywords: metastatic melanoma, ipilimumab, vemurafenib, antitumor

  12. Therapy for metastatic melanoma: the past, present, and future

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Finn Laura

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Metastatic melanoma is the most aggressive form of skin cancer with a median overall survival of less than one year. Advancements in our understanding of how melanoma evades the immune system as well as the recognition that melanoma is a molecularly heterogeneous disease have led to major improvements in the treatment of patients with metastatic melanoma. In 2011, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA approved two novel therapies for advanced melanoma: a BRAF inhibitor, vemurafenib, and an immune stimulatory agent, ipilimumab. The success of these agents has injected excitement and hope into patients and clinicians and, while these therapies have their limitations, they will likely provide excellent building blocks for the next generation of therapies. In this review we will discuss the advantages and limitations of the two new approved agents, current clinical trials designed to overcome these limitations, and future clinical trials that we feel hold the most promise.

  13. Melanoma metastásico con tumor primario oculto / Metastatic melanoma with occult primary tumor

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Pablo, Bórquez M; Gabriela, Ochoa S; Mauricio, Correa D.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available En el 3% de los melanomas, el tumor primario está oculto. Reportamos una mujer de 58 años, que presentaba linfadenopatías inguinales dolorosas. Reevaluada dos meses después, se constató crecimiento de la masa. Una TAC motró una masa sólida subcutánea en zona proximal de muslo izquierdo, la que fue b [...] iopsiada, demostrándose un melanoma. Se realizó disección linfática ilofemoral y cinco sesiones de radioterapia. A los dos años, la paciente no evidencia recurrencia tumoral. Abstract in english In 3% of melanomas, the primary tumor is occult. We report a 58 years old female presenting with rapidly growing painless left inguinal lymphadenopathies. The patient was reassessed two months later, verifying that the lesions enlarged further. A CAT scan of the left inguinal region showed a solid m [...] ass in the subcutaneous of the proximal region of the left thigh. An incisional biopsy of the inguinal mass was performed. The pathological study disclosed malignant melanoma. The patient was subjected to an iliofemoral lymphatic excision and to five sessions of regional radiotherapy. After two years of follow up, the patient is without evidence of tumor recurrence.

  14. Dermatologia comparativa: dermatoscopia em melanoma cutâneo Comparative dermatology: dermatoscopy of cutaneous melanoma

    OpenAIRE

    Otávio Sérgio Lopes; Edílson Pinheiro Egito

    2008-01-01

    Os autores apresentam imagens de dermatoscopia em uma fruta (manga-rosa), contaminada pela antracnose, mostrando sua semelhança com o melanoma extensivo superficial.The authors present images from a dermatoscopy performed in a fruit (mango) that was contaminated by anthracnosis, showing its similarity to superficial spreading melanona.

  15. Dermatologia comparativa: dermatoscopia em melanoma cutâneo Comparative dermatology: dermatoscopy of cutaneous melanoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otávio Sérgio Lopes

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Os autores apresentam imagens de dermatoscopia em uma fruta (manga-rosa, contaminada pela antracnose, mostrando sua semelhança com o melanoma extensivo superficial.The authors present images from a dermatoscopy performed in a fruit (mango that was contaminated by anthracnosis, showing its similarity to superficial spreading melanona.

  16. Melanoma de coroides: presentación de un caso / Choroidal melanoma: a case presentation

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Aymed, Rodríguez Pargas; Leonor, Gallardo Roca; Iris, Chávez Pardo; Xiomara, Borrego Lastre.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Fundamento: los melanomas de coroides son considerados los tumores malignos más frecuentes en el adulto, aparece generalmente entre la sexta y séptima década de la vida y se diagnostica a través de la oftalmoscopia, la biomiscroscopia, el ultrasonido y la angiografía fluoresceínica. Su forma de pres [...] entación puede ser en su variante nodular o difusa la malignidad depende del tamaño del tumor, la localización, extensión extra escleral, tipo histológico, entre otros factores. La causa de muerte por esta enfermedad suele ocurrir por metástasis hepática. Objetivo: evitar el diagnóstico tardío del melanoma ocular. Caso clínico: se presenta el caso de una paciente femenina de 50 años de edad que acudió al centro oftalmológico del Hospital Universitario Manuel Ascunce Domenech, por disminución lenta de la agudeza visual del ojo derecho, detectándose al examen oftalmológico la presencia de una masa tumoral de color pardo que ocupaba la hemiretina superior, lo cual se corroboró con la observación de el ultrasonido ocular, por lo que se decidió proceder a la enucleación del globo ocular debido a las características del mismo. El estudio histopatológico confirmó la presencia de un melanoma de coroides de células tipo mixtas con infiltración a cuerpo ciliar. Los resultados del examen físico general, hematológico e imagenológico fueron negativos, descartándose la presencia de metástasis. Abstract in english Background: choroidal melanoma is considered the most common malignant tumor in adults. It usually appears between the sixth and seventh decade of life and it is diagnosed by ophthalmoscopy, biomiscroscopy, ultrasound and fluorescein angiography. Choroidal melanoma presentation may be in its nodular [...] or diffuse variant; malignancy depends on the size of tumor, location, extrascleral extension, histological type, among other factors. The cause of death from this disease usually occurs by hepatic metastases. Objective: to avoid late diagnosis of ocular melanoma. Case presentation: a 50-year-old-female patient presented with slow decrease of visual acuity in the right eye. The eye test detected the presence of a brown tumor mass occupying the upper hemiretina, which was corroborated with the observation of ocular ultrasound. It was decided to enucleate the eyeball due to its characteristics. Histopathological examination confirmed the presence of a choroidal melanoma of mixed cell type with ciliary body infiltration. Results of physical, hematological and imaging examination were negative, ruling out the presence of metastasis.

  17. Clinicopathological characteristics, diagnosis and treatment of melanoma in Serbia: The Melanoma Focus Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kandolf-Sekulovi? Lidija

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Treatment options for metastatic melanoma in Serbia are limited due to the lack of newly approved biologic agents and the lack of clinical studies. Also, there is a paucity of data regarding the treatment approaches in different tertiary centers and efficacy of available chemotherapy protocols. The aim of this study was to obtain more detailed data about treatment protocols in Serbia based on structured survey in tertiary oncology centers. Methods. Data about the melanoma patients treated in 2011 were analyzed from hospital databases in 6 referent oncology centers in Serbia, based on the structured survey, with the focus on metastatic melanoma patients (unresectable stage IIIC and IV. Results. A total of 986 (79-315 in different centers patients were treated, with 320 (32.45% newly diagnosed patients. There were 317 patients in stage IIIC/IV, 77/317 aged 60 years. At initial diagnosis 12.5% of patients were in stage III and 4.5% in stage IV. The most common type was superficial spreading melanoma (50-66%, followed by nodular melanoma (23.5-50%. Apart from the regional and distant lymph node metastases, the most frequent organs involved in stage IV disease were distant skin and soft tissues (12-55%, lungs (19-55.5%, liver (10-60%, and bones (3-10%. The first line therapy in stage IV metastatic melanoma was dacarbazine (DTIC dimethyl-triazeno-imidozole-carboxamide in 61-93% of the patients, while the second line varied between the centers. Disease control (complete response + partial response + stable disease was achieved in 25.7% of the patients treated with the first line chemotherapy and 23.1% of the patients treated with the second line therapy, but the duration of response was short, in first-line therapy 6.66 ± 3.36 months (median 6.75 months. More than 90% of patients were treated outside the clinical trials. Conclusion. Based on this survey, there is a large unmet need for the new treatment options for metastatic melanoma in Serbia. The development of national guidelines, and greater involvement in international clinical studies could lead to widening of treatment options for this chemotherapy resistant disease.

  18. In vitro effect of progesterone on human melanoma (BLM) cell growth

    OpenAIRE

    Ramaraj, Pandurangan; James L. Cox

    2014-01-01

    Epidemiological data suggest there is a female sex advantage in melanoma skin cancer. Female sex hormones have been attributed to this protection. There has been no experimental evidence to link female sex hormones directly with melanoma protection until our recently published work on mouse melanoma (B16F10) cells. Our recently published work showed that progesterone significantly inhibited mouse melanoma cell growth in vitro. This study was extended to human melanoma (BLM) cells. Research wo...

  19. Personalized Prediction of Germline CDKN2A Mutations and Cancer Risk in Hereditary Melanoma

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Wenyi; Niendorf, Kristin B.; Patel, Devanshi; Blackford, Amanda; Marroni, Fabio; Sober, Arthur J; Parmigiani, Giovanni; Tsao, Hensin

    2010-01-01

    Personalized cancer risk assessment remains an essential imperative in post-genomic cancer medicine. In hereditary melanoma, germline CDKN2A mutations have been reproducibly identified in melanoma-prone kindreds worldwide. However, genetic risk counseling for hereditary melanoma remains clinically challenging. To address this challenge, we developed and validated MelaPRO: an algorithm that provides germline CDKN2A mutation probabilities and melanoma risk to individuals from melanoma-prone fam...

  20. MERTK controls melanoma cell migration and survival and differentially regulates cell behavior relative to AXL

    OpenAIRE

    Tworkoski, Kathryn A.; Platt, James T.; Bacchiocchi, Antonella; Bosenberg, Marcus; Boggon, Titus J; Stern, David F.

    2013-01-01

    The receptor tyrosine kinase AXL regulates melanoma cell proliferation and migration. We now demonstrate that AXL and the related kinase MERTK are alternately expressed in melanoma and are associated with different transcriptional signatures. MERTK-positive melanoma cells are more proliferative and less migratory than AXL-positive melanoma cells and overexpression of AXL increases cell motility relative to MERTK. MERTK is expressed in up to 50% of melanoma cells and shRNA-mediated knockdown o...

  1. Melanomas: radiobiology and role of radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose/Objective: This course will review the radiobiology of malignant melanoma (MM) and the clinical use of radiation therapy for metastatic melanoma and selected primary sites. The course will emphasize the scientific principles underlying the clinical treatment of MM. Introduction: The incidence of malignant melanoma has one of the fastest growth rates in the world. In 1991, there were 32,000 cases and 7,000 deaths from MM in the United States. By the year 2000, one of every 90 Americans will develop MM. Wide local excision is the treatment of choice for Stage I-II cutaneous MM. Five-year survival rates depend on (a) sex: female-63%, male-40%; (b) tumor thickness: t 4 mm-25%; (c) location: extremity-60%, trunk-41%; and (d) regional lymph node status: negative-77%, positive-31%. Despite adequate surgery, 45-50% of all MM patients will develop metastatic disease. Radiobiology: Both the multi-target model: S = 1-(1-e-D/Do)n and the linear quadratic mode: -In(S) = alpha x D + beta x D2 predict a possible benefit for high dose per fraction (> 400 cGy) radiation therapy for some MM cell lines. The extrapolation number (n) varies from 1-100 for MM compared to other mammalian cells with n=2-4. The alpha/beta ratios for a variety of MM cell lines vary from 1 to 33. Other radiobiologic factors (repair of potentially lethal damage, hypoxia, reoxygenation, and repopulation) predict a wide variety of clinical responses to different time-dose prescriptions including high dose per fraction (> 400 cGy), low dose per fraction (200-300 cGy), or b.i.d. therapy. Based on a review of the radiobiology of MM, no single therapeutic strategy emerges which could be expected to be successful for all tumors. Time-Dose Prescriptions: A review of the retrospective and prospective clinical trials evaluating various time-dose prescriptions for MM reveals: (1) MM is a radiosensitive tumor over a wide range of diverse time-dose prescriptions; and (2) The high clinical response rates to a diverse range of time-dose prescriptions are consistent with the wide diversity and complexity of the radiobiological data for MM. RT for Metastatic Melanoma: RT is the single most effective therapy for local palliation of metastatic disease. Complete response (CR) rates range from 24-75% and overall response (OR) rates are 59-98% with RT compared with CR rates of 3-10% and OR rates of only 15-36% with either chemotherapy or immunotherapy. Achieving a CR is important even for patients with metastatic disease. Five-year survival for patients with metastatic disease who achieve a CR is 49% compared to a 5-year survival of only 3% for patients who do not achieve a CR. RT for Primary Tumors: RT is effective therapy for selected primary sites including uveal melanoma and non-cutaneous, non-ocular mucosal MM. The RT results for ocular melanoma and non-cutaneous, non-ocular mucosal MM are superior to surgery. In addition, post-operative RT for residual microscopic/macroscopic disease following primary surgery produces long term local control rates of 75-88%. It is likely that radiation therapy is being under-utilized in current oncology practice

  2. T Cells Derived From Human Melanoma Draining Lymph Nodes Mediate Melanoma-specific Antitumor Responses In Vitro and In Vivo in Human Melanoma Xenograft Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Mei; Graor, Hallie; Visioni, Anthony; Strohl, Madeleine; Yan, Lu; Caja, Kevin; Kim, Julian A

    2015-01-01

    It has been established in murine models that lymph nodes draining a progressively growing tumor contain antigen-specific T cells capable of mediating protective immune responses upon adoptive transfer. However, naturally occurring human tumor-draining lymph nodes (TDLNs) have yet to be fully investigated. In this study, we analyzed TDLNs from patients with stage III melanoma who were undergoing routine lymph node dissection. Following short-term (14 d) culture activation with anti-CD3/anti-CD28 microbeads and expansion in low concentrations of IL-2, the melanoma-draining lymph node (MDLN) cells were ? 60% CD4-activated and ? 40% CD8-activated T cells. The activated MDLN cells demonstrated reactivity in response to overlapping peptides spanning the sequence of 4 different known melanoma antigens MAGEA1, Melan-A/MART-1, NY-ESO-1, and Prame/OIP4, suggesting the presence of melanoma-specific T cells. Coculture of activated MDLN T cells with cancer cells in vitro resulted in preferential apoptosis of human cancer cell lines that were cocultured with T cells with high degree of MHC matching. Adoptive transfer of MDLN T cells with high degree of MHC matching to A375 to mice-bearing human A375 melanoma xenografts resulted in dose-dependent improvement in survival. Although prior human studies have demonstrated the immune responses within melanoma vaccine-draining lymph nodes, this study presents evidence for the first time that naturally occurring human MDLN samples contain melanoma-experienced CD4 and CD8 T cells that can be readily cultured and expanded to mediate protective immune responses both in vitro and in vivo in a human melanoma xenograft model. PMID:26049546

  3. Lack of GNAQ and GNA11 germ-line mutations in familial melanoma pedigrees with uveal melanoma or blue nevi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JasonEzraHawkes

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Approximately 10% of melanoma cases are familial, but only 25-40% of familial melanoma cases can be attributed to germ-line mutations in the CDKN2A - the most significant high-risk melanoma susceptibility locus identified to date. The pathogenic mutation(s in most of the remaining familial melanoma pedigrees have not yet been identified. The most common mutations in nevi and sporadic melanoma are found in BRAF and NRAS, both of which result in constitutive activation of the MAPK pathway. However, these mutations are not found in uveal melanomas or the intradermal melanocytic proliferations known as blue nevi. Rather, multiple studies report a strong association between these lesions and somatic mutations in Guanine nucleotide-binding protein G(q subunit alpha (GNAQ, Guanine nucleotide-binding protein G(q subunit alpha-11 (GNA11 and BRCA1 associated protein-1 (BAP1. Recently, germ-line mutations in BAP1, the gene encoding a tumor suppressing deubiquitinating enzyme, have been associated with predisposition to a variety of cancers including uveal melanoma, but no studies have examined the association of germ-line mutations in GNAQ and GNA11 with uveal melanoma and blue nevi. We have now done so by sequencing exon 5 of both of these genes in 13 unique familial melanoma pedigrees, members of which have had either uveal or cutaneous melanoma and/or blue nevi. Germ-line DNA from a total of 22 individuals was used for sequencing; however no deleterious mutations were detected. Nevertheless, such candidate gene studies and the discovery of novel germ-line mutations associated with an increased MM susceptibility can lead to a better understanding of the pathways involved in melanocyte transformation, formulation of risk assessment, and the development of specific drug therapies.

  4. Nivolumab: A Review in Advanced Melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Lesley J

    2015-08-01

    An improved understanding of cancer genetics and immune regulatory pathways, including those associated with evasion of immune surveillance by tumours, has culminated in the development of several targeted therapies. One such strategy that acts to negate evasion of immune surveillance by tumours is inhibition of the programmed cell death receptor-1 (PD-1) checkpoint pathway. Intravenous nivolumab (Opdivo(®)), a PD-1 checkpoint inhibitor, is approved or in pre-registration in various countries for use in adult patients with advanced melanoma, with the recommended monotherapy dosage being a 60-min infusion of 3 mg/kg once every 2 weeks. In well-designed multinational trials, as monotherapy or in combination with ipilimumab (a cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4 checkpoint inhibitor), nivolumab significantly improved clinical outcomes and had a manageable tolerability profile in adult patients with advanced melanoma with or without BRAF mutations. Nivolumab monotherapy was associated with a higher objective response rate (ORR) than chemotherapy in treatment-experienced patients and a higher ORR and prolonged progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival than dacarbazine in treatment-naive patients. In combination with ipilimumab, nivolumab was associated with an improved ORR and prolonged PFS compared with ipilimumab monotherapy in treatment-naive patients. In addition, nivolumab monotherapy significantly prolonged PFS and improved ORRs compared with ipilimumab monotherapy. The optimal combination regimen for immune checkpoint inhibitors remains to be fully elucidated, with various combination regimens and different sequences of individual immunotherapies currently being investigated in ongoing clinical trials. Given the significant improvements in outcomes associated with nivolumab in clinical trials, nivolumab monotherapy or combination therapy is a valuable first-line or subsequent treatment option for adult patients with unresectable or metastatic melanoma, irrespective of BRAF mutation status. PMID:26220912

  5. The genetic basis of uveal melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, M; Dogrusöz, M; Bleeker, J C; Kroes, W G; van Asperen, C A; Marinkovic, M; Luyten, G P M; Jager, M J

    2015-06-01

    Uveal melanoma (UM) is the most common intraocular malignancy in adults with an incidence of about 1/100,000 new cases per year in the Western world. Risk factors are having a light skin, blond hair and blue eyes. As some UM patients have a young age at diagnosis or an affected family history for UM or other malignancies, there may be an underlying genetic basis. This review discusses known or suspected risk factors for UM, the cancer risk in UM patients and their family members, and the genes that have been reported to predispose to UM (germline mutations) and tumor development (somatic mutations). PMID:25976137

  6. A CASE OF LIMBAL MALIGNANT MELANOMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hansa H

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Conjunctival malignant melanoma is a rare pigmented tumor occurring during fifth and sixth decade typically involving limbus with high recurrence rate . A 65 yr male presented with complaints of slowly growing dark colored swelling in his left eye since 2 months . No systemic complaints . A black mass was seen on limbus with lobulated appearance . On USG ocular coats were normal . UBM shows 8*5 mm mass . Excision of mass was done and biopsy confirmed diagnosis . Mass excision was supplemented with cryotherapy . Now patient i s cosmetically and visually satisfied .

  7. POLE mutations in families predisposed to cutaneous melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoude, Lauren G; Heitzer, Ellen; Johansson, Peter; Gartside, Michael; Wadt, Karin; Pritchard, Antonia L; Palmer, Jane M; Symmons, Judith; Gerdes, Anne-Marie; Montgomery, Grant W; Martin, Nicholas G; Tomlinson, Ian; Kearsey, Stephen; Hayward, Nicholas K

    2015-12-01

    Germline mutations in the exonuclease domain of POLE have been shown to predispose to colorectal cancers and adenomas. POLE is an enzyme involved in DNA repair and chromosomal DNA replication. In order to assess whether such mutations might also predispose to cutaneous melanoma, we interrogated whole-genome and exome data from probands of 34 melanoma families lacking pathogenic mutations in known high penetrance melanoma susceptibility genes: CDKN2A, CDK4, BAP1, TERT, POT1, ACD and TERF2IP. We found a novel germline mutation, POLE p.(Trp347Cys), in a 7-case cutaneous melanoma family. Functional assays in S. pombe showed that this mutation led to an increased DNA mutation rate comparable to that seen with a Pol ? mutant with no exonuclease activity. We then performed targeted sequencing of POLE in 1243 cutaneous melanoma cases and found that a further ten probands had novel or rare variants in the exonuclease domain of POLE. Although this frequency is not significantly higher than that in unselected Caucasian controls, we observed multiple cancer types in the melanoma families, suggesting that some germline POLE mutations may predispose to a broad spectrum of cancers, including melanoma. In addition, we found the first mutation outside the exonuclease domain, p.(Gln520Arg), in a family with an extensive history of colorectal cancer. PMID:26251183

  8. Solar elastosis and cutaneous melanoma: a site-specific analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kvaskoff, Marina; Pandeya, Nirmala; Green, Adèle C; Perry, Susan; Baxter, Catherine; Davis, Marcia B; Mortimore, Rohan; Westacott, Lorraine; Wood, Dominic; Triscott, Joe; Williamson, Richard; Whiteman, David C

    2015-06-15

    Cutaneous melanomas are postulated to arise through at least two causal pathways, namely the "chronic sun exposure" and "nevus" pathways. While chronic sun exposure probably causes many head/neck melanomas, its role at other sites is unclear. In a population-based, case-case comparison study conducted in Brisbane, Australia, we determined the prevalence and epidemiologic correlates of chronic solar damage in skin adjacent to invasive, incident melanomas on the trunk (n = 418) or head/neck (n = 92) among patients aged 18-79 in 2007-2010. Participants self-reported information about environmental and phenotypic factors, and a dermatologist counted nevi and actinic keratoses. Dermatopathologists assessed solar elastosis adjacent to each melanoma using a four-point scale (nil, mild, moderate, marked), and noted the presence or absence of adjacent neval remnants. We measured associations between various factors and solar elastosis using polytomous logistic regression. Marked or moderate solar elastosis was observed in 10% and 27%, respectively, of trunk melanomas, and 60% and 17%, respectively, of head/neck melanomas. At both sites, marked elastosis was positively associated with age (p(trend) ?tanning skin (OR = 0.29, 95% CI = 0.08-1.11) and high nevus counts (OR = 0.08, 95% CI = 0.01-0.66). Mostly similar associations were observed with moderate solar elastosis. About one in three trunk melanomas in Queensland have evidence of moderate-to-marked sun damage, and they differ in risk associations from those without. PMID:25403328

  9. Exome sequencing identifies recurrent somatic RAC1 mutations in melanoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krauthammer, Michael; Kong, Yong; Ha, Byung Hak; Evans, Perry; Bacchiocchi, Antonella; McCusker, James P.; Cheng, Elaine; Davis, Matthew J.; Goh, Gerald; Choi, Murim; Ariyan, Stephan; Narayan, Deepak; Dutton-Regester, Ken; Capatana, Ana; Holman, Edna C.; Bosenberg, Marcus; Sznol, Mario; Kluger, Harriet M.; Brash, Douglas E.; Stern, David F.; Materin, Miguel A.; Lo, Roger S.; Mane, Shrikant; Ma, Shuangge; Kidd, Kenneth K.; Hayward, Nicholas K.; Lifton, Richard P.; Schlessinger, Joseph; Boggon, Titus J.; Halaban, Ruth (Yale-MED); (UCLA); (Queens)

    2012-10-11

    We characterized the mutational landscape of melanoma, the form of skin cancer with the highest mortality rate, by sequencing the exomes of 147 melanomas. Sun-exposed melanomas had markedly more ultraviolet (UV)-like C>T somatic mutations compared to sun-shielded acral, mucosal and uveal melanomas. Among the newly identified cancer genes was PPP6C, encoding a serine/threonine phosphatase, which harbored mutations that clustered in the active site in 12% of sun-exposed melanomas, exclusively in tumors with mutations in BRAF or NRAS. Notably, we identified a recurrent UV-signature, an activating mutation in RAC1 in 9.2% of sun-exposed melanomas. This activating mutation, the third most frequent in our cohort of sun-exposed melanoma after those of BRAF and NRAS, changes Pro29 to serine (RAC1{sup P29S}) in the highly conserved switch I domain. Crystal structures, and biochemical and functional studies of RAC1{sup P29S} showed that the alteration releases the conformational restraint conferred by the conserved proline, causes an increased binding of the protein to downstream effectors, and promotes melanocyte proliferation and migration. These findings raise the possibility that pharmacological inhibition of downstream effectors of RAC1 signaling could be of therapeutic benefit.

  10. Cyclic AMP (cAMP) signaling in melanocytes and melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Carlos Iván; Setaluri, Vijayasaradhi

    2014-12-01

    G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs), which include melanocortin-1 receptor (MC1R), play a crucial role in melanocytes development, proliferation and differentiation. Activation of the MC1R by the ?-melanocyte stimulating hormone (?-MSH) leads to the activation of the cAMP signaling pathway that is mainly associated with differentiation and pigment production. Some MC1R polymorphisms produce cAMP signaling impairment and pigmentary phenotypes such as the red head color and fair skin phenotype (RHC) that is usually associated with higher risk for melanoma development. Despite its importance in melanocyte biology, the role of cAMP signaling cutaneous melanoma is not well understood. Melanoma is primarily driven by mutations in the components of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) pathway. Increasing evidence, however, now suggests that cAMP signaling also plays an important role in melanoma even though genetic alterations in components of this pathway are note commonly found in melanoma. Here we review these new roles for cAMP in melanoma including its contribution to the notorious treatment resistance of melanoma. PMID:25017568

  11. Coffee, tea, and melanoma risk among postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Haotian; Reeves, Katherine W; Qian, Jing; Sturgeon, Susan R

    2015-07-01

    Laboratory research suggests that components in coffee and tea may have anticarcinogenic effects. Some epidemiologic studies have reported that women who consume coffee and tea have a lower risk for melanoma. We assessed coffee, tea, and melanoma risk prospectively in the Women's Health Initiative - Observational Study cohort of 66,484 postmenopausal women, followed for an average of 7.7 years. Coffee and tea intakes were measured through self-administered questionnaires at baseline and at year 3 of follow-up. Self-reported incident melanomas were adjudicated using medical records. Cox proportional hazard models were used to estimate risk, adjusting for covariates, with person-time accumulation until melanoma diagnosis (n=398), death, loss to follow-up, or through 2005. Daily coffee [hazard ratio (HR)=0.87, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.68-1.12] and tea (HR=1.03, 95% CI 0.81-1.31) intakes were not significantly associated with melanoma risk compared with nondaily intake of each beverage. No significant trends were observed between melanoma risk and increasing intakes of coffee (P for trend=0.38) or tea (P for trend=0.22). Women who reported daily coffee intake at both baseline and year 3 had a significantly decreased risk compared with women who reported nondaily intake at both time points (HR=0.68, 95% CI 0.48-0.97). Consistent daily tea intake was not associated with decreased melanoma risk. Overall, there is no strong evidence that increasing coffee or tea consumption can lead to a lower melanoma risk. We observed a decrease in melanoma risk among long-term coffee drinkers, but the lack of consistency in the results by dose and type cautioned against overinterpretation of the results. PMID:25325307

  12. Metastatic melanoma – a review of current and future drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago Rodrigues Velho

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Melanoma is one of the most aggressive cancers, and it is estimated that 76,250 men and women will be diagnosed with melanoma of the skin in the USA in 2012. Over the last few decades many drugs have been developed but only in 2011 have new drugs demonstrated an impact on survival in metastatic melanoma.Methods: A systematic search of literature was conducted, and studies providing data on the effectiveness of current and/or future drugs used in the treatment of metastatic melanoma were selected for review. This review discusses the advantages and limitations of these agents, evaluating past, current and future clinical trials designed to overcome such limitations.Results: To date, there are four drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration for melanoma (dacarbazine, interleukin-2, ipilimumab and vemurafenib. Despite efforts to develop new drugs, few of them have demonstrated any clinical benefits. Approved in 1975, dacarbazine remains the gold standard in chemotherapy, although ipilimumab and vemurafenib have raised many hopes in the last few years. Combining dacarbazine or other chemotherapy agents with new pharmacological agents may be a new way to achieve better clinical responses in patients with metastatic melanoma.Discussion: Advances in the molecular knowledge of melanoma have led to major improvements in the treatment of patients with metastatic melanoma, providing new targets and insights. However, heterogeneity amongst study populations, different approaches to treatment and the different melanoma types and localisations included in the trials makes their comparison difficult. New studies focusing on drugs developed in recent decades are warranted

  13. Classical and molecular genetics of malignant melanoma and dysplastic naevi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors conclude that the prevailing concept of monogenic autosomaldominant inheritance of dysplastic naevi and familial melanoma is not compatible with the principles of formal (Mendelian) genetics. The concept of polygenic inheritance offers instead a sound basis to explain familial aggregation of dysplastic naevi and melanoma. The various genes involved have not yet been identified at the molecular level. The recent advances made possible by modern DNA technology have given us a new view of carcinogenesis. In human malignant melanoma, chromosomes 1, 6, 7 are of particular interest and oncogenes located on these chromosomes may be involved with the initiation, promotion and progression of melanoma. Carcinogenesis is viewed as a multistep process and even tumour initiation requires the input of at least two independent oncogenes. Molecular genetics thus adds an important argument for the existence of a polygenic predisposition to melanoma. The concept of polygenic inheritance is not restricted to familial melanoma, but implies that all melanomas basically share the same predisposition and are due to similar genetic mechanisms. In some patients an inherited genetic predisposition is of great importance, whereas in others (the majority) environmental factors (e.g. UV-light-induced mutations) will be the cause of initial steps in the malignant transformation. The concept of polygenic inheritance has consequences for the management of our patients. In contrast to simple Mendelian inheritance, the risk for dysplastic naevi and melanoma is not constantly 50%, but increases with the number of family members already affected. Persons belonging to families with more that 2 affected close relatives should be considered at high risk regardless of the dysplastic naevus status. Strict surveillance of this patient group is warranted for melanoma prevention

  14. Desmoplastic neurotropic melanoma: A diagnostic trap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rabia Bozdo?an Arpac?

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Desmoplastic neurotropic melanoma (DNM is known as a rare variety of cutaneous melanoma. The authors defined the term ‘neurotropic’ which is used to refer to the associated nevre infiltration or neural differentiation. 74-year-old female applied to a plastic surgery clinic with one year history of a nodule on the left infraorbital skin. The lesion was excised by the surgeons and was sent to the pathology department.. The tumor with spindle cells in a scar like stroma was detected microscopically and diagnosed as a ‘dermatofibroma’. Eight months after surgery a deep-seated nodule recurred at the same place. This nodule was re-excised. In this sample, we saw hypercellularity, atypical mitoses and nerve infiltration of the spindle tumor cells having strong positive staining with S-100 protein and negative staining with HMB-45, so the ultimate diagnosis was DNM. The differential diagnosis of this lesion includes many benign and malignant entities. This is crucial because of the potential for recurrence and metastasis of the lesion.

  15. Melanoma: actualización en su enfoque y tratamiento

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Luis Gaviria

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available El melanoma es un cáncer de piel que se ha convertido rápidamente en un problema importante de salud en muchos países, lo cual se refleja en un aumento en su incidencia. El entendimiento de los aspectos fisiopatológicos fundamentales del melanoma es crucial para el diagnóstico precoz y el desarrollo de un esquema de manejo adecuado. Actualmente, la profundidad de la lesión es considerado el factor pronóstico más importante, pues de ella depende la necesidad de practicar ganglio centinela, la estadificación del tumor y, por consiguiente, el manejo quirúrgico y la terapia adyuvante. Esta revisión del tema fue realizado por la Unidad de Cirugía Plástica del Hospital Universitario San Ignacio, mediante la revisión de la literatura de múltiples ensayos clínicos, metanálisis y estudio de las guías de manejo del Instituto Nacional de Cancerología de Colombia y el Instituto Nacional de Cáncer de USA, con el fin de establecer unas pautas de manejo multidisciplinario acorde a lo publicado a nivel internacional y así, unificar el tratamiento de esta patología.

  16. GdNCT of spontaneous canine melanoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effectiveness of GdNCT has been studied in dogs with spontaneous melanoma of the mucousmembrane of the oral cavity patients on the NCT base at the IRT MEPhI reactor. The control group with melanomas was treated with neutrons. Fourteen canine patients were selected in the Clinic of Experimental Therapy affiliated with the RCRC RAMS. The calculation of doses has shown that the total dose of energy release depending on Gd concentration in the target can be several times higher than the dose produced by the reactor neutron beam. The calculations were carried out using the diffusion pharmacokinetic model. The gadolinium drug dipentast was administered intratumorally immediately prior to irradiation. The tumor size was estimated by measuring it in three projections. The tumor was irradiated for 60-90 minutes with a thermal neutron flux of 0.7x109 n/cm2s. The dose on tumor was 80-120 Gy, on surrounding tissues - 12-15 Gy. The treatment plan included immunotherapy with Roncoleikin in a dose of (15-10)x103 IE/kg. The results of GdNCT are still under observation. The results conform to those obtained by us earlier in cell cultures and inoculated experimental tumors. GdNCT is also effective in combination with immunotherapy. (author)

  17. Melanoma and IFN alpha: potential adjuvant therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottoni, U; Clerico, R; Paolino, G; Corsetti, P; Ambrifi, M; Brachini, A; Richetta, A; Nisticò, S; Pranteda, G; Calvieri, S

    2014-01-01

    Interferon alpha (IFNalpha) is the most used adjuvant treatment in clinical practice for melanoma (MEL) high-medium risk patients; however, the use of IFNalpha has yielded conflicting data on Overall Survival (OS) and disease free survival (DFS) rates. Starting from these considerations, we carried out an analysis on our MEL patients who received adjuvant IFNalpha therapy, in order to identify possible predictors for their outcome. A total of 140 patients were included in our analysis. Patients with Breslow thickness ?2.00 mm presented a significantly longer mean DFS than patients with Breslow ?2.01 mm (p = 0.01). Using non- parametric Spearman?s Coefficient test we found association between DFS and Breslow thickness (p Multiple Regression test, Breslow thickness (p < 0.001) remained the only statistically significant predictor. From the OS analysis we found that patients with lower Breslow values ? 2.00 mm (p < 0.0001), and absence of ulceration (p <0.004) showed a significantly better long-term survival. From the current analysis we found that the use of low dose IFNalpha is justified only for cutaneous melanoma ? 4.01 mm that was not ulcerated; patients with Breslow ? 4.01 mm, in our opinion, should not carry out adjuvant treatment with low dose IFNalpha, because its side effects could be higher than the its benefits. PMID:25001659

  18. Giant Congenital Melanocytic Naevus with Proliferative Nodules Mimicking Congenital Malignant Melanoma: A Case Report and Review of the Literature of Congenital Melanoma

    OpenAIRE

    Massimiliano Scalvenzi; Franco Palmisano; Sara Cacciapuoti; Fiorella Migliaro; Maria Siano; Stefania Staibano; Luigi Tornillo; Claudia Costa

    2013-01-01

    Congenital malignant melanoma (CMM) is a rare condition that is defined as malignant melanoma recognized at birth. CMM may develop in utero in one of three ways: (1) transmission by metastasis through the placenta from a mother with melanoma; (2) primary melanoma arising within a giant congenital melanocytic naevus (GCMN); (3) primary de novo cutaneous CMM arising in utero. CMM can be confused clinically and histologically with benign proliferative melanocytic lesions such as giant congenital...

  19. Development of a tissue array for primary melanoma with long-term follow-up: discovering melanoma cell adhesion molecule as an important prognostic marker.

    OpenAIRE

    Pacifico, MD; Grover, R; Richman, PI; Daley, FM; Buffa, F; Wilson, GD

    2005-01-01

    Refining current prognostic capability is essential for improving the management of melanoma. This study was undertaken to develop a tumor array for the rapid assessment of novel prognostic markers in a series of specimens from melanoma patients with 7- to 10-year follow-up. A melanoma database of 120 patients with archival specimens was created after histopathological review of original specimens. A tissue array was developed allowing 480 biopsy samples from the 120 primary melanoma specimen...

  20. Orbital amelanotic melanoma in xeroderma pigmentosum: A rare association

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amitava, Abadan K; Mehdi, Ghazala; Sharma, Rajeev; Alam, Mohammad S

    2008-01-01

    Xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) is an autosomal recessive genetic disorder of DNA repair in which the body?s normal ability to repair damage caused by ultraviolet light is deficient. This leads to a 1000-fold increased risk of cutaneous and ocular neoplasms. Ocular neoplasms occurring in XP in order of frequency are squamous cell carcinoma, basal cell carcinoma and melanoma. Malignant melanomas occur at an early age in patients with XP. We report a case of XP with massive orbital melanoma in an eight-year-old boy which is unique due to its amelanotic presentation confirmed histopathologically. PMID:18711275

  1. Orbital amelanotic melanoma in xeroderma pigmentosum: A rare association

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rizvi Syed

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Xeroderma pigmentosum (XP is an autosomal recessive genetic disorder of DNA repair in which the body?s normal ability to repair damage caused by ultraviolet light is deficient. This leads to a 1000-fold increased risk of cutaneous and ocular neoplasms. Ocular neoplasms occurring in XP in order of frequency are squamous cell carcinoma, basal cell carcinoma and melanoma. Malignant melanomas occur at an early age in patients with XP. We report a case of XP with massive orbital melanoma in an eight-year-old boy which is unique due to its amelanotic presentation confirmed histopathologically.

  2. BRAF V600E MUTATIONS IN METASTATIC MELANOMA - CASE REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Ini?

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The treatment of metastatic melanoma represents a challenge. Vemurafenib, a selective BRAF kinase inhibitor, is a new medicine against carcinoma. Recently, it has been shown that it raises the survival rate among patients with metastatic melanoma who have BRAFV600mutation. This work will discuss new approaches to the treatment of patients with metastatic melanoma, who have been proved to have BRAF V600 mutation and we will present the case of a female patient with whom the clinical study with Vemurafenib has been started.

  3. Meningeal metastasing of malignant melanomas. Meningeale Metastasierung maligner Melanome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gogoll, M.; Langer, M.; Hosten, N. (Klinikum Rudolf Virchow, Berlin (Germany, F.R.). Radiologische Klinik und Poliklinik)

    1989-08-01

    Two woman patients with malignant melanoma of the skin known from their case history and with acutely emerging neurological symptoms were examined both by CT and by MR tomography (both plain and with intravenous contrast medium). The radiologically derived suspicion of meningioma could not be confirmed by intraoperatively performed histological examination. In both cases the patients had meningeal melanoma metastases with low melanin content and without noticeable bleeding into the metastases. MR diagnosis is rendered difficult by the absence of paramagnetic substances typical of melanoma metastases. Hence, if the case history is known, it should be considered whether there is meningeal metastasising with atypical histology. (orig.).

  4. VULVAR MELANOMA- A CASE REPORT AND SHORT LITERATURE REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surekha Tayade

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Malignant melanomas of the vulva and vagina are rare tumors located in areas of the body not exposed to ultraviolet radiation. It  is the second most common vulvar malignancy but represents less than 1% of all melanomas. Because the overall prognosis is poor, it represents a significant issue in women’s health. Because of the inherent difficulty in performing large studies of vulvar melanoma, many questions about the biology, etiology, risk factors, and optimal management remain unanswered. Research for vulvar cancer is ongoing. We are presenting here a case report and short literature review of the case.

  5. Spontaneous regression of metastases from melanoma: review of the literature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kalialis, Louise Vennegaard; Drzewiecki, Krzysztof T

    2009-01-01

    Regression of metastatic melanoma is a rare event, and review of the literature reveals a total of 76 reported cases since 1866. The proposed mechanisms include immunologic, endocrine, inflammatory and metastatic tumour nutritional factors. We conclude from this review that although the precise mechanisms remain unknown, some event must trigger the immune system to produce a stronger than normal response that results in regression of the melanoma metastases. Immunologic studies of patients with regression may disclose the underlying mechanisms and lead to new therapies of disseminated melanoma.

  6. Clinical assessment of I-123-IMP scintigraphy in malignant melanoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We evaluated the value of I-123-IMP scintigraphy in cases of malignant melanoma, 26 scans were obtained from 22 patients. Of the 24 lesions of pathologically proven melanoma, 16 (66.7%) were detected by I-123-IMP scan while 15 (62.5%) were detected by Ga-67 citrate scan. All of the IMP scans obtained 24 hours after injection more clearly demonstrated the lesions than those obtained 3 hours. I-123-IMP whole body scan reliably revealed the extent of malignant melanoma, and is valuable in clinical management. (author)

  7. Noninvasive and label-free detection of circulating melanoma cells by in vivo photoacoustic flow cytometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ping; Liu, Rongrong; Niu, Zhenyu; Suo, Yuanzhen; He, Hao; Wei, Xunbin

    2015-03-01

    Melanoma is a malignant tumor of melanocytes. Circulating melanoma cell has high light absorption due to melanin highly contained in melanoma cells. This property is employed for the detection of circulating melanoma cell by in vivo photoacoustic flow cytometry (PAFC). PAFC is based on photoacoustic effect. Compared to in vivo flow cytometry based on fluorescence, PAFC can employ high melanin content of melanoma cells as endogenous biomarkers to detect circulating melanoma cells in vivo. In our research, we developed in vitro experiments to prove the ability of PAFC system of detecting PA signals from melanoma cells. For in vivo experiments, we constructed a model of melanoma tumor bearing mice by inoculating highly metastatic murine melanoma cancer cells B16F10 with subcutaneous injection. PA signals were detected in the blood vessels of mouse ears in vivo. By counting circulating melanoma cells termly, we obtained the number variation of circulating melanoma cells as melanoma metastasized. Those results show that PAFC is a noninvasive and label-free method to detect melanoma metastases in blood or lymph circulation. Our PAFC system is an efficient tool to monitor melanoma metastases, cancer recurrence and therapeutic efficacy.

  8. Metastasizing oral melanoma in a cow Melanoma oral metastático em uma vaca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilene de Farias Brito

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available A malignant dendritic melanoma of the oral cavity with metastases widely spread in a cow is described. The clinicopathological manifestations, developed during a two-year period, was characterized by the difficulty in mastication and swallowing, progressive weight loss, weakness and profuse sialorrhea. At the necropsy, an ulcerated black mass was found at the left jaw projecting into the oral cavity. The tumor reached the chin, inferior lip and tongue. Metastases were detected within the tongue, parotid gland, lymph nodes, trachea, thyroid, pleura, lungs, heart, peritoneum, omentum, and serosal membranes of the forestomach and abomasum, liver, and intima of some hepatic vessels, mammary gland, and muscles and fasciae of the left hind leg. No reference to metastasizing oral dendritic melanoma in the oral cavity of the cattle has been mentioned in the literature.Neste trabalho, descreve-se um caso de melanoma dendrítico maligno da cavidade oral em uma vaca, com metástases amplamente disseminadas. A evolução clínica foi de dois anos, e o quadro clínico-patológico caracterizou-se por dificuldade na mastigação e deglutição, perda de peso progressiva, fraqueza e sialorréia profusa. À necropsia, uma massa enegrecida e ulcerada foi encontrada na mandíbula esquerda e projetava-se para a cavidade oral. O tumor envolvia principalmente a porção cranial do ramo horizontal esquerdo da mandíbula e alcançou o mento, o lábio inferior, a gengiva e a língua. Metástases foram detectadas na língua, na glândula parótida, nos linfonodos, na traquéia, na tireóide, na pleura, nos pulmões, no coração, no peritônio, no omento e na serosa dos pré-estômagos e do abomaso, do fígado e da íntima de alguns vasos hepáticos, da glândula mamária e das fáscias e dos músculos do membro posterior esquerdo. Histologicamente o tumor primário e as metástases eram do tipo dendrítico. Não encontramos referências a melanomas primários de mandíbula com metástases em bovinos.

  9. Metastasizing oral melanoma in a cow Melanoma oral metastático em uma vaca

    OpenAIRE

    Marilene de Farias Brito; Ticiana Nascimento França; Flávia Figueiraujo Jabour; Josilene Nascimento Seixas; Gisele Braziliano de Andrade; Laura Iglesias Oliveira; Paulo Vargas Peixoto

    2009-01-01

    A malignant dendritic melanoma of the oral cavity with metastases widely spread in a cow is described. The clinicopathological manifestations, developed during a two-year period, was characterized by the difficulty in mastication and swallowing, progressive weight loss, weakness and profuse sialorrhea. At the necropsy, an ulcerated black mass was found at the left jaw projecting into the oral cavity. The tumor reached the chin, inferior lip and tongue. Metastases were detected within the tong...

  10. Melanoma maligno anaplásico em um eqüino Anaplastic malignant melanoma in a horse

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel Ricardo Rissi; Rafael Almeida Fighera; Luiz Francisco Irigoyen; Flavio Desessards De Lacorte; Claudio Severo Lombardo Barros

    2008-01-01

    Descreve-se um caso de melanoma maligno anaplásico em uma égua Crioula, tordilha, com 10 anos de idade, com histórico clínico de apatia, perda de peso progressiva, febre, anorexia e dispnéia. Múltiplas massas pigmentadas e não-pigmentadas, bem delimitadas ou infiltrativas, foram observadas no tecido subcutâneo e em vários órgãos. Histologicamente o neoplasma era composto de populações de células fusiformes, redondas ou poliédricas e, menos freqüentemente, de células multinucleadas e "células ...

  11. Melanoma de mucosa intraoral: ¿enfermedad local o sistémica? / Oral mucosal melanoma: a local or systemic disease?

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Lorena, Pingarrón Martín; Javier, González Martín-Moro; Chun-Yue, Ma; Zhi-Wei, Yu; Chen-Ping, Zhang.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Realizar una revisión de la situación actual en el tratamiento del melanoma de mucosa oral (MMO). Describir el protocolo de tratamiento que haya demostrado mejores resultados dada la experiencia y los estudios realizados por la institución de referencia. Material y métodos: Los autores rea [...] lizan una amplia revisión de la literatura abordando las nuevas líneas terapéuticas de investigación. Resultados: Descripción del protocolo de tratamiento que siguen en uno de los centros con mayor cáustica en la literatura internacional. Conclusiones: El MMO es una neoplasia maligna poco frecuente, con etiología y patogenia desconocida y un pronóstico infausto. El tratamiento debe basarse en un diagnóstico temprano y un abordaje multidisciplinar. Abstract in english Objective: To review the current situation in the treatment of oral mucosal melanoma. To describe the treatment protocol that has shown better results, given the experience and studies by the reference institution. Methods: The authors conducted an extensive review of the literature addressing the n [...] ew lines of therapeutic research. Results: Description of the treatment regimen followed at one of the most experienced centers in the international literature. Conclusions: Oral mucosal melanoma is a rare malignancy with an unknown etiology and pathogenesis and poor prognosis. Treatment should be centered on early diagnosis and a multidisciplinary approach.

  12. Cytologic features of metastatic and recurrent melanoma in patients with primary cutaneous desmoplastic melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murali, Rajmohan; Loughman, Noel T; McKenzie, Paul R; Watson, Geoffrey F; Thompson, John F; Scolyer, Richard A

    2008-11-01

    Desmoplastic melanoma (DM) is a rare subtype of melanoma characterized by malignant spindle cells associated with prominent fibrocollagenous stroma. Primary melanomas may be entirely desmoplastic ("pure" DM) or exhibit a desmoplastic component admixed with a nondesmoplastic component ("combined" DM). The cytologic features of only 5 cases of DM have been reported previously. Fine-needle biopsy (FNB) specimens from 20 recurrent or metastatic lesions in patients with cutaneous DM and 20 recurrent or metastatic lesions from patients with primary cutaneous non-DM were examined and compared. FNB specimens of patients with DM were less cellular (P = .009) and less often exhibited intranuclear cytoplasmic invaginations (P = .008) and mitotic figures (P = .006) than specimens from patients with non-DM. "Combined" DMs were more commonly composed of epithelioid cells (P = .017) and less often contained bizarre/giant tumor cells (P = .010) than did "pure" DMs. Recurrent and metastatic DM has a range of cytologic appearances. Awareness of the cytologic features and careful clinicopathologic correlation will assist in accurate FNB diagnosis. PMID:18854263

  13. DNA Methylation Levels of Melanoma Risk Genes Are Associated with Clinical Characteristics of Melanoma Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Araújo, Érica S. S.; Pramio, Dimitrius T.; Kashiwabara, André Y.; Pennacchi, Paula C.; Maria-Engler, Silvya S.; Achatz, Maria I.; Campos, Antonio H. J. F. M.; Duprat, João P.; Rosenberg, Carla; Carraro, Dirce M.; Krepischi, Ana C. V.

    2015-01-01

    In melanoma development, oncogenic process is mediated by genetic and epigenetic mutations, and few studies have so far explored the role of DNA methylation either as predisposition factor or biomarker. We tested patient samples for germline CDKN2A methylation status and found no evidence of inactivation by promoter hypermethylation. We have also investigated the association of clinical characteristics of samples with the DNA methylation pattern of twelve genes relevant for melanomagenesis. Five genes (BAP1, MGMT, MITF, PALB2, and POT1) presented statistical association between blood DNA methylation levels and either CDKN2A-mutation status, number of lesions, or Breslow thickness. In tumors, five genes (KIT, MGMT, MITF, TERT, and TNF) exhibited methylation levels significantly different between tumor groups including acral compared to nonacral melanomas and matched primary lesions and metastases. Our data pinpoint that the methylation level of eight melanoma-associated genes could potentially represent markers for this disease both in peripheral blood and in tumor samples. PMID:26106605

  14. Melanoma early detection and awareness : how countries developing melanoma awareness programs could benefit from melanoma-proficient countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wainstein, Alberto; Algarra, Salvador Martin

    2014-01-01

    Risk factors for melanoma are well known and have guided plans for primary and secondary prevention. The presentation of the disease, however, varies widely depending on the geographic area, ethnicity, and socioeconomic status. For this reason, many countries have developed specific strategies to increase public awareness and favor early diagnosis. Awareness campaigns, doctor education, and screening of high-risk subjects have all contributed to improve disease outcome in developed countries. The role of primary care physicians is particularly relevant in this regard. Developing countries are trying to implement similar measures. Future efforts to further improve the efficacy of preventive strategies should focus on populations that usually escape campaigns, such as elderly men and people with low socioeconomic status. Fast-growing tumors also require specific attention.

  15. Genome-Wide Scan Reveals Mutation Associated with Melanoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 2000 1999 Spotlight on Research 2012 July 2012 Genome-Wide Scan Reveals Mutation Associated with Melanoma A ... out to see if a technology called whole genome sequencing would help them find other genetic risk ...

  16. Practical considerations of melanoma/skin cancer screening clinics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rampen, F H; van Huystee, B E; Kiemeney, L A

    1992-01-01

    In 1989 a voluntary melanoma/skin cancer screening clinic was held in Oss, the Netherlands. The campaign was carried out according to the free clinics conducted since 1985 in the USA. Our experiences with the first clinic urged us to improve on the organization of the screen. This produced a better yield of the second screen, conducted in 1990 in Arnhem. In this paper we present the practical and organizational implications of melanoma/skin cancer screening based on both screening exercises. It is emphasized that only dermatologists should screen. Concomitant public education will enhance self-selection of people at risk for melanoma/skin cancer. There should be ample provider time, sufficient auxiliary personnel and abundant examination rooms. Total-body skin examination is optional. Follow-up of positive screenees is mandatory. It is concluded that melanoma/skin cancer screening is feasible, particularly in countries with a high dermatologist-to-patient ratio. PMID:1392110

  17. Common Moles, Atypical Moles (Dysplastic Nevi), and Risk of Melanoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Abstract] Rigel DS, Russak J, Friedman R. The evolution of melanoma diagnosis: 25 years beyond the ABCDs. ... 2010 SEER data submission. Posted to the SEER Web site, 2011. Retrieved July 25, 2011. Related Resources ...

  18. Malignant melanomas of the meninges (MR and CT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malignant melanoma of the meninges is a rare neoplasm derived from melanocytes of the cranial or spinal meninges. Histologically classified as grade IV tumours, malignant melanoma may present either as a diffuse meningeal neoplasm, first described by Virchow in 1859, or as a circumscribed tumour attached to the meninges. Although diagnosis is rarely established prior to surgery or autopsy, MR and CT may provide indispensable information probably leading to earlier diagnosis. In 4 patients, diagnosis of a primary meningeal melanoma was based on MR and CT findings and histology. Histology was obtained in 3 cases by surgery, in one patient by autopsy and showed a melanotic and an amelanotic malignant melanoma in 2 patients each. Autopsy was carried out in 3 cases after survival of 4, 5, and 18 months; in a single case, the follow-up period is almost 3 years. (orig.)

  19. Primary malignant melanoma of the small intestine - A case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Small bowel neoplasmas are very rare and can be found in 1-2% of all gastrointestinal tumors. Most of them have metastatic origin. Malignant melanoma is the most common tumor metastatic to the GI tract. Primary malignant melanomas arising from the small intestine are very rare but there are some case reports in the literature. Some authors stated that melanomas are never primary in the intestinal tract. Others try to explain the primary etiology. The most famous theory for its origin is the APUD cell concept. When a small bowel tumor is suspected, enteroclysis is the most useful imaging study. Herein we report the case of a primary malignant melanoma of the small bowel. (orig.)

  20. BRAF and beyond: Tailoring strategies for the individual melanoma patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Jarkowski

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Until recently, options for therapy in metastatic melanoma were limited. The understanding of immune check-point blockade and the discovery of molecular pathways involving driver mutations like BRAF has transformed the therapeutic landscape in this disease. Ipilimumab was the first drug shown to improve survival while vemurafenib demonstrated rapid responses never seen before in melanoma. Drugs from these classes and others are now in advanced stages of development and primed to positively impact patient survival in an incremental fashion. In this review, we highlight some of the developments during this renaissance in melanoma therapy and discuss agents of promise. Clinical challenges we face include individualizing therapy for patients, overcoming resistance to molecularly targeted therapy and developing rationale combinations or sequences of drugs. A concerted bench and bedside effort in this direction will undoubtedly keep melanoma in the forefront in an era of personalized medicine.

  1. Primary malignant melanoma of the vagina: a case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, Ji Young; Kim, Do Kang; Lee, Eun Hee [College of Medicine, Catholic Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jun Sang [College of Medicine, Chungnam National Univ., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-09-01

    A primary malignant melanoma of the vagina is a very rare gynecological malignant tumor. Its clinical behavior is more aggressive than that of cutaneous and vulvar melanomas. We present a case of a large sized primary melanoma of the lower third of the vagina, with a cervical lesion, in a 58-year-old postmenopausal woman. The patient was treated with conventional external radiation therapy and intracavitary radiotherapy (lCR), without surgical treatment. Although the primary lesion showed a partial response, the patient died of extensive metastases, which were found 4.5 months after the initial diagnosis. We suggest that shortening the treatment period, such as hypofractionated radiation therapy and surgical removal, and various systemic therapies for preventing early distant metastasis, are appropriate treatments for a primary malignant melanoma of the vagina, with a large tumor size.

  2. The role of the Hippo pathway in melanocytes and melanoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BruceCharlesBaguley

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The Hippo signalling pathway comprises a series of cytoplasmic tumour suppressor proteins including Merlin and the Lats1/2 and MST1/2 kinases, and is thought to play a critical role in determining the sizes of organs and tissues. The Hippo pathway is regulated upstream by extracellular mechanosensory signalling arising from cell shape and polarity, as well as by a variety of extracellular signalling molecules. When active, the pathway maintains the transcriptional activators YAP and TAZ in phosphorylated forms in the cytoplasm, preventing cell proliferation. When the Hippo pathway is inactivated, YAP and TAZ are translocated to the nucleus and induce the expression of a variety of proteins concerned with entry into the cell division cycle, such as cyclin D1 and Fox M1, as well as the inhibition of apoptosis. The failure of the Hippo pathway has been implicated in the development of many different types of cancer but there is limited information available as to its involvement in melanoma. We hypothesise here firstly that the Hippo pathway is involved in maintaining density of cutaneous melanocytes on the basement membrane at the junction of the epidermis and the dermis, and secondly, that its function is disturbed in melanoma. We have analysed a series of 23 low passage human melanoma lines as well as in cultures of normal melanocytes, and find that melanocytes, as well as all melanoma cell lines examined express TAZ. Melanocytes and most melanoma lines also express YAP. E-cadherin, an upstream regulator of the Hippo pathway, and Axl, a receptor tyrosine kinase regulated by the Hippo pathway, are expressed in melanocytes and in several melanoma cell lines. These observations, together with published evidence for the presence of Merlin, Lats1/2 and MST1/2 in melanocytes and melanoma cells, support the hypothesis that the Hippo pathway is an important component of melanocyte and melanoma behaviour.

  3. Insights in tumorigenesis and metastasis of uveal melanoma

    OpenAIRE

    Notting, Irene Christa

    2009-01-01

    For a long time enucleation has been the treatment of choice for uveal melanoma. New treatment modalities have been developed e.g. transscleral thermotherapy (TTT), proton beam radiation, stereotactic radiotherapy and ruthenium application 1-3 . These treatment options offer a better chance to spare the eye. Despite new treatment options, the overall survival of patients treated for uveal melanoma did not improve. Ultimately, most patients die of metastatic disease. Therefore, there is need f...

  4. Immunohistochemical analysis of Bcl-2 protein regulation in cutaneous melanoma.

    OpenAIRE

    Tron, V A; Krajewski, S.; Klein-Parker, H.; LI, G; Ho, V. C.; Reed, J C

    1995-01-01

    Cutaneous melanoma is becoming increasingly common. Genetic and environmental factors are thought to play a role in its pathogenesis. We have previously shown that normal human melanocytes strongly express the oncoprotein, Bcl-2. To determine the role of Bcl-2 in melanocytic tumors, we studied human benign nevi and melanomas for expression of Bcl-2 protein using immunohistochemistry. Our results show that benign melanocytes from 3 of 4 normal skin biopsies and 5 of 7 common acquired nevi stro...

  5. Predicting outcome in melanoma: where are we now?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Jennings, L

    2009-09-01

    Melanoma incidence continues to rise in most countries. This is of grave concern, given the mortality rate in a relatively young population. Current staging tools are limited in their ability to predict accurately those at risk of metastatic disease, relapse and treatment failure. This overview comprehensively reviews relevant literature, with the focus on the last 5 years, and discusses the current state of traditional and emerging novel methods of staging for melanoma and their effect on prognosis in this population.

  6. The Potential of Triterpenoids in the Treatment of Melanoma.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šarek, J.; Kvasnica, Miroslav; Vlk, M.; Urban, M.; Dzubak, P.; Hajduch, M.

    Rijeka : InTech, 2011 - (Murph, M.), s. 125-158 ISBN 978-953-307-293-7 Grant ostatní: GA ?R(CZ) GA305/09/1216; GA ?R(CZ) GP301/09/P433 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : triterpene * melanoma * lupane * cancer Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry http://www.intechopen.com/articles/show/title/the-potential-of-triterpenoids-in-the-treatment-of-melanoma

  7. DCEG Scientists Identify New Gene Mutation Related to Familial Melanoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scientists have identified a rare inherited mutation in a gene that can increase the risk of familial melanoma, according to a study that appeared online in Nature Genetics on March 30, 2014. Although the finding does not offer immediate benefit to patients, variation in the Protection of Telomeres-1 (POT1) gene provides additional clues as to the origins of melanoma and may open new avenues in prevention and treatment research.

  8. Oral malignant melanoma: A case report with review of literature

    OpenAIRE

    Manigandan, T.; Sagar, G. Vikram; Amudhan, A.; Hemalatha, V.T.; Babu, N. Aravinda

    2014-01-01

    Oral mucosal melanoma is a rare malignancy with the tendency to metastasize and locally invade tissues more readily than other malignant tumor of the oral cavity. It occurs approximately four times more frequently in the oral mucosa of the upper jaw usually on the palate or alveolar gingiva. The chameleonic presentation of malignant melanoma, its asymptomatic condition, rarity of the lesion, poor prognosis and the necessity of a highly specialized treatment are factors that should be seriousl...

  9. Primary clear cell sarcoma (malignant melanoma) in the right radius

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inaoka, Tsutomu; Aburano, Tamio [Department of Radiology, Asahikawa Medical College, 2-1-1-1 Midorigaoka-Higashi, 078-8510, Asahikawa (Japan); Takahashi, Koji [Department of Radiology, Asahikawa Medical College, 2-1-1-1 Midorigaoka-Higashi, 078-8510, Asahikawa (Japan); Department of Radiology, University of Iowa College of Medicine, Iowa (United States); Tandai, Susumu; Abe, Yasuyuki; Matsuno, Takeo [Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Asahikawa Medical College, Asahikawa (Japan); Miyokawa, Naoyuki [Section of Surgical Pathology, Asahikawa Medical College Hospital, Asahikawa (Japan)

    2003-10-01

    Clear cell sarcoma (malignant melanoma) originating in bone is an extremely rare occurrence, which has been reported twice previously. It is challenging to differentiate this neoplasm from skeletal metastasis of malignant melanoma because it shows no specific imaging, pathological or immunohistochemical features. However, this differentiation is clinically important due to significant differences in patient management. In this article, we present the case of a 55-year-old man with primary clear cell sarcoma arising in the right radius. (orig.)

  10. Primary clear cell sarcoma (malignant melanoma) in the right radius

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clear cell sarcoma (malignant melanoma) originating in bone is an extremely rare occurrence, which has been reported twice previously. It is challenging to differentiate this neoplasm from skeletal metastasis of malignant melanoma because it shows no specific imaging, pathological or immunohistochemical features. However, this differentiation is clinically important due to significant differences in patient management. In this article, we present the case of a 55-year-old man with primary clear cell sarcoma arising in the right radius. (orig.)

  11. Metastasis of choroidal melanoma to the orbit. Imaging contribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choroidal melanoma is characterized by an unpredictable clinical course, during which metastatic disease may occur after a prolonged disease-free interval. However, metastases to orbit are quite rare; there have been only 6 reported cases in the literature. We report well documented examples of metastases to the orbit from a melanoma of the choroid first diagnosed 8 years earlier. MR imaging is accurate in determining the exact location of lesions and their nature owing to the paramagnetic properties of melanin. (authors)

  12. Ipilimumab and radiation therapy for melanoma brain metastases

    OpenAIRE

    Silk, Ann W; Bassetti, Michael F.; West, Brady T.; Tsien, Christina I; Lao, Christopher D

    2013-01-01

    Ipilimumab, an antibody that enhances T-cell activation, may augment immunogenicity of tumor cells that are injured by radiation therapy. We hypothesized that patients with melanoma brain metastasis treated with both ipilimumab and radiotherapy would have improved overall survival, and that the sequence of treatments may affect disease control in the brain. We analyzed the clinical and radiographic records of melanoma patients with brain metastases who were treated with whole brain radiation ...

  13. Bevacizumab plus Ipilimumab in Patients with Metastatic Melanoma

    OpenAIRE

    Hodi, F Stephen; Lawrence, Donald; Lezcano, Cecilia; Wu, Xinqi; zhou, Jun; SASADA, TETSURO; Zeng, Wanyong; Giobbie-Hurder, Anita; Michael B Atkins; Ibrahim, Nageatte; Friedlander, Philip; Flaherty, Keith T.; Murphy, George F.; Rodig, Scott; Velazquez, Elsa F

    2014-01-01

    Ipilimumab improves survival in advanced melanoma and can induce immune-mediated tumor vasculopathy. Besides promoting angiogenesis, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) suppresses dendritic cell maturation and modulates lymphocyte endothelial trafficking. This study investigated the combination of CTLA-4 blockade with ipilimumab and VEGF inhibition with bevacizumab. Patients with metastatic melanoma were treated in four dosing cohorts of ipilimumab (3 or 10 mg/kg) four doses at 3-week i...

  14. Thyroid autoimmunity and ophthalmopathy related to melanoma biologic therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Min, Le; Vaidya, Anand; Becker, Carolyn

    2010-01-01

    Ipilimumab is a fully human monoclonal antibody against Cytotoxic TLymphocyte Antigen 4 (CTLA-4). CTLA-4 negatively regulates immune cell activation. In patients with metastatic melanoma, ipilimumab increases survival time and induces complete remission in some patients. However, immune related adverse events including endocrinopathies have been reported. Bevacizumab, an angiogenesis inhibitor, has been used in combination with ipilimumab in patients with advanced melanoma. Here, we report th...

  15. Biomarkers on melanoma patient T Cells associated with ipilimumab treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Wang Wenshi; Yu Daohai; Sarnaik Amod A; Yu Bin; Hall Maclean; Morelli Dawn; Zhang Yonghong; Zhao Xiuhua; Weber Jeffrey S

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Ipilimumab induces long-lasting clinical responses in a minority of patients with metastatic melanoma. To better understand the mechanism(s) of action and to identify novel biomarkers associated with the clinical benefit and toxicity of ipilimumab, baseline characteristics and changes in CD4+ and CD8+ T cells from melanoma patients receiving ipilimumab were characterized by gene profiling and flow cytometry. Methods Microarray analysis of flow-cytometry purified CD4+ and C...

  16. Ipilimumab: An Anti-CTLA-4 Antibody for Metastatic Melanoma

    OpenAIRE

    Evan J. Lipson; Charles G. Drake

    2011-01-01

    Ipilimumab (MDX-010, Yervoy; Bristol-Myers Squibb), a fully human monoclonal antibody against CTL antigen 4 (CTLA-4), was recently approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for the treatment of metastatic melanoma. In both early- and late-phase trials, ipilimumab has shown consistent activity against melanoma. For example, in a randomized phase III trial that enrolled patients with previously treated metastatic disease, ipilimumab, with or without a peptide vaccine, improved ove...

  17. Surgery and radiotherapy in the treatment of cutaneous melanoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Testori, A; Rutkowski, P; Marsden, J; Bastholt, L; Chiarion-Sileni, V; Hauschild, A; Eggermont, A M M

    2009-01-01

    Adequate surgical management of primary melanoma and regional lymph node metastasis, and rarely distant metastasis, is the only established curative treatment. Surgical management of primary melanomas consists of excisions with 1-2 cm margins and primary closure. The recommended method of biopsy is excisional biopsy with a 2 mm margin and a small amount of subcutaneous fat. In specific situations (very large lesions or certain anatomical areas), full-thickness incisional or punch biopsy may be a...

  18. Social Network Analysis of an Online Melanoma Discussion Group

    OpenAIRE

    Durant, Kathleen T.; McCray, Alexa T; Safran, Charles

    2010-01-01

    We have developed tools to explore social networks that share information in medical forums to better understand the unmet informational needs of patients and family members facing cancer treatments. We define metrics that demonstrate members discussing interleukin-2 receive a stronger response from the melanoma discussion group than a typical topic. The interleukin-2 network has a different topology than the melanoma network, has a higher density, and its members are more likely to have a hi...

  19. The role of spectrophotometry in the diagnosis of melanoma

    OpenAIRE

    Ascierto Paolo A; Palla Marco; Ayala Fabrizio; De Michele Ileana; Caracò Corrado; Daponte Antonio; Simeone Ester; Mori Stefano; Del Giudice Maurizio; Satriano Rocco A; Vozza Antonio; Palmieri Giuseppe; Mozzillo Nicola

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Spectrophotometry (SPT) could represent a promising technique for the diagnosis of cutaneous melanoma (CM) at earlier stages of the disease. Starting from our experience, we further assessed the role of SPT in CM early detection. Methods During a health campaign for malignant melanoma at National Cancer Institute of Naples, we identified a subset of 54 lesions to be addressed to surgical excision and histological examination. Before surgery, all patients were investigated ...

  20. Rhabdomyosarcoma and late malignant melanoma of the orbit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forty-five years following surgical excision and radiation for a childhood rhabdomyosarcoma of the left orbit, a patient with primary lymphedema developed an ipsilateral malignant melanoma of the anterior orbital tissue. This was excised, but a metastasis of the melanoma occurred in the contralateral upper lid. This is the first case report of treated rhabdomyosarcoma of the orbit followed by a second primary tumor occurring in the field of radiation

  1. Absence of RIPK3 predicts necroptosis resistance in malignant melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geserick, P; Wang, J; Schilling, R; Horn, S; Harris, P A; Bertin, J; Gough, P J; Feoktistova, M; Leverkus, M

    2015-01-01

    Acquired or intrinsic resistance to apoptotic and necroptotic stimuli is considered a major hindrance of therapeutic success in malignant melanoma. Inhibitor of apoptosis proteins (IAPs) are important regulators of apoptotic and necroptotic cell death mediated by numerous cell death signalling platforms. In this report we investigated the impact of IAPs for cell death regulation in malignant melanoma. Suppression of IAPs strongly sensitized a panel of melanoma cells to death ligand-induced cell death, which, surprisingly, was largely mediated by apoptosis, as it was completely rescued by addition of caspase inhibitors. Interestingly, the absence of necroptosis signalling correlated with a lack of receptor-interacting protein kinase-3 (RIPK3) mRNA and protein expression in all cell lines, whereas primary melanocytes and cultured nevus cells strongly expressed RIPK3. Reconstitution of RIPK3, but not a RIPK3-kinase dead mutant in a set of melanoma cell lines overcame CD95L/IAP antagonist-induced necroptosis resistance independent of autocrine tumour necrosis factor secretion. Using specific inhibitors, functional studies revealed that RIPK3-mediated mixed-lineage kinase domain-like protein (MLKL) phosphorylation and necroptosis induction critically required receptor-interacting protein kinase-1 signalling. Furthermore, the inhibitor of mutant BRAF Dabrafenib, but not Vemurafenib, inhibited necroptosis in melanoma cells whenever RIPK3 is present. Our data suggest that loss of RIPK3 in melanoma and selective inhibition of the RIPK3/MLKL axis by BRAF inhibitor Dabrafenib, but not Vemurafenib, is critical to protect from necroptosis. Strategies that allow RIPK3 expression may allow unmasking the necroptotic signalling machinery in melanoma and points to reactivation of this pathway as a treatment option for metastatic melanoma. PMID:26355347

  2. Sonography of the Primary Cutaneous Melanoma: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Ximena Wortsman

    2012-01-01

    The diagnosis and management of primary cutaneous melanoma have traditionally relied on clinical and histological characteristics. Nevertheless, in recent years there has been a significant growth in the usage of ultrasound for studying the cutaneous layers. Thus, the present paper focuses on the primary lesion, its sonographic characteristics, the potential benefits of early imaging, and the new developments on the ultrasound field applied to cutaneous melanoma.

  3. Isolation and Molecular Characterization of Circulating Melanoma Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Luo, Xi; Mitra, Devarati; Sullivan, Ryan J; Wittner, Ben S; Kimura, Anya M.; Pan, Shiwei; Hoang, Mai P.; Brannigan, Brian W; Lawrence, Donald P.; Flaherty, Keith T.; Sequist, Lecia V.; McMahon, Martin; Bosenberg, Marcus W.; Stott, Shannon L; Ting, David T.

    2014-01-01

    Melanoma is an invasive malignancy with a high frequency of blood-borne metastases, but circulating tumor cells (CTCs) have not been readily isolated. We adapted microfluidic CTC capture to a tamoxifen-driven B-RAF/PTEN mouse melanoma model. CTCs were detected in all tumor-bearing mice, rapidly declining after B-RAF inhibitor treatment. CTCs were shed early from localized tumors and a short course of B-RAF inhibition following surgical resection was sufficient to dramatically suppress distant...

  4. Anorectal melanoma - histopathological and immunohistochemical features and treatment / Melanoma anorretal - diagnósticos histopatológico e imunohistoquímico e tratamento

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Geraldo Magela Gomes da, Cruz; José de Souza, Andrade Filho; Gil, Patrus; Sinara Mônica de Oliveira, Leite; Ilson Geraldo da, Silva; Ricardo Guimarães, Teixeira; Áurea Cassia Gualberto, Braga; Renata Magali Ribeiro Silluzio, Ferreira.

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Os melanomas anorretais (ARM) devem ser caracterizados pela localização (anal, retal e anorretal), coloração, dimensão, forma e mobilidade. Microscopicamente, por tipos de melanócitos, graduação da pigmentação melânica, alterações juncionais sob o epitélio escamoso, índice mitótico atípico, atipias [...] celulares e citoplasmáticas, infiltrado inflamatório, invasões vascular e perineural, linfonodo sentinela e penetração parietal. Devem ser estadiados pelos critérios American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) e/ou TNM Classification of Malignant Tumours (TNM). Como as células do ARM são variáveis, isto torna difícil o diagnóstico diferencial com outros tumores da região anorretal. Assim, faz-se necessária a realização de IHC. Apresentamos uma série de 14 pacientes, nos quais foram refeitos exames histológicos e realizados IHCs com vários marcadores, firmando corretamente o diagnóstico. Os trabalhos mostram que a cirurgia mais racional é a excisão local alargada (ELA) em casos de doença localizada e ressecção abdominoperineal do reto (APR) para lesões avançadas. Independente da técnica, a sobrevida de cinco anos é inferior a 35%; a sobrevida média não ultrapassa 26 meses; o tempo livre de doença é inferior a 10 meses; e a sobrevida global não ultrapassa é de 32 meses. Não há correlação entre melhora dos resultados com qualquer tratamento adjuvante. As terapias-alvo para doença metastática começam a apresentar resultados animadores, ainda inconclusivos. Abstract in english Anorectal melanomas should be characterized by location (anal, rectal and anorectal), color, size, shape and mobility and microscopically, by melanocyte subtypes, grade of melanin pigmentation, junctional changes in the squamous epithelium, atypical mitotic index, cellular atypia, inflammatory infil [...] trate, vascular and perineural invasion, sentinel lymph node, and anorectal parietal penetration. Anorectal melanomas must be staged by American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) and/or TNM Classification of Malignant Tumours (TNM) criteria. As melanocytes can present with several shapes, sometimes the differential diagnosis with other tumors in this region may be difficult. Because of this, immunohistochemistry is mandatory to attain a precise diagnosis. This study is a report of 14 patients with anorectal melanoma, in whom histological examinations were remade and immunohistochemistry was performed with several markers for melanocytes and for other tumor cells of the anorectal region, properly establishing the diagnosis. The most rational surgery is the extended local resection, when the disease is restricted to the area or the abdominoperineal resection to advanced lesions. Regardless of the technique used, the results are always poor. The authors deny any efficacy of current radio and/or chemotherapy as part of treatment of anorectal melanoma. Target-therapy for metastatic disease has been considered a good strategy, but the results are still inconclusive.

  5. Adrenal metastases of malignant melanoma: characteristic computed tomography appearances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malignant melanoma is an extremely aggressive form of cancer. Adrenal metastases are found in 50% of cases of malignant melanoma, and are most often clinically and biochemically silent. Clinical presentation varies, and the diagnosis of adrenal metastases is often made incidentally, and frequently years after treatment of the primary lesion. An adrenal mass lesion seen on a CT scan, greater than 5 cm in diameter, with central or irregular areas of necrosis/ haemorrhage (and no lipomatous component) is characteristic of a metastasis from malignant melanoma, in the setting of normal gland function. If these features are bilateral, they are pathognomonic. Oval, low-attenuation (on CT) adrenal masses less than 3 cm in diameter should not be considered benign in a patient with any prior history of melanoma. Careful imaging review of the adrenal glands should be undertaken in all patients with malignant melanoma. Early diagnosis of these distant metastases has important prognostic and therapeutic implications. The four cases presented illustrate the spectrum of presentations and clinical course of adrenal metastases from malignant melanoma. The accompanying CT images show the characteristic appearances of adrenal metastases. Copyright (2005) Blackwell Science Pty Ltd

  6. Genetically-engineered Newcastle Disease Virus for malignant melanoma therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamarin, Dmitriy; Vigil, Adam; Kelly, Kaitlyn; García-Sastre, Adolfo; Fong, Yuman

    2010-01-01

    SUMMARY Despite the advances in cancer therapies in the past century, malignant melanoma continues to present a significant clinical challenge due to lack of chemotherapeutic response. Systemic therapy with immunostimulatory agents such as interferon and interleukin-2 (IL-2) has shown some promise, though each is associated with significant side effects. Over the past 50 years, oncolytic Newcastle Disease Virus (NDV) has emerged as an alternative candidate for cancer therapy. The establishment of reverse-genetics systems for the virus has allowed us to further manipulate the virus to enhance its oncolytic activity. Introduction of immunomodulatory molecules, especially IL-2, into the NDV genome was shown to enhance the oncolytic potential of the virus in a murine syngeneic colon carcinoma model. We hypothesize that a recombinant NDV expressing IL-2 would be an effective agent for therapy of malignant melanoma. We show that recombinant NDV possesses a strong cytolytic activity against multiple melanoma cell lines, and is effective in clearing established syngeneic melanoma tumors in mice. Moreover, introduction of murine IL-2 into NDV significantly enhanced its activity against syngeneic melanomas, resulting in increased overall animal survival and generation of anti-tumor immunity. These findings warrant further investigations of IL-2-expressing NDV as an anti-melanoma agent in humans. PMID:19242529

  7. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging study of uveal melanoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To study CT and MRI findings of uveal melanoma and detect the most appropriate MRI scanning sequences. Materials and methods: A series of MRI scanning sequences were performed in 15 cases, and CT was performed in 11 cases. MRI and CT findings were compared with pathologic, operative and clinical findings. Results: Of 11 cases receiving CT scanning, 9 displayed iso-density masses with respect to extraocular muscles. The other two tumors were too small to be demonstrated. Fourteen cases of melanoma showed characteristic MR appearances with hyperintense signal with respect to the vitreous on T1-weighted images and hypointense with respect to the vitreous on T2-weighted images. One case of iris melanoma only 3 mm in height was not demonstrated on T1-weighted images, but was displayed hypointense signal on T2-weighted images. Eleven cases associated with retinal detachment showed high intensity signal on T1- and T2-weighted images and could not be distinguished from melanoma. Postcontrast T1-weighted images with fat suppression technique were found to be the most helpful in detecting and delineating small melanomas less than 5 mm as well as distinguishing them from retinal detachment. Conclusion: MRI was superior to ultrasound or CT. Collaborative diagnosis including clinical, ultrasonographic, CT and MRI examinations is the best for ocular melanoma

  8. Sentinel lymph node biopsy in local recurrence of cutaneous melanoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Locally recurrent disease in patients with melanoma is usually defined as cutaneous or subcutaneous arising within 5 cm of the primary site after complete excision of the primary lesion. It may represent residual disease not excised with the primary tumor or the outgrowth of the satellite lesions, which are common with melanoma. Lymphatic mapping and sentinel lymph node (SLN) biopsy is highly accurate in staging nodal basins at risk of regional metastases in primary melanoma patients and identifies those who may benefit from earlier lymphadenectomy. Our purpose was to evaluate the efficacy of sentinel lymph node mapping and biopsy in local recurrence of cutaneous melanoma when the primary lesion was less than 1.0mm thick. Three patients with local recurrence of cutaneous melanoma underwent sentinel lymph node mapping and biopsy. All patients underwent preoperative lymphoscintigraphy to identify the lymphatic basin and the site of the sentinel node. All patients subsequently underwent intra-operative lymphatic mapping and selective lymph node biopsy with vital blue dye and hand-held gamma probe. Excised SLN were analysed by conventional histological staining (H and E) and immunohistochemical staining. In all patients the lymphatic mapping and sentinel lymph node biopsy was successful. The SLN biopsy was negative in two patients and positive in one who underwent therapeutic lymph node dissection. Our results indicate that the SLN mapping and biopsy is also possible in patients having local recurrence of cutaneous melanoma. Although long-term results are not available, early results are promising. (author)

  9. Using risk factors for detection and prognostication of uveal melanoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pukhraj Rishi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The early detection of malignancy, particularly uveal melanoma, is crucial in protecting visual acuity, salvaging the eye, and preventing metastasis. Risk factors for early detection of uveal melanoma have been clearly delineated in the literature and allow identification of melanoma when it is tiny and simulates a nevus. These factors include thickness >2 mm, presence of subretinal fluid (SRF, symptoms, the orange pigment, margin near optic disc, acoustic hollowness, surrounding halo, and absence of drusen. The importance of early detection is realized when one considers melanoma thickness, as each millimeter increase in melanoma thickness imparts 5% increased risk for metastatic disease. Newer imaging modalities like enhanced depth imaging optical coherence tomography and fundus autoflouroscence facilitate in detection of SRF and orange pigment. Additional molecular biomarkers and cytological features have been identified which can predict the clinical behavior of a small melanocytic lesion. Features that suggest a poor prognosis include higher blood levels of tyrosinase m-RNA, vascular endothelial growth factor, insulin-like growth factor; monosomy 3 and gains in chromosome 8. Management of uveal melanoma includes enucleation (for large, local eye wall resection, brachytherapy, charged particle irradiation, and thermotherapy (for small to medium tumors. Although the role of a good clinical evaluation cannot be underestimated, it is advisable to evaluate the various radiological, molecular, and cytological features, to enhance the accuracy of early diagnosis and improved prognosis.

  10. Survival analysis in patients with malignant melanoma in Yazd

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammd Ebrahimzade Ardakani

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Malignant melanoma is a rare and most malignant type of skin cancer which is originated from melanocytes. It is capable of infiltrating into interior organs and could cause mortality. The aim of this study is to analyze the survival of patients with malignant melanoma according to their age, gender, mitosis count, tumor thickness, level of lymphocyte infiltration, tumor location and the stage of the tumor. Methods: This is a descriptive-analytical study which has been done on, the data of 61 patients with malignant melanoma registered in pathology laboratory of Shahid Sadoughi hospital, Yazd. A questionnaire was used to collect the data via phone call, examining pathology slides and reviewing patients information. Results: The average survival time was 61.09±6.12 months.The mean age of the patients was 67.9±6.0 with the range of 18 to 89 years. Stage ? had the best and stage ??? and V? had the worst prognosis. The best survival rate was seen in malignant melanomas located on trunk, head and neck. Malignant melanoma of extremities had the worst prognosis. There was a statistically significant relationship between survival rate and stage (P=0.033 as well as the location of the tumor (P=0.0421. Conclusion: The survival of patients with malignant melanoma in Yazd had a statistically significant relationship with stage and the location of tumor but there was no significant relationship with mitosis count, gender, age, tumor depth and lymphocyte infiltration.

  11. Future perspectives in melanoma research: meeting report from the “Melanoma Bridge”, Napoli, December 5th-8th 2013

    OpenAIRE

    Ascierto, Paolo A.; Grimaldi, Antonio M; Anderson, Ana Carrizosa; Bifulco, Carlo; Cochran, Alistair; Garbe, Claus; Eggermont, Alexander M.; Faries, Mark; Ferrone, Soldano; Gershenwald, Jeffrey E.; Gajewski, Thomas F.; Halaban, Ruth; Hodi, F Stephen; Kefford, Richard; Kirkwood, John M.

    2014-01-01

    The fourth “Melanoma Bridge Meeting” took place in Naples, December 5 to 8th, 2013. The four topics discussed at this meeting were: Diagnosis and New Procedures, Molecular Advances and Combination Therapies, News in Immunotherapy, and Tumor Microenvironment and Biomarkers.

  12. em cultura de células de melanoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Vieira Berti

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Identification, extraction, isolation and characterization of plant derived active molecules that modulate cell viability are of great clinical and pharmacological interest. Phytochemical tests have been used to demonstrate the presence of several compounds both from the primary and secondary metabolism of Aloe vera L. Aloin, an anthraquinone isolated from the chlorophyll parenchyma of A. vera L, is known for its biological activity. The antitumoral activity of aloin and the chlorophyll parenchyma extract was evaluated in vitro with the use of murine melanoma cell line B16F10. Cells incubated with 5% CO 2 at 37ºC were treated with different aloin and parenchyma extract concentrations. Both affected cellular stability, acting as modulators of tumoral cell viability. Experimental data were fitted to a developed mathematical model. From the fitting parameters we concluded that the chlorophyll parenchyma extract is 2.3 times more toxic to the cell than aloin.

  13. Amelanotic malignant melanoma with multiple secondaries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banerjee Santanu

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A 37-year-old female presented with a fungating cauliflower-like growth over the right inguinal region with fracture of the right distal femur. Clinical examination revealed an asthenic individual and showed a large fungating protuberant mass over right inguinal region and right knee. Investigations revealed pancytopenia, massive splenomegaly with right iliac lymphadenopathy on ultrasonography of abdomen and a soft tissue mass over upper end of femur and fracture of distal femur on radiological examination. CT scan showed multiple deposits in the lungs with splenomegaly and lymphadenopathy. Fine needle aspiration cytology showed poorly cohesive cellular aspirate with spindle and round cell population with no pigment. Biopsy showed replacement of the dermis by coalescent nests of malignant melanocytes. S-100 antigen was found to be positive. The patient was diagnosed as a case of amelanotic malignant melanoma in Stage III disease and treated with general measures, stabilization of the fracture site followed by oncological management.

  14. Predisposición hereditaria de padecer melanoma en familias uruguayas. Resultados preliminares

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Alejandra, Larre Borges García; Malena, Scarone; Lucía, Delgado; Jimena, Núñez; Mercedes, Laporte; Graciela, Fernández; Carlos, Bazzano; Miguel, Martínez Asuaga.

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Resumo O melanoma cutâneo é o tipo de câncer cuja incidência apresenta a maior taxa de crescimento no mundo. Apesar dos tratamentos caros empregados em seu diagnóstico y tratamento sua taxa de mortalidade não diminui. Pode apresentar-se de duas formas: esporádica e hereditária. Esta última inclui in [...] divíduos com risco alto de desenvolver, sendo que sua freqüência varia segundo a população estudada. O objetivo geral deste trabalho é contribuir ao conhecimento da predisposição hereditária de desenvolver melanoma no Uruguai. Utilizando um formulário de triagem foram identificadas 14 famílias com risco alto de desenvolver melanoma hereditário. Dezessete pacientes integrantes destas famílias deram seu consentimento informado para pesquisar mutações na linha germinal em CDKN2A e CDK4. A detecção de alterações genéticas foi feita utilizando PCR-SSCP (Polymerase Chain Reaction-Single Stranded Conformational Polymorphism). Os fragmentos com um padrão de bandas de SSCP atípicos foram analisados por sequenciação. Foram identificadas duas mutações: uma no exon 2 de CDKN2A (E88X) em dois pacientes familiares em primeiro grau portadores de melanomas múltiplos e síndrome familiar de nevos atípicos (SFNA) e com história familiar de melanoma e câncer de pâncreas. Esta mutação da linha germinal ainda não tinha sido descrita em famílias com melanoma. A outra mutação identificada (G101W) é uma das mais freqüentes em todo o mundo. Ambas mutações foram identificadas em pacientes com SFNA e múltiplos melanomas em suas famílias. A freqüência de mutações encontrada está de acordo com a descrita em estudos anteriores que utilizaram critérios de seleção semelhantes. Abstract in spanish El melanoma cutáneo es el cáncer cuya incidencia presenta la mayor tasa de crecimiento en el mundo. Su tasa de mortalidad no ha disminuido pese a las terapias costosas empleadas para su diagnóstico y tratamiento. Puede presentarse bajo dos formas: esporádica y hereditaria. Esta última incluye a indi [...] viduos con alto riesgo de desarrollar melanoma, variando su frecuencia según la población estudiada. El objetivo general del presente trabajo es contribuir al conocimiento de la predisposición hereditaria de padecer melanoma en Uruguay. Mediante la aplicación de un formulario de tamizaje se identificaron 14 familias con alto riesgo de padecer melanoma hereditario. Diecisiete pacientes integrantes de ellas dieron su consentimiento informado para investigar mutaciones de línea germinal en CDKN2A y CDK4. La detección de cambios genéticos se realizó mediante PCR-SSCP (Polymerase Chain Reaction - Single Stranded Conformational Polymorphism). Los fragmentos con un patrón de bandas de SSCP atípicos fueron analizados mediante secuenciación. Se identificaron dos mutaciones: una en el exón 2 de CDKN2A (E88X) en dos pacientes familiares de primer grado portadoras de melanomas múltiples y síndrome familiar de nevos atípicos (SFNA) y con historia familiar de melanoma y cáncer de páncreas. Esta mutación de línea germinal no ha sido descripta previamente en familias con melanoma. La otra mutación identificada (G101W) es una de las más frecuentes a nivel mundial. Ambas mutaciones fueron identificadas en pacientes con SFNA y múltiples melanomas en sus familias. La frecuencia de mutaciones encontrada concuerda con la documentada en estudios previos que utilizaron criterios de selección similares

  15. Melanoma conjuntival multifocal recidivado originado de nevus pigmentado preexistente / Recurrent multifocal conjunctival melanoma originated from preexisting pigmented nevus

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Marcos Leandro, Pereira; Dulcídio de Barros, Moreira Júnior.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available O melanoma conjuntival multifocal recidivado originado de nevus preexistente é extremamente raro, ocorrendo em uma pessoa para cinco milhões de habitantes. Seu estudo é de extrema relevância, devido sua potencial letalidade. Este estudo objetiva descrever um caso de melanoma conjuntival multifocal r [...] ecidivado proveniente de nevus pigmentado preexistente ocorrido em Patos de Minas, MG. Este é um estudo de caso com revisão de literatura. O diagnóstico histopatológico e o estadiamento precoce da lesão conjuntival é de fundamental importância para designar a conduta frente ao paciente. O procedimento terapêutico mais utilizado nos dias atuais é a excisão cirúrgica com crioterapia adjuvante associada à mitomicina C. O prognóstico do melanoma conjuntival multifocal recidivado originado de nevus preexistente é o pior dentre todos os melanomas oculares, apresentando alta taxa de mortalidade, 12% a 20% em 5 anos e 30% em 10 anos de desenvolvimento patológico. Abstract in english Recurrent multifocal conjunctival melanoma originated from preexisting nevus is extremely rare: it occurs in one out of five million individuals. The investigation of this disease is extremely important due to its potential lethality. Thus, this study aims to describe a case of recurrent multifocal [...] conjunctival melanoma originated from preexisting pigmented nevus, which occurred in the city of Patos de Minas, state of Minas Gerais. This is a case study and literature review. Histopathological diagnosis and early staging of the conjunctival lesion is a key element on how to approach the patient. The treatment procedure most commonly used today is surgical excision with adjuvant cryotherapy and mitomycin C. The prognosis of recurrent multifocal conjunctival melanoma originated from preexisting nevus is the worst of all ocular melanomas, with high mortality rate: 12% to 20% within 5 years and 30% within 10 years of pathological development.

  16. Malignant melanoma: clinical presentation, report of a case (Clínica de presentación de melanoma maligno: a propósito de un caso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carpio-Deheza Gonzalo

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, there is not frequently the appearance of primary melanoma, because it has a difficult diagnosis. It has different ways of presentation and symptomatology, especially, when you cannot know if they come from melanoma or from a different organ with metastasis. Melanoma has an aggressive behavior and it has not a Standard Treatment Protocol, all of this involves a bad prognostic. Pleural affectation is present in 15 % of patients with malignant melanoma and thoracic metastasis. In this investigation we present the case of 58 years old masculine patient with an inguinal tumor of three years of evolution, narrow mediastinum with pulmonary metastasis and an unknown primary tumor, as pathologic personal history. The last one is diagnosed like primary malignant melanoma, after a lot of biopsies (with atypia as results and inmunohistological chemistry studies. –RESUMEN: La aparición de melanomas primarios, si bien en nuestros días no son tan infrecuentes en presentación, pero aún sigue sin dilucidarse sus formas de presentación y sintomatología, mas si la clínica de presentación es por el órgano metastatizado. La agresividad de esta entidad y la ausencia de protocolos de tratamiento estandarizado, hacen que el pronóstico sea infausto. En el melanoma maligno, la afectación pleural ocurre en el 15 % de los pacientes con metástasis torácicas. En el presente trabajo presentamos un caso: Paciente masculino, de 58 años, con antecedentes de presentación de tumor inguinal de tres años de evolución, estrechamiento de mediastino con metástasis pulmonares, con tumor primario desconocido. El cual es diagnosticado como Melanoma Maligno Primario, post-biopsia y estudio Inmunohistoquímico del mismo (después de habérsele realizado varias biopsias, con resultados de atipia, no pudiéndose determinar la estirpe del mismo.

  17. Melanoma differentiation associated gene-7/interleukin-24 (mda-7/IL-24): novel gene therapeutic for metastatic melanoma

    OpenAIRE

    Fisher, Paul B; SARKAR, DEVANAND; LEBEDEVA, IRINA V.; EMDAD, LUNI; GUPTA, PANKAJ; Sauane, Moira; Su, Zao-zhong; Grant, Steven; Dent, Paul; CURIEL, DAVID T.; Senzer, Neil; Nemunaitis, John

    2006-01-01

    A potentially less toxic approach for cancer therapy comprises induction of tumor cells to lose growth potential irreversibly and terminally differentiate. Combining this scheme termed ‘differentiation therapy of cancer’ with subtraction hybridization to human melanoma cells resulted in the cloning of melanoma differentiation associated (mda) genes displaying elevated expression as a consequence of induction of terminal differentiation. One originally novel gene, mda-7, was found to display e...

  18. Malignant melanoma of the cerebello-pontine angle region Melanoma maligno da região do ângulo ponto-cerebelar

    OpenAIRE

    F. Menezes Braga; Oswaldo I. Tella Jr; Adelmo Ferreira Ceme F. Jordy

    1989-01-01

    A case of malignant melanoma in the cerebello-pontine angle region is presented in a 72 years old female patient, who had neurological examination and CT scan suggestive of acoustic neuroma. The surgical finding and the histological examination provided the diagnosis. As a primary focus was not found on clinical examination and although autopsy was not carried out, there is a possibility of the diagnosis being a primary malignant melanoma in CNS. This specific location for this kind of tumor ...

  19. Melanoma differentiation associated gene-7/interleukin-24 (mda-7/IL-24): Novel gene therapeutic for metastatic melanoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A potentially less toxic approach for cancer therapy comprises induction of tumor cells to lose growth potential irreversibly and terminally differentiate. Combining this scheme termed 'differentiation therapy of cancer' with subtraction hybridization to human melanoma cells resulted in the cloning of melanoma differentiation associated (mda) genes displaying elevated expression as a consequence of induction of terminal differentiation. One originally novel gene, mda-7, was found to display elevated expression in normal melanocytes and nevi with progressive loss of expression as a consequence of melanoma development and progression to metastasis. Based on structure, biochemical properties and chromosomal location, mda-7 has now been reclassified as interleukin (IL)-24, a member of the expanding IL-10 family of cytokines. In vitro cell culture and in vivo animal studies indicate that mda-7/IL-24 selectively induces programmed cell death (apoptosis) in multiple human cancers (including melanomas), without harming normal cells, and promotes profound anti-tumor activity in nude mice containing human tumor xenografts. Based on these remarkable properties, a Phase I clinical trial was conducted to test the safety of administration of mda-7/IL-24 by a replication incompetent adenovirus (Ad.mda-7; INGN 241) in patients with advanced solid cancers including melanoma. mda-7/IL-24 was found to be safe and to promote significant clinical activity, particularly in the context of patients with metastatic melanoma. These results provide an impetus for further clinical studies and document a central paradigm of cancer therapy, namely translation of basic science from the 'bench to the bedside.'

  20. A cystic amelanotic melanoma metastasis to the brain: case report / Metástasis cerebral de un melanoma amelanótico quístico

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    B., Cemil; H., Emmez; N., Oztanir; N., Tokgoz; F., Dogulu.

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Que sepamos, la formación quística de un melanoma intracraneal es rara y sólo se han descrito 15 casos de melanoma intracraneal amilanocítico. Se observó una masa amarillenta en el lóbulo frontal. El contenido del quiste consistía en un hematoma antiguo, con líquido xantocrómico tejido necrótico que [...] se evacuó, con resección total de la pared del quiste. No se encontró ninguna pigmentación anormal en la pared ni en el tejido cerebral adyacente. Las imágenes de los melanomas metastásicos son muy peculiares, debido a la presencia de melanina y a la propensión a la hemorragia. Ambos, hemorragia y melanina pueden producir hiperseñal en T1 e hiposeñal en T2. Abstract in english As far as we know, cyst formation in intracranial melanoma is rare, and only 15 cases of intracranial amelanotic melanoma have been reported until now. A yellowish mass was observed in the frontal lobe. The content of the cyst consisted of old hematoma, xanthochromic fluid and necrotic tissue, was e [...] vacuated and the cyst wall was totally resected. No abnormal pigmentation was noted in the cyst wall and surrounding brain tissue. The imaging features of metastatic melanomas are distinctive due to the presence of melanin and the propensity for hemorrhage. Both hemorrhage and melanin can produce T1-weighted hyperintensity and T2-weighted signal intensity loss.

  1. Correlation of histopathological patterns in cutaneous melanoma with BRAF mutations / Correlação de padrões histopatológicos de melanomas cutâneos com mutações BRAF

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Juliana Elizabeth, Jung; Jorge Eduardo Fouto, Matias; Norbert, Blödorn-Schlicht; Thomas M., Falk; Almut, Böer.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: Mutações do gene BRAF localizado no cromossomo 7q são as mais frequentemente encontradas em melanomas cutâneos (60%-80%). O único estudo que correlacionou padrões histopatológicos de melanomas cutâneos com a presença de mutações BRAF foi realizado por Viros et al., em 2008, que observara [...] m que características morfológicas de melanomas estavam associadas a mutações BRAF. OBJETIVOS: Correlacionar padrões histopatológicos de melanomas cutâneos com a presença de mutações BRAF, a fim de confirmar os achados de Viros et al. MÉTODOS: Espécimes em parafina de 20 casos de melanomas cutâneos primários com mutações BRAF e 20 casos sem mutações foram avaliados independentemente por dois dermatologistas sem o conhecimento da presença ou não das mutações. Os padrões analisados foram formação de "ninhos", circunscrição, presença de melanócitos isolados na lesão, tamanho e forma das células neoplásicas e pigmentação das células tumorais. RESULTADOS: A formação de "ninhos" foi a variável com o maior poder de determinação para melanomas com mutações BRAF para ambos os observadores (r = 0,46; p = 0,04). CONCLUSÃO: Não foi possível confirmar nenhum valor preditivo em relação ao status mutacional de um melanoma para os padrões histológicos circunscrição e presença de melanócitos isolados na lesão, bem como para características citológicas. Dificuldades na interpretação de alguns critérios histológicos foram demonstradas pela variação da concordância entre os observadores. É difícil afirmar se alterações genéticas como as mutações BRAF podem servir como biomarcadores para a classificação de melanomas. Abstract in english INTRODUCTION: Mutations on BRAF gene located on chromosome 7q are the most frequently found in cutaneous melanomas (60%-80%). The only study correlating histopathological patterns of cutaneous melanomas with the presence of BRAF mutations was undertaken by Viros et al. in 2008. The authors observed [...] that morphological features of melanomas are associated with BRAF mutations. OBJECTIVES: To correlate histopathological patterns in cutaneous melanoma with the presence of BRAF mutations in order to corroborate the results of the study performed by Viros et al. METHODS: Paraffin embedded surgical specimens of 20 primary cutaneous melanomas with BRAF mutation and 20 specimens without BRAF mutation were evaluated independently by two dermatologists that carried out a blind experiment. The features analyzed were nesting, circumscription, presence of isolated melanocytes in the lesion, size and shape of neoplastic cells, and tumor cell pigmentation. RESULTS: "Nesting" was the most prevalent variable for the determination of melanomas with BRAF mutations according to both observers (r = 0.46; p = 0.04). CONCLUSION: As far as mutational status is concerned, it was not possible to confirm any predictive value for histopathological patterns such as circumscription, presence of isolated melanocytes in the lesion and cytological features. Difficulties in the interpretation of some histological criteria were demonstrated by the variation in the observers' conclusions. It is difficult to state if genetic alterations such as BRAF mutations may serve as biomarkers for melanoma classification.

  2. Correlation of histopathological patterns in cutaneous melanoma with BRAF mutations Correlação de padrões histopatológicos de melanomas cutâneos com mutações BRAF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Elizabeth Jung

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Mutations on BRAF gene located on chromosome 7q are the most frequently found in cutaneous melanomas (60%-80%. The only study correlating histopathological patterns of cutaneous melanomas with the presence of BRAF mutations was undertaken by Viros et al. in 2008. The authors observed that morphological features of melanomas are associated with BRAF mutations. OBJECTIVES: To correlate histopathological patterns in cutaneous melanoma with the presence of BRAF mutations in order to corroborate the results of the study performed by Viros et al. METHODS: Paraffin embedded surgical specimens of 20 primary cutaneous melanomas with BRAF mutation and 20 specimens without BRAF mutation were evaluated independently by two dermatologists that carried out a blind experiment. The features analyzed were nesting, circumscription, presence of isolated melanocytes in the lesion, size and shape of neoplastic cells, and tumor cell pigmentation. RESULTS: "Nesting" was the most prevalent variable for the determination of melanomas with BRAF mutations according to both observers (r = 0.46; p = 0.04. CONCLUSION: As far as mutational status is concerned, it was not possible to confirm any predictive value for histopathological patterns such as circumscription, presence of isolated melanocytes in the lesion and cytological features. Difficulties in the interpretation of some histological criteria were demonstrated by the variation in the observers' conclusions. It is difficult to state if genetic alterations such as BRAF mutations may serve as biomarkers for melanoma classification.INTRODUÇÃO: Mutações do gene BRAF localizado no cromossomo 7q são as mais frequentemente encontradas em melanomas cutâneos (60%-80%. O único estudo que correlacionou padrões histopatológicos de melanomas cutâneos com a presença de mutações BRAF foi realizado por Viros et al., em 2008, que observaram que características morfológicas de melanomas estavam associadas a mutações BRAF. OBJETIVOS: Correlacionar padrões histopatológicos de melanomas cutâneos com a presença de mutações BRAF, a fim de confirmar os achados de Viros et al. MÉTODOS: Espécimes em parafina de 20 casos de melanomas cutâneos primários com mutações BRAF e 20 casos sem mutações foram avaliados independentemente por dois dermatologistas sem o conhecimento da presença ou não das mutações. Os padrões analisados foram formação de "ninhos", circunscrição, presença de melanócitos isolados na lesão, tamanho e forma das células neoplásicas e pigmentação das células tumorais. RESULTADOS: A formação de "ninhos" foi a variável com o maior poder de determinação para melanomas com mutações BRAF para ambos os observadores (r = 0,46; p = 0,04. CONCLUSÃO: Não foi possível confirmar nenhum valor preditivo em relação ao status mutacional de um melanoma para os padrões histológicos circunscrição e presença de melanócitos isolados na lesão, bem como para características citológicas. Dificuldades na interpretação de alguns critérios histológicos foram demonstradas pela variação da concordância entre os observadores. É difícil afirmar se alterações genéticas como as mutações BRAF podem servir como biomarcadores para a classificação de melanomas.

  3. Caracterización clínica e histopatológica de melanomas malignos de piel / Biopsy-based clinical and histopathological characterization of cutaneous malignant melanoma

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Lindsay, Chacón-Garita; Manuel, Moreira-Carvajal.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Antecedentes: la incidencia del melanoma cutáneo ha venido en aumento en las últimas décadas, convirtiéndose en causa importante de muerte a nivel mundial. El objetivo es determinar la incidencia y caracterizar los melanomas con base en los resultados de las biopsias del Servicio de Patología del Ho [...] spital San Rafael de Alajuela. Métodos: se realizó la revisión histopatológica de cada una de las biopsias diagnosticadas como melanoma maligno de piel, con tinciones de hematoxilina y eosina, en el periodo comprendido de enero de 2009 a diciembre de 2012, para determinar sus características histopatológicas. Se obtuvieron frecuencias simples de todas las variables y medidas de tendencia central y dispersión para las variables cuantitativas. Resultados: se diagnosticó en este periodo un total de 28 melanomas malignos de piel, 16 corresponden a pacientes de sexo masculino. La edad promedio de presentación es 57,0 años y las localizaciones más frecuentes fueron espalda y cara. El melanoma de extensión superficial fue el tipo histológico predominante. En 15 de los casos se encontró invasión de tipo vertical. El 21,1% de los casos presentó un nivel de Clark III, y el grosor de Breslow varió en un rango de 0,20mm a 8,00mm. La morfología celular predominante fue la epiteloide. Otras variables histopatológicas como conteo mitótico, invasión vascular, ulceración o invasión perineural, fueron menos encontradas. Conclusiones: el melanoma maligno se presenta predominantemente en pacientes de sexo masculino, en la quinta década de la vida, principalmente en la espalda y la cara. El tipo histológico más frecuente es el melanoma maligno de extensión superficial. Abstract in english Background: The incidence of cutaneous melanoma has increased in recent decades, becoming a major cause of death worldwide. The objective was to characterize melanomas histologically and to determine the incidence based on the results of the biopsies of the Pathology Department of the San Rafael de [...] Alajuela Hospital. Methods: We conducted a review of each of the biopsies diagnosed as cutaneous melanoma with hematoxylin and eosin from January 2009 until December 2012 to determine their histological features. Simple frequencies were obtained for all variables and measures of central tendency and dispersion for the qualitative variables. Results: A total of 28 cutaneous malignant melanomas were diagnosed, of which 16 occurred in male patients. The average age at presentation was 57.0 years and the most frequent location was Melanomas malignos / Chacón-Garita y Moreira-Carvajal the back and face. The superficial spreading melanoma is the predominant histologic type. In 15 cases, vertical invasion was found. In 21.1% of the cases the patients had Clark level III and Breslow thickness ranged from 0.20 to 8.00 mm. The predominant type was epithelioid cell morphology. Other histopathological variables such as mitotic count, vascular invasion, perineural invasion or ulceration were less frequently found. Conclusions: Malignant melanoma occurs predominantly in male patients in their fifth decade of life; mainly in back and face. The most common histological type was superficial spreading melanoma.

  4. [Differential diagnosis of malignant melanomas of the head and neck region].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellner, J; Jundt, G; Hundeiker, M; Nakajima, T

    1984-01-01

    The diagnosis of malignant melanoma in the head and neck region is often difficult. Electron microscopy and immunhistochemistry can facilitate the pathological investigation of amelanotic malignant melanoma. PMID:6700325

  5. Helping to Prevent Skin Cancer: The Melanoma Risk Assessment Tool and ABC Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancer research includes stopping cancer before it spreads. NCI funded the development of the Melanoma Risk Assessment Tool and the ABC method. Both help to diagnose high-risk patients and prevent melanoma earlier in the fight against skin cancer.

  6. Successful BNCT for patients with cutaneous and mucosal melanomas. Report of 4 cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since 2003 we have conducted BNCT clinical trials on melanomas at the Kyoto University Research Reactor (KUR) and Japan Research Reactor No.4 (JRR-4). We report 4 patients given BNCT for malignant melanomas: 2 with superficial spreading types on the heel, 1 with mucosal melanoma in the nasal cavity, and 1 with a melanoma on the vulva and in the vagina. The two cutaneous melanomas and the nasal cavity mucosal melanoma showed a complete response (CR) by 6 months after BNCT. The residual melanoma showed a partial response (PR) by 3 months after treatment and no regrowth since then. Although two patients experienced normal-tissue damage that exceeded the tolerance level, all the participants were cured within a few months of treatment. BNCT was shown to be a promising treatment for mucosal, as well as for cutaneous, melanomas. (author)

  7. MiR-21: an environmental driver of malignant melanoma?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melnik, Bodo C

    2015-01-01

    Since the mid-1950's, melanoma incidence has been rising steadily in industrialized Caucasian populations, thereby pointing to the pivotal involvement of environmental factors in melanomagenesis. Recent evidence underlines the crucial role of microRNA (miR) signaling in cancer initiation and progression. Increased miR-21 expression has been observed during the transition from a benign melanocytic lesion to malignant melanoma, exhibiting highest expression of miR-21. Notably, common BRAF and NRAS mutations in cutaneous melanoma are associated with increased miR-21 expression. MiR-21 is an oncomiR that affects critical target genes of malignant melanoma, resulting in sustained proliferation (PTEN, PI3K, Sprouty, PDCD4, FOXO1, TIPE2, p53, cyclin D1), evasion from apoptosis (FOXO1, FBXO11, APAF1, TIMP3, TIPE2), genetic instability (MSH2, FBXO11, hTERT), increased oxidative stress (FOXO1), angiogenesis (PTEN, HIF1?, TIMP3), invasion and metastasis (APAF1, PTEN, PDCD4, TIMP3). The purpose of this review is to provide translational evidence for major environmental and individual factors that increase the risk of melanoma, such as UV irradiation, chemical noxes, air pollution, smoking, chronic inflammation, Western nutrition, obesity, sedentary lifestyle and higher age, which are associated with increased miR-21 signaling. Exosomal miR-21 induced by extrinsic and intrinsic stimuli may be superimposed on mutation-induced miR-21 pathways of melanoma cells. Thus, oncogenic miR-21 signaling may be the converging point of intrinsic and extrinsic stimuli driving melanomagenesis. Future strategies of melanoma treatment and prevention should thus aim at reducing the burden of miR-21 signal transduction. PMID:26116372

  8. Comparative study of angio genesis radiopharmaceuticals for melanoma detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Early diagnosis and treatment of melanoma, a cutaneous tumor with a serious prognosis, is extremely important for optimal clinical outcome. Phage display peptide libraries are a useful screening resource for identifying bioactive peptides that interact with cancer targets. The aim of this study was the evaluation of two technetium-99m tracers for angio genesis detection in melanoma model, using cyclic peguilated pentapeptide with RGD and NGR motifs conjugated with bifunctional chelator MAG3. The conjugated peptides (10 ?L of a ?g/?L solution) were labeled with technetium-99m using a sodium tartrate buffer. Radiochemical evaluation was done by ITLC and confirmed by HPLC. Partition coefficient was determined and internalization assays were performed in two melanoma cells (B16F10 and SKMEL28). Biodistribution evaluation of the tracers was done in healthy animals at different times and also in mice bearing the tumor cells at 120 min post injection. Blocking studies were also conducted by co-injection of cold peptides. The conjugated showed the same profile in many evaluations. They were radiolabeled with high radiochemical purity (>97%). Both were hydrophilic, with preferential renal excretion. Tumor uptake was higher for human melanoma cells than for murinic melanoma cells, specially for 99mTc-MAG3-PEG8-c(RGDyK) (7.85±±2.34 %ID/g) at 120 min post injection. The performance of 99mTc-MAG3-PEG8-c(RGDyk) was much better than NGR tracer concerning human melanoma uptake and might be considered in future investigations focusing radiotracers for melanoma diagnosis. (author)

  9. Sentinel lymph node biopsy for conjunctival malignant melanoma: surgical techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wainstein AJA

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Alberto JA Wainstein,1,2 Ana P Drummond-Lage,1 Milhem JM Kansaon,2 Gustavo O Bretas,2 Rodrigo F Almeida,3 Ana LF Gloria,3 Ana RP Figueiredo3 1Faculty of Medical Sciences of Minas Gerais, 2Oncad Surgical Oncology, 3Ophthalmology Department, Federal University of Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, Brazil Background: The purpose of this report is to examine the viability and safety of preoperative lymphoscintigraphy and radio guided sentinel lymph node (SLN biopsy for conjunctival melanoma, and to identify the best technique to perform this procedure.Methods: Three patients diagnosed with malignant melanoma of the conjunctiva underwent lymphoscintigraphy and SLN biopsy using a dual technique comprising isosulfan blue dye and technetium Tc 99m sulfur colloid. Each patient was anesthetized and the conjunctival melanoma was excised. SLNs were localized by a gamma probe, identified according to radioactivity and sentinel blue printing, and dissected, along with drainage of the associated lymphatic basins. The SLNs were evaluated by a pathologist using hematoxylin-eosin staining following serial sectioning and immunohistochemistry using a triple melanoma cocktail (S-100, Melan-A, and HMB-45 antigens.Results: Two SLNs were stained in the jugular chain during preoperative lymphoscintigraphy in the first patient, two SLNs were identified in the preauricular and submandibular areas in the second patient, and two SLNs were identified in the submandibular and parotid areas in the third patient. All lymph nodes identified by lymphoscintigraphy were dissected and identified at surgery with 100% accuracy in all three patients. All SLNs were histologically and immunohistochemically negative. Patients had good cosmetic and functional results, and maintained their visual acuity and ocular motility.Conclusion: Patients with conjunctival melanoma can undergo preoperative lymphoscintigraphy and SLN biopsy safely using radioactive technetium and isosulfan blue dye. Keywords: ocular melanoma, sentinel lymph node biopsy, lymphoscintigraphy, conjunctival melanoma

  10. Cerebral Melanoma Metastases: A Critical Review on Diagnostic Methods and Therapeutic Options

    OpenAIRE

    Goulart, Carlos R.; Mattei, Tobias Alecio; Ramina, Ricardo

    2011-01-01

    Malignant melanoma represents the third most common cause for cerebral metastases after breast and lung cancer. Central nervous system (CNS) metastases occur in 10 to 40% of patients with melanoma. Most of the symptoms of CNS melanoma metastases are unspecific and depend on localization of the lesion. All patients with new neurological signs and a previous primary melanoma lesion must be investigated. Although primary diagnosis may rely on computed tomography scan, magnetic resonance images a...

  11. Perspectives on the application of nanotechnology in photodynamic therapy for the treatment of melanoma

    OpenAIRE

    Victoria Monge-Fuentes; Luis Alexandre Muehlmann; Ricardo Bentes de Azevedo

    2014-01-01

    Malignant melanoma is the most aggressive form of skin cancer and has been traditionally considered difficult to treat. The worldwide incidence of melanoma has been increasing faster than any other type of cancer. Early detection, surgery, and adjuvant therapy enable improved outcomes; nonetheless, the prognosis of metastatic melanoma remains poor. Several therapies have been investigated for the treatment of melanoma; however, current treatment options for patients with metastatic disease ar...

  12. Side Effects and Toxicities of Targeted Therapies in Stage IV Melanoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ascierto, Paolo A; Bastholt, Lars; Hersey, Peter; Cinat, Gabriela; Eggermont, Alexander M; Hauschild, Axel; Espinosa, Enrique; Robert, Caroline

    2013-01-01

    As the incidence of melanoma continues to increase worldwide, the search for new therapies for advanced (stage IV) melanoma brings with it new patterns of toxicity to contend with. This review covers the toxicity profiles of new treatments for advanced melanoma currently in development. Therefore, the latest literature on melanoma treatment was surveyed for data on reported toxicities. The new types of treatments can be roughly divided into targeted tyrosine kinase inhibitors and immunomodulatin...

  13. Cutaneous malignant melanoma and familial dysplastic nevi: evidence for autosomal dominance and pleiotropy.

    OpenAIRE

    Bale, S J; CHAKRAVARTI, A.; Greene, M H

    1986-01-01

    Segregation of familial cutaneous melanoma has been shown to be compatible with autosomal dominant transmission with incomplete penetrance. However, the combined phenotype of melanoma and a known melanoma-precursor lesion, the dysplastic nevus (DN), has not previously been found to fit a Mendelian model of inheritance using complex segregation analysis. Employing a life-table and disease-free survival analysis approach, we estimated the lifetime incidence of melanoma in the sibs and offspring...

  14. MALIGNANT MELANOMA WITH MULTIPLE METASTASES ON THE SMALL BOWEL - CASE REPORT

    OpenAIRE

    V.T. Grigorean; M.A. Iacobini; Popescu, M.; C.M. Neac?u; A-R. Stoian; Corina Roxana Buf; Violeta Elena Radu; Aurelia Mihaela Sandu

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Malignant melanomas often cause intestinal metastasis.Metastases of malignant melanoma are the most common secondary tumors of the gastrointestinal tract.The incidence of intestinal metastasis of malignant melanomas is 1.5-4.4% in clinical studies, reaching upto 35.6-58% in necroptic studies. AIM: We present a clinical case of multiple metastases to the smallbowel with point of departure right retroauricular malignant melanoma. METHODS: Patient T.I., 76years old, is admitted in ou...

  15. Profile of ipilimumab and its role in the treatment of metastatic melanoma

    OpenAIRE

    SP Patel; Woodman SE

    2011-01-01

    Sapna P Patel, Scott E WoodmanMelanoma Medical Oncology Department, University of Texas, MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX, USAAbstract: Melanoma is an immunogenic cancer. However, the ability of the immune system to eradicate melanoma tumors is affected by intrinsic negative regulatory mechanisms. Multiple immune-modulatory therapies are currently being developed to optimize the immune response to melanoma tumors. Two recent Phase III studies using the monoclonal antibody ipilimumab, wh...

  16. Checkpoint Modulation in Melanoma: An Update on Ipilimumab and Future Directions

    OpenAIRE

    Page, David B.; Postow, Michael A.; Callahan, Margaret K.; Wolchok, Jedd D

    2013-01-01

    Ipilimumab, an anti-cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4 antibody, was the first therapy demonstrated to improve overall survival in melanoma. Since ipilimumab’s approval by the FDA in 2011, a wealth of data have amassed, helping clinicians to optimize its use. We have learned how to mitigate the adverse effects of ipilimumab, identified its effects in melanoma subpopulations such as those with brain metastases, uveal melanoma, and mucosal melanoma, discovered potential biomarkers of activity, an...

  17. Time trends and latitude dependence of uveal and cutaneous malignant melanoma induced by solar radiation

    OpenAIRE

    Moan, Johan; Cicarma, Emanuela; Setlow, Richard; Porojnicu, Alina C; William B. Grant; Juzeniene, Asta

    2010-01-01

    In order to evaluate the role of solar radiation in uveal melanoma etiology, the time and latitude dependency of the incidence rates of this melanoma type were studied in comparison with those of cutaneous malignant melanoma (CMM). Norway and several other countries with Caucasian populations were included. there is a marked north-south gradient of the incidence rates of CMM in Norway, with three times higher rates in the south than in the north. No such gradient is found for uveal melanoma. ...

  18. Delayed but Complete Response following Oral Temozolomide Treatment in Melanoma Leptomeningeal Carcinomatosis

    OpenAIRE

    Hottinger, Andreas F.; Favet, Laurence; Pache, Jean-Claude; Martin, Jean-Baptiste; Dietrich, Pierre-Yves

    2011-01-01

    Isolated leptomeningeal recurrence of melanoma is rare, occurring in 2% of patients with central nervous system involvement secondary to melanoma. The optimal treatment of leptomeningeal carcinomatosis (LMC) in melanoma has not yet been determined and remains a major challenge. We report a melanoma patient who presented with isolated LMC in the form of a new-onset weakness of the lower limbs, paresthesia of the left hand and foot, lumbago and headache. A lumbar puncture and spinal MRI confirm...

  19. Combination chemotherapy for choroidal melanoma: ex vivo sensitivity to treosulfan with gemcitabine or Cytosine arabinoside

    OpenAIRE

    Neale, M. H.; Myatt, N; Cree, I. A.; Kurbacher, C. M.; Foss, A J E; J. L. Hungerford; Plowman, P N

    1999-01-01

    Treatment of choroidal melanoma by chemotherapy is usually unsuccessful, with response rates of less than 1% reported for dacarbazine (DTIC)-containing regimens which show 20% or more response rates in skin melanoma. Recently, we reported the activity of several cytotoxic agents against primary choroidal melanoma in an ATP-based tumour chemosensitivity assay (ATP-TCA). In this study, we have used the same method to examine the sensitivity of choroidal melanoma to combinations suggested by our...

  20. New Perspectives on the Role of Vitiligo in Immune Responses to Melanoma

    OpenAIRE

    Byrne, Katelyn T.; Turk, Mary Jo

    2011-01-01

    Melanoma-associated vitiligo is the best-studied example of the linkage between tumor immunity and autoimmunity. Although vitiligo is an independent positive prognostic factor for melanoma patients, the autoimmune destruction of melanocytes was long thought to be merely a side effect of robust anti-tumor immunity. However, new data reveal a key role for vitiligo in supporting T cell responses to melanoma. This research perspective reviews the history of melanoma-associated vitiligo in patient...

  1. A pooled analysis of 10 case–control studies of melanoma and oral contraceptive use

    OpenAIRE

    Karagas, M R; Stukel, T A; Dykes, J.; Miglionico, J; Greene, M A; Carey, M; Armstrong, B; Elwood, J. M.; Gallagher, R. P.; Green, A; Holly, E. A.; Kirkpatrick, C S; Mack, T; Østerlind, A; Rosso, S.

    2002-01-01

    Data regarding the effects of oral contraceptive use on women's risk of melanoma have been difficult to resolve. We undertook a pooled analysis of all case–control studies of melanoma in women completed as of July 1994 for which electronic data were available on oral contraceptive use along with other melanoma risk factors such as hair colour, sun sensitivity, family history of melanoma and sun exposure. Using the original data from each investigation (a total of 2391 cases and 3199 controls)...

  2. Melanoma Metastásico: a Propósito de un Caso / Metastatic melanoma: A case report

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Dasyl, Martínez; Rossy, Martínez; Nereida, Duarte; Pablo, Ramírez; Gabriela, Vera.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available El melanoma maligno es un tumor que se origina de los melanocitos de la piel o en menor frecuencia de las mucosas (oral, anal o genital). También se ha descrito en vagina, leptomeninges y globo ocular.1,3,4 La edad de presentación oscila entre los 40 y 60 años, aunque puede presentarse a cualquier e [...] dad. Su desarrollo está influenciado por factores genéticos y ambientales.2,3 En los últimos años ha existido un crecimiento exponencial en los casos de esta patología. Representa la primera causa de muerte por cáncer de piel y tiene un comportamiento biológico que determina el pronóstico. Presenta dos fases de crecimiento, una intraepidérmica y otra intradérmica, en la que tiene capacidad de producir metástasis (las cuales ocurren durante los tres primeros años de la lesión inicial) como resultado de la invasión de la membrana basal, la migración hacia el torrente sanguíneo o a la circulación linfática, la cual representa más del 50% de la vía de diseminación.1,3,4 El método diagnóstico de elección es la extirpación y estudio histológico de una lesión sospechosa. Se presenta el caso de paciente masculino de 45 años, que consultó por dolor abdominal de aparición insidiosa en epigastrio irradiado a hipocondrio derecho, urente, de fuerte intensidad. Concomitantemente alzas térmicas de predominio nocturno y náuseas. Como antecedente refiere enucleación de globo ocular derecho por tumor cuya histología fue compatible con melanoma. Ultrasonido abdominal reportó imágenes compatibles con metástasis hepáticas, de las cuales se toma biopsia que concluye: Melanoma metastásico. Endoscopia digestiva superior: en cuerpo bajo, cara anterior se aprecia lesión de bordes irregulares, coloración negruzca, discretamente elevada, cuya biopsia fue negativa para malignidad. Se presenta el caso debido al mal pronóstico de esta patología y a lo poco frecuente de esta forma de presentación. Abstract in english Malignant melanoma is a tumor that arises from melanocytes of the skin or mucous less frequently (oral, anal or genital). It has also been described in vagina, leptomeninges and eyeball.1,3,4 The age of onset is between 40 and 60, but it may occur at any age. Its development is influenced by genetic [...] and environmental factors.2.3 In recent years there has been an exponential growth in cases of this disease. Is the leading cause of death from skin cancer and has a biological behavior that determines the outcome. It has two phases of growth, intraepidermal and intradermal, which is capable of producing metastases (which occur during the first three years of the initial injury) as a result of the invasion of the basement membrane, migration into the bloodstream or lymphatic circulation, which represents more than 50% of the route of dissemination.1,3,4 The diagnostic method of choice is the removal and histological examination of a suspicious lesion. A case of a male patient aged 45, who consulted for strong epigastrical pain of insidious onset radiating to right upper quadrant. Concomitantly fever and nausea. As regards history right eyeball enucleation due to a tumor whose histology was compatible with melanoma. Abdominal ultrasound reported images suggestive of liver metastases, which biopsy was reported as: Metastatic melanoma. Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy: low gastric body lesion is seen with irregular edges, color blackish, slightly elevated, whose biopsy was negative for malignancy. This case is reported due to the poor prognosis of this disease and the uncommonless of this presentation.

  3. Termoterapia transpupilar em melanoma maligno da coróide / Transpupillary thermotherapy for malignant choroidal melanoma

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Martha M. Motomo, Chojniak; Tércio, Guia; Fausto, Uno; Clélia Maria, Erwenne.

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Vários métodos vem sendo utilizados para o tratamento dos melanomas da coróide. A proposta deste trabalho preliminar é avaliar a eficácia da termoterapia transpupilar (TTT) como tratamento primário de melanomas da coróide pequenos. Métodos: Foi realizado um trabalho prospectivo e não-rando [...] mizado para avaliar os aspectos clínicos, resposta do tumor, complicações e resultados visuais de pacientes portadores de melanomas da coróide pequenos (até 4,0 mm de espessura e 12 mm de diâmetro basal) tratados por termoterapia transpupilar utilizando-se sucessivas aplicações de laser diodo contínuo de 810 nm. Resultados: Foram tratados 11 pacientes portadores de melanomas da coróide pequenos. O tumor era único e pigmentado em 100% dos casos. Crescimento documentado esteve presente em 5 pacientes (45,45%) previamente ao tratamento e fatores de risco para crescimento ou metástase estavam presentes em todos os pacientes. O tempo de seguimento destes pacientes a partir do tratamento foi em média de 5,72 meses (3 - 8 meses). Foram utilizadas 3 sessões de laser em 5 pacientes (45,45%) e 4 sessões em 6 pacientes (64,64%). As lesões apresentavam, por ocasião do diagnóstico, uma espessura média de 2,65 mm (1,85-3,86 mm), com maior diâmetro basal médio de 7,98 mm (4,2-11,33 mm). Após o tratamento, a espessura média foi de 1,83 mm (0,98-2,93 mm) e o maior diâmetro basal médio foi de 6,59 mm (3,81 mm -10,67 mm). Das lesões tratadas, 100% apresentaram diminuição da altura e do máximo diâmetro basal, tendo sido a diminuição média da espessura de 0,89 mm e do máximo diâmetro basal de 1,39 mm. A acuidade visual manteve-se inalterada em 5 casos (45,45%) e piorou após o tratamento em 6 casos (54,54%). Ocorreram complicações em 9 casos, tendo sido considerada complicação grave 1 caso de descolamento parcial da retina (9,09%); as outras complicações foram consideradas leves: pequenas hemorragias intra-retinianas em 7 pacientes (63,63%), vitreite associada a tênues membranas vítreas em 1 paciente (9,09%) e quemose associada a edema palpebral em 1 paciente (9,09%). Controle tumoral local com conservação do globo ocular foi observado durante este pequeno tempo de seguimento em 100% dos pacientes tratados. Por ocasião da "última revisão", 100% dos pacientes estavam vivos e sem doença metastática. Conclusão: Este estudo preliminar sugere que a termoterapia transpupilar apresenta-se como um método efetivo e seguro para o tratamento de selecionados melanomas pequenos da coróide. Para melhor avaliação é necessário tempo de seguimento prolongado. Abstract in english Purpose: Several methods have been used for treatment of choroidal melanoma. The purpose of this preliminary paper is to evaluate the effectiveness of transpupillary thermo- therapy (TTT) as a primary treatment of small choroidal melanomas. Methods: This is a prospective nonrandomized study evaluati [...] ng clinical aspects, tumor response, complications and visual outcome in patients presenting small choroidal melanomas (up to 4.0 mm thick and 12 mm base diameter) treated with TTT over 810 nm laser diode applications. Results: There were 11 patients treated with trans-pupillary thermotherapy, all of them presenting pig-mented small choroidal melanomas. Growth previous to treatment was documented in 5 patients and risk factors for growth or metastatic disease was present in all the patients. After treatment the patients were followed for 3 to 8 months (mean 5.7 months). Three laser sessions were used in 5 pa-tients and 4 sessions in 6 patients. The lesions presented at the beginning of the treatment a mean thickness of 2.7 mm, with a mean larger base diameter of 7.8 mm. All the lesions responded to treatment and presented decrease of thickness and base diameters. After transpupillary thermotherapy, the lesions' mean thickness was 1.8 mm and the mean larger base diameter was 6.7 mm. The mean reduction in thickness was 0.9 mm and the mean decrease in larger base diameter was 1.4 mm. The visual acuit

  4. Serum level of vitamin D3 in cutaneous melanoma / Nível sérico de vitamina D3 em portadores de melanoma cutâneo

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Renato Santos de, Oliveira Filho; Daniel Arcuschin de, Oliveira; Vitor Augusto Melão, Martinho; Célia Beatriz Gianotti, Antoneli; Ludmilla Altino de Lima, Marcussi; Carlos Eduardo dos Santos, Ferreira.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo Comparar o nível de vitamina D3 em portadores de melanoma, em atividade de doença ou não, com os valores de referência e com pacientes de um hospital geral. Métodos Os níveis séricos de vitamina D3 foram dosados em portadores de melanoma cu [...] tâneo entre 22 a 80 anos, de ambos os sexos, de janeiro de 2010 a dezembro de 2013. As amostras do grupo dos pacientes gerais foram processadas no Hospital Israelita Albert Einstein (grupo controle). A análise dos dados foi realizada utilizando o software Statistica. Resultados Foram estudados 100 pacientes, sendo 54 homens, com média de idade 54,67 anos, e 95 brancos. Desses 100 pacientes, 17 apresentavam doença em atividade. A média dos níveis de vitamina D3 nos 100 pacientes foi inferior ao nível considerado suficiente, porém acima da média do grupo controle. A deficiência de vitamina D3 apresentou distribuição semelhante nos dois grupos com melanoma (em atividade de doença ou não). Conclusão Os níveis de vitamina D3 nos pacientes com melanoma foram superiores aos dos pacientes gerais e inferiores aos de referência. Se os valores de referência estão adequados, grande parte da população apresenta níveis insuficientes de vitamina D3, incluindo os portadores de melanoma, ou tal padrão precisa ser reavaliado. Não houve diferença dos níveis de vitamina D3 entre portadores de melanoma com ou sem atividade. Estudos relacionando vitamina D e melanoma devem ser aprofundados. Abstract in english Objective To compare the level of vitamin D3 in cutaneous melanoma patients, with or without disease activity, with reference values and with patients from a general hospital. Methods The serum levels of vitamin D3 were measured in cutaneous melanoma pati [...] ents, aged 20 to 88 years, both genders, from January 2010 to December 2013. The samples from the general group were processed at Hospital Israelita Albert Einstein (control group). Data analysis was performed using the Statistics software. Results A total of 100 patients were studied, 54 of them men, with mean age of 54.67 years, and 95 Caucasian. Out of these 100 patients, 17 had active disease. The average levels of vitamin D3 in the melanoma patients were lower than the level considered sufficient, but above the average of the control group. Both groups (with or without active disease) of patients showed a similar distribution of vitamin D3 deficiency. Conclusion Vitamin D3 levels in melanoma patients were higher than those of general patients and lower than the reference level. If the reference values are appropriate, a large part of the population had insufficient levels of vitamin D, including those with melanoma, or else, this standard needs to be reevaluated. No difference in vitamin D3 levels was found among melanoma patients with or without active disease. More comprehensive research is needed to assess the relation between vitamin D and melanoma.

  5. New strategies for melanoma immunotherapy: How to overcome immunosuppression in the tumor microenvironment

    OpenAIRE

    Umansky, Viktor

    2012-01-01

    Using ret transgenic mouse model of spontaneous melanoma, we showed an accumulation of melanoma antigen-specific memory T cells. However, their antitumor effects could be blocked by myeloid-derived suppressor cells, tolerogenic dendritic cells and regulatory T cells. We suggest that effective melanoma immunotherapy should include the neutralization of immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment.

  6. New strategies for melanoma immunotherapy: How to overcome immunosuppression in the tumor microenvironment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umansky, Viktor

    2012-08-01

    Using ret transgenic mouse model of spontaneous melanoma, we showed an accumulation of melanoma antigen-specific memory T cells. However, their antitumor effects could be blocked by myeloid-derived suppressor cells, tolerogenic dendritic cells and regulatory T cells. We suggest that effective melanoma immunotherapy should include the neutralization of immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment. PMID:22934276

  7. Primary Oral Malignant Melanoma: Two Case Reports and Review of Literature

    OpenAIRE

    Neeraj Sharma

    2012-01-01

    Primary malignant melanoma of the oral cavity is a rare neoplasm. The tumors tend to metastasize or locally invade tissue more readily than other malignant tumors in the oral region. The survival of patients with mucosal melanomas is less than for those with cutaneous melanomas. Tumor size and metastases are related to the prognosis of the disease. Early detection, therefore, is important.

  8. Screening Program Reduced Melanoma Mortality at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 1984-1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, MD, J S; II, PhD, D; MD, PhD, M

    2006-10-12

    Worldwide incidence of cutaneous malignant melanoma has increased substantially, and no screening program has yet demonstrated reduction in mortality. We evaluated the education, self examination and targeted screening campaign at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) from its beginning in July 1984 through 1996. The thickness and crude incidence of melanoma from the years before the campaign were compared to those obtained during the 13 years of screening. Melanoma mortality during the 13-year period was based on a National Death Index search. Expected yearly deaths from melanoma among LLNL employees were calculated by using California mortality data matched by age, sex, and race/ethnicity and adjusted to exclude deaths from melanoma diagnosed before the program began or before employment at LLNL. After the program began, crude incidence of melanoma thicker than 0.75 mm decreased from 18 to 4 cases per 100,000 person-years (p = 0.02), while melanoma less than 0.75mm remained stable and in situ melanoma increased substantially. No eligible melanoma deaths occurred among LLNL employees during the screening period compared with a calculated 3.39 expected deaths (p = 0.034). Education, self examination and selective screening for melanoma at LLNL significantly decreased incidence of melanoma thicker than 0.75 mm and reduced the melanoma-related mortality rate to zero. This significant decrease in mortality rate persisted for at least 3 yr after employees retired or otherwise left the laboratory.

  9. Melanoma Cell-Intrinsic PD-1 Receptor Functions Promote Tumor Growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleffel, Sonja; Posch, Christian; Barthel, Steven R; Mueller, Hansgeorg; Schlapbach, Christoph; Guenova, Emmanuella; Elco, Christopher P; Lee, Nayoung; Juneja, Vikram R; Zhan, Qian; Lian, Christine G; Thomi, Rahel; Hoetzenecker, Wolfram; Cozzio, Antonio; Dummer, Reinhard; Mihm, Martin C; Flaherty, Keith T; Frank, Markus H; Murphy, George F; Sharpe, Arlene H; Kupper, Thomas S; Schatton, Tobias

    2015-09-10

    Therapeutic antibodies targeting programmed cell death 1 (PD-1) activate tumor-specific immunity and have shown remarkable efficacy in the treatment of melanoma. Yet, little is known about tumor cell-intrinsic PD-1 pathway effects. Here, we show that murine and human melanomas contain PD-1-expressing cancer subpopulations and demonstrate that melanoma cell-intrinsic PD-1 promotes tumorigenesis, even in mice lacking adaptive immunity. PD-1 inhibition on melanoma cells by RNAi, blocking antibodies, or mutagenesis of melanoma-PD-1 signaling motifs suppresses tumor growth in immunocompetent, immunocompromised, and PD-1-deficient tumor graft recipient mice. Conversely, melanoma-specific PD-1 overexpression enhances tumorigenicity, as does engagement of melanoma-PD-1 by its ligand, PD-L1, whereas melanoma-PD-L1 inhibition or knockout of host-PD-L1 attenuate growth of PD-1-positive melanomas. Mechanistically, the melanoma-PD-1 receptor modulates downstream effectors of mTOR signaling. Our results identify melanoma cell-intrinsic functions of the PD-1:PD-L1 axis in tumor growth and suggest that blocking melanoma-PD-1 might contribute to the striking clinical efficacy of anti-PD-1 therapy. PMID:26359984

  10. Viewing Exemplars of Melanomas and Benign Mimics of Melanoma Modestly Improves Diagnostic Skills in Comparison with the ABCD Method and Other Image-based Methods for Lay Identification of Melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornell, Ella; Robertson, Karen; McIntosh, Robert D; Rees, Jonathan L

    2015-06-24

    Using an experimental task in which lay persons were asked to distinguish between 30 images of melanomas and common mimics of melanoma, we compared various training strategies including the ABC(D) method, use of images of both melanomas and mimics of melanoma, and alternative methods of choosing training image exemplars. Based on a sample size of 976 persons, and an online experimental task, we show that all the positive training approaches increased diagnostic sensitivity when compared with no training, but only the simultaneous use of melanoma and benign exemplars, as chosen by experts, increased specificity and diagnostic accuracy. The ABCD method and use of melanoma exemplar images chosen by laypersons decreased specificity in comparison with the control. The method of choosing exemplar images is important. The levels of change in performance are however very modest, with an increase in accuracy between control and best-performing strategy of only 9%. PMID:25633058

  11. LFA-1 and ICAM-1 expression induced during melanoma-endothelial cell co-culture favors the transendothelial migration of melanoma cell lines in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patients with metastatic melanoma have a poor median rate of survival. It is therefore necessary to increase our knowledge about melanoma cell dissemination which includes extravasation, where cancer cells cross the endothelial barrier. Extravasation is well understood during travelling of white blood cells, and involves integrins such as LFA-1 (composed of two chains, CD11a and CD18) expressed by T cells, while ICAM-1 is induced during inflammation by endothelial cells. Although melanoma cell lines cross endothelial cell barriers, they do not express LFA-1. We therefore hypothesized that melanoma-endothelial cell co-culture might induce the LFA-1/ICAM ligand/receptor couple during melanoma transmigration. A transwell approach has been used as well as blocking antibodies against CD11a, CD18 and ICAM-1. Data were analyzed with an epifluorescence microscope. Fluorescence intensity was quantified with the ImageJ software. We show here that HUVEC-conditioned medium induce cell-surface expression of LFA-1 on melanoma cell lines. Similarly melanoma-conditioned medium activates ICAM-1 expression in endothelial cells. Accordingly blocking antibodies of ICAM-1, CD11a or CD18 strongly decrease melanoma transmigration. We therefore demonstrate that melanoma cells can cross endothelial monolayers in vitro due to the induction of ICAM-1 and LFA-1 occurring during the co-culture of melanoma and endothelial cells. Our data further suggest a role of LFA-1 and ICAM-1 in the formation of melanoma cell clumps enhancing tumor cell transmigration. Melanoma-endothelial cell co-culture induces LFA-1 and ICAM-1 expression, thereby favoring in vitro melanoma trans-migration

  12. LFA-1 and ICAM-1 expression induced during melanoma-endothelial cell co-culture favors the transendothelial migration of melanoma cell lines in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghislin Stephanie

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Patients with metastatic melanoma have a poor median rate of survival. It is therefore necessary to increase our knowledge about melanoma cell dissemination which includes extravasation, where cancer cells cross the endothelial barrier. Extravasation is well understood during travelling of white blood cells, and involves integrins such as LFA-1 (composed of two chains, CD11a and CD18 expressed by T cells, while ICAM-1 is induced during inflammation by endothelial cells. Although melanoma cell lines cross endothelial cell barriers, they do not express LFA-1. We therefore hypothesized that melanoma-endothelial cell co-culture might induce the LFA-1/ICAM ligand/receptor couple during melanoma transmigration. Methods A transwell approach has been used as well as blocking antibodies against CD11a, CD18 and ICAM-1. Data were analyzed with an epifluorescence microscope. Fluorescence intensity was quantified with the ImageJ software. Results We show here that HUVEC-conditioned medium induce cell-surface expression of LFA-1 on melanoma cell lines. Similarly melanoma-conditioned medium activates ICAM-1 expression in endothelial cells. Accordingly blocking antibodies of ICAM-1, CD11a or CD18 strongly decrease melanoma transmigration. We therefore demonstrate that melanoma cells can cross endothelial monolayers in vitro due to the induction of ICAM-1 and LFA-1 occurring during the co-culture of melanoma and endothelial cells. Our data further suggest a role of LFA-1 and ICAM-1 in the formation of melanoma cell clumps enhancing tumor cell transmigration. Conclusion Melanoma-endothelial cell co-culture induces LFA-1 and ICAM-1 expression, thereby favoring in vitro melanoma trans-migration.

  13. Comparative study of angio genesis radiopharmaceuticals for melanoma detection; Estudo comparativo de radiofarmacos para angiogenese na deteccao de melanoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Erica Aparecida de

    2011-07-01

    Early diagnosis and treatment of melanoma, a cutaneous tumor with a serious prognosis, is extremely important for optimal clinical outcome. Phage display peptide libraries are a useful screening resource for identifying bioactive peptides that interact with cancer targets. The aim of this study was the evaluation of two technetium-99m tracers for angio genesis detection in melanoma model, using cyclic peguilated pentapeptide with RGD and NGR motifs conjugated with bifunctional chelator MAG3. The conjugated peptides (10 {mu}L of a {mu}g/{mu}L solution) were labeled with technetium-99m using a sodium tartrate buffer. Radiochemical evaluation was done by ITLC and confirmed by HPLC. Partition coefficient was determined and internalization assays were performed in two melanoma cells (B16F10 and SKMEL28). Biodistribution evaluation of the tracers was done in healthy animals at different times and also in mice bearing the tumor cells at 120 min post injection. Blocking studies were also conducted by co-injection of cold peptides. The conjugated showed the same profile in many evaluations. They were radiolabeled with high radiochemical purity (>97%). Both were hydrophilic, with preferential renal excretion. Tumor uptake was higher for human melanoma cells than for murinic melanoma cells, specially for {sup 99m}Tc-MAG3-PEG{sub 8}-c(RGDyK) (7.85{+-}{+-}2.34 %ID/g) at 120 min post injection. The performance of {sup 99m}Tc-MAG{sub 3}-PEG{sub 8}-c(RGDyk) was much better than NGR tracer concerning human melanoma uptake and might be considered in future investigations focusing radiotracers for melanoma diagnosis. (author)

  14. Applications of nanotechnology for melanoma treatment, diagnosis, and theranostics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen J

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Jiezhong Chen,1,2 Renfu Shao,3 Xu Dong Zhang,4 Chen Chen1 1School of Biomedical Sciences, University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD, Australia; 2Faculty of Science, Medicine and Health, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, NSW, Australia; 3GeneCology Research Centre, School of Science, Education and Engineering, University of the Sunshine Coast, Maroochydore, QLD, Australia; 4School of Medicine and Public Health, University of Newcastle, Newcastle, NSW, Australia Abstract: Melanoma is the most aggressive type of skin cancer and has very high rates of mortality. An early stage melanoma can be surgically removed, with a survival rate of 99%. However, metastasized melanoma is difficult to cure. The 5-year survival rates for patients with metastasized melanoma are still below 20%. Metastasized melanoma is currently treated by chemotherapy, targeted therapy, immunotherapy and radiotherapy. The outcome of most of the current therapies is far from optimistic. Although melanoma patients with a mutation in the oncogene v-Raf murine sarcoma viral oncogene homolog B1 (BRAF have an initially higher positive response rate to targeted therapy, the majority develop acquired drug resistance after 6 months of the therapy. To increase treatment efficacy, early diagnosis, more potent pharmacological agents, and more effective delivery systems are urgently needed. Nanotechnology has been extensively studied for melanoma treatment and diagnosis, to decrease drug resistance, increase therapeutic efficacy, and reduce side effects. In this review, we summarize the recent progress on the development of various nanoparticles for melanoma treatment and diagnosis. Several common nanoparticles, including liposome, polymersomes, dendrimers, carbon-based nanoparticles, and human albumin, have been used to deliver chemotherapeutic agents, and small interfering ribonucleic acids (siRNAs against signaling molecules have also been tested for the treatment of melanoma. Indeed, several nanoparticle-delivered drugs have been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration and are currently in clinical trials. The application of nanoparticles could produce side effects, which will need to be reduced so that nanoparticle-delivered drugs can be safely applied in the clinical setting. Keywords: metastasis, early detection, nanoparticle-delivered, PI3K/Akt

  15. Melanotropic peptide receptors: membrane markers of human melanoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, J; Sharma, S D; Fink, J L; Hadley, M E; Hruby, V J

    1996-12-01

    The objectives of this research were to determine whether melanotropin receptors are characteristic (constant) membrane markers of human melanoma cells. Methodologies were developed to visualize these receptors by fluorescence microscopy. Multiple copies (10-20) of both [Nle4,D-Phe7]alpha-MSH, a superpotent analog of alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone (alpha-MSH), and a fluorophore, were conjugated to polyvinyl alcohol (PVA). Incubation in the presence of the multivalent macromolecular conjugate (FITC-PVA-MSH) resulted in binding of human epidermal melanocytes and keratinocytes and human melanoma cells (both melanotic and amelanotic) to the fluorescent conjugate. Binding of the conjugate to the cells exhibited a unique cluster pattern (capping) suggesting a receptor internalization related phenomenon. Most importantly, every cell of every melanoma cell line, melanotic or amelanotic, possessed receptors as visualized by fluorescence microscopy. Since the cells were not synchronized, some binding apparently took place during all phases of the cell cycle. Therefore, receptor expression appears not to be cell-cycle dependent. Specificity of binding of FITC-PVA-MSH was demonstrated by several studies. (i) Binding of the conjugate to melanoma cells could be blocked by prior incubation of the cells in the presence of the unconjugated hormone analog; [Nle4,D-Phe7]alpha-MSH. (ii) The macromolecular conjugate lacking bound ligand (FITC-PVA) did not bind to the melanoma cells. (iii) Another peptide, a substance-P analog, attached to the substrate (FITC-PVA-SP) failed to bind to the cells. (iv) With the exception of keratinocytes, other cells of nonmelanocyte origin (e.g., fibroblasts, spleen, liver, kidney cells, and mammary cancer cells, lung cancer cells) did not bind to the conjugate. Thus, cell-specific melanotropin receptors appear to be characteristic cell surface markers of epidermal melanocytes, keratinocytes, and melanoma cells. In several human melanoma cell lines these receptors appeared to be functional since [Nle4,D-Phe7]alpha-MSH stimulated tyrosinase activity. Fluorescent melanotropin conjugates might prove useful in determining whether all human melanoma (primary and metastatic) tumors possess such receptors. These receptors might then provide targets for melanotropic peptides for the identification, localization, and chemotherapy of melanoma. PMID:9028794

  16. Specifically targeting ERK1 or ERK2 kills Melanoma cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qin Jianzhong

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Overcoming the notorious apoptotic resistance of melanoma cells remains a therapeutic challenge given dismal survival of patients with metastatic melanoma. However, recent clinical trials using a BRAF inhibitor revealed encouraging results for patients with advanced BRAF mutant bearing melanoma, but drug resistance accompanied by recovery of phospho-ERK (pERK activity present challenges for this approach. While ERK1 and ERK2 are similar in amino acid composition and are frequently not distinguished in clinical reports, the possibility they regulate distinct biological functions in melanoma is largely unexplored. Methods Rather than indirectly inhibiting pERK by targeting upstream kinases such as BRAF or MEK, we directly (and near completely reduced ERK1 and ERK2 using short hairpin RNAs (shRNAs to achieve sustained inhibition of pERK1 and/or pERK2. Results and discussion Using A375 melanoma cells containing activating BRAFV600E mutation, silencing ERK1 or ERK2 revealed some differences in their biological roles, but also shared roles by reduced cell proliferation, colony formation in soft agar and induced apoptosis. By contrast, chemical mediated inhibition of mutant BRAF (PLX4032 or MEK (PD0325901 triggered less killing of melanoma cells, although they did inhibit proliferation. Death of melanoma cells by silencing ERK1 and/or ERK2 was caspase dependent and accompanied by increased levels of Bak, Bad and Bim, with reduction in p-Bad and detection of activated Bax levels and loss of mitochondrial membrane permeability. Rare treatment resistant clones accompanied silencing of either ERK1 and/or ERK2. Unexpectedly, directly targeting ERK levels also led to reduction in upstream levels of BRAF, CRAF and pMEK, thereby reinforcing the importance of silencing ERK as regards killing and bypassing drug resistance. Conclusions Selectively knocking down ERK1 and/or ERK2 killed A375 melanoma cells and also increased the ability of PLX4032 to kill A375 cells. Thus, a new therapeutic window is open for future clinical trials in which agents targeting ERK1 and ERK2 should be considered in patients with melanoma.

  17. Primary Care for Melanoma: Should We Be Screaming for Screening?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis J. Baumgardner

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of cutaneous malignant melanoma continues to rise in the United States. This deadly disease is potentially curable if caught at an early stage, however screening programs remain controversial. The United States Preventive Services Task Force cites insufficient evidence to recommend screening, by total-body skin examination (TBSE, for early detection of cutaneous melanoma. While definitive studies may be cost-prohibitive in the United States, more recent evidence suggests that organized programs to increase TBSE reduce mortality from melanoma. The positive impact of TBSE, and education regarding risk reduction and skin self-examination, is most likely to be cost-effective in high-risk patients such as middle-aged and older men. This population also includes those with changing moles or those who always or usually sunburn; those with melanoma in a first-degree relative, or dysplastic nevi or extensive moles; and those with high-risk ultraviolet (UV exposure or other risk factors. The role of new technology, such as in-office and in-home dermoscopy, continues to evolve. Primary care clinicians are challenged in everyday practice to appropriately prioritize TBSE and empower their patients for “skin awareness” and self-detection of melanoma.

  18. NF1 Mutations Are Common in Desmoplastic Melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiesner, Thomas; Kiuru, Maija; Scott, Sasinya N; Arcila, Maria; Halpern, Allan C; Hollmann, Travis; Berger, Michael F; Busam, Klaus J

    2015-10-01

    Desmoplastic melanoma (DM) is a rare variant of melanoma with distinct clinical, histopathologic, and immunohistochemical features. Clinically, DM differs from conventional melanoma by a higher propensity for local recurrence and less frequent metastatic spread to regional lymph nodes. In its pure form, DM has a distinct appearance displaying a low density of fusiform melanocytes in a collagen-rich matrix. Whereas a number of mutations have been identified in primary melanoma, including BRAF, NRAS, GNAQ, GNA11, and KIT, and the occurrence of these mutations has been found to correlate to some extent with the histopathologic features, anatomic site, and/or mode of sun exposure, no distinct set of mutations has so far been reported for DM. To study the potential association of neurofibromin (NF1) mutations with DM, we examined 15 desmoplastic and 20 non-DMs by next-generation sequencing. Mutations of the NF1 gene were found in 14 of 15 (93%) DMs and 4 of 20 (20%) non-DMs. The high frequency of NF1 mutations in DMs suggests an important role for NF1 in the biology of this type of melanoma. PMID:26076063

  19. Dissection of T-cell antigen specificity in human melanoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Rikke Sick; Albæk Thrue, Charlotte

    2012-01-01

    Tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL) isolated from melanoma patients and expanded in vitro by interleukin (IL)-2 treatment can elicit therapeutic response after adoptive transfer, but the antigen specificities of the T cells transferred have not been determined. By compiling all known melanoma-associated antigens and applying a novel technology for high-throughput analysis of T-cell responses, we dissected the composition of melanoma-restricted T-cell responses in 63 TIL cultures. T-cell reactivity screens against 175 melanoma-associated epitopes detected 90 responses against 18 different epitopes predominantly from differentiation and cancer-testis antigens. Notably, the majority of these responses were of low frequency and tumor-specific T-cell frequencies decreased during rapid expansion. A further notable observation was a large variation in the T-cell specificities detected in cultures established from different fragments of resected melanoma lesions. In summary, our findings provide an initial definition of T-cell populations contributing to tumor recognition in TILs although the specificity of many tumor-reactive TILs remains undefined.

  20. Synchronous high-risk melanoma and lymphoid neoplasia.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cahill, R A

    2012-02-03

    Large population-based studies have shown a significant association between melanoma and lymphoid neoplasia, particularly non-Hodgkin\\'s lymphoma (NHL) and chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL), that is independent of any treatment received for the initial tumour. This study examines the presentation, diagnosis, treatment and progress of three patients who developed advanced melanoma concurrently with a lymphoid neoplasm (one NHL, two CLLs), in order to illustrate their association, discuss common aetiological factors and examine possible therapeutic options. As it is the melanoma rather than the lymphoid neoplasm that represents the bigger threat to overall survival, initial treatment should be targeted towards this cancer. However, because of the interplay between the diseases and the possible side-effects of the various treatments, the choice of adjuvant therapy requires careful consideration. Immunosuppression associated with chemotherapy may permit a more aggressive course for the melanoma, while locoregional radiotherapy is contraindicated following lymph node dissections. As immunotherapy is of benefit in the treatment of melanoma and has also been recently shown to be effective in the management of lymphoid neoplasia, we instituted interferon-alpha as adjuvant therapy for these patients, thereby utilizing a single agent to treat the dual pathologies. The three patients have now been followed-up for 6 months without evidence of disease recurrence or progression.

  1. Spitzoid melanoma in a child with Li-Fraumeni syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kollipara, Ramya; Cooley, Linda D; Horii, Kimberly A; Hetherington, Maxine L; Leboit, Philip E; Singh, Vivekanand; Zwick, David L

    2014-01-01

    Spitzoid melanoma of childhood is a rare malignancy. The histological features are at the upper end of a range encompassing Spitz nevus and atypical Spitz tumor, the unifying features including large oval, fusiform or polygonal melanocytes with abundant homogeneous-appearing cytoplasma and large vesicular nuclei. The presence of a "bottom-heavy" pattern, strikingly enlarged nuclei and nucleoli in both the upper and lower portions of the lesion, and deep mitotic figures are among the findings that distinguish most of the Spitzoid melanomas from Spitz nevi and atypical Spitz tumors. There are no syndromic associations reported for this malignancy. We report the occurrence of choroid plexus carcinoma, Spitzoid melanoma, and myelodysplasia in a child who was found to carry a germline mutation for TP53. While choroid plexus carcinoma and myelodysplasia have relatively frequently been described, melanomas have been very rarely described in Li-Fraumeni syndrome. The association of Spitzoid melanoma with Li-Fraumeni syndrome, especially in a pediatric patient, has not been reported before. PMID:24251760

  2. An electrochemical immunosensing method for detecting melanoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seenivasan, Rajesh; Maddodi, Nityanand; Setaluri, Vijaysaradhi; Gunasekaran, Sundaram

    2015-06-15

    An electrochemical immunosensing method was developed to detect melanoma cells based on the affinity between cell surface melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R) antigen and anti-MC1R antibody (MC1R-Ab). The MC1R-Abs were immobilized in amino-functionalized silica nanoparticles (n-SiNPs)-polypyrrole (PPy) nanocomposite modified on working electrode surface of screen-printed electrode (SPE). Cyclic voltammetry was employed, with the help of redox mediator ([Fe(CN)6](3-)), to measure the change in anodic oxidation peak current arising due to the specific interaction between MC1R antigens and MC1R-Abs when the target melanoma cells are present in the sample. Various factors affecting the sensor performance, such as the amount of MC1R-Abs loaded, incubation time with the target melanoma cells, the presence of interfering non-melanoma cells, were tested and optimized over different expected melanoma cell loads in the range of 50-7500 cells/2.5 mL. The immunosensor is highly sensitive (20 cells/mL), specific, and reproducible, and the antibody-loaded electrode in ready-to-use stage is stable over two weeks. Thus, in conjunction with a microfluidic lab-on-a-chip device our electrochemical immunosensing approach may be suitable for highly sensitive, selective, and rapid detection of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) in blood samples. PMID:25636023

  3. Notch Signaling Promotes Growth and Invasion in Uveal Melanoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asnaghi, Laura; Ebrahimi, Katayoon B.; Schreck, Karisa C.; Bar, Eli E.; Coonfield, Michael L.; Bell, W. Robert; Handa, James; Merbs, Shannath L.; Harbour, J. William; Eberhart, Charles G.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To determine whether uveal melanoma, the most common primary intraocular malignancy in adults, requires Notch activity for growth and metastasis. Experimental Design Expression of Notch pathway members was characterized in primary tumor samples and in cell lines, along with the effects of Notch inhibition or activation on tumor growth and invasion. Results Notch receptors, ligands, and targets were expressed in all five cell lines examined and in 30 primary uveal melanoma samples. Interestingly, the three lines with high levels of baseline pathway activity (OCM1, OCM3, and OCM8) had their growth reduced by pharmacologic Notch blockade using the ?-secretase inhibitor (GSI) MRK003. In contrast, two uveal melanoma lines (Mel285 and Mel290) with very low expression of Notch targets were insensitive to the GSI. Constitutively active forms of Notch1 and Notch2 promoted growth of uveal melanoma cultures and were able to rescue the inhibitory effects of GSI. MRK003 treatment also inhibited anchorage-independent clonogenic growth and cell invasion and reduced phosphorylation levels of STAT3 and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (Erk)1/2. Suppression of canonical Notch activity using short hairpin RNA targeting Notch2 or CBF1 was also able to reduce tumor growth and invasion. Finally, intraocular xenograft growth was significantly decreased by GSI treatment. Conclusion Our findings suggest that Notch plays an important role in inducing proliferation and invasion in uveal melanoma and that inhibiting this pathway may be effective in preventing tumor growth and metastasis. PMID:22228632

  4. Chromosome 7 Aneusomy. A Marker for Metastatic Melanoma?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Udart

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Receptor tyrosine kinases such as the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR play an important role in a variety of malignant neoplasias, making the search for aberrations in the relevant chromosomes an important issue. Differential expression of the EGFR gene was investigated by reverse transcriptase (RT-PCR on tissue samples of normal skin, nevi, primary melanomas, and melanoma metastases. The EGFR gene is located on chromosome 7p12.3-p12.1. To determine the number of chromosomes 7 in cell nuclei of the mentioned tissue samples we performed fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH on touch preparations, using a DNA probe that hybridizes specifically to the centromeric region of chromosome 7. Additionally, chromosome 7 number in interphase nuclei was determined in short-term primary cell cultures of nevi, primary melanomas, and metastases. The highest EGFR gene expression frequency was found in melanoma metastases. By FISH we detected the highest fraction of cell nuclei with more than two chromosomes 7 in the group of metastases. Our results suggest that overexpression of the EGFR gene might play an important role in metastasis of malignant melanoma. This is well reflected by polysomy 7, possibly accounting for an increased EGFRgene copy number.

  5. Dabrafenib for treatment of BRAF-mutant melanoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kainthla R

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Radhika Kainthla,1 Kevin B Kim,2 Gerald S Falchook31Department of Internal Medicine, Baylor College of Medicine, 2Department of Melanoma Medical Oncology, 3Department of Investigational Cancer Therapeutics, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX, USAAbstract: Melanoma has the highest mortality of all the skin cancer subtypes. Historically, chemotherapy and immunologic therapies have yielded only modest results in the treatment of metastatic melanoma. The discovery of prevalent V600 BRAF mutations driving proliferation makes this oncogenic protein an ideal target for therapy. Dabrafenib, a reversible inhibitor of mutant BRAF kinase, improved response rates and median progression-free survival in patients with V600E BRAF-mutant metastatic melanoma, including those with brain metastases. With a well-tolerated toxicity profile, dabrafenib is effective as a monotherapy; however, resistance eventually develops in almost all patients. As a result, current research is exploring the role of combination therapies with dabrafenib to overcome resistance.Keywords: dabrafenib, metastatic melanoma, V600E BRAF mutation

  6. Treating melanoma in adolescents and young adults: challenges and solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sreeraman Kumar R

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Radhika Sreeraman Kumar,1 Jane L Messina,2,3 Vernon K Sondak,3 Damon R Reed,3–6 1Department of Radiation Oncology, Moffitt Cancer Center, 2Department of Pathology and Cell Biology, Morsani College of Medicine, University of South Florida, 3Department of Cutaneous Oncology, 4Adolescent and Young Adult Program, 5Sarcoma Department, 6Chemical Biology and Molecular Medicine Program, Moffitt Cancer Center, Tampa, FL, USAAbstract: Systemic therapy of melanoma has made tremendous progress recently for advanced stage patients in terms of excellent, temporary responses through targeting underlying biology of BRAF V600E mutation and affected pathways. A significant subset of patients with advanced disease also has durable responses from immunomodulation through immune checkpoint blockade of CTLA-4 and the PDL-1/PD-1 axis. Clinical trials of these agents included patients as young as 18 years but generally excluded younger adolescents. Ongoing trials in 12–17 year olds have not been accruing as robustly, and as a result available options for these patients are often lagging years behind their adult counterparts. We herein summarize the epidemiology, diagnosis, and multidisciplinary management of adolescents and young adults with melanoma. We offer recommendations to improve the care for adolescent patients with melanoma age-specific evaluations and by including them in up-front melanoma trials.Keywords: melanoma, AYA, systemic therapy, adjuvant therapy

  7. Contrast-enhanced MRT for malignant melanomas of the conjunctiva

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Twenty-one patients with malignant melanoma of the uvea or iris, some with intra-ocular bleeding, were examined by MRT before and after the administration of Gd/DTPA. In 13 patients, several examinations were performed over a period of 1.5 to 20 months after irradiation of the melanoma. After Gd-DTPA there was an average increase of 13% in the signal intensity from all non-irradiated melanomas (17 cases). Three months following radiation therapy, there was an average increase in signal intensity after Gd-DTPA of 65.7%, and after seven months of 100%. Amelanotic melanomas (two cases) showed a primary increase in intensity of 100%. Two melanomas of the iris were demonstrated by sonography; of these, only one could be shown with certainty by MRT. Small tumours and tumour residues after irradiation were better defined after contrast. In the presence of suspected intra-ocular bleeding, the examination should always be performed after the administration of Gd-DTPA. (orig.)

  8. Sensitivity of CT in detecting malignant melanomas of the choroidea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    193 patients with the ophthalmic diagnosis of a primary choroidal melanoma were studied by computed tomography (CT) in relation to the ultrasound (US) prominence. The location and size as well as the density of the tumour and the vitreous body were measured. The tumour was observed most frequently in the fifth, sixth, and seventh decades of life, with a female preponderance in our series. There was a high correlation between CT and US in the average tumour thickness. But we measured a greater thickness in tumours with US prominence less than 3.5 mm and a smaller thickness in tumours with a US prominence greater than 5 mm. 79% of the melanomas could be distinguished by CT. Especially melanomas with an US prominence of less than 3 mm failed to be detected. The smallest tumour that could be differentiated by CT had a prominence of 2 mm, the largest missed had a prominence of 3.5 mm. In 75% of our contrast CT in patients with 2.5 and 3 mm prominence we could diagnose the tumour, in the noncontrast CT is was only possible in 34%. The enhancement of the vitreous body and the tumour were noted in all patients with contrast CT, the average density increased in the vitreous body for 22% and in the melanoma for 30%. Hence, it is essential to use intravenous contrast media in small choroidal melanomas. (orig.)

  9. Nivolumab in combination with ipilimumab for the treatment of melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somasundaram, Rajasekharan; Herlyn, Meenhard

    2015-10-01

    Melanoma patients develop resistance to most therapies, including chemo- and targeted-therapy drugs. Single-agent therapies are ineffective due to the heterogeneous nature of tumors comprising several subpopulations. Treatment of melanoma with immune-based therapies such as anti-cytotoxic T-lymphocyte activation-4 and anti-programmed death-1 antibodies has shown modest but long-lasting responses. Unfortunately, only subsets of melanoma patients respond to antibody-based therapies. Heterogeneity in lymphocyte infiltration and low frequency of anti-melanoma-reactive T-cells in tumor lesions are partly responsible for a lack of response to antibody-based therapies. Both antibodies have same biological function but they bind to different ligands at various phases of T-cell activity. Thus, combination therapy of antibodies has shown superior response rates than single-agent therapy. However, toxicity is a cause of concern in these therapies. Future identification of therapy-response biomarkers, mobilization of tumor-reactive T-cell infiltration using cancer vaccines, or non-specific targeted-therapy drugs will minimize toxicity levels and provide long-term remissions in melanoma patients. PMID:26402246

  10. Melanoma maligno anaplásico em um eqüino / Anaplastic malignant melanoma in a horse

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Daniel Ricardo, Rissi; Rafael Almeida, Fighera; Luiz Francisco, Irigoyen; Flavio Desessards, De Lacorte; Claudio Severo Lombardo de, Barros.

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Descreve-se um caso de melanoma maligno anaplásico em uma égua Crioula, tordilha, com 10 anos de idade, com histórico clínico de apatia, perda de peso progressiva, febre, anorexia e dispnéia. Múltiplas massas pigmentadas e não-pigmentadas, bem delimitadas ou infiltrativas, foram observadas no tecido [...] subcutâneo e em vários órgãos. Histologicamente o neoplasma era composto de populações de células fusiformes, redondas ou poliédricas e, menos freqüentemente, de células multinucleadas e "células em anel de sinete". O diagnóstico foi realizado com base nos achados clinicopatológicos e confirmado pela microscopia eletrônica de transmissão. Abstract in english A case of anaplastic malignant melanoma in a 10-year-old gray mare is described. Clinical signs included depression, progressive weight loss, fever, anorexia, and dyspnea. Multiple circumscribed or infiltrative, pigmented, and non-pigmented tumors were observed in subcutaneous tissue and in several [...] organs. Histological examination revealed a marked variation in neoplastic cell population, which was composed by spindle, round, polyhedrical, and less frequently, multinucleated or signet ring cells. The diagnostic was based up on clinical and pathological findings, and confirmed by transmission electronic microscopy.

  11. Melanoma maligno anaplásico em um eqüino Anaplastic malignant melanoma in a horse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Ricardo Rissi

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Descreve-se um caso de melanoma maligno anaplásico em uma égua Crioula, tordilha, com 10 anos de idade, com histórico clínico de apatia, perda de peso progressiva, febre, anorexia e dispnéia. Múltiplas massas pigmentadas e não-pigmentadas, bem delimitadas ou infiltrativas, foram observadas no tecido subcutâneo e em vários órgãos. Histologicamente o neoplasma era composto de populações de células fusiformes, redondas ou poliédricas e, menos freqüentemente, de células multinucleadas e "células em anel de sinete". O diagnóstico foi realizado com base nos achados clinicopatológicos e confirmado pela microscopia eletrônica de transmissão.A case of anaplastic malignant melanoma in a 10-year-old gray mare is described. Clinical signs included depression, progressive weight loss, fever, anorexia, and dyspnea. Multiple circumscribed or infiltrative, pigmented, and non-pigmented tumors were observed in subcutaneous tissue and in several organs. Histological examination revealed a marked variation in neoplastic cell population, which was composed by spindle, round, polyhedrical, and less frequently, multinucleated or signet ring cells. The diagnostic was based up on clinical and pathological findings, and confirmed by transmission electronic microscopy.

  12. Malignant melanoma and pregnancy: second thoughts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Ehud; Barnea, Yoav; Gur, Eyal; Leshem, David; Karin, Eliad; Weiss, Jerry; Schneebaum, Schlomo

    2010-07-01

    Malignant melanoma (MM) was considered a hormone-sensitive tumour, and pregnancy was thought to increase its risk and cause faster progression and earlier metastasis. Several controlled studies demonstrated similar survival rates between pregnant and non-pregnant patients and concluded that early reports of advanced MM of pregnancy were probably due to late diagnosis. We retrieved information from our database between 1997 and 2006 on all patients diagnosed as having MM during and up to 6 months after pregnancy (n=11) and compared them to age-matched, non-pregnant, MM patients (n=65, controls) treated by us during that period. The mean Breslow thickness was 4.28mm for the pregnant patients and 1.69mm for the controls (p=0.15). The sentinel nodes were metastatic in five pregnant patients compared to four controls (p<0.0001). Two patients in the pregnancy group and one control died of MM (p=0.0532). Our results indicate a negative effect of pregnancy on the course of MM. PMID:19592319

  13. A case of melanoma in xeroderma pigmentosum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rao T

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Xeroderma pigmentosum (XP was first described in 1874 by Hebra and Kaposi. [1] It is a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by photosensitivity, pigmentary changes, premature skin aging, and malignant tumor development due to cellular hypersensitivity to ultraviolet radiation resulting from a defect in DNA repair. The basic defect in XP is in nucleotide excision repair (NER, leading to deficient repair of damaged DNA. A 12-year-old boy presented with a large growth over the right side of the forehead. The lesion was first noticed before two years as a 2 x 2 cm 2 mass. It was slowly growing and attained the present size of 10 x 8 x 7 cm 3 . The surface showed ulceration with areas of hemorrhage and blackish pigmentation. Also, the patient had hyperpigmented macules over the skin since early childhood. The macules appeared initially over the face and later developed over the other areas of the body. The macules were more over the sun exposed areas. He also had photophobia and both eyes showed corneal opacities. Histopathological examination of the excised growth showed features consistent with melanoma. This case is being presented because of its rare association with xeroderma pigmentosum patients in India.

  14. Prospective study of melanoma in the Paris Region in 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souques, M.; Baccard, M.; Barrazza, V.; Havard, S.; Verrier, A.; Wechsler, J. [Prevention et Epidemiologie des Tumeurs en Region Ile de France (PETRI), Domus Medica, 75 - Paris (France)

    2006-07-01

    Introduction: Melanoma remains an important public health problem because of its increasing incidence and its responsibility for the deaths of young individuals. A first study was carried out by the P.E.T.R.I. association in 1994 to estimate the incidence of melanoma in the Paris region. A second one was carried out in 2004, with the same methodology, to estimate the increase of melanoma incidence in the Paris region and the main clinical and histological characteristics of these cancers, comparing to 1994 data. Methodology: Every pathologist of the region has been contacted to fill a questionnaire for each primary cutaneous melanoma excised between January 1. and December 31. 2004, from patients living in the Paris region (departments 75, 77, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95). The information requested included melanoma characteristics (localisation, type, Breslow thickness, Clark level, regression signs, pre existence of a nevus) and demographic data (age, sex, zip code of residence). Results: 98 % of pathologists in the region agree to participate in the study. They send 1453 questionnaires, among them 160 were excluded (double, non cutaneous melanoma, secondary lesion, non resident in the region, diagnoses out of the inclusion dates, biopsy followed by exeresis). The analyse included 1293 lesions in 1269 patients. More than 2/3 of diagnoses were confirmed by 2 laboratories and 10 laboratories (on 98) reported 86 % of the diagnoses. Incidence:The crude incidence of melanoma in the Paris region during 2004 was 11.4 cases per 100 000 inhabitants, by sex:11.1 per 100 000 males and 12.4 cases per 100 000 females. The sex ratio men/women was 0.82. The crude incidence of invasive melanoma (Clark 2 to 5) was 8,9 cases per 100 000 inhabitants, 9,2 per 100 000 women and 8,6 per 100 000 men, with a sex ratio men/women of 0,93. Demographic characteristics: Melanoma diagnosis was more often in women (54.9 %) than in men (45.1 %). The patients mean age was 59.3 years (S.D.: 17.3). The mean age according to sex was different (p=0.02). It was 58.2 years (S.D.: 18.0) for women and 60.6 years (S.D.: 16.4) for men. Two diagnoses were done in children ( {<=}15 years old). Clinical characteristics: The proportion of in situ melanoma was higher among women (23.6%) than among men (18.6%) p=0.03. The site was known for 1258 cases: 30.0% were on the trunk, 24.5% on the legs (excluding the feet), 12.8% on the arms (excluding the hands), 5.0% on the feet, 0.5% on the hands, 0.3% on the nails (hands and feet), 0.1% on the extern. Most frequently localizations are legs and arms for women (46 % of lesions), trunk for men (42 % of lesions), face and neck for both men and women (21 % of lesions). The type distribution of lesions was: 72 % superficial spreading melanoma (S.S.M.); 9 % nodular melanoma and 13 % invasive melanoma arising on melanosis of Dubreuilh (Tables 1). Clark levels distribution was as follow : 21 % level 1; 28 % level 2; 23 % level 3; 23 % level 4 and 5 % level 5. Men had more often a level 4 or 5 than women (34 % vs. 23 %). Mean Breslow thickness was 1.73 mm (max 38 mm), higher in men than in women (2,02 vs. 1,46). Around 52 % of lesions was {<=}0.75 mm and 21 % more was > 0.75 and {<=}1.5 mm. Comparison 1994-2004: The incidence of melanoma in the Paris region increases slowly in 10 years: from 9.9 per 100 000 in 1994 to 11.4 cases per 100 000 inhabitants in 2004 for all melanomas and from 8.6 to 8.9 for invasive melanomas. But it is a crude incidence, more analysis are needed to study the population ageing. In this region, the increase was not multiplied by two in these ten years as it was in the past. Median age increases more than 10 years for each sex from 1994 to 2004: 49 years to 61 for men; 44 years to 58 for women. Clinical characteristics change in 10 years, with increase of melanoma arising on melanosis of Dubreuilh and nodular melanomas, and a decrease of S.S.M.. Sites of melanoma change with more face and neck localisation (from 10 to 21 %) and less trunk localisation (from 37% to 30%) and legs localisation (from 32 %

  15. Prospective study of melanoma in the Paris Region in 2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Introduction: Melanoma remains an important public health problem because of its increasing incidence and its responsibility for the deaths of young individuals. A first study was carried out by the P.E.T.R.I. association in 1994 to estimate the incidence of melanoma in the Paris region. A second one was carried out in 2004, with the same methodology, to estimate the increase of melanoma incidence in the Paris region and the main clinical and histological characteristics of these cancers, comparing to 1994 data. Methodology: Every pathologist of the region has been contacted to fill a questionnaire for each primary cutaneous melanoma excised between January 1. and December 31. 2004, from patients living in the Paris region (departments 75, 77, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95). The information requested included melanoma characteristics (localisation, type, Breslow thickness, Clark level, regression signs, pre existence of a nevus) and demographic data (age, sex, zip code of residence). Results: 98 % of pathologists in the region agree to participate in the study. They send 1453 questionnaires, among them 160 were excluded (double, non cutaneous melanoma, secondary lesion, non resident in the region, diagnoses out of the inclusion dates, biopsy followed by exeresis). The analyse included 1293 lesions in 1269 patients. More than 2/3 of diagnoses were confirmed by 2 laboratories and 10 laboratories (on 98) reported 86 % of the diagnoses. Incidence:The crude incidence of melanoma in the Paris region during 2004 was 11.4 cases per 100 000 inhabitants, by sex:11.1 per 100 000 males and 12.4 cases per 100 000 females. The sex ratio men/women was 0.82. The crude incidence of invasive melanoma (Clark 2 to 5) was 8,9 cases per 100 000 inhabitants, 9,2 per 100 000 women and 8,6 per 100 000 men, with a sex ratio men/women of 0,93. Demographic characteristics: Melanoma diagnosis was more often in women (54.9 %) than in men (45.1 %). The patients mean age was 59.3 years (S.D.: 17.3). The mean age according to sex was different (p=0.02). It was 58.2 years (S.D.: 18.0) for women and 60.6 years (S.D.: 16.4) for men. Two diagnoses were done in children ( ?15 years old). Clinical characteristics: The proportion of in situ melanoma was higher among women (23.6%) than among men (18.6%) p=0.03. The site was known for 1258 cases: 30.0% were on the trunk, 24.5% on the legs (excluding the feet), 12.8% on the arms (excluding the hands), 5.0% on the feet, 0.5% on the hands, 0.3% on the nails (hands and feet), 0.1% on the extern. Most frequently localizations are legs and arms for women (46 % of lesions), trunk for men (42 % of lesions), face and neck for both men and women (21 % of lesions). The type distribution of lesions was: 72 % superficial spreading melanoma (S.S.M.); 9 % nodular melanoma and 13 % invasive melanoma arising on melanosis of Dubreuilh (Tables 1). Clark levels distribution was as follow : 21 % level 1; 28 % level 2; 23 % level 3; 23 % level 4 and 5 % level 5. Men had more often a level 4 or 5 than women (34 % vs. 23 %). Mean Breslow thickness was 1.73 mm (max 38 mm), higher in men than in women (2,02 vs. 1,46). Around 52 % of lesions was ?0.75 mm and 21 % more was > 0.75 and ?1.5 mm. Comparison 1994-2004: The incidence of melanoma in the Paris region increases slowly in 10 years: from 9.9 per 100 000 in 1994 to 11.4 cases per 100 000 inhabitants in 2004 for all melanomas and from 8.6 to 8.9 for invasive melanomas. But it is a crude incidence, more analysis are needed to study the population ageing. In this region, the increase was not multiplied by two in these ten years as it was in the past. Median age increases more than 10 years for each sex from 1994 to 2004: 49 years to 61 for men; 44 years to 58 for women. Clinical characteristics change in 10 years, with increase of melanoma arising on melanosis of Dubreuilh and nodular melanomas, and a decrease of S.S.M.. Sites of melanoma change with more face and neck localisation (from 10 to 21 %) and less trunk localisation (from 37% to 30%) and legs localisation (from 32 % to 24%). Melano

  16. Multicenter phase II study of matured dendritic cells pulsed with melanoma cell line lysates in patients with advanced melanoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernandez Jackie

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several single center studies have provided evidence of immune activation and antitumor activity of therapeutic vaccination with dendritic cells (DC in patients with metastatic melanoma. The efficacy of this approach in patients with favorable prognosis metastatic melanoma limited to the skin, subcutaneous tissues and lung (stages IIIc, M1a, M1b was tested in a multicenter two stage phase 2 study with centralized DC manufacturing. Methods The vaccine (IDD-3 consisted 8 doses of autologous monocyte-derived matured DC generated in serum-free medium with granulocyte macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF and interleukin-13 (IL-13, pulsed with lysates of three allogeneic melanoma cell lines, and matured with interferon gamma. The primary endpoint was antitumor activity. Results Among 33 patients who received IDD-3 there was one complete response (CR, two partial responses (PR, and six patients had stable disease (SD lasting more than eight weeks. The overall prospectively defined tumor growth control rate was 27% (90% confidence interval of 13-46%. IDD-3 administration had minimal toxicity and it resulted in a high frequency of immune activation to immunizing melanoma antigens as assessed by in vitro immune monitoring assays. Conclusions The administration of matured DC loaded with tumor lysates has significant immunogenicity and antitumor activity in patients with limited metastatic melanoma. Clinical trial registration NCT00107159.

  17. [Morphologic features and biological properties of melanomas in children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parshikova, S M; Filippova, N A; Bogatyreva, I I

    1986-01-01

    A complex morphologic study was made of primary skin melanoma, its metastases to the lymph nodes in a boy of 8, as well as of the tumour inoculate from the lymph node of the child on nude mice BALB/c in passages 1-6, 9, 10 and 44. The mitotic regimen of the material was studied. The data obtained show that childhood and adult melanoma is characterized by the same clinical-morphologic features. The electron microscopic study provided additional information for the confirmation of the histogenesis and identification of the melanoma type. To study individual sensitivity to antitumour drugs, it might be more reasonable to use first passages of the tumour, as the ultrastructural cell differentiation in them is maximally similar to the original one. PMID:3753240

  18. Non-melanoma skin cancers in elderly patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrotta, Rosario Emanuele; Giordano, Maria; Malaguarnera, Mariano

    2011-12-01

    Non-melanoma skin cancers are a common reality worldwide. The principal cause that determines the occurrence of these diseases is the exposition of the sun, which principally causes an alteration in the immune system. Therefore, it is possible that other forms of innate or acquired alterations of the immune system could favor the occurrence of non-melanoma skin cancers. For example, several studies have demonstrated that immunosenescence creates an immunosuppressive state that encourages the development of malignances, and new discoveries have noted the importance of T cells and in particular of T regulatory cells (Treg) and T receptor CD28 in this mechanism. Similar results are obtained analyzing the effect of immunosuppressive drugs. The importance of the immune system and its alteration in the genesis of non-melanoma skin cancers is fundamental for the creation of a new therapeutic and less invasive approach. PMID:21602051

  19. Malignant melanoma following scalp irradiation for tinea capitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawyer, A R; McGoldrick, R B; Mackey, S P; Powell, B; Pohl, M

    2007-01-01

    X-Rays were discovered by Roentgen in 1895 and were subsequently used in the treatment of many ailments. Numerous benign skin conditions including eczema and psoriasis have historically been treated with X-rays. During the 1930s and 1940s radiotherapy was introduced as an effective treatment for scalp ringworm (tinea capitis). Over the past few years radio-induced malignancies have been reported, with basal cell carcinoma predominating. We report a very rare case of a 64-year-old male with a 9.5mm Breslow thickness melanoma occurring over 50 years following irradiation. This case highlights the presence of another risk factor in the development of melanoma. With the increasing age of this irradiated population we may continue to see further evidence of the link between melanoma and skin irradiation. PMID:17467352

  20. Is UV-A radiation a cause of malignant melanoma?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The first action spectrum for cutaneous malignant melanoma was published recently. This spectrum was obtained using the fish Xiphophorus. If the same action spectrum applies to humans, the following statements are true: Sunbathing products (agents to protect against the sun) that absorb UV-B radiation provide almost no protection against cutaneous malignant melanoma. UV-A-solaria are more dangerous than expected so far. If people are determined to use artificial sources of radiation for tanning, they should choose UV-B solaria rather than UV-A-solaria. Fluorescent tubes and halogen lamps may have weak melanomagenic effects. Ozone depletion has almost no effect on the incidence rates of CMM, since ozone absorbs very little UV-A radiation. Sunbathing products which contain UV-A-absorbing compounds or neutral filter (like titanium oxide) provide real protection against cutaneous malignant melanoma, at least if they are photochemically inert. 34 refs., 2 figs

  1. Radiotherapy with BRAF inhibitor therapy for melanoma: progress and possibilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahnreich, Sebastian; Mayer, Arnulf; Loquai, Carmen; Grabbe, Stephan; Schmidberger, Heinz

    2016-01-01

    The introduction of small molecule BRAF(V600) kinase inhibitors represents a milestone in the targeted therapy of patients with metastatic melanoma by a significant increase in therapeutic efficacy in terms of overall and progression-free survival compared with conventional chemotherapy. Beside BRAF(V600) inhibitor treatment, radiotherapy is a further mainstay for the therapy of metastatic melanoma and thus a concomitant or sequential application of BRAF(V600) inhibitors and radiotherapy is inevitable. Recent reports show a significant radiosensitization of the irradiated healthy tissue in patients with melanoma after the combination of radiotherapy and BRAF(V600) inhibitors, evoking concern in clinical practice. We review interactions of BRAF(V600) inhibitors and radiation with regard to antitumor effects and an increased radiotoxicity in the healthy tissue. PMID:26616061

  2. Malignant melanoma of the vagina: a report of 2 cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ok Bae; Kim, Jin Hee; Jung, Young Yeon; Cho, Chi Heum; Choi, Tae Jin [Dongsan Medical Center, School of Medicine, Keimyung University, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-06-15

    Primary malignant melanoma of the vagina is an extremely rare genital neoplasm occurring mainly in postmenopausal women. It has a worse prognosis than cutaneous melanomas, because of the high rate of locoregional recurrences and rapid systemic dissemination. In the past, radical surgical extirpation as the primary management had been recommended to improve loco-regional control, and possibly overall survival. However, the prognosis was poor in spite of such a radical approach. Recently, more conservative treatment such as wide local excision combined with adjuvant high-dose fraction radiotherapy seems to have promising results. Primary radiation therapy could be served as an alternative to surgery for patients with lesion less than 3 cm in diameter. We report 2 cases of primary vaginal malignant melanoma treated with radiotherapy.

  3. Honokiol inhibits melanoma stem cells by targeting notch signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaushik, Gaurav; Venugopal, Anand; Ramamoorthy, Prabhu; Standing, David; Subramaniam, Dharmalingam; Umar, Shahid; Jensen, Roy A; Anant, Shrikant; Mammen, Joshua M V

    2015-12-01

    Melanoma is an aggressive disease with limited therapeutic options. Here, we determined the effects of honokiol (HNK), a biphenolic natural compound on melanoma cells and stemness. HNK significantly inhibited melanoma cell proliferation, viability, clonogenicity and induced autophagy. In addition, HNK significantly inhibited melanosphere formation in a dose dependent manner. Western blot analyses also demonstrated reduction in stem cell markers CD271, CD166, Jarid1b, and ABCB5. We next examined the effect of HNK on Notch signaling, a pathway involved in stem cell self-renewal. Four different Notch receptors exist in cells, which when cleaved by a series of enzymatic reactions catalyzed by Tumor Necrosis Factor-?-Converting Enzyme (TACE) and ?-secretase protein complex, results in the release of the Notch intracellular domain (NICD), which then translocates to the nucleus and induces target gene expression. Western blot analyses demonstrated that in HNK treated cells there is a significant reduction in the expression of cleaved Notch-2. In addition, there was a reduction in the expression of downstream target proteins, Hes-1 and cyclin D1. Moreover, HNK treatment suppressed the expression of TACE and ?-secretase complex proteins in melanoma cells. To confirm that suppression of Notch-2 activation is critical for HNK activity, we overexpressed NICD1, NICD2, and performed HNK treatment. NICD2, but not NICD1, partially restored the expression of Hes-1 and cyclin D1, and increased melanosphere formation. Taken together, these data suggest that HNK is a potent inhibitor of melanoma cells, in part, through the targeting of melanoma stem cells by suppressing Notch-2 signaling. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25491779

  4. Variants at the 9p21 locus and melanoma risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The influence of variants at the 9p21 locus on melanoma risk has been reported through investigation of CDKN2A variants through candidate gene approach as well as by genome wide association studies (GWAS). In the present study we genotyped, 25 SNPs that tag 273 variants on chromosome 9p21 in 837 melanoma cases and 1154 controls from Spain. Ten SNPs were selected based on previous associations, reported in GWAS, with either melanocytic nevi or melanoma risk or both. The other 15 SNPs were selected to fine map the CDKN2A gene region. All the 10 variants selected from the GWAS showed statistically significant association with melanoma risk. Statistically significant association with melanoma risk was also observed for the carriers of the variant T-allele of rs3088440 (540 C>T) at the 3’ UTR of CDKN2A gene with an OR 1.52 (95% CI 1.14-2.04). Interaction analysis between risk associated polymorphisms and previously genotyped MC1R variants, in the present study, did not show any statistically significant association. Statistical significant association was observed for the interaction between phototypes and the rs10811629 (located in intron 5 of MTAP). The strongest association was observed between the homozygous carrier of the A–allele and phototype II with an OR of 15.93 (95% CI 5.34-47.54). Our data confirmed the association of different variants at chromosome 9p21 with melanoma risk and we also found an association of a variant with skin phototypes

  5. FDG PET in early stage cutaneous malignant melanoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG PET) is not recommended in early stage melanoma; however, a significant number of cases are referred to our institution for FDG PET. We refer to early stage disease as American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) stage I and II, which includes all cases without metastases. A retrospective review was undertaken to determine the clinical utility of FDG PET in this patient group. A retrospective study of FDG scans on all patients presenting to the WA PET Centre with early stage melanoma over a 5½ year period was undertaken. The positivity rate of the initial study for detection of malignant melanoma was determined. In patients with an initially negative FDG PET, the time from initial diagnosis to a positive surveillance study was determined. Both the initial positivity rate and time to a positive study were correlated with Breslow staging. Three hundred twenty-two patients were included in the study, of which 74 had initial positive FDG PET scans (23%). Adequate follow-up was available in 51 patients with the PET result confirmed as true positive in 37 (positive predictive value 73%). One hundred eight of 248 patients initially negative had follow-up scans during the follow-up period, of which 48 became positive. The 73% of recurrences were over 12 months post-diagnosis. No correlation with Breslow thickness was demonstrated. Despite FDG PET not being recommended for early cutaneous malignant melanoma, 27% of melanoma cases referred for FDG PET during the study period were AJCC stage I or II. Our results suggest FDG PET in early stage melanoma demonstrates occult disease in 17% of cases.

  6. Management of primary and metastasized melanoma in Germany 1976?2005. An analysis of the Central Malignant Melanoma Registry of the German Dermatological Society.

    OpenAIRE

    Schwager, Silke

    2008-01-01

    PURPOSE: The present study analysed the changes of excision margins in correlation with tumour thickness as recorded over the last three decades in Germany. The study also evaluated surgical management in different geographical regions and treatment options for metastasized melanoma. PATIENTS AND METHODS: 42,625 patients with invasive primary cutaneous melanoma (CM), recorded by the German Central Malignant Melanoma Registry between 1976 and 2005 were included. Multiple linear regression ...

  7. Pharmacological targeting of guanosine monophosphate synthase suppresses melanoma cell invasion and tumorigenicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchi-Smiraglia, A; Wawrzyniak, J A; Bagati, A; Marvin, E K; Ackroyd, J; Moparthy, S; Bshara, W; Fink, E E; Foley, C E; Morozevich, G E; Berman, A E; Shewach, D S; Nikiforov, M A

    2015-11-01

    Malignant melanoma possesses one of the highest metastatic potentials among human cancers. Acquisition of invasive phenotypes is a prerequisite for melanoma metastases. Elucidation of the molecular mechanisms underlying melanoma invasion will greatly enhance the design of novel agents for melanoma therapeutic intervention. Here, we report that guanosine monophosphate synthase (GMPS), an enzyme required for the de novo biosynthesis of GMP, has a major role in invasion and tumorigenicity of cells derived from either BRAF(V600E) or NRAS(Q61R) human metastatic melanomas. Moreover, GMPS levels are increased in metastatic human melanoma specimens compared with primary melanomas arguing that GMPS is an attractive candidate for anti-melanoma therapy. Accordingly, for the first time we demonstrate that angustmycin A, a nucleoside-analog inhibitor of GMPS produced by Streptomyces hygroscopius efficiently suppresses melanoma cell invasion in vitro and tumorigenicity in immunocompromised mice. Our data identify GMPS as a powerful driver of melanoma cell invasion and warrant further investigation of angustmycin A as a novel anti-melanoma agent. PMID:25909885

  8. Melanoma survival is superior in females across all tumour stages but is influenced by age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khosrotehrani, Kiarash; Dasgupta, Paramita; Byrom, Lisa; Youlden, Danny R; Baade, Peter D; Green, Adele C

    2015-10-01

    Among patients with invasive melanoma, females are known to have higher survival than males globally. However, this survival advantage has not been explored in thin melanomas, the most common form of the disease. In addition, it is unclear if this advantage is true across all age groups. We aimed to compare melanoma survival between males and females by clinical stage and within age groups. Melanomas from 1995 to 2008 were extracted from the Queensland Cancer Registry and the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) Program, and melanoma-specific deaths were ascertained up to 2011. Flexible parametric survival models compared survival between groups. The Queensland cohort of 28,979 patients experienced 1712 melanoma deaths and the SEER cohort of 57,402 patients included 6929 melanoma deaths. Survival rates were in favour of females across nearly all tumour stages, including thin invasive tumours in both cohorts after adjusting for demographic and clinical factors [odds ratio (OR) death female:male for stage I melanoma = 0.64 in Queensland; and OR = 0.79 in the US, both P < 0.001]. The sex influence on survival interacted with age categories. In particular, the survival advantage was inconsistent in females with stage I melanoma aged under 60. Females with melanoma have a survival advantage over males including in stage I melanomas. However, this advantage is dependent on age at diagnosis, suggesting an underlying biological mechanism influenced by age that exists from the very early stages of the disease. PMID:26103951

  9. Cell proliferation and expression of connexins differ in melanotic and amelanotic canine oral melanomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Tarso Felipe; Gentile, Luciana Boffoni; da Silva, Tereza Cristina; Mennecier, Gregory; Chaible, Lucas Martins; Cogliati, Bruno; Roman, Marco Antonio Leon; Gioso, Marco Antonio; Dagli, Maria Lucia Zaidan

    2014-03-01

    Melanoma is a malignant neoplasm occurring in several animal species, and is the most frequently found tumor in the oral cavity in dogs. Melanomas are classified into two types: melanotic and amelanotic. Prior research suggests that human amelanotic melanomas are more aggressive than their melanotic counterparts. This study evaluates the behavior of canine melanotic and amelanotic oral cavity melanomas and quantifies cell proliferation and the expression of connexins. Twenty-five melanomas (16 melanotic and 9 amelanotic) were collected from dogs during clinical procedures at the Veterinary Hospital of the School of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Science of the University of São Paulo, Brazil. After diagnosis, dogs were followed until death or euthanasia. Histopathology confirmed the gross melanotic or amelanotic characteristics and tumors were classified according to the WHO. HMB45 or Melan A immunostainings were performed to confirm the diagnosis of amelanotic melanomas. Cell proliferation was quantified both by counting mitotic figures and PCNA positive nuclei. Expressions of connexins 26 and 43 were evaluated by immunohistochemistry, qRT-PCR and Western blot. Dogs bearing amelanotic melanomas presented a shorter lifespan in comparison to those with melanotic melanomas. Cell proliferation was significantly higher in amelanotic melanomas. Expressions of Connexins 26 and 43 were significantly reduced in amelanotic melanomas. The results presented here suggest that oral cavity melanotic and amelanotic melanomas differ regarding their behavior, cell proliferation and connexin expression in dogs, indicating a higher aggressiveness of amelanotic variants. PMID:24126842

  10. Primary malignant melanoma arising in an ovarian cystic teratoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Gorman, T; Olaitan, A

    2009-01-01

    Cystic ovarian teratomas are common tumours. Malignant melanoma developing in a teratoma, however, is an extremely rare diagnosis. A 49-year-old woman with a history of weight loss and abdominal distension was referred to UCLH. She underwent laparotomy and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy for a large right ovarian tumour. Histopathology revealed a malignant melanoma and carcinoid tumour in the right ovarian teratoma and an endometrioid adenocarcinoma in the left ovary. Subsequent vaginal hysterectomy revealed complex atypical hyperplasia in the endometrium. An extraovarian primary maelanoma could not be found. At this time the patient remains alive and well with no indication of recurrence. PMID:19317266

  11. Sentinel node biopsy for melanoma: a study of 241 patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chakera, Annette Hougaard; Drzewiecki, Krzysztof Tadeusz; Jakobsen, Annika Loft; Juhl, Birgitte Ravn

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the sentinel node biopsy (SNB) technique for melanoma using both radiocolloid and blue dye in 241 clinically N0 patients with melanomas >1.0 mm, or thinner lesions exhibiting regression/ulceration. We showed that an increase in injected radioactivity increased both the number of visualized nodes at lymphoscintigraphy and the number of SNs removed surgically. At least one SN was removed in 98% (236) of patients, and all nodes were identified with the probe. S...

  12. Combined risk factors for melanoma in a Mediterranean population

    OpenAIRE

    Landi, M T; Baccarelli, A; Calista, D.; Pesatori, A; Fears, T; Tucker, M.A.; Landi, G

    2001-01-01

    A case–control study of non-familial melanoma including 183 incident cases and 179 controls was conducted in North-Eastern Italy to identify important risk factors and determine how combination of these affects risk in a Mediterranean population. Presence of dysplastic nevi (OR = 4.2, 95% CI = 2.4–7.4), low propensity to tan (OR = 2.4, 95% CI = 1.1–5.0), light eye (OR = 2.4, 95% CI = 1.1–5.2), and light skin colour (OR = 4.1, 95% CI = 1.4–12.1) were significantly associated with melanoma risk...

  13. Xeroderma Pigmentosum with Melanoma of Face and Its Prosthetic Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xeroderma pigmentosum is a rare genetic disorder, characterized by cutaneous, ocular and neurological symptoms. Squamous cell carcinoma and melanoma are also its secondary characters. This case report is about maxillofacial prosthetic management of a 10 years old child presented with xeroderma pigmentosum. The nose of the patient was excised surgically due to melanoma. This case report elaborates the role of prosthodontist and the whole procedure of constructing the nasal prosthesis via conventional technique by using the patient's sibling nasal form as template. Regular follow up revealed marked improvement in esthetics, function and ultimately patient's quality of life. (author)

  14. Xeroderma pigmentosum with melanoma of face and its prosthetic management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadaf, Ayesha; Yazdanie, Nazia

    2013-10-01

    Xeroderma pigmentosum is a rare genetic disorder, characterized by cutaneous, ocular and neurological symptoms. Squamous cell carcinoma and melanoma are also its secondary characters. This case report is about maxillofacial prosthetic management of a 10 years old child presented with xeroderma pigmentosum. The nose of the patient was excised surgically due to melanoma. This case report elaborates the role of prosthodontist and the whole procedure of constructing the nasal prosthesis via conventional technique by using the patient's sibling nasal form as template. Regular follow up revealed marked improvement in esthetics, function and ultimately patient's quality of life. PMID:24112269

  15. Nivolumab plus ipilimumab in the treatment of advanced melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Katy K; Daud, Adil I

    2015-01-01

    Advanced melanoma has historically been a difficult disease to treat due to few effective systemic treatment options. However, over the past few years, scientific advancements in immune checkpoint inhibition have resulted in several novel approaches that have changed front-line management of advanced melanoma. Despite these exciting developments, there remains room for improvement in treatment outcomes. Combination immunotherapy, in particular combined cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated protein 4 (CTLA-4) and programmed death 1 (PD-1) blockade, represents an important first step in this direction. PMID:26518223

  16. AMELANOTIC MELANOMA WITH ATYPICAL CLINICAL PRESENTATION AND MULTIPLE METASTASIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Revathy

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available A 52 year old woman presented with a history of asymptomatic skin lesions over left leg for the past 4 months. On examination she had multiple skin coloured papules and plaques over left leg. Oedema was also seen over left leg. Histopathology and immunohistochemistry proved the diagnosis of malignant melanoma. Radiological investigation showed metastasis to lung, liver and brain. The patient was asymptomatic at the time of admission but she developed rapid metastasis within a very short span of time. This case is reported for the rare atypical presentation of malignant melanoma.

  17. Melanoma Growth and Progression After Ultraviolet A Irradiation: Impact of Lysosomal Exocytosis and Cathepsin Proteases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eding, Cecilia Bivik; Domert, Jakob; Wäster, Petra; Jerhammar, Fredrik; Rosdahl, Inger; Öllinger, Karin

    2015-10-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) irradiation is a risk factor for development of malignant melanoma. UVA-induced lysosomal exocytosis and subsequent cell growth enhancement was studied in malignant melanoma cell lines and human skin melanocytes. UVA irradiation caused plasma membrane damage that was rapidly repaired by calcium-dependent lysosomal exocytosis. Lysosomal content was released into the culture medium directly after irradiation and such conditioned media stimulated the growth of non-irradiated cell cultures. By comparing melanocytes and melanoma cells, it was found that only the melanoma cells spontaneously secreted cathepsins into the surrounding medium. Melanoma cells from a primary tumour showed pronounced invasion ability, which was prevented by addition of inhibitors of cathepsins B, D and L. Proliferation was reduced by cathepsin L inhibition in all melanoma cell lines, but did not affect melano-cyte growth. In conclusion, UVA-induced release of cathepsins outside cells may be an important factor that promotes melanoma growth and progression. PMID:25669167

  18. A Purine Nucleotide Biosynthesis Enzyme Guanosine Monophosphate Reductase Is a Suppressor of Melanoma Invasion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph A. Wawrzyniak

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Melanoma is one of the most aggressive types of human cancers, and the mechanisms underlying melanoma invasive phenotype are not completely understood. Here, we report that expression of guanosine monophosphate reductase (GMPR, an enzyme involved in de novo biosynthesis of purine nucleotides, was downregulated in the invasive stages of human melanoma. Loss- and gain-of-function experiments revealed that GMPR downregulates the amounts of several GTP-bound (active Rho-GTPases and suppresses the ability of melanoma cells to form invadopodia, degrade extracellular matrix, invade in vitro, and grow as tumor xenografts in vivo. Mechanistically, we demonstrated that GMPR partially depletes intracellular GTP pools. Pharmacological inhibition of de novo GTP biosynthesis suppressed whereas addition of exogenous guanosine increased invasion of melanoma cells as well as cells from other cancer types. Our data identify GMPR as a melanoma invasion suppressor and establish a link between guanosine metabolism and Rho-GTPase-dependent melanoma cell invasion.

  19. Mitose como fator prognóstico para biópsia de linfonodo sentinela em melanoma fino / The importance of mitosis as a factor for predicting sentinel lymph node biopsy for thin melanoma

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Renato Santos de, Oliveira Filho; Mayra Calil, Jorge; Daniel Arcuschin de, Oliveira; Renato Leão de, Oliveira; Maria do Carmo Assunção, Queiroz; Fábio Xerfan, Nahas.

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Paciente, sexo feminino, 23 anos, com melanoma extensivo superficial em dorso, Breslow 0,35 mm, Clark II, sem ulcerações e com 2 mitoses / mm². Foi submetida à ampliação de margem e biópsia de dois linfonodos sentinela (axila esquerda). O exame anatomopatológico mostrou micrometástases, no seio subc [...] apsular de ambos. Seguindo a recomendação do "American Joint Commitee on Cancer" 2009, a paciente foi submetida à linfadenectomia axilar total, sem outros linfonodos metastáticos. A aplicação da dermatoscopia vem permitindo maior precisão diagnóstica de melanoma cutâneo, contribuindo para maior proporção de melanoma fino ao diagnóstico. A taxa mitótica foi incluída como um importante fator prognóstico para melanomas finos pelo "American Joint Commitee on Cancer" 2009, sugerindo biópsia para esses pacientes Abstract in english 23-year-old female patient, with superficial spreading melanoma (SSM) on the back, Breslow 0.35 mm, Clark II, without ulceration and with 2 mitosis/mm². Patient was submitted to margin enlargement and sentinel biopsy of 2 lymph nodes (left armpit). Histopathology revealed micrometastasis in the subc [...] apsular sinus of both. Following the recommendation of the 2009 American Joint Committee on Cancer Melanoma Staging (AJCC), the patient underwent complete axillary lymphadenectomy. No other lymph nodes were metastatic. The clinical application of dermoscopy has enabled more accurate diagnosis of cutaneous melanoma, probably contributing to a greater proportion of thin melanomas at diagnosis. The mitotic rate was included as an important prognostic factor for thin melanomas by the AJCC, suggesting biopsy for these patients

  20. Bronzeamento e risco de melanoma cutâneo: revisão da literatura / Suntanning and risk of cutaneous melanoma: a literature review

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Sonia R P de, Souza; Frida M, Fischer; José M P de, Souza.

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Estudos epidemiológicos sugerem a relação entre comportamentos relacionados ao bronzeamento e risco elevado de melanoma. Nesse sentido, realizou-se revisão sobre essa temática que abrangeu o período correspondente aos anos de 1977 a 1998. Foram pesquisadas as bases de dados Medline e Embase (Excerpt [...] a Medica). A análise mostrou que entre os jovens, apesar do conhecimento sobre os riscos da exposição excessiva à radiação ultravioleta e sobre as práticas visando à proteção da pele, prevalece o hábito de expor-se intencionalmente ao sol. Esse hábito é alimentado por crenças e atitudes em relação ao bronzeado e estimulado por influência do grupo e de pessoas consideradas "referências". As práticas mais freqüentemente adotadas para bronzear a pele apresentam risco elevado para o desenvolvimento de melanoma. Conclui-se que a forma mais eficaz de prevenir o melanoma é divulgar nos meios de comunicação que a pele bronzeada não é saudável, pois foi danificada pela radiação ultravioleta solar; e iniciar campanhas com ações efetivas para mudar comportamentos, naquilo que os motiva e os alimenta. Abstract in english Epidemiological studies suggest a relationship between suntanning habits and high risk of melanoma. A literature review was carried out for the period between 1977 and 1998 using Medline and Embase (Excerpta Medica) databases. The analysis showed that intentional sun exposure is highly prevalent amo [...] ng youths, despite their awareness of the risks involved in excessive exposure to ultraviolet radiation and their knowledge on skin protection measures. Intentional exposure is a habit fostered by certain beliefs and attitudes towards suntanning and stimulated by peer pressure and aesthetic referents.The most common tanning practices involve a high risk of developing melanoma. It was concluded that the most effective means to prevent melanoma is mass media dissemination of the concept that having a tanned skin is not healthy - since it implies the skin being damaged by solar ultraviolet radiation - and education campaigns for effectively changing people's behaviors and their motivations.

  1. Intususcepción intestinal secundaria a metástasis de melanoma: Caso clínico Intestinal intussusception secondary to a metastatic melanoma: Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JUAN CARLOS CASSINA F

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available El melanoma cutáneo es uno de los cánceres extra-abdominales que más frecuentemente originan metástasis viscerales en el tracto gastrointestinal. Su presentación clínica suele ser silente e insidiosa, generalmente desapercibida, atentando contra las posibilidades terapéuticas y paliativas de este grupo de pacientes. El objetivo de este trabajo es presentar el caso clínico de un paciente tratado trece años antes de un melanoma del párpado inferior izquierdo, resecado con márgenes negativos, sin evidencias de recurrencia hasta 3 meses previo a su ingreso, en que mientras estaba en estudio por una anemia ferropriva de origen digestivo, se presenta con un íleo mecánico de intestino delgado por una intususcepción íleo-ileal secundaria a una metástasis visceral pedunculada de su melanoma. Se describe el caso, se comunican los elementos clínicos y de imágenes necesarios para su diagnóstico y se realiza una revisión de la literatura pertinente.Cutaneous melanoma is one of the extra-abdominal cancers that more commonly originates metastases in the gastrointestinal tract. We report a 63 years old male presenting with iron deficiency anemia and episodes of gastrointestinal bleeding, with a history of a melanoma of the lower eyelid excised 13 years ago, with negative surgical margins. During the follow up, the patient consulted in the emergency room for an intestinal obstruction. An abdominal CAT scan showed an ileal-ileal intussusception. The patient was operated and the involved intestinal segment was excised. The pathological study of the surgical piece disclosed a pigmented polypoid metastatic melanoma. The patient had an uneventful postoperative evolution.

  2. Intususcepción intestinal secundaria a metástasis de melanoma: Caso clínico / Intestinal intussusception secondary to a metastatic melanoma: Case report

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    JUAN CARLOS, CASSINA F; ALEJANDRA, GALLARDO S; JOSÉ RAFAEL, VALBUENA M; JORGE, MARTÍNEZ C.

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available El melanoma cutáneo es uno de los cánceres extra-abdominales que más frecuentemente originan metástasis viscerales en el tracto gastrointestinal. Su presentación clínica suele ser silente e insidiosa, generalmente desapercibida, atentando contra las posibilidades terapéuticas y paliativas de este gr [...] upo de pacientes. El objetivo de este trabajo es presentar el caso clínico de un paciente tratado trece años antes de un melanoma del párpado inferior izquierdo, resecado con márgenes negativos, sin evidencias de recurrencia hasta 3 meses previo a su ingreso, en que mientras estaba en estudio por una anemia ferropriva de origen digestivo, se presenta con un íleo mecánico de intestino delgado por una intususcepción íleo-ileal secundaria a una metástasis visceral pedunculada de su melanoma. Se describe el caso, se comunican los elementos clínicos y de imágenes necesarios para su diagnóstico y se realiza una revisión de la literatura pertinente. Abstract in english Cutaneous melanoma is one of the extra-abdominal cancers that more commonly originates metastases in the gastrointestinal tract. We report a 63 years old male presenting with iron deficiency anemia and episodes of gastrointestinal bleeding, with a history of a melanoma of the lower eyelid excised 13 [...] years ago, with negative surgical margins. During the follow up, the patient consulted in the emergency room for an intestinal obstruction. An abdominal CAT scan showed an ileal-ileal intussusception. The patient was operated and the involved intestinal segment was excised. The pathological study of the surgical piece disclosed a pigmented polypoid metastatic melanoma. The patient had an uneventful postoperative evolution.

  3. Prevalence of variations in melanoma susceptibility genes among Slovenian melanoma families

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Besic Nikola

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Two high-risk genes have been implicated in the development of CM (cutaneous melanoma. Germline mutations of the CDKN2A gene are found in CDK4 gene reported to date. Beside those high penetrance genes, certain allelic variants of the MC1R gene modify the risk of developing the disease. The aims of our study were: to determine the prevalence of germline CDKN2A mutations and variants in members of families with familial CM and in patients with multiple primary CM; to search for possible CDK4 mutations, and to determine the frequency of variations in the MC1R gene. Methods From January 2001 until January 2007, 64 individuals were included in the study. The group included 28 patients and 7 healthy relatives belonging to 25 families, 26 patients with multiple primary tumors and 3 children with CM. Additionally 54 healthy individuals were included as a control group. Mutations and variants of the melanoma susceptibility genes were identified by direct sequencing. Results Seven families with CDKN2A mutations were discovered (7/25 or 28.0%. The L94Q mutation found in one family had not been previously reported in other populations. The D84N variant, with possible biological impact, was discovered in the case of patient without family history but with multiple primary CM. Only one mutation carrier was found in the control group. Further analysis revealed that c.540C>T heterozygous carriers were more common in the group of CM patients and their healthy relatives (11/64 vs. 2/54. One p14ARF variant was discovered in the control group and no mutations of the CDK4 gene were found. Most frequently found variants of the MC1R gene were T314T, V60L, V92M, R151C, R160W and R163Q with frequencies slightly higher in the group of patients and their relatives than in the group of controls, but the difference was statistically insignificant. Conclusion The present study has shown high prevalence of p16INK4A mutations in Slovenian population of familial melanoma patients (37% and an absence of p14ARF or CDK4 mutations.

  4. CDC Signos Vitales-La prevención del melanoma (Preventing Melanoma)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-06-02

    Este podcast se basa en la edición de junio del 2015 del informe Signos Vitales de los CDC. El cáncer de piel es el tipo de cáncer más común en los Estados Unidos. En el 2011, hubo más de 65 000 casos de melanoma, el tipo de cáncer de piel más mortal. Sepa cómo todos pueden ayudar a prevenir el cáncer de piel.  Created: 6/2/2015 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 6/2/2015.

  5. Tumor em ventrículo direito em paciente com melanoma Right ventricular tumor in a patient with melanoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinícius Daudt Morais

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Os tumores primários cardíacos são infreqüentes; entretanto, as neoplasias metastáticas com acometimento do coração são mais comuns. Alguns tumores apresentam, em estudos post-mortem, implantes secundários cardíacos com freqüências que superam 50%. Esse comprometimento deve ser lembrado em pacientes com história de neoplasia, que apresentem distúrbios de condução, sopro, cardiomegalia ou arritmias. Relatar-se-á, a seguir, o caso de um homem de 39 anos, encaminhado por cansaço e dispnéia aos esforços. Ecocardiograma evidenciou grande massa tumoral em ventrículo direito. A história médica pregressa revelou antecedentes de melanoma e a avaliação complementar mostrou doença metastática para pulmões, coração e cérebro, com evolução a óbito. Os aspectos singulares do caso são a presença de uma grande massa no ventrículo direito de origem metastática, ilustrando um quadro clínico raro e de prognóstico reservado.Primary tumors of the heart are not common. However, metastatic neoplasms affecting the heart are more commonly found. Postmortem studies have shown that some tumors have reported secondary cardiac implants to be over 50%. Such involvement is to be taken into account for patients with a history of neoplasm and who present conduction disorders, murmur, cardiomegaly or arrhythmia. This is to report the case of a 39-year-old man who had been referred due to fatigue and dyspnea on effort. Echocardiogram evidence showed large tumoral mass in right ventricle. Medical history showed previous melanoma; further evaluation showed metastasis to lungs, heart and brain. Outcome was death. The uniqueness in this case relies on the large metastatic mass in right ventricle, thus illustrating a rare clinical condition of guarded prognosis.

  6. Tumor em ventrículo direito em paciente com melanoma / Right ventricular tumor in a patient with melanoma

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Vinícius Daudt, Morais; Flávio, Dalbem; Krás, Borges; Vicente, Restelli.

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Os tumores primários cardíacos são infreqüentes; entretanto, as neoplasias metastáticas com acometimento do coração são mais comuns. Alguns tumores apresentam, em estudos post-mortem, implantes secundários cardíacos com freqüências que superam 50%. Esse comprometimento deve ser lembrado em pacientes [...] com história de neoplasia, que apresentem distúrbios de condução, sopro, cardiomegalia ou arritmias. Relatar-se-á, a seguir, o caso de um homem de 39 anos, encaminhado por cansaço e dispnéia aos esforços. Ecocardiograma evidenciou grande massa tumoral em ventrículo direito. A história médica pregressa revelou antecedentes de melanoma e a avaliação complementar mostrou doença metastática para pulmões, coração e cérebro, com evolução a óbito. Os aspectos singulares do caso são a presença de uma grande massa no ventrículo direito de origem metastática, ilustrando um quadro clínico raro e de prognóstico reservado. Abstract in english Primary tumors of the heart are not common. However, metastatic neoplasms affecting the heart are more commonly found. Postmortem studies have shown that some tumors have reported secondary cardiac implants to be over 50%. Such involvement is to be taken into account for patients with a history of n [...] eoplasm and who present conduction disorders, murmur, cardiomegaly or arrhythmia. This is to report the case of a 39-year-old man who had been referred due to fatigue and dyspnea on effort. Echocardiogram evidence showed large tumoral mass in right ventricle. Medical history showed previous melanoma; further evaluation showed metastasis to lungs, heart and brain. Outcome was death. The uniqueness in this case relies on the large metastatic mass in right ventricle, thus illustrating a rare clinical condition of guarded prognosis.

  7. PET/TC de cuerpo completo para la detección de metástasis de melanoma coroideo / Whole body PET/CT imaging for detection of metastatic choroidal melanoma

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    N.A., Rodríguez-Marco; C., Caicedo-Zamudio; S., Solanas-Álava; I., Gil-Arnaiz; A., Córdoba-Iturriagagoitia; J., Andonegui-Navarro.

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available El melanoma coroideo es el tumor maligno ocular primario más frecuente en los adultos y las metástasis más frecuentes son a nivel hepático con un mal pronóstico a pesar de los tratamientos. Estas metástasis se han descrito hasta en el 50 % de los melanomas coroideos. Estudios recientes muestran que [...] la ecografía hepática y las analíticas hepáticas tienen baja sensibilidad en el diagnóstico de las metástasis hepáticas de los melanomas de úvea. Exponemos el caso de un paciente con historia de melanoma coroideo. La exploración preoperatoria, incluyendo TC de abdomen, analítica sanguínea y enzimas hepáticos resultó normal. En un PET/TC realizado mostró lesiones en el hígado y pulmones. El PET/TC de cuerpo entero mostró metástasis de un melanoma uveal. El PET/TC es una herramienta útil para la detección de las metástasis hepáticas y extrahepáticas. Abstract in english Choroidal melanoma is the most common primary intraocular cancer in adults. Metastases are most commonly found in the liver and are rapidly fatal despite aggressive therapy. These metastases have been reported in the follow-up to 50 % of uveal melanoma. However, recent reports have shown that liver [...] ultrasonography and liver function tests have low sensitivity in the diagnosis of metastatic uveal melanoma. The study reports on a patient with a history of choroidal melanoma. Preoperative medical evaluation, including CT imaging of the abdomen, complete blood count and liver enzymes proved negative. A PET/CT was requested and showed lesions in the liver and lungs. Whole-body PET/CT revealed melanoma metastases. The PET/CT is a sensitive tool for the detection and localization of hepatic and extrahepatic metastatic choroidal melanoma.

  8. Primary pulmonary malignant melanoma: a clinicopathologic study of two cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gong Li

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Malignant melanoma involving the respiratory tract is nearly always metastatic in origin, and primary tumors are very rare. To our knowledge, about 30 cases have been reported in the English literature, one of which involved multiple brain metastases. Here, we report two cases of primary pulmonary malignant melanoma. The first case, which occurred in a 52-year-old Chinese female patient who died 4 months after the initial diagnosis, involved rapid intrapulmonary and intracranial metastases. The second patient, a 65-year-old female, underwent surgical excision, and clinical examination, histopathological characteristics, and immunohistochemical features supported the diagnosis of pulmonary malignant melanoma. No evidence for recurrence and/or metastasis has been found more than one year after the initial surgery. To establish the diagnosis of primary pulmonary malignant melanoma, any extrapulmonary origin must be excluded by detailed examination. Moreover, the tumor should be removed surgically whether it occurs as a single lesion or multiple lesions. Virtual slide The virtual slide(s for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/1480477335765055.

  9. Radiation therapy for skin melanoma against a background of chemotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It was shown that intensive pre-operative radiation therapy for primary melanoma improved the treatment outcome owing to a long local treatment as well as did not complicate surgery and did not elevate the frequency of post-operative complications

  10. [New viewpoints on the prognostic index in malignant melanomas].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, D; Hundeiker, M

    1985-02-01

    Investigation of anamnestic development, Tumor types, levels of invasion (Clark), tumor thickness (Breslow), mitotic index (Schmoeckel and Braun-Falco) in 407 (without lentigo maligna and preinvasive superficial spreading melanoma 317) cases revealed an interdependence between thickness and mitotic index. This is a theoretical argument against the "prognostic index" as a product of both these parameters. PMID:3993143

  11. Radioimmunodetection of human melanoma tumor xenografts with human monoclonal antibodies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A human IgM monoclonal antibody has been established that defines a tumor-associated membrane antigen expressed on human melanoma cells. The antigen has been identified as the ganglioside GD2. In this paper, the authors describe the potential usefulness of the human monoclonal antibody for radioimaging. Nude mice bearing tumors derived from a human melanoma cell line were used as a model. Antibody activity was degradated significantly after labeling with 131I by the use of a modified chloramine-T method. After testing various concentrations, labeled antibody of a specific activity of 2.8?Ci/?g produced the best results. Balb/c nude mice bearing a GD2-positive M14 melanoma cell line were injected with 10-30?g of labeled antibody, and its radiolocalization in different organs and in the whole body were evaluated. The best tumor image was obtained on Day 6. The labeled antibody uptake ratio between tumor and muscle was 9.2:1; the ratio between tumor and liver was 1.4:1. These studies represent the first report of experimental tumor imaging with human monoclonal antibody. Human monoclonals will probably prove to be superior reagents for tumor imaging in melanoma patients if the problem of anti-body radiolysis is resolved. (author)

  12. Congenital Melanocytic Nevi with Primary Cerebral Melanoma: A Rarity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Chen

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available A16-year-old male was admitted in hospital because of frontal and temporal melanoma. There were congenital giant nevi on his back and head. Positron emission computed tomography revealed no extra-cranial primary lesion. He underwent surgery, whole-brain radiotherapy (WBRT, and chemotherapy; but he could not be saved and died 6 months after establishing diagnosis.

  13. Common Genetic Risk for Melanoma Encourages Preventive Behavior Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lori Diseati

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available There is currently great interest in using genetic risk estimates for common disease in personalized healthcare. Here we assess melanoma risk-related preventive behavioral change in the context of the Coriell Personalized Medicine Collaborative (CPMC. As part of on-going reporting activities within the project, participants received a personalized risk assessment including information related to their own self-reported family history of melanoma and a genetic risk variant showing a moderate effect size (1.7, 3.0 respectively for heterozygous and homozygous individuals. Participants who opted to view their report were sent an optional outcome survey assessing risk perception and behavioral change in the months that followed. Participants that report family history risk, genetic risk, or both risk factors for melanoma were significantly more likely to increase skin cancer preventive behaviors when compared to participants with neither risk factor (ORs = 2.04, 2.79, 4.06 and p-values = 0.02, 2.86 × 10?5, 4.67 × 10?5, respectively, and we found the relationship between risk information and behavior to be partially mediated by anxiety. Genomic risk assessments appear to encourage positive behavioral change in a manner that is complementary to family history risk information and therefore may represent a useful addition to standard of care for melanoma prevention.

  14. Baerveldt implant for secondary glaucoma due to iris melanoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annelie N Tan

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Annelie N Tan1, Juliette GMM Hoevenaars1, Carroll AB Webers1, Bertil Damato2, Henny JM Beckers11University Eye Clinic, Maastricht, The Netherlands; 2Ocular Oncology Service Royal Liverpool University Hospital, Liverpool, United KingdomBackground: Proton beam therapy (PBT is effective in the treatment of iris melanoma. Reported complications after PBT are radiation-induced cataract and raised intraocular pressure (IOP. Filtering glaucoma surgery has generally been avoided because of fears of seeding.Case report: A 37-year-old man presented with a self-discovered, pigmented lesion on his right iris. Four years later, the pigmented lesion was diagnosed as an iris melanoma, because of documented growth. The patient was treated with PBT but developed secondary glaucoma one month later. The IOP could not be controlled despite maximal medical therapy and selective laser trabeculoplasty (SLT. Finally, Baerveldt implant surgery was performed, resulting in an IOP lowering to 10 mmHg and stabilization of the glaucomatous visual field loss.Conclusion: Our case demonstrates that Baerveldt implant surgery is a reasonable therapy for glaucoma following successful radiotherapy of iris melanoma.Keywords: iris melanoma, proton beam therapy, secondary glaucoma, Baerveldt implant surgery

  15. What's New in Research and Treatment of Melanoma Skin Cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... sun and from man-made sources such as tanning beds) and about how easy it can be to protect your skin against too much UV radiation. Melanoma can often be detected early , when it is most likely to be cured. Monthly skin self-exams and awareness of the warning signs of ...

  16. [Melanoma of female distal urethra: apropos of a case].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanz Velez, J I; Esclarin Duny, M A; Abad Roger, J; Abascal Agorreta, M; Vera Alvarez, J

    1989-01-01

    A case is presented of melanoma located at the distal urethra in a 74-year-old patient who underwent local surgery. At present the survival rate is 5 years and local relapse and metastases of one inguinal ganglion has been observed. The different clinical, diagnostic and therapeutic aspects of this neoplasia are discussed. PMID:2711910

  17. Microwave applicator for hyperthermia treatment on in vivo melanoma model.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Togni, P.; Vrba, J.; Vannucci, Luca

    2010-01-01

    Ro?. 48, ?. 3 (2010), s. 285-292. ISSN 0140-0118 R&D Projects: GA AV ?R(CZ) IAA500200510 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : Melanoma in vivo model * Superficial hyperthermia * Microwave applicator Subject RIV: EC - Immunology Impact factor: 1.791, year: 2010

  18. Immunological response in the mouse melanoma model after local hyperthemia.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kubeš, J.; Svoboda, Jan; Rosina, J.; Starec, M.; Fišerová, Anna

    2008-01-01

    Ro?. 57, ?. 3 (2008), s. 459-465. ISSN 0862-8408 R&D Projects: GA AV ?R IAA5020403; GA AV ?R IAA500200620 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : local hyperthermia * melanoma * monocytes Subject RIV: EC - Immunology Impact factor: 1.653, year: 2008

  19. Primary gastric melanoma: case report of a rare malignancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Augustyn

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available We report the case of a 64-year-old white male who presented to his primary care physician with complaints of fatigue. Physical exam was unremarkable and laboratory studies revealed profound anemia, for which the patient received a transfusion. Esophagogastroduodenoscopy revealed a bleeding mass in the proximal stomach that was histologically determined to be malignant melanoma, with immunohistochemical staining demonstrating positivity for SOX10, S100, MART-1, and HMG-45. After an extensive dermatological exam no other primary lesion was identified. Whole body positron emission tomography (18-FDG-PET/CT demonstrated pathologic uptake only in the area of the proximal stomach. For this reason, primary gastric melanoma was suspected in this patient. The patient underwent subtotal gastrectomy with mass excision followed by Roux-en-Y reconstruction. Very few cases of primary gastric melanoma have been reported. We report this case and present diagnostic criteria for primary non-cutaneous melanoma and discuss potential non-surgical therapies.

  20. Ultraviolet radiation--induced malignant melanoma in Monodelphis domestica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ley, R D; Applegate, L A; Padilla, R S; Stuart, T D

    1989-07-01

    Several lines of evidence support the hypothesis that ultraviolet radiation (UVR) is involved in the etiology of cutaneous melanoma in humans. However, progress in understanding the mechanisms involved in induction of melanotic tumors by UVR has been hindered by lack of a suitable animal model. During the course of multiple exposures (3 times/wk for 70 wk) of the South American opossum, Monodelphis domestica, to UVR, we first observed the appearance of areas of dermal melanocytic hyperplasia (MH) on the exposed skin. Post-UVR exposure to photoreactivating light (320-500 nm) suppressed the occurrence of MH. We also observed at 100 weeks from first exposure that 10 of 46 surviving animals had developed melanotic tumors which arose, presumably, from areas of MH. Tumors on three of the 10 animals have been classified as malignant melanomas based on metastasis to lymph nodes. We conclude from these results that UVR can act as a complete carcinogen for melanoma induction and, based on the photoreactivation of MH induction, that DNA damage is involved in melanoma formation. PMID:2762379

  1. Prognosis of thin cutaneous head and neck melanoma (

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, A P; DahlstrØm, Karin Kjærgaard

    1996-01-01

    Thin malignant melanomas, i.e. tumours less than 1 mm, are generally considered to have a good prognosis. The records of 148 patients with thin invasive melanomas located to the head and neck region were reviewed. All patients were followed for the excision of the primary tumour until death, or the closing date of this study (31 December 1989). Follow-up was median 9.6 years, (range: 3 months to 26.5 years). Increasing tumour thickness led to an increasing number of recurrences. However, there was no statistically significant difference in the length of recurrence-free survival or total survival between patients with tumours less than 0.76 mm and patients with tumours measuring between 0.76 mm and 0.99 mm (P>0.08). Tumours located in the scalp, neck and ears did relapse more often than tumours located to the face (P or = 2.0 cm (P>0.29). Sixteen of the patients (11%) developed recurrences, 12 of these 16 patients (75%) died of disseminated melanoma. We conclude that thin head and neck melanomas do not necessarily carry an excellent prognosis. Prognosis is not dependent upon tumour thickness when less than 1.00 mm.

  2. Subungual malignant melanoma – re-learning the lesson

    OpenAIRE

    Amin, Kavit; Edmonds, Katy; Fleming, Andrew; Powell, Barry

    2011-01-01

    The authors present two patients referred by colleagues after traumatic hand injury. However, upon closer inspection, both patients had pigmented lesions under the nail bed, which upon biopsy showed proven subungual malignant melanoma. The authors wish to emphasise the importance of this diagnosis, especially in emergency care.

  3. Pelvis metastasis from primary choroidal melanoma: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiong Y

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Yan Xiong, Yun Lang, Chongqi Tu, Hong Duan Department of Orthopedics, West China Hospital, Sichuan University, Chengdu, People's Republic of China Abstract: The patient, a 16-year-old girl, was admitted to our hospital with complaints of right hip pain and claudication. Her past medical history indicated that 2 years earlier she had undergone enucleation of her left eye for a primary choroidal melanoma. Imaging studies revealed a osteolytic destruction with soft tissue mass involving the right hemipelvis (zone I–II. Single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT and positron emission tomography–computed tomography (PET–CT showed no other sites of metastases. Consequently, the patient underwent hemipelvic prosthesis reconstruction after tumor resection. Postoperative pathological diagnosis was metastatic malignant melanoma. Thirty months after treatment, imaging studies indicated no evidence of recurrence, and functional recovery was excellent. To our knowledge, the literature does not reveal any previously reported cases of ocular choroidal melanoma that metastasized to pelvis, meanwhile was carried out hemipelvic prosthesis reconstruction after pelvic tumor resection. Keywords: melanoma, metastasis, pelvis, tumor, reconstruction

  4. Metal isotopes used as radioactive indicators of ocular melanoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We studied radioactive metal compounds to determine their localization in malignant Greene melanoma in the eye of the Syrian golden hamsters. Scintigraphy of an ocular melanoma was achieved with several radioactive metals: radioactive (111In)-bleomycin, radioactive gallium (67Ga)-citrate, and radioactive lead (203Pb)-tris. The 111In-bleomycin had the highest tumor uptake (5.45% dose/g), but not the highest tumor-to-background ratios. The 67Ga-citrate had a maximum tumor uptake of 4.87% dose/g at 48 hours. The 111In-chloride had a melanoma uptake of 2.26% dose/g, while with 203Pb-tris the uptake was 1.61% dose/g. These uptake ratios compare favorably with that of radioactive phosphorus (32P) - 2.21% dose/g. Noninvasive localization of malignant melanoma in the eye was accomplished with metal isotopes. Detailed analysis of in vitro uptake data by tumor and background tissues revealed the optimum time for scanning and precluded unnecessary trials

  5. Antiangiogenic Metargidin Peptide (AMEP) Gene Therapy in Disseminated Melanoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spanggaard, Iben; Gehl, Julie

    2015-01-01

    Gene delivery by electroporation is an efficient method for transfecting genes into various tissues including tumors. Here we present the treatment protocol used in a phase 1 study on gene electrotransfer of plasmid DNA encoding an antiangiogenic peptide into cutaneous melanoma.

  6. Photoacoustic imaging of single circulating melanoma cells in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lidai; Yao, Junjie; Zhang, Ruiying; Xu, Song; Li, Guo; Zou, Jun; Wang, Lihong V.

    2015-03-01

    Melanoma, one of the most common types of skin cancer, has a high mortality rate, mainly due to a high propensity for tumor metastasis. The presence of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) is a potential predictor for metastasis. Label-free imaging of single circulating melanoma cells in vivo provides rich information on tumor progress. Here we present photoacoustic microscopy of single melanoma cells in living animals. We used a fast-scanning optical-resolution photoacoustic microscope to image the microvasculature in mouse ears. The imaging system has sub-cellular spatial resolution and works in reflection mode. A fast-scanning mirror allows the system to acquire fast volumetric images over a large field of view. A 500-kHz pulsed laser was used to image blood and CTCs. Single circulating melanoma cells were imaged in both capillaries and trunk vessels in living animals. These high-resolution images may be used in early detection of CTCs with potentially high sensitivity. In addition, this technique enables in vivo study of tumor cell extravasation from a primary tumor, which addresses an urgent pre-clinical need.

  7. Engineering melanoma progression in a humanized environment in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiowski, Gregor; Biedermann, Thomas; Widmer, Daniel S; Civenni, Gianluca; Burger, Charlotte; Dummer, Reinhard; Sommer, Lukas; Reichmann, Ernst

    2012-01-01

    To overcome the lack of effective therapeutics for aggressive melanoma, new research models closely resembling the human disease are required. Here we report the development of a fully orthotopic, humanized in vivo model for melanoma, faithfully recapitulating human disease initiation and progression. To this end, human melanoma cells were seeded into engineered human dermo-epidermal skin substitutes. Transplantation onto the back of immunocompromised rats consistently resulted in the development of melanoma, displaying the hallmarks of their parental tumors. Importantly, all initial steps of disease progression were recapitulated, including the incorporation of the tumor cells into their physiological microenvironment, transition of radial to vertical growth, and establishment of highly vascularized, aggressive tumors with dermal involvement. Because all cellular components can be individually accessed using this approach, it allows manipulation of the tumor cells, as well as of the keratinocyte and stromal cell populations. Therefore, in one defined model system, tumor cell-autonomous and non-autonomous pathways regulating human disease progression can be investigated in a humanized, clinically relevant context. PMID:21881586

  8. Spontaneous regression of metastases from malignant melanoma: a case report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kalialis, Louise V; Drzewiecki, Krzysztof T

    2008-01-01

    A case of a 61-year-old male with widespread metastatic melanoma is presented 5 years after complete spontaneous cure. Spontaneous regression occurred in cutaneous, pulmonary, hepatic and cerebral metastases. A review of the literature reveals seven cases of regression of cerebral metastases; this report is the first to document complete spontaneous regression of cerebral metastases from malignant melanoma by means of computed tomography scans. Spontaneous regression is defined as the partial or complete disappearance of a malignant tumour in the absence of all treatment or in the presence of therapy, which is considered inadequate to exert a significant influence on neoplastic disease. The incidence of spontaneous regression of metastases from malignant melanoma is approximately one per 400 patients, and possible mechanisms include immunologic, endocrine, inflammatory and tumour nutritional factors. Our patient engaged in alternative therapies and was taking a number of different dietary supplements, none ofwhich can be medically recommended, but the combination of which possibly strengthened the immune system and thereby the host defense against the melanoma metastases.

  9. Epigenetic impacts of ascorbate on human metastatic melanoma cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ChristianBusch

    2014-08-01

    FACS cell cycle analyses showed that 8 mM ascorbate shifted BLM melanoma cells towards the sub-G1 fraction starting at 12 h after an initial primary G2/M arrest, indicative for secondary apoptosis induction. In pharmacological doses ascorbate inhibited the DNMT-activity in nuclear extracts of MeWo and BLM melanoma cells, but did not inhibit human HDAC enzymes of classes I, II and IV. The expression of 151 microRNAs was altered 12 h after ascorbate treatment of BLM cells in physiological or pharmacological doses. Pharmacological doses up-regulated 32 microRNAs (?4-fold mainly involved in tumor suppression and drug resistance in our preliminary microRNA screening array. The most prominently up-regulated microRNAs correlated with a significantly increased overall survival of breast cancer- or nasopharyngeal carcinoma patients of the MIRUMIR database with high expression of the respective microRNA. Our results suggest a possible epigenetic signature of pharmacological doses of ascorbate in human melanoma cells and support further pre-clinical and possibly even clinical evaluation of ascorbate for melanoma therapy.

  10. The antigen specific composition of melanoma tumor infiltrating lymphocytes?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hadrup, Sine Reker

    2012-01-01

    Large numbers of tumor associated antigens has been characterized, but only a minor fraction of these are recognized by tumor infiltrating lymphocytes of melanoma, although these have shown the ability to recognize tumor and provide tumor regression upon adoptive transfer. Thus the peptide recognition of the majority of the CD8 tumor infiltrating lymphocytes remains to be identified.

  11. Awareness and early detection of cutaneous melanoma: an analysis of factors related to delay in treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blum, A; Brand, C U; Ellwanger, U; Schlagenhauff, B; Stroebel, W; Rassner, G; Garbe, C

    1999-11-01

    Factors associated with the detection of cutaneous melanomas and reasons for delay in diagnosis were investigated in 429 patients with histologically proven melanoma operated on between January 1993 and June 1996. Patients were interviewed using a standardized questionnaire. In 25% of patients, treatment was delayed for more than 1 year from the time they first noticed a suspicious pigmented lesion. Melanoma was detected by the patients themselves in 67% of women and 45% of men. The three predominant clinical symptoms of melanoma were change in colour (darker), increase in size and increase in elevation of a pigmented lesion. The role of sun exposure and of naevi as risk factors for melanoma, as well as the potential benefit of early treatment, were known by 87%, 66% and 82% of the patients, respectively. However, melanoma awareness had no impact on the time period between first observation of skin changes and treatment. Among the factors associated with delay in melanoma diagnosis, an initial incorrect diagnosis as a benign lesion by the physician first visited (in 18% of all cases) had the highest significance. Patients detecting their lesions themselves were treated significantly later than patients in whom others had remarked on changes in a naevus. Furthermore, melanomas of the head and neck were treated later than melanomas at other body sites. Further efforts to educate both the public and the medical profession are essential to ensure earlier treatment for cutaneous melanomas. PMID:10583157

  12. Extent and consequences of physician delay in the diagnosis of acral melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzger, S; Ellwanger, U; Stroebel, W; Schiebel, U; Rassner, G; Fierlbeck, G

    1998-04-01

    The extent and consequences of professional delay in diagnosis were analysed in 83 patients with palmoplantar and subungual melanomas treated from January 1986 to March 1997 in our department. Seventeen (52%) out of 33 subungual melanomas and 10 (20%) out of 50 palmoplantar melanomas were clinically misdiagnosed by physicians. Three palmoplantar melanomas (6%) were initially misinterpreted by pathologists. In 23 of the 27 cases (85%) the clinical misdiagnosis was made by non-dermatologists. Misdiagnosis caused a median delay of 12 months in the diagnosis of palmoplantar melanomas and 18 months in the diagnosis of subungual melanomas. Delay in diagnosis was associated with increased tumour thickness, more advanced stage at time of melanoma diagnosis and a lower estimated 5-year survival rate (15.4% versus 68.9% for palmoplantar; 68.5% versus 90.9% for subungual). Acral melanomas are frequently misdiagnosed due to their less common locations and because plantar and subungual melanomas often do not fit the 'changing mole' pattern. To Improve the patient's prognosis it is necessary to increase the physicians' skill in the diagnosis of acral melanomas. Histological examination should always be performed in acral lesions that do not heal. PMID:9610874

  13. Differential PAX3 functions in normal skin melanocytes and melanoma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ? PAX3 retains embryonic roles in adult melanocytes and melanoma cells. ? Promotes 'stem' cell-like phenotype via NES and SOX9 in both cells types. ? Regulates melanoma and melanocyte migration through MCAM and CSPG4. ? PAX3 regulates melanoma but not melanocyte proliferation via TPD52. ? Regulates melanoma cell (but not melanocyte) survival via BCL2L1 and PTEN. -- Abstract: The PAX3 transcription factor is the key regulator of melanocyte development during embryogenesis and is also frequently found in melanoma cells. While PAX3 is known to regulate melanocyte differentiation, survival, proliferation and migration during development, it is not clear if its function is maintained in adult melanocytes and melanoma cells. To clarify this we have assessed which genes are targeted by PAX3 in these cells. We show here that similar to its roles in development, PAX3 regulates complex differentiation networks in both melanoma cells and melanocytes, in order to maintain cells as 'stem' cell-like (via NES and SOX9). We show also that mediators of migration (MCAM and CSPG4) are common to both cell types but more so in melanoma cells. By contrast, PAX3-mediated regulation of melanoma cell proliferation (through TPD52) and survival (via BCL2L1 and PTEN) differs from that in melanocytes. These results suggest that by controlling cell proliferation, survival and migration as well as maintaining a less differentiated 'stem' cell like phenotype, PAX3 may contribute to melanoma development and progression.

  14. Endogenous PGE(2) induces MCP-1 expression via EP4/p38 MAPK signaling in melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Mingrui; Wang, Yuxin; Han, Sihuan; Guo, Shu; Xu, Nan; Guo, Jiayan

    2013-02-01

    It has been demonstrated that cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) is expressed in melanoma tissues and prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) is produced by melanoma cells in vitro. However, the roles of COX-2/PGE(2) in melanoma are largely unknown. In the present study, we set out to analyze the correlation of endogenous PGE(2) with the expression of macrophage chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) and to identify the signaling pathway involved. It was found that MCP-1 mRNA was heterogeneously expressed in 18 melanoma tissue specimens, and the levels of MCP-1 mRNA were positively correlated with those of COX-2 mRNA. Inhibition of endogenous PGE(2) production by a COX-2 inhibitor, COX-2 siRNA or an NF?B inhibitor suppressed MCP-1 expression, whereas treatment with TNF-? (to stimulate endogenous PGE(2) production) or exogenous PGE(2) enhanced MCP-1 expression in melanoma cells. Both the EP4 antagonist and the p38 MAPK inhibitor reduced MCP-1 production in melanoma cells, and abrogated the increased MCP-1 secretion induced by TNF-? or exogenous PGE(2). Conditioned medium from melanoma cells promoted macrophage migration, which was blocked by inhibitors of the PGE(2)/EP4/p38 MAPK signaling pathway. These results indicate that endogenous PGE(2) induces MCP-1 expression via EP4/p38 MAPK signaling in an autocrinal manner in melanoma, and melanoma cell-derived PGE(2) may be involved in macrophage recruitment in the melanoma microenvironment. PMID:23420676

  15. Melanoma maligno gastrointestinal en paciente albino: a propósito de un caso

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    A., Navarro Ballester; S., de Lázaro de Molina; A.J., Cano Marquina; J.H., García-Vila.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Los albinos tienen predisposición al padecimiento de determinados tipos de cáncer cutáneo, pero el melanoma no es común. Entre los pocos artículos que documentan su aparición en estos pacientes, la afección gastrointestinal por melanoma aparece con relativa frecuencia, ya sea en forma de tumor prima [...] rio o metástasis. Se presenta el caso de una paciente mujer de 70 años con una lesión gástrica y otra intestinal, detectadas mediante tomografía computada. El estudio anatomopatológico fue compatible con el diagnóstico de melanoma amelanótico. Pese a su escasa incidencia en albinos, el melanoma es una opción que no puede descartarse. Es importante, además, revisar los diferentes componentes del tracto gastrointestinal ante la existencia (o no) de un melanoma primario conocido. Abstract in english Albinos are predisposed to suffer certain types of skin cancer, but not usually melanoma, with just a few reports documenting it .Gastrointestinal tract is a relatively frequent site of melanoma occurrence, weather as a primary tumour or metastasis. We report a case of a 70 year-old female patient w [...] ho underwent a computed tomography where a gastric and a bowel tumor were found. The pathology study was compatible with the diagnosis of an amelanotic melanoma. Despite that the diagnosis of melanoma in albine patients is a rare finding, it must be considered. It is also important to search through the digestive system even if there is no primary melanoma known.

  16. Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy in Head and Neck Melanoma: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Corsten

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of melanoma in the United States continues to rise. Head and neck melanomas comprise approximately 20% of all primary cutaneous melanomas. Sentinel lymph node (SLN biopsy (SLNB has become the standard of care for staging in melanoma. It has a number of advantages, including the addition of prognostic information, accurate staging, and the potential to add completion lymph node dissection (CLND or adjuvant therapy when indicated. Furthermore, it may allow for the identification of patients who would benefit from inclusion in clinical trials; this advantage may be amplified based on the introduction of novel targeted therapies. SLNB does have some disadvantages in head and neck melanomas. The complex lymphatic drainage and anatomy of the head and neck can result in some technical challenges. SLN positivity rates in head and neck melanoma are lower than for trunk or extremity melanoma; despite this, overall and disease free survival rates are lower in head and neck melanoma. This review examines the literature evidence for the efficacy of SLNB in head and neck melanoma, and in particular attempts to estimate five variables: the likelihood of finding a SLN, the number of SLNs found, the likelihood of a positive SLN, the likelihood of identifying positive non-sentinel lymph nodes on CLND, and the likelihood of recurrence in the neck despite a negative SLNB. Overall, despite the technical challenges inherent in SLNB when applied to head and neck melanoma, it remains a technically feasible and effective procedure in this anatomic site.

  17. Late side effects of Ruthenium 106 therapy for uveal melanomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    When effectiveness is evaluated in brachytherapy with Ruthenium 106 special emphasis has to be put on tumor destruction and late side effects responsible for the definite functional results. We evaluated the late side effects of 22 uveal melanomas, which had been treated with 106 Ruthenium plaques. The tumor prominences ranged from 3 to 10 mm, the diameter from 4 to 9 disc diameters. In 4 patients the tumor involved the posterior pole, 14 melanomas were located in the midperiphery of the fundus, 4 tumors were ciliary body melanomas. The total radiation dose of the apex ranged from 100 to 240 Gy with a corresponding dose to the sclera between 540 to 1000 Gy. Because of the short half life of the plaque we have been using different dose rates (1.6-11 Gy/h). In 17/22 eyes adequate regression could be achieved by Ruthenium therapy alone. In one case additional laser treatment of the macular part of the melanoma had to be performed, Gamma Knife therapy was necessary in another melanoma with 10 mm tumor prominence. 3 recurrences led to enucleation. The mean follow up was 4.8 years ranging from 1 to 7 years. In 2/22 patients opticopathy caused severe visual impairment, in another 2 patients radiation maculopathy and opticopathy was observed. 7/22 developed vasculopathy with neovascularization treated by photocoagulation. In one case of focal radiation maculopathy laser treatment could prevent further visual impairment. The following factors are responsible for a higher incidence of late side effects: 1. High dose rate of the plaques in combination with a high radiation dose to the sclera 2. Location of the tumor within a minimum distance of 2 disc diameters to the optic nerve or macula 3. Tumor location at the ciliary body Laser treatment in case of neovascularization and focal radiation maculopathy is the only effective treatment with regard to late side effects. Ischemic maculopathy and radiation opticopathy are responsible for late visual impairment. (authors)

  18. Abdome agudo como manifestação inicial de melanoma metastático: relato de caso / Acute abdomen as initial manifestation of metastatic melanoma

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Marcos Aurélio Pessoa, Barros; Nathalia Siqueira Robert de, Castro; Thiago Camelo, Mourão.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available [...] Abstract in english The malignant melanoma is a relatively common neoplasia, with origin generally in the melanocytics cells in the skin, but with presentation of other possible primary lesions, being presented in this, a case witnessed of liver and mesentery metastases with unknown primary sites. [...

  19. Immunohistochemical Analysis of Collagen IV and Laminin Expression in Spontaneous Melanoma Regression in the Melanoma-Bearing Libechov Minipig.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Plánská, Daniela; Burocziová, Monika; Strnádel, Ján; Horák, Vratislav

    2015-01-01

    Ro?. 48, ?. 1 (2015), s. 15-26. ISSN 0044-5991 R&D Projects: GA MŠk ED2.1.00/03.0124 Institutional support: RVO:67985904 Keywords : collagen IV * laminin * MeLiM * porcine melanoma * spontaneous regression Impact factor: 1.393, year: 2014

  20. Evidências obtidas de um caso de melanoma de íris recidivado Evidences from a case of recurrent iris melanoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana de Lucena Martins Ferreira

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available O artigo apresenta uma análise histológica de um caso de melanoma recidivado de íris após sete meses da iridociclectomia, em uma paciente de 45 anos. Após enucleação, o exame histopatológico do globo ocular demonstrou a persistência de um pequeno fragmento do tumor no coto da íris remanescente, evoluindo para recorrência da neoplasia. O caso traz dados para uma discussão sobre a cirurgia conservadora de melanomas oculares, visando uma postura analítica dentro do espírito da Medicina Baseada em Evidência. Um caso raro, com documentação apenas do ponto de vista histopatológico, que motiva a utilização destes achados na discussão do assunto. A não contiguidade do que restou do tumor com as tumorações da recidiva fala em favor da disseminação e proliferação de células neoplásicas nas cirurgias conservadoras.The article presents a histologic study of a rare recurrent iris melanoma seven months after iridocyclectomy, in a 45-year-old female patient. After enucleation, the histopathological examination of the ocular globe demonstrated the persistence of a small tumor fragment in iridectomy stump, developing the neoplasia recurrence. The case brings data for a discussion about the conservative surgery of ocular melanomas and an analytical position of Evidence Based Medicine. A rare case, with documentation only histopathologic, motivates the use of this finding into the subject matter. The distance of what remained from the tumor with the recurrent tumors reinforces the dissemination and proliferation of neoplastic cells in the conservative surgeries.

  1. Evidências obtidas de um caso de melanoma de íris recidivado / Evidences from a case of recurrent iris melanoma

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Juliana de Lucena Martins, Ferreira; Márjorie Sabino Façanha Barreto, Rolim; Cícero Narciso Moreira, Leite; Fernando Queiroz, Monte; Marineuza Rocha, Memória.

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available O artigo apresenta uma análise histológica de um caso de melanoma recidivado de íris após sete meses da iridociclectomia, em uma paciente de 45 anos. Após enucleação, o exame histopatológico do globo ocular demonstrou a persistência de um pequeno fragmento do tumor no coto da íris remanescente, evol [...] uindo para recorrência da neoplasia. O caso traz dados para uma discussão sobre a cirurgia conservadora de melanomas oculares, visando uma postura analítica dentro do espírito da Medicina Baseada em Evidência. Um caso raro, com documentação apenas do ponto de vista histopatológico, que motiva a utilização destes achados na discussão do assunto. A não contiguidade do que restou do tumor com as tumorações da recidiva fala em favor da disseminação e proliferação de células neoplásicas nas cirurgias conservadoras. Abstract in english The article presents a histologic study of a rare recurrent iris melanoma seven months after iridocyclectomy, in a 45-year-old female patient. After enucleation, the histopathological examination of the ocular globe demonstrated the persistence of a small tumor fragment in iridectomy stump, developi [...] ng the neoplasia recurrence. The case brings data for a discussion about the conservative surgery of ocular melanomas and an analytical position of Evidence Based Medicine. A rare case, with documentation only histopathologic, motivates the use of this finding into the subject matter. The distance of what remained from the tumor with the recurrent tumors reinforces the dissemination and proliferation of neoplastic cells in the conservative surgeries.

  2. A melanoma risk score in a Brazilian population Um escore de risco para melanoma em uma população brasileira

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucio Bakos

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Important risk factors for cutaneous melanoma (CM are recognized, but standardized scores for individual assessment must still be developed. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to develop a risk score of CM for a Brazilian sample. METHODS: To verify the estimates of the main risk factors for melanoma, derived from a meta-analysis (Italian-based study, and externally validate them in a population in southern Brazil by means of a case-control study. A total of 117 individuals were evaluated. Different models were constructed combining the summary coefficients of different risk factors, derived from the meta-analysis, multiplied by the corresponding category of each variable for each participant according to a mathematical expression. RESULTS: the variable that best predicted the risk of CM in the studied population was hair color (AUC: 0.71; 95% CI: 0.62-0.79. Other important factors were freckles, sunburn episodes, and skin and eye color. Consideration of other variables such as common nevi, elastosis, family history, and premalignant lesions did not improve the predictive ability of the models. CONCLUSION: The discriminating capacity of the proposed model proved to be superior or comparable to that of previous risk models proposed for CM. FUNDAMENTOS: importantes fatores de risco para melanoma cutâneo são reconhecidos, mas escores padronizados para avaliação individual ainda precisam ser elaborados. OBJETIVOS: o objetivo deste estudo foi desenvolver um escore de risco de melanoma cutâneo para uma amostra brasileira. MÉTODOS: verificar as estimativas dos principais fatores de risco para melanoma, derivado de uma meta-análise (estudo de base italiano e, externamente, validar em uma população do sul do Brasil por um estudo caso-controle. Um total de 117 indivíduos foram avaliados. RESULTADOS: a variável com maior poder preditivo para o risco de melanoma cutâneo na população estudada foi a cor do cabelo (AUC: 0,71, IC 95%: 0,62-0,79. Outros fatores importantes para o modelo foram: sardas, queimaduras solares, e cor de pele e cor dos olhos. Adicionando outras variáveis, como os nevos comuns, elastose, história familiar e lesões pré-malignas não houve melhora da capacidade preditiva. CONCLUSÃO: A capacidade discriminatória do modelo proposto mostrou-se superior ou comparável aos modelos de risco anteriores propostos para melanoma cutâneo.

  3. Invasão do nervo óptico por melanoma peripapilar: relato de caso Optic nerve invasion by juxtapapillary melanoma: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Ferrari Marback

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Tumores pigmentados localizados sobre o disco óptico são raros e representam desafio diagnóstico. Paciente masculino, 60 anos, apresenta baixa da acuidade visual no olho esquerdo devido à lesão pigmentada que cobre o disco óptico. Foi indicada a enucleação com recusa pelo paciente. O quadro evoluiu com descolamento de retina. Examinado em outro serviço teve indicação de vitrectomia também recusada. Retorna aos nossos cuidados; feita a enucleação o diagnóstico anatomopatológico revelou melanoma maligno da coróide com invasão pós-laminar do nervo óptico. A importância prognóstica da invasão do nervo óptico por melanoma da coróide ainda não está totalmente esclarecida. Embora raro, tumor pigmentado cobrindo o nervo óptico pode representar melanoma maligno. O diagnóstico diferencial destes casos é geralmente difícil, porém seu reconhecimento à ultra-sonografia ocular é patente e descolamento de retina associado é sinal de atividade tumoral. Os riscos de disseminação da doença exigem atenção na suspeita diagnóstica e conduta precisa.Small-pigmented lesions over the optic disc are very rare and may represent a diagnostic challenge. To report a case of a small malignant choroidal melanoma invading the optic nerve. A 60-year-old male presents with low vision in the left eye due to a small, pigmented lesion over the optic disc. At first the patient refused enucleation. One month later, after further drop in visual acuity, the patient was seen at another service, diagnosed as having a retinal detachment, and pars plana vitrectomy was proposed but also refused by the patient. Returning to our service, the eye was enucleated and a final diagnosis of choroidal melanoma with post-laminar optic nerve invasion was made. Although rare, pigmented lesions over the optic disc may represent a malignant melanoma. The prognostic significance of optic nerve invasion by choroidal melanoma is not clear yet. The differential diagnosis in these cases is usually difficult but a solid lesion is clear at ultrasonography and serous retinal detachment may predict a active tumor lesion. The management of these cases needs accuracy to avoid the unpleasant consequences of dissemination.

  4. A melanoma risk score in a Brazilian population / Um escore de risco para melanoma em uma população brasileira

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Lucio, Bakos; Simeona, Mastroeni; Renan Rangel, Bonamigo; Franco, Melchi; Paolo, Pasquini; Cristina, Fortes.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTOS: importantes fatores de risco para melanoma cutâneo são reconhecidos, mas escores padronizados para avaliação individual ainda precisam ser elaborados. OBJETIVOS: o objetivo deste estudo foi desenv [...] olver um escore de risco de melanoma cutâneo para uma amostra brasileira. MÉTODOS: verificar as estimativas dos principais fatores de risco para melanoma, derivado de uma meta-análise (estudo de base italiano) e, externamente, validar em uma população do sul do Brasil por um estudo caso-controle. Um total de 117 indivíduos foram avaliados. RESULTADOS: a variável com maior poder preditivo para o risco de melanoma cutâneo na população estudada foi a cor do cabelo (AUC: 0,71, IC 95%: 0,62-0,79). Outros fatores importantes para o modelo foram: sardas, queimaduras solares, e cor de pele e cor dos olhos. Adicionando outras variáveis, como os nevos comuns, elastose, história familiar e lesões pré-malignas não houve melhora da capacidade preditiva. CONCLUSÃO: A capacidade discriminatória do modelo proposto mostrou-se superior ou comparável aos modelos de risco anteriores propostos para melanoma cutâneo. Abstract in english BACKGROUND: Important risk factors for cutaneous melanoma (CM) are recognized, but standardized scores for individual assessment must still be developed. OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to develop [...] a risk score of CM for a Brazilian sample. METHODS: To verify the estimates of the main risk factors for melanoma, derived from a meta-analysis (Italian-based study), and externally validate them in a population in southern Brazil by means of a case-control study. A total of 117 individuals were evaluated. Different models were constructed combining the summary coefficients of different risk factors, derived from the meta-analysis, multiplied by the corresponding category of each variable for each participant according to a mathematical expression. RESULTS: the variable that best predicted the risk of CM in the studied population was hair color (AUC: 0.71; 95% CI: 0.62-0.79). Other important factors were freckles, sunburn episodes, and skin and eye color. Consideration of other variables such as common nevi, elastosis, family history, and premalignant lesions did not improve the predictive ability of the models. CONCLUSION: The discriminating capacity of the proposed model proved to be superior or comparable to that of previous risk models proposed for CM.

  5. The DEAD/DEAH box helicase, DDX11, is essential for the survival of advanced melanomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhattacharya Chitralekha

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite continuous efforts to identify genes that are pivotal regulators of advanced melanoma and closely related to it, to determine which of these genes have to be blocked in their function to keep this highly aggressive disease in check, it is far from clear which molecular pathway(s and specific genes therein, is the Achilles’ heel of primary and metastatic melanoma. In this report, we present data, which document that the DEAD-box helicase DDX11, which is required for sister chromatid cohesion, is a crucial gatekeeper for melanoma cell survival. Methods Performing immunohistochemistry and immunoblot analysis, we determined expression of DDX11 in melanoma tissues and cell lines. Following transfection of melanoma cells with a DDX11-specific siRNA, we conducted a qPCR analysis to determine downregulation of DDX11 in the transfected melanoma cells. In subsequent studies, which focused upon an analysis of fluorescently labeled as well as Giesma-stained chromosome spreads, a proliferation analysis and apoptosis assays, we determined the impact of suppressing DDX11 expression on melanoma cells representing advanced melanoma. Result The findings of the study presented herein document that DDX11 is upregulated with progression from noninvasive to invasive melanoma, and that it is expressed at high levels in advanced melanoma. Furthermore, and equally important, we demonstrate that blocking the expression of DDX11 leads not only to inhibition of melanoma cell proliferation and severe defects in chromosome segregation, but also drives melanoma cells rapidly into massive apoptosis. Conclusion To date, little is known as to whether helicases play a role in melanoma development and specifically, in the progression from early to advanced melanoma. In this report, we show that the helicase DDX11 is expressed at high levels in primary and metastatic melanoma, and that interfering with its expression leads to severe chromosome segregation defects, telomere shortening, and massive melanoma cell apoptosis. These findings suggest that DDX11 could be an important candidate for molecular targeted therapy for advanced melanoma.

  6. Investigation of FOXM1 as a Potential New Target for Melanoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyashita, Azusa; Fukushima, Satoshi; Nakahara, Satoshi; Yamashita, Junji; Tokuzumi, Aki; Aoi, Jun; Ichihara, Asako; Kanemaru, Hisashi; Jinnin, Masatoshi; Ihn, Hironobu

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that immunotherapies and molecular targeted therapies are effective for advanced melanoma. Non-antigen-specific immunotherapies such as immunocheckpoint blockades have been shown to be effective in the treatment of advanced melanoma. However, the response rates remain low. To improve their efficacy, they should be combined with antigen-specific immunotherapy. Elevated expression of the transcription factor, Forkhead box M1 (FOXM1), has been reported in various human cancers, and it has been shown to have potential as a target for immunotherapy. The purpose of this study was to investigate the FOXM1 expression in human melanoma samples and cell lines, to evaluate the relationship between the FOXM1 expression and the clinical features of melanoma patients and to investigate the association between the FOXM1 and MAPK and PI3K/AKT pathways in melanoma cell lines. We conducted the quantitative reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) and Western blotting analyses of melanoma cell lines, and investigated melanoma and nevus tissue samples by qRT-PCR and immunohistochemistry. We performed MEK siRNA and PI3K/AKT inhibitor studies and FOXM1 siRNA studies in melanoma cell lines. We found that FOXM1 was expressed in all of the melanoma cell lines, and was expressed in 49% of primary melanomas, 67% of metastatic melanomas and 10% of nevi by performing immunohistochemical staining. Metastatic melanoma samples exhibited significantly higher mRNA levels of FOXM1 (p = 0.004). Primary melanomas thicker than 2 mm were also more likely to express FOXM1. Patients whose primary melanoma expressed FOXM1 had a significantly poorer overall survival compared to patients without FOXM1 expression (p = 0.024). Downregulation of FOXM1 by siRNA significantly inhibited the proliferation of melanoma cells, and blockade of the MAPK and PI3K/AKT pathways decreased the FOXM1 expression in melanoma cell lines. In conclusion, FOXM1 is considered to be a new therapeutic target for melanoma. PMID:26640950

  7. Identification of Melanoma-reactive CD4+ T-Cell Subsets From Human Melanoma Draining Lymph Nodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Mei; Graor, Hallie; Yan, Lu; Kim, Julian

    2016-01-01

    Our laboratory has previously demonstrated that melanoma draining lymph node (MDLN) samples from stage III patients contained both CD4 and CD8 T cells that can be readily expanded to mediate tumor cell apoptosis in vitro and improve survival in mice bearing human melanoma xenografts. In this study, we investigated whether MDLN T cells contain melanoma-reactive CD4 T-cell compartment and what they are. To test this, we performed multiparametric (11-color and 6-color) fluorescence-activated cell sorting analyses to monitor phenotypic and functional property of CD4 T cells in response to melanoma cell antigen reexposure. Our results have demonstrated that the antigen reexposure could result in a generation of CD4CCR7CD62LCD27 T-cell subsets with various effector cell-like properties. Within the CD4CCR7CD62LCD27 T-cell compartment, in response to antigen reexposure, some of the cells expressed significantly upregulated CD40L and/or CXCR5, and some of them expressed significantly upregulated interleukin-2 and/or tumor necrosis factor-?. This may suggest the existence of melanoma-reactive CD4 "effector-precursor" cells within the expanded MDLN cells and their differentiation into various effector lineages in response to antigen restimulation. Recent clinical trials have demonstrated that effective adoptive cellular immunotherapy maybe enhanced by antigen-specific CD4 T cells. Therefore, results of this study may significantly benefit innovative design of +adoptive cellular immunotherapy that can potentially mediate enhanced and durable clinical responses. PMID:26641258

  8. FUTURE PERSPECTIVES IN MELANOMA RESEARCH. Meeting report from the “Melanoma Research: a bridge from Naples to the World. Napoli, December 5th–6 th2011”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ascierto Paolo A

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract After more than 30 years, landmark progress has been made in the treatment of cancer, and melanoma in particular, with the success of new molecules such as ipilimumab, vemurafenib and active specific immunization. After the first congress in December 2010, the second edition of “Melanoma Research: a bridge from Naples to the World” meeting, organized by Paolo A. Ascierto (INT, Naples, Italy, Francesco M. Marincola (NIH, Bethesda, USA, and Nicola Mozzillo (INT, Naples, Italy took place in Naples, on 5–6 December 2011. We have identified four new topics of discussion: Innovative Approaches in Prevention, Diagnosis and Surgical Treatment, New Pathways and Targets in Melanoma: An Update about Immunotherapy, and Combination Strategies. This international congress gathered more than 30 international faculty members and was focused on recent advances in melanoma molecular biology, immunology and therapy, and created an interactive atmosphere which stimulated discussion of new approaches and strategies in the field of melanoma.

  9. Role of 18F-FDG PET/CT in restaging of patients with recurrent malignant melanoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The incidence of malignant melanoma has increased in recent years. Patients with familial melanoma and a personal history of melanoma have a very high risk for the development of recurrence at other sites even after adequate treatment which demands a non invasive imaging modality for the early and accurate restaging of the recurrence of melanoma. We evaluated the role of 18F-FDG PET/CT in restaging of patients with recurrent malignant melanoma. It is found to be an sensitive tool for restaging recurrent malignant melanoma

  10. APLICACIONES DE LA BIOQUIMIOTERAPIA EN PACIENTES CON MELANOMA METASTÁSICO / BIOCHEMOTHERAPY APLICATIONS IN PATIENTS WITH METASTATIC MELANOMA / APLICAÇÕES DA BIOQUIMIOTERAPIA EM PACIENTES COM MELANOMA METASTÁSICO

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Angela, Torres; Luis Hernando, Camacho.

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Calculou-se que aproximadamente 62.480 pessoas serão afetadas por melanoma durante o 2008 nos Estados Unidos e que um número próximo aos 8.000, morrerá por esta causa. Enquanto a doença localizada tende a ser curada em quase o 90% dos casos, a Supervivencia nos formas metatásicas é geralmente inferi [...] or a um ano. Na atualidade nenhum dos tratamentos aprovados pela Administração de Drogas e Alimentos dos Estados Unidos (FDA) demonstrou um incremento na Supervivencia dos pacientes com melanoma metastásico, ainda que há estudos que reportam repostas completas de longa duração com a combinação de quimioterapia (cisplatino, dacarbazina e vinblastina) e modificadores biológicos (interleucina-2 e interferón-?b). Neste artigo se discutem aspectos controvérsias da bio quimioterapia, seu possível mecanismo de ação e as toxicidades associadas, ao mesmo tempo em que se descreve o caso de um paciente de 47 anos de idade com hipertensão crônica e melanoma recorrente que afetava tecidos macios na orbita direita, gânglios mediastinais e tecidos macios do mesentério, a quem se lhe administrou durante quatro ciclos consecutivos bioquimioterapia modificada com cisplatino, vinblastina, temozolamida, interleucina 2, e interferón-?b, com o fim de preservar a função renal, comprometida por nefropatía hipertensiva e um quinto ciclo com temozolamida, interleucina-2, e interferón ?-2b, para consolidar resposta antitumoral. Ante a remissão completa atingida pelo paciente e mantida durante os últimos seis meses, com recuperação total das toxicidades agudas induzidas pelo tratamento (febre, fadiga, astenia, adinâmia, náusea, vomito, diarréia, eritema, prurido, mucositis, edema generalizado, hipotensão, azoemia, citopenias, bacteremia, confusão e neuropatia periférica), conclui-se que o uso desta terapia em pacientes com melanoma metastático pode resultar em respostas antitumorais de longa duração, tendo entre as maiores limitantes, a falta de marcadores biológicos ou moleculares que permitam predizer a resposta individual ao tratamento e a acumulação de toxicidades derivadas, e para evitar danos permanentes na função orgânica, fazem necessária a obtenção de respostas anti-tumorais quase de imediato. Abstract in spanish Se ha calculado que aproximadamente 62.480 personas serán afectadas por melanoma durante el 2008 en los Estados Unidos y que un número cercano a los 8.000, morirá por esta causa. Mientras que la enfermedad localizada tiende a ser curada en casi el 90% de los casos, la Supervivencia en los formas met [...] atásicas es generalmente inferior a un año. En la actualidad ninguno de los tratamientos aprobados por la Administración de Drogas y Alimentos de los Estados Unidos (FDA) ha demostrado un incremento en la supervivencia de los pacientes con melanoma metastásico, aunque hay estudios que reportan repuestas completas de larga duración con la combinación de quimioterapia (cisplatino, dacarbazina y vinblastina) y modificadores biológicos (interleucina-2 e interferón-?b). En este artículo se discuten aspectos controversiales de la bioquimioterapia, su posible mecanismo de acción y las toxicidades asociadas, a la vez que se describe el caso de un paciente de 47 años de edad con hipertensión crónica y melanoma recurrente que afectaba tejidos blandos en la orbita derecha, ganglios mediastinales y tejidos blandos del mesenterio, a quien se le administró durante cuatro ciclos consecutivos bioquimioterapia modificada con cisplatino, vinblastina, temozolamida, interleucina 2, e interferón ?-2b, con el fin de preservar la función renal, comprometida por nefropatía hipertensiva y un quinto ciclo con temozolamida, interleucina-2, e interferón ?-2b, para consolidar la respuesta antitumoral. Ante la remisión completa alcanzada por el paciente y mantenida durante los últimos seis meses, con recuperación total de las toxicidades agudas inducidas por el tratamiento (fiebre, fatiga, astenia, adinamia, náusea, vómito, diarrea, eritema, prurito, mucos

  11. Antitumor potential induction and free radicals production in melanoma cells by Boron Neutron Capture Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faiao-Flores, F. [Biochemical and Biophysical Laboratory, Butantan Institute, 1500 Vital Brasil Avenue, Sao Paulo (Brazil)] [Faculty of Medicine, University of Sao Paulo, 455 Doutor Arnaldo Avenue, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Coelho, P.R.P.; Muniz, R.O.R.; Souza, G.S. [Institute for Nuclear and Energy Research, 2242 Lineu Prestes Avenue, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Arruda-Neto, J. [Physics Institute, University of Sao Paulo, 187 Matao Street, Sao Paulo (Brazil)] [FESP, Sao Paulo Engineering School, 5520 Nove de Julho Avenue, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Maria, Durvanei A., E-mail: durvaneiaugusto@yahoo.com.br [Biochemical and Biophysical Laboratory, Butantan Institute, 1500 Vital Brasil Avenue, Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2011-12-15

    Antiproliferative and oxidative damage effects occurring in Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) in normal fibroblasts and melanoma cell lines were analyzed. Melanoma cells and normal fibroblasts were treated with different concentrations of Boronophenylalanine and irradiated with thermal neutron flux. The cellular viability and the oxidative stress were determined. BNCT induced free radicals production and proliferative potential inhibition in melanoma cells. Therefore, this therapeutic technique could be considered efficient to inhibit growth of melanoma with minimal effects on normal tissues. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) induces melanoma cell death. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer BNCT stimulates free radicals production and proliferative inhibition in melanoma cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer It produces tumor membrane degeneration and destruction with apoptotic bodies formation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This therapy damages tumor cells selectively, with minimum effects on normal adjacent tissue.

  12. Side Effects and Toxicities of Targeted Therapies in Stage IV Melanoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ascierto, Paolo A; Bastholt, Lars

    2013-01-01

    As the incidence of melanoma continues to increase worldwide, the search for new therapies for advanced (stage IV) melanoma brings with it new patterns of toxicity to contend with. This review covers the toxicity profiles of new treatments for advanced melanoma currently in development. Therefore, the latest literature on melanoma treatment was surveyed for data on reported toxicities. The new types of treatments can be roughly divided into targeted tyrosine kinase inhibitors and immunomodulating agents. Each has its own set of toxicities particular to type and to individual drug. Targeted tyrosine kinase inhibitors generally cause fatigue, whereas immunomodulatory agents induce a specific set of adverse events known as immune-related adverse events (irAEs). Despite the incidence of adverse events, these agents hold promise for the treatment of stage IV melanoma. With new treatment opportunities come increased chance of toxic reactions. The key to successful melanoma treatment in the future is likely to be novel combinations of new therapeutic agents.

  13. Development and Testing of a 212Pb/212Bi Peptide for Targeting Metastatic Melanoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisher, Darrell R.

    2012-10-25

    The purpose of this project is to develop a new radiolabeled peptide for imaging and treating metastatic melanoma. The immunoconjugate consists of a receptor-specific peptide that targets melanoma cells. The beta-emitter lead-212 (half-life = 10.4 hours) is linked by coordination chemistry to the peptide. After injection, the peptide targets melanoma receptors on the surfaces of melanoma cells. Lead-212 decays to the alpha-emitter bismuth-212 (half-life = 60 minutes). Alpha-particles that hit melanoma cell nuclei are likely to kill the melanoma cell. For cancer cell imaging, the lead-212 is replaced by lead-203 (half-life = 52 hours). Lead-203 emits 279 keV photons (80.1% abundance) that can be imaged and measured for biodistribution analysis, cancer imaging, and quantitative dosimetry.

  14. Primary amelanotic mucosal melanoma of the oronasal region: report of two new cases and literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Paulo, Luiz Fernando Barbosa; Servato, João Paulo Silva; Rosa, Roberta Rezende; Oliveira, Maiolino Thomaz Fonseca; de Faria, Paulo Rogério; da Silva, Sindeval José; Cardoso, Sergio Vitorino; Loyola, Adriano Mota

    2015-12-01

    Primary amelanotic mucosal melanoma is a rare entity with challenging histopathological features. Because these tumors are thought to be biologically more aggressive, they have a poorer prognosis than that of pigmented melanomas. In this work, we present a literature review about the clinical, histopathological, and immunohistochemical features of primary amelanotic mucosal melanoma of the oronasal region and report two new cases. Amelanotic mucosal melanoma commonly affects men in the seventh decade of life and tend to have a poor prognosis, as seen by the high incidence of metastasis, recurrences, and, ultimately, death. There is a similar pattern in the clinic-pathological predilections (such as age, gender, primary site, and metastatic potential) of amelanotic mucosal melanoma when comparing with data reported for pigmented lesions. This work reinforces knowledge about amelanotic mucosal melanomas and epidemiologic predilections. The optimal management of this lesion remains controversial. PMID:25934245

  15. Profile of ipilimumab and its role in the treatment of metastatic melanoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patel SP

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Sapna P Patel, Scott E WoodmanMelanoma Medical Oncology Department, University of Texas, MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX, USAAbstract: Melanoma is an immunogenic cancer. However, the ability of the immune system to eradicate melanoma tumors is affected by intrinsic negative regulatory mechanisms. Multiple immune-modulatory therapies are currently being developed to optimize the immune response to melanoma tumors. Two recent Phase III studies using the monoclonal antibody ipilimumab, which targets the cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen (CTLA-4, a negative regulator of T-cell activation, have demonstrated improvement in overall survival of metastatic melanoma patients. This review highlights the clinical trial data that supports the efficacy of ipilimumab, the immune-related response criteria used to evaluate clinical response, and side-effect profile associated with ipilimumab treatment.Keywords: ipilimumab, melanoma, T-cells, CTLA-4

  16. Antitumor potential induction and free radicals production in melanoma cells by Boron Neutron Capture Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antiproliferative and oxidative damage effects occurring in Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) in normal fibroblasts and melanoma cell lines were analyzed. Melanoma cells and normal fibroblasts were treated with different concentrations of Boronophenylalanine and irradiated with thermal neutron flux. The cellular viability and the oxidative stress were determined. BNCT induced free radicals production and proliferative potential inhibition in melanoma cells. Therefore, this therapeutic technique could be considered efficient to inhibit growth of melanoma with minimal effects on normal tissues. - Highlights: ? Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) induces melanoma cell death. ? BNCT stimulates free radicals production and proliferative inhibition in melanoma cells. ? It produces tumor membrane degeneration and destruction with apoptotic bodies formation. ? This therapy damages tumor cells selectively, with minimum effects on normal adjacent tissue.

  17. Shared care in the follow-up of early-stage melanoma: a qualitative study of Australian melanoma clinicians’ perspectives and models of care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rychetnik Lucie

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Patients with early stage melanoma have high survival rates but require long-term follow-up to detect recurrences and/or new primary tumours. Shared care between melanoma specialists and general practitioners is an increasingly important approach to meeting the needs of a growing population of melanoma survivors. Methods In-depth qualitative study based on semi-structured interviews with 16 clinicians (surgical oncologists, dermatologists and melanoma unit GPs who conduct post-treatment follow-up at two of Australia’s largest specialist referral melanoma treatment and diagnosis units. Interviews were recorded, transcribed and analysed to identify approaches to shared care in follow-up, variations in practice, and explanations of these. Results Melanoma unit clinicians utilised shared care in the follow-up of patients with early stage melanoma. Schedules were determined by patients’ clinical risk profiles. Final arrangements for delivery of those schedules (by whom and where were influenced by additional psychosocial, professional and organizational considerations. Four models of shared care were described: (a surgical oncologist alternating with dermatologist (in-house or local to patient; (b melanoma unit dermatologist and other local doctor (e.g. family physician; (c surgical oncologist and local doctor; or (d melanoma physician and local doctor. Conclusions These models of shared care offer alternative solutions to managing the requirements for long-term follow-up of a growing number of patients with stage I/II melanoma, and warrant further comparative evaluation of outcomes in clinical trials, with detailed cost/benefit analyses.

  18. NF-?B as potential target in the treatment of melanoma

    OpenAIRE

    Madonna, Gabriele; Ullman, Claudio Dansky; Gentilcore, Giusy; Palmieri, Giuseppe; Ascierto, Paolo Antonio

    2012-01-01

    The RAS/MAP kinase pathway has attracted attention because activating mutations of the BRAF serine/threonine kinase was described in over 50% of melanomas. Very recently, selective and potent BRAF inhibitors have been developed. Several other signal transduction pathways have been found to be constitutively active or mutated in other subsets of melanoma tumors that are potentially targetable with new agents. Among these, NF?B is another pathway that melanoma tumors use to achieve survival, pr...

  19. Noncutaneous malignant melanoma: a prognostic model from a retrospective multicenter study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Jung Han

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We performed multicenter study to define clinical characteristics of noncutaneous melanomas and to establish prognostic factors patients who received curative resection. Methods Of the 141 patients who were diagnosed of non-cutaneous melanoma at 4 institutions in Korea between June 1992 and May 2005, 129 (91.5% satisfied the selection criteria. Results Of the 129 noncutaneous melanoma patients, 14 patients had ocular melanoma and 115 patients had mucosal melanoma. For mucosal melanoma, anorectum was the most common anatomic site (n = 39, 30.2% which was followed by nasal cavity (n = 30, 23.3%, genitourinary (n = 21, 16.3%, oral cavity (n = 14, 10.9%, upper gastrointestinal tract (n = 6, 4.7% and maxillary sinus (n = 5, 3.9% in the order of frequency. With the median 64.5 (range 4.3-213.0 months follow-up, the median overall survival were 24.4 months (95% CI 13.2-35.5 for all patients, and 34.6 (95% CI 24.5-44.7 months for curatively resected mucosal melanoma patients. Adverse prognostic factors of survival for 87 curatively resected mucosal melanoma patients were complete resection (R1 resection margin, and age > 50 years. For 14 ocular melanoma, Survival outcome was much better than mucosal melanoma with 73.3% of 2 year OS and 51.2 months of median OS (P = .04. Conclusion Prognosis differed according to primary sites of noncutaneous melanoma. Based on our study, noncutaneous melanoma patients should be treated differently to improve survival outcome.

  20. SOX2 and nestin expression in human melanoma: an immunohistochemical and experimental study

    OpenAIRE

    Laga, Alvaro C.; Zhan, Qian; Weishaupt, Carsten; Ma, Jie; Frank, Markus H.; Murphy, George F.

    2011-01-01

    SOX2 is an embryonic neural crest stem-cell transcription factor recently shown to be expressed in human melanoma and to correlate with experimental tumor growth. SOX2 binds to an enhancer region of the gene that encodes for nestin, also a neural progenitor cell biomarker. To define further the potential relationship between SOX2 and nestin, we examined co-expression patterns in 135 melanomas and 37 melanocytic nevi. Immunohistochemical staining in 27 melanoma tissue sections showed an associ...