WorldWideScience

Sample records for melanoma

  1. Melanoma

    Melanoma is the most serious type of skin cancer. Often the first sign of melanoma is a change in the size, shape, color, or feel of a mole. Most melanomas have a black or black-blue area. Melanoma ...

  2. Melanoma

    ... may be melanoma is the ABCDE checklist: A – Asymmetry: One half of the mole does not look ... 276. PMID: 16050450. Last Updated: 12 Feb 2009 Information for other ages: Table of Contents: Overview Who's ...

  3. Melanoma genetics

    Read, Jazlyn; Wadt, Karin A W; Hayward, Nicholas K

    2016-01-01

    of heritable melanoma risk genes is an important component of disease occurrence. Susceptibility for some families is due to mutation in one of the known high penetrance melanoma predisposition genes: CDKN2A, CDK4, BAP1, POT1, ACD, TERF2IP and TERT. However, despite such mutations being implicated...

  4. Oral Melanoma

    A Forouzandeh

    2002-02-01

    Full Text Available Melanoma is a malignant tumor that originates from melanocyte cells. Its oral type is rare. The goal of this investigation was to determine the prevalence of oral malignant melanoma in Iran, as determined by age, sex and location. This research reviewed 623 cases of oral and non-oral malignant melanoma in Immam-Khomeini hospital, Mearaj cancer institute and department of oral pathology of dental faculty, Tehran University of Medical Sciences in a period of 19 years from 1981-1999. The results showed that 54 cases of biopsy lesions were melanoma of oral cavity that included 7.8% of these lesions. The mean age incidence of oral melanoma was 55.5(between 26-86 years. The most prevalent sites were palate (37.1% and alveolar mucosa (20.4% and less common sites included floor of mouth. buccal mucosa and tongue.

  5. Cutaneous melanoma

    The study of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) for malignant melanoma was initiated by Y. Mishima and his associates. Following basic research of 13 years, this team started the first clinical trial of cutaneous melanoma BNCT using 10B-para-boronophenylalanine (BPA) in 1985. Since then, 32 patients have been treated. We developed the following regimen for BNCT of malignant melanoma: 1) 170 - 250 mg/kg of BPA-fructose complex is administered by drip infusion over 3-hours. 2) The minimum dose for melanoma control by single irradiation is assumed to be 25 Gy-eq. 3) The maximum tolerable dose to the skin by single irradiation is assumed to be 18 Gy-eq. 4) As the therapeutic dose, the maximum tolerable dose to the skin itself is chosen. We report the clinical results of two patients with cutaneous melanoma treated by BNCT. We believe that cutaneous melanoma are suitable for BNCT and that the excellent results will have a great impact on patients in QOL. (author)

  6. Malignant Melanoma

    Eshini Perera

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Melanomas are a major cause of premature death from cancer. The gradual decrease in rates of morbidity and mortality has occurred as a result of public health campaigns and improved rates of early diagnosis. Survival of melanoma has increased to over 90%. Management of melanoma involves a number of components: excision, tumor staging, re-excision with negative margins, adjuvant therapies (chemo, radiation or surgery, treatment of stage IV disease, follow-up examination for metastasis, lifestyle modification and counseling. Sentinel lymph node status is an important prognostic factor for survival in patients with a melanoma >1 mm. However, sentinel lymph node biopsies have received partial support due to the limited data regarding the survival advantage of complete lymph node dissection when a micrometastasis is detected in the lymph nodes. Functional mutations in the mitogen-activated pathways are commonly detected in melanomas and these influence the growth control. Therapies that target these pathways are rapidly emerging, and are being shown to increase survival rates in patients. Access to these newer agents can be gained by participation in clinical trials after referral to a multidisciplinary team for staging and re-excision of the scar.

  7. Melanoma Diagnosis

    Horsch, Alexander

    The chapter deals with the diagnosis of the malignant melanoma of the skin. This aggressive type of cancer with steadily growing incidence in white populations can hundred percent be cured if it is detected in an early stage. Imaging techniques, in particular dermoscopy, have contributed significantly to improvement of diagnostic accuracy in clinical settings, achieving sensitivities for melanoma experts of beyond 95% at specificities of 90% and more. Automatic computer analysis of dermoscopy images has, in preliminary studies, achieved classification rates comparable to those of experts. However, the diagnosis of melanoma requires a lot of training and experience, and at the time being, average numbers of lesions excised per histology-proven melanoma are around 30, a number which clearly is too high. Further improvements in computer dermoscopy systems and their competent use in clinical settings certainly have the potential to support efforts of improving this situation. In the chapter, medical basics, current state of melanoma diagnosis, image analysis methods, commercial dermoscopy systems, evaluation of systems, and methods and future directions are presented.

  8. Malignant Melanoma of the Foot

    ... Text Size Print Bookmark Malignant Melanoma of the Foot What is Malignant Melanoma? Melanoma is a cancer ... age groups, even the young. Melanoma in the Foot Melanoma that occurs in the foot or ankle ...

  9. Sinclair swine melanoma

    Sinclair(S-1) miniature swine spontaneously develop melanomas which have many biologic and histologic features in common with human superficial spreading melanoma. Host control of this neoplasm was indicated by the high incidence of spontaneous regression, a decrease in tumor development with age and a decrease in progressive growth of the tumor as age of tumor development increases. Immunologic mechanisms were implicated in host control by histologic observation of a mononuclear inflammatory infiltration of tumors which lead to depigmentation and fibrosis. In vitro immunologic studies revealed that leukocytes from melanoma swine were sensitized specifically to a tumor associated antigen like substance present in extracts of cutaneous melanomas and cultured swine melanoma cells and that melanoma swine leukocytes were cytotoxic for swine melanoma cells. Furthermore, these studies suggested the existence of a common cross reactive, melanoma associated antigen shared by human and swine melanomas. Antigenic analyses of swine melanomas with mouse monoclonal antibodies developed to a single swine melanoma cell culture and with rabbit antisera developed to pooled extracts of cutaneous melanomas demonstrated the presence of tumor associated antigens in swine melanoma cell culture and cutaneous melanomas. The failure of mouse monoclonal antibodies to detect antigens in cutaneous melanoma extracts and the failure of rabbit antisera to detect antigens in melanoma cell culture extracts suggested a differential in antigen expression between swine melanoma cells grown in vitro and in vivo

  10. Choroidal melanoma

    A useful and practical guide is developed to better track to the uveal melanoma, due to its highly malignant character. Melanoma of the uveal tract (choroid, iris, ciliary body) has been the intraocular tumor most frequent in adults. The biopsy has been inaccessible, due to its location; therefore, the diagnostic should be based on clinical examination and the correct utilization of the diagnostic procedures (ultrasound, fluorescent angiography, computed axial tomography and magnetic resonance). The cases are diagnosed in the histological examination of the operatory piece post-enucleation for other causes. Epidemiological research has been key to determine the associated factors and better to understand the mechanisms of onset of the disease. Anatomopathological studies of choroidal melanoma have permitted to know the natural history of the disease. The decrease of the visual acuity, pain or inflammation are presented as a defect in the visual field. Different techniques to diagnose the disease are explained. Ultrasound in mode A and B, computed axial tomography and magnetic resonance are the diagnostic method of election. Ultrasound has been the primary method of diagnostic, giving the size and vascularisation, useful in tracking, when they are treated in shape conservatively, showing changes in echogenicity and less vascularisation as good response to treatment. The treatments of choroidal melanoma are specified. The correct interpretation of the clinical symptoms and early utilization of diagnostic imaging methods, have permitted to establish the adequate therapeutic and to avoid local and distant metastasis. The uveal melanoma, depending on their size and location, traditionally has been treated by enucleation. Data from the literature and authors, have promoted the conservation of the ocular globe, depending on the size of the tumor. Transpupillary thermotherapy has been an available alternative for small tumors in Costa Rica and level of social security

  11. Stages of Melanoma

    ... melanoma cells. The disease is metastatic melanoma, not lung cancer. The method used to stage melanoma is based mainly on the thickness of the tumor and whether cancer has spread to lymph nodes or other parts of the body. The staging of melanoma depends on the following: The thickness ...

  12. Recombinant Interferon Alfa-2b in Treating Patients With Melanoma

    2016-05-17

    Stage IA Skin Melanoma; Stage IB Skin Melanoma; Stage IIA Skin Melanoma; Stage IIB Skin Melanoma; Stage IIC Skin Melanoma; Stage IIIA Skin Melanoma; Stage IIIB Skin Melanoma; Stage IIIC Skin Melanoma; Stage IV Skin Melanoma

  13. What Is Melanoma Skin Cancer?

    ... statistics for melanoma skin cancer What is melanoma skin cancer? Cancer starts when cells in the body begin ... causing the skin to tan or darken. Melanoma skin cancers Melanoma is a cancer that begins in the ...

  14. Primary ovarian malignant melanoma

    Kostov Miloš

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Primary ovarian malignant melanoma is extremely rare. It usually appears in the wall of a dermoid cyst or is associated with another teratomatous component. Metastatic primary malignant melanoma to ovary from a primary melanoma elsewhere is well known and has been often reported especially in autopsy studies. Case report. We presented a case of primary ovarian malignant melanoma in a 45- year old woman, with no evidence of extraovarian primary melanoma nor teratomatous component. The tumor was unilateral, macroscopically on section presented as solid mass, dark brown to black color. Microscopically, tumor cells showed positive immunohistochemical reaction for HMB-45, melan-A and S-100 protein, and negative immunoreactivity for estrogen and progesteron receptors. Conclusion. Differentiate metastatic melanoma from rare primary ovarian malignant melanoma, in some of cases may be a histopathological diagnostic problem. Histopathological diagnosis of primary ovarian malignant melanoma should be confirmed by immunohistochemical analyses and detailed clinical search for an occult primary tumor.

  15. Melanoma - neck (image)

    This melanoma on the neck is variously colored with a very darkly pigmented area found centrally. It has irregular ... be larger than 0.5 cm. Prognosis in melanoma is best defined by its depth on resection.

  16. General Information about Melanoma

    ... Screening Research Melanoma Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Melanoma Go to Health Professional Version Key ... the PDQ Adult Treatment Editorial Board . Clinical Trial Information A clinical trial is a study to answer ...

  17. Treatment Option Overview (Melanoma)

    ... of Skin Cancer Skin Cancer Screening Research Melanoma Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Melanoma Key ... Certain factors affect prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options. The prognosis (chance of recovery ) and treatment ...

  18. Melanoma inhibitory activity in Brazilian patients with cutaneous melanoma*

    Odashiro, Macanori; Hans Filho, Gunter; Pereira, Patricia Rusa; Castro, Ana Rita Coimbra Motta; Stief, Alcione Cavalheiro; Pontes, Elenir Rose Jardim Cury; Odashiro, Alexandre Nakao

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Melanoma inhibitory activity is a protein secreted by melanoma cells and has been used as a tumor marker. Increased Melanoma inhibitory activity serum levels are related to metastatic disease or tumor recurrence. Currently there are no studies on Melanoma inhibitory activity and cutaneous melanoma involving Brazilian patients. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the performance and feasibility of measuring Melanoma inhibitory activity levels in Brazilian patients with cutaneous melanoma. METHO...

  19. Malignant melanoma - cutaneous metastases

    Padmavathy L; Rao L; Ethirajan N; Swamy B

    2008-01-01

    Melanoma composed of melanocytes may arise in the skin or other tissues harboring melanocytes, such muco-cutaneous junctions, mucosa including the conjunctiva, iris, choroids and substantia nigra.1 Metastases to the skin and subcutaneous tissues from a malignant melanoma are less common. A case of multiple painless nodules on the body that revealed metastatic deposits of melanoma on histopathological examination is being reported.

  20. Burden of Melanoma

    C. Holterhues (Cynthia)

    2011-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Melanoma is a type of skin cancer that arises from melanocytes. More than 95% of all melanomas occur in the skin, but rarely in the pigmented cells of the eye, meninges or mucosa. This thesis will only regard the invasive cutaneous malignant melanomas.

  1. Genetics of familial melanoma

    Aoude, Lauren G; Wadt, Karin A W; Pritchard, Antonia L;

    2015-01-01

    Twenty years ago, the first familial melanoma susceptibility gene, CDKN2A, was identified. Two years later, another high-penetrance gene, CDK4, was found to be responsible for melanoma development in some families. Progress in identifying new familial melanoma genes was subsequently slow; however...

  2. Vaccine Therapy in Treating Patients With Stage IIC-IV Melanoma

    2014-05-20

    Ciliary Body and Choroid Melanoma, Medium/Large Size; Ciliary Body and Choroid Melanoma, Small Size; Extraocular Extension Melanoma; Iris Melanoma; Metastatic Intraocular Melanoma; Mucosal Melanoma; Recurrent Intraocular Melanoma; Recurrent Melanoma; Stage IIC Melanoma; Stage IIIA Intraocular Melanoma; Stage IIIA Melanoma; Stage IIIB Intraocular Melanoma; Stage IIIB Melanoma; Stage IIIC Intraocular Melanoma; Stage IIIC Melanoma; Stage IV Intraocular Melanoma; Stage IV Melanoma

  3. CDC Vital Signs: Preventing Melanoma

    ... Press Kit Read the MMWR Science Clips Preventing Melanoma Communities Play a Vital Role Language: English Español ( ... and use of indoor tanning by minors. Problem Melanoma is increasing. Melanoma skin cancer is common and ...

  4. Decoding Melanoma Metastasis

    Metastasis accounts for the vast majority of morbidity and mortality associated with melanoma. Evidence suggests melanoma has a predilection for metastasis to particular organs. Experimental analyses have begun to shed light on the mechanisms regulating melanoma metastasis and organ specificity, but these analyses are complicated by observations of metastatic dormancy and dissemination of melanocytes that are not yet fully malignant. Additionally, tumor extrinsic factors in the microenvironment, both at the site of the primary tumor and the site of metastasis, play important roles in mediating the metastatic process. As metastasis research moves forward, paradigms explaining melanoma metastasis as a step-wise process must also reflect the temporal complexity and heterogeneity in progression of this disease. Genetic drivers of melanoma as well as extrinsic regulators of disease spread, particularly those that mediate metastasis to specific organs, must also be incorporated into newer models of melanoma metastasis

  5. Are all melanomas dangerous?

    Nørgaard, Carsten; Glud, Martin; Gniadecki, Robert

    2011-01-01

    The increased incidence of cutaneous malignant melanoma, together with only minor changes in mortality, has brought into question the existence of a melanoma epidemic. The discrepancy between incidence and mortality suggests that most newly diagnosed melanomas have indolent behaviour. This review...... summarizes the most recent epidemiological findings regarding the incidence of cutaneous malignant melanoma, mortality, Breslow thickness and clinical stage. Studies published between 2005 and 2010 with more than 2,000 test subjects were included in this review. These studies all report an increase in...... incidence of melanoma during the last few decades, with by far the highest increase in tumours at a very early stage (T1 or IA). Little or no change was seen in mortality. However, increases in both mortality and incidence of thick melanomas were found in the oldest subgroups, especially in men. These...

  6. Decoding Melanoma Metastasis

    Damsky, William E. Jr. [Department of Dermatology, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut (United States); Department of Pathology, University of Vermont College of Medicine, Burlington, Vermont (United States); Rosenbaum, Lara E.; Bosenberg, Marcus, E-mail: Marcus.Bosenberg@yale.edu [Department of Dermatology, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut (United States)

    2010-12-30

    Metastasis accounts for the vast majority of morbidity and mortality associated with melanoma. Evidence suggests melanoma has a predilection for metastasis to particular organs. Experimental analyses have begun to shed light on the mechanisms regulating melanoma metastasis and organ specificity, but these analyses are complicated by observations of metastatic dormancy and dissemination of melanocytes that are not yet fully malignant. Additionally, tumor extrinsic factors in the microenvironment, both at the site of the primary tumor and the site of metastasis, play important roles in mediating the metastatic process. As metastasis research moves forward, paradigms explaining melanoma metastasis as a step-wise process must also reflect the temporal complexity and heterogeneity in progression of this disease. Genetic drivers of melanoma as well as extrinsic regulators of disease spread, particularly those that mediate metastasis to specific organs, must also be incorporated into newer models of melanoma metastasis.

  7. Malignant melanoma - cutaneous metastases

    Padmavathy L

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Melanoma composed of melanocytes may arise in the skin or other tissues harboring melanocytes, such muco-cutaneous junctions, mucosa including the conjunctiva, iris, choroids and substantia nigra. Metastases to the skin and subcutaneous tissues from a malignant melanoma are less common. A case of multiple painless nodules on the body that revealed metastatic deposits of melanoma on histopathological examination is being reported.

  8. Malignant melanoma - cutaneous metastases.

    L, Padmavathy; L, Lakshmana Rao; N, Ethirajan; B, Krishna Swamy

    2008-01-01

    Melanoma composed of melanocytes may arise in the skin or other tissues harboring melanocytes, such muco-cutaneous junctions, mucosa including the conjunctiva, iris, choroids and substantia nigra.1 Metastases to the skin and subcutaneous tissues from a malignant melanoma are less common. A case of multiple painless nodules on the body that revealed metastatic deposits of melanoma on histopathological examination is being reported. PMID:19882041

  9. Are all melanomas dangerous?

    Nørgaard, Carsten; Glud, Martin; Gniadecki, Robert

    2011-01-01

    incidence of melanoma during the last few decades, with by far the highest increase in tumours at a very early stage (T1 or IA). Little or no change was seen in mortality. However, increases in both mortality and incidence of thick melanomas were found in the oldest subgroups, especially in men. These...

  10. Interleukin-6 and melanoma

    Hoejberg, Lise; Bastholt, Lars; Schmidt, Henrik

    2012-01-01

    Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is a pleiotropic immunomodulatory cytokine produced by various types of cells, including melanoma cells. IL-6 plays a major role in the pathogenesis and development of malignancies. It promotes tumour growth by inhibition of apoptosis and induces tumour angiogenesis. IL-6 is...... deregulated in many types of cancers, and increased serum concentration of IL-6 has been correlated with a worse prognosis in patients with different cancers, including melanoma. Several serum cytokines including IL-6 play an important role in the development and progression of melanoma; however, the specific...... biological functions of IL-6 in progression of melanoma are unknown. In this review, we present studies on cell cultures and mouse models and summarize published clinical studies on IL-6 and melanoma....

  11. Characterization of melanoma associated spongiform scleropathy

    Alyahya, Ghassan Ayish Jabur; Heegaard, Steffen; Prause, J.U.

    ophthalmology, melanoma associated spongiform scleropathy (MASS), MASS, malignant uveal melanoma, sclera, ciliary body, choroid, histopathology......ophthalmology, melanoma associated spongiform scleropathy (MASS), MASS, malignant uveal melanoma, sclera, ciliary body, choroid, histopathology...

  12. Melanoma International Foundation

    ... 501(c)(3) charity, also registered as a non-profit charity in the state of Pennsylvania, certificate #29498 © 2013 Melanoma International Foundation. All Rights Reserved. Privacy Policy | Terms of Use ...

  13. Proteomics in uveal melanoma.

    Ramasamy, Pathma

    2014-01-01

    Uveal melanoma is the most common primary intraocular malignancy in adults, with an incidence of 5-7 per million per year. It is associated with the development of metastasis in about 50% of cases, and 40% of patients with uveal melanoma die of metastatic disease despite successful treatment of the primary tumour. The survival rates at 5, 10 and 15 years are 65%, 50% and 45% respectively. Unlike progress made in many other areas of cancer, uveal melanoma is still poorly understood and survival rates have remained similar over the past 25 years. Recently, advances made in molecular genetics have improved our understanding of this disease and stratification of patients into low risk and high risk for developing metastasis. However, only a limited number of studies have been performed using proteomic methods. This review will give an overview of various proteomic technologies currently employed in life sciences research, and discuss proteomic studies of uveal melanoma.

  14. Immunotherapy of Melanoma.

    Snyder, Alexandra; Zamarin, Dmitriy; Wolchok, Jedd D

    2015-01-01

    The history of immunotherapy is rooted in the treatment of melanoma and therapy with immune checkpoint-blocking agents is now a cornerstone for the treatment of metastatic melanoma. The first effective immunotherapies approved by the US Food and Drug Administration in melanoma included interleukin-2 for metastatic disease and interferon alpha in the adjuvant setting. These were followed by a group of new therapies, including checkpoint-blocking antibodies targeting cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated protein 4 and programmed cell death protein 1. Therapies intended to 'reeducate' T cells, such as tumor-infiltrating lymphocyte therapy, oncolytic viruses and tumor vaccines, have yielded promising results and are under development. Finally, the integration of the above therapies as well as development of new coinhibitory and costimulatory agents, though in early stages, appear very promising and likely represent the next phase in drug development for the treatment of metastatic melanoma. PMID:26376963

  15. Drugs Approved for Melanoma

    ... are not listed here. Drugs Approved for Melanoma Aldesleukin Cobimetinib Cotellic (Cobimetinib) Dabrafenib Dacarbazine DTIC-Dome (Dacarbazine) IL-2 (Aldesleukin) Imlygic (Talimogene Laherparepvec) Interleukin-2 (Aldesleukin) Intron A ( ...

  16. Melanoma of the eye

    ... modified July 9, 2015. www.cancer.gov/types/eye/hp/intraocular-melanoma-treatment-pdq . Accessed October 7, 2015. Read ... by: Yi-Bin Chen, MD, Leukemia/Bone Marrow Transplant Program, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA. Also reviewed ...

  17. Intravital Microscopy for Identifying Tumor Vessels in Patients With Stage IA-IV Melanoma That is Being Removed by Surgery

    2016-01-13

    Recurrent Melanoma; Stage IA Skin Melanoma; Stage IB Skin Melanoma; Stage IIA Skin Melanoma; Stage IIB Skin Melanoma; Stage IIC Skin Melanoma; Stage IIIA Skin Melanoma; Stage IIIB Skin Melanoma; Stage IIIC Skin Melanoma; Stage IV Skin Melanoma

  18. Primary Anorectal Melanoma: An Update

    P Carcoforo, M.T Raiji, G.M Palini, M Pedriali, U Maestroni, G Soliani, A Detroia, M.V Zanzi, A.L Manna, J.G Crompton, R.C Langan, A Stojadinovic, I Avital

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The anorectum is a rare anatomic location for primary melanoma. Mucosal melanoma is a distinct biological and clinical entity from the more common cutaneous melanoma. It portrays worse prognosis than cutaneous melanoma, with distant metastases being the overwhelming cause of morbidity and mortality. Surgery is the treatment of choice, but significant controversy exists over the extent of surgical resection. We present an update on the state of the art of anorectal mucosal melanoma. To illustrate the multimodality approach to anorectal melanoma, we present a typical patient.

  19. Treatment Options by Stage (Melanoma)

    ... of Skin Cancer Skin Cancer Screening Research Melanoma Treatment (PDQ®)–Patient Version General Information About Melanoma Key ... Certain factors affect prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options. The prognosis (chance of recovery ) and treatment ...

  20. Angiogenesis and Melanoma

    Angiogenesis occurs in pathological conditions, such as tumors, where a specific critical point in tumor progression is the transition from the avascular to the vascular phase. Tumor angiogenesis depends mainly on the release by neoplastic cells of growth factors specific for endothelial cells, which are able to stimulate the growth of the host’s blood vessels. This article summarizes the literature concerning the relationship between angiogenesis and human melanoma progression. The recent applications of antiangiogenic agents which interfere with melanoma progression are also described

  1. Vitamins and Melanoma

    Irene Russo

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available A tremendous amount of information was published over the past decades in relation to the role of vitamins in various neoplastic diseases. In particular, several studies showed an inverse relationship between selected vitamins intake and cancer risk. In this review we will focus on the role played by vitamins in melanoma with particular regard to vitamin A, D, K, E and C. Given that vitamin supplementation is easy, convenient, and readily accepted by patients, in the future the use of vitamins in chemoprevention and therapy of melanoma could be encouraged if supported by pre-clinical and clinical evidence.

  2. Melanoma of the Foot.

    Bristow, Ivan; Bower, Chris

    2016-07-01

    Melanoma is a rare form of skin cancer that is responsible for most skin cancer deaths globally. Tumors arising on the foot continue to be a particular challenge. Patients present later and lesions are frequently misdiagnosed, leading to more advanced disease with an overall poorer prognosis then melanoma elsewhere. In order to improve early recognition, this article reviews the clinical features of the disease along with published algorithms. Emerging assessment techniques such as dermoscopy are also discussed as tools to improve clinical decision making. Contemporary drug therapies in the treatment of advanced disease are also discussed. PMID:27215160

  3. Spice Blocks Melanoma Growth

    Science Teacher, 2005

    2005-01-01

    Curcumin, the pungent yellow spice found in both turmeric and curry powders, blocks a key biological pathway needed for development of melanoma and other cancers, according to a study that appears in the journal Cancer. Researchers from The University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center demonstrate how curcumin stops laboratory strains of…

  4. Melanoma Risk Prediction Models

    Developing statistical models that estimate the probability of developing melanoma cancer over a defined period of time will help clinicians identify individuals at higher risk of specific cancers, allowing for earlier or more frequent screening and counseling of behavioral changes to decrease risk.

  5. Malignant melanoma of nose

    Kundu, I. N.; Haldar, B.; Saha, A. K.

    2001-01-01

    Malignant melanoma (MM) is one of the uncommon malignancies of the nose. We present an unusually big proliferative like MM in the vestibule of the nose. Malignancy of nose constitutes less than 1% of all malignancies (3% of head & neck tumour). MM however contributes only 2% of all malignant neoplasms of the nose (Moore & Martin. 1955).

  6. Radiopharmaceuticals targeting melanoma

    Pham, T.Q.; Berghofer, P.; Liu, X.; Greguric, I.; Dikic, B.; Ballantyne, P.; Mattner, F.; Nguyen, V.; Loc' h, C.; Katsifis, A. [Radiopharmaceuticals Research Institute, Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Menai, N.S.W., Sydney (Australia)

    2008-02-15

    Melanoma is one of the most aggressive cancers known with a high rate of mortality and increasing global incidence. So, the development of radiopharmaceuticals for either diagnostic or therapeutic purposes could make enormous contributions to melanoma patient health care. We have been studying melanoma tumours through several targeting mechanisms including melanin or specific receptor based radiopharmaceuticals Structure activity studies indicate that the substitution patterns on radioiodinated benzamides significantly influence the uptake mechanism from melanin to sigma-receptor binding. Furthermore, the position of the iodine as well as the presence of key functional groups and substituents has resulted in compounds with varying degrees of activity uptake and retention in tumours. From these results, a novel molecule 2-(2-(4-(4-iodo benzyl)piperazin-1-yl)-2-oxo-ethyl)isoindoline- 1,3-dione (M.E.L.037) was synthesized, labelled with iodine-123 and evaluated for application in melanoma tumour scintigraphy and radiotherapy. The tumour imaging potential of {sup 123}IM.E.L.037 was studied in vivo in C.57 B.L./ 6 J female mice bearing the B.16 F.0. murine melanoma tumour and in BALB/c nude mice bearing the A.375 human amelanotic melanoma tumour by biodistribution, competition studies and by SPECT imaging. {sup 123}I-M.E.L.037 exhibited high and rapid uptake in the B.16 F.0 melanoma tumour at 1 h (13 % I.D./g) increasing with time to reach 25 % I.D./g at 6 h. A significant uptake was also observed in the eyes (2% I.D., at 3-6 h p.i.) of black mice. No uptake was observed in the tumour or in the eyes of nude mice bearing the A.375 tumour. Due to high uptake and long retention in the tumour and rapid body clearance, standardized uptake values(S.U.V.) of {sup 123}I-M.E.L.037 were 30 and 60, at 24 and 48 h p.i.,respectively. SPECT imaging of mice bearing the B.16 melanoma indicated the radioactivity was predominately located in the tumour followed by the eyes, while no

  7. Melanoma risk prediction models

    Nikolić Jelena

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. The lack of effective therapy for advanced stages of melanoma emphasizes the importance of preventive measures and screenings of population at risk. Identifying individuals at high risk should allow targeted screenings and follow-up involving those who would benefit most. The aim of this study was to identify most significant factors for melanoma prediction in our population and to create prognostic models for identification and differentiation of individuals at risk. Methods. This case-control study included 697 participants (341 patients and 356 controls that underwent extensive interview and skin examination in order to check risk factors for melanoma. Pairwise univariate statistical comparison was used for the coarse selection of the most significant risk factors. These factors were fed into logistic regression (LR and alternating decision trees (ADT prognostic models that were assessed for their usefulness in identification of patients at risk to develop melanoma. Validation of the LR model was done by Hosmer and Lemeshow test, whereas the ADT was validated by 10-fold cross-validation. The achieved sensitivity, specificity, accuracy and AUC for both models were calculated. The melanoma risk score (MRS based on the outcome of the LR model was presented. Results. The LR model showed that the following risk factors were associated with melanoma: sunbeds (OR = 4.018; 95% CI 1.724- 9.366 for those that sometimes used sunbeds, solar damage of the skin (OR = 8.274; 95% CI 2.661-25.730 for those with severe solar damage, hair color (OR = 3.222; 95% CI 1.984-5.231 for light brown/blond hair, the number of common naevi (over 100 naevi had OR = 3.57; 95% CI 1.427-8.931, the number of dysplastic naevi (from 1 to 10 dysplastic naevi OR was 2.672; 95% CI 1.572-4.540; for more than 10 naevi OR was 6.487; 95%; CI 1.993-21.119, Fitzpatricks phototype and the presence of congenital naevi. Red hair, phototype I and large congenital naevi were

  8. Melanoma inhibitor of apoptosis protein is expressed differentially in melanoma and melanocytic naevus, but similarly in primary and metastatic melanomas

    Gong, J; Chen, N; Zhou, Q; Yang, B.; Wang, Y; Wang, X.

    2005-01-01

    Background: Malignant melanoma is highly resistant to current treatments. The inhibitor of apoptosis protein (IAP) family member, melanoma IAP (ML-IAP), is overexpressed in some melanoma cell lines, rendering them resistant to apoptotic signals. Targeting ML-IAP is a promising approach to treating melanoma. However, the status of ML-IAP expression in human melanoma tissues and the difference in expression between melanoma and melanocytic naevus are not known.

  9. Primary glandular melanoma of male breast with nodal metastasis

    Jayabal Pandiaraja

    2016-01-01

    Malignant melanoma is a malignancy that develops from melanocytes. Breast is an uncommon site for malignant melanoma. Melanoma of the breast occurs in various situations such as primary melanoma of breast skin, metastatic melanoma of breast, in-transit metastasis to the breast, and primary glandular breast melanoma. Most of the melanoma breast either cutaneous melanoma or metastatic melanoma. Primary glandular melanoma of male breast with nodal involvement is rarely reported compared to prima...

  10. MALIGNANT MELANOMA – CUTANEOUS METASTASES

    Padmavathy, L; Lakshmana Rao, L; Ethirajan, N; Krishna Swamy, B

    2008-01-01

    Melanoma composed of melanocytes may arise in the skin or other tissues harboring melanocytes, such muco-cutaneous junctions, mucosa including the conjunctiva, iris, choroids and substantia nigra.1 Metastases to the skin and subcutaneous tissues from a malignant melanoma are less common. A case of multiple painless nodules on the body that revealed metastatic deposits of melanoma on histopathological examination is being reported. PMID:19882041

  11. Multidrug resistance in ocular melanoma.

    McNamara, M.; Clynes, M.; Dunne, B; NicAmhlaoibh, R; Lee, W. R.; Barnes, C; Kennedy, S M

    1996-01-01

    AIMS/BACKGROUND: Metastatic disease in patients with ocular melanoma is resistant to chemotherapy. One of the main mechanisms of modulating multidrug resistance is the expression of the multidrug resistance gene 1 (MDR1) product (p-glycoprotein) by tumour cells. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the frequency of expression of the MDR1 gene in ocular melanoma whose primary treatment was surgical excision or enucleation. METHODS: Twelve recent ocular melanomas were received fresh, snap ...

  12. Nodular amelanotic melanoma

    Nalamwar Rashmi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of 65-year-old male patient who presented with multiple erythematous papules coalescing to form a nodular mass over posterior aspect of right thigh of six months duration. His general and systemic examinations were within normal range except for right inguinal lymphadenopathy. Biopsy from the lesion was done, which showed diffuse infiltrate of nests of atypical melanocytes extending upto reticular dermis. Malignant cells were positive for S100 and human melanin black 45(HMB 45. Hence, a diagnosis of amelanotic melanoma (AM - Clarke level IV and TNM stage III was reached. MRI of involved leg showed fungating soft tissue mass in the posterolateral aspect of right thigh and metastatic right inguinal adenopathy. Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC from the right inguinal nodes confirmed metastasis of melanoma. The patient was referred to oncosurgery department for further management.

  13. Drivers of melanoma susceptibility

    Robles Espinoza, Carla Daniela

    2015-01-01

    Cutaneous melanoma is a cancer of melanocytes, the pigment-producing cells in our skin. It is one of the most aggressive human malignancies, constituting only about 2% of all dermatological cancers but being responsible for over 75% of all deaths from skin cancer. It has recently become a major public health problem, as it is now the fifth most common cancer in the United Kingdom after its incidence more than quadrupled in the last three decades. For these reasons, understanding the biologica...

  14. Vitamins and Melanoma

    Irene Russo; Francesca Caroppo; Mauro Alaibac

    2015-01-01

    A tremendous amount of information was published over the past decades in relation to the role of vitamins in various neoplastic diseases. In particular, several studies showed an inverse relationship between selected vitamins intake and cancer risk. In this review we will focus on the role played by vitamins in melanoma with particular regard to vitamin A, D, K, E and C. Given that vitamin supplementation is easy, convenient, and readily accepted by patients, in the future the use of vitamin...

  15. Chemoprevention of Melanoma

    Madhunapantula, SubbaRao V.; Robertson, Gavin P.

    2012-01-01

    Despite advances in drug discovery programs and molecular approaches for identifying the drug targets, incidence and mortality rates due to melanoma continues to rise at an alarming rate. Existing preventive strategies generally involve mole screening followed by surgical removal of the benign nevi and abnormal moles. However, due to lack of effective programs for screening and disease recurrence after surgical resection there is a need for better chemopreventive agents. Although sunscreens h...

  16. Malignant melanoma of choroid

    Manohar S

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available Four cases of malignant melanoma of the choroid are reported due to rarity of the condition in India. One of the cases presented with Naevus of Ota. All the cases had typical clinical and investigative features. All cases were enucleated. Histopathologically three of them were of mixed type and one was of the epithelioid type. Two of the cases were seen in patients below 40 years of age.

  17. Principles of Melanoma Staging.

    Boland, Genevieve M; Gershenwald, Jeffrey E

    2016-01-01

    Although now commonplace in contemporary cancer care, the systematic approach to classification of disease-specific cancers into a formalized staging system is a relatively modern concept. Overall, the goals of cancer staging are to characterize the status of cancer at a specific moment in time, risk stratify, facilitate prognostication, and inform clinical decision making. The revisions to the American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) melanoma staging system over time reflect changes in our understanding of the biology of the disease. Since the 1st edition, where tumor thickness was defined anatomically by its relationship to the reticular or papillary dermis (Clark level) as well as tumor thickness (Breslow thickness), there have been significant strides in our use of clinicopathological variables to stratify low- versus high-risk patients. Management of the regional nodal basin has also changed dramatically over time, impacted by techniques such as lymphatic mapping and sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) and changes in pathological evaluation of the regional lymph nodes. Additionally, stratification of distant metastases has evolved as survival outcomes have been shown to vary based upon anatomic site of metastases and serum lactate dehydrogenase levels. The variables in use in the current (7th edition) AJCC staging system are surrogate markers of biology with validated impact of survival outcomes. Going forward, it is likely that these and additional clinicopathological factors will be integrated with molecular and other correlates of melanoma tumor biology to further refine and personalize melanoma staging. PMID:26601861

  18. Surgery of Primary Melanomas

    Rutkowski, Piotr, E-mail: rutkowskip@coi.waw.pl; Zdzienicki, Marcin; Nowecki, Zbigniew I. [Soft Tissue/Bone Sarcoma and Melanoma Department, M. Sklodowska-Curie Memorial Cancer Center and Institute of Oncology, Warsaw (Poland); Akkooi, Alexander C. J. van [Erasmus University Medical Center-Daniel den Hoed Cancer Center, Rotterdam (Netherlands)

    2010-05-11

    Surgery remains the mainstay of melanoma therapy, regardless of the tumor site. Only the early diagnosis combined with proper surgical therapy currently gives patients affected by this malignancy the chance for a full cure. The main goal of surgical therapy is to provide the local control of the disease and to secure long-term survival of the patient without reasonable functional and esthetic impairment. The recommended method of biopsy—excisional biopsy, as an initial diagnostic and, to some extent, therapeutic procedure—is performed under local anesthesia as an elliptical incision with visual clear margins of 1–3 mm and with some mm of subcutaneous tissue. The extent of radical excision of the primary tumor (or scar after excisional biopsy) is based on the histopathologic characteristics of the primary tumor and usually consists of 1–2 cm margins with primary closure. The philosophy behind conducted randomized clinical trials has been to find the most conservative surgical approach that is able to guarantee the same results as more demolitive treatment. This has been the background of the trials designed to define the correct margins of excision around a primary cutaneous melanoma. Much less definition can be dedicated to the surgical management of patients with non-cutaneous melanomas.

  19. Surgery of Primary Melanomas

    Surgery remains the mainstay of melanoma therapy, regardless of the tumor site. Only the early diagnosis combined with proper surgical therapy currently gives patients affected by this malignancy the chance for a full cure. The main goal of surgical therapy is to provide the local control of the disease and to secure long-term survival of the patient without reasonable functional and esthetic impairment. The recommended method of biopsy—excisional biopsy, as an initial diagnostic and, to some extent, therapeutic procedure—is performed under local anesthesia as an elliptical incision with visual clear margins of 1–3 mm and with some mm of subcutaneous tissue. The extent of radical excision of the primary tumor (or scar after excisional biopsy) is based on the histopathologic characteristics of the primary tumor and usually consists of 1–2 cm margins with primary closure. The philosophy behind conducted randomized clinical trials has been to find the most conservative surgical approach that is able to guarantee the same results as more demolitive treatment. This has been the background of the trials designed to define the correct margins of excision around a primary cutaneous melanoma. Much less definition can be dedicated to the surgical management of patients with non-cutaneous melanomas

  20. ADAM15 expression is downregulated in melanoma metastasis compared to primary melanoma

    Research highlights: → Strong ADAM15 expression is found in normal melanocytes. → ADAM15 expression is significantly downregulated in patients with melanoma metastasis. → TGF-β can downregulate ADAM15 expression in melanoma cells. → Overexpression of ADAM15 in melanoma cells inhibits migration, proliferation and invasion of melanoma cells. → Conclusion: ADAM15 represents an tumor suppressor protein in melanoma. -- Abstract: In a mouse melanoma metastasis model it has been recently shown that ADAM15 overexpression in melanoma cells significantly reduced the number of metastatic nodules on the lung. Unfortunately, the expression of ADAM15 in human melanoma tissue has not been determined so far. In our study, we characterized the expression of ADAM15 in tissue micro-arrays of patients with primary melanoma with melanoma metastasis. ADAM15 was expressed in melanocytes and endothelial cells of benign nevi and melanoma tissue. Importantly, ADAM15 was significantly downregulated in melanoma metastasis compared to primary melanoma. We further demonstrate that IFN-γ and TGF-β downregulate ADAM15 protein levels in melanoma cells. To investigate the role of ADAM15 in melanoma progression, we overexpressed ADAM15 in melanoma cells. Importantly, overexpression of ADAM15 in melanoma cells reduced the migration, invasion and the anchorage dependent and independent cell growth of melanoma cells. In summary, the downregulation of ADAM15 plays an important role in melanoma progression and ADAM15 act as a tumorsuppressor in melanoma.

  1. ADAM15 expression is downregulated in melanoma metastasis compared to primary melanoma

    Ungerer, Christopher; Doberstein, Kai [Pharmazentrum Frankfurt/ZAFES, University Hospital Goethe University Frankfurt, Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Buerger, Claudia; Hardt, Katja; Boehncke, Wolf-Henning [Department of Dermatology, Clinic of the Goethe-University, Theodor-Stern-Kai, Frankfurt (Germany); Boehm, Beate [Division of Rheumatology, Goethe University, Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Pfeilschifter, Josef [Pharmazentrum Frankfurt/ZAFES, University Hospital Goethe University Frankfurt, Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Dummer, Reinhard [Department of Pathology, Institute of Surgical Pathology, University Hospital, Zurich (Switzerland); Mihic-Probst, Daniela [Department of Dermatology, University Hospital Zurich (Switzerland); Gutwein, Paul, E-mail: p.gutwein@med.uni-frankfurt.de [Pharmazentrum Frankfurt/ZAFES, University Hospital Goethe University Frankfurt, Frankfurt am Main (Germany)

    2010-10-22

    Research highlights: {yields} Strong ADAM15 expression is found in normal melanocytes. {yields} ADAM15 expression is significantly downregulated in patients with melanoma metastasis. {yields} TGF-{beta} can downregulate ADAM15 expression in melanoma cells. {yields} Overexpression of ADAM15 in melanoma cells inhibits migration, proliferation and invasion of melanoma cells. {yields} Conclusion: ADAM15 represents an tumor suppressor protein in melanoma. -- Abstract: In a mouse melanoma metastasis model it has been recently shown that ADAM15 overexpression in melanoma cells significantly reduced the number of metastatic nodules on the lung. Unfortunately, the expression of ADAM15 in human melanoma tissue has not been determined so far. In our study, we characterized the expression of ADAM15 in tissue micro-arrays of patients with primary melanoma with melanoma metastasis. ADAM15 was expressed in melanocytes and endothelial cells of benign nevi and melanoma tissue. Importantly, ADAM15 was significantly downregulated in melanoma metastasis compared to primary melanoma. We further demonstrate that IFN-{gamma} and TGF-{beta} downregulate ADAM15 protein levels in melanoma cells. To investigate the role of ADAM15 in melanoma progression, we overexpressed ADAM15 in melanoma cells. Importantly, overexpression of ADAM15 in melanoma cells reduced the migration, invasion and the anchorage dependent and independent cell growth of melanoma cells. In summary, the downregulation of ADAM15 plays an important role in melanoma progression and ADAM15 act as a tumorsuppressor in melanoma.

  2. Keeping a watch on melanoma.

    Casparian, J Michael; Rodewald, Erin J

    2002-05-01

    When performing a total body skin examination, we discovered a melanoma in situ when a patient took off her wristwatch. This case illustrates the importance of removing jewelry when performing a complete skin examination. Furthermore, the location of this lesion highlights the association between malignant melanoma and intermittent sun exposure. PMID:12041820

  3. Primary Desmoplastic Melanoma of the Penis

    Chu, Julia T.; Liss, Michael A; Wu, William W.; Atreya Dash; Di Lu

    2015-01-01

    Desmoplastic melanomas are rare amelanotic melanomas that usually occur on skin with sun exposure. In this report, we present a 72-year-old man who presented with a desmoplastic melanoma of the penis. To our knowledge this represents the first reported case of primary desmoplastic melanoma of the penis. We discuss the pathologic differential and histologic evaluation.

  4. Brain metastases from malignant melanoma.

    Chiarion-Sileni, Vanna; Murr, Rita; Pigozzo, Jacopo; Sarti, Samanta; Tomassi, Ottaviano; Romanini, Antonella

    2003-01-01

    Metastatic spread of tumour cells detached from melanoma into the central nervous system (CNS) occurs haematogenously since lymphatic drainage is absent in the brain. CNS metastases occur in 10 to 40% of melanoma patients in clinical studies and up to 90% in autopsy studies. Headache is the most common presenting symptom, but brain metastases should be suspected in all melanoma patients with new neurologic findings. Magnetic resonance imaging is the best diagnostic technique for detecting CNS metastases. Median survival of melanoma patients with CNS metastases ranges between 2 and 8 months. The optimal treatment of melanoma patients with CNS metastases depends on the objective situation, often surgery, radiosurgery, whole brain radiotherapy and chemotherapy are used in combination to obtain longer remissions and optimal symptom relieve. PMID:14732883

  5. Oral amelanotic melanoma of the maxilla.

    Nasrollah Saghravanian

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Amelanotic melanoma is a variant of malignant melanoma comprising 2% to 8% of all malignant melanomas. The amelanotic presentation of melanoma in the oral cavity is extremely rare and has been reported only occasionally in the literature. Moreover, the lack of melanin makes these tumors difficult to diagnose than that of pigmented lesions and the prognosis tends to be poorer. Herein, we report an amelanotic melanoma involving the oral mucosa of the maxilla in a 27 year-old male.

  6. Preventing Melanoma PSA (:60)

    2015-06-02

    This 60 second public service announcement is based on the June 2015 CDC Vital Signs report. Skin cancer is the most common form of cancer in the U.S. In 2011, there were more than 65,000 cases of melanoma, the most deadly form of skin cancer. Learn how everyone can help prevent skin cancer.  Created: 6/2/2015 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 6/2/2015.

  7. Melanoma immunotherapy dominates the field.

    Diamantopoulos, Panagiotis; Gogas, Helen

    2016-07-01

    The incidence of melanoma is increasing worldwide and despite early detection and intervention, the number of patients dying from metastatic disease continues to rise. The prognosis of advanced melanoma remains poor, with median survival between 6 and 9 months. Over the past 30 years and despite extensive clinical research, the treatment options for metastatic disease were limited and melanoma is still considered as one of the most therapy-resistant malignancies. Single-agent and combination chemotherapy, hormonal therapy, biochemotherapy, immunotherapy, targeted agent therapy and combination regimens failed to show a significant improvement in overall survival (OS). Recent advances and in-depth understanding of the biology of melanoma, have contributed to the development of new agents. Based on the molecular and immunological background of the disease, these new drugs have shown benefit in overall and progression-free survival (PFS). As the picture of the disease begins to change, oncologists need to alter their approach to melanoma treatment and consider disease biology together with targeted individualized treatment. In this review the authors attempt to offer an insight in the present and past melanoma treatment options, with a focus on the recently approved immunotherapeutic agents and the clinical perspectives of these new weapons against metastatic melanoma. PMID:27563656

  8. Melanoma Lentiginoso Acral

    Gloria Andrea Vargas Suaza

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available El melanoma lentiginoso acral (MLA es una variante rápidamente progresiva del melanoma maligno (MM. Constituye el 5-10% de todos los tipos de MM y se presenta con mayor frecuencia en pacientes de raza negra, asiáticos y latinoamericanos. En Colombia el MM se encuentra en aumento, con una incidencia de 3.5/100.000, siendo el MLA una de las variantes más comunes. La edad promedio de presentación es de 58 años, con una tasa de sobrevida menor para las personas de raza negra, asociado a un diagnóstico tardío. EL MLA se localiza en plantas, palmas y región subungueal y en su etiopatología se ha descrito la presencia de mutaciones en genes: 9p21 (p16: 67%, 11q13 (CCND1 (47%, 22q11-q13 (40% y 5p15 (20%. El diagnóstico de MLA, se ha fundamentado clásicamente en la histopatología. Herramientas de diagnóstico como la dermatoscopia, la evaluación del ganglio centinela y la determinación de alteraciones en las proteínas del ciclo celular contribuyen a la detección precoz del MLA y el MM en general.

  9. Uveal Melanoma UK National Guidelines.

    Nathan, P; Cohen, V; Coupland, S; Curtis, K; Damato, B; Evans, J; Fenwick, S; Kirkpatrick, L; Li, O; Marshall, E; McGuirk, K; Ottensmeier, C; Pearce, N; Salvi, S; Stedman, B; Szlosarek, P; Turnbull, N

    2015-11-01

    The United Kingdom (UK) uveal melanoma guideline development group used an evidence based systematic approach (Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network (SIGN)) to make recommendations in key areas of uncertainty in the field including: the use and effectiveness of new technologies for prognostication, the appropriate pathway for the surveillance of patients following treatment for primary uveal melanoma, the use and effectiveness of new technologies in the treatment of hepatic recurrence and the use of systemic treatments. The guidelines were sent for international peer review and have been accredited by NICE. A summary of key recommendations is presented. The full documents are available on the Melanoma Focus website. PMID:26278648

  10. Morphogenesis of early stage melanoma

    Chatelain, Clément; Amar, Martine Ben

    2015-08-01

    Melanoma early detection is possible by simple skin examination and can insure a high survival probability when successful. However it requires efficient methods for identifying malignant lesions from common moles. This paper provides an overview first of the biological and physical mechanisms controlling melanoma early evolution, and then of the clinical tools available today for detecting melanoma in vivo at an early stage. It highlights the lack of diagnosis methods rationally linking macroscopic observables to the microscopic properties of the tissue, which define the malignancy of the tumor. The possible inputs of multiscale models for improving these methods are shortly discussed.

  11. METASTATIC MALIGNANT MELANOMA: CASE REPORT

    Satish

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A 32 year s old man presented with well - defined lesion on the left sole 8 months back. Biopsy and FNAC from the lesion confirmed malignant melanoma left foot & the patient was advised excision. After 4 months patient gave h/o swelling on the medial aspect of the thigh. The patient was diagnosed to have fulminant metastatic malignant melanoma of the left foot with metastasis to femoral lymph node. This case report re - emphasizes the importance of the combined approach to ascertain diagnose early KEYWORDS : Melanoma .

  12. Melanoma Surveillance in the US: The Economic Burden of Melanoma

    2011-10-19

    This podcast accompanies the publication of a series of articles on melanoma surveillance in the United States, available in the November supplement edition of the Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology. Dr. Gery Guy, from the CDC’s Division of Cancer Prevention and Control, discusses the economic burden of melanoma.  Created: 10/19/2011 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 10/19/2011.

  13. High accuracy of family history of melanoma in Danish melanoma cases

    Wadt, Karin A W; Drzewiecki, Krzysztof T; Gerdes, Anne-Marie

    2015-01-01

    The incidence of melanoma in Denmark has immensely increased over the last 10 years making Denmark a high risk country for melanoma. In the last two decades multiple public campaigns have sought to increase the awareness of melanoma. Family history of melanoma is a known major risk factor but...... previous studies have shown that self-reported family history of melanoma is highly inaccurate. These studies are 15 years old and we wanted to examine if a higher awareness of melanoma has increased the accuracy of self-reported family history of melanoma. We examined the family history of 181 melanoma...... probands who reported 199 cases of melanoma in relatives, of which 135 cases where in first degree relatives. We confirmed the diagnosis of melanoma in 77% of all relatives, and in 83% of first degree relatives. In 181 probands we validated the negative family history of melanoma in 748 first degree...

  14. Malignant melanoma of the vulva

    Ragnarsson Olding, Boel

    1999-01-01

    From a consecutive, nationwide series of 219 females with primary vulvar malignant melanomas diagnosed in Sweden during 1960 to 1984 and followed up until 1994, we analyzed epidemiological, clinical, histopathological, prognostic and molecular genetic data. The age-standardized incidence among these patients, 75 % of whom were 60 years old or more, decreased by 3.2 % annually compared to an increase of almost 6 % for contemporary cutaneous melanomas in Sweden. Relative 5-and...

  15. Perceived Intra-Family Melanoma Risk Communication

    Loescher, Lois J.; Crist, Janice D.; Siaki, Leilani A.C.L.

    2009-01-01

    Melanoma is a skin cancer that can be deadly. Members of families with a strong history of melanoma have a high risk of melanoma occurrence or recurrence. Enhanced survival in these family members could be influenced by their knowledge of melanoma risk and by simple behaviors to decrease their risk or detect melanoma in its early, most curable, stage. Yet, there is minimal exploration on communication of risk or risk-modifying behaviors in melanoma at-risk families. In this study we described...

  16. Aldesleukin and Pembrolizumab in Treating Patients With Stage III-IV Melanoma

    2016-04-21

    Metastatic Melanoma; Stage III Mucosal Melanoma of the Head and Neck; Stage IIIA Skin Melanoma; Stage IIIB Skin Melanoma; Stage IIIC Skin Melanoma; Stage IV Skin Melanoma; Stage IVA Mucosal Melanoma of the Head and Neck; Stage IVB Mucosal Melanoma of the Head and Neck; Stage IVC Mucosal Melanoma of the Head and Neck

  17. Molecular probes for malignant melanoma imaging.

    Ren, Gang; Pan, Ying; Cheng, Zhen

    2010-09-01

    Malignant melanoma represents a serious public health problem and is a deadly disease when it is diagnosed at late stage. Though (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose ((18)F-FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) has been widely used clinically for melanoma imaging, other approaches to specifically identify, characterize, monitor and guide therapeutics for malignant melanoma are still needed. Consequently, many probes targeting general molecular events including metabolism, angiogenesis, hypoxia and apoptosis in melanoma have been successfully developed. Furthermore, probes targeting melanoma associated targets such as melanocortin receptor 1 (MC1R), melanin, etc. have undergone active investigation and have demonstrated high melanoma specificity. In this review, these molecular probes targeting diverse melanoma biomarkers have been summarized. Some of them may eventually contribute to the improvement of personalized management of malignant melanoma. PMID:20497118

  18. Isolated malignant melanoma metastasis to the pancreas

    Larsen, Anne K; Krag, Christen; Geertsen, Poul;

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY: Malignant melanomas rarely develop isolated pancreatic metastases. We describe a unique patient who is still alive 22 years following an isolated pancreatic melanoma metastasis, and we review the sparse literature in the field....

  19. Tool to Distinguish Moles from Melanoma

    “Moles to Melanoma: Recognizing the ABCDE Features” presents photos that show changes in individual pigmented lesions over time, and describes the different appearances of moles, dysplastic nevi, and melanomas.

  20. Particularities of melanoma in Romania

    Full text: Malignant tumor from melanocytic origin, cutaneous melanoma is the most aggressive cutaneous cancer. The particularities of melanoma in Romania are: 1. the increasing number of cases in a geographic area dominated by the third cutaneous phototype; 2. the high level of T, represented by high levels of Breslow and Clark invasion markers; 3. the lack of a National Melanoma Register; 4. the lymph node sentinel biopsy technique introduction is the present focus; this allows an appropriate N affiliation; 5. the increasing of sanitary education in order to clinical and dermoscopical follow-up of atypical moles and the study of risk factors for melanoma; 6. the creation of a melanoma local guide. The survival prognosis could be improved by: a) the early detection in 'in situ' stage of melanoma and b) the correct TNM and/or EORTC affiliation of the case, in order to achieve an appropriate treatment. Sentinel lymph node detection and biopsy offers a new area in the evaluation of cancer spread by detecting micrometastases and performing a complete regional evaluation of the disease. The presence or absence of the metastases in the regional lymph nodes is one of the most important factors in the survival of patients with primary cutaneous melanoma. Early diagnosis of regional lymph node metastases enables the identification of those patients who are candidates for adjuvant therapy and early therapeutic lymph node dissection. At the same time, the sentinel node biopsy procedure represents a sensitive staging method. The paper presents some of gold standard diagnosis cases, dermoscopy and routine HE examination, selected from a total of 356 cases. (author)

  1. Melanoma vaccines: trials and tribulations

    Dillman RO

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Robert O Dillman1,21Hoag Cancer Institute and Hoag Institute for Research and Education, Newport Beach, CA, USA; 2University of California Irvine, Irvine, CA, USAAbstract: Metastatic melanoma has been a target of immunotherapy for more than 4 decades. Three immunotherapeutics have received regulatory approval for treating melanoma: interferon-alpha, interleukin-2, and ipilimumab. The antitumor mechanisms of these products depend on enhancing existing immune responses, including autoimmune effects. The combination of autologous, cytotoxic T-lymphocytes plus high-dose interleukin-2 is a promising patient-specific therapy, but has limited clinical application. Other approaches include vaccines targeting melanoma-associated antigens, and patient-specific vaccines that utilize autologous tumor. Non-patient-specific vaccine approaches target melanocyte differentiation antigens (eg, tyrosinase, Melan-A, gp100, antigens identified by cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (eg, NY-Eso-1, Melan-A/Mart-1, Mage-3, and antigens originally identified by murine monoclonal antibodies (gangliosides, gp97, gp225. Self-renewing cells in tumor cell lines may represent tumor stem cells, but vaccines derived from allogeneic tumor cell lines have yielded disappointing results in randomized trials. Patient-specific vaccines can be derived from bulk autologous tumor or autologous tumor cell lines, and intratumoral injections of immunostimulatory fusion products have shown promise. While technically more complex to manufacture, patient-specific vaccines derived from autologous tumor cell lines have the potential to target tumor stem cells and overcome interpatient tumor cell heterogeneity. This article reviews sources of melanoma-associated antigens, costimulatory agents, and clinical trial results for various melanoma vaccines. Comparing Phase II trials is difficult because of the wide range of vaccine strategies and the differences in study patient populations; therefore, randomized

  2. Melanoma stem cells in experimental melanoma are killed by radioimmunotherapy

    Introduction: In spite of recently approved B-RAF inhibitors and immunomodulating antibodies, metastatic melanoma has poor prognosis and novel treatments are needed. Melanoma stem cells (MSC) have been implicated in the resistance of this tumor to chemotherapy. Recently we demonstrated in a Phase I clinical trial in patients with metastatic melanoma that radioimmunotherapy (RIT) with 188-Rhenium(188Re)-6D2 antibody to melanin was a safe and effective modality. Here we investigated the interaction of MSC with RIT as a possible mechanism for RIT efficacy. Methods: Mice bearing A2058 melanoma xenografts were treated with either 1.5 mCi 188Re-6D2 antibody, saline, unlabeled 6D2 antibody or 188Re-labeled non-specific IgM. Results: On Day 28 post-treatment the tumor size in the RIT group was 4-times less than in controls (P < 0.001). The tumors were analyzed by immunohistochemistry and FACS for two MSC markers — chemoresistance mediator ABCB5 and H3K4 demethylase JARID1B. There were no significant differences between RIT and control groups in percentage of ABCB5 or JARID1B-positive cells in the tumor population. Our results demonstrate that unlike chemotherapy, which kills tumor cells but leaves behind MSC leading to recurrence, RIT kills MSC at the same rate as the rest of tumor cells. Conclusions: These results have two main implications for melanoma treatment and possibly other cancers. First, the susceptibility of ABCB5 + and JARID1B + cells to RIT in melanoma might be indicative of their susceptibility to antibody-targeted radiation in other cancers where they are present as well. Second, specifically targeting cancer stem cells with radiolabeled antibodies to ABCB5 or JARID1B might help to completely eradicate cancer stem cells in various cancers

  3. CDX-1401 and Poly-ICLC Vaccine Therapy With or Without CDX-301in Treating Patients With Stage IIB-IV Melanoma

    2016-06-21

    Carcinoma of Unknown Primary Origin; Iris Melanoma; Medium/Large Size Posterior Uveal Melanoma; Mucosal Melanoma; Ocular Melanoma With Extraocular Extension; Small Size Posterior Uveal Melanoma; Stage IIB Skin Melanoma; Stage IIB Uveal Melanoma; Stage IIC Skin Melanoma; Stage IIIA Skin Melanoma; Stage IIIA Uveal Melanoma; Stage IIIB Skin Melanoma; Stage IIIB Uveal Melanoma; Stage IIIC Skin Melanoma; Stage IIIC Uveal Melanoma; Stage IV Skin Melanoma; Stage IV Uveal Melanoma

  4. Prognostic stratification of ulcerated melanoma

    Bønnelykke-Behrndtz, Marie L; Schmidt, Henrik; Christensen, Ib J; Damsgaard, Tine E; Møller, Holger J; Bastholt, Lars; Nørgaard, Peter H; Steiniche, Torben

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: For patients with melanoma, ulceration is an important prognostic marker and interestingly also a predictive marker for the response of adjuvant interferon. A consensual definition and accurate assessment of ulceration are therefore crucial for proper staging and clinical management. We...... stratification of ulcerated lesions. METHODS: From H&E-stained sections, the status (presence vs absence), extent (percentage of the total tumor length), and type (infiltrative vs attenuative) of ulceration and epidermal involvement were evaluated from 385 patients with cutaneous melanoma. RESULTS: The presence...... of ulceration (hazard ratio [HR], 1.83), an attenuative type of ulceration (HR, 3.02), and excessive ulceration (HR, 3.57) were independent predictors of poor melanoma-specific survival. Further subdivision of minimal/moderate ulceration showed independent prognostic value only for lesions with...

  5. ORAL MELANOMA: A FATAL ENTITY

    Amit

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available : Oral melanomas are uncommon and similar to their cutaneous counterparts, are neoplasm that developed from melanocytic cells lying in the basal layer of the mucosa, its incidence is about 1.2 cases per 10 million inhabitants per year with a variation between 0.2% to 8% of all the melanomas and 0.5% of all the malignant neoplasias of the oral cavity.1 Oral conditions with increased melanin pigmentation are common; however, melanocytic hyperplasias are rare. The relative incidence amongst mucosal neoplasms of the head and neck had been reviewed by Hormia and Vuori2, about 7253 cases of malignancies of upper respiratory and gastrointestinal tracts between 1953-1964, five cases of oral melanoma were found with an incidence of 0.07%

  6. Genetic alterations and markers of melanoma

    N. N. Mazurenko

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Melanoma remains the most deadly form of malignant skin disease with high risk of metastases. Metastatic melanoma is prognostic highly unfavorable and resistant to traditional chemotherapy and biologic treatment. There is a great progress in understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying melanoma initiation and progression. The external (ultraviolet irradiation and internal (genetic factors are involved in melanoma genesis. 5–14 % of melanoma cases occur in familial context due to genetic predisposition risk factors. Among them rare germinal mutations in the cell cycle genes regulators CDKN2A and CDK4 and in the master gene of melanocyte homeostasis MITF, as well as single nucleotide polymorphisms of several low-penetrated genes, namely MC1R, have been identified. The main cell signaling pathways and oncogene driver mutations are involved in melanoma pathogenesis. RAS / RAF / MEK / ERK cascade is hyperactivated in 75 % of cutaneous melanoma cases. Activation of PI3K / AKT / mTOR signaling pathway is important for melanoma progression. Recent studies revealed that melanomas are genetically and phenotypically heterogeneous tumors. Spectrum of chromosomal alterations and activating mutations corresponding to tumor molecular portraits varies in melanomas of different location. Most of cutaneous melanomas contain BRAF (50 % or NRAS (20 % mutations, and NRAS mutations occur on chronically sun-exposed skin. Activating KIT mutations have been reported in approximately 20–30 % of certain subtypes of melanoma, including acral and mucosal, and melanoma that develop on photodamaged skin. Cutaneous metastatic melanoma derive from preexisting nevi in 25 % of cases, molecular mechanisms of nevi malignization are discussed. Deepsequencing approaches of melanoma samples of different melanoma types highlighted new melanoma driver genes, that are damaged due to tumorigenic effects of ultraviolet: PPP6C, RAC1, SNX31, TACC1 and STK19. The

  7. Tumor Heterogeneity in Uveal Melanomas

    H.W. Mensink (Hanneke)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractUveal melanoma (UM) is the most common primary intraocular malignancy in adults with an incidence of 7-10/ million and has a predilection for hematogenous dissemination to the liver. Despite improvements in diagnosis and treatment of this intraocular tumor, there has not been a change in

  8. Biology of Human Cutaneous Melanoma

    Sharma, Bhuvnesh K.; Hasskamp, Joanne H.; Elias, Elias G.

    2010-01-01

    A review of the natural behavior of cutaneous melanoma, clinical and pathological factors, prognostic indicators, some basic research and the present and possible futuristic strategies in the management of this disease are presented. While surgery remains to be the most effective therapeutic approach in the management of early primary lesions, there is no standard adjuvant therapy after surgical resection, or for metastatic disease.

  9. [Endocrine factors influencing melanoma progression].

    Dobos, Judit

    2009-03-01

    According to recent findings that beside cancers traditionally considered as hormone-dependent, several other tumor types show different behavior in the two sexes, indicating the possible role of endocrine factors in the course of these diseases. The possibility that endocrine factors may influence the clinical course of human malignant melanoma is suggested by the higher survival rate in premenopausal vs. postmenopausal women or men of any ages. However, investigations on the sex hormone receptor status of human cutaneous melanomas and experiments attempting to support the epidemiological results yielded conflicting results. In our human melanoma cell lines we failed to detect steroid receptors at protein level, while quantitative PCR demonstrated that their mRNA expression level was orders of magnitude lower compared to the positive control cell lines. Sex hormones did not influence the in vitro features of the human melanoma cells considerably. On the other hand, glucocorticoid receptor was present both at mRNA and protein level, although dexamethasone was effective in vitro only at high doses. Our previous experiments showed that intrasplenic injection of human melanoma cells resulted in a significantly higher number of liver colonies in male than in female SCID mice. We now show that this difference evolves during the first day. After injection into the tail vein we did not observe gender-dependent difference in the efficiency of pulmonary colonization. Examining the pattern of metastasis formation after intracardiac injection, we have found differences between the two sexes in the incidence or number of colonies only in the case of the liver but not in other organs. We concluded that the observed phenomenon is specific to the liver; therefore we investigated the effects of 2-methoxyestradiol, an endogenous metabolite of estradiol produced mainly in the liver, with an estrogen receptor-independent antitumor activity. 2ME2 effectively inhibited melanoma cell

  10. Cutaneous melanoma in solid organ transplant patients.

    Russo, I; Piaserico, S; Belloni-Fortina, A; Alaibac, M

    2014-08-01

    Solid organ transplant patients are at greatly increased risk of developing a wide variety of skin cancers, particularly epithelial skin cancers. On the other hand, it is well known that an intact immune system limits the development of benign melanocytic lesions. The eruptive nevi phenomenon, which we can observe in solid organ transplant recipients, is indicative of the relationship between melanocyte proliferation and immune system. Regression of melanocytic nevi after restoration of complete immune responsiveness is a further clinical example the role of immunosurveillance on melanocyte proliferation. However, melanoma incidence in organ transplant recipients appears only 2-3 folds higher than in general population. To this regard, organ transplant recipients who develop de novo melanomas thicker than 2mm seem to have a significantly worse outcome with a greatly increased risk of dying of metastatic melanoma, whereas those who develop a ≤2 mm thickness melanoma seem to have a prognosis similar to that of the general population. Furthermore, there is no evidence supporting an increased risk of melanoma recurrences after transplant in patients with a history of low-risk melanoma. Melanoma is also one of the most frequent and lethal donor-derived malignancies suggesting that a history of invasive melanoma should be considered an absolute contraindication to donation. The aim of this review is to investigate the relationship between immunosuppression and melanoma and to discuss its clinical implications for the management of transplant-associated melanoma. PMID:25068225

  11. Do We Know What Causes Melanoma Skin Cancer?

    ... melanoma skin cancer be prevented? What causes melanoma skin cancer? Many risk factors for melanoma have been found, ... such as CDKN2A (also known as p16 ) and CDK4 that prevent them from doing their normal job ...

  12. Enucleation versus plaque irradiation for choroidal melanoma

    The Collaborative Ocular Melanoma Study (COMS) is an international, multicenter-controlled study. The organization includes an Executive Committee, Steering Committee, 6 Central Units, 32 Clinical Centers, and a Data and Safety Monitoring Committee. Scientifically, the COMS consists of (1) a randomized trial of patients with medium choroidal melanoma treated with enucleation versus iodine-125 plaque irradiation, (2) a randomized trial of patients with large choroidal melanoma treated with enucleation versus preenucleation external beam irradiation and enucleation, and (3) a prospective observational study of patients with small choroidal melanoma to determine whether a randomized trial of treatment is appropriate. In design and conduct of the COMS, special consideration is given to biostatistics and sample size considerations, iodine-125 plaque irradiation of choroidal melanoma, and coordinated ocular melanoma research. Recruitment is in progress. However, the pool of eligible patients is limited and the COMS needs the continued support and cooperation of ophthalmologists throughout the United States and Canada

  13. The genomic landscape of cutaneous melanoma.

    Zhang, Tongwu; Dutton-Regester, Ken; Brown, Kevin M; Hayward, Nicholas K

    2016-05-01

    Somatic mutation analysis of melanoma has been performed at the single gene level extensively over the past several decades. This has provided considerable insight into the critical pathways controlling melanoma initiation and progression. During the last 5 yr, next-generation sequencing (NGS) has enabled even more comprehensive mutational screening at the level of multigene panels, exomes and genomes. These studies have uncovered many new and unexpected players in melanoma development. The recent landmark study from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) consortium describing the genomic architecture of 333 cutaneous melanomas provides the largest and broadest analysis to date on the somatic aberrations underlying melanoma genesis. It thus seems timely to review the mutational landscape of melanoma and highlight the key genes and cellular pathways that appear to drive this cancer. PMID:26833684

  14. Melanoma biomarkers: Vox clamantis in deserto (Review).

    Al-Shaer, Mays; Gollapudi, Divya; Papageorgio, Chris

    2010-05-01

    Detecting malignant melanoma at an early stage, monitoring therapy, predicting recurrence and identifying patients at risk for metastasis continue to be a challenging and demanding objective. The last two decades have witnessed innovations in the field of melanoma biomarkers. However, global agreement concerning monitoring and early detection has yet to be reached. This is a review of the current literature regarding melanoma biomarkers including demographic, clinical, pathological and molecular biomarkers that are produced by melanoma or non-melanoma cells. A number of these biomarkers demonstrate promising results as possible methods for early detection, predicting recurrence and monitoring therapy. Other biomarkers appear to be promising for identifying patients at risk for metastasis. We reviewed the most pertinent information in the field thus far and how this knowledge can impact, or not, the management of melanoma patients prognostically and therapeutically. PMID:22966315

  15. Primary malignant melanoma of the esophagus

    Primary malignant melanoma most commonly originates from the skin; other less common extra cutaneous sites include squamous mucous membranes, uvea, retina, leptomeninges, genitourinary tract, digestive tract, biliary tract, and upper respiratory tract. Primary melanoma of the gastrointestinal tract is exceedingly rare. We are reporting a histo-pathologically proven rare case of primary malignant melanoma of the esophagus and its findings on fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography and computed tomography

  16. Primary malignant melanoma of the esophagus.

    Jora, Charu; Pankaj, Promila; Verma, Ritu; Jain, Anjali; Belho, Ethel S

    2015-01-01

    Primary malignant melanoma most commonly originates from the skin; other less common extra cutaneous sites include squamous mucous membranes, uvea, retina, leptomeninges, genitourinary tract, digestive tract, biliary tract, and upper respiratory tract. Primary melanoma of the gastrointestinal tract is exceedingly rare. We are reporting a histo-pathologically proven rare case of primary malignant melanoma of the esophagus and its findings on fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography and computed tomography. PMID:25829739

  17. Malignant melanoma of the mandibular gingiva

    Sandeep Fauzdar

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Oral malignant melanoma is an infrequent neoplasia making up less than 1% of all melanomas, which exhibits much more aggressive behavior than those found on the skin. We present an aggressive case of oral malignant melanoma located on the mandibular gingiva in a 24-year-old male patient, who developed metastases to not only the regional lymph nodes but also the lungs and liver. The advanced stage of the disease contraindicated any surgical intervention and palliative chemotherapy was planned.

  18. Massive nodular melanoma scalp: a case report

    A. Bhagya Lakshmi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Melanoma is responsible for 1% to 2% of all cancer deaths around the world. Nodular melanoma often carries a poor prognosis because of no prodromal radial growth phase, early distant metastasis and significant tumour volume. We present a case of nodular melanoma measuring 20x10x8 cm in 28 year old tribal women. [Int J Res Med Sci 2015; 3(4.000: 1002-1005

  19. Primary rectal melanoma - a case report

    Somak Das

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The most common site for malignant melanoma is skin, then eye and third is anorectal region. Primary anorectal malignant melanoma is still very uncommon. It is usually very aggressive and presents with altered bowel habit and rectal bleeding. Proctoscopy shows non-pigmented or lightly pigmented polypoid lesion. Histopathology is confirmatory. Early radical excision is mandatory. A 56 year-old female was presented with malignant melanoma of the lower third of rectum. We report this case for its rarity.

  20. Malignant melanoma of breast: a case report

    A. Bhagyalakshmi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Malignant melanoma rarely affects the breast. Malignant melanoma of breast is divided into two categories: primary and metastatic lesions. Primary melanoma involves the skin and less commonly the glandular parenchyma of the breast. Differentiating them is very important in deciding on treatment strategies. This case report aims to increase awareness of unusual neoplasms of the breast which requires a different surgical and adjuvant therapeutic approach. [Int J Res Med Sci 2014; 2(2.000: 755-758

  1. Melanoma biomarkers: Vox clamantis in deserto (Review)

    AL-SHAER, MAYS; GOLLAPUDI, DIVYA; PAPAGEORGIO, CHRIS

    2010-01-01

    Detecting malignant melanoma at an early stage, monitoring therapy, predicting recurrence and identifying patients at risk for metastasis continue to be a challenging and demanding objective. The last two decades have witnessed innovations in the field of melanoma biomarkers. However, global agreement concerning monitoring and early detection has yet to be reached. This is a review of the current literature regarding melanoma biomarkers including demographic, clinical, pathological and molecu...

  2. Melanoma of unknown origin: a case series.

    Kelly, J

    2010-12-01

    The natural history of metastatic melanoma involving lymph nodes, in the absence of a known primary site (cutaneous, ocular or mucosal) has, to date, been poorly defined; and the optimal management of this rare subtype of disease is therefore unclear. Melanomas of unknown primary site (MUP) are estimated to comprise between 3.7 and 6% of all melanomas (Anbari et al. in Cancer 79:1861-1821, 1997).

  3. Update in genetic susceptibility in melanoma

    Potrony, Miriam; Badenas, Celia; Aguilera, Paula; Puig-Butille, Joan Anton; Carrera, Cristina; Malvehy, Josep; Puig, Susana

    2015-01-01

    Melanoma is the most deadly of the common skin cancers and its incidence is rapidly increasing. Approximately 10% of cases occur in a familial context. To date, cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2A (CDKN2A), which was identified as the first melanoma susceptibility gene more than 20 years ago, is the main high-risk gene for melanoma. A few years later cyclin-dependent kinase 4 (CDK4) was also identified as a melanoma susceptibility gene. The technologic advances have allowed the identificatio...

  4. Giant melanoacanthoma mimicking malignant melanoma

    Vikas Shankar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Melanoacanthoma denotes a rare variant of pigmented seborrheic keratosis. A 65-year-old male farmer had pigmented, verrucous, itchy, highly painful, progressively growing irregularly oval plaque on left side of lower back for the past five years. The indurated lesion, measuring maximum diameter 10 cm Χ 5 cm, had no discharge, bleeding, ulceration, or associated lymphadenopathy. Dermoscopy showed regular pigmentary network and cribiform pattern of ridges without any feature of malignant melanoma. Histopathology showed well-defined islands of basaloid cells interspersed with large and richly dendritic melanocytes. The lesion was totally excised followed by skin grafting. Our patient was unique in its massive size and clinical resemblance with malignant melanoma. The diagnosis was confirmed by dermoscopy and skin biopsy.

  5. Neutron capture therapy for melanoma

    The development of boron-containing compounds which localize selectively in tumor may require a tumor-by-tumor type of approach that exploits any metabolic pathways unique to the particular type of tumor. Melanin-producing melanomas actively transport and metabolize aromatic amino acids for use as precursors in the synthesis of the pigment melanin. It has been shown that the boron-containing amino acid analog p-borono-phenylalanine (BPA) is selectively accumulated in melanoma tissue, producing boron concentrations in tumor that are within the range estimated to be necessary for successful boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT). We report here the results of therapy experiments carried out at the Brookhaven Medical Research Reactor (BMRR). 21 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs

  6. Perineural extension of facial melanoma

    Kalina, Peter [Mayo Clinic, Department of Radiology, Rochester, Minnesota (United States); Bevilacqua, Paula

    2005-05-01

    A 64-year-old man presented with a pigmented cutaneous lesion on the right side of his face along with right facial numbness. Histological examination revealed malignant melanoma. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed perineural extension along the entire course of the maxillary division of the right trigeminal nerve. This is a rare but important manifestation of the spread of head and neck malignancy. (orig.)

  7. Melanoma of the female urethra

    Ramos, Juan A.; Ramos, Wilmer E.; Ramos, Claudia V.

    2011-01-01

    Melanoma is a malignant tumor that can affect any area of the anatomical economy. Its appearance in the female urethra is extremely rare, with approximately 121 cases in indexed literature since 1966. The subject to be described is an 86-year-old woman who seeks assessment for intermittent macroscopic hematuria with blood clots of 3 months progression. On physical examination, there are no suspicious lesions detected on the surface of the skin. On external genital examination, it is observed ...

  8. UVB: suscetibilidade no melanoma maligno UVB: susceptibility in malignant melanoma

    Nilton Nasser

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTOS: Está bem definido que a radiação ultravioleta provoca depleção imunológica na pele, permitindo o desenvolvimento de tumores cutâneos malignos. A maioria dos pacientes de cânceres da pele não melanomas são considerados UVB-suscetíveis. OBJETIVOS: Estudar a UVB-suscetibilidade nos pacientes com melanoma maligno e se este é um fator de risco para o desenvolvimento desse câncer. MÉTODOS: Foram selecionados 88 voluntários divididos em dois grupos: grupo-controle saudável (n=61 e grupo de portadores de melanoma (n=27, todos identificados de acordo com os critérios: tipo histológico, nível de invasão, fotótipos de pele, sexo e idade. A suscetibilidade à radiação ultravioleta B (UVB foi medida pela reação de hipersensibilidade ao contato com o difenciprone nos voluntários sensibilizados em áreas previamente irradiadas. RESULTADOS: A suscetibilidade à radiação UVB foi de 81,5% nos pacientes com melanoma maligno e de 31,2% no grupo-controle. O risco de um indivíduo desenvolver o melanoma maligno foi 9,7 vezes maior do que nos indivíduos UVB-resistentes. CONCLUSÕES: A UVB-suscetibilidade pode ser considerada um fator de risco importante para o desenvolvimento do melanoma maligno.BACKGROUND: It is well established that UV radiation provokes an immunological depletion in the skin, enabling the development of malignant cutaneous tumors. Most nonmelanoma skin cancer patients are considered to be UVB-susceptible. OBJECTIVE: To study the behavior of UVB- susceptibility in malignant melanoma (MM patients and whether this is a risk factor to the development of MM. METHODS: Eighty-eight volunteers were selected and divided into two groups: healthy control group (n = 61 and MM group (n = 27, which were identified according to the following clinical criteria: histopathological type, level of invasion, skin phototype, sex and age. Susceptibility to ultraviolet B (UVB radiation was measured by the onset of a contact

  9. Choroidal Metastases From Cutaneous Melanoma.

    Mercado, Carmel L; Toy, Brian C; Kistler, Henry B; Moshfeghi, Darius M

    2016-05-01

    A 92-year-old man presented with months of progressive blurry vision, worsening acutely in his right eye. He denied pain, diplopia, or photopsias. His history was significant for multiple myeloma, prostate cancer, and malignant melanoma of his right shoulder treated with local excision. He had local recurrence with hepatic metastasis of the melanoma treated with radiation and chemotherapy. On examination, his visual acuity was counting fingers in the right eye and 20/60 in the left eye. Amsler grid testing demonstrated metamorphopsia in the right eye. Fundus exam of the right and left eyes revealed multiple, elevated, pigmented choroidal lesions, with associated subretinal fluid in the right macula. This appearance is consistent with hematogenous metastasis of cutaneous malignant melanoma to the choroid and associated serous fluid-causing metamorphopsia. The patient was enrolled in a clinical trial combining plasmid IL-12 with pembrolizumab (Keytruda; Merck, Whitehouse Station, NJ). He passed away 2 months after initial presentation to our clinic. [Ophthalmic Surg Lasers Imaging Retina. 2016;47:497.]. PMID:27183558

  10. Spontaneous Splenic Rupture in Melanoma

    Hadi Mirfazaelian

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Spontaneous rupture of spleen due to malignant melanoma is a rare situation, with only a few case reports in the literature. This study reports a previously healthy, 30-year-old man who came with chief complaint of acute abdominal pain to emergency room. On physical examination, abdominal tenderness and guarding were detected to be coincident with hypotension. Ultrasonography revealed mild splenomegaly with moderate free fluid in abdominopelvic cavity. Considering acute abdominal pain and hemodynamic instability, he underwent splenectomy with splenic rupture as the source of bleeding. Histologic examination showed diffuse infiltration by tumor. Immunohistochemical study (positive for S100, HMB45, and vimentin and negative for CK, CD10, CK20, CK7, CD30, LCA, EMA, and chromogranin confirmed metastatic malignant melanoma. On further questioning, there was a past history of a nasal dark skin lesion which was removed two years ago with no pathologic examination. Spontaneous (nontraumatic rupture of spleen is an uncommon situation and it happens very rarely due to neoplastic metastasis. Metastasis of malignant melanoma is one of the rare causes of the spontaneous rupture of spleen.

  11. Adjuvant interferon treatment for melanoma.

    Agarwala, S S; Kirkwood, J M

    1998-08-01

    After decades of research, the adjuvant therapy of patients with melanoma has recently shown significant survival and relapse-free interval benefit for the intravenous and subcutaneous administration of maximally tolerable dosages of recombinant IFN alpha 2b in a trial conducted by the ECOG (E1684). Despite the toxicity of this therapy, retrospective analyses of its impact upon quality-of-life using Q-TWiST methods and cost-efficacy analyses all argue for the benefit and utility of this intervention, especially for node-positive patients with resectable melanoma at highest risk of relapse. A confirmatory trial has been completed and will mature in the spring of 1998. The impact of lower dosages of IFN, apparent transiently during and for a period of time following treatment has not been sustained with longer follow-up in a number of trials. Current approaches in Europe and North America focus upon refinement of dose and duration of treatment with IFN and their potential interactions with, and comparison with, active specific immunotherapy with vaccines. A recently emerging area of research is the patient with stage IIA melanoma and the potential role of an abbreviated high-dose regimen of IFN alpha in this patient subset. PMID:9759581

  12. Mucosal malignant melanoma - a clinical, oncological, pathological and genetic survey.

    Mikkelsen, Lauge H; Larsen, Ann-Cathrine; von Buchwald, Christian; Drzewiecki, Krzysztof T; Prause, Jan U; Heegaard, Steffen

    2016-06-01

    Mucosal melanomas constitute 1.3% of all melanomas and they may develop in any mucosal membrane. Conjunctival melanomas (0.5/million/year) and melanomas in the sinonasal cavity (0.5/million/year) are the most common, followed by anorectal melanomas (0.4/million/year) and melanomas in the oral cavity (0.2/million/year). Anorectal melanoma occurs slightly more often in females, whereas oral melanoma has a male predilection. Mucosal melanoma most commonly develops in a patient's sixth or seventh decade of life, and no differences between races have been found except for sinonasal melanoma and conjunctival melanoma, which are very rare in Black people. The symptoms are not tumour-specific and are related to the organ system affected, and the disease is most often diagnosed at an advanced clinical stage. The diagnosis of a primary tumour is difficult, and metastatic cutaneous melanoma and choroidal melanoma must be excluded. Mutations in KIT are frequently found, while BRAF and NRAS mutations are rarely found - except in conjunctival melanomas that carry BRAF mutations. Mutations in the TERT promotor region are also found in mucosal melanomas. Complete surgical resection with free margins is the treatment of choice. The prognosis is poor, with the 5-year survival rate ranging from 0% (gastric melanoma) to 80% (conjunctival melanoma). PMID:27004972

  13. Treatment of malignant melanoma by selective thermal neutron capture therapy using melanoma-seeking compound

    As pigment cells undergo melanoma genesis, accentuated melanogenesis concurrently occurs in principle. Subsequent to the understanding of intrinsic factors controlling both processes, we found our selective melanoma neutron capture therapy (NCT) using 10B-dopa (melanin substrate) analogue, 10B1-p-boronophenylalanine (10B1-BPA), followed by 10B(n, alpha)7Li reaction, induced by essentially harmless thermal neutrons, which releases energy of 2.33 MeV to 14 mu, the diameter of melanoma cells. In vitro/in vivo radiobiological analysis revealed the highly enhanced melanoma killing effect of 10B1-BPA. Chemical and prompt gamma ray spectrometry assays of 10B accumulated within melanoma cells after 10B1-BPA administration in vitro and in vivo show high affinity, e.g., 10B melanoma/blood ratio of 11.5. After successfully eradicating melanoma transplanted into hamsters with NCT, we advanced to preclinical studies using spontaneously occurring melanoma in Duroc pig skin. We cured three melanoma cases, 4.6 to 12 cm in diameter, by single neutron capture treatment. Complete disappearance of melanoma was obtained without substantial side effects. Acute and subacute toxicity as well as pharmacodynamics of 10B1-BPA have been studied in relation to therapeutic dosage requirements. Clinical radiation dosimetry using human phantom has been carried out. Further preclinical studies using human melanoma transplanted into nude mouse have been a useful model for obtaining optimal results for each melanoma type. We recently treated the first human melanoma patient with our NCT, using essentially the method for Duroc pig melanoma, and obtained similar regression time course leading to cure

  14. Update in genetic susceptibility in melanoma.

    Potrony, Miriam; Badenas, Celia; Aguilera, Paula; Puig-Butille, Joan Anton; Carrera, Cristina; Malvehy, Josep; Puig, Susana

    2015-09-01

    Melanoma is the most deadly of the common skin cancers and its incidence is rapidly increasing. Approximately 10% of cases occur in a familial context. To date, cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2A (CDKN2A), which was identified as the first melanoma susceptibility gene more than 20 years ago, is the main high-risk gene for melanoma. A few years later cyclin-dependent kinase 4 (CDK4) was also identified as a melanoma susceptibility gene. The technologic advances have allowed the identification of new genes involved in melanoma susceptibility: Breast cancer 1 (BRCA1) associated protein 1 (BAP1), CXC genes, telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT), protection of telomeres 1 (POT1), ACD and TERF2IP, the latter four being involved in telomere maintenance. Furthermore variants in melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R) and microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF) give a moderately increased risk to develop melanoma. Melanoma genetic counseling is offered to families in order to better understand the disease and the genetic susceptibility of developing it. Genetic counseling often implies genetic testing, although patients can benefit from genetic counseling even when they do not fulfill the criteria for these tests. Genetic testing for melanoma predisposition mutations can be used in clinical practice under adequate selection criteria and giving a valid test interpretation and genetic counseling to the individual. PMID:26488006

  15. Psychosocial care to patients with Malignant Melanoma

    Thorup, Charlotte Brun

    Psychosocial care to patients with Malignant Melanoma Intensions: The intension of this project is to link new knowledge with the nurses experience based knowledge within the psychosocial care to patients, who have been diagnosed with Malignant Melanoma (MM), thereby improving the care to this...

  16. Herramienta para distinguir lunares de melanoma.

    “De lunares a melanoma: reconocimiento de las características ABCDE” presenta fotos que muestran cambios en lesions individuales pigmentadas con el tiempo, y describe las diferentes apariencias de lunares, de nevos displásicos y de melanomas.

  17. Serum-proteomics in melanoma patients

    The project Serum-proteomics in melanoma patients funded by 'Programma Oncologico Italia-USA' Oncoproteomica has the general aim to collect serum samples from melanoma patients and to analyze the expression profile of several cytokines, in order to identify whether significant differences are evident between patients and controls, or among different patients subgroups with different staging or therapy

  18. Unusual thoracic manifestation of metastatic malignant melanoma

    Mohan K

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Massive pleural effusion due to metastatic malignant melanoma is rare. We report a case of bilateral (massive on left side pleural effusion as a metastatic manifestation of cutaneous malignant melanoma. In our case, successful outcome of pleurodesis with vincristine is significant as this agent is rarely used.

  19. Malignant melanoma at a scientific laboratory

    The general consensus of the seven reviewers is that occupational exposures at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory have not been established as a causal factor for the observed excess of malignant melanoma. Several observations support the impression that some or all of the observed melanoma excess may be attributable to intense surveillance and enhanced detection of early stage melanoma lesions. Since the incidence of melanomas among Laboratory employees has not diminished, an early harvesting effect is unlikely. This suggests the distinct possibility that localized, in situ melanomas that would normally not be detected are being reported, and that in the absence of this enhanced detection, many of these early stage lesions would show little or no clinical progression. This phenomenon would explain the continued high incidence of melanomas in the absence of a physical or chemical inciting cause. A key point in this reasoning is the issue of the rate of growth of early stage melanomas, and this point remains a key question for study. Even if the observed excess cannot be explained by detection bias, the reviewers agree that the Austin and Reynolds' study does not make a convincing case for occupational factors being a cause of the high melanoma incidence. 6 refs

  20. Mistletoe in the treatment of malignant melanoma

    Esin Sakallı Çetin

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Malignant melanoma is a malignant neoplasia drives from melanocytes. Malignant melanoma, the most causing death, is seen in the third place at skin cancer. Malignant melanoma shows intrinsic resistance to chemotherapeutic agents and variability in the course of the disease which are distinct features separating from other solid tumors. These features prevent the development and standardization of non-surgical treatment models of malignant melanoma. Although there is a large number of chemotherapeutic agents used in the treatment of metastatic malignant melanoma, it hasn’t been demonstrated the survival advantage of adjuvant treatment with chemotherapeutic agents. Because of the different clinical course of malignant melanoma, the disease is thought to be closely associated with immune system. Therefore, immunomodulatory therapy models were developed. Mistletoe stimulates the immune system by increasing the number and activity of dendritic cells, thus it has been shown to effect on tumor growth and metastasis of malignant melanoma patient. Outlined in this review are the recent developments in the understanding the role of mistletoe as a complementary therapy for malignant melanoma. J Clin Exp Invest 2014; 5 (1: 145-152

  1. Optic nerve invasion of uveal melanoma

    Lindegaard, Jens; Isager, Peter; Prause, Jan Ulrik; Heegaard, Steffen

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the study was to identify the histopathological characteristics associated with the invasion of the optic nerve of uveal melanoma and to evaluate the association between invasion of the optic nerve and survival. In order to achieve this, all uveal melanomas with optic nerve invasion in...... Denmark between 1942 and 2001 were reviewed (n=157). Histopathological characteristics and depth of optic nerve invasion were recorded. The material was compared with a control material from the same period consisting of 85 cases randomly drawn from all choroidal/ciliary body melanomas without optic nerve...... 4) in one case a tumor spread along the inner limiting membrane to the optic nerve through the lamina cribrosa. Invasion of the optic nerve had no impact on all-cause mortality or melanoma-related mortality in multivariate analyses. The majority of melanomas invading the optic nerve are large...

  2. A rare case of rynopharyngeal melanoma

    Francesco Grecchi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Primary mucosal melanomas (MM of the head and neck region constitute 0.5-2% of all malignant melanomas. The rynopharynx is a region that is less often involved by malignant melanomas. Because most of mucosal melanotic lesions are painless in their early stages, the diagnosis is unfortunately often delayed until symptoms resulting from ulceration, growth, and/or bleeding are noted. Here, we document the rare case of a malignant rynopharynx melanoma of a 43 year old woman. Its treatment and the pertinent literature are discussed. No complication was recorded in the post-operative period and no further surgery was performed. The follow up showed no recurrence in the same position and with the same characteristics, even after six years. Mucosal melanomas are aggressive tumours and the prognosis in these patients is poor. Clinicians must use treatment strategies that provide functional benefit, so as to maintain quality of life without excessive toxicity.

  3. Alpha particles for treatment of disseminated melanoma

    Link, E.M. [London Univ. (United Kingdom)

    2010-11-15

    Invading melanoma spreads to local and unpredictable distant location at the early stages of its development. It is justifiable, therefore to classify the disease as a systemic disorder. This requires a systemic treatment that reaches all melanoma cells irrespective of whether they are singly dispersed and in circulation or already forming solid tumours of various sizes. Targeted radiotherapy affects directly and selectively cancer cells provided an appropriate radionuclide and its carrier are chosen. Melanoma is a pigmented tumour. Methylene blue (MTB) accumulates selectively in melanoma cells due to its exceptionally high affinity to melanin. MTB serves, therefore, as a carrier for radionuclides. {sup 211}At-MTB has proved to be particularly effective in treating disseminated melanoma when administered systemically and, at the same time, non-toxic to normal non-pigmented and pigmented organs. (author)

  4. Alpha particles for treatment of disseminated melanoma

    Link, E.M. [London University (United Kingdom)

    2010-07-01

    Invading melanoma spreads to local and unpredictable distant location at the early stages of its development. It is justifiable, therefore, to classify the disease as a systemic disorder. This requires a systemic treatment that reaches all melanoma cells irrespective of whether they are singly dispersed and in circulation or already forming solid tumours of various sizes. Targeted radiotherapy affects directly and selectively cancer cells provided an appropriate radionuclide and its carrier are chosen. Melanoma is a pigmented tumour. Methylene blue (MTB)) accumulates selectively in melanoma cells due to its exceptionally high affinity to melanin. MTB serves, therefore, as a carrier for radionuclides. {sup 211}At-MTB has proved to be particularly effective in treating disseminated melanoma when administered systemically and, at the same time, non-toxic to normal non-pigmented and pigmented organs. (authors)

  5. Melanoma Surveillance in the US: Collecting Melanoma Data

    2011-10-19

    This podcast accompanies the publication of a series of articles on melanoma surveillance in the United States, available in the November supplement edition of the Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology. Dr. Suephy Chen, a dermatologist from Emory University, discusses why the articles are important, as well as the need to increase dermatologists’ awareness of cancer registries and reporting requirements.  Created: 10/19/2011 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 10/19/2011.

  6. Current management and novel agents for malignant melanoma

    Lee Byung

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Advanced malignant melanoma remains a challenging cancer. Over the past year, there have been 3 agents approved for treatment of melanoma by Food and Drug Administration. These include pegylated interferon alpha-2b for stage III melanoma, vemurafenib for unresectable or metastatic melanoma with BRAF V600E mutation, and ipilimumab for treatment of unresectable or metastatic melanoma. This review will also update on the development of novel agents, including tyrosine kinase inhibitors and adoptive cellular therapy.

  7. Surgical aspects of melanoma therapy

    Surgery is still the most important treatment modality to guarantee the highest survival ratio of melanoma patients. The adequacy of the surgical approach is a crucial aspect in face of the initial clinical appearances of the disease. Best results are obtained with the correct treatment of primary melanomas and lymph node metastases. To reach a general consensus on the surreal indications in terms of extension and timing, a large number of randomized trials have been conducted in the last 3 - 4 decades. The rationale behind these trials, even if proposed by different institutions on different continents, has been to find the most conservative surgical approach able to guarantee the same results as those achieved with more aggressive treatment This lay behind the design of trials designed to determine the correct excision margin around primary melanomas in the most important studies. A similar approach has been followed in the preparation of several trials dedicated to the definition of the importance of performing immediate dissection of the locoregional nodes in view of the absence of clinical evidence of metastases. Ever since the sentinel node technique has become the standard treatment in a majority of institutions, the guidelines for the treatment of locoregional nodes have undergone a kind of revolution. In fact the policy of wait and see introduced by the aforementioned trials has been overridden by a more specific and selective even if a more invasive approach to obtain precise information regarding the status of clinically non-invaded locoregional nodes. The sentinel node biopsy technique makes use of a majority of scientific surgical tools, is the most conservative (when compared to elective node dissection), extremely precise and sophisticated and provides crucial data necessary to make decisions regarding the necessity to perform radical surgery, i.e. therapeutic node dissection. Radical lymph node dissection is recommended in case of confirmed regional

  8. Melanoma Brain Metastasis: Mechanisms, Models, and Medicine.

    Kircher, David A; Silvis, Mark R; Cho, Joseph H; Holmen, Sheri L

    2016-01-01

    The development of brain metastases in patients with advanced stage melanoma is common, but the molecular mechanisms responsible for their development are poorly understood. Melanoma brain metastases cause significant morbidity and mortality and confer a poor prognosis; traditional therapies including whole brain radiation, stereotactic radiotherapy, or chemotherapy yield only modest increases in overall survival (OS) for these patients. While recently approved therapies have significantly improved OS in melanoma patients, only a small number of studies have investigated their efficacy in patients with brain metastases. Preliminary data suggest that some responses have been observed in intracranial lesions, which has sparked new clinical trials designed to evaluate the efficacy in melanoma patients with brain metastases. Simultaneously, recent advances in our understanding of the mechanisms of melanoma cell dissemination to the brain have revealed novel and potentially therapeutic targets. In this review, we provide an overview of newly discovered mechanisms of melanoma spread to the brain, discuss preclinical models that are being used to further our understanding of this deadly disease and provide an update of the current clinical trials for melanoma patients with brain metastases. PMID:27598148

  9. MALIGNANT MELANOMA OF THE ORAL CAVITY

    Vishnu Prasad

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Oral malignant melanoma is a rare aggressive neoplasm commonly affects males and is more frequently seen at the level of the hard palate and gingiva. In many cases, melanoma has evolved from the pre-existing pigmented lesions. These neoplasms are biologically aggressive, but they often go unnoticed since they usually present merely as a hyperpigmented patch on the gingival surface. Performing biopsies of doubtful pigmented lesions helps in early treatment and better prognosis. The surgical excision combined with the chemotherapy is the treatment of choice. Here, we report a rare case of an elderly male patient with oral malignant melanoma with metastasis to vertebral column.

  10. Socioeconomic status, sunlight exposure, and risk of malignant melanoma: the Western Canada Melanoma Study.

    Gallagher, R P; Elwood, J M; Threlfall, W J; Spinelli, J J; Fincham, S; Hill, G B

    1987-10-01

    In a study of 261 male melanoma patients and age-and sex-matched controls, a strong positive univariate association between socioeconomic status, as determined by usual occupation, and risk of melanoma was detected. This association, however, was substantially explained by host constitutional factors and occupational, recreational, and vacation sunlight exposure. The study demonstrated an increased risk of melanoma in draftsmen and surveyors and a reduced risk of melanoma in construction workers and individuals employed in the finance, insurance, and real estate industry even after control for the effect of host factors and sunlight exposure. PMID:3116308

  11. Malignant Melanoma Presenting as Superior Mediastinal Mass without Extrathoracic Primary Melanoma

    You, Myung Won; Sung, Dong Wook; Lee, Young Kyung [Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, Kyung Hee University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-03-15

    Malignant melanoma most commonly occurs in the skin, and other organs are secondarily involved. Malignant melanoma presenting in the mediastinum without an extrathoracic primary is very rare. Authors report a case of malignant melanoma of the superior mediastinum without clinical history of extrathoracic malignant melanoma primarily and discuss its radiologic findings. CT shows lobulated heterogenous enhanced mass. Magnetic resonance shows mild hyperintense mass on T1 and T2-weighted images contained focal hemorrhage and necrosis, and invasion to neural foramen. In addition, positron emission tomography/computed tomography shows high standard uptake values uptake of the mass.

  12. Malignant Melanoma Presenting as Superior Mediastinal Mass without Extrathoracic Primary Melanoma

    Malignant melanoma most commonly occurs in the skin, and other organs are secondarily involved. Malignant melanoma presenting in the mediastinum without an extrathoracic primary is very rare. Authors report a case of malignant melanoma of the superior mediastinum without clinical history of extrathoracic malignant melanoma primarily and discuss its radiologic findings. CT shows lobulated heterogenous enhanced mass. Magnetic resonance shows mild hyperintense mass on T1 and T2-weighted images contained focal hemorrhage and necrosis, and invasion to neural foramen. In addition, positron emission tomography/computed tomography shows high standard uptake values uptake of the mass.

  13. Experimental boron neutron capture therapy for melanoma: Systemic delivery of boron to melanotic and amelanotic melanoma

    The boron-containing melanin precursor analogue p-boronophenylalanine (BPA) has previously been shown to selectively deliver boron to pigmented murine melanomas when administered in a single intragastric dose. If boron neutron capture therapy is to become a clinically useful method of radiation therapy for human malignant melanoma, the boron carrier must be capable of delivering useful amounts of boron to remote tumor sites (metastases) and to poorly pigmented melanomas. The authors have now determined the ability of BPA to accumulate in several nonpigmented melanoma models including human melanoma xenografts in nude mice. The absolute amount of boron in the nonpigmented melanomas was about 50% of the observed in the pigmented counterparts but was still selectively concentrated in the tumor relative to normal tissues in amounts sufficient for effective neutron capture therapy. Single intragastric doses of BPA resulted in selective localization of boron in the amelanotic Greene melanoma carried in the anterior chamber of the rabbit eye and in a pigmented murine melanoma growing in the lungs. The ratio of the boron concentration in these tumors to the boron concentration in the immediately adjacent normal tissue was in the range of 3:1 to 4:1. These distribution studies support the proposal that boron neutron capture therapy may be useful as a regional therapy for malignant melanoma

  14. Second primary oral melanoma: A rare presentation

    Meghanand T Nayak

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Melanomas are neoplasms of melanocytic origin. They are aggressive neoplasms with an unpredictable behavior, and can involve virtually any organ of the body. Oral melanomas are very rare and have an extremely poor prognosis. Early diagnosis and prompt treatment is the key to reduce the morbidity and mortality. A second primary tumor is a new primary tumor developing in a person with a history of tumor, in a new site or tissue and subsequent to the initial tumor. Patients with previous history of melanoma are associated with a higher risk of developing second primaries. A case of second primary oral melanoma in a 55-year-old female is reported here. The anachronistic presentation of the primary and the second primary lesions make this case clinically interesting. Noteworthy immunohistochemical findings were recorded, HMB-45 positive and S-100 negative.

  15. [Molecular alterations in melanoma and targeted therapies].

    Mourah, Samia; Lebbé, Céleste

    2014-12-01

    Melanoma is a skin cancer whose incidence is increasing steadily. The recent discovery of frequent and recurrent genetic alterations in cutaneous melanoma allowed a molecular classification of tumors into distinct subgroups, and paved the way for targeted therapy. Several signaling pathways are involved in the progression of this disease with oncogenic mutations affecting signaling pathways: MAPK, PI3K, cAMP and cyclin D1/CDK4. In each of these pathways, several potential therapeutic targets have been identified and specific inhibitors have already been developed and have shown clinical efficacy. The use of these inhibitors is often conditioned by tumors genotyping. In France, melanomas genotyping is supported by the platforms of the National Cancer Institute (INCA), which implemented a national program ensuring access to innovation for personalized medicine. The identification of new targets in melanoma supplies a very active dynamic development of innovative molecules contributing to changing the therapeutic landscape of this pathology. PMID:25776766

  16. Updates in Therapy for Advanced Melanoma

    Bhavana P. Singh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cutaneous melanoma is one of the most aggressive forms of skin cancer, and is correlated with a large proportion of skin cancer-related deaths. Therapy for cutaneous melanoma has advanced greatly through careful identification of therapeutic targets and the development of novel immunotherapeutic approaches. The identification of BRAF as well as other driver mutations, have allowed for a specialized approach to treatment. In addition, immune checkpoint inhibition has dramatically changed the treatment landscape over the past 5–10 years. The successful targeting of CTLA-4, as well as PD-1/PD-L1, has been translated into meaningful clinical benefit for patients, with multiple other potential agents in development. Systemic therapy for cutaneous melanoma is becoming more nuanced and often takes a multifaceted strategy. This review aims to discuss the benefits and limitations of current therapies in systemic melanoma treatment as well as areas of future development.

  17. CT findings of diffuse malignant leptomeningeal melanoma

    This was a case of malignant melanoma which spreaded diffusely in the meninges. The diagnosis was established by cytology of the cerebrospinal fluid. The CT images, cerebral angiographic findings and pathological findings by autopsy were presented. (Chiba, N.)

  18. Pembrolizumab for Ipilimumab-Resistant Melanoma

    KEYNOTE-002 was designed to test the safety and efficacy of two doses of pembrolizumab compared with chemotherapy in patients with ipilimumab-resistant melanoma; interim results show that pembrolizumab improves progression-free survival for these patients

  19. Nivolumab-Based Treatments for Advanced Melanoma

    A summary of results from an international, double-blind, randomized phase III trial testing the combination of nivolumab (Opdivo®) and ipilimumab (Yervoy®) against nivolumab alone and ipilimumab alone in patients with advanced melanoma.

  20. Dermoscopic and clinical features of trunk melanomas

    Emiroglu, Nazan; Pelin Cengiz, Fatma; Hofmann-Wellenhof, Rainer

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Malignant melanomas account for 5% of all skin cancers and usually have a fatal clinical course. Additionally, the incidence of melanoma increases more rapidly than in any other cancer, and this has been attributed to the development of highly sensitive diagnostic techniques, mainly dermoscopy, which allows for early diagnosis. The phenotypic manifestations of gene/environment interactions, environmental factor and genetic factors may determine subtypes and anatomic localization ...

  1. Ipilimumab til behandling af metastaserende melanoma

    Ghasemi, Habib; Schmidt, Henrik; Stolle, Lars Bjørn

    Until recently metastatic melanoma was a disease with limited treatment options and a poor prognosis. However, new promising products have been developed. Ipilimumab, a full human anti-cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen-4 antibody, has shown improved survival in several clinical trials and is now a...... part of the standard treatment options for this disease in Denmark. In this case report we present a 78-year-old man with metastatic melanoma who had complete remission after treatment with ipilimumab....

  2. A Case of Melanoma Associated Leukoderma

    Özer Arıcan

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Melanoma associated leukoderma is a rare disease characterized by hypopigmented or depigmented macules, which are usualy localized at distant sites from the primary malignant melonoma. Immunologic response to abnormal melanocytes is thought to be responsible for the physiopathology of the disease. A 34-year- old male patient with a facially localized melanoma associated leukoderma is presented and the clinical features, pathogenesis, differential diagnosis, treatment and follow-up of the disease are discussed with the recent literature.

  3. Malignant melanoma of the oral cavity

    M.S. Hashemi Pour

    2006-01-01

    Oral malignant melanoma is a rare disease. The common sites of its occurrence are the palate and gingiva with the maxillary arch being affected 80% of the time. Because of their presence at relatively obscure areas in the oral cavity, most of the malignant melanomas of the oral cavity are diagnosed at a late stage. These lesions are associated with poor prognosis. The dental clinician must therefore carefully examine the head, neck, and oral cavity, and any pigmented lesion that may ex...

  4. TERT promoter mutations in melanoma survival.

    Nagore, Eduardo; Heidenreich, Barbara; Rachakonda, Sívaramakrishna; Garcia-Casado, Zaida; Requena, Celia; Soriano, Virtudes; Frank, Christoph; Traves, Victor; Quecedo, Esther; Sanjuan-Gimenez, Josefa; Hemminki, Kari; Landi, Maria Teresa; Kumar, Rajiv

    2016-07-01

    Despite advances in targeted therapies, the treatment of advanced melanoma remains an exercise in disease management, hence a need for biomarkers for identification of at-risk primary melanoma patients. In this study, we aimed to assess the prognostic value of TERT promoter mutations in primary melanomas. Tumors from 300 patients with stage I/II melanoma were sequenced for TERT promoter and BRAF/NRAS mutations. Cumulative curves were drawn for patients with and without mutations with progression-free and melanoma-specific survival as outcomes. Cox proportional hazard regression models were used to determine the effect of the mutations on survivals. Individually, presence of TERT promoter and BRAF/NRAS mutations associated with poor disease-free and melanoma-specific survival with modification of the effect by the rs2853669 polymorphism within the TERT promoter. Hazard ratio (HR) for simultaneous occurrence of TERT promoter and BRAF/NRAS mutations for disease-free survival was 2.3 (95% CI 1.2-4.4) and for melanoma-specific survival 5.8 (95% CI 1.9-18.3). The effect of the mutations on melanoma-specific survival in noncarriers of variant allele of the polymorphism was significant (HR 4.5, 95% CI 1.4-15.2) but could not be calculated for the carriers due to low number of events. The variant allele per se showed association with increased survival (HR 0.3, 95% CI 0.1-0.9). The data in this study provide preliminary evidence that TERT promoter mutations in combination with BRAF/NRAS mutations can be used to identify patients at risk of aggressive disease and the possibility of refinement of the classification with inclusion of the rs2853669 polymorphism within TERT promoter. PMID:26875008

  5. Primary Mucosal Melanoma: Uncommonly Described Entity

    Kaushal Yadav

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Because of rarity and clinical challenges arising from different anatomic location, our understanding of optimal management of mucosal melanoma remains limited. The most common sites for primary mucosal melanoma are head and neck followed by anorectal, and vulvovaginal regions. Data are limited but improved understanding has led to change in management from more radical excision to conservative surgery with negative margins. We try to summarize available evidences for management this uncommonly described entity.

  6. Mutational Heterogeneity in Melanoma: An Inconvenient Truth.

    Chang, Gregory A; Polsky, David

    2015-12-01

    Identification of oncogenic BRAF mutations in primary and metastatic melanomas supports a linear model of clonal evolution in cancer. Some mutational studies, however, have failed to identify BRAF mutations in metastatic tumors from patients with BRAFmutant primary melanomas. Using a combination of methods, Riveiro-Falkenbach et al. (2015) assert that technical issues, and not clonal heterogeneity, may explain prior discordant mutational results. PMID:26569584

  7. Novel anti-melanoma treatment:focus on immunotherapy

    Meng-Ze Hao; Wen-Ya Zhou; Xiao-Ling Du; Ke-Xin Chen; Guo-Wen Wang; Yun Yang; Ji-Long Yang

    2014-01-01

    Melanoma is an intractable cancer that is aggressive, lethal, and metastatic. The prognosis of advanced melanoma is very poor because it is insensitive to chemotherapy and radiotherapy. The incidence of melanoma has been ascending stably for years worldwide, accompanied by increasing mortality. New approaches to managing this deadly disease are much anticipated to enhance the cure rate and to extend clinical benefits to patients with metastatic melanoma. Due to its high degree of immunogenicity, melanoma could be a good target for immunotherapy, which has been developed for decades and has achieved certain progress. This article provides an overview of immunotherapy for melanoma.

  8. Novel anti-melanoma treatment: focus on immunotherapy

    Meng-Ze Hao

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Melanoma is an intractable cancer that is aggressive, lethal, and metastatic. The prognosis of advanced melanoma is very poor because it is insensitive to chemotherapy and radiotherapy. The incidence of melanoma has been ascending stably for years worldwide, accompanied by increasing mortality. New approaches to managing this deadly disease are much anticipated to enhance the cure rate and to extend clinical benefits to patients with metastatic melanoma. Due to its high degree of immunogenicity, melanoma could be a good target for immunotherapy, which has been developed for decades and has achieved certain progress. This article provides an overview of immunotherapy for melanoma.

  9. Inflammation-Induced Plasticity in Melanoma Therapy and Metastasis.

    Hölzel, Michael; Tüting, Thomas

    2016-06-01

    Phenotype switching contributes to nongenomic heterogeneity in melanoma and other cancers. These dynamic and in part reversible phenotype changes impose diagnostic and therapeutic challenges. Understanding the reciprocal coevolution of melanoma and immune cell phenotypes during disease progression and in response to therapy is a prerequisite to improve current treatment strategies. Here we discuss how proinflammatory signals promote melanoma cell plasticity and govern interactions of melanoma and immune cells in the tumor microenvironment. We examine phenotypic plasticity and heterogeneity in different melanoma mouse models with respect to their utility for translational research and emphasize the interplay between melanoma cells and neutrophils as a critical driver of metastasis. PMID:27151281

  10. High-Dose Recombinant Interferon Alfa-2B, Ipilimumab, or Pembrolizumab in Treating Patients With Stage III-IV High Risk Melanoma That Has Been Removed by Surgery

    2016-09-13

    Metastatic Non-Cutaneous Melanoma; Non-Cutaneous Melanoma; Recurrent Melanoma of the Skin; Recurrent Non-Cutaneous Melanoma; Stage III Mucosal Melanoma of the Head and Neck; Stage IIIA Skin Melanoma; Stage IIIB Skin Melanoma; Stage IIIC Skin Melanoma; Stage IV Skin Melanoma; Stage IVA Mucosal Melanoma of the Head and Neck; Stage IVB Mucosal Melanoma of the Head and Neck; Stage IVC Mucosal Melanoma of the Head and Neck

  11. Non-melanoma skin cancer.

    Griffin, Liezel L; Ali, Faisal Rehman; Lear, John T

    2016-02-01

    Non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) comprises basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and squamous cell carcinoma, together with a host of rare tumours. NMSC is the commonest malignancy among Caucasians and its incidence continues to rise annually. Exposure to UV radiation initiates approximately 90% of NMSC, causing malignant transformation of keratinocytes and suppression of the inflammatory response. Risk factors include sun exposure and immunosuppression. There are several subtypes of BCC, although histological overlap is common. Surgery has traditionally been regarded as the 'gold-standard' treatment, offering excellent cure rates and cosmetic results. Other treatment modalities include physical destruction (radiotherapy, curettage and cautery, and cryotherapy), chemical destruction (photodynamic therapy and topical 5-flurouracil) and immunomodulatory therapy (topical imiquimod). The recent development of novel hedgehog pathway inhibitors for high-risk BCC (including oral vismodegib and sonidegib) may represent a paradigm shift towards medical management of NMSC. PMID:26833519

  12. Thigmotropism of Malignant Melanoma Cells

    Pascale Quatresooz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available During malignant melanoma (MM progression including incipient metastasis, neoplastic cells follow some specific migration paths inside the skin. In particular, they progress along the dermoepidermal basement membrane, the hair follicles, the sweat gland apparatus, nerves, and the near perivascular space. These features evoke the thigmotropism phenomenon defined as a contact-sensing growth of cells. This process is likely connected to modulation in cell tensegrity (control of the cell shape. These specifically located paucicellular aggregates of MM cells do not appear to be involved in the tumorigenic growth phase, but rather they participate in the so-called “accretive” growth model. These MM cell collections are often part of the primary neoplasm, but they may, however, correspond to MM micrometastases and predict further local overt metastasis spread.

  13. Thigmotropism of malignant melanoma cells.

    Quatresooz, Pascale; Piérard-Franchimont, Claudine; Noël, Fanchon; Piérard, Gérald E

    2012-01-01

    During malignant melanoma (MM) progression including incipient metastasis, neoplastic cells follow some specific migration paths inside the skin. In particular, they progress along the dermoepidermal basement membrane, the hair follicles, the sweat gland apparatus, nerves, and the near perivascular space. These features evoke the thigmotropism phenomenon defined as a contact-sensing growth of cells. This process is likely connected to modulation in cell tensegrity (control of the cell shape). These specifically located paucicellular aggregates of MM cells do not appear to be involved in the tumorigenic growth phase, but rather they participate in the so-called "accretive" growth model. These MM cell collections are often part of the primary neoplasm, but they may, however, correspond to MM micrometastases and predict further local overt metastasis spread. PMID:22203839

  14. Treatment and outcomes of anorectal melanoma.

    Heeney, Anna

    2012-02-01

    INTRODUCTION: anorectal melanoma is an uncommon disease constituting less than 3% of all melanomas. Due to its rarity, there are a lack of randomized control trials regarding appropriate management and current evidence is based mainly on retrospective studies. METHODS: in view of the controversial surgical treatment of anorectal melanoma, we review the most published literature in an attempt to elucidate its typical clinical features along with current thinking with respect to management approaches to this aggressive disease. Using the keywords "anorectal" and "malignant melanoma", a medline search of all articles in English was performed and the relevant articles procured. Additional references were retrieved by cross reference from key articles. RESULTS: anorectal melanoma affects the elderly with a slight preponderance for females. It commonly presents disguised as benign disease with local bleeding or suspicion for haemorrhoidal disease. There is no convincing evidence to indicate that radical resection of primary anorectal melanoma is associated with improvement in local control or survival, and local excision is an acceptable treatment option. CONCLUSION: optimum management depends on several factors and the therapeutic goals should be to lengthen survival and preserve quality-of-life. Given that wide local excision is a more limited intervention with comparable survival it should be considered as the initial treatment choice. Unfortunately prognosis for patients with this disease remains poor despite choice of treatment strategy with overall five year disease-free survival less than twenty percent in most studies.

  15. Oncogenic BRAF-Mediated Melanoma Cell Invasion

    Hezhe Lu

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Melanoma patients with oncogenic BRAFV600E mutation have poor prognoses. While the role of BRAFV600E in tumorigenesis is well established, its involvement in metastasis that is clinically observed in melanoma patients remains a topic of debate. Here, we show that BRAFV600E melanoma cells have extensive invasion activity as assayed by the generation of F-actin and cortactin foci that mediate membrane protrusion, and degradation of the extracellular matrix (ECM. Inhibition of BRAFV600E blocks melanoma cell invasion. In a BRAFV600E-driven murine melanoma model or in patients’ tumor biopsies, cortactin foci decrease upon inhibitor treatment. In addition, genome-wide expression analysis shows that a number of invadopodia-related genes are downregulated after BRAFV600E inhibition. Mechanistically, BRAFV600E induces phosphorylation of cortactin and the exocyst subunit Exo70 through ERK, which regulates actin dynamics and matrix metalloprotease secretion, respectively. Our results provide support for the role of BRAFV600E in metastasis and suggest that inhibiting invasion is a potential therapeutic strategy against melanoma.

  16. Two cases of subungual melanoma in situ.

    Imakado, Sumihisa; Sato, Hiroyuki; Hamada, Kazutoshi

    2008-11-01

    Melanonychia, which is characterized by brown or black pigmentation within the nail plate, includes heterogeneous conditions such as pigmented nevus, subungual melanoma and lentigo. We treated two cases of subungual melanoma in situ. One case was a 58-year-old woman who suffered from a malignant melanoma in situ of the left third fingernail, who had also suffered from melanonychia of the fingers for more than 30 years. She had a past history of carcinoma of the uterine cervix. The other patient was a 42-year-old man, who suffered from a malignant melanoma in situ of the right fifth fingernail. He had a past history of carcinoma of the stomach for which he had undergone surgery 2 years earlier. Both cases were accompanied by Hutchinson's sign on the fingertip skin, and the presence of this sign led to the correct diagnosis of subungual melanoma in situ. Judging from previously reported cases, it is unlikely that patients with malignant melanoma have an increased risk of carcinoma of the uterine cervix or of the stomach. PMID:19120774

  17. Melanoma

    ... skin until it reaches the blood vessels and lymphatic system. These two systems can act like a highway for the cancer cells, allowing them easy access to distant organs like the lungs or the brain. That's why early detection is so important. continue ...

  18. Melanoma

    ... of the Year Award Arnold P. Gold Foundation Humanism in Medicine Award Diversity Mentorship Program Eugene Van ... beds, and sun lamps emit ultraviolet light (UV). Scientists have proven that UV light can cause skin ...

  19. Tyrosinase expression in malignant melanoma, desmoplastic melanoma, and peripheral nerve tumors

    Boyle, Jenny L; Haupt, Helen M; Stern, Jere B; Multhaupt, Hinke A B

    2002-01-01

    CONTEXT: Pathologists may encounter problems in the differential diagnosis of malignant melanoma, spindle and epithelioid neoplasms of peripheral nerves, and fibrohistiocytic tumors. Tyrosinase has been demonstrated to be a sensitive marker for melanoma. OBJECTIVE: To determine the specificity of...... tyrosinase expression in the differential diagnosis of melanoma, desmoplastic melanoma, and peripheral nerve sheath tumors. DESIGN: Immunoreactivity for tyrosinase, HMB-45 (anti-gp100 protein), S100 protein, CD34, and vimentin was studied in 70 tumors, including 15 melanomas (5 desmoplastic, 4 amelanotic, 6...... melanotic), 13 malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors; 10 schwannomas (1 pigmented), 12 neurofibromas (4 pigmented), and 20 fibrohistiocytic tumors (10 dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans and 10 dermatofibromas). Microwave-based antigen retrieval was performed in 10mM citrate buffer, pH 6.0, for 20 minutes at...

  20. Melanoma risk perception and prevention behavior among African-Americans: the minority melanoma paradox

    Goldenberg A

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Alina Goldenberg,1 Igor Vujic,2,3 Martina Sanlorenzo,2,4 Susana Ortiz-Urda2 1Department of Internal Medicine/Dermatology, University of California, San Diego, 2Mt Zion Cancer Research Center, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, USA; 3Department of Dermatology, The Rudolfstiftung Hospital, Academic Teaching Hospital, Medical University Vienna, Vienna, Austria; 4Section of Dermatology, Department of Medical Sciences, University of Turin, Turin, Italy Introduction: Melanoma is the most deadly type of skin cancer with 75% of all skin cancer deaths within the US attributed to it. Risk factors for melanoma include ultraviolet exposure, genetic predisposition, and phenotypic characteristics (eg, fair skin and blond hair. Whites have a 27-fold higher incidence of melanoma than African-Americans (AA, but the 5-year survival is 17.8% lower for AA than Whites. It is reported continuously that AA have more advanced melanomas at diagnosis, and overall lower survival rates. This minority melanoma paradox is not well understood or studied. Objective: To explore further, the possible explanations for the difference in melanoma severity and survival in AA within the US. Methods: Qualitative review of the literature. Results: Lack of minority-targeted public education campaigns, low self-risk perception, low self-skin examinations, intrinsic virulence, vitamin D differences, and physician mistrust may play a role in the melanoma survival disparity among AA. Conclusion: Increases in public awareness of melanoma risk among AA through physician and media-guided education, higher index of suspicion among individuals and physicians, and policy changes can help to improve early detection and close the melanoma disparity gap in the future. Keywords: acral, advanced, African-American, disparity, melanoma, survival

  1. Screening for metastatic malignant melanoma of the uvea revisited

    Eskelin, Sebastian; Pyrhönen, Seppo; Summanen, Paula; Prause, J.U.; Kivelä, Tero

    ophthalmology, malignant uveal melanoma, metastasis, liver, screening, ultrasonography, X-ray, lactate dehydrogenase, alkaline phosphatase, aminotransferases......ophthalmology, malignant uveal melanoma, metastasis, liver, screening, ultrasonography, X-ray, lactate dehydrogenase, alkaline phosphatase, aminotransferases...

  2. Choroid Melanoma Metastasis to Spine: A Rare Case Report

    Hiren Mandaliya

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Metastatic choroid melanoma is a highly malignant disease with a limited life expectancy. The liver is the most common site for metastasis of uveal melanoma followed by lung, bone, skin, and subcutaneous tissue. Metastasis from choroidal melanoma usually occurs within the first five years of treatment for primary tumours. Metastatic choroid melanoma to the spine/vertebrae is extremely rare. We report the first case of spinal metastasis from choroid melanoma in a 61-year-old man who had been treated for primary ocular melanoma three years earlier with radioactive plaque brachytherapy. Synchronously, at the time of metastasis, he was also diagnosed as having a new primary lung adenocarcinoma as well. The only other case reported on vertebral metastasis from malignant melanoma of choroid in literature in which primary choroid melanoma was enucleated.

  3. Melanoma Drug Boosting Survival for Many, Study Shows

    ... nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_158928.html Melanoma Drug Boosting Survival for Many, Study Shows Keytruda ... 2016 (HealthDay News) -- A new drug for advanced melanoma is dramatically shifting the odds in favor of ...

  4. Trends and risk factors of cutaneous melanoma in Europe

    E. de Vries (Esther)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractThis thesis presents studies on different aspects of the epidemiology of melanoma: variations in disease frequency in time and place, determinants of melanoma incidence and variation in prognostic factors

  5. Role of radiotherapy in melanoma management

    In melanoma, radiotherapy has generally been considered as a palliative treatment option indicated only for advanced cases or disseminated disease. In the 70s of the previous century, the technological advances in radiotherapy, linked to rapid development of computer sciences, resulted in restored interest for radiotherapy in melanoma management. Although a fundamental lack of well designed prospective and/or randomized clinical trials critically influenced the integration of radiotherapy into treatment strategies in melanoma, radiotherapy was recently recognized as an indispensable part in the multidisciplinary management of patients with melanoma. Altogether, approximately 23% of melanoma patients should receive at least one course of radiotherapy during the course of the disease. In this review, radiobiological properties of melanoma that govern the decisions for the fractionation patterns used in the treatment of this disease are described. Moreover, the indications for irradiation and the results of pertinent clinical studies from the literature, creating a rationale for the use of radiotherapy in the management of this disease, are reviewed and a brief description of radiotherapy techniques is given. Basic treatment modality in melanoma is surgery. However, whenever surgery is not radical or there are adverse prognostic factors identified on histopathological examination of resected tissue specimen, it needs to be supplemented. Also, in patients with unresectable disease or in those not being suitable for major surgery or who refuse proposed surgical intervention, other effective mode(s) of therapy need to be implemented. From this perspective, supported by clinical experiences and literature results, radiotherapy is a valuable option: it is effective and safe, in curative and palliative setting

  6. Spontaneous melanoma formation in nonhybrid Xiphophorus.

    Schartl, A; Malitschek, B; Kazianis, S; Borowsky, R; Schartl, M

    1995-01-01

    Melanoma in hybrids of Xiphophorus is due to the unrestricted activity of a cellular oncogene locus, Tu, encoding the growth factor receptor gene Xmrk. In nonhybrid parental fish, Tu is controlled by a tumor suppressor gene. Thus, its restricted activity leads there only to a nonmalignant, species- and population-specific macromelanophore spot pattern. Prompted by enigmatic reports on nonhybrid Xiphophorus with pigmentation abnormalities resembling melanoma, we have studied pigmentation in descendants of wild-caught fish and purebred laboratory stocks derived from wild populations. Whereas most stocks exhibiting macromelanophore patterns never developed pigmentation abnormalities, an exceptional situation for some nonhybrids was found. In X. variatus carrying the macromelanophore pattern "punctatus-2" and in X. cortezi with "spotted caudal," expressivity of the pigmentation gene ranges from a few black spots to extreme melanosis and eventually to malignant melanoma. In X. maculatus with the mutant pigmentation gene striped" carrying in addition the micromelanophore pattern "anal fin black" or "lower comet," testosterone-dependent melanoma develop originating from the corresponding micromelanophore pattern. The tumors are highly malignant and express a melanoma-associated antigen. Overexpression of the Xmrk oncogene appears as the underlying molecular mechanism for tumor induction. These findings clearly demonstrate that tumors can also develop in purebred wild-type fish. The classical model for formation of hereditary melanoma in Xiphophorus hybrids does not explain the development of melanoma in the absence of hybridization. However, their existence gives additional support to the reasoning that the Xmrk oncogene associated with the macromelanophore locus is potentially injurious. PMID:7805027

  7. Endothelin-1 in the tumor microenvironment correlates with melanoma invasion.

    Chiriboga, Luis; Meehan, Shane; Osman, Iman; Glick, Michael; de la Cruz, Gelo; Howell, Brittny S; Friedman-Jiménez, George; Schneider, Robert J; Jamal, Sumayah

    2016-06-01

    Endothelin-1 (ET-1) is a vasoactive peptide that also plays a role in the tanning response of the skin. Animal and cell culture studies have also implicated ET-1 in melanoma progression, but no association studies have been performed to link ET-1 expression and melanoma in humans. Here, we present the first in-vivo study of ET-1 expression in pigmented lesions in humans: an ET-1 immunohistochemical screen of melanocytic nevi, melanoma in situ lesions, invasive melanomas, metastatic melanomas, and blue nevi was performed. Twenty-six percent of melanocytic nevi and 44% of melanoma in situ lesions demonstrate ET-1 expression in the perilesional microenvironment, whereas expression in nevus or melanoma cells was rare to absent. In striking contrast, 100% of moderately to highly pigmented invasive melanomas contained numerous ET-1-positive cells in the tumor microenvironment, with 79% containing ET-1-positive melanoma cells, confirmed by co-staining with melanoma tumor marker HMB45. Hypopigmented invasive melanomas had reduced ET-1 expression, suggesting a correlation between ET-1 expression and pigmented melanomas. ET-1-positive perilesional cells were CD68-positive, indicating macrophage origin. Sixty-two percent of highly pigmented metastatic melanomas demonstrated ET-1 expression in melanoma cells, in contrast to 28.2% of hypopigmented specimens. Eighty-nine percent of benign nevi, known as blue nevi, which have a dermal localization, were associated with numerous ET-1-positive macrophages in the perilesional microenvironment, but no ET-1 expression was detected in the melanocytes. We conclude that ET-1 expression in the microenvironment increases with advancing stages of melanocyte transformation, implicating a critical role for ET-1 in melanoma progression, and the importance of the tumor microenvironment in the melanoma phenotype. PMID:26825037

  8. Melanoma after laser therapy of pigmented lesions - circumstances and outcome

    Zipser, M C; Mangana, J; Oberholzer, P A; French, L E; Dummer, R.

    2010-01-01

    The use of laser therapy in the treatment of pigmented lesions is a controversial issue as it can delay melanoma diagnosis and may negatively impact mortality. Few cases of melanoma after laser therapy have been reported. It is still unknown whether melanoma can be induced by lasers. We discuss the outcomes of twelve patients presenting with melanoma subsequent to previous treatment with laser. In four patients, a skin biopsy was performed before laser treatment. Histology was re-evaluated by...

  9. Hormonal exposures and the risk of uveal melanoma

    Behrens, Thomas Flensted; Kaerlev, Linda; Cree, Ian; Lutz, Jean-Michel; Afonso, Noemia; Eriksson, Mikael; Guénel, Pascal; Merletti, Franco; Morales-Suarez-Varela, Maria; Stengrevics, Aivars; Sabroe, Svend; Cyr, Diane; Llopis-González, Agustin; Gorini, Giuseppe; Sharkova, Galina; Hardell, Lennart; Ahrens, Wolfgang

    2010-01-01

    Several studies suggest that hormonal mechanisms may be associated with the development of uveal melanoma. Therefore, the association between the risk of uveal melanoma and exposure to hormonal exposures was investigated in a case-control study from nine European countries.......Several studies suggest that hormonal mechanisms may be associated with the development of uveal melanoma. Therefore, the association between the risk of uveal melanoma and exposure to hormonal exposures was investigated in a case-control study from nine European countries....

  10. Subretinal lipid exudation associated with untreated choroidal melanoma

    C K Minija

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Subretinal lipid exudation in an untreated choroidal melanoma is very rare. It is seen following plaque radiotherapy in choroidal melanoma. There is only one case report of untreated choroidal melanoma with massive lipid exudation in a patient with metastatic hypernephroma. We report here a rare case of untreated choroidal melanoma with lipid exudation. Subretinal exudation that is rarely seen following plaque brachytherapy was noted at the borders of this untreated tumor. Lipid exudation partially resolved following brachytherapy.

  11. A highly recurrent RPS27 5'UTR mutation in melanoma

    Dutton-Regester, Ken; Gartner, Jared J; Emmanuel, Rafi; Qutob, Nouar; Davies, Michael A.; Gershenwald, Jeffrey E.; Robinson, William; Robinson, Steven; Rosenberg, Steven A.; Scolyer, Richard A.; Mann, Graham J; Thompson, John F; Nicholas K Hayward; Samuels, Yardena

    2014-01-01

    The incidence of melanoma continues to rise globally and is increasing at a rate greater than any other cancer. To systematically search for new genes involved in melanomagenesis, we collated exome sequencing data from independent melanoma cohort datasets, including those in the public domain. We identified recurrent mutations that may drive melanoma growth, survival or metastasis, and which may hold promise for the design of novel therapies to treat melanoma. These included a frequent recurr...

  12. Loss of S100 antigenicity in metastatic melanoma

    Aisner, Dara L.; Maker, Ajay; Rosenberg, Steven A.; Berman, David M.

    2005-01-01

    Melanoma is a highly malignant disease that may initially present as a poorly differentiated metastatic tumor. Therefore, the S100 immunostain, immunoreactive in 96% to 99% of melanoma, is used to evaluate poorly differentiated malignant tumors. To develop criteria for correctly diagnosing S100-negative melanomas, we studied the immunohistochemical profile of 1553 patients enrolled in ongoing National Cancer Institute clinical trials for melanoma. Seventeen patients (1%) had metastatic melano...

  13. Driver Mutations in Uveal Melanoma

    Decatur, Christina L.; Ong, Erin; Garg, Nisha; Anbunathan, Hima; Bowcock, Anne M.; Field, Matthew G.; Harbour, J. William

    2016-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Frequent mutations have been described in the following 5 genes in uveal melanoma (UM): BAP1, EIF1AX, GNA11, GNAQ, and SF3B1. Understanding the prognostic significance of these mutations could facilitate their use in precision medicine. OBJECTIVE To determine the associations between driver mutations, gene expression profile (GEP) classification, clinicopathologic features, and patient outcomes in UM. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS Retrospective study of patients with UM treated by enucleation by a single ocular oncologist between November 1, 1998, and July 31, 2014. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Clinicopathologic features, patient outcomes, GEP classification (class 1 or class 2), and mutation status were recorded. RESULTS The study cohort comprised 81 participants. Their mean age was 61.5 years, and 37% (30 of 81) were female. The GEP classification was class 1 in 35 of 81 (43%), class 2 in 42 of 81 (52%), and unknown in 4 of 81 (5%). BAP1 mutations were identified in 29 of 64 (45%), GNAQ mutations in 36 of 81 (44%), GNA11 mutations in 36 of 81 (44%), SF3B1 mutations in 19 of 81 (24%), and EIF1AX mutations in 14 of 81 (17%). Sixteen of the mutations in BAP1 and 6 of the mutations in EIF1AX were previously unreported in UM. GNAQ and GNA11 mutations were mutually exclusive. BAP1, SF3B1, and EIF1AX mutations were almost mutually exclusive with each other. Using multiple regression analysis, BAP1 mutations were associated with class 2 GEP and older patient. EIF1AX mutations were associated with class 1 GEP and the absence of ciliary body involvement. SF3B1 mutations were associated with younger patient age. GNAQ mutations were associated with the absence of ciliary body involvement and greater largest basal diameter. GNA11 mutations were not associated with any of the analyzed features. Using Cox proportional hazards modeling, class 2 GEP was the prognostic factor most strongly associated with metastasis (relative risk, 9.4; 95% CI, 3.1–28.5) and

  14. Long-term Survival after Metastatic Childhood Melanoma

    Larsen, Anne Kristine; Bybjerg Jensen, Mette; Krag, Christen

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY: Malignant melanoma in children is very rare and accounts for only 1-3% of all melanomas. A congenital melanocytic nevus depending on the size of the lesion is one of the risk factors for developing childhood melanoma because of the possible malignant transformation. Childhood malignant...

  15. Immunotherapy of metastatic melanoma by reversal of immune suppression

    Biggs, M.W.; Eiselein, J.E.

    1997-01-01

    Beginning with the observation that the human enteorvirus, Poliovirus Sabin 1, will lyse human melanoma cells in culture, clinical trials involving two patients with advance melanoma were performed. Parenteral injection of the viable Poliovirus into cutaneous melanoma metastases followed in 24 hours by oral administration of cyclophosphamide. The results of these two trials are described.

  16. Cytotoxic T lymphocyte responses against melanocytes and melanoma

    Schwartz Erich J

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vitiligo is a common toxicity associated with immunotherapy for melanoma. Cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs against melanoma commonly target melanoma-associated antigens (MAAs which are also expressed by melanocytes. To uncouple vitiligo from melanoma destruction, it is important to understand if CTLs can respond against melanoma and melanocytes at different levels. Methods To understand the dichotomous role of MAA-specific CTL, we characterized the functional reactivities of established CTL clones directed to MAAs against melanoma and melanocyte cell lines. Results CTL clones generated from melanoma patients were capable of eliciting MHC-restricted, MAA-specific lysis against melanocyte cell lines as well as melanoma cells. Among the tested HLA-A*0201-restricted CTL clones, melanocytes evoked equal to slightly higher degranulation and cytolytic responses as compared to melanoma cells. Moreover, MAA-specific T cells from vaccinated patients responded directly ex vivo to melanoma and melanocytes. Melanoma cells express slightly higher levels of MART-1 and gp100 than melanocytes as measured by quantitative reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR and immunohistochemistry. Conclusions Our data suggest that CTLs respond to melanoma and melanocytes equally in vitro and directly ex vivo.

  17. Indium-111 labeled anti-melanoma monoclonal antibodies

    Srivastava, S.C.; Fawwaz, R.A.; Ferrone, S.

    1984-04-30

    A monoclonal antibody to a high molecular weight melanoma-associated antigen was chelated and radiolabeled with indium-111. This material shows high affinity for melanoma and thus can be used in the detection, localization and imaging of melanoma. 1 figure.

  18. Veterinary researcher examines malignant melanoma in horses and people

    Douglas, Jeffrey S.

    2006-01-01

    Malignant melanoma is a dangerous, aggressive form of cancer, and approximately 54,000 new cases are diagnosed every year, according to the American Cancer Society. Interestingly, there are many similarities between malignant melanoma in horses and malignant melanoma in people.

  19. Melanoma-specific mortality and competing mortality in patients with non-metastatic malignant melanoma: a population-based analysis

    Shen, Weidong; Sakamoto, Naoko; Yang, Limin

    2016-01-01

    Background The objectives of this study were to evaluate and model the probability of melanoma-specific death and competing causes of death for patients with melanoma by competing risk analysis, and to build competing risk nomograms to provide individualized and accurate predictive tools. Methods Melanoma data were obtained from the Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results program. All patients diagnosed with primary non-metastatic melanoma during the years 2004–2007 were potentially eligibl...

  20. Frequent MAGE mutations in human melanoma.

    Otavia L Caballero

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cancer/testis (CT genes are expressed only in the germ line and certain tumors and are most frequently located on the X-chromosome (the CT-X genes. Amongst the best studied CT-X genes are those encoding several MAGE protein families. The function of MAGE proteins is not well understood, but several have been shown to potentially influence the tumorigenic phenotype. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We undertook a mutational analysis of coding regions of four CT-X MAGE genes, MAGEA1, MAGEA4, MAGEC1, MAGEC2 and the ubiquitously expressed MAGEE1 in human melanoma samples. We first examined cell lines established from tumors and matching blood samples from 27 melanoma patients. We found that melanoma cell lines from 37% of patients contained at least one mutated MAGE gene. The frequency of mutations in the coding regions of individual MAGE genes varied from 3.7% for MAGEA1 and MAGEA4 to 14.8% for MAGEC2. We also examined 111 fresh melanoma samples collected from 86 patients. In this case, samples from 32% of the patients exhibited mutations in one or more MAGE genes with the frequency of mutations in individual MAGE genes ranging from 6% in MAGEA1 to 16% in MAGEC1. SIGNIFICANCE: These results demonstrate for the first time that the MAGE gene family is frequently mutated in melanoma.

  1. Autophagy- An emerging target for melanoma therapy.

    Ndoye, Abibatou; Weeraratna, Ashani T

    2016-01-01

    Melanoma accounts for only 5% of all cancers but is the leading cause of skin cancer death due to its high metastatic potential. Patients with metastatic melanoma have a 10-year survival rate of less than 10%. While the clinical landscape for melanoma is evolving rapidly, lack of response to therapies, as well as resistance to therapy remain critical obstacles for treatment of this disease. In recent years, a myriad of therapy resistance mechanisms have been unravelled, one of which is autophagy, the focus of this review. In advanced stages of malignancy, melanoma cells hijack the autophagy machinery in order to alleviate drug-induced and metabolic stress in the tumor microenvironment, thereby promoting resistance to multiple therapies, tumor cell survival, and progression.  Autophagy is an essential cellular process that maintains cellular homeostasis through the recycling of intracellular constituents. Early studies on the role of autophagy in cancer generated controversy as to whether autophagy was pro- or anti-tumorigenic. Currently, there is a consensus that autophagy is tumor-suppressive in the early stages of cancer and tumor-promoting in established tumors.  This review aims to highlight current understandings on the role of autophagy in melanoma malignancy, and specifically therapy resistance; as well as to evaluate recent strategies for therapeutic autophagy modulation. PMID:27583134

  2. Treating advanced melanoma: current insights and opportunities

    Tronnier M

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Michael Tronnier, Christina Mitteldorf Department of Dermatology, Klinikum Hildesheim GmbH, Hildesheim, Germany Abstract: Whereas thin melanomas have an excellent prognosis after sufficient surgical treatment, melanoma disease in advanced stages is still a therapeutic challenge. After decades of frustrating studies, new therapeutic strategies have come up in the past few years. On the one hand, increasing insights into the molecular aberrations in melanoma have led to specific "targeted" therapies to affect only the mutated tumor cells, as in many other types of cancers. Today there are few "targeted" substances which are already approved and successfully used for single or combination therapy, but many others are under development. While on the other hand, nonpersonalized strategy substances have been developed successfully inducing an immunologic tumor response. Both kinds of therapy have been found to result in an improvement not only of the response rate, but also of the overall survival in metastatic disease, which represents a milestone in melanoma therapy. However, using these therapies there is still much to learn regarding the effects, the side effects, and the limitations of these promising substances. Keywords: melanoma, treatment, targeted therapy, immunotherapy, BRAF, CTLA-4

  3. Vemurafenib for the treatment of melanoma.

    Jordan, Emmet John

    2012-12-01

    Metastatic melanoma is an aggressive disease resistant to chemotherapy. Recent clinical trials have reported improved survival for two novel agents; ipilimumab, a humanized, IgG1 monoclonal antibody that blocks cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 (CTLA-4) and vemurafenib , a BRAF (v-raf murine sarcoma viral oncogene homolog B1) inhibitor targeting an activating mutation in the serine-threonine-protein kinase BRAF gene. AREAS COVERED: The authors reviewed preclinical and clinical data examining the safety of vemurafenib in melanoma. MEDLINE and EMBASE were searched using the medical subject heading \\'vemurafenib\\' and the following text terms: melanoma, BRAF inhibition, vemurafenib. This review provides the reader with an overview of current data examining the efficacy and safety of vemurafenib in metastatic melanoma. EXPERT OPINION: Vemurafenib is an oral agent licensed for patients with BRAF V600E mutation-positive inoperable and metastatic melanoma. The most common adverse effects observed in Phase III clinical trials were dermatological events, arthralgia and fatigue. Specific dermatological toxicities included development of cutaneous squamous cell cancers and keratoacanthomas. Prolongation of the QT interval was also reported. Regular dermatological assessments and electrocardiograms are recommended. Ongoing trials are examining vemurafenib in both the adjuvant setting and metastatic setting in combination with ipilimumab and MEK inhibitors (mitogen-activated protein kinase\\/extracellular signal-regulated kinase). Understanding and overcoming mechanisms of resistance to BRAF inhibitors is the focus of ongoing research.

  4. MicroRNA dysregulation in melanoma.

    Latchana, Nicholas; Ganju, Akaansha; Howard, J Harrison; Carson, William E

    2016-09-01

    Melanoma is the deadliest form of skin cancer. Current challenges facing the management of melanoma include accurate prediction of individuals who will respond to adjuvant therapies as well as early detection of recurrences. These and other challenges have prompted investigation into biomarkers that could be used as diagnostic, prognostic and therapeutic aids. MicroRNAs (miRs) are small 19-22 nucleotide RNA inhibitors of protein translation. Over 800 different miRs are present within cells and importantly miR expression profiles may vary across different cells types and stages of malignancy. Unique expression profiles have been described for malignant melanoma; however, this work has yet to be translated into routine clinical practice. We highlight pertinent studies involving common miRs implicated in the oncogenesis of melanoma including miR-21, miR-125b, miR-150, miR-155, miR-205, and miR-211. In particular, emphasis is placed upon differential expression across different stages of melanoma progression, prognostic implications and potential mechanistic involvement. Focused efforts on inhibition of these miRs could be the most efficient method of translating preclinical endeavors into clinically meaningful applications. PMID:27566021

  5. Selenium for the Prevention of Cutaneous Melanoma

    Douglas Grossman

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The role of selenium (Se supplementation in cancer prevention is controversial; effects often depend on the nutritional status of the subject and on the chemical form in which Se is provided. We used a combination of in vitro and in vivo models to study two unique therapeutic windows for intervention in the process of cutaneous melanomagenisis, and to examine the utility of two different chemical forms of Se for prevention and treatment of melanoma. We studied the effects of Se in vitro on UV-induced oxidative stress in melanocytes, and on apoptosis and cell cycle progression in melanoma cells. In vivo, we used the HGF transgenic mouse model of UV-induced melanoma to demonstrate that topical treatment with l-selenomethionine results in a significant delay in the time required for UV-induced melanoma development, but also increases the rate of growth of those tumors once they appear. In a second mouse model, we found that oral administration of high dose methylseleninic acid significantly decreases the size of human melanoma xenografts. Our findings suggest that modestly elevation of selenium levels in the skin might risk acceleration of growth of incipient tumors. Additionally, certain Se compounds administered at very high doses could have utility for the treatment of fully-malignant tumors or prevention of recurrence.

  6. Antioxidants can increase melanoma metastasis in mice.

    Le Gal, Kristell; Ibrahim, Mohamed X; Wiel, Clotilde; Sayin, Volkan I; Akula, Murali K; Karlsson, Christin; Dalin, Martin G; Akyürek, Levent M; Lindahl, Per; Nilsson, Jonas; Bergo, Martin O

    2015-10-01

    Antioxidants in the diet and supplements are widely used to protect against cancer, but clinical trials with antioxidants do not support this concept. Some trials show that antioxidants actually increase cancer risk and a study in mice showed that antioxidants accelerate the progression of primary lung tumors. However, little is known about the impact of antioxidant supplementation on the progression of other types of cancer, including malignant melanoma. We show that administration of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) increases lymph node metastases in an endogenous mouse model of malignant melanoma but has no impact on the number and size of primary tumors. Similarly, NAC and the soluble vitamin E analog Trolox markedly increased the migration and invasive properties of human malignant melanoma cells but did not affect their proliferation. Both antioxidants increased the ratio between reduced and oxidized glutathione in melanoma cells and in lymph node metastases, and the increased migration depended on new glutathione synthesis. Furthermore, both NAC and Trolox increased the activation of the small guanosine triphosphatase (GTPase) RHOA, and blocking downstream RHOA signaling abolished antioxidant-induced migration. These results demonstrate that antioxidants and the glutathione system play a previously unappreciated role in malignant melanoma progression. PMID:26446958

  7. Extrafollicular Dermal Melanocyte Stem Cells and Melanoma

    James D. Hoerter

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies suggest that extrafollicular dermal melanocyte stem cells (MSCs persist after birth in the superficial nerve sheath of peripheral nerves and give rise to migratory melanocyte precursors when replacements for epidermal melanocytes are needed on the basal epidermal layer of the skin. If a damaged MSC or melanocyte precursor can be shown to be the primary origin of melanoma, targeted identification and eradication of it by antibody-based therapies will be the best method to treat melanoma and a very effective way to prevent its recurrence. Transcription factors and signaling pathways involved in MSC self-renewal, expansion and differentiation are reviewed. A model is presented to show how the detrimental effects of long-term UVA/UVB radiation on DNA and repair mechanisms in MSCs convert them to melanoma stem cells. Zebrafish have many advantages for investigating the role of MSCs in the development of melanoma. The signaling pathways regulating the development of MSCs in zebrafish are very similar to those found in humans and mice. The ability to easily manipulate the MSC population makes zebrafish an excellent model for studying how damage to MSCs may lead to melanoma.

  8. Cure of malignant melanoma by single thermal neutron capture treatment using melanoma-seeking compounds

    Since not only malignant melanomas but also many kinds of human cancers, for example thyroid cancer and squamous cell carcinoma, synthesize their specific protein, much attention has been paid to the establishment of selective thermal neutron capture treatment of malignant melanoma as a prototype of such cancer cells. This paper presents 10B chlorpromazine compounds and 10B1-para-boronophenylalanine (10B1-BPA) as tumor-seeking 10B compounds which themselves possess selective affinity for the specific metabolic activity of the target cancer cells. An overview of the following studies on the effects of 10B1-BPA in the thermal neutron capture treatment of melanoma is provided: 1) in vitro studies on specific enhanced melanoma cell killing effects of 10B1-BPA; 2) in vivo studies on therapeutic effects of 10B1-BPA using melanoma-bearing hamsters; and 3) preclinical therapeutic experiments using spontaneously occurring malignant melanoma in Duroc pig skin, including experiments in which melanoma was successfully cured. (Namekawa, K.)

  9. Plasma 25-Hydroxyvitamin D and Risk of Non-Melanoma and Melanoma Skin Cancer

    Afzal, Shoaib; Nordestgaard, Børge G; Bojesen, Stig E

    2013-01-01

    Sun exposure is a major risk factor for skin cancer and is also an important source of vitamin D. We tested the hypothesis that elevated plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OH-vitD) associates with increased risk of non-melanoma and melanoma skin cancer in the general population. We measured plasma 25......-OH-vitD in 10,060 white individuals from the Danish general population. During 28 years of follow-up, 590 individuals developed non-melanoma skin cancer and 78 developed melanoma skin cancer. Increasing 25-OH-vitD levels, by clinical categories or by seasonally adjusted tertiles, were associated with...... increasing cumulative incidence of non-melanoma skin cancer (trend P=2 × 10(-15) and P=3 × 10(-17)) and melanoma skin cancer (P=0.003 and P=0.001). Multivariable adjusted hazard ratios of non-melanoma skin cancer were 5.04 (95% confidence interval (CI): 2.78-9.16) for 25-OH-vitD 50 vs. 60 years, 25-OH...

  10. Imaging of ocular melanoma metastasis.

    Balasubramanya, Rashmi; Selvarajan, Santosh Kumar; Cox, Mougnyan; Joshi, Ganesh; Deshmukh, Sandeep; Mitchell, Donald G; O'Kane, Patrick

    2016-09-01

    Ocular melanoma is the most common adult primary intraocular tumour. Although helpful for detecting liver lesions. In particular, newer hepatobiliary contrast agents which offer an additional hepatobiliary phase of excretion help in the detection of even tiny liver metastases. Diffusion-weighted imaging is helpful when an i.v. contrast cannot be administered. Treated lesions are also better evaluated with MRI. CT is useful for evaluating lung nodules, large liver metastasis or in patients in whom MRI is medically contraindicated. The disadvantage lies in its inability to detect small liver metastasis and the radiation dose involved. The lesions treated with iodized oil as part of chemoembolization procedures can be followed on CT. Ultrasound can be used only for detecting hepatic metastases. However, it is heavily operator dependent, technically challenging and time consuming especially in patients who are large. Extrahepatic metastasis cannot be seen on ultrasound. Its utility is primarily for the biopsy of liver lesions. Positron emission tomography (PET)-CT can detect lung nodules and large liver lesions but is insensitive to small liver lesions. Moreover, the high radiation dose is a major disadvantage. PMID:27168029

  11. Malignant melanoma of the oral cavity

    Ebenezer Jagadish

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Oral malignant melanoma is a rare disease. The common sites of its occurrence are the palate and gingiva with the maxillary arch being affected 80% of the time. Because of their presence at relatively obscure areas in the oral cavity, most of the malignant melanomas of the oral cavity are diagnosed at a late stage. These lesions are associated with poor prognosis. The dental clinician must therefore carefully examine the head, neck, and oral cavity, and any pigmented lesion that may exhibit growth potential must be biopsied. This article describes a case of malignant melanoma that was present in the oral cavity and briefly reviews the relevant literature that explains the nature of this lesion.

  12. Bioelectric Applications for Treatment of Melanoma

    Two new cancer therapies apply bioelectric principles. These methods target tumor structures locally and function by applying millisecond electric fields to deliver plasmid DNA encoding cytokines using electrogene transfer (EGT) or by applying rapid rise-time nanosecond pulsed electric fields (nsPEFs). EGT has been used to locally deliver cytokines such as IL-12 to activate an immune response, resulting in bystander effects. NsPEFs locally induce apoptosis-like effects and affect vascular networks, both promoting tumor demise and restoration of normal vascular homeostasis. EGT with IL-12 is in melanoma clinical trials and nsPEFs are used in models with B16F10 melanoma in vitro and in mice. Applications of bioelectrics, using conventional electroporation and extensions of it, provide effective alternative therapies for melanoma

  13. Control of differentiation of melanoma cells

    To develop the method to induce the appearance of differentiation in amelanotic melanoma, experimental control of differentiation in B-16 melanoma cells of mice was discussed. Human melanoma cells and yellow melanin pigment cells useful for a fundamental study of radiotherapy for cancer were cultured and were differentiated into some lines. Melanotic B-16 cells and amelanotic B-16 cells were irradiated with thermal neutron (neutron: 2.7 x 1012, γ-dose: 32.3 rad) after they were cultured in culture solution containing 10 γ/ml of 10B-dopa for 13 hours. A fine structure 5 hours after the irradiation in one of 5 experimental cases showed aggregated disintegration of melanin pigment particles, markedly deformed and fragmentized nucleus, and structural changes in cell membrane. (Tsunoda, M.)

  14. Ensemble approach for differentiation of malignant melanoma

    Rastgoo, Mojdeh; Morel, Olivier; Marzani, Franck; Garcia, Rafael

    2015-04-01

    Melanoma is the deadliest type of skin cancer, yet it is the most treatable kind depending on its early diagnosis. The early prognosis of melanoma is a challenging task for both clinicians and dermatologists. Due to the importance of early diagnosis and in order to assist the dermatologists, we propose an automated framework based on ensemble learning methods and dermoscopy images to differentiate melanoma from dysplastic and benign lesions. The evaluation of our framework on the recent and public dermoscopy benchmark (PH2 dataset) indicates the potential of proposed method. Our evaluation, using only global features, revealed that ensembles such as random forest perform better than single learner. Using random forest ensemble and combination of color and texture features, our framework achieved the highest sensitivity of 94% and specificity of 92%.

  15. Bioelectric Applications for Treatment of Melanoma

    Beebe, Stephen J., E-mail: sbeebe@odu.edu; Schoenbach, Karl H.; Heller, Richard [Frank Reidy Research Center for Bioelectrics/Old Dominion University 4211 Monarch Way, Suite 300, Norfolk, Virginia 23508 (United States)

    2010-09-27

    Two new cancer therapies apply bioelectric principles. These methods target tumor structures locally and function by applying millisecond electric fields to deliver plasmid DNA encoding cytokines using electrogene transfer (EGT) or by applying rapid rise-time nanosecond pulsed electric fields (nsPEFs). EGT has been used to locally deliver cytokines such as IL-12 to activate an immune response, resulting in bystander effects. NsPEFs locally induce apoptosis-like effects and affect vascular networks, both promoting tumor demise and restoration of normal vascular homeostasis. EGT with IL-12 is in melanoma clinical trials and nsPEFs are used in models with B16F10 melanoma in vitro and in mice. Applications of bioelectrics, using conventional electroporation and extensions of it, provide effective alternative therapies for melanoma.

  16. Bioelectric Applications for Treatment of Melanoma

    Richard Heller

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Two new cancer therapies apply bioelectric principles. These methods target tumor structures locally and function by applying millisecond electric fields to deliver plasmid DNA encoding cytokines using electrogene transfer (EGT or by applying rapid rise-time nanosecond pulsed electric fields (nsPEFs. EGT has been used to locally deliver cytokines such as IL-12 to activate an immune response, resulting in bystander effects. NsPEFs locally induce apoptosis-like effects and affect vascular networks, both promoting tumor demise and restoration of normal vascular homeostasis. EGT with IL-12 is in melanoma clinical trials and nsPEFs are used in models with B16F10 melanoma in vitro and in mice. Applications of bioelectrics, using conventional electroporation and extensions of it, provide effective alternative therapies for melanoma.

  17. High nevus counts confer a favorable prognosis in melanoma patients

    Ribero, Simone; Davies, John R; Requena, Celia; Carrera, Cristina; Glass, Daniel; Rull, Ramon; Vidal-Sicart, Sergi; Vilalta, Antonio; Alos, Lucia; Soriano, Virtudes; Quaglino, Pietro; Traves, Victor; Newton-Bishop, Julia A; Nagore, Eduardo; Malvehy, Josep

    2015-01-01

    A high number of nevi is the most significant phenotypic risk factor for melanoma and is in part genetically determined. The number of nevi decreases from middle age onward but this senescence can be delayed in patients with melanoma. We investigated the effects of nevus number count on sentinel node status and melanoma survival in a large cohort of melanoma cases. Out of 2,184 melanoma cases, 684 (31.3%) had a high nevus count (>50). High nevus counts were associated with favorable progno...

  18. In vivo melanoma depth detection by a handheld photoacoustic microscope

    Zhou, Yong; Xing, Wenxin; Maslov, Konstantin I.; Cornelius, Lynn A.; Wang, Lihong V.

    2015-03-01

    We developed a handheld photoacoustic microscope (PAM) to detect melanoma and determine tumor depth in nude mice in vivo. Compared to our previous PAM system for melanoma imaging, a new light delivery mechanism is introduced to improve light penetration. We show that melanomas with 4.1 mm and 3.3 mm thicknesses can be successfully detected in phantom and in vivo experiments, respectively. With its deep melanoma imaging ability and novel handheld design, this system is promising for clinical melanoma diagnosis, prognosis, and surgical planning for patients at the bedside.

  19. Malignant Melanoma With Rhabdomyosarcomatous Differentiation: A Case Report.

    Antonov, Nina K; Niedt, George W

    2016-06-01

    Malignant melanoma may exhibit morphologic characteristics of nonmelanocytic cell or tissue components, a phenomenon termed divergent differentiation. Melanoma with rhabdomyosarcomatous differentiation is rare, with 6 definite cases in adults reported in the literature. The authors describe a 75-year-old man with a cutaneous lesion of the right ear initially diagnosed as malignant melanoma. Three months later, biopsy of a right cervical lymph node showed changes suggestive of rhabdomyosarcoma. Reexamination of the initial skin biopsy with muscle markers confirmed a diagnosis of malignant melanoma with rhabdomyosarcomatous differentiation. This case serves to highlight the diagnostic challenges associated with this rare subtype of melanoma. PMID:27205908

  20. Current Research and Development of Chemotherapeutic Agents for Melanoma

    Kyaw Minn Hsan

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Cutaneous malignant melanoma is the most lethal form of skin cancer and an increasingly common disease worldwide. It remains one of the most treatment-refractory malignancies. The current treatment options for patients with metastatic melanoma are limited and in most cases non-curative. This review focuses on conventional chemotherapeutic drugs for melanoma treatment, by a single or combinational agent approach, but also summarizes some potential novel phytoagents discovered from dietary vegetables or traditional herbal medicines as alternative options or future medicine for melanoma prevention. We explore the mode of actions of these natural phytoagents against metastatic melanoma.

  1. Curcumin: A new candidate for melanoma therapy?

    Mirzaei, Hamed; Naseri, Gholamreza; Rezaee, Ramin; Mohammadi, Mohsen; Banikazemi, Zarrin; Mirzaei, Hamid Reza; Salehi, Hossein; Peyvandi, Mostafa; Pawelek, John M; Sahebkar, Amirhossein

    2016-10-15

    Melanoma remains among the most lethal cancers and, in spite of great attempts that have been made to increase the life span of patients with metastatic disease, durable and complete remissions are rare. Plants and plant extracts have long been used to treat a variety of human conditions; however, in many cases, effective doses of herbal remedies are associated with serious adverse effects. Curcumin is a natural polyphenol that shows a variety of pharmacological activities including anti-cancer effects, and only minimal adverse effects have been reported for this phytochemical. The anti-cancer effects of curcumin are the result of its anti-angiogenic, pro-apoptotic and immunomodulatory properties. At the molecular and cellular level, curcumin can blunt epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition and affect many targets that are involved in melanoma initiation and progression (e.g., BCl2, MAPKS, p21 and some microRNAs). However, curcumin has a low oral bioavailability that may limit its maximal benefits. The emergence of tailored formulations of curcumin and new delivery systems such as nanoparticles, liposomes, micelles and phospholipid complexes has led to the enhancement of curcumin bioavailability. Although in vitro and in vivo studies have demonstrated that curcumin and its analogues can be used as novel therapeutic agents in melanoma, curcumin has not yet been tested against melanoma in clinical practice. In this review, we summarized reported anti-melanoma effects of curcumin as well as studies on new curcumin formulations and delivery systems that show increased bioavailability. Such tailored delivery systems could pave the way for enhancement of the anti-melanoma effects of curcumin. PMID:27280688

  2. MALIGNANT MELANOMA OF THE HEAD SKIN

    Camelia Tamas; Doinita Radulescu; Lucian Popa; C. Tarasi; Cristina Stanescu; R. Nita

    2006-01-01

    Malignant melanoma (MM) is known as a tumor with high malignancy. The development of a melanoma on the head skin is even more severe, as prognosis, because of the limitted possibilities for large excision and high potential of diffusion in the wide vascular network. We treated 11 cases with MM head localisation in a period of 10 years. The rate of survival is very poor (6 months – 4 years after surgery). We used skin graft or fasciocutaneous flap for the regional reconstruction after exc...

  3. Sarcoidosis in Melanoma Patients: Case Report and Literature Review

    Beutler, Bryce D., E-mail: brycebeutler@hotmail.com [School of Allied Health Sciences, University of Nevada, Las Vegas, 1060 Wiegand Road, Encinitas, CA 92024 (United States); Cohen, Philip R., E-mail: brycebeutler@hotmail.com [Department of Dermatology, University of California San Diego, 10991 Twinleaf Court, San Diego, CA 92131 (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Sarcoidosis is a systemic inflammatory disease characterized by the development of noncaseating granulomas in multiple organ systems. Many hematologic malignancies and solid tumors, including melanoma, have been associated with sarcoidosis. We describe the clinical and pathologic findings of a 54-year-old man with melanoma-associated sarcoidosis. In addition, we not only review the literature describing characteristics of other melanoma patients with sarcoidosis, but also the features of melanoma patients with antineoplastic therapy-associated sarcoidosis. Sarcoidosis has been described in 80 melanoma patients; sufficient information for analysis was provided in 39 of these individuals. In 43.6% of individuals (17 out of 39), sarcoidosis was directly associated with melanoma; in 56.4% of oncologic patients (22 out of 39), sarcoidosis was induced by antineoplastic therapy that had been administered for the treatment of their metastatic melanoma. The discovery of melanoma preceded the development of sarcoidosis in 12 of the 17 (70.5%) individuals who did not receive systemic treatment. Pulmonary and/or cutaneous manifestations of sarcoidosis were common among both groups of patients. Most patients did not require treatment for sarcoidosis. Melanoma patients—either following antineoplastic therapy or without systemic treatment—may be at an increased risk to develop sarcoidosis. In antineoplastic therapy naive melanoma patients, a common etiologic factor—such as exposure to ultraviolet light—may play a role in their developing melanoma and sarcoidosis.

  4. Sarcoidosis in Melanoma Patients: Case Report and Literature Review

    Sarcoidosis is a systemic inflammatory disease characterized by the development of noncaseating granulomas in multiple organ systems. Many hematologic malignancies and solid tumors, including melanoma, have been associated with sarcoidosis. We describe the clinical and pathologic findings of a 54-year-old man with melanoma-associated sarcoidosis. In addition, we not only review the literature describing characteristics of other melanoma patients with sarcoidosis, but also the features of melanoma patients with antineoplastic therapy-associated sarcoidosis. Sarcoidosis has been described in 80 melanoma patients; sufficient information for analysis was provided in 39 of these individuals. In 43.6% of individuals (17 out of 39), sarcoidosis was directly associated with melanoma; in 56.4% of oncologic patients (22 out of 39), sarcoidosis was induced by antineoplastic therapy that had been administered for the treatment of their metastatic melanoma. The discovery of melanoma preceded the development of sarcoidosis in 12 of the 17 (70.5%) individuals who did not receive systemic treatment. Pulmonary and/or cutaneous manifestations of sarcoidosis were common among both groups of patients. Most patients did not require treatment for sarcoidosis. Melanoma patients—either following antineoplastic therapy or without systemic treatment—may be at an increased risk to develop sarcoidosis. In antineoplastic therapy naive melanoma patients, a common etiologic factor—such as exposure to ultraviolet light—may play a role in their developing melanoma and sarcoidosis

  5. Snail1 Mediates Hypoxia-Induced Melanoma Progression

    Liu, Shujing; Kumar, Suresh M.; Martin, James S.; Yang, Ruifeng; Xu, Xiaowei

    2011-01-01

    Tumor hypoxia is a known adverse prognostic factor, and the hypoxic dermal microenvironment participates in melanomagenesis. High levels of hypoxia inducible factor (HIF) expression in melanoma cells, particularly HIF-2α, is associated with poor prognosis. The mechanism underlying the effect of hypoxia on melanoma progression, however, is not fully understood. We report evidence that the effects of hypoxia on melanoma cells are mediated through activation of Snail1. Hypoxia increased melanoma cell migration and drug resistance, and these changes were accompanied by increased Snail1 and decreased E-cadherin expression. Snail1 expression was regulated by HIF-2α in melanoma. Snail1 overexpression led to more aggressive tumor phenotypes and features associated with stem-like melanoma cells in vitro and increased metastatic capacity in vivo. In addition, we found that knockdown of endogenous Snail1 reduced melanoma proliferation and migratory capacity. Snail1 knockdown also prevented melanoma metastasis in vivo. In summary, hypoxia up-regulates Snail1 expression and leads to increased metastatic capacity and drug resistance in melanoma cells. Our findings support that the effects of hypoxia on melanoma are mediated through Snail1 gene activation and suggest that Snail1 is a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of melanoma. PMID:21996677

  6. Neuropilin-2 promotes melanoma growth and progression in vivo.

    Moriarty, Whei F; Kim, Edward; Gerber, Stephanie A; Hammers, Hans; Alani, Rhoda M

    2016-08-01

    Tumor cell interactions with their microenvironment, and neighboring endothelial cells in particular, are critical for tumor cell survival and the metastatic process. Within the spectrum of tumors, melanomas are notorious for their ability to metastasize at a relatively early stage of development; however, little is known about the molecular pathways mediating this process. We recently performed a screen to assess critical mediators of melanoma metastasis by evaluating melanoma-endothelial cell communication. Neuropilin-2 (NRP2), a cell surface receptor involved in angiogenesis and axonal guidance, was found to be an important mediator of melanoma-endothelial cell cross-talk in these studies. Here we seek to further define the role of NRP2 in melanoma growth and progression. We use stable gene silencing of NRP2 in melanomas from varying stages of tumor progression to define the role of NRP2 in melanoma growth, migration, invasion, and metastasis. We found that NRP2 gene silencing in metastatic melanoma cell lines inhibited tumor cell growth in vitro; furthermore, knockdown of NRP2 expression in the metastatic melanoma cell line 1205Lu significantly inhibited in-vivo tumor growth and metastasis. We conclude that NRP2 plays an important role in mediating melanoma growth and metastasis and suggest that targeting this cell surface molecule may represent a significant therapeutic strategy for patients diagnosed with aggressive forms of melanoma. PMID:26881875

  7. Isolation and Molecular Characterization of Circulating Melanoma Cells

    Xi Luo

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Melanoma is an invasive malignancy with a high frequency of blood-borne metastases, but circulating tumor cells (CTCs have not been readily isolated. We adapted microfluidic CTC capture to a tamoxifen-driven B-RAF/PTEN mouse melanoma model. CTCs were detected in all tumor-bearing mice and rapidly declined after B-RAF inhibitor treatment. CTCs were shed early from localized tumors, and a short course of B-RAF inhibition following surgical resection was sufficient to dramatically suppress distant metastases. The large number of CTCs in melanoma-bearing mice enabled a comparison of RNA-sequencing profiles with matched primary tumors. A mouse melanoma CTC-derived signature correlated with invasiveness and cellular motility in human melanoma. CTCs were detected in smaller numbers in patients with metastatic melanoma and declined with successful B-RAF-targeted therapy. Together, the capture and molecular characterization of CTCs provide insight into the hematogenous spread of melanoma.

  8. Epidermotropic metastatic melanoma with perilesional depigmentation in an Indian male

    Bhavana Doshi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Melanoma is a rare form of cutaneous malignancy encountered in the dark skin population. Epidermotropic metastatic melanoma is a rare form of cutaneous metastatic melanoma which can mimic primary melanoma on histopathology. Hence its differentiation is of immense prognostic importance. The occurrence of rim of depigmentation around the primary cutaneous melanoma has previously been reported to portend a bad prognosis. The occurrence of vitiligo like lesions in patients with metastatic melanoma in comparison has a better prognosis. However the occurrence of depigmentation around the secondaries is rare and its importance is not well known. Hence we wish to report a case of epidermotropic metastatic melanoma with perilesional depigmentation in a 78 year old Indian male.

  9. Malignant melanoma in a grey horse: case presentation and review of equine melanoma treatment options.

    Metcalfe, Lucy Va; O'Brien, Peter J; Papakonstantinou, Stratos; Cahalan, Stephen D; McAllister, Hester; Duggan, Vivienne E

    2013-01-01

    A 15 year-old grey Thoroughbred gelding presented for investigation of chronic weight loss and recent onset of respiratory difficulty. Clinical examination confirmed tachypnoea with increased respiratory effort. Thoracic ultrasound examination detected pleural effusion. The dyspnoea was related to the large volume of pleural effusion and, following post-mortem examination, to the presence of a large mediastinal mass. Multiple pigmented masses, likely melanomas, were detected peri-anally. Thoracic radiography, cytological examination of the pleural fluid and a fine needle aspirate of a thoracic mass led to a presumptive diagnosis of malignant melanoma and this was confirmed at post mortem examination. Further metastatic spread to the central nervous system and right guttural pouch was also identified. In conclusion this case manifests the potential malignant behaviour of equine melanomas, and a review of proposed therapies for melanoma treatment highlights the therapeutic options and current areas of research. PMID:24196087

  10. Pathogenesis, diagnosis and management of primary melanoma of the colon

    Imam Ayesha

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Melanomas within the alimentary tract are usually metastatic in origin. On the other hand, primary melanomas of the gastrointestinal tract are relatively uncommon. There are several published reports of melanomas occurring in the esophagus, stomach, small bowel, and anorectum. The occurrence of primary melanoma of the colon has, however, only been rarely reported. The optimum modus operandi for the management of primary colonic melanoma remains nebulous due to the limited number of reports in literature. Methods A comprehensive search of Medline, Cochrane and Highwire was performed using the following keywords: 'melanoma', 'malignant melanoma', 'primary melanoma', 'colon', 'gastrointestinal tract', 'alimentary tract', 'digestive tract', and 'large bowel'. All patients with primary melanoma localized to the colon were included in the review. Patients with metastatic melanomas to the gastrointestinal (GI tract and primary melanomas localized to the GI tract in anatomic locations other than colon were excluded. Results There have been only 12 reported cases of primary melanoma of the colon to date. The average age of patients on presentation was 60.4 years without any significant gender predilection. Right colon (33% and cecum (33% were the most common sites for the occurrence of primary colonic melanoma while abdominal pain (58% and weight loss (50% were the most common presenting complaints. Colonoscopy is the most reliable diagnostic investigation and offers the additional advantage of obtaining tissue for diagnosis. S-100 and HMB-45 are highly sensitive and specific for the diagnosis of this malignancy. For primary colonic melanomas that have not metastasized to any distant parts of the body, surgical resection with wide margins appears to be the treatment of choice. Although the management was individualized in every case, most of the authors preferred traditional hemicolectomy as the favored surgical approach

  11. UV wavelength-dependent DNA damage and human non-melanoma and melanoma skin cancer

    Pfeifer, Gerd P.; Besaratinia, Ahmad

    2011-01-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) irradiation from the sun has been epidemiologically and mechanistically linked to skin cancer, a spectrum of diseases of rising incidence in many human populations. Both non-melanoma and melanoma skin cancers are associated with sunlight exposure. In this review, we discuss the UV wavelength-dependent formation of the major UV-induced DNA damage products, their repair and mutagenicity and their potential involvement in sunlight-associated skin cancers. We emphasize the major ...

  12. Antibody binding to membrane of cultured melanoma cells by sera of melanoma patients.

    Canevari, S; Fossati, G; Vezzoni, P; Biguzzi, S; Garcia-Puche, J; Della Porta, G

    1979-02-28

    One hundred and nine sera from 75 patients with malignant melanoma and 69 sera from as many healthy donors were assayed by isotopic antiglobulin technique (IAT) on 2 melanoma cell lines. The same picture of reactivity was observed with patients' and healthy donors' sera, and in both groups 35% of the cases were high responders on 1 line and 21% on the other one. The specificity of the reactions was analyzed by absorption experiments using 12 melanoma sera selected for their high binding activity. Pools of human erythrocytes or leukocytes did not remove, except in 1 case respectively, the activity of the sera, suggesting that it was not directed against alloantigens. Quantitative absorption experiments were done with the 2 melanoma lines and with 1 colon carcinoma line. The results, evaluated on the basis of absorption capacity per cell, indicate that the 2 melanoma lines had a similar amount of shared antigens, whereas the colon line was also effective in absorbing out the serum activity, but less frequently and less efficiently. Further experiments performed to analyze the influence of culturing the target cells in presence of fetal bovine serum (FBS), showed that the activity of sera was removed, at various degrees for different sera, by absorption with free FBS, with FBS coupled to Sepharose 4B, and with normal leukocytes cultured overnight with 10% FBS. The same positive melanoma sera became negative when assayed on the same melanoma line cultured in gamma-globulin-depleted human AB serum. In conclusion, in our experimental conditions, the activity of melanoma sera seems mostly directed against components of FBS absorbed on cell membrane during culturing. PMID:87047

  13. Interpretation of Melanoma Risk Feedback in First-Degree Relatives of Melanoma Patients

    Jennifer L. Hay

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Little is known about how individuals might interpret brief genetic risk feedback. We examined interpretation and behavioral intentions (sun protection, skin screening in melanoma first-degree relatives (FDRs after exposure to brief prototypic melanoma risk feedback. Using a 3 by 2 experimental pre-post design where feedback type (high-risk mutation, gene environment, and nongenetic and risk level (positive versus negative findings were systematically varied, 139 melanoma FDRs were randomized to receive one of the six scenarios. All scenarios included an explicit reminder that melanoma family history increased their risk regardless of their feedback. The findings indicate main effects by risk level but not feedback type; positive findings led to heightened anticipated melanoma risk perceptions and anticipated behavioral intentions. Yet those who received negative findings often discounted their family melanoma history. As such, 25%, 30%, and 32% of those who received negative mutation, gene-environment, and nongenetic feedback, respectively, reported that their risk was similar to the general population. Given the frequency with which those who pursue genetic testing may receive negative feedback, attention is needed to identify ideal strategies to present negative genetic findings in contexts such as direct to consumer channels where extensive genetic counseling is not required.

  14. Hereditary melanoma: Update on syndromes and management: Emerging melanoma cancer complexes and genetic counseling.

    Soura, Efthymia; Eliades, Philip J; Shannon, Kristen; Stratigos, Alexander J; Tsao, Hensin

    2016-03-01

    Recent advances in cancer genomics have enabled the discovery of many cancer-predisposing genes that are being used to classify new familial melanoma/cancer syndromes. In addition to CDKN2A and CDK4, germline variants in TERT, MITF, and BAP1 have been added to the list of genes harboring melanoma-predisposing mutations. These newer entities may have escaped earlier description in part because of more advanced technologies now being used and in part because of their mixed cancer phenotype as opposed to a melanoma-focused syndrome. Dermatologists should be aware of (and be able to recognize) the clinical signs in high-risk patients in different contexts. Personal and family histories of cancer should always be sought in patients with multiple nevi or a positive history for melanoma, and should be updated annually. Various features that are unique to specific disorders, such as the appearance of melanocytic BAP1-mutated atypical intradermal tumors in cases of BAP1 melanoma syndrome, should also be recognized early. These patients should be offered regular screenings with the use of dermoscopy and total body photography, as needed. More importantly, referral to other specialists may be needed if a risk for internal malignancy is suspected. It is important to have in mind that these patients tend to develop multiple melanomas, along with various internal organ malignancies, often at younger ages; a multidisciplinary approach to their cancer screening and treatment is ideal. PMID:26892651

  15. How Is Melanoma Skin Cancer Diagnosed?

    ... if melanoma has spread to the lungs. Computed tomography (CT) scan The CT scan uses x-rays to make detailed, cross-sectional images of your body. Unlike a regular x-ray, CT scans can show the detail in soft tissues (such as internal organs). This test can ...

  16. The biology of melanoma prognostic factors.

    Spatz, A.; Stock, N.; Batist, G.; Kempen, L.C.L.T. van

    2010-01-01

    Cutaneous melanoma still represents a paradox among all solid tumors. It is the cancer for which the best prognostic markers ever identified in solid tumors are available, yet there is very little understanding of their biological significance. This review focuses on recent biological data that shed

  17. [Strategies for the noninvasive diagnosis of melanoma].

    Fink, C; Haenssle, H A

    2016-07-01

    The diagnosis of advanced cutaneous melanoma may easily be made by the unaided eye, followed by excisional biopsy and histopathological examination. However, in the setting of melanoma screening examinations in high-risk patients with many nevi, dermatologists are challenged with the differentiation of atypical but benign nevi and early invasive or in situ melanomas. In this situation, there is a real need for additional, noninvasive examination techniques that may serve as an aide to decide for or against an excisional biopsy. Conventional dermoscopy is a well-established examination procedure and an increase in sensitivity was confirmed by two independent meta-analyses. Moreover, dynamic changes or newly developed pigmented lesions may be detected by sequential digital dermoscopy or (automated) total body photography, respectively. Over the past years, a number of medicinal products gained market access after licensing by American and European agencies for the noninvasive diagnosis of cutaneous neoplasms. These devices are based on technologies including in vivo reflectance confocal microscopy, multispectral analysis, electrical impedance spectroscopy, or Raman spectroscopy. Other technologies are still on the verge of becoming less experimental but more clinically applicable for diagnosing melanoma (in vivo multiphoton tomography, stepwise two-photon laser spectroscopy, infrared thermal image analysis, epidermal genetic information retrieval). This review provides a concise overview of general principles and sheds light on indication and added value for dermatologists. PMID:27193101

  18. Instantánea del melanoma

    Información sobre las tendencias de incidencia, mortalidad y financiamiento del NCI sobre el melanoma; así como ejemplos de actividades del NCI y adelantos en la investigación de este tipo de cáncer.

  19. Dabrafenib Plus Trametinib for Advanced Melanoma

    A summary of results from two phase III trials show that patients with metastatic melanoma whose tumors have specific mutations in the BRAF gene lived longer following treatment with dabrafenib (Tafinlar®), a BRAF inhibitor, plus trametinib (Mekinist®), a

  20. Testing Adjuvant Ipilimumab in Advanced Melanoma

    In this clinical trial, patients with stage III or stage IV melanoma that has been completely resected will be randomly assigned to receive post-surgical treatment with either ipilimumab or high-dose interferon alfa-2b, the current standard of care.

  1. Cerebral MR imaging of malignant melanoma

    Melanoma is the third leading cancer entity to metastasize to the central nervous system (CNS) after lung and breast cancer. This is often an early event in the disease course and limits survival. Metastasis in the CNS is the cause of death in 10-40 % of melanoma patients and the incidence of brain metastasis is even higher (50-75 %). Cerebral metastases are commonly found in the subcortical white matter. The signal characteristics can vary substantially and may change over time due to hemorrhages or the accumulation of melanin and paramagnetic ions. It is not yet clear whether novel targeted therapies (e.g. immunotherapy and kinase inhibitors) alter imaging characteristics. Also immune-related side effects, such as hypophysitis (in approximately 5 % of patients receiving ipilimumab therapy) or granulomatous disease (neurosarcoid) can occur. Melanoma metastases are usually hyperdense in computed tomography (CT). In magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) T2-weighted (T2-w) fluid-attentuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) and T1-w sequences (with and without i.v. contrast) should be obtained. Coronal and axial imaging planes should be scanned to cross-correlate findings. Susceptibility-weighted imaging is a new sensitive method to detect melanoma metastases. Approximately 66 % of melanoma metastases show intratumoral susceptibility signals (ITSS). This sets them apart from other metastases (e.g. lung and breast cancer show less ITSSs, specificity approximately 81-96 %). Diffusion imaging plays no major role in melanoma brain imaging. Susceptibility-weighted imaging increases the sensitivity to detect metastases but lacks specificity. Differentiating metastases, microbleeding or calcification can be impossible. It is controversial how to interpret susceptibility signals without correlative signs on other sequences (differential diagnosis: metastasis, microbleeding and calcification). CNS metastases are common in melanoma. MRI screening starting in stage IIc should be considered

  2. Expression of soluble adenylyl cyclase in acral melanomas.

    Li, H; Kim, S M; Savkovic, V; Jin, S A; Choi, Y D; Yun, S J

    2016-06-01

    Soluble adenylyl cyclase (sAC) regulates melanocytic cells, and is a diagnostic marker for pigmented skin lesions. Because only a few studies on sAC expression in acral melanomas have been performed, we investigated the histopathological significance of sAC expression in 33 cases of acral melanoma, and assessed its diagnostic value in distinguishing melanoma in situ (MIS, n = 17) from acral invasive melanomas (n = 16) and melanocytic naevi (n = 11). Acral melanomas exhibited more marked nuclear immunopositivity compared with acral melanocytic naevi. sAC expression significantly correlated with the nuclear morphology of melanocytes and melanoma cells, namely, hyperchromatic nuclei and prominent nucleoli within vesicular nuclei. sAC expression was predominantly observed in the hyperchromatic nuclei of MIS and the prominent nucleoli invasive melanomas, respectively. In vitro culture models of melanocytes and melanoma cell lines exhibited sAC staining patterns similar to those of acral melanomas. Differentiation induction showed that nuclear and nucleolar expression varied depending on cell morphology. sAC immunostaining may be useful for the differential diagnosis of acral melanocytic lesions, and sAC expressed in the nucleus and nucleolus might be related to cytological and nuclear changes associated with invasion and progression of acral melanomas. PMID:26290224

  3. Importance of glycolysis and oxidative phosphorylation in advanced melanoma

    Ho Jonhan

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Serum lactate dehydrogenase (LDH is a prognostic factor for patients with stage IV melanoma. To gain insights into the biology underlying this prognostic factor, we analyzed total serum LDH, serum LDH isoenzymes, and serum lactate in up to 49 patients with metastatic melanoma. Our data demonstrate that high serum LDH is associated with a significant increase in LDH isoenzymes 3 and 4, and a decrease in LDH isoenzymes 1 and 2. Since LDH isoenzymes play a role in both glycolysis and oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS, we subsequently determined using tissue microarray (TMA analysis that the levels of proteins associated with mitochondrial function, lactate metabolism, and regulators of glycolysis were all elevated in advanced melanomas compared with nevic melanocytes. To investigate whether in advanced melanoma, the glycolysis and OXPHOS pathways might be linked, we determined expression of the monocarboxylate transporters (MCT 1 and 4. Analysis of a nevus-to-melanoma progression TMA revealed that MCT4, and to a lesser extend MCT1, were elevated with progression to advanced melanoma. Further analysis of human melanoma specimens using the Seahorse XF24 extracellular flux analyzer indicated that metastatic melanoma tumors derived a large fraction of energy from OXPHOS. Taken together, these findings suggest that in stage IV melanomas with normal serum LDH, glycolysis and OXPHOS may provide metabolic symbiosis within the same tumor, whereas in stage IV melanomas with high serum LDH glycolysis is the principle source of energy.

  4. BAP1 has a survival role in cutaneous melanoma.

    Kumar, Raj; Taylor, Michael; Miao, Benchun; Ji, Zhenyu; Njauw, Jenny C-N; Jönsson, Göran; Frederick, Dennie T; Tsao, Hensin

    2015-04-01

    Although the pattern of BAP1 inactivation in ocular melanoma specimens and in the BAP1 cutaneous melanoma (CM)/ocular melanoma predisposition syndrome suggests a tumor suppressor function, the specific role of this gene in the pathogenesis of CM is not fully understood. We thus set out to characterize BAP1 in CM and discovered an unexpected pro-survival effect of this protein. Tissue and cell lines analysis showed that BAP1 expression was maintained, rather than lost, in primary melanomas compared with nevi and normal skin. Genetic depletion of BAP1 in melanoma cells reduced proliferation and colony-forming capability, induced apoptosis, and inhibited melanoma tumor growth in vivo. On the molecular level, suppression of BAP1 led to a concomitant drop in the protein levels of survivin, a member of anti-apoptotic proteins and a known mediator of melanoma survival. Restoration of survivin in melanoma cells partially rescued the growth-retarding effects of BAP1 loss. In contrast to melanoma cells, stable overexpression of BAP1 into immortalized but non-transformed melanocytes did suppress proliferation and reduce survivin. Taken together, these studies demonstrate that BAP1 may have a growth-sustaining role in melanoma cells, but that its impact on ubiquitination underpins a complex physiology, which is context and cell dependent. PMID:25521456

  5. Melanin content in melanoma metastases affects the outcome of radiotherapy

    Brożyna, Anna A.; Jóźwicki, Wojciech; Roszkowski, Krzysztof; Filipiak, Jan; Slominski, Andrzej T.

    2016-01-01

    Melanin possess radioprotective and scavenging properties, and its presence can affect the behavior of melanoma cells, its surrounding environment and susceptibility to the therapy, as showed in vitro experiments. To determine whether melanin presence in melanoma affects the efficiency of radiotherapy (RTH) we evaluated the survival time after RTH treatment in metastatic melanoma patients (n = 57). In another cohort of melanoma patients (n = 84), the relationship between melanin level and pT and pN status was determined. A significantly longer survival time was found in patients with amelanotic metastatic melanomas in comparison to the melanotic ones, who were treated with either RTH or chemotherapy (CHTH) and RTH. These differences were more significant in a group of melanoma patients treated only with RTH. A detailed analysis of primary melanomas revealed that melanin levels were significantly higher in melanoma cells invading reticular dermis than the papillary dermis. A significant reduction of melanin pigmentation in pT3 and pT4 melanomas in comparison to pT1 and T2 tumors was observed. However, melanin levels measured in pT3-pT4 melanomas developing metastases (pN1-3, pM1) were higher than in pN0 and pM0 cases. The presence of melanin in metastatic melanoma cells decreases the outcome of radiotherapy, and melanin synthesis is related to higher disease advancement. Based on our previous cell-based and clinical research and present research we also suggest that inhibition of melanogenesis can improve radiotherapy modalities. The mechanism of relationship between melanogenesis and efficacy of RTH requires additional studies, including larger melanoma patients population and orthotopic, imageable mouse models of metastatic melanoma. PMID:26910282

  6. Melanin content in melanoma metastases affects the outcome of radiotherapy.

    Brożyna, Anna A; Jóźwicki, Wojciech; Roszkowski, Krzysztof; Filipiak, Jan; Slominski, Andrzej T

    2016-04-01

    Melanin possess radioprotective and scavenging properties, and its presence can affect the behavior of melanoma cells, its surrounding environment and susceptibility to the therapy, as showed in vitro experiments. To determine whether melanin presence in melanoma affects the efficiency of radiotherapy (RTH) we evaluated the survival time after RTH treatment in metastatic melanoma patients (n = 57). In another cohort of melanoma patients (n = 84), the relationship between melanin level and pT and pN status was determined. A significantly longer survival time was found in patients with amelanotic metastatic melanomas in comparison to the melanotic ones, who were treated with either RTH or chemotherapy (CHTH) and RTH. These differences were more significant in a group of melanoma patients treated only with RTH. A detailed analysis of primary melanomas revealed that melanin levels were significantly higher in melanoma cells invading reticular dermis than the papillary dermis. A significant reduction of melanin pigmentation in pT3 and pT4 melanomas in comparison to pT1 and T2 tumors was observed. However, melanin levels measured in pT3-pT4 melanomas developing metastases (pN1-3, pM1) were higher than in pN0 and pM0 cases. The presence of melanin in metastatic melanoma cells decreases the outcome of radiotherapy, and melanin synthesis is related to higher disease advancement. Based on our previous cell-based and clinical research and present research we also suggest that inhibition of melanogenesis can improve radiotherapy modalities. The mechanism of relationship between melanogenesis and efficacy of RTH requires additional studies, including larger melanoma patients population and orthotopic, imageable mouse models of metastatic melanoma. PMID:26910282

  7. Malignant melanoma S3-guideline "diagnosis, therapy and follow-up of melanoma".

    Pflugfelder, Annette; Kochs, Corinna; Blum, Andreas; Capellaro, Marcus; Czeschik, Christina; Dettenborn, Therese; Dill, Dorothee; Dippel, Edgar; Eigentler, Thomas; Feyer, Petra; Follmann, Markus; Frerich, Bernhard; Ganten, Maria-Katharina; Gärtner, Jan; Gutzmer, Ralf; Hassel, Jessica; Hauschild, Axel; Hohenberger, Peter; Hübner, Jutta; Kaatz, Martin; Kleeberg, Ulrich R; Kölbl, Oliver; Kortmann, Rolf-Dieter; Krause-Bergmann, Albrecht; Kurschat, Peter; Leiter, Ulrike; Link, Hartmut; Loquai, Carmen; Löser, Christoph; Mackensen, Andreas; Meier, Friedegund; Mohr, Peter; Möhrle, Matthias; Nashan, Dorothee; Reske, Sven; Rose, Christian; Sander, Christian; Satzger, Imke; Schiller, Meinhard; Schlemmer, Heinz-Peter; Strittmatter, Gerhard; Sunderkötter, Cord; Swoboda, Lothar; Trefzer, Uwe; Voltz, Raymond; Vordermark, Dirk; Weichenthal, Michael; Werner, Andreas; Wesselmann, Simone; Weyergraf, Ansgar J; Wick, Wolfgang; Garbe, Claus; Schadendorf, Dirk

    2013-08-01

    This first German evidence-based guideline for cutaneous melanoma was developed under the auspices of the German Dermatological Society (DDG) and the Dermatologic Cooperative Oncology Group (DeCOG) and funded by the German Guideline Program in Oncology. The recommendations are based on a systematic literature search, and on the consensus of 32 medical societies, working groups and patient representatives. This guideline contains recommendations concerning diagnosis, therapy and follow-up of melanoma. The diagnosis of primary melanoma based on clinical features and dermoscopic criteria. It is confirmed by histopathologic examination after complete excision with a small margin. For the staging of melanoma, the AJCC classification of 2009 is used. The definitive excision margins are 0.5 cm for in situ melanomas, 1 cm for melanomas with up to 2 mm tumor thickness and 2 cm for thicker melanomas, they are reached in a secondary excision. From 1 mm tumor thickness, sentinel lymph node biopsy is recommended. For stages II and III, adjuvant therapy with interferon-alpha should be considered after careful analysis of the benefits and possible risks. In the stage of locoregional metastasis surgical treatment with complete lymphadenectomy is the treatment of choice. In the presence of distant metastasis mutational screening should be performed for BRAF mutation, and eventually for CKIT and NRAS mutations. In the presence of mutations in case of inoperable metastases targeted therapies should be applied. Furthermore, in addition to standard chemotherapies, new immunotherapies such as the CTLA-4 antibody ipilimumab are available. Regular follow-up examinations are recommended for a period of 10 years, with an intensified schedule for the first three years. PMID:24028775

  8. Immunohistochemical Analysis of Collagen IV and Laminin Expression in Spontaneous Melanoma Regression in the Melanoma-Bearing Libechov Minipig

    Spontaneous regression (SR) of human melanoma is a rare, well-documented phenomenon that is not still fully understood. Its detailed study cannot be performed in patients due to ethical reasons. Using the Melanoma-bearing Libechov Minipig (MeLiM) animals of various ages (from 3 weeks to 8 months) we implemented a long-term monitoring of melanoma growth and SR. We focused on immunohistochemical detection of two important extracellular matrix proteins, collagen IV and laminin, which are associated with cancer. We showed that SR of melanoma is a highly dynamic process. The expression of collagen IV and laminin correlated with changes in population of melanoma cells. Tumours of 3-week-old animals consisted primarily of melanoma cells with a granular expression of collagen IV and laminin around them. Thereafter, melanoma cells were gradually destroyed and tumour tissue was rebuilt into the connective tissue. Collagen IV expression slightly increased in tumours of 10-week-old pigs showing extracellular fibrous appearance. In tumours of older animals, areas lacking melanoma cells demonstrated a low expression and areas still containing melanoma cells a high expression of both proteins. We considered the age of 10 weeks as a turning point in the transition between tumour growth and SR of the MeLiM melanoma

  9. DMBT1 expression distinguishes anorectal from cutaneous melanoma

    Helmke, Burkhard Maria; Renner, Marcus; Poustka, Annemarie; Schirmacher, Peter; Mollenhauer, Jan; Kern, Michael André

    2009-01-01

    AIMS: Anorectal melanoma (AM) forms a rare but highly malignant subset of mucosal melanoma with an extremely poor prognosis. Although AMs display histological and immunohistochemical features very similar to cutaneous melanoma (CM), no association exists either with exposure to ultraviolet light or...... malignant brain tumours 1 (DMBT1) in cases of primary anorectal malignant melanoma and CM. METHODS AND RESULTS: Expression analyses of classical immunohistochemical markers (S100, HMB45, Melan A and MiTF) and of the protein DMBT1 were carried out in 27 cases of primary anorectal malignant melanoma and 26...... cases of CM. All AM cases analysed showed expression of at least three of the classical markers for melanoma. However, immunohistochemistry showed 19 out of 27 AM to be positive for DMBT1, which represented a statistically significant difference (P = 0.0009) compared with CM (six out of 26), which more...

  10. Ability to self-detect malignant melanoma decreases with age

    Trolle, L; Henrik-Nielsen, R; Gniadecki, R

    2011-01-01

    The prognosis of malignant melanoma depends on the thickness of the tumour. In this study, we analysed the trends in Breslow thickness in 63 patients referred to our institution, a tertiary dermatology referral centre. The mean thickness of melanoma was 0.31 mm, which was lower than the national...... average of 1.10 mm. There was a significant trend towards increased melanoma thickness with increasing age, with a rate of 0.24 mm (95% CI 0.12-0.37) for each additional 10 years of age above the age of 20 years. This trend was only apparent in cases of self-diagnosed melanomas; the thickness of tumours...... diagnosed by a dermatologist did not show any dependence on patient age. As the mortality from melanoma increases with age, this study suggests that dermatologists should include older people in screening programmes for melanoma....

  11. The advent of a novel diagnosis: melanoma through the ages.

    Ezra, Navid; Rabie, Jason

    2010-01-01

    In the 1930s, the risk of contracting melanoma was only 1:1500; however, by 1996 this number had risen to 1:87 and has been increasing ever since. To better understand the nature of melanoma, books, journals, and scholarly literary works were searched and contributors of this disease were studied in greater detail. Antiquity of melanoma is said to be approximately 2400 years old based on observations made on 9 Peruvian Inca mummies in the 1960s that showed apparent signs of melanoma. René Théophile Hyacinthe Laënnec, the inventor of the stethoscope, first described melanoma as a disease entity. William Norris, an English general practitioner, gave the first English language report of this disease. There are many other physicians from France, England, and the United States who had an active role in the discovery of melanoma. PMID:21137624

  12. PRIMARY CNS MELANOMA IN AN ALBINO: A RARE CASE REPORT

    Kishore

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Primary intracranial melanoma is a rare and uncommon lesion. Association of primary CNS melanoma in an albino has not been reported in literature searched till now. We are presenting a rare case of primary CNS melanoma in a 52years old male with occulocutaneous albinism. The patient presented with repeated episodes of generalized headache, vomiting and ataxia for duration of 5months. MRI examination showed a tumor in the posterior fossa that was diagnosed as Ependymoma radiologically. Surgical treatment with total removal of tumor was done. Intra-operative squash cytology and frozen section followed by histopathology confirmed the diagnosis of Melanoma. A thorough investigation of the patient was performed including chest radiography, ocular examination, ultrasonography of abdomen and barium enema to rule out any other site of primary melanoma in the body. Thus a final diagnosis of primary CNS melanoma was given.

  13. Malignant uveal melanoma and similar lesions studied by computed tomography

    Forty-four patients with intraocular disease were studied by computed tomography (CT); in 19 cases malignant uveal melanoma was considered the likely diagnosis. CT proved to be accurate in determining the location and size of uveal melanomas, demonstrating scleral invasion, and differentiating melanoma from choroidal detachment or angioma, toxocariasis, and senile macular degeneration. On CT, uveal melanomas appeared as hyperdense lesions with slight to moderate contrast enhancement. Tumors thinner than 2 mm could not be seen. Using dynamic CT, the authors noted moderate peak amplitude, normal or delayed tissue transit time, and persistently elevated washout phase (downslope), indicating increased permeability as the result of an impaired tumor blood barrier. Histological types of uveal melanoma could not be differentiated on the basis of circulatory patterns. Dynamic CT may be useful in distinguishing uveal melanoma from choroidal hemangioma or hematoma

  14. Quinoline analog labeled with 123I in melanoma detection

    Using the Greene melanoma in the hamster (Syrian Golden), the radiopharmaceutical, 123I-4(3-dimethylaminopropylamino)- 7-Iodoquinoline, was tested for its ability to localize melanoma. This quinoline analog has been described for use in the detection of melanoma, but this is the first report, to our knowledge, of its being used with an 123I label. Hamsters with either skin or eye melanomas were studied. Both melanomas could be seen with a gamma camera at three hours after injection. In vitro analysis confirmed the tumor specificity. Thus, it appears that this preclinical trial of a new radiopharmaceutical justifies clinical testing to determine its value in the localization of melanomas of the eyes and skin of humans

  15. Animal models of melanoma: a somatic cell gene delivery mouse model allows rapid evaluation of genesimplicated in human melanoma%Animal models of melanoma: a somatic cell gene delivery mouse model allows rapid evaluation of genes implicated in human melanoma

    Andrea J. McKinney; Sheri L. Holmen

    2011-01-01

    The increasing incidence and mortality associated with advanced stages of melanoma are cause for concern. Few treatment options are available for advanced melanoma and the 5-year survival rate is less than 15%. Targeted therapies may revolutionize melanoma treatment by providing less toxic and more effective strategies. However, maximizing effectiveness requires further understanding of the molecular alterations that drive tumor formation, progression, and maintenance, as well as elucidating the mechanisms of resistance. Several different genetic alterations identified in human melanoma have been recapitulated in mice. This review outlines recent progress made in the development of mouse models of melanoma and summarizes what these findings reveal about the human disease. We begin with a discussion of traditional models and conclude with the recently developed RCAS/TVA somatic cell gene delivery mouse model of melanoma.

  16. Management of uveal tract melanoma: A comprehensive review.

    Kapoor, Akhil; Beniwal, Vimla; Beniwal, Surender; Mathur, Harsh; Kumar, Harvindra Singh

    2016-06-01

    Uveal tract melanoma is the most common primary intraocular malignancy in adults, accounting for about 5-10% of all the melanomas. Since there are no lymphatic vessels in the eye, uveal melanoma can only spread hematogenously leading to liver metastasis. A wide variety of treatment modalities are available for its management, leading to dilemma in selecting the appropriate therapy. This article reviews the diagnostic and therapeutic modalities available and thus, can help to individualize the treatment plan for each patient. PMID:26975730

  17. The patterns of melanoma presentation in Rijeka region.

    Pavlović-Ružić, Ira; Jonjić, Nives; Zamolo, Gordana; Zuvić-Butorac, Marta; Katunarić, Miljenko; Pečanić, Sanja

    2013-01-01

    There is a global rising incidence of melanoma. For different reasons, the patterns of the incidence, appearance, gender, anatomical distribution and outcome vary among different geographic areas. Screening programs have led to better early detection of melanoma in Australia and some world areas. National Cancer Registry and practice data show the incidence in Croatia to be constantly rising. Despite public education programs about early detection, at clinical departments there are still many new advanced stage melanoma patients. We analyzed data on 157 patients treated and followed up for 10 years for T1b-T4aN0 skin melanoma. There was a difference in anatomical distribution of melanoma lesions in correlation with patient age (ANOVA test, F=3.51, p=0.009). A higher prevalence of shoulder melanoma was found in young people and of head/neck melanoma in the elderly (post-hoc Sheffe test, p=0.038). T4 lesions were more commonly found in men and T1 mainly in women (Pearson χ(2)-test, χ(2)=12.08, p=0.016). There was no difference in Clark level, but a significantly higher Breslow stage was found in men (t=-2.52, p=0.013). Men were much more prone to have head and neck, body and shoulder melanoma, whereas women had more melanoma on their legs and arms. Clark and Breslow levels were strongly correlated in leg melanoma; head localization showed no correlation at all. In conclusion, more attention should be devoted to improve the results in melanoma detection in men, especially considering the prevalence of body (back) and head/neck localizations, sometimes not readily accessible for visual detection. The pattern of distribution also pointed to the need for more attention to pay to shoulder melanoma in younger people. PMID:24183221

  18. Clonal Architectures and Driver Mutations in Metastatic Melanomas

    Ding, Li; Kim, Minjung; Kanchi, Krishna L.; Nathan D Dees; Lu, Charles; Griffith, Malachi; Fenstermacher, David; Sung, Hyeran; Christopher A Miller; Goetz, Brian; Wendl, Michael C; Griffith, Obi; Cornelius, Lynn A.; Linette, Gerald P.; McMichael, Joshua F.

    2014-01-01

    To reveal the clonal architecture of melanoma and associated driver mutations, whole genome sequencing (WGS) and targeted extension sequencing were used to characterize 124 melanoma cases. Significantly mutated gene analysis using 13 WGS cases and 15 additional paired extension cases identified known melanoma genes such as BRAF, NRAS, and CDKN2A, as well as a novel gene EPHA3, previously implicated in other cancer types. Extension studies using tumors from another 96 patients discovered a lar...

  19. Orbital amelanotic melanoma in xeroderma pigmentosum: A rare association

    Rizvi Syed; Amitava Abadan; Mehdi Ghazala; Sharma Rajeev; Alam Mohammad

    2008-01-01

    Xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) is an autosomal recessive genetic disorder of DNA repair in which the body′s normal ability to repair damage caused by ultraviolet light is deficient. This leads to a 1000-fold increased risk of cutaneous and ocular neoplasms. Ocular neoplasms occurring in XP in order of frequency are squamous cell carcinoma, basal cell carcinoma and melanoma. Malignant melanomas occur at an early age in patients with XP. We report a case of XP with massive orbital melanoma i...

  20. Metastatic malignant melanoma of maxillary gingiva. A case report.

    Srinivasan S; Pal K; Dayal P; Bastian T; Patil S

    1997-01-01

    Malignant melanoma of the oral cavity can be primary or secondary due to metastasis from distant site. Incidence of oral cavity by metastasis of melanoma is 1.85%. Most common oral sites involved are tongue, buccal mucosa and parotid gland. Oral lesions occur as a part of disseminated disease during the advanced stages and has poor prognosis. An unusual case of metastatic malignant melanoma of the maxillary gingiva is reported.

  1. The clinical and dermoscopic features of extremity melanomas

    Fatma Pelin Cengiz

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Dermoscopy is a noninvasive tool that helps to differentiate structures which can not be seen by naked eye. Dermoscopic and clinical features of malignant melanomas on the extremities are not well described in the literature. Therefore, in this study we aim to determine dermoscopic and clinical characteristics of melanoma on the extremities. Materials and Methods: 40 patients with melanoma on the extremities were included in this study. Their dermoscopic and clinical images, histopathological and clinical data were assessed. The relations between Breslow thickness and dermoscopic characteristics were evaluated. Results: The most frequent localization for women was lower extremities, whereas it was upper extremities for men. The most common subtype of melanoma was superficial spreading melanoma on the extremities. The mean age of patients with extremity melanoma was 56,21 ± 15,20 in men, as well as the mean age of patients with extremity melanoma was 53,09 ± 13,96 in women. The most common dermoscopic feature for extremity melanoma was irregular dots (85%. There were positive correlations between Breslow thickness and diameter, 3 or more colors in lesion, blue-white veil and lineer white streaks, respectively (p< 0.005, r= +0.462 (p< 0.001, r= +0.550 (p< 0.001, r= +0.606 (p< 0.001, r= +0.662. Conclusions: To our knowledge, this is the first study investigating dermoscopic and clinical features in patients with extremity melanomas. We should suggest that melanomas on the lower extremities are more common in women than men and the patients with lower extremity melanomas were younger than the patients with upper extremity melanomas and there are associations between Breslow thickness and some dermoscopic characteristics.

  2. The clinical and dermoscopic features of extremity melanomas

    Fatma Pelin Cengiz; Nazan Emiroğlu; Rainer Hofmann-wellenhof

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Dermoscopy is a noninvasive tool that helps to differentiate structures which can not be seen by naked eye. Dermoscopic and clinical features of malignant melanomas on the extremities are not well described in the literature. Therefore, in this study we aim to determine dermoscopic and clinical characteristics of melanoma on the extremities. Materials and Methods: 40 patients with melanoma on the extremities were included in this study. Their dermoscopic and clinical images, hi...

  3. Sunbed use, Sunscreen use, Childhood Sun Exposure, and Cutaneous Melanoma

    Autier, Philippe

    2011-01-01

    textabstractCancer registries established after World War II show that in most light‐skinned populations, the incidence of malignant cutaneous melanoma (hereafter termed melanoma) has steadily increased. In the 1970s and 1980s, laboratory and epidemiological studies documented the possibility that solar radiation was the main environmental risk factor for most skin cancers, including melanoma, the basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and the squamous cell carcinoma (SCC).

  4. Temporal and Spatial Melanoma Trends in Austria: An Ecological Study

    Daniela Haluza; Stana Simic; Hanns Moshammer

    2014-01-01

    Annual solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR) is mostly determined by latitude and altitude. Over the last decades, increasing UVR ground levels have been observed. Exposure to UVR is associated with a life-time risk to develop melanoma, a malign skin cancer. Thus, we hypothesized that melanoma incidence in Austria is associated with altitude of place of living and time of diagnosis. We investigated this hypothesis in an ecological study by district and year for Austrian melanoma incidence ...

  5. PRIMARY CNS MELANOMA IN AN ALBINO: A RARE CASE REPORT

    Kishore; Bhardwaj; Gupta; Seema; Kudesia

    2014-01-01

    Primary intracranial melanoma is a rare and uncommon lesion. Association of primary CNS melanoma in an albino has not been reported in literature searched till now. We are presenting a rare case of primary CNS melanoma in a 52years old male with occulocutaneous albinism. The patient presented with repeated episodes of generalized headache, vomiting and ataxia for duration of 5months. MRI examination showed a tumor in the posterior fossa that was diagnosed as Ependymoma radiologically. Surgica...

  6. Germline CDKN2A/ARF alterations in human melanoma

    Hashemi, Jamileh

    2002-01-01

    Approximately 10% of cases of human cutaneous malignant melanoma (CMM) have been estimated to occur in individuals with a familial predisposition, frequently in association with dysplastic nevus syndrome (DNS). The genetics of familial melanoma is complex and heterogeneous. To date only two melanoma predisposing genes have been identified. The CDKN2A/ARF locus on human chromosome 9p21 encodes two distinct cell cycle regulatory proteins, p16 and p14ARF. Germline alterations i...

  7. Current State of Animal (Mouse) Modeling in Melanoma Research

    Kuzu, Omer F.; Nguyen, Felix D.; Mohammad A. Noory; Arati Sharma

    2015-01-01

    Despite the considerable progress in understanding the biology of human cancer and technological advancement in drug discovery, treatment failure remains an inevitable outcome for most cancer patients with advanced diseases, including melanoma. Despite FDA-approved BRAF-targeted therapies for advanced stage melanoma showed a great deal of promise, development of rapid resistance limits the success. Hence, the overall success rate of melanoma therapy still remains to be one of the worst compar...

  8. Comparative analysis of methods of preinvasive melanoma diagnostics

    Kozlov S.V.; Neretin Е.У.

    2013-01-01

    The article discusses one of the problems of oncology — skin melanoma. The research objective is to study and to compare diagnostic methods of preinvasive melanoma including fluorescence diagnosis, dermatoscopy and microwave radiometry. Materials and Methods: The survey has used dermatoscope of Heine Delta 20 Company, the unit RTM-01-RES and the instrument of fluorescent diagnostics «Spectrum-Cluster.» The results suggest the possibility of early detection of melanoma with the use of dermatos...

  9. Para-Phenylenediamine Induces Apoptotic Death of Melanoma Cells and Reduces Melanoma Tumour Growth in Mice

    Debajit Bhowmick

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Melanoma is one of the most aggressive forms of cancer, usually resistant to standard chemotherapeutics. Despite a huge number of clinical trials, any success to find a chemotherapeutic agent that can effectively destroy melanoma is yet to be achieved. Para-phenylenediamine (p-PD in the hair dyes is reported to purely serve as an external dyeing agent. Very little is known about whether p-PD has any effect on the melanin producing cells. We have demonstrated p-PD mediated apoptotic death of both human and mouse melanoma cells in vitro. Mouse melanoma tumour growth was also arrested by the apoptotic activity of intraperitoneal administration of p-PD with almost no side effects. This apoptosis is shown to occur primarily via loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP, generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS, and caspase 8 activation. p-PD mediated apoptosis was also confirmed by the increase in sub-G0/G1 cell number. Thus, our experimental observation suggests that p-PD can be a potential less expensive candidate to be developed as a chemotherapeutic agent for melanoma.

  10. Para-Phenylenediamine Induces Apoptotic Death of Melanoma Cells and Reduces Melanoma Tumour Growth in Mice.

    Bhowmick, Debajit; Bhar, Kaushik; Mallick, Sanjaya K; Das, Subhadip; Chatterjee, Nabanita; Sarkar, Tuhin Subhra; Chakrabarti, Rajarshi; Das Saha, Krishna; Siddhanta, Anirban

    2016-01-01

    Melanoma is one of the most aggressive forms of cancer, usually resistant to standard chemotherapeutics. Despite a huge number of clinical trials, any success to find a chemotherapeutic agent that can effectively destroy melanoma is yet to be achieved. Para-phenylenediamine (p-PD) in the hair dyes is reported to purely serve as an external dyeing agent. Very little is known about whether p-PD has any effect on the melanin producing cells. We have demonstrated p-PD mediated apoptotic death of both human and mouse melanoma cells in vitro. Mouse melanoma tumour growth was also arrested by the apoptotic activity of intraperitoneal administration of p-PD with almost no side effects. This apoptosis is shown to occur primarily via loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and caspase 8 activation. p-PD mediated apoptosis was also confirmed by the increase in sub-G0/G1 cell number. Thus, our experimental observation suggests that p-PD can be a potential less expensive candidate to be developed as a chemotherapeutic agent for melanoma. PMID:27293892