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1

Melanoma  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available Melanoma Introduction Melanoma is the most serious cancer of the skin. Melanoma affects thousands of people every ... causes damage to the chromosomes, leading to cancer. Melanoma Melanoma occurs when the pigment cells, the melanocytes, ...

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Melanoma  

Science.gov (United States)

Melanoma is the most serious type of skin cancer. Often the first sign of melanoma is a change in the size, shape, color, or feel of a mole. Most melanomas have a black or black-blue area. Melanoma ...

3

Melanoma  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... of these methods. Biological Therapy (Interferon and Interleukin-2) Some patients with advanced melanoma may receive drug ... following are risk factors for melanoma: 1. Having 2 or more close relatives who have had melanoma ...

4

Melanoma  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... Melanoma can be cured if detected early. Early detection involves regularly checking your body for skin growths ... skin for abnormal growths are essential for early detection. Thanks to advances in medicine, melanoma can be ...

5

Melanoma  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... a melanoma is not removed in an early stage, cancer cells may grow down into the skin, ... melanoma is found, the doctor will determine what stage the cancer is in before planning treatment. This ...

6

Melanoma  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... area bet lower legs. Melanoma is rare in black people and others with dark skin. When it ... of an existing mole. Most melanomas have a black or blue-black area. Most people have moles. ...

7

Melanoma  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... body • the patient's age and general health The standard treatment for melanoma is surgery; in some cases, ... methods. Surgery to remove a melanoma is the standard treatment. It is necessary to remove not only ...

8

Melanoma  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The incidence of malignant melanoma in the UK is still rising despite public health warnings about the risks of excessive sun exposure. This aggressive tumour can metastasize to virtually any organ, even years after resection of the primary lesion and cause a variety of radiological appearances. This review provides examples of both typical and non-specific imaging features of melanoma metastases, as well as examples of primary choroidal melanoma.

Kalkman, E. E-mail: ed.kalkman@ukgateway.net; Baxter, G

2004-04-01

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Melanoma  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... occur as a result of exposure to infections, drugs, tobacco, chemicals, or other factors. In the case ... 2) Some patients with advanced melanoma may receive drug treatments that may improve the body’s natural defense ( ...

10

Melanoma  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... mole should be reported to a doctor or nurse right away. Diagnosis & Staging If the doctor suspects ... have regular skin exams by a doctor or nurse specialist. Summary Melanoma is a skin cancer where ...

11

Melanoma  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... change from one treatment to the next. Prevention & Risk Factors X Doctors believe that the increase in ... also cause skin damage and probably an increased risk of melanoma. This document is for informational purposes ...

12

Melanoma  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... blood vessels and lymph channels. Lymph is a clear fluid produced by the body that drains waste ... fully understand the causes of melanoma. It is clear, however, that it is not contagious; no one ...

13

Melanoma  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... other parts of the body such as the liver, lungs, or brain. In such cases, the cancer ... X-rays; blood tests; and scans of the liver, bones, and brain. Stages of Melanoma: • Stage 0: ...

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Melanoma  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... squamous cells. Round cells, called basal cells, lie under the squamous cells in the epidermis. The lower ... melanoma often develops on the nds to occur under the fingernails or toenails, on the palms of ...

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Melanoma  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... rays; blood tests; and scans of the liver, bones, and brain. Stages of Melanoma: • Stage 0: The ... It can also spread to the liver, brain, bones, and other organs. Treatment A treatment plan for ...

16

Melanoma  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... of melanoma. It also discusses some prevention tips. Skin Anatomy The skin is the body's largest organ. It protects us ... fat, and produces vitamin D. Epidermis Dermis The skin has 2 main layers: the outer epidermis and ...

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Ocular Melanoma  

Science.gov (United States)

... Eye Health News Consumer Alerts What Is Ocular Melanoma? Tweet Ocular melanoma (melanoma in or around the eye) is a type ... and eyes color. Just as you can develop melanoma on your skin, you can also develop it ...

18

Hidden Melanomas  

Science.gov (United States)

SkinCancerNet Article Hidden Melanomas While melanoma usually develops on the skin, it occasionally occurs on other parts of the body, such ... inside of the nose. Such melanomas are called "hidden melanomas" because they occur in places not easily ...

19

Eye Melanoma  

Science.gov (United States)

... be reprinted for personal, noncommercial use only. Eye melanoma By Mayo Clinic staff Original Article: http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/eye-melanoma/DS00707 Definition Symptoms Causes Risk factors Complications Preparing ...

20

Melanoma: Signs and Symptoms  

Science.gov (United States)

... Diseases and treatments M - P Melanoma Signs, symptoms Melanoma: Signs and symptoms Anyone can get melanoma. It’s ... look for the ABCDEs of melanoma. ABCDEs of melanoma A = Asymmetry One half is unlike the other ...

 
 
 
 
21

[Vulvar melanoma].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Objective: Malignant melanoma of the vulva is the second commonest vulval malignancy. This article will focus on three cases of vulvar melanoma which have been solved surgically with wide excision, sentinel lymph node biopsy and radical lymphadenectomy.Design: Case report.Setting: Department of Dermatovenerology 3rd Faculty of Medicine, Charles University, Faculty Hospital Královské Vinohrady, Prague.Methods: Biopsy of the lesion creates a reliable diagnostic procedure. More frequently digital dermoscopy is used for the precise primary diagnostics and follow-up of pigment vulvar lesions. Results: Vulvar melanoma has been variously estimated to account for between 3.6 and 10% of malignant vulvar neoplasms. An epidemiologic study revealed ratio of vulvar to skin melanoma 1:71.Conclusion: New diagnostic methods such as digital dermoscopy or sentinel node biopsy bringing ever greater progress in precise diagnosis of patients with vulvar melanoma. Keywords: vulvar melanoma - therapy - sentinel lymph node - dermoscopy.

Arenbergerová M; Fialová A; Pojezná E; Sefrnová P; Arenberger P; Havránková A; Vedral T; Simková M; Koš?álová M

2013-08-01

22

[Malignant melanoma].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Malignant melanomas have one of the highest increases in incidence among malignancies. There are four histological types: superficial spreading melanoma, nodular melanoma, acrolentiginous melanoma and lentigo maligna melanoma. The TNM classification considers depth of infiltration (Clark's level), vertical tumor thickness (Breslow's thickness), ulceration of the primary tumor, satellites and in-transit metastases as well as regional lymph node and distant metastases. An adequate margin of clearance is important in primary resection. Sentinel lymph node biopsy is relevant in all melanomas with a Breslow tumor thickness >1 mm without clinically suspicious lymph nodes. In the case of lymph node metastases therapeutic dissection is recommended, in patients with in-transit metastases of the extremities hyperthermic isolated limb perfusion with cytostatic agents may be indicated. Resection of distant metastases can be useful if only one site is affected or a R0 resection is expected to be achieved. Adjuvant, neoadjuvant and palliative procedures, such as radiotherapy, chemotherapy and immunotherapy are additional treatment options.

Göhl J; Hohenberger W; Merkel S

2009-06-01

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Malignant melanoma.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

"Melanoma has become a major public health problem worldwide and its incidence in individuals of European origin continues to rise. Melanoma is the third most common cancer in Australia (in men and women); the fifth in the United States (in men and women); and the 12th in men and the sixth in women in the United Kingdom" (J. G. Thompson, R. A. Scolyer, & R. F. Kefford, 2009, p. 362). The American Cancer Society estimated that about 68,720 new melanomas were diagnosed in the United States during 2009, resulting in about 8,650 deaths. The purpose of this article is to explain the pathophysiologic components of malignant melanoma.

Wilkerson BL

2011-07-01

24

Malignant melanoma.  

Science.gov (United States)

"Melanoma has become a major public health problem worldwide and its incidence in individuals of European origin continues to rise. Melanoma is the third most common cancer in Australia (in men and women); the fifth in the United States (in men and women); and the 12th in men and the sixth in women in the United Kingdom" (J. G. Thompson, R. A. Scolyer, & R. F. Kefford, 2009, p. 362). The American Cancer Society estimated that about 68,720 new melanomas were diagnosed in the United States during 2009, resulting in about 8,650 deaths. The purpose of this article is to explain the pathophysiologic components of malignant melanoma. PMID:21876415

Wilkerson, Brenda L

25

Oral Melanoma  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Melanoma is a malignant tumor that originates from melanocyte cells. Its oral type is rare. The goal of this investigation was to determine the prevalence of oral malignant melanoma in Iran, as determined by age, sex and location. This research reviewed 623 cases of oral and non-oral malignant melanoma in Immam-Khomeini hospital, Mearaj cancer institute and department of oral pathology of dental faculty, Tehran University of Medical Sciences in a period of 19 years from 1981-1999. The results showed that 54 cases of biopsy lesions were melanoma of oral cavity that included 7.8% of these lesions. The mean age incidence of oral melanoma was 55.5(between 26-86 years). The most prevalent sites were palate (37.1%) and alveolar mucosa (20.4%) and less common sites included floor of mouth. buccal mucosa and tongue.

A Forouzandeh; G Rostamali

2002-01-01

26

Management of advanced melanoma  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This book presents papers on the subject of management of advanced melanoma. The topics covered are: non-investigational cytotoxic agents; high-dosage chemotherapy in antologous bone marrow transplantation; Radiotherapy of melanomas; hyperthermia; ureal melanoma; surgical treatment of recurrent a metastatic melanoma; role of interferons in management of melanoma and molecular genetics of melanoma.

Nathanson, L. (State Univ. of New York at Stony Brook, Stony Brook, NY (US))

1986-01-01

27

Management of advanced melanoma  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

This book presents papers on the subject of management of advanced melanoma. The topics covered are: non-investigational cytotoxic agents; high-dosage chemotherapy in antologous bone marrow transplantation; Radiotherapy of melanomas; hyperthermia; ureal melanoma; surgical treatment of recurrent a metastatic melanoma; role of interferons in management of melanoma and molecular genetics of melanoma

1986-01-01

28

Cutaneous melanoma.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In the past decade, major advances have been made in the understanding of melanoma. New predisposition genes have been reported and key somatic events, such as BRAF mutation, directly translated into therapeutic management. Surgery for localised melanoma and regional lymph node metastases is the standard of care. Sentinel-node biopsy provides precise staging, but has not been reported to affect survival. The effect of lymph-node dissection on survival is a topic of investigation. Two distinct approaches have emerged to try to extend survival in patients with metastatic melanoma: immunomodulation with anti-CTLA4 monoclonal antibodies, and targeted therapy with BRAF inhibitors or MEK inhibitors for BRAF-mutated melanoma. The combination of BRAF inhibitors and MEK inhibitors might improve progression-free survival further and, possibly, increase overall survival. Response patterns differ substantially-anti-CTLA4 immunotherapy can induce long-term responses, but only in a few patients, whereas targeted drugs induce responses in most patients, but nearly all of them relapse because of pre-existing or acquired resistance. Thus, the long-term prognosis of metastatic melanoma remains poor. Anti-PD1 and anti-PDL1 antibodies have emerged as breakthrough drugs for melanoma that have high response rates and long durability. Biomarkers that have predictive value remain elusive in melanoma, although emerging data for adjuvant therapy indicate that interferon sensitivity is associated with ulceration of the primary melanoma. Intense investigation continues for clinical and biological markers that predict clinical benefit of immunotherapeutic drugs, such as interferon alfa or anti-CTLA4 antibodies, and the mechanisms that lead to resistance of targeted drugs.

Eggermont AM; Spatz A; Robert C

2013-09-01

29

[Malignant melanoma].  

Science.gov (United States)

Malignant melanomas have one of the highest increases in incidence among malignancies. There are four histological types: superficial spreading melanoma, nodular melanoma, acrolentiginous melanoma and lentigo maligna melanoma. The TNM classification considers depth of infiltration (Clark's level), vertical tumor thickness (Breslow's thickness), ulceration of the primary tumor, satellites and in-transit metastases as well as regional lymph node and distant metastases. An adequate margin of clearance is important in primary resection. Sentinel lymph node biopsy is relevant in all melanomas with a Breslow tumor thickness >1 mm without clinically suspicious lymph nodes. In the case of lymph node metastases therapeutic dissection is recommended, in patients with in-transit metastases of the extremities hyperthermic isolated limb perfusion with cytostatic agents may be indicated. Resection of distant metastases can be useful if only one site is affected or a R0 resection is expected to be achieved. Adjuvant, neoadjuvant and palliative procedures, such as radiotherapy, chemotherapy and immunotherapy are additional treatment options. PMID:19444395

Göhl, J; Hohenberger, W; Merkel, S

2009-06-01

30

MALIGNANT MELANOMA  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Malignant melanoma is a rare disease in Pakistan but is very common in Europe, Australia and NorthAmerica. Understanding of the tumour biology and screening of population has improved the diagnosticapproach, treatment skills and prognosis. Inspite of all the progress, it still remains a number one killer dueto cutaneous malignancy. The struggle for better management continues.

Muhammad Shuja Tahir

1995-01-01

31

Malignant melanoma.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Nuclear medicine plays an essential role in the correct staging of patients suffering from melanoma. Both sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) and positron emission tomography (PET) represent its main diagnostic tools. SLNB is the choice procedure for lymphatic regional staging of these patients, including the result of this technique in the 2002 American Joint Cancer Committee melanoma staging. SLNB sensitivity is superior than PET/CT for the detection of lymphatic micrometastases in early stages of the disease. PET/CT is mainly used in confirming clinical metastases suspected, detection of recurrences, and recurrence restaging. PET/CT has also shown superiority against conventional diagnostic methods in the detection of distant metastases, being able to detect illness even six months earlier than those methods.

Ortega Candil A; Rodríguez Rey C; Carreras Delgado JL

2012-01-01

32

Choroidal melanoma  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Choroidal melanoma is the most frequent intraocular tumor in adults. Due to its anatomic location the diagnosis often should be made on the basis of clinical examination and ancillary diagnostic procedures. The choroid melanoma may appear as a visual disturbance, retinal detachment and decrease of visual acuity. The diagnostic methods of choice are: Ultrasonography, Doppler, Ophthalmoscopy and Fluorescein Angiography, Computed Tomography and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) and are very useful in evaluating extra ocular extension of the tumor, post treatment local recurrence and differential diagnosis. Ultrasound is the primary method of diagnosis and follow up when a conservative treatment has been used, showing changes in vascularity and echogenicity. Magnetic resonance imaging is very useful in melanotic melanomas because the paramagnetic properties of melanine. They appear as areas of moderately high T1 signal and proton weighted MRI greater than vitreous and hypointensity in T2. The proper interpretation of its clinical presentation and the early use of imaging diagnostic methods allow a correct therapeutic approach and avoid local and distant metastasis which decrease survival time in these patients. (author)

2005-01-01

33

Melanoma: What It Looks Like  

Science.gov (United States)

Melanoma: What it Looks Like While only 4% of diagnosed skin cancer is melanoma, melanoma is the ... at moles, keep in mind the ABCDEs of Melanoma Detection : Asymmetry . If you could fold the lesion ...

34

Genetics of Melanoma  

Science.gov (United States)

... the cell. What role do genes play in melanoma? Many cancers begin when one or more genes ... by environmental factors, such as cigarette smoke. Most melanomas (about 90%) are considered sporadic, meaning that the ...

35

Primary ovarian malignant melanoma  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background. Primary ovarian malignant melanoma is extremely rare. It usually appears in the wall of a dermoid cyst or is associated with another teratomatous component. Metastatic primary malignant melanoma to ovary from a primary melanoma elsewhere is well known and has been often reported especially in autopsy studies. Case report. We presented a case of primary ovarian malignant melanoma in a 45- year old woman, with no evidence of extraovarian primary melanoma nor teratomatous component. The tumor was unilateral, macroscopically on section presented as solid mass, dark brown to black color. Microscopically, tumor cells showed positive immunohistochemical reaction for HMB-45, melan-A and S-100 protein, and negative immunoreactivity for estrogen and progesteron receptors. Conclusion. Differentiate metastatic melanoma from rare primary ovarian malignant melanoma, in some of cases may be a histopathological diagnostic problem. Histopathological diagnosis of primary ovarian malignant melanoma should be confirmed by immunohistochemical analyses and detailed clinical search for an occult primary tumor.

Kostov Miloš; Vukomanovi?-?ur?evi? Biserka; Nenadi? Dane; Pavlovi? Miloš

2010-01-01

36

Melanoma - neck (image)  

Science.gov (United States)

This melanoma on the neck is variously colored with a very darkly pigmented area found centrally. It has irregular ... be larger than 0.5 cm. Prognosis in melanoma is best defined by its depth on resection.

37

Drugs Approved for Melanoma  

Science.gov (United States)

... for Conditions Related to Cancer Drugs Approved for Melanoma This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for melanoma. The list includes generic names and brand names. ...

38

Targeting NRAS in melanoma.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Cutaneous melanomas have mutations in the NRAS GTPase in 15% of cases. Compared to melanomas with BRAF mutations, or melanomas "wild-type" for BRAF and NRAS, melanomas with NRAS mutations are more likely to be thicker tumors and to have a higher mitotic rate. Preclinical studies indicate that melanoma cells with NRAS mutations are dependent on NRAS for survival and proliferation, making NRAS an attractive therapeutic target in melanoma. However, to date, therapeutic strategies for NRAS mutant melanomas have not been realized. Promising strategies to target NRAS include targeting the membrane localization of NRAS or reducing expression through the use of therapeutic small interfering RNAs. Finally, use of inhibitors to target downstream signaling through mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase and phosphatidylinositol 3-OH kinase or AKT are now entering clinical trials, and if these combinations can be safely delivered at sufficient dose to inhibit the targets, there is significant potential to target NRAS mutant melanoma.

Kelleher FC; McArthur GA

2012-03-01

39

Pedunculated malignant melanoma  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Pedunculated malignant melanoma is a rare occurrence. A 29 year old woman presented with a pedunculated malignant melanoma on a congenital melanocytic naevus with halo. Pedunculated malignant melanoma is known to have a high incidence of metastasis. The absence of metastasis and the presence of halo, in the case presented, suggests, that the body?s immunological process may have arrested the spread of the melanoma.

Bhat Ramesha; S Sachidanand; Stephen John

1994-01-01

40

Prognostic factors for melanoma.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The current melanoma staging system, as defined by the American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC), is the standard by which melanoma prognosis is determined. This article focuses on the components of the AJCC melanoma staging system regarding patient prognosis. In addition, this article summarizes the other commonly researched clinical and histologic melanoma prognostic factors and reviews the recent advancements in genetic biomarkers associated with prognosis.

Wisco OJ; Sober AJ

2012-07-01

 
 
 
 
41

Prognostic factors for melanoma.  

Science.gov (United States)

The current melanoma staging system, as defined by the American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC), is the standard by which melanoma prognosis is determined. This article focuses on the components of the AJCC melanoma staging system regarding patient prognosis. In addition, this article summarizes the other commonly researched clinical and histologic melanoma prognostic factors and reviews the recent advancements in genetic biomarkers associated with prognosis. PMID:22800552

Wisco, Oliver J; Sober, Arthur J

2012-07-01

42

Vaccine Therapy in Treating Patients With Stage IIC-IV Melanoma  

Science.gov (United States)

Ciliary Body and Choroid Melanoma, Medium/Large Size; Ciliary Body and Choroid Melanoma, Small Size; Extraocular Extension Melanoma; Iris Melanoma; Metastatic Intraocular Melanoma; Mucosal Melanoma; Recurrent Intraocular Melanoma; Recurrent Melanoma; Stage IIC Melanoma; Stage IIIA Intraocular Melanoma; Stage IIIA Melanoma; Stage IIIB Intraocular Melanoma; Stage IIIB Melanoma; Stage IIIC Intraocular Melanoma; Stage IIIC Melanoma; Stage IV Intraocular Melanoma; Stage IV Melanoma

2013-04-03

43

Cutaneous malignant melanoma.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Melanoma is the deadliest form of skin cancer; 47,700 persons were expected to be diagnosed and 9,600 were expected to die from melanoma in 2000 (American Cancer Society, 2000). It is important for dermatology nurses to understand the epidemiology, risk factors, clinical presentation, diagnosis, treatment, prognosis, and prevention of cutaneous malignant melanoma.

Guill CK; Orengo I

2001-06-01

44

Pedunculated malignant melanoma  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Pedunculated malignant melanoma is a rare occurrence. A 29 year old woman presented with a pedunculated malignant melanoma on a congenital melanocytic naevus with halo. Pedunculated malignant melanoma is known to have a high incidence of metastasis. The absence of metastasis and the presence of halo...

Bhat Ramesha; S Sachidanand; Stephen John

45

Epigenetic marks in melanoma.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Melanoma is a highly heterogeneous cancer that comes in different flavors (lentigo maligna melanoma, superficial spreading melanoma, nodular melanoma, acral lentiginous/mucosal melanoma and other less common subtypes including malignant cellular blue nevus, desmoplastic melanoma, nevoid melanoma, and animal-type melanoma) and colors (black/bluish or unpigmented). Pathologists have known for many years that melanoma displays notable changes in the nuclear architecture including thick chromatic rims, presence of mitosis, nuclear grooves, and more. It is now evident from other cancers that such changes reflect not only genomic alterations but also non-genomic changes in both the structure of DNA and the structure of chromatin to which the DNA is bound (nucleosomes). Although aberrant gene expression resulting from DNA methylation has been known for many years, genome alterations resulting from histone modifications became evident in the current decade. In prostate and other cancers, some histone marks have clinical diagnostic and/or prognostic value. Here, we review the current data on epigenetic research in melanoma skin cancers, discuss ways to modify the epigenetic landscape of melanoma for inhibiting its growth, and propose strategies for identifying novel melanoma markers.

Richards HW; Medrano EE

2009-02-01

46

Epigenetic marks in melanoma.  

Science.gov (United States)

Melanoma is a highly heterogeneous cancer that comes in different flavors (lentigo maligna melanoma, superficial spreading melanoma, nodular melanoma, acral lentiginous/mucosal melanoma and other less common subtypes including malignant cellular blue nevus, desmoplastic melanoma, nevoid melanoma, and animal-type melanoma) and colors (black/bluish or unpigmented). Pathologists have known for many years that melanoma displays notable changes in the nuclear architecture including thick chromatic rims, presence of mitosis, nuclear grooves, and more. It is now evident from other cancers that such changes reflect not only genomic alterations but also non-genomic changes in both the structure of DNA and the structure of chromatin to which the DNA is bound (nucleosomes). Although aberrant gene expression resulting from DNA methylation has been known for many years, genome alterations resulting from histone modifications became evident in the current decade. In prostate and other cancers, some histone marks have clinical diagnostic and/or prognostic value. Here, we review the current data on epigenetic research in melanoma skin cancers, discuss ways to modify the epigenetic landscape of melanoma for inhibiting its growth, and propose strategies for identifying novel melanoma markers. PMID:19040501

Richards, Hunter W; Medrano, Estela E

2008-11-27

47

Clínica del melanoma Clinical manifestations of melanoma  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available El melanoma es un tumor maligno originado en los melanocitos, cuya incidencia y mortalidad han aumentado en las últimas décadas. Sus factores de riesgo más importantes son la susceptibilidad genética relacionada con sensibilidad al sol (capacidad para broncearse y tendencia a las quemaduras) y con ciertos genes especíLcos; factores ambientales tales como la exposición a la radiación UV, latitud y una combinación de ambos, como la cantidad de nevos. Sus formas clínicas son: melanoma extensivo superLcial (70%), nodular (15-30%), lentigo maligno (10-15%) y acrolentiginoso (5%). De todas las características histológicas, el espesor de Brelow (medido en mm desde la granulosa hasta el punto más profundo de penetración tumoral) es el predictor de sobrevida más importante. El tratamiento quirúrgico adecuado con 1 cm de margen en aquellos pacientes de bajo riesgo (Breslow Melanoma is a malignant tumor that originates in melanocytes and whose incidence and mortality have increased in the last decades. The most important risk factors are a genetic susceptibility related to sun sensitivity (having tanning capacity and being prone to sunburn) and with certain speci1c genes; environmental factors such as exposure to UV radiation, latitude and a combination of both such as the number of nevis. Its clinical forms are: super1cial spreading melanoma (70%), nodular melanoma (15-30%), lentigo maligna melanoma (10-15%) and acral lentiginous melanoma (5%). Among all the histological characteristics, Breslow's depth (measured in mm from the granular layer of the epidermis to the deepest point of tumor invasion) is the most important predictor for progression free survival. An appropriate surgical treatment with 1-cm margin melanomas in low-risk patients (Breslow < 1 mm) cures over 90% of the patients. Thus, early detection of melanoma is an important goal in melanoma treatment.

Ana Mordoh

2009-01-01

48

VEGF Trap in Treating Patients With Recurrent Stage III or Stage IV Melanoma That Cannot Be Removed by Surgery  

Science.gov (United States)

Ciliary Body and Choroid Melanoma, Medium/Large Size; Extraocular Extension Melanoma; Iris Melanoma; Metastatic Intraocular Melanoma; Recurrent Intraocular Melanoma; Recurrent Melanoma; Stage III Melanoma; Stage IV Melanoma

2012-11-20

49

Subungual melanoma: diagnosis and management.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Subungual Melanoma accounts for less than three percent of all cutaneous melanomas and has a dismal prognosis. Our case report outlines the current approach for diagnosis and management of this rare form of acral lentiginous melanoma.

Woods CC; Bacon LN; Ballard BR; Beech DJ

2012-02-01

50

Decoding Melanoma Metastasis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Metastasis accounts for the vast majority of morbidity and mortality associated with melanoma. Evidence suggests melanoma has a predilection for metastasis to particular organs. Experimental analyses have begun to shed light on the mechanisms regulating melanoma metastasis and organ specificity, but these analyses are complicated by observations of metastatic dormancy and dissemination of melanocytes that are not yet fully malignant. Additionally, tumor extrinsic factors in the microenvironment, both at the site of the primary tumor and the site of metastasis, play important roles in mediating the metastatic process. As metastasis research moves forward, paradigms explaining melanoma metastasis as a step-wise process must also reflect the temporal complexity and heterogeneity in progression of this disease. Genetic drivers of melanoma as well as extrinsic regulators of disease spread, particularly those that mediate metastasis to specific organs, must also be incorporated into newer models of melanoma metastasis.

William E. Damsky; Lara E. Rosenbaum; Marcus Bosenberg

2010-01-01

51

Dysplastic nevi and melanoma.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Dysplastic nevi are described as being on a continuum between common acquired nevi and melanoma because they are morphologically and biologically intermediate between these 2 entities. Since initially being reported as histologic lesions observed in melanoma-prone families, there has been considerable debate about the definition of dysplastic nevi, the histologic and clinical criteria used to define them, and their biologic importance. Their role as precursor lesions for melanoma is not their primary role in their relationship to melanoma because of the rarity of transformation of any individual nevus to a melanoma. Although there is still no single, universally agreed upon histologic or clinical definition or even name for these nevi, dysplastic nevi should be considered important because of their association with an increased risk for melanoma.

Goldstein AM; Tucker MA

2013-04-01

52

Quimiorresistencia del melanoma Chemoresistance to melanoma  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Varias estrategias terapéuticas como la cirugía, radioterapia y quimioterapia están siendo utilizadas para tratar el cáncer. Sin embargo, en el caso del melanoma solamente la cirugía en las etapas tempranas de la enfermedad (estadíos I-II) puede ser curativa en una alta proporción de pacientes. El tratamiento quimioterápico con dacarbacina (DTIC) así como combinaciones con cisplatino, vinblastina y carmustina resulta ineficaz para eliminar las células de melanoma, ya que sólo se alcanza una respuesta en alrededor del 10% de los pacientes sin prolongar la sobrevida. La quimiorresistencia puede deberse tanto a una falta de respuesta primaria del melanoma como al desarrollo de mecanismos de resistencia adquiridos por el tumor, comúnmente definidos como multi-resistencia a drogas (MDR). En este artículo se analizan los principales mecanismos responsables de dicha resistencia y cómo el conocimiento de los mismos es aplicado al desarrollo de nuevos agentes terapéuticos. Por último, se discuten las recientes estrategias que combinan la quimioterapia con la inmunoterapia (Bioquimioterapia) para optimizar el tratamiento del melanoma metastásico.Several therapeutic strategies such as surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy are being used to treat cancer. However, in the case of melanomas, only surgery during the early stages (stages I-II) of the disease can be curative in a high proportion of patients. Chemotherapy treatment with dacarbazine (DTIC) as well as combinations with cisplatin, vinblastine and carmustine proves to be ineffective to eliminate melanoma cells, since only 10% of patients responded positively without prolonging survival. Chemoresistance can be caused by both a lack of primary response of the melanoma and the development of resistance mechanisms acquired by the tumor usually defined as multi-drug resistance (MDR).The most important mechanisms responsible for such resistance and how the knowledge of those mechanisms is applied to the development of new therapeutic agents are analyzed in this article. Finally, the latest strategies that combine chemotherapy and immunotherapy (Biochemotherapy) to optimize the treatment of metastatic melanoma will be further discussed.

María Marcela Barrio

2009-01-01

53

Malignant melanoma - cutaneous metastases  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Melanoma composed of melanocytes may arise in the skin or other tissues harboring melanocytes, such muco-cutaneous junctions, mucosa including the conjunctiva, iris, choroids and substantia nigra. Metastases to the skin and subcutaneous tissues from a malignant melanoma are less common. A case of multiple painless nodules on the body that revealed metastatic deposits of melanoma on histopathological examination is being reported.

Padmavathy L; Rao L; Ethirajan N; Swamy B

2008-01-01

54

Primary melanoma of testis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Primary melanoma of testis is extremely rare and even the existence of such an entity is questioned. We present the case of a 60-year-old man with primary malignant melanoma in the testis. We report this case to emphasize the need for awareness of the possibility of the testis being the primary site in the patient with a melanoma and to underline the necessity of meticulous investigation of suspicious lesions of the testis in patients with or without a past history of malignant melanoma.

Katiyar R; Singh Abhishek; Kumar Deepak

2008-01-01

55

[Dermoscopy on subungual melanoma].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

UNLABELLED: Subungual melanoma is a rare, but one of the diagnostically most difficult variants of melanoma. Unfortunately, due to its late detection, lack of an early reaction from the patient and diagnosis in advanced stages, subungual melanoma is deemed as a prognostically unfavorable variant of this malignancy. Diagnosis of subungual melanoma is very difficult to establish merely on the basis of clinical examination due to the resemblance of subungual hematoma to melanocytic nevus, fungal or bacterial infections. Dermoscopy seems to be the ideal diagnostic tool in the differential diagnosis of this life-threatening disease. AIMS: To describe the basic aspects of dermoscopy of subungual melanoma and other conditions involving the nails. METHODS: Review of medical database PubMed for the literature of the last 10 years on the dermoscopic patterns of subungual melanoma and other subungual diseases. RESULTS: We collate the fundamental rules of performing dermoscopy in subungual melanoma, as well as basic dermoscopic features and diagnostic algorithms of selected subungual lesions requiring differentiation from melanoma. CONCLUSIONS: Dermoscopy is a safe, easily repeatable diagnostic method, and the knowledge of basic dermoscopic patterns of developing melanoma in subungual localization, along with the differential diagnosis of other diseases within the nail plate, will help not only dermatologists, but also the professionals of other specialties, such as surgeons, oncologists, orthopedists, and also general practitioners.

Kami?ska-Winciorek G; Spiewak R

2013-01-01

56

Clínica del melanoma/ Clinical manifestations of melanoma  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish El melanoma es un tumor maligno originado en los melanocitos, cuya incidencia y mortalidad han aumentado en las últimas décadas. Sus factores de riesgo más importantes son la susceptibilidad genética relacionada con sensibilidad al sol (capacidad para broncearse y tendencia a las quemaduras) y con ciertos genes especíLcos; factores ambientales tales como la exposición a la radiación UV, latitud y una combinación de ambos, como la cantidad de nevos. Sus formas clí (more) nicas son: melanoma extensivo superLcial (70%), nodular (15-30%), lentigo maligno (10-15%) y acrolentiginoso (5%). De todas las características histológicas, el espesor de Brelow (medido en mm desde la granulosa hasta el punto más profundo de penetración tumoral) es el predictor de sobrevida más importante. El tratamiento quirúrgico adecuado con 1 cm de margen en aquellos pacientes de bajo riesgo (Breslow Abstract in english Melanoma is a malignant tumor that originates in melanocytes and whose incidence and mortality have increased in the last decades. The most important risk factors are a genetic susceptibility related to sun sensitivity (having tanning capacity and being prone to sunburn) and with certain speci1c genes; environmental factors such as exposure to UV radiation, latitude and a combination of both such as the number of nevis. Its clinical forms are: super1cial spreading melanom (more) a (70%), nodular melanoma (15-30%), lentigo maligna melanoma (10-15%) and acral lentiginous melanoma (5%). Among all the histological characteristics, Breslow's depth (measured in mm from the granular layer of the epidermis to the deepest point of tumor invasion) is the most important predictor for progression free survival. An appropriate surgical treatment with 1-cm margin melanomas in low-risk patients (Breslow

Mordoh, Ana

2009-09-01

57

Aspirin and Melanoma  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... right-hand corner of the player. Aspirin and Melanoma HealthDay March 21, 2013 Related MedlinePlus Pages Pain ... who took aspirin were less likely to develop melanoma skin cancer, the deadliest form of the disease. ...

58

Management of Melanoma Families  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

In this review we have aimed to focus on the clinical management of familial melanoma patients and their relatives. Along this line three major topics will be discussed: (1) management/screening of familial melanoma families: what is advised and what is the evidence thereof; (2) variability of famil...

Wilma Bergman; Nelleke A. Gruis

59

[Primary bronchial melanoma].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The paper describes 4 cases of primary bronchial melanoma. The primacy of the tumor was established in all cases, by ruling out primary melanoma at another site (skin, nasal mucosae, and bowel), the presence of intraepithelial melanocytic proliferation in the areas of the metaplastic bronchial epithelium.

2013-03-01

60

Translational research in melanoma.  

Science.gov (United States)

Recent breakthroughs in the fundamental understanding of the cellular and molecular basis of melanoma have culminated in new therapies with unquestionable efficacy. Immunotherapy and targeted therapy strategies have completely transformed the contemporary management of advanced melanoma. The translational research behind these developments is discussed, with an emphasis on immune checkpoint blockade and inhibition of the mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathway. PMID:24012399

Ray, Madhury; Farma, Jeffrey M; Hsu, Cary

2013-07-29

 
 
 
 
61

Malignant Melanoma of the Foot  

Science.gov (United States)

... of the Foot Text Size Print Bookmark Malignant Melanoma of the Foot What is Malignant Melanoma? Melanoma is a cancer that begins in the cells ... produce pigmentation (coloration). It is also called malignant melanoma because it spreads to other areas of the ...

62

Melanoma do aparelho ungueal Nail apparatus melanoma  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available O melanoma do aparelho ungueal é apresentação relativamente rara dessa neoplasia, muitas vezes diagnosticada como nevo juncional, hematoma subungueal ou mesmo onicomicose. Esse fato leva a um atraso no diagnóstico e, conseqüentemente, na instituição da terapêutica específica, contribuindo para agravar o prognóstico de uma doença que por si só já é muito agressiva. Os autores relatam um caso de melanoma no primeiro quirodáctilo esquerdo de uma paciente negra com evolução de um ano, ressaltando a importância de avaliar certos critérios clínicos para obter o diagnóstico em fases mais precoces da doença.Nail apparatus melanoma is a rare presentation of melanoma and may be misdiagnosed as junctional nevus, subungual hematoma or onychomycosis. This fact often leads initially to inappropriate treatment and significant delays in appropriately managing such an aggressive disease. The authors report a case of melanoma on the left thumb of a black patient evolving for a year. Emphasis was placed on the importance of assessing certain clinical characteristics in order to reach an early diagnosis.

Ignez Regina dos Santos Muri Mendonça; Bernard Kawa Kac; Renata Teixeira da Silva; Letícia Pereira Spinelli; Renata Rodrigues Orofino; Janine Ribeiro França

2004-01-01

63

Melanoma do aparelho ungueal/ Nail apparatus melanoma  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese O melanoma do aparelho ungueal é apresentação relativamente rara dessa neoplasia, muitas vezes diagnosticada como nevo juncional, hematoma subungueal ou mesmo onicomicose. Esse fato leva a um atraso no diagnóstico e, conseqüentemente, na instituição da terapêutica específica, contribuindo para agravar o prognóstico de uma doença que por si só já é muito agressiva. Os autores relatam um caso de melanoma no primeiro quirodáctilo esquerdo de uma paciente negra (more) com evolução de um ano, ressaltando a importância de avaliar certos critérios clínicos para obter o diagnóstico em fases mais precoces da doença. Abstract in english Nail apparatus melanoma is a rare presentation of melanoma and may be misdiagnosed as junctional nevus, subungual hematoma or onychomycosis. This fact often leads initially to inappropriate treatment and significant delays in appropriately managing such an aggressive disease. The authors report a case of melanoma on the left thumb of a black patient evolving for a year. Emphasis was placed on the importance of assessing certain clinical characteristics in order to reach an early diagnosis.

Mendonça, Ignez Regina dos Santos Muri; Kac, Bernard Kawa; Silva, Renata Teixeira da; Spinelli, Letícia Pereira; Orofino, Renata Rodrigues; França, Janine Ribeiro

2004-10-01

64

Familial malignant melanoma  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Characteristics associated with familial compared with nonfamilial malignant melanoma were assessed. These data were obtained from consecutive prospectively completed questionnaires on 1169 cases of cutaneous malignant melanoma. Of these, 69 patients indicated a positive family history for this cancer. Among the various clinical and histological variables compared, those that significantly correlated with the familial occurrence of malignant melanoma include younger age at first diagnosis, smaller diameter of the lesion, lower Clark level, decreased frequency of nonmelanoma skin cancer, and reduced prevalence of noncutaneous cancer. Increased awareness of malignant melanoma among family members could account for some of these observations. Identification of the familial variety of malignant melanoma has practical implications concerning early detection and prompt intervention.

Kopf, A.W.; Hellman, L.J.; Rogers, G.S.; Gross, D.F.; Rigel, D.S.; Friedman, R.J.; Levenstein, M.; Brown, J.; Golomb, F.M.; Roses, D.F.; Gumport, S.L.

1986-10-10

65

Interleukin-6 and melanoma  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is a pleiotropic immunomodulatory cytokine produced by various types of cells, including melanoma cells. IL-6 plays a major role in the pathogenesis and development of malignancies. It promotes tumour growth by inhibition of apoptosis and induces tumour angiogenesis. IL-6 is deregulated in many types of cancers, and increased serum concentration of IL-6 has been correlated with a worse prognosis in patients with different cancers, including melanoma. Several serum cytokines including IL-6 play an important role in the development and progression of melanoma; however, the specific biological functions of IL-6 in progression of melanoma are unknown. In this review, we present studies on cell cultures and mouse models and summarize published clinical studies on IL-6 and melanoma.

Hoejberg, Lise; Bastholt, Lars

2012-01-01

66

The morphologic universe of melanoma.  

Science.gov (United States)

Differentiating dysplastic nevi from melanoma remains one of the main objectives of dermoscopy. Melanomas tend not to manifest any of the benign patterns described for nevi and instead usually display chaotic dermoscopic morphologies. Melanomas located on the face, chronically sun-damaged skin, volar surfaces, nails, and mucosal surfaces have additional features that can assist in their identification. However, some melanomas lack any defined dermoscopic structures. These so-called featureless melanomas can be identified via digital surveillance. This article reviews the melanoma-specific structures as a function of anatomic location (ie, melanomas on nonglabrous skin, face, volar surfaces, mucosae, and nails). PMID:24075548

Jaimes, Natalia; Marghoob, Ashfaq A

2013-10-01

67

Amelanotic melanoma of the tongue.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Malignant melanoma of the oral cavity is a rare lesion, with an incidence of about 0.2% to 0.8% of all melanomas. Melanoma of tongue is still rarer and represents less than 2% of oro-nasal melanoma cases. We report a rare case of amelanotic melanoma of the tongue in a young man. The importance of consideration of melanoma in the differential diagnosis of oral cavity lesions is discussed since mucosal melanoma carries a bad prognosis and early diagnosis is vital.

Venugopal M; Renuka I; Bala GS; Seshaiah N

2013-01-01

68

Amelanotic melanoma of the tongue.  

Science.gov (United States)

Malignant melanoma of the oral cavity is a rare lesion, with an incidence of about 0.2% to 0.8% of all melanomas. Melanoma of tongue is still rarer and represents less than 2% of oro-nasal melanoma cases. We report a rare case of amelanotic melanoma of the tongue in a young man. The importance of consideration of melanoma in the differential diagnosis of oral cavity lesions is discussed since mucosal melanoma carries a bad prognosis and early diagnosis is vital. PMID:23798843

Venugopal, M; Renuka, Iv; Bala, G Saila; Seshaiah, N

2013-01-01

69

Radiotherapy resistance of malignant melanoma  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The efficiency of radiotherapy of malignant melanoma is discussed according to observations by other clinicians and ourselves. There is no proof that the melanoma is radiotherapy-resistant. The clinical radiosensitivity of human melanoma can be compared with the experimental hamster or mice melanoma or with the sensitivity of cultured melanoma cells. The possibility of increasing the efficiency of radiotherapy in the future by electroaffine sensitizers, fast electrons, or neutrons with a high LET and a small OER is mentioned.

Storck, H.

1982-01-01

70

A disguised Melanoma Melanoma disfrazado Um Melanoma “mascarado”  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Melanoma is a tumor that develops as a result of the malignant transformation of the melanocytes. There is a worldwide estimate of 132,000 new cases per year. This case study presents a 70-year-old male person with history of Diabetes Mellitus type 2 for 10 years and extensive psoriasis vulgaris for 6 years. The patient developed an ulcerated lesion in the plantar region of the right foot in one-year time period. The histological examination revealed an ulcerated malignant melanoma, Clark level V, 5.6 mm thick (Breslow). The lesion was surgically removed and the sentinel lymph node biopsy was negative. Initial conclusions revealed an advanced state of evolution of the primary tumor (TNM IIC). CAT scan detected gastric metastasis, reclassifying the illness as a TNM IV stage. Malignant melanoma may be difficult to diagnose, as it was possible to observe in this case study, where a foot ulcer was late diagnosed, delaying the diagnosis of a severe neoplasia with high mortality rate. El melanoma es un tumor que se desarrolla como resultado de la transformación maligna de los melanocitos, estimándose su incidencia global en 132,000 casos/año. Este informe presenta a un paciente de sexo masculino de 70 años, con antecedentes de Diabetes Mellitus tipo 2 desde hace diez años y psoriasis vulgar extensa desde hace seis años. En aproximadamente un año el paciente desarrolló una lesión ulcerada en la región plantar del pie derecho, el examen histológico reveló un melanoma maligno, ulcerado, nivel V de Clark, de 5.6 mm de espesor (Breslow). Después de una escisión quirúrgica de la lesión, se realizó una biopsia de ganglio centinela que fue negativa. Las conclusiones iniciales revelaron una evolución avanzada del tumor primario (TNM IIC). Exámenes radiológicos detectaron una metástasis gástrica, reclasificando la enfermedad en una etapa TNM IV. El melanoma maligno puede ser de difícil diagnóstico, como se puede ver en este caso en que una úlcera en la planta del pie fue diagnosticada muy tarde, atrasando el diagnóstico de una neoplasia grave y de elevada tasa de mortalidad. O melanoma é um tumor que se desenvolve como resultado da transformação maligna dos melanócitos, estimando-se a sua incidência global em 132.000 casos/ano. Este relato de caso reporta-se a um doente do sexo masculino com 70 anos, história de Diabetes Mellitus tipo 2 há dez anos e psoríase vulgar extensa há seis anos. Em aproximadamente um ano, este desenvolveu lesão ulcerada da região plantar do pé direito, que ao exame histológico revelou melanoma maligno, ulcerado, nível V de Clark, com 5,6 mm de espessura (Breslow). Foi submetido à exérese cirúrgica da lesão e biópsia de gânglio sentinela que foi negativa. O estadiamento inicial revelou evolução avançada do tumor primário (TNM IIC). Exames imagiológicos detetaram metastização gástrica, reclassificando a doença num estádio TNM IV. O melanoma maligno pode ser de difícil diagnóstico como se pode constatar neste caso em que uma ulceração plantar foi avaliada tardiamente, atrasando o diagnóstico de uma neoplasia grave e com elevada taxa de mortalidade.

Cláudia Sofia Rego; Ana Luísa Silva; Elias Ribeiro

2012-01-01

71

Management of Melanoma Families  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In this review we have aimed to focus on the clinical management of familial melanoma patients and their relatives. Along this line three major topics will be discussed: (1) management/screening of familial melanoma families: what is advised and what is the evidence thereof; (2) variability of families worldwide with regard to clinical phenotype, including cancer spectrum and likelihood of finding germline mutations and (3) background information for clinicians on the molecular biology of familial melanoma and recent developments in this field.

Wilma Bergman; Nelleke A. Gruis

2010-01-01

72

Nodular Melanoma Mimicking Keratoacanthoma  

Science.gov (United States)

A 67-year-old man of Chinese descent presented with a painless nodular lesion that had been present on his right forearm for the previous 3 months. A single, well-defined, dome-shaped, firm nodule with a central keratin plug surrounded by erythema was noted. Keratoacanthoma with secondary bacterial infection was suspected and the patient underwent an excision biopsy. Biopsy of the nodule and immunohistochemical staining supported a diagnosis of nodular malignant melanoma. It should be noted both that nodular malignant melanoma may present with a wide variety of clinical appearances, and that the lack of melanin pigment in nodular malignant melanoma may hinder the diagnosis of this aggressive tumour.

Muthupalaniappen, Leelavathi; Das, Srijit; Md Nor, Norazirah; Ali, Siti A. M.

2012-01-01

73

Quimiorresistencia del melanoma/ Chemoresistance to melanoma  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish Varias estrategias terapéuticas como la cirugía, radioterapia y quimioterapia están siendo utilizadas para tratar el cáncer. Sin embargo, en el caso del melanoma solamente la cirugía en las etapas tempranas de la enfermedad (estadíos I-II) puede ser curativa en una alta proporción de pacientes. El tratamiento quimioterápico con dacarbacina (DTIC) así como combinaciones con cisplatino, vinblastina y carmustina resulta ineficaz para eliminar las células de melanom (more) a, ya que sólo se alcanza una respuesta en alrededor del 10% de los pacientes sin prolongar la sobrevida. La quimiorresistencia puede deberse tanto a una falta de respuesta primaria del melanoma como al desarrollo de mecanismos de resistencia adquiridos por el tumor, comúnmente definidos como multi-resistencia a drogas (MDR). En este artículo se analizan los principales mecanismos responsables de dicha resistencia y cómo el conocimiento de los mismos es aplicado al desarrollo de nuevos agentes terapéuticos. Por último, se discuten las recientes estrategias que combinan la quimioterapia con la inmunoterapia (Bioquimioterapia) para optimizar el tratamiento del melanoma metastásico. Abstract in english Several therapeutic strategies such as surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy are being used to treat cancer. However, in the case of melanomas, only surgery during the early stages (stages I-II) of the disease can be curative in a high proportion of patients. Chemotherapy treatment with dacarbazine (DTIC) as well as combinations with cisplatin, vinblastine and carmustine proves to be ineffective to eliminate melanoma cells, since only 10% of patients responded positively (more) without prolonging survival. Chemoresistance can be caused by both a lack of primary response of the melanoma and the development of resistance mechanisms acquired by the tumor usually defined as multi-drug resistance (MDR).The most important mechanisms responsible for such resistance and how the knowledge of those mechanisms is applied to the development of new therapeutic agents are analyzed in this article. Finally, the latest strategies that combine chemotherapy and immunotherapy (Biochemotherapy) to optimize the treatment of metastatic melanoma will be further discussed.

Barrio, María Marcela

2009-09-01

74

Molecular Testing in Melanoma  

Science.gov (United States)

Melanoma is the deadliest form of skin cancer and is increasing in incidence. Recent treatment advances have been made, but there remains a need for continued development of effective therapy options, as treatment rarely leads to cure. Many melanomas contain somatic mutations involved tumor pathogenesis. Accurate identification of these mutations is necessary in order to stratify patients for the purpose of treatment and potential for clinical trials, given the absence or presence of a specific mutation. There are a number of techniques available that will identify genetic mutations and genomic aberrations present within melanoma tumor samples which are reviewed here. The type of mutation and sample number will drive selection of a given mutation detection strategy. The strengths and weaknesses, along with limitations, of the various methods will also be discussed. The discovery of somatic mutations integral in melanoma will increase our understanding of tumor pathogenesis and should facilitate identification of mutations relevant to clinical treatment decisions, advancing progress towards personalized medicine.

Wilson, Melissa Ann; Nathanson, Katherine L.

2012-01-01

75

Molecular testing in melanoma.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Melanoma is the deadliest form of skin cancer and is increasing in incidence. Recent treatment advances have been made, but there remains a need for continued development of effective therapy options, as treatment rarely leads to cure. Many melanomas contain somatic mutations involved in tumor pathogenesis. Accurate identification of these mutations is necessary to stratify patients for the purpose of treatment and potential for clinical trials, given the absence or presence of a specific mutation. There are a number of techniques available that will identify genetic mutations and genomic aberrations present within melanoma tumor samples which are reviewed here. The type of mutation and sample number will drive selection of a given mutation detection strategy. The strengths and weaknesses, along with limitations, of the various methods will also be discussed. The discovery of somatic mutations integral in melanoma will increase our understanding of tumor pathogenesis and should facilitate identification of mutations relevant to clinical treatment decisions, advancing progress toward personalized medicine.

Wilson MA; Nathanson KL

2012-03-01

76

Disseminated malignant melanoma  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A 25-year-old man had multiple asymptomatic, nodular lesions on the trunk, extremities and the face for 3 months. He also had left facial palsy with severe headache and vomiting. There were no other systemic or constitutional symptoms. Skin biopsy from a nodular lesion showed features of malignant melanoma, confirmed by Fontana Masson and S-100 protein staining. A diagnosis of disseminated malignant melanoma was made and the patient was treated symptomatically. The patient died in 4 months.

Verma Kaushal; D?Souza Paschal; Sirka C; Raman R; Rathi Sanjay

1999-01-01

77

Trigeminal Melanoma Metastasis.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We present the case of a 70-year-old patient presented to our institution for paresthesia of the right hemiface associated with dysarthria in aggravation since 1 year. He was diagnosed with right trigeminal melanoma metastasis. This case is characterized by a thickening of the right trigeminal nerve from his cisternal segment to his mandibular branch V3. MRI demonstrated an intensive perineural spread by a melanotic melanoma.

Tritschler P; Rezazadeh Azar A; De Coene B; Maraite N; Michotte A

2013-01-01

78

Metastatic melanoma and pregnancy  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Pregnancy after complete treatment of metastatic melanoma is an extremely rare event. We presented a case of a skin melanoma patient with lung and liver metastases who was treated by combined immunochemotherapy for the period of two years. A year and a half after the successful treatment, which resulted a complete remission of metastatic lesions she got pregnant and delivered a healthy baby girl.

Nikolin Borislava L.; Šveljo Olivera

2005-01-01

79

Surgical management of melanoma.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Traditionally, melanoma has been considered by surgeons to be a highly lethal malignancy, always requiring a radical surgical approach for optimal chance of cure. Yet melanoma patients who are now being referred for treatment frequently have small early lesions, and surgeons should develop a flexible attitude about management, limiting the size of their excisions and deferring node dissections in many early cases. An aggressive, radical approach remains appropriate for large lesions, progressively enlarging nodes and locally recurrent but not disseminated disease.

Patterson WB

1979-06-01

80

Surgical management of melanoma.  

Science.gov (United States)

Traditionally, melanoma has been considered by surgeons to be a highly lethal malignancy, always requiring a radical surgical approach for optimal chance of cure. Yet melanoma patients who are now being referred for treatment frequently have small early lesions, and surgeons should develop a flexible attitude about management, limiting the size of their excisions and deferring node dissections in many early cases. An aggressive, radical approach remains appropriate for large lesions, progressively enlarging nodes and locally recurrent but not disseminated disease. PMID:479440

Patterson, W B

1979-06-01

 
 
 
 
81

Primary malignant melanoma of prostate  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Primary genitourinary melanoma accounts for less than one per cent of all cases of melanoma. Most cases attributed to the prostate actually originate from the prostatic urethra. Due to its infrequency, primary malignant melanoma of the genitourinary tract presents a difficult diagnostic and management challenge. We report a case of primary malignant melanoma of the prostate found during transurethral resection of the prostate.

Doublali M; Chouaib A; Khallouk A; Tazi M; El Fassi M; Farih My; Elfatmi H; Bendahou M; Benlemlih A; Lamarti O

2010-01-01

82

Surgical management of melanoma.  

Science.gov (United States)

Historically, the surgical management for melanoma was ossified for nearly 50 years with the standard of care being wide local excisions with 5-cm margins. Several clinical studies have now brought to light new data that have enabled academic groups such as the American Joint Committee on Cancer and the National Comprehensive Cancer Network to update surgical guidelines reliant on evidence with long-term follow-up. In addition, basic research at the bench has dispelled the myth that all melanomas are genetically identical and behave in a homogeneous way on the basis of the Breslow depth of the original tumor. It is now known that although all melanomas arise from the melanocyte, melanoma encompasses a variety of cancers that are genetically distinct with variable predicted outcomes often associated with the anatomic location of the tumor. This article cites the evidence on which the current surgical guidelines are based and it addresses some of the ongoing controversies regarding the surgical management of the various types of melanoma. PMID:24037929

Bowen, Glen M

2013-09-13

83

Malignant melanoma of the vulva: an extension of cutaneous melanoma?  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To determine the prognostic significance of the 2002 revisions of the American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) Staging System for cutaneous melanoma in melanoma of the vulva and review the current surgical utilized for treatment of this neoplasm. METHODS: Demographic, surgical and outcomes data were obtained from the records of vulvar melanoma patients treated from 1990 to 2006 at five academic medical centers. The 2002 modifications of the AJCC staging system for cutaneous melanoma, Breslow thickness and Clark level, were applied to all subjects. Kaplan-Meier Modeling and Linear Regression analysis were utilized for data analysis. Statistics were performed with SAS v 9.1. RESULTS: Seventy-seven patients were identified with a median age of 62 years. 73% had Stage I/II disease. Surgical radicality did not impact recurrence rates or survival. Breslow thickness was associated with recurrence (p=0.002) but not survival. Only the 2002 modified AJCC staging criteria were predictive of overall survival (p=0.006) in patients with malignant melanoma of the vulva. CONCLUSIONS: In the largest multi-site series of vulvar melanoma, the AJCC-2002 staging system for cutaneous malignant melanoma appears to be applicable to primary vulvar melanoma. Moreover, surgical radicality was associated with significant morbidity but not with improvement in survival. Utilization of standard operative staging and resection principles in cutaneous melanoma should be used for all vulvar melanoma patients. Moreover, these patients should also be considered for enrollment in cutaneous melanoma clinical trials.

Moxley KM; Fader AN; Rose PG; Case AS; Mutch DG; Berry E; Schink JC; Kim CH; Chi DS; Moore KN

2011-09-01

84

Biochemical markers of malignant melanoma.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The excretion of Thormählen positive melanogens (TPM), zincuria, serum dopaoxidase activity of tyrosinase and serum sialic acid were determined in 60 patients with primary and/or metastatic cutaneous melanoma and in 20 healthy persons. On the basis of our results we can recommend the following of TPM urinary excretion and serum dopaoxidase activity in the course of malignant melanoma as specific markers of the tumor growth. The following of serum sialic acid in the course of malignant melanoma is valuable from the standpoint of prognosis of the disease. The following of zincuria in the course of malignant melanoma is not recommended because of its low value for monitoring melanoma patients.

Matous B; Cigánek EF; Bud?sínská A; Duchon J

1987-01-01

85

Cabozantinib-S-Malate Compared With Temozolomide or Dacarbazine in Treating Patients With Melanoma of the Eye  

Science.gov (United States)

Ciliary Body and Choroid Melanoma, Medium/Large Size; Ciliary Body and Choroid Melanoma, Small Size; Iris Melanoma; Metastatic Intraocular Melanoma; Recurrent Intraocular Melanoma; Stage IIIA Intraocular Melanoma; Stage IIIB Intraocular Melanoma; Stage IIIC Intraocular Melanoma; Stage IV Intraocular Melanoma

2013-09-13

86

Microinvasive melanoma: cutaneous pharmacotherapeutic approaches.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Surgical excision is the treatment of choice for primary melanomas and radiation therapy is the accepted alternative for the subset of lesions not amenable to surgery. With the recent rise in melanoma incidence, especially in the elderly, there are a growing number of cases that are neither amenable to surgery nor radiation therapy. In this article, we review pharmacotherapeutic approaches to microinvasive melanoma (invasive radial growth phase melanoma) that might be considered in such circumstances. There are no approved drugs for the treatment of primary melanoma and randomized controlled trials with 5 or more years of follow-up have not been performed. The limited studies and numerous case series in the literature on pharmacologic treatment of primary melanoma have focused on topical therapies. Accordingly, we provide a review of the potential pharmacotherapeutic agents in the treatment of microinvasive melanoma by extrapolating from the available limited literature on the use of fluorouracil, azelaic acid, retinoic acid derivatives, interferon (IFN)-?, imiquimod, and other agents for melanoma in situ, invasive melanoma, and epidermotropic melanoma metastases. Our review indicates that topical fluorouracil and tretinoin are not effective as single agents. The efficacy of azelaic acid, tazarotene, cidofovir, and intralesional IFN-?, interleukin-2, and IFN-? is undefined. Imiquimod is the most studied and promising agent; however, optimal dosage, therapeutic regimen, and survival rates are unknown. In the face of a growing demand for non-surgical treatments, formal clinical trials are needed to ascertain the role of pharmacotherapeutic agents in the treatment of microinvasive melanoma.

Quigley EA; Halpern AC

2013-04-01

87

Basic and clinical aspects of malignant melanoma  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This book contains the following 10 chapters: The role of oncogenes in the pathogenesis of malignant melanoma; Laminin and fibronectin modulate the metastatic activity of melanoma cells; Structure, function and biosynthesis of ganglioside antigens associated with human tumors derived from the neuroectoderm; Epidemiology of ocular melanoma; Malignant melanoma: Prognostic factors; Endocrine influences on the natural history of human malignant melanoma; Psychosocial factors associated with prognostic indicators, progression, psychophysiology, and tumor-host response in cutaneous malignant melanoma; Central nervous system metastases in malignant melanoma; Interferon trials in the management of malignant melanoma and other neoplasms: an overview; and The treatment of malignant melanoma by fast neutrons.

Nathanson, L. (Health Sciences Center, State Univ. of New York at Stony Brook, Stony Brook, NY (US))

1987-01-01

88

Angiogenesis and Melanoma  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Angiogenesis occurs in pathological conditions, such as tumors, where a specific critical point in tumor progression is the transition from the avascular to the vascular phase. Tumor angiogenesis depends mainly on the release by neoplastic cells of growth factors specific for endothelial cells, which are able to stimulate the growth of the host’s blood vessels. This article summarizes the literature concerning the relationship between angiogenesis and human melanoma progression. The recent applications of antiangiogenic agents which interfere with melanoma progression are also described.

Domenico Ribatti; Tiziana Annese; Vito Longo

2010-01-01

89

MIR genes in Melanoma  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

On the basis of the previous project, further studies have been performed on the expression of selected miR genes in normal melanocytes and in melanoma cell lines, using real-time reverse transcription-PCR (qRT-PCR). In particular, we have analyzed the expression of 8 miR genes (i.e. 17-5p, 18a, 20a, 92a, 146a, 146b, 155, 221) in 10 different melanocyte cultures obtained from skin biopsies of 10 different healthy donors, and in 14 long-term human melanoma cell cultures

2009-01-01

90

Melanoma genetics: the other side.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Although melanoma has traditionally been regarded as a uniformly fatal malignancy, personalized treatment of this cancer relies on the recognition of its genetic heterogeneity and our ability to pharmacologically target these specific and recurrent changes. Recent advances in the treatment of melanoma have come from the understanding that melanoma is a large family of molecularly distinct diseases. Advances in melanoma genetics and new molecular technology, such as whole-exome and whole-genome sequencing, have lead to unprecedented progress in understanding the key oncogenes and signaling pathways involved in the pathogenesis and progression of melanoma. In addition, we have gained an appreciation for the complexity of such a system with numerous points of cross talk, which has partially impeded our current therapeutic strategies in patients with advanced melanoma. In this review, we focus on the novel discoveries in melanoma genetics and the potential for therapeutic options.

Bis S; Tsao H

2013-03-01

91

Melanoma e inmunidad Melanoma and immunity  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available La teoría de la inmunovigilancia postula que el sistema inmune es capaz de detectar células cancerosas reconociendo sus características particulares y eliminarlas previniendo la progresión del cáncer. Sin embargo, dicho proceso no es absolutamente eficaz, identificándose tres etapas propuestas para explicar la aparición de los tumores: en la primera (Eliminación) el sistema inmune es capaz de destruir células neoplásicas básicamente mediante efectores de la inmunidad innata; en la fase de Equilibrio, se inducen efectores específicos que reconocen y destruyen al tumor pero también se genera una presión de selección sobre las células tumorales generando variantes neoplásicas mutadas. Por último, en la etapa de Escape, las variantes del tumor que sobreviven se vuelven resistentes al reconocimiento y/o eliminación por los efectores inmunes y el tumor crece. En este artículo se presentan los principales antígenos (Ags) asociados al melanoma, las diversas estrategias terapéuticas que utilizan a estos Ags como blanco para inducir inmunidad, así como la existencia de los mecanismos de escape tumoral en el melanoma. Se analizan las evidencias más recientes acerca de cómo el microambiente tumoral condiciona la efectividad de la inmunidad celular específica evidenciando la necesidad actual de explorar terapias que combinen la acción de efectores de la inmunidad innata y la específica antitumoral, a la vez que modulen el microambiente tumoral para favorecer su acción.The immunosurveillance theory states that the immune system is capable of detecting cancer cells recognizing their particular characteristics and of eliminating them to prevent cancer progression. However, such process is not completely effective. Three stages proposed to explain the emergence of tumors can be identified in the process: in the first stage (Elimination) the immune system is capable of destroying neoplasic cells basically by means of innate immunity effectors; in the second (Equilibrium) stage, specific effectors that recognize and destroy the tumor are induced, but on the other hand, selection pressure is generated on tumor cells, originating mutated neoplasic variants. Finally, in the Escape stage, the tumor variants that survive become more resistant to identification and /or elimination by the immune effectors and consequently the tumor grows. The main melanoma-associated Ags, the various therapeutical strategies using these Ags as targets to induce immunity, as well as the existence of tumor escape mechanisms in the melanoma will be introduced in this chapter. Furthermore, the latest evidence on how tumor microenvironment determines the effectiveness of specific cell immunity will be analyzed, proving the present need of exploring therapies that both combine the action of innate immunity effectors and the anti-tumor specific effectors, and modulate the tumor microenvironment to favour its actions.

María Marcela Barrio

2009-01-01

92

Primary pineal malignant melanoma  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Primary pineal malignant melanoma is a rare entity, with only thirteen cases reported in the world literature to date. We report a case of a 70-year-old man, who consulted with gait disturbance of six months duration, associated in the last month with dizziness, visual abnormalities and diplopia. No...

Oderay Mabel Cedeño Díaz; Roberto Garcia Leal; Cesar La Cruz Pelea

93

Acral lentiginous melanoma  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A 45-year-old man with acral lentiginous melanoma (AJCC Stage IV) of the left sole and lymph node metastasis is described. Three cycles of palliative combination chemotherapy administered to him resulted in the decrease of inguinal lump, however, the lesion over sole showed no variation.

Khandpur S; N Reddy B

2000-01-01

94

Malignant melanoma of nose  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Malignant melanoma (MM) is one of the uncommon malignancies of the nose. We present an unusually big proliferative like MM in the vestibule of the nose. Malignancy of nose constitutes less than 1% of all malignancies (3% of head & neck tumour). MM however contributes only 2% of all malignant neoplas...

Kundu, I. N.; Haldar, B.; Saha, A. K.

95

Radiopharmaceuticals targeting melanoma  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Melanoma is one of the most aggressive cancers known with a high rate of mortality and increasing global incidence. So, the development of radiopharmaceuticals for either diagnostic or therapeutic purposes could make enormous contributions to melanoma patient health care. We have been studying melanoma tumours through several targeting mechanisms including melanin or specific receptor based radiopharmaceuticals Structure activity studies indicate that the substitution patterns on radioiodinated benzamides significantly influence the uptake mechanism from melanin to sigma-receptor binding. Furthermore, the position of the iodine as well as the presence of key functional groups and substituents has resulted in compounds with varying degrees of activity uptake and retention in tumours. From these results, a novel molecule 2-(2-(4-(4-iodo benzyl)piperazin-1-yl)-2-oxo-ethyl)isoindoline- 1,3-dione (M.E.L.037) was synthesized, labelled with iodine-123 and evaluated for application in melanoma tumour scintigraphy and radiotherapy. The tumour imaging potential of {sup 123}IM.E.L.037 was studied in vivo in C.57 B.L./ 6 J female mice bearing the B.16 F.0. murine melanoma tumour and in BALB/c nude mice bearing the A.375 human amelanotic melanoma tumour by biodistribution, competition studies and by SPECT imaging. {sup 123}I-M.E.L.037 exhibited high and rapid uptake in the B.16 F.0 melanoma tumour at 1 h (13 % I.D./g) increasing with time to reach 25 % I.D./g at 6 h. A significant uptake was also observed in the eyes (2% I.D., at 3-6 h p.i.) of black mice. No uptake was observed in the tumour or in the eyes of nude mice bearing the A.375 tumour. Due to high uptake and long retention in the tumour and rapid body clearance, standardized uptake values(S.U.V.) of {sup 123}I-M.E.L.037 were 30 and 60, at 24 and 48 h p.i.,respectively. SPECT imaging of mice bearing the B.16 melanoma indicated the radioactivity was predominately located in the tumour followed by the eyes, while no specific localisation of the radioactivity was noticed in mice bearing A.375 human amelanotic tumour. In competition experiments,uptake of {sup 123}I-M..E.L.037 in brain, lung, heart and kidney, organs known to contain s-receptors, was not significantly different in haloperidol treated animals compared to controls. Therefore,reduction of uptake in tumour and eyes of the pigmented mice bearing the B.16 F.0 tumour suggested that the mechanism of tumour uptake was likely due to an interaction with melanin.These findings suggested that {sup 123}I-M.E.L.037, which displays a rapid and very high tumour uptake, appeared to be a promising imaging agent for detection of most melanoma tumours with the potential for development as a therapeutic agent in melanoma tumour proliferation. (authors)

Pham, T.Q.; Berghofer, P.; Liu, X.; Greguric, I.; Dikic, B.; Ballantyne, P.; Mattner, F.; Nguyen, V.; Loc' h, C.; Katsifis, A. [Radiopharmaceuticals Research Institute, Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Menai, N.S.W., Sydney (Australia)

2008-02-15

96

Treatment of Melanoma Skin Cancer by Stage  

Science.gov (United States)

... treatment information Treatment of melanoma skin cancer by stage The type of treatment(s) your doctor recommends will ... options usually considered for each stage of melanoma. Stage 0 Stage 0 melanomas have not grown deeper ...

97

CT Findings of Metastatic Melanoma  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Melanoma is a rare tumor of the skin; however, it has the highest mortality rate among these neoplasms, and its incidence continues to increase. Malignant melanoma can metastasize to any part of the body, and the lymph nodes and lungs are the sites most commonly affected. Imaging findings of some of these metastases and of the organs involved are quite characteristic. This article discusses some of the fairly typical imaging findings and locations of metastases to multiple organs in malignant melanoma.

2011-01-01

98

[Melanoma of the nasal septum].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Sinonasal mucosal melanoma is a rare neoplasm, accounting for less than 1% of all melanomas. It is more aggressive than its cutaneous counterpart, with a very poor prognosis. We report a case of melanoma arising from mucosae of the nasal septum in a 73-year-old man. Clinical features, diagnosis, and treatment are described and a review of literature is made. Nasal location and relatively nonspecific symptoms frequently delay diagnosis. Optimal treatment guidelines are not established because of its rare occurrence.

Korska-Szczechowska S; Skorek A; Babi?ski D

2013-03-01

99

[Molecular heterogeneity of malignant melanomas].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Malignant melanomas make up a heterogeneous group of tumors characterized by particular genetic aberrations depending on their anatomic localization and UV exposure. Activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway is found in the majority of melanomas, with either somatic missense mutations of BRAF or, considerably more rarely, mutations of N-RAS. The loss of both products of the CDKN2A gene, proteins p16(ARF) and p14(INK4a), or amplification of microphthalmia-associated transcriptional factor (MITF) are also predisposing factors in the development of melanoma. BRAF mutations are observed mainly in melanomas on skin liable to intermittent UV exposure. Acral and mucosal melanomas, and also melanomas on skin damaged by chronic exposure to the sun are characterized by distinct patterns of chromosomal aberrations with frequent amplifications and alterations of the KIT gene, while BRAF mutations are rarely found in these sites. Uveal melanomas show recurrent chromosomal losses (1p, 3, 6q) and gains (6p, 8q), but mutations of BRAF are hardly ever found. So far, ancillary molecular studies are not regularly applied in the routine diagnostic procedures performed when malignant melanoma is suspected. In the future, however, the development of targeted molecular therapies will require that molecular pathological techniques are used to identify the melanoma patients who will most probably benefit from a particular therapy.

Glatz K

2007-11-01

100

Prostate metastasis of malignant melanoma.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Metastatic malignant melanoma of the prostate is extremely rare in clinical practice, and only one case has been reported in the English literature in the past 30 years. We report a case of malignant melanoma that metastasized to the prostate and review the current literature. A 50-year-old man with a history of malignant melanoma metastasis to the left axilla, which was excised 3 years ago, presented with lower urinary tract symptoms and gross hematuria. He underwent cystoscopy and transurethral resection of the prostate. The pathological examination showed metastatic malignant melanoma of the prostate gland. The patient died 6 months after the transurethral resection.

Balaban M; Selimoglu A; Horuz R; Akca O; Albayrak S

2013-07-01

 
 
 
 
101

Why Is Melanoma So Metastatic?  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Malignant melanoma is one of the most aggressive cancers and can disseminate from a relatively small primary tumor and metastasize to multiple sites, including the lung, liver, brain, bone, and lymph nodes. Elucidating the molecular and genetic changes that take place during the metastatic process has led to a better understanding of why melanoma is so metastatic. Herein, we describe the unique features that distinguish melanoma from other solid tumors and contribute to the malignant phenotype of melanoma cells. For example, although melanoma cells are highly antigenic, they are extremely efficient at evading host immune response. Melanoma cells share numerous cell surface molecules with vascular cells, are highly angiogenic, are mesenchymal in nature, and possess a higher degree of "stemness" than do other solid tumors. Finally, analysis of melanoma mutations has revealed that the gene expression profile of malignant melanoma is different from that of other cancers. Elucidating these molecular and genetic processes in highly metastatic melanoma can lead to the development of improved treatment and individualized therapy options. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

Braeuer RR; Watson IR; Wu CJ; Mobley AK; Kamiya T; Shoshan E; Bar-Eli M

2013-09-01

102

Nodular amelanotic melanoma  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We report a case of 65-year-old male patient who presented with multiple erythematous papules coalescing to form a nodular mass over posterior aspect of right thigh of six months duration. His general and systemic examinations were within normal range except for right inguinal lymphadenopathy. Biopsy from the lesion was done, which showed diffuse infiltrate of nests of atypical melanocytes extending upto reticular dermis. Malignant cells were positive for S100 and human melanin black 45(HMB 45). Hence, a diagnosis of amelanotic melanoma (AM) - Clarke level IV and TNM stage III was reached. MRI of involved leg showed fungating soft tissue mass in the posterolateral aspect of right thigh and metastatic right inguinal adenopathy. Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) from the right inguinal nodes confirmed metastasis of melanoma. The patient was referred to oncosurgery department for further management.

Nalamwar Rashmi; Kharkar Vidya; Mahajan Sunanda; Chikhalkar Sidhhi; Khopkar Uday

2010-01-01

103

Primary pineal malignant melanoma  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Primary pineal malignant melanoma is a rare entity, with only thirteen cases reported in the world literature to date. We report a case of a 70-year-old man, who consulted with gait disturbance of six months duration, associated in the last month with dizziness, visual abnormalities and diplopia. No other additional melanocytic lesions were found elsewhere. The magnetic resonance showed a 25 mm expansive mass in the pineal gland that was associated with hydrocephaly, ventricular and transependimary oedema. The lesion was partially excised by a supracerebellar infratentorial approach. The histological examination revealed a melanoma. The patient received radiation therapy, but died of disease 16 weeks later. We herein review the literature on this rare tumour and comment on its clinical, radiological and histopathological features and differential diagnosis.

Oderay Mabel Cedeño Díaz; Roberto Garcia Leal; Cesar La Cruz Pelea

2011-01-01

104

Inflammation in uveal melanoma.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Leukocytic infiltration is a common feature of human cancers, including those that develop in immunoprivileged sites, such as the eye. The infiltration of myeloid and T cells into tumours is part of the host response against cancer. In uveal melanoma, high densities of immune cells seem to be involved in tumour progression, as they are associated with the loss of one chromosome 3. The nature of this tumour microenvironment might offer therapeutic opportunities.

Bronkhorst IH; Jager MJ

2013-02-01

105

Metastatic melanoma and melanogenuria.  

Science.gov (United States)

We report a case of a 70-year-old Hawaiian man with an exophytic black nodule on the left suprascapular region of several years' duration. Histopathologic examination of the excised lesion showed a nodular melanoma with 17-mm Breslow thickness. The patient had firm fixed lymph nodes circumferentially around his neck. He underwent palliative cervical lymph node dissection to remove the compressive nodes but declined further therapy. One year later, the patient's skin was noted to have a generalized uniformly gray-brown color. Physical examination showed ulcerated masses on his trunk, right arm, and both axillae. A urine specimen initially was dark yellow but turned black after exposure to air at room temperature and ambient light for several minutes. Black urine, termed melanuria, is a rare finding in patients with disseminated melanoma. In melanogenuria, the urine is yellow and darkens as the colorless melanin precursors oxidize in the presence of air. Detection of these urinary melanin precursors may someday help determine the prognosis of melanoma and monitor response to treatment. PMID:22530329

Aivaz, Ohara; Gaertner, Erich M; Norton, Scott A

2012-03-01

106

Metastatic melanoma and melanogenuria.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We report a case of a 70-year-old Hawaiian man with an exophytic black nodule on the left suprascapular region of several years' duration. Histopathologic examination of the excised lesion showed a nodular melanoma with 17-mm Breslow thickness. The patient had firm fixed lymph nodes circumferentially around his neck. He underwent palliative cervical lymph node dissection to remove the compressive nodes but declined further therapy. One year later, the patient's skin was noted to have a generalized uniformly gray-brown color. Physical examination showed ulcerated masses on his trunk, right arm, and both axillae. A urine specimen initially was dark yellow but turned black after exposure to air at room temperature and ambient light for several minutes. Black urine, termed melanuria, is a rare finding in patients with disseminated melanoma. In melanogenuria, the urine is yellow and darkens as the colorless melanin precursors oxidize in the presence of air. Detection of these urinary melanin precursors may someday help determine the prognosis of melanoma and monitor response to treatment.

Aivaz O; Gaertner EM; Norton SA

2012-03-01

107

MicroRNA in Melanoma  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Melanoma is a highly aggressive and deadly skin cancer. Early intervention correlates with nearly 100% patient survival, but greater than 80% mortality is associated with advanced disease. Currently, few treatment options are available for patients with metastatic melanoma, and the global incidence ...

Howell, Paul M.; Li, Xiaobo; Riker, Adam I.; Xi, Yaguang

108

Melanoma and naevi: Incidence, interrelationships and implications  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This book contains 11 chapters. Some of the chapter titles are: Trend with Time of the Incidence of Malignant Melanoma of Skin in White Populations; Classical and Molecular Genetics of Malignant Melanoma and Dysplastic Naevi; Individuals at High Risk of Melanoma (with 1 color plate); Control of Melanoma in High-Risk Populations; and Frequency of Benign Pigmented Naevi in the General Population.

Elwood, J.M.

1988-01-01

109

[Melanocytic nevi, melanoma, and pregnancy].  

Science.gov (United States)

Malignant melanoma is among the malignant tumors whose incidence has risen markedly in recent decades. For many years the medical community debated the potential adverse effects of female hormones (whether of exogenous or pregnancy-related endogenous origin), on melanocytic nevi and malignant melanoma. Given that women have been delaying pregnancy until their thirties or forties and that the incidence of malignant melanoma increases in those decades, the likelihood of this tumor developing during pregnancy has increased. Recent clinical and experimental evidence has suggested that pregnancy does not affect prognosis in malignant melanoma and that it does not seem to lead to significant changes in nevi. This review examines the relationship between malignant melanoma and hormonal and reproductive factors. Evidence was located by MEDLINE search (in PubMed and Ovid) for articles in English and Spanish for the period from 1966 to March 2010; additional sources were found through the reference lists of the identified articles. PMID:21530926

Borges, V; Puig, S; Malvehy, J

2011-04-30

110

[Melanocytic nevi, melanoma, and pregnancy].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Malignant melanoma is among the malignant tumors whose incidence has risen markedly in recent decades. For many years the medical community debated the potential adverse effects of female hormones (whether of exogenous or pregnancy-related endogenous origin), on melanocytic nevi and malignant melanoma. Given that women have been delaying pregnancy until their thirties or forties and that the incidence of malignant melanoma increases in those decades, the likelihood of this tumor developing during pregnancy has increased. Recent clinical and experimental evidence has suggested that pregnancy does not affect prognosis in malignant melanoma and that it does not seem to lead to significant changes in nevi. This review examines the relationship between malignant melanoma and hormonal and reproductive factors. Evidence was located by MEDLINE search (in PubMed and Ovid) for articles in English and Spanish for the period from 1966 to March 2010; additional sources were found through the reference lists of the identified articles.

Borges V; Puig S; Malvehy J

2011-11-01

111

Screening for melanoma in aging patients.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Despite recent advances, there is still no highly effective treatment of metastatic melanoma. By contrast, melanoma in situ essentially is a surgically curable disease. Therefore, the most promising approach to reducing melanoma mortality rates is the prompt detection and treatment of early-stage melanoma. The incidence of melanoma in the United States is increasing over time and the incidence increases with age. Thus early detection of melanoma via patient and physician screening in the aging population has the potential to substantially reduce melanoma mortality.

Wolf J; Harris R; Ferris LK

2013-02-01

112

[Targeted therapy of melanoma: fact or fiction?].  

Science.gov (United States)

Advanced malignant melanoma is incurable by the current means of therapy. Traditional morphological classification (nodular melanoma, lentigo maligna melanoma, nevoid melanoma etc.) does not have any significant prognostic or predictive impact. Recent advances in molecular pathogenesis and the availability of targeted therapies have produced several positive results. In the near future, the main challenge for pathologists, geneticists and oncologists will be the identification of accurate therapeutic targets, as well as mechanisms of resistance, in melanoma in the particular patient in care. PMID:22145215

Svajdler, M; Rychlý, B; Benický, M

2011-10-01

113

[Targeted therapy of melanoma: fact or fiction?].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Advanced malignant melanoma is incurable by the current means of therapy. Traditional morphological classification (nodular melanoma, lentigo maligna melanoma, nevoid melanoma etc.) does not have any significant prognostic or predictive impact. Recent advances in molecular pathogenesis and the availability of targeted therapies have produced several positive results. In the near future, the main challenge for pathologists, geneticists and oncologists will be the identification of accurate therapeutic targets, as well as mechanisms of resistance, in melanoma in the particular patient in care.

Svajdler M; Rychlý B; Benický M

2011-10-01

114

Slug Expression during Melanoma Progression  

Science.gov (United States)

Slug (Snai2), a member of the Snail family of zinc finger transcription factors, plays a role in the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transformation (EMT) that occurs during melanocyte emigration from the neural crest. A role for Slug in the EMT-like loss of cell adhesion and increased cell motility exhibited during melanoma progression has also been proposed. Our immunohistochemical studies of melanoma arrays, however, revealed that Slug expression was actually higher in nevi than in primary or metastatic melanomas. Moreover, Slug expression in melanomas was not associated with decreased expression of E-cadherin, the canonical Slug target in EMT. Comparisons of endogenous Slug and E-cadherin expression in cultured normal human melanocytes and melanoma cell lines supported our immunohistochemical findings. Expression of exogenous Slug in melanocytes and melanoma cells in vitro, however, suppressed E-cadherin expression, enhanced N-cadherin expression, and stimulated cell migration and invasion. Interestingly, both in tumors and cultured cell lines, there was a clear relationship between expression of Slug and MITF, a transcription factor known to regulate Slug expression during development. Taken together, our findings suggest that Slug expression during melanomagenesis is highest early in the process and that persistent Slug expression is not required for melanoma progression. The precise role of Slug in melanomagenesis remains to be elucidated and may be related to its interactions with other drivers of EMT, such as Snail.

Shirley, Stephanie H.; Greene, Victoria R.; Duncan, Lyn M.; Torres Cabala, Carlos A.; Grimm, Elizabeth A.; Kusewitt, Donna F.

2012-01-01

115

Slug expression during melanoma progression.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Slug (Snai2), a member of the Snail family of zinc finger transcription factors, plays a role in the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transformation (EMT) that occurs during melanocyte emigration from the neural crest. A role for Slug in the EMT-like loss of cell adhesion and increased cell motility exhibited during melanoma progression has also been proposed. Our immunohistochemical studies of melanoma arrays, however, revealed that Slug expression was actually higher in nevi than in primary or metastatic melanomas. Moreover, Slug expression in melanomas was not associated with decreased expression of E-cadherin, the canonical Slug target in EMT. Comparisons of endogenous Slug and E-cadherin expression in cultured normal human melanocytes and melanoma cell lines supported our immunohistochemical findings. Expression of exogenous Slug in melanocytes and melanoma cells in vitro, however, suppressed E-cadherin expression, enhanced N-cadherin expression, and stimulated cell migration and invasion. Interestingly, both in tumors and cultured cell lines, there was a clear relationship between expression of Slug and MITF, a transcription factor known to regulate Slug expression during development. Taken together, our findings suggest that Slug expression during melanomagenesis is highest early in the process and that persistent Slug expression is not required for melanoma progression. The precise role of Slug in melanomagenesis remains to be elucidated and may be related to its interactions with other drivers of EMT, such as Snail.

Shirley SH; Greene VR; Duncan LM; Torres Cabala CA; Grimm EA; Kusewitt DF

2012-06-01

116

Vaccines against advanced melanoma.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Research shows that cancers are recognized by the immune system but that the immune recognition of tumors does not uniformly result in tumor rejection or regression. Quantitating the success or failure of the immune system in tumor elimination is difficult because we do not really know the total numbers of encounters of the immune system with the tumors. Regardless of that important issue, recognition of the tumor by the immune system implicitly contains the idea of the tumor antigen, which is what is actually recognized. We review the molecular identity of all forms of tumor antigens (antigens with specific mutations, cancer-testis antigens, differentiation antigens, over-expressed antigens) and discuss the use of these multiple forms of antigens in experimental immunotherapy of mouse and human melanoma. These efforts have been uniformly unsuccessful; however, the approaches that have not worked or have somewhat worked have been the source of many new insights into melanoma immunology. From a critical review of the various approaches to vaccine therapy we conclude that individual cancer-specific mutations are truly the only sources of cancer-specific antigens, and therefore, the most attractive targets for immunotherapy.

Blanchard T; Srivastava PK; Duan F

2013-03-01

117

Subungual melanoma with osteocartilaginous differentiation  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Osteocartilaginous metaplasia is known to occur rarely in melanomas, particularly in subungual melanomas. We present a case of a calcified subungual soft tissue tumour in which biopsy of the lesion showed malignant round and spindle-shaped tumour cells, many of which were associated with the formation of cartilage and osteoid-like material. Subsequent resection showed clear histological evidence of a subungual melanoma. Tumour cells expressed S100, melan-A and neurone-specific enolase but were negative for HMB45. Diagnostic radiological and histological features and the nature of the osteocartilaginous differentiation within this lesion is discussed. (orig.)

Giele, H.; Hollowood, K.; Gibbons, C.L.M.H. [Nuffield Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, University of Oxford, Nuffield Orthopaedic Centre, OX3 7LD, Oxford (United Kingdom); Wilson, D.J. [Department of Radiology, University of Oxford, Nuffield Orthopaedic Centre, OX3 7LD, Oxford (United Kingdom); Athanasou, N.A. [Department of Pathology, University of Oxford, Nuffield Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Nuffield Orthopaedic Centre, Windmill Road, Headington, OX3 7LD, Oxford (United Kingdom)

2003-12-01

118

Meningeal metastasing of malignant melanomas  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Two woman patients with malignant melanoma of the skin known from their case history and with acutely emerging neurological symptoms were examined both by CT and by MR tomography (both plain and with intravenous contrast medium). The radiologically derived suspicion of meningioma could not be confirmed by intraoperatively performed histological examination. In both cases the patients had meningeal melanoma metastases with low melanin content and without noticeable bleeding into the metastases. MR diagnosis is rendered difficult by the absence of paramagnetic substances typical of melanoma metastases. Hence, if the case history is known, it should be considered whether there is meningeal metastasising with atypical histology. (orig.)

1989-01-01

119

Malignant melanoma with osteocartilaginous differentiation  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We report a case of acral lentiginous melanoma on the plantar aspect of foot in a 50-year-old male that exhibited a prominent osteo-cartilaginous differentiation in the metastatic inguinal lymph node. The ability of melanomas to undergo multidirectional differentiation leads to a variety of histological appearances that can be misleading. Although the true nature of the tumor is most often recognized at the primary cutaneous site, metastatic tumors may closely mimic other malignant mesenchymal or neuro-ectodermal tumors. Hence awareness of this unusual phenomenon occurring in malignant melanoma is essential to avoid misdiagnosis.

Sundersingh Shirley; Majhi Urmila; Murhekar Kanchan; Krishnamurthy Radha

2010-01-01

120

Head and neck polypoid melanoma.  

Science.gov (United States)

Polypoid melanoma represents a rare clinical variant of nodular melanoma skin cancer in which the tumor is connected to the skin by a pedicle, characterized by exophytic growth, ulceration, and young age at onset (20-39 years) with a special predilection for the back and with a survival rate at 5 years ranging from 32% to 42% as compared with 57% 5-year survival for nodular subtype and 77% for the superficial subtype. We present a case of a deeply pigmented polypoid melanoma arising on the face of a 77-year-old man. We performed a literature review to clarify its surgical management and prognosis. PMID:22337453

Dini, Mario; Quercioli, Fabio; Caldarella, Valentina; Gaetano, Marino; Franchi, Alessandro; Agostini, Tommaso

2012-01-01

 
 
 
 
121

Head and neck polypoid melanoma.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Polypoid melanoma represents a rare clinical variant of nodular melanoma skin cancer in which the tumor is connected to the skin by a pedicle, characterized by exophytic growth, ulceration, and young age at onset (20-39 years) with a special predilection for the back and with a survival rate at 5 years ranging from 32% to 42% as compared with 57% 5-year survival for nodular subtype and 77% for the superficial subtype. We present a case of a deeply pigmented polypoid melanoma arising on the face of a 77-year-old man. We performed a literature review to clarify its surgical management and prognosis.

Dini M; Quercioli F; Caldarella V; Gaetano M; Franchi A; Agostini T

2012-01-01

122

Clearance of invasive melanoma with topical imiquimod.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A 93-year-old woman presented with biopsy-proven invasive melanoma of 2.75 mm depth, arising from a melanoma in situ. Standard treatment of this depth would be an extensive and mutilating excision, which presented a therapeutic dilemma. Imiquimod has the ability to clear melanoma in situ, but its effect on invasive melanoma is unknown. After a thorough discussion with the patient, we decided to attempt to treat the melanoma in situ with topical imiquimod and then excise the smaller invasive component. Following 5 weeks of topical imiquimod therapy, the area where the nodular melanoma had previously been was excised. Histological examination of the excisional specimen revealed no residual melanoma detected. In this case, it appears that 5 weeks of topical imiquimod therapy completely cleared an invasive melanoma of 2.75 mm depth, as well as clearing the component of melanoma in situ. The patient was followed for 14 months with no evidence of recurrence.

Moon SD; Spencer JM

2013-01-01

123

Clearance of invasive melanoma with topical imiquimod.  

Science.gov (United States)

A 93-year-old woman presented with biopsy-proven invasive melanoma of 2.75 mm depth, arising from a melanoma in situ. Standard treatment of this depth would be an extensive and mutilating excision, which presented a therapeutic dilemma. Imiquimod has the ability to clear melanoma in situ, but its effect on invasive melanoma is unknown. After a thorough discussion with the patient, we decided to attempt to treat the melanoma in situ with topical imiquimod and then excise the smaller invasive component. Following 5 weeks of topical imiquimod therapy, the area where the nodular melanoma had previously been was excised. Histological examination of the excisional specimen revealed no residual melanoma detected. In this case, it appears that 5 weeks of topical imiquimod therapy completely cleared an invasive melanoma of 2.75 mm depth, as well as clearing the component of melanoma in situ. The patient was followed for 14 months with no evidence of recurrence. PMID:23377337

Moon, Summer D; Spencer, James M

2013-01-01

124

Melanoma Surveillance in the US: The Economic Burden of Melanoma  

Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

This podcast accompanies the publication of a series of articles on melanoma surveillance in the United States, available in the November supplement edition of the Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology. Dr. Gery Guy, from the CDCâ??s Division of Cancer Prevention and Control, discusses the economic burden of melanoma.  Created: 10/19/2011 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 10/19/2011.

2011-10-19

125

Orbital metastasis from cutaneous melanoma  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We report a case of a metastatic cutaneous melanoma to the orbit. A 60-year-old Caucasian male presented with a 2-day history of left-sided ocular pain, lid swelling and chemosis. Initially, this was treated as conjunctivitis with no signs of improvement. Four days later, the patient developed left proptosis, mechanical ptosis, left esotropia and diplopia. Computed tomography scan of the orbit demonstrated marked thickening of the lateral rectus muscle. The patient was treated as pseudotumor. Subsequent biopsy revealed malignant cutaneous melanoma. The patient had a history of cutaneous melanoma excised 15 years previously. Further imaging showed advanced metastatic disease in the brain, the lung and the liver. The patient passed away five months after initial presentation. Cutaneous melanoma metastasizing to the orbit has poor prognosis. Patients often have advanced disease at the time of presentation and orbital metastases may be the initial sign. A detailed history is paramount in making timely diagnosis.

Loukia Tsierkezou; Peter Cikatricis; Parveen Abdullah; Samer Elsherbiny

2012-01-01

126

Ungual melanoma - controversies in diagnosis and treatment.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Ungual melanomas are considered rare, being difficult to diagnose, and having a poor prognosis. The aim of the present study was to discuss the epidemiology, potential causes, treatment options, and outcome of ungual melanomas. In contrast to assumptions in many articles, ungual melanomas are not rare when calculated for the cumulative size of the nail apparatus of both the fingers and toes. The prognosis is not worse than that of melanomas with the same thickness, mitotic rate, or presence of ulceration on other sites. Melanomas of the nail apparatus behave similar to melanomas in other localizations. What makes them enigmatic is the high rate of misdiagnoses and very late diagnoses.

Haneke E

2012-11-01

127

Ungual melanoma - controversies in diagnosis and treatment.  

Science.gov (United States)

Ungual melanomas are considered rare, being difficult to diagnose, and having a poor prognosis. The aim of the present study was to discuss the epidemiology, potential causes, treatment options, and outcome of ungual melanomas. In contrast to assumptions in many articles, ungual melanomas are not rare when calculated for the cumulative size of the nail apparatus of both the fingers and toes. The prognosis is not worse than that of melanomas with the same thickness, mitotic rate, or presence of ulceration on other sites. Melanomas of the nail apparatus behave similar to melanomas in other localizations. What makes them enigmatic is the high rate of misdiagnoses and very late diagnoses. PMID:23210750

Haneke, Eckart

128

Vaccine therapy in melanoma today  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Melanoma is the most significant malignant tumor of the melanocyte system. It is characterized by a high malignant potential and an outstanding possibility for giving metastasis. Despite all investigations and progress concerning molecular genetics and immunology melanoma is a therapeutic problem even today. Vaccines are being developed with an intention not only to prevent but also to cure the disease, and the most important aim of clinical trails is to develop corresponding antitumor immunotherapy based on vaccine.

Nikolin Borislava L.; Salma Svetlana; Trifunovi? Jasna

2003-01-01

129

Pregnancy and melanoma  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Numerous malignant diseases reach their incidence peak in female fertile years. That is the reason why these diseases are the second most common cause of death of women in their generative age. However, neoplastic processes are rarely diagnosed in pregnancy and there are no clear-cut guidelines on whether the pregnancy should be terminated in order that a proper treatment could be applied. We have not enough knowledge jet about the consequences for both the mother and her child if the pregnancy is allowed to continue despite the diagnosis of malignancy. Melanoma is one of the most common tumours diagnosed in pregnancy (8% of all diagnosed neoplasms). Some studies present the data on successfully terminated pregnancies in these women but also point out the risks the fetus is exposed to due to possible application of cytotoxic therapy, as well as the danger of transplacental spread of this process to the placenta and fetus.

Poti?-Ze?evi? Nataša; Stanojevi? Zorica; Markovi? Milan; Todorovska Ilinka; Stanojevi? Milenko R.

2004-01-01

130

Sunburn, suntan and the risk of cutaneous malignant melanoma--The Western Canada Melanoma Study.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A comparison of interview data on 595 patients with newly incident cutaneous melanoma, excluding lentigo maligna melanoma and acral lentiginous melanoma, with data from comparison subjects drawn from the general population, showed that melanoma risk increased in association with the frequency and se...

Elwood, J. M.; Gallagher, R. P.; Davison, J.; Hill, G. B.

131

Melanoma inhibitor of apoptosis protein is expressed differentially in melanoma and melanocytic naevus, but similarly in primary and metastatic melanomas  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Background: Malignant melanoma is highly resistant to current treatments. The inhibitor of apoptosis protein (IAP) family member, melanoma IAP (ML-IAP), is overexpressed in some melanoma cell lines, rendering them resistant to apoptotic signals. Targeting ML-IAP is a promising approach to treating m...

Gong, J; Chen, N; Zhou, Q; Yang, B; Wang, Y; Wang, X

132

Who Is Most at Risk for Melanoma?  

Science.gov (United States)

... your skin, hair, and eyes. Family History of Melanoma. Between 5% and 10% of people who develop ... Table 1. Characteristic of Mole Risk of Getting Melanoma (anywhere on the skin) 1 dysplastic nevi 2- ...

133

Tattoos Can Hide Malignant Melanomas, Experts Say  

Science.gov (United States)

... sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Tattoos Can Hide Malignant Melanomas, Experts Say Case studies ... 2013 Related MedlinePlus Pages Melanoma Moles Piercing and Tattoos WEDNESDAY, July 31 (HealthDay News) -- Millions of Americans ...

134

Cutaneous melanoma--atypical variants and presentations.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: The incidence of melanoma continues to rise in Australia. General practitioners treat the majority of skin cancers affecting Australians. In the past decade, there has been improved uptake of dermoscopy by GPs who realise its value in the assessment of pigmented and nonpigmented lesions. OBJECTIVE: This article outlines those variants or presentations of melanoma that create diagnostic difficulty for all clinicians. Practice tips regarding clinical features or useful dermoscopic clues are included. DISCUSSION: A clinical overview of lentigo maligna, acral lentiginous and subungual melanoma, nodular melanoma, desmoplastic melanoma, verrucous melanoma and hypomelanotic melanoma is presented. Dermoscopy has become a vital diagnostic aid in the assessment of all skin lesions. Its value in the diagnosis of melanoma is highlighted where relevant. Expert dermatopathology assessment is equally as crucial in reaching a correct diagnosis, especially for some of these atypical variants.

Chamberlain A; Ng J

2009-07-01

135

Socioeconomic characteristics and melanoma incidence.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

PURPOSE: This investigation examines the relationship between socioeconomic status (SES) and melanoma incidence in counties included in the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Registry (SEER) in the United States from 1973 to 1993. METHODS: Cases included whites, aged at least 15 years, with a morphologic diagnosis of malignant melanoma, residing in one of 199 counties at the time of diagnosis. County level measures of SES including median household income, percentage of high school graduates, and percentage of families below poverty were abstracted from the 1950, 1960, 1970, 1980, and 1990 U.S. Census data. The relationship between SES factors and melanoma rates was examined by hierarchical Poisson regression. RESULTS: The percentage of high school graduates was significantly and positively associated with the incidence of melanoma (relative risk (RR), 1.28; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.21-1.35), after controlling for age at diagnosis, gender, time period, latitude, and percentage of Hispanics in the county. Percentage of families below poverty was significantly inversely associated with the incidence of melanoma (RR, 0.66; 95% CI, 0.55-0.78). When education and poverty were included in the same model, both the positive effects of education (RR, 1.23; 95% CI, 1.16-1.31) and the negative effects of poverty (RR, 0.85; 95% CI, 0.74-0.98) persisted. In contrast, median household income was not associated with melanoma incidence in a similar multivariable model (RR, 1.00; 95% CI, 0.99-1.00). CONCLUSION: Whether the effect of education on incidence of melanoma reflects lifestyle behaviors that modify exposure to sunlight or some other factor remains unclear. Nonetheless, the findings of this study suggest that the determinant is primarily related to education, not income.

Harrison RA; Haque AU; Roseman JM; Soong SJ

1998-07-01

136

Radiation sensitivity and sensitization in melanoma.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Locally advanced melanoma is clinically challenging; melanomas are considered radioresistant (Harwood & Cummings, 1981). Recent reports, however, show variable radiosensitivity in patients and established cell lines (Stevens & McKay, 2006) (Sambade et al, 2011). Our purpose was to confirm this in early passage, patient-derived melanoma cultures and study radiosensitizing potential of commonly used melanoma drugs: temozolomide, carboplatin, paclitaxel and vemurafenib. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

Shahbazian D; Bindra RS; Kluger HM; Glazer PM

2013-07-01

137

Advances in therapy for melanoma brain metastases.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Melanoma cells frequently metastasize to the brain, and approximately 50% of patients with metastatic melanoma develop intracranial disease. Historically, central nervous system dissemination has portended a very poor prognosis. Recent advances in systemic therapies for melanoma, supported by improved local therapy control of brain lesions, have resulted in better median survival for these patients. We review current local and systemic approaches for patients with melanoma brain metastases.

Flanigan JC; Jilaveanu LB; Chiang VL; Kluger HM

2013-05-01

138

Primary lymph node melanoma. Case presentation.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Melanomas that initially affect the lymph nodes without an identified primary lesion traditionally have been termed unknown origin metastatic melanomas (UOMM). Its etiology or natural history is not well known and there is no unanimous consensus of treatment. Although they are exceptional cases, clinical findings make us consider the existence of a group of melanomas until now regarded as UOMM. The latest theories defined them as true primary melanomas of lymph nodes with a different biological evolution.

Torres-Morientes LM, Puente-López G, Keituqwa-Yáñez T, Sánchez-González F, López-Ríos-Velasco J, Pérez-Holgado V, Pérez-Cidoncha P

2012-01-01

139

RANK is expressed in metastatic melanoma and highly upregulated on melanoma-initiating cells.  

Science.gov (United States)

Melanoma accounts for ? 79% of skin cancer-related deaths, and the receptor activator of NF-?B (RANK)-receptor activator of NF-?B ligand (RANKL) pathway has been shown to be involved in the migration and metastasis of epithelial tumor cells. In this study, we demonstrate that RANK was significantly increased in peripheral circulating melanoma cells, primary melanomas, and metastases from stage IV melanoma patients compared with tumor cells from stage I melanoma patients. However, upregulated RANK expression was not found in stage IV melanoma patients with bone metastases compared with stage IV melanoma patients without bone metastases, providing a possible explanation for the clinical observation that melanoma cells do not preferentially metastasize to bone tissue. Strikingly, RANK-expressing melanoma cells from peripheral blood, primary tumors, or metastases of stage IV patients coexpressed ATP-binding cassette (ABC) B5 and CD133, both markers characteristic of melanoma-initiating cells, suggesting a tumor stem cell-like phenotype. In support of this hypothesis, RANK-expressing melanoma cells showed a reduced Ki67 proliferation index compared with RANK(-) melanoma cells from the same patient and are able to induce tumor growth in immunodeficient mice. Together, our data demonstrate that RANK expression is increased in metastatic melanoma and highly upregulated on melanoma-initiating cells, suggesting that RANK might be involved in the development and maintenance of melanoma-initiating cells and possibly in metastatic spreading. PMID:21270824

Kupas, Verena; Weishaupt, Carsten; Siepmann, Dorothee; Kaserer, Maria-Laura; Eickelmann, Mareike; Metze, Dieter; Luger, Thomas A; Beissert, Stefan; Loser, Karin

2011-01-27

140

RANK is expressed in metastatic melanoma and highly upregulated on melanoma-initiating cells.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Melanoma accounts for ? 79% of skin cancer-related deaths, and the receptor activator of NF-?B (RANK)-receptor activator of NF-?B ligand (RANKL) pathway has been shown to be involved in the migration and metastasis of epithelial tumor cells. In this study, we demonstrate that RANK was significantly increased in peripheral circulating melanoma cells, primary melanomas, and metastases from stage IV melanoma patients compared with tumor cells from stage I melanoma patients. However, upregulated RANK expression was not found in stage IV melanoma patients with bone metastases compared with stage IV melanoma patients without bone metastases, providing a possible explanation for the clinical observation that melanoma cells do not preferentially metastasize to bone tissue. Strikingly, RANK-expressing melanoma cells from peripheral blood, primary tumors, or metastases of stage IV patients coexpressed ATP-binding cassette (ABC) B5 and CD133, both markers characteristic of melanoma-initiating cells, suggesting a tumor stem cell-like phenotype. In support of this hypothesis, RANK-expressing melanoma cells showed a reduced Ki67 proliferation index compared with RANK(-) melanoma cells from the same patient and are able to induce tumor growth in immunodeficient mice. Together, our data demonstrate that RANK expression is increased in metastatic melanoma and highly upregulated on melanoma-initiating cells, suggesting that RANK might be involved in the development and maintenance of melanoma-initiating cells and possibly in metastatic spreading.

Kupas V; Weishaupt C; Siepmann D; Kaserer ML; Eickelmann M; Metze D; Luger TA; Beissert S; Loser K

2011-04-01

 
 
 
 
141

[Choroidal melanoma--routes of extraocular extension].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

PURPOSE: To report the routs of extraocular extension of uveal melanoma. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A retrospective study of 170 enucleated eyes with uveal melanoma and deep intrascleral tumor invasion and/or nodular extrascleral extension. RESULTS: The routes of passages by sclera were natural channels: ciliary arteries, ciliary nerves, optic nerve, vortex veins, aqueous channels and intrascleral melanoma invasion.

Romanowska-Dixon B; Jakubowska B

2013-01-01

142

Malignant gastrointestinal melanoma with an unknown primary  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Malignant melanoma is rare in India; melanoma presenting as a metastatic disease with an unknown primary, involving the gastrointestinal tract without involving lymph nodes is extremely uncommon. We report a case of a 28-year-old male with a malignant melanoma metastasizing to stomach and liver with an unknown primary. Relevant literature is being reviewed.

Krishna Mohan M.V.T; Rajappa Senthil; Reddy T; Paul T

2009-01-01

143

Melanoma: How It Returns, Where It Spreads  

Science.gov (United States)

SkinCancerNet Article Melanoma: How It Returns, Where It Spreads Melanoma is known as "the most lethal form of skin cancer" because ... 35-48% Thyroid 25-39% Table 1: Where Melanoma Most Likely to Spread Source: Meyers ML, Balch ...

144

Desmoplastic Melanoma: Report of 5 Cases  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Background. The clinical presentation of desmoplastic melanoma is often challenging. We report the experience of the Melanoma Unit of Spedali Civili University Hospital of Brescia, Italy. Method. Study subjects were drawn from 1770 patients with histologica confirmed melanoma. Within this grou...

Manganoni, A. M.; Farisoglio, C.; Bassissi, S.; Braga, D.; Facchetti, F.; Ungari, M.; Calzavara-Pinton, P. G.

145

Occupation and risk of cutaneous melanoma.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Occupational mortality from cutaneous malignant melanoma was evaluated for deaths occurring in British Columbia from 1950-1978 by using age standardised proportional mortality ratios (PMR). For males, significantly elevated PMRs for melanoma were seen in managers and owners, accountants, architects, chemical engineers, and gardeners and nursery workers. Female school teachers were also at elevated risk of death from cutaneous melanoma.

Gallagher RP; Elwood JM; Threlfall WJ; Band PR; Spinelli JJ

1986-01-01

146

Melanoma at LLNL: An update  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

From 1972 to 1977, the Laboratory experienced a diagnosis rate of malignant melanoma among its employees that was three to four times higher than expected based on rates for the surrounding Alameda and Contra Costa counties in the Bay Area. In 1984, Austin and Reynolds from the California Department of Health Services reported the results of their study comparing individuals diagnosed with melanoma and otherwise healthy controls from the Laboratory. These researchers concluded that five occupational factors were [open quotes]casually associated[close quotes] with melanoma risk at LLNL. The factors were exposure to radioactive materials, exposure to volatile photographic chemicals, work at Site 300, visits to the Pacific Test Site, and duties as a chemist. In recent years, the rate of diagnosis of the more lethal form of melanoma among LLNL workers, which was previously elevated, has returned to that of the surrounding geographical area where most employees live. If our program of employee awareness about melanoma, enhanced surveillance, and early diagnosis continues to lead to decreased mortality from this disease, then such an approach may have important public health implications for the broader community.

Moore, D.H. II; Schneider, J.S.; Bennett, D.E.; Patterson, H.W.

1994-03-01

147

Melanoma stem cells in experimental melanoma are killed by radioimmunotherapy.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

INTRODUCTION: In spite of recently approved B-RAF inhibitors and immunomodulating antibodies, metastatic melanoma has poor prognosis and novel treatments are needed. Melanoma stem cells (MSC) have been implicated in the resistance of this tumor to chemotherapy. Recently we demonstrated in a Phase I clinical trial in patients with metastatic melanoma that radioimmunotherapy (RIT) with 188-Rhenium((188)Re)-6D2 antibody to melanin was a safe and effective modality. Here we investigated the interaction of MSC with RIT as a possible mechanism for RIT efficacy. METHODS: Mice bearing A2058 melanoma xenografts were treated with either 1.5 mCi (188)Re-6D2 antibody, saline, unlabeled 6D2 antibody or (188)Re-labeled non-specific IgM. RESULTS: On Day 28 post-treatment the tumor size in the RIT group was 4-times less than in controls (P<0.001). The tumors were analyzed by immunohistochemistry and FACS for two MSC markers--chemoresistance mediator ABCB5 and H3K4 demethylase JARID1B. There were no significant differences between RIT and control groups in percentage of ABCB5 or JARID1B-positive cells in the tumor population. Our results demonstrate that unlike chemotherapy, which kills tumor cells but leaves behind MSC leading to recurrence, RIT kills MSC at the same rate as the rest of tumor cells. CONCLUSIONS: These results have two main implications for melanoma treatment and possibly other cancers. First, the susceptibility of ABCB5+ and JARID1B+cells to RIT in melanoma might be indicative of their susceptibility to antibody-targeted radiation in other cancers where they are present as well. Second, specifically targeting cancer stem cells with radiolabeled antibodies to ABCB5 or JARID1B might help to completely eradicate cancer stem cells in various cancers.

Jandl T; Revskaya E; Jiang Z; Harris M; Dorokhova O; Tsukrov D; Casadevall A; Dadachova E

2013-02-01

148

Surgical management of melanoma: an EORTC Melanoma Group survey.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVES: The objective of the article is to explore the surgical practices and views in the treatment of melanoma within members and non-members of the EORTC Melanoma Group (MG) during the years 2003-2005. METHODS: An e-mail questionnaire (see appendix) developed within the EORTC MG was sent to all melanoma units (MUs) of the EORTC (180) and to selected international centres between 2003 and 2005. The questionnaire investigated the different practices regarding surgical management of melanoma patients at all stages. RESULTS: A total of 75 questionnaires were returned from centres in Europe (70), Israel (3), Australia (1) and the United States (1). Resection margins on primary melanoma vary according to AJCC 2002 staging. Sixty three of 75 MUs perform Sentinel node biopsy. Modified radical neck dissection is performed in 82% of MUs for macrometastases and in 80% of MUs for micrometastases. Most MUs surveyed perform all three levels of Berg axillary dissection whether for macrometastases (79%) or micrometastases (62%). An ilio inguinal-obturator dissection is proposed with macrometastases (41% of MUs), whereas 33% of MUs perform a pelvic dissection only if the Cloquet node is positive. Twenty five of 75 MUs perform an isolated limb perfusion with a therapeutic indication; three also as an adjuvant. The majority of MUs perform surgery for distant metastases including superficial (53 of 75 [71%]) or solitary visceral metastases (52 of 75[69%]) or for palliation (58 of 75[77%]). CONCLUSION: The adequacy of surgery appears to be the most important milestone in the therapeutic approach of melanoma. Even if surgery is fundamental in the different stages of the disease, there is quite a variability concerning the extension of the surgical treatment related to primary and lymphnodal disease. Phase III randomised trials have shown that wide margins, elective lymph node dissections, and prophylactic isolated limb perfusions have not improved survival and cannot be considered the standard of care in the routine management of primary melanoma. The surgical subgroup of the EORTC Melanoma Group is developing a new version of the surgical survey questionnaire including new treatment modalities like isolated limb infusion and electrochemotherapy, which were not frequently in use some years ago, to obtain new data to be compared to the nearly ten-year-old data.

Testori A; Soteldo J; Powell B; Sales F; Borgognoni L; Rutkowski P; Lejeune F; van Leeuwen P; Eggermont A

2013-01-01

149

Surgical management of melanoma: an EORTC Melanoma Group survey  

Science.gov (United States)

Objectives: The objective of the article is to explore the surgical practices and views in the treatment of melanoma within members and non-members of the EORTC Melanoma Group (MG) during the years 2003–2005. Methods: An e-mail questionnaire (see appendix) developed within the EORTC MG was sent to all melanoma units (MUs) of the EORTC (180) and to selected international centres between 2003 and 2005. The questionnaire investigated the different practices regarding surgical management of melanoma patients at all stages. Results: A total of 75 questionnaires were returned from centres in Europe (70), Israel (3), Australia (1) and the United States (1). Resection margins on primary melanoma vary according to AJCC 2002 staging. Sixty three of 75 MUs perform Sentinel node biopsy. Modified radical neck dissection is performed in 82% of MUs for macrometastases and in 80% of MUs for micrometastases. Most MUs surveyed perform all three levels of Berg axillary dissection whether for macrometastases (79%) or micrometastases (62%). An ilio inguinal-obturator dissection is proposed with macrometastases (41% of MUs), whereas 33% of MUs perform a pelvic dissection only if the Cloquet node is positive. Twenty five of 75 MUs perform an isolated limb perfusion with a therapeutic indication; three also as an adjuvant. The majority of MUs perform surgery for distant metastases including superficial (53 of 75 [71%]) or solitary visceral metastases (52 of 75[69%]) or for palliation (58 of 75[77%]). Conclusion: The adequacy of surgery appears to be the most important milestone in the therapeutic approach of melanoma. Even if surgery is fundamental in the different stages of the disease, there is quite a variability concerning the extension of the surgical treatment related to primary and lymphnodal disease. Phase III randomised trials have shown that wide margins, elective lymph node dissections, and prophylactic isolated limb perfusions have not improved survival and cannot be considered the standard of care in the routine management of primary melanoma. The surgical subgroup of the EORTC Melanoma Group is developing a new version of the surgical survey questionnaire including new treatment modalities like isolated limb infusion and electrochemotherapy, which were not frequently in use some years ago, to obtain new data to be compared to the nearly ten-year-old data.

Testori, A; Soteldo, J; Powell, B; Sales, F; Borgognoni, L; Rutkowski, P; Lejeune, F; van Leeuwen, PAM; Eggermont, A

2013-01-01

150

Familial Malignant Melanoma - Overview  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Approximately 3-15% of all malignant melanomas (MM) are familial cases. MM is a highly heterogeneous tumour type from a genetic perspective. Pedigrees with disease confined to a single generation of siblings or MM occurring among second- or third-degree relatives suggest multifactorial polygenic inheritance. However, not infrequently, within large families aggregations of MM are consistent with autosomal dominant inheritance, suggesting a hereditary syndrome caused by germline alterations of a single gene. Several different genes are involved in the development of MM. However, even when taken together they are responsible for less than 20% of all MM cases. It is thus necessary to perform association studies focused on genetic markers that could be used in identifying patients with a high risk of MM. Evaluation of aggregations of MM and other malignancies, like breast cancer, could be essential in identifying relatives of MM probands being at high risk of developing malignancies other than MM. The ultimate goal is to apply in these cases prevention recommendations and surveillance protocols to reduce the disease risk.

D?bniak Tadeusz

2004-01-01

151

Melanoma metastasis: new concepts and evolving paradigms.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Melanoma progression is typically depicted as a linear and stepwise process in which metastasis occurs relatively late in disease progression. Significant evidence suggests that in a subset of melanomas, progression is much more complex and less linear in nature. Epidemiologic and experimental observations in melanoma metastasis are reviewed here and are incorporated into a comprehensive model for melanoma metastasis, which takes into account the varied natural history of melanoma formation and progression.Oncogene advance online publication, 3 June 2013; doi:10.1038/onc.2013.194.

Damsky WE; Theodosakis N; Bosenberg M

2013-06-01

152

Subungual melanoma: an important tip.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Acral lentiginous melanoma is rare, representing approximately 1% of malignant melanomas. Overall 5 year survival is disproportionately poor (25-51%) compared to other histological subtypes. This has been attributed to diagnostic delay resulting in more advanced presentation. Subungual presentation in the fingers is uncommon, reported in 1-13% of all acral lentiginous melanomas. We report a unique and diagnostically challenging case. Contrary to previously reported examples in the literature, the actual neoplastic pathology was detected in the less pigmented finger tip skin rather than the deeply pigmented nail bed germinal and sterile matrix that showed no evidence of malignancy. We therefore advocate that in cases where skin surrounding the nail is involved, this surrounding skin should also be biopsied, even if it is less pigmented than the primary lesion.

Miranda BH; Haughton DN; Fahmy FS

2012-10-01

153

Metastatic melanoma of the stomach Melanoma metastático do estômago  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Metastatic melanoma of the stomach is a relatively rare entity with an unusual diagnosis during life. Surgery is the treatment of choice once it alleviates the symptoms in over 90% of the cases and increases the long-term survival. CASE REPORT: A 50y woman had presented a dark spot in the ungual bed of her right-hand thumb for two years, evolving into ulceration and bleeding. The biopsy diagnosed ungual malanocytic neoplasia compatible with lentiginous melanoma confirmed by immunohistochemistry, which presented positive pigmented HMB-45 cells. After an year and a half, the patient developed metastasis of the melanoma on her left thigh and extensive ulcerated lesion in the small gastric curvature, whose biopsy was compatible with metastatic melanoma of the stomach. The hemogram found discrete anemia (Hb: 11.1 and Ht: 33%) and LDH: 333 U/L. The patient underwent total gastrectomy with reconstruction in Roux-en-Y. There was a good evolution and on the 6th post-operative day, she was discharged home. At present, in the 12th month of follow up, the patient remains without complaints, with full relief of symptoms and all normal control exams. CONCLUSION: Surgical management should always be considered for the metastatic melanoma of the gastrointestinal tract, since the procedure shows low morbidity and mortality, besides providing relief of symptoms with the improvement of the quality of life and increase in the long-term survival.INTRODUCTION: O melanoma metastático do estômago é entidade relativamente rara e de diagnóstico incomum em vida. A cirurgia é o tratamento de escolha, pois alivia os sintomas em mais de 90% dos casos e aumenta a sobrevida a longo prazo. OBJETIVO: Relatar um caso de melanoma metastático do estômago, submetida à ressecção curativa e que evoluiu sem sinais de doença residual. RELATO DO CASO: Mulher de 50 anos apresentou mancha escura em leito ungueal de dedo polegar de mão direita há dois anos, evoluindo com ulceração e sangramento. A biópsia diagnosticou neoplasia melanocítica ungueal compatíveis com melanoma lentiginoso e confirmado pela imunohistoquímica que apresentou células pigmentadas HMB-45 positivas. Após um ano e meio a paciente evoluiu com metástase de melanoma em coxa esquerda e extensa lesão escavada em pequena curvatura gástrica, cuja biopsia foi compatível com melanoma metastático do estômago. Hemograma com discreta anemia (Hb: 11,1 e Ht: 33%) e LDH: 333 U/L. A paciente foi submetida à gastrectomia total com reconstrução em Y de Roux. Houve boa evolução e no 6º dia de pós-operatório teve alta hospitalar. Atualmente, no 12º mês de seguimento, a paciente permanece sem queixas, com alívio completo dos sintomas e com todos os exames de controle normais. CONCLUSÃO: O tratamento cirúrgico deve ser sempre considerado no melanoma metastático do trato gastrointestinal, pois o procedimento possui baixa morbidade e mortalidade, além de proporcionar alívio dos sintomas com melhora da qualidade de vida e aumento da sobrevida a longo prazo.

Marcelo Eustáquio Rocha; Gilberto Pedro Rodrigues; Samir Almeida Borges; Fernando Gusmão Santiago

2008-01-01

154

Surgical therapy for anorectal melanoma.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Anorectal melanoma is a rare but highly lethal malignancy. Historically, radical resection was considered the "gold standard" for treatment of potentially curable anorectal melanoma. The dismal prognosis of this disease has prompted us to recommend wide local excision as the initial therapeutic approach. The purpose of this study was to review our results in patients who underwent wide local excision or radical surgery (abdominoperineal resection [APR]) for localized anorectal melanoma. STUDY DESIGN: We reviewed the charts of all patients referred for resection of anorectal melanoma between 1988 and 2002. Endpoints included overall survival, disease-free survival, and local, regional, or systemic recurrence. RESULTS: Fifteen patients underwent curative-intent surgery; four underwent APR and 11 underwent wide local excision. Eight patients (53%) are alive; 7 (47%) are disease-free (followup 6 months to 13 years). Of 12 patients who have been followed for more than 2 years, 4 are alive (33%) and 3 are disease-free (25%). Seven patients have been followed for more than 5 years and two are alive and disease-free (29%). All of the longterm survivors underwent local excision as the initial operation. There were no differences in local recurrence, systemic recurrence, disease-free survival, or overall survival between the APR group and the local excision group. Local recurrence occurred in 50% of the APR group and 18% of the local excision group; regional recurrence occurred in 25% versus 27%. Distant metastases were common (75% versus 36%). CONCLUSION: In patients who have undergone resection with curative intent for anorectal melanoma, most recurrences occur systemically regardless of the initial surgical procedure. Local resection does not increase the risk of local or regional recurrence. APR offers no survival advantage over local excision. We advocate wide local excision as primary therapy for anorectal melanoma when technically feasible.

Bullard KM; Tuttle TM; Rothenberger DA; Madoff RD; Baxter NN; Finne CO; Spencer MP

2003-02-01

155

Volatile biomarkers from human melanoma cells.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Dogs can identify, by olfaction, melanoma on the skin of patients or melanoma samples hidden on healthy subjects, suggesting that volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from melanoma differ from those of normal skin. Studies employing gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and gas sensors reported that melanoma-related VOCs differed from VOCs from normal skin sources. However, the identities of the VOCs that discriminate melanoma from normal skin were either unknown or likely derived from exogenous sources. We employed solid-phase micro-extraction, GC-MS and single-stranded DNA-coated nanotube (DNACNT) sensors to examine VOCs from melanoma and normal melanocytes. GC-MS revealed dozens of VOCs, but further analyses focused on compounds most likely of endogenous origin. Several compounds differed between cancer and normal cells, e.g., isoamyl alcohol was higher in melanoma cells than in normal melanocytes but isovaleric acid was lower in melanoma cells. These two compounds share the same precursor, viz., leucine. Melanoma cells produce dimethyldi- and trisulfide, compounds not detected in VOCs from normal melanocytes. Furthermore, analyses of the total volatile metabolome from both melanoma cells and normal melanocytes by DNACNT sensors, coupled with the GC-MS results, demonstrate clear differences between these cell systems. Consequently, monitoring of melanoma VOCs has potential as a useful screening methodology.

Kwak J; Gallagher M; Ozdener MH; Wysocki CJ; Goldsmith BR; Isamah A; Faranda A; Fakharzadeh SS; Herlyn M; Johnson AT; Preti G

2013-07-01

156

Radiation therapy for cutaneous melanoma.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Radiation therapy is used infrequently for cutaneous melanoma, despite research suggesting benefit in certain clinical scenarios. This review presents data forming the highest level of evidence supporting the use of radiation therapy. Retrospective and prospective studies demonstrate radiation therapy for primary tumors is associated with high control rates. Two randomized trials have found improvements in regional control with adjuvant radiotherapy to regional lymphatics. Retrospective and prospective studies demonstrate radiation therapy is associated with palliative response and metastatic tumor control. Optimal care of melanoma patients involves radiation therapy; awareness of this is incumbent of clinicians caring for patients with this disease.

Barker CA; Lee NY

2012-07-01

157

UVB: suscetibilidade no melanoma maligno UVB: susceptibility in malignant melanoma  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available FUNDAMENTOS: Está bem definido que a radiação ultravioleta provoca depleção imunológica na pele, permitindo o desenvolvimento de tumores cutâneos malignos. A maioria dos pacientes de cânceres da pele não melanomas são considerados UVB-suscetíveis. OBJETIVOS: Estudar a UVB-suscetibilidade nos pacientes com melanoma maligno e se este é um fator de risco para o desenvolvimento desse câncer. MÉTODOS: Foram selecionados 88 voluntários divididos em dois grupos: grupo-controle saudável (n=61) e grupo de portadores de melanoma (n=27), todos identificados de acordo com os critérios: tipo histológico, nível de invasão, fotótipos de pele, sexo e idade. A suscetibilidade à radiação ultravioleta B (UVB) foi medida pela reação de hipersensibilidade ao contato com o difenciprone nos voluntários sensibilizados em áreas previamente irradiadas. RESULTADOS: A suscetibilidade à radiação UVB foi de 81,5% nos pacientes com melanoma maligno e de 31,2% no grupo-controle. O risco de um indivíduo desenvolver o melanoma maligno foi 9,7 vezes maior do que nos indivíduos UVB-resistentes. CONCLUSÕES: A UVB-suscetibilidade pode ser considerada um fator de risco importante para o desenvolvimento do melanoma maligno.BACKGROUND: It is well established that UV radiation provokes an immunological depletion in the skin, enabling the development of malignant cutaneous tumors. Most nonmelanoma skin cancer patients are considered to be UVB-susceptible. OBJECTIVE: To study the behavior of UVB- susceptibility in malignant melanoma (MM) patients and whether this is a risk factor to the development of MM. METHODS: Eighty-eight volunteers were selected and divided into two groups: healthy control group (n = 61) and MM group (n = 27), which were identified according to the following clinical criteria: histopathological type, level of invasion, skin phototype, sex and age. Susceptibility to ultraviolet B (UVB) radiation was measured by the onset of a contact hypersensitivity reaction to diphenylcyclopropenone among individuals sensitized in previously irradiated areas. RESULTS: Susceptibility to UVB radiation was 81.5 in the MM group and 31.2% in the control group. The risk of an UVB-susceptible individual to develop MM was 9.7 times higher than when UVB resistant. CONCLUSION: UVB susceptibility should be considered an important risk factor to the development of this type of cancer.

Nilton Nasser

2010-01-01

158

Quem descobre o melanoma cutâneo Who discovers the cutaneous melanoma  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available FUNDAMENTO: No Brasil não se sabe quem descobre os casos de melanoma cutâneo. A compreensão dos "modelos de descoberta" poderia servir de base para os programas de educação pública e do profissional de saúde. OBJETIVO: Determinar o papel dos pacientes em encontrar suas próprias lesões. MÉTODOS: Foram entrevistados 109 pacientes com diagnóstico anterior de melanoma cutâneo, acompanhados na Unidade de Melanoma da Santa Casa de Misericórdia de São Paulo. Outras variáveis foram anotadas para avaliar suas possíveis influências no resultado da descoberta: sexo, idade, estado civil, escolaridade, antecedente familiar de melanoma, localização da lesão primária e conhecimento sobre câncer da pele. RESULTADOS: Dos 109 pacientes, 59 (54%) notaram a própria lesão. Deles, 62% eram mulheres, 51% menores de 60 anos, 90% sem antecedentes familiares de melanoma, 78% negavam conhecimento sobre câncer de pele, 59% eram casados, 52% cursaram apenas a escola primária. Os demais 50 pacientes tiveram sua lesão descoberta em 24% dos casos por profissionais de saúde, 10% pela esposa, 1% pelo marido e 11% por outras pessoas. CONCLUSÃO: 54% dos pacientes notaram sua própria lesão, que em cerca de 25% foi descoberta por leigos. Esses resultados são semelhantes aos da literatura dos países desenvolvidos. A clientela avaliada foi do tipo assistencial, e com esse resultado é possível acreditar que, no Brasil, alguma influência das campanhas públicas de saúde já pode ser notada.BACKGROUND - In Brazil, it is still unknown who first discovers the cases of cutaneous melanoma. The understanding of our “finding patterns” could be used as a basis for public education programs and healthcare professional training. OBJECTIVE - To determine the role of patients in detecting lesions by themselves. METHODS - One hundred and nine patients were interviewed. The patients had a diagnosis of cutaneous melanoma and were regularly seen at the Melanoma Unit of Hospital Santa Casa de Misericórdia, in São Paulo. Other variables were considered to evaluate possible influences in the results: sex, age, marital status, schooling, family history of melanoma, site of the primary lesion and knowledge about skin cancer. RESULTS - Out of 109 interviewed patients, 54% had the lesion detected by themselves. Of those, 62% were female, 51% were aged under 60 years, 90% had no family history of melanoma, 78% had no knowledge about skin cancer, 59% were married and 52% concluded up to primary education. Out of the remaining 50 patients, 24% had their lesions detected by health professionals, 10% by their wives, 1% by their husbands and 11% by other people. CONCLUSION - Fifty-four percent of patients detected the lesion by themselves, and roughly 25% had the lesion detected by a lay person. These results are similar to those reported in the literature of developed countries. The clientele evaluated is attended by public healthcare services and the results lead to the conclusion that some influence of public health campaigns could already be noticed in Brazil.

Marcus Maia; Marianne Basso

2006-01-01

159

Metastatic melanoma of the stomach/ Melanoma metastático do estômago  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese INTRODUCTION: O melanoma metastático do estômago é entidade relativamente rara e de diagnóstico incomum em vida. A cirurgia é o tratamento de escolha, pois alivia os sintomas em mais de 90% dos casos e aumenta a sobrevida a longo prazo. OBJETIVO: Relatar um caso de melanoma metastático do estômago, submetida à ressecção curativa e que evoluiu sem sinais de doença residual. RELATO DO CASO: Mulher de 50 anos apresentou mancha escura em leito ungueal de dedo poleg (more) ar de mão direita há dois anos, evoluindo com ulceração e sangramento. A biópsia diagnosticou neoplasia melanocítica ungueal compatíveis com melanoma lentiginoso e confirmado pela imunohistoquímica que apresentou células pigmentadas HMB-45 positivas. Após um ano e meio a paciente evoluiu com metástase de melanoma em coxa esquerda e extensa lesão escavada em pequena curvatura gástrica, cuja biopsia foi compatível com melanoma metastático do estômago. Hemograma com discreta anemia (Hb: 11,1 e Ht: 33%) e LDH: 333 U/L. A paciente foi submetida à gastrectomia total com reconstrução em Y de Roux. Houve boa evolução e no 6º dia de pós-operatório teve alta hospitalar. Atualmente, no 12º mês de seguimento, a paciente permanece sem queixas, com alívio completo dos sintomas e com todos os exames de controle normais. CONCLUSÃO: O tratamento cirúrgico deve ser sempre considerado no melanoma metastático do trato gastrointestinal, pois o procedimento possui baixa morbidade e mortalidade, além de proporcionar alívio dos sintomas com melhora da qualidade de vida e aumento da sobrevida a longo prazo. Abstract in english BACKGROUND: Metastatic melanoma of the stomach is a relatively rare entity with an unusual diagnosis during life. Surgery is the treatment of choice once it alleviates the symptoms in over 90% of the cases and increases the long-term survival. CASE REPORT: A 50y woman had presented a dark spot in the ungual bed of her right-hand thumb for two years, evolving into ulceration and bleeding. The biopsy diagnosed ungual malanocytic neoplasia compatible with lentiginous melanom (more) a confirmed by immunohistochemistry, which presented positive pigmented HMB-45 cells. After an year and a half, the patient developed metastasis of the melanoma on her left thigh and extensive ulcerated lesion in the small gastric curvature, whose biopsy was compatible with metastatic melanoma of the stomach. The hemogram found discrete anemia (Hb: 11.1 and Ht: 33%) and LDH: 333 U/L. The patient underwent total gastrectomy with reconstruction in Roux-en-Y. There was a good evolution and on the 6th post-operative day, she was discharged home. At present, in the 12th month of follow up, the patient remains without complaints, with full relief of symptoms and all normal control exams. CONCLUSION: Surgical management should always be considered for the metastatic melanoma of the gastrointestinal tract, since the procedure shows low morbidity and mortality, besides providing relief of symptoms with the improvement of the quality of life and increase in the long-term survival.

Rocha, Marcelo Eustáquio; Rodrigues, Gilberto Pedro; Borges, Samir Almeida; Santiago, Fernando Gusmão

2008-12-01

160

Skin Cancer Non-Melanoma  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available X-Plain Skin Cancer Non-Melanoma Reference Summary Introduction Each year, millions of people find out that they ... 1995-2010, The Patient Education Institute, Inc. www.X-Plain.com oc180105 Last reviewed: 11/3/2010 1 ...

 
 
 
 
161

Skin Cancer Non-Melanoma  

Science.gov (United States)

X-Plain Skin Cancer Non-Melanoma Reference Summary Introduction Each year, millions of people find out that they ... 1995-2010, The Patient Education Institute, Inc. www.X-Plain.com oc180105 Last reviewed: 11/3/2010 1 ...

162

Malignant melanoma in a cow  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

A malignant melanoma located in the area of the ocular orbit and maxillary sinus of a 2,5 year old, female Brown Swiss cow is described. Complete clinical examination of the cow was performed and blood samples were taken for haematological analyses. According to the unfavorable prognosis, the cow wa...

Mesari? M.; Zadnik T.; Cerne Manca

163

Systemic treatment of malignant melanoma.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Once there is evidence of systemic involvement in malignant melanoma, treatment options become severely limited and the disease is virtually incurable. There are, however, options available to treat patients, including single-agent chemotherapy, single-agent biologic response modifier (BRM), combination chemotherapy, and the combination of chemotherapeutic agents and BRMs. These treatment modalities and their indications for use are discussed.

Mota A; Deisseroth A

2000-07-01

164

Systemic treatment of malignant melanoma.  

Science.gov (United States)

Once there is evidence of systemic involvement in malignant melanoma, treatment options become severely limited and the disease is virtually incurable. There are, however, options available to treat patients, including single-agent chemotherapy, single-agent biologic response modifier (BRM), combination chemotherapy, and the combination of chemotherapeutic agents and BRMs. These treatment modalities and their indications for use are discussed. PMID:10941566

Mota, A; Deisseroth, A

2000-07-01

165

Cancer stem cells in melanoma  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The identification of cancer stem cells in various malignancies led to the hypothesis that these cells have the exclusive ability of self-renewal, contribute to the plasticity of the tumours and may be the cause for ineffective cancer therapies. Several markers of melanoma stem cells have been descr...

Regenbrecht, C; Welte, Y; Hugel, R; Trefzer, U; Losch, FO; Adjaye, J; Walden, P

166

Emerging trends in the epidemiology of melanoma.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Cutaneous melanoma (CM) is one of the most rapidly growing cancers worldwide, with a consistent increase of incidence in white populations over the past four decades. Despite the early detection of primarily thin melanomas and the improved survival rates observed in several countries, the rate of thick melanomas has remained constant or continues to increase, especially in the older age group. Current considerations in the epidemiology of melanoma focus on the observed survival benefit of females versus males, the contributing role of indoor tanning in melanoma risk and the diverse effect of sun exposure in the development of different types of melanoma with respect to their clinical and mutational profile. Certain well-known risk factors, such as skin, hair, and eye pigmentation and melanocytic nevi have been validated in large scale association studies, while additional lifestyle factors and iatrogenic exposures, such as immunosuppressive agents and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are being investigated. In addition, genome wide association studies have revealed genetic loci that underlie the genetic susceptibility of melanoma, some of which are related to known risk factors Recently, an interesting association of melanoma with Parkinson's disease has been noted, with a higher than expected frequency of melanoma in patients with Parkinson's disease and vice versa. This review article provides an update in the epidemiology of cutaneous melanoma and discusses recent developments of the field. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

Nikolaou V; Stratigos AJ

2013-07-01

167

Melanoma epidemiology, prognosis and trends in Latvia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Background? Melanoma incidence and mortality rates are increasing worldwide within the white population. Clinical and histological factors have been usually used for the prognosis and assessment of the risk for melanoma. Objectives? The aim of the study was to describe the clinical and histopathological features of the cutaneous melanoma (CM) in the Latvian population, to test the association between melanoma features and patient survival, and to assess the time trends for melanoma incidence. Methods? We undertook a descriptive, retrospective analysis of archive data of 984 melanoma patients treated at the largest oncological hospital of Latvia, Riga East University Hospital Latvian Oncology Centre (LOC), between 1998 and 2008. Cox proportional hazards model was used to analyse patient survival and autoregressive models were applied to detect trends in melanoma incidence over time for various categories of melanoma. Results? The study showed a significant ascending trend in melanoma incidence in Latvia during the time period from 1998 to 2008 (ß?=?1.83, 95% CI?=?1.15-2.91, P?=?0.011). Nodular melanoma was the most common tumour subtype with a frequency of 39.2%. Ulceration was present in 45.2% of melanomas. The mean Breslow thickness was 6.0 mm (6.8?mm) and no significant decline in median Breslow thickness was observed during the study period (P?=?0.609). A better overall prognosis was detected for females in comparison with males (HR?=?1.49; 95% CI?=?1.22-1.81; P?melanoma incidence in Latvia with the majority of melanomas diagnosed at late stages with poor prognosis for survival.

Azarjana K; Ozola A; Ruklisa D; Cema I; Rivosh A; Azaryan A; Pjanova D

2012-10-01

168

Melanoma epidemiology, prognosis and trends in Latvia.  

Science.gov (United States)

Background? Melanoma incidence and mortality rates are increasing worldwide within the white population. Clinical and histological factors have been usually used for the prognosis and assessment of the risk for melanoma. Objectives? The aim of the study was to describe the clinical and histopathological features of the cutaneous melanoma (CM) in the Latvian population, to test the association between melanoma features and patient survival, and to assess the time trends for melanoma incidence. Methods? We undertook a descriptive, retrospective analysis of archive data of 984 melanoma patients treated at the largest oncological hospital of Latvia, Riga East University Hospital Latvian Oncology Centre (LOC), between 1998 and 2008. Cox proportional hazards model was used to analyse patient survival and autoregressive models were applied to detect trends in melanoma incidence over time for various categories of melanoma. Results? The study showed a significant ascending trend in melanoma incidence in Latvia during the time period from 1998 to 2008 (ß?=?1.83, 95% CI?=?1.15-2.91, P?=?0.011). Nodular melanoma was the most common tumour subtype with a frequency of 39.2%. Ulceration was present in 45.2% of melanomas. The mean Breslow thickness was 6.0 mm (6.8?mm) and no significant decline in median Breslow thickness was observed during the study period (P?=?0.609). A better overall prognosis was detected for females in comparison with males (HR?=?1.49; 95% CI?=?1.22-1.81; P?melanoma incidence in Latvia with the majority of melanomas diagnosed at late stages with poor prognosis for survival. PMID:23106225

Azarjana, K; Ozola, A; Ruklisa, D; Cema, I; Rivosh, A; Azaryan, A; Pjanova, D

2012-10-27

169

[Transpupillary thermotherapy of choroidal melanomas  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

PURPOSE: To evaluate the effectiveness of transpupillary thermotherapy (TTT) as a single treatment of choroidal melanomas. METHODS: We studied a series of 50 cases of choroidal melanoma treated with TTT and evaluated them with standardized A-scan and B-scan echography before and after treatment (1 week, 1, 3, and 6 months after treatment, then every 6 months). RESULTS: There were 22 males and 28 females with a mean age of 57 years (range, 22-78). The mean thickness of the lesion was 2.7 +/- 0.6 mm (range, 1.63-3.72). The mean follow-up was 38 months (range, 21-41). In almost all the eyes treated with TTT, substantial regression of tumoral microcirculation was observed after 1 week associated with a 70%-80% reduction in tumor thickness after 6 months (stabilized during follow-up). In one case of juxtapapillary melanoma with a thickness of 3.72 mm, another TTT application was necessary for local relapse. Visual acuity (VA) decreased to 20/30 in two cases (4%) and to 20/200 in four cases (8%) after the development of a cystoid macular edema. These latter patients were treated with two intravitreal injections (range, 1-3) of triamcinolone acetonide, and after a follow-up of 25 months (range, 21-29) VA improved to 20/20 in the first two cases, while two of the four other cases improved to 20/40 and two to 20/30. CONCLUSION: Transpupillary thermotherapy has visual results similar to those obtained with irradiation for the treatment of choroidal melanomas. Nevertheless, considering the high rate of recurrence at 5 and 10 years after transpupillary thermotherapy alone, most authors think that transpupillary thermotherapy is useful when associated irradiation for the treatment of choroidal melanomas, but its precise indications need to be defined.

Forte R; Cennamo G

2008-03-01

170

Genetics of uveal melanoma and cutaneous melanoma: two of a kind?  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Cutaneous melanoma and uveal melanoma both derive from melanocytes but show remarkable differences in tumorigenesis, mode of metastatic spread, genetic alterations, and therapeutic response. In this review we discuss the differences and similarities along with the genetic research techniques availab...

Bosch, T. van den; Kilic, E.; Paridaens, D.; Klein, J.E.M.M. de

171

Enucleation versus plaque irradiation for choroidal melanoma  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The Collaborative Ocular Melanoma Study (COMS) is an international, multicenter-controlled study. The organization includes an Executive Committee, Steering Committee, 6 Central Units, 32 Clinical Centers, and a Data and Safety Monitoring Committee. Scientifically, the COMS consists of (1) a randomized trial of patients with medium choroidal melanoma treated with enucleation versus iodine-125 plaque irradiation, (2) a randomized trial of patients with large choroidal melanoma treated with enucleation versus preenucleation external beam irradiation and enucleation, and (3) a prospective observational study of patients with small choroidal melanoma to determine whether a randomized trial of treatment is appropriate. In design and conduct of the COMS, special consideration is given to biostatistics and sample size considerations, iodine-125 plaque irradiation of choroidal melanoma, and coordinated ocular melanoma research. Recruitment is in progress. However, the pool of eligible patients is limited and the COMS needs the continued support and cooperation of ophthalmologists throughout the United States and Canada.

Straatsma, B.R.; Fine, S.L.; Earle, J.D.; Hawkins, B.S.; Diener-West, M.; McLaughlin, J.A.

1988-07-01

172

Molecular targeted therapies in metastatic melanoma.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The advent of personalized medicine has ushered in a new era for cancer therapy with a significant impact on the management of advanced melanoma. Molecular targeted therapies have shown promise in the management of various malignancies, including melanoma, with lower toxicity profiles and better overall survival as compared with conventional therapy. The discovery of BRAF mutations in melanoma led to the development of BRAF inhibitors for the treatment of advanced melanoma. However, growing concerns over drug resistance to molecular targeted therapies including BRAF inhibitors, have spurred efforts to elucidate additional molecular targets for the treatment of advanced melanoma. In this review, we discuss the known molecular aberrations in melanoma, current and novel targeted approaches in its treatment, and drug resistance patterns.

Chakraborty R; Wieland CN; Comfere NI

2013-01-01

173

Clinicopathological and molecular study of penile melanoma.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

AIMS: To examine the clinicopathological features of a series of penile melanomas and screen for mutations in the BRAF and KIT genes, which are seen in melanomas from other sites. METHODS AND RESULTS: 12 patients with penile melanoma were identified over a 10-year period in two supra-regional networks in the UK. The 2- and 5-year survival was 61% and 20%, respectively. Half the patients had lymph node involvement at presentation; this was a poor prognostic indicator. KIT exons 11, 13, 17 and 18, and BRAF codons 600 and 601 were analysed for mutations by Sanger sequencing and pyrosequencing, respectively. None of the tumours showed either KIT mutations or the BRAF V600E mutation. CONCLUSION: Penile melanomas are extremely rare and have a similar prognosis to melanomas elsewhere, but they often present late, leading to a poor outcome. The mutations seen in melanomas from other sites appear to be rarely present in these tumours.

Oxley JD; Corbishley C; Down L; Watkin N; Dickerson D; Wong NA

2012-03-01

174

Molecular targeted therapies in metastatic melanoma  

Science.gov (United States)

The advent of personalized medicine has ushered in a new era for cancer therapy with a significant impact on the management of advanced melanoma. Molecular targeted therapies have shown promise in the management of various malignancies, including melanoma, with lower toxicity profiles and better overall survival as compared with conventional therapy. The discovery of BRAF mutations in melanoma led to the development of BRAF inhibitors for the treatment of advanced melanoma. However, growing concerns over drug resistance to molecular targeted therapies including BRAF inhibitors, have spurred efforts to elucidate additional molecular targets for the treatment of advanced melanoma. In this review, we discuss the known molecular aberrations in melanoma, current and novel targeted approaches in its treatment, and drug resistance patterns.

Chakraborty, Rima; Wieland, Carilyn N; Comfere, Nneka I

2013-01-01

175

Primary Cilium Depletion Typifies Cutaneous Melanoma In Situ and Malignant Melanoma  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Cutaneous melanoma is a lethal malignancy that arises spontaneously or via in situ precursor neoplasms. While melanoma in situ and locally invasive malignant melanoma can be cured surgically, these lesions can sometimes be difficult to distinguish from melanocytic nevi. Thus, the identification of h...

Kim, Jinah; Dabiri, Salma; Seeley, E. Scott

176

Analysis of BRAF mutation in primary and metastatic melanoma.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Mutation of BRAF has been proposed to contribute to melanoma development. However, it remains unclear whether or not BRAF mutation is associated with any particular stage of melanoma progression. Tumor biopsy specimens from patients with melanoma were analyzed to determine whether the frequency of BRAF mutation in metastatic melanoma differed from primary melanoma. BRAF mutation was present in 15 of 23 (61%) patients with primary melanoma and in 7 of 12 (58%) patients with metastatic melanoma. These results suggest that BRAF mutation in melanoma is most likely to occur prior to the development of metastatic disease.

Libra M; Malaponte G; Navolanic PM; Gangemi P; Bevelacqua V; Proietti L; Bruni B; Stivala F; Mazzarino MC; Travali S; McCubrey JA

2005-10-01

177

Cultivation-dependent plasticity of melanoma phenotype.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Malignant melanoma is a highly aggressive tumor with increasing incidence and high mortality. The importance of immunohistochemistry in diagnosis of the primary tumor and in early identification of metastases in lymphatic nodes is enormous; however melanoma phenotype is frequently variable and thus several markers must be employed simultaneously. The purposes of this study are to describe changes of phenotype of malignant melanoma in vitro and in vivo and to investigate whether changes of environmental factors mimicking natural conditions affect the phenotype of melanoma cells and can revert the typical in vitro loss of diagnostic markers. The influence of microenvironment was studied by means of immunocytochemistry on co-cultures of melanoma cells with melanoma-associated fibroblast and/or in conditioned media. The markers typical for melanoma (HMB45, Melan-A, Tyrosinase) were lost in malignant cells isolated from malignant effusion; however, tumor metastases shared identical phenotype with primary tumor (all markers positive). The melanoma cell lines also exerted reduced phenotype in vitro. The only constantly present diagnostic marker observed in our experiment was S100 protein and, in lesser extent, also Nestin. The phenotype loss was reverted under the influence of melanoma-associated fibroblast and/or both types of conditioned media. Loss of some markers of melanoma cell phenotype is not only of diagnostic significance, but it can presumably also contribute to biological behavior of melanoma. The presented study shows how the conditions of cultivation of melanoma cells can influence their phenotype. This observation can have some impact on considerations about the role of microenvironment in tumor biology.

Kodet O; Dvo?ánková B; Krej?í E; Szabo P; Dvo?ák P; Stork J; Krajsová I; Dundr P; Smetana K Jr; Lacina L

2013-06-01

178

Malignant melanoma of the mandibular gingiva  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Oral malignant melanoma is an infrequent neoplasia making up less than 1% of all melanomas, which exhibits much more aggressive behavior than those found on the skin. We present an aggressive case of oral malignant melanoma located on the mandibular gingiva in a 24-year-old male patient, who developed metastases to not only the regional lymph nodes but also the lungs and liver. The advanced stage of the disease contraindicated any surgical intervention and palliative chemotherapy was planned.

Sandeep Fauzdar; Dipesh D. Rao; Gopal Krishnan K.; Karthik A. Kaneesh; Venkatesh G. Naikmasur; Manjunatha M. Revanappa

2010-01-01

179

Giant hanging melanoma of the eyelid skin  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Cutaneous melanoma of the eyelid is a rare entity. We present a 53-year-old male who had a nevus on the left upper eyelid skin since childhood, which transformed into a huge ulcerated hanging mass in the same region. Excision of the mass was done and histopathology confirmed the diagnosis of nodular malignant melanoma. A small preauricular lymph node showed metastatic melanoma on fine needle aspiration cytology.

Pai Radha; Kini Hema; Kamath Sai; Kumar Suneet

2008-01-01

180

Intravascular metastatic melanoma: a difficult diagnosis.  

Science.gov (United States)

Melanoma is a common cancer with the potential for widespread metastasis; however intravascular metastasis is extremely rare. We report an unusual case of a patient with metastatic melanoma in whom (18) F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography-computed tomography (FDG PET-CT) demonstrated an intravascular melanoma metastasis in the superior vena cava (SVC), successfully treated with external beam radiotherapy. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case where FDG PET-CT was used to make this diagnosis. PMID:23425235

Ghattas, Samer; Howle, Julie; Wang, Wei; Kefford, Richard; Gruenewald, Simon

2013-02-21

 
 
 
 
181

Renaissance of targeting molecules for melanoma.  

Science.gov (United States)

Malignant melanoma affects approximately 40,000 new patients each year in the United States and an estimated 100,000 people worldwide. There is no satisfactory treatment for patients with metastatic melanoma that have an estimated 5-year survival of 6%. The potential of radioimmunotherapy (RIT) for the treatment of metastatic melanoma was recognized very early by RIT pioneers when murine melanoma was successfully treated by DeNardo, and later when Larson reported a shrinkage of tumor in a patient with metastatic melanoma treated with 131I-labeled Fab' fragments of a mAb against high-molecular-weight melanoma-associated antigen. Despite successes in the 1980s, RIT of melanoma did not develop into a clinical modality. The reasons for this are complex. In recent years, RIT has made an impression, as evidenced by the recent approval of Zevalin and Bexxar (anti-CD20 mAbs labeled with 90Y and 131I, respectively). Now there is a "window of opportunity" for RIT to become an effective therapy for metastatic melanoma. Surface antigen GD3 has been evaluated in patients as a potential target for melanoma RIT; pretargeting the administration of antibodies and intralesional administration of an antibody labeled with potent alpha-emitter 213-Bismuth have shown promise in clinical studies. Melanin, the pigment that gives melanoma its name, has emerged as a novel antigen for delivery of radioactivity to the tumors by antimelanin antibody. Simultaneously, radiolabeled metal-cyclized alpha-MSH peptide analogs and melanin-binding peptides are being developed as targeting molecules for melanoma. Overall, we are hopeful that targeted radionuclide therapy of metastatic melanoma will become a reality within the next few years. PMID:17257069

Dadachova, Ekaterina; Casadevall, Arturo

2006-12-01

182

Epidemiología del melanoma cutáneo Epidemiology of cutaneous melanoma  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Durante las últimas décadas hubo un aumento de la incidencia del melanoma cutáneo en la población caucásica del mundo, aunque este tumor puede afectar a cualquier grupo étnico. En la actualidad se considera a la exposición solar intermitente como un factor de riesgo cierto, en el desarrollo del melanoma cutáneo. La incidencia del melanoma cutáneo en Auckland, Nueva Zelanda, es la mayor del mundo. En Europa, la incidencia y la mortalidad fue creciente hasta que en la década de los 80 se estabilizó. En EEUU también se observó una estabilización de la incidencia. Con respecto a la edad, según la bibliografía consultada la incidencia aumenta a partir de los 20 años; en algunos pacientes con más de 200 nevos y sin pautas de protección solar antes de los 5 años de vida. También se observa aumento de la incidencia en los adultos mayores de 60 años de edad. Con respecto al sexo, en los EEUU y la Argentina es más frecuente en los hombres y en Europa en el sexo femenino.During the last decades there was an increase of incidence of cutaneous melanoma in Caucasian population worldwide, but this tumor can affect any ethnic group. Nowadays, the intermittent solar exposition is a well known predisposing factor. The incidence in Auckland, New Zealand, is the highest in the world. In Europe and in the USA, the incidence and mortality rates decreased until the 80's when it stabilized. Regarding the age of appearance, the incidence increases starting at 20 years of age in patients with more than 200 nevi and without history of sun protection in childhood. There was also an increase in the incidence in adults (>60 y-o). The distribution by sex in USA and Argentina is more frequent in males and in Europe in females.

R M C Leitner

2006-01-01

183

Epidemiología del melanoma cutáneo/ Epidemiology of cutaneous melanoma  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish Durante las últimas décadas hubo un aumento de la incidencia del melanoma cutáneo en la población caucásica del mundo, aunque este tumor puede afectar a cualquier grupo étnico. En la actualidad se considera a la exposición solar intermitente como un factor de riesgo cierto, en el desarrollo del melanoma cutáneo. La incidencia del melanoma cutáneo en Auckland, Nueva Zelanda, es la mayor del mundo. En Europa, la incidencia y la mortalidad fue creciente hasta que en (more) la década de los 80 se estabilizó. En EEUU también se observó una estabilización de la incidencia. Con respecto a la edad, según la bibliografía consultada la incidencia aumenta a partir de los 20 años; en algunos pacientes con más de 200 nevos y sin pautas de protección solar antes de los 5 años de vida. También se observa aumento de la incidencia en los adultos mayores de 60 años de edad. Con respecto al sexo, en los EEUU y la Argentina es más frecuente en los hombres y en Europa en el sexo femenino. Abstract in english During the last decades there was an increase of incidence of cutaneous melanoma in Caucasian population worldwide, but this tumor can affect any ethnic group. Nowadays, the intermittent solar exposition is a well known predisposing factor. The incidence in Auckland, New Zealand, is the highest in the world. In Europe and in the USA, the incidence and mortality rates decreased until the 80's when it stabilized. Regarding the age of appearance, the incidence increases star (more) ting at 20 years of age in patients with more than 200 nevi and without history of sun protection in childhood. There was also an increase in the incidence in adults (>60 y-o). The distribution by sex in USA and Argentina is more frequent in males and in Europe in females.

Leitner, R M C

2006-06-01

184

Emerging phytochemicals for prevention of melanoma invasion.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cutaneous malignant melanoma is the leading cause of death from skin diseases due to its propensity to metastasize. Once diagnosed with metastatic melanoma, most patients will die of their disease within 2years. As suppression of metastases requires long-term interventions, potential anti-metastatic agents must not only be efficacious but also have low toxicity. Many phytochemicals used in traditional medicine have low toxicity and recent studies suggest that some are promising candidates for the prevention or treatment of metastatic melanoma. Here, we review the recent literature regarding phytochemicals that have shown inhibitory effects on melanoma cell migration or invasion. PMID:23474498

Jones, Virginia; Katiyar, Santosh K

2013-03-06

185

Tandem BRAF mutations in primary invasive melanomas.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The RAS/RAF/MAPK pathway likely mediates critical cell proliferation and survival signals in melanoma. BRAF mutations have been found in a high percentage of melanoma cell lines and metastases; however, only a few studies with a limited number of specimens have focused on primary melanomas. We examined BRAF exon 15 mutational status in 37 primary invasive melanomas of varying thicknesses, which had undergone a standardized pathology review. BRAF mutational status was determined using direct manual sequencing of PCR products, followed by resequencing separately amplified DNA aliquots to confirm each mutation. BRAF exon 15 mutations were found in 17 of 37 (46%) primary melanomas. Tumor-specific tandem mutations, encoding either V599K, V599R, or V599E, were found in 5 of 17 (29%) melanomas with BRAF exon 15 mutations. Cloning of BRAF double base-pair substitutions confirmed that both base changes were on the same allele and can result in a positive charge at codon 599. BRAF mutations, including tandem mutations, were frequently found in both thin and thick primary melanomas, implying that these mutations can occur early in the progression of melanoma. The finding of tandem mutations in thin melanomas makes it more likely that they arise as a simultaneous rather than sequential event.

Thomas NE; Alexander A; Edmiston SN; Parrish E; Millikan RC; Berwick M; Groben P; Ollila DW; Mattingly D; Conway K

2004-05-01

186

Emerging phytochemicals for prevention of melanoma invasion.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Cutaneous malignant melanoma is the leading cause of death from skin diseases due to its propensity to metastasize. Once diagnosed with metastatic melanoma, most patients will die of their disease within 2years. As suppression of metastases requires long-term interventions, potential anti-metastatic agents must not only be efficacious but also have low toxicity. Many phytochemicals used in traditional medicine have low toxicity and recent studies suggest that some are promising candidates for the prevention or treatment of metastatic melanoma. Here, we review the recent literature regarding phytochemicals that have shown inhibitory effects on melanoma cell migration or invasion.

Jones V; Katiyar SK

2013-07-01

187

MicroRNA signatures differentiate melanoma subtypes.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Melanoma is an aggressive cancer that is highly resistance to therapies once metastasized. We studied microRNA (miRNA) expression in clinical melanoma subtypes and evaluated different miRNA signatures in the background of gain of function somatic and inherited mutations associated with melanoma. Total RNA from 42 patient derived primary melanoma cell lines and three independent normal primary melanocyte cell cultures was evaluated by miRNA array. MiRNA expression was then analyzed comparing subtypes and additional clinicopathologic criteria including somatic mutations. The prevalence and association of an inherited variant in a miRNA binding site in the 3'UTR of the KRAS oncogene, referred to as the KRAS-variant, was also evaluated. We show that seven miRNAs, miR-142-3p, miR-486, miR-214, miR-218, miR-362, miR-650 and miR-31, were significantly correlated with acral as compared to non-acral melanomas (p < 0.04). In addition, we discovered that the KRAS-variant was enriched in non-acral melanoma (25%), and that miR-137 under expression was significantly associated with melanomas with the KRAS-variant. Our findings indicate that miRNAs are differentially expressed in melanoma subtypes and that their misregulation can be impacted by inherited gene variants, supporting the hypothesis that miRNA misregulation reflects biological differences in melanoma.

Chan E; Patel R; Nallur S; Ratner E; Bacchiocchi A; Hoyt K; Szpakowski S; Godshalk S; Ariyan S; Sznol M; Halaban R; Krauthammer M; Tuck D; Slack FJ; Weidhaas JB

2011-06-01

188

Tumor lysis syndrome and malignant melanoma.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Tumor lysis syndrome (TLS) is an oncological emergency that results from massive cytolysis of malignant cells with a sudden release of their contents into the systemic circulation. TLS was rarely described in patients with malignant melanoma. In this article, we describe two patients with malignant melanoma who developed this syndrome. In one of them, the syndrome occurred spontaneously, and this is the second description of spontaneous tumor lysis in a patient with melanoma. We reviewed the previous patients with melanoma-induced TLS and discussed the manifestations and the pathophysiology of the syndrome in our patients.

Mouallem M; Zemer-Wassercug N; Kugler E; Sahar N; Shapira-Frommer R; Schiby G

2013-09-01

189

Neutron capture therapy for melanoma  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The development of boron-containing compounds which localize selectively in tumor may require a tumor-by-tumor type of approach that exploits any metabolic pathways unique to the particular type of tumor. Melanin-producing melanomas actively transport and metabolize aromatic amino acids for use as precursors in the synthesis of the pigment melanin. It has been shown that the boron-containing amino acid analog p-borono-phenylalanine (BPA) is selectively accumulated in melanoma tissue, producing boron concentrations in tumor that are within the range estimated to be necessary for successful boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT). We report here the results of therapy experiments carried out at the Brookhaven Medical Research Reactor (BMRR). 21 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs

1988-01-01

190

Biology of Human Cutaneous Melanoma  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A review of the natural behavior of cutaneous melanoma, clinical and pathological factors, prognostic indicators, some basic research and the present and possible futuristic strategies in the management of this disease are presented. While surgery remains to be the most effective therapeutic approach in the management of early primary lesions, there is no standard adjuvant therapy after surgical resection, or for metastatic disease.

Elias G. Elias; Joanne H. Hasskamp; Bhuvnesh K. Sharma

2010-01-01

191

Simvastatin impairs murine melanoma growth  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Background Statins induces cell cycle arrest, apoptosis, reduction of angiogenic factors, inhibition of the endothelial growth factor, impairing tissue adhesion and attenuation of the resistance mechanisms. The aim of this study was evaluate the anti-tumoral activity of simvastatin in a B16F10 melanoma-mouse model. Methods Melanoma cells were treated with different concentrations of simvastatin and assessed by viability methods. Melanoma cells (5 × 104) were implanted in two month old C57Bl6/J mice. Around 7 days after cells injection, the oral treatments were started with simvastatin (5 mg/kg/day, p.o.). Tumor size, hematological and biochemical analyses were evaluated. Results Simvastatin at a concentration of 0.8 ?M, 1.2 ?M and 1.6 ?M had toxic effect. Concentration of 1.6 ?M induced a massive death in the first 24 h of incubation. Simvastatin at 0.8 ?M induces early cell cycle arrest in G0/G1, followed by increase of hypodiploidy. Tumor size were evaluated and the difference of treated group and control, after ten days, demonstrates that simvastatin inhibited the tumor expansion in 68%. Conclusion Simvastatin at 1.6 ?M, presented cytototoxicity after 72 h of treatment, with an intense death. In vivo, simvastatin being potentially useful as an antiproliferative drug, with an impairment of growth after ten days.

Favero Giovani M; F Otuki Michel; Oliveira Karen A; Bohatch Milton S; Borelli Primavera; Barros Francisco E; Maria Durvanei A; Fernandes Daniel; Bydlowski Sergio P

2010-01-01

192

[Primary melanoma of the esophagus].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Primary malignant melanoma of the esophagus is a rare, aggressive and poor-prognostic neoplasm, usually detected in late stages. Surgery (esophagectomy) is the treatment of choice when operable and the only factor that improves the disease prognosis is the detection of the lesions in early stages and the recognition of non-typical lesions. Most commonly, Melanoma lesions appear as large masses with proliferative, ulcerated and pigmented aspect. We report a clinical case whose endoscopic presentation was an elevated, protruding and sessile lesion (Paris Classification Type 0- Is), amelanocytic, size of 4mm, smooth surface, pink and with regular borders (mucosa of tumor with a normal esophagic mucosa appearance). This lesion initially could not be identified because the patient was admitted due to upper gastrointestinal bleeding caused by peptic esophagitis Grade D according to Los Angeles Classification. After histological analysis and immunohistochemistry of the lesion, melanoma was diagnosed. No skin, mucous or ocular lesions were found and multislice spiral computed tomography of thorax and abdomen did not show any metastasis.

Cardeña R; Yep-Gamarra V; Donet-Mostacero J; Rodas J

2012-07-01

193

[Primary melanoma of the esophagus].  

Science.gov (United States)

Primary malignant melanoma of the esophagus is a rare, aggressive and poor-prognostic neoplasm, usually detected in late stages. Surgery (esophagectomy) is the treatment of choice when operable and the only factor that improves the disease prognosis is the detection of the lesions in early stages and the recognition of non-typical lesions. Most commonly, Melanoma lesions appear as large masses with proliferative, ulcerated and pigmented aspect. We report a clinical case whose endoscopic presentation was an elevated, protruding and sessile lesion (Paris Classification Type 0- Is), amelanocytic, size of 4mm, smooth surface, pink and with regular borders (mucosa of tumor with a normal esophagic mucosa appearance). This lesion initially could not be identified because the patient was admitted due to upper gastrointestinal bleeding caused by peptic esophagitis Grade D according to Los Angeles Classification. After histological analysis and immunohistochemistry of the lesion, melanoma was diagnosed. No skin, mucous or ocular lesions were found and multislice spiral computed tomography of thorax and abdomen did not show any metastasis. PMID:23128952

Cardeña, Rakel; Yep-Gamarra, Victor; Donet-Mostacero, Jean; Rodas, Jonny

194

Melanoma of the female urethra.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Primary melanoma of the female urethra is a very rare malignant tumor with high mortality. Due to its rarity, there are no guidelines and recommendations on the diagnosis and treatment of such patients, so we aimed to review the reported cases and case series, their treatment, and outcome. We searched through PubMed for all articles reporting on female urethral melanoma. We found 73 articles (case reports and case series) reporting on 112 patients. There are no clinical trials on the topic due to the rarity of the condition. Median patient age at presentation is 68 years. Due to the late presentation, the prognosis of the disease is poor, and median survival is 16 months, with 5-year survival in around 10 % (12 reported patients). Regarding treatment, most authors use either less radical approach (partial or total urethrectomy) or radical approach (anterior pelvic exenteration). We found no evidence that either of the treatment modalities results with higher survival. In local excision, there are indications that margins less than 2-2.5 cm result in high percentage of local recurrence suggesting that resection width should be at least 2.5 cm. For localized urethral melanoma, local resection with margins of 2.5 cm can be recommended and there is no foundation to support radical surgery in such patients. Chemotherapy and immunotherapy can also recommend. For locally advanced disease, the prognosis is poor, and radical surgery will not improve survival significantly.

Papeš D; Altarac S

2013-03-01

195

Malignant melanoma in a cow  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A malignant melanoma located in the area of the ocular orbit and maxillary sinus of a 2,5 year old, female Brown Swiss cow is described. Complete clinical examination of the cow was performed and blood samples were taken for haematological analyses. According to the unfavorable prognosis, the cow was submitted for necropsy. After necropsy representative sections of tissue were sampled for gross and micro histopathology. Selected sections of tissue were stained with hematoxylin and eosin. Clinical examination of the cow revealed exophthalmus of the right eye, deviation of right maxillae and os faciale and progressive central nerve signs. At the necropsy a black tarry irregular mass, 10 cm in diameter was found in the area of the right orbit and maxillary sinuses protruding into the nasal conches and meninges. Multiple metastases were secondarly located in the heart, liver, spleen lung and brain. Histologically the malignant melanoma was composed of melanocytic tumor cells and located in the described organs. Based on clinical and histological examinations we concluded, that the tumor mass was a malignant melanoma of the epithelioid type. The primary origin of the tumor was probably the right eye.

Mesari? M.; Zadnik T.; Cerne Manca

2002-01-01

196

Biolistic DNA vaccination against melanoma.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We describe here the use of particle-mediated gene transfer for the induction of immune responses against melanoma antigens in murine tumor models using the melanocyte differentiation antigen tyrosinase-related protein 2 (TRP2) as an antigen in a murine B16 melanoma model. We have utilized marker genes such as ?-galactosidase (?gal) and EGFP, which can be readily detected, as control antigens to establish the gene delivery and to detect antigen-specific humoral and cellular immune responses. After biolistic DNA vaccination with plasmids encoding the TRP2 gene we observed the induction of TRP2-specific T-cells and antibodies associated with vitiligo-like fur depigmentation and tumor immunity against B16 melanoma cells. Here we describe the preparation of cartridges with DNA-coated gold beads and the in vivo gene transfer into skin using the Helios Gene Gun system. We also describe protocols for the measurement of humoral and cellular immune responses against the melanocyte differentiation antigen TRP2. These protocols can subsequently be adapted to other antigens.

Steitz J; Tüting T

2013-01-01

197

Treatment of malignant melanoma by selective thermal neutron capture therapy using melanoma-seeking compound  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

As pigment cells undergo melanoma genesis, accentuated melanogenesis concurrently occurs in principle. Subsequent to the understanding of intrinsic factors controlling both processes, we found our selective melanoma neutron capture therapy (NCT) using 10B-dopa (melanin substrate) analogue, 10B1-p-boronophenylalanine (10B1-BPA), followed by 10B(n, alpha)7Li reaction, induced by essentially harmless thermal neutrons, which releases energy of 2.33 MeV to 14 mu, the diameter of melanoma cells. In vitro/in vivo radiobiological analysis revealed the highly enhanced melanoma killing effect of 10B1-BPA. Chemical and prompt gamma ray spectrometry assays of 10B accumulated within melanoma cells after 10B1-BPA administration in vitro and in vivo show high affinity, e.g., 10B melanoma/blood ratio of 11.5. After successfully eradicating melanoma transplanted into hamsters with NCT, we advanced to preclinical studies using spontaneously occurring melanoma in Duroc pig skin. We cured three melanoma cases, 4.6 to 12 cm in diameter, by single neutron capture treatment. Complete disappearance of melanoma was obtained without substantial side effects. Acute and subacute toxicity as well as pharmacodynamics of 10B1-BPA have been studied in relation to therapeutic dosage requirements. Clinical radiation dosimetry using human phantom has been carried out. Further preclinical studies using human melanoma transplanted into nude mouse have been a useful model for obtaining optimal results for each melanoma type. We recently treated the first human melanoma patient with our NCT, using essentially the method for Duroc pig melanoma, and obtained similar regression time course leading to cure.

Mishima, Y.; Ichihashi, M.; Tsuji, M.; Hatta, S.; Ueda, M.; Honda, C.; Suzuki, T.

1989-05-01

198

Risk factors for limb melanomas compared with trunk melanomas in Queensland.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The objective of this study was to investigate the risk factors for melanoma on the arms and legs in comparison with well-known risk factors for trunk melanoma. The study was a population-based case-control study of 77 individuals with limb (25 arm; 52 leg) and 86 with trunk melanoma, who were representative of all the individuals newly-diagnosed with primary limb melanomas in Queensland during 1979-1980 and 232 controls. A single physician interviewed and examined all individuals and assessed complexion type, sun exposure history and other potential risk factors and clinical features. After multivariate analysis, the strongest risk factor for both limb and trunk melanomas was the presence of more than 10 naevi on the arm (odds ratio limb melanoma=41.4, 95% confidence interval 10.4-164), though on histology, a preexisting naevus was more strongly associated with trunk than limb melanoma (P<0.004). Associations with blonde/light brown hair, propensity to freckle and sunburn were similar for melanoma on both sites. A lifetime history of painful sunburns significantly raised the risk of trunk but not limb melanoma, whereas solar keratoses on the arm or face were more strongly associated with limb than with trunk melanoma (marginally significant, P(homogeneity)=0.056). High ambient solar ultraviolet radiation in adolescence was also a stronger risk factor for limb than for trunk melanoma. In conclusion, this population-based investigation into specific differences in causes of limb versus melanomas of other sites suggests that the risk factor profile is intermediate between the profiles for head/neck melanoma (mostly cumulative sun damage) and for trunk melanomas (most strongly related to naevi).

Green AC; Siskind V

2012-02-01

199

Nodular melanoma: a distinct clinical entity and the largest contributor to melanoma deaths in Victoria, Australia.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: There is a growing body of evidence that nodular melanoma (NM), because of its association with increased growth rate and thickness at diagnosis, accounts for a substantial proportion of melanoma deaths. OBJECTIVE: We sought to assess the contribution of NM to melanoma deaths in comparison with other tumor subtypes. METHODS: Four cohorts were established comprising 5775 cases of invasive primary cutaneous melanoma reported to the Victorian Cancer Registry during 1989, 1994, 1999, and 2004. Original pathology reports were reviewed. Age-standardized melanoma incidence rates were compared from 1989 to 2004 with annual percentage change using Poisson regression. RESULTS: The incidence of thick tumors (>4 mm) increased by 3.8% (95% confidence interval 1.4 to 6.2) and 2.5% (95% confidence interval -0.5 to 5.5) per year for male and female patients, respectively. The median thickness of NM at diagnosis was 2.6 mm compared with 0.6 mm for superficial spreading melanoma. A third of patients who died from melanoma during the follow-up period had thick tumors (>4 mm), most of which were nodular subtype (61%). NM accounted for 14% of invasive melanomas, but was responsible for 43% of melanoma deaths in a total of 57,461 person-years of follow-up. By comparison, superficial spreading melanoma contributed 56% of invasive melanoma but only 30% of deaths. LIMITATIONS: Pathology review was limited to reports only. Mortality information relied mostly on death certificate information. CONCLUSION: The incidence of thick melanomas continues to increase. Nodular melanoma is clinically distinct and the predominant contributor to melanoma-related deaths, representing a public health challenge in reducing skin cancer mortality.

Mar V; Roberts H; Wolfe R; English DR; Kelly JW

2013-04-01

200

Histopathological characteristics of subsequent melanomas in patients with multiple primary melanomas.  

Science.gov (United States)

Background? Multiple primary melanomas (MPM) occur in up to 20% of melanoma patients, and subsequent tumours seem to have a favourable histopathological pattern. Objective? A prospectively collected cohort of 194 patients with MPM was?retrospectively?reviewed to investigate clinical and histopathological features of first and subsequent melanomas. Methods? Patients with MPM who were diagnosed at our Department (1985-2011) and who attended at least a follow-up control yearly were identified. Results? The number of nevi was 50 in 8.7%, 41% and 50.3% of patients respectively. Histopathological dysplastic nevi have been diagnosed in 105 patients. During a median follow-up of 58?months, 159 (81.9%), 24 (12.3%), 7 (3.6%) and 4 (2%) patients developed 2, 3, 4 and ?5 melanomas, respectively. The median time to second primary melanoma was 45?months. The second primary melanoma was diagnosed within 1-year and after 5-year from the first melanoma in 36.6% and 17.3% of patients respectively. First and second primary melanomas were in situ in 41 (21%) and 104 (54%) patients respectively (P?melanomas (N?=?80), median tumour thickness and ulceration of first and second primaries were 0.91 and 0.44?mm (P?melanomas occurred within 1-year from the appearance of the first melanoma in 36% of patients with MPM, while a late melanoma diagnosis was detected in 17% of cases. Second primary melanoma had favourable histopathological features. Our findings support long-term skin surveillance to detect subsequent melanomas at an early stage. PMID:23216522

Vecchiato, A; Pasquali, S; Menin, C; Montesco, M C; Alaibac, M; Mocellin, S; Campana, L G; Nitti, D; Rossi, C R

2012-12-01

 
 
 
 
201

[Primary malignant melanoma of the esophagus  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Primary malignant melanoma of the esophagus is a rare but aggressive tumor that accounts for less than 0.1-0.2% of all esophageal malignancies. The aim of this study was to report a case of primary malignant melanoma of the esophagus in a 72-year-old woman. The diagnosis was histologically proven, but the patient died despite extensive surgical resection.

Guermazi A; Rili M; Fritsch S; Turki C; Benchaïb N; de Kerviler E; Frija J; Sarfati E

2000-12-01

202

Optimizing local control in anorectal melanoma  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Background: Wide local excision (WLE) of anorectal melanoma is associated with a high incidence of local recurrence. There is a paucity of literature on adjuvant radiation in this malignancy. Aim: To identify the optimal method of local treatment in anorectal melanoma. Settings and ...

Ramakrishnan A; Mahajan V; Kannan R

203

Direct bony invasion of malignant melanoma  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Malignant melanoma is known to spread by local extention, by the lymphatics by the blood stream. Direct invasion of the bone from a cutaneous melanoma is unknown. Hence, this case is presented in view of its rarity. A 75-year-old Caucasian lady presented with a small papillary lesion in the region o...

Mula Viswanath; Mandal Adhip; Britton Edward; Shanker Vaidyanathan

204

Malignant melanoma at a scientific laboratory  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The general consensus of the seven reviewers is that occupational exposures at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory have not been established as a causal factor for the observed excess of malignant melanoma. Several observations support the impression that some or all of the observed melanoma excess may be attributable to intense surveillance and enhanced detection of early stage melanoma lesions. Since the incidence of melanomas among Laboratory employees has not diminished, an early harvesting effect is unlikely. This suggests the distinct possibility that localized, in situ melanomas that would normally not be detected are being reported, and that in the absence of this enhanced detection, many of these early stage lesions would show little or no clinical progression. This phenomenon would explain the continued high incidence of melanomas in the absence of a physical or chemical inciting cause. A key point in this reasoning is the issue of the rate of growth of early stage melanomas, and this point remains a key question for study. Even if the observed excess cannot be explained by detection bias, the reviewers agree that the Austin and Reynolds' study does not make a convincing case for occupational factors being a cause of the high melanoma incidence. 6 refs.

Shy, C.M.; Checkoway, H.; Marshall, E.G.

1985-11-15

205

Causes and treatment of malignant melanoma.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The incidence of melanoma is rising faster than any other malignancy. As more cases are diagnosed, it is likely that general nurses will come into contact with melanoma patients. This article discusses the identification, treatment and prognosis for this group of patients.

Hodgetts J

2013-07-01

206

Transforming activity of human melanoma DNA.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Cellular DNA transfection to mouse NIH3T3 cells revealed transforming activity of human malignant melanoma DNA. The corresponding human sequence was cloned from the transformed mouse cells. By hybridization to viral oncogenes, the transforming gene in human melanoma was identified as a homologue of viral Ha-ras gene.

Sekiya T; Hirohashi S; Nishimura S; Sugimura T

1983-12-01

207

Update on the targeted therapy of melanoma.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Melanoma is the most aggressive of the cutaneous malignancies, causing more than 9,000 deaths in the past year in the United States. Historically, systemic therapies have been largely ineffective, because melanoma is usually resistant to cytotoxic chemotherapy. However, during the past few years, several targeted therapies have proved effective in this challenging disease. These recent advances have been facilitated by an improved understanding of the driving genetic aberrations of melanoma, particularly mutations in the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway. Vemurafenib, a BRAF inhibitor, demonstrated an overall survival advantage in phase III trials and is an appropriate option for first-line therapy in metastatic BRAF mutant melanoma. Dabrafenib, another BRAF inhibitor, and trametinib, a MEK inhibitor, also have been shown to be effective in phase III trials for BRAF mutant melanoma and may be additional treatment options as monotherapy or in combination pending regulatory approval. Additionally, imatinib is a promising targeted therapy for patients whose tumors harbor a KIT mutation in exons 11 and 13. Although these targeted agents cause objective responses and clinical benefit in patients with metastatic melanoma, resistance invariably develops. New targets and strategies to overcome acquired resistance are urgently needed. Furthermore, no effective targeted therapy has been developed for NRAS mutant tumors or in melanomas with as yet unknown driver mutations. In this review, we discuss current molecular targeted treatment options and promising ongoing research to develop new strategies to treat melanoma.

Johnson DB; Sosman JA

2013-06-01

208

Primary malignant melanoma of the nasal cavity.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Primary malignant melanoma of the nose and paranasal sinus mucosa is a rare disease and seen in less than 1% among all melanomas. Malignant melanomas have 2 origins: cutaneous and mucosal. The mucosal form has a worse prognosis because of its aggressiveness compared with that of the cutaneous form. Mucosal melanomas often occur at a rate of 2% to 3% among all melanomas and are typically found in the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses. Generally, it is more common in males and in those older than 50 years. In this study, 4 patients were observed at the Cumhuriyet University Faculty of Medicine; 2 of them were a 64-year-old man and an 82-year-old woman who had a malignant melanoma originating from the nasal septal mucosa, 1 patient was a 72-year-old woman whose malignant melanoma originated from the inferior turbinate, and 1 patient was a 77-year-old woman with a sinonasally located melanoma. The conditions of these patients were discussed under the light of literature instructions.

Uysal IÖ; Misir M; Polat K; Altunta? EE; Atalar MH; Tuncer E; Müderris S

2012-01-01

209

Serum-proteomics in melanoma patients  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] The project Serum-proteomics in melanoma patients funded by 'Programma Oncologico Italia-USA' Oncoproteomica has the general aim to collect serum samples from melanoma patients and to analyze the expression profile of several cytokines, in order to identify whether significant differences are evident between patients and controls, or among different patients subgroups with different staging or therapy

2009-01-01

210

Sequence and Insertion Sites of Murine Melanoma-Associated Retrovirus  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

We previously showed that B16 melanoma cells produce ecotropic melanoma-associated retrovirus (MelARV) which encodes a melanoma-associated antigen recognized by MM2-9B6 monoclonal antibody. The biological significance of MelARV in melanoma formation remains unknown. We found that infection of normal...

Li, Mengfeng; Huang, Xiaojun; Zhu, Zhenyu; Gorelik, Elieser

211

Prognostic Factors in Cutaneous Melanoma of the Head and Neck  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The division of cutaneous malignant melanomas into nodular melanoma, malignant melanoma arising in Hutchinson's melanotic freckle and superficial spreading melanoma has, in many studies, indicated its usefulness for assessing prognosis. The depth of dermal invasion was also found to be an important ...

Huvos, Andrew G.; Miké, Valerie; Donnellan, Michael J.; Seemayer, Thomas; Strong, Elliot W.

212

Novel approaches in melanoma prevention and therapy.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The incidence of cutaneous melanoma has risen at a rate significantly higher than that for other malignancies. This increase persists despite efforts to educate the public about the dangers of excess exposure to UV radiation from both the sun and tanning beds. Melanoma affects a relatively younger population and is notorious for its propensity to metastasize and for its poor response to current therapeutic regimens. These factors make prevention an integral component to the goal of decreasing melanoma-related mortality. Transformation of melanocytes into malignant melanoma involves the interplay between genetic factors, UV exposure, and the tumor microenvironment. The roles of UV radiation in the etiology of melanoma are mediated by both direct damage of DNA through formation of photoproducts and production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Many of the promising antioxidant agents under development for the prevention of melanoma are derived from foodstuffs. B-Raf is a member of the Raf kinase family of serine/threonine-specific protein kinases that plays a role in regulating the MAP kinase/ERKs signaling pathway. About 50 % of melanomas harbor activating BRAF mutations. BRAF mutations are found in 59 % of the melanomas arising in skin with intermittent sun exposure, such as trunk and arms, as compared with only 23 % of the acral melanomas, 11 % of mucosal melanomas, and 0 % of uveal melanomas. Two new agents, ipilimumab and vemurafenib, have been shown to improve outcome of advanced melanoma as presented at the plenary session of the 2011 annual meeting of the American Society of Clinical Oncology. Vemurafenib is the first personalized compound which demonstrated an improvement in progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) in metastatic melanoma harboring the BRAFV600 mutation and represents the first drug of a class that exerts its anti-proliferative activity through inhibition of a highly specific molecular target. GSK2118436 (dabrafenib), the second BRAF inhibitor, in phase I and II trial obtained similar results to vemurafenib. A phase III trial is now ongoing. Taken together, the early clinical development of vemurafenib and dabrafenib clearly confirms that BRAF inhibitors can halt or reverse disease in patients with melanomas carrying this mutation, improving survival times compared with historically standard treatments (chemotherapy and interleukin-2). The clinical development of other new BRAF inhibitors such as RAF265 and LGX818 is now ongoing. Combination strategies of BRAF inhibitors with ipilimumab, an anti-CTLA-4 antibody, and/or MEK inhibitors or metformin are now under investigation in clinical trials.

Grimaldi AM; Cassidy PB; Leachmann S; Ascierto PA

2014-01-01

213

Novel Approaches in Melanoma Prevention and Therapy.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The incidence of cutaneous melanoma has risen at a rate significantly higher than that for other malignancies. This increase persists despite efforts to educate the public about the dangers of excess exposure to UV radiation from both the sun and tanning beds. Melanoma affects a relatively younger population and is notorious for its propensity to metastasize and for its poor response to current therapeutic regimens. These factors make prevention an integral component to the goal of decreasing melanoma-related mortality. Transformation of melanocytes into malignant melanoma involves the interplay between genetic factors, UV exposure, and the tumor microenvironment. The roles of UV radiation in the etiology of melanoma are mediated by both direct damage of DNA through formation of photoproducts and production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Many of the promising antioxidant agents under development for the prevention of melanoma are derived from foodstuffs. B-Raf is a member of the Raf kinase family of serine/threonine-specific protein kinases that plays a role in regulating the MAP kinase/ERKs signaling pathway. About 50 % of melanomas harbor activating BRAF mutations. BRAF mutations are found in 59 % of the melanomas arising in skin with intermittent sun exposure, such as trunk and arms, as compared with only 23 % of the acral melanomas, 11 % of mucosal melanomas, and 0 % of uveal melanomas. Two new agents, ipilimumab and vemurafenib, have been shown to improve outcome of advanced melanoma as presented at the plenary session of the 2011 annual meeting of the American Society of Clinical Oncology. Vemurafenib is the first personalized compound which demonstrated an improvement in progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) in metastatic melanoma harboring the BRAFV600 mutation and represents the first drug of a class that exerts its anti-proliferative activity through inhibition of a highly specific molecular target. GSK2118436 (dabrafenib), the second BRAF inhibitor, in phase I and II trial obtained similar results to vemurafenib. A phase III trial is now ongoing. Taken together, the early clinical development of vemurafenib and dabrafenib clearly confirms that BRAF inhibitors can halt or reverse disease in patients with melanomas carrying this mutation, improving survival times compared with historically standard treatments (chemotherapy and interleukin-2). The clinical development of other new BRAF inhibitors such as RAF265 and LGX818 is now ongoing. Combination strategies of BRAF inhibitors with ipilimumab, an anti-CTLA-4 antibody, and/or MEK inhibitors or metformin are now under investigation in clinical trials.

Grimaldi AM; Cassidy PB; Leachmann S; Ascierto PA

2014-01-01

214

Nail apparatus melanoma: a diagnostic opportunity.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Malignant Melanoma is a high mortality neoplasm. The involvement of the nail apparatus is rare, with only 2 out of 3 patients seeking medical attention as the result of recent nail melanocytic lesions. This results in late diagnosis and a prognosis worse than cutaneous melanoma. We report a female, presenting with ulcerative lesions with clinical and laboratory features compatible with leishmaniasis. On return after treatment initiation a longitudinal melanonychia was observed on her first right finger. Biopsy of the nail matrix was performed. Histopathology was compatible with melanoma in situ. Longitudinal melanonychia is not a specific sign for melanoma and it is important that the dermatologist should identify the suspect lesions correctly. The incidental diagnosis of nail melanoma in situ in our case significantly impacted the patient's survival.

Carreño AM; Nakajima SR; Pennini SN; Candido Junior R; Schettini AP

2013-03-01

215

Nanomechanical analysis of pigmented human melanoma cells.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Based on hitherto measurements of elasticity of various cells in vitro and ex vivo, cancer cells are generally believed to be much softer than their normal counterparts. In spite of significant research efforts on the elasticity of cancer cells, only few studies were undertaken with melanoma cells. However, there are no reports concerning pigmented melanoma cells. Here, we report for the first time on the elasticity of pigmented human melanoma cells. The obtained data show that melanin significantly increases the stiffness of pigmented melanoma cells and that the effect depends on the amount of melanin inside the cells. The dramatic impact of melanin on the nanomechanical properties of cells puts into question widely accepted paradigm about all cancer cells being softer than their normal counterparts. Our findings reveal significant limitations of the nanodiagnosis approach for melanoma and contribute to better understanding of cell elasticity.

Sarna M; Zadlo A; Pilat A; Olchawa M; Gkogkolou P; Burda K; Böhm M; Sarna T

2013-09-01

216

The Determination of Melanoma Stage at Diagnosis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The rising proportion of melanomas diagnosed at an early pathologic stage is commonly ascribed to better public education. However in the US SEER program of cancer registration it has been found that the rates for in situ melanomas are closely related by a log linear relationship to the incidence of invasive melanomas and that this relationship is unrelated to calendar year or gender or patient age. This relationship is sufficiently strong to leave little room for other factors. The relationship may be different in populations with different melanoma rates and responses to them. It is suggested that the results are due to variations within populations of individual response to melanoma cell proliferation.

John A. H. Lee

2010-01-01

217

Alpha particles for treatment of disseminated melanoma  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Invading melanoma spreads to local and unpredictable distant location at the early stages of its development. It is justifiable, therefore, to classify the disease as a systemic disorder. This requires a systemic treatment that reaches all melanoma cells irrespective of whether they are singly dispersed and in circulation or already forming solid tumours of various sizes. Targeted radiotherapy affects directly and selectively cancer cells provided an appropriate radionuclide and its carrier are chosen. Melanoma is a pigmented tumour. Methylene blue (MTB)) accumulates selectively in melanoma cells due to its exceptionally high affinity to melanin. MTB serves, therefore, as a carrier for radionuclides. 211At-MTB has proved to be particularly effective in treating disseminated melanoma when administered systemically and, at the same time, non-toxic to normal non-pigmented and pigmented organs. (authors)

2010-06-02

218

Alpha particles for treatment of disseminated melanoma  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Invading melanoma spreads to local and unpredictable distant location at the early stages of its development. It is justifiable, therefore to classify the disease as a systemic disorder. This requires a systemic treatment that reaches all melanoma cells irrespective of whether they are singly dispersed and in circulation or already forming solid tumours of various sizes. Targeted radiotherapy affects directly and selectively cancer cells provided an appropriate radionuclide and its carrier are chosen. Melanoma is a pigmented tumour. Methylene blue (MTB) accumulates selectively in melanoma cells due to its exceptionally high affinity to melanin. MTB serves, therefore, as a carrier for radionuclides. {sup 211}At-MTB has proved to be particularly effective in treating disseminated melanoma when administered systemically and, at the same time, non-toxic to normal non-pigmented and pigmented organs. (author)

Link, E.M. [London Univ. (United Kingdom)

2010-11-15

219

Alpha particles for treatment of disseminated melanoma  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Invading melanoma spreads to local and unpredictable distant location at the early stages of its development. It is justifiable, therefore, to classify the disease as a systemic disorder. This requires a systemic treatment that reaches all melanoma cells irrespective of whether they are singly dispersed and in circulation or already forming solid tumours of various sizes. Targeted radiotherapy affects directly and selectively cancer cells provided an appropriate radionuclide and its carrier are chosen. Melanoma is a pigmented tumour. Methylene blue (MTB)) accumulates selectively in melanoma cells due to its exceptionally high affinity to melanin. MTB serves, therefore, as a carrier for radionuclides. {sup 211}At-MTB has proved to be particularly effective in treating disseminated melanoma when administered systemically and, at the same time, non-toxic to normal non-pigmented and pigmented organs. (authors)

Link, E.M. [London University (United Kingdom)

2010-07-01

220

Alpha particles for treatment of disseminated melanoma  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Invading melanoma spreads to local and unpredictable distant location at the early stages of its development. It is justifiable, therefore to classify the disease as a systemic disorder. This requires a systemic treatment that reaches all melanoma cells irrespective of whether they are singly dispersed and in circulation or already forming solid tumours of various sizes. Targeted radiotherapy affects directly and selectively cancer cells provided an appropriate radionuclide and its carrier are chosen. Melanoma is a pigmented tumour. Methylene blue (MTB) accumulates selectively in melanoma cells due to its exceptionally high affinity to melanin. MTB serves, therefore, as a carrier for radionuclides. 211At-MTB has proved to be particularly effective in treating disseminated melanoma when administered systemically and, at the same time, non-toxic to normal non-pigmented and pigmented organs. (author)

2010-01-01

 
 
 
 
221

Fli-1 expression in malignant melanoma.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Friend leukemia integration site 1 (Fli-1) has been reported as the first nuclear marker of endothelial differentiation; it is expressed in leukocytes and recently demonstrated in melanomas. Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue sections from 97 melanomas including 69 cases of primary and 28 metastatic melanomas were evaluated by immunohistochemistry. Five melanoma cell lines were evaluated by Western blot and immunocytochemistry. Fli-1 expression was observed in all cell lines. Fli-1 expression was higher in metastatic than in primary tumors (r=0.208, p=0.041, Spearman correlation), it positively correlated with Ki-67 expression (r=0.233, p=0.022, Spearman correlation), and the presence of an ulcer in the primary tumor (r=0.267, p=0.030, Spearman correlation). Therefore, the expression of Fli-1 in malignant melanoma appears to be associated with biologically more aggressive tumors.

Torlakovic EE; Slipicevic A; Flørenes VA; Chibbar R; DeCoteau JF; Bilalovic N

2008-11-01

222

Obesity and melanoma: exploring molecular links.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Obesity is now a major health problem due to its rapidly increasing incidence worldwide and severe consequences. Among many conditions associated with obesity are some cancers including melanoma. Both genetic defects and environmental risk factors are involved in the carcinogenesis of melanoma. Activation of multiple signal pathways such as the PI3K/Akt and MAPK pathways are necessary for the initiation of melanoma. Activation of the MAPK pathway as a result of activating mutations in BRAF is commonly seen in melanoma though it alone is not sufficient to cause malignant transformation of melanocytes. Obesity can result in the activation of many signal pathways including PI3K/Akt, MAPK, and STAT3. The activation of these pathways may have a synergistic effect with the genetic defects thereby increasing the incidence of melanoma.

Chen J; Chi M; Chen C; Zhang XD

2013-09-01

223

Melanoma Surveillance in the US: Collecting Melanoma Data  

Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

This podcast accompanies the publication of a series of articles on melanoma surveillance in the United States, available in the November supplement edition of the Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology. Dr. Suephy Chen, a dermatologist from Emory University, discusses why the articles are important, as well as the need to increase dermatologistsâ?? awareness of cancer registries and reporting requirements.  Created: 10/19/2011 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 10/19/2011.

2011-10-19

224

Melanoma genotypes and phenotypes get personal.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Traditionally, the diagnosis of metastatic melanoma was terminal to most patients. However, the advancements towards understanding the fundamental etiology, pathophysiology, and treatment have raised melanoma to the forefront of contemporary medicine. Indeed, the evidence of durable remissions are being heard ever more frequently in clinics around the globe. Despite having more gene mutations per cell than any other type of cancer, investigators are overcoming complex genomic landscapes, signaling pathways, and immune checkpoints by generating novel technological methods and clinical protocols with breath-taking speed. Significant progress in deciphering molecular genetics, epigenetics, kinase-driven networks, metabolomics, and immune-enhancing pathways to achieve personalized and positive outcomes has truly provided new hope for melanoma patients. However, obstacles requiring breakthroughs include understanding the influence of sunlight exposure on melanoma etiology, and overcoming all too frequently acquired drug resistance, complicating targeted therapy. Pathologists continue to have critically important roles in advancing the field, particularly in the area of transitioning from microscope-based diagnostic reports to pharmacogenomics through molecularly informed tumor boards. Although melanoma is no longer considered just 'one disease', pathologists will continue this rapidly progressing and exciting journey to identify tumor subtypes, to utilize tumorgraft or so-called patient-derived xenograft (PDX) models, and to develop companion diagnostics to keep pace with the bewildering breakthroughs occurring on a regular basis. Exactly which combination of drugs will ultimately be required to eradicate melanoma cells remains to be determined. However, it is clear that pathologists who are as dedicated to melanoma as the pioneering pathologist Dr Sidney Farber was committed to childhood cancers, will be required as the battle against melanoma continues. In this review, we describe what sets melanoma apart from other tumors, and demonstrate how lessons learned in the melanoma clinic are being transferred to many other types of aggressive neoplasms.

Pimiento JM; Larkin EM; Smalley KS; Wiersma GL; Monks NR; Fedorenko IV; Peterson CA; Nickoloff BJ

2013-08-01

225

Evolving concepts in melanoma classification and their relevance to multidisciplinary melanoma patient care.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In the initial period after melanoma was recognised as a disease entity in the early 1800's, it was subclassified on the basis of its presumed origin (from a precursor naevus, from a melanocytic precursor lesion acquired during adult life or in previously blemish-fee skin). In 1967 the eminent American pathologist, Dr Wallace Clark, proposed a histogenetic classification for melanoma in which the disease was subdivided predominantly on the basis of histopathological features of the intra-epidermal component of the tumour adjacent to any dermal invasive component. The subtypes were superficial spreading melanoma (SSM), lentigo maligna melanoma (LMM) and nodular melanoma (NM). Whilst additional entities, including acral lentiginous melanoma, mucosal melanoma, desmoplastic melanoma and naevoid melanoma have since been recognised, SSM, LMM and NM remain in the latest (2006) version of the WHO melanoma classification. Clark's histogenetic classification has been criticised because the criteria upon which it is based include clinical features (such as the site of the melanoma) and non-tumourous histopathological features (such as the character of the associated epidermis and the degree of solar elastosis) and also because of overlap in defining features, lack of an independent association with patient outcome and minimal relevance as a determinant of clinical management. However, such criticisms fail to acknowledge its importance in highlighting the myriad of clinical and histological guises of melanoma, which if not recognized by clinicians and pathologists will inevitably lead to a delay in diagnosis and a concomitant adverse clinical outcome. Recently, mutually exclusive oncogenic mutations in melanomas involving NRAS (15-20%), BRAF (50%), CKIT (2%), and GNAQ/GNA11 (50% of uveal melanomas) have been identified. This might herald the beginning of a new molecular classification of melanoma in which the biologically distinct subsets share a common oncogenic mechanism, behave clinically in a similar fashion and require similar clinical management. These discoveries are already being successfully exploited as therapeutic targets in clinical trials of metastatic melanoma patients with promising activity. Whilst there remains much to be discovered in this rapidly evolving field, there is already great optimism that more rational and effective therapies for melanoma patients will soon be widely available.

Scolyer RA; Long GV; Thompson JF

2011-04-01

226

Evolving concepts in melanoma classification and their relevance to multidisciplinary melanoma patient care.  

Science.gov (United States)

In the initial period after melanoma was recognised as a disease entity in the early 1800's, it was subclassified on the basis of its presumed origin (from a precursor naevus, from a melanocytic precursor lesion acquired during adult life or in previously blemish-fee skin). In 1967 the eminent American pathologist, Dr Wallace Clark, proposed a histogenetic classification for melanoma in which the disease was subdivided predominantly on the basis of histopathological features of the intra-epidermal component of the tumour adjacent to any dermal invasive component. The subtypes were superficial spreading melanoma (SSM), lentigo maligna melanoma (LMM) and nodular melanoma (NM). Whilst additional entities, including acral lentiginous melanoma, mucosal melanoma, desmoplastic melanoma and naevoid melanoma have since been recognised, SSM, LMM and NM remain in the latest (2006) version of the WHO melanoma classification. Clark's histogenetic classification has been criticised because the criteria upon which it is based include clinical features (such as the site of the melanoma) and non-tumourous histopathological features (such as the character of the associated epidermis and the degree of solar elastosis) and also because of overlap in defining features, lack of an independent association with patient outcome and minimal relevance as a determinant of clinical management. However, such criticisms fail to acknowledge its importance in highlighting the myriad of clinical and histological guises of melanoma, which if not recognized by clinicians and pathologists will inevitably lead to a delay in diagnosis and a concomitant adverse clinical outcome. Recently, mutually exclusive oncogenic mutations in melanomas involving NRAS (15-20%), BRAF (50%), CKIT (2%), and GNAQ/GNA11 (50% of uveal melanomas) have been identified. This might herald the beginning of a new molecular classification of melanoma in which the biologically distinct subsets share a common oncogenic mechanism, behave clinically in a similar fashion and require similar clinical management. These discoveries are already being successfully exploited as therapeutic targets in clinical trials of metastatic melanoma patients with promising activity. Whilst there remains much to be discovered in this rapidly evolving field, there is already great optimism that more rational and effective therapies for melanoma patients will soon be widely available. PMID:21482206

Scolyer, Richard A; Long, Georgina V; Thompson, John F

2011-03-21

227

Notch signaling mediates melanoma-endothelial cell communication and melanoma cell migration.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Stromal and cellular components within the tumor microenvironment significantly influence molecular signals mediating tumor growth and progression. We recently performed a screen to evaluate critical mediators of melanoma-endothelial communication and identified several molecular pathways associated with these cellular networks, including Notch3. Here, we evaluate the nature of melanoma-endothelial communication mediated by Notch3 and its functional significance. We find that Notch3 is specifically upregulated in melanoma-endothelial cell cocultures and is functionally associated with increased Notch signaling in melanoma cells. Furthermore, induced Notch3 signaling in melanoma cell lines leads to enhanced tumor cell migration without associated increases in tumor cell growth. Additionally, Notch3 expression is specifically associated with malignant patient samples and is not evident in benign nevi. We conclude that Notch3 mediates melanoma-endothelial cell communication and tumor cell migration and may serve as a meaningful therapeutic target for this aggressive malignancy.

Howard JD; Moriarty WF; Park J; Riedy K; Panova IP; Chung CH; Suh KY; Levchenko A; Alani RM

2013-09-01

228

Melanoma-associated retinopathy and recurrent exudative retinal detachments in a patient with choroidal melanoma.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

PURPOSE: To report a patient who presented with photopsias, night blindness, exudative retinal detachments, and melanoma-associated retinopathy in her right eye 23 years after the left eye was enucleated for a choroidal melanoma. METHODS: Assessment of fundus findings, fluorescein angiograms, and electroretinograms. RESULTS: The patient had recurrent exudative detachments of the macula in her right eye and electroretinogram responses consistent with the diagnosis of melanoma-associated retinopathy. The abdominal computed tomography (CT) scan was negative, but 13 months later, CT scanning revealed many masses in her liver. Fine-needle biopsy confirmed the diagnosis of metastatic melanoma. CONCLUSION: To our knowledge, this is the first report of melanoma-associated retinopathy in a patient with a previous choroidal melanoma.

Zacks DN; Pinnolis MK; Berson EL; Gragoudas ES

2001-10-01

229

Malignant blue nevus: clinicopathologically similar to melanoma.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Malignant blue nevus (MBN) is a rare melanocytic lesion and controversy exists whether it is a melanoma or a unique entity. We sought to establish clinical behavior using a large national registry. All patients with MBN and melanoma from 1973 to 2008 were identified in the Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results tumor registry. We performed comparative and survival analysis among the two tumor types. A total of 228,038 patients were identified (227,986 with melanoma and 52 with MBN). The mean age was 57.7 years. Both lesions had similar age of presentation (55.8 vs 55.7 years, P = 0.527), sex (male 50 vs 55%, P = 0.44), and nodal positivity rate (9.6 vs 5.4%, P = 0.22). MBNs were more likely to be nonwhite (11.8 vs 1.6%, P < 0.0001) and present with metastatic disease (15.2 vs 4%, P = 0.0028). MBN and melanoma had a similar survival (264 vs 240 months, P = 0.78) and remained similar when stratified by race (264 vs 242 months, P = 0.99) and stage (264 vs 256 months, P = 0.83). This is the largest study to date demonstrating similar clinical behavior and survival between patients with MBN and those with melanoma. We believe MBN is a variant of melanoma and suggest using a similar treatment algorithm as that of melanoma.

Kachare SD; Agle SC; Englert ZP; Zervos EE; Vohra NA; Wong JH; Fitzgerald TL

2013-07-01

230

Ellagic acid inhibits melanoma growth in vitro  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Ellagic is a polyphenolic compound with anti-fibrotic and antioxidant properties as well as exhibits antitumor properties against various cancer cells in vitro. There are few studies, however, which examine the effects of ellagic acid on melanoma. In the present study, we observe effects of ellagic acid on melanoma cells in vitro. Three metastatic melanoma cell lines (1205Lu, WM852c and A375) were examined to determine the effects of ellagic acid on melanoma cell viability, cell-cycle, apoptosis, NF-?? activity, and IL-1? & IL-8 secretion. Cell viability assays demonstrated that ellagic acid possesses an inhibitory effect on cell proliferation at concentrations between 25 and 100 µM. In addition, ellagic acid promoted G1 cell cycle arrest, increased levels of apoptosis and decreased synthesis of IL-1? and IL-8 in melanoma cells. Ellagic acid also decreased NF-?? activity, suggesting at least one potential mechanism by which ellagic acid may exert its effects in melanoma cells. Our findings support further investigation into prospective roles for ellagic acid as a therapeutic, adjuvant, or preventive agent for melanoma.

James Daniel Jensen; Jeffrey H. Dunn; Yuchun Luo; Weimin Liu; Mayumi Fujita; Robert P. Dellavalle

2011-01-01

231

Arginine deprivation therapy for malignant melanoma  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Jung-Ki Yoon,1,2 Arthur E Frankel,3 Lynn G Feun,4 Suhendan Ekmekcioglu,1 Kevin B Kim11Department of Melanoma Medical Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX, USA; 2Hwasung Public Health Center, Hwasung, South Korea, 3Scott and White Cancer Research Institute, Temple, TX, USA; 4Sylvester Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Miami, FL, USAAbstract: Despite recent development of promising immunotherapeutic and targeted drugs, prognosis in patients with advanced melanoma remains poor, and a cure for this disease remains elusive in most patients. The success of melanoma therapy depends on a better understanding of the biology of melanoma and development of drugs that effectively target the relevant genes or proteins essential for tumor cell survival. Melanoma cells frequently lack argininosuccinate synthetase, an essential enzyme for arginine synthesis, and as a result they become dependent on the availability of exogenous arginine. Accordingly, a therapeutic approach involving depletion of available arginine has been shown to be effective in preclinical studies. Early clinical studies have demonstrated sufficient antitumor activity to give rise to cautious optimism. In this article, the rationale for arginine deprivation therapy is discussed. Additionally, various strategies for depleting arginine are discussed and the preclinical and clinical investigations of arginine deprivation therapy in melanoma are reviewed.Keywords: arginine deprivation, argininosuccinate synthetase, melanoma

Yoon JK; Frankel AE; Feun LG; Ekmekcioglu S; Kim KB

2012-01-01

232

Metastatic malignant melanoma with "rhabdoid" features.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The authors propose the addition of malignant melanoma to the list of extrarenal neoplasms that may be predominantly composed of polygonal cells with the cytologic features of "rhabdoid" tumor. A review of 313 metastatic melanomas disclosed 49 examples with rhabdoid features, from which 31 had sufficient material for further pathologic and immunohistologic characterization. A control group of 46 nonrhabdoid metastatic melanomas was examined in parallel fashion. In 39% of cases, rhabdoid melanomas manifested relative deletion of S100 protein compared with the control tumors. However, there were no differences in staining with HMB-45. Vimentin immunoreactivity was concentrated in the paranuclear cytoplasm of rhabdoid melanoma cells. However, ultrastructural studies of these cases failed to show corresponding whorls of intermediate filaments and instead demonstrated paracrystalline paranuclear inclusions in profiles of rough endoplasmic reticulum. It is concluded that metastatic rhabdoid melanoma exhibits significant morphologic similarity to other rhabdoid tumors at a light-microscopic level. However, it usually retains enough melanocytic attributes to allow for accurate diagnostic recognition. Probably because patients with metastatic melanoma have an extremely poor prognosis overall, no worsening of biologic behavior was associated with rhabdoid cytomorphologic findings in this tumor type when compared with the control cases.

Chang ES; Wick MR; Swanson PE; Dehner LP

1994-10-01

233

[Melanomas more serious in the elderly].  

Science.gov (United States)

Two patients, a 96-year-old woman and a 94-year-old man, were diagnosed with metastatic cutaneous melanoma. The first patient had undergone radical excision of the primary tumour 18 months before. The second patient presented with neurological symptoms caused by a metastatic melanoma; the primary tumour had recently been resected. Both patients died within three weeks of the diagnosis. Cutaneous melanomas have a high metastatic rate. Treatment options are limited for metastatic disease. The incidence of melanoma increases with age. Old age is an independent risk factor, which is also associated with a poor prognosis. Older patients more often present with more serious histological characteristics and more aggressive types of melanoma. The Breslow thickness is also higher in patients aged 65 or over. Nodular melanoma, lentigo maligna or acral lentiginous melanoma are observed more frequently in this group of patients. Moreover, elderly people more frequently present with liver or cerebral metastases. Early diagnosis improves the prognosis, also in the elderly. PMID:20482904

van der Meijden, Wilbert A G; van Bruchem-Visser, Rozemarijn L; Thio, H Bing; van der Cammen, Tischa J M

2010-01-01

234

[Melanomas more serious in the elderly].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Two patients, a 96-year-old woman and a 94-year-old man, were diagnosed with metastatic cutaneous melanoma. The first patient had undergone radical excision of the primary tumour 18 months before. The second patient presented with neurological symptoms caused by a metastatic melanoma; the primary tumour had recently been resected. Both patients died within three weeks of the diagnosis. Cutaneous melanomas have a high metastatic rate. Treatment options are limited for metastatic disease. The incidence of melanoma increases with age. Old age is an independent risk factor, which is also associated with a poor prognosis. Older patients more often present with more serious histological characteristics and more aggressive types of melanoma. The Breslow thickness is also higher in patients aged 65 or over. Nodular melanoma, lentigo maligna or acral lentiginous melanoma are observed more frequently in this group of patients. Moreover, elderly people more frequently present with liver or cerebral metastases. Early diagnosis improves the prognosis, also in the elderly.

van der Meijden WA; van Bruchem-Visser RL; Thio HB; van der Cammen TJ

2010-01-01

235

Molecular targeted therapies in metastatic melanoma  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Rima Chakraborty,1 Carilyn N Wieland,2 Nneka I Comfere2 1University of Missouri-Kansas City Medical School, Kansas City, MO, 2Departments of Dermatology and Laboratory Medicine and Pathology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA Abstract: The advent of personalized medicine has ushered in a new era for cancer therapy with a significant impact on the management of advanced melanoma. Molecular targeted therapies have shown promise in the management of various malignancies, including melanoma, with lower toxicity profiles and better overall survival as compared with conventional therapy. The discovery of BRAF mutations in melanoma led to the development of BRAF inhibitors for the treatment of advanced melanoma. However, growing concerns over drug resistance to molecular targeted therapies including BRAF inhibitors, have spurred efforts to elucidate additional molecular targets for the treatment of advanced melanoma. In this review, we discuss the known molecular aberrations in melanoma, current and novel targeted approaches in its treatment, and drug resistance patterns. Keywords: BRAF inhibitors, metastatic melanoma, personalized medicine

Chakraborty R; Wiel; CN; Comfere NI

2013-01-01

236

Surgical margins for melanoma in situ.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: A controversy in the treatment of melanoma in situ is the required width of surgical margin. The currently accepted 5-mm margin is based on a 1992 consensus opinion, despite data since then showing this is inadequate. OBJECTIVE: We sought to develop guidelines for predetermined surgical margins for excision of melanoma in situ. METHODS: A prospectively collected series of 1072 patients with 1120 melanoma in situs was studied. All lesions were excised by Mohs micrographic surgery with frozen-section examination of the margin. The minimal surgical margin was 6 mm, and the total margin was calculated by adding an additional 3 mm for each subsequent stage required. The minimum surgical margin that would successfully remove 97% of all tumors was calculated. Local recurrence was also tabulated. RESULTS: In all, 86% of melanoma in situs were successfully excised with a 6-mm margin; 9 mm removed 98.9% of melanoma in situs. The superiority of 9-mm to 6-mm margins was significant (P < .001). Gender, location, and diameter did not affect results. Recurrence rate for this set of patients treated with Mohs micrographic surgery was 0.3% (n = 3). LIMITATIONS: Margins less than 6 mm were not studied. This is a referral center for melanoma in situ and 10% of tumors were previously treated before presentation to our clinic. CONCLUSION: The frequently recommended 5-mm margin for melanoma is inadequate. Standard surgical excision of melanoma in situ should include 9 mm of normal-appearing skin, similar to that recommended for early invasive melanoma.

Kunishige JH; Brodland DG; Zitelli JA

2012-03-01

237

MicroRNAs in melanoma biology.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Malignant melanoma is a highly aggressive tumour with increasing -incidence and poor prognosis in the metastatic stage. In recent years, a substantial number of reports on individual miRNAs or miRNA patterns have been published providing strong evidence that miRNAs might play an important role in malignant melanoma and might help to better understand the molecular mechanisms of melanoma development and progression. A major preliminary finding was that melanoma-associated miRNAs are often located in genomic regions with frequent gains and losses in tumours. Detailed studies of different groups thereafter identified miRNAs with differential expression in benign melanocytes compared with melanoma cell lines or in benign melanocytic lesions compared with melanomas. Among these were let-7a and b, miR-23a and b, miR-148, miR-155, miR-182, miR-200c, miR-211, miR214, and miR-221 and 222. Some of these miRNAs target well-known melanoma-associated genes like the NRAS oncogene, microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF), receptor tyrosine kinase c-KIT or AP-2 transcription factors (TFAP2). Although we are still far from a complete understanding of the role of miRNA-target gene interactions in malignant melanoma, these findings further underscore the notion of a direct involvement of miRNAs in melanoma biology. Very recently, a prognostic signature of six miRNAs has been identified consisting of miRNAs miR-150, miR-342-3p, miR-455-3p, miR-145, miR-155, and miR-497. High expression of these miRNAs was shown to be associated with improved long-term survival of metastatic patients.

Kunz M

2013-01-01

238

Syngeneic murine metastasis models: b16 melanoma.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The murine B16 melanoma is one of the most used tumor models, its application having been used to determine the mechanisms associated with the metastatic process and the development of anticancer therapies. The B16 melanoma was originally established by Fidler and collaborators as a tumor line metastasizing to the lung. Since that time a variety of cell lines have been derived, in vitro or in vivo, having different metastatic behaviors.The methods used to obtain artificial metastases to the lung through the intravenous injection of B16 melanoma cells and spontaneous metastasis formation following cancer cell growth in the footpad are described in this chapter.

Giavazzi R; Decio A

2014-01-01

239

Malignant melanoma presenting as bilateral breast  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Malignant melanoma presenting initially with disseminated disease is common. However, bilateral breast masses as the initial symptom of malignant melanoma are rare. One such case is described in this paper, together with a review of literature. Clinical investigations revealed a high erythrocyte sedimentation rate. The chest X-ray was normal, ultrasound examination of the abdomen confirmed bilateral masses and the bone scan with {sup 99m}Tc meta diphosphonate showed increased tracer concentration in the D4 and L2 vertebrae. Biopsy form a lump in the breast showed features compatible with malignant melanoma deposit in the breast. 11 refs., 3 figs.

Jayalakshmi, S.; Chander, S.; Prasad, R.R.; Saxena, A.K.; Sharma, M.C.; Rath, G.K. [All India Inst. of Medical Sciences, New Delhi (India)

1997-02-01

240

A STATement on vemurafenib-resistant melanoma.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Despite recent advancements in the treatment of late-stage mutant BRAF (V600E/K) melanomas, a major hurdle continues to be acquired resistance to BRAF inhibitors such as vemurafenib. The mechanisms for resistance have proven to be heterogeneous, emphasizing the need to use broad therapeutic approaches. In this issue, the study "Stat3-targeted therapies overcome the acquired resistance to vemurafenib in melanomas" by Liu et al. proposes that signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3)-paired box 3 (PAX3) signaling may be a mechanism that is used by melanomas to resist RAF inhibitors.

Hartsough EJ; Aplin AE

2013-08-01

 
 
 
 
241

A STATement on vemurafenib-resistant melanoma.  

Science.gov (United States)

Despite recent advancements in the treatment of late-stage mutant BRAF (V600E/K) melanomas, a major hurdle continues to be acquired resistance to BRAF inhibitors such as vemurafenib. The mechanisms for resistance have proven to be heterogeneous, emphasizing the need to use broad therapeutic approaches. In this issue, the study "Stat3-targeted therapies overcome the acquired resistance to vemurafenib in melanomas" by Liu et al. proposes that signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3)-paired box 3 (PAX3) signaling may be a mechanism that is used by melanomas to resist RAF inhibitors. PMID:23856932

Hartsough, Edward J; Aplin, Andrew E

2013-08-01

242

Mucosal malignant melanoma of the nasal cavity  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Mucosal malignant melanoma (MMM) of the nose is extremely rare. We report a case of MMM of the nasal cavity in a 60-year-old male patient presenting with a polypoidal mass in the right nasal cavity. It was increasing gradually and obstructing breathing. A biopsy of the lesion was done with a clinical suspicion of inverted papilloma/carcinoma. Microscopy revealed features suggestive of malignant melanoma with minimal melanin pigmentation. Subsequently wide local excision was done. Diagnosis of malignant melanoma was facilitated by histochemistry and immunohistochemistry.

Bothale K; Maimoon S; Patrikar A; Mahore S

2009-01-01

243

A modified COMS plaque for iris melanoma  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Melanoma of the iris is a rare condition compared to posterior ocular tumors and in this case report we presenta 51-year-old female patient with diffuse iris melanoma. Traditional COMS (Collaborative Ocular Melanoma Study)plaques are used at our institution for radiation therapy, so a novel modification of the traditional plaque was requiredto allow better conformance with placement on the cornea. The usual silastic insert was machined to dimensions incompliance with the cornea, placed without incident, and treatment delivered with excellent patient tolerance of themodified plaque.

Daniel J. Scanderbeg; Deepta Vasudev; Roger K. Rice; Michael Goldbaum; Arno J. Mundt

2011-01-01

244

Nodular Melanoma Mimicking Keratoacanthoma: Lessons to learn.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A 67-year-old man of Chinese descent presented with a painless nodular lesion that had been present on his right forearm for the previous 3 months. A single, well-defined, dome-shaped, firm nodule with a central keratin plug surrounded by erythema was noted. Keratoacanthoma with secondary bacterial infection was suspected and the patient underwent an excision biopsy. Biopsy of the nodule and immunohistochemical staining supported a diagnosis of nodular malignant melanoma. It should be noted both that nodular malignant melanoma may present with a wide variety of clinical appearances, and that the lack of melanin pigment in nodular malignant melanoma may hinder the diagnosis of this aggressive tumour.

Muthupalaniappen L; Das S; Md Nor N; Ali SA

2012-08-01

245

Syngeneic Murine Metastasis Models: B16 Melanoma.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The murine B16 melanoma is one of the most used tumor models, its application having been used to determine the mechanisms associated with the metastatic process and the development of anticancer therapies. The B16 melanoma was originally established by Fidler and collaborators as a tumor line metastasizing to the lung. Since that time a variety of cell lines have been derived, in vitro or in vivo, having different metastatic behaviors.The methods used to obtain artificial metastases to the lung through the intravenous injection of B16 melanoma cells and spontaneous metastasis formation following cancer cell growth in the footpad are described in this chapter.

Giavazzi R; Decio A

2014-01-01

246

Experimental boron neutron capture therapy for melanoma: Systemic delivery of boron to melanotic and amelanotic melanoma  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The boron-containing melanin precursor analogue p-boronophenylalanine (BPA) has previously been shown to selectively deliver boron to pigmented murine melanomas when administered in a single intragastric dose. If boron neutron capture therapy is to become a clinically useful method of radiation therapy for human malignant melanoma, the boron carrier must be capable of delivering useful amounts of boron to remote tumor sites (metastases) and to poorly pigmented melanomas. The authors have now determined the ability of BPA to accumulate in several nonpigmented melanoma models including human melanoma xenografts in nude mice. The absolute amount of boron in the nonpigmented melanomas was about 50% of the observed in the pigmented counterparts but was still selectively concentrated in the tumor relative to normal tissues in amounts sufficient for effective neutron capture therapy. Single intragastric doses of BPA resulted in selective localization of boron in the amelanotic Greene melanoma carried in the anterior chamber of the rabbit eye and in a pigmented murine melanoma growing in the lungs. The ratio of the boron concentration in these tumors to the boron concentration in the immediately adjacent normal tissue was in the range of 3:1 to 4:1. These distribution studies support the proposal that boron neutron capture therapy may be useful as a regional therapy for malignant melanoma

1990-01-01

247

Cutaneous metastasis in choroidal melanoma/ Metástases cutâneas em melanoma de coróide  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese A ocorrência de metástases do melanoma de coróide é frequente na doença avançada, acometendo principalmente fígado, pulmões e sistema nervoso central. Relatamos um caso de melanoma de coróide com metástases cutâneas, por se tratar de acometimento raro, mesmo em casos avançados da doença. Abstract in english Metastasis in choroidal melanoma is frequent on advanced diseases, involving mainly the liver, lungs and central nervous system. We report a case of cutaneous metastasis in choroidal melanoma because is an unusual condition, even in advanced disease.

Fonseca, Fabricio Lopes da; Matayoshi, Suzana

2011-10-01

248

Experimental boron neutron capture therapy for melanoma: Systemic delivery of boron to melanotic and amelanotic melanoma  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The boron-containing melanin precursor analogue p-boronophenylalanine (BPA) has previously been shown to selectively deliver boron to pigmented murine melanomas when administered in a single intragastric dose. If boron neutron capture therapy is to become a clinically useful method of radiation therapy for human malignant melanoma, the boron carrier must be capable of delivering useful amounts of boron to remote tumor sites (metastases) and to poorly pigmented melanomas. The authors have now determined the ability of BPA to accumulate in several nonpigmented melanoma models including human melanoma xenografts in nude mice. The absolute amount of boron in the nonpigmented melanomas was about 50% of the observed in the pigmented counterparts but was still selectively concentrated in the tumor relative to normal tissues in amounts sufficient for effective neutron capture therapy. Single intragastric doses of BPA resulted in selective localization of boron in the amelanotic Greene melanoma carried in the anterior chamber of the rabbit eye and in a pigmented murine melanoma growing in the lungs. The ratio of the boron concentration in these tumors to the boron concentration in the immediately adjacent normal tissue was in the range of 3:1 to 4:1. These distribution studies support the proposal that boron neutron capture therapy may be useful as a regional therapy for malignant melanoma.

Coderre, J.A.; Glass, J.D.; Micca, P.; Greenberg, D. (Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)); Packer, S. (Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States) North Shore University Hospital Manhasset, NY (United States))

1990-01-01

249

Malignant Melanoma Presenting as Superior Mediastinal Mass without Extrathoracic Primary Melanoma  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Malignant melanoma most commonly occurs in the skin, and other organs are secondarily involved. Malignant melanoma presenting in the mediastinum without an extrathoracic primary is very rare. Authors report a case of malignant melanoma of the superior mediastinum without clinical history of extrathoracic malignant melanoma primarily and discuss its radiologic findings. CT shows lobulated heterogenous enhanced mass. Magnetic resonance shows mild hyperintense mass on T1 and T2-weighted images contained focal hemorrhage and necrosis, and invasion to neural foramen. In addition, positron emission tomography/computed tomography shows high standard uptake values uptake of the mass.

You, Myung Won; Sung, Dong Wook; Lee, Young Kyung [Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, Kyung Hee University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

2013-03-15

250

Nestin is expressed in HMB-45 negative melanoma cells in dermal parts of nodular melanoma.  

Science.gov (United States)

Nestin, a marker of neural stem cells, is expressed in the stem cells of the mouse hair follicle. The nestin-expressing hair follicle stem cells can differentiate into neurons, glia, keratocytes, smooth muscle cells and melanocytes in vitro. These pluripotent nestin-expressing stem cells are keratin 15 (K15)-negative, suggesting that they are in a relatively undifferentiated state. Recent studies suggest that the epithelial stem cells are important in tumorigenesis, and nestin expression is thought to be important in tumorigenesis. In the present study, we examined the expression of the hair follicle and neural stem cell marker nestin, as well as S-100 and HMB-45, in melanoma. Nestin immunoreactivity was observed in the HMB-45-negative melanoma cells in all five cases of amelanotic nodular melanomas. Moreover, nestin immunoreactivity was observed in the dermal parts in seven of 10 cases of melanotic nodular melanomas. Especially, nestin immunoreactivity was observed in the HMB-45-negative melanoma cells in the dermal parts of all 10 cases of HMB-45-negative amelanotic and melanotic nodular melanomas. On the other hand, nestin expression was negative in 10 of 12 cases of superficial spreading melanoma. These results suggest that nestin is an important marker of HMB-45-negative melanoma cells in the dermal parts of patients with nodular melanoma. PMID:20536663

Kanoh, Maho; Amoh, Yasuyuki; Tanabe, Kenichi; Maejima, Hideki; Takasu, Hiroshi; Katsuoka, Kensei

2010-06-01

251

Nestin is expressed in HMB-45 negative melanoma cells in dermal parts of nodular melanoma.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Nestin, a marker of neural stem cells, is expressed in the stem cells of the mouse hair follicle. The nestin-expressing hair follicle stem cells can differentiate into neurons, glia, keratocytes, smooth muscle cells and melanocytes in vitro. These pluripotent nestin-expressing stem cells are keratin 15 (K15)-negative, suggesting that they are in a relatively undifferentiated state. Recent studies suggest that the epithelial stem cells are important in tumorigenesis, and nestin expression is thought to be important in tumorigenesis. In the present study, we examined the expression of the hair follicle and neural stem cell marker nestin, as well as S-100 and HMB-45, in melanoma. Nestin immunoreactivity was observed in the HMB-45-negative melanoma cells in all five cases of amelanotic nodular melanomas. Moreover, nestin immunoreactivity was observed in the dermal parts in seven of 10 cases of melanotic nodular melanomas. Especially, nestin immunoreactivity was observed in the HMB-45-negative melanoma cells in the dermal parts of all 10 cases of HMB-45-negative amelanotic and melanotic nodular melanomas. On the other hand, nestin expression was negative in 10 of 12 cases of superficial spreading melanoma. These results suggest that nestin is an important marker of HMB-45-negative melanoma cells in the dermal parts of patients with nodular melanoma.

Kanoh M; Amoh Y; Tanabe K; Maejima H; Takasu H; Katsuoka K

2010-06-01

252

Malignant melanoma with metastasis into the capitate  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Metastases to the hand and wrist are rare, with fewer than 200 cases reported in the literature. Phalanges are more commonly involved than metacarpal and wrist. The lung, breast and kidneys are the more common sites of primary lesions than metastasize in the hand. We present an exceptional case of melanoma that metastasized to the capitate. Melanoma can give bone metastases, but we are not aware of reports of this tumour metastatising to the carpal bones. In our knowledge, we have only found a report of metastases in the capitate, a clear-cell sarcoma of the right foot, a tumour close to melanoma with some cytogenetic differences. Hand metastases in a patient who is suffered melanoma should be ruled out if a lytic aggressive lesion appears on x-ray film or positive technetium bone scan is demonstrated.

Tomas, Xavier [Radiology Department (CDIC), Hospital Clinic, Institut d' Investigacio Biomedica August Pi i Sunyer (IDIBAPS), Facultat de Medicina, Universitat de Barcelona, Villarroel 170, Barcelona 08036 (Spain)]. E-mail: 22812xtb@comb.es; Conill, Carles [Radiotherapy Department (ICMHO), Hospital Clinic, Institut d' Investigacio Biomedica August Pi i Sunyer (IDIBAPS), Facultat de Medicina, Universitat de Barcelona, Villarroel 170, Barcelona 08036 (Spain); Combalia, Andreu [Orthopaedics Department (ICEMEQ), Hospital Clinic, Institut d' Investigacio Biomedica August Pi i Sunyer (IDIBAPS), Facultat de Medicina, Universitat de Barcelona, Villarroel 170, Barcelona 08036 (Spain); Pomes, Jaume [Radiology Department (CDIC), Hospital Clinic, Institut d' Investigacio Biomedica August Pi i Sunyer (IDIBAPS), Facultat de Medicina, Universitat de Barcelona, Villarroel 170, Barcelona 08036 (Spain); Castel, Teresa [Dermatology Department (ICMiD), Hospital Clinic, Institut d' Investigacio Biomedica August Pi i Sunyer (IDIBAPS), Facultat de Medicina, Universitat de Barcelona, Villarroel 170, Barcelona 08036 (Spain); Nicolau, Carlos [Radiology Department (CDIC), Hospital Clinic, Institut d' Investigacio Biomedica August Pi i Sunyer (IDIBAPS), Facultat de Medicina, Universitat de Barcelona, Villarroel 170, Barcelona 08036 (Spain)

2005-12-15

253

[Malignant melanoma in an ovarian dermoid cyst  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A case of patient that during a cesarean section, a dark zone of the Omentum was biopsied, and informated as melanosis. Then appeared a cystic mass in the left ovary, and an ooforectomy was performed, resulting a Primary Malignant melanoma.

Otero E; Haberland J; Valdés R; Hernández P; Cabrera D

1995-01-01

254

Synthetic Peptide Vaccine for Melanoma Holds Promise  

Science.gov (United States)

Early clinical trials of a synthetic vaccine are showing promise in obtaining an immune response from patients with melanoma, an often-deadly form of skin cancer, according to researchers at the National Cancer Institute (NCI).

255

Malignant melanoma with metastasis into the capitate  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Metastases to the hand and wrist are rare, with fewer than 200 cases reported in the literature. Phalanges are more commonly involved than metacarpal and wrist. The lung, breast and kidneys are the more common sites of primary lesions than metastasize in the hand. We present an exceptional case of melanoma that metastasized to the capitate. Melanoma can give bone metastases, but we are not aware of reports of this tumour metastatising to the carpal bones. In our knowledge, we have only found a report of metastases in the capitate, a clear-cell sarcoma of the right foot, a tumour close to melanoma with some cytogenetic differences. Hand metastases in a patient who is suffered melanoma should be ruled out if a lytic aggressive lesion appears on x-ray film or positive technetium bone scan is demonstrated.

2005-01-01

256

Consumption of the Epidermis in Malignant Melanoma  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background and Aim: Consumption of the epidermis (COE) is defined as thinning of the epidermis with attenuation of the basal and suprabasal layers and loss of rete ridges in areas of direct contact with malignant melanocytes. The aim of this study was to investigate the importance of COE as an additional diagnostic criterion for malignant melanoma and to evaluate its relationship to clinicopathological findings. Methodes: The age, gender, localization of the lesion and the histopathological parameters such as tumor type, Breslow thickness, ulceration, and Clark's level were recoeded in 90 malignant melanoma cases. Results: In contrast to other studies, we found that COE was more common in tumors with an acral localization and in the acral lentiginous melanoma.Conclusion: Although COE can be used as a pathological criterion in the diagnosis of malignant melanoma, but no correlation no of COE with ulceration and other prognostic factors were found.

Azita Nikoo; Kambiz Kamyab Hesari

2011-01-01

257

Cutaneous Melanoma: Taiwan Experience and Literature Review  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Malignant melanoma is a rare disease in Taiwan with anincidence rate of 0.65/100,000. Excessive exposure to ultravioletradiation is not associated with most Taiwanese melanomacases. Acral lentiginous melanoma comprises 58% of cutaneousmelanoma. Advanced disease is seen in 50% of cases.Surgery, including resection of the primary melanoma, sentinellymph nodes that may harbor microscopic metastasis, clinicallyabnormal lymph nodes, and selected distant metastases, isthe most important treatment. Lymphatic mapping and sentinellymph node biopsy has changed the clinical stage in 22.2% ofour patients. Adjuvant high-dose interferon significantly prolongsprogression-free survival. However, its use in Taiwan islimited by its substantial toxicity. The prognosis of metastaticdisease remains poor with a median survival of 12 months. Inthe past, chemotherapy alone was the most common treatmentmodality for metastatic disease. Recently biochemotherapy hasbeen more commonly utilized to treat patients with metastatic melanoma.

John Wen-Cheng Chang

2010-01-01

258

Paraneoplastic vitelliform retinopathy following ciliochoroidal melanoma.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A case of a paraneoplastic vitelliform retinopathy is described in the fellow eye of a 40-year-old woman 4 years after enucleation of her left eye for a ciliochoroidal melanoma. There were multiple yellow subretinal vitelliform-like lesions at the posterior pole, which were hyperautofluorescent and hypofluorescent on fluorescein and indocyanine green angiographies. Spectral-domain optical coherence tomography showed hyperreflective material between the retinal pigment epithelium and the photoreceptor layer. Paraneoplastic vitelliform retinopathy may appear concomitantly with the development of distant metastases years after treatment of a ciliochoroidal melanoma and may present with symptoms resembling melanoma-associated retinopathy and electroretinogram findings. However, unlike with melanoma-associated retinopathy, the retinal lesions are located between the retinal pigment epithelium and the photoreceptor layer.

Kiratli H; Kadayifçilar S; Tarlan B

2013-05-01

259

Induction of melanoma in TPras transgenic mice.  

Science.gov (United States)

In order to study the oncogenesis of melanocytes, transgenic mouse lines were established that express a mutated human Ha-ras (TPras) gene in pigment producing cells. The ras transgenic mice exhibit an altered phenotype, including melanocytic hyperplasia and a muted agouti coat, indicative of hyperproliferative melanocytes. These mice and their wild-type littermates have been subjected to a variety of carcinogenesis protocols, including 7, 12-dimethylbenz-[a]anthracene (DMBA), 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA) and UV radiation exposure. Topical DMBA treatment of TPras mice resulted in a high incidence of melanomas. Metastatic lesions were observed in skin, lungs and lymph nodes. TPA treatment of TPras mice induced a small number of papillomas but no nevi or melanomas. UV light exposures induced papillomas in negative littermate and melanomas in some albino TPras mice. These results show that melanocytes expressing an activated Ha-ras in the TPras transgenic mice are susceptible to induction of melanoma by DMBA. PMID:10469620

Broome Powell, M; Gause, P R; Hyman, P; Gregus, J; Lluria-Prevatt, M; Nagle, R; Bowden, G T

1999-09-01

260

Desmoplastic melanoma: recent advances and persisting challenges.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Desmoplastic melanoma is an uncommon variant of melanoma which presents significant challenges to the clinician and histopathologist. In particular, many cases show a bland 'fibroblastic' appearance, mimicking scar and a range of other benign proliferations. This diagnosis can be particularly problematic in small biopsy specimens, a difficulty exacerbated by an immunoprofile which is typically negative for a number of conventional melanocytic markers. The clinical and histological features of desmoplastic melanoma are reviewed, as are the differential diagnoses and some newer techniques which may contribute to assessment of these lesions. In recent years it has become clear that subclassification of desmoplastic melanoma into pure and mixed variants has clinical significance and it is suggested that this classification be employed in routine practice.

Wood BA

2013-08-01

 
 
 
 
261

[Insights into melanoma from a pathologist's perspective].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Malignant melanoma is the most common cause of death from skin cancer. Wide surgical excision of localized melanoma in its primary stages remains the main curative therapy. Identifying patients at an early tumour stage is therefore one of the most significant steps for treatment. In the last decades, molecular pathology rapidly established itself in melanoma research. We present new molecular methods, their significance and their application, especially focusing on BRAF( V600) mutation and BRAF-inhibiting tumor targeting therapy. Resistance to tumor targeting therapies and cell line experiments, which have evidenced a sub population with stem cell properties, illustrate melanoma heterogeneity. Efforts to develop drugs that target more than a single target gene are currently underway.

Mihic-Probst D; Beer M

2013-02-01

262

[Prognostic and predictive markers of malignant melanoma].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Malignant melanoma biologically can be divided into non-metastatic and metastatic forms which cannot be predicted precisely using classical clinicopathological parameters, therefore studies on novel genetic or protein markers are abundant in the literature. These studies did not result in clinically useful markers because mostly ignored the results of studies on the genetic basis of metastatic potential of malignant melanoma. Accordingly, the list of promising novel markers is short (BCL2, CDK2, MART-1, OPN). Similar to other solid malignancies, introduction of targeted therapy into clinical practice of melanoma turned the attention toward the genetic basis of resistance to chemo- and targeted therapies. These novel data could lead to the development of molecular diagnostics which can help in designing more effective therapeutic strategies of malignant melanoma.

Rásó E; Barbai T; Gyõrffy B; Tímár J

2013-06-01

263

Outcomes in patients with mucosal melanomas.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

CONCLUSION: The nasal, palate, oral subtype has the worst prognosis compared to other mucosal melanoma locations. Studies are ongoing to evaluate pathologic and genomic variables that may predict outcomes. J. Surg. Oncol. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Keller DS; Thomay AA; Gaughan J; Olszanski A; Wu H; Berger AC; Farma JM

2013-10-01

264

Primary malignant melanoma of the esophagus  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The majority of primary malignant neoplasmas of the esophagus are squamous cell or adenocarcinomas. We describe a rare case of primary malignant melanoma of the esophagus and emphasize its radiographic features.

Jensen, D.; Stark, P.; Gardiner, G.; Hyde, M.

1988-09-01

265

Primary malignant melanoma of the esophagus  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The majority of primary malignant neoplasmas of the esophagus are squamous cell or adenocarcinomas. We describe a rare case of primary malignant melanoma of the esophagus and emphasize its radiographic features. (orig.).

1988-01-01

266

Spitzoid Melanoma: A Ten Year-Old Boy  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Spitzoid melanoma is a rare variant of melanoma, in which the clinical and histopathologic diagnoses are difficult. Data on the features of Spitzoid melanoma in children is limited in the literature, since melanoma is rarely seen in childhood. Here, we report a 10 year-old child with a Spitzoid melanoma. By the means of this case, it has been emphasized that melanoma should be considered in the differential diagnosis of vascular lesions even seen in childhood, unless the clinical and dermoscopic features are characteristic for an entity. (Journal of Current Pediatrics 2008; 6: 127-9)

I??l K?l?nç Karaarslan; Meltem Türkmen; Asl? Ürkmez; Nezih Karaca; Taner Akal?n; Fezal Özdemir

2008-01-01

267

[Primary malignant melanoma of the esophagus].  

Science.gov (United States)

Primary malignant melanoma of the esophagus is a rare but aggressive tumor that accounts for less than 0.1-0.2% of all esophageal malignancies. The aim of this study was to report a case of primary malignant melanoma of the esophagus in a 72-year-old woman. The diagnosis was histologically proven, but the patient died despite extensive surgical resection. PMID:11195930

Guermazi, A; Rili, M; Fritsch, S; Turki, C; Benchaïb, N; de Kerviler, E; Frija, J; Sarfati, E

2000-12-01

268

Primary Malignant Melanoma of the Tonsil  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Malignant melanoma is a neoplasm of melanocytes or of the cells that develop from melanocytes. The current case was a 57 years old female patient who presented with history of a sore throat and right sided neck swelling. Clinical examination revealed a necrotic ulcer replacing her right palatine tonsil and associated right sided cervical lymphadenopathy. Examination was otherwise normal. The ulcer was biopsied by an ENT surgeon. Histopathological examination revealed malignant melanoma

Mona Mohamed Rashed

2005-01-01

269

Xeroderma pigmentosum genes and melanoma risk.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Xeroderma pigmentosum is a rare autosomal recessive disease that is associated with a severe deficiency in nucleotide excision repair. The presence of a distinct the nucleotide excision repair (NER) mutation signature in melanoma suggests that perturbations in this critical repair process are likely to be involved with disease risk. We hypothesized that persons with polymorphic NER gene(s) are likely to have reduced NER activity and are consequently at an increased risk of melanoma development. We assessed the association between 94 SNPs within seven XP genes (XPA-XPG) and the melanoma risk in the Polish population. We genotyped 714 unselected melanoma patients and 1,841 healthy adults to determine if there were any polymorphisms differentially represented in the disease group. We found that a significantly decreased risk of melanoma was associated with the Xeroderma pigmentosum complementation (XPC) rs2228000_CT genotype (odds ratio [OR]?=?0.15; p?melanoma risk. There were no major differences between the prevalence of the XP polymorphisms among young or older patients with melanoma. Linkage disequilibrium of XPC: rs2228001, G1475A, G2061A, rs2228000 and rs3731062 was found. The data from our study support the notion that only XPC and XPD genes are associated with melanoma susceptibility.

Paszkowska-Szczur K; Scott RJ; Serrano-Fernandez P; Mirecka A; Gapska P; Górski B; Cybulski C; Maleszka R; Sulikowski M; Nagay L; Lubinski J; D?bniak T

2013-09-01

270

Vitamin D and melanoma incidence and mortality.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The role of vitamin D (25-OH-D, or 25-hydroxyvitamin D) and its potential confounders in relationship to melanoma risk and mortality is discussed. The paradox that ultraviolet radiation (UVR) exposure is the major environmental risk factor for melanoma etiology as well as a major source of vitamin D might be explained by viewing vitamin D levels as the result of a healthy lifestyle rather than a cause of health.

Berwick M; Erdei EO

2013-01-01

271

Malignant Melanoma in a Rectal Polyp  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Malignant melanoma is very rare in the rectum. Prompt diagnosis and treatment is necessary as chances of metastasis is very high. A 56 year old male patient came to surgical OPD for complaint of something coming out per rectum. Polyp was identified on per rectal examination the biopsy revealed malignant melanoma. Abdominoperineal resection was done. We reported this case as it is uncommon and also there is controversy in surgical treatment of choice.

Amar Shah, Sanjay Chaudhari, Apurva Shah

2012-01-01

272

Surgical treatment of malignant melanoma: practical guidelines.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Melanoma is currently the fifth and sixth most common solid malignancy diagnosed in men and women, respectively. Although accounting for only 4% of cases of all cutaneous malignancies, melanoma accounts for more than 75% of all deaths from skin cancer. This article discusses epidemiology and risk factors, proper biopsy technique, advanced histologic evaluation of biopsy material, assessment of tumor thickness and staging, preoperative metastatic evaluation, excision margin, treatment of regional lymph nodes, treatment of recurrence, and some special clinical situations.

Levine SM; Shapiro RL

2012-07-01

273

Dermoscopy patterns of nevi associated with melanoma.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

It is well known that dermoscopy improves the diagnostic accuracy of pigmented skin lesions. Many dermoscopic criteria can be found both in nevi and in melanoma. For the correct interpretation of those criteria, formal training and clinical experience in dermoscopy is needed. This paper reviews the global and local dermoscopic features seen both in nevi and melanoma and focuses on the interpretation of those findings in order to differentiate between benign and malignant melanocytic skin tumors.

Kolm I; French L; Braun RP

2010-02-01

274

Dermoscopy patterns of nevi associated with melanoma.  

Science.gov (United States)

It is well known that dermoscopy improves the diagnostic accuracy of pigmented skin lesions. Many dermoscopic criteria can be found both in nevi and in melanoma. For the correct interpretation of those criteria, formal training and clinical experience in dermoscopy is needed. This paper reviews the global and local dermoscopic features seen both in nevi and melanoma and focuses on the interpretation of those findings in order to differentiate between benign and malignant melanocytic skin tumors. PMID:20197749

Kolm, I; French, L; Braun, R P

2010-02-01

275

Diffusion-weighted imaging of ocular melanoma.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVES: Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) allows characterization of masses on the basis of their cellular density. We hypothesized that ocular melanoma has a marked diffusion restriction as seen in other malignant tumors. Furthermore, we aimed to assess whether DWI is useful to differentiate ocular melanoma from retinal detachment. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The institutional review board approved the prospective study on 44 patients investigated with ocular magnetic resonance imaging including DWI during a 9-month period. A region-of-interest analysis of diffusion-weighted images with b values of 0 and 1000 s/mm was performed to calculate the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) of the ocular melanoma and the retinal detachment. Three patients were excluded because DWI was nondiagnostic owing to severe artifacts; in 1 patient, the melanoma was too small for ADC calculation. Therefore, 40 patients were included in the final analysis. Ocular melanomas and detachments were compared with respect to their ADC values. The image quality of DWI was qualitatively scored by 2 readers in consensus on a 3-point scale from 1 (minor artifacts) to 3 (major artifacts). RESULTS: Ocular melanomas showed a marked diffusion restriction, and the mean (SD) ADC was 891 (172) × 10 mm/s. Twenty-nine patients (66%) had retinal detachment. The mean ADC of the ocular melanoma differed significantly (P < 0.001) from the mean ADC of the retinal detachment (1986 [375] × 10 mm/s). The image quality of DWI was rated 1 in 38 patients, 2 in 3 patients, and 3 in 3 patients. CONCLUSIONS: Ocular melanoma shows a marked diffusion restriction with an ADC of less than 1000 mm/s, which is in concordance with other malignant tumor entities. Diffusion-weighted imaging helps differentiating ocular tumors from retinal detachment and should therefore be included in the ocular magnetic resonance imaging protocol if an ocular mass is suspected.

Erb-Eigner K; Willerding G; Taupitz M; Hamm B; Asbach P

2013-10-01

276

Melanoma Biomolecules: Independently Identified but Functionally Intertwined  

Science.gov (United States)

The majority of patients diagnosed with melanoma present with thin lesions and generally these patients have a good prognosis. However, 5% of patients with early melanoma (melanoma in an attempt to find informative prognostic markers for these patients. However, although a large number of putative biomarkers have been described, few of these molecules are informative when used in isolation. The best approach is likely to involve a combination of molecules. We believe one approach could be to analyze the expression of a group of interacting proteins that regulate different aspects of the metastatic pathway. This is because a primary lesion expressing proteins involved in multiple stages of metastasis may be more likely to lead to secondary disease than one that does not. This review focuses on five putative biomarkers – melanoma cell adhesion molecule (MCAM), galectin-3 (gal-3), matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP-2), chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan 4 (CSPG4), and paired box 3 (PAX3). The goal is to provide context around what is known about the contribution of these biomarkers to melanoma biology and metastasis. Although each of these molecules have been independently identified as likely biomarkers, it is clear from our analyses that each are closely linked with each other, with intertwined roles in melanoma biology.

Dye, Danielle E.; Medic, Sandra; Ziman, Mel; Coombe, Deirdre R.

2013-01-01

277

Primary Malignant Melanoma of the Tongue  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The oral cavity is a rare location for the development of primary malignant melanoma.The most common primary lesion sites are the palate and gingiva. Melanoma of the tongueis specifically uncommon. A 66-year-old woman was referred to our clinic with a complaintof a huge, painless, black, discolored mass on the right side of the oral tongue for 7 years.There were no cutaneous lesions suggestive of malignant melanoma over the rest of herbody. The biopsy of the tongue lesion revealed a histopathology consistent with primarymalignant melanoma. Computed tomography of the neck showed no significant cervicallymphadenopathy. Chest radiograph, whole body bone scanning, and abdominal sonographyrevealed no definite distal metastatic lesions. She received composite resection of thetumor on the right side of the tongue and right functional neck dissection. The patient hadan uneventful recovery and received regular follow-up examinations. She was free of diseasefor more than 2 years. The treatment principle for primary tongue melanoma is widesurgical excision. Early diagnosis will be promoted by careful oral examination and earlybiopsy of pigmented and non-pigmented masses. We reviewed the published reports in theEnglish literature since 1970 and fewer than 30 cases of primary tongue melanoma werepresented. We present a case report and a review of the relevant literature.

Tien-Tse Chiu; Hsin-Ching Lin; Chih-Ying Su; Chao-Cheng Huang

2002-01-01

278

Angiogenesis and Progression in Human Melanoma  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available In tumor growth, angiogenesis, the process of new-formation of blood vessels from pre-existing ones, is uncontrolled and unlimited in time. The vascular phase is characterized by the new-formation of vascular channels that enhances tumor cell proliferation, local invasion and hematogenous metastasis. Human malignant melanoma is a highly metastatic tumor with poor prognosis, and high resistance to treatment. Parallel with progression, melanoma acquires a rich vascular network, whereas an increasing number of tumor cells express the laminin receptor, which enables their adhesion to the vascular wall, favouring tumor cell extravasation and metastases. Melanoma neovascularization has been correlated with poor prognosis, overall survival, ulceration and increased rate of relapse. Secretion of various angiogenic cytokines, i.e. VEGF-A, FGF-2, PGF-1 and -2, IL-8, and TGF-1 by melanoma cells promote the angiogenic switch and has been correlated to transition from the radial to the vertical growth phase, and to the metastatic phase. Moreover, melanoma cells overexpress ?v?3, ?v?5, ?2?1 and ?5?1 integrins and release, together with stromal cells, higher amount of metalloproteases that increasing their invasive potential and angiogenesis. Basing on these observations, different molecular targets of antiangiogenic molecules has be recognized and various antiangiogenic agents are currently in preclinical and clinical trials for melanoma.

R. Ria; A. Reale; A. Castrovilli; G. Mangialardi; F. Dammacco; D. Ribatti; A. Vacca

2010-01-01

279

Melanoma resistance to photodynamic therapy: New insights  

DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

Melanoma is the most dangerous form of skin cancer, with a steeply rising incidence and a poor prognosis in its advanced stages. Melanoma is highly resistant to traditional chemotherapy and radiotherapy, although modern targeted therapies such as BRAF inhibitors are showing some promise. Photodynamic therapy (PDT, the combination of photosensitizing dyes and visible light) has been tested in the treatment of melanoma with some promising results, but melanoma is generally considered to be resistant to it. Optical interference by the highlypigmented melanin, the antioxidant effect of melanin, the sequestration of photosensitizers inside melanosomes, defects in apoptotic pathways, and the efflux of photosensitizers by ATP-binding cassette transporters have all been implicated in melanoma resistance to PDT. Approaches to overcoming melanoma resistance to PDT include: the discovery of highly active photosensitizers absorbing in the 700-800-nm near infrared spectral region; interventions that can temporarily reducethe amount or pigmentation of the melanin; compounds that can reverse apoptotic defects or inhibit drug-efflux of photosensitizers; and immunotherapy approaches that can take advantage of the ability of PDT to activate the host immune system against the tumor being treated.

Huang, Ying-Ying; Vecchio, Daniela

2013-01-01

280

Melanoma and rituximab: an incidental association?  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Rituximab is an anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody increasingly used in haematology and rheumatology, but also in internal medicine and dermatology. It has a good tolerance profile without known increased risk of cancer. We report a case of nodular melanoma with a 4.8 mm Breslow thickness that appeared after 2 years of rituximab in a 45-year-old patient with non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Fifteen additional rituximab-associated melanoma cases in 13 patients have been identified in the literature and in the EudraVigilance database. These patients were treated for various indications and had melanomas, often aggressive, initially diagnosed at a metastatic stage in 31% of cases. Our work raises the question of rituximab accountability in melanoma onset in these immunosuppressed patients. A dermatological monitoring seems necessary in patients treated with rituximab, especially in case of risk factors for melanoma. In case of individual melanoma history, the benefit/risk ratio of initiating rituximab therapy should be carefully assessed. © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

Peuvrel L; Chiffoleau A; Quéreux G; Brocard A; Saint-Jean M; Batz A; Jolliet P; Dréno B

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
281

Melanoma m (zero): diagnosis and therapy.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

This paper reviews the epidemiology, diagnosis, and treatment of M zero cutaneous melanoma including the most recent developments. This review also examined the main risk factors for melanoma. Tumor thickness measured according to Breslow, mitotic rate, ulceration, and growth phase has the greatest predictive value for survival and metastasis. Wide excision of the primary tumor is the only potentially curative treatment for primary melanoma. The sentinel node biopsy must be performed on all patients who have a primary melanoma with a Breslow thickness > 1?mm, or if the melanoma is from 0,75?mm to 1?mm thick but it is ulcerated and/or the mitotic index is ?1. Total lymph node dissection consists in removing the residual lymph nodes in patients with positive sentinel node biopsy, or found positive on needle aspiration biopsy, without radiological evidence of spread. Isolated limb perfusion and isolated limb infusion are employed in patients within transit metastases with a rate of complete remission in around 50% and 38% of cases. Electrochemotherapy is mainly indicated for palliation in cases of metastatic disease, though it may sometimes be useful to complete isolated limb perfusion. The only agent found to affect survival as an adjuvant treatment is interferon alpha-2. Adjuvant radiotherapy improves local control of melanoma in patients at a high risk of recurrence after lymph node dissection.

Rastrelli M; Alaibac M; Stramare R; Chiarion Sileni V; Montesco MC; Vecchiato A; Campana LG; Rossi CR

2013-01-01

282

Melanoma m (zero): diagnosis and therapy.  

Science.gov (United States)

This paper reviews the epidemiology, diagnosis, and treatment of M zero cutaneous melanoma including the most recent developments. This review also examined the main risk factors for melanoma. Tumor thickness measured according to Breslow, mitotic rate, ulceration, and growth phase has the greatest predictive value for survival and metastasis. Wide excision of the primary tumor is the only potentially curative treatment for primary melanoma. The sentinel node biopsy must be performed on all patients who have a primary melanoma with a Breslow thickness > 1?mm, or if the melanoma is from 0,75?mm to 1?mm thick but it is ulcerated and/or the mitotic index is ?1. Total lymph node dissection consists in removing the residual lymph nodes in patients with positive sentinel node biopsy, or found positive on needle aspiration biopsy, without radiological evidence of spread. Isolated limb perfusion and isolated limb infusion are employed in patients within transit metastases with a rate of complete remission in around 50% and 38% of cases. Electrochemotherapy is mainly indicated for palliation in cases of metastatic disease, though it may sometimes be useful to complete isolated limb perfusion. The only agent found to affect survival as an adjuvant treatment is interferon alpha-2. Adjuvant radiotherapy improves local control of melanoma in patients at a high risk of recurrence after lymph node dissection. PMID:23691346

Rastrelli, Marco; Alaibac, Mauro; Stramare, Roberto; Chiarion Sileni, Vanna; Montesco, Maria Cristina; Vecchiato, Antonella; Campana, Luca Giovanni; Rossi, Carlo Riccardo

2013-04-11

283

Melanoma and rituximab: an incidental association?  

Science.gov (United States)

Rituximab is an anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody increasingly used in haematology and rheumatology, but also in internal medicine and dermatology. It has a good tolerance profile without known increased risk of cancer. We report a case of nodular melanoma with a 4.8 mm Breslow thickness that appeared after 2 years of rituximab in a 45-year-old patient with non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Fifteen additional rituximab-associated melanoma cases in 13 patients have been identified in the literature and in the EudraVigilance database. These patients were treated for various indications and had melanomas, often aggressive, initially diagnosed at a metastatic stage in 31% of cases. Our work raises the question of rituximab accountability in melanoma onset in these immunosuppressed patients. A dermatological monitoring seems necessary in patients treated with rituximab, especially in case of risk factors for melanoma. In case of individual melanoma history, the benefit/risk ratio of initiating rituximab therapy should be carefully assessed. © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel. PMID:23941917

Peuvrel, L; Chiffoleau, A; Quéreux, G; Brocard, A; Saint-Jean, M; Batz, A; Jolliet, P; Dréno, B

2013-07-09

284

Targeting sphingosine kinase-1 to inhibit melanoma.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Resistance to therapies develops rapidly for melanoma leading to more aggressive disease. Therefore, agents are needed that specifically inhibit proteins or pathways controlling the development of this disease, which can be combined, dependent on genes deregulated in a particular patient's tumors. This study shows that elevated sphingosine-1-phosphate (S-1-P) levels resulting from increased activity of sphingosine kinase-1 (SPHK1) occur in advanced melanomas. Targeting SPHK1 using siRNA decreased anchorage-dependent and -independent growth as well as sensitized melanoma cells to apoptosis-inducing agents. Pharmacological SPHK1 inhibitors SKI-I but not SKI-II decreased S-1-P content, elevated ceramide levels, caused a G2-M block and induced apoptotic cell death in melanomas. Targeting SPHK1 using siRNA or the pharmacological agent called SKI-I decreased the levels of pAKT. Furthermore, SKI-I inhibited the expression of CYCLIN D1 protein and increased the activity of caspase-3/7, which in turn led to the degradation of PARP. In animals, SKI-I but not SKI-II retarded melanoma growth by 25-40%. Thus, targeting SPHK1 using siRNAs or SKI-I has therapeutic potential for melanoma treatment either alone or in combination with other targeted agents.

Madhunapantula SV; Hengst J; Gowda R; Fox TE; Yun JK; Robertson GP

2012-03-01

285

Targeting sphingosine kinase-1 to inhibit melanoma.  

Science.gov (United States)

Resistance to therapies develops rapidly for melanoma leading to more aggressive disease. Therefore, agents are needed that specifically inhibit proteins or pathways controlling the development of this disease, which can be combined, dependent on genes deregulated in a particular patient's tumors. This study shows that elevated sphingosine-1-phosphate (S-1-P) levels resulting from increased activity of sphingosine kinase-1 (SPHK1) occur in advanced melanomas. Targeting SPHK1 using siRNA decreased anchorage-dependent and -independent growth as well as sensitized melanoma cells to apoptosis-inducing agents. Pharmacological SPHK1 inhibitors SKI-I but not SKI-II decreased S-1-P content, elevated ceramide levels, caused a G2-M block and induced apoptotic cell death in melanomas. Targeting SPHK1 using siRNA or the pharmacological agent called SKI-I decreased the levels of pAKT. Furthermore, SKI-I inhibited the expression of CYCLIN D1 protein and increased the activity of caspase-3/7, which in turn led to the degradation of PARP. In animals, SKI-I but not SKI-II retarded melanoma growth by 25-40%. Thus, targeting SPHK1 using siRNAs or SKI-I has therapeutic potential for melanoma treatment either alone or in combination with other targeted agents. PMID:22236408

Madhunapantula, SubbaRao V; Hengst, Jeremy; Gowda, Raghavendra; Fox, Todd E; Yun, Jong K; Robertson, Gavin P

2012-03-01

286

[Primary intracranial melanoma: a case report].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A rare case of primary intracranial melanoma is presented in a 34-year-old man with initial symptoms of persistent headache. In magnetic resonance imaging(MRI), this case had all the characteristic findings of intracranial melanoma which had been reported previously. In 123I-iodoamphetamine-single photon emission CT (123I-IMP-SPECT), abnormal accumulation of 123I-IMP was recognized in early and late phase imaging, which was very specific to the lesion. This is the first report of 123I-IMP-SPECT performed on a primary intracranial melanoma. Tumor mass originated from pia mater was surgically resected, but the dissemination of tumor cells was recognized macroscopically. Pathological examination of the specimen showed very little malignant changes of melanoma cells, which was in contrast to the previous reports. Although, no standard chemotherapy of the primary intracranial melanoma has been established, DAV therapy to the dissemination of tumor cells into the subarachnoid space, and intravenous administration of interferon-beta were performed in this case. Methods of differential diagnosis and treatments of primary intracranial melanoma are reviewed and discussed.

Takano S; Saito M; Murata K; Ohbu M; Miyasaka Y; Yada K; Kan S; Takagi H

1992-11-01

287

Cancer stem cells and human malignant melanoma.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cancer stem cells (CSC) have been identified in hematological malignancies and several solid cancers. Similar to physiological stem cells, CSC are capable of self-renewal and differentiation and have the potential for indefinite proliferation, a function through which they may cause tumor growth. Although conventional anti-cancer treatments might eradicate most malignant cells in a tumor, they are potentially ineffective against chemoresistant CSC, which may ultimately be responsible for recurrence and progression. Human malignant melanoma is a highly aggressive and drug-resistant cancer. Detection of tumor heterogeneity, undifferentiated molecular signatures, and increased tumorigenicity of melanoma subsets with embryonic-like differentiation plasticity strongly suggest the presence and involvement of malignant melanoma stem cells (MMSC) in the initiation and propagation of this malignancy. Here, we review these findings in the context of functional properties ascribed to melanocyte stem cells and CSC in other cancers. We discuss the association of deregulated signaling pathways, genomic instability, and vasculogenic mimicry phenomena observed in melanoma subpopulations in light of the CSC concept. We propose that a subset of MMSC may be responsible for melanoma therapy-resistance, tumor invasiveness, and neoplastic progression and that targeted abrogation of a MMSC compartment could therefore ultimately lead to stable remissions and perhaps cures of metastatic melanoma. PMID:18353142

Schatton, Tobias; Frank, Markus H

2008-02-01

288

Cancer stem cells and human malignant melanoma.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Cancer stem cells (CSC) have been identified in hematological malignancies and several solid cancers. Similar to physiological stem cells, CSC are capable of self-renewal and differentiation and have the potential for indefinite proliferation, a function through which they may cause tumor growth. Although conventional anti-cancer treatments might eradicate most malignant cells in a tumor, they are potentially ineffective against chemoresistant CSC, which may ultimately be responsible for recurrence and progression. Human malignant melanoma is a highly aggressive and drug-resistant cancer. Detection of tumor heterogeneity, undifferentiated molecular signatures, and increased tumorigenicity of melanoma subsets with embryonic-like differentiation plasticity strongly suggest the presence and involvement of malignant melanoma stem cells (MMSC) in the initiation and propagation of this malignancy. Here, we review these findings in the context of functional properties ascribed to melanocyte stem cells and CSC in other cancers. We discuss the association of deregulated signaling pathways, genomic instability, and vasculogenic mimicry phenomena observed in melanoma subpopulations in light of the CSC concept. We propose that a subset of MMSC may be responsible for melanoma therapy-resistance, tumor invasiveness, and neoplastic progression and that targeted abrogation of a MMSC compartment could therefore ultimately lead to stable remissions and perhaps cures of metastatic melanoma.

Schatton T; Frank MH

2008-02-01

289

Micropthalmia Transcription Factor (MITF) as a diagnostic marker for metastatic melanomas negative for other melanoma markers.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Metastatic malignant melanoma has a wide spectrum of histopathologic patterns and often lacks melanin pigment. Without a known primary tumor, the diagnosis of metastatic malignant melanoma relies on a combination of morphology and immunohistochemical profile. Infrequently, commonly used markers for melanoma (S100, HMB45, Melan-A and Tyrosinase A) are negative. These cases pose critical diagnostic challenges. Recent studies show that Microphthalmia Transcription Factor (MITF) has high sensitivity (88-100%) and specificity for metastatic melanoma. We are reporting here three cases of high grade tumors that were studied by a comprehensive immunohistochemical panel including cytokeratins, S100, HMB-45, Melan A, Tyrosinase, and MITF. All three tumors were also analyzed for the presence of BRAF mutations. All three metastatic tumors were negative for S100, Melan A, HMB-45 and Tyrosinase but positive for MITF. Subsequent to the diagnoses, previously existing or concurrent primary melanomas were identified in 2 of the 3 cases. Interestingly, S100, Melan A, and HMB-45 were positive in the primary tumors. No BRAF (V600E) mutations were identified in the three metastatic melanomas and CD 117 (c-kit) was positive in one of the cases. In summary, our experience shows that MITF can be a valuable adjunct in the diagnosis of metastatic tumors that are suspicious for melanoma but negative for other melanoma markers.

Guo R; Franco-Palacios M; Russell M; Goddard L; Hassell L; Gillies E; Fung KM

2013-01-01

290

Cutaneous melanoma in children and adolescents and aspects of naevus phenotype in melanoma risk assessment  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Cutaneous malignant melanoma (CMM) is one of the most rapidly increasing cancers in the Swedish population. The aetiology of melanoma is a complex interplay between genetics, host characteristics and environmental factors. The host characteristic with the strongest association with CMM is a phenotyp...

Karlsson, Pia

291

miR-573 regulates melanoma progression by targeting the melanoma cell adhesion molecule.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Melanoma is a malignant tumor of the melanocytes. microRNAs (miRNAs) are emerging as important regulators of cancer-related processes. A thorough understanding of miRNAs in melanoma progression is important for developing new therapeutic targets. miRNA expression was detected by quantitative PCR. In vitro, MTT assay, colony formation assay, invasion assay and flow cytometry analysis were performed to test the effect of miR-573 on melanoma cells. The effect of miR-573 in vivo was validated using a murine xenograft model. Using quantitative PCR, we found that the expression levels of miR-573 were lower in melanoma tissues and cell lines compared to normal skin tissues. miR-573 upregulation inhibited melanoma cell proliferation and invasion, and overexpression of melanoma cell adhesion molecule (MCAM) could alleviate the effect of miR-573 on melanoma cells. In vivo, miR-573 overexpression groups showed lower rates of tumor growth compared with the control group. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that the elevated MCAM expression due to miR-573 reduction is essential in melanoma initiation and progression.

Wang HF; Chen H; Ma MW; Wang JA; Tang TT; Ni LS; Yu JL; Li YZ; Bai BX

2013-07-01

292

Micropthalmia Transcription Factor (MITF) as a diagnostic marker for metastatic melanomas negative for other melanoma markers  

Science.gov (United States)

Metastatic malignant melanoma has a wide spectrum of histopathologic patterns and often lacks melanin pigment. Without a known primary tumor, the diagnosis of metastatic malignant melanoma relies on a combination of morphology and immunohistochemical profile. Infrequently, commonly used markers for melanoma (S100, HMB45, Melan-A and Tyrosinase A) are negative. These cases pose critical diagnostic challenges. Recent studies show that Microphthalmia Transcription Factor (MITF) has high sensitivity (88-100%) and specificity for metastatic melanoma. We are reporting here three cases of high grade tumors that were studied by a comprehensive immunohistochemical panel including cytokeratins, S100, HMB-45, Melan A, Tyrosinase, and MITF. All three tumors were also analyzed for the presence of BRAF mutations. All three metastatic tumors were negative for S100, Melan A, HMB-45 and Tyrosinase but positive for MITF. Subsequent to the diagnoses, previously existing or concurrent primary melanomas were identified in 2 of the 3 cases. Interestingly, S100, Melan A, and HMB-45 were positive in the primary tumors. No BRAF (V600E) mutations were identified in the three metastatic melanomas and CD 117 (c-kit) was positive in one of the cases. In summary, our experience shows that MITF can be a valuable adjunct in the diagnosis of metastatic tumors that are suspicious for melanoma but negative for other melanoma markers.

Guo, Ruifeng; Franco-Palacios, Maria; Russell, Madison; Goddard, Lindsey; Hassell, Lewis; Gillies, Elizabeth; Fung, Kar-Ming

2013-01-01

293

Melanoma cutáneo asociado a nevo previo/ Cutaneous melanoma associated with previous nevus  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in spanish El melanoma maligno es una neoplasia originada en los melanocitos de la piel y otras localizaciones. No existe información en nuestro país acerca de su incidencia y prevalecencia, sí se sabe cuáles son los factores de riesgo más importantes. El melanoma puede originarse de novo o a partir de lesiones melanocíticas previas. La noción de que un nevo melanocítico pueda servir como lesión precursora es sustentada por evidencias clínicas e histológicas. Realizamos e (more) n el Hospital Privado de Córdoba un estudio observacional, retrospectivo y analítico. El objetivo de este trabajo fue conocer cuál es la frecuencia de asociación de melanomas malignos que se desarrollan sobre nevos previos. Fueron analizados un total de 134 melanomas. En 32 pacientes (24%), los melanomas estuvieron histológicamente asociados con nevos, con espesores de Breslow mayores de 1 mm el porcentaje de asociación fue de 16.3%, y con Breslow menores de 1 mm, 38.1%. Al evaluar los melanomas en relación a la clasificación de Breslow y Clark, se objetivó que el grupo de melanomas asociados a nevos presentó un espesor de Breslow y niveles de Clark bajos y en el análisis estadístico fueron predictores significativos en la probabilidad de hallar esta asociación (p Abstract in english The malignant melanoma is a neoplasia originated from the melanocytes located in the skin and other locations. Even though there is not information regarding its incidence and prevalence in our country, its most important risk factors are known. The melanoma can originate de novo or from previous melanocytic lesions. The concept that a melanocytic nevus can serve as a precursor lesion is supported by clinical and histological evidence. An observational, retrospective and (more) analytical study was carried out in the Hospital Privado de Córdoba. The objective was to determine which is the frequency of association of malignant melanomas that develop on previous nevus. A total of 134 melanomas were analyzed. In 32 cases (24%), the melanomas were histologically associated with nevus, in individuals with Breslow's depth bigger than 1 mm the percentage of association was 16.3% while in those exhibiting Breslow smaller than 1 mm the percentage of association was 38.1%. Having evaluated the melanomas in relation to the Breslow and Clark classification, we observed that the nevus associated melanoma group showed less Breslow thickness and low Clark levels, which, by statistical analysis were shown to be significant predictors of the probabilty of finding this association (p

Gutiérrez, María P.; Barengo, Mónica; Mainardi, Claudio; Garay, Iliana; Kurpis, María; Ruiz Lascano, Alejandro

2009-10-01

294

Electron paramagnetic resonance spectrometry and imaging in melanomas: comparison between pigmented and nonpigmented human malignant melanomas.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

It has been known for a long time that the melanin pigments present in normal skin, hair, and most of malignant melanomas can be detected by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectrometry. In this study, we used EPR imaging as a tool to map the concentration of melanin inside ex vivo human pigmented and nonpigmented melanomas and correlated this cartography with anatomopathology. We obtained accurate mappings of the melanin inside pigmented human melanoma samples. The signal intensity observed on the EPR images correlated with the concentration of melanin within the tumors, visible on the histologic sections. In contrast, no EPR signal coming from melanin was observed from nonpigmented melanomas, therefore demonstrating the absence of EPR-detectable pigments inside these particular cases of skin cancer and the importance of pigmentation for further EPR imaging studies on melanoma.

Godechal Q; Ghanem GE; Cook MG; Gallez B

2013-06-01

295

Distribution of /sup 65/Zn in mice with melanomas and in the subcellular fractions of melanomas  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

The tissue distribution of injected /sup 65/Zn in mice with Harding-Passey or B-16 melanomas was studied. Both types of melanoma took up remarkably large amounts of /sup 65/Zn (Harding-Passey 17.4%; and B-16 almost 26.0% of the /sup 65/Zn dose administered). In the case of the B-16 melanoma, the tumor was the dominant site of incorporation even in terms of specific activity. On the subcellular level, melanosomes isolated by gradient ultracentrifugation were shown to be the sites of preferred deposition of /sup 65/Zn. The high uptake of /sup 65/Zn by melanomas and its specific binding by melanosomes suggests that this isotope might be useful in detecting melanomas.

Borovansky, J.; Hearn, P.R.; Bleehen, S.S.; Russell, R.G.G. (Sheffield Univ. (UK))

1980-01-01

296

Distribution of 65Zn in mice with melanomas and in the sebcellular fractions of melanomas  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

The tissue distribution of injected 65Zn in mice with Harding-Passey or B-16 melanomas was studied. Both types of melanoma took up remarkably large amounts of 65Zn (Harding-Passey 17.4%; and B-16 almost 26.0% of the 65Zn dose administered). In the case of the B-16 melanoma, the tumor was the dominant site of incorporation even in terms of specific activity. On the subcellular level, melanosomes isolated by gradient ultracentrifugation were shown to be the sites of preferred deposition of 65Zn. The high uptake of 65Zn by melanomas and its specific binding by melanosomes suggests that this isotope might be useful in detecting melanomas. (author).

1980-01-01

297

Melanoma  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... depending on the thickness of the tumor, may order chest X-rays; blood tests; and scans of ... but also some normal tissue around it in order to minimize the chance that any cancer gets ...

298

Melanoma  

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Full Text Available ... body's largest organ. It protects us against heat, sunlight, injury, and infection. It helps regulate body temperature, ... natural color. When skin is exposed to the sun, melanocytes produce more pigment, causing the skin to ...

299

Melanoma  

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Full Text Available ... of the epidermis also contains melanocytes. Melanocytes are pigment cells that are found in the lower part of the epidermis. They produce melanin, the pigment that gives skin its natural color. When skin ...

300

Melanoma  

Science.gov (United States)

... 1995-2011, The Patient Education Institute, Inc. www.X-Plain.com oc180205 Last reviewed: 07/07/2011 1 ... 1995-2011, The Patient Education Institute, Inc. www.X-Plain.com oc180205 Last reviewed: 07/07/2011 2 ...

 
 
 
 
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Full Text Available ... 1995-2011, The Patient Education Institute, Inc. www.X-Plain.com oc180205 Last reviewed: 07/07/2011 1 ... 1995-2011, The Patient Education Institute, Inc. www.X-Plain.com oc180205 Last reviewed: 07/07/2011 2 ...

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Melanoma  

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Full Text Available ... from one treatment to the next. Prevention & Risk Factors X Doctors believe that the increase in cases ... the skin. Those with an SPF (sun protection factor) of 30 or higher provide high protection against ...

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Melanoma  

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Full Text Available ... to become red, tender, and itchy. The side effects of cancer treatment mainly depend on the type and extent of treatment. Side effects may not be the same for everyone, and ...

304

Melanoma  

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Full Text Available ... body's largest organ. It protects us against heat, sunlight, injury, and infection. It helps regulate body temperature, ... other factors. In the case of skin cancer, sunlight causes damage to the chromosomes, leading to cancer. ...

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Melanoma  

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Full Text Available ... special vessels and bean-shaped structures called lymph nodes. Cancer treatments are used to kill or control ... of the brains, meninges, the digestive tract, lymph nodes, or other areas where melanocytes are found. This ...

306

Melanoma  

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Full Text Available ... be life-threatening. Lymph System Cancerous cells sometimes spread to different parts of the body through blood ... always be called skin cancer, even if it spreads to other places in the body. Although doctors ...

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Full Text Available ... Plain.com oc180205 Last reviewed: 07/07/2011 1 What is Cancer? The body is made up ... clear, however, that it is not contagious; no one can "catch" cancer from another person. Most pigment ...

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Melanoma  

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Full Text Available ... or a healthcare professional for your specific condition. ©1995-2011, The Patient Education Institute, Inc. www.X- ... or a healthcare professional for your specific condition. ©1995-2011, The Patient Education Institute, Inc. www.X- ...

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Melanoma  

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Full Text Available ... or cancer. Cancer can sometimes be life-threatening. Lymph System Cancerous cells sometimes spread to different parts of the body through blood vessels and lymph channels. Lymph is a clear fluid produced by ...

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Melanoma  

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Full Text Available ... healthcare professional or a recommendation for any particular treatment plan. Like any printed material, it may become out ... healthcare professional or a recommendation for any particular treatment plan. Like any printed material, it may become out ...

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Melanoma  

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Full Text Available ... parts of the body such as the liver, lungs, or brain. In such cases, the cancer cells ... Stage IV: Cancer cells have spread to the lungs or other nearby organs, skin areas, or lymph ...

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Melanoma  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... tan may be present. Areas of white, gray, red, pink, or blue may also be seen. Diameter ... the skin in the treated area to become red, tender, and itchy. The side effects of cancer ...

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Melanoma  

Medline Plus

Full Text Available ... Last reviewed: 07/07/2011 1 What is Cancer? The body is made up of very small ... cells, it is called a malignant tumor, or cancer. Cancer can sometimes be life-threatening. Lymph System ...

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Melanoma  

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Full Text Available ... prevention tips. Skin Anatomy The skin is the body's largest organ. It protects us against heat, sunlight, injury, and infection. It helps regulate body temperature, stores water and fat, and produces vitamin ...

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Melanoma  

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Full Text Available ... skin's surface through tiny openings called pores. This document is for informational purposes and is not intended ... of reasons. These changes are sometimes inherited. This document is for informational purposes and is not intended ...

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Melanoma  

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Full Text Available ... and growing without normal controls, causing an abnormal growth called a tumor. If a tumor does not ... is called a benign tumor, or non-cancerous growth. Benign tumors are almost never life-threatening. If ...

317

Nail apparatus melanoma: a diagnostic opportunity Melanoma do aparelho ungueal: uma oportunidade diagnóstica  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Malignant Melanoma is a high mortality neoplasm. The involvement of the nail apparatus is rare, with only 2 out of 3 patients seeking medical attention as the result of recent nail melanocytic lesions. This results in late diagnosis and a prognosis worse than cutaneous melanoma. We report a female, presenting with ulcerative lesions with clinical and laboratory features compatible with leishmaniasis. On return after treatment initiation a longitudinal melanonychia was observed on her first right finger. Biopsy of the nail matrix was performed. Histopathology was compatible with melanoma in situ. Longitudinal melanonychia is not a specific sign for melanoma and it is important that the dermatologist should identify the suspect lesions correctly. The incidental diagnosis of nail melanoma in situ in our case significantly impacted the patient's survival.Melanoma Maligno é uma neoplasia de alta mortalidade, sendo raro o acometimento do aparelho ungueal. Apenas 2/3 dos pacientes procuram atendimento médico devido lesão melanocítica ungueal recente, tornando o diagnóstico tardio e com prognóstico pior que do melanoma cutâneo. Descreve-se um caso de paciente sexo feminino, apresentando lesões ulceradas com características clínico-laboratoriais compatíveis com leishmaniose tegumentar americana. No retorno após início do tratamento foi observada melanoníquia longitudinal no primeiro quirodáctilo direito. Realizada biópsia da matriz ungueal com histopatológico compatível com melanoma in situ. Melanoníquia longitudinal não é sinal específico de melanoma. A identificação das lesões suspeitas é importante tarefa dos dermatologistas. O diagnóstico incidental de melanoma ungueal in situ do caso relatado resultou em grande impacto na sobrevida da paciente.

Ana Maria Carreño; Sílvia Rocha Nakajima; Silmara N. Pennini; Renato Candido Junior; Antonio Pedro Mendes Schettini

2013-01-01

318

Nail apparatus melanoma: a diagnostic opportunity/ Melanoma do aparelho ungueal: uma oportunidade diagnóstica  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Melanoma Maligno é uma neoplasia de alta mortalidade, sendo raro o acometimento do aparelho ungueal. Apenas 2/3 dos pacientes procuram atendimento médico devido lesão melanocítica ungueal recente, tornando o diagnóstico tardio e com prognóstico pior que do melanoma cutâneo. Descreve-se um caso de paciente sexo feminino, apresentando lesões ulceradas com características clínico-laboratoriais compatíveis com leishmanios (more) e tegumentar americana. No retorno após início do tratamento foi observada melanoníquia longitudinal no primeiro quirodáctilo direito. Realizada biópsia da matriz ungueal com histopatológico compatível com melanoma in situ. Melanoníquia longitudinal não é sinal específico de melanoma. A identificação das lesões suspeitas é importante tarefa dos dermatologistas. O diagnóstico incidental de melanoma ungueal in situ do caso relatado resultou em grande impacto na sobrevida da paciente. Abstract in english Malignant Melanoma is a high mortality neoplasm. The involvement of the nail apparatus is rare, with only 2 out of 3 patients seeking medical attention as the result of recent nail melanocytic lesions. This results in late diagnosis and a prognosis worse than cutaneous melanoma. We report a female, presenting with ulcerative lesions with clinical and laboratory features compatible with leishmaniasis. On return after treatment initiation a longitudinal melanonychia was obs (more) erved on her first right finger. Biopsy of the nail matrix was performed. Histopathology was compatible with melanoma in situ. Longitudinal melanonychia is not a specific sign for melanoma and it is important that the dermatologist should identify the suspect lesions correctly. The incidental diagnosis of nail melanoma in situ in our case significantly impacted the patient's survival.

Carreño, Ana Maria; Nakajima, Sílvia Rocha; Pennini, Silmara N.; Candido Junior, Renato; Schettini, Antonio Pedro Mendes

2013-04-01

319

Biosynthesis and secretion of thrombospondin in human melanoma cells.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A polyclonal antisera specific for human platelet thrombospondin (TSP) has been utilized to study the biosynthesis and secretion of TSP in the M21 human melanoma cell line. Pulse-chase indirect immunoprecipitation analysis reveal that human melanoma cells rapidly synthesize and secrete this platelet alpha-granule associated glycoprotein. Topographical analysis of the melanoma cell surface by indirect immunofluorescence indicate that the TSP molecules have no obvious extracellular organization. The implications of thrombospondin synthesis in the metastatic process of melanoma are discussed.

Apelgren LD; Bumol TF

1989-02-01

320

Tumor where the sun never shines: Rectal malignant melanoma  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Anorectal melanoma is a rare disease. Biology of this tumour differs from that of cutaneous melanoma and it has a reputation for having poor prognosis. UV rays of sunlight are thought to be causative of cutaneous malignant melanoma but the tumor does occur in locations like rectum, which is not exposed, to sunlight. We report a case of anorectal malignant melanoma in a 52-year-old female, who presented with bleeding per rectum.

Harikumar R; Harish K; Varghese Thomas; Aravindan KP

2004-01-01

 
 
 
 
321

[Malignant mucous primary sinonasal melanoma. A clinic case  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

The melanomas are unusual tumours with a high mortality. The mucosal malignant melanoma type supposes loss than 1% of the total of melanoma. The initial symptoms are unspecific and the regional metastasis are rare. The surgical approach it's the most effective treatment complemented with radiotherapy and or chimiotherapy. We present the case of primary nasal mucosal malignant melanoma and review the litterature of this disease.

Balderrama Caballero DH; de García Hombre AM; Llorente Suárez R; Martín Salvago MD; Rodríguez Adrados F

2007-01-01

322

[Malignant mucous primary sinonasal melanoma. A clinic case].  

Science.gov (United States)

The melanomas are unusual tumours with a high mortality. The mucosal malignant melanoma type supposes loss than 1% of the total of melanoma. The initial symptoms are unspecific and the regional metastasis are rare. The surgical approach it's the most effective treatment complemented with radiotherapy and or chimiotherapy. We present the case of primary nasal mucosal malignant melanoma and review the litterature of this disease. PMID:17725171

Balderrama Caballero, D H; de García Hombre, A M; Llorente Suárez, R; Martín Salvago, M D; Rodríguez Adrados, F

2007-01-01

323

Pulling RANK: are some melanoma cells more malignant than others?  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Cellular heterogeneity is a frequently noted feature of melanoma. As reported in this issue, Kupas et al. identified heterogeneous expression of receptor activator of nuclear factor-?B (RANK) in melanoma cells in tumors and peripheral blood from patients. Increased expression of RANK was associated with the presence of metastatic disease and increased tumorigenicity in melanoma cells, raising the possibility that RANK signaling contributes to melanoma progression.

Shackleton M

2011-04-01

324

Highly pigmented Tg(Grm1) mouse melanoma develops non-pigmented melanoma cells in distant metastases.  

Science.gov (United States)

Murine model systems are critically required tools for the investigation of unknown mechanisms of melanoma development and metastasis and for developing more efficient therapies. The Tg(Grm1)EPv melanoma mouse model is characterized by spontaneous development of pigmented cutaneous melanomas at hairless skin regions, with a short latency and 100% penetrance. Local metastasis was described in initial analyses; however, melanoma cells were not observed in distant organs. Here, we demonstrate that the established Tg(Grm1)EPv melanoma mouse model exhibits more extensive metastasis into distant organs than previously described. Disseminated cells undergo phenotypic changes, as we observed high numbers of non-pigmented Grm1-expressing melanoma cells within distant organs. As such changes during metastasis are common in human melanoma, our findings demonstrate that this mouse model represents an even more useful tool to study unknown mechanisms of metastasis in human melanoma than previously assumed. PMID:22882420

Schiffner, Susanne; Chen, Suzie; Becker, Jürgen C; Bosserhoff, Anja-Katrin

2012-08-07

325

ISOLATION OF SLOW CYCLING STEM-LIKE MELANOMA SPHERES FROM mGluR1 POSITIVE MELANOMA CELL LINE  

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Human malignant melanoma is a highly aggressive and drug-resistant tumour of neuro-ectodermal origin. Tumor heterogeneity, undifferentiated molecular signatures, and increased tumorigenicity of melanoma subsets with embryonic-like differentiation plasticity, strongly suggests the presence and involv...

MASTRANTONI, ELISA; Chen, Suzie; Melchiorri, Daniela

326

Ganglioside profiles of experimental melanomas and of their melanosomal fractions.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We compared ganglioside profiles of animal tumours (B16 and Cloudman S91 murine melanomas, Bomirski Syrian hamster melanoma), which are widely used as models of human melanoma, and of their melanosomal fractions. A ganglioside fraction was extracted and purified and the amount of each component ganglioside was assessed by thin-layer chromatography. GM3 was the dominant ganglioside species in the murine melanomas studied. Unlike human melanomas, the GD3 expression in mouse melanomas was low. GD3 and GM3 were major gangliosides in Bomirski hamster melanoma. Alkali-labile O-acetyl-GD3, a melanoma-specific ganglioside, was detected only in Bomirski melanoma. GD2, which in human melanoma is seen as a distinct signal of tumour progression, was not found in the animal melanomas studied. Melanosomes isolated from B16 and Bomirski melanomas contained GM3 and GD3 as their major ganglioside components. These data extend the group of common antigenic determinants shared by melanosomes and cell surface of pigment cells.

Vedralová E; Borovanský J; Hach P

1995-04-01

327

Pathologic features of pediatric head and neck melanoma.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Although malignant melanoma is rare in children, its incidence is steadily increasing, and it is potentially lethal. Few studies have examined head and neck melanoma in children, and even fewer have focused on the histopathologic features of melanoma within this anatomic region. To further the understanding of this entity, we examined pathology specimens from nine subjects age 18 years and younger with an original diagnosis of head or neck melanoma. The anatomic locations of these primary melanomas were the face and nose (n = 4), scalp and neck (n = 4), and ear (n = 1). The cases included seven superficial spreading melanomas, one unclassified (possible nodular) melanoma, and one melanoma in situ. No melanomas demonstrating desmoplastic or spindle cell morphologies were noted upon review. Breslow depth ranged from 0 to 2.9 mm (mean 1.3 mm, median 0.6 mm), with Clark level ranging from I to V. Pagetoid scatter was found in eight cases. Other notable features included regression (n = 5), ulceration (n = 1), and associated melanocytic nevus (n = 4). We did not observe any small cell variants; all nine cases had an epithelioid appearance. Nor was any melanoma-associated mortality observed at last follow-up (mean 60.4 mos, median 48 mos, range 2-174 mos). These histopathologic features were consistent with adult-type melanoma, which is in agreement with other histopathologic studies of melanoma in children.

Tcheung WJ; Nelson K; Aldabagh B; Puja P

2013-09-01

328

Ocular melanoma: Detection using iodine-123-iodoamphetamine and SPECT imaging  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Uptake of iodine-123-iodoamphetamine has been demonstrated in malignant melanoma using planar imaging techniques and has been used to detect an ocular melanoma at 12 hr postinjection. Using SPECT technique, an ocular melanoma is identified in a 64-yr-old male at 1 hr postinjection.

Dewey, S.H.; Leonard, J.C. (Department of Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Oklahoma City, OK (USA))

1990-03-01

329

Malignant melanoma of the mandibular gingiva: A rare occurrence  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Primary mucosal malignant melanoma of the oral cavity is a rare tumor. It accounts for only 0.2-8% of all malignant melanomas. This malignancy commonly affects male subjects and is more frequently seen on the hard palate and maxillary gingiva. The peak age for diagnosis of oral melanoma is be...

Reddy BVR; Sridhar G; Anuradha C; Chandrasekhar P; Lingamaneni K

330

Indium-111 labeled anti-melanoma monoclonal antibodies  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

A monoclonal antibody to a high molecular weight melanoma-associated antigen was chelated and radiolabeled with indium-111. This material shows high affinity for melanoma and thus can be used in the detection, localization and imaging of melanoma. 1 figure.

Srivastava, S.C.; Fawwaz, R.A.; Ferrone, S.

1984-04-30

331

[Non-invasive techniques for the diagnosis of melanoma].  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

In the last years a number of new non invasive techniques for the early diagnosis of melanoma have become very popular. In addition to dermoscopy, total body photography and digital dermoscopy frequently assist the dermatologist in differentiating nevi from early melanomas. A new promising technique for the non invasive diagnosis of melanoma might be confocal microscopy.

Kolm I; French LE; Braun RP

2009-12-01

332

[Non-invasive techniques for the diagnosis of melanoma].  

Science.gov (United States)

In the last years a number of new non invasive techniques for the early diagnosis of melanoma have become very popular. In addition to dermoscopy, total body photography and digital dermoscopy frequently assist the dermatologist in differentiating nevi from early melanomas. A new promising technique for the non invasive diagnosis of melanoma might be confocal microscopy. PMID:20013689

Kolm, I; French, L E; Braun, R P

2009-12-16

333

Solar radiation and malignant melanoma of the skin  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Several observations suggest that a majority of cases of malignant melanoma of the skin are linked to sun exposure. Evidence includes higher occurrence of melanoma on anatomic areas heavily exposed during recreation, development of melanoma more frequently in lightly pigmented persons, and correlation of melanoma incidence and mortality with proximity to the equator. The role of the sun exposure in the pathogenesis of melanoma remains unclear, however. Many cases of melanoma may be related to heavy doses of solar radiation received during recreation. Chronic sun exposure is not so clearly linked to the development of melanoma (except in the uncommon lentigo maligna variety). Sunspot cycles have been associated with changes in melanoma incidence; an excess of melanoma cases has been observed every 9 to 12 years after peak sunspot activity. These excess cases may be caused by more intense exposure to solar ultraviolet radiation during sunspot maxima, perhaps related to changes in the stratospheric ozone layer. These epidemiologic and clinical clues suggest that many cases of melanoma are related to sun exposure triggering the appearance of clinically evident melanoma. In this regard, solar radiation behaves as a cocarcinogen or promoter, rather than a dose-dependent carcinogen. These observations also suggest that other factors may be involved in the pathogenesis of melanoma, e.g., nevi, heredity, or exposure to chemical carcinogens.

Houghton, A.N.; Viola, M.V.

1981-01-01

334

Ocular malignant melanoma in pregnancy: Is a happy ending possible?  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Uveal, especially choroidal melanoma is the most common ocular melanoma. There is no clear evidence that pregnancy impacts its development. Enucleation is generally indicated for advanced tumors. Five-year mortality rate is 53% in patients with large melanomas (>8 mm).

Grgi? Zorka; Oros Ana; Raši? Dejan; Popovi? Lazar; Popovi? Milica

2009-01-01

335

Melanoma associated retinopathy and how to understand the electroretinogram.  

Science.gov (United States)

Melanoma associated retinopathy is a rare paraneoplastic complication of metastatic cutaneous malignant melanoma. It may present years after the original diagnosis of melanoma. Here we describe a patient with this condition who presented with persistent photopsias and visual loss. We will discuss the electroretinographic findings and their utility. PMID:21746709

Dobson, Ruth; Lawden, Mark

2011-08-01

336

Melanoma associated retinopathy and how to understand the electroretinogram.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Melanoma associated retinopathy is a rare paraneoplastic complication of metastatic cutaneous malignant melanoma. It may present years after the original diagnosis of melanoma. Here we describe a patient with this condition who presented with persistent photopsias and visual loss. We will discuss the electroretinographic findings and their utility.

Dobson R; Lawden M

2011-08-01

337

Confirmation of chromosome 9p linkage in familial melanoma  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Malignant melanoma occurs as a familial cancer in 5%–10% of cases where it segregates in a manner consistent with autosomal dominant inheritance. Evidence from cytogenetics, fine-mapping studies of deletions in melanomas, and recent linkage studies supports the location of a human melanoma predispos...

Nancarrow, Derek J.; Mann, Graham J.; Holland, Elizabeth A.; Walker, Graeme J.; Beaton, Sharon C.; Walters, Marilyn K.

338

Cytotoxic T lymphocyte responses against melanocytes and melanoma.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Vitiligo is a common toxicity associated with immunotherapy for melanoma. Cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) against melanoma commonly target melanoma-associated antigens (MAAs) which are also expressed by melanocytes. To uncouple vitiligo from melanoma destruction, it is important to understand if CTLs can respond against melanoma and melanocytes at different levels. METHODS: To understand the dichotomous role of MAA-specific CTL, we characterized the functional reactivities of established CTL clones directed to MAAs against melanoma and melanocyte cell lines. RESULTS: CTL clones generated from melanoma patients were capable of eliciting MHC-restricted, MAA-specific lysis against melanocyte cell lines as well as melanoma cells. Among the tested HLA-A*0201-restricted CTL clones, melanocytes evoked equal to slightly higher degranulation and cytolytic responses as compared to melanoma cells. Moreover, MAA-specific T cells from vaccinated patients responded directly ex vivo to melanoma and melanocytes. Melanoma cells express slightly higher levels of MART-1 and gp100 than melanocytes as measured by quantitative reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and immunohistochemistry. CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggest that CTLs respond to melanoma and melanocytes equally in vitro and directly ex vivo.

Chang GY; Kohrt HE; Stuge TB; Schwartz EJ; Weber JS; Lee PP

2011-01-01

339

Immunotherapy of metastatic melanoma by reversal of immune suppression  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

Beginning with the observation that the human enteorvirus, Poliovirus Sabin 1, will lyse human melanoma cells in culture, clinical trials involving two patients with advance melanoma were performed. Parenteral injection of the viable Poliovirus into cutaneous melanoma metastases followed in 24 hours by oral administration of cyclophosphamide. The results of these two trials are described.

Biggs, M.W.; Eiselein, J.E.

1997-01-01

340

A focus on PD-L1 in human melanoma.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Treatment of metastatic melanoma with inhibitors of the BRAF V600 oncogene in melanoma has been limited by the development of resistance. Combining the BRAF inhibitors with immunotherapy may prolong the response, but will acquisition of resistance to BRAF inhibitors also make melanoma cells resistant to immunotherapy?

Hersey P; Gallagher S

2013-02-01

 
 
 
 
341

Rare Presentations of Primary Melanoma and Special Populations: A Systematic Review.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A subset of patients with melanoma present in rare and unique clinical circumstances requiring specific considerations with respect to diagnostic and therapeutic interventions. Herein, we present our review of patients with: (1) primary mucosal melanoma of the head and neck, gastrointestinal, and genitourinary tracts; (2) primary melanoma of the eye; (3) desmoplastic melanoma; (4) subungual melanoma; (5) melanoma in special populations: children, nonwhites, as well as a discussion of familial melanoma.

Kottschade LA; Grotz TE; Dronca RS; Salomao DR; Pulido JS; Wasif N; Jakub JW; Bagaria SP; Kumar R; Kaur JS; Morita SY; Moran SL; Nguyen JT; Nguyen EC; Hand JL; Erickson LA; Brewer JD; Baum CL; Miller RC; Swanson DL; Lowe V; Markovic SN

2013-04-01

342

Nail apparatus melanoma: is trauma a coincidence? Is this peculiar tumor a real acral melanoma?  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Nail Apparatus Melanoma (NAM) is rare, particularly in Caucasians. Understanding its pathogenesis and collecting epidemiologic data may be difficult due to its location and the exiguity of the case series of this cancer. Cutaneous melanoma has been thought related to UV radiation, and NAM is considered an acral variant of melanoma, even if the nail presents a specific anatomy. Little is reported about pathogenesis, except reports suggesting traumatic injuries as a causal factor. UV exposure is debated in nail melanoma because of its structure. The nail is, in fact, a unique structure with sun-exposed and non exposed melanocytes. NAM arises from the nail melanocytes, located in the nail matrix, which is the germinative part of the nail and composed of a proximal and distal portion. The proximal nail matrix lays under the proximal nail fold that covers it and is non-sun exposed, while the distant nail matrix, clinically visible as the lunula, is sun-exposed, though lying underneath the nail plate. According to these anatomical data, NAM is a distinct melanoma type, and studies need to classify it as acral melanoma or as a particular type of melanoma with its own pathogenesis and prognostic criteria. This study investigates potential risk factors of NAM, emphasizing (i) trauma and (ii) UV exposure among our NAM patients.

Fanti PA; Dika E; Misciali C; Vaccari S; Barisani A; Piraccini BM; Cavrin G; Maibach HI; Patrizi A

2013-06-01

343

Animal-Type Melanoma: A Rare Type of Malignant Melanoma with an Indolent Clinical Behaviour  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Animal-type melanoma is an exceedingly rare histological variant of melanoma in humans. The name was coined to reflect similar histological features to melanomas in grey horses. We present a case of animal-type melanoma. The neoplastic cells were heavily pigmented with an epithelioid morphology, round nuclei and prominent eosinophilic nucleoli. Only occasional mitotic figures were identified. The tumour cells had diffuse and nodular growth patterns with involvement of the dermis and the subcutaneous tissue. The patient had a “benign cellular blue naevus” excised 9 years earlier from the same site. Review of the previous case revealed heavily pigmented epithelioid cells with similar morphology to the current case. Nuclear pleomorphism was minimal and only a single mitotic figure was present. The lesion extended to the margins of excision. The diagnosis of animal-type melanoma was made on the current case and on the previously misdiagnosed case. Recurrence of this case nine years following incomplete excision further supports the hypothesis that animal-type melanoma is a distinct histological type of malignant melanoma with an indolent clinical course.

Muna Sabah; Mary Leader; Mary Fahy; Elaine Kay

2007-01-01

344

Cure of malignant melanoma by single thermal neutron capture treatment using melanoma-seeking compounds  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Since not only malignant melanomas but also many kinds of human cancers, for example thyroid cancer and squamous cell carcinoma, synthesize their specific protein, much attention has been paid to the establishment of selective thermal neutron capture treatment of malignant melanoma as a prototype of such cancer cells. This paper presents 10B chlorpromazine compounds and 10B1-para-boronophenylalanine (10B1-BPA) as tumor-seeking 10B compounds which themselves possess selective affinity for the specific metabolic activity of the target cancer cells. An overview of the following studies on the effects of 10B1-BPA in the thermal neutron capture treatment of melanoma is provided: 1) in vitro studies on specific enhanced melanoma cell killing effects of 10B1-BPA; 2) in vivo studies on therapeutic effects of 10B1-BPA using melanoma-bearing hamsters; and 3) preclinical therapeutic experiments using spontaneously occurring malignant melanoma in Duroc pig skin, including experiments in which melanoma was successfully cured. (Namekawa, K.)

1985-01-01

345

Vemurafenib for the treatment of melanoma.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

INTRODUCTION: Metastatic melanoma is an aggressive disease resistant to chemotherapy. Recent clinical trials have reported improved survival for two novel agents; ipilimumab, a humanized, IgG1 monoclonal antibody that blocks cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 (CTLA-4) and vemurafenib , a BRAF (v-raf murine sarcoma viral oncogene homolog B1) inhibitor targeting an activating mutation in the serine-threonine-protein kinase BRAF gene. AREAS COVERED: The authors reviewed preclinical and clinical data examining the safety of vemurafenib in melanoma. MEDLINE and EMBASE were searched using the medical subject heading 'vemurafenib' and the following text terms: melanoma, BRAF inhibition, vemurafenib. This review provides the reader with an overview of current data examining the efficacy and safety of vemurafenib in metastatic melanoma. EXPERT OPINION: Vemurafenib is an oral agent licensed for patients with BRAF V600E mutation-positive inoperable and metastatic melanoma. The most common adverse effects observed in Phase III clinical trials were dermatological events, arthralgia and fatigue. Specific dermatological toxicities included development of cutaneous squamous cell cancers and keratoacanthomas. Prolongation of the QT interval was also reported. Regular dermatological assessments and electrocardiograms are recommended. Ongoing trials are examining vemurafenib in both the adjuvant setting and metastatic setting in combination with ipilimumab and MEK inhibitors (mitogen-activated protein kinase/extracellular signal-regulated kinase). Understanding and overcoming mechanisms of resistance to BRAF inhibitors is the focus of ongoing research.

Jordan EJ; Kelly CM

2012-12-01

346

Selenium for the Prevention of Cutaneous Melanoma  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available The role of selenium (Se) supplementation in cancer prevention is controversial; effects often depend on the nutritional status of the subject and on the chemical form in which Se is provided. We used a combination of in vitro and in vivo models to study two unique therapeutic windows for intervention in the process of cutaneous melanomagenisis, and to examine the utility of two different chemical forms of Se for prevention and treatment of melanoma. We studied the effects of Se in vitro on UV-induced oxidative stress in melanocytes, and on apoptosis and cell cycle progression in melanoma cells. In vivo, we used the HGF transgenic mouse model of UV-induced melanoma to demonstrate that topical treatment with l-selenomethionine results in a significant delay in the time required for UV-induced melanoma development, but also increases the rate of growth of those tumors once they appear. In a second mouse model, we found that oral administration of high dose methylseleninic acid significantly decreases the size of human melanoma xenografts. Our findings suggest that modestly elevation of selenium levels in the skin might risk acceleration of growth of incipient tumors. Additionally, certain Se compounds administered at very high doses could have utility for the treatment of fully-malignant tumors or prevention of recurrence.

Pamela B. Cassidy; Heidi D. Fain; James P. Cassidy; Sally M. Tran; Philip J. Moos; Kenneth M. Boucher; Russell Gerads; Scott R. Florell; Douglas Grossman; Sancy A. Leachman

2013-01-01

347

Integrative analysis of the melanoma transcriptome.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Global studies of transcript structure and abundance in cancer cells enable the systematic discovery of aberrations that contribute to carcinogenesis, including gene fusions, alternative splice isoforms, and somatic mutations. We developed a systematic approach to characterize the spectrum of cancer-associated mRNA alterations through integration of transcriptomic and structural genomic data, and we applied this approach to generate new insights into melanoma biology. Using paired-end massively parallel sequencing of cDNA (RNA-seq) together with analyses of high-resolution chromosomal copy number data, we identified 11 novel melanoma gene fusions produced by underlying genomic rearrangements, as well as 12 novel readthrough transcripts. We mapped these chimeric transcripts to base-pair resolution and traced them to their genomic origins using matched chromosomal copy number information. We also used these data to discover and validate base-pair mutations that accumulated in these melanomas, revealing a surprisingly high rate of somatic mutation and lending support to the notion that point mutations constitute the major driver of melanoma progression. Taken together, these results may indicate new avenues for target discovery in melanoma, while also providing a template for large-scale transcriptome studies across many tumor types.

Berger MF; Levin JZ; Vijayendran K; Sivachenko A; Adiconis X; Maguire J; Johnson LA; Robinson J; Verhaak RG; Sougnez C; Onofrio RC; Ziaugra L; Cibulskis K; Laine E; Barretina J; Winckler W; Fisher DE; Getz G; Meyerson M; Jaffe DB; Gabriel SB; Lander ES; Dummer R; Gnirke A; Nusbaum C; Garraway LA

2010-04-01

348

A Hidden Threat: Subungual Melanoma in Hand  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Subungual melanoma, a relatively uncommon disease, has a worse prognosis than cutaneous melanoma in other sites. Both this life-threatening disease and its treatment cause cosmetic and functional impairment to the patient. The diagnosis is often delayed and resulting an advanced disease at presentation. The important clinical manifestation, diagnosis and latest treatments for subungual melanoma are reviewed. Electronic databases of Medline, PubMed, and the Cochrane library were searched with the key word “subungual melanoma”. A clinical scoring system is proposed by the authors to stratify patients to undergo biopsy, making earlier diagnosis of this disease possible. The latest trend of treatment involves wide local excision at a more distal level of the affected digit, in contrast to radical amputation of the digit in the past. Studies have shown that this does not decrease the survival nor increase local recurrence, but reduces the functional impairment for the patient. This review aims to summarise the approach to subungual melanoma for clinicians, so that they can recognise and diagnose this disease early and generate the best functional and cosmetic outcome for the patients.

Chris Y. K. Tang; Boris Kwok-Keung Fung; C. P. Lung

2012-01-01

349

Sentinel node biopsy for skin melanoma  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Background/Aim. Skin melanoma is one of the most malignant diseases with increasing incidence rate. Sentinel node biopsy (SNB) is very important for early detection of metastatic spread. The aim of the study was to analyze the first 40 patients with skin melanoma of 1 to 4 mm Breslow thickness when SNB was indicated. Methods. The patient characteristics, localization of the primary melanoma as well as histology grade were analyzed. SNB with intraoperative radiocolloid and methylene blue dye detection was performed. Results. Complication rate after SNB was analyzed and seroma was found in 5% of the patients. The therapeutic node dissection was performed in 10 patients with positive sentinel biopsy. The follow-up lasted two years. In five patients the false negative SNB was defined after the mean time of 11 months and the therapeutic dissection was performed. Conclusion. SNB in melanoma patients is a useful diagnostic procedure. It is advised for melanoma of 1 to 4 mm Breslow thickness.

Kova?evi? Predrag; Višnji? Milan; Vlajkovi? Marina; Kova?evi? Tatjana; Višnji? Aleksandar

2009-01-01

350

Genetics of Uveal Melanoma and Cutaneous Melanoma: Two of a Kind?  

Science.gov (United States)

Cutaneous melanoma and uveal melanoma both derive from melanocytes but show remarkable differences in tumorigenesis, mode of metastatic spread, genetic alterations, and therapeutic response. In this review we discuss the differences and similarities along with the genetic research techniques available and the contribution to our current understanding of melanoma. The several chromosomal aberrations already identified prove to be very strong predictors of decreased survival in CM and UM patients. Especially in UM, where the overall risk of metastasis is high (45%), genetic research might aid clinicians in selecting high-risk patients for future systemic adjuvant therapies.

van den Bosch, Thomas; Kilic, Emine; Paridaens, Dion; de Klein, Annelies

2010-01-01

351

Key points in the dermoscopic diagnosis of hypomelanotic melanoma and nodular melanoma.  

Science.gov (United States)

Nodular melanoma (NM) and amelanotic/hypomelanotic melanoma (AHM) often present a challenge to the diagnosing clinician. A significant proportion of AHM are nodular in nature. Such tumors may lack features of asymmetry and altered peripheral pigmentation routinely observed in other melanoma subtypes. This lack of distinguishing clinical features can potentially result in delayed diagnosis or inappropriate treatment. This review highlights the key points in evaluating the range of lesions where AHM or NM are considered in the differential diagnosis and summarizes current evidence in relation to pigmented and vascular dermoscopic diagnostic criteria for both. PMID:21175750

Moloney, Fergal J; Menzies, Scott W

2011-01-01

352

Key points in the dermoscopic diagnosis of hypomelanotic melanoma and nodular melanoma.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Nodular melanoma (NM) and amelanotic/hypomelanotic melanoma (AHM) often present a challenge to the diagnosing clinician. A significant proportion of AHM are nodular in nature. Such tumors may lack features of asymmetry and altered peripheral pigmentation routinely observed in other melanoma subtypes. This lack of distinguishing clinical features can potentially result in delayed diagnosis or inappropriate treatment. This review highlights the key points in evaluating the range of lesions where AHM or NM are considered in the differential diagnosis and summarizes current evidence in relation to pigmented and vascular dermoscopic diagnostic criteria for both.

Moloney FJ; Menzies SW

2011-01-01

353

Personalized treatment of uveal melanoma.  

Science.gov (United States)

Personalized treatment of uveal melanoma involves the tailoring of all aspects of care to the condition, needs, wishes, and fears of the patient, taking account of the individual's circumstances. When selecting between radiotherapy, surgical resection, and phototherapy, or when deciding how best to combine these different therapeutic modalities, it is necessary to understand the patients utilities, with respect to tumour control, visual conservation, and preservation of the eye, so as to prioritize outcomes accordingly. For example, such considerations would influence the width of the safety margins when administering radiotherapy, according to whether the patient considers it more important to conserve vision or to guarantee tumour control. With 'suspicious naevi', the choice between observation, immediate treatment, and biopsy is complicated by the lack of adequate survival data on which to base rational decisions, making it necessary for both patient and doctor to accept uncertainty. Personalized care should involve close relatives, as appropriate. It must also adapt to changes in the patient's needs over time. Such personalized care demands the ability to respond to such needs and the sensitivity to identify these requirements in the first place. Personalized treatment enhances not only the patient's satisfaction but also the 'job satisfaction' of all members of the multidisciplinary team, improving quality of care. PMID:23174751

Damato, B; Heimann, H

2012-11-23

354

Nodular melanoma. No longer as simple as ABC.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Malignant melanoma is the fourth most commonly diagnosed malignancy in Australia. Nodular melanoma (NM) comprise less than 15% of all melanoma but account for up to 70% of those thicker than 3 mm. OBJECTIVE: This article describes the clinical features of NM, its prognosis and management. DISCUSSION: Nodular melanoma presents very differently from superficial spreading melanoma, and does not meet the 'ABCD' criteria used to alert doctors and patients to the possibility of this diagnosis. Due to their rapidly developing depth of invasion, urgent referral and wide excision are advised.

Kelly JW; Chamberlain AJ; Staples MP; McAvoy B

2003-09-01

355

Historical summary and recommendations on Melanoma in the LLNL workforce  

Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

This document provides a historical summary and recommendations on melanoma in the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) workforce. Melanoma of the skin comprises about 3.5% of the incidence (38,000 new cases in 1991) and 1.7% of the mortality (8500 deaths in 1991) of all cancer in the U.S. However, for several decades it has shown the fastest rate of increase of any cancer site. The following areas are discussed: background and recognition of increased melanoma at LLNL, history of melanoma studies at LLNL, results from occupational factors study, overall conclusion on increased melanoma incidence, and recommendations for future management.

Moore, D.H. II; Hatch, F.

1994-12-01

356

Longitudinal melanonychia: detection and management of nail melanoma.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Malignant melanoma of the nail confers a higher mortality rate compared to other cutaneous melanomas, which is often attributable to delayed diagnosis. Two-thirds of nail melanomas present as longitudinal melanonychia (LM), longitudinally-oriented brown-black bands of pigment in the nail plate. This article delineates the appropriate clinical approach toward evaluation and management of a patient with longitudinal melanonychia, which includes determining risk factors for melanoma, recognizing scenarios in which biopsy is indicated, selecting the appropriate biopsy technique, and managing a patient in whom the diagnosis of nail melanoma has been made.

Mannava KA; Mannava S; Koman LA; Robinson-Bostom L; Jellinek N

2013-01-01

357

Reporte de caso: Melanoma Maligno Amelánico Nasosinusal  

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Full Text Available El melanoma maligno nasosinusal es un tumor de alta agresividad que supone menos del 1% del total de melanomas y se caracteriza por su alta mortalidad. Los síntomas iníciales son inespecíficos y la metástasis regional es frecuente, el manejo quirúrgico es el tratamiento más efectivo complementado con radioterapia o quimioterapia; sin embargo, tiene altas tasas de recidiva y bajo pronóstico de sobrevida. Presentamos el caso de una paciente de sexo femenino de 43 años de edad, quien presento obstrucción nasal izquierda, junto a esto rinorrea sanguinolenta anterior persistente y anosmia. Se realizó biopsia de lesión con diagnóstico histopatológico de Melanoma Maligno amelánico. Luego, se llevo a cabo arteriografía con embolización y se le realizó exéresis por abordaje mediofacial de Degloving; posteriormente disección cervical izquierda radical clásica más parotidectomía izquierda total.

Alba Milá de la Roca; José Guillermo Ortiz; Gustavo Alfaro

2008-01-01

358

[Forearm malignant epithelioid schwannoma associated with melanoma  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Tumours originating in peripheric nerves usually appear in patients with neurofibromatosis (NF) signs, presenting frequent combinations of tumours in nerves and cutaneous lesions. Nevertheless, this association is very rare in cases without NF. Therefore, the aim of the present article is to present a case of malignant melanoma and malignant schwannoma, without any described NF. A 69-year-old woman with antecedents of malignant melanoma diagnosed two years previously in the dorsum of the fifth finger of the left hand, treated by means of amputation of the finger. The patient presented a malignant epithelioid schwannoma adhered to the median nerve that required elbow amputation. One month later lung metastases appeared and the patient died. This case presented no known NF sign. However, a relationship must be searched for in the common origin of melanoma and schwannoma from the embryonic neural crest.

García-Alvarez García FE; García-Alvarez García I; Castiella T; García-Alvarez Alvarez F

2003-04-01

359

Bioelectric Applications for Treatment of Melanoma  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Two new cancer therapies apply bioelectric principles. These methods target tumor structures locally and function by applying millisecond electric fields to deliver plasmid DNA encoding cytokines using electrogene transfer (EGT) or by applying rapid rise-time nanosecond pulsed electric fields (nsPEFs). EGT has been used to locally deliver cytokines such as IL-12 to activate an immune response, resulting in bystander effects. NsPEFs locally induce apoptosis-like effects and affect vascular networks, both promoting tumor demise and restoration of normal vascular homeostasis. EGT with IL-12 is in melanoma clinical trials and nsPEFs are used in models with B16F10 melanoma in vitro and in mice. Applications of bioelectrics, using conventional electroporation and extensions of it, provide effective alternative therapies for melanoma.

Stephen J. Beebe; Karl H. Schoenbach; Richard Heller

2010-01-01

360

Confocal microscopy in the diagnosis of melanoma  

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Full Text Available Melanoma is the most deadly form of skin cancer of melanocytic origin. The tumor has a high malignant potential and early metastasis. Prognosis is directly linked to the stage of the disease. Diagnosing thin melanoma at an early stage offers patients their best chance for survival. The crucial innovation in the early recognition of melanoma was the development of in vivo examination of the skin in high-resolution, by confocal microscopy. Confocal microscopy and its modifications provides a “virtual biopsy“, owing to melanosomes and melanin, which are a source of endogenous contrast. Confocal scanning laser microscopy (CSLM) provides visualization of microanatomical structures and cellular detail in real time (pigmented keratinocytes, melanocytes, melanosomes and melanophages) in the epidermis, dermoepidermal junction and superficial dermis at a resolution equivalent to the resolution of conventional microscopes. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 41002

Apostolovi?-Stojanovi? Milica; Dobrosavljevi?-Vukojevi? Danijela; La?kovi? Vesna; Stojanovi? A.; Markovi? I.; Džodi? R.

2013-01-01

 
 
 
 
361

Melanoma metastasis to the spleen: Laparoscopic approach  

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Full Text Available We report a case of minimally invasive surgery in the management of metastasis to the spleen. A 67-year-old male patient with possible splenic soft tissue melanoma metastasis was referred to our hospital. He had a history of an excised soft tissue melanoma from his back eight months earlier, and the control abdominal computer tomography (CT) scan revealed a hypodense spleen lesion. The patient underwent laparoscopic surgery to diagnose and treat the splenic lesion. The splenectomy was performed and the histological examination revealed a melanoma. The patient had a good postoperative course and was discharged on the second postoperative day. On his 12-month follow-up there was no sign of recurrence. The laparoscopic approach is a safe and effective alternative for treatment of splenic metastases.

Trindade Manoel Roberto; Blaya Rodrigo; Trindade Eduardo

2009-01-01

362

Current treatment of locoregional recurrence of melanoma.  

Science.gov (United States)

Surgical resection is the mainstay of therapy for locoregional recurrence of melanoma and the best chance for long-term cure in patients with locoregional recurrence of melanoma. In addition to true local recurrence at the site of the primary lesion, locoregional relapse can occur as regional nodal disease or as satellite or in-transit metastases, which may be unresectable and can present significant treatment challenges. Options for unresectable locoregional recurrence include regional hyperthermic isolated limb perfusion or isolated limb infusion, topical therapies, intralesional injection therapies, laser ablation, radiation therapy, and systemic therapy. Given the risk of further relapse and the negative impact on prognosis and overall survival after locoregional recurrence of melanoma, most patients should be considered for aggressive locoregional therapy. PMID:23907518

Squires, Malcolm Hart; Delman, Keith A

2013-10-01

363

Sinonasal melanoma: Clinical features and diagnostic dilemma  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Melanoma is malignant tumor of the melanocytes. The great preponderance of melanomas arise in the skin. The other sites of origin include oral and anogenital mucosal surfaces, esophagus, meninges, eyes etc. Primary melanoma of nasal cavities is a rare clinical entity. Its pathogenesis is dueto the neoplastic development of melanocytes of neuroectodermal origin which are located in the nasal mucosa .The patient usually presents with non-specific signs and symptoms such as nasal obstruction and recurrent epistaxis making the diagnosis difficult. It is an aggressive tumor with high incidence of local recurrence and distant metastasis. Inspite of new therapeutic approaches the prognosis is poor. We encountered two cases where there was no clinical suspicion and histopathology caused a diagnostic dilemma, ultimately resolved with immunohistochemistry and electromicroscopy.

Charusheela R.Gore; Pradhan M.Pagaro; N.K.Panicker; Saurav Singh; Shirish S.Chandanwale; Sunita Bamanikar

2013-01-01

364

Nodular Melanoma Mimicking Keratoacanthoma; Lessons to learn  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A 67-year-old man of Chinese descent presented with a painless nodular lesion that had been present on his right forearm for the previous 3 months. A single, well-defined, dome-shaped, firm nodule with a central keratin plug surrounded by erythema was noted. Keratoacanthoma with secondary bacterial infection was suspected and the patient underwent an excision biopsy. Biopsy of the nodule and immunohistochemical staining supported a diagnosis of nodular malignant melanoma. It should be noted both that nodular malignant melanoma may present with a wide variety of clinical appearances, and that the lack of melanin pigment in nodular malignant melanoma may hinder the diagnosis of this aggressive tumour.

Leelavathi Muthupalaniappen; Srijit Das; Norazirah Md Nor; Siti A. M. Ali

2012-01-01

365

Small choroidal melanoma with monosomy 3  

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Full Text Available Purpose: To report a patient with small juxtapapillary choroidal melanoma with chromosome 3 monosomy treated with I 125 plaque and transpupillary thermotherapy (TTT). A 64-year-old Caucasian male presented with painless blurred vision of the left eye. Ocular examination disclosed a small juxtapapillary choroidal melanocytic tumor with overlying subretinal fluid and orange pigment. Ultrasound showed an elevated choroidal mass of 2 mm thickness with low reflectivity on A-scan and hollowness on B scan, consistent with a small choroidal melanoma. The patient was treated with plaque I 125 radiotherapy combined with one session of TTT. Genetic testing of the tumor cells obtained by fine needle aspiration biopsy showed chromosome 3 monosomy. At 1 year after treatment, the tumor was regressed with resolution of subretinal fluid and 20/40 visual acuity. A small choroidal melanoma can manifest monosomy of chromosome 3, a known predictive factor for the development of systemic metastasis.

Ghassemi Fariba; Shields Carol; Materin Miguel; Shields Jerry

2010-01-01

366

Malignant melanoma of the oral cavity  

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Full Text Available Oral malignant melanoma is a rare disease. The common sites of its occurrence are the palate and gingiva with the maxillary arch being affected 80% of the time. Because of their presence at relatively obscure areas in the oral cavity, most of the malignant melanomas of the oral cavity are diagnosed at a late stage. These lesions are associated with poor prognosis. The dental clinician must therefore carefully examine the head, neck, and oral cavity, and any pigmented lesion that may exhibit growth potential must be biopsied. This article describes a case of malignant melanoma that was present in the oral cavity and briefly reviews the relevant literature that explains the nature of this lesion.

Ebenezer Jagadish

2006-01-01

367

Malign melanoma of gall bladder: Case report  

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Full Text Available Malign melanom is a disease affecting many organs but rarely seen in gallbladder. Distinction of isolated tumors from primary gallbladder tumors or metastatic disease can not be made in most cases. Mainly the complaints of acute cholecystitis appears. Mostly this clinical condition is not doubted when the primary tumor is not found. In cases with poor prognosis , very few patients benefit from surgery. The role of surgery is limited in malign melanoma of gallbladder because of low experience. Different surgical procedures should be applied to primary gallbladder melanoma and metastatic disease. Patients should be evaluated in a multidisciplinary manner with new therapeutic methods. We report here on an unusual case of gallbladder melanoma that was diagnosed by pathological examination in 46-year-old woman.

Muharrem Battal; Sabahattin Destek; Mine Güllüo?lu; O?uzhan Karatepe; Bora Koç; Osman Bilgin Gülçiçek

2009-01-01

368

Malignant melanoma in children: imaging spectrum  

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Objective. The objective of this study was to investigate the role of diagnostic imaging in detecting unsuspected metastatic disease in children with malignant melanoma. This has not been well studied previously. Materials and methods. We correlated imaging findings of 33 children diagnosed with melanoma with the level of invasion and clinical stage of disease. Results. Clinically undetectable metastases were identified in eight patients (25 %), four of whom had multiple metastases. All eight patients had deep lesions (Clark`s level IV or V) or unknown primary sites of disease. Conclusion. Children with thick melanomas and those with unknown site of primary tumors are at increased risk of having clinically unsuspected metastases and should undergo CT of the chest, abdomen, and local-regional nodal basins at diagnosis to determine disease extent. (orig.). With 8 figs.

Kaste, S.C. [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, St. Jude Children`s Research Hospital, 332 N. Lauderdale, P. O. Box 318, Memphis, TN 38101-0318 (United States)]|[Department of Radiology, University of Tennessee, Memphis, TN (United States); Pappo, Alberto S. [Department of Hematology-Oncology, St. Jude Children`s Research Hospital, Memphis, TN 38101 (United States)]|[Department of Pediatrics, University of Tennessee, Memphis, TN (United States); Jenkins, J.J. III [Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, St. Jude Children`s Research Hospital, Memphis, TN (United States)]|[Department of Pathology, University of Tennessee, Memphis, TN (United States); Pratt, C.B. [Department of Hematology-Oncology, St. Jude Children`s Research Hospital, Memphis, TN 38101 (United States)]|[Department of Pediatrics, University of Tennessee, Memphis, TN (United States)

1996-11-01

369

Malignant melanoma in children: imaging spectrum  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

Objective. The objective of this study was to investigate the role of diagnostic imaging in detecting unsuspected metastatic disease in children with malignant melanoma. This has not been well studied previously. Materials and methods. We correlated imaging findings of 33 children diagnosed with melanoma with the level of invasion and clinical stage of disease. Results. Clinically undetectable metastases were identified in eight patients (25 %), four of whom had multiple metastases. All eight patients had deep lesions (Clark's level IV or V) or unknown primary sites of disease. Conclusion. Children with thick melanomas and those with unknown site of primary tumors are at increased risk of having clinically unsuspected metastases and should undergo CT of the chest, abdomen, and local-regional nodal basins at diagnosis to determine disease extent. (orig.). With 8 figs.

1996-01-01

370

In situ subungual melanoma: digit salvaging clearance.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Acral lentiginous melanoma affecting the nail is uncommon but carries a poor prognosis due to difficulties in early diagnosis. The gold standard of treatment for subungual melanoma is biopsy followed by wide local excision in form of amputation of the distal phalanx of the digit, in order to achieve at least 10 mm margin of clearance or by fixed tissue micrographic (Mohs') surgery. Here, we demonstrate a non-amputative approach for the excision of subungual melanoma in situ of the right great toe, involving removal of the nail unit with a layer of underlying bone before reconstruction with full thickness skin graft. This technique allows adequate excision margins to ensure full clearance of the lesion with satisfactory preservation of function.

Chow WT; Bhat W; Magdub S; Orlando A

2013-02-01

371

Nodular Melanoma Mimicking Keratoacanthoma: Lessons to learn.  

Science.gov (United States)

A 67-year-old man of Chinese descent presented with a painless nodular lesion that had been present on his right forearm for the previous 3 months. A single, well-defined, dome-shaped, firm nodule with a central keratin plug surrounded by erythema was noted. Keratoacanthoma with secondary bacterial infection was suspected and the patient underwent an excision biopsy. Biopsy of the nodule and immunohistochemical staining supported a diagnosis of nodular malignant melanoma. It should be noted both that nodular malignant melanoma may present with a wide variety of clinical appearances, and that the lack of melanin pigment in nodular malignant melanoma may hinder the diagnosis of this aggressive tumour. PMID:22912931

Muthupalaniappen, Leelavathi; Das, Srijit; Md Nor, Norazirah; Ali, Siti A M

2012-07-15

372

Spitzoid melanoma: dermoscopic report and diagnostic discussion.  

Science.gov (United States)

We present a case of a 16-year-old young man who came for a dermatologic appointment due to acne. He presented a pigmented asymptomatic lesion on the back of his right thigh. Dermoscopic examination revealed uncommon aspects, highly suspect of nodular melanoma, in particular a blue-whitish veil, striae and asymmetric globules. The lesion was promptly removed and the material referred for histopathologic examination. Microscopic findings showed an atypical spitzoid tumor, compatible with spitzoid melanoma. In this report, the importance of dermoscopy as an auxiliary method in the early diagnosis of cutaneous melanomas is emphasized. Its daily use by the dermatologist is an important tool in the decision-making process in cases of urgent removal of suspect lesions. PMID:21251441

Campos-do-Carmo, Gabriella; Ramos-e-Silva, Marcia; Rochael, Mayra Carrijo; Cuzzi, Tullia

2010-01-01

373

Spitzoid melanoma: dermoscopic report and diagnostic discussion.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

We present a case of a 16-year-old young man who came for a dermatologic appointment due to acne. He presented a pigmented asymptomatic lesion on the back of his right thigh. Dermoscopic examination revealed uncommon aspects, highly suspect of nodular melanoma, in particular a blue-whitish veil, striae and asymmetric globules. The lesion was promptly removed and the material referred for histopathologic examination. Microscopic findings showed an atypical spitzoid tumor, compatible with spitzoid melanoma. In this report, the importance of dermoscopy as an auxiliary method in the early diagnosis of cutaneous melanomas is emphasized. Its daily use by the dermatologist is an important tool in the decision-making process in cases of urgent removal of suspect lesions.

Campos-do-Carmo G; Ramos-e-Silva M; Rochael MC; Cuzzi T

2010-01-01

374

Endobronchial metastasis from primary anorectal melanoma  

Science.gov (United States)

Patient: Male, 64 Final Diagnosis: Metastatic anorectal melanoma with endotracheal metastasis Symptoms: Fatigue • weight loss • hematochezia • cough Medication: None Clinical Procedure: Biopsy of anal mass • rigid bronchoscopy Specialty: Internal medicine • oncology • pulmonology Objective: Rare disease Background: Anorectal melanoma is a rare cancer with a poor prognosis. The mean survival after diagnosis is 15–25 months. At the time of diagnosis, 61% of patients have local regional lymph node metastases, and 21% have distant metastases. The lungs are a common site for metastasis for all tumors including melanoma. However endobronchial metastasis is a rare phenomenon. Endotracheal metastases are even rarer, occurring in only 5% of patients with extrapulmonary endobronchial metastases. It is most commonly seen in breast, colorectal, and kidney cancers. It is extremely rare for cutaneous melanoma. The mean survival after diagnosis is only 15 months and treatment options are limited. Case Report: We report the case of a 64 year-old gentleman with newly diagnosed metastatic anorectal melanoma. A 3 cm by 3 cm bluish-black, oval-shaped, exophytic mass protruding from his anus was found on physical exam. Endobronchial and endotracheal metastasis to the trachea were discovered on computed tomography and he was subsequently taken to the operating room for argon plasma coagulation laser recanalization of his trachea via rigid bronchoscopy, and resection of his anal mass. Conclusions: We have presented the first known case of anorectal melanoma with endobronchial metastasis. Palliative APC laser recanalization was used to prevent asphyxiation from the endotracheal mass. Endobronchial metastasis is uncommon and can be easily mistaken for primary bronchogenic carcinoma. It should always be considered when evaluating patients with new lung masses.

Heyman, Benjamin M.; Chung, Matthew M.; Lark, Amy L.; Shofer, Scott

2013-01-01

375

The biology of micrometastases from uveal melanoma.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to investigate the possible causes of tumour latency in uveal melanoma primarily through the analysis of micrometastases in tissue obtained from donors postmortem. Various explanations have been proposed but there is no clear answer from animal studies and few human data. The main hypotheses may be divided into several areas--immunological control of metastatic cells, lack of angiogenesis within micrometastases and reduced cell turnover. METHODS: 196 patients were recruited to the study between 2003 and 2007. Patients were invited to take part and their relatives agreed to postmortem examination of their liver and lungs in the event of their death, including tissue sampling to assess the presence of micrometastases and their biology. Metastatic cells were detected by immunohistochemistry using a pan-melanoma antibody reagent, and by quantitative reverse transcriptase (qRT)-PCR for three melanoma-associated genes (tyrosinase Melan-A, and gp100) and a housekeeping gene (HMBS/PBGD) in samples stored in RNAlater or as formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue. RESULTS: 22 deaths were investigated at autopsy as part of the study. Sixteen patients died with large deposits of metastatic melanoma, while six patients died of other causes. In addition, a liver resection for hepatic adenoma provided further tissue from a case without clinical evidence of metastasis. Metastatic melanoma cells were identified by immunohistochemistry of the liver samples in one case and by qRT-PCR in two further cases without macrometastases. There was no evidence of multicellular micrometastases sufficiently large to require angiogenesis and no associated inflammation was observed. CONCLUSION: The most likely explanation for latency in this setting is the inability of uveal melanoma cells in metastatic sites to grow.

Borthwick NJ; Thombs J; Polak M; Gabriel FG; Hungerford JL; Damato B; Rennie IG; Jager MJ; Cree IA

2011-08-01

376

Ex vivo derived primary melanoma cells: implications for immunotherapeutic vaccines.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Transformation of the pigment producing melanocytes into melanoma is a complex multi-step process involving the enhanced expression of various antigens considered as immunotherapeutic targets. Significant progress in melanoma research has been made over the years and has resulted in the identification of various antigens over expressed in melanoma as well as advances in immunotherapeutic treatments, which focus on modulating the immune systems response to melanoma. Despite these advances, incidences of melanoma are still on the rise thus warranting additional research in identifying new therapeutic treatments. Our focus is on developing a multivalent immunotherapeutic vaccine that targets various melanoma associated antigens. The approach focuses on the use of five primary patient derived melanoma cells (MEL-2, MEL-V, 3MM, KFM, and GLM-2, which have been characterized in this study. These cells express differential amounts of various melanoma associated antigens such as MART-1, gp100 (Pmel17), MAGE-A1 and tyrosinase as well a cell surface antigens essential for melanoma cell metastasis, such as CD146 and CD71. In addition these cells display differential in vitro migratory and invasive properties as well as have the ability to form solid tumors when implanted into BALB/c nude mice. The retention of the innate phenotype of these primary patient derived cells together with the expression of a multitude repertoire of melanoma associated antigens offers a novel opportunity to target melanoma so as to avoid immune evasion.

Suriano R; Rajoria S; L George A; Geliebter J; Wallack M; Tiwari RK

2013-01-01

377

Ocular melanoma: an overview of the current status  

Science.gov (United States)

Ocular melanoma is the second most common type of melanoma after cutaneous and the most common primary intraocular malignant tumor in adults. Large majority of ocular melanomas originate from uvea, while conjunctival melanomas are far less frequent. Incidence of uveal melanoma has remained stable over last three decades. Diagnosis is in most cases established by clinical examination with great accuracy. Local treatment of uveal melanoma has improved, with increased use of conservative methods and preservation of the eye, but survival rates have remained unchanged. Recent advances in cytogenetics and genetics enhanced prognostication and enabled to determine tumors with high metastatic potential. However, due to lack of effective systemic therapy, prognosis of patients with metastasis remains poor and metastatic disease remains the leading cause of death among patients with uveal melanoma. Conjunctival melanoma is rare, but its incidence is increasing. It mostly occurs among white adults. In majority of cases it originates from preceding primary acquired melanosis. Current standard treatment for conjunctival melanoma is wide local excision with adjuvant therapy, including brachytherapy, cryotherapy and topical application of chemotherapeutic agent. Rarity of this tumor limits conduction of controlled trials to define the best treatment modality. As well as for uveal melanoma, prognosis of patients with metastasis is poor because there is no effective systemic therapy. Better understanding of underlying genetic and molecular abnormalities implicated in development and progression of ocular melanomas provides a great opportunity for development of targeted therapy, which will hopefully improve prognosis of patients with metastatic disease.

Jovanovic, Predrag; Mihajlovic, Marija; Djordjevic-Jocic, Jasmina; Vlajkovic, Slobodan; Cekic, Sonja; Stefanovic, Vladisav

2013-01-01

378

Expression and functional role of CRIPTO-1 in cutaneous melanoma.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: CRIPTO-1 (CR-1) is involved in the pathogenesis and progression of human carcinoma of different histological origin. In this study we addressed the expression and the functional role of CR-1 in cutaneous melanoma. METHODS: Expression of CR-1 protein in melanomas and melanoma cell lines was assessed by immunohistochemistry, western blotting and/or flow cytometry. Levels of mRNA were evaluated by real-time PCR. Invasion assays were performed in Matrigel-coated modified Boyden chambers. RESULTS: Expression of CR-1 protein and/or mRNA was found in 16 out of 37 primary human cutaneous melanomas and in 12 out of 21 melanoma cell lines. Recombinant CR-1 protein activated in melanoma cells c-Src and, at lesser extent, Smad signalling. In addition, CR-1 significantly increased the invasive ability of melanoma cells that was prevented by treatment with either the ALK4 inhibitor SB-431542 or the c-Src inhibitor saracatinib (AZD0530). Anti-CR-1 siRNAs produced a significant inhibition of the growth and the invasive ability of melanoma cells. Finally, a close correlation was found in melanoma cells between the levels of expression of CR-1 and the effects of saracatinib on cell growth. CONCLUSION: These data indicate that a significant fraction of cutaneous melanoma expresses CR-1 and that this growth factor is involved in the invasion and proliferation of melanoma cells.

De Luca A; Lamura L; Strizzi L; Roma C; D'Antonio A; Margaryan N; Pirozzi G; Hsu MY; Botti G; Mari E; Hendrix MJ; Salomon DS; Normanno N

2011-09-01

379

Metastatic melanoma and vemurafenib: novel approaches  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Metastatic melanoma (MM) presents a treatment challenge to oncologists worldwide. Dacarbazine is the first line chemotherapy treatment for MM, though the overall response rates are very poor. Recently, the v-raf murine sarcoma viral oncogene homolog B1 (BRAF) V600 mutation was found to play a main role in MM. This mutation is present in 40-60% of melanoma patients. Vemurafenib is a BRAF kinase inhibitor that showed impressive results in phase I-III trials and was thus recently approved for the treatment of MM. This paper will briefly focus on vemurafenib in the treatment of MM and highlight concerns.

Ramon Andrade De Mello

2012-01-01

380

[Neurocutaneous melanosis and melanoma of the brain  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

A case of neuro-cutaneous melanoma, in the course of which a bifocal melanoma of the cerebral hemisphere had developed, was used as a natural model for the study of the relation between tumorous and non-tumorous elements. The need is pointed out for the definition of such a cutaneous-meningeal syndrome before the development of a neoplasm. As tumours develop from the cells defining leptomeningeal melanosis, the possibility of a neuroradiological diagnosis of this process is accentuated, primarily by a minute examination of the sites characteristic of the disease. A premorbid detection of all such cases is imperative in order to introduce an early anti-tumour treatment.

Jandro-Santel D; Popovi?-Grle S; Cvitanovi? L; Hlavka V; Kalousek M; Lupret V

1990-01-01

 
 
 
 
381

[Primary malignant melanoma of the female urethra  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Primary malignant melanomas of the urethra are extremely rare. Clinically they are usually mistaken for other malignant diseases or even benign lesions. The case of a 66-year-old woman is reported, who presented with local bleeding of the urethra. Macroscopically a polypoid tumor was seen on the meatus externus of the urethra. A biopsy was taken and the histology report revealed a malignant melanoma. There were no signs of metastases and therefore the treatment consisted of a wide local excision only. A review of literature regarding therapy and prognosis is presented.

Blaumeiser B; Tjalma W; Swaegers M; Van Dam P; Colpaert C; Buytaert P

2000-01-01

382

[Primary malignant melanoma of the female urethra].  

Science.gov (United States)

Primary malignant melanomas of the urethra are extremely rare. Clinically they are usually mistaken for other malignant diseases or even benign lesions. The case of a 66-year-old woman is reported, who presented with local bleeding of the urethra. Macroscopically a polypoid tumor was seen on the meatus externus of the urethra. A biopsy was taken and the histology report revealed a malignant melanoma. There were no signs of metastases and therefore the treatment consisted of a wide local excision only. A review of literature regarding therapy and prognosis is presented. PMID:10756604

Blaumeiser, B; Tjalma, W; Swaegers, M; Van Dam, P; Colpaert, C; Buytaert, P

2000-01-01

383

Targeting BRAF for patients with melanoma.  

Science.gov (United States)

The prognosis of patients with metastatic melanoma is poor and not influenced by systemic therapy with cytotoxic drugs. New targeted agents directed against the RAS-RAF-MEK-ERK pathway show promising activity in early clinical development and particular interest is focused on selective inhibitors of mutant BRAF, which is present in one half of the cases of metastatic melanoma. The majority of patients on early trials of these drugs develop secondary resistance and subsequent disease progression and it is, therefore, critical to understand the underlying escape mechanisms leading to resistance. PMID:21139585

Arkenau, H-T; Kefford, R; Long, G V

2010-12-07

384

MALIGNANT MELANOMA OF THE HEAD SKIN  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Malignant melanoma (MM) is known as a tumor with high malignancy. The development of a melanoma on the head skin is even more severe, as prognosis, because of the limitted possibilities for large excision and high potential of diffusion in the wide vascular network. We treated 11 cases with MM head localisation in a period of 10 years. The rate of survival is very poor (6 months – 4 years after surgery). We used skin graft or fasciocutaneous flap for the regional reconstruction after excision. In two cases with cervical adenopaty we excised the limph nods too.

Camelia Tamas; Doinita Radulescu; Lucian Popa; C. Tarasi; Cristina Stanescu; R. Nita

2006-01-01

385

Ocular melanoma metastasizing to intra-abdominal lymph nodes.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Background. Visceral metastatic spread of ocular melanoma most commonly occurs via hematogenous route to the liver. Lymphatic spread of ocular melanoma into abdominal lymph nodes has not been reported previously. Case Presentation. A 47-year-old man with a history of ocular melanoma presented with a soft tissue mass on CT scan. The mass encased the portal structures of the hepaticoduodenal ligament. Image-guided biopsy revealed it to be a metastatic melanoma to lymph nodes. The patient underwent surgery with the intent to prolong disease-free survival. On final pathological examination, two lymph nodes were found harboring metastatic melanoma. Conclusion. Extrahepatic lymphatic intra-abdominal spread of ocular melanoma is not impossible. Since this mode of spread is rare, the oncologic significance of surgical resection of isolated intra-abdominal nodal with metastatic ocular melanoma is difficult to determine at the present time.

Aranovich D; Meir K; Lotem MM; Appelbaum L; Merhav H

2013-01-01

386

Cartilaginous melanoma: case report and review of the literature.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Malignant melanoma can present a variety of histopathological patterns. Cartilaginous change in the absence of osteogenic differentiation is extremely rare in malignant melanoma, being among the least frequent of the wide range of melanoma histologic patterns. We report a case of a 47-year-old woman with a subungual nodule on her right great toe for many years. Histopathological examination of the lesion led to a diagnosis of malignant melanoma with cartilaginous differentiation devoid of concomitant osseous areas. It would appear that this unusual form of melanoma has a predilection for acral location, particularly the subungual region. Malignant melanoma with chondroid stroma should therefore be considered in the differential diagnosis of cartilaginous lesions of the toes and fingers. Careful examination of the overlying epidermis and identification of an in situ component of melanoma may be necessary in order to establish the correct diagnosis.

Joana Devesa P; Labareda JM; Bártolo EA; Santos MF; do Vale EM

2013-05-01

387

Late recurrence of malignant melanoma presenting with hemoptysis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available After a disease-free period of 10 years, a surgically treated case of cutaneous malignant melanoma is usually not followed up further and there is a tendency to assume that the disease is cured. Late recurrence (after 10 years) of cutaneous malignant melanoma, though infrequent, has been documented well in Western countries. In our country, the malignant melanoma is still considered uncommon and there is no data regarding its late recurrence. We report a case of pulmonary malignant melanoma as a late metastatic manifestation of primary plantar malignant melanoma in a 61-year-old man who presented with hemoptysis; metastatic malignant melanoma of the lung occurred 12 years after resection of primary malignant melanoma of sole of the right foot.

Gowrinath Karanam; Geetha Vasudevan

2010-01-01

388

CLINICAL AND MORPHOLOGICAL CONSIDERATIONS IN CUTANEOUS MALIGNANT MELANOMA  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available 278 cases of cutaneous malignant melanoma admitted in „Emergency Clinic Hospital” Iasi between 1996-2006 have been described. Our cases showed that cutaneous malignant melanoma prevailed in females, has the highest incidence in the fourth decade, and is mostly located in lower limbs. Malignant melanoma occured on healthy skin (205 cases), congenital nevus (9 cases), preexisting nevus (29 cases), lentigo maligna (14 cases), and as a subungual form (21 cases). Our cases have been classified as lentigo maligna, superficial spreading melanoma, nodular melanoma and as melanoma arising in a giant congenital nevus. The retrospective comparison of our data reveals that in the evaluation of cutaneous malignant melanoma prognosis clinical parameters, as well as morphological ones, reprezented by Clark’s levels of invasion, Breslow’s thickness, tumour infiltrating lymphocytes, ulceration and vascular invasion, should be considered.

Doinita Radulescu; Simona Stolnicu; S. Dumitriu

2006-01-01

389

Possibilidade de associação de melanoma e acromegalia/ Possibility of an association between melanoma and acromegaly  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Neoplasias como câncer de próstata, mama e cólon estão relacionadas à acromegalia. Raras vezes foi mencionada a associação com melanoma. Descreve-se caso de paciente com acromegalia no qual foi identificada lesão melanocítica suspeita, com posterior confirmação de melanoma. A excisão cirúrgica da lesão levou à cura da neoplasia. Chama-se a atenção para a necessidade de exame cuidadoso da pele de pacientes com acromegalia. Abstract in english Neoplasias such as prostate, breast, and colon cancer are commonly associated with acromegaly. However, the association of the latter with melanoma has been rarely mentioned. We describe the case of a patient with acromegaly in whom a suspicious melanocytic lesion was detected, and later confirmed to be melanoma by means of biopsy. Surgical excision of the lesion led to the cure of the neoplasia. More attention should be drawn to the need for careful skin examination of patients with acromegaly.

Leães, Carolina Garcia Soares; Batista, Rafael Loch; Dallago, Cristina Micheletto; Lima, Julia Fernanda Semelmann Pereira; Oliveira, Miriam da Costa

2008-08-01

390

Possibilidade de associação de melanoma e acromegalia Possibility of an association between melanoma and acromegaly  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Neoplasias como câncer de próstata, mama e cólon estão relacionadas à acromegalia. Raras vezes foi mencionada a associação com melanoma. Descreve-se caso de paciente com acromegalia no qual foi identificada lesão melanocítica suspeita, com posterior confirmação de melanoma. A excisão cirúrgica da lesão levou à cura da neoplasia. Chama-se a atenção para a necessidade de exame cuidadoso da pele de pacientes com acromegalia.Neoplasias such as prostate, breast, and colon cancer are commonly associated with acromegaly. However, the association of the latter with melanoma has been rarely mentioned. We describe the case of a patient with acromegaly in whom a suspicious melanocytic lesion was detected, and later confirmed to be melanoma by means of biopsy. Surgical excision of the lesion led to the cure of the neoplasia. More attention should be drawn to the need for careful skin examination of patients with acromegaly.

Carolina Garcia Soares Leães; Rafael Loch Batista; Cristina Micheletto Dallago; Julia Fernanda Semelmann Pereira Lima; Miriam da Costa Oliveira

2008-01-01

391

Melanoma Surveillance in the US: Melanoma, Ultraviolet Radiation, and Socioeconomic Status  

Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

This podcast accompanies the publication of a series of articles on melanoma surveillance in the United States, available in the November supplement edition of the Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology. Chris Johnson, from the Cancer Data Registry of Idaho, discusses analyses examining the relationship between melanoma and two variables at the county level, ultraviolet radiation and socioeconomic status.  Created: 10/19/2011 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 10/19/2011.

2011-10-19

392

Melanoma involved in specific uptake of chlorpromazine (10B carrier) into melanoma cells  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Interrelationship between melanosome and uptake of chlorpromazine (CPZ) into various melanoma cells (B16M-line, W line) having different capacity to produce melanosome and into macrophages feeding various amounts of melanosome was studied. The uptake of CPZ into melanoma cells was well correlated with the capacity to produce melanosome. The uptake of CPZ into macrophages containing melanosome increased according to feeding time and the concentration of melanosome. However, there was not a difference between the uptake of CPZ into macrophages containing latex particles and that into control cells. This fact clarified that promotion of the uptake of CPZ into macrophages containing melanosome depended on specific nature of intracellular melanosome. Therefore, specific uptake of CPZ into melanoma cells was thought to be determined initially by intracellular melanosome. These facts suggested that molecular hybrid of 10B and CPZ such as 10B12-CPZ was effective to melanotic melanoma and was ineffective to amelanotic melanoma. It will be possible to accumulate molecular hybrid of 10B and BPZ in tumors by feeding melanosome and perform thermal neutron capture treatment, if tumors excepting melanoma posses the capacity to feed melanosome. (Tsunoda, M.)

1980-01-01

393

Melanoma de coroides en melanosis óculi Choroidal melanoma in ocular melanosis  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Casos clínicos: Se presentan cuatro casos de pacientes con signos clínicos de melanosis óculi. En todos se diagnosticó melanoma de coroides. Tres acudieron con disminución de visión en ojo afecto y fueron enucleados por presentar tumores grandes y activos. En el cuarto caso el melanoma fue descubierto en una revisión rutinaria y se pudo aplicar un tratamiento conservador con braquiterapia con I125. Discusión: La melanosis óculi está infravalorada como factor de riesgo para melanoma y glaucoma. Es necesaria una revisión oftalmológica cada 6 ó 12 meses para la detección precoz de enfermedades de alto riesgo en estos pacientes.Cases: We present four cases of ocular melanosis. Choroidal melanoma was detected in all of them. Three eyes had decreased visual acuity and were enucleated because of their large, active tumours. In the fourth case the melanoma was detected in a routine examination and we were able to apply a preserving treatment with I125 brachytherapy. Discussion: Melanosis oculi is often underestimated as a risk factor for uveal melanoma and glaucoma. Ophthalmic surveillance, every 6 or 12 months is important, in patients with ocular melanocytosis for early detection of high risk diseases.

C López Caballero; MA Saornil Álvarez; G Blanco Mateos; JM Frutos Baraja; F López Lara; C González Sansegundo

2003-01-01

394

The risk of cutaneous melanoma in melanocytic nevi/ Risco de melanoma cutâneo nos nevos melanocíticos  

Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

Full Text Available Abstract in portuguese Os dados sobre risco de melanoma cutâneo nos nevos melanocíticos são ainda controversos. O estudo longitudinal prospectivo de 107 casos de melanoma cutâneo revelou que em 9/107 casos (8,4%) houve presunção de lesão precursora, porém em 1/107 caso (0,9%) houve comprovação histopatológica para nevo melanocítico. A informação vaga de presença de lesão precursora do melanoma cutâneo torna vul (more) nerável sua vinculação com o tumor e implica em comprovação histopatológica. Abstract in english The data on melanoma associaed with melanocytic nevus are controversial. A longitudinal prospective study of 107 cases of cutaneous melanoma revealed that 9 (8.4%) cases were presumed to be linked to a precursor lesion, but only in 1 (0.9%) out of these cases the histopathological examination showed an associated melanocytic nevus. The vague information of a preexisting lesion of cutaneous melanoma is not sufficient to consider it a tumour precursor and it requires histopathological evidence to confirm the diagnosis.

Fernandes, Nurimar Conceição

2013-04-01

395

Cartilaginous melanoma: case report and review of the literature Melanoma cartilagíneo: caso clínico e revisão da literatura  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Malignant melanoma can present a variety of histopathological patterns. Cartilaginous change in the absence of osteogenic differentiation is extremely rare in malignant melanoma, being among the least frequent of the wide range of melanoma histologic patterns. We report a case of a 47-year-old woman with a subungual nodule on her right great toe for many years. Histopathological examination of the lesion led to a diagnosis of malignant melanoma with cartilaginous differentiation devoid of concomitant osseous areas. It would appear that this unusual form of melanoma has a predilection for acral location, particularly the subungual region. Malignant melanoma with chondroid stroma should therefore be considered in the differential diagnosis of cartilaginous lesions of the toes and fingers. Careful examination of the overlying epidermis and identification of an in situ component of melanoma may be necessary in order to establish the correct diagnosis.O melanoma maligno pode apresentar uma grande variedade de padrões histopatológicos. A presença de diferenciação cartilagínea, na ausência de diferenciação osteogénica, é extremamente rara no melanoma maligno. O melanoma cartilagíneo está entre os padrões histológicos menos frequentes. Relatamos um caso de uma doente do sexo feminino de 47 anos de idade com um nódulo subungueal no 1º dedo do pé direito com muitos anos de evolução. O exame histopatológico da lesão revelou melanoma cartilagíneo, sem áreas de diferenciação osteogénica. Esta variante de melanoma parece ter predileção pela extremidades, sobretudo pela região subungueal. Assim, o melanoma maligno com diferenciação condróide, deve ser tido em consideração no diagnóstico diferencial de lesões acrais cartilagíneas. A observação cuidadosa da epiderme e a identificação de um componente do melanoma in situ podem ser necessários para estabelecer um diagnóstico correto.

Parente Joana Devesa; José Manuel Pereira da Silva Labareda; Elvira Augusta Felgueira Leonardo Fernandes Bártolo; Maria Fernanda Sachse Pinto Fonseca Santos; Esmeralda Maria Seco do Vale

2013-01-01

396

Melanoma cutáneo asociado a nevo previo Cutaneous melanoma associated with previous nevus  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available El melanoma maligno es una neoplasia originada en los melanocitos de la piel y otras localizaciones. No existe información en nuestro país acerca de su incidencia y prevalecencia, sí se sabe cuáles son los factores de riesgo más importantes. El melanoma puede originarse de novo o a partir de lesiones melanocíticas previas. La noción de que un nevo melanocítico pueda servir como lesión precursora es sustentada por evidencias clínicas e histológicas. Realizamos en el Hospital Privado de Córdoba un estudio observacional, retrospectivo y analítico. El objetivo de este trabajo fue conocer cuál es la frecuencia de asociación de melanomas malignos que se desarrollan sobre nevos previos. Fueron analizados un total de 134 melanomas. En 32 pacientes (24%), los melanomas estuvieron histológicamente asociados con nevos, con espesores de Breslow mayores de 1 mm el porcentaje de asociación fue de 16.3%, y con Breslow menores de 1 mm, 38.1%. Al evaluar los melanomas en relación a la clasificación de Breslow y Clark, se objetivó que el grupo de melanomas asociados a nevos presentó un espesor de Breslow y niveles de Clark bajos y en el análisis estadístico fueron predictores significativos en la probabilidad de hallar esta asociación (p The malignant melanoma is a neoplasia originated from the melanocytes located in the skin and other locations. Even though there is not information regarding its incidence and prevalence in our country, its most important risk factors are known. The melanoma can originate de novo or from previous melanocytic lesions. The concept that a melanocytic nevus can serve as a precursor lesion is supported by clinical and histological evidence. An observational, retrospective and analytical study was carried out in the Hospital Privado de Córdoba. The objective was to determine which is the frequency of association of malignant melanomas that develop on previous nevus. A total of 134 melanomas were analyzed. In 32 cases (24%), the melanomas were histologically associated with nevus, in individuals with Breslow's depth bigger than 1 mm the percentage of association was 16.3% while in those exhibiting Breslow smaller than 1 mm the percentage of association was 38.1%. Having evaluated the melanomas in relation to the Breslow and Clark classification, we observed that the nevus associated melanoma group showed less Breslow thickness and low Clark levels, which, by statistical analysis were shown to be significant predictors of the probabilty of finding this association (p < 0.027). This study demonstrates that the tumor thickness by itself is an independent predictive factor of the association melanoma-nevus. However, the rest of the variables studied did not throw significant results from the statistical point of view. In conclusion, patients must be educated for the control of new pigmented injuries as well as for the modification of preexisting nevi.

María P. Gutiérrez; Mónica Barengo; Claudio Mainardi; Iliana Garay; María Kurpis; Alejandro Ruiz Lascano

2009-01-01

397

The contribution of nodular subtype to melanoma mortality in the United States, 1978 to 2007.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To gain insight into reducing melanoma mortality by examining epidemiologic trends by subtype with emphasis on the contribution of each subtype to melanoma-related death. DESIGN: Retrospective population-based cohort study. SETTING: Original 9 registries of the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program from 1978 to 2007. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 111,478 patients with histologically confirmed invasive melanoma. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Proportion of ultimately fatal melanomas by subtype. RESULTS: Among melanomas of known subtype, superficial spreading melanoma comprised 66% of incident melanomas and 46% of ultimately fatal melanomas; nodular melanoma comprised 14% of incident melanomas and 37% of ultimately fatal melanomas. For superficial spreading melanoma, overall incidence per 100,000 per year increased (from 4.28 to 6.63), ultimately fatal incidence remained stable (at 0.56 to 0.51), and 10-year relative survival increased (from 90.6% to 96.5%) when comparing successive 5-year intervals. In contrast, for nodular melanoma, the overall incidence (1.30-1.32), ultimately fatal incidence (0.46-0.44), and 10-year relative survival rate (61.8%-61.5%) remained stable. Epidemiologic trends of melanoma, not otherwise specified, were similar to superficial spreading melanoma. There was a strong negative correlation between the proportion of melanoma, not otherwise specified, among all melanomas, and the proportion of superficial spreading melanoma, among melanomas of known subtype (r = -0.80; P = .01), across the registries. CONCLUSIONS: Superficial spreading and nodular melanoma constitute similar proportions of ultimately fatal melanomas. Although incidence of and survival from superficial spreading melanoma have increased from 1978 to 2007, neither the incidence of nor survival from nodular melanoma has changed. Public health efforts should include a focus on nodular melanoma for maximum reduction of melanoma mortality.

Shaikh WR; Xiong M; Weinstock MA

2012-01-01

398

[Treatment of metastatic malignant melanoma (author's transl)  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

24 patients with metastatic malignant melanoma were treated with DTIC applied alone or in combination with other cytotoxic agents (Oncovin, Bleomycin, Adriblastin). Treatment resulted in objective improvement (3 patients), subjective improvement (2 patients), stable state (5 patients). The other patients showed further progression of their disease.

Kühböck J; Pehamberger H; Mach K; Diem E; Kokoschka EM; Pötzi P

1978-12-01

399

Multidisciplinary approach to brain metastasis from melanoma.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Melanoma brain metastases are common, difficult to treat, and carry a poor prognosis. Until recently, systemic therapy was ineffective. Local therapy (including surgery, stereotactic radiotherapy, and whole brain radiotherapy) was considered the only option for a chance of disease control in the brain, and was highly dependent on the patient's performance status and age, number and size of brain metastases, and the presence of extracranial metastases. Since 2010, three drugs have demonstrated activity in progressing or "active" brain metastases including the anti-CTLA4 antibody ipilimumab (phase II study of 72 patients), and the BRAF inhibitors dabrafenib (phase II study of 172 patients, both previously treated and untreated brain metastases) and vemurafenib (a pilot study of 24 patients with heavily pretreated brain metastases). The challenge and unanswered question for clinicians is how to sequence all the available therapies, both local and systemic, to optimize the patient's quality of life and survival. This is an area of intense clinical research. The treatment of patients with melanoma brain metastases should be discussed by a multidisciplinary team of melanoma experts including a neurosurgeon, medical oncologist, and radiation oncologist. Important clinical features that help determine appropriate first line therapy include single compared with solitary brain metastasis, resectablity, BRAF mutation status of melanoma, rate of progression/performance status, and the presence of extracranial disease.

Long GV; Margolin KA

2013-01-01

400

Melanoma acrolentiginoso: um desafio ao diagnóstico precoce  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available FUNDAMENTOS: As características do melanoma acrolentiginoso (MAL) diagnosticado no Brasil são pouco estudadas. OBJETIVOS: Avaliar as características do MAL diagnosticado na Unidade de Melanoma da Santa Casa de São Paulo - UMSC, comparando essa manifestação com outros subtipos e verificar se as possíveis diferenças entre eles teriam importância na determinação do diagnóstico, tratamento e prognóstico. MÉTODO: A Casuística da UMSC foi subdividida em dois grupos, um de melanoma acrolentiginoso (MAL) e outro de melanoma não acrolentiginoso (NAL), que foram comparados quanto a sexo, cor, idade, espessura e nível de invasão da lesão primária, estadiamento, tempo decorrido entre a percepção do tumor e o atendimento pelo médico. RESULTADOS: A casuística correspondente ao MAL mostrou freqüência significativa de pacientes não brancos, com faixa etária mais elevada, com a lesão primária em média, mais espessa e ulcerada. Não ocorreram diferenças significativas quanto ao sexo e estadiamento, bem como com relação ao tempo decorrido entre perceber a neoplasia e procurar o médico. CONCLUSÕES: O MAL diagnosticado na UMSC ocorre, principalmente, em pacientes que normalmente não são alertados para câncer da pele (não brancos) e pertencem a uma faixa etária mais elevada (portanto, do ponto de vista teórico, poderiam estar menos atentos ao início da doença). A maioria apresentou lesão espessa e ulcerada, conseqüentemente de maior risco para metástases. Essa forma de câncer é desconhecida do público em geral e mesmo por boa parcela da classe médica.

Maia Marcus; Russo Carla; Ferrari Nelson; Ribeiro Manoel Carlos S. de A.

2003-01-01

 
 
 
 
401

Mucosal malignant melanoma of the nasal cavity  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Mucosal malignant melanoma (MMM) of the nose is extremely rare. We report a case of MMM of the nasal cavity in a 60-year-old male patient presenting with a polypoidal mass in the right nasal cavity. It was increasing gradually and obstructing breathing. A biopsy of the lesion was done with a clinica...

Bothale K; Maimoon S; Patrikar A; Mahore S

402

Small choroidal melanoma with monosomy 3  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

Purpose: To report a patient with small juxtapapillary choroidal melanoma with chromosome 3 monosomy treated with I 125 plaque and transpupillary thermotherapy (TTT). A 64-year-old Caucasian male presented with painless blurred vision of the left eye. Ocular examination disclosed...

Ghassemi Fariba; Shields Carol; Materin Miguel; Shields Jerry

403

Nodular malignant melanoma - Secondary to carcinoma rectum  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available A 45-year female presented with a sudden eruption of multiple brownish black nodular lesions since 5 months over the face, trunk and extremities which were clinically diagnosed as a case of nodular malignant melanoma. Histopathologically, they revealed the secondaries from carcinoma rectum.

Chopra Adarsh; Walia RLS; Gupta Seema; Sethi P; Bagga H

1997-01-01

404

From maligne lentigus to maligne lentigus melanoma.  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available We report a case of a 77 year old man who presented with apigmented nodular lesion that appeared where he had abrown macule for the last 15 years. A biopsy was taken anda malignant melanoma Clark IV, Breslow 4 mm was diagnosed. Afterwards we present a review on the risk oftransformation from lentigo maligna to lentigo malignamelanoma.

Marcela González; Elkin Peñaranda C; Álvaro Acosta de Hart; Xavier Rueda C; Marian Rolón C

2002-01-01

405

Targeting BRAF for patients with melanoma  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The prognosis of patients with metastatic melanoma is poor and not influenced by systemic therapy with cytotoxic drugs. New targeted agents directed against the RAS-RAF-MEK-ERK pathway show promising activity in early clinical development and particular interest is focused on selective inhibitors of...

Arkenau, H-T; Kefford, R; Long, G V

406

Targeting BRAF for patients with melanoma.  

Digital Repository Infrastructure Vision for European Research (DRIVER)

The prognosis of patients with metastatic melanoma is poor and not influenced by systemic therapy with cytotoxic drugs. New targeted agents directed against the RAS-RAF-MEK-ERK pathway show promising activity in early clinical development and particular interest is focused on selective inhibitors of...

Arkenau, HT; Kefford, R; Long, GV

407

Outcomes and prognostic factors in nodular melanomas.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: The nodular subtype of cutaneous melanoma has a more pronounced vertical phase and less of a radial growth phase compared with other histologic subtypes. This study was performed to determine prognostic factors and outcomes for nodular melanomas. METHODS: A post hoc analysis of a prospective clinical trial was performed in all patients with nodular histologic subtype. Univariate and multivariate analyses of factors associated with disease-free survival (DFS), overall survival (OS), and local and in-transit recurrence-free survival (LITRFS) were performed. Kaplan-Meier survival analyses were performed. RESULTS: There were 736 patients available for analysis, and 189 (25.7%) were sentinel lymph node (SLN) positive. Breslow thickness of ?2.3 mm, presence of ulceration, nonextremity tumor location, positive SLN, and non-SLN-positive status were independent risk factors for worse OS and DFS. Kaplan-Meier analysis demonstrated that ulceration predicted worse OS and DFS in all nodular melanoma patients, and in both SLN-positive and -negative subsets. The presence of ulceration and a positive SLN together predicted significantly worse DFS and OS. CONCLUSION: The most important risk factors that determine prognosis in nodular melanomas are SLN status and ulceration. The presence of both a positive SLN and ulceration significantly affect DFS and OS, and to a lesser degree LITRFS.

Egger ME; Dunki-Jacobs EM; Callender GG; Quillo AR; Scoggins CR; Martin RC 2nd; Stromberg AJ; McMasters KM

2012-10-01

408

Novel treatments for melanoma brain metastases.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: The development of brain metastases is common in patients with melanoma and is associated with a poor prognosis. Treating patients with melanoma brain metastases (MBMs) is a major therapeutic challenge. Standard approaches with conventional chemotherapy are disappointing, while surgery and radiotherapy have improved outcomes. METHODS: In this article, we discuss the biology of MBMs, briefly outline current treatment approaches, and emphasize novel and emerging therapies for MBMs. RESULTS: The mechanisms that underlie the metastases of melanoma to the brain are unknown; therefore, it is necessary to identify pathways to target MBMs. Most patients with MBMs have short survival times. Recent use of immune-based and targeted therapies has changed the natural history of metastatic melanoma and may be effective for the treatment of patients with MBMs. CONCLUSIONS: Developing a better understanding of the factors responsible for MBMs will lead to improved management of this disease. In addition, determining the optimal treatments for MBMs and how they can be optimized or combined with other therapies, along with appropriate patient selection, are challenges for the management of this disease.

Kenchappa RS; Tran N; Rao NG; Smalley KS; Gibney GT; Sondak VK; Forsyth PA

2013-10-01

409

Iris melanoma invading the camerular angle  

International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

[en] Uveal melanomas are the most frequent primary uveal tumors, having an incidence of 8/1 000 000 a year in Caucasian people. Specifically, iris Melanoma represents 5 to 7 % of the uveal malignant melanomas and they may be amelanic or pigmented, generally very vascularized. An eighteen years old male patient with a history of health problems was presented, who had been seen at the Ophthalmological Emergency Service because of eye pain and sudden visual reduction in his right eye. In the physical exam, a marked ocular hypertension was confirmed as well as a 2 mm hyphema and corneal edema. These conditions were overcome with treatment and afterwards, there was observed iris tumoration invading the iridocorneal angle. Some complementary studies were carried out to search further tumors at other levels and finally a fine needle aspiration biopsy was performed. The diagnosis was amelanic Iris Melanoma invading the ciliary body. The patient was referred for surgical treatment at the National Institute of Oncology and Radiology

2011-01-01

410

Primary anorectal melanoma: a case report.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

BACKGROUND: Anorectal melanoma is a rare but highly lethal malignancy. Clinical symptoms are non-specific and treatment is still debated. AIM: The aim of this study was to report a case concerning diagnostic and management of Anorectal melanoma. CASE: A 66-year-old man was admitted in our surgical unit with a 3- month history of pain and rectal bleeding. Rectal examination revealed a tender mass arising from the 5 o'clock position of the anal canal that bled on touch. A provisional diagnosis of rectal polyp was made and it was removed by local excision under general anaesthesia. Histopathologic examination reported it as an anorectal malignant melanoma. The postoperative course was uneventful. Extension staging showed a 15 mm nodule on the left lung. The patient underwent a metastasectomy of the left lung. No adjuvant therapy was given. He died one year later. CONCLUSION: With this case we want to illustrate that malignant melanoma can be difficult to diagnose, as patients have non-specific symptoms and histology may be misleading. Surgery remains the mainstay of treatment. Wide local excision combined with adjuvant oco-regional radiotherapy should be preferred when technically feasible. Abdominoperineal resection has to be done only in the case of large tumors or when the anal sphincter is involved. Overall 5-year survival is less than 20%. It's correlated to extension of disease regardless of initial surgical therapy.

Sayari S; Moussi A; Bel Haj Salah R; Gherib SB; Haouet K; Zaouche A

2010-06-01

411

CDH22 expression is reduced in metastatic melanoma.  

Science.gov (United States)

Cadherin-like protein 22 (CDH22) is a transmembrane glycoprotein implicated in cell-cell adhesion and cancer metastasis. The expression of CDH22 has been shown to be increased in colorectal cancers. However, the role of CDH22 in melanomagenesis is not known. To investigate the role of CDH22 in melanoma progression, we examined the expression of CDH22 in melanocytic lesions at different stages and analysed the correlation between CDH22 expression and clinicopathlogic parameters and patient survival. Using tissue microarray and immunohisto-chemistry, we evaluated CDH22 staining in 76 dysplastic nevi, 247 primary melanomas, and 143 metastatic melanomas. We found that metastatic melanomas had a significantly higher percentage of negative CDH22 staining than dysplastic nevi (P = 0.012) and primary melanomas (P = 0.038). CDH22 expression was also reduced in thick (?2 mm) and ulcerative melanomas (P = 0.003 and 0.022, respectively). Melanomas of AJCC stage II, III, and IV had a higher percentage of negative CDH22 staining than AJCC stage I melanomas (P = 0.004, P < 0.0001, and P = 0.009, respectively). Melanomas with negative CDH22 expression had significantly poorer disease-specific 5-year survival than those with positive CDH22 staining. Additionally, CDH22 expression depended on AJCC stage to predict patient survival. These data indicate that reduced CDH22 expression is associated with melanoma metastasis and poor patient prognosis. PMID:21969168

Piche, Brad; Khosravi, Shahram; Martinka, Magdalena; Ho, Vincent; Li, Gang

2010-12-10

412

CDH22 expression is reduced in metastatic melanoma.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Cadherin-like protein 22 (CDH22) is a transmembrane glycoprotein implicated in cell-cell adhesion and cancer metastasis. The expression of CDH22 has been shown to be increased in colorectal cancers. However, the role of CDH22 in melanomagenesis is not known. To investigate the role of CDH22 in melanoma progression, we examined the expression of CDH22 in melanocytic lesions at different stages and analysed the correlation between CDH22 expression and clinicopathlogic parameters and patient survival. Using tissue microarray and immunohisto-chemistry, we evaluated CDH22 staining in 76 dysplastic nevi, 247 primary melanomas, and 143 metastatic melanomas. We found that metastatic melanomas had a significantly higher percentage of negative CDH22 staining than dysplastic nevi (P = 0.012) and primary melanomas (P = 0.038). CDH22 expression was also reduced in thick (?2 mm) and ulcerative melanomas (P = 0.003 and 0.022, respectively). Melanomas of AJCC stage II, III, and IV had a higher percentage of negative CDH22 staining than AJCC stage I melanomas (P = 0.004, P < 0.0001, and P = 0.009, respectively). Melanomas with negative CDH22 expression had significantly poorer disease-specific 5-year survival than those with positive CDH22 staining. Additionally, CDH22 expression depended on AJCC stage to predict patient survival. These data indicate that reduced CDH22 expression is associated with melanoma metastasis and poor patient prognosis.

Piche B; Khosravi S; Martinka M; Ho V; Li G

2011-01-01

413

Importance of glycolysis and oxidative phosphorylation in advanced melanoma  

Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

Full Text Available Abstract Serum lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) is a prognostic factor for patients with stage IV melanoma. To gain insights into the biology underlying this prognostic factor, we analyzed total serum LDH, serum LDH isoenzymes, and serum lactate in up to 49 patients with metastatic melanoma. Our data demonstrate that high serum LDH is associated with a significant increase in LDH isoenzymes 3 and 4, and a decrease in LDH isoenzymes 1 and 2. Since LDH isoenzymes play a role in both glycolysis and oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS), we subsequently determined using tissue microarray (TMA) analysis that the levels of proteins associated with mitochondrial function, lactate metabolism, and regulators of glycolysis were all elevated in advanced melanomas compared with nevic melanocytes. To investigate whether in advanced melanoma, the glycolysis and OXPHOS pathways might be linked, we determined expression of the monocarboxylate transporters (MCT) 1 and 4. Analysis of a nevus-to-melanoma progression TMA revealed that MCT4, and to a lesser extend MCT1, were elevated with progression to advanced melanoma. Further analysis of human melanoma specimens using the Seahorse XF24 extracellular flux analyzer indicated that metastatic melanoma tumors derived a large fraction of energy from OXPHOS. Taken together, these findings suggest that in stage IV melanomas with normal serum LDH, glycolysis and OXPHOS may provide metabolic symbiosis within the same tumor, whereas in stage IV melanomas with high serum LDH glycolysis is the principle source of energy.

Ho Jonhan; de Moura Michelle; Lin Yan; Vincent Garret; Thorne Stephen; Duncan Lyn M; Hui-Min Lin; Kirkwood John M; Becker Dorothea; Van Houten Bennett; Moschos Stergios J

2012-01-01

414

Lymphoscintigraphy as a guide to treatment in malignant melanoma  

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Regional node dissection is practiced as a measure of prophylaxis in patients with stage I and II malignant melanoma. Although the drainage pattern of the extremities is obvious, in the head and neck and trunk it may be ambiguous. We have used lymphoscintigraphy to assist in delineating the lymphatic drainage in 22 patients with primary malignant melanoma. Fourteen patients had melanoma in the head and neck region, and eight had melanoma in the trunk region. Based on Clark's classification there were ten level III melanomas, eight level IV melanomas, and two level V melanomas; the levels of the remaining two melanomas were unspecified. Seven melanomas were between 0.76 and 1.5-mm thick, eleven were between 1.51 and 4.0-mm thick, and two were over 4.0-mm thick (the remaining two were unspecified). Regional nodes were clinically negative in 18 patients. The scan distribution was unexpected in 13 patients (59%), and it influenced the surgical procedure in 11 patients (50%). No patient incurred an adverse effect from the scan. We conclude that lymphoscintigraphy may be of value in guiding prophylactic lymph node dissection in melanoma patients.

Woods, J.E.; Freedman, A.M.; Brown, M.L.

1989-02-01

415

A diagnostic algorithm to distinguish desmoplastic from spindle cell melanoma.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Spindle cell melanoma and desmoplastic melanoma differ clinically in prognosis and therapeutic implications; however, because of partially overlapping histopathological features, diagnostic distinction of spindle cell from desmoplastic melanoma is not always straightforward. A direct comparison of diagnostic and therapeutic biomarkers has not been performed. Meta-review of the literature discloses key clinicopathological differences between spindle cell and desmoplastic melanoma, including immunophenotypes. Using 50 biomarkers available in routine diagnostics, we examined 38 archival cases (n=16 spindle, 18 desmoplastic, 4 mixed spindle/desmoplastic melanoma). S100 remains as the most reliable routine marker to reach the diagnosis of melanoma in spindle cell and desmoplastic melanoma. We identified nine distinctly labeling markers with spindle cell melanoma showing positivity for laminin, p75, HMB45, c-kit, and MelanA, and desmoplastic melanoma preferentially labeling with collagen IV, trichrome, CD68, and MDM2. On the basis of comparisons of test performance measures, MelanA and trichrome were used to devise a 94% sensitive diagnostic algorithm for the distinction of desmoplastic from spindle cell melanoma. Gene amplification and expression status was assessed for a set of potentially drugable targets (HER2, EGFR, MET, MDM2, TP53, ALK, MYC, FLI-1, and KIT). Fluorescent in situ hybridizations did not reveal a significant number of gene aberrations/rearrangements; however, protein overexpression for at least one of these markers was identified in 35 of 38 cases (92%). In addition, we found BRAF mutations in 31% of spindle cell and 5% of desmoplastic melanoma, with an overall mutation frequency of 16% (n=6/38). We present the first comprehensive screening study of diagnostic and therapeutic biomarkers in spindle cell and desmoplastic melanoma. The devised algorithm allows diagnostic distinction of desmoplastic from spindle cell melanoma when routine histology is not decisive.Modern Pathology advance online publication, 20 September 2013; doi:10.1038/modpathol.2013.162.

Weissinger SE; Keil P; Silvers DN; Klaus BM; Möller P; Horst BA; Lennerz JK

2013-09-01

416

Dermoscopic island: a new descriptor for thin melanoma.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVES: To determine the frequency and the features of the dermoscopic island (DI) in melanocytic lesions and to assess its specificity for the diagnosis of melanoma. Dermoscopy improves the diagnostic accuracy of melanoma, but only a few dermoscopic descriptors specific for thin melanomas have been identified. We defined a new descriptor, the dermoscopic island, a well-circumscribed area showing a uniform dermoscopic pattern that differs from the rest of the pigmented lesion. DESIGN: Dermoscopic images of 96 in situ melanomas, 266 invasive melanomas, and 612 dermoscopic atypical nevi were evaluated to establish the presence and the main pattern of the DI. Also, clinical and histologic characteristics were analyzed. SETTING: Dermoscopic images were collected from lesions excised between 2003 and 2008 at the Department of Dermatology, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Specificity and odds ratio for melanoma; dermoscopic and histologic characteristics of lesions with a DI. RESULTS: The DI was present in 10.4% of in situ melanomas, 4.1% of invasive melanomas, and 3.1% of dermoscopic atypical nevi. The odds ratio for melanoma was 1.922, and specificity was 96.9%. Invasive melanomas with a DI were thinner than those lacking this descriptor. In addition, more than half of the melanomas with a DI arose on a nevus. The DI appeared mainly reticular on a reticular background. CONCLUSION: The DI is characteristic of thin melanoma arising in a nevus; thus, it can be considered a potential early sign of transformation of a nevus into a melanoma.

Borsari S; Longo C; Ferrari C; Benati E; Bassoli S; Schianchi S; Giusti F; Cesinaro AM; Pellacani G; Seidenari S

2010-11-01

417

Survival for patients with single and multiple primary melanomas: the genes, environment, and melanoma study.  

Science.gov (United States)

IMPORTANCE Little is known about survival after a diagnosis of a second or higher-order (multiple) primary melanoma, and no study has explored survival in a population-based sample that included patients with single primary melanomas (SPMs) and multiple primary melanomas (MPMs) of any stage. Because people with a first primary melanoma are known to have an increased risk of being diagnosed with another, evidence for prognosis is needed. OBJECTIVE To determine whether survival after diagnosis was better in patients with MPMs than with SPMs, as suggested in a recent study. DESIGN Survival analysis with median follow-up of 7.6 (range, 0.4-10.6) years. SETTING The Genes, Environment, and Melanoma Study enrolled incident cases of melanoma from population-based cancer registries in Australia, Canada, Italy, and the United States. Multiple primary melanomas were ascertained during a longer period than SPM. PARTICIPANTS Two thousand three hundred seventy-two patients with SPM and 1206 with MPM. EXPOSURE Diagnosis with melanoma. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Melanoma-specific fatality hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals associated with clinical and pathological characteristics of SPM, MPM, and both in Cox proportional hazards regression models. RESULTS Melanoma thickness was the main determinant of fatality (HR for >4 mm, 7.68 [95% CI, 4.46-13.23]); other independent predictors were ulceration, mitoses, and scalp location. After adjustment for these other predictors, we found little difference in fatality between MPM and SPM (HR for MPM relative to SPM, 1.24 [95% CI, 0.91-1.69; P?=?.18]). Thicker SPM, however, had higher fatality (HR for >4 mm, 13.56 [95% CI, 6.47-28.40]) than thicker MPM (2.93 [1.17-7.30]). CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE Although overall fatalities due to SPM and MPM were similar, relative fatality for thicker SPM was greater than that for thicker MPM. This finding may offer support for a difference in outcome between patients with SPM and MPM related to factors other than closer surveillance and earlier diagnosis. The better outcomes are worth further exploration. PMID:23784017

Kricker, Anne; Armstrong, Bruce K; Goumas, Chris; Thomas, Nancy E; From, Lynn; Busam, Klaus; Kanetsky, Peter A; Gallagher, Richard P; Marrett, Loraine D; Groben, Pamela A; Gruber, Stephen B; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Rosso, Stefano; Dwyer, Terence; Berwick, Marianne

2013-08-01

418

Survival for patients with single and multiple primary melanomas: the genes, environment, and melanoma study.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

IMPORTANCE Little is known about survival after a diagnosis of a second or higher-order (multiple) primary melanoma, and no study has explored survival in a population-based sample that included patients with single primary melanomas (SPMs) and multiple primary melanomas (MPMs) of any stage. Because people with a first primary melanoma are known to have an increased risk of being diagnosed with another, evidence for prognosis is needed. OBJECTIVE To determine whether survival after diagnosis was better in patients with MPMs than with SPMs, as suggested in a recent study. DESIGN Survival analysis with median follow-up of 7.6 (range, 0.4-10.6) years. SETTING The Genes, Environment, and Melanoma Study enrolled incident cases of melanoma from population-based cancer registries in Australia, Canada, Italy, and the United States. Multiple primary melanomas were ascertained during a longer period than SPM. PARTICIPANTS Two thousand three hundred seventy-two patients with SPM and 1206 with MPM. EXPOSURE Diagnosis with melanoma. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Melanoma-specific fatality hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals associated with clinical and pathological characteristics of SPM, MPM, and both in Cox proportional hazards regression models. RESULTS Melanoma thickness was the main determinant of fatality (HR for >4 mm, 7.68 [95% CI, 4.46-13.23]); other independent predictors were ulceration, mitoses, and scalp location. After adjustment for these other predictors, we found little difference in fatality between MPM and SPM (HR for MPM relative to SPM, 1.24 [95% CI, 0.91-1.69; P?=?.18]). Thicker SPM, however, had higher fatality (HR for >4 mm, 13.56 [95% CI, 6.47-28.40]) than thicker MPM (2.93 [1.17-7.30]). CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE Although overall fatalities due to SPM and MPM were similar, relative fatality for thicker SPM was greater than that for thicker MPM. This finding may offer support for a difference in outcome between patients with SPM and MPM related to factors other than closer surveillance and earlier diagnosis. The better outcomes are worth further exploration.

Kricker A; Armstrong BK; Goumas C; Thomas NE; From L; Busam K; Kanetsky PA; Gallagher RP; Marrett LD; Groben PA; Gruber SB; Anton-Culver H; Rosso S; Dwyer T; Berwick M

2013-08-01

419

Gene Expression Signature for Spontaneous Cancer Regression in Melanoma Pigs12  

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Incomplete spontaneous regression of melanoma is common. However, complete melanoma regression is still a very rare phenomenon. Because melanoma is the most immunogenic human malignancy, the mechanisms leading to regression, based on accumulative evidence, are the host's immune responses. Unfortunat...

Rambow, Florian; Piton, Guillaume; Bouet, Stephan; Leplat, Jean-Jaques; Baulande, Sylvain; Marrau, Angelique; Stam, Mark

420

Clinical and dermoscopic characteristics of desmoplastic melanomas.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

OBJECTIVE: To describe and analyze the clinical and dermoscopic characteristics of desmoplastic melanoma (DM) as a function of pathologic subtype and phenotypic traits. DESIGN: Retrospective case series. SETTING: Eight high-risk dermatology clinics. PATIENTS: Patients with DM confirmed by histopathologic analysis whose records included a high-quality dermoscopic image. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Clinical, dermoscopic, and histopathologic features of DM. RESULTS: A total of 37 DM cases were identified. The majority of patients had fair skin, few nevi, and no history of melanoma. Lentigo maligna was the most frequent subtype of melanoma associated with DM. The most frequent clinical presentation of DM was a palpable and/or indurated lesion located on sun-exposed skin. Forty-three percent of cases were classified as pure DM, and 57% as mixed DM. Pure DM lesions were thicker than mixed DM lesions (4.10 vs 2.83 mm) (P = .22) and were less likely to have an associated epidermal non-DM component (63% vs 100%) (P = .004). Dermoscopically, DMs had at least 1 melanoma-specific structure, the most frequent being atypical vascular structures. Peppering was more frequently seen in pure DM (44% in pure DM vs 24% in mixed DM) (P = .29). In contrast, crystalline structures, polymorphous vessels, and vascular blush were more commonly seen in mixed DM. CONCLUSIONS: Though DM can be difficult to diagnose based on clinical morphologic characteristics alone, dermoscopy has proved to be a useful aid during the evaluation of clinically equivocal lesions or those lesions with a benign appearance. The most common dermoscopic clues observed in DMs included atypical vascular structures, peppering, and occasionally other melanoma-specific structures.

Jaimes N; Chen L; Dusza SW; Carrera C; Puig S; Thomas L; Kelly JW; Dang L; Zalaudek I; Braun RP; Menzies SW; Busam KJ; Marghoob AA

2013-04-01

 
 
 
 
421

?-adrenoceptors are upregulated in human melanoma and their activation releases pro-tumorigenic cytokines and metalloproteases in melanoma cell lines.  

UK PubMed Central (United Kingdom)

Recent studies sight ?-adrenergic receptor (AR) antagonists as novel therapeutic agents for melanoma, as they may reduce disease progression. Here within, we evaluated the expression of ?-ARs in a series of human cutaneous melanocytic lesions, and studied the effect of their endogenous agonists, norepinephrine (NE) and epinephrine (E), on primary and metastatic human melanoma cell lines. Using immunohistochemistry, we found that both ?1- and ?2-ARs are expressed in tissues from benign melanocytic naevi, atypical naevi and malignant melanomas and that expression was significantly higher in malignant tumours. Melanoma cell lines (human A375 primary melanoma cell line and human Hs29-4T metastatic melanoma cell lines) also expressed ?1- and ?2-ARs by measuring transcripts and proteins. NE or E increased metalloprotease-dependent motility, released interleukin-6 and 8 (IL-6, IL-8) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). These effects of catecholamines were inhibited by the unselective ?-AR antagonist propranolol. The role of soluble factors elicited by catecholamines seemed pleiotropic as VEGF synergized with NE increased melanoma invasiveness through 3D barriers, while IL-6 participated in stromal fibroblast activation towards a myofibroblastic phenotype. Our results indicate that NE and E produce in vitro via ?-ARs activation a number of biological responses that may exert a pro-tumorigenic effect in melanoma cell lines. The observation that ?-ARs are upregulated in malignant melanoma tissues support the hypothesis that circulating catecholamines NE and E, by activating their receptors, favour melanoma progression in vivo.

Moretti S; Massi D; Farini V; Baroni G; Parri M; Innocenti S; Cecchi R; Chiarugi P

2013-03-01

422

MelanomaDB: A Web Tool for Integrative Analysis of Melanoma Genomic Information to Identify Disease-Associated Molecular Pathways  

Science.gov (United States)

Despite on-going research, metastatic melanoma survival rates remain low and treatment options are limited. Researchers can now access a rapidly growing amount of molecular and clinical information about melanoma. This information is becoming difficult to assemble and interpret due to its dispersed nature, yet as it grows it becomes increasingly valuable for understanding melanoma. Integration of this information into a comprehensive resource to aid rational experimental design and patient stratification is needed. As an initial step in this direction, we have assembled a web-accessible melanoma database, MelanomaDB, which incorporates clinical and molecular data from publically available sources, which will be regularly updated as new information becomes available. This database allows complex links to be drawn between many different aspects of melanoma biology: genetic changes (e.g., mutations) in individual melanomas revealed by DNA sequencing, associations between gene expression and patient survival, data concerning drug targets, biomarkers, druggability, and clinical trials, as well as our own statistical analysis of relationships between molecular pathways and clinical parameters that have been produced using these data sets. The database is freely available at http://genesetdb.auckland.ac.nz/melanomadb/about.html. A subset of the information in the database can also be accessed through a freely available web application in the Illumina genomic cloud computing platform BaseSpace at http://www.biomatters.com/apps/melanoma-profiler-for-research. The MelanomaDB database illustrates dysregulation of specific signaling pathways across 310 exome-sequenced melanomas and in individual tumors and identifies the distribution of somatic variants in melanoma. We suggest that MelanomaDB can provide a context in which to interpret the tumor molecular profiles of individual melanoma patients relative to biological information and available drug therapies.

Trevarton, Alexander J.; Mann, Michael B.; Knapp, Christoph; Araki, Hiromitsu; Wren, Jonathan D.; Stones-Havas, Steven; Black, Michael A.; Print, Cristin G.

2013-01-01