WorldWideScience

Sample records for melanoma

  1. Melanoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melanoma is the most serious type of skin cancer. Often the first sign of melanoma is a change in the size, shape, color, or feel of a mole. Most melanomas have a black or black-blue area. Melanoma ...

  2. Melanoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the elderly. It is most common in sun-damaged skin on the face, neck, and arms. The abnormal ... with: A family history of melanoma Severely sun-damaged skin Lots of moles on their skin A skin ...

  3. Cutaneous Melanoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Home Cancers Selected for Study Cutaneous Melanoma Cutaneous Melanoma Last Updated: February 22, 2012 What is melanoma? Melanoma is a cancer in the type of skin cells called melanocytes.  Melanocyes are the cells that produce melanin, which colors

  4. Choroidal melanoma

    OpenAIRE

    Singh, Parul; Singh, Abhishek

    2012-01-01

    Choroidal melanoma is the most common primary intra-ocular malignant tumor and second most common site of ten malignant melanoma sites in the body. Current diagnosis of choroidal melanoma is based on both the clinical experience of the specialist and modern diagnostic techniques such as indirect ophthalmoscopy, A- and B-ultrasonography scans, fundus fluorescein angiography, and transillumination. Invasive studies such as fine needle aspiration cytology can have significant morbidity and shoul...

  5. Cutaneous melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggermont, Alexander M M; Spatz, Alan; Robert, Caroline

    2014-03-01

    In the past decade, major advances have been made in the understanding of melanoma. New predisposition genes have been reported and key somatic events, such as BRAF mutation, directly translated into therapeutic management. Surgery for localised melanoma and regional lymph node metastases is the standard of care. Sentinel-node biopsy provides precise staging, but has not been reported to affect survival. The effect of lymph-node dissection on survival is a topic of investigation. Two distinct approaches have emerged to try to extend survival in patients with metastatic melanoma: immunomodulation with anti-CTLA4 monoclonal antibodies, and targeted therapy with BRAF inhibitors or MEK inhibitors for BRAF-mutated melanoma. The combination of BRAF inhibitors and MEK inhibitors might improve progression-free survival further and, possibly, increase overall survival. Response patterns differ substantially-anti-CTLA4 immunotherapy can induce long-term responses, but only in a few patients, whereas targeted drugs induce responses in most patients, but nearly all of them relapse because of pre-existing or acquired resistance. Thus, the long-term prognosis of metastatic melanoma remains poor. Anti-PD1 and anti-PDL1 antibodies have emerged as breakthrough drugs for melanoma that have high response rates and long durability. Biomarkers that have predictive value remain elusive in melanoma, although emerging data for adjuvant therapy indicate that interferon sensitivity is associated with ulceration of the primary melanoma. Intense investigation continues for clinical and biological markers that predict clinical benefit of immunotherapeutic drugs, such as interferon alfa or anti-CTLA4 antibodies, and the mechanisms that lead to resistance of targeted drugs. PMID:24054424

  6. Melanoma Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horsch, Alexander

    The chapter deals with the diagnosis of the malignant melanoma of the skin. This aggressive type of cancer with steadily growing incidence in white populations can hundred percent be cured if it is detected in an early stage. Imaging techniques, in particular dermoscopy, have contributed significantly to improvement of diagnostic accuracy in clinical settings, achieving sensitivities for melanoma experts of beyond 95% at specificities of 90% and more. Automatic computer analysis of dermoscopy images has, in preliminary studies, achieved classification rates comparable to those of experts. However, the diagnosis of melanoma requires a lot of training and experience, and at the time being, average numbers of lesions excised per histology-proven melanoma are around 30, a number which clearly is too high. Further improvements in computer dermoscopy systems and their competent use in clinical settings certainly have the potential to support efforts of improving this situation. In the chapter, medical basics, current state of melanoma diagnosis, image analysis methods, commercial dermoscopy systems, evaluation of systems, and methods and future directions are presented.

  7. Malignant Melanoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eshini Perera

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Melanomas are a major cause of premature death from cancer. The gradual decrease in rates of morbidity and mortality has occurred as a result of public health campaigns and improved rates of early diagnosis. Survival of melanoma has increased to over 90%. Management of melanoma involves a number of components: excision, tumor staging, re-excision with negative margins, adjuvant therapies (chemo, radiation or surgery, treatment of stage IV disease, follow-up examination for metastasis, lifestyle modification and counseling. Sentinel lymph node status is an important prognostic factor for survival in patients with a melanoma >1 mm. However, sentinel lymph node biopsies have received partial support due to the limited data regarding the survival advantage of complete lymph node dissection when a micrometastasis is detected in the lymph nodes. Functional mutations in the mitogen-activated pathways are commonly detected in melanomas and these influence the growth control. Therapies that target these pathways are rapidly emerging, and are being shown to increase survival rates in patients. Access to these newer agents can be gained by participation in clinical trials after referral to a multidisciplinary team for staging and re-excision of the scar.

  8. What Does Melanoma Look Like?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for Clinical Trials NCI Publications Español What Does Melanoma Look Like? Melanoma is a type of cancer ... melanoma is itchy, tender, or painful. Photos of Melanoma A large, asymmetrical melanoma with an uneven color ...

  9. What Is Melanoma Skin Cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... key statistics about melanoma skin cancer? What is melanoma skin cancer? Melanoma is a cancer that starts ... skin tumors, but most are not very common. Melanoma skin cancers Melanoma is a cancer that begins ...

  10. Treatment Option Overview (Melanoma)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... are different types of treatment for patients with melanoma. Different types of treatment are available for patients with melanoma . Some treatments are standard (the currently used treatment), ...

  11. Sinclair swine melanoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinclair(S-1) miniature swine spontaneously develop melanomas which have many biologic and histologic features in common with human superficial spreading melanoma. Host control of this neoplasm was indicated by the high incidence of spontaneous regression, a decrease in tumor development with age and a decrease in progressive growth of the tumor as age of tumor development increases. Immunologic mechanisms were implicated in host control by histologic observation of a mononuclear inflammatory infiltration of tumors which lead to depigmentation and fibrosis. In vitro immunologic studies revealed that leukocytes from melanoma swine were sensitized specifically to a tumor associated antigen like substance present in extracts of cutaneous melanomas and cultured swine melanoma cells and that melanoma swine leukocytes were cytotoxic for swine melanoma cells. Furthermore, these studies suggested the existence of a common cross reactive, melanoma associated antigen shared by human and swine melanomas. Antigenic analyses of swine melanomas with mouse monoclonal antibodies developed to a single swine melanoma cell culture and with rabbit antisera developed to pooled extracts of cutaneous melanomas demonstrated the presence of tumor associated antigens in swine melanoma cell culture and cutaneous melanomas. The failure of mouse monoclonal antibodies to detect antigens in cutaneous melanoma extracts and the failure of rabbit antisera to detect antigens in melanoma cell culture extracts suggested a differential in antigen expression between swine melanoma cells grown in vitro and in vivo

  12. Choroidal melanoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A useful and practical guide is developed to better track to the uveal melanoma, due to its highly malignant character. Melanoma of the uveal tract (choroid, iris, ciliary body) has been the intraocular tumor most frequent in adults. The biopsy has been inaccessible, due to its location; therefore, the diagnostic should be based on clinical examination and the correct utilization of the diagnostic procedures (ultrasound, fluorescent angiography, computed axial tomography and magnetic resonance). The cases are diagnosed in the histological examination of the operatory piece post-enucleation for other causes. Epidemiological research has been key to determine the associated factors and better to understand the mechanisms of onset of the disease. Anatomopathological studies of choroidal melanoma have permitted to know the natural history of the disease. The decrease of the visual acuity, pain or inflammation are presented as a defect in the visual field. Different techniques to diagnose the disease are explained. Ultrasound in mode A and B, computed axial tomography and magnetic resonance are the diagnostic method of election. Ultrasound has been the primary method of diagnostic, giving the size and vascularisation, useful in tracking, when they are treated in shape conservatively, showing changes in echogenicity and less vascularisation as good response to treatment. The treatments of choroidal melanoma are specified. The correct interpretation of the clinical symptoms and early utilization of diagnostic imaging methods, have permitted to establish the adequate therapeutic and to avoid local and distant metastasis. The uveal melanoma, depending on their size and location, traditionally has been treated by enucleation. Data from the literature and authors, have promoted the conservation of the ocular globe, depending on the size of the tumor. Transpupillary thermotherapy has been an available alternative for small tumors in Costa Rica and level of social security. Patients have had the option to keep the ocular globe and even maintain good visual acuity with this therapy. Brachytherapy has been another alternative treatment in tumors of medium size, and can be performed in countries like Colombia and the United States

  13. Recombinant Interferon Alfa-2b in Treating Patients With Melanoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-06

    Stage IA Skin Melanoma; Stage IB Skin Melanoma; Stage IIA Skin Melanoma; Stage IIB Skin Melanoma; Stage IIC Skin Melanoma; Stage IIIA Skin Melanoma; Stage IIIB Skin Melanoma; Stage IIIC Skin Melanoma; Stage IV Skin Melanoma

  14. Treatment Options for Intraocular (Uveal) Melanoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for Clinical Trials NCI Publications Español Intraocular (Uveal) Melanoma Treatment (PDQ®) Treatment Options for Intraocular (Uveal) Melanoma Iris Melanoma Treatment of iris melanoma may include ...

  15. Melanoma International Foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... MD PhD December 01, 2014 Our Awards Melanoma International Foundation Our Mission: To develop personalized strategies with ... the state of Pennsylvania, certificate #29498 © 2013 Melanoma International Foundation. All Rights Reserved. Privacy Policy | Terms of ...

  16. Primary ovarian malignant melanoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kostov Miloš

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Primary ovarian malignant melanoma is extremely rare. It usually appears in the wall of a dermoid cyst or is associated with another teratomatous component. Metastatic primary malignant melanoma to ovary from a primary melanoma elsewhere is well known and has been often reported especially in autopsy studies. Case report. We presented a case of primary ovarian malignant melanoma in a 45- year old woman, with no evidence of extraovarian primary melanoma nor teratomatous component. The tumor was unilateral, macroscopically on section presented as solid mass, dark brown to black color. Microscopically, tumor cells showed positive immunohistochemical reaction for HMB-45, melan-A and S-100 protein, and negative immunoreactivity for estrogen and progesteron receptors. Conclusion. Differentiate metastatic melanoma from rare primary ovarian malignant melanoma, in some of cases may be a histopathological diagnostic problem. Histopathological diagnosis of primary ovarian malignant melanoma should be confirmed by immunohistochemical analyses and detailed clinical search for an occult primary tumor.

  17. General Information about Melanoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... affect prognosis (chance of recovery) and treatment options. Melanoma is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells ... on basal cell and squamous cell skin cancer.) Melanoma can occur anywhere on the skin. In men, ...

  18. Melanoma - neck (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This melanoma on the neck is variously colored with a very darkly pigmented area found centrally. It has irregular ... be larger than 0.5 cm. Prognosis in melanoma is best defined by its depth on resection.

  19. Vaccine Therapy in Treating Patients With Stage IIC-IV Melanoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-20

    Ciliary Body and Choroid Melanoma, Medium/Large Size; Ciliary Body and Choroid Melanoma, Small Size; Extraocular Extension Melanoma; Iris Melanoma; Metastatic Intraocular Melanoma; Mucosal Melanoma; Recurrent Intraocular Melanoma; Recurrent Melanoma; Stage IIC Melanoma; Stage IIIA Intraocular Melanoma; Stage IIIA Melanoma; Stage IIIB Intraocular Melanoma; Stage IIIB Melanoma; Stage IIIC Intraocular Melanoma; Stage IIIC Melanoma; Stage IV Intraocular Melanoma; Stage IV Melanoma

  20. Clínica del melanoma Clinical manifestations of melanoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Mordoh

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available El melanoma es un tumor maligno originado en los melanocitos, cuya incidencia y mortalidad han aumentado en las últimas décadas. Sus factores de riesgo más importantes son la susceptibilidad genética relacionada con sensibilidad al sol (capacidad para broncearse y tendencia a las quemaduras y con ciertos genes especíLcos; factores ambientales tales como la exposición a la radiación UV, latitud y una combinación de ambos, como la cantidad de nevos. Sus formas clínicas son: melanoma extensivo superLcial (70%, nodular (15-30%, lentigo maligno (10-15% y acrolentiginoso (5%. De todas las características histológicas, el espesor de Brelow (medido en mm desde la granulosa hasta el punto más profundo de penetración tumoral es el predictor de sobrevida más importante. El tratamiento quirúrgico adecuado con 1 cm de margen en aquellos pacientes de bajo riesgo (Breslow Melanoma is a malignant tumor that originates in melanocytes and whose incidence and mortality have increased in the last decades. The most important risk factors are a genetic susceptibility related to sun sensitivity (having tanning capacity and being prone to sunburn and with certain speci1c genes; environmental factors such as exposure to UV radiation, latitude and a combination of both such as the number of nevis. Its clinical forms are: super1cial spreading melanoma (70%, nodular melanoma (15-30%, lentigo maligna melanoma (10-15% and acral lentiginous melanoma (5%. Among all the histological characteristics, Breslow's depth (measured in mm from the granular layer of the epidermis to the deepest point of tumor invasion is the most important predictor for progression free survival. An appropriate surgical treatment with 1-cm margin melanomas in low-risk patients (Breslow < 1 mm cures over 90% of the patients. Thus, early detection of melanoma is an important goal in melanoma treatment.

  1. VEGF Trap in Treating Patients With Recurrent Stage III or Stage IV Melanoma That Cannot Be Removed by Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-02-02

    Ciliary Body and Choroid Melanoma, Medium/Large Size; Extraocular Extension Melanoma; Iris Melanoma; Metastatic Intraocular Melanoma; Recurrent Intraocular Melanoma; Recurrent Melanoma; Stage III Melanoma; Stage IV Melanoma

  2. Decoding Melanoma Metastasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus Bosenberg

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Metastasis accounts for the vast majority of morbidity and mortality associated with melanoma. Evidence suggests melanoma has a predilection for metastasis to particular organs. Experimental analyses have begun to shed light on the mechanisms regulating melanoma metastasis and organ specificity, but these analyses are complicated by observations of metastatic dormancy and dissemination of melanocytes that are not yet fully malignant. Additionally, tumor extrinsic factors in the microenvironment, both at the site of the primary tumor and the site of metastasis, play important roles in mediating the metastatic process. As metastasis research moves forward, paradigms explaining melanoma metastasis as a step-wise process must also reflect the temporal complexity and heterogeneity in progression of this disease. Genetic drivers of melanoma as well as extrinsic regulators of disease spread, particularly those that mediate metastasis to specific organs, must also be incorporated into newer models of melanoma metastasis.

  3. Quimiorresistencia del melanoma Chemoresistance to melanoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Marcela Barrio

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Varias estrategias terapéuticas como la cirugía, radioterapia y quimioterapia están siendo utilizadas para tratar el cáncer. Sin embargo, en el caso del melanoma solamente la cirugía en las etapas tempranas de la enfermedad (estadíos I-II puede ser curativa en una alta proporción de pacientes. El tratamiento quimioterápico con dacarbacina (DTIC así como combinaciones con cisplatino, vinblastina y carmustina resulta ineficaz para eliminar las células de melanoma, ya que sólo se alcanza una respuesta en alrededor del 10% de los pacientes sin prolongar la sobrevida. La quimiorresistencia puede deberse tanto a una falta de respuesta primaria del melanoma como al desarrollo de mecanismos de resistencia adquiridos por el tumor, comúnmente definidos como multi-resistencia a drogas (MDR. En este artículo se analizan los principales mecanismos responsables de dicha resistencia y cómo el conocimiento de los mismos es aplicado al desarrollo de nuevos agentes terapéuticos. Por último, se discuten las recientes estrategias que combinan la quimioterapia con la inmunoterapia (Bioquimioterapia para optimizar el tratamiento del melanoma metastásico.Several therapeutic strategies such as surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy are being used to treat cancer. However, in the case of melanomas, only surgery during the early stages (stages I-II of the disease can be curative in a high proportion of patients. Chemotherapy treatment with dacarbazine (DTIC as well as combinations with cisplatin, vinblastine and carmustine proves to be ineffective to eliminate melanoma cells, since only 10% of patients responded positively without prolonging survival. Chemoresistance can be caused by both a lack of primary response of the melanoma and the development of resistance mechanisms acquired by the tumor usually defined as multi-drug resistance (MDR.The most important mechanisms responsible for such resistance and how the knowledge of those mechanisms is applied to the development of new therapeutic agents are analyzed in this article. Finally, the latest strategies that combine chemotherapy and immunotherapy (Biochemotherapy to optimize the treatment of metastatic melanoma will be further discussed.

  4. Quimiorresistencia del melanoma / Chemoresistance to melanoma

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    María Marcela, Barrio.

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Varias estrategias terapéuticas como la cirugía, radioterapia y quimioterapia están siendo utilizadas para tratar el cáncer. Sin embargo, en el caso del melanoma solamente la cirugía en las etapas tempranas de la enfermedad (estadíos I-II) puede ser curativa en una alta proporción de pacientes. El t [...] ratamiento quimioterápico con dacarbacina (DTIC) así como combinaciones con cisplatino, vinblastina y carmustina resulta ineficaz para eliminar las células de melanoma, ya que sólo se alcanza una respuesta en alrededor del 10% de los pacientes sin prolongar la sobrevida. La quimiorresistencia puede deberse tanto a una falta de respuesta primaria del melanoma como al desarrollo de mecanismos de resistencia adquiridos por el tumor, comúnmente definidos como multi-resistencia a drogas (MDR). En este artículo se analizan los principales mecanismos responsables de dicha resistencia y cómo el conocimiento de los mismos es aplicado al desarrollo de nuevos agentes terapéuticos. Por último, se discuten las recientes estrategias que combinan la quimioterapia con la inmunoterapia (Bioquimioterapia) para optimizar el tratamiento del melanoma metastásico. Abstract in english Several therapeutic strategies such as surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy are being used to treat cancer. However, in the case of melanomas, only surgery during the early stages (stages I-II) of the disease can be curative in a high proportion of patients. Chemotherapy treatment with dacarbazine [...] (DTIC) as well as combinations with cisplatin, vinblastine and carmustine proves to be ineffective to eliminate melanoma cells, since only 10% of patients responded positively without prolonging survival. Chemoresistance can be caused by both a lack of primary response of the melanoma and the development of resistance mechanisms acquired by the tumor usually defined as multi-drug resistance (MDR).The most important mechanisms responsible for such resistance and how the knowledge of those mechanisms is applied to the development of new therapeutic agents are analyzed in this article. Finally, the latest strategies that combine chemotherapy and immunotherapy (Biochemotherapy) to optimize the treatment of metastatic melanoma will be further discussed.

  5. Main roads to melanoma

    OpenAIRE

    Sini Maria; Casula Milena; Stroncek David F; Gentilcore Giusy; Ascierto Maria; Capone Mariaelena; Palmieri Giuseppe; Palla Marco; Mozzillo Nicola; Ascierto Paolo A

    2009-01-01

    Abstract The characterization of the molecular mechanisms involved in development and progression of melanoma could be helpful to identify the molecular profiles underlying aggressiveness, clinical behavior, and response to therapy as well as to better classify the subsets of melanoma patients with different prognosis and/or clinical outcome. Actually, some aspects regarding the main molecular changes responsible for the onset as well as the progression of melanoma toward a more aggressive ph...

  6. Dermoscopy on subungual melanoma 

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gra?yna Kami?ska-Winciorek

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Subungual melanoma is a rare, but one of the diagnostically most difficult variants of melanoma. Unfortunately, due to its late detection, lack of an early reaction from the patient and diagnosis in advanced stages, subungual melanoma is deemed as a prognostically unfavorable variant of this malignancy. Diagnosis of subungual melanoma is very difficult to establish merely on the basis of clinical examination due to the resemblance of subungual hematoma to melanocytic nevus, fungal or bacterial infections. Dermoscopy seems to be the ideal diagnostic tool in the differential diagnosis of this life-threatening disease. Aims. To describe the basic aspects of dermoscopy of subungual melanoma and other conditions involving the nails. Methods. Review of medical database PubMed for the literature of the last 10 years on the dermoscopic patterns of subungual melanoma and other subungual diseases. Results. We collate the fundamental rules of performing dermoscopy in subungual melanoma, as well as basic dermoscopic features and diagnostic algorithms of selected subungual lesions requiring differentiation from melanoma. Conclusions. Dermoscopy is a safe, easily repeatable diagnostic method, and the knowledge of basic dermoscopic patterns of developing melanoma in subungual localization, along with the differential diagnosis of other diseases within the nail plate, will help not only dermatologists, but also the professionals of other specialties, such as surgeons, oncologists, orthopedists, and also general practitioners.

  7. Melanoma of the Skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... embed/s3K9OzLZ9cg?rel=0 SEER Stat Fact Sheets: Melanoma of the Skin Expand All Collapse All Statistics ... 5 Years Or More after Being Diagnosed with Melanoma of the Skin? Relative survival statistics compare the ...

  8. Malignant Melanoma of the Foot

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of the Foot Text Size Print Bookmark Malignant Melanoma of the Foot What is Malignant Melanoma? Melanoma is a cancer that begins in the cells ... produce pigmentation (coloration). It is also called malignant melanoma because it spreads to other areas of the ...

  9. Amelanotic melanoma of the tongue

    OpenAIRE

    Venugopal, M.; Renuka, IV; Bala, G Saila; Seshaiah, N

    2013-01-01

    Malignant melanoma of the oral cavity is a rare lesion, with an incidence of about 0.2% to 0.8% of all melanomas. Melanoma of tongue is still rarer and represents less than 2% of oro-nasal melanoma cases. We report a rare case of amelanotic melanoma of the tongue in a young man. The importance of consideration of melanoma in the differential diagnosis of oral cavity lesions is discussed since mucosal melanoma carries a bad prognosis and early diagnosis is vital.

  10. Melanoma inhibitory activity in Brazilian patients with cutaneous melanoma

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Macanori, Odashiro; Gunter, Hans Filho; Patricia Rusa, Pereira; Ana Rita Coimbra Motta, Castro; Alcione Cavalheiro, Stief; Elenir Rose Jardim Cury, Pontes; Alexandre Nakao, Odashiro.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract BACKGROUND: Melanoma inhibitory activity is a protein secreted by melanoma cells and has been used as a tumor marker. Increased Melanoma inhibitory activity serum levels are related to metastatic disease or tumor recurrence. Currently there are no studies on Melanoma inhibitory activity and [...] cutaneous melanoma involving Brazilian patients. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the performance and feasibility of measuring Melanoma inhibitory activity levels in Brazilian patients with cutaneous melanoma. METHODS: Blood was obtained from ten patients with proved metastatic cutaneous melanoma (Group 1), 15 patients resected for cutaneous melanoma without metastasis (Group 2) and 5 healthy donors (Group 3). Melanoma inhibitory activity was measured using a commercially available ELISA kit. RESULTS: There was a statistically significant difference of Melanoma inhibitory activity levels between patients with and without metastasis (p=0.002), and between patients with metastasis and healthy donors (p=0.002). There was no difference between patients without metastasis and healthy donors (p=0.443). CONCLUSION: Melanoma inhibitory activity is a tumor marker for cutaneous melanoma and the Melanoma inhibitory activity-ELISA test can be easily performed. Patients with metastasis have increased Melanoma inhibitory activity serum levels when compared to patients without metastasis and healthy donors.

  11. Radiotherapy resistance of malignant melanoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The efficiency of radiotherapy of malignant melanoma is discussed according to observations by other clinicians and ourselves. There is no proof that the melanoma is radiotherapy-resistant. The clinical radiosensitivity of human melanoma can be compared with the experimental hamster or mice melanoma or with the sensitivity of cultured melanoma cells. The possibility of increasing the efficiency of radiotherapy in the future by electroaffine sensitizers, fast electrons, or neutrons with a high LET and a small OER is mentioned. (orig.)

  12. Primary Anorectal Melanoma: An Update

    OpenAIRE

    P Carcoforo, M. T. Raiji

    2012-01-01

    The anorectum is a rare anatomic location for primary melanoma. Mucosal melanoma is a distinct biological and clinical entity from the more common cutaneous melanoma. It portrays worse prognosis than cutaneous melanoma, with distant metastases being the overwhelming cause of morbidity and mortality. Surgery is the treatment of choice, but significant controversy exists over the extent of surgical resection. We present an update on the state of the art of anorectal mucosal melanoma. To illustr...

  13. Are all melanomas dangerous?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    NØrgaard, Carsten; Glud, Martin

    2011-01-01

    The increased incidence of cutaneous malignant melanoma, together with only minor changes in mortality, has brought into question the existence of a melanoma epidemic. The discrepancy between incidence and mortality suggests that most newly diagnosed melanomas have indolent behaviour. This review summarizes the most recent epidemiological findings regarding the incidence of cutaneous malignant melanoma, mortality, Breslow thickness and clinical stage. Studies published between 2005 and 2010 with more than 2,000 test subjects were included in this review. These studies all report an increase in incidence of melanoma during the last few decades, with by far the highest increase in tumours at a very early stage (T1 or IA). Little or no change was seen in mortality. However, increases in both mortality and incidence of thick melanomas were found in the oldest subgroups, especially in men. These findings indicate the existence of a certain degree of overdiagnosis of melanoma. They also indicate the existence of two different types of epidemic, for younger and older subgroups.

  14. How Is Melanoma Skin Cancer Diagnosed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... How is melanoma skin cancer staged? How is melanoma skin cancer diagnosed? Most melanomas are brought to ... types of biopsies may be needed. Biopsies of melanoma that may have spread Biopsies of areas other ...

  15. Melanoma: Signs and Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... meetings archive Derm Exam Prep Course Epiphanies in Dermatology Legislative Conference Education and quality care AAD professional education Online Learning Center Clinical guidelines PQRS DataDerm State melanoma ...

  16. Proteomics in uveal melanoma.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ramasamy, Pathma

    2014-01-01

    Uveal melanoma is the most common primary intraocular malignancy in adults, with an incidence of 5-7 per million per year. It is associated with the development of metastasis in about 50% of cases, and 40% of patients with uveal melanoma die of metastatic disease despite successful treatment of the primary tumour. The survival rates at 5, 10 and 15 years are 65%, 50% and 45% respectively. Unlike progress made in many other areas of cancer, uveal melanoma is still poorly understood and survival rates have remained similar over the past 25 years. Recently, advances made in molecular genetics have improved our understanding of this disease and stratification of patients into low risk and high risk for developing metastasis. However, only a limited number of studies have been performed using proteomic methods. This review will give an overview of various proteomic technologies currently employed in life sciences research, and discuss proteomic studies of uveal melanoma.

  17. Primary Anorectal Melanoma: An Update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Carcoforo, M.T Raiji, G.M Palini, M Pedriali, U Maestroni, G Soliani, A Detroia, M.V Zanzi, A.L Manna, J.G Crompton, R.C Langan, A Stojadinovic, I Avital

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The anorectum is a rare anatomic location for primary melanoma. Mucosal melanoma is a distinct biological and clinical entity from the more common cutaneous melanoma. It portrays worse prognosis than cutaneous melanoma, with distant metastases being the overwhelming cause of morbidity and mortality. Surgery is the treatment of choice, but significant controversy exists over the extent of surgical resection. We present an update on the state of the art of anorectal mucosal melanoma. To illustrate the multimodality approach to anorectal melanoma, we present a typical patient.

  18. Future advances in melanoma research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornyak, Thomas J

    2010-01-01

    The future of melanoma research is promising. Specific mechanisms leading to oncogenic transformation in melanoma development have been identified, and are likely to produce new targets for melanoma therapy. Also, advances in melanoma research will result from melanoma investigators co-opting approaches used to study other malignancies in which progress has been made more rapidly. Systematic roadblocks limiting advances in melanoma research relative to other malignancies are being addressed in a formal manner. The public and public officials are increasingly becoming aware of the need for more dedicated efforts to address the challenges of research on this malignancy. PMID:19914467

  19. Perforating metastatic melanoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takenobu Ohashi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe a case of metastatic malignant melanoma on the thigh with comedo-like appearance, which histologically showed elimination of tumor cells. A 70 year-old man was diagnosed with a nodular type malignant melanoma involving the lower back with satellite lesions (stage IIIB, T4b N2c M0, Breslow’s tumor thickness; 10.3 mm, Clark’s level; IV.

  20. Melanoma-restricted genes

    OpenAIRE

    Zanovello Paola; Seliger Barbara; Taylor Phil R; Hu Nan; Mandruzzato Susanna; Zavaglia Katia; Panelli Monica C; Wang Ena; Freedman Ralph S; Marincola Francesco M

    2004-01-01

    Abstract Human metastatic cutaneous melanoma has gained a well deserved reputation for its immune responsiveness. The reason(s) remain(s) unknown. We attempted previously to characterize several variables that may affect the relationship between tumor and host immune cells but, taken one at the time, none yielded a convincing explanation. With explorative purposes, high-throughput technology was applied here to portray transcriptional characteristics unique to metastatic cutaneous melanoma th...

  1. Stages of Intraocular (Uveal) Melanoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Stage II Stage III Stage IV After intraocular melanoma has been diagnosed, tests are done to find ... The following sizes are used to describe intraocular melanoma: Small The tumor is 5 to 16 millimeters ...

  2. Propiedades linfangiogénicas del melanoma Lymphagiogenesis in melanomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Paula Roberti

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available El melanoma cutáneo representa el más letal de los cánceres de piel y la alta mortalidad es debida a la formación de metástasis. A través del sistema linfático local, los sitios iniciales de metástasis son comúnmente los ganglios linfáticos regionales. A pesar de que la relevancia clínica de las metástasis a ganglios linfáticos está bien establecida, muy poco se conoce acerca de sus mecanismos moleculares. El descubrimiento de nuevos marcadores de células linfáticas ha permitido en los últimos años comenzar a esclarecer múltiples interrogantes y controversias relacionados con la interacción entre las células tumorales con los vasos linfáticos. Este capítulo tratará la creciente información con la que se cuenta actualmente para comprender la linfangiogénesis en el cáncer, en particular en melanoma, su potencial aplicación en diagnóstico de metástasis, pronóstico de la enfermedad y estrategias terapéuticas.Melanoma skin cancer represents the most deadly of all skin cancers and its high incidence of mortality is due to metastasis. Through the local lymphatic system, the sites of initial metastasis are usually the regional lymph nodes. Despite the clinical relevance of metastasis spreading to lymph nodes is clearly established, not much is known about its molecular mechanisms. The finding of new markers in lymph node cells has made it possible over the last years to start clarifying many questions and controversies related to the interaction between tumour cells and lymph vessels. This chapter deals with the growing information nowadays available to understand lymphagiogenesis in cancer, especially melanoma, its potential application to metastasis diagnosis, disease prognosis and therapeutic strategies.

  3. Propiedades linfangiogénicas del melanoma / Lymphagiogenesis in melanomas

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    María Paula, Roberti.

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available El melanoma cutáneo representa el más letal de los cánceres de piel y la alta mortalidad es debida a la formación de metástasis. A través del sistema linfático local, los sitios iniciales de metástasis son comúnmente los ganglios linfáticos regionales. A pesar de que la relevancia clínica de las met [...] ástasis a ganglios linfáticos está bien establecida, muy poco se conoce acerca de sus mecanismos moleculares. El descubrimiento de nuevos marcadores de células linfáticas ha permitido en los últimos años comenzar a esclarecer múltiples interrogantes y controversias relacionados con la interacción entre las células tumorales con los vasos linfáticos. Este capítulo tratará la creciente información con la que se cuenta actualmente para comprender la linfangiogénesis en el cáncer, en particular en melanoma, su potencial aplicación en diagnóstico de metástasis, pronóstico de la enfermedad y estrategias terapéuticas. Abstract in english Melanoma skin cancer represents the most deadly of all skin cancers and its high incidence of mortality is due to metastasis. Through the local lymphatic system, the sites of initial metastasis are usually the regional lymph nodes. Despite the clinical relevance of metastasis spreading to lymph node [...] s is clearly established, not much is known about its molecular mechanisms. The finding of new markers in lymph node cells has made it possible over the last years to start clarifying many questions and controversies related to the interaction between tumour cells and lymph vessels. This chapter deals with the growing information nowadays available to understand lymphagiogenesis in cancer, especially melanoma, its potential application to metastasis diagnosis, disease prognosis and therapeutic strategies.

  4. Trametinib in metastatic melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chopra, Neha; Nathan, Paul D

    2015-07-01

    The treatment of metastatic melanoma is rapidly changing. In 2002, the BRAF mutation was described in over 50% of melanomas and led to the first BRAF inhibitor, vemurafenib, being approved for clinical use in 2011. Clinical responses are often rapid but duration of response is limited due to the development of resistance. MEK is the next downstream target from BRAF in the MAP kinase pathway. Trametinib was the first MEK inhibitor to be approved for clinical use in 2013. Preclinical studies demonstrated a delay in resistance and a reduction in cutaneous toxicity by combined BRAF and MEK inhibition. Here, we review the rationale for clinical development of trametinib and give an update on recent clinical trials of trametinib alone and in combination with braf inhibition in melanoma. PMID:26107021

  5. Microinvasive melanoma: cutaneous pharmacotherapeutic approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quigley, Elizabeth A; Halpern, Allan C

    2013-04-01

    Surgical excision is the treatment of choice for primary melanomas and radiation therapy is the accepted alternative for the subset of lesions not amenable to surgery. With the recent rise in melanoma incidence, especially in the elderly, there are a growing number of cases that are neither amenable to surgery nor radiation therapy. In this article, we review pharmacotherapeutic approaches to microinvasive melanoma (invasive radial growth phase melanoma) that might be considered in such circumstances. There are no approved drugs for the treatment of primary melanoma and randomized controlled trials with 5 or more years of follow-up have not been performed. The limited studies and numerous case series in the literature on pharmacologic treatment of primary melanoma have focused on topical therapies. Accordingly, we provide a review of the potential pharmacotherapeutic agents in the treatment of microinvasive melanoma by extrapolating from the available limited literature on the use of fluorouracil, azelaic acid, retinoic acid derivatives, interferon (IFN)-?, imiquimod, and other agents for melanoma in situ, invasive melanoma, and epidermotropic melanoma metastases. Our review indicates that topical fluorouracil and tretinoin are not effective as single agents. The efficacy of azelaic acid, tazarotene, cidofovir, and intralesional IFN-?, interleukin-2, and IFN-? is undefined. Imiquimod is the most studied and promising agent; however, optimal dosage, therapeutic regimen, and survival rates are unknown. In the face of a growing demand for non-surgical treatments, formal clinical trials are needed to ascertain the role of pharmacotherapeutic agents in the treatment of microinvasive melanoma. PMID:23479385

  6. MIR genes in Melanoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On the basis of the previous project, further studies have been performed on the expression of selected miR genes in normal melanocytes and in melanoma cell lines, using real-time reverse transcription-PCR (qRT-PCR). In particular, we have analyzed the expression of 8 miR genes (i.e. 17-5p, 18a, 20a, 92a, 146a, 146b, 155, 221) in 10 different melanocyte cultures obtained from skin biopsies of 10 different healthy donors, and in 14 long-term human melanoma cell cultures

  7. Melanoma esofágico primario / Primary esophageal melanoma

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Robin, Rivera Irigoín; Víctor, Aguilar Urbano; Juana, Gonzalo Marín; Cristobal, Albandea Moreno; Francisco, Fernández Pérez; Andrés, Sánchez Cantos.

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available El melanoma esofágico primario (MEP) es una neoplasia extremadamente rara, con menos de 270 casos descritos. Aunque la presentación clínica es similar a cualquier otra neoplasia esofágica, su comportamiento es más agresivo y fatal en la mayoría de los casos. Presentamos dos nuevos casos de MEP diagn [...] osticados mediante endoscopia y estudio anatomopatológico de las biopsias obtenidas, siendo en ambos casos las muestras positivas para HMB-45 y S100, descartando así mismo la presencia de melanoma primario en otra localización. En el primer caso merece destacar la forma de presentación como miosis izquierda sin ptosis palpebral ni enoftalmos, siendo el primer caso descrito con esta manifestación inicial, lamentablemente al momento del diagnóstico fue irresecable, demostrando así mismo por ecoendoscopia afectación de la aorta torácica. El segundo caso a pesar de ser una neoplasia sin extensión locorregional y sometido a esofaguectomía transhiatal presentó múltiples complicaciones postoperatorias falleciendo al decimo noveno día de la intervención. Así mismo se hace una revisión bibliográfica sobre diagnóstico, opciones de tratamiento y pronóstico de esta excepcional neoplasia. Abstract in english Primary Esophageal Melanoma (PEM) is an extremely rare neoplasm, with less than 270 cases described. Although clinical presentation is similar to any other esophageal neoplasm, MEP's behavior is more aggressive and fatal in most cases. We report two new cases of MEP diagnosed through endoscopy and a [...] natomical-pathological analysis of collected biopsies. Both samples were positive for HMB-45 and S100, so the presence of primary melanoma in other location was ruled out. The form of presentation as left miosis with no eyelid ptosis or enophthalmos should be highlighted in the first case, which was described by this early manifestation. Unfortunately, the neoplasm could not be excised when diagnosed because the thoracic artery was found to be affected through echoendoscopy. In the second case, in spite of the fact that the neoplastic extension was only local, and neoplasm was subject to transhiatal esophagectomy, the patient had multiple post-surgical complications and died nineteen days after the surgical procedure. Furthermore, bibliographic review is applied to diagnosis, treatment options, and prognosis of this exceptional neoplasm.

  8. Melanoma e inmunidad / Melanoma and immunity

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    María Marcela, Barrio.

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available La teoría de la inmunovigilancia postula que el sistema inmune es capaz de detectar células cancerosas reconociendo sus características particulares y eliminarlas previniendo la progresión del cáncer. Sin embargo, dicho proceso no es absolutamente eficaz, identificándose tres etapas propuestas para [...] explicar la aparición de los tumores: en la primera (Eliminación) el sistema inmune es capaz de destruir células neoplásicas básicamente mediante efectores de la inmunidad innata; en la fase de Equilibrio, se inducen efectores específicos que reconocen y destruyen al tumor pero también se genera una presión de selección sobre las células tumorales generando variantes neoplásicas mutadas. Por último, en la etapa de Escape, las variantes del tumor que sobreviven se vuelven resistentes al reconocimiento y/o eliminación por los efectores inmunes y el tumor crece. En este artículo se presentan los principales antígenos (Ags) asociados al melanoma, las diversas estrategias terapéuticas que utilizan a estos Ags como blanco para inducir inmunidad, así como la existencia de los mecanismos de escape tumoral en el melanoma. Se analizan las evidencias más recientes acerca de cómo el microambiente tumoral condiciona la efectividad de la inmunidad celular específica evidenciando la necesidad actual de explorar terapias que combinen la acción de efectores de la inmunidad innata y la específica antitumoral, a la vez que modulen el microambiente tumoral para favorecer su acción. Abstract in english The immunosurveillance theory states that the immune system is capable of detecting cancer cells recognizing their particular characteristics and of eliminating them to prevent cancer progression. However, such process is not completely effective. Three stages proposed to explain the emergence of tu [...] mors can be identified in the process: in the first stage (Elimination) the immune system is capable of destroying neoplasic cells basically by means of innate immunity effectors; in the second (Equilibrium) stage, specific effectors that recognize and destroy the tumor are induced, but on the other hand, selection pressure is generated on tumor cells, originating mutated neoplasic variants. Finally, in the Escape stage, the tumor variants that survive become more resistant to identification and /or elimination by the immune effectors and consequently the tumor grows. The main melanoma-associated Ags, the various therapeutical strategies using these Ags as targets to induce immunity, as well as the existence of tumor escape mechanisms in the melanoma will be introduced in this chapter. Furthermore, the latest evidence on how tumor microenvironment determines the effectiveness of specific cell immunity will be analyzed, proving the present need of exploring therapies that both combine the action of innate immunity effectors and the anti-tumor specific effectors, and modulate the tumor microenvironment to favour its actions.

  9. Melanoma acral lentiginoso: revisión bibliográfica / Acral lentiginous melanoma: bibliographic review

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Carlos, Duarte; Héctor, López.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available El melanoma acral lentiginoso es el tipo de melanoma de localización distal más frecuente, suele diagnosticarse en los estadios más avanzados y tiene un comportamiento biológico más agresivo que otros tipos de melanoma, por lo cual son de peor pronóstico. Representa entre el 5 % y el 10 % de los mel [...] anomas malignos y es más frecuente en asiáticos, en la raza negra y en latinoamericanos. El objetivo de este artículo fue hacer una revisión bibliográfica actualizada con el fin de conocer las tasas de incidencia del tumor, los nuevos avances con respecto a los factores de riesgo, biología molecular, diagnóstico y tratamiento, y el desarrollo de nuevos tratamientos en el manejo del melanoma avanzado y metastásico. Abstract in english Acral lentiginous melanomas, the melanomas most commonly found the distal portions of the limbs, have usually reached more advanced stages than other types of melanoma when diagnosed. Their biologic behavior is more aggressive than in other types of melanoma, so that they have a worse prognosis. It [...] represents 5 to 10% of all malignant melanomas, and is more frequently seen among the Asian, African American and Latin population. The objective of this paper was to complete a review of the current literature, in order to establish the rates of incidence, new findings regarding risk factors, molecular biology, diagnosis and treatment, and the development of new target therapies in the management of advanced and metastatic melanomas.

  10. Los guardianes del melanoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norma Estela Herrera Gonz\\u00E1lez

    2012-01-01

    autoinmunidad severa. Aunque aún no se conocen los mecanismos por los cuales funcionan estas células, se sabe que secretan citocinas inmunosupresoras y que inhiben la activación y proliferación de células T, con lo cual se pierde respuesta antitumoral. Por tanto, a estas células las hemos llamado "los guardianes del melanoma".

  11. Drugs Approved for Melanoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Related to Cancer Off-Label Drug Use in Cancer Treatment Complementary & Alternative Medicine (CAM) CAM for Patients CAM for Health Professionals Questions to Ask Your Doctor about Treatment Research Drugs Approved for Melanoma This page lists cancer drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration ( ...

  12. Melanoma and Dietary Habits

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... About MedlinePlus Site Map FAQs Contact Us Health Topics Drugs & Supplements Videos & Tools You Are Here: Home ? Latest Health News ? Melanoma and Dietary Habits URL of this page: http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/videos/news/ ...

  13. Spice Blocks Melanoma Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Science Teacher, 2005

    2005-01-01

    Curcumin, the pungent yellow spice found in both turmeric and curry powders, blocks a key biological pathway needed for development of melanoma and other cancers, according to a study that appears in the journal Cancer. Researchers from The University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center demonstrate how curcumin stops laboratory strains of…

  14. Melanoma inhibitor of apoptosis protein is expressed differentially in melanoma and melanocytic naevus, but similarly in primary and metastatic melanomas

    OpenAIRE

    Gong, J.; Chen, N.; Zhou, Q.; Yang, B.; Wang, Y.; Wang, X.

    2005-01-01

    Background: Malignant melanoma is highly resistant to current treatments. The inhibitor of apoptosis protein (IAP) family member, melanoma IAP (ML-IAP), is overexpressed in some melanoma cell lines, rendering them resistant to apoptotic signals. Targeting ML-IAP is a promising approach to treating melanoma. However, the status of ML-IAP expression in human melanoma tissues and the difference in expression between melanoma and melanocytic naevus are not known.

  15. RARE METASTASES OF MALIGNANT MELANOMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marija Trenki?-Božinovi?

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Melanomas are malignant neoplasms that originate from melanocytes. The most common are on the skin and mucous membranes. Choroidal melanomas are quite different from cutaneous melanomas with regard to presentation, metastases, and treatment. We report two cases of metastatic gastric malignant melanoma of the eye and skin, with reference to the literature. The first patient was a woman aged 23 years, who underwent gastrectomy 22 months after enucleation of the eye due to malignant choroid melanoma. The second patient was a man, 72 years old, who underwent surgery 28 months before because of malignant melanoma of the skin of the forehead. Paraffin sections, 4 ?m thick were stained using a classic method, as well as immunohistochemical DAKO APAAP method, using a specific S - 100 antibody and Melan A antibodies. The stomach is considered a rare place for the development of metastases. Metastases in the stomach are often limited to the submucosal as well as the serousmuscular layer, as noted in one of our patients. Metastatic melanoma of the gastrointestinal tract should be suspected in any patient with a history of malignant melanoma and new gastrointestinal symptoms. Because of the similarity between certain common histopathological types of malignant melanoma, primarily achromatic, and types of primary cancers of the stomach, the following immunohistochemical studies are needed: Melan A and S - 100 protein ( markers of malignant melanoma , as well as mucins: MUC5AC, MUC2 and CDX2 ( markers of different types of primary gastric carcinoma.

  16. Radiopharmaceuticals targeting melanoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melanoma is one of the most aggressive cancers known with a high rate of mortality and increasing global incidence. So, the development of radiopharmaceuticals for either diagnostic or therapeutic purposes could make enormous contributions to melanoma patient health care. We have been studying melanoma tumours through several targeting mechanisms including melanin or specific receptor based radiopharmaceuticals Structure activity studies indicate that the substitution patterns on radioiodinated benzamides significantly influence the uptake mechanism from melanin to sigma-receptor binding. Furthermore, the position of the iodine as well as the presence of key functional groups and substituents has resulted in compounds with varying degrees of activity uptake and retention in tumours. From these results, a novel molecule 2-(2-(4-(4-iodo benzyl)piperazin-1-yl)-2-oxo-ethyl)isoindoline- 1,3-dione (M.E.L.037) was synthesized, labelled with iodine-123 and evaluated for application in melanoma tumour scintigraphy and radiotherapy. The tumour imaging potential of 123IM.E.L.037 was studied in vivo in C.57 B.L./ 6 J female mice bearing the B.16 F.0. murine melanoma tumour and in BALB/c nude mice bearing the A.375 human amelanotic melanoma tumour by biodistribution, competition studies and by SPECT imaging. 123I-M.E.L.037 exhibited high and rapid uptake in the B.16 F.0 melanoma tumour at 1 h (13 % I.D./g) increasing with time to reach 25 % I.D./g at 6 h. A swith time to reach 25 % I.D./g at 6 h. A significant uptake was also observed in the eyes (2% I.D., at 3-6 h p.i.) of black mice. No uptake was observed in the tumour or in the eyes of nude mice bearing the A.375 tumour. Due to high uptake and long retention in the tumour and rapid body clearance, standardized uptake values(S.U.V.) of 123I-M.E.L.037 were 30 and 60, at 24 and 48 h p.i.,respectively. SPECT imaging of mice bearing the B.16 melanoma indicated the radioactivity was predominately located in the tumour followed by the eyes, while no specific localisation of the radioactivity was noticed in mice bearing A.375 human amelanotic tumour. In competition experiments,uptake of 123I-M..E.L.037 in brain, lung, heart and kidney, organs known to contain s-receptors, was not significantly different in haloperidol treated animals compared to controls. Therefore,reduction of uptake in tumour and eyes of the pigmented mice bearing the B.16 F.0 tumour suggested that the mechanism of tumour uptake was likely due to an interaction with melanin.These findings suggested that 123I-M.E.L.037, which displays a rapid and very high tumour uptake, appeared to be a promising imaging agent for detection of most melanoma tumours with the potential for development as a therapeutic agent in melanoma tumour proliferation. (authors)

  17. Radiopharmaceuticals targeting melanoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pham, T.Q.; Berghofer, P.; Liu, X.; Greguric, I.; Dikic, B.; Ballantyne, P.; Mattner, F.; Nguyen, V.; Loc' h, C.; Katsifis, A. [Radiopharmaceuticals Research Institute, Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Menai, N.S.W., Sydney (Australia)

    2008-02-15

    Melanoma is one of the most aggressive cancers known with a high rate of mortality and increasing global incidence. So, the development of radiopharmaceuticals for either diagnostic or therapeutic purposes could make enormous contributions to melanoma patient health care. We have been studying melanoma tumours through several targeting mechanisms including melanin or specific receptor based radiopharmaceuticals Structure activity studies indicate that the substitution patterns on radioiodinated benzamides significantly influence the uptake mechanism from melanin to sigma-receptor binding. Furthermore, the position of the iodine as well as the presence of key functional groups and substituents has resulted in compounds with varying degrees of activity uptake and retention in tumours. From these results, a novel molecule 2-(2-(4-(4-iodo benzyl)piperazin-1-yl)-2-oxo-ethyl)isoindoline- 1,3-dione (M.E.L.037) was synthesized, labelled with iodine-123 and evaluated for application in melanoma tumour scintigraphy and radiotherapy. The tumour imaging potential of {sup 123}IM.E.L.037 was studied in vivo in C.57 B.L./ 6 J female mice bearing the B.16 F.0. murine melanoma tumour and in BALB/c nude mice bearing the A.375 human amelanotic melanoma tumour by biodistribution, competition studies and by SPECT imaging. {sup 123}I-M.E.L.037 exhibited high and rapid uptake in the B.16 F.0 melanoma tumour at 1 h (13 % I.D./g) increasing with time to reach 25 % I.D./g at 6 h. A significant uptake was also observed in the eyes (2% I.D., at 3-6 h p.i.) of black mice. No uptake was observed in the tumour or in the eyes of nude mice bearing the A.375 tumour. Due to high uptake and long retention in the tumour and rapid body clearance, standardized uptake values(S.U.V.) of {sup 123}I-M.E.L.037 were 30 and 60, at 24 and 48 h p.i.,respectively. SPECT imaging of mice bearing the B.16 melanoma indicated the radioactivity was predominately located in the tumour followed by the eyes, while no specific localisation of the radioactivity was noticed in mice bearing A.375 human amelanotic tumour. In competition experiments,uptake of {sup 123}I-M..E.L.037 in brain, lung, heart and kidney, organs known to contain s-receptors, was not significantly different in haloperidol treated animals compared to controls. Therefore,reduction of uptake in tumour and eyes of the pigmented mice bearing the B.16 F.0 tumour suggested that the mechanism of tumour uptake was likely due to an interaction with melanin.These findings suggested that {sup 123}I-M.E.L.037, which displays a rapid and very high tumour uptake, appeared to be a promising imaging agent for detection of most melanoma tumours with the potential for development as a therapeutic agent in melanoma tumour proliferation. (authors)

  18. Heterogeneity of melanoma risk in families of melanoma patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aitken, J F; Duffy, D L; Green, A; Youl, P; MacLennan, R; Martin, N G

    1994-12-01

    While it is recognized that relatives of melanoma patients are at increased risk for this disease, the source and extent of variation in melanoma risk between families of melanoma cases is unknown. Heterogeneity of familial melanoma risk was assessed among the families (comprising 7,666 first-degree relatives) of 1,149 cutaneous melanoma cases diagnosed in Queensland, Australia, between 1982 and 1987. The measure of familial melanoma risk was based on the number of cases of melanoma in the family in excess of those predicted from the age-, sex-, and birth cohort-specific cumulative incidences of melanoma among all relatives in the sample. Probands over-reported melanoma occurrence among their relatives, with a false positive reporting rate of 44.5% (216 false reports out of 485). Only medically verified cases among relatives were included in the analysis. There was statistically significant heterogeneity in family risk, with 53 (4.7%) of the total 1,116 unrelated families containing significantly more melanoma cases than expected considering the size of the family, and the age, sex, and birth cohort distributions of family members. In univariate analyses, members of the high-risk families were significantly more likely to have poor ability to tan, a propensity to sunburn, fair skin color, red hair, and many melanocytic nevi. When all variables were included simultaneously in a multiple logistic regression model, only the associations with tanning ability, skin color, and number of nevi remained significant. There were no significant differences overall between high-risk and other families in the sites and ages at diagnosis of melanoma, although melanomas on variably sun-exposed sites (trunk and legs) were diagnosed earlier in the high-risk families, independent of the stage at diagnosis. PMID:7985658

  19. New Diagnostic Aides for Melanoma

    OpenAIRE

    Ferris, Laura K.; Harris, Ryan J.

    2012-01-01

    Detection of melanoma at an early stage is crucial to improving survival rates in melanoma. Accurate diagnosis by current techniques including dermatoscopy remains difficult, and new tools are needed to improve our diagnostic abilities. This article discusses recent advances in diagnostic techniques including confocal scanning laser microscopy, MelaFind, Siascopy, noninvasive genomic detection, as well as other future possibilities to aid in diagnosing melanoma. Advantages and barriers to imp...

  20. Nodular amelanotic melanoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nalamwar Rashmi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of 65-year-old male patient who presented with multiple erythematous papules coalescing to form a nodular mass over posterior aspect of right thigh of six months duration. His general and systemic examinations were within normal range except for right inguinal lymphadenopathy. Biopsy from the lesion was done, which showed diffuse infiltrate of nests of atypical melanocytes extending upto reticular dermis. Malignant cells were positive for S100 and human melanin black 45(HMB 45. Hence, a diagnosis of amelanotic melanoma (AM - Clarke level IV and TNM stage III was reached. MRI of involved leg showed fungating soft tissue mass in the posterolateral aspect of right thigh and metastatic right inguinal adenopathy. Fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC from the right inguinal nodes confirmed metastasis of melanoma. The patient was referred to oncosurgery department for further management.

  1. Preventing Melanoma PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-06-02

    This 60 second public service announcement is based on the June 2015 CDC Vital Signs report. Skin cancer is the most common form of cancer in the U.S. In 2011, there were more than 65,000 cases of melanoma, the most deadly form of skin cancer. Learn how everyone can help prevent skin cancer.  Created: 6/2/2015 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 6/2/2015.

  2. Endoresection of choroidal melanoma

    OpenAIRE

    Damato, B.; Groenewald, C.; Mcgalliard, J.; Wong, D.

    1998-01-01

    AIMS—The results of 52 endoresections for choroidal melanoma are reported.?METHODS—The current technique involves vitrectomy, retinal incision over or peripheral to the tumour, haemostasis by raising intraocular pressure and by moderate hypotensive anaesthesia, choroidal incision around tumour, endoresection with vitrector, endodiathermy to bleeding points and residual tumour, fluid-air exchange to reattach retina, endolaser to achieve retinal adhesion around the coloboma and destroy r...

  3. Radiotherapy of malignant melanomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study is made of 46 patients with cutaneous and mucoseous malignant melanoma treated in the Department of Radiotherapy of. A.C. Camargo Hospital - Fundacao Antonio Prudente - Sao Paulo - Brazil, from 1960 to 1973. Radiotherapy was employed as a radical procedure in 9 patients, as a, remissive procedure in 10 and as an adjuvant pre-or post-operative therapeutic in 22 patients. Six patients were submitted to actnic hipophysectomy. One out of the cases submitted to radical radiotherapy showed complete response and six patients partial response. Seven out of the ten cases treated with paliative intention did not show symptomatology after radiotherapy that led them to treatment. Under the ever-existing conflict of the clinical literature and experimentation, it is found that there had not been estabilished a definite concept concerning radiosensibility of malignant melanomas yet. The different response to the radiation-therapy from one case to another makes the local prognostic unsafe. It is concluded that the role of radiotherapy has not been perfectly estabilished in the therapeutic approach of malignant melanoma and that prospective studies are needed to situate radiotherapy in the treatment of this disease. (Author)

  4. Melanoma maligno conjuntival Malignant melanoma of the conjunctiva

    OpenAIRE

    Gustavo Amorim Novais; Carol Lynn Karp

    2012-01-01

    INTRODUÇÃO: Os tumores melanocíticos conjuntivais compreendem lesões que podem variar desde lesões benignas como os nevos conjuntivais, lesões pré-cancerosas como melanose adquirida primária com atipia até o melanoma maligno conjuntival. O reconhecimento das características clinicas destas lesões e seu diagnóstico preciso permitem o tratamento adequado, contribuindo para a redução da morbidade e mortalidade associados ao melanoma de conjuntiva. OBJETIVO: Revisão das caracterís...

  5. ADAM15 expression is downregulated in melanoma metastasis compared to primary melanoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research highlights: ? Strong ADAM15 expression is found in normal melanocytes. ? ADAM15 expression is significantly downregulated in patients with melanoma metastasis. ? TGF-? can downregulate ADAM15 expression in melanoma cells. ? Overexpression of ADAM15 in melanoma cells inhibits migration, proliferation and invasion of melanoma cells. ? Conclusion: ADAM15 represents an tumor suppressor protein in melanoma. -- Abstract: In a mouse melanoma metastasis model it has been recently shown that ADAM15 overexpression in melanoma cells significantly reduced the number of metastatic nodules on the lung. Unfortunately, the expression of ADAM15 in human melanoma tissue has not been determined so far. In our study, we characterized the expression of ADAM15 in tissue micro-arrays of patients with primary melanoma with melanoma metastasis. ADAM15 was expressed in melanocytes and endothelial cells of benign nevi and melanoma tissue. Importantly, ADAM15 was significantly downregulated in melanoma metastasis compared to primary melanoma. We further demonstrate that IFN-? and TGF-? downregulate ADAM15 protein levels in melanoma cells. To investigate the role of ADAM15 in melanoma progression, we overexpressed ADAM15 in melanoma cells. Importantly, overexpression of ADAM15 in melanoma cells reduced the migration, invasion and the anchorage dependent and independent cell growth of melanoma cells. In summary, the downregulation of ADAM15 plays an important role in melanoma progression and ADAM15 act as a tumorsuppressor in melanoma.

  6. Polypoid melanoma and superficial spreading melanoma different subtypes in the same lesion*

    OpenAIRE

    Hikawa, Renato Shintani; Kanehisa, Eliza Sayuri; Enokihara, Mílvia Maria Simões e Silva; Enokihara, Mauro Yoshiaki; Hirata, Sérgio Henrique

    2014-01-01

    Melanoma is a malignant melanocytic neoplasm with high mortality rate, and steadily and universally increasing incidence rates. Polypoid melanoma is considered an exophytic variant of the nodular subtype. The incidence of polypoid melanoma is extremely variable, most likely because of the different criteria used for its characterization. We presented a rare case of polypoid melanoma and superficial spreading melanoma in the same lesion.

  7. ADAM15 expression is downregulated in melanoma metastasis compared to primary melanoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ungerer, Christopher; Doberstein, Kai [Pharmazentrum Frankfurt/ZAFES, University Hospital Goethe University Frankfurt, Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Buerger, Claudia; Hardt, Katja; Boehncke, Wolf-Henning [Department of Dermatology, Clinic of the Goethe-University, Theodor-Stern-Kai, Frankfurt (Germany); Boehm, Beate [Division of Rheumatology, Goethe University, Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Pfeilschifter, Josef [Pharmazentrum Frankfurt/ZAFES, University Hospital Goethe University Frankfurt, Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Dummer, Reinhard [Department of Pathology, Institute of Surgical Pathology, University Hospital, Zurich (Switzerland); Mihic-Probst, Daniela [Department of Dermatology, University Hospital Zurich (Switzerland); Gutwein, Paul, E-mail: p.gutwein@med.uni-frankfurt.de [Pharmazentrum Frankfurt/ZAFES, University Hospital Goethe University Frankfurt, Frankfurt am Main (Germany)

    2010-10-22

    Research highlights: {yields} Strong ADAM15 expression is found in normal melanocytes. {yields} ADAM15 expression is significantly downregulated in patients with melanoma metastasis. {yields} TGF-{beta} can downregulate ADAM15 expression in melanoma cells. {yields} Overexpression of ADAM15 in melanoma cells inhibits migration, proliferation and invasion of melanoma cells. {yields} Conclusion: ADAM15 represents an tumor suppressor protein in melanoma. -- Abstract: In a mouse melanoma metastasis model it has been recently shown that ADAM15 overexpression in melanoma cells significantly reduced the number of metastatic nodules on the lung. Unfortunately, the expression of ADAM15 in human melanoma tissue has not been determined so far. In our study, we characterized the expression of ADAM15 in tissue micro-arrays of patients with primary melanoma with melanoma metastasis. ADAM15 was expressed in melanocytes and endothelial cells of benign nevi and melanoma tissue. Importantly, ADAM15 was significantly downregulated in melanoma metastasis compared to primary melanoma. We further demonstrate that IFN-{gamma} and TGF-{beta} downregulate ADAM15 protein levels in melanoma cells. To investigate the role of ADAM15 in melanoma progression, we overexpressed ADAM15 in melanoma cells. Importantly, overexpression of ADAM15 in melanoma cells reduced the migration, invasion and the anchorage dependent and independent cell growth of melanoma cells. In summary, the downregulation of ADAM15 plays an important role in melanoma progression and ADAM15 act as a tumorsuppressor in melanoma.

  8. Melanoma mucoso de tabique nasal / Nasal cavity mucosal melanoma

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Luis, Sarra; Juan C., Rodríguez; Mariela, García-Valea; Aníbal, Arédez-Ferrer; Anabel, Vino; Bárbara, Guassardo.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Los melanomas mucosos son tumores raros y de mal pronóstico. Representan alrededor del 1% del total de melanomas y el 0,5% de los tumores malignos de cabeza y cuello. Cuando se localiza en las fosas nasales, produce sintomatología tardía e inespecífica como obstrucción respiratoria, epistaxis o dolo [...] r facial. El tratamiento de elección es la cirugía combinada con quimio y radioterapia. Presentamos un caso con sobrevida de 4 años y realizamos una revisión de la literatura. Abstract in english Head and neck mucosal melanoma is a rare entity with poor prognosis. This tumour represents less than 1% of malignant melanomas and 0.5% of head and neck malignancies. Melanomas that arise in the nasal cavity present with non-specific symptoms and have a poor prognosis. Wide local excision is the tr [...] eatment of choice combined with postoperative chemoradiotherapy. We present a case with an unusual survival (4 years) and perform a review of the literature.

  9. Novel biomarkers in malignant melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosserhoff, Anja K

    2006-05-01

    Cutaneous malignant melanoma remains the leading cause of skin cancer death in industrialized countries. Melanoma progression is well defined in its clinical and histopathological aspects (Breslow's index, tumour size, ulceration, or vascular invasion), which also give hints to prognosis of the patient. Use of molecular markers should therefore give additional information which cannot be determined by routine histopathology. Markers showing only a correlation to Clark level or tumour size are not useful. Several molecules influencing invasiveness and metastatic dissemination of melanoma have been identified. Expression of these molecules has been studied in primary melanoma and correlated with prognosis. Moreover, several tumour suppressors and oncogenes have been shown to be involved in melanoma pathogenesis, including CDKN2A, PTEN, TP53, RAS and MYC, but have not been related to melanoma subtypes or validated as prognostic markers. In the past, in melanoma, an increase in the number of positive tumour cells for Ki67 (detected by Mib1), cyclin A, cyclin D, MMP-2, integrins beta1 and beta3 or osteonectin were considered as factors of poor prognosis as well as the decrease in p16, p27, and Melan A. However, only a small subset of these proteins has a prognostic value independent of tumour thickness. The recent development of high-throughput technologies analyzing global molecular profiles of cancer is bringing up previously unknown candidate genes involved in melanoma, such as Wnt-5A and B-raf. Here, recently published data related to new genes involved in melanoma pathogenesis, which may represent important biomarkers for the identification of genetic profiles or indication of progression of melanoma, are reviewed. PMID:16480699

  10. Radiation biology of malignant melanoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The survival curves for melanoma cells exposed to single radiation doses in vitro and the specific growth delays for melanoma xenografts irradiated with single doses in vivo were found to differ considerably among individual cell lines and tumours. In fact, the differences could be almost as large as the largest differences observed among cell lines and xenografts from tumours of different histology with very different clinical radiocurability. Moreover, radiobiologic parameters that may have significant influence on tumour response to fractionated irradiation, e.g. growth rate, hypoxic fraction, reoxygenation ability, PLD-repair capacity and contact repair capacity, were found to differ greatly in magnitude among individual melanomas. This review therefore concludes that malignant melanoma is a tumour type that is very heterogeneous in radioresponsiveness, i.e. malignant melanomas should no longer be considered to be radiation resistant in general. The values of the ?/? ratio derived from cell survival curves for melanoma cells irradiated in vitro and melanoma xenografts irradiated in vivo were found to cover a wide range relative to those for acutely and late responding normal tissues. Although these ?/? ratios are no more than estimates of the effective ?/? ratios in a clinical situation, they still indicated that hyperfractionation may be beneficial in the treatment of some melanomas, whereas others may be more efficiently treated by use of conventional frac treated by use of conventional fractionation regimes, either based on 2 Gy or higher doses per fraction. Consequently, optimum radiation therapy of malignant melanoma will probably require an individualized treatment strategy. In vitro assays for prediction of radiocurability and choice of treatment strategy for individual melanoma patients seem therefore highly warranted. (orig.)

  11. The gene expression signatures of melanoma progression

    OpenAIRE

    Haqq, Christopher; Nosrati, Mehdi; Sudilovsky, Daniel; Crothers, Julia; Khodabakhsh, Daniel; Pulliam, Brian L.; Federman, Scot; Miller, James R.; Allen, Robert E.; Singer, Mark I.; Leong, Stanley P L; Ljung, Britt-Marie; Sagebiel, Richard W.; Kashani-Sabet, Mohammed

    2005-01-01

    Because of the paucity of available tissue, little information has previously been available regarding the gene expression profiles of primary melanomas. To understand the molecular basis of melanoma progression, we compared the gene expression profiles of a series of nevi, primary melanomas, and melanoma metastases. We found that metastatic melanomas exhibit two dichotomous patterns of gene expression, which unexpectedly reflect gene expression differences already apparent in comparing laser...

  12. The radioresponsiveness of melanoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The variability of malignant melanoma in its response to irradiation is well documented. Recent radiobiological studies suggest that high individual dose and low total fraction regimens will enhance the responsiveness of this tumor to irradiation. The experience of the Ellis Fischel State Cancer Hospital and the Cancer Research Center, Columbia, Missouri was reviewed with particular attention to such radiotherapeutic regimens. Of 41 lesions in 27 patients, the overall response rate to irradiation was 37%. When regimens using more than 400 cGy per fraction were analyzed, a 67% response rate was noted. Complete response and small volume of tumor correlated significantly (p = 0.008) with long-term survival

  13. Melanoma Lentiginoso Acral

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gloria Andrea Vargas Suaza

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available El melanoma lentiginoso acral (MLA es una variante rápidamente progresiva del melanoma maligno (MM. Constituye el 5-10% de todos los tipos de MM y se presenta con mayor frecuencia en pacientes de raza negra, asiáticos y latinoamericanos. En Colombia el MM se encuentra en aumento, con una incidencia de 3.5/100.000, siendo el MLA una de las variantes más comunes. La edad promedio de presentación es de 58 años, con una tasa de sobrevida menor para las personas de raza negra, asociado a un diagnóstico tardío. EL MLA se localiza en plantas, palmas y región subungueal y en su etiopatología se ha descrito la presencia de mutaciones en genes: 9p21 (p16: 67%, 11q13 (CCND1 (47%, 22q11-q13 (40% y 5p15 (20%. El diagnóstico de MLA, se ha fundamentado clásicamente en la histopatología. Herramientas de diagnóstico como la dermatoscopia, la evaluación del ganglio centinela y la determinación de alteraciones en las proteínas del ciclo celular contribuyen a la detección precoz del MLA y el MM en general.

  14. Meningeal metastasing of malignant melanomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two woman patients with malignant melanoma of the skin known from their case history and with acutely emerging neurological symptoms were examined both by CT and by MR tomography (both plain and with intravenous contrast medium). The radiologically derived suspicion of meningioma could not be confirmed by intraoperatively performed histological examination. In both cases the patients had meningeal melanoma metastases with low melanin content and without noticeable bleeding into the metastases. MR diagnosis is rendered difficult by the absence of paramagnetic substances typical of melanoma metastases. Hence, if the case history is known, it should be considered whether there is meningeal metastasising with atypical histology. (orig.)

  15. Amelanotic metastatic cutaneous melanoma / Melanoma metastático amelanótico cutâneo

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Marcela Sena Teixeira, Mendes; Mariana Carvalho, Costa; Ciro Martins, Gomes; Lisley Calixto de, Araújo; Gustavo Henrique Soares, Takano.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A dermatoscopia das lesões melanocíticas tem auxiliado na decisão de biopsiar ou não uma lesão. A utilização desta ferramenta aumentou a sensibilidade e a especificidade do diagnóstico para 89% e 96%, respectivamente. No entanto, a avaliação dermatoscópica de melanomas amelanóticos ou hipomelanótico [...] s, bem como a de metástases cutâneas, pode ser difícil. Ainda falta uma padronização para a análise destas patologias, que se baseia, majoritariamente, no seu padrão vascular. Descreve-se a dermatoscopia de melanoma metastático amelanótico acral. Abstract in english Dermatoscopy of melanocytic lesions has guided the decision of when or not to biopsy a lesion. The use of this tool has increased clinical examination's sensitivity and specificity in 89% and 96% respectively. However, dermatoscopic evaluation of amelanotic or hypomelanotic melanomas, as well as met [...] astases, can be difficult. There is still no standardization for the analysis of these pathologies, which relies mostly on their vascular pattern. We describe the dermatoscopy of acral metastatic amelanotic melanoma.

  16. Melanoma Surveillance in the US: The Economic Burden of Melanoma

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-10-19

    This podcast accompanies the publication of a series of articles on melanoma surveillance in the United States, available in the November supplement edition of the Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology. Dr. Gery Guy, from the CDCâ??s Division of Cancer Prevention and Control, discusses the economic burden of melanoma.  Created: 10/19/2011 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 10/19/2011.

  17. Orbital metastasis from cutaneous melanoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samer Elsherbiny

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of a metastatic cutaneous melanoma to the orbit. A 60-year-old Caucasian male presented with a 2-day history of left-sided ocular pain, lid swelling and chemosis. Initially, this was treated as conjunctivitis with no signs of improvement. Four days later, the patient developed left proptosis, mechanical ptosis, left esotropia and diplopia. Computed tomography scan of the orbit demonstrated marked thickening of the lateral rectus muscle. The patient was treated as pseudotumor. Subsequent biopsy revealed malignant cutaneous melanoma. The patient had a history of cutaneous melanoma excised 15 years previously. Further imaging showed advanced metastatic disease in the brain, the lung and the liver. The patient passed away five months after initial presentation. Cutaneous melanoma metastasizing to the orbit has poor prognosis. Patients often have advanced disease at the time of presentation and orbital metastases may be the initial sign. A detailed history is paramount in making timely diagnosis.

  18. Melanoma: Diagnosis, Treatment, and Outcome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... meetings archive Derm Exam Prep Course Epiphanies in Dermatology Legislative Conference Education and quality care AAD professional education Online Learning Center Clinical guidelines PQRS DataDerm State melanoma ...

  19. Metastasectomy for stage IV melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deutsch, Gary B; Kirchoff, Daniel D; Faries, Mark B

    2015-04-01

    Metastatic melanoma has an unpredictable natural history but a predictably high mortality. Despite recent advances in systemic therapy, many patients do not respond, or develop resistance to drug therapy. Surgery has consistently shown good outcomes in appropriately selected patients. It is likely to be even more successful in the era of more effective medical treatment. Surgery should remain a strongly considered option for metastatic melanoma. PMID:25769712

  20. Stem cells in melanoma development

    OpenAIRE

    Sabatino, Marianna; Stroncek, David F.; Klein, Harvey; Marincola, Francesco M.; Wang, Ena

    2008-01-01

    Cutaneous melanoma is a significant health problem worldwide. Available treatments can induce objective tumor regression in a small percent of patients, but these responses are not always associated with improved long-term survival. The resistance of melanoma to therapy and its predestined recurrence are related to the genetic heterogeneity and genomic instability of the tumor. For many years these genetic alterations were thought to be linked to the accumulation of random mutations in functi...

  1. Ipilimumab treatment of metastatic melanoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ghasemi, Habib; Schmidt, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    Until recently metastatic melanoma was a disease with limited treatment options and a poor prognosis. However, new promising products have been developed. Ipilimumab, a full human anti-cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen-4 antibody, has shown improved survival in several clinical trials and is now a part of the standard treatment options for this disease in Denmark. In this case report we present a 78-year-old man with metastatic melanoma who had complete remission after treatment with ipilimumab.

  2. Tumor lymphangiogenesis and melanoma metastasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinderknecht, Matthias; Detmar, Michael

    2008-08-01

    Malignant melanomas of the skin primarily metastasize to lymph nodes, and the detection of sentinel lymph node metastases serves as an important prognostic parameter. There is now compelling evidence that melanomas can induce lymphangiogenesis (growth of lymphatic vessels), mainly at the tumor-stroma interface, and that the level of tumor lymphangiogenesis is correlated with the incidence of sentinel lymph node metastases and with disease-free survival. Thus, tumor lymphangiogenesis can serve as a novel prognostic predictor in melanoma. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-C, released by melanoma cells and by tumor-associated macrophages, likely represents the major lymphangiogenic factor in melanoma, although other members of the VEGF family might also be involved. The recent discovery that tumors can induce a premetastatic niche, by inducing lymphatic vessel growth in sentinel lymph nodes even before metastasis, and that lymph node lymphangiogenesis enhances metastatic spread, indicates that activated lymphatic vessels represent novel targets for the detection and/or therapy of melanoma metastases. PMID:18481261

  3. Isolated malignant melanoma metastasis to the pancreas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Anne K; Krag, Christen

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY: Malignant melanomas rarely develop isolated pancreatic metastases. We describe a unique patient who is still alive 22 years following an isolated pancreatic melanoma metastasis, and we review the sparse literature in the field.

  4. Experimental Melanoma Vaccine Shows Early Promise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Experimental Melanoma Vaccine Shows Early Promise Still not clear if it will prevent recurrence or lengthen survival To use ... spur an immune response in people with advanced melanoma, a preliminary study finds. The experimental vaccine was ...

  5. Polypoid melanoma and superficial spreading melanoma different subtypes in the same lesion

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Renato Shintani, Hikawa; Eliza Sayuri, Kanehisa; Mílvia Maria Simões e Silva, Enokihara; Mauro Yoshiaki, Enokihara; Sérgio Henrique, Hirata.

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Melanoma is a malignant melanocytic neoplasm with high mortality rate, and steadily and universally increasing incidence rates. Polypoid melanoma is considered an exophytic variant of the nodular subtype. The incidence of polypoid melanoma is extremely variable, most likely because of the different [...] criteria used for its characterization. We presented a rare case of polypoid melanoma and superficial spreading melanoma in the same lesion.

  6. Trabajo de revisión: melanoma Work of revision: melanoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. J. Casariego

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available El melanoma maligno es derivado de células dendríticas (névicas proliferantes progenitoras de lesiones. Son importantes en la histogénesis y en el riesgo de desarrollo del melanoma maligno. Del 30% al 37% de los melanomas malignos del tracto aero-digestivo superior están asociados a una lesión premaligna melanótica. Los hallazgos histopatológicos con técnicas convencionales concuerdan en considerar de valor el tamaño del tumor, las células atípicas, la distribución de las células y los márgenes de la lesión. Avances mayores en inmunología de los tumores, llevan a identificar la interacción célula tumoral- célula T. Han sido identificados y caracterizados molecularmente un número de melanomas asociados a antígenos.Advance malignant melanoma is generated from proliferating dendritic (nevic cell progenitors. They are important on the histogenesis and risk of tumor development. From 30% to 37% from high air-digestic track melanoms, there are associated with premalignant cell dendritic lesions. Histophatological approaches agree in consider size of tumor, atypical cells, distribution of this cells and borders of lesion as valued markers. Major advances in tumor irnmunology, have led to understand tumor cell-T cell interactions. A number of melanom associated antigens have been identified and molecularly characterized.

  7. Particularities of melanoma in Romania

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Malignant tumor from melanocytic origin, cutaneous melanoma is the most aggressive cutaneous cancer. The particularities of melanoma in Romania are: 1. the increasing number of cases in a geographic area dominated by the third cutaneous phototype; 2. the high level of T, represented by high levels of Breslow and Clark invasion markers; 3. the lack of a National Melanoma Register; 4. the lymph node sentinel biopsy technique introduction is the present focus; this allows an appropriate N affiliation; 5. the increasing of sanitary education in order to clinical and dermoscopical follow-up of atypical moles and the study of risk factors for melanoma; 6. the creation of a melanoma local guide. The survival prognosis could be improved by: a) the early detection in 'in situ' stage of melanoma and b) the correct TNM and/or EORTC affiliation of the case, in order to achieve an appropriate treatment. Sentinel lymph node detection and biopsy offers a new area in the evaluation of cancer spread by detecting micrometastases and performing a complete regional evaluation of the disease. The presence or absence of the metastases in the regional lymph nodes is one of the most important factors in the survival of patients with primary cutaneous melanoma. Early diagnosis of regional lymph node metastases enables the identification of those patients who are candidates for adjuvant therapy and early therapeutic lymph node dissection. At the same time, the sentinel node biopsy p the same time, the sentinel node biopsy procedure represents a sensitive staging method. The paper presents some of gold standard diagnosis cases, dermoscopy and routine HE examination, selected from a total of 356 cases. (author)

  8. Targeting the RAS pathway in melanoma

    OpenAIRE

    Ji, Zhenyu; Flaherty, Keith T.; Tsao, Hensin

    2011-01-01

    Metastatic melanoma is a highly lethal type of skin cancer and is often refractory to all traditional chemo-therapeutic agents. Key insights into the genetic makeup of melanoma tumors have led to the development of promising targeted agents. An activated RAS pathway, anchored by oncogenic BRAF, appears to be the central motor driving melanoma proliferation. Although recent clinical trials have brought enormous hope to patients with melanoma, adverse effects and novel escape mechanisms of thes...

  9. NF-?B activation in melanoma

    OpenAIRE

    Ueda, Yukiko; Richmond, Ann

    2006-01-01

    Metastatic melanoma is an aggressive skin cancer that is notoriously resistant to current cancer therapies. In human melanoma, nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-?B) is upregulated, leading to the deregulation of gene transcription. In this review, we discuss (i) the relationship between gene alteration in melanoma and upregulation of NF-?B, (ii) mechanisms by which activated NF-?B switch from pro-apoptotic to anti-apoptotic functions in melanoma and (iii) autocrine mechanisms that promote constit...

  10. Donor Transmission of Melanoma Following Renal Transplant

    OpenAIRE

    Kathryn T. Chen; Anthony Olszanski; Jeffrey M. Farma

    2012-01-01

    Donor transmission of melanoma is one of the more common and lethal of recipient malignancies, often presenting with systemic disease. Although some patients may receive durable remission of melanoma following explantation of the allograft and withdrawal of immunosuppression, donor transmission of melanoma is fatal in most patients. Here we present a case of a 44-year-old male who developed metastatic melanoma following renal transplant.

  11. Surgical management of primary and recurrent melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farma, Jeffrey M; Kulkarni, Nandini; Hsu, Cary

    2015-04-01

    Melanoma accounts for less than 2% of skin cancer cases but causes most skin cancer-related deaths. Surgery continues to be the cornerstone of treatment of melanoma and surgical principles are guided by data derived from clinical research. This article examines the evolution of surgical techniques for the diagnosis and treatment of primary and locally recurrent melanoma. PMID:25769709

  12. CDX-1401 and Poly-ICLC Vaccine Therapy With or Without CDX-301in Treating Patients With Stage IIB-IV Melanoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-13

    Carcinoma of Unknown Primary Origin; Iris Melanoma; Medium/Large Size Posterior Uveal Melanoma; Mucosal Melanoma; Ocular Melanoma With Extraocular Extension; Small Size Posterior Uveal Melanoma; Stage IIB Skin Melanoma; Stage IIB Uveal Melanoma; Stage IIC Skin Melanoma; Stage IIIA Skin Melanoma; Stage IIIA Uveal Melanoma; Stage IIIB Skin Melanoma; Stage IIIB Uveal Melanoma; Stage IIIC Skin Melanoma; Stage IIIC Uveal Melanoma; Stage IV Skin Melanoma; Stage IV Uveal Melanoma

  13. Melanoma vaccines: trials and tribulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dillman RO

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Robert O Dillman1,21Hoag Cancer Institute and Hoag Institute for Research and Education, Newport Beach, CA, USA; 2University of California Irvine, Irvine, CA, USAAbstract: Metastatic melanoma has been a target of immunotherapy for more than 4 decades. Three immunotherapeutics have received regulatory approval for treating melanoma: interferon-alpha, interleukin-2, and ipilimumab. The antitumor mechanisms of these products depend on enhancing existing immune responses, including autoimmune effects. The combination of autologous, cytotoxic T-lymphocytes plus high-dose interleukin-2 is a promising patient-specific therapy, but has limited clinical application. Other approaches include vaccines targeting melanoma-associated antigens, and patient-specific vaccines that utilize autologous tumor. Non-patient-specific vaccine approaches target melanocyte differentiation antigens (eg, tyrosinase, Melan-A, gp100, antigens identified by cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (eg, NY-Eso-1, Melan-A/Mart-1, Mage-3, and antigens originally identified by murine monoclonal antibodies (gangliosides, gp97, gp225. Self-renewing cells in tumor cell lines may represent tumor stem cells, but vaccines derived from allogeneic tumor cell lines have yielded disappointing results in randomized trials. Patient-specific vaccines can be derived from bulk autologous tumor or autologous tumor cell lines, and intratumoral injections of immunostimulatory fusion products have shown promise. While technically more complex to manufacture, patient-specific vaccines derived from autologous tumor cell lines have the potential to target tumor stem cells and overcome interpatient tumor cell heterogeneity. This article reviews sources of melanoma-associated antigens, costimulatory agents, and clinical trial results for various melanoma vaccines. Comparing Phase II trials is difficult because of the wide range of vaccine strategies and the differences in study patient populations; therefore, randomized trials are necessary to prove the efficacy of such products. Therapeutic vaccines are more likely to enhance, rather than replace, other anti-melanoma immune therapies. In particular, effective vaccines may be synergistic with products that block T-cell immune checkpoint molecules such as ipilimumab and monoclonal antibodies that interfere with programmed death ligand-receptor interactions.Keywords: melanoma, vaccines, melanoma-associated antigens, melanoma stem cells, dendritic cells, GM-CSF, checkpoint molecules

  14. Melanoma affine radiopharmaceuticals. Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We compared two melanoma-specific radioiodine labelled compunds 4-(3 dimethylamino-propylamino)-7-iodoquinoline (I) and L-3-iodo-a-methyltyrosine (IV) using hamsters. Two groups consisted of hamsters with subcutaneous or subscleral melanotic melanoma, and the third had healthy animals as controls. In comparison with the quinoline derivative (I), the tyrosine derivative (IV) proved to have some better properties as a melanoma-specific radiopharmaceutical and had its highest tumor concentration 1 h after administration. It disappeared more slowly from the tumor tissue than from the other organs thus increasing the tumor-to-organ ratio. There was no obvious difference in the biodistribution of (I) and (IV) in relation to the site of the melanoma growth. In contrast to (I), which took part in the formation of the biopolymer melanin, (IV) acted as a reversible inhibitior of the enzyme tyrosine hydroxylase. The affinity to the tyrosine hydroxylase and not the function as a melanin precursor lead to an accumulation of (IV) in the melanoma tissue. (orig./MG)

  15. Melanoma stem cells in experimental melanoma are killed by radioimmunotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Introduction: In spite of recently approved B-RAF inhibitors and immunomodulating antibodies, metastatic melanoma has poor prognosis and novel treatments are needed. Melanoma stem cells (MSC) have been implicated in the resistance of this tumor to chemotherapy. Recently we demonstrated in a Phase I clinical trial in patients with metastatic melanoma that radioimmunotherapy (RIT) with 188-Rhenium(188Re)-6D2 antibody to melanin was a safe and effective modality. Here we investigated the interaction of MSC with RIT as a possible mechanism for RIT efficacy. Methods: Mice bearing A2058 melanoma xenografts were treated with either 1.5 mCi 188Re-6D2 antibody, saline, unlabeled 6D2 antibody or 188Re-labeled non-specific IgM. Results: On Day 28 post-treatment the tumor size in the RIT group was 4-times less than in controls (P < 0.001). The tumors were analyzed by immunohistochemistry and FACS for two MSC markers — chemoresistance mediator ABCB5 and H3K4 demethylase JARID1B. There were no significant differences between RIT and control groups in percentage of ABCB5 or JARID1B-positive cells in the tumor population. Our results demonstrate that unlike chemotherapy, which kills tumor cells but leaves behind MSC leading to recurrence, RIT kills MSC at the same rate as the rest of tumor cells. Conclusions: These results have two main implications for melanoma treatment and possibly other cancers. First, the susceptibility of ABCB5 + and JARID1B + cells to RIT in melanoma might be indicative of their susceptibility to antibody-targeted radiation in other cancers where they are present as well. Second, specifically targeting cancer stem cells with radiolabeled antibodies to ABCB5 or JARID1B might help to completely eradicate cancer stem cells in various cancers

  16. Metastatic melanoma of the stomach Melanoma metastático do estômago

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Eustáquio Rocha

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Metastatic melanoma of the stomach is a relatively rare entity with an unusual diagnosis during life. Surgery is the treatment of choice once it alleviates the symptoms in over 90% of the cases and increases the long-term survival. CASE REPORT: A 50y woman had presented a dark spot in the ungual bed of her right-hand thumb for two years, evolving into ulceration and bleeding. The biopsy diagnosed ungual malanocytic neoplasia compatible with lentiginous melanoma confirmed by immunohistochemistry, which presented positive pigmented HMB-45 cells. After an year and a half, the patient developed metastasis of the melanoma on her left thigh and extensive ulcerated lesion in the small gastric curvature, whose biopsy was compatible with metastatic melanoma of the stomach. The hemogram found discrete anemia (Hb: 11.1 and Ht: 33% and LDH: 333 U/L. The patient underwent total gastrectomy with reconstruction in Roux-en-Y. There was a good evolution and on the 6th post-operative day, she was discharged home. At present, in the 12th month of follow up, the patient remains without complaints, with full relief of symptoms and all normal control exams. CONCLUSION: Surgical management should always be considered for the metastatic melanoma of the gastrointestinal tract, since the procedure shows low morbidity and mortality, besides providing relief of symptoms with the improvement of the quality of life and increase in the long-term survival.INTRODUCTION: O melanoma metastático do estômago é entidade relativamente rara e de diagnóstico incomum em vida. A cirurgia é o tratamento de escolha, pois alivia os sintomas em mais de 90% dos casos e aumenta a sobrevida a longo prazo. OBJETIVO: Relatar um caso de melanoma metastático do estômago, submetida à ressecção curativa e que evoluiu sem sinais de doença residual. RELATO DO CASO: Mulher de 50 anos apresentou mancha escura em leito ungueal de dedo polegar de mão direita há dois anos, evoluindo com ulceração e sangramento. A biópsia diagnosticou neoplasia melanocítica ungueal compatíveis com melanoma lentiginoso e confirmado pela imunohistoquímica que apresentou células pigmentadas HMB-45 positivas. Após um ano e meio a paciente evoluiu com metástase de melanoma em coxa esquerda e extensa lesão escavada em pequena curvatura gástrica, cuja biopsia foi compatível com melanoma metastático do estômago. Hemograma com discreta anemia (Hb: 11,1 e Ht: 33% e LDH: 333 U/L. A paciente foi submetida à gastrectomia total com reconstrução em Y de Roux. Houve boa evolução e no 6º dia de pós-operatório teve alta hospitalar. Atualmente, no 12º mês de seguimento, a paciente permanece sem queixas, com alívio completo dos sintomas e com todos os exames de controle normais. CONCLUSÃO: O tratamento cirúrgico deve ser sempre considerado no melanoma metastático do trato gastrointestinal, pois o procedimento possui baixa morbidade e mortalidade, além de proporcionar alívio dos sintomas com melhora da qualidade de vida e aumento da sobrevida a longo prazo.

  17. Metastatic melanoma of the stomach / Melanoma metastático do estômago

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Marcelo Eustáquio, Rocha; Gilberto Pedro, Rodrigues; Samir Almeida, Borges; Fernando Gusmão, Santiago.

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: O melanoma metastático do estômago é entidade relativamente rara e de diagnóstico incomum em vida. A cirurgia é o tratamento de escolha, pois alivia os sintomas em mais de 90% dos casos e aumenta a sobrevida a longo prazo. OBJETIVO: Relatar um caso de melanoma metastático do estômago, [...] submetida à ressecção curativa e que evoluiu sem sinais de doença residual. RELATO DO CASO: Mulher de 50 anos apresentou mancha escura em leito ungueal de dedo polegar de mão direita há dois anos, evoluindo com ulceração e sangramento. A biópsia diagnosticou neoplasia melanocítica ungueal compatíveis com melanoma lentiginoso e confirmado pela imunohistoquímica que apresentou células pigmentadas HMB-45 positivas. Após um ano e meio a paciente evoluiu com metástase de melanoma em coxa esquerda e extensa lesão escavada em pequena curvatura gástrica, cuja biopsia foi compatível com melanoma metastático do estômago. Hemograma com discreta anemia (Hb: 11,1 e Ht: 33%) e LDH: 333 U/L. A paciente foi submetida à gastrectomia total com reconstrução em Y de Roux. Houve boa evolução e no 6º dia de pós-operatório teve alta hospitalar. Atualmente, no 12º mês de seguimento, a paciente permanece sem queixas, com alívio completo dos sintomas e com todos os exames de controle normais. CONCLUSÃO: O tratamento cirúrgico deve ser sempre considerado no melanoma metastático do trato gastrointestinal, pois o procedimento possui baixa morbidade e mortalidade, além de proporcionar alívio dos sintomas com melhora da qualidade de vida e aumento da sobrevida a longo prazo. Abstract in english BACKGROUND: Metastatic melanoma of the stomach is a relatively rare entity with an unusual diagnosis during life. Surgery is the treatment of choice once it alleviates the symptoms in over 90% of the cases and increases the long-term survival. CASE REPORT: A 50y woman had presented a dark spot in th [...] e ungual bed of her right-hand thumb for two years, evolving into ulceration and bleeding. The biopsy diagnosed ungual malanocytic neoplasia compatible with lentiginous melanoma confirmed by immunohistochemistry, which presented positive pigmented HMB-45 cells. After an year and a half, the patient developed metastasis of the melanoma on her left thigh and extensive ulcerated lesion in the small gastric curvature, whose biopsy was compatible with metastatic melanoma of the stomach. The hemogram found discrete anemia (Hb: 11.1 and Ht: 33%) and LDH: 333 U/L. The patient underwent total gastrectomy with reconstruction in Roux-en-Y. There was a good evolution and on the 6th post-operative day, she was discharged home. At present, in the 12th month of follow up, the patient remains without complaints, with full relief of symptoms and all normal control exams. CONCLUSION: Surgical management should always be considered for the metastatic melanoma of the gastrointestinal tract, since the procedure shows low morbidity and mortality, besides providing relief of symptoms with the improvement of the quality of life and increase in the long-term survival.

  18. Systemic therapy for cutaneous melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treisman, Jonathan; Garlie, Nina

    2010-01-01

    This article provides a review of the current medical management of patients with high-risk and metastatic cutaneous melanoma, including a review of the use of adjuvant interferon therapy and a discussion of adjuvant treatments under evaluation. The use of standard chemotherapeutic agents for metastatic disease is discussed, with an emphasis on developmental therapeutics using targeted agents. This discussion includes a review of the immune therapy for metastatic melanoma, including newer immunomodulatory agents and cellular therapeutics that are expected to significantly impact the care of these patients. PMID:19914464

  19. UVB: suscetibilidade no melanoma maligno / UVB: susceptibility in malignant melanoma

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Nilton, Nasser.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTOS: Está bem definido que a radiação ultravioleta provoca depleção imunológica na pele, permitindo o desenvolvimento de tumores cutâneos malignos. A maioria dos pacientes de cânceres da pele não melanomas são considerados UVB-suscetíveis. OBJETIVOS: Estudar a UVB-suscetibilidade nos pacient [...] es com melanoma maligno e se este é um fator de risco para o desenvolvimento desse câncer. MÉTODOS: Foram selecionados 88 voluntários divididos em dois grupos: grupo-controle saudável (n=61) e grupo de portadores de melanoma (n=27), todos identificados de acordo com os critérios: tipo histológico, nível de invasão, fotótipos de pele, sexo e idade. A suscetibilidade à radiação ultravioleta B (UVB) foi medida pela reação de hipersensibilidade ao contato com o difenciprone nos voluntários sensibilizados em áreas previamente irradiadas. RESULTADOS: A suscetibilidade à radiação UVB foi de 81,5% nos pacientes com melanoma maligno e de 31,2% no grupo-controle. O risco de um indivíduo desenvolver o melanoma maligno foi 9,7 vezes maior do que nos indivíduos UVB-resistentes. CONCLUSÕES: A UVB-suscetibilidade pode ser considerada um fator de risco importante para o desenvolvimento do melanoma maligno. Abstract in english BACKGROUND: It is well established that UV radiation provokes an immunological depletion in the skin, enabling the development of malignant cutaneous tumors. Most nonmelanoma skin cancer patients are considered to be UVB-susceptible. OBJECTIVE: To study the behavior of UVB- susceptibility in maligna [...] nt melanoma (MM) patients and whether this is a risk factor to the development of MM. METHODS: Eighty-eight volunteers were selected and divided into two groups: healthy control group (n = 61) and MM group (n = 27), which were identified according to the following clinical criteria: histopathological type, level of invasion, skin phototype, sex and age. Susceptibility to ultraviolet B (UVB) radiation was measured by the onset of a contact hypersensitivity reaction to diphenylcyclopropenone among individuals sensitized in previously irradiated areas. RESULTS: Susceptibility to UVB radiation was 81.5 in the MM group and 31.2% in the control group. The risk of an UVB-susceptible individual to develop MM was 9.7 times higher than when UVB resistant. CONCLUSION: UVB susceptibility should be considered an important risk factor to the development of this type of cancer.

  20. Biology of Human Cutaneous Melanoma

    OpenAIRE

    Sharma, Bhuvnesh K.; Hasskamp, Joanne H.; Elias, Elias G.

    2010-01-01

    A review of the natural behavior of cutaneous melanoma, clinical and pathological factors, prognostic indicators, some basic research and the present and possible futuristic strategies in the management of this disease are presented. While surgery remains to be the most effective therapeutic approach in the management of early primary lesions, there is no standard adjuvant therapy after surgical resection, or for metastatic disease.

  1. Overexpression of Akt converts radial growth melanoma to vertical growth melanoma

    OpenAIRE

    Govindarajan, Baskaran; Sligh, James E.; Vincent, Bethaney J.; Li, Meiling; Canter, Jeffrey A.; Nickoloff, Brian J.; Rodenburg, Richard J.; Smeitink, Jan A.; Oberley, Larry; Zhang, Yuping; Slingerland, Joyce; Arnold, Rebecca S.; Lambeth, J. David; Cohen, Cynthia; Hilenski, Lu

    2007-01-01

    Melanoma is the cancer with the highest increase in incidence, and transformation of radial growth to vertical growth (i.e., noninvasive to invasive) melanoma is required for invasive disease and metastasis. We have previously shown that p42/p44 MAP kinase is activated in radial growth melanoma, suggesting that further signaling events are required for vertical growth melanoma. The molecular events that accompany this transformation are not well understood. Akt, a signaling molecule downstrea...

  2. Enucleation versus plaque irradiation for choroidal melanoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Collaborative Ocular Melanoma Study (COMS) is an international, multicenter-controlled study. The organization includes an Executive Committee, Steering Committee, 6 Central Units, 32 Clinical Centers, and a Data and Safety Monitoring Committee. Scientifically, the COMS consists of (1) a randomized trial of patients with medium choroidal melanoma treated with enucleation versus iodine-125 plaque irradiation, (2) a randomized trial of patients with large choroidal melanoma treated with enucleation versus preenucleation external beam irradiation and enucleation, and (3) a prospective observational study of patients with small choroidal melanoma to determine whether a randomized trial of treatment is appropriate. In design and conduct of the COMS, special consideration is given to biostatistics and sample size considerations, iodine-125 plaque irradiation of choroidal melanoma, and coordinated ocular melanoma research. Recruitment is in progress. However, the pool of eligible patients is limited and the COMS needs the continued support and cooperation of ophthalmologists throughout the United States and Canada

  3. Comedo-like openings in melanoma

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Bruno Simão dos, Santos; Lucia Helena Soares, Ribeiro; Eloisa Leis, Ayres; Enoi Aparecida Guedes, Vilar.

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available We describe a case of melanoma with the presence of comedo-like openings at dermoscopy. These structures, typical of seborrheic keratosis, represent an uncommon finding in melanoma. We emphasize the importance of searching for specific dermoscopic criteria for melanocytic lesions during the examinat [...] ion of a pigmented lesion, despite possible observations of characteristic structures of non-melanocytic lesions, in order to increase the accuracy in the diagnosis of melanoma.

  4. Massive nodular melanoma scalp: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Bhagya Lakshmi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Melanoma is responsible for 1% to 2% of all cancer deaths around the world. Nodular melanoma often carries a poor prognosis because of no prodromal radial growth phase, early distant metastasis and significant tumour volume. We present a case of nodular melanoma measuring 20x10x8 cm in 28 year old tribal women. [Int J Res Med Sci 2015; 3(4.000: 1002-1005

  5. Malignant melanoma of breast: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Bhagyalakshmi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Malignant melanoma rarely affects the breast. Malignant melanoma of breast is divided into two categories: primary and metastatic lesions. Primary melanoma involves the skin and less commonly the glandular parenchyma of the breast. Differentiating them is very important in deciding on treatment strategies. This case report aims to increase awareness of unusual neoplasms of the breast which requires a different surgical and adjuvant therapeutic approach. [Int J Res Med Sci 2014; 2(2.000: 755-758

  6. Giant hanging melanoma of the eyelid skin

    OpenAIRE

    Pai Radha; Kini Hema; Kamath Sai; Kumar Suneet

    2008-01-01

    Cutaneous melanoma of the eyelid is a rare entity. We present a 53-year-old male who had a nevus on the left upper eyelid skin since childhood, which transformed into a huge ulcerated hanging mass in the same region. Excision of the mass was done and histopathology confirmed the diagnosis of nodular malignant melanoma. A small preauricular lymph node showed metastatic melanoma on fine needle aspiration cytology.

  7. Giant hanging melanoma of the eyelid skin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pai Radha

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Cutaneous melanoma of the eyelid is a rare entity. We present a 53-year-old male who had a nevus on the left upper eyelid skin since childhood, which transformed into a huge ulcerated hanging mass in the same region. Excision of the mass was done and histopathology confirmed the diagnosis of nodular malignant melanoma. A small preauricular lymph node showed metastatic melanoma on fine needle aspiration cytology.

  8. Isolation of tumorigenic circulating melanoma cells

    OpenAIRE

    Ma, Jie; Lin, Jennifer Y.; Alloo, Allireza; Wilson, Brian J.; Schatton, Tobias; Zhan, Qian; Murphy, George F.; Waaga-gasser, Ana-maria; Gasser, Martin; Hodi, F. Stephen; Frank, Natasha Y.; Frank, Markus H.

    2010-01-01

    Circulating tumor cells (CTC) have been identified in several human malignancies, including malignant melanoma. However, whether melanoma CTC are tumorigenic and cause metastatic progression is currently unknown. Here we isolate for the first time viable tumorigenic melanoma CTC and demonstrate that this cell population is capable of metastasis formation in human-to-mouse xenotransplantation experiments. The presence of CTC among peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) of murine recipients ...

  9. Dermoscopic and clinical features of trunk melanomas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emiroglu, Nazan; Hofmann-Wellenhof, Rainer

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Malignant melanomas account for 5% of all skin cancers and usually have a fatal clinical course. Additionally, the incidence of melanoma increases more rapidly than in any other cancer, and this has been attributed to the development of highly sensitive diagnostic techniques, mainly dermoscopy, which allows for early diagnosis. The phenotypic manifestations of gene/environment interactions, environmental factor and genetic factors may determine subtypes and anatomic localization of melanoma. Histopathologic subtypes, risk factors, and thickness of the skin are different in trunk melanomas. Aim To determine the frequency of dermatoscopic features in trunk melanomas. This study also investigates dermoscopic features according to the diameter of lesions. Material and methods Seventy-one trunk melanomas were included. Their dermoscopic and clinical images, histopathological and clinical data were assessed. The relations between the diameter, Breslow thickness and dermoscopic characteristics were evaluated. Results The most common dermoscopic findings of trunk melanomas were the multicomponent pattern (55 patients, 77.5%), asymmetry (62 patients; 87.3%), blue-gray veil (59 patients, 83.1%), and color variety (56 patients, 78.8%). When dermoscopic findings were compared, a multicomponent pattern (p = 0.03), milky-red areas (p = 0.001), blue-gray veils (p = 0.023), and regression structures (p = 0.037) were more common in large melanomas than in small melanomas. Conclusions The most common dermoscopic findings of trunk melanomas were the multicomponent pattern, asymmetry and blue-gray veil, color variety. The multicomponent pattern, milky-red areas, blue-gray veils, regression structures were statistically significant dermoscopic features in a group of large-diameter melanomas, compared to small melanomas. PMID:25610350

  10. Primary malignant melanoma of the esophagus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jora, Charu; Pankaj, Promila; Verma, Ritu; Jain, Anjali; Belho, Ethel S

    2015-01-01

    Primary malignant melanoma most commonly originates from the skin; other less common extra cutaneous sites include squamous mucous membranes, uvea, retina, leptomeninges, genitourinary tract, digestive tract, biliary tract, and upper respiratory tract. Primary melanoma of the gastrointestinal tract is exceedingly rare. We are reporting a histo-pathologically proven rare case of primary malignant melanoma of the esophagus and its findings on fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography and computed tomography. PMID:25829739

  11. Identification of new genes associated with melanoma

    OpenAIRE

    Mauerer, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Repeated failures in melanoma therapy made clear that the molecular mechanisms leading to melanoma are still poorly understood. Here, we aim to provide a more comprehensive understanding of the transcriptional profiles and signaling pathways associated with melanoma. Methods: Gene expression was analyzed using the Affymetrix Human Genome U133A 2.0 GeneChip arrays. To avoid culture artifacts, we used microdissected fresh frozen material of 18 melanocytic nevi (MN), 20 primary melan...

  12. Isolated hepatic perfusion for metastatic melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Maki; Zager, Jonathan S

    2014-03-01

    Unresectable hepatic metastases from melanoma present a challenge to the physician. Although there have been advances in systemic therapies for patients with metastatic cutaneous melanoma to the liver, the overall prognosis is poor and is worse in patients with metastatic ocular melanoma. Isolated hepatic perfusion, open or percutaneous, allows high doses of cytotoxic chemotherapy to be delivered directly to the liver while minimizing systemic exposure, and has emerged as a viable treatment options for these complex patients. PMID:24166748

  13. Predictive biomarkers for dasatinib treatment in melanoma

    OpenAIRE

    Eustace, Alex J; Kennedy, Susan; Larkin, Anne-Marie; Mahgoub, Thamir; Tryfonopoulos, Dimitrios; O'Driscoll, Lorraine; Clynes, Martin; Crown, John; O'Donovan, Norma

    2014-01-01

    Dasatinib has anti-proliferative and anti-invasive effects in melanoma cell lines. However clinical trials have shown modest activity for dasatinib in metastatic melanoma. Although dasatinib targets SRC kinase, neither expression nor phosphorylation of SRC appears to predict response to dasatinib. Identification of predictive biomarkers for dasatinib may facilitate selection of melanoma patients who are more likely to respond to dasatinib. We correlated the anti-proliferative effects of dasat...

  14. Melanoma of unknown origin: a case series.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kelly, J

    2010-12-01

    The natural history of metastatic melanoma involving lymph nodes, in the absence of a known primary site (cutaneous, ocular or mucosal) has, to date, been poorly defined; and the optimal management of this rare subtype of disease is therefore unclear. Melanomas of unknown primary site (MUP) are estimated to comprise between 3.7 and 6% of all melanomas (Anbari et al. in Cancer 79:1861-1821, 1997).

  15. From Melanocyte to Metastatic Malignant Melanoma

    OpenAIRE

    Bizhan Bandarchi; Linglei Ma; Roya Navab; Arun Seth; Golnar Rasty

    2010-01-01

    Malignant melanoma is one of the most aggressive malignancies in human and is responsible for almost 60% of lethal skin tumors. Its incidence has been increasing in white population in the past two decades. There is a complex interaction of environmental (exogenous) and endogenous, including genetic, risk factors in developing malignant melanoma. 8–12% of familial melanomas occur in a familial setting related to mutation of the CDKN2A gene that encodes p16. The aim of ...

  16. Epidemiología del melanoma cutáneo Epidemiology of cutaneous melanoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R M C Leitner

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Durante las últimas décadas hubo un aumento de la incidencia del melanoma cutáneo en la población caucásica del mundo, aunque este tumor puede afectar a cualquier grupo étnico. En la actualidad se considera a la exposición solar intermitente como un factor de riesgo cierto, en el desarrollo del melanoma cutáneo. La incidencia del melanoma cutáneo en Auckland, Nueva Zelanda, es la mayor del mundo. En Europa, la incidencia y la mortalidad fue creciente hasta que en la década de los 80 se estabilizó. En EEUU también se observó una estabilización de la incidencia. Con respecto a la edad, según la bibliografía consultada la incidencia aumenta a partir de los 20 años; en algunos pacientes con más de 200 nevos y sin pautas de protección solar antes de los 5 años de vida. También se observa aumento de la incidencia en los adultos mayores de 60 años de edad. Con respecto al sexo, en los EEUU y la Argentina es más frecuente en los hombres y en Europa en el sexo femenino.During the last decades there was an increase of incidence of cutaneous melanoma in Caucasian population worldwide, but this tumor can affect any ethnic group. Nowadays, the intermittent solar exposition is a well known predisposing factor. The incidence in Auckland, New Zealand, is the highest in the world. In Europe and in the USA, the incidence and mortality rates decreased until the 80's when it stabilized. Regarding the age of appearance, the incidence increases starting at 20 years of age in patients with more than 200 nevi and without history of sun protection in childhood. There was also an increase in the incidence in adults (>60 y-o. The distribution by sex in USA and Argentina is more frequent in males and in Europe in females.

  17. KIT in melanoma: many shades of gray.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slipicevic, Ana; Herlyn, Meenhard

    2015-02-01

    Activating mutations in KIT have been identified in melanomas of acral and mucosal types and in those arising in chronically sun-damaged skin. Until now, KIT has been considered an oncogenic driver and a potential therapeutic target. However, data presented by Dhal et al. show that in cutaneous melanomas the KIT promoter is a target for hypermethylation, leading to its downregulation. Their observations suggest that signaling pathways downstream of KIT may have distinct and opposing roles in the pathogenesis of melanoma subtypes. This will have important implications for the use of KIT inhibitors in treating melanomas. PMID:25573046

  18. Laser radiation therapy of skin melanoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pulsed neodymium laser radiation was used for the treatment of 79 patients with cutaneous melanomas and 19 patients with melanoma metastases to the skin. The patients were followed up from 3 months up to 8 years. During this period local recurrences were detected in 2 cases. Out of 70 patients with cutaneous melanomas, who by the start of the treatment had no metastases in the regional lymph nodes or distant organs, metastases developed in 15 patients (21.4%). There are all reasons to consider pulsed laser radiation an effective means of treatment of some forms of skin melanoma. (orig.)

  19. Epigenetics of human melanoma: promises and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besaratinia, Ahmad; Tommasi, Stella

    2014-10-01

    Melanoma is the deadliest form of skin cancer with rising incidence and mortality rates. Although early-stage melanoma is highly curable, advanced-stage melanoma is refractory to treatment. This underscores the importance of prevention and early detection as well as the need to improve treatment and prognostication of human melanoma. Elucidating the underlying mechanisms of the initiation and progression of human melanoma can help identify potential targets of intervention for prevention, diagnosis, therapy, and prognosis of this disease. Aberrant DNA methylation and histone modifications are the best-established epigenetic mechanisms of carcinogenesis. The occurrence of epigenetic changes prior to clinical diagnosis of cancer and their reversibility through pharmacologic/genetic approaches offer a promising avenue for basic and translational research on human melanoma. Candidate gene(s) or genome-wide aberrant DNA methylation and histone modifications have been observed in human melanoma tumor tissues and cell lines, and correlated to cellular and functional characteristics and/or clinicopathological features of this malignancy. The present review summarizes the published researches on aberrant DNA methylation and histone modifications in connection with human melanoma. Representative studies are highlighted to set forth the current state of knowledge, gaps in the knowledgebase, and future directions in these epigenetic fields of research. Examples of epigenetic therapy applied for human melanoma in vitro, and the challenges of its in vivo application for clinical treatment of solid tumors are discussed. PMID:24895357

  20. Giant melanoacanthoma mimicking malignant melanoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shankar Vikas

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Melanoacanthoma denotes a rare variant of pigmented seborrheic keratosis. A 65-year-old male farmer had pigmented, verrucous, itchy, highly painful, progressively growing irregularly oval plaque on left side of lower back for the past five years. The indurated lesion, measuring maximum diameter 10 cm ? 5 cm, had no discharge, bleeding, ulceration, or associated lymphadenopathy. Dermoscopy showed regular pigmentary network and cribiform pattern of ridges without any feature of malignant melanoma. Histopathology showed well-defined islands of basaloid cells interspersed with large and richly dendritic melanocytes. The lesion was totally excised followed by skin grafting. Our patient was unique in its massive size and clinical resemblance with malignant melanoma. The diagnosis was confirmed by dermoscopy and skin biopsy.

  1. Neutron capture therapy for melanoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The development of boron-containing compounds which localize selectively in tumor may require a tumor-by-tumor type of approach that exploits any metabolic pathways unique to the particular type of tumor. Melanin-producing melanomas actively transport and metabolize aromatic amino acids for use as precursors in the synthesis of the pigment melanin. It has been shown that the boron-containing amino acid analog p-borono-phenylalanine (BPA) is selectively accumulated in melanoma tissue, producing boron concentrations in tumor that are within the range estimated to be necessary for successful boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT). We report here the results of therapy experiments carried out at the Brookhaven Medical Research Reactor (BMRR). 21 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs

  2. Local metastasis in conjunctival melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oosterhuis, J A; de Wolff-Rouendaal, D

    1983-12-15

    After excision of conjunctival melanomas the rate of recidivation is high. This may partly be due to local seeding of tumour cells in the excision wound, as we observed in one patient. We now use a sodiumhypochlorite solution (Dakin's solution) as tumour cell killing agent. Instead of diagnostic biopsy exfoliative cytology is performed; at surgery the tumour is not touched except for cauterisation with formaldehyde. PMID:6662010

  3. Telomerase expression in uveal melanoma

    OpenAIRE

    Heine, B.; Coupland, S.; Kneiff, S.; Demel, G.; Bornfeld, N.; Hummel, M.; Stein, H.

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND/AIMS—Accumulating evidence indicates that telomerase activity is repressed in normal human somatic cells but reactivated in cancers and immortal cells, suggesting that activation of telomerase activity has a role in carcinogenesis and immortalisation. To date, telomerase in uveal melanoma and, whether, it may have a role in the development or progression of these tumours has not been described. The expression patterns and the activity of telomerase were investigated in 14 uveal ...

  4. Cancer stem cells in melanoma

    OpenAIRE

    Regenbrecht, C; Welte, Y; Hugel, R; Trefzer, U; Losch, FO; Adjaye, J.; Walden, P.

    2008-01-01

    The identification of cancer stem cells in various malignancies led to the hypothesis that these cells have the exclusive ability of self-renewal, contribute to the plasticity of the tumours and may be the cause for ineffective cancer therapies. Several markers of melanoma stem cells have been described in recent studies including CD133, CD166, Nestin and BMI-1. Further studies are necessary to identify, better define and understand the origin and function of cancer stem cells. If confirmed t...

  5. Foramen magnum metastatic malignant melanoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pai S

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The foramen magnum as a site for brain metastasis is extremely rare. We report the case of a 24-year-old male who presented with features of increased intracranial pressure and lower cranial nerve palsies. Imaging revealed a foramen magnum tumor with extension up to the cerebellar vermis superiorly and into the spinal canal inferiorly (craniospinal mass with mild obstructive hydrocephalus. A malignant melanoma was completely excised. The patient continued to be tumor-free 24 months later.

  6. Melanoma of the female urethra

    OpenAIRE

    Ramos, Juan A.; Ramos, Wilmer E.; Ramos, Claudia V.

    2011-01-01

    Melanoma is a malignant tumor that can affect any area of the anatomical economy. Its appearance in the female urethra is extremely rare, with approximately 121 cases in indexed literature since 1966. The subject to be described is an 86-year-old woman who seeks assessment for intermittent macroscopic hematuria with blood clots of 3 months progression. On physical examination, there are no suspicious lesions detected on the surface of the skin. On external genital examination, it is observed ...

  7. Malignant Melanoma of Gastroesophageal Junction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arvind Kohli, Anita Kohli, Kuldeep Singh, Gurjeet Singh

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available A rare case of malignant melanoma arising from the gastroesophageal junction is being reported.Since part of the tumor was adherent with hiatus, palliative procedure in form of Mousseau Barbintube insertion was necessitated. Postoperatively patient was subjected to radiotherapy. Malignantmelanoma of gastroesophageal junction is rare accounting for only 0.1% of the lesions of this region.Surgical treatment requires a far greater margin of excision than the usual squamous cell carcinoma.Intracavitary radiotherapy has been recommended.

  8. Malignant Melanoma of Gastroesophageal Junction.

    OpenAIRE

    Arvind Kohli, Anita Kohli, Kuldeep Singh, Gurjeet Singh

    2004-01-01

    A rare case of malignant melanoma arising from the gastroesophageal junction is being reported.Since part of the tumor was adherent with hiatus, palliative procedure in form of Mousseau Barbintube insertion was necessitated. Postoperatively patient was subjected to radiotherapy. Malignantmelanoma of gastroesophageal junction is rare accounting for only 0.1% of the lesions of this region.Surgical treatment requires a far greater margin of excision than the usual squamous cell carcinoma.Intraca...

  9. Perineural extension of facial melanoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalina, Peter [Mayo Clinic, Department of Radiology, Rochester, Minnesota (United States); Bevilacqua, Paula

    2005-05-01

    A 64-year-old man presented with a pigmented cutaneous lesion on the right side of his face along with right facial numbness. Histological examination revealed malignant melanoma. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed perineural extension along the entire course of the maxillary division of the right trigeminal nerve. This is a rare but important manifestation of the spread of head and neck malignancy. (orig.)

  10. Malignant melanoma in a cow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mesari? M.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available A malignant melanoma located in the area of the ocular orbit and maxillary sinus of a 2,5 year old, female Brown Swiss cow is described. Complete clinical examination of the cow was performed and blood samples were taken for haematological analyses. According to the unfavorable prognosis, the cow was submitted for necropsy. After necropsy representative sections of tissue were sampled for gross and micro histopathology. Selected sections of tissue were stained with hematoxylin and eosin. Clinical examination of the cow revealed exophthalmus of the right eye, deviation of right maxillae and os faciale and progressive central nerve signs. At the necropsy a black tarry irregular mass, 10 cm in diameter was found in the area of the right orbit and maxillary sinuses protruding into the nasal conches and meninges. Multiple metastases were secondarly located in the heart, liver, spleen lung and brain. Histologically the malignant melanoma was composed of melanocytic tumor cells and located in the described organs. Based on clinical and histological examinations we concluded, that the tumor mass was a malignant melanoma of the epithelioid type. The primary origin of the tumor was probably the right eye.

  11. Melanoma and satellite blue papule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, André; Arzberger, Edith; Massone, Cesare; Zalaudek, Iris; Fink-Puches, Regina; Hofmann-Wellenhof, Rainer

    2014-07-01

    The colors that are seen in dermoscopy depend on the anatomic level of the skin at which the chromophores are seen. Blue color can be found in a variety of melanocytic and nonmelanocytic lesions. An 89-year-old man presented with a 3-year history of a slow-growing, hyperpigmented patch located on the distal third of the right arm. Dermoscopy showed an atypical network, irregularly distributed globules, pigmented internal streaks and a milky-red area. Based on these findings a diagnosis of slow-growing malignant melanoma was made. Simultaneously, a well-defined blue papule was seen on the proximal third of the same arm. Dermoscopy disclosed a homogeneous blue pattern. After clinical and dermoscopic correlation our differential diagnosis for this blue lesion included cutaneous melanoma metastasis, blue nevus and foreign body reaction. The patient recalled its onset 75 years ago after a grenade explosion. We also discuss the blue lesion appearance under reflectance confocal microscopy and high-definition optical coherence tomography. Histopathological examination after excision of the hyperpigmented patch and blue papule revealed a melanoma in situ and a foreign body reaction, respectively. The diagnostic evaluation of a blue lesion should always rely on the integration of all data, especially clinical and dermoscopic features. Other non-invasive techniques, like reflectance confocal microscopy and high-definition optical coherence tomography can also be important aids for its differential diagnosis. PMID:25126462

  12. Mistletoe in the treatment of malignant melanoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esin Sakall? Çetin

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Malignant melanoma is a malignant neoplasia drives from melanocytes. Malignant melanoma, the most causing death, is seen in the third place at skin cancer. Malignant melanoma shows intrinsic resistance to chemotherapeutic agents and variability in the course of the disease which are distinct features separating from other solid tumors. These features prevent the development and standardization of non-surgical treatment models of malignant melanoma. Although there is a large number of chemotherapeutic agents used in the treatment of metastatic malignant melanoma, it hasn’t been demonstrated the survival advantage of adjuvant treatment with chemotherapeutic agents. Because of the different clinical course of malignant melanoma, the disease is thought to be closely associated with immune system. Therefore, immunomodulatory therapy models were developed. Mistletoe stimulates the immune system by increasing the number and activity of dendritic cells, thus it has been shown to effect on tumor growth and metastasis of malignant melanoma patient. Outlined in this review are the recent developments in the understanding the role of mistletoe as a complementary therapy for malignant melanoma. J Clin Exp Invest 2014; 5 (1: 145-152

  13. Malignant melanoma at a scientific laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The general consensus of the seven reviewers is that occupational exposures at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory have not been established as a causal factor for the observed excess of malignant melanoma. Several observations support the impression that some or all of the observed melanoma excess may be attributable to intense surveillance and enhanced detection of early stage melanoma lesions. Since the incidence of melanomas among Laboratory employees has not diminished, an early harvesting effect is unlikely. This suggests the distinct possibility that localized, in situ melanomas that would normally not be detected are being reported, and that in the absence of this enhanced detection, many of these early stage lesions would show little or no clinical progression. This phenomenon would explain the continued high incidence of melanomas in the absence of a physical or chemical inciting cause. A key point in this reasoning is the issue of the rate of growth of early stage melanomas, and this point remains a key question for study. Even if the observed excess cannot be explained by detection bias, the reviewers agree that the Austin and Reynolds' study does not make a convincing case for occupational factors being a cause of the high melanoma incidence. 6 refs

  14. Serum-proteomics in melanoma patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The project Serum-proteomics in melanoma patients funded by 'Programma Oncologico Italia-USA' Oncoproteomica has the general aim to collect serum samples from melanoma patients and to analyze the expression profile of several cytokines, in order to identify whether significant differences are evident between patients and controls, or among different patients subgroups with different staging or therapy

  15. Melanoma Molecular Subtypes: Unifying and Paradoxical Results

    OpenAIRE

    Nancy E. Thomas; Kanetsky, Peter A.; Begg, Colin B.; Conway, Kathleen; Berwick, Marianne

    2010-01-01

    Hacker et al. (in this issue) provide further evidence that molecular subtypes of malignant melanoma may develop along divergent pathways. Hacker et al. did not find an association between somatic BRAF-mutant melanoma and germline melanocortin-1 receptor (MC1R) gene status. We discuss this seeming paradox in light of previous studies showing strong associations.

  16. Alpha particles for treatment of disseminated melanoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Invading melanoma spreads to local and unpredictable distant location at the early stages of its development. It is justifiable, therefore to classify the disease as a systemic disorder. This requires a systemic treatment that reaches all melanoma cells irrespective of whether they are singly dispersed and in circulation or already forming solid tumours of various sizes. Targeted radiotherapy affects directly and selectively cancer cells provided an appropriate radionuclide and its carrier are chosen. Melanoma is a pigmented tumour. Methylene blue (MTB) accumulates selectively in melanoma cells due to its exceptionally high affinity to melanin. MTB serves, therefore, as a carrier for radionuclides. 211At-MTB has proved to be particularly effective in treating disseminated melanoma when administered systemically and, at the same time, non-toxic to normal non-pigmented and pigmented organs. (author)

  17. Alpha particles for treatment of disseminated melanoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Invading melanoma spreads to local and unpredictable distant location at the early stages of its development. It is justifiable, therefore, to classify the disease as a systemic disorder. This requires a systemic treatment that reaches all melanoma cells irrespective of whether they are singly dispersed and in circulation or already forming solid tumours of various sizes. Targeted radiotherapy affects directly and selectively cancer cells provided an appropriate radionuclide and its carrier are chosen. Melanoma is a pigmented tumour. Methylene blue (MTB)) accumulates selectively in melanoma cells due to its exceptionally high affinity to melanin. MTB serves, therefore, as a carrier for radionuclides. 211At-MTB has proved to be particularly effective in treating disseminated melanoma when administered systemically and, at the same time, non-toxic to normal non-pigmented and pigmented organs. (authors)

  18. Alpha particles for treatment of disseminated melanoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Link, E.M. [London Univ. (United Kingdom)

    2010-11-15

    Invading melanoma spreads to local and unpredictable distant location at the early stages of its development. It is justifiable, therefore to classify the disease as a systemic disorder. This requires a systemic treatment that reaches all melanoma cells irrespective of whether they are singly dispersed and in circulation or already forming solid tumours of various sizes. Targeted radiotherapy affects directly and selectively cancer cells provided an appropriate radionuclide and its carrier are chosen. Melanoma is a pigmented tumour. Methylene blue (MTB) accumulates selectively in melanoma cells due to its exceptionally high affinity to melanin. MTB serves, therefore, as a carrier for radionuclides. {sup 211}At-MTB has proved to be particularly effective in treating disseminated melanoma when administered systemically and, at the same time, non-toxic to normal non-pigmented and pigmented organs. (author)

  19. Alpha particles for treatment of disseminated melanoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Link, E.M. [London University (United Kingdom)

    2010-07-01

    Invading melanoma spreads to local and unpredictable distant location at the early stages of its development. It is justifiable, therefore, to classify the disease as a systemic disorder. This requires a systemic treatment that reaches all melanoma cells irrespective of whether they are singly dispersed and in circulation or already forming solid tumours of various sizes. Targeted radiotherapy affects directly and selectively cancer cells provided an appropriate radionuclide and its carrier are chosen. Melanoma is a pigmented tumour. Methylene blue (MTB)) accumulates selectively in melanoma cells due to its exceptionally high affinity to melanin. MTB serves, therefore, as a carrier for radionuclides. {sup 211}At-MTB has proved to be particularly effective in treating disseminated melanoma when administered systemically and, at the same time, non-toxic to normal non-pigmented and pigmented organs. (authors)

  20. Melanoma Surveillance in the US: Collecting Melanoma Data

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-10-19

    This podcast accompanies the publication of a series of articles on melanoma surveillance in the United States, available in the November supplement edition of the Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology. Dr. Suephy Chen, a dermatologist from Emory University, discusses why the articles are important, as well as the need to increase dermatologistsâ?? awareness of cancer registries and reporting requirements.  Created: 10/19/2011 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 10/19/2011.

  1. JWA inhibits melanoma angiogenesis by suppressing ILK signaling and is an independent prognostic biomarker for melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jing; Tang, Yun; Farshidpour, Maham; Cheng, Yabin; Zhang, Guohong; Jafarnejad, Seyed Mehdi; Yip, Alan; Martinka, Magdalena; Dong, Ziming; Zhou, Jianwei; Xu, Jinhua; Li, Gang

    2013-12-01

    Melanoma is the deadliest cutaneous malignancy because of its high incidence of metastasis. Melanoma growth and metastasis relies on sustained angiogenesis; therefore, inhibiting angiogenesis is a promising approach to treat metastatic melanoma. JWA is a novel microtubule-associated protein and our previous work revealed that JWA inhibited melanoma cell invasion and metastasis. However, the role of JWA in melanoma angiogenesis and the prognostic value are still unknown. Here, we report that JWA in melanoma cells significantly inhibited the tube formation of endothelial cells. In addition, JWA regulated integrin-linked kinase (ILK) through integrin ?V?3 and such regulation was achieved through the transcription factor Sp1. Notably, both in vitro and in vivo angiogenesis assays revealed that JWA dramatically suppressed melanoma angiogenesis by inhibiting ILK signaling. Furthermore, we examined the expression of JWA protein in a large set of melanocytic lesions (n = 505) at different stages by tissue microarray and found an inverse correlation between JWA expression and melanoma progression (P = 5 × 10(-6)). Importantly, reduced JWA expression was correlated with a poorer overall, and disease-specific 5 year survival of patients (P = 0.001 and 0.007, respectively). Multivariate Cox regression analyses indicated that JWA was an independent prognostic marker for melanoma patients. Moreover, we found a significant negative correlation between JWA and ILK in melanoma biopsies, and their concomitant expression was closely correlated with melanoma patient survival (P = 0.004), further indicating the regulation of ILK expression by JWA is critical in melanoma. Taken together, our data highlight the function of JWA in melanoma angiogenesis and reveal the clinical prognostic value of JWA. PMID:24064223

  2. Increased expression of neuropilin 1 in melanoma progression and its prognostic significance in patients with melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jing; Cheng, Yabin; Zhang, Guohong; Tang, Yun; Dong, Ziming; McElwee, Kevin J; Li, Gang

    2015-08-01

    Neuropilin 1 (NRP1), a receptor of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), promotes angiogenesis, tumor growth, tumor invasion and metastasis. However, the function of NRP1 in melanoma progression, as well as the effect of NRP1 expression on the prognosis of patients with melanoma remains unknown. In the present study, NRP1 expression was examined in 460 cases of melanocytic lesions (28 common nevi, 51 dysplastic nevi, 250 primary melanoma and 131 metastatic melanoma) at different stages, using a tissue microarray. The correlation of NRP1 expression with melanoma progression, and its prognostic value in patients with melanoma was examined. In addition, the correlation between matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP2) and NRP1 expression in patients with melanoma was analyzed. The results demonstrated that NRP1 expression was significantly increased in primary (56%) and metastatic melanoma (62%), compared with common nevi (11%) and dysplastic nevi (24%). Notably, increased NRP1 expression was correlated with a poorer overall, and disease?specific, 10?year survival (P=0.03 and P=0.002, respectively). Multivariate Cox regression analyses indicated that NRP1 is an independent prognostic marker for melanoma. Furthermore, a significant positive correlation between NRP1 and MMP2 expression in melanoma biopsies was observed, and their concomitant expression was closely correlated with melanoma patient survival, further supporting the hypothesis that the expression of NRP1 is associated with melanoma invasion and metastasis. In conclusion, increased NRP1 expression is associated with disease progression and reduced survival in patients with melanoma, and is a promising prognostic molecular marker for this disease. PMID:25954957

  3. Current management and novel agents for malignant melanoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Byung

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Advanced malignant melanoma remains a challenging cancer. Over the past year, there have been 3 agents approved for treatment of melanoma by Food and Drug Administration. These include pegylated interferon alpha-2b for stage III melanoma, vemurafenib for unresectable or metastatic melanoma with BRAF V600E mutation, and ipilimumab for treatment of unresectable or metastatic melanoma. This review will also update on the development of novel agents, including tyrosine kinase inhibitors and adoptive cellular therapy.

  4. Evidence of ultraviolet type mutations in xeroderma pigmentosum melanomas

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Yun; Digiovanna, John J.; Stern, Jere B.; Hornyak, Thomas J.; Raffeld, Mark; Khan, Sikandar G.; Oh, Kyu-seon; Hollander, M. Christine; Dennis, Philip A.; Kraemer, Kenneth H.

    2009-01-01

    To look for a direct role of ultraviolet radiation (UV) exposure in cutaneous melanoma induction, we studied xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) patients who have defective DNA repair resulting in a 1000-fold increase in melanoma risk. These XP melanomas have the same anatomic distribution as melanomas in the general population. We analyzed laser capture microdissection samples of skin melanomas from XP patients studied at the National Institutes of Health. The tumor suppressor gene PTEN was sequenced...

  5. Malignant melanoma of the vagina.

    OpenAIRE

    Ara, Rahat; Ohnmar, Saw

    2011-01-01

    Carcinoma of the vagina is uncommon and only constitutes two percent of malignant neoplasms of the female genital tract. Malignant melanoma of the vagina is rarer and accounts for only 3.2% of all vaginal cancers. It presumably arises from melanocytes found in the vagina of three percent of normal women. It is a very aggressive tumour and the overall prognosis is poor despite the treatment. We report the case of an 81-year-old woman who presented with per vagina bleeding secondary to a malign...

  6. Targeted drug for uveal melanoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Researchers from Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center presented findings at the annual meeting of the American Society for Clinical Oncology from a study testing the experimental drug selumetinib as a treatment for patients with metastatic uveal melanoma. This treatment more than doubled the time to progression when compared with chemotherapy. Many patients receiving selumetinib experienced tumor shrinkage, making selumetinib the first systemic therapy ever to benefit patients with this cancer. The findings are potentially practice changing for a disease that has previously had no known effective therapy.

  7. Notch signaling mediates melanoma-endothelial cell communication and melanoma cell migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Jason D; Moriarty, Whei F; Park, JinSeok; Riedy, Katherine; Panova, Izabela P; Chung, Christine H; Suh, Kahp-Yang; Levchenko, Andre; Alani, Rhoda M

    2013-09-01

    Stromal and cellular components within the tumor microenvironment significantly influence molecular signals mediating tumor growth and progression. We recently performed a screen to evaluate critical mediators of melanoma-endothelial communication and identified several molecular pathways associated with these cellular networks, including Notch3. Here, we evaluate the nature of melanoma-endothelial communication mediated by Notch3 and its functional significance. We find that Notch3 is specifically upregulated in melanoma-endothelial cell cocultures and is functionally associated with increased Notch signaling in melanoma cells. Furthermore, induced Notch3 signaling in melanoma cell lines leads to enhanced tumor cell migration without associated increases in tumor cell growth. Additionally, Notch3 expression is specifically associated with malignant patient samples and is not evident in benign nevi. We conclude that Notch3 mediates melanoma-endothelial cell communication and tumor cell migration and may serve as a meaningful therapeutic target for this aggressive malignancy. PMID:23773728

  8. Automatic differentiation of melanoma from dysplastic nevi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rastgoo, Mojdeh; Garcia, Rafael; Morel, Olivier; Marzani, Franck

    2015-07-01

    Malignant melanoma causes the majority of deaths related to skin cancer. Nevertheless, it is the most treatable one, depending on its early diagnosis. The early prognosis is a challenging task for both clinicians and dermatologist, due to the characteristic similarities of melanoma with other skin lesions such as dysplastic nevi. In the past decades, several computerized lesion analysis algorithms have been proposed by the research community for detection of melanoma. These algorithms mostly focus on differentiating melanoma from benign lesions and few have considered the case of melanoma against dysplastic nevi. In this paper, we consider the most challenging task and propose an automatic framework for differentiation of melanoma from dysplastic nevi. The proposed framework also considers combination and comparison of several texture features beside the well used colour and shape features based on "ABCD" clinical rule in the literature. Focusing on dermoscopy images, we evaluate the performance of the framework using two feature extraction approaches, global and local (bag of words) and three classifiers such as support vector machine, gradient boosting and random forest. Our evaluation revealed the potential of texture features and random forest as an almost independent classifier. Using texture features and random forest for differentiation of melanoma and dysplastic nevi, the framework achieved the highest sensitivity of 98% and specificity of 70%. PMID:25797605

  9. IRF5 gene polymorphisms in melanoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uccellini Lorenzo

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Interferon regulatory factor (IRF-5 is a transcription factor involved in type I interferon signaling whose germ line variants have been associated with autoimmune pathogenesis. Since relationships have been observed between development of autoimmunity and responsiveness of melanoma to several types of immunotherapy, we tested whether polymorphisms of IRF5 are associated with responsiveness of melanoma to adoptive therapy with tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs. Methods 140 TILs were genotyped for four single nucleotide polymorphisms (rs10954213, rs11770589, rs6953165, rs2004640 and one insertion-deletion in the IRF5 gene by sequencing. Gene-expression profile of the TILs, 112 parental melanoma metastases (MM and 9 cell lines derived from some metastases were assessed by Affymetrix Human Gene ST 1.0 array. Results Lack of A allele in rs10954213 (G?>?A was associated with non-response (p?in vitro between cell lines carrying or not the A allele could be applied to the transcriptional profile of 112 melanoma metastases to predict their responsiveness to therapy, suggesting that IRF5 genotype may influence immune responsiveness by affecting the intrinsic biology of melanoma. Conclusions This study is the first to analyze associations between melanoma immune responsiveness and IRF5 polymorphism. The results support a common genetic basis which may underline the development of autoimmunity and melanoma immune responsiveness.

  10. Cutaneous melanoma in children and adolescents and aspects of naevus phenotype in melanoma risk assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Karlsson, Pia

    2006-01-01

    Cutaneous malignant melanoma (CMM) is one of the most rapidly increasing cancers in the Swedish population. The aetiology of melanoma is a complex interplay between genetics, host characteristics and environmental factors. The host characteristic with the strongest association with CMM is a phenotype with high numbers of common naevi and with dysplastic naevi. The principal environmental factor is sun exposure. Melanoma risk assessment (paper I) In a multi-national study including 986 subject...

  11. Sporadic naturally occurring melanoma in dogs as a preclinical model for human melanoma

    OpenAIRE

    Simpson, R. Mark; Bastian, Boris C.; Michael, Helen T.; Webster, Joshua D.; Prasad, Manju L.; Conway, Catherine M.; Prieto, Victor M.; Gary, Joy M.; Goldschmidt, Michael H.; Esplin, D. Glen; Smedley, Rebecca C.; Piris, Adriano; Meuten, Donald J.; Kiupel, Matti; Lee, Chyi-chia R.

    2013-01-01

    Melanoma represents a significant malignancy in humans and dogs. Different from genetically engineered models, sporadic canine melanocytic neoplasms share several characteristics with human disease that could make dogs a more relevant preclinical model. Canine melanomas rarely arise in sun-exposed sites. Most occur in the oral cavity, with a subset having intra-epithelial malignant melanocytes mimicking the in situ component of human mucosal melanoma. The spectrum of canine melanocytic neopla...

  12. Genetics of Uveal Melanoma and Cutaneous Melanoma: Two of a Kind?

    OpenAIRE

    Dion Paridaens; Annelies de Klein; Emine Kilic; Thomas van den Bosch

    2010-01-01

    Cutaneous melanoma and uveal melanoma both derive from melanocytes but show remarkable differences in tumorigenesis, mode of metastatic spread, genetic alterations, and therapeutic response. In this review we discuss the differences and similarities along with the genetic research techniques available and the contribution to our current understanding of melanoma. The several chromosomal aberrations already identified prove to be very strong predictors of decreased survival in CM and UM patien...

  13. A modified COMS plaque for iris melanoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel J. Scanderbeg

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Melanoma of the iris is a rare condition compared to posterior ocular tumors and in this case report we presenta 51-year-old female patient with diffuse iris melanoma. Traditional COMS (Collaborative Ocular Melanoma Studyplaques are used at our institution for radiation therapy, so a novel modification of the traditional plaque was requiredto allow better conformance with placement on the cornea. The usual silastic insert was machined to dimensions incompliance with the cornea, placed without incident, and treatment delivered with excellent patient tolerance of themodified plaque.

  14. A potential new radiopharmaceutical for melanoma imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the sequence of our studies on radiopharmaceuticals for malignant melanoma detection the results were most promising for the possible use of 125I or 123I - N-(2-diethyl amino ethyl) 4-iodobenzamide. The biodistribution in mice bearing melanoma either human or animal from 4 to 24 hrs. post i.v. injection showed high uptake in tumor tissue together with relatively low uptake in muscle, brain, lung and liver. Scintigraphic images of the tumor obtained at the same times confirmed that melanoma detection was very promising

  15. Malignant Melanoma Presenting as Superior Mediastinal Mass without Extrathoracic Primary Melanoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malignant melanoma most commonly occurs in the skin, and other organs are secondarily involved. Malignant melanoma presenting in the mediastinum without an extrathoracic primary is very rare. Authors report a case of malignant melanoma of the superior mediastinum without clinical history of extrathoracic malignant melanoma primarily and discuss its radiologic findings. CT shows lobulated heterogenous enhanced mass. Magnetic resonance shows mild hyperintense mass on T1 and T2-weighted images contained focal hemorrhage and necrosis, and invasion to neural foramen. In addition, positron emission tomography/computed tomography shows high standard uptake values uptake of the mass.

  16. Malignant Melanoma Presenting as Superior Mediastinal Mass without Extrathoracic Primary Melanoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    You, Myung Won; Sung, Dong Wook; Lee, Young Kyung [Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, Kyung Hee University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-03-15

    Malignant melanoma most commonly occurs in the skin, and other organs are secondarily involved. Malignant melanoma presenting in the mediastinum without an extrathoracic primary is very rare. Authors report a case of malignant melanoma of the superior mediastinum without clinical history of extrathoracic malignant melanoma primarily and discuss its radiologic findings. CT shows lobulated heterogenous enhanced mass. Magnetic resonance shows mild hyperintense mass on T1 and T2-weighted images contained focal hemorrhage and necrosis, and invasion to neural foramen. In addition, positron emission tomography/computed tomography shows high standard uptake values uptake of the mass.

  17. Evidence of ultraviolet type mutations in xeroderma pigmentosum melanomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yun; Digiovanna, John J; Stern, Jere B; Hornyak, Thomas J; Raffeld, Mark; Khan, Sikandar G; Oh, Kyu-Seon; Hollander, M Christine; Dennis, Philip A; Kraemer, Kenneth H

    2009-04-14

    To look for a direct role of ultraviolet radiation (UV) exposure in cutaneous melanoma induction, we studied xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) patients who have defective DNA repair resulting in a 1000-fold increase in melanoma risk. These XP melanomas have the same anatomic distribution as melanomas in the general population. We analyzed laser capture microdissection samples of skin melanomas from XP patients studied at the National Institutes of Health. The tumor suppressor gene PTEN was sequenced and analyzed for UV-induced mutations. Samples from 59 melanomas (47 melanomas in situ and 12 invasive melanomas) from 8 XP patients showed mutations in the PTEN tumor suppressor gene in 56% of the melanomas. Further, 91% of the melanomas with mutations had 1 to 4 UV type base substitution mutations (occurring at adjacent pyrimidines) (P < 0.0001 compared to random mutations). We found a high frequency of amino-acid-altering mutations in the melanomas and demonstrated that these mutations impaired PTEN function; UV damage plays a direct role in induction of mutations and in inactivation of the PTEN gene in XP melanomas including in situ, the earliest stage of melanoma. This gene is known to be a key regulator of carcinogenesis and therefore these data provide solid mechanistic support for UV protection for prevention of melanoma. PMID:19329485

  18. Melanoma Cell Galectin-1 Ligands Functionally Correlate with Malignant Potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazawa, Erika M; Geddes-Sweeney, Jenna E; Cedeno-Laurent, Filiberto; Walley, Kempland C; Barthel, Steven R; Opperman, Matthew J; Liang, Jennifer; Lin, Jennifer Y; Schatton, Tobias; Laga, Alvaro C; Mihm, Martin C; Qureshi, Abrar A; Widlund, Hans R; Murphy, George F; Dimitroff, Charles J

    2015-07-01

    Galectin-1 (Gal-1)-binding to Gal-1 ligands on immune and endothelial cells can influence melanoma development through dampening antitumor immune responses and promoting angiogenesis. However, whether Gal-1 ligands are functionally expressed on melanoma cells to help control intrinsic malignant features remains poorly understood. Here, we analyzed expression, identity, and function of Gal-1 ligands in melanoma progression. Immunofluorescent analysis of benign and malignant human melanocytic neoplasms revealed that Gal-1 ligands were abundant in severely dysplastic nevi, as well as in primary and metastatic melanomas. Biochemical assessments indicated that melanoma cell adhesion molecule (MCAM) was a major Gal-1 ligand on melanoma cells that was largely dependent on its N-glycans. Other melanoma cell Gal-1 ligand activity conferred by O-glycans was negatively regulated by ?2,6 sialyltransferase ST6GalNAc2. In Gal-1-deficient mice, MCAM-silenced (MCAM(KD)) or ST6GalNAc2-overexpressing (ST6(O/E)) melanoma cells exhibited slower growth rates, underscoring a key role for melanoma cell Gal-1 ligands and host Gal-1 in melanoma growth. Further analysis of MCAM(KD) or ST6(O/E) melanoma cells in cell migration assays indicated that Gal-1 ligand-dependent melanoma cell migration was severely inhibited. These findings provide a refined perspective on Gal-1/melanoma cell Gal-1 ligand interactions as contributors to melanoma malignancy. PMID:25756799

  19. Consumption of the Epidermis in Malignant Melanoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kambiz Kamyab Hesari

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Consumption of the epidermis (COE is defined as thinning of the epidermis with attenuation of the basal and suprabasal layers and loss of rete ridges in areas of direct contact with malignant melanocytes. The aim of this study was to investigate the importance of COE as an additional diagnostic criterion for malignant melanoma and to evaluate its relationship to clinicopathological findings. Methodes: The age, gender, localization of the lesion and the histopathological parameters such as tumor type, Breslow thickness, ulceration, and Clark's level were recoeded in 90 malignant melanoma cases. Results: In contrast to other studies, we found that COE was more common in tumors with an acral localization and in the acral lentiginous melanoma.Conclusion: Although COE can be used as a pathological criterion in the diagnosis of malignant melanoma, but no correlation no of COE with ulceration and other prognostic factors were found.

  20. Isolated pancreatic metastasis from melanoma. Case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portale, T R; Di Benedetto, V; Mosca, F; Trovato, M A; Scuderi, M G; Puleo, S

    2011-03-01

    Pancreas is frequently site of isolated metastasis, approximately in the 40% of cases in patient with previous history of malignant neoplasia, more frequently from renal cell carcinoma. The melanoma metastasis can also interest the pancreas in case of disseminated disease (50% of the cases); more rarely the pancreas is site of isolated metastases from melanoma. The treatment of the pancreatic metastases from melanoma is controversial: the therapeutic choices are few and the role of surgery is not well defined. If the metastasis are confined to the pancreas, the surgical treatment can be useful for better long time survival. We report a rare case of melanoma with pancreatic isolated metastasi in a patient with a previous melanotic metastasis to the inguinal lymph nodes without evidence of primitive tumor. PMID:21453593

  1. Amelanotic vulvar melanoma: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filippetti, Rossella; Pitocco, Rossella

    2015-06-01

    A 14-year-old girl stated that she has vulvar pruritus, pain, and bleeding and underwent a complete gynecological evaluation during which a suspicious 2-cm achromic lesion on her vulva was observed. Initially, it was suspected to be a pyogenic granuloma, in relation to the patient's age. A biopsy was taken, and a histopathological diagnosis of amelanotic mucosal melanoma was made. Pyogenic granuloma is a reactive hyperproliferation vascular response to trauma or other stimuli. It predominantly occurs in the second decade of life in young females, in relation to the vascular effects of female hormones. Primary mucosal melanoma is a rare and aggressive neoplasm, characterized by a higher aggressiveness and a worse prognosis than her cutaneous counterpart. The female genital tract is the second most common site of onset of mucosal melanoma; it represents the 3% of melanomas diagnosed in women. PMID:25993407

  2. Malignant melanoma with metastasis into the capitate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomas, Xavier [Radiology Department (CDIC), Hospital Clinic, Institut d' Investigacio Biomedica August Pi i Sunyer (IDIBAPS), Facultat de Medicina, Universitat de Barcelona, Villarroel 170, Barcelona 08036 (Spain)]. E-mail: 22812xtb@comb.es; Conill, Carles [Radiotherapy Department (ICMHO), Hospital Clinic, Institut d' Investigacio Biomedica August Pi i Sunyer (IDIBAPS), Facultat de Medicina, Universitat de Barcelona, Villarroel 170, Barcelona 08036 (Spain); Combalia, Andreu [Orthopaedics Department (ICEMEQ), Hospital Clinic, Institut d' Investigacio Biomedica August Pi i Sunyer (IDIBAPS), Facultat de Medicina, Universitat de Barcelona, Villarroel 170, Barcelona 08036 (Spain); Pomes, Jaume [Radiology Department (CDIC), Hospital Clinic, Institut d' Investigacio Biomedica August Pi i Sunyer (IDIBAPS), Facultat de Medicina, Universitat de Barcelona, Villarroel 170, Barcelona 08036 (Spain); Castel, Teresa [Dermatology Department (ICMiD), Hospital Clinic, Institut d' Investigacio Biomedica August Pi i Sunyer (IDIBAPS), Facultat de Medicina, Universitat de Barcelona, Villarroel 170, Barcelona 08036 (Spain); Nicolau, Carlos [Radiology Department (CDIC), Hospital Clinic, Institut d' Investigacio Biomedica August Pi i Sunyer (IDIBAPS), Facultat de Medicina, Universitat de Barcelona, Villarroel 170, Barcelona 08036 (Spain)

    2005-12-15

    Metastases to the hand and wrist are rare, with fewer than 200 cases reported in the literature. Phalanges are more commonly involved than metacarpal and wrist. The lung, breast and kidneys are the more common sites of primary lesions than metastasize in the hand. We present an exceptional case of melanoma that metastasized to the capitate. Melanoma can give bone metastases, but we are not aware of reports of this tumour metastatising to the carpal bones. In our knowledge, we have only found a report of metastases in the capitate, a clear-cell sarcoma of the right foot, a tumour close to melanoma with some cytogenetic differences. Hand metastases in a patient who is suffered melanoma should be ruled out if a lytic aggressive lesion appears on x-ray film or positive technetium bone scan is demonstrated.

  3. Malignant melanoma with metastasis into the capitate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metastases to the hand and wrist are rare, with fewer than 200 cases reported in the literature. Phalanges are more commonly involved than metacarpal and wrist. The lung, breast and kidneys are the more common sites of primary lesions than metastasize in the hand. We present an exceptional case of melanoma that metastasized to the capitate. Melanoma can give bone metastases, but we are not aware of reports of this tumour metastatising to the carpal bones. In our knowledge, we have only found a report of metastases in the capitate, a clear-cell sarcoma of the right foot, a tumour close to melanoma with some cytogenetic differences. Hand metastases in a patient who is suffered melanoma should be ruled out if a lytic aggressive lesion appears on x-ray film or positive technetium bone scan is demonstrated

  4. [Molecular alterations in melanoma and targeted therapies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mourah, Samia; Lebbé, Céleste

    2014-12-01

    Melanoma is a skin cancer whose incidence is increasing steadily. The recent discovery of frequent and recurrent genetic alterations in cutaneous melanoma allowed a molecular classification of tumors into distinct subgroups, and paved the way for targeted therapy. Several signaling pathways are involved in the progression of this disease with oncogenic mutations affecting signaling pathways: MAPK, PI3K, cAMP and cyclin D1/CDK4. In each of these pathways, several potential therapeutic targets have been identified and specific inhibitors have already been developed and have shown clinical efficacy. The use of these inhibitors is often conditioned by tumors genotyping. In France, melanomas genotyping is supported by the platforms of the National Cancer Institute (INCA), which implemented a national program ensuring access to innovation for personalized medicine. The identification of new targets in melanoma supplies a very active dynamic development of innovative molecules contributing to changing the therapeutic landscape of this pathology. PMID:25776766

  5. Treatment for Advanced Melanoma Continues to Improve

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... meetings archive Derm Exam Prep Course Epiphanies in Dermatology Legislative Conference Education and quality care AAD professional education Online Learning Center Clinical guidelines PQRS DataDerm State melanoma ...

  6. Spitzoid Melanoma: A Ten Year-Old Boy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I??l K?l?nç Karaarslan

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Spitzoid melanoma is a rare variant of melanoma, in which the clinical and histopathologic diagnoses are difficult. Data on the features of Spitzoid melanoma in children is limited in the literature, since melanoma is rarely seen in childhood. Here, we report a 10 year-old child with a Spitzoid melanoma. By the means of this case, it has been emphasized that melanoma should be considered in the differential diagnosis of vascular lesions even seen in childhood, unless the clinical and dermoscopic features are characteristic for an entity. (Journal of Current Pediatrics 2008; 6: 127-9

  7. Novel anti-melanoma treatment: focus on immunotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng-Ze Hao

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Melanoma is an intractable cancer that is aggressive, lethal, and metastatic. The prognosis of advanced melanoma is very poor because it is insensitive to chemotherapy and radiotherapy. The incidence of melanoma has been ascending stably for years worldwide, accompanied by increasing mortality. New approaches to managing this deadly disease are much anticipated to enhance the cure rate and to extend clinical benefits to patients with metastatic melanoma. Due to its high degree of immunogenicity, melanoma could be a good target for immunotherapy, which has been developed for decades and has achieved certain progress. This article provides an overview of immunotherapy for melanoma.

  8. Angiogenesis and Progression in Human Melanoma

    OpenAIRE

    Vacca, A.; Ribatti, D.; Dammacco, F.; Mangialardi, G.; Castrovilli, A.; Reale, A.; Ria, R.

    2010-01-01

    In tumor growth, angiogenesis, the process of new-formation of blood vessels from pre-existing ones, is uncontrolled and unlimited in time. The vascular phase is characterized by the new-formation of vascular channels that enhances tumor cell proliferation, local invasion and hematogenous metastasis. Human malignant melanoma is a highly metastatic tumor with poor prognosis, and high resistance to treatment. Parallel with progression, melanoma acquires a rich vascular network, whereas an incre...

  9. Melanoma metastasis to the spleen: Laparoscopic approach

    OpenAIRE

    Trindade Manoel Roberto; Blaya Rodrigo; Trindade Eduardo

    2009-01-01

    We report a case of minimally invasive surgery in the management of metastasis to the spleen. A 67-year-old male patient with possible splenic soft tissue melanoma metastasis was referred to our hospital. He had a history of an excised soft tissue melanoma from his back eight months earlier, and the control abdominal computer tomography (CT) scan revealed a hypodense spleen lesion. The patient underwent laparoscopic surgery to diagnose and treat the splenic lesion. The splenectomy was perform...

  10. Pathways and therapeutic targets in melanoma

    OpenAIRE

    Shtivelman, Emma; Davies, Michael A.; HWU, PATRICK; Yang, James; Lotem, Michal; Oren, Moshe; Flaherty, Keith T; Fisher, David E.

    2014-01-01

    This review aims to summarize the current knowledge of molecular pathways and their clinical relevance in melanoma. Metastatic melanoma was a grim diagnosis, but in recent years tremendous advances have been made in treatments. Chemotherapy provided little benefit in these patients, but development of targeted and new immune approaches made radical changes in prognosis. This would not have happened without remarkable advances in understanding the biology of disease and tremendous progress in ...

  11. A Case of Melanoma Associated Leukoderma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özer Ar?can

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Melanoma associated leukoderma is a rare disease characterized by hypopigmented or depigmented macules, which are usualy localized at distant sites from the primary malignant melonoma. Immunologic response to abnormal melanocytes is thought to be responsible for the physiopathology of the disease. A 34-year- old male patient with a facially localized melanoma associated leukoderma is presented and the clinical features, pathogenesis, differential diagnosis, treatment and follow-up of the disease are discussed with the recent literature.

  12. Primary Malignant Melanoma of the Urinary Bladder

    OpenAIRE

    Moulay Hassan Farih; Jalal Eddine El Ammari; Mohammed Jamal El Fassi; Youness Ahallal

    2011-01-01

    Introduction. Primary melanoma of the urinary bladder is very rare. As far as we know, 19 cases have been reported worldwide, usually as case reports. Case Presentation. We present a 71-year-old male patient presented with a 2-month history of hematuria. Ultrasonography revealed a 5-cm-size mass located in the bladder trigone. A transurethral resection of the bladder tumor (TURBT) revealed a malignant melanoma. Evaluation for metastatic disease was negative. T...

  13. E-cadherin expression in human melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danen, E H; de Vries, T J; Morandini, R; Ghanem, G G; Ruiter, D J; van Muijen, G N

    1996-04-01

    Loss of expression of E-cadherin, the major cell-cell adhesion receptor on keratinocytes, has been linked to tumour progression in various carcinomas. As E-cadherin has been reported to be expressed in cultured human melanocytes, we questioned whether loss of E-cadherin expression may also be related to melanocytic tumour progression. Flowcytometrical analysis demonstrated that E-cadherin was expressed on cultured normal melanocytes and naevus cells. Two non-invasive, non-metastatic melanoma cell lines showed low expression, and four invasive, metastatic melanoma cell lines did not express E-cadherin. Immunohistochemistry on frozen sections of human melanocytic lesions resulted in diffuse staining of 1/23 common naevocellular naevi and 1/13 dysplastic naevi, with no staining in any of seven early primary melanomas (melanomas (> 1.5 mm) and 5/35 melanoma metastases. Thus, even though E-cadherin is expressed in cultured melanocytes and naevus cells and lost in invasive, metastatic melanoma cells in vitro, it is rarely found in early stages of melanocytic tumour progression in situ and, surprisingly, some expression can be observed in 10-20% of lesions of advanced stages. PMID:8791270

  14. Angiogenesis and progression in human melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ria, R; Reale, A; Castrovilli, A; Mangialardi, G; Dammacco, F; Ribatti, D; Vacca, A

    2010-01-01

    In tumor growth, angiogenesis, the process of new-formation of blood vessels from pre-existing ones, is uncontrolled and unlimited in time. The vascular phase is characterized by the new-formation of vascular channels that enhances tumor cell proliferation, local invasion and hematogenous metastasis. Human malignant melanoma is a highly metastatic tumor with poor prognosis, and high resistance to treatment. Parallel with progression, melanoma acquires a rich vascular network, whereas an increasing number of tumor cells express the laminin receptor, which enables their adhesion to the vascular wall, favouring tumor cell extravasation and metastases. Melanoma neovascularization has been correlated with poor prognosis, overall survival, ulceration and increased rate of relapse. Secretion of various angiogenic cytokines, i.e. VEGF-A, FGF-2, PGF-1 and -2, IL-8, and TGF-1 by melanoma cells promote the angiogenic switch and has been correlated to transition from the radial to the vertical growth phase, and to the metastatic phase. Moreover, melanoma cells overexpress alphavbeta3, alphavbeta5, alpha2beta1 and alpha5beta1 integrins and release, together with stromal cells, higher amount of metalloproteases that increasing their invasive potential and angiogenesis. Basing on these observations, different molecular targets of antiangiogenic molecules has be recognized and various antiangiogenic agents are currently in preclinical and clinical trials for melanoma. PMID:20631829

  15. Angiogenesis and Progression in Human Melanoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Vacca

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In tumor growth, angiogenesis, the process of new-formation of blood vessels from pre-existing ones, is uncontrolled and unlimited in time. The vascular phase is characterized by the new-formation of vascular channels that enhances tumor cell proliferation, local invasion and hematogenous metastasis. Human malignant melanoma is a highly metastatic tumor with poor prognosis, and high resistance to treatment. Parallel with progression, melanoma acquires a rich vascular network, whereas an increasing number of tumor cells express the laminin receptor, which enables their adhesion to the vascular wall, favouring tumor cell extravasation and metastases. Melanoma neovascularization has been correlated with poor prognosis, overall survival, ulceration and increased rate of relapse. Secretion of various angiogenic cytokines, i.e. VEGF-A, FGF-2, PGF-1 and -2, IL-8, and TGF-1 by melanoma cells promote the angiogenic switch and has been correlated to transition from the radial to the vertical growth phase, and to the metastatic phase. Moreover, melanoma cells overexpress ?v?3, ?v?5, ?2?1 and ?5?1 integrins and release, together with stromal cells, higher amount of metalloproteases that increasing their invasive potential and angiogenesis. Basing on these observations, different molecular targets of antiangiogenic molecules has be recognized and various antiangiogenic agents are currently in preclinical and clinical trials for melanoma.

  16. Dermoscopy of Naevus-associated Melanomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shitara, Danielle; Nascimento, Mauricio; Ishioka, Priscila; Carrera, Cristina; Alós, Llúcia; Malvehy, Josep; Puig, Susana

    2015-06-24

    In order to determine dermoscopic parameters, a case-control test set of naevus-associated melanomas vs de novo melanomas paired by Breslow thickness and histopathological subtype was analysed by 2 blinded experienced dermoscopists, according to presence of naevus, pattern analysis and ABCD dermoscopy score. The ability to identify naevus-associated melanomas by pattern analysis was low for both blinded dermoscopists (??Dermoscopy features associated with naevus-associated melanomas were: presence of negative pigment network (OR 9.915, CI 95% 2.182-45.049), globules (OR 2.383, CI 95% 1.15-4.95) and streaks (OR 2.439, CI 95% 1.271-4.680). In contrast, the presence of blue-white veil was related to absence of associated naevus (OR 0.520, CI 95% 0.273-0.991). With the results obtained, 2 different algorithms were proposed. The use of the proposed algorithms could help raise awareness of naevus-associated melanomas and avoid the possibility of incorrectly diagnosing a naevus-associated melanoma if partial biopsies are performed. PMID:25394499

  17. Treatment and outcomes of anorectal melanoma.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Heeney, Anna

    2012-02-01

    INTRODUCTION: anorectal melanoma is an uncommon disease constituting less than 3% of all melanomas. Due to its rarity, there are a lack of randomized control trials regarding appropriate management and current evidence is based mainly on retrospective studies. METHODS: in view of the controversial surgical treatment of anorectal melanoma, we review the most published literature in an attempt to elucidate its typical clinical features along with current thinking with respect to management approaches to this aggressive disease. Using the keywords "anorectal" and "malignant melanoma", a medline search of all articles in English was performed and the relevant articles procured. Additional references were retrieved by cross reference from key articles. RESULTS: anorectal melanoma affects the elderly with a slight preponderance for females. It commonly presents disguised as benign disease with local bleeding or suspicion for haemorrhoidal disease. There is no convincing evidence to indicate that radical resection of primary anorectal melanoma is associated with improvement in local control or survival, and local excision is an acceptable treatment option. CONCLUSION: optimum management depends on several factors and the therapeutic goals should be to lengthen survival and preserve quality-of-life. Given that wide local excision is a more limited intervention with comparable survival it should be considered as the initial treatment choice. Unfortunately prognosis for patients with this disease remains poor despite choice of treatment strategy with overall five year disease-free survival less than twenty percent in most studies.

  18. Brain metastases from malignant melanoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Between 1985 and 1993 30 patients underwent radiation therapy for brain metastases from malignant melanoma. In 9 patients they had been surgically resected. All except 1 patient received whole brain irradiation with a total dose of 20 to 46 Gy/2 to 5 weeks using daily fractions of 2,0 to 4,0 Gy. In 5 patients a local boost of 20 to 25 Gy/2 weeks was administered. Survival rates were compared using the Cox-method. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to define prognostic subgroups. In 6/30 patients (20%) brain metastases were diagnosed at the time of primary manifestation of melanoma. In 83% of patients brain metastases developed during the first 5 years following primary diagnosis. Late manifestation was observed (18 years). Overall survival rate of the whole group was 39% at 6 months and 23% at 1 year. Univariate analysis revealed that age at diagnosis of brain metastases, time to manifestation, number of intracranial metastases and existence of extracerebral distant metastases had significant influence on survival. Sex was not found to influence survival rate. Multivariate analysis identified the existence of extracerebral distant metastases at the time of diagnosis of brain metastases as the most important prognostic factor for survival, followed by age and surgical resection. The role of fractionation was studied separately in a subgroup of patients receiving whole brain irradiation to a total dose of 39 to 42 Gy. Survival rates deteriorated when ov42 Gy. Survival rates deteriorated when overall treatment time exceeded 3 weeks. (orig./MG)

  19. AC-93253 triggers the downregulation of melanoma progression markers and the inhibition of melanoma cell proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karwaciak, Iwona; Gorzkiewicz, Michal; Ryba, Katarzyna; Dastych, Jaroslaw; Pulaski, Lukasz; Ratajewski, Marcin

    2015-07-01

    A major challenge in anti-melanoma therapy is to develop treatments that are effective for advanced melanoma patients. Unfortunately, the currently used regimens are not efficient and have unsatisfactory effects on disease progression, thus increasing the pressure to develop new, profitable drugs and to identify new molecular targets. Here, we show for the first time that AC-93253, a SIRT2 inhibitor, exerts a negative effect on the expression of a set of genes involved in the progression and chemoresistance (e.g., oncogenes, apoptosis-related genes, ABC transporter genes, and cell cycle control genes) of melanoma cells. Furthermore, melanoma cells exposed to AC-93253 and doxorubicin displayed altered biological responses, including apoptosis and proliferation, compared to cells exposed to single treatments. Taken together, we conclude that the usage of AC-93253 in combined therapy could be a promising strategy for melanoma patients. PMID:25912555

  20. Nail apparatus melanoma: a diagnostic opportunity Melanoma do aparelho ungueal: uma oportunidade diagnóstica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria Carreño

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Malignant Melanoma is a high mortality neoplasm. The involvement of the nail apparatus is rare, with only 2 out of 3 patients seeking medical attention as the result of recent nail melanocytic lesions. This results in late diagnosis and a prognosis worse than cutaneous melanoma. We report a female, presenting with ulcerative lesions with clinical and laboratory features compatible with leishmaniasis. On return after treatment initiation a longitudinal melanonychia was observed on her first right finger. Biopsy of the nail matrix was performed. Histopathology was compatible with melanoma in situ. Longitudinal melanonychia is not a specific sign for melanoma and it is important that the dermatologist should identify the suspect lesions correctly. The incidental diagnosis of nail melanoma in situ in our case significantly impacted the patient's survival.Melanoma Maligno é uma neoplasia de alta mortalidade, sendo raro o acometimento do aparelho ungueal. Apenas 2/3 dos pacientes procuram atendimento médico devido lesão melanocítica ungueal recente, tornando o diagnóstico tardio e com prognóstico pior que do melanoma cutâneo. Descreve-se um caso de paciente sexo feminino, apresentando lesões ulceradas com características clínico-laboratoriais compatíveis com leishmaniose tegumentar americana. No retorno após início do tratamento foi observada melanoníquia longitudinal no primeiro quirodáctilo direito. Realizada biópsia da matriz ungueal com histopatológico compatível com melanoma in situ. Melanoníquia longitudinal não é sinal específico de melanoma. A identificação das lesões suspeitas é importante tarefa dos dermatologistas. O diagnóstico incidental de melanoma ungueal in situ do caso relatado resultou em grande impacto na sobrevida da paciente.

  1. Nail apparatus melanoma: a diagnostic opportunity / Melanoma do aparelho ungueal: uma oportunidade diagnóstica

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Ana Maria, Carreño; Sílvia Rocha, Nakajima; Silmara N., Pennini; Renato, Candido Junior; Antonio Pedro Mendes, Schettini.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Melanoma Maligno é uma neoplasia de alta mortalidade, sendo raro o acometimento do aparelho ungueal. Apenas 2/3 dos pacientes procuram atendimento médico devido lesão melanocítica ungueal recente, tornando o diagnóstico tardio e com prognóstico pior que do melanoma cutâneo. Descreve-se um caso de pa [...] ciente sexo feminino, apresentando lesões ulceradas com características clínico-laboratoriais compatíveis com leishmaniose tegumentar americana. No retorno após início do tratamento foi observada melanoníquia longitudinal no primeiro quirodáctilo direito. Realizada biópsia da matriz ungueal com histopatológico compatível com melanoma in situ. Melanoníquia longitudinal não é sinal específico de melanoma. A identificação das lesões suspeitas é importante tarefa dos dermatologistas. O diagnóstico incidental de melanoma ungueal in situ do caso relatado resultou em grande impacto na sobrevida da paciente. Abstract in english Malignant Melanoma is a high mortality neoplasm. The involvement of the nail apparatus is rare, with only 2 out of 3 patients seeking medical attention as the result of recent nail melanocytic lesions. This results in late diagnosis and a prognosis worse than cutaneous melanoma. We report a female, [...] presenting with ulcerative lesions with clinical and laboratory features compatible with leishmaniasis. On return after treatment initiation a longitudinal melanonychia was observed on her first right finger. Biopsy of the nail matrix was performed. Histopathology was compatible with melanoma in situ. Longitudinal melanonychia is not a specific sign for melanoma and it is important that the dermatologist should identify the suspect lesions correctly. The incidental diagnosis of nail melanoma in situ in our case significantly impacted the patient's survival.

  2. Melanoma de corpo ciliar e coróide: relato de caso / Choroidal and ciliary body melanoma: case report

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Aline Amaral Fulgêncio da, Cunha; Nara Helena Teixeira, Rodrigues; Grazziella Acácio e, Almeida; Bruno Carvalho, Picanço; João Agostini, Netto.

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Melanomas oculares correspondem a 5% de todos os melanomas e 85% deles têm origem no trato uveal. Melanoma uveal é o tumor maligno intraocular primário mais comum no adulto. Relatamos neste artigo um caso de melanoma uveal em paciente, sexo feminino, 31 anos, com quadro de fotopsia, hiperemia e baix [...] a da acuidade visual no olho esquerdo com evolução de quatro meses. Apresentava ao exame oftalmológico acuidade visual menor que 20/400, grande massa tumoral na região nasal retroiriana, com deslocamento anterior do cristalino, estreitamento da câmara anterior e descolamento seroso da retina. A ecografia sugeriu tratar-se de grande massa tumoral suspeita de melanoma de coróide com invasão do corpo ciliar. A confirmação diagnóstica foi possível por meio do exame anatomopatológico. Abstract in english Ocular melanomas correspond to 5% of all melanomas and 85% of them have its origin in the uveal tract. Uveal melanoma is the most commom primary intraocular malignant tumor in the adult. In this article, a case of uveal melanoma in a 31 year-old female patient, with photopsia, hyperemia and low visu [...] al acuity in the left eye with evolution of 4 months is presented. In the ophthalmologic examination, visual acuity was lower than 20/400, a large tumoral mass was noted at the nasal region behind the iris with anterior lens displacement, anterior chamber narrowing and serous retinal detachment. The ocular echography suggested a large tumoral mass as a choroidal melanoma extending to the ciliary body. The confirmation diagnosis was possible through the histopathologic examination.

  3. Melanoma Treatment May Not Always Require Extensive Lymph Node Removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melanoma Treatment May Not Always Require Extensive Lymph Node Removal No survival difference seen for patients spared ... SATURDAY, May 30, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- Not all melanoma patients may need surgery to remove lymph nodes ...

  4. Regression of cardiac involvement by malignant melanoma following lomustine chemotherapy.

    OpenAIRE

    Carpenter, M R; VASSALLO, M; Peat, I. M.; Scriven, A J

    1997-01-01

    Cardiac involvement by malignant melanoma is usually a premorbid event. We present a case of presumed cardiac involvement by malignant melanoma with regression following chemotherapy as demonstrated by transoesophageal echocardiography.

  5. Long-term Survival after Metastatic Childhood Melanoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Anne Kristine; Bybjerg Jensen, Mette

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY: Malignant melanoma in children is very rare and accounts for only 1-3% of all melanomas. A congenital melanocytic nevus depending on the size of the lesion is one of the risk factors for developing childhood melanoma because of the possible malignant transformation. Childhood malignant melanoma is a potentially fatal disease. Surgical excision is the primary treatment of choice for malignant melanoma. Clinicians need to be aware of the possible malignant transformation in children with congenital melanocytic nevus because early diagnosis and treatment improves prognosis. The suspicion of malign melanoma must be in mind when evaluating a pigmented lesion in a pediatric patient. We present a case of a patient born with a congenital nevus diagnosed with metastatic childhood malignant scalp melanoma at the age of 6 years. The patient underwent surgical ablation and reconstruction and has survived 26 years without recurrence, thus representing an uplifting case of long-term survival of childhood melanoma.

  6. Common Moles, Dysplastic Nevi, and Risk of Melanoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    A fact sheet about moles and how some moles may be related to melanoma, which is the most serious type of skin cancer. The fact sheet includes photos of differences between moles and cancer, and discusses risk factors for melanoma.

  7. PUMA expression is significantly reduced in human cutaneous melanomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karst, Alison M; Dai, Derek L; Martinka, Magdalena; Li, Gang

    2005-02-01

    Cutaneous malignant melanoma is an aggressive form of skin cancer, characterized by strong chemoresistance and poor patient prognosis. The molecular mechanisms underlying its resistance to chemotherapy remain unclear but are speculated to involve the dysregulation of apoptotic pathways. In this study, we sought to determine whether PUMA (p53 upregulated modulator of apoptosis) contributes to human melanoma formation, tumor progression, and survival. We used tissue microarray and immunohistochemistry to examine PUMA expression in 107 primary melanomas, 51 metastatic melanomas, and 64 dysplastic nevi. Here we report that PUMA expression is significantly weaker in primary melanomas compared to dysplastic nevi (Pexogenous PUMA expression in human melanoma cell lines (both wild type and mutant p53) results in significant apoptotic cell death. Our results suggest that PUMA expression may be an important prognostic marker for human melanoma and that adenoviral delivery of PUMA sensitizes melanoma cells to apoptosis. PMID:15690057

  8. GLO1 overexpression in human malignant melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bair, Warner B; Cabello, Christopher M; Uchida, Koji; Bause, Alexandra S; Wondrak, Georg T

    2010-04-01

    Glyoxalase I [lactoylglutathione lyase (EC 4.4.1.5) encoded by GLO1] is a ubiquitous cellular defense enzyme involved in the detoxification of methylglyoxal, a cytotoxic byproduct of glycolysis. Accumulative evidence suggests an important role of GLO1 expression in protection against methylglyoxal-dependent protein adduction and cellular damage associated with diabetes, cancer, and chronological aging. On the basis of the hypothesis that GLO1 upregulation may play a functional role in glycolytic adaptations of cancer cells, we examined GLO1 expression status in human melanoma tissue. Quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction analysis of a cDNA tissue array containing 40 human melanoma tissues (stages III and IV) and 13 healthy controls revealed pronounced upregulation of GLO1 expression at the mRNA level. Immunohistochemical analysis of a melanoma tissue microarray confirmed upregulation of glyoxalase I protein levels in malignant melanoma tissue versus healthy human skin. Consistent with an essential role of GLO1 in melanoma cell defense against methylglyoxal cytotoxicity, siRNA interference targeting GLO1-expression (siGLO1) sensitized A375 and G361 human metastatic melanoma cells towards the antiproliferative, apoptogenic, and oxidative stress-inducing activity of exogenous methylglyoxal. Protein adduction by methylglyoxal was increased in siGLO1-transfected cells as revealed by immunodetection using a monoclonal antibody directed against the major methylglyoxal-derived epitope argpyrimidine that detected a single band of methylglyoxal-adducted protein in human LOX, G361, and A375 total cell lysates. Using two-dimensional proteomics followed by mass spectrometry the methylglyoxal-adducted protein was identified as heat shock protein 27 (Hsp27; HSPB1). Taken together, our data suggest a function of GLO1 in the regulation of detoxification and target adduction by the glycolytic byproduct methylglyoxal in malignant melanoma. PMID:20093988

  9. Role of radiotherapy in melanoma management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In melanoma, radiotherapy has generally been considered as a palliative treatment option indicated only for advanced cases or disseminated disease. In the 70s of the previous century, the technological advances in radiotherapy, linked to rapid development of computer sciences, resulted in restored interest for radiotherapy in melanoma management. Although a fundamental lack of well designed prospective and/or randomized clinical trials critically influenced the integration of radiotherapy into treatment strategies in melanoma, radiotherapy was recently recognized as an indispensable part in the multidisciplinary management of patients with melanoma. Altogether, approximately 23% of melanoma patients should receive at least one course of radiotherapy during the course of the disease. In this review, radiobiological properties of melanoma that govern the decisions for the fractionation patterns used in the treatment of this disease are described. Moreover, the indications for irradiation and the results of pertinent clinical studies from the literature, creating a rationale for the use of radiotherapy in the management of this disease, are reviewed and a brief description of radiotherapy techniques is given. Basic treatment modality in melanoma is surgery. However, whenever surgery is not radical or there are adverse prognostic factors identified on histopathological examination of resected tissue specimen, it needs to be supplemented. Also, in patients with unresectable disease or in those not being suitable for major surgery or who refuse proposed surgical intervention, other effective mode(s) of therapy need to be implemented. From this perspective, supported by clinical experiences and literature results, radiotherapy is a valuable option: it is effective and safe, in curative and palliative setting

  10. Metastatic Malignant Melanoma Presenting as an Appendiceal Mucocele

    OpenAIRE

    Alduaij, A. A.; Resnick, M. B.; Kawata, M.; Pricolo, V. E.

    2011-01-01

    Melanoma metastatic to the appendix is extremely rare. Here we describe a case of a 31-year-old female from Bolivia with a remote history of metastatic malignant melanoma first diagnosed as a cutaneous malignant melanoma ten years prior to this presentation. The patient was being followed for a mucocele which on resection was found to be metastatic melanoma. “Mucocele” is a generic diagnosis that warrants further characterization and treatment.

  11. Canine malignant melanoma alpha-3 integrin binding peptides

    OpenAIRE

    Aina, Olulanu H.; Maeda, Yoshiko; Harrison, Matthew; Zwingenberger, Allison L.; Walker, Naomi J.; Lam, Kit S.; Kent, Michael S.

    2011-01-01

    There is a need to develop novel targeted imaging and therapeutic agents that can aid in early diagnosis, detection of metastasis and treatment of melanoma. Alpha-3 integrin is overexpressed in 82% of metastatic melanomas in humans and may be a potential target for peptide ligands carrying therapeutic agents. Five melanoma cell lines were generated from canine primary oral and metastatic canine tumors, grown in mice, and validated with melanoma markers Melan A, S-100, Micropthalmia transcript...

  12. Dermoscopy of Scalp Melanoma: Report of Three Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonella Tosti

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Scalp melanoma is rare and often late-discovered because of its unusual position. As a consequence, its prognosis is poorer than melanoma on other body sites and only few clinical reports about its dermoscopic pattern have been published. In this paper, we report three clinical cases of scalp melanoma with photographic documentation and dermoscopic images, in order to improve the early detection of scalp melanoma.

  13. Dermoscopy of Scalp Melanoma: Report of Three Cases

    OpenAIRE

    Antonella Tosti3; Maria Carmela Annunziata; Sergio Henrique Hirata; Valerio De Vita; Sergio Yamada; Gabriella Fabbrocini; Fernanda Torres1

    2010-01-01

    Scalp melanoma is rare and often late-discovered because of its unusual position. As a consequence, its prognosis is poorer than melanoma on other body sites and only few clinical reports about its dermoscopic pattern have been published. In this paper, we report three clinical cases of scalp melanoma with photographic documentation and dermoscopic images, in order to improve the early detection of scalp melanoma.

  14. Primary bilateral malignant melanoma of the lower limbs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonello Baldo

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Malignant melanoma is the eighth most common cancer in European women. Its incidence is increasing rapidly and it has been demonstrated that this is related to sun exposure. Although few cases of bilateral uveal or choroidal melanoma are described in literature, there are no cases reporting bilateral cutaneous malignant melanoma. We report a singular case of a 43-year-old woman with two primary bilateral melanomas localized on the flexural surface of both legs.

  15. Histology-Specific MicroRNA Alterations in Melanoma

    OpenAIRE

    Poliseno, Laura; Haimovic, Adele; Segura, Miguel F.; Hanniford, Douglas; Christos, Paul J.; Darvishian, Farbod; Wang, Jinhua; Shapiro, Richard L.; Pavlick, Anna C.; Berman, Russell S.; Hernando, Eva; Zavadil, Jiri; Osman, Iman

    2012-01-01

    We examined the microRNA signature that distinguishes the most common melanoma histological subtypes, superficial spreading melanoma (SSM) and nodular melanoma (NM). We also investigated the mechanisms underlying the differential expression of histology-specific microRNAs. MicroRNA array performed on a training cohort of 82 primary melanoma tumors (26 SSM, 56 NM), and nine congenital nevi (CN) revealed 134 microRNAs differentially expressed between SSM and NM (P

  16. Solar radiation and malignant melanoma of the skin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several observations suggest that a majority of cases of malignant melanoma of the skin are linked to sun exposure. Evidence includes higher occurrence of melanoma on anatomic areas heavily exposed during recreation, development of melanoma more frequently in lightly pigmented persons, and correlation of melanoma incidence and mortality with proximity to the equator. The role of the sun exposure in the pathogenesis of melanoma remains unclear, however. Many cases of melanoma may be related to heavy doses of solar radiation received during recreation. Chronic sun exposure is not so clearly linked to the development of melanoma (except in the uncommon lentigo maligna variety). Sunspot cycles have been associated with changes in melanoma incidence; an excess of melanoma cases has been observed every 9 to 12 years after peak sunspot activity. These excess cases may be caused by more intense exposure to solar ultraviolet radiation during sunspot maxima, perhaps related to changes in the stratospheric ozone layer. These epidemiologic and clinical clues suggest that many cases of melanoma are related to sun exposure triggering the appearance of clinically evident melanoma. In this regard, solar radiation behaves as a cocarcinogen or promoter, rather than a dose-dependent carcinogen. These observations also suggest that other factors may be involved in the pathogenesis of melanoma, e.g., nevi, heredity, or exposure to chemical carcinogensgens

  17. Cytotoxic T lymphocyte responses against melanocytes and melanoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schwartz Erich J

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vitiligo is a common toxicity associated with immunotherapy for melanoma. Cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs against melanoma commonly target melanoma-associated antigens (MAAs which are also expressed by melanocytes. To uncouple vitiligo from melanoma destruction, it is important to understand if CTLs can respond against melanoma and melanocytes at different levels. Methods To understand the dichotomous role of MAA-specific CTL, we characterized the functional reactivities of established CTL clones directed to MAAs against melanoma and melanocyte cell lines. Results CTL clones generated from melanoma patients were capable of eliciting MHC-restricted, MAA-specific lysis against melanocyte cell lines as well as melanoma cells. Among the tested HLA-A*0201-restricted CTL clones, melanocytes evoked equal to slightly higher degranulation and cytolytic responses as compared to melanoma cells. Moreover, MAA-specific T cells from vaccinated patients responded directly ex vivo to melanoma and melanocytes. Melanoma cells express slightly higher levels of MART-1 and gp100 than melanocytes as measured by quantitative reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR and immunohistochemistry. Conclusions Our data suggest that CTLs respond to melanoma and melanocytes equally in vitro and directly ex vivo.

  18. STRATEGIES TO OVERCOME OBSTACLES TO SUCCESSFUL IMMUNOTHERAPY OF MELANOMA

    OpenAIRE

    Pandolfi, F.; Cianci, R.; Lolli, S.; Dunn, I. S.; Newton, E. E.; Haggerty, T. J.; Boyle, L. A.; Kurnick, J. T.

    2008-01-01

    The immunogenicity of Malignant Melanomas has been recognized by the observed recruitment of tumor-specific cytotoxic T-cells (CTL), leading to the identification of several melanoma associated antigen (MAA). However, numerous strategies to treat melanoma with immunotherapy have resulted in only partial success.

  19. Macroscopic spectral imaging and gene expression analysis of the early stages of melanoma.

    OpenAIRE

    P.Yang; Farkas, D L; Kirkwood, J M; Abernethy, J. L.; Edington, H D; Becker, D.

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The stages of melanocytic progression are defined as atypical (dysplastic) nevus, melanoma in situ, melanoma in the radial growth phase (RGP), melanoma in the vertical growth phase (VGP), and melanoma in the metastatic growth phase (MGP). Melanoma in situ and RGP melanoma often develop in contiguous association with atypical nevi. This frequently poses a problem with respect to their early detection. Furthermore, unlike cells obtained from VGP and MGP melanomas, cells derived from...

  20. Overexpression of Akt converts radial growth melanoma to vertical growth melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Govindarajan, Baskaran; Sligh, James E; Vincent, Bethaney J; Li, Meiling; Canter, Jeffrey A; Nickoloff, Brian J; Rodenburg, Richard J; Smeitink, Jan A; Oberley, Larry; Zhang, Yuping; Slingerland, Joyce; Arnold, Rebecca S; Lambeth, J David; Cohen, Cynthia; Hilenski, Lu; Griendling, Kathy; Martínez-Diez, Marta; Cuezva, José M; Arbiser, Jack L

    2007-03-01

    Melanoma is the cancer with the highest increase in incidence, and transformation of radial growth to vertical growth (i.e., noninvasive to invasive) melanoma is required for invasive disease and metastasis. We have previously shown that p42/p44 MAP kinase is activated in radial growth melanoma, suggesting that further signaling events are required for vertical growth melanoma. The molecular events that accompany this transformation are not well understood. Akt, a signaling molecule downstream of PI3K, was introduced into the radial growth WM35 melanoma in order to test whether Akt overexpression is sufficient to accomplish this transformation. Overexpression of Akt led to upregulation of VEGF, increased production of superoxide ROS, and the switch to a more pronounced glycolytic metabolism. Subcutaneous implantation of WM35 cells overexpressing Akt led to rapidly growing tumors in vivo, while vector control cells did not form tumors. We demonstrated that Akt was associated with malignant transformation of melanoma through at least 2 mechanisms. First, Akt may stabilize cells with extensive mitochondrial DNA mutation, which can generate ROS. Second, Akt can induce expression of the ROS-generating enzyme NOX4. Akt thus serves as a molecular switch that increases angiogenesis and the generation of superoxide, fostering more aggressive tumor behavior. Targeting Akt and ROS may be of therapeutic importance in treatment of advanced melanoma. PMID:17318262

  1. Cure of malignant melanoma by single thermal neutron capture treatment using melanoma-seeking compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since not only malignant melanomas but also many kinds of human cancers, for example thyroid cancer and squamous cell carcinoma, synthesize their specific protein, much attention has been paid to the establishment of selective thermal neutron capture treatment of malignant melanoma as a prototype of such cancer cells. This paper presents 10B chlorpromazine compounds and 10B1-para-boronophenylalanine (10B1-BPA) as tumor-seeking 10B compounds which themselves possess selective affinity for the specific metabolic activity of the target cancer cells. An overview of the following studies on the effects of 10B1-BPA in the thermal neutron capture treatment of melanoma is provided: 1) in vitro studies on specific enhanced melanoma cell killing effects of 10B1-BPA; 2) in vivo studies on therapeutic effects of 10B1-BPA using melanoma-bearing hamsters; and 3) preclinical therapeutic experiments using spontaneously occurring malignant melanoma in Duroc pig skin, including experiments in which melanoma was successfully cured. (Namekawa, K.)

  2. Vemurafenib for the treatment of melanoma.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Jordan, Emmet John

    2012-12-01

    Metastatic melanoma is an aggressive disease resistant to chemotherapy. Recent clinical trials have reported improved survival for two novel agents; ipilimumab, a humanized, IgG1 monoclonal antibody that blocks cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 (CTLA-4) and vemurafenib , a BRAF (v-raf murine sarcoma viral oncogene homolog B1) inhibitor targeting an activating mutation in the serine-threonine-protein kinase BRAF gene. AREAS COVERED: The authors reviewed preclinical and clinical data examining the safety of vemurafenib in melanoma. MEDLINE and EMBASE were searched using the medical subject heading \\'vemurafenib\\' and the following text terms: melanoma, BRAF inhibition, vemurafenib. This review provides the reader with an overview of current data examining the efficacy and safety of vemurafenib in metastatic melanoma. EXPERT OPINION: Vemurafenib is an oral agent licensed for patients with BRAF V600E mutation-positive inoperable and metastatic melanoma. The most common adverse effects observed in Phase III clinical trials were dermatological events, arthralgia and fatigue. Specific dermatological toxicities included development of cutaneous squamous cell cancers and keratoacanthomas. Prolongation of the QT interval was also reported. Regular dermatological assessments and electrocardiograms are recommended. Ongoing trials are examining vemurafenib in both the adjuvant setting and metastatic setting in combination with ipilimumab and MEK inhibitors (mitogen-activated protein kinase\\/extracellular signal-regulated kinase). Understanding and overcoming mechanisms of resistance to BRAF inhibitors is the focus of ongoing research.

  3. Selenium for the Prevention of Cutaneous Melanoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas Grossman

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The role of selenium (Se supplementation in cancer prevention is controversial; effects often depend on the nutritional status of the subject and on the chemical form in which Se is provided. We used a combination of in vitro and in vivo models to study two unique therapeutic windows for intervention in the process of cutaneous melanomagenisis, and to examine the utility of two different chemical forms of Se for prevention and treatment of melanoma. We studied the effects of Se in vitro on UV-induced oxidative stress in melanocytes, and on apoptosis and cell cycle progression in melanoma cells. In vivo, we used the HGF transgenic mouse model of UV-induced melanoma to demonstrate that topical treatment with l-selenomethionine results in a significant delay in the time required for UV-induced melanoma development, but also increases the rate of growth of those tumors once they appear. In a second mouse model, we found that oral administration of high dose methylseleninic acid significantly decreases the size of human melanoma xenografts. Our findings suggest that modestly elevation of selenium levels in the skin might risk acceleration of growth of incipient tumors. Additionally, certain Se compounds administered at very high doses could have utility for the treatment of fully-malignant tumors or prevention of recurrence.

  4. Current Research and Development of Chemotherapeutic Agents for Melanoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyaw Minn Hsan

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Cutaneous malignant melanoma is the most lethal form of skin cancer and an increasingly common disease worldwide. It remains one of the most treatment-refractory malignancies. The current treatment options for patients with metastatic melanoma are limited and in most cases non-curative. This review focuses on conventional chemotherapeutic drugs for melanoma treatment, by a single or combinational agent approach, but also summarizes some potential novel phytoagents discovered from dietary vegetables or traditional herbal medicines as alternative options or future medicine for melanoma prevention. We explore the mode of actions of these natural phytoagents against metastatic melanoma.

  5. In vivo melanoma depth detection by a handheld photoacoustic microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yong; Xing, Wenxin; Maslov, Konstantin I.; Cornelius, Lynn A.; Wang, Lihong V.

    2015-03-01

    We developed a handheld photoacoustic microscope (PAM) to detect melanoma and determine tumor depth in nude mice in vivo. Compared to our previous PAM system for melanoma imaging, a new light delivery mechanism is introduced to improve light penetration. We show that melanomas with 4.1 mm and 3.3 mm thicknesses can be successfully detected in phantom and in vivo experiments, respectively. With its deep melanoma imaging ability and novel handheld design, this system is promising for clinical melanoma diagnosis, prognosis, and surgical planning for patients at the bedside.

  6. [Forearm malignant epithelioid schwannoma associated with melanoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Alvarez García, F E; García-Alvarez García, I; Castiella, T; García-Alvarez Alvarez, F

    2003-04-01

    Tumours originating in peripheric nerves usually appear in patients with neurofibromatosis (NF) signs, presenting frequent combinations of tumours in nerves and cutaneous lesions. Nevertheless, this association is very rare in cases without NF. Therefore, the aim of the present article is to present a case of malignant melanoma and malignant schwannoma, without any described NF. A 69-year-old woman with antecedents of malignant melanoma diagnosed two years previously in the dorsum of the fifth finger of the left hand, treated by means of amputation of the finger. The patient presented a malignant epithelioid schwannoma adhered to the median nerve that required elbow amputation. One month later lung metastases appeared and the patient died. This case presented no known NF sign. However, a relationship must be searched for in the common origin of melanoma and schwannoma from the embryonic neural crest. PMID:12768834

  7. Malignant melanoma of the nasal septum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazzeri, Davide; Agostini, Tommaso; Giacomina, Alessandro; Giannotti, Giordano; Colizzi, Livio; De Rosa, Maurizio; Massei, Pietro; Pantaloni, Marcello

    2010-11-01

    Primary malignant melanoma involving the nasal and paranasal sinus mucosa is a rare neoplasm, accounting for less than 1% of all melanomas. Being more aggressive than its cutaneous counterpart, it carries a poor prognosis. We report a case arising from the nasal septum mucosae in a 78-year-old man. We describe clinical features, diagnosis, and treatment of this rare disease along with a review of the pertinent literature. Endoscopic resection of the neoplasm was performed, enabling diagnosis of sinonasal mucosal melanoma involving the frontal sinus floor. Because the patient was too compromised to achieve radical surgical approach (craniofacial resection), he underwent radiation therapy. Through this article, we wish to emphasize that early diagnosis with a high index of suspicion is critical because this type of tumor is extremely aggressive. Its location and relatively nonspecific features frequently delay diagnosis, and its rarity avoids an optimal treatment guideline setting. PMID:21119468

  8. Ensemble approach for differentiation of malignant melanoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rastgoo, Mojdeh; Morel, Olivier; Marzani, Franck; Garcia, Rafael

    2015-04-01

    Melanoma is the deadliest type of skin cancer, yet it is the most treatable kind depending on its early diagnosis. The early prognosis of melanoma is a challenging task for both clinicians and dermatologists. Due to the importance of early diagnosis and in order to assist the dermatologists, we propose an automated framework based on ensemble learning methods and dermoscopy images to differentiate melanoma from dysplastic and benign lesions. The evaluation of our framework on the recent and public dermoscopy benchmark (PH2 dataset) indicates the potential of proposed method. Our evaluation, using only global features, revealed that ensembles such as random forest perform better than single learner. Using random forest ensemble and combination of color and texture features, our framework achieved the highest sensitivity of 94% and specificity of 92%.

  9. Bioelectric Applications for Treatment of Melanoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Heller

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Two new cancer therapies apply bioelectric principles. These methods target tumor structures locally and function by applying millisecond electric fields to deliver plasmid DNA encoding cytokines using electrogene transfer (EGT or by applying rapid rise-time nanosecond pulsed electric fields (nsPEFs. EGT has been used to locally deliver cytokines such as IL-12 to activate an immune response, resulting in bystander effects. NsPEFs locally induce apoptosis-like effects and affect vascular networks, both promoting tumor demise and restoration of normal vascular homeostasis. EGT with IL-12 is in melanoma clinical trials and nsPEFs are used in models with B16F10 melanoma in vitro and in mice. Applications of bioelectrics, using conventional electroporation and extensions of it, provide effective alternative therapies for melanoma.

  10. Historia del melanoma maligno en uruguay

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Julio C, Priario.

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available El melanoma maligno ha cobrado notoriedad últimamente en virtud de presentar un incremento en su incidencia durante las últimas décadas, pero ya se habían registrado casos en el siglo XVIII. Hoy se encuentra en el Museo Hunterian de Londres la pieza operatoria de un paciente operado por John Hunter [...] en 1787. A lo largo del siglo XIX varios autores europeos se ocuparon del tema, lo que nos permite decir que el conocimiento científico comienza allí, encontrándose publicaciones en relación con casos clínicos, alguno de los cuales era seguido de autopsia y también encontramos en esas publicaciones los primeros estudios histológicos que permitieron identificar esta entidad nosológica. El primer caso de melanoma publicado en Uruguay fue realizado por el Dr. Brito Foresti en la Revista Médica del Uruguay hace más de 100 años con la denominación de sarcoma melánico. Pero en la segunda mitad del siglo XX y como consecuencia del rápido crecimiento de la incidencia y mortalidad por melanoma, el conocimiento científico se hizo más preciso. En Uruguay se pudo comprobar que al igual que en los países europeos mediterráneos había un aumento de la incidencia, particularmente en mujeres, lo que fue puesto en evidencia por los estudios de la Comisión Honoraria de Lucha contra el Cáncer. Gran preocupación determinó en las autoridades sanitarias mundiales el alto índice de melanomas en Australia y Nueva Zelanda y el aumento no tan importante en Estados Unidos. Esto originó la creación de Grupos de Estudios Cooperativos de los cuales el WHO Melanoma Programme es el que cuenta con el mayor número de miembros, ya que participan 82 grupos oncológicos de 28 países, estando Uruguay representado por el Hospital de Clínicas "Dr. Manuel Quintela", Facultad de Medicina. De los estudios que realizó este grupo surgieron las pautas fundamentales para el diagnóstico y tratamiento del melanoma. Entre estos se debe señalar: 1) la importancia de la profundidad de la lesión (Breslow); 2) la importancia de la ulceración en el pronóstico y tratamiento; 3) la precisión en cuanto a márgenes de resección; 4) el estudio del ganglio centinela; 5) la valoración de las terapéuticas adyuvantes; 6) la prevención primaria y secundaria; 7) la valoración de los estudios genéticos. En todos estos estudios, Uruguay participó activamente aportando sus casos clínicos. Por otra parte, teniendo en cuenta la acción de la radiación ultravioleta en la patogenia del melanoma, se realizaron estudios de esta radiación y del adelgazamiento de la capa de ozono sobre Uruguay por parte de investigadores de la Facultad de Ciencias y del Instituto Nacional de Meteorología. En el Servicio de Oncología Clínica del Hospital de Clínicas "Dr. Manuel Quintela" funciona desde 1971 la Unidad de Melanoma, constituida por los científicos con cuya colaboración se realiza esta publicación Abstract in english Summary Malignant melanoma is increasingly notorious due to a rise of its incidence in the last decades, but there were cases recorded in the XVIII century. There is a surgical specimen in Hunterian Museum of London from a patient operated by John Hunter in 1787. Many European authors published pape [...] rs in the XIX century. Some of them included autopsy and the first histological studies that allowed the identification of this condition. Dr. Brito Foresti published the first case in the Revista Médica del Uruguay one hundred years ago under the name of melanoma sarcoma. In the second half of the XX century, scientific knowledge of melanoma was more precise as a consequence of its incidence and the growth of mortality rates. In Uruguay, as in many Mediterranean countries, there was an increase of its incidence, particularly in women as it was shown by the Honorary Committee against Cancer (Comisión Honoraria de Lucha Contra el Cáncer). The Hospital de Clínicas ‘Dr. Manuel Quintela’ represents the WHO Melanoma Program in Uruguay, a program that account for 82 cancer groups of 28 countries. This programme

  11. Surgical management of circumscribed conjunctival melanomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, J A; Shields, C L; De Potter, P

    1998-05-01

    Circumscribed conjunctival melanoma usually arises in the bulbar conjunctiva and less often in the forniceal or palpebral conjunctiva. After simple superficial removal, employed by many ophthalmologists, these tumors have an increased tendency toward local recurrence and distant metastasis. A surgical procedure designed to remove the tumors completely and minimize the changes of recurrence would be desirable. The authors employed a surgical approach to conjunctival melanoma excision, which they believe insures more complete tumor removal and decreases the chances of recurrence and metastasis. The surgical management of melanoma in the limbal region of the bulbar conjunctiva consists of localized alcohol epitheliectomy, removal of the mass by a partial lamellar scleroconjunctivectomy, and supplemental double freeze-thaw cryotherapy to the adjacent remaining conjunctiva by a specific technique. For tumors located in the forniceal or palpebral conjunctiva, wide surgical resection with alcohol treatment to the scleral base and cryotherapy to the surrounding conjunctiva is performed. A "no touch" technique is employed and direct manipulation of the tumor is strictly avoided in an effort to prevent tumor cell seeding into a new area. The technique currently employed has evolved from experience with circumscribed conjunctival melanoma excision during a 20-year period. About 80 patients had circumscribed conjunctival melanoma unassociated with appreciable primary acquired melanosis. Although it is not the purpose of this article on surgical technique to provided a detailed statistical analysis of the results, the authors currently believe that this technique should be employed in all cases of circumscribed lesions in which conjunctival melanoma is a diagnostic consideration. Incisional biopsy and frozen sections are generally not advisable. Preliminary observations suggest that this method decreases the chances of local recurrence. PMID:9612814

  12. Melanoma biomolecules: independently identified but functionally intertwined

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DanielleErinDye

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The majority of patients diagnosed with melanoma present with thin lesions and generally these patients have a good prognosis. However, 5% of patients with early melanoma (< 1mm thick will have recurrence and die within 10 years, despite no evidence of local or metastatic spread at the time of diagnosis. Thus, there is a need for additional prognostic markers to help identify those patients that may be at risk of recurrent disease. Many studies and several meta-analyses have compared gene and protein expression in melanocytes, naevi, primary and metastatic melanoma in an attempt to find informative prognostic markers for these patients. However, although a large number of putative biomarkers have been described, few of these molecules are informative when used in isolation. The best approach is likely to involve a combination of molecules. We believe one approach could be to analyze the expression of a group of interacting proteins that regulate different aspects of the metastatic pathway. This is because a primary lesion expressing proteins involved in multiple stages of metastasis may be more likely to lead to secondary disease than one that does not. This review focuses on five putative biomarkers - melanoma cell adhesion molecule (MCAM, galectin-3 (gal-3, matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP-2, chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan 4 (CSPG4 and paired box 3 (PAX3. The goal is to provide context around what is known about the contribution of these biomarkers to melanoma biology and metastasis. Although each of these molecules have been independently identified as likely biomarkers, it is clear from our analyses that each are closely linked with each other, with intertwined roles in melanoma biology.

  13. The adhesion molecule L1 (CD171) promotes melanoma progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Friedegund; Busch, Silke; Gast, Daniela; Göppert, Anne; Altevogt, Peter; Maczey, Evelyn; Riedle, Svenja; Garbe, Claus; Schittek, Birgit

    2006-08-01

    The adhesion molecule L1 is expressed in primary melanomas and cutaneous metastases in contrast to melanocytic nevi and melanocytes, and is significantly associated with metastatic spread. Recent studies have demonstrated that in carcinomas L1 expression is associated with sustained activation of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) pathway and upregulation of ERK-dependent, motility- and invasion-associated gene products including alphavbeta3 integrin. The objective of this study was to further investigate the role of the adhesion molecule L1 in melanoma progression, and to evaluate whether targeting the L1 adhesion molecule would have therapeutic effects against invasive melanoma growth. Using human melanoma cells from different stages of progression in monolayer and organotypic human skin culture mimicking the pathophysiological environment of cutaneous melanoma, we found that (1) L1 expression mostly correlates with melanoma progression and alphavbeta3 integrin expression, (2) overexpression of L1 in early radial growth phase melanoma cells promotes conversion from radial to vertical growth phase melanoma without upregulation of alphavbeta3 integrin expression, and (3) suppression of L1 function significantly reduces migration and invasion of melanoma cells, but does not completely block invasive melanoma growth. Altogether, L1 plays a critical role in melanoma invasion and progression and offers therapeutic potential in combination with conventional anticancer agents. PMID:16506207

  14. Sarcoidosis in Melanoma Patients: Case Report and Literature Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beutler, Bryce D.; Cohen, Philip R.

    2015-01-01

    Sarcoidosis is a systemic inflammatory disease characterized by the development of noncaseating granulomas in multiple organ systems. Many hematologic malignancies and solid tumors, including melanoma, have been associated with sarcoidosis. We describe the clinical and pathologic findings of a 54-year-old man with melanoma-associated sarcoidosis. In addition, we not only review the literature describing characteristics of other melanoma patients with sarcoidosis, but also the features of melanoma patients with antineoplastic therapy-associated sarcoidosis. Sarcoidosis has been described in 80 melanoma patients; sufficient information for analysis was provided in 39 of these individuals. In 43.6% of individuals (17 out of 39), sarcoidosis was directly associated with melanoma; in 56.4% of oncologic patients (22 out of 39), sarcoidosis was induced by antineoplastic therapy that had been administered for the treatment of their metastatic melanoma. The discovery of melanoma preceded the development of sarcoidosis in 12 of the 17 (70.5%) individuals who did not receive systemic treatment. Pulmonary and/or cutaneous manifestations of sarcoidosis were common among both groups of patients. Most patients did not require treatment for sarcoidosis. Melanoma patients—either following antineoplastic therapy or without systemic treatment—may be at an increased risk to develop sarcoidosis. In antineoplastic therapy naive melanoma patients, a common etiologic factor—such as exposure to ultraviolet light—may play a role in their developing melanoma and sarcoidosis. PMID:26083934

  15. Defining the dermoscopic characteristics of fast-growing cutaneous melanomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tejera-Vaquerizo, Antonio; Arias-Santiago, Salvador; Nagore, Eduardo; Martín-Cuevas, Paula; Orgaz-Molina, Javier; Traves, Victor; Herrera-Acosta, Enrique; Naranjo-Sintes, Ramón; Guillén, Carlos; Herrera-Ceballos, Enrique

    2015-06-01

    A high growth rate in melanomas has been associated with a more aggressive phenotype and worse survival. The aim of this study was to define the dermoscopic characteristics associated with this type of cutaneous melanoma. We carried out a retrospective study of 132 cutaneous melanomas, analyzing certain clinical characteristics and the most important dermoscopic variables related to the melanomas. Fast-growing melanomas were considered to be those with a growth rate of more than 0.5?mm per month. Fast-growing melanomas more often lacked an atypical network, were symmetrical, presented ulceration, and were hypopigmented. The dermoscopic vascular pattern often showed atypical irregular vessels and milky-red areas. The association of these two is a specific characteristic. Fast-growing melanomas have a characteristic phenotype and dermoscopy can be useful for their identification. PMID:25919929

  16. Isolation and Molecular Characterization of Circulating Melanoma Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xi Luo

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Melanoma is an invasive malignancy with a high frequency of blood-borne metastases, but circulating tumor cells (CTCs have not been readily isolated. We adapted microfluidic CTC capture to a tamoxifen-driven B-RAF/PTEN mouse melanoma model. CTCs were detected in all tumor-bearing mice and rapidly declined after B-RAF inhibitor treatment. CTCs were shed early from localized tumors, and a short course of B-RAF inhibition following surgical resection was sufficient to dramatically suppress distant metastases. The large number of CTCs in melanoma-bearing mice enabled a comparison of RNA-sequencing profiles with matched primary tumors. A mouse melanoma CTC-derived signature correlated with invasiveness and cellular motility in human melanoma. CTCs were detected in smaller numbers in patients with metastatic melanoma and declined with successful B-RAF-targeted therapy. Together, the capture and molecular characterization of CTCs provide insight into the hematogenous spread of melanoma.

  17. Metastatic melanoma and vemurafenib: novel approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramon Andrade De Mello

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Metastatic melanoma (MM presents a treatment challenge to oncologists worldwide. Dacarbazine is the first line chemotherapy treatment for MM, though the overall response rates are very poor. Recently, the v-raf murine sarcoma viral oncogene homolog B1 (BRAF V600 mutation was found to play a main role in MM. This mutation is present in 40-60% of melanoma patients. Vemurafenib is a BRAF kinase inhibitor that showed impressive results in phase I-III trials and was thus recently approved for the treatment of MM. This paper will briefly focus on vemurafenib in the treatment of MM and highlight concerns.

  18. Researchers discover new mutations driving malignant melanoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two new mutations that collectively occur in 71 percent of malignant melanoma tumors have been discovered in what scientists call the "dark matter" of the cancer genome, where cancer-related mutations haven't been previously found. Reporting their findings in the Jan. 24 issue of Science Express, the researchers from Dana-Farber Cancer Institute and the Broad Institute said the highly "recurrent" mutations – occurring in the tumors of many people – may be the most common mutations in melanoma cells found to date.

  19. Malignant melanoma revealed by testicular metastasi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dusaud, Marie; Adjadj, Lucille; Debelmas, Alexandre; Souraud, Jean Baptiste; Durand, Xavier

    2015-01-01

    We report the case of an 83 years old man supported for painless indurated and nodular lesion of the left testicle. Histological analysis identified a primary cutaneous melanoma metastasis although it has never been found on physical examination. The discovery of a testicular mass should suggest first a germ cell tumor, despite in some populations (age over 60 years), other diagnosis are more frequent, including metastasis. Due to rapid disease progression and high mortality rate within a short interval, a complete staging looking for other secondary locations must be done and a multidisciplinary care and palliative involvement must also be initiated in the context of metastatic melanoma. PMID:26048630

  20. MALIGNANT MELANOMA OF THE HEAD SKIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camelia Tamas

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Malignant melanoma (MM is known as a tumor with high malignancy. The development of a melanoma on the head skin is even more severe, as prognosis, because of the limitted possibilities for large excision and high potential of diffusion in the wide vascular network. We treated 11 cases with MM head localisation in a period of 10 years. The rate of survival is very poor (6 months – 4 years after surgery. We used skin graft or fasciocutaneous flap for the regional reconstruction after excision. In two cases with cervical adenopaty we excised the limph nods too.

  1. Melanoma en glande: a propósito de un caso / Melanoma of the glans penis: Case report

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    José Manuel, Janeiro Pais; Vicente, Pastor Casas Agudo; Daniel, López García; José, Ponce Díaz-Reixa; Cipriano, Lamas Meilán; Marcelino, González Martín.

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Presentar un nuevo caso de melanoma localizado en el glande. Métodos/Resultados: Presentamos en este artículo el caso de un paciente diagnosticado y tratado en nuestro servicio, describiendo su forma de presentación así como su manejo terapéutico. Conclusiones: El melanoma de localización [...] peneana es una forma infrecuente de presentación de este tipo de tumores cutáneos. Hacemos especial hincapié en su diagnóstico, presentación clínica y manejo terapéutico, ya que se trata de una neoplasia que requiere un diagnóstico y tratamiento precoces debido a su pronta diseminación metastásica. Abstract in english Objective: To report one case of melanoma of the glans penis. Methods/Results: We present the case of a patient diagnosed and treated in our department describing diagnosis and therapeutic management. Conclusions: Melanoma of the penis is an uncommon presentation form of this kind of cutaneous tumor [...] . We especially emphasize its diagnosis, clinical presentation and therapeutic management due to its prompt metastatic dissemination requiring early diagnosis and treatment.

  2. Possibilidade de associação de melanoma e acromegalia Possibility of an association between melanoma and acromegaly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Garcia Soares Leães

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Neoplasias como câncer de próstata, mama e cólon estão relacionadas à acromegalia. Raras vezes foi mencionada a associação com melanoma. Descreve-se caso de paciente com acromegalia no qual foi identificada lesão melanocítica suspeita, com posterior confirmação de melanoma. A excisão cirúrgica da lesão levou à cura da neoplasia. Chama-se a atenção para a necessidade de exame cuidadoso da pele de pacientes com acromegalia.Neoplasias such as prostate, breast, and colon cancer are commonly associated with acromegaly. However, the association of the latter with melanoma has been rarely mentioned. We describe the case of a patient with acromegaly in whom a suspicious melanocytic lesion was detected, and later confirmed to be melanoma by means of biopsy. Surgical excision of the lesion led to the cure of the neoplasia. More attention should be drawn to the need for careful skin examination of patients with acromegaly.

  3. Possibilidade de associação de melanoma e acromegalia / Possibility of an association between melanoma and acromegaly

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Carolina Garcia Soares, Leães; Rafael Loch, Batista; Cristina Micheletto, Dallago; Julia Fernanda Semelmann Pereira, Lima; Miriam da Costa, Oliveira.

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Neoplasias como câncer de próstata, mama e cólon estão relacionadas à acromegalia. Raras vezes foi mencionada a associação com melanoma. Descreve-se caso de paciente com acromegalia no qual foi identificada lesão melanocítica suspeita, com posterior confirmação de melanoma. A excisão cirúrgica da le [...] são levou à cura da neoplasia. Chama-se a atenção para a necessidade de exame cuidadoso da pele de pacientes com acromegalia. Abstract in english Neoplasias such as prostate, breast, and colon cancer are commonly associated with acromegaly. However, the association of the latter with melanoma has been rarely mentioned. We describe the case of a patient with acromegaly in whom a suspicious melanocytic lesion was detected, and later confirmed t [...] o be melanoma by means of biopsy. Surgical excision of the lesion led to the cure of the neoplasia. More attention should be drawn to the need for careful skin examination of patients with acromegaly.

  4. Pathogenesis, diagnosis and management of primary melanoma of the colon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imam Ayesha

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Melanomas within the alimentary tract are usually metastatic in origin. On the other hand, primary melanomas of the gastrointestinal tract are relatively uncommon. There are several published reports of melanomas occurring in the esophagus, stomach, small bowel, and anorectum. The occurrence of primary melanoma of the colon has, however, only been rarely reported. The optimum modus operandi for the management of primary colonic melanoma remains nebulous due to the limited number of reports in literature. Methods A comprehensive search of Medline, Cochrane and Highwire was performed using the following keywords: 'melanoma', 'malignant melanoma', 'primary melanoma', 'colon', 'gastrointestinal tract', 'alimentary tract', 'digestive tract', and 'large bowel'. All patients with primary melanoma localized to the colon were included in the review. Patients with metastatic melanomas to the gastrointestinal (GI tract and primary melanomas localized to the GI tract in anatomic locations other than colon were excluded. Results There have been only 12 reported cases of primary melanoma of the colon to date. The average age of patients on presentation was 60.4 years without any significant gender predilection. Right colon (33% and cecum (33% were the most common sites for the occurrence of primary colonic melanoma while abdominal pain (58% and weight loss (50% were the most common presenting complaints. Colonoscopy is the most reliable diagnostic investigation and offers the additional advantage of obtaining tissue for diagnosis. S-100 and HMB-45 are highly sensitive and specific for the diagnosis of this malignancy. For primary colonic melanomas that have not metastasized to any distant parts of the body, surgical resection with wide margins appears to be the treatment of choice. Although the management was individualized in every case, most of the authors preferred traditional hemicolectomy as the favored surgical approach. Chemotherapeutic agents including interferons, cytokines, biological agents and radiation therapy for brain metastases have been reported as adjuvant and palliative options while considering malignant melanomas in general. The average recurrence-free interval was 2.59 years. Nine of the 12 reports documented follow-up in their patients. Two of these 9 (22.2% patients died. Conclusions Primary melanoma of the colon is a rare clinical entity. Whenever a seemingly primary melanoma is detected in an atypical location such as the colon, it is prudent to conduct a thorough clinical investigation to consider the possibility of metastatic disease. Further studies are needed to document the long term follow-up, survival advantage and safety of the management approaches employed in patients with primary colonic melanoma. Based on current data, surgical resection appears to be appropriate management for primary colonic melanomas; unless the disease has metastasized to distant sites where surgery may have a limited palliative role.

  5. Melanoma nodular en borde de pie / Nodular melanoma on foot edge

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Carlos Alberto, Blanco Córdova.

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: el melanoma cutáneo es un tumor maligno originado en los melanocitos, cuya incidencia y mortalidad han aumentado en las últimas décadas. Es la causa más frecuente de muerte entre las enfermedades cutáneas, y responsable del 75% de éstas. La mayoría se originan en la piel sana, sobre un [...] nevo u otros órganos. Es una tumoración de alta agresividad y con tendencia a la metástasis linfática o hemática. El melanoma nodular representa el 15-35% de estos tumores, afectando áreas de piel fotoprotegidas, con fase de crecimiento vertical, lo cual condiciona su comportamiento tan agresivo y peor pronóstico. Presentación del caso: paciente anciana, con lesión tumoral en pie derecho, asintomática, de cuatro años de evolución, con crecimiento rápido en los últimos tres meses. Se realiza diagnóstico clínico-histopatológico, compatible con melanoma nodular. El tratamiento de elección es la extirpación quirúrgica. Conclusiones: el melanoma nodular es un tumor muy agresivo y la supervivencia depende de un diagnóstico precoz, posibilitando la cura de más del 90% de los casos. Abstract in english Introduction: cutaneous melanoma is a malignant tumor originated from melanocytes, whose incidence and mortality rates have increased in recent decades. It is the most common cause of death among skin diseases, and accounts for its 75%. Most of them originate in healthy skin on a nevus or other orga [...] ns. It is a highly aggressive tumor with a tendency to lymphatic or hematogenous metastases. Nodular melanoma accounts for 15 to 35% of these tumors, affecting photo-protected areas of skin, with vertical growth phase, which determines their behavior as aggressive and its worse prognosis. Case report: old patient with right foot tumor injury, asymptomatic, four years of evolution, with rapid growth in the last three months. Clinical and histopathological diagnosis is made, compatible with nodular melanoma. The treatment of choice is surgical removal. Conclusions: nodular melanoma is a very aggressive tumor and survival depends on early diagnosis, allowing the cure of more than 90% of the cases.

  6. Melanoma cutâneo: estudo prospectivo de 65 casos Cutaneous melanoma: prospective study of 65 cases

    OpenAIRE

    Fernandes, Nurimar C.; Roberto Calmon; Maceira, Juan P.; Tullia Cuzzi; Claudio Da Silva, Cesar S.

    2005-01-01

    FUNDAMENTOS: A incidência e a mortalidade por melanoma cutâneo vêm aumentando em todo o mundo. Os registros brasileiros de bases populacionais não refletem precisamente a real dimensão do problema. OBJETIVOS: Estudo prospectivo de 65 casos de melanoma cutâneo observados no Hospital Universitário Clementino Fraga Filho no período de 1993 a 2003. MÉTODOS: Foram analisadas as variáveis idade, sexo, cor, localização, tipos clínico-histológicos e estadiamento. RESULTADOS: 64,7% na fa...

  7. Melanoma Surveillance in the US: Melanoma, Ultraviolet Radiation, and Socioeconomic Status

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-10-19

    This podcast accompanies the publication of a series of articles on melanoma surveillance in the United States, available in the November supplement edition of the Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology. Chris Johnson, from the Cancer Data Registry of Idaho, discusses analyses examining the relationship between melanoma and two variables at the county level, ultraviolet radiation and socioeconomic status.  Created: 10/19/2011 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 10/19/2011.

  8. UV wavelength-dependent DNA damage and human non-melanoma and melanoma skin cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Pfeifer, Gerd P; Besaratinia, Ahmad

    2011-01-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) irradiation from the sun has been epidemiologically and mechanistically linked to skin cancer, a spectrum of diseases of rising incidence in many human populations. Both non-melanoma and melanoma skin cancers are associated with sunlight exposure. In this review, we discuss the UV wavelength-dependent formation of the major UV-induced DNA damage products, their repair and mutagenicity and their potential involvement in sunlight-associated skin cancers. We emphasize the major ...

  9. Possibilidade de associação de melanoma e acromegalia Possibility of an association between melanoma and acromegaly

    OpenAIRE

    Carolina Garcia Soares Leães; Rafael Loch Batista; Cristina Micheletto Dallago; Julia Fernanda Semelmann Pereira Lima; Miriam da Costa Oliveira

    2008-01-01

    Neoplasias como câncer de próstata, mama e cólon estão relacionadas à acromegalia. Raras vezes foi mencionada a associação com melanoma. Descreve-se caso de paciente com acromegalia no qual foi identificada lesão melanocítica suspeita, com posterior confirmação de melanoma. A excisão cirúrgica da lesão levou à cura da neoplasia. Chama-se a atenção para a necessidade de exame cuidadoso da pele de pacientes com acromegalia.Neoplasias such as prostate, breast, and colon cancer a...

  10. Melanoma de coroides en melanosis óculi Choroidal melanoma in ocular melanosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C López Caballero

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available Casos clínicos: Se presentan cuatro casos de pacientes con signos clínicos de melanosis óculi. En todos se diagnosticó melanoma de coroides. Tres acudieron con disminución de visión en ojo afecto y fueron enucleados por presentar tumores grandes y activos. En el cuarto caso el melanoma fue descubierto en una revisión rutinaria y se pudo aplicar un tratamiento conservador con braquiterapia con I125. Discusión: La melanosis óculi está infravalorada como factor de riesgo para melanoma y glaucoma. Es necesaria una revisión oftalmológica cada 6 ó 12 meses para la detección precoz de enfermedades de alto riesgo en estos pacientes.Cases: We present four cases of ocular melanosis. Choroidal melanoma was detected in all of them. Three eyes had decreased visual acuity and were enucleated because of their large, active tumours. In the fourth case the melanoma was detected in a routine examination and we were able to apply a preserving treatment with I125 brachytherapy. Discussion: Melanosis oculi is often underestimated as a risk factor for uveal melanoma and glaucoma. Ophthalmic surveillance, every 6 or 12 months is important, in patients with ocular melanocytosis for early detection of high risk diseases.

  11. Melanoma involved in specific uptake of chlorpromazine (10B carrier) into melanoma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Interrelationship between melanosome and uptake of chlorpromazine (CPZ) into various melanoma cells (B16M-line, W line) having different capacity to produce melanosome and into macrophages feeding various amounts of melanosome was studied. The uptake of CPZ into melanoma cells was well correlated with the capacity to produce melanosome. The uptake of CPZ into macrophages containing melanosome increased according to feeding time and the concentration of melanosome. However, there was not a difference between the uptake of CPZ into macrophages containing latex particles and that into control cells. This fact clarified that promotion of the uptake of CPZ into macrophages containing melanosome depended on specific nature of intracellular melanosome. Therefore, specific uptake of CPZ into melanoma cells was thought to be determined initially by intracellular melanosome. These facts suggested that molecular hybrid of 10B and CPZ such as 10B12-CPZ was effective to melanotic melanoma and was ineffective to amelanotic melanoma. It will be possible to accumulate molecular hybrid of 10B and BPZ in tumors by feeding melanosome and perform thermal neutron capture treatment, if tumors excepting melanoma posses the capacity to feed melanosome. (Tsunoda, M.)

  12. Cartilaginous melanoma: case report and review of the literature / Melanoma cartilagineo: caso clinico e revisao da literatura

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Parente, Joana Devesa; Jose Manuel Pereira da Silva, Labareda; Elvira Augusta Felgueira Leonardo Fernandes, Bartolo; Maria Fernanda Sachse Pinto Fonseca, Santos; Esmeralda Maria Seco do, Vale.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available O melanoma maligno pode apresentar uma grande variedade de padrões histopatológicos. A presença de diferenciação cartilagínea, na ausência de diferenciação osteogénica, é extremamente rara no melanoma maligno. O melanoma cartilagíneo está entre os padrões histológicos menos frequentes. Relatamos um [...] caso de uma doente do sexo feminino de 47 anos de idade com um nódulo subungueal no 1º dedo do pé direito com muitos anos de evolução. O exame histopatológico da lesão revelou melanoma cartilagíneo, sem áreas de diferenciação osteogénica. Esta variante de melanoma parece ter predileção pela extremidades, sobretudo pela região subungueal. Assim, o melanoma maligno com diferenciação condróide, deve ser tido em consideração no diagnóstico diferencial de lesões acrais cartilagíneas. A observação cuidadosa da epiderme e a identificação de um componente do melanoma in situ podem ser necessários para estabelecer um diagnóstico correto. Abstract in english Malignant melanoma can present a variety of histopathological patterns. Cartilaginous change in the absence of osteogenic differentiation is extremely rare in malignant melanoma, being among the least frequent of the wide range of melanoma histologic patterns. We report a case of a 47-year-old woman [...] with a subungual nodule on her right great toe for many years. Histopathological examination of the lesion led to a diagnosis of malignant melanoma with cartilaginous differentiation devoid of concomitant osseous areas. It would appear that this unusual form of melanoma has a predilection for acral location, particularly the subungual region. Malignant melanoma with chondroid stroma should therefore be considered in the differential diagnosis of cartilaginous lesions of the toes and fingers. Careful examination of the overlying epidermis and identification of an in situ component of melanoma may be necessary in order to establish the correct diagnosis.

  13. Transporter associated protein expression in uveal melanoma

    OpenAIRE

    Krishnakumar, S.; Lakshmi, S. A.; Abhyankar, D.; Biswas, J.

    2004-01-01

    Background/aim: Transporter associated protein (TAP) is important for presenting peptides to major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I molecules. Defects in TAP lead to decreased MHC class I expression. The immunoexpression of human leucocyte antigen (HLA) class I molecules and the TAP1 subunit were studied in primary uveal melanomas and correlated with the cell types and extrascleral extension.

  14. Iris melanoma invading the camerular angle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uveal melanomas are the most frequent primary uveal tumors, having an incidence of 8/1 000 000 a year in Caucasian people. Specifically, iris Melanoma represents 5 to 7 % of the uveal malignant melanomas and they may be amelanic or pigmented, generally very vascularized. An eighteen years old male patient with a history of health problems was presented, who had been seen at the Ophthalmological Emergency Service because of eye pain and sudden visual reduction in his right eye. In the physical exam, a marked ocular hypertension was confirmed as well as a 2 mm hyphema and corneal edema. These conditions were overcome with treatment and afterwards, there was observed iris tumoration invading the iridocorneal angle. Some complementary studies were carried out to search further tumors at other levels and finally a fine needle aspiration biopsy was performed. The diagnosis was amelanic Iris Melanoma invading the ciliary body. The patient was referred for surgical treatment at the National Institute of Oncology and Radiology

  15. Missing sentinel lymph node in cutaneous melanoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The American Society of Clinical Oncology guidelines recommend sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) for all patients with melanoma tumors of intermediate thickness (between 1 and 4 mm). In case of patients with thick melanoma tumors (>4 mm), SLNB may be recommended as well, for staging purposes and to facilitate regional disease control. We report a case of an 82-year-old man, undergone excision of a cutaneous melanoma of the right thigh, which shows some limitation of SLNB in thick melanoma. Lymphoscintigraphy, performed as single-photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography (SPECT/CT), failed to identify the real sentinel lymph node, as tracer uptake was seen in A right inguinal node. Due to the presence on CT co-registered images of another suspicious node (with no radiopharmaceutical uptake) in the crural region, and considering the “high-risk” pathologic features of the removed primary lesion, a 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/CT (18F-FDG PET/CT) staging scan was planned. PET/CT showed high metabolic activity in the suspected crural lymphadenopathy. Histopathology demonstrated massive invasion of the crural (“sentinel”) node and no metastatic cells in the inguinal node. This report highlights both the higher accuracy of lymphoscintigraphy, when performed as SPECT/CT and the potential utility of 18F-FDG PET/CT in regional staging

  16. Metastatic Malignant Melanoma Mimicking Benign Breast Cysts

    OpenAIRE

    Marius Lund-Iversen; Hiep Phuc Dong; Amp Skjold, Olav Inge H.; Aasmund Berner

    2011-01-01

    Benign cysts are one of the most common mass-occupying lesions of the breast and are often investigated with triple diagnostic trial (clinical examination, radiology, and cytology). Malignant melanoma is one of medicine's imitators, and metastatic disease can mimic cysts. Thorough investigation of any breast mass is essential to clarify its nature.

  17. Follicular malignant melanoma: primary follicular or folliculotropic?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machan, Salma; El Shabrawi-Caelen, Laila; Nikolay, Eva; Kerl, Helmut; Requena, Luis; Cerroni, Lorenzo

    2015-01-01

    Follicular malignant melanoma (FMM) is a rare variant of melanoma arising on sun-damaged skin of elderly patients. It is characterized histopathologically by a prominent involvement of 1 or 2 adjacent hair follicles. The authors report 3 new cases of FMM (M:F = 2:1; age range, 23-67 years; median age, 50 years) located on the scalp, cheek, and upper back. Complete effacement of the hair follicle, replaced by neoplastic melanocytes, was observed in 1 case. The interfollicular epidermis and adventitial dermis were involved in all 3 cases. Our series shows that FMM is not restricted to elderly patients but may arise also in young individuals without association with chronic sun damage. FMM should be distinguished from folliculotropic metastases of melanoma and from atypical melanocytic nevi. Although the histopathological features and the term FMM may suggest a derivation from melanocytes of the hair follicle, the exact origin of neoplastic cells is yet unclear, and at least some of these cases may represent folliculotropic examples of primary epidermal malignant melanoma. PMID:24614208

  18. Inflammatory bowel disease raises risk of melanoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) are at higher risk of melanoma, a form of skin cancer, report researchers at Mayo Clinic. Researchers found that IBD is associated with a 37 percent greater risk for the disease. The findings were presented at the Digestive Disease Week 2013 conference in Orlando, Fla.

  19. Testing Adjuvant Ipilimumab in Advanced Melanoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this clinical trial, patients with stage III or stage IV melanoma that has been completely resected will be randomly assigned to receive adjuvant (post-surgical) treatment with either ipilimumab or high-dose interferon alfa-2b, the current standard of care.

  20. VIRUS - LIKE NUCLEAR DEGENERATION IN MALIGNANT MELANOMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcus A. Hairstone

    1968-01-01

    Full Text Available Nuclear inclusion bodies were observed in certain cell ,. .typs of a malignat melanoma. These inclusion b di ." tPCS of a malignat . . 0 JCS contained vlrusc.llkc particle ',200 to :-UJO millimi., ccyroclnes. III diameter, Variations in particle structure and con lent implied a maturation cycle

  1. Nodular malignant melanoma - Secondary to carcinoma rectum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chopra Adarsh

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available A 45-year female presented with a sudden eruption of multiple brownish black nodular lesions since 5 months over the face, trunk and extremities which were clinically diagnosed as a case of nodular malignant melanoma. Histopathologically, they revealed the secondaries from carcinoma rectum.

  2. Cerebral MR imaging of malignant melanoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melanoma is the third leading cancer entity to metastasize to the central nervous system (CNS) after lung and breast cancer. This is often an early event in the disease course and limits survival. Metastasis in the CNS is the cause of death in 10-40 % of melanoma patients and the incidence of brain metastasis is even higher (50-75 %). Cerebral metastases are commonly found in the subcortical white matter. The signal characteristics can vary substantially and may change over time due to hemorrhages or the accumulation of melanin and paramagnetic ions. It is not yet clear whether novel targeted therapies (e.g. immunotherapy and kinase inhibitors) alter imaging characteristics. Also immune-related side effects, such as hypophysitis (in approximately 5 % of patients receiving ipilimumab therapy) or granulomatous disease (neurosarcoid) can occur. Melanoma metastases are usually hyperdense in computed tomography (CT). In magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) T2-weighted (T2-w) fluid-attentuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) and T1-w sequences (with and without i.v. contrast) should be obtained. Coronal and axial imaging planes should be scanned to cross-correlate findings. Susceptibility-weighted imaging is a new sensitive method to detect melanoma metastases. Approximately 66 % of melanoma metastases show intratumoral susceptibility signals (ITSS). This sets them apart from other metastases (e.g. lung and breast cancer show less ITSSs, specificity approximately 81-96 %). Diffusion imaging plays no major role in melanoma brain imaging. Susceptibility-weighted imaging increases the sensitivity to detect metastases but lacks specificity. Differentiating metastases, microbleeding or calcification can be impossible. It is controversial how to interpret susceptibility signals without correlative signs on other sequences (differential diagnosis: metastasis, microbleeding and calcification). CNS metastases are common in melanoma. MRI screening starting in stage IIc should be considered even in asymptomatic patients. Stage IV requires quarterly MRI examinations. Melanotic and amelanotic metastases show different MRI characteristics. The differentiation between metastasis and microbleeding can be impossible and might require a follow-up scan. Susceptibility-weighted imaging increases the sensitivity of metastases detection but lacks specificity. It can help to differentiate between different metastatic entities. (orig.)

  3. Dermoscopic features of thin melanomas: a comparative study of melanoma in situ and invasive melanomas smaller than or equal to 1mm / Caracteristicas dermatoscopicas de melanomas finos: estudo comparativo entre melanomas in situ e melanomas invasivos menores ou iguais a 1mm

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Vanessa Priscilla Martins da, Silva; Juliana Kida, Ikino; Mariana Mazzochi, Sens; Daniel Holthausen, Nunes; Gabriella, Di Giunta.

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTOS: A dermatoscopia propicia o diagnóstico mais precoce do melanoma. A estimativa préoperatória da espessura de Breslow através da dermatoscopia poderia ser útil no planejamento da conduta cirúrgica e seleção dos pacientes para a biópsia de linfonodo sentinela. OBJETIVOS: Este estudo [...] objetiva descrever as características dermatoscópicas encontradas em melanomas finos e comparar melanomas in situ com melanomas invasivos menores ou iguais a 1 mm. MÉTODOS: Trata-se de estudo observacional, retrospectivo, no qual avaliouse o registro fotográfico da dermatoscopia de 41 melanomas finos. Três observadores avaliaram em conjunto 14 critérios dermatoscópicos. RESULTADOS: Dentre os melanomas finos, os critérios mais encontrados foram: presença de assimetria nos dois eixos em 95% (39 casos), 3 ou mais cores em 80,4% (33 casos), pontos ou glóbulos atípicos em 58,5% (24 casos) e rede atípica ou estrias radiadas em 53,6% (22 casos). O grupo dos melanomas invasivos apresentou com maior frequência e significância estatística (p Abstract in english BACKGROUND: Dermoscopy allows the early detection of melanomas. The preoperative determination of Breslow index by dermoscopy could be useful in planning the surgical approach and in selecting patients for sentinel lymph node biopsy. OBJECTIVES: This study aims at describing the dermoscopic fe [...] atures of thin melanomas and comparing melanomas in situ with invasive melanomas less than or equal to 1 mm thick. METHODS: This was an observational retrospective study in which the dermoscopy photographs of 41 thin melanomas were evaluated. Three observers evaluated together 14 dermoscopic criteria. RESULTS: Among thin melanomas, the most frequent criteria were presence of asymmetry in two axes in 95% of cases (39 cases), 3 or more colors in 80.4% of cases (33 cases), atypical dots or globules in 58.5% of cases (24 cases) and atypical network or streaks in 53.6% of cases (22 cases). The group of invasive melanomas presented with a higher frequency and statistical significance (p

  4. Optic nerve invasion of uveal melanoma.

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindegaard, Jens; Isager, Peter

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the study was to identify the histopathological characteristics associated with the invasion of the optic nerve of uveal melanoma and to evaluate the association between invasion of the optic nerve and survival. In order to achieve this, all uveal melanomas with optic nerve invasion in Denmark between 1942 and 2001 were reviewed (n=157). Histopathological characteristics and depth of optic nerve invasion were recorded. The material was compared with a control material from the same period consisting of 85 cases randomly drawn from all choroidal/ciliary body melanomas without optic nerve invasion. Prelaminar/laminar optic nerve invasion was in multivariate analysis associated with focal retinal invasion, neovascularization of the chamber angle, and scleral invasion. Postlaminar invasion was further associated with non-spindle cell type and rupture of the inner limiting membrane of the retina. The optic nerve was invaded in four different ways: 1) by tumor extension from the neuroretina through the lamina cribrosa; 2) by direct extension into the optic nerve head between Bruch's membrane and the border tissue of Elschnig; 3) by direct invasion through the border tissue of Elschnig; and 4) in one case a tumor spread along the inner limiting membrane to the optic nerve through the lamina cribrosa. Invasion of the optic nerve had no impact on all-cause mortality or melanoma-related mortality in multivariate analyses. The majority of melanomas invading the optic nerve are large juxtapapillary tumors invading the optic nerve because of simple proximity to the nerve. A neurotropic subtype invades the optic nerve and retina in a diffuse fashion unrelated to tumor size or location. Udgivelsesdato: 2007-Jan

  5. Immunohistochemical Analysis of Collagen IV and Laminin Expression in Spontaneous Melanoma Regression in the Melanoma-Bearing Libechov Minipig

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spontaneous regression (SR) of human melanoma is a rare, well-documented phenomenon that is not still fully understood. Its detailed study cannot be performed in patients due to ethical reasons. Using the Melanoma-bearing Libechov Minipig (MeLiM) animals of various ages (from 3 weeks to 8 months) we implemented a long-term monitoring of melanoma growth and SR. We focused on immunohistochemical detection of two important extracellular matrix proteins, collagen IV and laminin, which are associated with cancer. We showed that SR of melanoma is a highly dynamic process. The expression of collagen IV and laminin correlated with changes in population of melanoma cells. Tumours of 3-week-old animals consisted primarily of melanoma cells with a granular expression of collagen IV and laminin around them. Thereafter, melanoma cells were gradually destroyed and tumour tissue was rebuilt into the connective tissue. Collagen IV expression slightly increased in tumours of 10-week-old pigs showing extracellular fibrous appearance. In tumours of older animals, areas lacking melanoma cells demonstrated a low expression and areas still containing melanoma cells a high expression of both proteins. We considered the age of 10 weeks as a turning point in the transition between tumour growth and SR of the MeLiM melanoma

  6. Genetics of familial melanoma : 20 years after CDKN2A

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aoude, Lauren G; Wadt, Karin A W

    2015-01-01

    Twenty years ago, the first familial melanoma susceptibility gene, CDKN2A, was identified. Two years later, another high-penetrance gene, CDK4, was found to be responsible for melanoma development in some families. Progress in identifying new familial melanoma genes was subsequently slow; however, with the advent of next-generation sequencing, a small number of new high-penetrance genes have recently been uncovered. This approach has identified the lineage-specific oncogene MITF as a susceptibility gene both in melanoma families and in the general population, as well as the discovery of telomere maintenance as a key pathway underlying melanoma predisposition. Given these rapid recent advances, this approach seems likely to continue to pay dividends. Here, we review the currently known familial melanoma genes, providing evidence that most additionally confer risk to other cancers, indicating that they are likely general tumour suppressor genes or oncogenes, which has significant implications for surveillance and screening.

  7. Malignant uveal melanoma and similar lesions studied by computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forty-four patients with intraocular disease were studied by computed tomography (CT); in 19 cases malignant uveal melanoma was considered the likely diagnosis. CT proved to be accurate in determining the location and size of uveal melanomas, demonstrating scleral invasion, and differentiating melanoma from choroidal detachment or angioma, toxocariasis, and senile macular degeneration. On CT, uveal melanomas appeared as hyperdense lesions with slight to moderate contrast enhancement. Tumors thinner than 2 mm could not be seen. Using dynamic CT, the authors noted moderate peak amplitude, normal or delayed tissue transit time, and persistently elevated washout phase (downslope), indicating increased permeability as the result of an impaired tumor blood barrier. Histological types of uveal melanoma could not be differentiated on the basis of circulatory patterns. Dynamic CT may be useful in distinguishing uveal melanoma from choroidal hemangioma or hematoma

  8. Melanotropin receptors demonstrated in situ in human melanoma.

    OpenAIRE

    Tatro, J. B.; Atkins, M; Mier, J. W.; Hardarson, S.; Wolfe, H.; Smith, T.; Entwistle, M. L.; Reichlin, S.

    1990-01-01

    Although some cultured human melanoma cell lines are responsive to melanotropins (melanocyte-stimulating hormones [MSH]), the prevalence and tissue distribution of MSH receptors in melanoma are unknown. We report here the use of an in situ binding technique to demonstrate specific MSH receptors in surgical specimens of human melanoma. The distribution and binding properties of specific MSH binding sites were determined by autoradiography and image analysis after incubation of frozen tumor tis...

  9. Melanoma proliferation and chemoresistance controlled by the DEK oncogene

    OpenAIRE

    Khodadoust, Michael S; Verhaegen, Monique; Kappes, Ferdinand; Riveiro-Falkenbach, Erica; Cigudosa, Juan C; Kim, David S.L.; Chinnaiyan, Arul M.; Markovitz, David M.; Soengas, María S.

    2009-01-01

    Gain of chromosome 6p is a consistent feature of advanced melanomas. However, the identity of putative oncogene(s) associated with this amplification has remained elusive. The chromatin remodeling factor DEK is an attractive candidate as it maps to 6p (i.e. within common melanoma-amplified loci). Moreover, DEK expression is increased in metastatic melanomas, although the functional relevance of this induction remains unclear. Importantly, in other tumor types, DEK can display various tumorige...

  10. An experimental study of human melanoma cells cultured in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of a series of experiments that were designed to examine the biology of human malignant melanoma cells cultured in vitro, are recorded. Among others, 125I-fibrin assay was used in the experiments. The studies were so planned as to document phenotypic differences that exist between melanomas, to define respects in which melanoma cell differentiation could be modulated and to correlate biochemical variability with in vivo behaviour as measured in the nude mouse

  11. Tumour to Tumour Metastasis of Malignant Melanoma to Intracranial Tumour

    OpenAIRE

    Shariff, Zakir; Lim, Phil; Wright, Andrew; Al-ghazal, Sharif

    2009-01-01

    Tumours can metastasize to sites of other tumours but this is a rare event. The phenomenon has been well described in primary tumours of the lung and breast. This has been described in melanomas but as very rare occurrence. We describe a case of a malignant melanoma that metastasized to a pre-existing meningioma. We have tried to highlight this phenomenon in patient with melanoma and need for close vigilance of other pre-existing tumours to identify early metastasis.

  12. Docetaxel in Combination with Dacarbazine in Patients with Advanced Melanoma

    OpenAIRE

    Bafaloukos, D.; Aravantinos, G.; Fountzilas, G.; Stathopoulos, G.; Gogas, H.; Samonis, G.; Briasoulis, E.; Mylonakis, N.; Skarlos, D. V.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: The number of agents that are active in patients with metastatic melanoma is limited and cure is not a realistic objective for treatment at this stage. The aim of the study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of new combination regimen cosisting of docetaxel and dacarbazine (DTIC), as first-line chemotherapy, in patients with advanced melanoma. Patients and Methods: Patients with advanced melanoma (including cerebral metastases) were eligible. Docetaxel 80 mg/m2, i.v. over 1 h...

  13. Selection criteria for genetic assessment of patients with familial melanoma

    OpenAIRE

    Leachman, Sancy A.; Carucci, John; Kohlmann, Wendy; Banks, Kimberly C.; Asgari, Maryam M.; Bergman, Wilma; Bianchi-scarra?, Giovanna; Brentnall, Teresa; Bressac-de Paillerets, Brigitte; Bruno, William; Curiel-lewandrowski, Clara; Snoo, Femke A.; Debniak, Tadeusz; Demierre, Marie-france; Elder, David

    2009-01-01

    Approximately 5% to 10% of melanoma may be hereditary in nature, and about 2% of melanoma can be specifically attributed to pathogenic germline mutations in cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2A (CDKN2A). To appropriately identify the small proportion of patients who benefit most from referral to a genetics specialist for consideration of genetic testing for CDKN2A, we have reviewed available published studies of CDKN2A mutation analysis in cohorts with invasive, cutaneous melanoma and found v...

  14. Receptor tyrosine kinases and their activation in melanoma.

    OpenAIRE

    O'BYRNE, KEN; O'DONNELL, DEARBHAILE MAIRI; Gray, Steven

    2011-01-01

    Receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) and their downstream signalling pathways have long been hypothesized to play key roles in melanoma development. A decade ago, evidence was derived largely from animal models, RTK expression studies and detection of activated RAS isoforms in a small fraction of melanomas. Predictions that overexpression of specific RTKs implied increased kinase activity and that some RTKs would show activating mutations in melanoma were largely untested. However, technological ...

  15. Melanoma inhibitory activity (MIA) protein - molecular relevance and functional characterization

    OpenAIRE

    Schmidt, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    Melanoma inhibitory activity (MIA), an 11 kDa protein expressed and secreted by malignant melanoma cells, plays a key role in development and progression of malignant melanoma. It facilitates the release of tumor cells from the primary tumor and thus strongly promotes formation of metastases. However, the processing of MIA protein during cell migration and the characterization of protein activity on a molecular level has not been elucidated so far. These studies detail the mechanism by whi...

  16. Snail1 Mediates Hypoxia-Induced Melanoma Progression

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Shujing; Kumar, Suresh M.; Martin, James S.; Yang, Ruifeng; Xu, XiaoWei

    2011-01-01

    Tumor hypoxia is a known adverse prognostic factor, and the hypoxic dermal microenvironment participates in melanomagenesis. High levels of hypoxia inducible factor (HIF) expression in melanoma cells, particularly HIF-2?, is associated with poor prognosis. The mechanism underlying the effect of hypoxia on melanoma progression, however, is not fully understood. We report evidence that the effects of hypoxia on melanoma cells are mediated through activation of Snail1. Hypoxia increased melanom...

  17. A rare case of intracranial metastatic amelanotic melanoma with cyst

    OpenAIRE

    R. Ogawa; Aoki, R; Hyakusoku, H

    2003-01-01

    A rare case of intracranial metastatic amelanotic melanoma with cyst is presented. The patient was a 51 year old woman with a malignant melanoma arising on her right chest. Two years after a wide excision, skin and brain metastasis occurred. Brain magnetic resonance images demonstrated a tumour with a cyst in the left occipital lobe. Because the tumour showed low intensity on T1 weighted images and high intensity on T2 weighted images, the metastatic melanoma was identified as an amelanotic m...

  18. Sunbed use, Sunscreen use, Childhood Sun Exposure, and Cutaneous Melanoma

    OpenAIRE

    Autier P.J.M.

    2011-01-01

    Cancer registries established after World War II show that in most light?skinned populations, the incidence of malignant cutaneous melanoma (hereafter termed melanoma) has steadily increased. In the 1970s and 1980s, laboratory and epidemiological studies documented the possibility that solar radiation was the main environmental risk factor for most skin cancers, including melanoma, the basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and the squamous cell carcinoma (SCC).

  19. Asymmetry Analysis of Malignant Melanoma Using Image Processing: A Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Premaladha, J.; Ravichandran, K. S.

    2014-01-01

    Skin cancer is one of the cancers, which is not prominent and considered much like other cancers. Malignant melanoma is the third type or stage of skin cancer which leads to death. It can be prevented only when it is detected at a very early stage but that’s the challenging task in melanoma diagnosis. Most of the clinicians are familiar with Asymmetry, Border, Color and Diameter (ABCD) analysis to predict and diagnose the melanoma. Asymmetry plays a major...

  20. Melanoma cutâneo: estudo prospectivo de 65 casos Cutaneous melanoma: prospective study of 65 cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurimar C. Fernandes

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available FUNDAMENTOS: A incidência e a mortalidade por melanoma cutâneo vêm aumentando em todo o mundo. Os registros brasileiros de bases populacionais não refletem precisamente a real dimensão do problema. OBJETIVOS: Estudo prospectivo de 65 casos de melanoma cutâneo observados no Hospital Universitário Clementino Fraga Filho no período de 1993 a 2003. MÉTODOS: Foram analisadas as variáveis idade, sexo, cor, localização, tipos clínico-histológicos e estadiamento. RESULTADOS: 64,7% na faixa etária de 40 a 69 anos, distribuição etária homogênea entre o sexo masculino (49,2% e o sexo feminino (50,8%, predominância de brancos (83%, localização no tronco (35,3%, tipo clínico-histológico expansivo superficial (63%/30,7% e relação de significância entre tipo acral localizado no pé em não brancos. Segundo o American Joint Committee on Cancer, em 2002, 22 casos (33,8% no estádio IA, 14 (21,5% melanomas in situ e um caso indeterminado. CONCLUSÕES: O melanoma cutâneo primário na amostra estudada mostrou padrões semelhantes aos classicamente reconhecidos e maior freqüência do estádio IA e melanoma in situ.BACKGROUND: Incidence and mortality of cutaneous melanoma are increasing all over the world. The data base for the Brazilian population is still inadequate. OBJECTIVES: Prospective study of 65 cases seen at University Hospital Clementino Fraga Filho, from 1993 to 2003. METHODS: Patient's age, sex, ethnic group, anatomic site, clinical histological presentation and staging were analyzed. RESULTS: The case distribution was 64.7% aged 40 to 69 years, males (49.2% and females (50.8%, majority white (83.1%, most lesions in the trunk (35.3%, more frequently of the clinical histological superficial spreading type (63%/30.7% and significant relationship between foot acral type in non-whites. According to American Joint Committee on Cancer 2002 system, 22 cases (33.8% in stage IA, 14 (21.5% melanomas in situ, and one indeterminate case. CONCLUSIONS: Primary cutaneous melanoma in the present study has a similar pattern to other published series and higher frequency of stage IA and in situ melanomas.

  1. Melanoma lentiginoso acral: una variante de melanoma maligno de especial interés en Colombia / Acral lentiginous melanoma: a variant of malignant melanoma of special interest in Colombia

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Lina María, Colmenares Roldán; Margarita, Velásquez Lopera; Gloria Andrea, Vargas Suaza.

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available El melanoma lentiginoso acral (MLA) es una variante rápidamente progresiva del melanoma maligno (MM). Constituye el 5-10% de los MM y se presenta con mayor frecuencia en pacientes de raza negra, asiáticos y latinoamericanos. En Colombia, la frecuencia de MM se encuentra en aumento y el MLA es una de [...] las variantes más comunes (14,7% de todos los melanomas). La edad promedio de presentación es de 58 años, con una tasa de supervivencia menor para las personas de raza negra, asociada al diagnóstico tardío. EL MLA se localiza en las plantas, palmas y regiones subungueales y en su etiopatología se ha descrito la presencia de mutaciones en varios genes: 9p21 p16: (67%), 11q13 (CCND1) (47%), 22q11-q13 (40%) y 5p15 (20%). El diagnóstico de MLA se ha fundamentado clásicamente en la histopatología; sin embargo, otros métodos como la dermatoscopia, la evaluación del ganglio centinela y la detección de alteraciones en las proteínas del ciclo celular pueden contribuir al diagnóstico precoz y a mejorar el pronóstico tanto del MLA como del MM en general. Abstract in english Acral lentiginous melanoma (ALM) is a rapidly progressive variant of malignant melanoma (MM). It constitutes 5-10% of all cases of MM and its prevalence is higher in blacks, Asians and Latin Americans. In Colombia, the incidence of MM is increasing and ALM is one of its most common variants (14.7% o [...] f all melanoma cases). The mean age at presentation of the disease is 58 years, and the survival rate is lower in black people, partly due to delayed diagnoses. ALM is located in the soles, palms and subungual regions. Mutations in several genes have been described in the pathogenesis of ALM, namely: 9p21 (p16: 67%), 11q13 (CCND1) (47%), 22q11-q13 (40%) and 5p15 (20%). The diagnosis of ALM has been traditionally based on histopathology; however, other diagnostic tools such as dermoscopy, evaluation of the sentinel lymph node and detection of alterations in proteins that control the cell cycle, may contribute to earlier diagnoses and, consequently, improve the prognosis of both ALM and MM.

  2. KBA62 AND PNL2: TWO NEWER MELANOMA MARKERS – IMMUNOHISTO-CHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF 1563 TUMORS INCLUDING METASTATIC, DESMOPLASTIC, AND MUCOSAL MELANOMAS AND THEIR MIMICS

    OpenAIRE

    Aung, Phyu P.; Maarit-Sarlomo-Rikala; Lasota, Jerzy; Lai, Jin-ping; Wang, Zeng-feng; Miettinen, Markku

    2012-01-01

    Identification of metastatic melanoma can be difficult because of its great morphological variation and mimicry of a wide variety of other tumors. The more melanoma specific melanoma markers: melanA/MART-1, HMB45, and tyrosinase, used in addition to S100 protein, each have limitations in sensitivity and specicifity. In this study, we evaluated two newer melanoma markers: monoclonal antibodies KBA62 and PNL2 to yet unidentified antigens, using a large panel of metastatic melanomas (n=214), des...

  3. Genetic Variation in DNA Repair Pathway Genes and Melanoma Risk

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Mingfeng; Qureshi, Abrar A.; Guo, Qun; Han, Jiali

    2010-01-01

    Reduced DNA repair capacity has been proposed as a predisposing factor for melanoma. We comprehensively evaluated 1,463 genetic variants across 60 DNA repair–related pathway genes in relation to melanoma risk in a nested case-control study of 218 melanoma cases (20% on head and neck) and 218 matched controls within the Nurses' Health Study (NHS). We then genotyped the two variants with the smallest P value in two replication sets: 184 melanoma cases (28% on head and neck) and 184 matched co...

  4. Assessment of PALB2 as a candidate melanoma susceptibility gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoude, Lauren G; Xu, Mai; Zhao, Zhen Zhen; Kovacs, Michael; Palmer, Jane M; Johansson, Peter; Symmons, Judith; Trent, Jeffrey M; Martin, Nicholas G; Montgomery, Grant W; Brown, Kevin M; Hayward, Nicholas K

    2014-01-01

    Partner and localizer of BRCA2 (PALB2) interacts with BRCA2 to enable double strand break repair through homologous recombination. Similar to BRCA2, germline mutations in PALB2 have been shown to predispose to Fanconi anaemia as well as pancreatic and breast cancer. The PALB2/BRCA2 protein interaction, as well as the increased melanoma risk observed in families harbouring BRCA2 mutations, makes PALB2 a candidate for melanoma susceptibility. In order to assess PALB2 as a melanoma predisposition gene, we sequenced the entire protein-coding sequence of PALB2 in probands from 182 melanoma families lacking pathogenic mutations in known high penetrance melanoma susceptibility genes: CDKN2A, CDK4, and BAP1. In addition, we interrogated whole-genome and exome data from another 19 kindreds with a strong family history of melanoma for deleterious mutations in PALB2. Here we report a rare known deleterious PALB2 mutation (rs118203998) causing a premature truncation of the protein (p.Y1183X) in an individual who had developed four different cancer types, including melanoma. Three other family members affected with melanoma did not carry the variant. Overall our data do not support a case for PALB2 being associated with melanoma predisposition. PMID:24949998

  5. Tumour to Tumour Metastasis of Malignant Melanoma to Intracranial Tumour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shariff, Zakir; Lim, Phil; Wright, Andrew; Al-Ghazal, Sharif

    2009-01-01

    Tumours can metastasize to sites of other tumours but this is a rare event. The phenomenon has been well described in primary tumours of the lung and breast. This has been described in melanomas but as very rare occurrence. We describe a case of a malignant melanoma that metastasized to a pre-existing meningioma. We have tried to highlight this phenomenon in patient with melanoma and need for close vigilance of other pre-existing tumours to identify early metastasis. Keywords Melanoma; Metastasis; Tumour to Tumor; Intracranial; Meningioma PMID:22481995

  6. [Therapeutic approaches in Melanoma - a paradigm for personalized medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dummer, R; Goldinger, S; Rinderknecht, J; Eggmann, N; Felderer, L; Braun, R; French, L E

    2012-07-25

    Progress in molecular biology has facilitated a new classification for melanoma. Melanomas today are considered as a heterogeneous group of tumors. The different subtypes are characterized by specific genetic alterations, including mutations in kinase, such as B-RAF or c-kit. New medications like vemurafenib have been developed and are available for the systemic therapy of advanced melanomas in subpopulations identified by mutation tests. In addition, interferon therapy holds the highest promises to dates in subpopulations of patients characterized by microscopic lymph node involvement and ulceration of the primary tumor. These developments are the first steps resulting in a personalized treatment approach for individuals affected by melanoma. PMID:22811327

  7. Sequence and Insertion Sites of Murine Melanoma-Associated Retrovirus

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Mengfeng; Huang, XiaoJun; Zhu, Zhenyu; Gorelik, Elieser

    1999-01-01

    We previously showed that B16 melanoma cells produce ecotropic melanoma-associated retrovirus (MelARV) which encodes a melanoma-associated antigen recognized by MM2-9B6 monoclonal antibody. The biological significance of MelARV in melanoma formation remains unknown. We found that infection of normal melanocytes with MelARV resulted in malignant transformation. It is likely that MelARV emerged from the defective Emv-2 provirus, a single copy of ecotropic provirus existing in the genome of C57B...

  8. Primary malignant melanoma of the penis with secondary to adrenal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, M R; Siddique, M I; Joarder, A I; Ahmed, S U; Karim, S S; Hossain, M J

    2015-01-01

    Primary malignant melanoma of penis with secondaries to the adrenal gland is rare. Here we report a case of malignant melanoma of penis in a 60 years old man who presented with intermittent gross, episodic haematuria of 11 months duration and a hard indurated pigmented fungating lesion over the glans penis. Following an initial tissue biopsy from the penile growth which revealed malignant melanoma the patient underwent partial Panectomy. Few days after recovery the patient underwent laparotomy and incisional biopsy from adrenal mass revealed metastatic malignant melanoma histopathologically. PMID:25725691

  9. Malignant melanoma cure by selective thermal neutron capture therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thermal neutrons are easily absorbed by the nonradioactive isotope 10B, resulting in the emission of alpha particles and lithium atoms, which release an energy of 2.33 MeV for up to a 14-?m-diam melanoma cell. Thus, if 10B can be selectively accumulated in melanoma, it can be destroyed without injury to the surrounding normal tissues by concentrating high linear energy transfer particles. The authors have synthesized seven melanoma-seeking 10B compounds, two of which, 10B12-chlorpromazine(10B12-CPZ) and 10B1-p-boronophenylalanine(10B1-BPA), are found to be highly effective. The enhanced melanoma-killing effect of the 10B compounds is found by in vitro radiobiological analysis. A chemical assay and alpha-track analysis 28 h after systemic administration to melanoma-bearing hamsters reveals a 10B melanoma/blood ratio of 11.5 and a melanoma/liver ratio of 15. Establishment of a clinical therapeutic method for curing human melanoma without failure is underway by correlating biophysical, biochemical, biological, and therapeutic data analysis. Recently, the authors have also been working to develop neutron capture therapy using 10B-monoclonal antibodies for melanoma and were able to make some 10B conjugates with the specific m259-0 antibody

  10. Ultraviolet radiation and melanoma mortality in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White male and female melanoma mortality rates for the period 1950 to 1969 for 18 US counties have been examined to clarify the importance of received ultraviolet radiation as a factor in melanoma mortality. Although latitude and received ultraviolet radiation were correlated at the 0.01 significance level, no significant correlation was found between melanoma mortality in white males or females and ultraviolet radiation. This suggests that factors other than received ultraviolet radiation may play a role in melanoma mortality, particularly in the 18 counties studied

  11. Mobile Phone Use and Risk of Uveal Melanoma: Results of the Risk Factors for Uveal Melanoma Case-Control Study

    OpenAIRE

    Stang, Andreas; Schmidt-pokrzywniak, Andrea; Lash, Timothy L.; Lommatzsch, Peter Karl; Taubert, Gerhard; Bornfeld, Norbert; Jo?ckel, Karl-heinz

    2009-01-01

    We recently reported an increased risk of uveal melanoma among mobile phone users. Here, we present the results of a case–control study that assessed the association between mobile phone use and risk of uveal melanoma. We recruited 459 uveal melanoma case patients at the University of Duisburg-Essen and matched 455 case patients with 827 population control subjects, 133 with 180 ophthalmologist control subjects, and 187 with 187 sibling control subjects. We used a questionnaire to assess mo...

  12. Primary malignant melanoma of the female urethra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Sung Tae; Song, Hyeong Cheol; Cho, Byungchul; Choi, Woo Seok; Lee, Won Ki; Lee, Yong Seong; Lee, Young Goo; Kim, Ki Kyung; Park, Sung-Ho; Kim, Jeong Won

    2012-03-01

    We report here on a rare case of primary malignant melanoma of the female urethra. A 69-year-old female presented at our hospital with a several month history of dysuria, poor stream, gross hematuria, intermittent blood spots, and a painful mass at the external urethral meatus. The physical examination revealed a soft, small, chestnut-sized lesion through the urethral orifice. The mass was tan colored, ulcerated, covered with necrotic tissue, and protruded from the external urethral meatus. The mass was removed by wide local excision under spinal anesthesia. The pathological diagnosis was malignant melanoma of the urethra. Computed tomography of the abdomen as well as a whole-body bone scan showed no evidence of metastasis. The patient has been free of disease for 6 months postoperatively. We discuss the clinicopathologic features and treatment of this tumor. PMID:22468218

  13. Plasma 25-Hydroxyvitamin D and Risk of Non-Melanoma and Melanoma Skin Cancer : A Prospective Cohort Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Afzal, Shoaib; Nordestgaard, BØrge G

    2013-01-01

    Sun exposure is a major risk factor for skin cancer and is also an important source of vitamin D. We tested the hypothesis that elevated plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OH-vitD) associates with increased risk of non-melanoma and melanoma skin cancer in the general population. We measured plasma 25-OH-vitD in 10,060 white individuals from the Danish general population. During 28 years of follow-up, 590 individuals developed non-melanoma skin cancer and 78 developed melanoma skin cancer. Increasing 25-OH-vitD levels, by clinical categories or by seasonally adjusted tertiles, were associated with increasing cumulative incidence of non-melanoma skin cancer (trend P=2 × 10(-15) and P=3 × 10(-17)) and melanoma skin cancer (P=0.003 and P=0.001). Multivariable adjusted hazard ratios of non-melanoma skin cancer were 5.04 (95% confidence interval (CI): 2.78-9.16) for 25-OH-vitD ?50 vs. 60 years, 25-OH-vitD winter levels ?50?nmol?l(-1), and performing outdoor exercise. In conclusion, we show that increasing levels of 25-OH-vitD are associated with increased risk of non-melanoma and melanoma skin cancer.Journal of Investigative Dermatology advance online publication, 29 November 2012; doi:10.1038/jid.2012.395.

  14. Spontaneous Regression of Metastatic Visceral Malignant Melanoma

    OpenAIRE

    Haight, Kenneth R.; Shapira, David V.; Cates, Geoffrey W.

    1984-01-01

    Spontaneous regressions of malignant tumors are rare. This report describes a patient who, after local recurrence of melanoma in his neck, developed pulmonary metastases which subsequently regressed. The patient was a 72-year-old retired farmer. Over the four years and five months from the discovery of the metastases to his death, this patient's pulmonary nodules regressed. Treatment was palliative, and there is no evidence that his immune system was artificially stimulated. He died from comp...

  15. INFRARED THERMOGRAPHY OF CUTANEOUS MELANOMA METASTASES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shada, Amber L.; Dengel, Lynn T.; Petroni, Gina R.; Smolkin, Mark E.; Acton, Scott; Slingluff, Craig L.

    2014-01-01

    Background Differentiating melanoma metastasis from benign cutaneous lesions currently requires biopsy or costly imaging, such as positron emission tomography scans. Melanoma metastases have been observed to be subjectively warmer than similarly appearing benign lesions. We hypothesized that infrared (IR) thermography would be sensitive and specific in differentiating palpable melanoma metastases from benign lesions. Materials and methods Seventy-four patients (36 females and 38 males) had 251 palpable lesions imaged for this pilot study. Diagnosis was determined using pathologic confirmation or clinical diagnosis. Lesions were divided into size strata for analysis: 0–5, >5–15, >15–30, and >30 mm. Images were scored on a scale from ?1 (colder than the surrounding tissue) to +3 (significantly hotter than the surrounding tissue). Sensitivity and specificity were calculated for each stratum. Logistical challenges were scored. Results IR imaging was able to determine the malignancy of small (0–5 mm) lesions with a sensitivity of 39% and specificity of 100%. For lesions >5–15 mm, sensitivity was 58% and specificity 98%. For lesions >15–30 mm, sensitivity was 95% and specificity 100%, and for lesions >30 mm, sensitivity was 78% and specificity 89%. The positive predictive value was 88%–100% across all strata, and the negative predictive value was 95% for >15–30 mm lesions and 80% for >30 mm lesions. Conclusions Malignant lesions >15 mm were differentiated from benign lesions with excellent sensitivity and specificity. IR imaging was well tolerated and feasible in a clinic setting. This pilot study shows promise in the use of thermography for the diagnosis of malignant melanoma with further potential as a noninvasive tool to follow tumor responses to systemic therapies. PMID:23043862

  16. Melanoma developed during pregnancy - A case report

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Natalia Cammarosano, Mestnik; Joao Paulo Junqueira Magalhaes, Afonso; Milvia Maria Simoes e Silva, Enokihara; Mauro Yoshiaki, Enokihara; Adriana Maria, Porro; Sergio Henrique, Hirata.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe a case of plantar interdigital cutaneous melanoma in a 22-year-old woman who reported changes in a pigmented lesion during pregnancy. Diagnosis was late and evolution unfavourable. The purpose of this report is to draw the attention of dermatologists to the need for careful regular exami [...] nation of melanocytic lesions in pregnant women, not ignoring possible changes as always physiological.

  17. Metastases of melanoma to the gastrointestinal tract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present the cases of two patients (a 57-year-old man and a 48-year-old woman) with advanced melanoma in stage IV and with metastases to the small intestine and colon, respectively, and show that surgical treatment - local excision of the lesion localized in the digestive tract - remains both the main and a safe method of assuring satisfactory results both in terms of palliative treatment and of long-term survival. (author)

  18. Recent advances in diagnosing cutaneous melanomas

    OpenAIRE

    Wurm, Elisabeth MT; Curchin, Claudia ES; Soyer, H. Peter

    2010-01-01

    Early detection of lesions while minimising the unnecessary removal of benign lesions is the clinical aim in melanoma diagnosis. In this context, several non-invasive diagnostic modalities, such as dermoscopy, total body photography, and reflectance confocal microscopy have emerged in recent years aiming at increasing diagnostic accuracy. The main developments in this field are the integration of dermoscopy and digital photography into clinical practice.

  19. Malignant melanoma: social status and outdoor work.

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, J. A.; Strickland, D.

    1980-01-01

    The incidence of, and mortality from, malignant melanoma of skin in whites are strongly influenced by socio-economic conditions. Professional and administrative workers have the highest rates of all. Clerks and salesmen have higher rates than skilled manual workers, who have higher rates than unskilled workers. Women, when classified by the occupation of their husbands, show a similar relationship to social status. The biases of incidence data from systems of cancer registration, and mortalit...

  20. CDC Vital Signs-Preventing Melanoma

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2015-06-02

    This podcast is based on the June 2015 CDC Vital Signs report. Skin cancer is the most common form of cancer in the U.S. In 2011, there were more than 65,000 cases of melanoma, the most deadly form of skin cancer. Learn how everyone can help prevent skin cancer.  Created: 6/2/2015 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 6/2/2015.

  1. Primary Malignant Melanoma of the Female Urethra

    OpenAIRE

    Cho, Sung Tae; Song, Hyeong Cheol; Cho, Byungchul; Choi, Woo Seok; Lee, Won Ki; Lee, Yong Seong; Lee, Young Goo; Kim, Ki Kyung; Park, Sung-ho; Kim, Jeong Won

    2012-01-01

    We report here on a rare case of primary malignant melanoma of the female urethra. A 69-year-old female presented at our hospital with a several month history of dysuria, poor stream, gross hematuria, intermittent blood spots, and a painful mass at the external urethral meatus. The physical examination revealed a soft, small, chestnut-sized lesion through the urethral orifice. The mass was tan colored, ulcerated, covered with necrotic tissue, and protruded from the external urethral meatus. T...

  2. PET-CT in Malignant Melanoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This works deals about the used of PET-CT in malignant melanoma. PET recognition of pulmonary metastases on PET-CT imaging. Compact of attenuation-corrected and Non-attenuation corrected PET images. The study included 250 patient (105 female, 145 male), age: 58±16 years, follow up: 1 year. It also included the detection of visceral and non-Visceral metastases by CT, PET and PET-CT

  3. Transient perfusion in human melanoma xenografts.

    OpenAIRE

    Tufto, I; Rofstad, E K

    1995-01-01

    Studies of transplantable rodent tumours have suggested that malignant tissue might experience transient perfusion at the microvascular level. The purpose of the work reported here was to investigate whether transient perfusion can be demonstrated in xenografted human tumours. Tumours of four melanoma lines (A-07, D-12, R-18, U-25), grown orthotopically in Balb/c nu/nu mice, were included in the study. Transient perfusion was studied by using the double-fluorescent staining technique. Hoechst...

  4. Schwannoma maligno epitelioide en antebrazo asociado a melanoma / Forearm malignant epithelioid schwannoma asociated with melanoma

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    F. E., García-Álvarez García; I., García-Álvarez García; T., Castiella; F., García-Álvarez Álvarez.

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Las tumoraciones originadas en los nervios periféricos ocurren mayoritariamente en individuos con signos típicos de neurofibromatosis (NF), apareciendo en estos una asociación de tumoraciones nerviosas y cutáneas, combinación muy extraña en ausencia de NF. Por ello, el objeto de este trabajo es pres [...] entar un caso de asociación de melanoma y schwannoma epiteliode maligno en ausencia de alguna de las NF conocidas. Mujer de 69 años de edad con antecedentes de melanoma en el dorso del 5ª dedo de la mano izq. dos años antes, tratada mediante amputación del dedo, que presentó un schwanoma maligno epitelioide (SME) de alta malignidad dependiente del nervio mediano en el antebrazo izquierdo, por lo que se procedió a la amputación por encima del codo. Un mes más tarde se descubrieron nódulos de aspecto metastático en ambos hemitórax, falleciendo posteriormente la paciente. En ningún momento apareció evidencia alguna de pertenecer a alguna neurofibromatosis conocida. Sin embargo, creemos que la relación etiológica debe buscarse en el hecho de que tanto el SME como el melanoma sean tumores de células procedentes de la cresta neural embrionaria. Abstract in english Tumours originating in peripheric nerves usually appear in patients with neurofibromatosis (NF) signs, presenting frequent combinations of tumours in nerves and cutaneous lesions. Nevertheless, this association is very rare in cases without NF. Therefore, the aim of the present article is to present [...] a case of malignant melanoma and malignant schwannoma, without any described NF. A 69-year-old woman with antecedents of malignant melanoma diagnosed two years previously in the dorsum of the fifth finger of the left hand, treated by means of amputation of the finger. The patient presented a malignant epithelioid schwannoma adhered to the median nerve that required elbow amputation. One month later lung metastases appeared and the patient died. This case presented no known NF sign. However, a relationship must be searched for in the common origin of melanoma and schwannoma from the embryonic neural crest.

  5. Proton beam radiotherapy of iris melanoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To report on outcomes after proton beam radiotherapy of iris melanoma. Methods and Materials: Between 1993 and 2004, 88 patients with iris melanoma received proton beam radiotherapy, with 53.1 Gy in 4 fractions. Results: The patients had a mean age of 52 years and a median follow-up of 2.7 years. The tumors had a median diameter of 4.3 mm, involving more than 2 clock hours of iris in 32% of patients and more than 2 hours of angle in 27%. The ciliary body was involved in 20%. Cataract was present in 13 patients before treatment and subsequently developed in another 18. Cataract had a 4-year rate of 63% and by Cox analysis was related to age (p = 0.05), initial visual loss (p < 0.0001), iris involvement (p < 0.0001), and tumor thickness (p < 0.0001). Glaucoma was present before treatment in 13 patients and developed after treatment in another 3. Three eyes were enucleated, all because of recurrence, which had an actuarial 4-year rate of 3.3% (95% CI 0-8.0%). Conclusions: Proton beam radiotherapy of iris melanoma is well tolerated, the main problems being radiation-cataract, which was treatable, and preexisting glaucoma, which in several patients was difficult to control

  6. Staging of cutaneous malignant melanoma by CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malignant melanomas are a challenge in radiological imaging diagnostics as they may metastasize into every organ and tissue. Cross-sectional imaging, in particular positron emission tomography computed tomography (PET/CT) and whole body magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), are considered the standards in the staging of melanomas. Because of its excellent availability CT, however, remains a widely employed staging modality. Familiarity with the manifold CT morphology of metastasized melanomas as it is described here is essential when interpreting dedicated CT and in addition useful when interpreting PET/CT results. In individual cases CT can assist in the detection of transient metastases. In the detection of locoregional lymph node metastases CT has a median sensitivity and specificity in meta-analyses of at best 61 % and 97 %, respectively, which is inferior to the performance of ultrasound (96 % and 99 %, respectively). According to meta-analyses, in the assessment of systemic tumor spread CT can detect the majority of metastases with a sensitivity and specificity of 51-63 % and 69-78 %, respectively, which is inferior to MRI and PET/CT. Therefore, if an exact staging is required for critical management decisions, MRI or PET/CT should be employed whenever possible. (orig.)

  7. Melanoma of the rectum: A rare entity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PM van Schaik, MF Ernst, HA Meijer, K Bosscha

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available A 41-year-old man presented with a 6-mo history of changed defecation and rectal bleeding. A 3-cm polypoid tumor of the lower rectum was found at rectosigmoidoscopy, which proved to be a leiomyosarcoma upon biopsy. Dissemination studies did not show any metastases. He was underwent to an abdomino-perineal resection (APR. Histopathology of the specimen showed a melanoma (S-100 stain positive. Two years after the resection, metastases in the abdomen and right lung were found. He died one and half years later. Primary anorectal melanoma is a rare and very aggressive disorder. According to current data, one should always perform a S-100 stain when anorectal sarcoma is suspected. A positive S-100 stain suggests the tumour to be most likely a melanoma. Subsequently, thorough dissemination studies need to be performed. Depending on the outcome of the dissemination studies, a surgical resection has to be performed. Nowadays, a sphincter-saving local excision combined with adjuvant loco-regional radiotherapy should be preferred in case of small tumors. The same loco-regional control is achieved with less “loss of function” compared to non-sphincter saving surgery. Only in the case of large and obstructing tumors an abdomino-perineal resection is the treatment of choice.

  8. Cutaneous melanoma: new advances in treatment

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Michele Ceolin, Foletto; Sandra Elisa, Haas.

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Cutaneous melanoma is a challenge to treat. Over the last 30 years, no drug or combination of drugs demonstrated significant impact to improve patient survival. From 1995 to 2000, the use of cytokines such as interferon and interleukin become treatment options. In 2011, new drugs were approved by th [...] e U.S. Food and Drug Administration, including peginterferon alfa-2b for patients with stage III disease, vemurafenib for patients with metastatic melanoma with the BRAF V600E mutation, and ipilimumab, a monoclonal antibody directed to the CTLA-4 T lymphocyte receptor, to combat metastatic melanoma in patients who do not have the BRAF V600E mutation. Both ipilimumab and vemurafenib showed results in terms of overall survival. Other trials with inhibitors of other genes, such as the KIT gene and MEK, are underway in the search for new discoveries. The discovery of new treatments for advanced or metastatic disease aims to relieve symptoms and improve patient quality of life.

  9. Melanoma de coroides: presentación de un caso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aymed Rodr\\u00EDguez Pargas

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Fundamento: los melanomas de coroides son considerados los tumores malignos más frecuentes en el adulto, aparece generalmente entre la sexta y séptima década de la vida y se diagnostica a través de la oftalmoscopia, la biomiscroscopia, el ultrasonido y la angiografía fluoresceínica. Su forma de presentación puede ser en su variante nodular o difusa la malignidad depende del tamaño del tumor, la localización, extensión extra escleral, tipo histológico, entre otros factores. La causa de muerte por esta enfermedad suele ocurrir por metástasis hepática. Objetivo: evitar el diagnóstico tardío del melanoma ocular. Caso clínico: se presenta el caso de una paciente femenina de 50 años de edad que acudió al centro oftalmológico del Hospital Universitario Manuel Ascunce Domenech, por disminución lenta de la agudeza visual del ojo derecho, detectándose al examen oftalmológico la presencia de una masa tumoral de color pardo que ocupaba la hemiretina superior, lo cual se corroboró con la observación de el ultrasonido ocular, por lo que se decidió proceder a la enucleación del globo ocular debido a las características del mismo. El estudio histopatológico confirmó la presencia de un melanoma de coroides de células tipo mixtas con infiltración a cuerpo ciliar. Los resultados del examen físico general, hematológico e imagenológico fueron negativos, descartándose la presencia de metástasis.

  10. Large choroidal melanoma diagnosed after cataract surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nentwich, Martin M; Mackert, Marc J; Hintschich, Christoph; Messmer, Elisabeth M

    2012-10-01

    A dense cataract prevents detailed fundus examination which may lead to delayed diagnosis of undiscovered intraocular pathology before cataract surgery. We report two cases where large choroidal melanomas were diagnosed after cataract surgery and/or Nd:Yag laser capsulotomy. In the first case, a dense cataract prevented proper examination of the fundus of an 84-year-old female. A brownish choroidal lesion was seen after cataract surgery and diagnosed as postoperative choroidal detachment. As this lesion persisted over months, the patient was sent to our hospital for evaluation where a diagnosis of choroidal melanoma with extrascleral growth was made and an enucleation with implantation of a dermis-fat graft was performed without complication 10 days later. In the second case, a 58-year-old female patient had Nd:Yag laser treatment 2 years after cataract surgery had been performed. During fundus examination 1 day after treatment, the ophthalmologist noticed a choroidal lesion which he suspected to be a reaction to the laser treatment and referred the patient to our hospital where a diagnosis of a mushroom-shaped choroidal melanoma with serous retinal detachment was made. These cases show that preoperative evaluation of the posterior segment prior to cataract surgery or other therapeutic interventions is essential in order to identify any pathology. In case of a dense cataract, additional imaging such as ultrasound sonography is recommended in order to exclude intraocular lesions and to visualize the optic disc in suspected glaucoma. PMID:22610449

  11. Combined treatment of uveal melanoma liver metastases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brasiuniene B

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Uveal melanoma (UM is the most prevalent intraocular malignant tumor in the Western world. The prognosis of survival in the presence of metastatic disease is 2-7 months, depending on the treatment applied. This article presents a case of metastatic UM with successful complex treatment of liver metastases. A 49-year old female, underwent removal of the right eyeball in 1996 due to a histologically confirmed uveal melanoma. After 11 years, CT revealed a mass in the left kidney and multiple metastases in the liver. After left nephrectomy, 6 chemotherapy courses with dacarbazine were performed. The increasing liver metastases were observed. Additional 4 intraarterial (i/a chemotherapy courses were administered using cisplatin, doxorubicin, fluorouracil, and interferon alfa. After few courses increase in CTC Grade 4 liver transaminases was seen. A partial response was observed, and in December 2008 the patient underwent surgery removing all liver metastases by 7 wedge or atypical resections. All margins were tumor-free. 21 months after liver resections and 14 years since diagnosis, the patient is alive without evidence of disease. Successful treatment of metastatic uveal melanoma was due to a timely application of a combination of several treatment methods and good prognostic factors of the patient.

  12. Primary cutaneous melanoma: an 18-year study

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Moris, Anger; Henri, Friedhofer; Marina Fussae, Fukutaki; Marcus Castro, Ferreira; Gilles, Landman.

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Primary cutaneous melanoma still constitutes the main cause of skin cancer death in developed countries, and its incidence in recent years has been increasing in a steady, worrisome manner. OBJECTIVES: This study evaluated the clinical, epidemiological and demographic aspects of this dis [...] ease, and correlated them with patient prognosis. METHODS: Using epidemiologic and clinical data, we analyzed 84 patients with mild to severe primary cutaneous melanoma treated between 1990 and 2007. Slides containing surgical specimens were analyzed, and new slides were made from archived paraffin sections when necessary. RESULTS: The melanoma incidence was higher in areas of sun exposure, with lesions commonly observed in the trunk for males, and lower limbs for females. In addition to Breslow's thickness and ulceration (p = 0.043 and p 1 mm and 4 mm) and the mitotic index (0 when absent or 1 when >1 per mm²) allowed the establishment of a prognostic score: if the sum was equal to or over three, nearly all (91.7%) patients had systemic disease. The 5-year survival was approximately seventy percent. CONCLUSION: Because American Join Committee of Cancer Staging will update the classification of malignant tumors (TNM) staging in the near future, and introduce mitosis as a prognostic factor, our results show the importance of such a feature. Additional studies are necessary to confirm the importance of a prognostic score as proposed herein.

  13. Primary cutaneous melanoma: an 18-year study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moris Anger

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Primary cutaneous melanoma still constitutes the main cause of skin cancer death in developed countries, and its incidence in recent years has been increasing in a steady, worrisome manner. OBJECTIVES: This study evaluated the clinical, epidemiological and demographic aspects of this disease, and correlated them with patient prognosis. METHODS: Using epidemiologic and clinical data, we analyzed 84 patients with mild to severe primary cutaneous melanoma treated between 1990 and 2007. Slides containing surgical specimens were analyzed, and new slides were made from archived paraffin sections when necessary. RESULTS: The melanoma incidence was higher in areas of sun exposure, with lesions commonly observed in the trunk for males, and lower limbs for females. In addition to Breslow's thickness and ulceration (p = 0.043 and p 1 mm and 4 mm and the mitotic index (0 when absent or 1 when >1 per mm² allowed the establishment of a prognostic score: if the sum was equal to or over three, nearly all (91.7% patients had systemic disease. The 5-year survival was approximately seventy percent. CONCLUSION: Because American Join Committee of Cancer Staging will update the classification of malignant tumors (TNM staging in the near future, and introduce mitosis as a prognostic factor, our results show the importance of such a feature. Additional studies are necessary to confirm the importance of a prognostic score as proposed herein.

  14. Persistent Pain After Surgery for Cutaneous Melanoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    HØimyr, Hilde; von Sperling, Marie Louise

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVES:: Chronic pain is a well-known complication after surgery, but the prevalence of persistent pain after melanoma surgery is unknown. This study examined the prevalence and predictors of persistent pain after melanoma surgery. METHODS:: Between September 2005 and June 2009, 448 patients underwent surgery for cutaneous melanoma at the Department of Plastic Surgery, Aalborg Hospital. A questionnaire was sent to all 402 survivors, and 350 (87.1%) responded. In addition, all patients with pain and a control group of sex-matched and age-matched patients without pain were invited to a clinical examination. RESULTS:: Thirty-four patients (9.7%) reported pain in the scar area within the last month, and 8.6% reported chronic pain. The pain was mostly mild with little impact on daily life, but 1.7% reported moderate to severe pain, and 3.4% reported at least moderate impact of pain on daily life. Sensory changes were reported by 108 patients (31.5%); 25% of these had pain compared with 3% of patients with normal sensation [P

  15. Inherited genetic variants associated with occurrence of multiple primary melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, David C; Orlow, Irene; Kanetsky, Peter A; Luo, Li; Kricker, Anne; Armstrong, Bruce K; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Gruber, Stephen B; Marrett, Loraine D; Gallagher, Richard P; Zanetti, Roberto; Rosso, Stefano; Dwyer, Terence; Sharma, Ajay; La Pilla, Emily; From, Lynn; Busam, Klaus J; Cust, Anne E; Ollila, David W; Begg, Colin B; Berwick, Marianne; Thomas, Nancy E

    2015-06-01

    Recent studies, including genome-wide association studies, have identified several putative low-penetrance susceptibility loci for melanoma. We sought to determine their generalizability to genetic predisposition for multiple primary melanoma in the international population-based Genes, Environment, and Melanoma (GEM) Study. GEM is a case-control study of 1,206 incident cases of multiple primary melanoma and 2,469 incident first primary melanoma participants as the control group. We investigated the odds of developing multiple primary melanoma for 47 SNPs from 21 distinct genetic regions previously reported to be associated with melanoma. ORs and 95% confidence intervals were determined using logistic regression models adjusted for baseline features (age, sex, age by sex interaction, and study center). We investigated univariable models and built multivariable models to assess independent effects of SNPs. Eleven SNPs in 6 gene neighborhoods (TERT/CLPTM1L, TYRP1, MTAP, TYR, NCOA6, and MX2) and a PARP1 haplotype were associated with multiple primary melanoma. In a multivariable model that included only the most statistically significant findings from univariable modeling and adjusted for pigmentary phenotype, back nevi, and baseline features, we found TERT/CLPTM1L rs401681 (P = 0.004), TYRP1 rs2733832 (P = 0.006), MTAP rs1335510 (P = 0.0005), TYR rs10830253 (P = 0.003), and MX2 rs45430 (P = 0.008) to be significantly associated with multiple primary melanoma, while NCOA6 rs4911442 approached significance (P = 0.06). The GEM Study provides additional evidence for the relevance of these genetic regions to melanoma risk and estimates the magnitude of the observed genetic effect on development of subsequent primary melanoma. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 24(6); 992-7. ©2015 AACR. PMID:25837821

  16. Melanoma de iris con invasión al ángulo camerular / Iris melanoma invading the camerular angle

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Leticia, Verona Ugando; Beatriz, Landrián Iglesias; Naysa, Padierne González; Raquel, Delgado Moya; Yamilet, Leiva González.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Los melanomas uveales son los tumores intraoculares primarios más frecuentes, con una incidencia de 8/1 000 000 al año en la raza blanca. Específicamente el melanoma de iris representa entre 5 y 7 % de los melanomas malignos de la úvea. Estos tumores pueden ser amelánicos o pigmentados y por lo gene [...] ral muy vascularizados. Se presenta un paciente de 18 años con antecedentes de salud, que fue atendido en el cuerpo de guardia de oftalmología refiriendo dolor ocular y disminución brusca de la visión del ojo derecho. En el examen físico se constató hipertensión ocular marcada, hifema de 2 mm, y edema corneal. Este cuadro cedió con tratamiento y permitió observar una tumoración del iris que invadía el ángulo iridocorneal, muy vascularizada. Por esto se realizaron exámenes en busca de tumores a otros niveles, y finalmente una biopsia por aspiración con aguja fina. Se concluye el caso con el diagnóstico de un melanoma de iris con invasión a cuerpo ciliar. El paciente se remite para tratamiento quirúrgico al Instituto Nacional de Oncología y Radiobiología. Abstract in english Uveal melanomas are the most frequent primary uveal tumors, having an incidence of 8/1 000 000 a year in Caucasian people. Specifically, iris Melanoma represents 5 to 7 % of the uveal malignant melanomas and they may be amelanic or pigmented, generally very vascularized. An eighteen years old male p [...] atient with a history of health problems was presented, who had been seen at the Ophthalmological Emergency Service because of eye pain and sudden visual reduction in his right eye. In the physical exam, a marked ocular hypertension was confirmed as well as a 2 mm hyphema and corneal edema. These conditions were overcome with treatment and afterwards, there was observed iris tumoration invading the iridocorneal angle. Some complementary studies were carried out to search further tumors at other levels and finally a fine needle aspiration biopsy was performed. The diagnosis was amelanic Iris Melanoma invading the ciliary body. The patient was referred for surgical treatment at the National Institute of Oncology and Radiology.

  17. Prevalence of variations in melanoma susceptibility genes among Slovenian melanoma families

    OpenAIRE

    Besic Nikola; Zgajnar Janez; Novakovic Srdjan; Cerkovnik Petra; Peric Barbara; Hocevar Marko

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Two high-risk genes have been implicated in the development of CM (cutaneous melanoma). Germline mutations of the CDKN2A gene are found in < 25% of melanoma-prone families and there are only seven families with mutation of the CDK4 gene reported to date. Beside those high penetrance genes, certain allelic variants of the MC1R gene modify the risk of developing the disease. The aims of our study were: to determine the prevalence of germline CDKN2A mutations and variants in ...

  18. Neoplasias múltiples en pacientes afectos de melanoma de úvea Multiple neoplasms in patients with uveal melanoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.M. Caminal

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Estudiar la prevalencia de neoplasias múltiples en pacientes afectos de melanoma de úvea en nuestro medio y relacionarlo con la supervivencia. Método: Para ello se ha realizado un estudio prospectivo longitudinal de prevalencia de múltiples neoplasias en pacientes diagnosticados de melanoma de úvea entre los años 1984-2005. Se han analizado entre otras las variables clínicas: edad, sexo, fecha de diagnóstico, ojo afecto, origen y tamaño tumoral, clasificación según el COMS (Collaborative Ocular Melanoma Study, fecha del último control, tiempo de seguimiento, presencia de otras neoplasias, estado sistémico actual, fecha y causa de muerte. Resultados: Se han estudiado 305 pacientes afectos de melanoma de úvea en la Unidad de Oncologia Ocular de nuestro centro. 24 pacientes (7,9% presentaron en su historia médica una o más neoplasias malignas. Excluyendo las neoplasias cutáneas de origen en células basales, esta proporción fue del 7,2% (22 pacientes. No se ha encontrado diferencias estadísticamente significativas entre la edad de presentación, sexo y la localización del melanoma (cuerpo ciliar o coroides y la presencia o no de segundas neoplasias. Cuando se analizó la proporción de pacientes con enfermedad metastásica (tanto vivos como muertos que no han presentado una segunda neoplasia (14,3%, respecto de aquellos que si la presentaron (40,9%, mediante el test de Chi-cuadrado, se encontró una relación estadísticamente significativa con una p=0,004. Conclusiones: En nuestra población de estudio, se ha observado un porcentaje de segundas neoplasias similar al descrito en otras series internacionales. No se ha encontrado una mayor proporción de segundas neoplasias según el sexo, la edad, la localización tumoral. Así como tampoco se ha observado una mayor frecuencia de determinadas segundas neoplasias. Pero sí que se ha evidenciado una mayor predisposición a desarrollar enfermedad metastásica, en los pacientes que han presentado segundas neoplasias, por lo que en estos pacientes se debe incrementar el seguimiento sistémico.Purpose: To study the prevalence of multiple neoplasms in patients affected by uveal melanoma in Spain and to relate these with survival. Method: We carried out a longitudinal prospective study of the prevalence of multiple neoplasms in patients diagnosed to have a uveal melanoma during the years 1984-2005. The data has been analysed for the following variables: age, sex, date of diagnosis, affected eye, origin and tumoral size, classification according to COMS (Collaborative Ocular Melanoma Study, time of follow-up, presence of other neoplasms, current clinical state, date and cause of death. Results: Three hundred and five patients affected by uveal melanoma have been studied in the Ocular Oncology Unit of our institution; 24 patients (7.9% had evidence in their medical reports of one or more additional neoplasms. Excluding cutaneous neoplasms originating in basal cells, this number reduced to 22 patients (7.2%. We did not find any statistically significant differences among the presentation age, sex or localization of the melanoma (ciliary body or choroid and the presence or absence of a second neoplasm. When we analysed the proportion of patients with metastatic disease (both alive and dead who presented with a second neoplasm (40.9%, we found a statistically significant relationship between these variables (Chi-square test, p=0.004. Conclusions: We have observed a percentage of second neoplasms similar to that described in other international studies. We did not find a larger proportion with a second neoplasm according to the sex, age, or tumoral localization, nor did we observe a higher frequency of any particular second neoplasm. We have defined a relationship between metastasic uveal melanoma, and the development of a second neoplasm, which clearly indicates a need for increased systemic follow-up in such patients.

  19. Increased HOX C13 expression in metastatic melanoma progression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cantile Monica

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The process of malignant transformation, progression and metastasis of melanoma is not completely understood. Recently, the microarray technology has been used to survey transcriptional differences that might provide insight into the metastatic process, but the validation of changing gene expression during metastatic transition period is poorly investigated. A large body of literature has been produced on the role of the HOX genes network in tumour evolution, suggesting the involvement of HOX genes in several types of human cancers. Deregulated paralogous group 13 HOX genes expression has been detected in melanoma, cervical cancer and odonthogenic tumors. Among these, Hox C13 is also involved in the expression control of the human keratin genes hHa5 and hHa2, and recently it was identified as a member of human DNA replication complexes. Methods In this study, to investigate HOX C13 expression in melanoma progression, we have compared its expression pattern between naevi, primary melanoma and metastasis. In addition HOXC13 profile pattern of expression has been evaluated in melanoma cell lines. Results Our results show the strong and progressive HOX C13 overexpression in metastatic melanoma tissues and cytological samples compared to nevi and primary melanoma tissues and cells. Conclusions The data presentated in the paper suggest a possible role of HOX C13 in metastatic melanoma switch.

  20. Black Pleural Effusion: A Unique Presentation of Metastatic Melanoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chhabra, Akansha; Mukherjee, Vikramjit; Chowdhary, Mudit; Danckers, Mauricio; Fridman, David

    2015-01-01

    Metastatic melanoma is a rare form of skin cancer, but one that comes with a high mortality rate. Pulmonary involvement is frequently seen in metastatic melanoma with only 2% of malignant melanoma patients with thorax metastasis presenting with pleural effusions. Herein, we report an extremely rare case of black pleural effusion from thoracic metastasis of cutaneous malignant melanoma. A 74-year-old man with known metastatic melanoma presented with a 1-month history of worsening lower back and hip pain and was found to have extensive osseous metastatic disease and multiple compression fractures. The patient underwent an uneventful kyphoplasty; however, the following day, he became acutely hypoxic and tachypneic with increased oxygen requirements. Radiographic evaluation revealed new bilateral pleural effusions. Bedside thoracentesis revealed a densely exudative, lymphocyte-predominant black effusion. Cytological examination showed numerous neoplastic cells with melanin deposition. A diagnosis of thoracic metastasis of malignant melanoma was established based on the gross and microscopic appearance of the pleural fluid. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case of black pleural effusions secondary to metastatic melanoma in the United States. Despite the rarity of this presentation, it is important to determine the etiology of the black pleural effusion and to keep metastatic melanoma as a differential diagnosis.

  1. Role of UV irradiation in aetiopathogenesis of malignant melanoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    UV irradiation has multiple effects on skin including erythema, immunosuppression and the induction of keratinocyte-derived skin cancers and cutaneous malignant melanoma. Cutaneous malignant melanoma, which arises from damage to the melanocytes, the pigment cells of the skin, is the most lethal of the skin cancers, known for its intractability to current therapies. Cutaneous malignant melanoma is associated in epidemiological studies with sun exposure of susceptible populations, especially children. In this review, we summarize the experimental information available on the role of UV radiation in melanoma and give an overview of a new melanoma model. Neonatally irradiated with UV, HGF/SF (hepatocyte growth factor/scatter factor) transgenic mice with age develop melanoma which recapitulates the aetiology, the histopathology and molecular pathogenesis of human disease. We also describe the role of melanin in the process of skin carcinogenesis. Melanin is the basic skin pigment present also in most types of melanoma. Studies on animal models for melanoma, especially HGF/SF transgenic mice, may help not only in understanding this lethal disease but also help to prevent it. (authors)

  2. Cripto-1 expression in uveal melanoma: an immunohistochemical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallikarjuna, Kandalam; Vaijayanthi, Pushparaj; Krishnakumar, Subramanian

    2007-06-01

    Human Cripto, the founder member of the epidermal growth factor-Cripto-FRL1-Cryptic (EGF-CFC) family, plays an important role during early embryonic development and in particular in carcinogenesis and the development of cancer metastases. Cripto-1 is over-expressed in most cancers, but is absent or only weakly expressed in normal cells. For this reason, Cripto-1 could be of potential value in the targeted treatment. There is no information on the expression of Cripto-1 in human uveal melanoma. Cripto-1 reactivity was evaluated by immunohistochemistry on 36 archival uveal melanomas using the polyclonal antibody to Cripto-1. The tumors were divided in to 2 groups. There were 18 uveal melanomas with no intrascleral or extrascleral extension and 18 uveal melanomas with intrascleral/extrascleral extension/liver metastasis. Cripto-1 reactivity was correlated with tumor aggressiveness and cell type. Furthermore, we studied the immunolocalization of Cripto-1 in 4 uveal melanoma cell lines OCM-1, OCM-8, and 92-1, and OMM-1 and in 2 primary uveal melanocyte cultures. Cripto-1 was expressed in both the non-invasive and aggressive uveal melanomas. Cripto-1 was positive in the 4 uveal melanoma cell lines and absent in the primary uveal melanocyte cultures. Retinal tissue did not express Cripto-1. The results suggest that Cripto-1 is expressed in uveal melanoma, negative in the non-neoplastic ocular tissue and point to its use as a target for therapy. PMID:17412323

  3. Primary melanoma of the vagina. A clinical case

    OpenAIRE

    Isabel Alemany; Clara Olier; Judit Albareda

    2011-01-01

    Primary melanoma of the vagina is a rare neoplasm that appears in the 6th and 7th decades of life. It has a poor prognosis, for which there is no consensus regarding treatment; indeed, the literature describes a number of therapeutic options. This paper describes a patient with vaginal melanoma treated by local excision and immunotherapy.

  4. Malignant melanoma of the tongue following low-dose radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A 47-year-old man had a spindly malignant melanoma of the tongue many years after low-dose radiation therapy for lichen planus. To our knowledge, only 12 melanomas of the tongue have been reported previously, and in none of these was radiation documented

  5. Malignant melanoma of the tongue following low-dose radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalemeris, G.C.; Rosenfeld, L.; Gray, G.F. Jr.; Glick, A.D.

    1985-03-01

    A 47-year-old man had a spindly malignant melanoma of the tongue many years after low-dose radiation therapy for lichen planus. To our knowledge, only 12 melanomas of the tongue have been reported previously, and in none of these was radiation documented.

  6. Yale team identifies successful combination drug therapies for melanoma mutations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yale Cancer Center researchers have identified several effective combinations of therapies that inhibit melanomas driven by two of the most formidable cancer genes. Some combinations include cholesterol-lowering statin drugs. The study appears in the journal Cancer Discovery. The Yale scientists were seeking to overcome the problems of resistance and partial response to single-drug cancer therapy in patients with melanoma.

  7. Prevalence of left-sided melanomas in an Irish population.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    de Blacam, C

    2011-04-17

    BACKGROUND: A predominance of melanomas on the left side of the body has recently been described. No associations between tumour laterality and gender, age or anatomical site have been identified. AIM: The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of left-sided melanomas in an Irish population and to examine potential associations with various patient and tumour characteristics. METHODS: A retrospective chart review of patients with cutaneous melanoma who were treated over a 10-year period was carried out. Lateral distribution of melanoma on either side of the body was compared using ?(2) analysis and evaluated by gender, age group, anatomic location, histologic subtype and Breslow depth. RESULTS: More melanomas occurred on the left side (57%, P = 0.015), and this finding was particularly significant in females. For both genders combined, there were no statistically significant differences in laterality by age group, anatomic location, type of melanoma and Breslow depth. There were significantly more superficial spreading melanomas on the left side in both men and women. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates a predominance of left-sided melanomas in Irish patients. While a number of demographic and molecular associations have been proposed, further research is required to fully explain this phenomenon.

  8. Prevalence of left-sided melanomas in an Irish population.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    de Blacam, C

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: A predominance of melanomas on the left side of the body has recently been described. No associations between tumour laterality and gender, age or anatomical site have been identified. AIM: The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of left-sided melanomas in an Irish population and to examine potential associations with various patient and tumour characteristics. METHODS: A retrospective chart review of patients with cutaneous melanoma who were treated over a 10-year period was carried out. Lateral distribution of melanoma on either side of the body was compared using chi(2) analysis and evaluated by gender, age group, anatomic location, histologic subtype and Breslow depth. RESULTS: More melanomas occurred on the left side (57%, P = 0.015), and this finding was particularly significant in females. For both genders combined, there were no statistically significant differences in laterality by age group, anatomic location, type of melanoma and Breslow depth. There were significantly more superficial spreading melanomas on the left side in both men and women. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates a predominance of left-sided melanomas in Irish patients. While a number of demographic and molecular associations have been proposed, further research is required to fully explain this phenomenon.

  9. Malignant melanoma of the right atrium: antemortem diagnosis by transvenous biopsy.

    OpenAIRE

    Gosalakkal, J A; Sugrue, D. D.

    1989-01-01

    About half of all patients with malignant melanoma have cardiac metastases. Histological confirmation antemortem of a secondary malignant melanoma of the heart is difficult. The diagnosis of a secondary melanoma in the right atrium was confirmed by transvenous biopsy in a 46 year old woman who had had a melanoma excised from her right leg two years before.

  10. Time-resolved fluorescence lifetime for cutaneous melanoma detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pires, Layla; Nogueira, Marcelo Saito; Pratavieira, Sebastião; Moriyama, Lilian Tan; Kurachi, Cristina

    2014-09-01

    Melanoma is the most aggressive skin cancer type. It is characterized by pigmented lesions with high tissue invasion and metastatic potential. The early detection of melanoma is extremely important to improve patient prognosis and survival rate, since it can progress to the deadly metastatic stage. Presently, the melanoma diagnosis is based on the clinical analysis of the macroscopic lesion characteristics such as shape, color, borders following the ABCD rules. The aim of this study is to evaluate the time-resolved fluorescence lifetime of NADH and FAD molecules to detect cutaneous melanoma in an experimental in vivo model. Forty-two lesions were analyzed and the data was classified using linear discriminant analysis, a sensitivity of 99.4%, specificity of 97.4% and accuracy of 98.4% were achieved. These results show the potential of this fluorescence spectroscopy for melanoma detection. PMID:25401022

  11. Radiotherapy of primary human melanomas - experiences and suggestions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We treated 60 invasive primary human melanomas by soft X-rays. In 23 additional cases radiotherapy was applied after total excision of a primary melanoma. Only in two cases was a tumor observed in the field of irradiation during the follow-up period: A recurrence of a primary melanoma and a skin metastasis. Radioresistance cannot be unequivocally assumed in either case. Since deeply situated in-transit metastases cannot be destroyed by soft X-rays in spite of our good results we regard radiotherapy of invasive primary melanomas as a second choice treatment to be administered if impaired general health, excessive tumor growth in certain localisations or refusal of the patient to not allow a major operation. Nodular parts of primary melanomas should be excised before radiotherapy to obtain material for histopathological confirmation of the diagnosis and to determine the thickness of the tumor. X-rays of lower hardness can subsequently be applied. (orig.)

  12. A clinical trial of fast neutron therapy for malignant melanoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fifty-four patients with malignant melanoma of the skin or the head and neck underwent fast neutron therapy between November 1975 and March 1983. Of these patients, 21 patients with melanoma of the skin and 12 patients with melanoma of the head and neck were chosen as subjects for this study. Of the 21 patients with skin lesions, complete regression was seen in 2 patients undergoing fast neutron therapy alone and in 17 patients undergoing fast neutron therapy combined with salvage surgery. A cumulative five-year survival rate was 47 %. Preoperative fast neutron therapy is a promising method used in the treatment of malignant melanoma. Two of 12 patients with advanced melanoma of the head and neck were long-term survivors. Fast neutron-induced skin damage was seen in one of the 33 patients. (Namekawa, K.)

  13. Primary malignant melanoma of the liver: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Gong, Yan-Hong Li, Jian-Ye Zhao, Xu-Xia Wang, Shao-Jun Zhu, Wei Zhang

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Primary malignant melanoma of the liver is an exceedingly rare tumor. Only 12 cases have been reported in the worldwide literature. We present a case of isolated malignant melanoma of the liver occurring in a 36-year-old Chinese male patient. Comprehensive dermatologic and ophthalmologic examinations revealed no evidence of a cutaneous or ocular primary lesion. Other lesions in brain, respiratory tract, lung, gastrointestinal tract and anus, were not demonstrated by serial position emission tomography (PET. Microscopic examination of the resected specimen revealed a malignant melanoma, which was confirmed by immunohistochemical staining for HMB-45, S-100 protein, melanoma-pan and vimentin. Moreover, electron microscopy demonstrated melanosomes in tumor cell cytoplasm. Our case shows that primary malignant melanoma may occur in the liver and should be considered when the histopathological appearance is not typical for other hepatic neoplasm.

  14. Melanoma lentiginoso acral.: Reporte de un caso / Acral lentiginous melanoma.: A case report

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Héctor Oscar, Victoria Bárzaga; Asmell, Ramos Cabrera; Laura, Lazo Sánchez; Rebeca, Torres García.

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Se reporta el caso de una mujer de raza blanca, ojos azules, 67 años de edad, con antecedentes de padecer de trastornos circulatorios en ambos miembros inferiores y en ocasiones de sacrolumbalgia aguda. Se desempeñó toda su vida como trabajadora agrícola en el municipio Jimaguayú, de la provincia Ca [...] magüey. Comenzó a presentar un cuadro neoplásico degenerativo en la planta del pie derecho, a punto de partida un nevo melanocítico congénito, que se diagnosticó clínica e histológicamente como un melanoma lentiginoso acral. Se describen las generalidades del melanoma lentiginoso acral, su forma de presentación, los factores predisponentes y desencadenantes que influyen en la aparición de la enfermedad, así como sus características histopatológicas y los métodos de tratamiento. Abstract in english A case of a white race, blue eyes, 67 years old woman is reported, with antecedents of suffering circulatory disorders in both lower members and from time to time acute sacrolumbalgia. All her life worked like agricultural worker in Jimaguayú municipality, Camagüey province. A degenerative neoplasti [...] c picture began to present, to starting point a melanocytic congenital nevus, that was clinic and histologically diagnosed as an acral lentiginous melanoma. General considerations of the acral lentiginous melanoma are described, its way of presentation, the predisposing and triggering factors that influence in the apparition of the disease, as well as its histopathologic characteristic and the treatment methods.

  15. Melanoma uveal difuso: A propósito de un caso / Diffuse uveal melanoma: A clinical case

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    C., Blanco-Rivera; J., Castro; P., Santiago; S., Campos.

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Caso clínico: Se presenta el caso de un varón de 58 años que acudió a urgencias con dolor ocular y pérdida progresiva de visión del ojo izquierdo. La exploración oftalmológica detectó una masa pigmentada en el ángulo iridocorneal afectando cuerpo ciliar. El paciente presentaba glaucoma secundario a [...] la lesión melánica. La oftalmoscopia mostró una tumoración coroidea pigmentada de gran tamaño. Tras la enucleación ocular, el estudio anatomopatológico confirmó el diagnóstico de melanoma ocular difuso. Discusión: El melanoma uveal difuso es un tumor maligno que produce metástasis en los primeros años tras su diagnóstico, siendo la enucleación el tratamiento indicado. Abstract in english Case report: We report the case of a 58-year-old man who presented at our emergency department with ocular pain and progressive loss of vision in his left eye. Ophthalmic examination detected a pigmented mass in the iridocorneal angle, involving the ciliary body. Glaucoma had also developed secondar [...] y to the melanotic lesion. Ophthalmoscopy showed a large pigmented choroidal tumor. After enucleation, pathologic examination confirmed the diagnosis of a diffuse ocular melanoma. Discussion: Diffuse uveal melanoma is a malignant tumor that metastasises early. Enucleation is the treatment of choice.

  16. Melanoma uveal difuso: A propósito de un caso Diffuse uveal melanoma: A clinical case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Blanco-Rivera

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Caso clínico: Se presenta el caso de un varón de 58 años que acudió a urgencias con dolor ocular y pérdida progresiva de visión del ojo izquierdo. La exploración oftalmológica detectó una masa pigmentada en el ángulo iridocorneal afectando cuerpo ciliar. El paciente presentaba glaucoma secundario a la lesión melánica. La oftalmoscopia mostró una tumoración coroidea pigmentada de gran tamaño. Tras la enucleación ocular, el estudio anatomopatológico confirmó el diagnóstico de melanoma ocular difuso. Discusión: El melanoma uveal difuso es un tumor maligno que produce metástasis en los primeros años tras su diagnóstico, siendo la enucleación el tratamiento indicado.Case report: We report the case of a 58-year-old man who presented at our emergency department with ocular pain and progressive loss of vision in his left eye. Ophthalmic examination detected a pigmented mass in the iridocorneal angle, involving the ciliary body. Glaucoma had also developed secondary to the melanotic lesion. Ophthalmoscopy showed a large pigmented choroidal tumor. After enucleation, pathologic examination confirmed the diagnosis of a diffuse ocular melanoma. Discussion: Diffuse uveal melanoma is a malignant tumor that metastasises early. Enucleation is the treatment of choice.

  17. Dermatologia comparativa: dermatoscopia em melanoma cutâneo Comparative dermatology: dermatoscopy of cutaneous melanoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otávio Sérgio Lopes

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Os autores apresentam imagens de dermatoscopia em uma fruta (manga-rosa, contaminada pela antracnose, mostrando sua semelhança com o melanoma extensivo superficial.The authors present images from a dermatoscopy performed in a fruit (mango that was contaminated by anthracnosis, showing its similarity to superficial spreading melanona.

  18. Melanoma metastásico con tumor primario oculto / Metastatic melanoma with occult primary tumor

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Pablo, Bórquez M; Gabriela, Ochoa S; Mauricio, Correa D.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available En el 3% de los melanomas, el tumor primario está oculto. Reportamos una mujer de 58 años, que presentaba linfadenopatías inguinales dolorosas. Reevaluada dos meses después, se constató crecimiento de la masa. Una TAC motró una masa sólida subcutánea en zona proximal de muslo izquierdo, la que fue b [...] iopsiada, demostrándose un melanoma. Se realizó disección linfática ilofemoral y cinco sesiones de radioterapia. A los dos años, la paciente no evidencia recurrencia tumoral. Abstract in english In 3% of melanomas, the primary tumor is occult. We report a 58 years old female presenting with rapidly growing painless left inguinal lymphadenopathies. The patient was reassessed two months later, verifying that the lesions enlarged further. A CAT scan of the left inguinal region showed a solid m [...] ass in the subcutaneous of the proximal region of the left thigh. An incisional biopsy of the inguinal mass was performed. The pathological study disclosed malignant melanoma. The patient was subjected to an iliofemoral lymphatic excision and to five sessions of regional radiotherapy. After two years of follow up, the patient is without evidence of tumor recurrence.

  19. Dermatologia comparativa: dermatoscopia em melanoma cutâneo Comparative dermatology: dermatoscopy of cutaneous melanoma

    OpenAIRE

    Otávio Sérgio Lopes; Edílson Pinheiro Egito

    2008-01-01

    Os autores apresentam imagens de dermatoscopia em uma fruta (manga-rosa), contaminada pela antracnose, mostrando sua semelhança com o melanoma extensivo superficial.The authors present images from a dermatoscopy performed in a fruit (mango) that was contaminated by anthracnosis, showing its similarity to superficial spreading melanona.

  20. Dermatologia comparativa: dermatoscopia em melanoma cutâneo / Comparative dermatology: dermatoscopy of cutaneous melanoma

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Otávio Sérgio, Lopes; Edílson Pinheiro, Egito.

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Os autores apresentam imagens de dermatoscopia em uma fruta (manga-rosa), contaminada pela antracnose, mostrando sua semelhança com o melanoma extensivo superficial. [...] Abstract in english The authors present images from a dermatoscopy performed in a fruit (mango) that was contaminated by anthracnosis, showing its similarity to superficial spreading melanona. [...

  1. Accessibility to air travel correlates strongly with increasing melanoma incidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agredano, Yolanda Z; Chan, Joanna L; Kimball, Ranch C; Kimball, Alexa B

    2006-02-01

    As the cost of air travel has decreased substantially in the USA and Europe over the past few decades, leisure travel to vacation destinations during the winter months has expanded significantly. This trend has probably increased the incidence of significant ultraviolet radiation exposure and sunburn in a broader population who could not previously afford this kind of travel. The purpose of this study was to analyse the correlation between increasing accessibility to air travel and melanoma incidence. This ecological study surveyed air travel patterns and melanoma incidence over the past three decades. Melanoma age-adjusted incidence was obtained from the United States Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results 9 Registry Database, 1975-2000, and the Cancer Registry of Norway, 1965-2000. United States mean inflation-adjusted airfare prices for four airports linked to leisure destinations (Miami, Los Angeles, San Diego, Phoenix) were compared with melanoma incidence. Parallel analyses were performed using annual domestic passenger-kilometres and melanoma incidence in Norway. Declining United States leisure-specific airfares corresponded strongly with increasing melanoma incidence (r = 0.96, r = 0.92, P < 0.001). Modelling a 5-year time lag between airfare and melanoma diagnosis strengthened the association (r = 0.98, r = 0.96, P < 0.001). Longer time lags could not be modelled due to data limitations. Data from Norway similarly showed that increasing air passenger mileage corresponded strongly with increasing melanoma incidence. Although correlation does not equate to causality, the very strong relationship between increasing access to air travel and melanoma incidence suggests that changes in recreational patterns may be contributing significantly to the public health problem of melanoma. PMID:16432460

  2. Current status and perspectives of treatment of disseminated melanoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melanoma is considered to be one of the most malignant human neoplasms, characterized by a steadily increasing morbidity rate, which remains a challenge for modem oncology. Despite the significant progress in prevention, diagnosis and molecular biology, the practical use of this knowledge is still limited and surgery remains the main method of treatment. A particularly unfavorable clinical course is observed in patients with metastatic melanoma. Median survival in stage IV melanoma is 6-10 months, 2-year survival is less than 10%, and 5-year survival does not exceed 5%. Despite efforts aimed at developing new strategies which would improve survival, the results have not changed for more than two decades. This is related to the limited number of cytostatic drugs available for systemic melanoma treatment and the relative resistance of melanoma cells to most therapeutic agents. In clinical practice, the most widely used drug is dacarbazine, with the highest, but still unsatisfactory, response rate reaching some 20%. The lack of effective therapies calls for the exploration of different therapeutic paths, both medical and surgical. Some hopes of new modalities are associated with the theory of melanoma immunogenicity. Currently it is believed that immuno modulation may be the solution for effective treatment of melanoma and it should be noted that new drugs, scheduled to be registered by the FDA for the treatment of metastatic melanoma, are immune system stimulating agentanoma, are immune system stimulating agents. Although targeted therapies are still not a standard of treatment and their use is mainly limited to clinical trials, they appear to be the future of effective treatment of metastatic melanoma. In this review we present the current methods of treatment of metastatic melanoma. (authors)

  3. Anal melanoma: a rare, but catastrophic tumor / Melanoma anal: tumor raro, mas catastrófico

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Andréa da Costa, Veloso; Jaime Coelho Carlos, Magno; José Antonio Dias da Cunha e, Silva.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: O melanoma maligno do canal anal é uma doença rara e agressiva, em que o diagnóstico precoce se torna difícil. Apresenta-se sem sintomas específicos, levando ao diagnóstico tardio e em fase avançada. O prognóstico é ruim e frequentemente relacionado a metástases a distância, bem como à [...] ausência de resposta à rádio e à quimioterapia. A cirurgia permanece como terapia de escolha, no entanto a melhor abordagem ainda é controversa. Considerando não haver benefício na sobrevida da amputação abdômino-aerineal do aeto (AAPR), a excisão local ampla deve ser considerada o tratamento de escolha. MÉTODOS: São nove casos de melanoma anorretal tratados no serviço de coloproctologia do Hospital Naval Marcílio Dias (HNMD) de 1977 a 2006. RESULTADOS: Foram diagnosticados oito mulheres e um homem, com média de idade de 69 anos (41 - 85). A queixa mais frequente foi o sangramento anal. A excisão local ampla foi realizada em sete pacientes. A sobrevida média foi de 24 meses. CONCLUSÃO: O melanoma anorretal continua desafiante. Todos os esforços devem ser feitos para o diagnóstico precoce, tornando assim possível realizar a excisão local com margens negativas. A AAPR ainda é uma opção factível para tumores avançados ou quando o esfíncter anal está comprometido. Abstract in english INTRODUCTION: Malignant melanoma of the anal canal is a rare and aggressive disease, which early diagnosis is difficult. Its presentation with no specific symptoms leads to a late diagnosis at an advanced stage. The prognosis of anorectal malignant melanoma is poor and frequently related to distant [...] metastasis and absence of response of chemoradiotherapy. Surgery remains the mainstay of therapy; otherwise, the best approach is controversial. Considering no survival benefits for APR, wide local excision should be considered as the treatment of choice. METHODS: This report collects nine cases of anorectal melanoma treated at our division from 1977 to 2006, as well as a review of the literature. RESULTS: There were eight females and one male, of medium age 69 years (range: 41-85 years). Most frequent presentation was bleeding. Wide Local Excision (WLE) was performed in seven of them. Mean survival was 24 months, and six of them died on account of metastatic disease. CONCLUSION: Anorectal melanoma remains challenging. Efforts should be taken to early diagnosis, and wide local excision with negative margins is the preferred treatment. Abdominoperineal resection (APR) is a reasonable option for bulky tumors or when the sphincter is invaded.

  4. Melanoma de coroides: presentación de un caso / Choroidal melanoma: a case presentation

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Aymed, Rodríguez Pargas; Leonor, Gallardo Roca; Iris, Chávez Pardo; Xiomara, Borrego Lastre.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Fundamento: los melanomas de coroides son considerados los tumores malignos más frecuentes en el adulto, aparece generalmente entre la sexta y séptima década de la vida y se diagnostica a través de la oftalmoscopia, la biomiscroscopia, el ultrasonido y la angiografía fluoresceínica. Su forma de pres [...] entación puede ser en su variante nodular o difusa la malignidad depende del tamaño del tumor, la localización, extensión extra escleral, tipo histológico, entre otros factores. La causa de muerte por esta enfermedad suele ocurrir por metástasis hepática. Objetivo: evitar el diagnóstico tardío del melanoma ocular. Caso clínico: se presenta el caso de una paciente femenina de 50 años de edad que acudió al centro oftalmológico del Hospital Universitario Manuel Ascunce Domenech, por disminución lenta de la agudeza visual del ojo derecho, detectándose al examen oftalmológico la presencia de una masa tumoral de color pardo que ocupaba la hemiretina superior, lo cual se corroboró con la observación de el ultrasonido ocular, por lo que se decidió proceder a la enucleación del globo ocular debido a las características del mismo. El estudio histopatológico confirmó la presencia de un melanoma de coroides de células tipo mixtas con infiltración a cuerpo ciliar. Los resultados del examen físico general, hematológico e imagenológico fueron negativos, descartándose la presencia de metástasis. Abstract in english Background: choroidal melanoma is considered the most common malignant tumor in adults. It usually appears between the sixth and seventh decade of life and it is diagnosed by ophthalmoscopy, biomiscroscopy, ultrasound and fluorescein angiography. Choroidal melanoma presentation may be in its nodular [...] or diffuse variant; malignancy depends on the size of tumor, location, extrascleral extension, histological type, among other factors. The cause of death from this disease usually occurs by hepatic metastases. Objective: to avoid late diagnosis of ocular melanoma. Case presentation: a 50-year-old-female patient presented with slow decrease of visual acuity in the right eye. The eye test detected the presence of a brown tumor mass occupying the upper hemiretina, which was corroborated with the observation of ocular ultrasound. It was decided to enucleate the eyeball due to its characteristics. Histopathological examination confirmed the presence of a choroidal melanoma of mixed cell type with ciliary body infiltration. Results of physical, hematological and imaging examination were negative, ruling out the presence of metastasis.

  5. Clinicopathological characteristics, diagnosis and treatment of melanoma in Serbia: The Melanoma Focus Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kandolf-Sekulovi? Lidija

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Treatment options for metastatic melanoma in Serbia are limited due to the lack of newly approved biologic agents and the lack of clinical studies. Also, there is a paucity of data regarding the treatment approaches in different tertiary centers and efficacy of available chemotherapy protocols. The aim of this study was to obtain more detailed data about treatment protocols in Serbia based on structured survey in tertiary oncology centers. Methods. Data about the melanoma patients treated in 2011 were analyzed from hospital databases in 6 referent oncology centers in Serbia, based on the structured survey, with the focus on metastatic melanoma patients (unresectable stage IIIC and IV. Results. A total of 986 (79-315 in different centers patients were treated, with 320 (32.45% newly diagnosed patients. There were 317 patients in stage IIIC/IV, 77/317 aged 60 years. At initial diagnosis 12.5% of patients were in stage III and 4.5% in stage IV. The most common type was superficial spreading melanoma (50-66%, followed by nodular melanoma (23.5-50%. Apart from the regional and distant lymph node metastases, the most frequent organs involved in stage IV disease were distant skin and soft tissues (12-55%, lungs (19-55.5%, liver (10-60%, and bones (3-10%. The first line therapy in stage IV metastatic melanoma was dacarbazine (DTIC dimethyl-triazeno-imidozole-carboxamide in 61-93% of the patients, while the second line varied between the centers. Disease control (complete response + partial response + stable disease was achieved in 25.7% of the patients treated with the first line chemotherapy and 23.1% of the patients treated with the second line therapy, but the duration of response was short, in first-line therapy 6.66 ± 3.36 months (median 6.75 months. More than 90% of patients were treated outside the clinical trials. Conclusion. Based on this survey, there is a large unmet need for the new treatment options for metastatic melanoma in Serbia. The development of national guidelines, and greater involvement in international clinical studies could lead to widening of treatment options for this chemotherapy resistant disease.

  6. Serum autoantibody profiling using a natural glycoprotein microarray for the prognosis of early melanoma

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Yashu; He, Jintang; Xie, Xaiolei; Su, Gang; Tennenbaum, Seagal-teitz; Sabel, Michael S.; Lubman, David M.

    2010-01-01

    The poor prognosis of melanoma and the high-cost of lymph node biopsy for melanoma patients have led to an urgent need for the discovery of convenient and accurate prognostic indicators. Here, we have developed a natural glycoprotein microarray to discover serum autoantibodies to distinguish between patients with node negative melanoma and node positive melanoma. Dual-lectin affinity chromatography was used to extract glycoproteins from a melanoma cell line. Liquid-based reverse phase separat...

  7. Assessment of immunological techniques in the diagnosis and prognosis of ocular malignant melanoma.

    OpenAIRE

    Cochran, A.J.; Foulds, W S; Damato, B. E.; Trope, G. E.; Morrison, L.; Lee, W R

    1985-01-01

    Tests of cell mediated immunity (one and two stage leucocyte migration inhibition assays) and humoural immunity (membrane immunofluorescence and serum effects on leucocyte migration) were done with leucocytes and sera from 36 patients with uveal melanoma, five with conjunctival melanoma, 21 with non-malignant ocular disease, and 189 with cutaneous melanoma. Cell mediated reactivity with melanoma extracts and serum reactivity with cultured melanoma cells were significantly more frequent in the...

  8. Melanomas: radiobiology and role of radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose/Objective: This course will review the radiobiology of malignant melanoma (MM) and the clinical use of radiation therapy for metastatic melanoma and selected primary sites. The course will emphasize the scientific principles underlying the clinical treatment of MM. Introduction: The incidence of malignant melanoma has one of the fastest growth rates in the world. In 1991, there were 32,000 cases and 7,000 deaths from MM in the United States. By the year 2000, one of every 90 Americans will develop MM. Wide local excision is the treatment of choice for Stage I-II cutaneous MM. Five-year survival rates depend on (a) sex: female-63%, male-40%; (b) tumor thickness: t 4 mm-25%; (c) location: extremity-60%, trunk-41%; and (d) regional lymph node status: negative-77%, positive-31%. Despite adequate surgery, 45-50% of all MM patients will develop metastatic disease. Radiobiology: Both the multi-target model: S = 1-(1-e-D/Do)n and the linear quadratic mode: -In(S) = alpha x D + beta x D2 predict a possible benefit for high dose per fraction (> 400 cGy) radiation therapy for some MM cell lines. The extrapolation number (n) varies from 1-100 for MM compared to other mammalian cells with n=2-4. The alpha/beta ratios for a variety of MM cell lines vary from 1 to 33. Other radiobiologic factors (repair of potentially lethal damage, hypoxia, reoxygenation, and repopulation) predict a wide variety of clinical responses to different time-dose prescriptions ises to different time-dose prescriptions including high dose per fraction (> 400 cGy), low dose per fraction (200-300 cGy), or b.i.d. therapy. Based on a review of the radiobiology of MM, no single therapeutic strategy emerges which could be expected to be successful for all tumors. Time-Dose Prescriptions: A review of the retrospective and prospective clinical trials evaluating various time-dose prescriptions for MM reveals: (1) MM is a radiosensitive tumor over a wide range of diverse time-dose prescriptions; and (2) The high clinical response rates to a diverse range of time-dose prescriptions are consistent with the wide diversity and complexity of the radiobiological data for MM. RT for Metastatic Melanoma: RT is the single most effective therapy for local palliation of metastatic disease. Complete response (CR) rates range from 24-75% and overall response (OR) rates are 59-98% with RT compared with CR rates of 3-10% and OR rates of only 15-36% with either chemotherapy or immunotherapy. Achieving a CR is important even for patients with metastatic disease. Five-year survival for patients with metastatic disease who achieve a CR is 49% compared to a 5-year survival of only 3% for patients who do not achieve a CR. RT for Primary Tumors: RT is effective therapy for selected primary sites including uveal melanoma and non-cutaneous, non-ocular mucosal MM. The RT results for ocular melanoma and non-cutaneous, non-ocular mucosal MM are superior to surgery. In addition, post-operative RT for residual microscopic/macroscopic disease following primary surgery produces long term local control rates of 75-88%. It is likely that radiation therapy is being under-utilized in current oncology practice

  9. Lack of GNAQ and GNA11 germ-line mutations in familial melanoma pedigrees with uveal melanoma or blue nevi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JasonEzraHawkes

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Approximately 10% of melanoma cases are familial, but only 25-40% of familial melanoma cases can be attributed to germ-line mutations in the CDKN2A - the most significant high-risk melanoma susceptibility locus identified to date. The pathogenic mutation(s in most of the remaining familial melanoma pedigrees have not yet been identified. The most common mutations in nevi and sporadic melanoma are found in BRAF and NRAS, both of which result in constitutive activation of the MAPK pathway. However, these mutations are not found in uveal melanomas or the intradermal melanocytic proliferations known as blue nevi. Rather, multiple studies report a strong association between these lesions and somatic mutations in Guanine nucleotide-binding protein G(q subunit alpha (GNAQ, Guanine nucleotide-binding protein G(q subunit alpha-11 (GNA11 and BRCA1 associated protein-1 (BAP1. Recently, germ-line mutations in BAP1, the gene encoding a tumor suppressing deubiquitinating enzyme, have been associated with predisposition to a variety of cancers including uveal melanoma, but no studies have examined the association of germ-line mutations in GNAQ and GNA11 with uveal melanoma and blue nevi. We have now done so by sequencing exon 5 of both of these genes in 13 unique familial melanoma pedigrees, members of which have had either uveal or cutaneous melanoma and/or blue nevi. Germ-line DNA from a total of 22 individuals was used for sequencing; however no deleterious mutations were detected. Nevertheless, such candidate gene studies and the discovery of novel germ-line mutations associated with an increased MM susceptibility can lead to a better understanding of the pathways involved in melanocyte transformation, formulation of risk assessment, and the development of specific drug therapies.

  10. T Cells Derived From Human Melanoma Draining Lymph Nodes Mediate Melanoma-specific Antitumor Responses In Vitro and In Vivo in Human Melanoma Xenograft Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Mei; Graor, Hallie; Visioni, Anthony; Strohl, Madeleine; Yan, Lu; Caja, Kevin; Kim, Julian A

    2015-01-01

    It has been established in murine models that lymph nodes draining a progressively growing tumor contain antigen-specific T cells capable of mediating protective immune responses upon adoptive transfer. However, naturally occurring human tumor-draining lymph nodes (TDLNs) have yet to be fully investigated. In this study, we analyzed TDLNs from patients with stage III melanoma who were undergoing routine lymph node dissection. Following short-term (14 d) culture activation with anti-CD3/anti-CD28 microbeads and expansion in low concentrations of IL-2, the melanoma-draining lymph node (MDLN) cells were ?60% CD4-activated and ?40% CD8-activated T cells. The activated MDLN cells demonstrated reactivity in response to overlapping peptides spanning the sequence of 4 different known melanoma antigens MAGEA1, Melan-A/MART-1, NY-ESO-1, and Prame/OIP4, suggesting the presence of melanoma-specific T cells. Coculture of activated MDLN T cells with cancer cells in vitro resulted in preferential apoptosis of human cancer cell lines that were cocultured with T cells with high degree of MHC matching. Adoptive transfer of MDLN T cells with high degree of MHC matching to A375 to mice-bearing human A375 melanoma xenografts resulted in dose-dependent improvement in survival. Although prior human studies have demonstrated the immune responses within melanoma vaccine-draining lymph nodes, this study presents evidence for the first time that naturally occurring human MDLN samples contain melanoma-experienced CD4 and CD8 T cells that can be readily cultured and expanded to mediate protective immune responses both in vitro and in vivo in a human melanoma xenograft model. PMID:26049546

  11. Novel alpha-MSH peptide analogs for melanoma targeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flook, Adam Michael

    Skin cancer is the one of the most diagnosed cancers in the United States with increasing incidence over the past two decades. There are three major forms of skin cancer but melanoma is the deadliest. It is estimated that 76,690 new diagnoses of melanoma and 9,480 deaths will occur in 2013. Melanoma accounts for approximately 1.6% of all cancer related deaths and is the 5 th leading diagnosed cancer in the United States. The mean survival rate of patients diagnosed with metastatic melanoma is six months, with five year survival rates of less than 5%. In this project, we describe the design and characterization of novel melanoma-targeting peptide analogs for use in diagnostic imaging of both primary and metastatic melanoma lesions. Novel alpha-MSH peptide conjugates were designed to target the melanocortin-1 receptor present and over-expressed on melanoma cells. These peptides were synthesized and their in-vitro melanocortin-1 receptor binding affinities were established in murine melanoma cells. Once binding affinities were determined, the peptides were radiolabeled with 99mTc utilizing a novel direct radiolabeling technique developed in our laboratory. The peptides were purified via reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatography and in-vivo melanoma targeting and pharmacokinetic properties were determined in B16/F1 melanoma-bearing female C57BL/6 mice. Biodistribution and SPECT/CT imaging studies were performed with the promising 99m Tc-labeled peptide conjugates. All alpha-MSH peptide conjugates tested showed low nanomolar binding affinity for the melanocortin-1 receptor. All peptides were readily radiolabeld with 99mTc with greater than 95% radiochemical purity. All 99mTc-labeled peptides displayed high specific in-vivo melanoma tumor uptake while maintaining low normal organ accumulation, and were excreted through the urinary system in a timely fashion. In addition, all tested 99mTc-labeld alpha-MSH peptides demonstrated clear visualization of in-vivo tumor lesions with SPECT/CT. While all peptides exhibited high melanoma uptake, extremely high non-specific renal uptake was of concern. After synthesis of alpha-MSH peptide conjugates containing a different amino acid linker, renal uptake was drastically reduced and a lead compound had emerged, showing favorable in-vivo melanoma targeting and uptake properties with limited amounts of non-specific renal accumulation.

  12. Carbon ion radiotherapy for uveal melanoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the applicability of carbon ion beams in the treatment of choroidal melanoma, with regard to normal tissue morbidity and local tumor control. Between January 2001 and August 2006, 67 patients with locally advanced or unfavorable-site choroidal melanoma were enrolled in a phase I/II clinical trial of carbon-ion radiotherapy (C-ion RT) at the National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS). Primary endpoint of this study was normal tissue morbidity and secondary endpoints were local tumor control and patient survival. Fifty-nine of the patients were followed up for more than 6 months and analyzed. Twenty-three patients (39%) developed neovascular glaucoma (NVG) and 3 of them underwent enucleation because of the eye pain due to elevated intraocular pressure. The incidence of neovascular glaucoma was dependent on tumor size and site. Five patients had died by the date of analysis, 3 of distant metastasis and 2 of intercurrent diseases. All patients but one, who developed marginal recurrence, were controlled locally. Eight patients developed distant metastasis, 5 in the liver and 3 in the lung. Three-year overall survival, disease-free survival, and local control rates were 87.1%, 81.6%, and 98.0%, respectively. No apparent dose-response relationship was observed either in tumor control or in normal tissue morbidity with the dose range applied. C-ion RT can be applied to choroidal melanoma with an acceptable morbidity and sufficma with an acceptable morbidity and sufficient anti-tumor effect, even in tumors of unfavorable size or site. (author)

  13. Patterns of neural differentiation in melanomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Avantika V

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Melanomas, highly malignant tumors arise from the melanocytes which originate as multipotent neural crest cells during neural tube genesis. The purpose of this study is to assess the pattern of neural differentiation in relation to angiogenesis in VGP melanomas using the tumor as a three dimensional system. Methods Tumor-vascular complexes [TVC] are formed at the tumor-stroma interphase, by tumor cells ensheathing angiogenic vessels to proliferate into a mantle of 5 to 6 layers [L1 to L5] forming a perivascular mantle zone [PMZ]. The pattern of neural differentiation is assessed by immunopositivity for HMB45, GFAP, NFP and synaptophysin has been compared in: [a] the general tumor [b] tumor-vascular complexes and [c] perimantle zone [PC] on serial frozen and paraffin sections. Statistical Analysis: ANOVA: Kruskal-Wallis One Way Analysis of Variance; All Pairwise Multiple Comparison Procedures [Tukey Test]. Results The cells abutting on the basement membrane acquire GFAP positivity and extend processes. New layers of tumor cells show a transition between L2 to L3 followed by NFP and Syn positivity in L4&L5. The level of GFAP+vity in L1&L2 directly proportionate to the percentage of NFP/Syn+vity in L4&L5, on comparing pigmented PMZ with poorly pigmented PMZ. Tumor cells in the perimantle zone show high NFP [65%] and Syn [35.4%] positivity with very low GFAP [6.9%] correlating with the positivity in the outer layers. Discussion From this study it is seen that melanoma cells revert to the embryonic pattern of differentiation, with radial glial like cells [GFAP+ve] which further differentiate into neuronal positive cells [NFP&Syn+ve] during angiogenic tumor-vascular interaction, as seen during neurogenesis, to populate the tumor substance.

  14. Samarium-153 chelate localization in malignant melanoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    153Sm, a radiolanthanide of half life 46.27 h, has a gamma emission of 0.103 MeV which is well suited to imaging. It is also a moderate energy beta emitter, and tumour localization of various 153Sm chelates was evaluated in B16 murine melanoma to assess their endoradiotherapeutic potential. 153Sm was prepared from enriched 152Sm in the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organization reactor. 153Sm chelates were prepared from 153Sm-chloride and their chromatographic behaviour characterized. Tumour and organ uptake of 153Sm-chloride, 153Sm-citrate and the 153Sm chelates, DTPA, HEDTA, HIDA, BZ, PBH, PIH and NTA were measured at 1, 6, 24 and 48 h after intravenous administration to C57 black mice bearing either melanotic or amelanotic B16 melanoma of mean size 0.75 cm3. Histopathological examination of the tumours at each passaging assured comparability of the degree of melanogenesis and the absence of necrosis. 153Sm-chloride was immobile on chromatography and the rapid hepatic accumulation of both 153Sm-chloride and 153Sm-citrate was attributed to in vivo formation of a colloid. In contrast, 153Sm-DTPA, moving at the solvent front on chromatography, showed no reticuloendothelial accumulation in vivo and was rapidly excreted by the kidneys without tumour uptake. The other 153Sm chelates were of interme 153Sm chelates were of intermediate stability and all localized in both melanotic and amelanotic tumours, although to a significantly lesser degree than 67Ga-citrate. The relatively high 153Sm-HIDA activity in liver and 153Sm-NTA activity in bone impaired tumour definition, but on imaging of all the 153Sm chelates only 153Sm-DTPA failed to demonstrate the B16 melanoma, and the best tumour delineation was observed using 153Sm-HEDTA. (orig.)

  15. Akt Inhibitor MK2206 and Hydroxychloroquine in Treating Patients With Advanced Solid Tumors, Melanoma, Prostate or Kidney Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-27

    Adult Solid Neoplasm; Hormone-Resistant Prostate Cancer; Recurrent Melanoma; Recurrent Prostate Carcinoma; Recurrent Renal Cell Carcinoma; Stage IIIA Skin Melanoma; Stage IIIB Skin Melanoma; Stage IIIC Skin Melanoma; Stage IV Prostate Cancer; Stage IV Renal Cell Cancer; Stage IV Skin Melanoma

  16. Primary melanoma of Meckel's cave: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Falavigna Asdrubal

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a case of trigeminal neuralgia with cranial normal magnetic resonance image (MRI and computed tomography. The pain was not relieved by carbamazepine and microvascular decompression surgery was done. After two months the pain was similar to the condition before surgery. At this time, MRI showed an expansive lesion in Meckel's cave that was treated with radical resection by extra-dural approach. The pathologic examination revealed a primary melanoma. The follow-up after six months did not show abnormalities.

  17. Melanoma of the rectum: A rare entity

    OpenAIRE

    van Schaik, PM; Ernst, MF; Meijer, HA; Bosscha, K.

    2008-01-01

    A 41-year-old man presented with a 6-mo history of changed defecation and rectal bleeding. A 3-cm polypoid tumor of the lower rectum was found at rectosigmoidoscopy, which proved to be a leiomyosarcoma upon biopsy. Dissemination studies did not show any metastases. He was underwent to an abdomino-perineal resection (APR). Histopathology of the specimen showed a melanoma (S-100 stain positive). Two years after the resection, metastases in the abdomen and right lung were found. He died one and ...

  18. Processing of MIA protein during melanoma cell migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Jennifer; Bosserhoff, Anja-Katrin

    2009-10-01

    MIA (melanoma inhibitory activity) protein, identified as a small 11 kDa protein highly expressed and secreted by malignant melanoma cells, plays an important functional role in melanoma development, progression and tumor cell invasion. Recent data describe a direct interaction of MIA protein with cell adhesion receptors integrin alpha(4)beta(1) and integrin alpha(5)beta(1) and extracellular matrix molecules. By modulating integrin activity MIA protein mediates detachment of melanoma cells from surrounding structures resulting in enhanced invasive and migratory potential. However, until today a detailed understanding of the processes of MIA function is missing. In this study, we show that after binding of MIA protein to integrin alpha(5)beta(1), MIA protein is internalized together with this cell adhesion receptor at the cell rear. This mechanism enables tumor cells to migrate in a defined direction as appropriate for invasion processes. Treatment of melanoma cells with PKC-inhibitors strongly reduced internalization of MIA protein. Endocytosis is followed by dissociation of MIA-integrin complexes. In acidic vesicles MIA protein is degraded while integrins are recycled. Treatment of melanoma cells with MIA inhibitory peptides almost completely blocked the MIA protein uptake into cells. As MIA protein has a major contribution to the aggressive characteristics of malignant melanoma in particular to formation of metastasis, it is important to elucidate the MIA functional mechanism in tumor cells to find novel therapeutic strategies in the fight against skin cancer. PMID:19521988

  19. Modeling tandem AAG8-MEK inhibition in melanoma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drug resistance presents a challenge to the treatment of cancer patients, especially for melanomas, most of which are caused by the hyperactivation of MAPK signaling pathway. Innate or acquired drug-resistant relapse calls for the investigation of the resistant mechanisms and new anti-cancer drugs to provide implications for the ultimate goal of curative therapy. Aging-associated gene 8 (AAG8, encoded by the SIGMAR1 gene) is a chaperone protein profoundly elaborated in neurology. However, roles of AAG8 in carcinogenesis remain unclear. Herein, we discover AAG8 antagonists as new MEK inhibitors in melanoma cells and propose a novel drug combination strategy for melanoma therapy by presenting the experimental evidences. We report that specific antagonism of AAG8, efficiently suppresses melanoma cell growth and migration through, at least in part, the inactivation of the RAS-CRAF-MEK signaling pathway. We further demonstrate that melanoma cells that are resistant to AAG8 antagonist harbor refractory CRAF-MEK activity. MEK acts as a central mediator for anti-cancer effects and also for the resistance mechanism, leading to our proposal of tandem AAG8-MEK inhibition in melanoma cells. Combination of AAG8 antagonist and very low concentration of a MEK inhibitor synergistically restricts the growth of drug-resistant cells. These data collectively pinpoint AAG8 as a potential target and delineate a promising drug combination strategy for melanoma therapy

  20. Solar elastosis and cutaneous melanoma: A site-specific analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kvaskoff, Marina; Pandeya, Nirmala; Green, Adèle C; Perry, Susan; Baxter, Catherine; Davis, Marcia B; Mortimore, Rohan; Westacott, Lorraine; Wood, Dominic; Triscott, Joe; Williamson, Richard; Whiteman, David C

    2015-06-15

    Cutaneous melanomas are postulated to arise through at least two causal pathways, namely the "chronic sun exposure" and "nevus" pathways. While chronic sun exposure probably causes many head/neck melanomas, its role at other sites is unclear. In a population-based, case-case comparison study conducted in Brisbane, Australia, we determined the prevalence and epidemiologic correlates of chronic solar damage in skin adjacent to invasive, incident melanomas on the trunk (n?=?418) or head/neck (n?=?92) among patients aged 18-79 in 2007-2010. Participants self-reported information about environmental and phenotypic factors, and a dermatologist counted nevi and actinic keratoses. Dermatopathologists assessed solar elastosis adjacent to each melanoma using a four-point scale (nil, mild, moderate, marked), and noted the presence or absence of adjacent neval remnants. We measured associations between various factors and solar elastosis using polytomous logistic regression. Marked or moderate solar elastosis was observed in 10% and 27%, respectively, of trunk melanomas, and 60% and 17%, respectively, of head/neck melanomas. At both sites, marked elastosis was positively associated with age (ptrend ?solar elastosis. About one in three trunk melanomas in Queensland have evidence of moderate-to-marked sun damage, and they differ in risk associations from those without. PMID:25403328

  1. Radiotherapy in nonlentiginous melanoma of the head and neck

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thirty-seven patients with superficial spreading or nodular melanoma of the head and neck treated with irradiation are reviewed. Twenty-one patients were referred within three months of surgery. Six had an incisional biopsy followed by postoperative irradiation, 4 were locally controlled (1 dying of metastatic melanoma, 2 dying of intercurrent disease and 1 is alive and well), and 2 were not (both dead of melanoma). Fifteen patients had a local excisional biopsy (11 having tumor to the limits of the excision) followed by postoperative irradiation. Fourteen of the 15 had local control (3 had lymph node metastases and died, 3 died of distant metastases from melanoma, 7 are alive and well from 1-14 years following treatment, and one is dead of intercurrent disease), and 1 had a local recurrence and subsequently died of metastatic melanoma. Sixteen patients were irradiated for local and/or regionally recurrent disease following unsuccessful surgery, and only two were successfully controlled by irradiation and are alive and well at four and five years, respectively. Local control was 70% when a dose per fraction of greater than 400 rads was used, compared with 25% when a dose per fraction of less than 400 rads was used. It is concluded that nonlentiginous melanoma of the head and neck is not a radioresistant tumor and that local excision followed by high dose per fraction radiotherapy deserves further study in the management of melanomas of the head and neckanomas of the head and neck

  2. A Protein Deep Sequencing Evaluation of Metastatic Melanoma Tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welinder, Charlotte; Paw?owski, Krzysztof; Sugihara, Yutaka; Yakovleva, Maria; Jönsson, Göran; Ingvar, Christian; Lundgren, Lotta; Baldetorp, Bo; Olsson, Håkan; Rezeli, Melinda; Jansson, Bo; Laurell, Thomas; Fehniger, Thomas; Döme, Balazs; Malm, Johan; Wieslander, Elisabet; Nishimura, Toshihide; Marko-Varga, György

    2015-01-01

    Malignant melanoma has the highest increase of incidence of malignancies in the western world. In early stages, front line therapy is surgical excision of the primary tumor. Metastatic disease has very limited possibilities for cure. Recently, several protein kinase inhibitors and immune modifiers have shown promising clinical results but drug resistance in metastasized melanoma remains a major problem. The need for routine clinical biomarkers to follow disease progression and treatment efficacy is high. The aim of the present study was to build a protein sequence database in metastatic melanoma, searching for novel, relevant biomarkers. Ten lymph node metastases (South-Swedish Malignant Melanoma Biobank) were subjected to global protein expression analysis using two proteomics approaches (with/without orthogonal fractionation). Fractionation produced higher numbers of protein identifications (4284). Combining both methods, 5326 unique proteins were identified (2641 proteins overlapping). Deep mining proteomics may contribute to the discovery of novel biomarkers for metastatic melanoma, for example dividing the samples into two metastatic melanoma “genomic subtypes”, (“pigmentation” and “high immune”) revealed several proteins showing differential levels of expression. In conclusion, the present study provides an initial version of a metastatic melanoma protein sequence database producing a total of more than 5000 unique protein identifications. The raw data have been deposited to the ProteomeXchange with identifiers PXD001724 and PXD001725. PMID:25874936

  3. Exome sequencing identifies recurrent somatic RAC1 mutations in melanoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krauthammer, Michael; Kong, Yong; Ha, Byung Hak; Evans, Perry; Bacchiocchi, Antonella; McCusker, James P.; Cheng, Elaine; Davis, Matthew J.; Goh, Gerald; Choi, Murim; Ariyan, Stephan; Narayan, Deepak; Dutton-Regester, Ken; Capatana, Ana; Holman, Edna C.; Bosenberg, Marcus; Sznol, Mario; Kluger, Harriet M.; Brash, Douglas E.; Stern, David F.; Materin, Miguel A.; Lo, Roger S.; Mane, Shrikant; Ma, Shuangge; Kidd, Kenneth K.; Hayward, Nicholas K.; Lifton, Richard P.; Schlessinger, Joseph; Boggon, Titus J.; Halaban, Ruth (Yale-MED); (UCLA); (Queens)

    2012-10-11

    We characterized the mutational landscape of melanoma, the form of skin cancer with the highest mortality rate, by sequencing the exomes of 147 melanomas. Sun-exposed melanomas had markedly more ultraviolet (UV)-like C>T somatic mutations compared to sun-shielded acral, mucosal and uveal melanomas. Among the newly identified cancer genes was PPP6C, encoding a serine/threonine phosphatase, which harbored mutations that clustered in the active site in 12% of sun-exposed melanomas, exclusively in tumors with mutations in BRAF or NRAS. Notably, we identified a recurrent UV-signature, an activating mutation in RAC1 in 9.2% of sun-exposed melanomas. This activating mutation, the third most frequent in our cohort of sun-exposed melanoma after those of BRAF and NRAS, changes Pro29 to serine (RAC1{sup P29S}) in the highly conserved switch I domain. Crystal structures, and biochemical and functional studies of RAC1{sup P29S} showed that the alteration releases the conformational restraint conferred by the conserved proline, causes an increased binding of the protein to downstream effectors, and promotes melanocyte proliferation and migration. These findings raise the possibility that pharmacological inhibition of downstream effectors of RAC1 signaling could be of therapeutic benefit.

  4. Linfonodo sentinela em melanoma de criança: relato de caso / Sentinel lymph node in children with melanoma: case report

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Renato Santos de, Oliveira Filho; Geruza Rezende, Paiva; Lydia M., Ferreira; Marcos Chaves de Arruda, Alves; Ivan Dunshee A.O., Santos; Milvia M.S.S., Enokihara.

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: apresentar um caso de melanoma cutâneo na infância, submetido à biópsia de linfonodo sentinela. Descrição: criança de 12 anos de idade, portadora da síndrome do nevo displásico, desenvolveu melanoma em dorso. A biópsia excisional revelou melanoma (Breslow = 1,5 mm), sendo submetida a trata [...] mento cirúrgico da lesão, com ampliação de margem de 2cm e biópsia de linfonodo sentinela. O exame anatomopatológico não mostrou doença residual. O exame do linfonodo sentinela não mostrou metástases ao exame histopatológico por hematoxilina eosina, nem à imunohistoquímica (S100 e HMB45). No entanto, a pesquisa de RNA mensageiro da tirosinase por RT-PCR se mostrou positiva. A paciente não mostrou sinais de metástase ou recidiva local nestes doze meses iniciais de seguimento. Comentários: o melanoma é raro em crianças, corresponde a menos de 1% dos tumores da infância. Inúmeros trabalhos mostram o aumento da incidência mundial do melanoma. Em cerca de 70%, se originam de nevos melanocíticos pré-existentes, e nos 30% restantes, eles surgem de novo. Dada a agressividade do melanoma, a sobrevida depende do diagnóstico precoce. A biópsia do linfonodo sentinela tem contribuído na decisão de se realizar ou não a linfadenectomia completa, e alguns autores já estão utilizando a mesma em crianças. Abstract in english Objective: to present a case of a child who was subjected to sentinel lymph node biopsy for cutaneous melanoma. Description: a 12 year-old child with Dysplastic Nevus Syndrome developed melanoma on the lumbar region. The excision biopsy revealed a melanoma with depth of 1.5 mm. The patient was submi [...] tted to amplification of the margins 2 cm in all directions and the sentinel node was also excised. The histopathological exam did not show residual disease. Sentinel on exam did not show metastases either under hematoxylin-eosin stain or immunohistochemistry (S-100 and HMB45). Therefore, RT-PCR for tyrosinase mRNA was positive. The patient has been followed for twelve months without evidence of recurrence. Comments: childhood melanoma is rare, corresponding to less than 1% of malignant tumors in children. Data point to a worldwide increase in its incidence. Melanoma occurs in melanocytic lesions in 70% and in the remaining 30% it occurs de novo. Melanoma is very aggressive, so the survival depends on an early diagnosis. Sentinel lymph node biopsy has selected patients to complete lymphadenectomy. Some authors have been using this technique in childhood melanoma.

  5. Metastatic melanoma – a review of current and future drugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago Rodrigues Velho

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Melanoma is one of the most aggressive cancers, and it is estimated that 76,250 men and women will be diagnosed with melanoma of the skin in the USA in 2012. Over the last few decades many drugs have been developed but only in 2011 have new drugs demonstrated an impact on survival in metastatic melanoma.Methods: A systematic search of literature was conducted, and studies providing data on the effectiveness of current and/or future drugs used in the treatment of metastatic melanoma were selected for review. This review discusses the advantages and limitations of these agents, evaluating past, current and future clinical trials designed to overcome such limitations.Results: To date, there are four drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration for melanoma (dacarbazine, interleukin-2, ipilimumab and vemurafenib. Despite efforts to develop new drugs, few of them have demonstrated any clinical benefits. Approved in 1975, dacarbazine remains the gold standard in chemotherapy, although ipilimumab and vemurafenib have raised many hopes in the last few years. Combining dacarbazine or other chemotherapy agents with new pharmacological agents may be a new way to achieve better clinical responses in patients with metastatic melanoma.Discussion: Advances in the molecular knowledge of melanoma have led to major improvements in the treatment of patients with metastatic melanoma, providing new targets and insights. However, heterogeneity amongst study populations, different approaches to treatment and the different melanoma types and localisations included in the trials makes their comparison difficult. New studies focusing on drugs developed in recent decades are warranted

  6. CEACAM1 Promotes Melanoma Cell Growth through Sox-2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rona Ortenberg

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The prognostic value of the carcinoembryonic antigen cell adhesion molecule 1 (CEACAM1 in melanoma was demonstrated more than a decade ago as superior to Breslow score. We have previously shown that intercellular homophilic CEACAM1 interactions protect melanoma cells from lymphocyte-mediated elimination. Here, we study the direct effects of CEACAM1 on melanoma cell biology. By employing tissue microarrays and low-passage primary cultures of metastatic melanoma, we show that CEACAM1 expression gradually increases from nevi to metastatic specimens, with a strong dominance of the CEACAM1-Long tail splice variant. Using experimental systems of CEACAM1 knockdown and overexpression of selective variants or truncation mutants, we prove that only the full-length long tail variant enhances melanoma cell proliferation in vitro and in vivo. This effect is not reversed with a CEACAM1-blocking antibody, suggesting that it is not mediated by intercellular homophilic interactions. Downstream, CEACAM1-Long increases the expression of Sox-2, which we show to be responsible for the CEACAM1-mediated enhanced proliferation. Furthermore, analysis of the CEACAM1 promoter reveals two single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs that significantly enhance the promoter's activity compared with the consensus nucleotides. Importantly, case-control genetic SNP analysis of 134 patients with melanoma and matched healthy donors show that patients with melanoma do not exhibit the Hardy-Weinberg balance and that homozygous SNP genotype enhances the hazard ratio to develop melanoma by 35%. These observations shed new mechanistic light on the role of CEACAM1 in melanoma, forming the basis for development of novel therapeutic and diagnostic technologies.

  7. Coffee, tea, and melanoma risk among postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Haotian; Reeves, Katherine W; Qian, Jing; Sturgeon, Susan R

    2015-07-01

    Laboratory research suggests that components in coffee and tea may have anticarcinogenic effects. Some epidemiologic studies have reported that women who consume coffee and tea have a lower risk for melanoma. We assessed coffee, tea, and melanoma risk prospectively in the Women's Health Initiative - Observational Study cohort of 66?484 postmenopausal women, followed for an average of 7.7 years. Coffee and tea intakes were measured through self-administered questionnaires at baseline and at year 3 of follow-up. Self-reported incident melanomas were adjudicated using medical records. Cox proportional hazard models were used to estimate risk, adjusting for covariates, with person-time accumulation until melanoma diagnosis (n=398), death, loss to follow-up, or through 2005. Daily coffee [hazard ratio (HR)=0.87, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.68-1.12] and tea (HR=1.03, 95% CI 0.81-1.31) intakes were not significantly associated with melanoma risk compared with nondaily intake of each beverage. No significant trends were observed between melanoma risk and increasing intakes of coffee (P for trend=0.38) or tea (P for trend=0.22). Women who reported daily coffee intake at both baseline and year 3 had a significantly decreased risk compared with women who reported nondaily intake at both time points (HR=0.68, 95% CI 0.48-0.97). Consistent daily tea intake was not associated with decreased melanoma risk. Overall, there is no strong evidence that increasing coffee or tea consumption can lead to a lower melanoma risk. We observed a decrease in melanoma risk among long-term coffee drinkers, but the lack of consistency in the results by dose and type cautioned against overinterpretation of the results. PMID:25325307

  8. The Appearance of a Candidate Site for a Primary Melanoma: A 5 Year-gap with a Melanoma of an Unknown Site

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Sangsin; Lee, Hyo-Jin; Oh, Sang-Ha; Im, Myung; Lee, Jeung-Hoon; Seo, Young-Joon; Lee, Young

    2011-01-01

    Although more than 90% of melanomas have cutaneous origins, melanomas sometimes present metastatically with no apparent primary lesion. A 62-year-old female presented with black pigmentation on her left thumbnail that had begun 2 years earlier and after the biopsy, she was diagnosed with malignant melanoma. Interestingly, 7 years earlier, a 4 cm palpable mass on her left axilla had been diagnosed as melanoma from an unknown primary site (MUP) with the involvement of an axillary lymph node. We...

  9. Dermoscopic clues in the diagnosis of amelanotic and hypomelanotic malignant melanoma Pistas dermatoscópicas no diagnóstico de melanoma maligno amelanótico e hipomelanótico

    OpenAIRE

    Raquel Bissacotti Steglich; Carolina Degeon Meotti; Mariana Silveira Ferreira; Louise Lovatto; André Vicente Esteves de Carvalho; Carlos Gustavo Carneiro Castro

    2012-01-01

    The clinical identification of amelanotic malignant melanoma (AMM) and hypomelanotic malignant melanoma (HMM) becomes difficult due to the lack of pigmentation and to the diverse clinical presentations. Dermoscopy is very useful in these cases, increasing the level of suspicion of malignancy. We report 4 cases of amelanotic malignant melanoma and hypomelanotic malignant melanoma with characteristic dermoscopic findings. Dermoscopy under polarized light demonstrates vascular polymorphism, glob...

  10. Gamma-enolase activity in choroidal melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margo, C E; Lavellée, M

    1986-01-01

    Gamma-enolase is a glycolytic enzyme that is found in high concentration in neural and neuroendocrine tissues. The enzyme has been considered clinically useful as a tumor marker in the evaluation of small-cell undifferentiated malignancies. A preliminary report suggested that gamma-enolase activity may be used in the assessment of the malignant potential of choroidal melanoma. To test this hypothesis and document the distribution of gamma-enolase in the eye, we studied the immunohistochemical activity of gamma-enolase in six eyes from persons with choroidal melanoma. Although no correlation could be found with gamma-enolase activity and tumor size or tumor cell type, the distribution of gamma-enolase in normal retina and optic nerve was described. The areas of greatest immunohistochemical reactivity were the perikaryon of ganglion cells, inner and outer plexiform layers, and the nerve axons of the nerve fiber layer and optic nerve. Gamma-enolase may be a potentially useful marker of retinal and optic nerve glycolysis, and of neuronal function. PMID:3710193

  11. GdNCT of spontaneous canine melanoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effectiveness of GdNCT has been studied in dogs with spontaneous melanoma of the mucousmembrane of the oral cavity patients on the NCT base at the IRT MEPhI reactor. The control group with melanomas was treated with neutrons. Fourteen canine patients were selected in the Clinic of Experimental Therapy affiliated with the RCRC RAMS. The calculation of doses has shown that the total dose of energy release depending on Gd concentration in the target can be several times higher than the dose produced by the reactor neutron beam. The calculations were carried out using the diffusion pharmacokinetic model. The gadolinium drug dipentast was administered intratumorally immediately prior to irradiation. The tumor size was estimated by measuring it in three projections. The tumor was irradiated for 60-90 minutes with a thermal neutron flux of 0.7x109 n/cm2s. The dose on tumor was 80-120 Gy, on surrounding tissues - 12-15 Gy. The treatment plan included immunotherapy with Roncoleikin in a dose of (15-10)x103 IE/kg. The results of GdNCT are still under observation. The results conform to those obtained by us earlier in cell cultures and inoculated experimental tumors. GdNCT is also effective in combination with immunotherapy. (author)

  12. Early melanoma diagnosis with mobile imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do, Thanh-Toan; Zhou, Yiren; Zheng, Haitian; Cheung, Ngai-Man; Koh, Dawn

    2014-01-01

    We research a mobile imaging system for early diagnosis of melanoma. Different from previous work, we focus on smartphone-captured images, and propose a detection system that runs entirely on the smartphone. Smartphone-captured images taken under loosely-controlled conditions introduce new challenges for melanoma detection, while processing performed on the smartphone is subject to computation and memory constraints. To address these challenges, we propose to localize the skin lesion by combining fast skin detection and fusion of two fast segmentation results. We propose new features to capture color variation and border irregularity which are useful for smartphone-captured images. We also propose a new feature selection criterion to select a small set of good features used in the final lightweight system. Our evaluation confirms the effectiveness of proposed algorithms and features. In addition, we present our system prototype which computes selected visual features from a user-captured skin lesion image, and analyzes them to estimate the likelihood of malignance, all on an off-the-shelf smartphone. PMID:25571546

  13. Assessment of PALB2 as a Candidate Melanoma Susceptibility Gene

    OpenAIRE

    Aoude, Lauren G.; Xu, Mai; Zhao, Zhen Zhen; Kovacs, Michael; Palmer, Jane M.; Johansson, Peter; Symmons, Judith; Trent, Jeffrey M.; Martin, Nicholas G.; Montgomery, Grant W.; Brown, Kevin M.; Hayward, Nicholas K.

    2014-01-01

    Partner and localizer of BRCA2 (PALB2) interacts with BRCA2 to enable double strand break repair through homologous recombination. Similar to BRCA2, germline mutations in PALB2 have been shown to predispose to Fanconi anaemia as well as pancreatic and breast cancer. The PALB2/BRCA2 protein interaction, as well as the increased melanoma risk observed in families harbouring BRCA2 mutations, makes PALB2 a candidate for melanoma susceptibility. In order to assess PALB2 as a melanoma predispositio...

  14. Giant metastatic melanoma arising from an unknown primary site

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Orndrup, Mette Heisz; Crewe, BjØrn

    2014-01-01

    Metastatic melanoma arising from an unknown primary site (MUP) accounts for 1-8% of all melanomas. MUP is charac-terized by a better survival compared to a melanoma with known primary site. We report a case with a 55-year-old male with MUP and a 1.7 kg axillary lymph node metastasis, which was successfully excised. The patient was fully functional and alive 12 months after surgery. The reported favorable post-operative long-term survival of patients with MUP supports that these patients should be treated with an aggressive surgical approach with curative intent.

  15. From genes to drugs: targeted strategies for melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flaherty, Keith T; Hodi, F Stephen; Fisher, David E

    2012-05-01

    The past decade has revealed that melanoma is comprised of multiple subclasses that can be categorized on the basis of key features, including the clinical stage of disease, the oncogenic molecular 'drivers', the anatomical location or the behaviour of the primary lesion and the expression of specific biomarkers. Although exercises in subclassification are not new in oncology, progress in this area has produced both conceptual and clinical breakthroughs, which, for melanoma, are unprecedented in the modern history of the disease. This Review focuses on these recent striking advances in the strategy of molecularly targeted approaches to the therapy of melanoma in humans. PMID:22475929

  16. Primary Anorectal Malignant Melanoma Treated With Endoscopic Mucosal Resection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jong Hoon; Yoon, Hyung Seok; Jung, Tae Young; Lee, Eun Joo; Lim, Jong Gu; Ko, Soon Young; Wang, Joon Ho; Lee, Jae Dong; Kim, Hye Young

    2015-01-01

    Anorectal melanoma is a rare neoplasm that accounts for less than 1-4% of anorectal malignant tumors. The main therapeutic modality for anorectal melanoma is surgical treatment, with abdominoperineal resection or wide local excision being the most common approaches. A 77-year-old male with a history of cerebral infarction and hypertension presented with anal bleeding. Here, we report a case of anorectal melanoma treated by endoscopic mucosal resection with adjuvant interferon therapy rather than surgical resection. The patient has been disease-free for 5 years after endoscopic treatment.

  17. Multimethod imaging, staging, and spectrum of manifestations of metastatic melanoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The incidence of melanoma has been steadily increasing. Imaging plays an important role in tumour assessment as metastatic melanoma can involve multiple organs. Computed tomography (CT) is currently the most widely used technique for tumour staging, surveillance and assessment of therapeutic response, but ultrasound, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and positron-emission tomography (PET)-CT also play important roles in the imaging of this tumour. In this article, we review the pathways of spread, staging according to the recently updated TNM classification, pathology, typical and atypical imaging features at common and uncommon sites, and treatment of metastatic melanoma.

  18. The Role of Pigmentation and Oncogenic BRAF in Melanoma

    OpenAIRE

    Mitra, Devarati

    2012-01-01

    BRAF(V600E), the most commonly mutated oncogene in melanoma, is found in about half of patients. By hyperactivating the MAPK pathway, this mutation promotes cell growth and proliferation. Melanocytic BRAF(V600E) alone, however, is insufficient to cause melanoma and rather promotes the development of benign nevi (moles). The goal of our initial studies was to better understand how genetic and environmental risk factors interact with the BRAF(V600E) oncogene to induce melanoma. The two most pro...

  19. Combining a BCL2 inhibitor with the retinoid derivative fenretinide targets melanoma cells including melanoma initiating cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Nabanita; Reuland, Steven N; Lu, Yan; Luo, Yuchun; Lambert, Karoline; Fujita, Mayumi; Robinson, William A; Robinson, Steven E; Norris, David A; Shellman, Yiqun G

    2015-03-01

    Investigations from multiple laboratories support the existence of melanoma initiating cells (MICs) that potentially contribute to melanoma's drug resistance. ABT-737, a small molecule BCL-2/BCL-XL/BCL-W inhibitor, is promising in cancer treatments, but not very effective against melanoma, with the antiapoptotic protein MCL-1 as the main contributor to resistance. The synthetic retinoid fenretinide N-(4-hydroxyphenyl)retinamide (4-HPR) has shown promise for treating breast cancers. Here, we tested whether the combination of ABT-737 with 4-HPR is effective in killing both the bulk of melanoma cells and MICs. The combination synergistically decreased cell viability and caused cell death in multiple melanoma cells lines (carrying either BRAF or NRAS mutations) but not in normal melanocytes. The combination increased the NOXA expression and caspase-dependent MCL-1 degradation. Knocking down NOXA protected cells from combination-induced apoptosis, implicating the role of NOXA in the drug synergy. The combination treatment also disrupted primary spheres (a functional assay for MICs) and decreased the percentage of aldehyde dehydrogenase (high) cells (a marker of MICs) in melanoma cell lines. Moreover, the combination inhibited the self-renewal capacity of MICs, measured by secondary sphere-forming assays. In vivo, the combination inhibited tumor growth. Thus, this combination is a promising treatment strategy for melanoma, regardless of mutation status of BRAF or NRAS. PMID:25350317

  20. Melanoma Cells Treated with GGTI and IFN-? Allow Murine Vaccination and Enhance Cytotoxic Response against Human Melanoma Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarrabayrouse, Guillaume; Pich, Christine; Moriez, Raphaël; Armand-Labit, Virginie; Rochaix, Philippe; Favre, Gilles; Tilkin-Mariamé, Anne-Françoise

    2010-01-01

    Background Suboptimal activation of T lymphocytes by melanoma cells is often due to the defective expression of class I major histocompatibility antigens (MHC-I) and costimulatory molecules. We have previously shown that geranylgeranyl transferase inhibition (done with GGTI-298) stimulates anti-melanoma immune response through MHC-I and costimulatory molecule expression in the B16F10 murine model [1]. Methodology/Principal Findings In this study, it is shown that vaccination with mIFN-gand GGTI-298 pretreated B16F10 cells induces a protection against untreated tumor growth and pulmonary metastases implantation. Furthermore, using a human melanoma model (LB1319-MEL), we demonstrated that in vitro treatment with hIFN-? and GGTI-298 led to the up regulation of MHC-I and a costimulatory molecule CD86 and down regulation of an inhibitory molecule PD-1L. Co-culture experiments with peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) revealed that modifications induced by hIFN-? and GGTI-298 on the selected melanoma cells, enables the stimulation of lymphocytes from HLA compatible healthy donors. Indeed, as compared with untreated melanoma cells, pretreatment with hIFN-? and GGTI-298 together rendered the melanoma cells more efficient at inducing the: i) activation of CD8 T lymphocytes (CD8+/CD69+); ii) proliferation of tumor-specific CD8 T cells (MelanA-MART1/TCR+); iii) secretion of hIFN-?; and iv) anti-melanoma specific cytotoxic cells. Conclusions/Significance These data indicate that pharmacological treatment of melanoma cell lines with IFN-? and GGTI-298 stimulates their immunogenicity and could be a novel approach to produce tumor cells suitable for vaccination and for stimulation of anti-melanoma effector cells. PMID:20140259

  1. Noninvasive and label-free detection of circulating melanoma cells by in vivo photoacoustic flow cytometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ping; Liu, Rongrong; Niu, Zhenyu; Suo, Yuanzhen; He, Hao; Wei, Xunbin

    2015-03-01

    Melanoma is a malignant tumor of melanocytes. Circulating melanoma cell has high light absorption due to melanin highly contained in melanoma cells. This property is employed for the detection of circulating melanoma cell by in vivo photoacoustic flow cytometry (PAFC). PAFC is based on photoacoustic effect. Compared to in vivo flow cytometry based on fluorescence, PAFC can employ high melanin content of melanoma cells as endogenous biomarkers to detect circulating melanoma cells in vivo. In our research, we developed in vitro experiments to prove the ability of PAFC system of detecting PA signals from melanoma cells. For in vivo experiments, we constructed a model of melanoma tumor bearing mice by inoculating highly metastatic murine melanoma cancer cells B16F10 with subcutaneous injection. PA signals were detected in the blood vessels of mouse ears in vivo. By counting circulating melanoma cells termly, we obtained the number variation of circulating melanoma cells as melanoma metastasized. Those results show that PAFC is a noninvasive and label-free method to detect melanoma metastases in blood or lymph circulation. Our PAFC system is an efficient tool to monitor melanoma metastases, cancer recurrence and therapeutic efficacy.

  2. Tumor gigante en un paciente con melanoma / Giant tumor in a patient with melanoma

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Katty, Hind Selman-Housein Bernal; Giselle, Tárano Quintero; Iosmill, Morales Pérez; Carlos, Alfonso Sabatier; Francisco, Hernández Bernal.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Se estudió un paciente masculino, negro, de 17 años de edad, caribeño, aparentemente sano hasta el año 2007 cuando aparece un tumor témporo-parieto-frontal izquierdo de crecimiento rápido, que compromete la cara. Al examen físico se constató, además, piel y mucosas pálidas con desnutrición severa. E [...] l diagnóstico histopatológico fue de melanoma maligno de células epiteloides. Abstract in english The case of a black Caribbean patient aged 17 apparently healthy until 2007 when to appear a left temporal-parietal-frontal tumor of fast growth involving the face. At physical examination authors also confirmed a pale skin and mucosae with a severe malnutrition. The histopathological diagnosis was [...] a malignant melanoma of epithelioid cells.

  3. Melanoma "in situ" tratado con Imiquimod / Melanoma in situ treated with Imiquimod

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    RE, Achenbach; M, Dutto; S, Dupuy; CA, Maggi; C, Grecco; A, Acevedo; GF, Sánchez.

    2012-12-30

    Full Text Available Comunicamos un caso con dos melanomas "in situ", en un varón de 86 años, localizados en ambos lados de la cara con alto riesgo quirúrgico, quien fuera tratado con imiquimod al 5% una vez al día durante dos meses; los resultados hasta el momento, clínicos e histológicos han sido satisfactorios. [...] Abstract in english A 86 years-old man with two melanomas "in situ" at both sides of his face, treated with imiquimod 5% are presented. The patient has a cardiovascular high risk due to isquemic heart disease, for that reason we start the treatment with imiquimod once a day for two months. The clinical and histological [...] response was good and a follow up will be as long as we can.

  4. Metastasizing oral melanoma in a cow Melanoma oral metastático em uma vaca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilene de Farias Brito

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available A malignant dendritic melanoma of the oral cavity with metastases widely spread in a cow is described. The clinicopathological manifestations, developed during a two-year period, was characterized by the difficulty in mastication and swallowing, progressive weight loss, weakness and profuse sialorrhea. At the necropsy, an ulcerated black mass was found at the left jaw projecting into the oral cavity. The tumor reached the chin, inferior lip and tongue. Metastases were detected within the tongue, parotid gland, lymph nodes, trachea, thyroid, pleura, lungs, heart, peritoneum, omentum, and serosal membranes of the forestomach and abomasum, liver, and intima of some hepatic vessels, mammary gland, and muscles and fasciae of the left hind leg. No reference to metastasizing oral dendritic melanoma in the oral cavity of the cattle has been mentioned in the literature.Neste trabalho, descreve-se um caso de melanoma dendrítico maligno da cavidade oral em uma vaca, com metástases amplamente disseminadas. A evolução clínica foi de dois anos, e o quadro clínico-patológico caracterizou-se por dificuldade na mastigação e deglutição, perda de peso progressiva, fraqueza e sialorréia profusa. À necropsia, uma massa enegrecida e ulcerada foi encontrada na mandíbula esquerda e projetava-se para a cavidade oral. O tumor envolvia principalmente a porção cranial do ramo horizontal esquerdo da mandíbula e alcançou o mento, o lábio inferior, a gengiva e a língua. Metástases foram detectadas na língua, na glândula parótida, nos linfonodos, na traquéia, na tireóide, na pleura, nos pulmões, no coração, no peritônio, no omento e na serosa dos pré-estômagos e do abomaso, do fígado e da íntima de alguns vasos hepáticos, da glândula mamária e das fáscias e dos músculos do membro posterior esquerdo. Histologicamente o tumor primário e as metástases eram do tipo dendrítico. Não encontramos referências a melanomas primários de mandíbula com metástases em bovinos.

  5. Metastasizing oral melanoma in a cow / Melanoma oral metastático em uma vaca

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Marilene de Farias, Brito; Ticiana Nascimento, França; Flávia Figueiraujo, Jabour; Josilene Nascimento, Seixas; Gisele Braziliano, Andrade; Laura Iglesias, Oliveira; Paulo Vargas, Peixoto.

    1236-12-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho, descreve-se um caso de melanoma dendrítico maligno da cavidade oral em uma vaca, com metástases amplamente disseminadas. A evolução clínica foi de dois anos, e o quadro clínico-patológico caracterizou-se por dificuldade na mastigação e deglutição, perda de peso progressiva, fraqueza [...] e sialorréia profusa. À necropsia, uma massa enegrecida e ulcerada foi encontrada na mandíbula esquerda e projetava-se para a cavidade oral. O tumor envolvia principalmente a porção cranial do ramo horizontal esquerdo da mandíbula e alcançou o mento, o lábio inferior, a gengiva e a língua. Metástases foram detectadas na língua, na glândula parótida, nos linfonodos, na traquéia, na tireóide, na pleura, nos pulmões, no coração, no peritônio, no omento e na serosa dos pré-estômagos e do abomaso, do fígado e da íntima de alguns vasos hepáticos, da glândula mamária e das fáscias e dos músculos do membro posterior esquerdo. Histologicamente o tumor primário e as metástases eram do tipo dendrítico. Não encontramos referências a melanomas primários de mandíbula com metástases em bovinos. Abstract in english A malignant dendritic melanoma of the oral cavity with metastases widely spread in a cow is described. The clinicopathological manifestations, developed during a two-year period, was characterized by the difficulty in mastication and swallowing, progressive weight loss, weakness and profuse sialorrh [...] ea. At the necropsy, an ulcerated black mass was found at the left jaw projecting into the oral cavity. The tumor reached the chin, inferior lip and tongue. Metastases were detected within the tongue, parotid gland, lymph nodes, trachea, thyroid, pleura, lungs, heart, peritoneum, omentum, and serosal membranes of the forestomach and abomasum, liver, and intima of some hepatic vessels, mammary gland, and muscles and fasciae of the left hind leg. No reference to metastasizing oral dendritic melanoma in the oral cavity of the cattle has been mentioned in the literature.

  6. Melanoma de mucosa intraoral: ¿enfermedad local o sistémica? / Oral mucosal melanoma: a local or systemic disease?

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Lorena, Pingarrón Martín; Javier, González Martín-Moro; Chun-Yue, Ma; Zhi-Wei, Yu; Chen-Ping, Zhang.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Realizar una revisión de la situación actual en el tratamiento del melanoma de mucosa oral (MMO). Describir el protocolo de tratamiento que haya demostrado mejores resultados dada la experiencia y los estudios realizados por la institución de referencia. Material y métodos: Los autores rea [...] lizan una amplia revisión de la literatura abordando las nuevas líneas terapéuticas de investigación. Resultados: Descripción del protocolo de tratamiento que siguen en uno de los centros con mayor cáustica en la literatura internacional. Conclusiones: El MMO es una neoplasia maligna poco frecuente, con etiología y patogenia desconocida y un pronóstico infausto. El tratamiento debe basarse en un diagnóstico temprano y un abordaje multidisciplinar. Abstract in english Objective: To review the current situation in the treatment of oral mucosal melanoma. To describe the treatment protocol that has shown better results, given the experience and studies by the reference institution. Methods: The authors conducted an extensive review of the literature addressing the n [...] ew lines of therapeutic research. Results: Description of the treatment regimen followed at one of the most experienced centers in the international literature. Conclusions: Oral mucosal melanoma is a rare malignancy with an unknown etiology and pathogenesis and poor prognosis. Treatment should be centered on early diagnosis and a multidisciplinary approach.

  7. Melanomas metastáticos intracranianos: análise de 13 casos Malignant melanoma brain metastases: analysis of 13 cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Flávio Mattos Araújo

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available Os autores apresentam análise retrospectiva de 13 pacientes com o diagnóstico de melanoma metástico intracerebral. A lesão primária foi detectada em 9 pacientes. A idade dos pacientes variou entre 28 e 84 anos. O tempo transcorrido entre o diagnóstico da lesão primária e a metástase cerebral variou entre 6 e 60 meses. Todos os pacientes foram submetidos a craniotomia, com remoção da lesão. A mortalidade nos primeiros 30 dias foi zero. A sobrevida dos pacientes variou entre 2 e 55 meses. O tempo médio de sobrevida de todo o grupo foi 14 meses. Embora o tratamento cirúrgico não seja curativo, a sobrevida é significativamente prolongada. Os critérios para a indicação da cirurgia, radioterapia e quimioterapia são discutidos.The authors present a retrospective review of 13 patients with the diagnostic of intracranial metastatic malignant melanoma. Their ages ranged from 28 to 84 years. The time interval from diagnosis of primary tumor to development of cerebral metastases ranged from 6 to 60 months. There was preoperative evidence of extracranial disease in 9 patients. All patients underwent craniotomy, and the 30-day mortality was zero. The patients survived 2 to 55 months after surgery. Medium survival time for all patients was 14 months. The excision of metastatic melanoma from the brain, although not curative, may increase survival in patients with this metastatic cancer. The criteria for consideration of surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy are discussed.

  8. Melanomas metastáticos intracranianos: análise de 13 casos / Malignant melanoma brain metastases: analysis of 13 cases

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    João Flávio Mattos, Araújo; Alexander, Sperlescu; Eduardo Barros, Melacci; Roque José, Balbo.

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available Os autores apresentam análise retrospectiva de 13 pacientes com o diagnóstico de melanoma metástico intracerebral. A lesão primária foi detectada em 9 pacientes. A idade dos pacientes variou entre 28 e 84 anos. O tempo transcorrido entre o diagnóstico da lesão primária e a metástase cerebral variou [...] entre 6 e 60 meses. Todos os pacientes foram submetidos a craniotomia, com remoção da lesão. A mortalidade nos primeiros 30 dias foi zero. A sobrevida dos pacientes variou entre 2 e 55 meses. O tempo médio de sobrevida de todo o grupo foi 14 meses. Embora o tratamento cirúrgico não seja curativo, a sobrevida é significativamente prolongada. Os critérios para a indicação da cirurgia, radioterapia e quimioterapia são discutidos. Abstract in english The authors present a retrospective review of 13 patients with the diagnostic of intracranial metastatic malignant melanoma. Their ages ranged from 28 to 84 years. The time interval from diagnosis of primary tumor to development of cerebral metastases ranged from 6 to 60 months. There was preoperati [...] ve evidence of extracranial disease in 9 patients. All patients underwent craniotomy, and the 30-day mortality was zero. The patients survived 2 to 55 months after surgery. Medium survival time for all patients was 14 months. The excision of metastatic melanoma from the brain, although not curative, may increase survival in patients with this metastatic cancer. The criteria for consideration of surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy are discussed.

  9. Melanoma early detection and awareness : how countries developing melanoma awareness programs could benefit from melanoma-proficient countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wainstein, Alberto; Algarra, Salvador Martin

    2014-01-01

    Risk factors for melanoma are well known and have guided plans for primary and secondary prevention. The presentation of the disease, however, varies widely depending on the geographic area, ethnicity, and socioeconomic status. For this reason, many countries have developed specific strategies to increase public awareness and favor early diagnosis. Awareness campaigns, doctor education, and screening of high-risk subjects have all contributed to improve disease outcome in developed countries. The role of primary care physicians is particularly relevant in this regard. Developing countries are trying to implement similar measures. Future efforts to further improve the efficacy of preventive strategies should focus on populations that usually escape campaigns, such as elderly men and people with low socioeconomic status. Fast-growing tumors also require specific attention.

  10. Spotlight on pembrolizumab in the treatment of advanced melanoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajakulendran T

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Thanashan Rajakulendran,1 David N Adam2 1Department of Medicine, Division of Dermatology, Postgraduate Medical Education, 2Department of Medicine, Division of Dermatology, St Michael’s Hospital, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada Abstract: Metastatic melanoma is an aggressive cancer with a poor prognosis. Many approved therapies often do not achieve durable responses in patients. This underscores the need for novel therapeutic strategies. Recruiting a robust immune response is an important antineoplastic treatment strategy. Immune checkpoints offer a molecular target for modulating the immune response and a promising therapeutic target in metastatic melanoma. Here we discuss the recent approval of pembrolizumab by the US Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of metastatic melanoma and its impact on future management of the disease. Keywords: pembrolizumab, melanoma, immune checkpoint, PD-1, PD-L1

  11. Malignant melanoma arising in mature cystic teratoma of the ovary

    OpenAIRE

    Godoy, Heidi E.; Kesterson, Joshua P.; Kasznica, John M.; Lele, Shashikant

    2011-01-01

    ? Teratomas are composed of elements of all three germ layers, all potentially capable of undergoing malignant transformation. ? A case of malignant melanoma arising in a mature teratoma is presented.

  12. Wnt Signaling Pathway and its Significance for Melanoma Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.V. Gnuchev

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Melanoma is characterized by its high metastatic propensity. Melanoma metastasis is associated with an activation of signaling pathways that are responsible for embryogenesis. Wnt signaling pathway is considered as one of the key signaling cascades, whose aberrant activation results in melanoma development. Wnt signaling includes a complex network of intracellular interactions. Its ligands are able to initiate at least three signal transduction pathways: canonical and two noncanonical. According to modern views, canonical branch of Wnt signaling pathway is involved in cell proliferation and differentiation. Noncanonical Wnt signaling pathways, on the contrary, control cytoskeleton organization and cell motility. Currently, canonical and noncanonical Wnt signaling cascades are supposed to affect different stages of tumor progression. Canonical Wnt signaling pathway contributes to melanoma formation, while noncanonical branches of Wnt signal transduction are involved in metastasis.

  13. Common Moles, Atypical Moles (Dysplastic Nevi), and Risk of Melanoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... sunlamps and tanning booths before age 30. Personal history : People who have had melanoma have an increased ... with nevi. Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology 2009; 60(5):719–738. [PubMed Abstract] Friedman ...

  14. Malignant melanoma of the mandibular gingiva: A rare occurrence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reddy BVR

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Primary mucosal malignant melanoma of the oral cavity is a rare tumor. It accounts for only 0.2-8% of all malignant melanomas. This malignancy commonly affects male subjects and is more frequently seen on the hard palate and maxillary gingiva. The peak age for diagnosis of oral melanoma is between 55 and 65 years. A biopsy is required to establish a diagnosis. Ablative surgery with tumor-free margins remains the treatment of choice. It has a much poorer prognosis than its counterpart on the skin. Here, we present a case of malignant melanoma of the mandibular lingual gingiva in a 55-year-old male patient. Immunohistochemistry and special stains were conducted for confirmatory diagnosis.

  15. Primary malignant melanoma of the vagina: a case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A primary malignant melanoma of the vagina is a very rare gynecological malignant tumor. Its clinical behavior is more aggressive than that of cutaneous and vulvar melanomas. We present a case of a large sized primary melanoma of the lower third of the vagina, with a cervical lesion, in a 58-year-old postmenopausal woman. The patient was treated with conventional external radiation therapy and intracavitary radiotherapy (lCR), without surgical treatment. Although the primary lesion showed a partial response, the patient died of extensive metastases, which were found 4.5 months after the initial diagnosis. We suggest that shortening the treatment period, such as hypofractionated radiation therapy and surgical removal, and various systemic therapies for preventing early distant metastasis, are appropriate treatments for a primary malignant melanoma of the vagina, with a large tumor size

  16. Primary malignant melanoma of the vagina: a case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, Ji Young; Kim, Do Kang; Lee, Eun Hee [College of Medicine, Catholic Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jun Sang [College of Medicine, Chungnam National Univ., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-09-01

    A primary malignant melanoma of the vagina is a very rare gynecological malignant tumor. Its clinical behavior is more aggressive than that of cutaneous and vulvar melanomas. We present a case of a large sized primary melanoma of the lower third of the vagina, with a cervical lesion, in a 58-year-old postmenopausal woman. The patient was treated with conventional external radiation therapy and intracavitary radiotherapy (lCR), without surgical treatment. Although the primary lesion showed a partial response, the patient died of extensive metastases, which were found 4.5 months after the initial diagnosis. We suggest that shortening the treatment period, such as hypofractionated radiation therapy and surgical removal, and various systemic therapies for preventing early distant metastasis, are appropriate treatments for a primary malignant melanoma of the vagina, with a large tumor size.

  17. Outpatient Follow-up and Secondary Prevention for Melanoma Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan G. Gamble

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Health care providers and their patients jointly participate in melanoma prevention, surveillance, diagnosis, and treatment. This paper reviews screening and follow-up strategies for patients who have been diagnosed with melanoma, based on current available evidence, and focuses on methods to assess disease recurrence and second primary occurrence. Secondary prevention, including the roles of behavioral modification and chemoprevention are also reviewed. The role of follow-up dermatologist consultation, with focused physical examinations complemented by dermatoscopy, reflectance confocal microscopy, and/or full-body mapping is discussed. Furthermore, we address the inclusion of routine imaging and laboratory assessment as components of follow-up and monitoring of advanced stage melanoma. The role of physicians in addressing the psychosocial stresses associated with a diagnosis of melanoma is reviewed.

  18. Genome-Wide Scan Reveals Mutation Associated with Melanoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Research 2012 July 2012 Genome-Wide Scan Reveals Mutation Associated with Melanoma A team of international researchers ... Institute, and other funding organizations discovered a rare mutation in the microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF) gene. ...

  19. ASCO 2011: setting new standards in malignant melanoma and myelofibrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gertrud Lenzen, MD

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The 2011 ASCO Annual Meeting, held on 3–7 June in Chicago, USA, included several landmark trials in malignant melanoma and myelofibrosis. This summary details some of the more interesting and relevant submissions.

  20. A case of unusual metastasis of melanoma of conjunctiva

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M. Andreychenko

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This article describes a clinical case of melanoma of conjunctiva of the upper eyelid of a woman born in 1911. The patient had received a course of external radiotherapy of the primary tumor and plaque brachytherapy tumor recurrences (at 1 and 6 years from the start of treatment. However, after 7 years from the start of treatment, against the background of local remission, the patient had conjunctival melanoma metastasis was found in the choroid of the contralateral eye.

  1. The role of the Hippo pathway in melanocytes and melanoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BruceCharlesBaguley

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The Hippo signalling pathway comprises a series of cytoplasmic tumour suppressor proteins including Merlin and the Lats1/2 and MST1/2 kinases, and is thought to play a critical role in determining the sizes of organs and tissues. The Hippo pathway is regulated upstream by extracellular mechanosensory signalling arising from cell shape and polarity, as well as by a variety of extracellular signalling molecules. When active, the pathway maintains the transcriptional activators YAP and TAZ in phosphorylated forms in the cytoplasm, preventing cell proliferation. When the Hippo pathway is inactivated, YAP and TAZ are translocated to the nucleus and induce the expression of a variety of proteins concerned with entry into the cell division cycle, such as cyclin D1 and Fox M1, as well as the inhibition of apoptosis. The failure of the Hippo pathway has been implicated in the development of many different types of cancer but there is limited information available as to its involvement in melanoma. We hypothesise here firstly that the Hippo pathway is involved in maintaining density of cutaneous melanocytes on the basement membrane at the junction of the epidermis and the dermis, and secondly, that its function is disturbed in melanoma. We have analysed a series of 23 low passage human melanoma lines as well as in cultures of normal melanocytes, and find that melanocytes, as well as all melanoma cell lines examined express TAZ. Melanocytes and most melanoma lines also express YAP. E-cadherin, an upstream regulator of the Hippo pathway, and Axl, a receptor tyrosine kinase regulated by the Hippo pathway, are expressed in melanocytes and in several melanoma cell lines. These observations, together with published evidence for the presence of Merlin, Lats1/2 and MST1/2 in melanocytes and melanoma cells, support the hypothesis that the Hippo pathway is an important component of melanocyte and melanoma behaviour.

  2. Melanocytes, melanocyte stem cells, and melanoma stem cells

    OpenAIRE

    Lang, Deborah; Mascarenhas, Joseph B.; Shea, Christopher R.

    2013-01-01

    Melanocyte stem cells differ greatly from melanoma stem cells; the former provide pigmented cells during normal tissue homeostasis and repair, while the latter play an active role in a lethal form of cancer. These two cell types share several features and can be studied by similar methods. Aspects held in common by both melanocyte stem cells and melanoma stem cells include their expression of shared biochemical markers, a system of similar molecular signals necessary for their maintenance, an...

  3. MiR-21: an environmental driver of malignant melanoma?

    OpenAIRE

    Melnik, Bodo C.

    2015-01-01

    Since the mid-1950’s, melanoma incidence has been rising steadily in industrialized Caucasian populations, thereby pointing to the pivotal involvement of environmental factors in melanomagenesis. Recent evidence underlines the crucial role of microRNA (miR) signaling in cancer initiation and progression. Increased miR-21 expression has been observed during the transition from a benign melanocytic lesion to malignant melanoma, exhibiting highest expression of miR-21. Notably, common BRAF and N...

  4. Uveal melanoma : Cytogenetics, molecular biology and tumor immunology

    OpenAIRE

    All-ericsson, Charlotta

    2002-01-01

    Uveal melanoma is the most common primary intraocular malignancy. The metastatic spread is hematogenous and exclusively to the liver. Although eye-sparing treatments are used more frequently the tumor-related mortality in uveal melanoma is still 30-50%. Only 2% of the patients have detectable metastases at the time of diagnosis. The aim of this study was to test various prognostic markers and possibly new treatment modalities. Chromosomal aberrations were studied on 35 para...

  5. The Potential of Triterpenoids in the Treatment of Melanoma.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šarek, J.; Kvasnica, Miroslav; Vlk, M.; Urban, M.; Dzubak, P.; Hajduch, M.

    Rijeka : InTech, 2011 - (Murph, M.), s. 125-158 ISBN 978-953-307-293-7 Grant ostatní: GA ?R(CZ) GA305/09/1216; GA ?R(CZ) GP301/09/P433 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : triterpene * melanoma * lupane * cancer Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry http://www.intechopen.com/articles/show/title/the-potential-of-triterpenoids-in-the-treatment-of-melanoma

  6. Tumor Initiation in Human Malignant Melanoma and Potential Cancer Therapies

    OpenAIRE

    Ma, Jie; Frank, Markus H.

    2010-01-01

    Cancer stem cells (CSCs), also known as tumor-initiating cells, have been identified in several human malignancies, including human malignant melanoma. The frequency of malignant melanoma-initiating cells (MMICs), which are identified by their expression of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) family member ABCB5, correlates with disease progression in human patients. Furthermore, targeted MMIC ablation through ABCB5 inhibits tumor initiation and growth in preclinical xenotransplantation models, pointi...

  7. Acral melanoma with hyperkeratosis mimicking a pigmented wart

    OpenAIRE

    Ise, Misaki; Yasuda, Fumiyo; Konohana, Izumi; Miura, Keiko; Tanaka, Masaru

    2013-01-01

    Acral lentiginous melanoma (ALM) of the sole sometimes has a hyperkeratotic appearance and mimics a pigmented wart. We report a case of an 81-year-old woman with an ALM on the left sole with hyperkeratosis. Due to its presentation it was difficult to make a correct diagnosis at the beginning. Finally we noticed several small, pigmented macules around the wart-like lesion with the parallel ridge pattern on dermoscopy, strongly suggesting acral melanoma. When a hyperkeratotic pigmented lesion o...

  8. Galectin-3 expression favors metastasis in murine melanoma

    OpenAIRE

    Andréia Neves Comodo; Andre Luis Lacerda Bachi; Maria Fernanda Soares; Marcello Franco; Vicente de Paulo Castro Teixeira

    2013-01-01

    Galectin-3 is a member of the lectin family that binds ?-galactosides and plays an important role in several types of tumors. Melanoma is an invasive cancer responsible for 80% of deaths associated to skin cancers. There are some evidences that galectin-3 interacts with ?-catenin, a molecule involved with Wnt signaling pathway. Here, we evaluate the role of galectin-3 intumor growth and metastasis, as well as its interaction with ?-catenin. Murine melanoma cells (...

  9. Osmotic stress affects functional properties of human melanoma cell lines

    OpenAIRE

    La Porta, Caterina A. M.; Ghilardi, Anna; Pasini, Maria; Laurson, Lasse; Alava, Mikko J.; Zapperi, Stefano; Amar, Martine Ben

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the role of microenvironment in cancer growth and metastasis is a key issue for cancer research. Here, we study the effect of osmotic pressure on the functional properties of primary and metastatic melanoma cell lines. In particular, we experimentally quantify individual cell motility and transmigration capability. We then perform a circular scratch assay to study how a cancer cell front invades an empty space. Our results show that primary melanoma cells are s...

  10. Primary malignant melanoma of the liver: A case report

    OpenAIRE

    Li Gong, Yan-hong Li

    2008-01-01

    Primary malignant melanoma of the liver is an exceedingly rare tumor. Only 12 cases have been reported in the worldwide literature. We present a case of isolated malignant melanoma of the liver occurring in a 36-year-old Chinese male patient. Comprehensive dermatologic and ophthalmologic examinations revealed no evidence of a cutaneous or ocular primary lesion. Other lesions in brain, respiratory tract, lung, gastrointestinal tract and anus, were not demonstrated by serial position emission t...

  11. A Case of Pediatric Melanoma: Treatment Considerations in Advanced Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albino, Frank P.; Wood, Benjamin C.; Oh, Albert; Rogers, Gary F.

    2015-01-01

    Summary: We document a 3-year-old healthy African American girl who developed malignant melanoma on her lower extremity. The clinical appearance offered little indication of the lesion’s severity (T4), and only the history of de novo presentation and disproportionate growth raised clinical suspicion. This case report highlights the subtle clinical findings of this condition and presents controversies related to surgical management of pediatric melanoma.

  12. Malignant melanoma of the vagina: CT and MR findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report CT and MR findings in two cases of primary malignant melanoma of the vagina, one arising from cervicovaginal junction mimicking squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix and the other one recurring at vagina after resection. Two cases of malignant melanoma had high-attenuation on CT and high signal intensity on T1-weighted MR images and enhanced well after gadopentetate dimeglumine administration

  13. Insights in tumorigenesis and metastasis of uveal melanoma

    OpenAIRE

    Notting, Irene Christa

    2009-01-01

    For a long time enucleation has been the treatment of choice for uveal melanoma. New treatment modalities have been developed e.g. transscleral thermotherapy (TTT), proton beam radiation, stereotactic radiotherapy and ruthenium application 1-3 . These treatment options offer a better chance to spare the eye. Despite new treatment options, the overall survival of patients treated for uveal melanoma did not improve. Ultimately, most patients die of metastatic disease. Therefore, there is need f...

  14. Cancer stem cells versus phenotype-switching in melanoma.

    OpenAIRE

    Hoek, KS; Goding, CR

    2010-01-01

    Tumours comprise multiple phenotypically distinct subpopulations of cells, some of which are proposed to possess stem cell-like properties, being able to self-renew, seed and maintain tumours, and provide a reservoir of therapeutically resistant cells. Here, we use melanoma as a model to explore the validity of the cancer stem cell hypothesis in the light of accumulating evidence that melanoma progression may instead be driven by phenotype-switching triggered by genetic lesions that impose an...

  15. Clinical relevance of SKP2 alterations in metastatic melanoma

    OpenAIRE

    Rose, Amy E.; Wang, Guimin; Hanniford, Douglas; Monni, Stefano; Tu, Ting; Shapiro, Richard L.; Berman, Russell S.; Pavlick, Anna C.; Pagano, Michele; Darvishian, Farbod; Mazumdar, Madhu; Hernando, Eva; Osman, Iman

    2010-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the mechanism(s) of altered expression of protooncogene SKP2 in metastatic melanoma and its clinical relevance in patients with metastatic melanoma. The genomic status of SKP2 was assessed in cell lines by sequencing, single nucleotide polymorphism array, and genomic PCR. Copy number status was then evaluated for concordance with SKP2 mRNA and protein expression. SKP2 protein was further evaluated by immunohistochemistry in 93 human metastatic tissues. No mutati...

  16. Photoacoustic detection of melanoma micrometastasis in sentinel lymph nodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormack, Devin; Al-Shaer, Mays; Goldschmidt, Benjamin S; Dale, Paul S; Henry, Carolyn; Papageorgio, Chris; Bhattacharyya, Kiran; Viator, John A

    2009-07-01

    Melanoma is the deadliest form of skin cancer and has the fastest growth rate of all cancer types. Proper staging of melanoma is required for clinical management. One method of staging melanoma is performed by taking a sentinel node biopsy, in which the first node in the lymphatic drainage path of the primary lesion is removed and tested for the presence of melanoma cells. Current standard of care typically involves taking fewer than ten histologic sections of the node out of the hundreds of possible sections available in the tissue. We have developed a photoacoustic method that probes the entire intact node. We acquired a lymph node from a healthy canine subject. We cultured a malignant human melanoma cell line HS 936. Approximately 1 x 10(6) cells were separated and injected into the lymph node. We also had a healthy lymph node in which no melanoma cells were implanted. We used a tunable laser system set at 532 nm to irradiate the lymph nodes. Three piezoelectric acoustic detectors were positioned near the lymph node to detect photoacoustic pulses generated within the lymph nodes. We also acquired lymph nodes from pigs and repeated the experiments with increased amplification and improved sensors. We detected photoacoustic responses from a lymph node with as few as 500 melanoma cells injected into the tissue, while normal lymph nodes showed no response. Photoacoustic generation can be used to detect melanoma micrometastasis in sentinel lymph nodes. This detection can be used to guide further histologic study of the node, increasing the accuracy of the sentinel lymph node biopsy. PMID:19640155

  17. Predicting outcome in melanoma: where are we now?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Jennings, L

    2009-09-01

    Melanoma incidence continues to rise in most countries. This is of grave concern, given the mortality rate in a relatively young population. Current staging tools are limited in their ability to predict accurately those at risk of metastatic disease, relapse and treatment failure. This overview comprehensively reviews relevant literature, with the focus on the last 5 years, and discusses the current state of traditional and emerging novel methods of staging for melanoma and their effect on prognosis in this population.

  18. Metformin inhibits melanoma development through autophagy and apoptosis mechanisms

    OpenAIRE

    Tomic, T; Botton, T; Cerezo, M; Robert, G.; Luciano, F; Puissant, A; Gounon, P; Allegra, M.; Bertolotto, C; Bereder, J-M; Tartare-Deckert, S; Bahadoran, P; Auberger, P.; Ballotti, R; Rocchi, S

    2011-01-01

    Metformin is the most widely used antidiabetic drug because of its proven efficacy and limited secondary effects. Interestingly, recent studies have reported that metformin can block the growth of different tumor types. Here, we show that metformin exerts antiproliferative effects on melanoma cells, whereas normal human melanocytes are resistant to these metformin-induced effects. To better understand the basis of this antiproliferative effect of metformin in melanoma, we characterized the se...

  19. Oral malignant melanoma: A case report with review of literature

    OpenAIRE

    Manigandan, T.; Sagar, G. Vikram; Amudhan, A.; Hemalatha, V. T.; Babu, N. Aravinda

    2014-01-01

    Oral mucosal melanoma is a rare malignancy with the tendency to metastasize and locally invade tissues more readily than other malignant tumor of the oral cavity. It occurs approximately four times more frequently in the oral mucosa of the upper jaw usually on the palate or alveolar gingiva. The chameleonic presentation of malignant melanoma, its asymptomatic condition, rarity of the lesion, poor prognosis and the necessity of a highly specialized treatment are factors that should be seriousl...

  20. Relação entre o nevo melanocítico congênito pequeno e melanoma cutâneo

    OpenAIRE

    Maia Marcus; Russo Carla; Ferrari Nelson; Jorge Douglas; Ribeiro Manoel Carlos S. A.; Muller Helena; Di Giunta Gabriela

    2003-01-01

    FUNDAMENTOS: O risco da ocorrência, de Melanoma Cutâneo (MC), no Nevo Melanocítico Congênito Pequeno (NMCP) (< 3 cm), não tem sido motivo de estudos freqüentes ou mesmo recentes. A conduta a respeito de tais lesões ainda não apresenta nenhum consenso. OBJETIVOS: o propósito deste estudo foi avaliar a freqüência do melanoma cutâneo originado em Nevo Melanocítico Congênito Pequeno, e discutí-lo em relação a literatura, com propósitos de conduta prática. CASUÍSTICA E MÉTODOS: de um total de 204 ...

  1. Multifunctional Particles for Melanoma-Targeted Drug Delivery

    OpenAIRE

    Wadajkar, Aniket S.; Bhavsar, Zarna; Ko, Cheng-yu; Koppolu, Bhanuprasanth; Cui, Weina; Tang, Liping; Nguyen, Kytai T.

    2012-01-01

    New magnetic-based core-shell particles (MBCSP) were developed to target skin cancer cells while delivering chemotherapeutic drugs in a controlled fashion. MBCSP consist of a thermo-responsive shell of poly(N-isopropylacrylamide-acrylamide-allylamine) and a core of poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) embedded with magnetite nanoparticles. To target melanoma cancer cells, MBCSP were conjugated with Gly-Arg-Gly-Asp-Ser (GRGDS) peptides that specifically bind to the ?5?3+ receptor of melanoma...

  2. Electron spin resonance imaging of mouse B16 melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsuda, H; Kobayashi, T; Saito, H; Matsunaga, T; Ikeya, M

    1990-10-01

    An X-band electron spin resonance (ESR) imaging apparatus with a pin-hole TE102 mode cavity and a rapid scan coil was constructed. Using this apparatus, ESR imaging of melanin in mouse B16 melanoma was observed for the first time. The ESR spectrum of B16 melanoma is similar to that of natural melanin extracted from sepia officinalis in microwave power dependence. PMID:1963815

  3. Anorectal melanoma - histopathological and immunohistochemical features and treatment / Melanoma anorretal - diagnósticos histopatológico e imunohistoquímico e tratamento

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Geraldo Magela Gomes da, Cruz; José de Souza, Andrade Filho; Gil, Patrus; Sinara Mônica de Oliveira, Leite; Ilson Geraldo da, Silva; Ricardo Guimarães, Teixeira; Áurea Cassia Gualberto, Braga; Renata Magali Ribeiro Silluzio, Ferreira.

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Os melanomas anorretais (ARM) devem ser caracterizados pela localização (anal, retal e anorretal), coloração, dimensão, forma e mobilidade. Microscopicamente, por tipos de melanócitos, graduação da pigmentação melânica, alterações juncionais sob o epitélio escamoso, índice mitótico atípico, atipias [...] celulares e citoplasmáticas, infiltrado inflamatório, invasões vascular e perineural, linfonodo sentinela e penetração parietal. Devem ser estadiados pelos critérios American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) e/ou TNM Classification of Malignant Tumours (TNM). Como as células do ARM são variáveis, isto torna difícil o diagnóstico diferencial com outros tumores da região anorretal. Assim, faz-se necessária a realização de IHC. Apresentamos uma série de 14 pacientes, nos quais foram refeitos exames histológicos e realizados IHCs com vários marcadores, firmando corretamente o diagnóstico. Os trabalhos mostram que a cirurgia mais racional é a excisão local alargada (ELA) em casos de doença localizada e ressecção abdominoperineal do reto (APR) para lesões avançadas. Independente da técnica, a sobrevida de cinco anos é inferior a 35%; a sobrevida média não ultrapassa 26 meses; o tempo livre de doença é inferior a 10 meses; e a sobrevida global não ultrapassa é de 32 meses. Não há correlação entre melhora dos resultados com qualquer tratamento adjuvante. As terapias-alvo para doença metastática começam a apresentar resultados animadores, ainda inconclusivos. Abstract in english Anorectal melanomas should be characterized by location (anal, rectal and anorectal), color, size, shape and mobility and microscopically, by melanocyte subtypes, grade of melanin pigmentation, junctional changes in the squamous epithelium, atypical mitotic index, cellular atypia, inflammatory infil [...] trate, vascular and perineural invasion, sentinel lymph node, and anorectal parietal penetration. Anorectal melanomas must be staged by American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) and/or TNM Classification of Malignant Tumours (TNM) criteria. As melanocytes can present with several shapes, sometimes the differential diagnosis with other tumors in this region may be difficult. Because of this, immunohistochemistry is mandatory to attain a precise diagnosis. This study is a report of 14 patients with anorectal melanoma, in whom histological examinations were remade and immunohistochemistry was performed with several markers for melanocytes and for other tumor cells of the anorectal region, properly establishing the diagnosis. The most rational surgery is the extended local resection, when the disease is restricted to the area or the abdominoperineal resection to advanced lesions. Regardless of the technique used, the results are always poor. The authors deny any efficacy of current radio and/or chemotherapy as part of treatment of anorectal melanoma. Target-therapy for metastatic disease has been considered a good strategy, but the results are still inconclusive.

  4. Melanoma and ionizing radiation: is there a causal relationship?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fink, Christopher A; Bates, Michael N

    2005-11-01

    This review was initiated in response to concerns that ionizing radiation could be a cause of melanoma. Studies presenting the relative risks for melanoma after external ionizing radiation exposure were in seven categories: (1) The Canadian Radiation Dose Registry, (2) nuclear industry workers, (3) subjects near nuclear test blasts, (4) survivors of the atomic bombings of Japan, (5) airline pilots and cabin attendants, (6) recipients of medical radiation, and (7) radiological technicians. Relative risks for leukemia in each of the studies were used to confirm the likelihood of exposure to ionizing radiation. When studies within a category were compatible, meta-analytic methods were used to obtain combined estimates of the relative risk, and a meta-regression analysis of melanoma relative risk compared to leukemia relative risk was used to examine consistency across exposure categories. Generally, exposure categories with elevated relative risks of leukemia had proportionately elevated relative risks of melanoma. This suggests that people exposed to ionizing radiation may be at increased risk of developing melanoma, although alternative explanations are possible. Future epidemiological studies of ionizing radiation effects should include melanoma as an outcome of interest. PMID:16238450

  5. Using risk factors for detection and prognostication of uveal melanoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pukhraj Rishi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The early detection of malignancy, particularly uveal melanoma, is crucial in protecting visual acuity, salvaging the eye, and preventing metastasis. Risk factors for early detection of uveal melanoma have been clearly delineated in the literature and allow identification of melanoma when it is tiny and simulates a nevus. These factors include thickness >2 mm, presence of subretinal fluid (SRF, symptoms, the orange pigment, margin near optic disc, acoustic hollowness, surrounding halo, and absence of drusen. The importance of early detection is realized when one considers melanoma thickness, as each millimeter increase in melanoma thickness imparts 5% increased risk for metastatic disease. Newer imaging modalities like enhanced depth imaging optical coherence tomography and fundus autoflouroscence facilitate in detection of SRF and orange pigment. Additional molecular biomarkers and cytological features have been identified which can predict the clinical behavior of a small melanocytic lesion. Features that suggest a poor prognosis include higher blood levels of tyrosinase m-RNA, vascular endothelial growth factor, insulin-like growth factor; monosomy 3 and gains in chromosome 8. Management of uveal melanoma includes enucleation (for large, local eye wall resection, brachytherapy, charged particle irradiation, and thermotherapy (for small to medium tumors. Although the role of a good clinical evaluation cannot be underestimated, it is advisable to evaluate the various radiological, molecular, and cytological features, to enhance the accuracy of early diagnosis and improved prognosis.

  6. Socioeconomic and lifestyle factors and melanoma: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, A J; Rambhatla, P V; Eide, M J

    2015-04-01

    Evidence of social determinants of disease and awareness of the impact of these factors on outcomes continues to increase. Social determinants include both socioeconomic and lifestyle factors. This review examines the interface between socioeconomic status (SES) and lifestyle and their effects on melanoma incidence and mortality. Lifestyle factors including occupation, occupational exposures, body mass index, marital status, smoking, recreational sun exposure and tanning were explored as they have a known relationship with melanoma. A remarkable association of SES with melanoma incidence and prognosis has been acknowledged worldwide. Melanoma incidence is increased in populations of higher SES, especially among the highly educated, while lower SES populations present with later-stage disease at time of diagnosis and display greater mortality. The aforementioned lifestyle factors are also related to SES, and have been shown internationally to affect melanoma incidence and mortality. This comprehensive systematic review suggests that lifestyle factors including occupation, occupational exposure, obesity, recreational sun exposure and tanning may explain the relationship between SES and melanoma. PMID:25354495

  7. Melanin-affinic thioureas as selective melanoma seekers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsson, B S

    1991-01-01

    2-Thiouracil and some related thioureas are receiving growing interest as selective melanoma seekers. They are incorporated into growing melanin, apparently due to covalent binding to dopaquinone, and the adduct is gradually trapped in the melanin polymer during its formation. To be clinically useful in melanoma scanning, thiouracil has been radioiodinated, and 5-iodo-2-thiouracil (ITU) was found to be localized in melanotic melanoma as selectively as thiouracil. Clinical trials with ITU, for the detection of malignant melanoma, are in progress, and the results so far are promising. Treatment with [35S]thiouracil has been performed on melanoma-bearing mice. The radiodoses needed for cure, however, were very high, which makes clinical application hazardous. Boron neutron capture therapy, on the other hand, might be a better approach. The technique is based on the irradiation of tumours with slow neutrons from an external source after the accumulation of boron in tumour tissue and clearance from normal tissues. Boron-10 undergoes instantaneous nuclear fission through the reaction 10B(n,alpha)7Li, and the emitted particles are efficient in cell killing. Boronated thioureas have been synthesized in various laboratories, and data from experiments on melanoma-bearing mice indicate that some of these compounds accumulate in the tumours in concentrations necessary for successful treatment. PMID:1823628

  8. Independent validation of six melanoma risk prediction models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Catherine M; Neale, Rachel E; Green, Adèle C; Webb, Penelope M; Whiteman, David C

    2015-05-01

    Identifying people at high risk of melanoma is important for targeted prevention activities and surveillance. Several tools have been developed to classify melanoma risk, but few have been independently validated. We assessed the discriminatory performance of six melanoma prediction tools by applying them to individuals from two independent data sets, one comprising 762 melanoma cases and the second a population-based sample of 42,116 people without melanoma. We compared the model predictions with actual melanoma status to measure sensitivity and specificity. The performance of the models was variable with sensitivity ranging from 97.7 to 10.5% and specificity from 99.6 to 1.3%. The ability of all the models to discriminate between cases and controls, however, was generally high. The model developed by MacKie et al. (1989) had higher sensitivity and specificity for men (0.89 and 0.88) than women (0.79 and 0.72). The tool developed by Cho et al. (2005) was highly specific (men, 0.92; women, 0.99) but considerably less sensitive (men, 0.64; women, 0.37). Other models were either highly specific but lacked sensitivity or had low to very low specificity and higher sensitivity. Poor performance was partly attributable to the use of non-standardized assessment items and various differing interpretations of what constitutes "high risk". PMID:25548858

  9. Histology-Specific MicroRNA Alterations in Melanoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poliseno, Laura; Haimovic, Adele; Segura, Miguel F.; Hanniford, Douglas; Christos, Paul J.; Darvishian, Farbod; Wang, Jinhua; Shapiro, Richard L.; Pavlick, Anna C.; Berman, Russell S.; Hernando, Eva; Zavadil, Jiri; Osman, Iman

    2013-01-01

    We examined the microRNA signature that distinguishes the most common melanoma histological subtypes, superficial spreading melanoma (SSM) and nodular melanoma (NM). We also investigated the mechanisms underlying the differential expression of histology-specific microRNAs. MicroRNA array performed on a training cohort of 82 primary melanoma tumors (26 SSM, 56 NM), and nine congenital nevi (CN) revealed 134 microRNAs differentially expressed between SSM and NM (P<0.05). Out of 134 microRNAs, 126 remained significant after controlling for thickness and 31 were expressed at a lower level in SSM compared with both NM and CN. For seven microRNAs (let-7g, miR-15a, miR-16, miR-138, miR-181a, miR-191, and miR-933), the downregulation was associated with selective genomic loss in SSM cell lines and primary tumors, but not in NM cell lines and primary tumors. The lower expression level of six out of seven microRNAs in SSM compared with NM was confirmed by real-time PCR on a subset of cases in the training cohort and validated in an independent cohort of 97 melanoma cases (38 SSM, 59 NM). Our data support a molecular classification in which SSM and NM are two molecularly distinct phenotypes. Therapeutic strategies that take into account subtype-specific alterations might improve the outcome of melanoma patients. PMID:22551973

  10. The role of radiopharmaceuticals in diagnosis of melanoma malignum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melanoma malignum belongs to the group of neoplasms with the highest lethality. Due to the continuous increase of incidence in numerous countries, this malignance has become a serious health problem. This highly aggressive neoplasm is a source of metastases to most organs and eo ipso of bad prognosis. Early detection of the primary tumour and of metastases creates a chance for optimal therapy. The methods of nuclear medicine are becoming more popular in diagnostics of melanomas because they offer advantages over traditional methods of anatomic imaging. Functional imaging, based on the use of modern radiopharmaceuticals frequently offers more successful identification and characterization of malignant neoplasms. Over the last few decades there have been numerous attempts to utilize, in the diagnostics of melanomas, a number of compounds labelled with radioactive nuclides. An accepted role in diagnosis of melanoma found a technique of lymphoscintigraphic mapping of lymphatic nodes and of detection of the sentinel node. In addition, modern positron emission tomography (PET) with use of 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose has found acceptance in melanoma diagnostics. The present review refers to information on the presently used and potential new radiopharmaceuticals promising effective melanoma diagnostics. (author)

  11. DMBT1 expression distinguishes anorectal from cutaneous melanoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helmke, Burkhard Maria; Renner, Marcus

    2009-01-01

    AIMS: Anorectal melanoma (AM) forms a rare but highly malignant subset of mucosal melanoma with an extremely poor prognosis. Although AMs display histological and immunohistochemical features very similar to cutaneous melanoma (CM), no association exists either with exposure to ultraviolet light or with melanocytic naevi. While AMs are clearly distinguished from CM by displaying few BRAF mutations, they are commonly indistinguishable from CM at the level of gene expression. The aim was to carry out expression analyses of classical immunohistochemical markers and of the protein deleted in malignant brain tumours 1 (DMBT1) in cases of primary anorectal malignant melanoma and CM. METHODS AND RESULTS: Expression analyses of classical immunohistochemical markers (S100, HMB45, Melan A and MiTF) and of the protein DMBT1 were carried out in 27 cases of primary anorectal malignant melanoma and 26 cases of CM. All AM cases analysed showed expression of at least three of the classical markers for melanoma. However, immunohistochemistry showed 19 out of 27 AM to be positive for DMBT1, which represented a statistically significant difference (P = 0.0009) compared with CM (six out of 26), which more commonly are negative for DMBT1 expression. CONCLUSION: These results identify DMBT1 as a molecular feature that may allow distinction between AM and CM and support the notion that AM represents an entity molecularly distinct from CM.

  12. Expression of the c-kit receptor in choroidal melanomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouriaux, Frédéric; Kherrouche, Zoulika; Maurage, Claude-Alain; Demailly, François-Xavier; Labalette, Pierre; Saule, Simon

    2003-04-01

    The KIT gene encodes c-kit, a transmembrane receptor that has tyrosine kinase activity and plays a role in haematopoiesis, gametogenesis and melanogenesis. The c-kit protein is found in normal cutaneous and choroidal melanocytes, and there is evidence that expression is lost in melanoma. Expression of c-kit was analysed in 57 paraffin-embedded sections of choroidal melanoma specimens and three choroidal melanoma cell lines using immunochemistry and Western blotting. Of the tumour specimens, 75% stained positively for c-kit with a membrane pattern of reactivity. Of the six patients who underwent proton beam therapy before enucleation, five tumours exhibited no c-kit immunoreactivity and the other tumour demonstrated weak staining. Of the three melanoma cell lines used, c-kit expression was observed in only one. No correlations between c-kit positivity and parameters such as cell type, largest macroscopic tumour dimension, scleral invasion or pigmentation were observed. In contrast, a significant positive association was found between c-kit staining and mitotic activity (P = 0.02). However, c-kit expression did not significantly influence survival when evaluated by univariate analysis. In conclusion, c-kit is expressed in most choroidal melanoma tumours. Further analysis should provide new insights into the mechanisms underlying the molecular and cellular changes in choroidal melanomas. PMID:12690299

  13. Asymmetry Analysis of Malignant Melanoma Using Image Processing: A Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Premaladha

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Skin cancer is one of the cancers, which is not prominent and considered much like other cancers. Malignant melanoma is the third type or stage of skin cancer which leads to death. It can be prevented only when it is detected at a very early stage but that’s the challenging task in melanoma diagnosis. Most of the clinicians are familiar with Asymmetry, Border, Color and Diameter (ABCD analysis to predict and diagnose the melanoma. Asymmetry plays a major role and it will be one of the best indicators to confirm the presence of cancerous melanocytes. When the images of melanoma skin lesions are subjected to preprocessing and it is investigated with the help of emerging techniques such as Evolutionary Programming, Fuzzy Logic, Artificial Neural Networks and Genetic Programming and Algorithms, it will provide better assistance for the clinicians to predict the melanoma at a very early stage. The study presents a review on various soft computing techniques that exist in the literature to identify the asymmetricity of the melanoma skin lesions with more precision.

  14. Melanoma de canal anal simulando doença hemorroidária: relato de caso Melanoma of the anal canal simulating hemorrhoidal disease: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorena Reuter Motta Gama

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available O Melanoma Anorretal é um tumor maligno raro com a possibilidade de simular uma doença anorretal, tornando o diagnóstico difícil. Tem baixos índices de cura e elevados índices de mortalidade em curto prazo. Os autores descrevem um caso de melanoma de canal anal cuja interpretação por parte do paciente tratava-se de uma doença hemorroidária que exteriorizava às evacuações. Os autores fazem uma extensa revisão da literatura dando ênfase aos sintomas e a melhor opção terapêutica a ser instituída.Anorectal melanoma is a rare malignant tumor with the small chance of simulating anorectal disease, making the diagnosis hard. There is a low rate of cure and high rate of short term mortality. The authors describe a case of anal melanoma which by the patient's interpretation was hemorrhoid disease that exteriorized evacuations. The authors do an extensive evaluation of the literature, giving emphasis to the symptoms and the best therapeutic option to be used.

  15. Growth and form of melanoma cell colonies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We study the statistical properties of melanoma cell colonies grown in vitro by analyzing the results of crystal violet assays at different concentrations of initial plated cells and for different growth times. The distribution of colony sizes is described well by a continuous time branching process. To characterize the shape fluctuations of the colonies, we compute the distribution of eccentricities. The experimental results are compared with numerical results for models of random division of elastic cells, showing that experimental results are best reproduced by restricting cell division to the outer rim of the colony. Our results serve to illustrate the wealth of information that can be extracted by a standard experimental method such as the crystal violet assay. (paper)

  16. Choroidal melanoma: I-125 plaque therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An iodine-125 eye plaque was used to treat 58 patients with choroidal melanoma. Patients were followed up for a mean of 48.7 months. Fifty patients had medium-sized lesions (height between 3.1 and 8.0 mm and base diameter less than 16.0 mm), and six patients had large lesions. There were 24 lesions less than 3.0 mm from the optic nerve. The average radiation dose to the apex of the tumor was 8,468 cGy (dose rate, 71 cGy per hour). Initial local disease control was achieved in 50 patients (86.2%). One patient with local treatment failure received another plaque treatment, which controlled disease, so the total disease control rate was 87.9%. Only eight patients died of their disease. Complications were similar to those with other treatment methods, but none of the patients in this study developed optic nerve atrophy

  17. I-125 plaque therapy for choroidal melanoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fifty-eight patients have been treated for a chorodial melanoma using an I-125 plaque with a mean follow-up of 43.7 months (range, 15 - 100 mo). The average apical tumor dose was 8.468 cGy with a dose rate of 71 cGy. Tumors in 52 (89%) patients are controlled locally (two were replaqued). There are 46 (79%) NED; seven have died of distant disease and five of other causes. Complications include cataracts (14), angiopathy (four), vitreous homorrhage (five), and neovascular glaucoma (four). Even though 44 patients had posterior tumors (with 25 patients having lesions < 3.0 mm from the optic nerve), no one had optic nerve atrophy

  18. Predisposición hereditaria de padecer melanoma en familias uruguayas. Resultados preliminares

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Alejandra, Larre Borges García; Malena, Scarone; Lucía, Delgado; Jimena, Núñez; Mercedes, Laporte; Graciela, Fernández; Carlos, Bazzano; Miguel, Martínez Asuaga.

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Resumo O melanoma cutâneo é o tipo de câncer cuja incidência apresenta a maior taxa de crescimento no mundo. Apesar dos tratamentos caros empregados em seu diagnóstico y tratamento sua taxa de mortalidade não diminui. Pode apresentar-se de duas formas: esporádica e hereditária. Esta última inclui in [...] divíduos com risco alto de desenvolver, sendo que sua freqüência varia segundo a população estudada. O objetivo geral deste trabalho é contribuir ao conhecimento da predisposição hereditária de desenvolver melanoma no Uruguai. Utilizando um formulário de triagem foram identificadas 14 famílias com risco alto de desenvolver melanoma hereditário. Dezessete pacientes integrantes destas famílias deram seu consentimento informado para pesquisar mutações na linha germinal em CDKN2A e CDK4. A detecção de alterações genéticas foi feita utilizando PCR-SSCP (Polymerase Chain Reaction-Single Stranded Conformational Polymorphism). Os fragmentos com um padrão de bandas de SSCP atípicos foram analisados por sequenciação. Foram identificadas duas mutações: uma no exon 2 de CDKN2A (E88X) em dois pacientes familiares em primeiro grau portadores de melanomas múltiplos e síndrome familiar de nevos atípicos (SFNA) e com história familiar de melanoma e câncer de pâncreas. Esta mutação da linha germinal ainda não tinha sido descrita em famílias com melanoma. A outra mutação identificada (G101W) é uma das mais freqüentes em todo o mundo. Ambas mutações foram identificadas em pacientes com SFNA e múltiplos melanomas em suas famílias. A freqüência de mutações encontrada está de acordo com a descrita em estudos anteriores que utilizaram critérios de seleção semelhantes. Abstract in spanish El melanoma cutáneo es el cáncer cuya incidencia presenta la mayor tasa de crecimiento en el mundo. Su tasa de mortalidad no ha disminuido pese a las terapias costosas empleadas para su diagnóstico y tratamiento. Puede presentarse bajo dos formas: esporádica y hereditaria. Esta última incluye a indi [...] viduos con alto riesgo de desarrollar melanoma, variando su frecuencia según la población estudiada. El objetivo general del presente trabajo es contribuir al conocimiento de la predisposición hereditaria de padecer melanoma en Uruguay. Mediante la aplicación de un formulario de tamizaje se identificaron 14 familias con alto riesgo de padecer melanoma hereditario. Diecisiete pacientes integrantes de ellas dieron su consentimiento informado para investigar mutaciones de línea germinal en CDKN2A y CDK4. La detección de cambios genéticos se realizó mediante PCR-SSCP (Polymerase Chain Reaction - Single Stranded Conformational Polymorphism). Los fragmentos con un patrón de bandas de SSCP atípicos fueron analizados mediante secuenciación. Se identificaron dos mutaciones: una en el exón 2 de CDKN2A (E88X) en dos pacientes familiares de primer grado portadoras de melanomas múltiples y síndrome familiar de nevos atípicos (SFNA) y con historia familiar de melanoma y cáncer de páncreas. Esta mutación de línea germinal no ha sido descripta previamente en familias con melanoma. La otra mutación identificada (G101W) es una de las más frecuentes a nivel mundial. Ambas mutaciones fueron identificadas en pacientes con SFNA y múltiples melanomas en sus familias. La frecuencia de mutaciones encontrada concuerda con la documentada en estudios previos que utilizaron criterios de selección similares

  19. Calidad de vida en pacientes con melanoma de coroides Quality of life in patients with choroidal melanoma

    OpenAIRE

    C. Blanco-Rivera; C. Capeáns-Tomé; X.L. Otero-Cepeda

    2008-01-01

    Objetivo: Determinar qué tratamiento, la braquiterapia con I125 o la enucleación, aporta una mayor calidad de vida a los pacientes tratados de melanoma de coroides. Pacientes y método: Se administró una versión modificada del cuestionario VF-14 a 65 pacientes tratados de melanoma coroideo mediante braquiterapia, enucleación o ambos. Los datos obtenidos fueron sometidos a un estudio estadístico. Resultados: Se encontraron diferencias estadísticamente significativas entre la agudeza vis...

  20. Melanoma conjuntival multifocal recidivado originado de nevus pigmentado preexistente / Recurrent multifocal conjunctival melanoma originated from preexisting pigmented nevus

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Marcos Leandro, Pereira; Dulcídio de Barros, Moreira Júnior.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available O melanoma conjuntival multifocal recidivado originado de nevus preexistente é extremamente raro, ocorrendo em uma pessoa para cinco milhões de habitantes. Seu estudo é de extrema relevância, devido sua potencial letalidade. Este estudo objetiva descrever um caso de melanoma conjuntival multifocal r [...] ecidivado proveniente de nevus pigmentado preexistente ocorrido em Patos de Minas, MG. Este é um estudo de caso com revisão de literatura. O diagnóstico histopatológico e o estadiamento precoce da lesão conjuntival é de fundamental importância para designar a conduta frente ao paciente. O procedimento terapêutico mais utilizado nos dias atuais é a excisão cirúrgica com crioterapia adjuvante associada à mitomicina C. O prognóstico do melanoma conjuntival multifocal recidivado originado de nevus preexistente é o pior dentre todos os melanomas oculares, apresentando alta taxa de mortalidade, 12% a 20% em 5 anos e 30% em 10 anos de desenvolvimento patológico. Abstract in english Recurrent multifocal conjunctival melanoma originated from preexisting nevus is extremely rare: it occurs in one out of five million individuals. The investigation of this disease is extremely important due to its potential lethality. Thus, this study aims to describe a case of recurrent multifocal [...] conjunctival melanoma originated from preexisting pigmented nevus, which occurred in the city of Patos de Minas, state of Minas Gerais. This is a case study and literature review. Histopathological diagnosis and early staging of the conjunctival lesion is a key element on how to approach the patient. The treatment procedure most commonly used today is surgical excision with adjuvant cryotherapy and mitomycin C. The prognosis of recurrent multifocal conjunctival melanoma originated from preexisting nevus is the worst of all ocular melanomas, with high mortality rate: 12% to 20% within 5 years and 30% within 10 years of pathological development.

  1. Malignant melanoma: clinical presentation, report of a case (Clínica de presentación de melanoma maligno: a propósito de un caso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carpio-Deheza Gonzalo

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, there is not frequently the appearance of primary melanoma, because it has a difficult diagnosis. It has different ways of presentation and symptomatology, especially, when you cannot know if they come from melanoma or from a different organ with metastasis. Melanoma has an aggressive behavior and it has not a Standard Treatment Protocol, all of this involves a bad prognostic. Pleural affectation is present in 15 % of patients with malignant melanoma and thoracic metastasis. In this investigation we present the case of 58 years old masculine patient with an inguinal tumor of three years of evolution, narrow mediastinum with pulmonary metastasis and an unknown primary tumor, as pathologic personal history. The last one is diagnosed like primary malignant melanoma, after a lot of biopsies (with atypia as results and inmunohistological chemistry studies. –RESUMEN: La aparición de melanomas primarios, si bien en nuestros días no son tan infrecuentes en presentación, pero aún sigue sin dilucidarse sus formas de presentación y sintomatología, mas si la clínica de presentación es por el órgano metastatizado. La agresividad de esta entidad y la ausencia de protocolos de tratamiento estandarizado, hacen que el pronóstico sea infausto. En el melanoma maligno, la afectación pleural ocurre en el 15 % de los pacientes con metástasis torácicas. En el presente trabajo presentamos un caso: Paciente masculino, de 58 años, con antecedentes de presentación de tumor inguinal de tres años de evolución, estrechamiento de mediastino con metástasis pulmonares, con tumor primario desconocido. El cual es diagnosticado como Melanoma Maligno Primario, post-biopsia y estudio Inmunohistoquímico del mismo (después de habérsele realizado varias biopsias, con resultados de atipia, no pudiéndose determinar la estirpe del mismo.

  2. Microscopia confocal reflectante aplicada ao diagnóstico do melanoma cutâneo Reflectance confocal microscopy in the diagnosis of cutaneous melanoma

    OpenAIRE

    Cintia Rito; Juan Pineiro-Maceira

    2009-01-01

    O melanoma cutâneo é um problema de saúde pública a nível mundial. Sua incidência tem aumentado, de forma marcante, nos últimos anos, e o diagnóstico e excisão precoces são essenciais para o bom prognóstico dos pacientes. Neste contexto, a dermatoscopia ganhou grande importância, nas últimas duas décadas, melhorando, de forma significativa, a acurácia do diagnóstico do melanoma, em estágios iniciais. Porém, existem algumas lesões benignas que apresentam dermatoscopia duvidosa, levando à reali...

  3. Dermoscopic clues in the diagnosis of amelanotic and hypomelanotic malignant melanoma Pistas dermatoscópicas no diagnóstico de melanoma maligno amelanótico e hipomelanótico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Bissacotti Steglich

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The clinical identification of amelanotic malignant melanoma (AMM and hypomelanotic malignant melanoma (HMM becomes difficult due to the lack of pigmentation and to the diverse clinical presentations. Dermoscopy is very useful in these cases, increasing the level of suspicion of malignancy. We report 4 cases of amelanotic malignant melanoma and hypomelanotic malignant melanoma with characteristic dermoscopic findings. Dermoscopy under polarized light demonstrates vascular polymorphism, globules and milky-red areas, in addition to chrysalis and multiple blue-gray dots.A identificação clínica de melanoma maligno amelanótico e hipomelanótico torna-se difícil devido à falta de pigmentação e às diversas apresentações desse tipo de tumor. A dermatoscopia é muito útil nestes casos, aumentando o grau de suspeição de malignidade. Relatamos 4 casos de melanoma maligno amelanótico e melanoma maligno hipomelanótico com achados dermatoscópicos característicos. A dermatoscopia com luz polarizada demonstra polimorfismo vascular, glóbulos e áreas vermelholeitosas, assim como crisálides e múltiplos pontos azul-acinzentados.

  4. A cystic amelanotic melanoma metastasis to the brain: case report / Metástasis cerebral de un melanoma amelanótico quístico

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    B., Cemil; H., Emmez; N., Oztanir; N., Tokgoz; F., Dogulu.

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Que sepamos, la formación quística de un melanoma intracraneal es rara y sólo se han descrito 15 casos de melanoma intracraneal amilanocítico. Se observó una masa amarillenta en el lóbulo frontal. El contenido del quiste consistía en un hematoma antiguo, con líquido xantocrómico tejido necrótico que [...] se evacuó, con resección total de la pared del quiste. No se encontró ninguna pigmentación anormal en la pared ni en el tejido cerebral adyacente. Las imágenes de los melanomas metastásicos son muy peculiares, debido a la presencia de melanina y a la propensión a la hemorragia. Ambos, hemorragia y melanina pueden producir hiperseñal en T1 e hiposeñal en T2. Abstract in english As far as we know, cyst formation in intracranial melanoma is rare, and only 15 cases of intracranial amelanotic melanoma have been reported until now. A yellowish mass was observed in the frontal lobe. The content of the cyst consisted of old hematoma, xanthochromic fluid and necrotic tissue, was e [...] vacuated and the cyst wall was totally resected. No abnormal pigmentation was noted in the cyst wall and surrounding brain tissue. The imaging features of metastatic melanomas are distinctive due to the presence of melanin and the propensity for hemorrhage. Both hemorrhage and melanin can produce T1-weighted hyperintensity and T2-weighted signal intensity loss.

  5. Mitf-Mdel, a novel melanocyte/melanoma-specific isoform of microphthalmia-associated transcription factor-M, as a candidate biomarker for melanoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riker Adam I

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Melanoma incidence is on the rise and advanced melanoma carries an extremely poor prognosis. Treatment options, including chemotherapy and immunotherapy, are limited and offer low response rates and transient efficacy. Thus, identification of new melanocyte/melanoma antigens that serve as potential novel candidate biomarkers in melanoma is an important area for investigation. Methods Full length MITF-M and its splice variant cDNA were cloned from human melanoma cell line 624 mel by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR. Expression was investigated using regular and quantitative RT-PCR in three normal melanocytes (NHEM, 31 melanoma cell lines, 21 frozen melanoma tissue samples, 18 blood samples (pheripheral blood mononuclear cell; PBMC from healthy donors and 12 non-melanoma cancer cell lines, including three breast, five glioma, one sarcoma, two kidney and one ovarian cancer cell lines. Results A novel splice variant of MITF-M, which we named MITF-Mdel, was identified. The predicted MITF-Mdel protein contains two in frame deletions, 56- and 6- amino acid deletions in exon 2 (from V32 to E87 and exon 6 (from A187 to T192, respectively. MITF-Mdel was widely expressed in melanocytes, melanoma cell lines and tissues, but almost undetectable in non-melanoma cell lines or PBMC from healthy donors. Both isoforms were expressed significantly higher in melanoma tissues than in cell lines. Two of 31 melanoma cell lines expressed only one isoform or the other. Conclusion MITF-Mdel, a novel melanocyte/melanoma-specific isoform of MITF-M, may serve as a potential candidate biomarker for diagnostic and follow-up purposes in melanoma.

  6. Targeted alpha therapy for melanoma : from bench to bedside

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The control of metastatic melanoma remains an elusive objective. Targeted alpha therapy (TAT) offers a new approach to the control of micrometastases and regression of tumours. The alpha emitting immunoconjugate (AIC) against malignant melanoma has been prepared by chelating Bi-213 to the anti-melanoma antibody 9.2.27, and injected locally at 2 d post-inoculation of 1.5 million melanoma cells, or intralesionally into skin tumours. Human subjects receive 50?Ci intralesional dose, escalating to 1 mCi. The clearances from the tumour, kidneys and bladder are monitored by a NaI detector that detects the 440 keV gamma ray. Blood samples and tumour photographs are taken at O. 2 and 4 weeks; tumours are excised at 4 weeks. Isolated cancer cells and preangiogenic cell clusters in mice can be eliminated with 25 ?Ci local AIC injection, and intra-lesional injections of 100 ?Ci are sufficient to completely regress melanomas with volumes up to 300 mm3 without side-effects. Systemic TAT with a single administration is less effective with 100% growth delay of tumours observed, and ?20% complete inhibition. The clinical TAT trial for recurrent subcutaneous melanoma has been approved by the NSW Radiation Advisory Committee and the SES Human Ethics Committee. In a world first phase 1 study, the first 5 subjects have been treated by intralesional injection, 3 at 50 ?Ci, and 2 at 150 ?Ci. All subjects having unchanged blood profiles at 2 and 4 weeks post-therprofiles at 2 and 4 weeks post-therapy. Tumour volumes appear little changed. However, histology of a 3 cm melanoma shows that almost complete cell kill occurred at 150 ?Ci, with only a few small cell clusters surviving. Local TAT inhibits tumourogenesis and intralesional TAT completely regresses melanoma in mice. Intralesional TAT for melanoma in human subjects is non-toxic so far and appears to be a promising modality. The ultimate objective is to apply systemic TAT for the control of melanoma micrometastases. Copyright (2001) Australasian College of Physical Scientists and Engineers in Medicine

  7. Caracterización clínica e histopatológica de melanomas malignos de piel / Biopsy-based clinical and histopathological characterization of cutaneous malignant melanoma

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Lindsay, Chacón-Garita; Manuel, Moreira-Carvajal.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Antecedentes: la incidencia del melanoma cutáneo ha venido en aumento en las últimas décadas, convirtiéndose en causa importante de muerte a nivel mundial. El objetivo es determinar la incidencia y caracterizar los melanomas con base en los resultados de las biopsias del Servicio de Patología del Ho [...] spital San Rafael de Alajuela. Métodos: se realizó la revisión histopatológica de cada una de las biopsias diagnosticadas como melanoma maligno de piel, con tinciones de hematoxilina y eosina, en el periodo comprendido de enero de 2009 a diciembre de 2012, para determinar sus características histopatológicas. Se obtuvieron frecuencias simples de todas las variables y medidas de tendencia central y dispersión para las variables cuantitativas. Resultados: se diagnosticó en este periodo un total de 28 melanomas malignos de piel, 16 corresponden a pacientes de sexo masculino. La edad promedio de presentación es 57,0 años y las localizaciones más frecuentes fueron espalda y cara. El melanoma de extensión superficial fue el tipo histológico predominante. En 15 de los casos se encontró invasión de tipo vertical. El 21,1% de los casos presentó un nivel de Clark III, y el grosor de Breslow varió en un rango de 0,20mm a 8,00mm. La morfología celular predominante fue la epiteloide. Otras variables histopatológicas como conteo mitótico, invasión vascular, ulceración o invasión perineural, fueron menos encontradas. Conclusiones: el melanoma maligno se presenta predominantemente en pacientes de sexo masculino, en la quinta década de la vida, principalmente en la espalda y la cara. El tipo histológico más frecuente es el melanoma maligno de extensión superficial. Abstract in english Background: The incidence of cutaneous melanoma has increased in recent decades, becoming a major cause of death worldwide. The objective was to characterize melanomas histologically and to determine the incidence based on the results of the biopsies of the Pathology Department of the San Rafael de [...] Alajuela Hospital. Methods: We conducted a review of each of the biopsies diagnosed as cutaneous melanoma with hematoxylin and eosin from January 2009 until December 2012 to determine their histological features. Simple frequencies were obtained for all variables and measures of central tendency and dispersion for the qualitative variables. Results: A total of 28 cutaneous malignant melanomas were diagnosed, of which 16 occurred in male patients. The average age at presentation was 57.0 years and the most frequent location was Melanomas malignos / Chacón-Garita y Moreira-Carvajal the back and face. The superficial spreading melanoma is the predominant histologic type. In 15 cases, vertical invasion was found. In 21.1% of the cases the patients had Clark level III and Breslow thickness ranged from 0.20 to 8.00 mm. The predominant type was epithelioid cell morphology. Other histopathological variables such as mitotic count, vascular invasion, perineural invasion or ulceration were less frequently found. Conclusions: Malignant melanoma occurs predominantly in male patients in their fifth decade of life; mainly in back and face. The most common histological type was superficial spreading melanoma.

  8. Correlation of histopathological patterns in cutaneous melanoma with BRAF mutations / Correlação de padrões histopatológicos de melanomas cutâneos com mutações BRAF

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Juliana Elizabeth, Jung; Jorge Eduardo Fouto, Matias; Norbert, Blödorn-Schlicht; Thomas M., Falk; Almut, Böer.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: Mutações do gene BRAF localizado no cromossomo 7q são as mais frequentemente encontradas em melanomas cutâneos (60%-80%). O único estudo que correlacionou padrões histopatológicos de melanomas cutâneos com a presença de mutações BRAF foi realizado por Viros et al., em 2008, que observara [...] m que características morfológicas de melanomas estavam associadas a mutações BRAF. OBJETIVOS: Correlacionar padrões histopatológicos de melanomas cutâneos com a presença de mutações BRAF, a fim de confirmar os achados de Viros et al. MÉTODOS: Espécimes em parafina de 20 casos de melanomas cutâneos primários com mutações BRAF e 20 casos sem mutações foram avaliados independentemente por dois dermatologistas sem o conhecimento da presença ou não das mutações. Os padrões analisados foram formação de "ninhos", circunscrição, presença de melanócitos isolados na lesão, tamanho e forma das células neoplásicas e pigmentação das células tumorais. RESULTADOS: A formação de "ninhos" foi a variável com o maior poder de determinação para melanomas com mutações BRAF para ambos os observadores (r = 0,46; p = 0,04). CONCLUSÃO: Não foi possível confirmar nenhum valor preditivo em relação ao status mutacional de um melanoma para os padrões histológicos circunscrição e presença de melanócitos isolados na lesão, bem como para características citológicas. Dificuldades na interpretação de alguns critérios histológicos foram demonstradas pela variação da concordância entre os observadores. É difícil afirmar se alterações genéticas como as mutações BRAF podem servir como biomarcadores para a classificação de melanomas. Abstract in english INTRODUCTION: Mutations on BRAF gene located on chromosome 7q are the most frequently found in cutaneous melanomas (60%-80%). The only study correlating histopathological patterns of cutaneous melanomas with the presence of BRAF mutations was undertaken by Viros et al. in 2008. The authors observed [...] that morphological features of melanomas are associated with BRAF mutations. OBJECTIVES: To correlate histopathological patterns in cutaneous melanoma with the presence of BRAF mutations in order to corroborate the results of the study performed by Viros et al. METHODS: Paraffin embedded surgical specimens of 20 primary cutaneous melanomas with BRAF mutation and 20 specimens without BRAF mutation were evaluated independently by two dermatologists that carried out a blind experiment. The features analyzed were nesting, circumscription, presence of isolated melanocytes in the lesion, size and shape of neoplastic cells, and tumor cell pigmentation. RESULTS: "Nesting" was the most prevalent variable for the determination of melanomas with BRAF mutations according to both observers (r = 0.46; p = 0.04). CONCLUSION: As far as mutational status is concerned, it was not possible to confirm any predictive value for histopathological patterns such as circumscription, presence of isolated melanocytes in the lesion and cytological features. Difficulties in the interpretation of some histological criteria were demonstrated by the variation in the observers' conclusions. It is difficult to state if genetic alterations such as BRAF mutations may serve as biomarkers for melanoma classification.

  9. Pesticide exposure in farming and forestry and the risk of uveal melanoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Behrens, Thomas; Lynge, Elsebeth

    2012-01-01

    Since pesticides are disputed risk factors for uveal melanoma, we studied the association between occupational pesticide exposure and uveal melanoma risk in a case-control study from nine European countries.

  10. Melanoma Rates Way Up Among Young People in U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_152863.html Melanoma Rates Way Up Among Young People in U.S. ... 2, 2015 TUESDAY, June 2, 2015 (HealthDay News) -- Melanoma, the potentially deadly skin cancer, has increased by ...

  11. Constitutive Overexpression of Pigment Epithelium–Derived Factor Inhibition of Ocular Melanoma Growth and Metastasis

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Hua; Grossniklaus, Hans E.

    2010-01-01

    Pigment epithelium–derived factor (PEDF) is expressed in human uveal melanoma. In a mouse model with ocular melanoma, PEDF suppresses tumor angiogenesis, tumor size, and number of hepatic micrometastases.

  12. Biology of advanced uveal melanoma and next steps for clinical therapeutics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luke, Jason J; Triozzi, Pierre L; McKenna, Kyle C; Van Meir, Erwin G; Gershenwald, Jeffrey E; Bastian, Boris C; Gutkind, J Silvio; Bowcock, Anne M; Streicher, Howard Z; Patel, Poulam M; Sato, Takami; Sossman, Jeffery A; Sznol, Mario; Welch, Jack; Thurin, Magdalena; Selig, Sara; Flaherty, Keith T; Carvajal, Richard D

    2015-03-01

    Uveal melanoma is the most common intraocular malignancy although it is a rare subset of all melanomas. Uveal melanoma has distinct biology relative to cutaneous melanoma, with widely divergent patient outcomes. Patients diagnosed with a primary uveal melanoma can be stratified for risk of metastasis by cytogenetics or gene expression profiling, with approximately half of patients developing metastatic disease, predominately hepatic in location, over a 15-yr period. Historically, no systemic therapy has been associated with a clear clinical benefit for patients with advanced disease, and median survival remains poor. Here, as a joint effort between the Melanoma Research Foundation's ocular melanoma initiative, CURE OM and the National Cancer Institute, the current understanding of the molecular and immunobiology of uveal melanoma is reviewed, and on-going laboratory research into the disease is highlighted. Finally, recent investigations relevant to clinical management via targeted and immunotherapies are reviewed, and next steps in the development of clinical therapeutics are discussed. PMID:25113308

  13. Successful BNCT for patients with cutaneous and mucosal melanomas. Report of 4 cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since 2003 we have conducted BNCT clinical trials on melanomas at the Kyoto University Research Reactor (KUR) and Japan Research Reactor No.4 (JRR-4). We report 4 patients given BNCT for malignant melanomas: 2 with superficial spreading types on the heel, 1 with mucosal melanoma in the nasal cavity, and 1 with a melanoma on the vulva and in the vagina. The two cutaneous melanomas and the nasal cavity mucosal melanoma showed a complete response (CR) by 6 months after BNCT. The residual melanoma showed a partial response (PR) by 3 months after treatment and no regrowth since then. Although two patients experienced normal-tissue damage that exceeded the tolerance level, all the participants were cured within a few months of treatment. BNCT was shown to be a promising treatment for mucosal, as well as for cutaneous, melanomas. (author)

  14. Comparative study of angio genesis radiopharmaceuticals for melanoma detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Early diagnosis and treatment of melanoma, a cutaneous tumor with a serious prognosis, is extremely important for optimal clinical outcome. Phage display peptide libraries are a useful screening resource for identifying bioactive peptides that interact with cancer targets. The aim of this study was the evaluation of two technetium-99m tracers for angio genesis detection in melanoma model, using cyclic peguilated pentapeptide with RGD and NGR motifs conjugated with bifunctional chelator MAG3. The conjugated peptides (10 ?L of a ?g/?L solution) were labeled with technetium-99m using a sodium tartrate buffer. Radiochemical evaluation was done by ITLC and confirmed by HPLC. Partition coefficient was determined and internalization assays were performed in two melanoma cells (B16F10 and SKMEL28). Biodistribution evaluation of the tracers was done in healthy animals at different times and also in mice bearing the tumor cells at 120 min post injection. Blocking studies were also conducted by co-injection of cold peptides. The conjugated showed the same profile in many evaluations. They were radiolabeled with high radiochemical purity (>97%). Both were hydrophilic, with preferential renal excretion. Tumor uptake was higher for human melanoma cells than for murinic melanoma cells, specially for 99mTc-MAG3-PEG8-c(RGDyK) (7.85±±2.34 %ID/g) at 120 min post injection. The performance of 99mTc-MAG3-PEG8-c(RGDyk) was much better than NGR tracer concerning human melanoma uptake and might be considered in future investigations focusing radiotracers for melanoma diagnosis. (author)

  15. A multilingual assessment of melanoma information quality on the Internet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bari, Lilla; Kemeny, Lajos; Bari, Ferenc

    2014-06-01

    This study aims to assess and compare melanoma information quality in Hungarian, Czech, and German languages on the Internet. We used country-specific Google search engines to retrieve the first 25 uniform resource locators (URLs) by searching the word "melanoma" in the given language. Using the automated toolbar of Health On the Net Foundation (HON), we assessed each Web site for HON certification based on the Health On the Net Foundation Code of Conduct (HONcode). Information quality was determined using a 35-point checklist created by Bichakjian et al. (J Clin Oncol 20:134-141, 2002), with the NCCN melanoma guideline as control. After excluding duplicate and link-only pages, a total of 24 Hungarian, 18 Czech, and 21 German melanoma Web sites were evaluated and rated. The amount of HON certified Web sites was the highest among the German Web pages (19%). One of the retrieved Hungarian and none of the Czech Web sites were HON certified. We found the highest number of Web sites containing comprehensive, correct melanoma information in German language, followed by Czech and Hungarian pages. Although the majority of the Web sites lacked data about incidence, risk factors, prevention, treatment, work-up, and follow-up, at least one comprehensive, high-quality Web site was found in each language. Several Web sites contained incorrect information in each language. While a small amount of comprehensive, quality melanoma-related Web sites was found, most of the retrieved Web content lacked basic disease information, such as risk factors, prevention, and treatment. A significant number of Web sites contained malinformation. In case of melanoma, primary and secondary preventions are of especially high importance; therefore, the improvement of disease information quality available on the Internet is necessary. PMID:24385338

  16. Specificity of growth inhibition of melanoma by 4-hydroxyanisole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kulkarni, G.A.; Nathanson, L.

    1989-01-01

    An experimental study using human melanoma (NEL-MI), rat hepatoma (Fu5-5), and human kidney (293-31) cell lines was undertaken in order to evaluate the antitumor activity of 4-hydroxyanisole (4-OHA) in vitro. Prior reports have indicated highly specific antitumor activity of 4-OHA against melanoma cells in vitro. This specific antitumor activity has been proposed to be due to the oxidation of 4-OHA by tyrosinase to cytotoxic oxidation products. Dose-dependent cytotoxicity was observed when cells were cultured for 72 h in the presence of 4-OHA. At 100 microM, 4-OHA produced growth inhibition of 62%, 32%, and 55% in melanoma, hepatoma, and kidney cell lines, respectively. No effect was seen at 10 microM 4-OHA. 1,000 microM 4-OHA produced 100% kill. Tyrosinase activity was detected only in melanoma cells. The effect of 100 microM 4-OHA on the incorporation of 3H DNA precursors in melanoma, hepatoma, and kidney cells was also studied. Thymidine incorporation was inhibited in all three cell lines at the lowest cell density tested, with the greatest inhibition seen on melanoma cells. As cell density increased, the effect of 4-OHA on thymidine incorporation decreased. With respect to RNA synthesis, 4-OHA significantly reduced the incorporation of uridine in all three cell lines, with the greatest effect in melanoma cells. Cell density also affected the inhibition of uridine incorporation, but to a lesser extent than that observed on thymidine incorporation. The effect of 4-OHA on leucine incorporation was modest and uninfluenced by cell density. Thus, cytotoxicity of 4-OHA may involve two different mechanisms.

  17. Specificity of growth inhibition of melanoma by 4-hydroxyanisole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An experimental study using human melanoma (NEL-MI), rat hepatoma (Fu5-5), and human kidney (293-31) cell lines was undertaken in order to evaluate the antitumor activity of 4-hydroxyanisole (4-OHA) in vitro. Prior reports have indicated highly specific antitumor activity of 4-OHA against melanoma cells in vitro. This specific antitumor activity has been proposed to be due to the oxidation of 4-OHA by tyrosinase to cytotoxic oxidation products. Dose-dependent cytotoxicity was observed when cells were cultured for 72 h in the presence of 4-OHA. At 100 microM, 4-OHA produced growth inhibition of 62%, 32%, and 55% in melanoma, hepatoma, and kidney cell lines, respectively. No effect was seen at 10 microM 4-OHA. 1,000 microM 4-OHA produced 100% kill. Tyrosinase activity was detected only in melanoma cells. The effect of 100 microM 4-OHA on the incorporation of 3H DNA precursors in melanoma, hepatoma, and kidney cells was also studied. Thymidine incorporation was inhibited in all three cell lines at the lowest cell density tested, with the greatest inhibition seen on melanoma cells. As cell density increased, the effect of 4-OHA on thymidine incorporation decreased. With respect to RNA synthesis, 4-OHA significantly reduced the incorporation of uridine in all three cell lines, with the greatest effect in melanoma cells. Cell density also affected the inhibition of uridine incorporation, but to a lesser extent than that observed on thymidine incorporation. The effect of 4-Othymidine incorporation. The effect of 4-OHA on leucine incorporation was modest and uninfluenced by cell density. Thus, cytotoxicity of 4-OHA may involve two different mechanisms

  18. Sentinel lymph node biopsy for conjunctival malignant melanoma: surgical techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wainstein AJA

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Alberto JA Wainstein,1,2 Ana P Drummond-Lage,1 Milhem JM Kansaon,2 Gustavo O Bretas,2 Rodrigo F Almeida,3 Ana LF Gloria,3 Ana RP Figueiredo3 1Faculty of Medical Sciences of Minas Gerais, 2Oncad Surgical Oncology, 3Ophthalmology Department, Federal University of Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, Brazil Background: The purpose of this report is to examine the viability and safety of preoperative lymphoscintigraphy and radio guided sentinel lymph node (SLN biopsy for conjunctival melanoma, and to identify the best technique to perform this procedure.Methods: Three patients diagnosed with malignant melanoma of the conjunctiva underwent lymphoscintigraphy and SLN biopsy using a dual technique comprising isosulfan blue dye and technetium Tc 99m sulfur colloid. Each patient was anesthetized and the conjunctival melanoma was excised. SLNs were localized by a gamma probe, identified according to radioactivity and sentinel blue printing, and dissected, along with drainage of the associated lymphatic basins. The SLNs were evaluated by a pathologist using hematoxylin-eosin staining following serial sectioning and immunohistochemistry using a triple melanoma cocktail (S-100, Melan-A, and HMB-45 antigens.Results: Two SLNs were stained in the jugular chain during preoperative lymphoscintigraphy in the first patient, two SLNs were identified in the preauricular and submandibular areas in the second patient, and two SLNs were identified in the submandibular and parotid areas in the third patient. All lymph nodes identified by lymphoscintigraphy were dissected and identified at surgery with 100% accuracy in all three patients. All SLNs were histologically and immunohistochemically negative. Patients had good cosmetic and functional results, and maintained their visual acuity and ocular motility.Conclusion: Patients with conjunctival melanoma can undergo preoperative lymphoscintigraphy and SLN biopsy safely using radioactive technetium and isosulfan blue dye. Keywords: ocular melanoma, sentinel lymph node biopsy, lymphoscintigraphy, conjunctival melanoma

  19. Treatment of cutaneous melanoma: current approaches and future prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alain P Algazi

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Alain P Algazi1, Christopher W Soon2, Adil I Daud11Department of Medicine, Division of Hematology and Oncology, 2Department of Dermatology, University of California, San Francisco San Francisco, CA, USAAbstract: Melanoma is the most aggressive and deadly type of skin cancer. Surgical resection with or without lymph node sampling is the standard of care for primary cutaneous melanoma. Adjuvant therapy decisions may be informed by careful consideration of prognostic factors. High-dose adjuvant interferon alpha-2b increases disease-free survival and may modestly improve overall survival. Less toxic alternatives for adjuvant therapy are currently under study. External beam radiation therapy is an option for nodal beds where the risk of local recurrence is very high. In-transit melanoma metastases may be treated locally with surgery, immunotherapy, radiation, or heated limb perfusion. For metastatic melanoma, the options include chemotherapy or immunotherapy; targeted anti-BRAF and anti-KIT therapy is under active investigation. Standard chemotherapy yields objective tumor responses in approximately 10%–20% of patients, and sustained remissions are uncommon. Immunotherapy with high-dose interleukin-2 yields objective tumor responses in a minority of patients; however, some of these responses may be durable. Identification of activating mutations of BRAF, NRAS, c-KIT, and GNAQ in distinct clinical subtypes of melanoma suggest that these are molecularly distinct. Emerging data from clinical trials suggest that substantial improvements in the standard of care for melanoma may be possible.Keywords: melanoma, resection, immune modulation, small molecule kinase inhibitors, chemotherapy, clinical trials

  20. Perspectives on the application of nanotechnology in photodynamic therapy for the treatment of melanoma

    OpenAIRE

    Victoria Monge-Fuentes; Luis Alexandre Muehlmann; Ricardo Bentes de Azevedo

    2014-01-01

    Malignant melanoma is the most aggressive form of skin cancer and has been traditionally considered difficult to treat. The worldwide incidence of melanoma has been increasing faster than any other type of cancer. Early detection, surgery, and adjuvant therapy enable improved outcomes; nonetheless, the prognosis of metastatic melanoma remains poor. Several therapies have been investigated for the treatment of melanoma; however, current treatment options for patients with metastatic disease ar...

  1. A fatal case of an adrenal gland melanoma with a mysterious primary lesion

    OpenAIRE

    Adam, Ahmed; Engelbrecht, Matthys J.; Heerden, Izak J.

    2010-01-01

    Adrenal gland involvement by metastatic melanoma is a common finding in patients with cutaneous or ocular melanomas. We report on the presence of an adrenal gland melanoma in a young female, without a documented primary lesion. A diagnosis of a primary adrenal melanoma was considered and after applying diagnostic criteria, could not be established. An attempt at resection via a nephroadrenalectomy and bilateral pulmonary metastectomies were performed. At 6-month follow up the patient pr...

  2. Cutaneous malignant melanoma and familial dysplastic nevi: evidence for autosomal dominance and pleiotropy.

    OpenAIRE

    Bale, S.J.; Chakravarti, A; Greene, M.H.

    1986-01-01

    Segregation of familial cutaneous melanoma has been shown to be compatible with autosomal dominant transmission with incomplete penetrance. However, the combined phenotype of melanoma and a known melanoma-precursor lesion, the dysplastic nevus (DN), has not previously been found to fit a Mendelian model of inheritance using complex segregation analysis. Employing a life-table and disease-free survival analysis approach, we estimated the lifetime incidence of melanoma in the sibs and offspring...

  3. Stable synthetic bacteriochlorins overcome the resistance of melanoma to photodynamic therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Mroz, Pawel; Huang, Ying-ying; Szokalska, Angelika; Zhiyentayev, Timur; Janjua, Sahar; Nifli, Artemissia-phoebe; Sherwood, Margaret E.; Ruzie?, Christian; Borbas, K. Eszter; Fan, Dazhong; Krayer, Michael; Balasubramanian, Thiagarajan; Yang, Eunkyung; Kee, Hooi Ling; Kirmaier, Christine

    2010-01-01

    Cutaneous malignant melanoma remains a therapeutic challenge, and patients with advanced disease have limited survival. Photodynamic therapy (PDT) has been successfully used to treat many malignancies, and it may show promise as an antimelanoma modality. However, high melanin levels in melanomas can adversely affect PDT effectiveness. Herein the extent of melanin contribution to melanoma resistance to PDT was investigated in a set of melanoma cell lines that markedly differ in the levels of p...

  4. Frequency and Characteristics of Familial Melanoma in Spain: The FAM-GEM-1 Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Márquez-Rodas, Iván; Martín González, Manuel; Nagore, Eduardo; Gómez-Fernández, Cristina; Avilés-Izquierdo, Jose Antonio; Maldonado-Seral, Cayetana; Soriano, Virtudes; Majem-Tarruella, Margarita; Palomar, Virginia; Maseda, Rocio; Martín-Carnicero, Alfonso; Puertolas, Teresa; Godoy, Elena; Cerezuela, Pablo; Ochoa de Olza, Maria; Campos, Begoña; Perez-Ruiz, Elisabeth; Soria, Ainara; Gil-Arnaiz, Irene; Gonzalez-Cao, Maria; Galvez, Elisa; Arance, Ana; Belon, Joaquin; de la Cruz-Merino, Luis; Martín-Algarra, Salvador

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Familial history of melanoma is a well-known risk factor for the disease, and 7% melanoma patients were reported to have a family history of melanoma. Data relating to the frequency and clinical and pathological characteristics of both familial and non-familial melanoma in Spain have been published, but these only include patients from specific areas of Spain and do not represent the data for the whole of Spain. Patients and methods An observational study conducted by the Spanish Group of Melanoma (GEM) analyzed the family history of patients diagnosed with melanoma between 2011 and 2013 in the dermatology and oncology departments. Results In all, 1047 patients were analyzed, and 69 (6.6%) fulfilled criteria for classical familial melanoma (two or more first-degree relatives diagnosed with melanoma). Taking into account other risk factors for familial melanoma, such as multiple melanoma, pancreatic cancer in the family or second-degree relatives with melanoma, the number of patients fulfilling the criteria increased to 165 (15.8%). Using a univariate analysis, we determined that a Breslow index of less than 1 mm, negative mitosis, multiple melanoma, and a history of sunburns in childhood were more frequent in familial melanoma patients, but a multivariate analysis revealed no differences in any pathological or clinical factor between the two groups. Conclusions Similar to that observed in other countries, familial melanoma accounts for 6.6% of melanoma diagnoses in Spain. Although no differences in the multivariate analysis were found, some better prognosis factors, such as Breslow index, seem more frequent in familial melanoma, which reflect a better early detection marker and/or a different biological behavior. PMID:25874698

  5. Melanoma Metastásico: a Propósito de un Caso / Metastatic melanoma: A case report

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Dasyl, Martínez; Rossy, Martínez; Nereida, Duarte; Pablo, Ramírez; Gabriela, Vera.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available El melanoma maligno es un tumor que se origina de los melanocitos de la piel o en menor frecuencia de las mucosas (oral, anal o genital). También se ha descrito en vagina, leptomeninges y globo ocular.1,3,4 La edad de presentación oscila entre los 40 y 60 años, aunque puede presentarse a cualquier e [...] dad. Su desarrollo está influenciado por factores genéticos y ambientales.2,3 En los últimos años ha existido un crecimiento exponencial en los casos de esta patología. Representa la primera causa de muerte por cáncer de piel y tiene un comportamiento biológico que determina el pronóstico. Presenta dos fases de crecimiento, una intraepidérmica y otra intradérmica, en la que tiene capacidad de producir metástasis (las cuales ocurren durante los tres primeros años de la lesión inicial) como resultado de la invasión de la membrana basal, la migración hacia el torrente sanguíneo o a la circulación linfática, la cual representa más del 50% de la vía de diseminación.1,3,4 El método diagnóstico de elección es la extirpación y estudio histológico de una lesión sospechosa. Se presenta el caso de paciente masculino de 45 años, que consultó por dolor abdominal de aparición insidiosa en epigastrio irradiado a hipocondrio derecho, urente, de fuerte intensidad. Concomitantemente alzas térmicas de predominio nocturno y náuseas. Como antecedente refiere enucleación de globo ocular derecho por tumor cuya histología fue compatible con melanoma. Ultrasonido abdominal reportó imágenes compatibles con metástasis hepáticas, de las cuales se toma biopsia que concluye: Melanoma metastásico. Endoscopia digestiva superior: en cuerpo bajo, cara anterior se aprecia lesión de bordes irregulares, coloración negruzca, discretamente elevada, cuya biopsia fue negativa para malignidad. Se presenta el caso debido al mal pronóstico de esta patología y a lo poco frecuente de esta forma de presentación. Abstract in english Malignant melanoma is a tumor that arises from melanocytes of the skin or mucous less frequently (oral, anal or genital). It has also been described in vagina, leptomeninges and eyeball.1,3,4 The age of onset is between 40 and 60, but it may occur at any age. Its development is influenced by genetic [...] and environmental factors.2.3 In recent years there has been an exponential growth in cases of this disease. Is the leading cause of death from skin cancer and has a biological behavior that determines the outcome. It has two phases of growth, intraepidermal and intradermal, which is capable of producing metastases (which occur during the first three years of the initial injury) as a result of the invasion of the basement membrane, migration into the bloodstream or lymphatic circulation, which represents more than 50% of the route of dissemination.1,3,4 The diagnostic method of choice is the removal and histological examination of a suspicious lesion. A case of a male patient aged 45, who consulted for strong epigastrical pain of insidious onset radiating to right upper quadrant. Concomitantly fever and nausea. As regards history right eyeball enucleation due to a tumor whose histology was compatible with melanoma. Abdominal ultrasound reported images suggestive of liver metastases, which biopsy was reported as: Metastatic melanoma. Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy: low gastric body lesion is seen with irregular edges, color blackish, slightly elevated, whose biopsy was negative for malignancy. This case is reported due to the poor prognosis of this disease and the uncommonless of this presentation.

  6. Gastrointestinal melanoma or clear cell sarcoma? Molecular evaluation of 7 cases previously diagnosed as malignant melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyle, Pamela L; Amato, Carol M; Fitzpatrick, James E; Robinson, William A

    2008-06-01

    Clear cell sarcoma (CCS) is a rare tumor classically associated with the tendons and aponeuroses of distal extremities of young adults. CCS and malignant melanoma (MM) share immunohistochemical profiles and ultrastructural features, but classic CCS has characteristic morphology with low mitotic activity and minimal pleomorphism. Occasional cases show pleomorphism, high mitotic index, and/or melanin pigmentation, making CCS indistinguishable from MM based on morphology. However, CCS is genetically distinct owing to its consistent association with a t(12;22)(q13;q12) chromosomal translocation, leading to the formation of the EWS/ATF1 fusion transcript. This translocation has never been documented in cutaneous melanoma, and thus is regarded as specific for CCS. Recent evidence suggests that primary "malignant melanomas" in unusual anatomic sites, most notably the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, may be CCS. This is supported by 11 cases of primary GI CCS with the t(12;22) translocation. We used reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction and fluorescence in situ hybridization to examine whether a proportion of cases diagnosed as MM of the GI tract in patients without a history of cutaneous MM actually represent primary GI CCS. In total, we examined 7 cases: Four with no prior history of MM, 2 with histories of cutaneous MM, and 1 with an anal MM. All 4 cases for which there was no history of cutaneous/mucosal MM harbored the EWS/ATF1 fusion transcript. We report the largest series of GI CCS and have shown that molecular studies may be warranted in cases that otherwise seem to represent MM of unusual primary locations. PMID:18408594

  7. Serum level of vitamin D3 in cutaneous melanoma / Nível sérico de vitamina D3 em portadores de melanoma cutâneo

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Renato Santos de, Oliveira Filho; Daniel Arcuschin de, Oliveira; Vitor Augusto Melão, Martinho; Célia Beatriz Gianotti, Antoneli; Ludmilla Altino de Lima, Marcussi; Carlos Eduardo dos Santos, Ferreira.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo Comparar o nível de vitamina D3 em portadores de melanoma, em atividade de doença ou não, com os valores de referência e com pacientes de um hospital geral. Métodos Os níveis séricos de vitamina D3 foram dosados em portadores de melanoma cu [...] tâneo entre 22 a 80 anos, de ambos os sexos, de janeiro de 2010 a dezembro de 2013. As amostras do grupo dos pacientes gerais foram processadas no Hospital Israelita Albert Einstein (grupo controle). A análise dos dados foi realizada utilizando o software Statistica. Resultados Foram estudados 100 pacientes, sendo 54 homens, com média de idade 54,67 anos, e 95 brancos. Desses 100 pacientes, 17 apresentavam doença em atividade. A média dos níveis de vitamina D3 nos 100 pacientes foi inferior ao nível considerado suficiente, porém acima da média do grupo controle. A deficiência de vitamina D3 apresentou distribuição semelhante nos dois grupos com melanoma (em atividade de doença ou não). Conclusão Os níveis de vitamina D3 nos pacientes com melanoma foram superiores aos dos pacientes gerais e inferiores aos de referência. Se os valores de referência estão adequados, grande parte da população apresenta níveis insuficientes de vitamina D3, incluindo os portadores de melanoma, ou tal padrão precisa ser reavaliado. Não houve diferença dos níveis de vitamina D3 entre portadores de melanoma com ou sem atividade. Estudos relacionando vitamina D e melanoma devem ser aprofundados. Abstract in english Objective To compare the level of vitamin D3 in cutaneous melanoma patients, with or without disease activity, with reference values and with patients from a general hospital. Methods The serum levels of vitamin D3 were measured in cutaneous melanoma pati [...] ents, aged 20 to 88 years, both genders, from January 2010 to December 2013. The samples from the general group were processed at Hospital Israelita Albert Einstein (control group). Data analysis was performed using the Statistics software. Results A total of 100 patients were studied, 54 of them men, with mean age of 54.67 years, and 95 Caucasian. Out of these 100 patients, 17 had active disease. The average levels of vitamin D3 in the melanoma patients were lower than the level considered sufficient, but above the average of the control group. Both groups (with or without active disease) of patients showed a similar distribution of vitamin D3 deficiency. Conclusion Vitamin D3 levels in melanoma patients were higher than those of general patients and lower than the reference level. If the reference values are appropriate, a large part of the population had insufficient levels of vitamin D, including those with melanoma, or else, this standard needs to be reevaluated. No difference in vitamin D3 levels was found among melanoma patients with or without active disease. More comprehensive research is needed to assess the relation between vitamin D and melanoma.

  8. Differentiation-inducing and anti-proliferative activities of lupeol on canine melanoma cells

    OpenAIRE

    Ogihara, Kikumi; Naya, Yuko; Okamoto, Yoshiharu; Hata, Keishi

    2014-01-01

    Canine melanoma is the most common oral malignant tumor reported in the field of veterinary medicine. We found that lupeol, a lupine triterpene, inhibited mouse melanoma cell growth in vitro and in vivo by inducing cell differentiation. In the present study, we examined the differentiation-inducing activities of lupeol on 4 canine melanoma cells in vitro and in vivo.

  9. Detection of Granularity in Dermoscopy Images of Malignant Melanoma Using Color and Texture Features

    OpenAIRE

    Stoecker, William V.; Wronkiewiecz, Mark; Chowdhury, Raeed; Stanley, R. Joe; Xu, Jin; Bangert, Austin; Shrestha, Bijaya; Calcara, David A.; Rabinovitz, Harold S.; Oliviero, Margaret; Ahmed, Fatimah; Perry, Lindall A.; Drugge, Rhett

    2010-01-01

    Granularity, also called peppering and multiple blue-gray dots, is defined as an accumulation of tiny, blue-gray granules in dermoscopy images. Granularity is most closely associated with a diagnosis of malignant melanoma. This study analyzes areas of granularity with color and texture measures to discriminate granularity in melanoma from similar areas in non-melanoma skin lesions.

  10. Screening Program Reduced Melanoma Mortality at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 1984-1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, MD, J S; II, PhD, D; MD, PhD, M

    2006-10-12

    Worldwide incidence of cutaneous malignant melanoma has increased substantially, and no screening program has yet demonstrated reduction in mortality. We evaluated the education, self examination and targeted screening campaign at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) from its beginning in July 1984 through 1996. The thickness and crude incidence of melanoma from the years before the campaign were compared to those obtained during the 13 years of screening. Melanoma mortality during the 13-year period was based on a National Death Index search. Expected yearly deaths from melanoma among LLNL employees were calculated by using California mortality data matched by age, sex, and race/ethnicity and adjusted to exclude deaths from melanoma diagnosed before the program began or before employment at LLNL. After the program began, crude incidence of melanoma thicker than 0.75 mm decreased from 18 to 4 cases per 100,000 person-years (p = 0.02), while melanoma less than 0.75mm remained stable and in situ melanoma increased substantially. No eligible melanoma deaths occurred among LLNL employees during the screening period compared with a calculated 3.39 expected deaths (p = 0.034). Education, self examination and selective screening for melanoma at LLNL significantly decreased incidence of melanoma thicker than 0.75 mm and reduced the melanoma-related mortality rate to zero. This significant decrease in mortality rate persisted for at least 3 yr after employees retired or otherwise left the laboratory.

  11. Thrombospondin modulates melanoma--platelet interactions and melanoma tumour cell growth in vivo.

    OpenAIRE

    Boukerche, H.; Berthier-vergnes, O.; Tabone, E.; Bailly, M.; Dore?, J. F.; Mcgregor, J. L.

    1995-01-01

    In this study we have investigated the role of thrombospondin (TSP) as a possible ligand playing a key role in human M3Da. melanoma cell interaction with platelets and in tumour growth. TSP is secreted (80 +/- 6 ng TSP 10(-6) cells) and bound to the surface of M3Da. cells via receptors different from CD36, as shown by biosynthetic labelling and immunofluorescence studies. The levels of TSP binding to M3Da. cells evaluated by binding studies, using an anti-TSP monoclonal antibody (MAb) (LYP8),...

  12. Viewing Exemplars of Melanomas and Benign Mimics of Melanoma Modestly Improves Diagnostic Skills in Comparison with the ABCD Method and Other Image-based Methods for Lay Identification of Melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornell, Ella; Robertson, Karen; McIntosh, Robert D; Rees, Jonathan L

    2015-06-24

    Using an experimental task in which lay persons were asked to distinguish between 30 images of melanomas and common mimics of melanoma, we compared various training strategies including the ABC(D) method, use of images of both melanomas and mimics of melanoma, and alternative methods of choosing training image exemplars. Based on a sample size of 976 persons, and an online experimental task, we show that all the positive training approaches increased diagnostic sensitivity when compared with no training, but only the simultaneous use of melanoma and benign exemplars, as chosen by experts, increased specificity and diagnostic accuracy. The ABCD method and use of melanoma exemplar images chosen by laypersons decreased specificity in comparison with the control. The method of choosing exemplar images is important. The levels of change in performance are however very modest, with an increase in accuracy between control and best-performing strategy of only 9%. PMID:25633058

  13. LFA-1 and ICAM-1 expression induced during melanoma-endothelial cell co-culture favors the transendothelial migration of melanoma cell lines in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghislin Stephanie

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Patients with metastatic melanoma have a poor median rate of survival. It is therefore necessary to increase our knowledge about melanoma cell dissemination which includes extravasation, where cancer cells cross the endothelial barrier. Extravasation is well understood during travelling of white blood cells, and involves integrins such as LFA-1 (composed of two chains, CD11a and CD18 expressed by T cells, while ICAM-1 is induced during inflammation by endothelial cells. Although melanoma cell lines cross endothelial cell barriers, they do not express LFA-1. We therefore hypothesized that melanoma-endothelial cell co-culture might induce the LFA-1/ICAM ligand/receptor couple during melanoma transmigration. Methods A transwell approach has been used as well as blocking antibodies against CD11a, CD18 and ICAM-1. Data were analyzed with an epifluorescence microscope. Fluorescence intensity was quantified with the ImageJ software. Results We show here that HUVEC-conditioned medium induce cell-surface expression of LFA-1 on melanoma cell lines. Similarly melanoma-conditioned medium activates ICAM-1 expression in endothelial cells. Accordingly blocking antibodies of ICAM-1, CD11a or CD18 strongly decrease melanoma transmigration. We therefore demonstrate that melanoma cells can cross endothelial monolayers in vitro due to the induction of ICAM-1 and LFA-1 occurring during the co-culture of melanoma and endothelial cells. Our data further suggest a role of LFA-1 and ICAM-1 in the formation of melanoma cell clumps enhancing tumor cell transmigration. Conclusion Melanoma-endothelial cell co-culture induces LFA-1 and ICAM-1 expression, thereby favoring in vitro melanoma trans-migration.

  14. KBA62 and PNL2: 2 new melanoma markers-immunohistochemical analysis of 1563 tumors including metastatic, desmoplastic, and mucosal melanomas and their mimics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aung, Phyu Phyu; Sarlomo-Rikala, Maarit; Lasota, Jerzy; Lai, Jin-Ping; Wang, Zeng-Feng; Miettinen, Markku

    2012-02-01

    Identification of metastatic melanoma can be difficult because of its considerable morphologic variation and mimicry of a wide variety of other tumors. The more melanoma-specific melanoma markers, MelanA/MART-1, HMB45, and tyrosinase, used in addition to S100 protein, all have limitations in sensitivity and specificity. In this study, we evaluated 2 new melanoma markers, monoclonal antibodies KBA62 and PNL2 to yet unidentified antigens, using a large panel of metastatic melanomas (n=214), desmoplastic melanomas (n=34), gastrointestinal mucosal melanomas (n=54), benign nevi (n=27), clear cell sarcomas (n=16), and nonmelanocytic tumors (n=1218). Immunoreactivity for KBA62 and PNL2 was found in all pigmented nevi and in 86% and 90% of metastatic melanomas, respectively. Mucosal melanomas showed a similar rate of PNL2 immunoreactivity but somewhat less frequent KBA62 positivity (72%). In addition, KBA62 was found to be a sensitive diagnostic marker for desmoplastic melanoma (28 of 34; 82%), whereas PNL2 was only rarely positive (2 of 34; 6%). KBA62-positive normal tissues included pericytes, vascular and parenchymal smooth muscles, and basal cells of complex epithelia, including myoepithelia, whereas PNL2 labeled only melanocytes and neutrophils. Among nonmelanocytic tumors, those that were KBA62 positive were nodular fasciitis, leiomyoma and leiomyosarcoma, gastrointestinal stromal tumors, benign and malignant nerve sheath tumors, synovial sarcoma, and subsets of various carcinomas, especially those with squamous cell/stratified epithelial differentiation. PNL2 positivity in nonmelanocytic tumors was more restricted but occurred consistently in angiomyolipoma and other perivascular epitheloid cell tumor and in chronic myeloid leukemia tissue infiltrates. KBA62 may assist in the identification of desmoplastic melanomas, but its widespread occurrence in nonmelanomas limits utility. PNL2 is highly specific for melanomas but lacks reactivity with desmoplastic melanomas. It is also an excellent supplementary marker for perivascular epitheloid cell tumor at various sites. PMID:22067329

  15. Applications of nanotechnology for melanoma treatment, diagnosis, and theranostics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen J

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Jiezhong Chen,1,2 Renfu Shao,3 Xu Dong Zhang,4 Chen Chen1 1School of Biomedical Sciences, University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD, Australia; 2Faculty of Science, Medicine and Health, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, NSW, Australia; 3GeneCology Research Centre, School of Science, Education and Engineering, University of the Sunshine Coast, Maroochydore, QLD, Australia; 4School of Medicine and Public Health, University of Newcastle, Newcastle, NSW, Australia Abstract: Melanoma is the most aggressive type of skin cancer and has very high rates of mortality. An early stage melanoma can be surgically removed, with a survival rate of 99%. However, metastasized melanoma is difficult to cure. The 5-year survival rates for patients with metastasized melanoma are still below 20%. Metastasized melanoma is currently treated by chemotherapy, targeted therapy, immunotherapy and radiotherapy. The outcome of most of the current therapies is far from optimistic. Although melanoma patients with a mutation in the oncogene v-Raf murine sarcoma viral oncogene homolog B1 (BRAF have an initially higher positive response rate to targeted therapy, the majority develop acquired drug resistance after 6 months of the therapy. To increase treatment efficacy, early diagnosis, more potent pharmacological agents, and more effective delivery systems are urgently needed. Nanotechnology has been extensively studied for melanoma treatment and diagnosis, to decrease drug resistance, increase therapeutic efficacy, and reduce side effects. In this review, we summarize the recent progress on the development of various nanoparticles for melanoma treatment and diagnosis. Several common nanoparticles, including liposome, polymersomes, dendrimers, carbon-based nanoparticles, and human albumin, have been used to deliver chemotherapeutic agents, and small interfering ribonucleic acids (siRNAs against signaling molecules have also been tested for the treatment of melanoma. Indeed, several nanoparticle-delivered drugs have been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration and are currently in clinical trials. The application of nanoparticles could produce side effects, which will need to be reduced so that nanoparticle-delivered drugs can be safely applied in the clinical setting. Keywords: metastasis, early detection, nanoparticle-delivered, PI3K/Akt

  16. New therapeutic options for advanced non-resectable malignant melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stadler, Simone; Weina, Kasia; Gebhardt, Christoffer; Utikal, Jochen

    2015-03-01

    Melanoma is a malignant tumor which is inclined to metastasize promptly into the lymphatic system and other organs such as lung, liver, brain or bone. Therefore early diagnosis remains crucial for improving clinical outcome for melanoma patients. Current chemotherapy and chemo-immunotherapy regimes have shown little clinical benefit with no improvement in overall survival. However, new advances in melanoma biology such as the discovery of predisposed gene signatures and key somatic events have changed clinical practice. New therapeutic approaches are being tested or have been approved by the FDA/EMA recently including targeted therapies, such as BRAF- and MEK-inhibitors, and novel immunotherapies, such as anti-CTLA4 or anti-PD1 therapies. For these therapies an improvement of progression-free and overall survival has been seen in patients with advanced non-resectable melanoma. The following review summarizes recent therapeutic options after the ASCO and ESMO annual meetings 2014 for the treatment of malignant melanoma. PMID:25596540

  17. Dissection of T-cell antigen specificity in human melanoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Rikke Sick; Albæk Thrue, Charlotte

    2012-01-01

    Tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL) isolated from melanoma patients and expanded in vitro by interleukin (IL)-2 treatment can elicit therapeutic response after adoptive transfer, but the antigen specificities of the T cells transferred have not been determined. By compiling all known melanoma-associated antigens and applying a novel technology for high-throughput analysis of T-cell responses, we dissected the composition of melanoma-restricted T-cell responses in 63 TIL cultures. T-cell reactivity screens against 175 melanoma-associated epitopes detected 90 responses against 18 different epitopes predominantly from differentiation and cancer-testis antigens. Notably, the majority of these responses were of low frequency and tumor-specific T-cell frequencies decreased during rapid expansion. A further notable observation was a large variation in the T-cell specificities detected in cultures established from different fragments of resected melanoma lesions. In summary, our findings provide an initial definition of T-cell populations contributing to tumor recognition in TILs although the specificity of many tumor-reactive TILs remains undefined.

  18. Synchronous high-risk melanoma and lymphoid neoplasia.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cahill, R A

    2012-02-03

    Large population-based studies have shown a significant association between melanoma and lymphoid neoplasia, particularly non-Hodgkin\\'s lymphoma (NHL) and chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL), that is independent of any treatment received for the initial tumour. This study examines the presentation, diagnosis, treatment and progress of three patients who developed advanced melanoma concurrently with a lymphoid neoplasm (one NHL, two CLLs), in order to illustrate their association, discuss common aetiological factors and examine possible therapeutic options. As it is the melanoma rather than the lymphoid neoplasm that represents the bigger threat to overall survival, initial treatment should be targeted towards this cancer. However, because of the interplay between the diseases and the possible side-effects of the various treatments, the choice of adjuvant therapy requires careful consideration. Immunosuppression associated with chemotherapy may permit a more aggressive course for the melanoma, while locoregional radiotherapy is contraindicated following lymph node dissections. As immunotherapy is of benefit in the treatment of melanoma and has also been recently shown to be effective in the management of lymphoid neoplasia, we instituted interferon-alpha as adjuvant therapy for these patients, thereby utilizing a single agent to treat the dual pathologies. The three patients have now been followed-up for 6 months without evidence of disease recurrence or progression.

  19. Limitations in the conventional treatment of cerebral metastases from melanoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cerebral metastases are a common diagnosis in patients with disseminated melanoma, giving rise to neurological symptoms that are frequently devastating for the patient and his family. Treatment options are often limited and in most series the median survival from diagnosis of cerebral metastases is 2-6 months with death due to progressive intracranial disease. Therefore, the treatment of cerebral metastases is an issue of major concern for clinicians who manage patients with metastatic melanoma. This paper summarizes the current management of cerebral metastases from melanoma, based on a series of 129 patients treated in the Department of Radiation Oncology at Royal Prince Alfred Hospital from 1982 to 1990. It is clear that current treatment options are inadequate for the majority of patients. If radiation is to be effective in controlling cerebral metastases from melanoma, much higher doses need to be delivered selectively to the tumor cells, avoiding damage to normal tissues. Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) offers this possibility of obtaining a therapeutic gain by selective uptake into melanoma cells of melanin precursors containing boron-10. Novel techniques, such as BNCT, have the potential to improve both survival and quality of life and should continue to be investigated actively

  20. Glutamate and asparagine cataplerosis underlie glutamine addiction in melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratnikov, Boris; Aza-Blanc, Pedro; Ronai, Ze'ev A; Smith, Jeffrey W; Osterman, Andrei L; Scott, David A

    2015-04-10

    Glutamine dependence is a prominent feature of cancer metabolism, and here we show that melanoma cells, irrespective of their oncogenic background, depend on glutamine for growth. A quantitative audit of how carbon from glutamine is used showed that TCA-cycle-derived glutamate is, in most melanoma cells, the major glutamine-derived cataplerotic output and product of glutaminolysis. In the absence of glutamine, TCA cycle metabolites were liable to depletion through aminotransferase-mediated ?-ketoglutarate-to-glutamate conversion and glutamate secretion. Aspartate was an essential cataplerotic output, as melanoma cells demonstrated a limited capacity to salvage external aspartate. Also, the absence of asparagine increased the glutamine requirement, pointing to vulnerability in the aspartate-asparagine biosynthetic pathway within melanoma metabolism. In contrast to melanoma cells, melanocytes could grow in the absence of glutamine. Melanocytes use more glutamine for protein synthesis rather than secreting it as glutamate and are less prone to loss of glutamate and TCA cycle metabolites when starved of glutamine. PMID:25749035

  1. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging study of uveal melanoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To study CT and MRI findings of uveal melanoma and detect the most appropriate MRI scanning sequences. Materials and methods: A series of MRI scanning sequences were performed in 15 cases, and CT was performed in 11 cases. MRI and CT findings were compared with pathologic, operative and clinical findings. Results: Of 11 cases receiving CT scanning, 9 displayed iso-density masses with respect to extraocular muscles. The other two tumors were too small to be demonstrated. Fourteen cases of melanoma showed characteristic MR appearances with hyperintense signal with respect to the vitreous on T1-weighted images and hypointense with respect to the vitreous on T2-weighted images. One case of iris melanoma only 3 mm in height was not demonstrated on T1-weighted images, but was displayed hypointense signal on T2-weighted images. Eleven cases associated with retinal detachment showed high intensity signal on T1- and T2-weighted images and could not be distinguished from melanoma. Postcontrast T1-weighted images with fat suppression technique were found to be the most helpful in detecting and delineating small melanomas less than 5 mm as well as distinguishing them from retinal detachment. Conclusion: MRI was superior to ultrasound or CT. Collaborative diagnosis including clinical, ultrasonographic, CT and MRI examinations is the best for ocular melanomama

  2. Loss of nephronectin promotes tumor progression in malignant melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuphal, Silke; Wallner, Susanne; Bosserhoff, Anja K

    2008-02-01

    Nephronectin (POEM) was originally identified as a factor involved in tissue morphogenesis. POEM has several characteristics of a matrix protein including an arg-gly-asp binding domain site that is recognized by integrins. Recently, deregulation of POEM was found in breast cancer. We therefore speculate that deregulation of POEM expression plays a role in the development or progression of malignant melanoma. Thus, we evaluated melanoma cell lines and tissue samples of malignant melanoma for POEM transcription. We found that POEM expression was reduced or lost in most cell lines and in all tumor samples analyzed. Reduced POEM expression occurred as early as in primary tumors detected by both immunohistochemical and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analyses. Functional assays with stable POEM transfected cell lines revealed that POEM expression increased cell adhesion and decreased cell migration and invasion supporting a role of POEM in tumor progression. Interestingly, integrin alpha-8 expression, which was described as a receptor for POEM, is enhanced in malignant melanoma. Our studies thus indicate that loss of POEM expression may contribute to melanoma progression. PMID:18271919

  3. Computer-aided dermoscopy for diagnosis of melanoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naraghi Zahra S

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Computer-aided dermoscopy using artificial neural networks has been reported to be an accurate tool for the evaluation of pigmented skin lesions. We set out to determine the sensitivity and specificity of a computer-aided dermoscopy system for diagnosis of melanoma in Iranian patients. Methods We studied 122 pigmented skin lesions which were referred for diagnostic evaluation or cosmetic reasons. Each lesion was examined by two clinicians with naked eyes and all of their clinical diagnostic considerations were recorded. The lesions were analyzed using a microDERM® dermoscopy unit. The output value of the software for each lesion was a score between 0 and 10. All of the lesions were excised and examined histologically. Results Histopathological examination revealed melanoma in six lesions. Considering only the most likely clinical diagnosis, sensitivity and specificity of clinical examination for diagnosis of melanoma were 83% and 96%, respectively. Considering all clinical diagnostic considerations, the sensitivity and specificity were 100% and 89%. Choosing a cut-off point of 7.88 for dermoscopy score, the sensitivity and specificity of the score for diagnosis of melanoma were 83% and 96%, respectively. Setting the cut-off point at 7.34, the sensitivity and specificity were 100% and 90%. Conclusion The diagnostic accuracy of the dermoscopy system was at the level of clinical examination by dermatologists with naked eyes. This system may represent a useful tool for screening of melanoma, particularly at centers not experienced in the field of pigmented skin lesions.

  4. Recent developments in prognostic and predictive testing in uveal melanoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, Matthew G.; Harbour, J. William

    2015-01-01

    Purpose of review To provide an update on the rapidly evolving methods for assessing prognosis and predicting response to targeted molecular therapy in uveal melanoma. Recent findings The techniques for assessing prognosis in uveal melanoma have evolved from simple physical features, such as tumor size, location, and cell morphology, to the slightly more sophisticated counting of chromosomal gains and losses. More recently, gene expression profiling has provided a highly accurate and biologically informative gold standard for molecular prognostication. The latest step in the evolution of molecular testing has been the recent discovery of major driver mutations that allow predictive testing of response to targeted molecular therapies. Mutations in GNAQ and GNA11 are early events that promote cell proliferation, and these mutations are sensitive to MAPK kinase, PKC, and AKT inhibitors. Mutations in BAP1, SF3B1, and EIF1AX are later events that are largely mutually exclusive. Mutations in BAP1 are strongly associated with metastasis, whereas those in SF3B1 and EIF1AX are associated with good prognosis. Uveal melanomas with BAP1 mutations demonstrate sensitivity to epigenetic modulators, such as histone deacetylase inhibitors. Clinical trials are now available to evaluate the efficacy of these targeted molecular agents in patients with uveal melanoma. Summary Molecular prognostic testing and enrollment of high-risk patients into clinical trials of targeted molecular therapy are rapidly becoming the standard of care in the management of uveal melanoma. PMID:24713608

  5. Chromosome 7 Aneusomy. A Marker for Metastatic Melanoma?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Udart

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Receptor tyrosine kinases such as the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR play an important role in a variety of malignant neoplasias, making the search for aberrations in the relevant chromosomes an important issue. Differential expression of the EGFR gene was investigated by reverse transcriptase (RT-PCR on tissue samples of normal skin, nevi, primary melanomas, and melanoma metastases. The EGFR gene is located on chromosome 7p12.3-p12.1. To determine the number of chromosomes 7 in cell nuclei of the mentioned tissue samples we performed fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH on touch preparations, using a DNA probe that hybridizes specifically to the centromeric region of chromosome 7. Additionally, chromosome 7 number in interphase nuclei was determined in short-term primary cell cultures of nevi, primary melanomas, and metastases. The highest EGFR gene expression frequency was found in melanoma metastases. By FISH we detected the highest fraction of cell nuclei with more than two chromosomes 7 in the group of metastases. Our results suggest that overexpression of the EGFR gene might play an important role in metastasis of malignant melanoma. This is well reflected by polysomy 7, possibly accounting for an increased EGFRgene copy number.

  6. Primary Malignant Melanoma of the Lung: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karagianni Evangelia

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Primary melanoma of the lung is an extremely rare pathological entity and sparsely reported in the literature. Case presentation A case of primary malignant melanoma of the lung in a 41-year-old female is reported. The clinical, radiological and histopathological features are discussed. The initial symptom was cough, whereas the chest radiography showed a round opacity of the right lung. The computed tomography of the chest revealed a well-demarcated mass lesion in the right upper lobe. Endobronchial mass causing obstruction of the upper lobar bronchus was the bronchoscopic finding. Patient underwent pneumonectomy. A diagnosis of melanoma was confirmed postoperatively after the immunohistochemistry. Primary nature of the tumour in the lung results from the demonstration of characteristic junctional pattern of melanoma cells beneath the bronchial epithelium on histopathology, and from exclusion of other potential primary sites in the clinical, paraclinical and laboratory examination. Conclusions Primary melanoma of the lung represents a rare pathological entity. Careful interpretation of histopathological information in correlation with all other findings from clinical and paraclinical studies can establish a diagnosis. Follow-up is necessary in order to diagnose potential dissemination or secondary sites of the disease. Due to the small number of cases reported in the literature, there is no experience on the management and the prognosis of the disease, but surgical resection remains the cornerstone of the treatment.

  7. Metastatic ovarian malignant melanoma with no obvious primary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ate? Karateke

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The differential diagnosis of metastatic ovarian malignant melanoma from primary ovarian tumors is a significant challenge, particularly if there is no obvious primary site. A 39-year-old patient with bilateral ovarian malignant melanoma presented as stage IV primary ovarian tumor, with metastases in the omentum and spleen. She underwent a total abdominal hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oopherectomy with infracolic omentectomy and splenectomy. The diagnosis on examination of frozen sections was inconclusive. The final diagnosis was made by immunohistochemistry. The sections showed positive staining with HMB-45, vimentin, S-100, and no staining for cytoceratin, inhibin, calretinin and caldesmon. After the operation, the MRI at the 14th postoperative day revealed metastatic lesions in the vertebrae, sacrum, bilateral humerus and femur and in the cerebral cortex, together with edema and hemorrhagic foci. The patient stayed in the intensive care unit for 12 weeks until her death due to cardio-respiratory arrest. This case highlights the clinical fact that metastatic malignant melanoma may mimic primary ovarian tumor with an occult or regressed primary. Both the standard pre-operative imaging modalities (such as CT, MRI and the histo-pathologic examination of the frozen sections may be inconclusive in the differentiation of ovarian melanoma from epithelial ovarian malignancies. The final diagnosis could be established by immunohistochemistry. Intra-abdominal debulking surgery would not prolong the survival of metastatic ovarian melanoma because of the occult or rapid metastasis to the extra abdominal sites of the tumor.

  8. Temporal and Spatial Melanoma Trends in Austria: An Ecological Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haluza, Daniela; Simic, Stana; Moshammer, Hanns

    2014-01-01

    Annual solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR) is mostly determined by latitude and altitude. Over the last decades, increasing UVR ground levels have been observed. Exposure to UVR is associated with a life-time risk to develop melanoma, a malign skin cancer. Thus, we hypothesized that melanoma incidence in Austria is associated with altitude of place of living and time of diagnosis. We investigated this hypothesis in an ecological study by district and year for Austrian melanoma incidence (1990–2010) and mortality (1970–2011) data. As expected, incidence rates increased with altitude (about 2% per 10 m) and year (about 2%). Additionally, melanoma incidence rates were about 50% higher in urban than in rural districts. In contrast, mortality rates decreased with altitude (for males: 0.4% per 10 m, for women: 0.7% per 10 m, respectively). The observed discrepancy between incidence and mortality data could partly be explained by melanoma diagnosis at earlier tumor stage in districts with higher altitude. Possible reasons for this finding include higher awareness of patients, better diagnostic performance of medical professionals working at higher altitudes, or slower tumor growth due to protective effects of sun light-associated vitamin D synthesis. PMID:24398911

  9. Impact of age on management of primary melanoma patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, Nathaniel H.; Tian, Jiaying; Vega-Saenz de Miera, Eleazar; Gold, Heidi; Darvishian, Farbod; Pavlick, Anna C.; Berman, Russell S.; Shapiro, Richard L.; Polsky, David; Osman, Iman

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: Age is an understudied factor when considering treatment options for melanoma. Here, we examine the impact of age on primary melanoma treatment in a prospective cohort of patients. Methods: We used logistic regression models to examine the associations between age and initial treatment, using recurrence and melanoma-specific survival as endpoints. Results: 444 primary melanoma patients were categorized into three groups by age at diagnosis: 19-45 years (24.3%), 46-70 (50.2%), and 71-95 (25.5%). In multivariate models, older patients experienced a higher risk of recurrence (HR 3.34, 95% CI 1.53-7.25; P<0.01). No significant differences were observed in positive biopsy margin rates or extent of surgical margins across age groups. Patients in the middle age group were more likely to receive adjuvant therapy than those in the older group (OR 2.78, 95% CI 1.19-6.45; P=0.02) and showed a trend of longer disease-free survival when receiving adjuvant therapy (P=0.09). Conclusion: Our data support age as an independent negative prognostic factor in melanoma. Our data suggest that age does not affect primary surgical treatment but may affect decisions of whether or not patients receive post-operative treatment(s). Further work is needed to better understand the biological variables affecting treatment decisions and efficacy in older patients. PMID:24008821

  10. An electrochemical immunosensing method for detecting melanoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seenivasan, Rajesh; Maddodi, Nityanand; Setaluri, Vijaysaradhi; Gunasekaran, Sundaram

    2015-06-15

    An electrochemical immunosensing method was developed to detect melanoma cells based on the affinity between cell surface melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R) antigen and anti-MC1R antibody (MC1R-Ab). The MC1R-Abs were immobilized in amino-functionalized silica nanoparticles (n-SiNPs)-polypyrrole (PPy) nanocomposite modified on working electrode surface of screen-printed electrode (SPE). Cyclic voltammetry was employed, with the help of redox mediator ([Fe(CN)6](3-)), to measure the change in anodic oxidation peak current arising due to the specific interaction between MC1R antigens and MC1R-Abs when the target melanoma cells are present in the sample. Various factors affecting the sensor performance, such as the amount of MC1R-Abs loaded, incubation time with the target melanoma cells, the presence of interfering non-melanoma cells, were tested and optimized over different expected melanoma cell loads in the range of 50-7500 cells/2.5 mL. The immunosensor is highly sensitive (20 cells/mL), specific, and reproducible, and the antibody-loaded electrode in ready-to-use stage is stable over two weeks. Thus, in conjunction with a microfluidic lab-on-a-chip device our electrochemical immunosensing approach may be suitable for highly sensitive, selective, and rapid detection of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) in blood samples. PMID:25636023

  11. The genomic landscape of childhood and adolescent melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Charles; Zhang, Jinghui; Nagahawatte, Panduka; Easton, John; Lee, Seungjae; Liu, Zhifa; Ding, Li; Wyczalkowski, Matthew A; Valentine, Marcus; Navid, Fariba; Mulder, Heather; Tatevossian, Ruth G; Dalton, James; Davenport, James; Yin, Zhirong; Edmonson, Michael; Rusch, Michael; Wu, Gang; Li, Yongjin; Parker, Matthew; Hedlund, Erin; Shurtleff, Sheila; Raimondi, Susana; Bhavin, Vadodaria; Donald, Yergeau; Mardis, Elaine R; Wilson, Richard K; Evans, William E; Ellison, David W; Pounds, Stanley; Dyer, Michael; Downing, James R; Pappo, Alberto; Bahrami, Armita

    2015-03-01

    Despite remarkable advances in the genomic characterization of adult melanoma, the molecular pathogenesis of pediatric melanoma remains largely unknown. We analyzed 15 conventional melanomas (CMs), 3 melanomas arising in congenital nevi (CNMs), and 5 spitzoid melanomas (SMs), using various platforms, including whole genome or exome sequencing, the molecular inversion probe assay, and/or targeted sequencing. CMs demonstrated a high burden of somatic single-nucleotide variations (SNVs), with each case containing a TERT promoter (TERT-p) mutation, 13/15 containing an activating BRAF V600 mutation, and >80% of the identified SNVs consistent with UV damage. In contrast, the three CNMs contained an activating NRAS Q61 mutation and no TERT-p mutations. SMs were characterized by chromosomal rearrangements resulting in activated kinase signaling in 40%, and an absence of TERT-p mutations, except for the one SM that succumbed to hematogenous metastasis. We conclude that pediatric CM has a very similar UV-induced mutational spectrum to that found in the adult counterpart, emphasizing the need to promote sun protection practices in early life and to improve access to therapeutic agents being explored in adults in young patients. In contrast, the pathogenesis of CNM appears to be distinct. TERT-p mutations may identify the rare subset of spitzoid melanocytic lesions prone to disseminate. PMID:25268584

  12. Primary melanoma of Meckel's cave: case report / Melanoma primário do cavo de Meckel: relato de caso

    Scientific Electronic Library Online (English)

    Asdrubal, Falavigna; Luis A. B., Borba; Fernando Antonio Patriani, Ferraz; Giovana Camargo de, Almeida; José Valentim, Krindges Júnior.

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Apresentamos um caso de neuralgia do trigêmeo com investigação radiológica de ressonância magnética (RM) e tomografia computadorizada apresentando resultado normal. A dor não apresentou alívio com carbamazepina, sendo indicado descompressão microvascular do trigêmio. Passados dois meses, o paciente [...] queixava-se de dor com intensidade similar à do pré-operatório. Nova RM mostrou lesão expansiva no cavo de Meckel, a qual foi tratada cirurgicamente por abordagem extra-dural. O exame anatomopatológico foi compatível com melanoma primário. O seguimento radiológico, após seis meses da cirurgia, não apresentou anormalidades. Abstract in english We present a case of trigeminal neuralgia with cranial normal magnetic resonance image (MRI) and computed tomography. The pain was not relieved by carbamazepine and microvascular decompression surgery was done. After two months the pain was similar to the condition before surgery. At this time, MRI [...] showed an expansive lesion in Meckel's cave that was treated with radical resection by extra-dural approach. The pathologic examination revealed a primary melanoma. The follow-up after six months did not show abnormalities.

  13. Charged particle radiotherapy for choroidal melanoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The phase I/II clinical study of carbon ion radiotherapy (CIRT) for choroidal melanoma was commenced in Jan. 2001 at the National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS), which was based on the long line of the study of proton radiotherapy (PRT) since Oct. 1986. PRT is applied to small to medium sized tumor, and carbon is used to large sized tumor at present. So far 41 patients received PRT. Skin reactions and visual acuity status after the therapy were acceptable. Seven patients developed glaucoma and one of them received enucleation. Local recurrence was observed in one patient and 5-year local control rate was 97.4%. Five-year survival and eye retention rate were 85.4% and 95%, respectively. On the other hand, thirty-three patients received CIRT and 24 patients with follow-up period of more than 6 months were analyzed. Skin reactions after CIRT were comparable to those of PRT. Neovascular glaucoma was observed in 7 patients and the incidence of glaucoma was strongly depending on the site and size of the tumor. All patients were alive without any local recurrence, and only one patient developed liver metastasis at 22.3 months after the treatment. (author)

  14. em cultura de células de melanoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Vieira Berti

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A identificação, extração, isolamento e caracterização de princípios ativos vegetais que modulam a viabilidade celular são de grande interesse clínico e farmacológico. Testes fitoquímicos têm demonstrado a presença de vários compostos, oriundos dos metabolismos primário e secundário da Aloe vera L. A aloína é uma antraquinona isolada do parênquima clorofiliano da A. vera L que, sabe-se, apresenta atividade biológica. A atividade antitumoral da aloína e do extrato do parênquima clorofiliano foi avaliada, in vitro, com a utilização de células de melanoma de camundongo da linhagem B16-F10. Nessa análise, células incubadas em atmosfera com 5% de CO2 foram tratadas em diferentes concentrações de aloína e de extrato do parênquima, a 37ºC. A aloína e o extrato alteraram a estabilidade celular, exercendo efeito modulador sobre a viabilidade das células tumorais. Os dados experimentais foram representados por meio de um modelo matemático. Neste estudo, verificou-se que o extrato do parênquima clorofiliano é 2,3 vezes mais tóxico que a aloína.

  15. Stage IV malignant melanoma. Psychosocial issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pensiero, L

    1995-01-15

    The diagnosis of Stage IV malignant melanoma presents a difficult challenge for the patient with cancer, family, and health care providers. All must deal with a variety of psychosocial issues that range from the existential to the pragmatic. In the past decade an evolution in health care reimbursement methods has occurred, resulting in decreased length of stay in acute care facilities. It is at the point of hospitalization that patients' increasing needs most often become apparent. Physicians, nurses, and hospital social workers face the dilemma of providing care and support services in the reality of shrinking resources brought about by prospective payment, managed care, and cost containment policies. Health care delivery systems strive to meet the needs of patients with cancer through case management methods that link patients with a wide variety of medical and community resources. A case history is presented to demonstrate the need for collaboration among the members of the health care community in order to meet patient and family psychosocial needs. PMID:7805003

  16. Sentinel node biopsy in cutaneous melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lock-Andersen, Jørgen; Horn, Janne; Sjøstrand, Helle; Nürnberg, Birgit Meinecke; Stokholm, Knud Heine

    2006-01-01

    Status of the regional lymph nodes is a strong prognostic factor in patients with cutaneous malignant melanoma (CMM) and can be assessed by sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB). We present our technique of preoperative lymphatic mapping and intraoperative vital dye and handheld gamma probe. Our results and three years follow-up of its routine use in 198 patients with verified primary CMM are presented. Median follow-up time was 24 months (range 1-47). Metastatic regional lymph node disease was found by SLNB in 61 patients (31%) and additional metastatic nodes were found by formal node dissection in 30% of these cases. Complications were relatively mild but included one case of lymphoedema in a node negative patient. By follow-up, 13% had developed a recurrence including 26% of node positive patients and 8% of node negative patients. Mortality was also substantially higher in node positive cases with 18% dying in the follow-up period and 3% in the node negative group. The SLNB procedure was associated with a false negative rate of 8%. Using the presented technique, we found that SLNB was a useful procedure for staging patients with CMM and for selecting patients for more extensive metastatic screening and inclusion in trials of adjuvant treatments. PMID:16428210

  17. Sino-nasal mucosal malignant melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karim, Muneeb Uddin; Khan, Khursheed; Ali, Nasir; Ikram, Mubasher

    2015-01-01

    A 49-year-old man with a history of left nasal discharge and nasal cavity blockage for 5?months was diagnosed with sino-nasal mucosal malignant melanoma on nasal biopsy. On CT scan, the tumour involved the nasal cavity, left maxillary sinus, ethmoid sinus and medial left orbit. The tumour was grossly excised and adjuvant radiation therapy was offered. The patient was planned for an Intensity Modulated Radiotherapy technique to keep tolerance doses of organs at risk within normal limits and at same time deliver the intended dose of radiation to the tumour site, using 66?Gy in 33 fractions. Owing to the anatomical complexity of the sino-nasal region, precision radiotherapy (RT) is mandatory to optimally irradiate the tumour area while sparing critical surrounding normal structures from late toxicity of RT. Established dose constraints for at-risk organs can only be accomplished through this novel technique of RT. However, despite advances in techniques, current treatment modalities have not significantly made an impact on survival of these patients. PMID:25926579

  18. Prospective study of melanoma in the Paris Region in 2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Introduction: Melanoma remains an important public health problem because of its increasing incidence and its responsibility for the deaths of young individuals. A first study was carried out by the P.E.T.R.I. association in 1994 to estimate the incidence of melanoma in the Paris region. A second one was carried out in 2004, with the same methodology, to estimate the increase of melanoma incidence in the Paris region and the main clinical and histological characteristics of these cancers, comparing to 1994 data. Methodology: Every pathologist of the region has been contacted to fill a questionnaire for each primary cutaneous melanoma excised between January 1. and December 31. 2004, from patients living in the Paris region (departments 75, 77, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95). The information requested included melanoma characteristics (localisation, type, Breslow thickness, Clark level, regression signs, pre existence of a nevus) and demographic data (age, sex, zip code of residence). Results: 98 % of pathologists in the region agree to participate in the study. They send 1453 questionnaires, among them 160 were excluded (double, non cutaneous melanoma, secondary lesion, non resident in the region, diagnoses out of the inclusion dates, biopsy followed by exeresis). The analyse included 1293 lesions in 1269 patients. More than 2/3 of diagnoses were confirmed by 2 laboratories and 10 laboratories (on 98) reported 86 % of the diagnoses. Incidence:The crude incidence of melanoma in the Paris region during 2004 was 11.4 cases per 100 000 inhabitants, by sex:11.1 per 100 000 males and 12.4 cases per 100 000 females. The sex ratio men/women was 0.82. The crude incidence of invasive melanoma (Clark 2 to 5) was 8,9 cases per 100 000 inhabitants, 9,2 per 100 000 women and 8,6 per 100 000 men, with a sex ratio men/women of 0,93. Demographic characteristics: Melanoma diagnosis was more often in women (54.9 %) than in men (45.1 %). The patients mean age was 59.3 years (S.D.: 17.3). The mean age according to sex was different (p=0.02). It was 58.2 years (S.D.: 18.0) for women and 60.6 years (S.D.: 16.4) for men. Two diagnoses were done in children ( ?15 years old). Clinical characteristics: The proportion of in situ melanoma was higher among women (23.6%) than among men (18.6%) p=0.03. The site was known for 1258 cases: 30.0% were on the trunk, 24.5% on the legs (excluding the feet), 12.8% on the arms (excluding the hands), 5.0% on the feet, 0.5% on the hands, 0.3% on the nails (hands and feet), 0.1% on the extern. Most frequently localizations are legs and arms for women (46 % of lesions), trunk for men (42 % of lesions), face and neck for both men and women (21 % of lesions). The type distribution of lesions was: 72 % superficial spreading melanoma (S.S.M.); 9 % nodular melanoma and 13 % invasive melanoma arising on melanosis of Dubreuilh (Tables 1). Clark levels distribution was as follow : 21 % level 1; 28 % level 2; 23 % level 3; 23 % level 4 and 5 % level 5. Men had more often a level 4 or 5 than women (34 % vs. 23 %). Mean Breslow thickness was 1.73 mm (max 38 mm), higher in men than in women (2,02 vs. 1,46). Around 52 % of lesions was ?0.75 mm and 21 % more was > 0.75 and ?1.5 mm. Comparison 1994-2004: The incidence of melanoma in the Paris region increases slowly in 10 years: from 9.9 per 100 000 in 1994 to 11.4 cases per 100 000 inhabitants in 2004 for all melanomas and from 8.6 to 8.9 for invasive melanomas. But it is a crude incidence, more analysis are needed to study the population ageing. In this region, the increase was not multiplied by two in these ten years as it was in the past. Median age increases more than 10 years for each sex from 1994 to 2004: 49 years to 61 for men; 44 years to 58 for women. Clinical characteristics change in 10 years, with increase of melanoma arising on melanosis of Dubreuilh and nodular melanomas, and a decrease of S.S.M.. Sites of melanoma change with more face and neck localisation (from 10 to 21 %) and less trunk localisation (from 37% to 30%) and legs localisation (from 32 % to 24%). Melano

  19. Multicenter phase II study of matured dendritic cells pulsed with melanoma cell line lysates in patients with advanced melanoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernandez Jackie

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several single center studies have provided evidence of immune activation and antitumor activity of therapeutic vaccination with dendritic cells (DC in patients with metastatic melanoma. The efficacy of this approach in patients with favorable prognosis metastatic melanoma limited to the skin, subcutaneous tissues and lung (stages IIIc, M1a, M1b was tested in a multicenter two stage phase 2 study with centralized DC manufacturing. Methods The vaccine (IDD-3 consisted 8 doses of autologous monocyte-derived matured DC generated in serum-free medium with granulocyte macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF and interleukin-13 (IL-13, pulsed with lysates of three allogeneic melanoma cell lines, and matured with interferon gamma. The primary endpoint was antitumor activity. Results Among 33 patients who received IDD-3 there was one complete response (CR, two partial responses (PR, and six patients had stable disease (SD lasting more than eight weeks. The overall prospectively defined tumor growth control rate was 27% (90% confidence interval of 13-46%. IDD-3 administration had minimal toxicity and it resulted in a high frequency of immune activation to immunizing melanoma antigens as assessed by in vitro immune monitoring assays. Conclusions The administration of matured DC loaded with tumor lysates has significant immunogenicity and antitumor activity in patients with limited metastatic melanoma. Clinical trial registration NCT00107159.

  20. Gynecologic Cancer InterGroup (GCIG) consensus review for vulvovaginal melanomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leitao, Mario M; Cheng, Xi; Hamilton, Anne L; Siddiqui, Nadeem A; Jurgenliemk-Schulz, Ina; Mahner, Sven; Åvall-Lundqvist, Elisabeth; Kim, Kidong; Freyer, Gilles

    2014-11-01

    Vulvovaginal melanomas are rare tumors that account for a small fraction of all vulvovaginal cancers. Biologically, they seem to be similar to mucosal and acral melanomas of other sites. There are limited data specific to vulvovaginal melanomas, especially regarding systemic therapies. Most treatment decisions are based on extrapolation from data regarding cutaneous melanomas of other sites. It is reasonable to follow already established guidelines from other professional groups and societies. Outcomes tend to be worse compared with cutaneous melanomas likely because of the later presentation and physical biological characteristics of these tumors. PMID:24987924

  1. Neovascular glaucoma after helium ion irradiation for uveal melanoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neovascular glaucoma developed in 22 of 169 uveal melanoma patients treated with helium ion irradiation. Most patients had large melanomas; no eyes containing small melanomas developed anterior segment neovascularization. The mean onset of glaucoma was 14.1 months (range, 7-31 months). The incidence of anterior segment neovascularization increased with radiation dosage; there was an approximately three-fold increase at 80 GyE versus 60 GyE of helium ion radiation (23% vs. 8.5%) (P less than 0.05). Neovascular glaucoma occurred more commonly in larger tumors; the incidence was not affected by tumor location, presence of subretinal fluid, nor rate of tumor regression. Fifty-three percent of patients had some response with intraocular pressures of 21 mmHg or less to a combination of antiglaucoma treatments

  2. Primary malignant melanoma of the trachea: A case report

    Science.gov (United States)

    IMAI, HISAO; KIYOHARA, YOSHIO; YOSHIKAWA, SHUSUKE; KUSUTANI, NAO; ONO, AKIRA; TAIRA, TETSUHIKO; KENMOTSU, HIROTSUGU; HARADA, HIDEYUKI; NAITO, TATEAKI; MURAKAMI, HARUYASU; SANO, TAKEHISA; FUJI, HIROSHI; ENDO, MASAHIRO; NAKAJIMA, TAKASHI; TAKAHASHI, TOSHIAKI

    2015-01-01

    Primary cancer of the trachea is rare and accounts for only 0.1–0.4% of all newly diagnosed respiratory tract cancers, worldwide. In the present study, a case of primary tracheal malignant melanoma, a particularly rare type of cancer, is reported. A 68-year-old male presented with a cough and bloody sputum. A chest computed tomography scan revealed a 25×20×15-mm tracheal tumor, located immediately above the carina, which reduced the cross-sectional area of the trachea by ~90%. Histopathological analysis of biopsy specimens determined a diagnosis of malignant melanoma. The patient was treated with argon plasma coagulation and chemoradiotherapy, which restored airway patency, however, metastasis was detected in the lungs. The patient refused further treatment and received palliative care. Subsequently, the patient succumbed to the disease within four months. Thus, although primary malignant melanoma of the trachea is extremeley rare, the possibility should be considered during diagnosis. PMID:25624894

  3. Metastatic melanoma in the thorax: report of 130 patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, J T; Dahmash, N S; Ravin, C E; Heaston, D K; Putman, C E; Seigler, H F; Reed, J C

    1981-08-01

    Early detection of metastatic melanoma has become more important as newer and more effective therapeutic regimens are used. Between 1970 and 1980, 1,600 patients were treated at one institution for malignant melanoma. Of these, 260 (16.3%) developed thoracic metastasis. Satisfactory chest radiographs were available for analysis in 130 of 260 patients. The patterns of the intrathoracic metastasis include multiple pulmonary nodules (52 patients), solitary nodule (26), miliary pattern (two), mediastinal and/or hilar adenopathy (nine), pleural effusion (three), lytic bony lesions (one), extra-pleural mass (one), and combined lesions (36). Both the staging of melanoma and the radiographic pattern of thoracic metastasis seemed to prognosticate the survival rate of these patients. Miliary metastasis and bone destruction implied a grave prognosis. Patients with a solitary lung nodule had the best survival experience. Immunotherapy, chemotherapy, and surgery of selected distal metastases significantly improved the survival of most of these patients. PMID:6789636

  4. Fuzzy logic color detection: Blue areas in melanoma dermoscopy images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lingala, Mounika; Stanley, R Joe; Rader, Ryan K; Hagerty, Jason; Rabinovitz, Harold S; Oliviero, Margaret; Choudhry, Iqra; Stoecker, William V

    2014-07-01

    Fuzzy logic image analysis techniques were used to analyze three shades of blue (lavender blue, light blue, and dark blue) in dermoscopic images for melanoma detection. A logistic regression model provided up to 82.7% accuracy for melanoma discrimination for 866 images. With a support vector machines (SVM) classifier, lower accuracy was obtained for individual shades (79.9-80.1%) compared with up to 81.4% accuracy with multiple shades. All fuzzy blue logic alpha cuts scored higher than the crisp case. Fuzzy logic techniques applied to multiple shades of blue can assist in melanoma detection. These vector-based fuzzy logic techniques can be extended to other image analysis problems involving multiple colors or color shades. PMID:24786720

  5. Vaginal primary malignant melanoma: a rare and aggressive tumor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Androutsopoulos, Georgios; Terzakis, Emmanouil; Ioannidou, Georgia; Tsamandas, Athanasios; Decavalas, Georgios

    2013-01-01

    Vaginal primary malignant melanoma is a rare and very aggressive tumor. It most commonly occurs in postmenopausal women, with a mean age of 57 years. Our patient is an 80-year-old, postmenopausal Greek woman presented with a complaint of abnormal vaginal bleeding. On gynecologic examination there was a pigmented, raised, ulcerated, and irregular lesion 5 × 4.5?cm in the upper third of anterior vaginal wall. She underwent a wide local excision of the lesion. The histopathology revealed vaginal primary malignant melanoma with ulceration and no clear surgical margins. She denied any additional surgical interventions and underwent to postoperative adjuvant radiotherapy. Follow up 5 months after initial diagnosis revealed no evidence of local recurrence or distant metastasis. The prognosis of vaginal primary malignant melanoma is very poor despite treatment modality, because most of the cases are diagnosed at advanced stage. Particularly patients with no clear surgical margins and tumor size >3?cm needed postoperative adjuvant radiotherapy. PMID:23970985

  6. Primary melanoma of the esophagus treated with esophagectomy. Clinical Cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esophageal melanomas correspond to 0.1 to 0.2% of esophageal tumors. We report two patients with the disease. The first patient is a 51 year-old woman pre-sentingwith dysphagia and weight loss. An upper gastrointestinal endoscopy showed a polypoid ulcerated lesion in the middle third of the esophagus. The pathological study of the biopsy disclosed a malignant melanoma. The patient was subjected to an esophagectomy with a satisfactory postoperative evolution. Four months later, liver metastases were detected and the patient died eleven months after the operation. The second patient is a 59 year-old mole that consulted by dysphagia. An endoscopy showed a pigmented esophageal lesion whose pathological diagnosis was a malignant melanoma. The patient was subjected to an esophagectomy and sixteen months after surgery there was no evidence of relaps

  7. Malignant melanoma of the vagina: a report of 2 cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Primary malignant melanoma of the vagina is an extremely rare genital neoplasm occurring mainly in postmenopausal women. It has a worse prognosis than cutaneous melanomas, because of the high rate of locoregional recurrences and rapid systemic dissemination. In the past, radical surgical extirpation as the primary management had been recommended to improve loco-regional control, and possibly overall survival. However, the prognosis was poor in spite of such a radical approach. Recently, more conservative treatment such as wide local excision combined with adjuvant high-dose fraction radiotherapy seems to have promising results. Primary radiation therapy could be served as an alternative to surgery for patients with lesion less than 3 cm in diameter. We report 2 cases of primary vaginal malignant melanoma treated with radiotherapy

  8. Malignant melanoma of the vagina: a report of 2 cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ok Bae; Kim, Jin Hee; Jung, Young Yeon; Cho, Chi Heum; Choi, Tae Jin [Dongsan Medical Center, School of Medicine, Keimyung University, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-06-15

    Primary malignant melanoma of the vagina is an extremely rare genital neoplasm occurring mainly in postmenopausal women. It has a worse prognosis than cutaneous melanomas, because of the high rate of locoregional recurrences and rapid systemic dissemination. In the past, radical surgical extirpation as the primary management had been recommended to improve loco-regional control, and possibly overall survival. However, the prognosis was poor in spite of such a radical approach. Recently, more conservative treatment such as wide local excision combined with adjuvant high-dose fraction radiotherapy seems to have promising results. Primary radiation therapy could be served as an alternative to surgery for patients with lesion less than 3 cm in diameter. We report 2 cases of primary vaginal malignant melanoma treated with radiotherapy.

  9. Emerging clinical applications of selected biomarkers in melanoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tetzlaff, Michael T; Torres-Cabala, Carlos A; Pattanaprichakul, Penvadee; Rapini, Ronald P; Prieto, Victor G; Curry, Jonathan L

    2015-01-01

    Melanoma is a lethal skin disease with a mostly predictable clinical course according to a known constellation of clinical and pathologic features. The distinction of melanoma from benign melanocytic nevus is typically unequivocol; however, there is a subset of tumors known for its diagnostic challenges, development of late metastases, and difficulties in treatment. Several melanocytic tissue biomarkers are available that can facilitate the histopathologic interpretation of melanoma as well as provide insight into the biologic potential and mutational status of this disease. This review describes the clinical application of some of these established and emerging tissue biomarkers available to assess melanocytic differentiation, vascular invasion, mitotic capacity, and mutation status. The selected tissue biomarkers in this review include MiTF, Sox10, D2-40, PHH3, H3KT (anti-H3K79me3T80ph), anti-BRAFV600E, and anti-BAP-1. PMID:25674009

  10. Imaging of melanoma with 131I-labeled monoclonal antibodies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mouse monoclonal antibodies and Fab fragments specific for p97, a melanoma-associated antigen, were used to image metastatic human melanoma. Preclinical studies in athymic mice showed antigen-specific uptake in melanoma xenografts, and toxicity tests in rabbits gave no evidence for tissue damage after injection of up to 100 times the amount of antibody used in humans. Six patients received 1 mg labeled antibody, and one patient received 1 mg of labeled Fab. No. toxic side effects were observed. All of the six patients had positive scans, visualizing 22 of 25 (88%) of lesions larger than 1.5 cm. In tumors from two patients, greater uptake of p97-specific, versus control IgG and Fab, respectively, was documented by biopsy. Antibodies to mouse immunoglobulin appeared in three patients receiving 1 mg or more of radiolabeled mouse antibody

  11. Sensitivity and resistance of human melanoma cells to ultraviolet radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A human melanoma cell line (MM253) was found to be sensitive to ultraviolet radiation, having a D0 of 1.0 J/m2 when cloned on plastic culture dishes and a D0 of 2.3 J/m2 when cloned in agar. These figures are much lower than those obtained for all other human melanoma cell lines studied in this laboratory (D0 of 32.40 J/m2) and demonstrate that MM253 is unusually UV sensitive. The increased level of UV sensitivity in MM253 is not due to a reduced capacity for excision of pyrimidine dimers, repair of DNA single-strand breaks or elongation of newly-synthesized DNA strands when comparison is made with a UV-resistant melanoma cell line

  12. Epidermotropic metastatic melanoma clinically resembling agminated spitz nevi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hee Joo; So, Byoung Joon; You, Min Gun; Kim, Il-Hwan

    2014-10-01

    Herein, we report a 36-year-old Asian male patient who presented with grouped multiple erythematous waxy papules and nodules on his right medial thigh. He had undergone amputation of the right second toe because of a stage IIa malignant melanoma, 3 years previously. At the time of surgery for the primary tumor, right inguinal lymph node dissection revealed no nodal involvement. Three years after the diagnosis of the primary tumor, crops of multiple erythematous papules and nodules developed. Initial histopathologic evaluation of the papules showed nests of small epithelioid cells similar to compound nevi. However, cytologic features, including high mitotic figures, lack of maturation, and some hyperchromatic nuclei suggested metastatic melanoma. In addition to the pathologic findings, the tumors were on the right thigh, which was the same side as the primary malignant melanoma. The patient underwent wide excision of the tumor and split-thickness skin grafting. PMID:25324658

  13. Monoclonal antibodies to cell surface antigens of human melanoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors have worked with three human melanoma antigens which have been defined by monoclonal mouse antibodies: p97, a glycoprotein that is structurally related to transferrin, a proteoglycan, and a GD3 ganglioside that is slightly different from the GD3 of normal brain. All three antigens can be detected in frozen sections of melanoma, using immunohistological techniques. Antibodies and Fab fragments, specific for either p97 or the proteoglycan antigen, have been radiolabelled with 131I and successfully used for tumor imaging, and Phase I therapeutic trails are underway, using 131I-labelled Fab fragments, specific for p97 or the proteoglycan antigen, to localize a potentially therapeutic dose of radiation into tumors. It may be feasible to use the same monoclonal antibodies, or antibody fragments, as carriers of neutron capturers, such as boron, for possible use in tumor therapy. The initial experiments on this are best carried out by using nude mice (or rats) carrying human melanoma xenografts

  14. SKI knockdown inhibits human melanoma tumor growth in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Dahu; Lin, Qiushi; Box, Neil; Roop, Dennis; Ishii, Shunsuke; Matsuzaki, Koichi; Fan, Tao; Hornyak, Thomas J; Reed, Jon A; Stavnezer, Ed; Timchenko, Nikolai A; Medrano, Estela E

    2009-12-01

    The SKI protein represses the TGF-beta tumor suppressor pathway by associating with the Smad transcription factors. SKI is upregulated in human malignant melanoma tumors in a disease-progression manner and its overexpression promotes proliferation and migration of melanoma cells in vitro. The mechanisms by which SKI antagonizes TGF-beta signaling in vivo have not been fully elucidated. Here we show that human melanoma cells in which endogenous SKI expression was knocked down by RNAi produced minimal orthotopic tumor xenograft nodules that displayed low mitotic rate and prominent apoptosis. These minute tumors exhibited critical signatures of active TGF-beta signaling including high levels of nuclear Smad3 and p21(Waf-1), which are not found in the parental melanomas. To understand how SKI promotes tumor growth we used gain- and loss-of-function approaches and found that simultaneously to blocking the TGF-beta-growth inhibitory pathway, SKI promotes the switch of Smad3 from tumor suppression to oncogenesis by favoring phosphorylations of the Smad3 linker region in melanoma cells but not in normal human melanocytes. In this context, SKI is required for preventing TGF-beta-mediated downregulation of the oncogenic protein c-MYC, and for inducing the plasminogen activator inhibitor-1, a mediator of tumor growth and angiogenesis. Together, the results indicate that SKI exploits multiple regulatory levels of the TGF-beta pathway and its deficiency restores TGF-beta tumor suppressor and apoptotic activities in spite of the likely presence of oncogenic mutations in melanoma tumors. PMID:19845874

  15. Honokiol inhibits melanoma stem cells by targeting notch signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaushik, Gaurav; Venugopal, Anand; Ramamoorthy, Prabhu; Standing, David; Subramaniam, Dharmalingam; Umar, Shahid; Jensen, Roy A; Anant, Shrikant; Mammen, Joshua M V

    2014-12-01

    Melanoma is an aggressive disease with limited therapeutic options. Here, we determined the effects of honokiol (HNK), a biphenolic natural compound on melanoma cells and stemness. HNK significantly inhibited melanoma cell proliferation, viability, clonogenicity and induced autophagy. In addition, HNK significantly inhibited melanosphere formation in a dose dependent manner. Western blot analyses also demonstrated reduction in stem cell markers CD271, CD166, Jarid1b, and ABCB5. We next examined the effect of HNK on Notch signaling, a pathway involved in stem cell self-renewal. Four different Notch receptors exist in cells, which when cleaved by a series of enzymatic reactions catalyzed by Tumor Necrosis Factor-?-Converting Enzyme (TACE) and ?-secretase protein complex, results in the release of the Notch intracellular domain (NICD), which then translocates to the nucleus and induces target gene expression. Western blot analyses demonstrated that in HNK treated cells there is a significant reduction in the expression of cleaved Notch-2. In addition, there was a reduction in the expression of downstream target proteins, Hes-1 and cyclin D1. Moreover, HNK treatment suppressed the expression of TACE and ?-secretase complex proteins in melanoma cells. To confirm that suppression of Notch-2 activation is critical for HNK activity, we overexpressed NICD1, NICD2, and performed HNK treatment. NICD2, but not NICD1, partially restored the expression of Hes-1 and cyclin D1, and increased melanosphere formation. Taken together, these data suggest that HNK is a potent inhibitor of melanoma cells, in part, through the targeting of melanoma stem cells by suppressing Notch-2 signaling. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:25491779

  16. FDG PET in early stage cutaneous malignant melanoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG PET) is not recommended in early stage melanoma; however, a significant number of cases are referred to our institution for FDG PET. We refer to early stage disease as American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) stage I and II, which includes all cases without metastases. A retrospective review was undertaken to determine the clinical utility of FDG PET in this patient group. A retrospective study of FDG scans on all patients presenting to the WA PET Centre with early stage melanoma over a 5½ year period was undertaken. The positivity rate of the initial study for detection of malignant melanoma was determined. In patients with an initially negative FDG PET, the time from initial diagnosis to a positive surveillance study was determined. Both the initial positivity rate and time to a positive study were correlated with Breslow staging. Three hundred twenty-two patients were included in the study, of which 74 had initial positive FDG PET scans (23%). Adequate follow-up was available in 51 patients with the PET result confirmed as true positive in 37 (positive predictive value 73%). One hundred eight of 248 patients initially negative had follow-up scans during the follow-up period, of which 48 became positive. The 73% of recurrences were over 12 months post-diagnosis. No correlation with Breslow thickness was demonstrated. Despite FDG PET not being recommended for early cutaneous malignant melanoma, 27% of melanoma cases referred for FDG PET during the study period were AJCC stage I or II. Our results suggest FDG PET in early stage melanoma demonstrates occult disease in 17% of cases.

  17. Occupation and malignant melanoma: a study based on cancer registration data in England and Wales and in Sweden.

    OpenAIRE

    Vågerö, D.; Swerdlow, AJ; Beral, V.

    1990-01-01

    An analysis of the incidence of malignant melanoma according to occupation is presented using data from two national cancer registries. The data relate to 3991 cases of cutaneous malignant melanoma, 662 cases of ocular melanoma, and 179 cases of noncutaneous, non-ocular melanoma in subjects aged 15-64 in England and Wales diagnosed from 1971 to 1978 and to 5003 cases of cutaneous malignant melanoma diagnosed from 1961 to 1979 in Sweden in subjects born between 1896 and 1940. Professional work...

  18. Effects of proton beam irradiation on uveal melanomas: a comparative study of Ki-67 expression in irradiated versus non-irradiated melanomas

    OpenAIRE

    Chiquet, C; Grange, J.; Ayzac, L.; Chauvel, P.; Patricot, L.; Devouassoux-Shish..., M.

    2000-01-01

    AIMS—To assess the cellular proliferation using the monoclonal antibody Ki-67, in paraffin embedded uveal melanomas irradiated by proton beam, as well as in non-irradiated uveal melanomas.?METHODS—30 enucleated eyes were included for histopathological study and Ki-67 immunostaining. Patients were enucleated between 1991 and 1996 for uveal melanoma, 14 after proton beam irradiation and 16 without treatment (control group). The mean follow up period was 2.5 years after diagnosis and 1 year afte...

  19. Comparação dos casos de melanoma cutâneo diagnosticados por diferentes especialistas A comparison of cutaneous melanoma cases diagnosed by different medical specialists

    OpenAIRE

    Ariana Lebsa Weber; Daniel Holthausen Nunes; Jorge José de Souza Filho; Carlos José Carvalho Pinto

    2007-01-01

    FUNDAMENTOS: A importância do diagnóstico e intervenção precoces nos casos de melanoma cutâneo é vital para o prognóstico do paciente. OBJETIVO: Comparar os casos de melanoma cutâneo diagnosticados primariamente por diferentes especialidades médicas no município de Florianópolis, SC, Brasil. MÉTODO: Analisados 396 laudos de 332 pacientes com diagnóstico histopatológico de melanoma, de dois centros de serviços de Anatomia Patológica, em Florianópolis, entre 1º de janeiro de 1...

  20. CD146 mediates VEGF-induced melanoma cell extravasation through FAK activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jouve, Nathalie; Bachelier, Richard; Despoix, Nicolas; Blin, Muriel G; Matinzadeh, Maryam Khalili; Poitevin, Stéphane; Aurrand-Lions, Michel; Fallague, Karim; Bardin, Nathalie; Blot-Chabaud, Marcel; Vely, Frédéric; Dignat-George, Françoise; Leroyer, Aurélie S

    2015-07-01

    CD146 is an adhesion molecule expressed by both melanoma and endothelial cells and thus is well positioned to control melanoma extravasation. Nevertheless, during melanoma metastasis, the involvement of CD146 expressed within tumor microenvironment has never been analyzed. To investigate whether host CD146 mediates the extravasation of melanoma cells across the endothelium, we generated CD146 KO mice. We demonstrated that host CD146 did not affect melanoma growth or tumor angiogenesis but promoted hematogenous melanoma metastasis to the lung. Accordingly, the survival of CD146-deficient mice was markedly prolonged during melanoma metastasis. Interestingly, vascular endothelial growth factor-induced vascular permeability was significantly decreased in CD146 KO mice. We also provided evidence that VEGF-induced transendothelial migration of melanoma cells was significantly reduced across CD146 KO lung microvascular endothelial cells (LMEC). CD146 deficiency decreased the expression of VEGFR-2/Ve-cadherin and altered focal adhesion kinase (FAK) activation in response to VEGF. In addition, inhibition of FAK phosphorylation reduced transmigration of B16 melanoma cells across WT LMEC at the same level that across CD146 KO LMEC. Altogether, we propose a novel mechanism involving the VEGF/CD146/FAK/Ve-cadherin network in melanoma extravasation across the vessel barrier that identifies CD146-targeted therapy as a potential strategy for the treatment of melanoma metastasis. PMID:25449773